Science.gov

Sample records for environmental remediation problems

  1. Environmental degradation and remediation: is economics part of the problem?

    PubMed

    Dore, Mohammed H I; Burton, Ian

    2003-01-01

    It is argued that standard environmental economic and 'ecological economics', have the same fundamentals of valuation in terms of money, based on a demand curve derived from utility maximization. But this approach leads to three different measures of value. An invariant measure of value exists only if the consumer has 'homothetic preferences'. In order to obtain a numerical estimate of value, specific functional forms are necessary, but typically these estimates do not converge. This is due to the fact that the underlying economic model is not structurally stable. According to neoclassical economics, any environmental remediation can be justified only in terms of increases in consumer satisfaction, balancing marginal gains against marginal costs. It is not surprising that the optimal policy obtained from this approach suggests only small reductions in greenhouse gases. We show that a unidimensional metric of consumer's utility measured in dollar terms can only trivialize the problem of global climate change.

  2. Collaboration Results - Applying Technical Solutions To Environmental Remediation Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, G.; Fiore, J.; Walker, J.; DeRemer, C.; Wight, E.

    2002-02-26

    Within the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM), the Office of Science and Technology (OST) identifies and develops innovative technologies that accelerate cleanup of high-priority environmental contamination problems and enable EM closure sites to meet closure schedules. OST manages an integrated research and development program that is essential to completing timely and cost-effective cleanup and stewardship of DOE sites. While innovative technologies can make significant contributions to the cleanup process, in some cases, EM has encountered unexpected barriers to their implementation. Technical obstacles are expected, but administrative challenges-such as regulatory, organizational, and stakeholder issues-must also be addressed. OST has found that collaborative needs identification and problem solving are essential components in overcoming these barriers. Collaboration helps EM meet its cleanup goals, close sites, and reduce the overall cost of cleanup at DOE sites nationwide. This paper presents examples of OST's collaboration efforts that expedite site closure and solve specific cleanup problems at EM sites.

  3. Grand challenge problems in environmental modeling and remediation: groundwater contaminant transport

    SciTech Connect

    Todd Arbogast; Steve Bryant; Clint N. Dawson; Mary F. Wheeler

    1998-08-31

    This report describes briefly the work of the Center for Subsurface Modeling (CSM) of the University of Texas at Austin (and Rice University prior to September 1995) on the Partnership in Computational Sciences Consortium (PICS) project entitled Grand Challenge Problems in Environmental Modeling and Remediation: Groundwater Contaminant Transport.

  4. Environmental problems caused by Istanbul subway excavation and suggestions for remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocak, Ibrahim

    2009-10-01

    Many environmental problems caused by subway excavations have inevitably become an important point in city life. These problems can be categorized as transporting and stocking of excavated material, traffic jams, noise, vibrations, piles of dust mud and lack of supplies. Although these problems cause many difficulties, the most pressing for a big city like Istanbul is excavation, since other listed difficulties result from it. Moreover, these problems are environmentally and regionally restricted to the period over which construction projects are underway and disappear when construction is finished. Currently, in Istanbul, there are nine subway construction projects in operation, covering approximately 73 km in length; over 200 km to be constructed in the near future. The amount of material excavated from ongoing construction projects covers approximately 12 million m3. In this study, problems—primarily, the problem with excavation waste (EW)—caused by subway excavation are analyzed and suggestions for remediation are offered.

  5. Preventing remediation problems

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, W.H.

    1994-12-31

    Remediation, the design and construction of a remedy, typically represents the most significant portion of the cleanup process. The cost may be 5 to 10 times the cost of earlier investigation and feasibility efforts. Furthermore, the risks associated with remediation activities and their ability to meet ultimate cleanup goals and objectives are far greater than those associated with earlier efforts. Often times there are unrealistic expectations interjected throughout the design and construction process in the remediation field. The simple fact that most problems are buried, and one cannot see all that is below the ground surface provides sufficient uncertainty to result in problems. There are three key points during the remediation process which provide opportunities to prevent and avoid problems. These are: (1) during design; (2) during procurement and contracting; and (3) during construction. This paper examines actions which the author has found or believes will assist in providing a formula for success.

  6. Managing soil remediation problems.

    PubMed

    Okx, J P; Hordijk, L; Stein, A

    1996-12-01

    Soil remediation has only a short history but the problem addressed is a significant one. Cost estimates for the clean-up of contaminated sites in the European Union and the United States are in the order of magnitude of 1,400 billion ECU. Such an enormous operation deserves the best management it can get. Reliable cost estimations per contaminated site are an important prerequisite. This paper addresses the problems related to site-wise estimations.When solving soil remediation problems, we have to deal with a large number of scientific disciplines. Too often solutions are presented from the viewpoint of only one discipline. In order to benefit from the combined disciplinary knowledge and experience, we think that it is necessary to describe the interrelations between these disciplines. This can be realized by developing an adequate model of the desired process which enables to consider and evaluate the essential factors as interdependent components of the total system.The resulting model provides a binding paradigm to the contributing disciplines which will result in improved efficiency and effectivity of the decision and the cost estimation process. In the near future, we will release the "Biosparging and Bioventing Expert Support System", an expert support system for problem owners, consultants and authorities dealing with the design and operation of a biosparging and/or a bioventing system.

  7. Grand challenge problems in environmental modeling and remediation: Groundwater contaminant transport. Final project report 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The over-reaching goal of the Groundwater Grand Challenge component of the Partnership in Computational Science (PICS) was to develop and establish the massively parallel approach for the description of groundwater flow and transport and to address the problem of uncertainties in the data and its interpretation. This necessitated the development of innovative algorithms and the implementation of massively parallel computational tools to provide a suite of simulators for groundwater flow and transport in heterogeneous media. This report summarizes the activities and deliverables of the Groundwater Grand Challenge project funded through the High Performance Computing grand challenge program of the Department of Energy from 1995 through 1997.

  8. Grand Challenge Problems in Environmental Modeling and Remediation: Groundwater Contaminant Transport (Partnerships in Computational Science)

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpley, Robert C.

    1997-12-01

    The over-reaching goal of the Groundwater Grand Challenge component of the Partnership in Computational Science (PICS) was to develop and establish the massively parallel approach for the description of groundwater flow and transport and to address the problem of uncertainties in the data and its interpretation. This necessitated the development of innovative algorithms and the implementation of massively parallel computational tools to provide a suite of simulators for groundwater flow and transport in heterogeneous media. This report summarizes the activities and deliverables of the University of South Carolina component of the Groundwater Grand Challenge project funded through the High Performance Computing grand challenge program of the Department of Energy from 1995 through 1997. Seven institutions were primarily involved in this project: Brookhaven National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Princeton University, SUNY at Stony Brook, Texas A&M University, The University of South Carolina, and the University of Texas at Austin, with contributing efforts from the Westinghouse Savannah River Technology Center. Each institution had primary responsibility for specific research components, but strong collaboration among all institutions was essential for the success of the project and in producing the final deliverables. PICS deliverables include source code for the suite of research simulators and auxiliary HPC tools, associated documentation, and test problems. These materials will be available as indicated from each institution's web page or from the Center for Computational Sciences Oak Ridge National Laboratory in January 1998.

  9. Novel sorbents for environmental remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manariotis, Ioannis D.; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.; Werner, David

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays, one of the major environmental problems is the pollution of aquatic systems and soil by persistent pollutants. Persistent pollutants have been found widespread in sediments, surface waters, and drinking water supplies. The removal of pollutants can be accomplished prior to their discharge to receiving bodies or by immobilizing them onto soil. Sorption is the most commonly applied process, and activated carbons have been widely used. Rapid progress in nanotechnology and a new focus on biomass-based instead of non-renewable starting materials have produced a wide range of novel engineered sorbents including biosorbents, biochars, carbon-based nanoparticles, bio-nano hybrid materials, and iron-impregnated activated carbons. Sorbent materials have been used in environmental remediation processes and especially in agricultural soil, sediments and contaminated soil, water treatment, and industrial wastewater treatment. Furthermore, sorbents may enhance the synergistic action of other processes, such as volatilization and biodegradation. Novel sorbents have been employed for the removal or immobilization of persistent pollutants such as and include heavy metals (As, Cr, Cu, Pb, Cd, and Hg), halogenated organic compounds, endocrine disrupting chemicals, metalloids and non-metallic elements, and other organic pollutants. The development and evaluation of novel sorbents requires a multidisciplinary approach encompassing environmental, nanotechnology, physical, analytical, and surface chemistry. The necessary evaluations encompass not only the efficiency of these materials to remove pollutants from surface waters and groundwater, industrial wastewater, polluted soils and sediments, etc., but also the potential side-effects of their environmental applications. The aim of this work is to present the results of the use of biochar and impregnated carbon sorbents for the removal of organic pollutants and metals. Furthermore, the new findings from the forthcoming session

  10. Hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-29

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is currently evaluating hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation technologies in existence and under development to determine applicability to remediation needs of the DOE facilities under the Albuquerque Operations Office and to determine areas of research need. To assist LANL is this effort, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) conducted an assessment of technologies and monitoring methods that have been demonstrated or are under development. The focus of this assessment is to: (1) identify existing technologies for hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation of old waste sites; (2) identify technologies under development and the status of the technology; (3) assess new technologies that need development to provide adequate hazardous waste treatment and remedial action technologies for DOD and DOE sites; and (4) identify hazardous waste and remediation problems for environmental research and development. There are currently numerous research and development activities underway nationwide relating to environmental contaminants and the remediation of waste sites. To perform this effort, SAIC evaluated current technologies and monitoring methods development programs in EPA, DOD, and DOE, as these are the primary agencies through which developmental methods are being demonstrated. This report presents this evaluation and provides recommendations as to pertinent research needs or activities to address waste site contamination problems. The review and assessment have been conducted at a programmatic level; site-specific and contaminant-specific evaluations are being performed by LANL staff as a separate, related activity.

  11. Innovative mathematical modeling in environmental remediation.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Gour-Tsyh; Gwo, Jin-Ping; Siegel, Malcolm D; Li, Ming-Hsu; Fang, Yilin; Zhang, Fan; Luo, Wensui; Yabusaki, Steve B

    2013-05-01

    There are two different ways to model reactive transport: ad hoc and innovative reaction-based approaches. The former, such as the Kd simplification of adsorption, has been widely employed by practitioners, while the latter has been mainly used in scientific communities for elucidating mechanisms of biogeochemical transport processes. It is believed that innovative mechanistic-based models could serve as protocols for environmental remediation as well. This paper reviews the development of a mechanistically coupled fluid flow, thermal transport, hydrologic transport, and reactive biogeochemical model and example-applications to environmental remediation problems. Theoretical bases are sufficiently described. Four example problems previously carried out are used to demonstrate how numerical experimentation can be used to evaluate the feasibility of different remediation approaches. The first one involved the application of a 56-species uranium tailing problem to the Melton Branch Subwatershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using the parallel version of the model. Simulations were made to demonstrate the potential mobilization of uranium and other chelating agents in the proposed waste disposal site. The second problem simulated laboratory-scale system to investigate the role of natural attenuation in potential off-site migration of uranium from uranium mill tailings after restoration. It showed inadequacy of using a single Kd even for a homogeneous medium. The third example simulated laboratory experiments involving extremely high concentrations of uranium, technetium, aluminum, nitrate, and toxic metals (e.g., Ni, Cr, Co). The fourth example modeled microbially-mediated immobilization of uranium in an unconfined aquifer using acetate amendment in a field-scale experiment. The purposes of these modeling studies were to simulate various mechanisms of mobilization and immobilization of radioactive wastes and to illustrate how to apply reactive transport

  12. Environmental Remediation Data Management Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Wierowski, J. V.; Henry, L. G.; Dooley, D. A.

    2002-02-26

    of survey data related to building or site decontamination, waste shipments and eventual unrestricted release of entire facilities. This presentation will show the utility of these products in a variety of decontamination, decommissioning and environmental remediation settings including a university research reactor decommissioning project.

  13. Twenty-Five Years of Ecological Recovery of East Fork Poplar Creek: Review of Environmental Problems and Remedial Actions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, John G; Loar, James M; Stewart, Arthur J

    2011-01-01

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Department of Energy s Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, allowing discharge of effluents to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The effluents ranged from large volumes of chlorinated oncethrough cooling water and cooling tower blow-down to smaller discharges of treated and untreated process wastewaters, which contained a mixture of heavy metals, organics, and nutrients, especially nitrates. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to meet two major objectives: demonstrate that the established effluent limitations were protecting the classified uses of EFPC, and document the ecological effects resulting from implementing a Water Pollution Control Program at the Y-12 Complex. The second objective is the primary focus of the other papers in this special series. This paper provides a history of pollution and the remedial actions that were implemented; describes the geographic setting of the study area; and characterizes the physicochemical attributes of the sampling sites, including changes in stream flow and temperature that occurred during implementation of the BMAP. Most of the actions taken under the Water Pollution Control Program were completed between 1986 and 1998, with as many as four years elapsing between some of the most significant actions. The Water Pollution Control Program included constructing nine new wastewater treatment facilities and implementation of several other pollution-reducing measures, such as a best management practices plan; area-source pollution control management; and various spill-prevention projects. Many of the major actions had readily discernable effects on the chemical and physical conditions of EFPC. As controls on effluents entering the stream were implemented, pollutant concentrations generally declined and, at least initially, the volume of water

  14. Twenty-Five Years of Ecological Recovery of East Fork Poplar Creek: Review of Environmental Problems and Remedial Actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loar, James M.; Stewart, Arthur J.; Smith, John G.

    2011-06-01

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Department of Energy's Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, allowing discharge of effluents to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The effluents ranged from large volumes of chlorinated once-through cooling water and cooling tower blow-down to smaller discharges of treated and untreated process wastewaters, which contained a mixture of heavy metals, organics, and nutrients, especially nitrates. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to meet two major objectives: demonstrate that the established effluent limitations were protecting the classified uses of EFPC, and document the ecological effects resulting from implementing a Water Pollution Control Program at the Y-12 Complex. The second objective is the primary focus of the other papers in this special series. This paper provides a history of pollution and the remedial actions that were implemented; describes the geographic setting of the study area; and characterizes the physicochemical attributes of the sampling sites, including changes in stream flow and temperature that occurred during implementation of the BMAP. Most of the actions taken under the Water Pollution Control Program were completed between 1986 and 1998, with as many as four years elapsing between some of the most significant actions. The Water Pollution Control Program included constructing nine new wastewater treatment facilities and implementation of several other pollution-reducing measures, such as a best management practices plan; area-source pollution control management; and various spill-prevention projects. Many of the major actions had readily discernable effects on the chemical and physical conditions of EFPC. As controls on effluents entering the stream were implemented, pollutant concentrations generally declined and, at least initially, the volume of water

  15. Twenty-five years of ecological recovery of East Fork Poplar Creek: review of environmental problems and remedial actions.

    PubMed

    Loar, James M; Stewart, Arthur J; Smith, John G

    2011-06-01

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Department of Energy's Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, allowing discharge of effluents to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The effluents ranged from large volumes of chlorinated once-through cooling water and cooling tower blow-down to smaller discharges of treated and untreated process wastewaters, which contained a mixture of heavy metals, organics, and nutrients, especially nitrates. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to meet two major objectives: demonstrate that the established effluent limitations were protecting the classified uses of EFPC, and document the ecological effects resulting from implementing a Water Pollution Control Program at the Y-12 Complex. The second objective is the primary focus of the other papers in this special series. This paper provides a history of pollution and the remedial actions that were implemented; describes the geographic setting of the study area; and characterizes the physicochemical attributes of the sampling sites, including changes in stream flow and temperature that occurred during implementation of the BMAP. Most of the actions taken under the Water Pollution Control Program were completed between 1986 and 1998, with as many as four years elapsing between some of the most significant actions. The Water Pollution Control Program included constructing nine new wastewater treatment facilities and implementation of several other pollution-reducing measures, such as a best management practices plan; area-source pollution control management; and various spill-prevention projects. Many of the major actions had readily discernable effects on the chemical and physical conditions of EFPC. As controls on effluents entering the stream were implemented, pollutant concentrations generally declined and, at least initially, the volume of water

  16. Characterization technologies for environmental remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Pruett, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    Improved site characterization technologies are being developed at Martin Marietta Energy Systems for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) in support of environmental restoration activities throughout the DOE complex. Since site characterization is an expensive and time consuming process that must be performed prior to, during, and following remediation efforts, an obvious way to reduce the overall cost of remediation is to develop improved characterization methods. For example, the Derivative Ultraviolet Absorption Spectrometer (DUVAS), which is being field tested as part of the OTD program, is a fiberoptic device for in situ, real time measurement of aromatic organic compounds in groundwater. A transportable, direct sampling Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer (ITMS) is being developed for continuous monitoring of hazardous organic compounds in air. In areas where the environment is hazardous to human health, it is desirous to perform site characterization remotely; if robotics are to be employed, the Ultrasonic Ranging and Data System (USRADS) can be used to provide telemetry information on robot location as well as sensor measurements. Once fully developed, these technologies can be transferred to the private sector. 19 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. Innovative mathematical modeling in environmental remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, Gour T.; Gwo, Jin Ping; Siegel, Malcolm D.; Li, Ming-Hsu; Fang, Yilin; Zhang, Fan; Luo, Wensui; Yabusaki, Steven B.

    2013-05-01

    There are two different ways to model reactive transport: ad hoc and innovative reaction-based approaches. The former, such as the Kd simplification of adsorption, has been widely employed by practitioners, while the latter has been mainly used in scientific communities for elucidating mechanisms of biogeochemical transport processes. It is believed that innovative mechanistic-based models could serve as protocols for environmental remediation as well. This paper reviews the development of a mechanistically coupled fluid flow, thermal transport, hydrologic transport, and reactive biogeochemical model and example-applications to environmental remediation problems. Theoretical bases are sufficiently described. Four example problems previously carried out are used to demonstrate how numerical experimentation can be used to evaluate the feasibility of different remediation approaches. The first one involved the application of a 56-species uranium tailing problem to the Melton Branch Subwatershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using the parallel version of the model. Simulations were made to demonstrate the potential mobilization of uranium and other chelating agents in the proposed waste disposal site. The second problem simulated laboratory-scale system to investigate the role of natural attenuation in potential off-site migration of uranium from uranium mill tailings after restoration. It showed inadequacy of using a single Kd even for a homogeneous medium. The third example simulated laboratory experiments involving extremely high concentrations of uranium, technetium, aluminum, nitrate, and toxic metals (e.g.,Ni, Cr, Co).The fourth example modeled microbially-mediated immobilization of uranium in an unconfined aquifer using acetate amendment in a field-scale experiment. The purposes of these modeling studies were to simulate various mechanisms of mobilization and immobilization of radioactive wastes and to illustrate how to apply reactive transport models

  18. Green Chemistry and Environmental Remediation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Nutrient remediation and recovery is a growing concern for two key reasons: (i) the prevention of harmful algal bloom proliferation, and (ii) the recycling of nutrients (e.g., phosphates) as they are non-renewable resources which are quickly being depleted. A wide range...

  19. Waste site characterization and remediation: Problems in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Kalavapudi, M.; Iyengar, V.

    1996-12-31

    Increased industrial activities in developing countries have degraded the environment, and the impact on the environment is further magnified because of an ever-increasing population, the prime receptors. Independent of the geographical location, it is possible to adopt effective strategies to solve environmental problems. In the United States, waste characterization and remediation practices are commonly used for quantifying toxic contaminants in air, water, and soil. Previously, such procedures were extraneous, ineffective, and cost-intensive. Reconciliation between the government and stakeholders, reinforced by valid data analysis and environmental exposure assessments, has allowed the {open_quotes}Brownfields{close_quotes} to be a successful approach. Certified reference materials and standard reference materials from the National Institute of Standards (NIST) are indispensable tools for solving environmental problems and help to validate data quality and the demands of legal metrology. Certified reference materials are commonly available, essential tools for developing good quality secondary and in-house reference materials that also enhance analytical quality. This paper cites examples of environmental conditions in developing countries, i.e., industrial pollution problems in India, polluted beaches in Brazil, and deteriorating air quality in countries, such as Korea, China, and Japan. The paper also highlights practical and effective approaches for remediating these problems. 23 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Gamma Ray Imaging for Environmental Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    B.F. Philips; R.A. Kroeger: J.D. Kurfess: W.N. Johnson; E.A. Wulf; E. I. Novikova

    2004-11-12

    This program is the development of germanium strip detectors for environmental remediation. It is a collaboration between the Naval Research Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. The goal is to develop detectors that are simultaneously capable of excellent spectroscopy and imaging of gamma radiation.

  1. Novel biotechnological approaches in environmental remediation research.

    PubMed

    Pletsch, M; de Araujo, B S; Charlwood, B V

    1999-12-30

    Two novel approaches, the use of Agrobacterium-transformed plant roots and mycelia cultures of fungi, are considered as research tools in the study of the remediation of soil, groundwater, and biowastes. Transformed roots are excellent model systems for screening higher plants that are tolerant of various inorganic and organic pollutants, and for determining the role of the root matrix in the uptake and further metabolism of contaminants. Edible and/or medicinal fungi may also be natural environmental remediators. Liquid cultures of fungal mycelia are appropriate model systems with which to commence screening and biochemical studies in this under-researched area of biotransformation.

  2. Some Strategies for Environmental Remediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jerrold M.

    1975-01-01

    Analyzed are three strategies for reducing or eliminating environmental pollution: private market, legal, and effluent tax. Since private market solutions function well only with small numbers of parties and legal solutions oscillate too much, the author recommends effluent taxes. This strategy optimizes the abatement benefits and implementation…

  3. Laboratory/industry partnerships for environmental remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Beskid, N.J.; Zussman, S.K.

    1994-09-01

    There are two measures of ``successful`` technology transfer in DOE`s environmental restoration and waste management program. The first is remediation of DOE sites, and the second is commercialization of an environmental remediation process or product. The ideal case merges these two in laboratory/industry partnerships for environmental remediation. The elements to be discussed in terms of their effectiveness in aiding technology transfer include: a decision-making champion; timely and sufficient funding; well organized technology transfer function; well defined DOE and commercial markets; and industry/commercial partnering. Several case studies are presented, including the successful commercialization of a process for vitrification of low-level radioactive waste, the commercial marketing of software for hazardous waste characterization, and the application of a monitoring technique that has won a prestigious technical award. Case studies will include: vitrification of low-level radioactive waste (GTS Duratek, Columbia, MD); borehole liner for emplacing instrumentation and sampling groundwater (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Santa Fe, NM); electronic cone penetrometer (Applied Research Associates, Inc., South Royalton, VT); and software for hazardous waste monitoring ConSolve, Inc. (Lexington, MA). The roles of the Department of Energy and Argonne National Laboratory in these successes will be characterized.

  4. Environmental remediation and waste management information systems

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, M.W.; Harlan, C.P.

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to document a few of the many environmental information systems that currently exist worldwide. The paper is not meant to be a comprehensive list; merely a discussion of a few of the more technical environmental database systems that are available. Regulatory databases such as US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) RODS (Records of Decision System) database [EPA, 1993] and cost databases such as EPA`s CORA (Cost of Remedial Action) database [EPA, 1993] are not included in this paper. Section 2 describes several US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) information systems and databases. Section 3 discusses several US EPA information systems on waste sites and technologies. Section 4 summarizes a few of the European Community environmental information systems, networks, and clearinghouses. And finally, Section 5 provides a brief overview of Geographical Information Systems. Section 6 contains the references, and the Appendices contain supporting information.

  5. Applications of microwave radiation environmental remediation technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, T.R.; Helt, J.E.

    1993-05-01

    A growing number of environmental remediation technologies (e.g., drying, melting, or sintering) utilize microwave radiation as an integral part of the process. An increasing number of novel applications, such as sustaining low-temperature plasmas or enhancing chemical reactivity, are also being developed. An overview of such technologies being developed by the Department of Energy is presented. A specific example being developed at Argonne National Laboratory, microwave-induced plasma reactors for the destruction of volatile organic compounds, is discussed in more detail.

  6. Applications of microwave radiation environmental remediation technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, T.R.; Helt, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    A growing number of environmental remediation technologies (e.g., drying, melting, or sintering) utilize microwave radiation as an integral part of the process. An increasing number of novel applications, such as sustaining low-temperature plasmas or enhancing chemical reactivity, are also being developed. An overview of such technologies being developed by the Department of Energy is presented. A specific example being developed at Argonne National Laboratory, microwave-induced plasma reactors for the destruction of volatile organic compounds, is discussed in more detail.

  7. ERT monitoring of environmental remediation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Brecque, D. J.; Ramirez, A. L.; Daily, W. D.; Binley, A. M.; Schima, S. A.

    1996-03-01

    The use of electrical resistance tomography (ERT) to monitor new environmental remediation processes is addressed. An overview of the ERT method, including design of surveys and interpretation, is given. Proper design and lay-out of boreholes and electrodes are important for successful results. Data are collected using an automated collection system and interpreted using a nonlinear least squares inversion algorithm. Case histories are given for three remediation technologies: Joule (ohmic) heating, in which clay layers are heated electrically; air sparging, the injection of air below the water table; and electrokinetic treatment, which moves ions by applying an electric current. For Joule heating, a case history is given for an experiment near Savannah River, Georgia, USA. The target for Joule heating was a clay layer of variable thickness. During the early stages of heating, ERT images show increases in conductivity due to the increased temperatures. Later, the conductivities decreased as the system became dehydrated. For air sparging, a case history from Florence, Oregon, USA is described. Air was injected into a sandy aquifer at the site of a former service station. Successive images clearly show the changes in shape of the region of air saturation with time. The monitoring of an electrokinetic laboratory test on core samples is shown. The electrokinetic treatment creates a large change in the core resistivity, decreasing near the anode and increasing near the cathode. Although remediation efforts were successful both at Savannah River and at Florence, in neither case did experiments progress entirely as predicted. At Savannah River, the effects of heating and venting were not uniform and at Florence the radius of air flow was smaller than expected. Most sites are not as well characterized as these two sites. Improving remediation methods requires an understanding of the movements of heat, air, fluids and ions in the sub-surface which ERT can provide. The

  8. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project 1993 Environmental Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This annual report documents the Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project environmental monitoring and protection program. The UMTRA Project routinely monitors radiation, radioactive residual materials, and hazardous constituents at associated former uranium tailings processing sites and disposal sites. At the end of 1993, surface remedial action was complete at 10 of the 24 designated UMTRA Project processing sites. In 1993 the UMTRA Project office revised the UMTRA Project Environmental Protection Implementation Plan, as required by the US DOE. Because the UMTRA Project sites are in different stages of remedial action, the breadth of the UMTRA environmental protection program differs from site to site. In general, sites actively undergoing surface remedial action have the most comprehensive environmental programs for sampling media. At sites where surface remedial action is complete and at sites where remedial action has not yet begun, the environmental program consists primarily of surface water and ground water monitoring to support site characterization, baseline risk assessments, or disposal site performance assessments.

  9. Protein patterns as endpoints in environmental remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, B.; Brown, D.

    1995-12-31

    Biological endpoints can complement chemical analyses in monitoring environmental remediation. In some cases the levels of chemical detection are so low that the costs of clean-up to no detection would be prohibitive. And chemical tests do not indicate the availability of the contaminants to the biota. On the other hand many if not most biological tests lack specificity. The authors have investigated a protein expression assay to establish an endpoint for clean-up of sulfur mustard and breakdown products. Earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) were exposed to sulfur mustard (SM), a breakdown product thiodiethanol (TDE), and ethylene glycol, the solvent for the two chemicals. Tissue from the lining of the coelomic cavity was taken from each of 6 worms in each treatment class. Soluble proteins were extracted and separated on one and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) gels. The 1 D gels showed no difference by eye but the patterns from control and solvent control worms on 2D gels differed from those of worms exposed to TDE and SM. The 1D gel data were digitized and analyzed by pattern recognition using artificial neural networks. The protein patterns under the two treatments and the two controls were learned in one set of data and successfully recognized in a second. This indicated that what was learned was useful in recognizing patterns induced by SM and TDE. Thus a possible endpoint for remediation would be the protein pattern at no effect levels of chemicals of interest.

  10. Environmental Health Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Health Service (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    Aimed at a society which is forced to make decisions relative to their total environment, this pamphlet discusses a few of the problems associated with restoring and maintaining an environmental relationship conducive to the health and well-being of man. The topics covered include: air pollution, noise, solid waste, the urban environment, drinking…

  11. Environmental Restoration Remedial Action Quality Assurance Requirements Document

    SciTech Connect

    Cote, R.F.

    1991-09-01

    The Environmental Restoration Remedial Action Quality Assurance Requirements Document defines the quality assurance program requirements for the US Department of Energy-Richland Field Office Environmental Restoration Remedial Action Program at the Hanford Site. This paper describes the objectives outlined in DOE/RL 90-28. The Environmental Restoration Remedial Action Program implements significant commitments made by the US Department of Energy in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order entered into with the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Environmental Protection Agency. 18 refs.

  12. The problem resident behavior guide: strategies for remediation.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Kelly; Quattromani, Erin; Aldeen, Amer

    2016-04-01

    In 2012, the ACGME supplemented the core competencies with outcomes-based milestones for resident performance within the six competency domains. These milestones address the knowledge, skills, abilities, attitudes, and experiences that a resident is expected to progress through during the course of training. Even prior to the initiation of the milestones, there was a paucity of EM literature addressing the remediation of problem resident behaviors and there remain few readily accessible tools to aid in the implementation of a remediation plan. The goal of the "Problem Resident Behavior Guide" is to provide specific strategies for resident remediation based on deficiencies identified within the framework of the EM milestones. The "Problem Resident Behavior Guide" is a written instructional manual that provides concrete examples of remediation strategies to address specific milestone deficiencies. The more than 200 strategies stem from the experiences of the authors who have professional experience at three different academic hospitals and emergency medicine residency programs, supplemented by recommendations from educational leaders as well as utilization of valuable education adjuncts, such as focused simulation exercises, lecture preparation, and themed ED shifts. Most recommendations require active participation by the resident with guidance by faculty to achieve the remediation expectations. The ACGME outcomes-based milestones aid in the identification of deficiencies with regards to resident performance without providing recommendations on remediation. The Problem Resident Behavior Guide can therefore have a significant impact by filling in this gap. PMID:26667256

  13. The problem resident behavior guide: strategies for remediation.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Kelly; Quattromani, Erin; Aldeen, Amer

    2016-04-01

    In 2012, the ACGME supplemented the core competencies with outcomes-based milestones for resident performance within the six competency domains. These milestones address the knowledge, skills, abilities, attitudes, and experiences that a resident is expected to progress through during the course of training. Even prior to the initiation of the milestones, there was a paucity of EM literature addressing the remediation of problem resident behaviors and there remain few readily accessible tools to aid in the implementation of a remediation plan. The goal of the "Problem Resident Behavior Guide" is to provide specific strategies for resident remediation based on deficiencies identified within the framework of the EM milestones. The "Problem Resident Behavior Guide" is a written instructional manual that provides concrete examples of remediation strategies to address specific milestone deficiencies. The more than 200 strategies stem from the experiences of the authors who have professional experience at three different academic hospitals and emergency medicine residency programs, supplemented by recommendations from educational leaders as well as utilization of valuable education adjuncts, such as focused simulation exercises, lecture preparation, and themed ED shifts. Most recommendations require active participation by the resident with guidance by faculty to achieve the remediation expectations. The ACGME outcomes-based milestones aid in the identification of deficiencies with regards to resident performance without providing recommendations on remediation. The Problem Resident Behavior Guide can therefore have a significant impact by filling in this gap.

  14. Recent trends in nanomaterials applications in environmental monitoring and remediation.

    PubMed

    Das, Sumistha; Sen, Biswarup; Debnath, Nitai

    2015-12-01

    Environmental pollution is one of the greatest problems that the world is facing today, and it is increasing with every passing year and causing grave and irreparable damage to the earth. Nanomaterials, because of their novel physical and chemical characteristics, have great promise to combat environment pollution. Nanotechnology is being used to devise pollution sensor. A variety of materials in their nano form like iron, titanium dioxide, silica, zinc oxide, carbon nanotube, dendrimers, polymers, etc. are increasingly being used to make the air clean, to purify water, and to decontaminate soil. Nanotechnology is also being used to make renewable energy cheaper and more efficient. The use of nanotechnology in agriculture sector will reduce the indiscriminate use of agrochemicals and thus will reduce the load of chemical pollutant. While remediating environment pollution with nanomaterials, it should also be monitored that these materials do not contribute further degradation of the environment. This review will focus broadly on the applications of nanotechnology in the sustainable development with particular emphasis on renewable energy, air-, water-, and soil-remediation. Besides, the review highlights the recent developments in various types of nanomaterials and nanodevices oriented toward pollution monitoring and remediation.

  15. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project 1994 environmental report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This annual report documents the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project environmental monitoring and protection program. The UMTRA Project routinely monitors radiation, radioactive residual materials, and hazardous constituents at associated former uranium tailings processing sites and disposal sites. At the end of 1994, surface remedial action was complete at 14 of the 24 designated UMTRA Project processing sites: Canonsburg, Pennsylvania; Durango, Colorado; Grand Junction, Colorado; Green River Utah, Lakeview, Oregon; Lowman, Idaho; Mexican Hat, Utah; Riverton, Wyoming; Salt Lake City, Utah; Falls City, Texas; Shiprock, New Mexico; Spook, Wyoming, Tuba City, Arizona; and Monument Valley, Arizona. Surface remedial action was ongoing at 5 sites: Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico; Naturita, Colorado; Gunnison, Colorado; and Rifle, Colorado (2 sites). Remedial action has not begun at the 5 remaining UMTRA Project sites that are in the planning stage. Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota; Maybell, Colorado; and Slick Rock, Colorado (2 sites). The ground water compliance phase of the UMTRA Project started in 1991. Because the UMTRA Project sites are.` different stages of remedial action, the breadth of the UMTRA environmental protection program differs from site to site. In general, sites actively undergoing surface remedial action have the most comprehensive environmental programs for sampling media. At sites where surface remedial action is complete and at sites where remedial action has not yet begun, the environmental program consists primarily of surface water and ground water monitoring to support site characterization, baseline risk assessments, or disposal site performance assessments.

  16. Energy Problems and Environmental Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Train, Russell E.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses problems encountered in energy extraction and consumption, involving nuclear power plant construction, environmental consequences of energy systems, and energy conservation ethics. Indicates that the increasing concern over environmental quality is not the true cause of present energy problems. (CC)

  17. Decision Analysis for Environmental Problems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental management problems are often complex and uncertain. A formal process with proper guidance is needed to understand the issues, identify sources of disagreement, and analyze the major uncertainties in environmental problems. This course will present a process that fo...

  18. Environmental Remediation Strategic Planning of Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Yasuo

    2011-12-01

    Environmntal Remediation Assessment and other respons decision making on Environmental monitoring, experiments and assessment. Preliminary assessment to grasp the overall picture and determine critical locations, phenomena, people, etc. Using simple methods and models.

  19. Characterization of Carbon Onion Nanomaterials for Environmental Remediation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The unique properties of carbonaceous nanomaterials, including small particle size, high surface area, and manipulatable surface chemistry, provide high potential for their application to environmental remediation. While research has devoted to develop nanotechnology for environm...

  20. Investigating biochar as a tool for environmental remediation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biochar is being proposed as a cost-effective, carbon negative soil amendment for environmental remediation. Research has demonstrated the efficacy of biochar to sorb heavy metals and agricultural chemicals from contaminated soils, thus effectively reducing the potential for met...

  1. Integrating Study Skills and Problem Solving into Remedial Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornick, Jonathan; Guy, G. Michael; Beckford, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Students at a large urban community college enrolled in seven classes of an experimental remedial algebra programme, which integrated study skills instruction and collaborative problem solving. A control group of seven classes was taught in a traditional lecture format without study skills instruction. Student performance in the course was…

  2. Technology needs for environmental restoration remedial action

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.S.

    1992-11-01

    This report summarizes the current view of the most important technology needs for the US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. These facilities are the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The sources of information used in this assessment were a survey of selected representatives of the Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at each facility, results from a questionnaire distributed by Geotech CWM, Inc., for DOE, and associated discussions with individuals from each facility. This is not a final assessment, but a brief look at an ongoing assessment; the needs will change as the plans for restoration change and, it is hoped, as some technical problems are solved through successful development programs.

  3. Engineering parameters for environmental remediation technologies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kikkeri, S.R.

    1996-06-01

    This document identifies engineering parameters and establishes ranges of values for 33 environmental remediation technologies. The main purpose is to provide U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) civil engineering personnel with summarized information regarding matrix characteristics and design parameters that are applicable to each of the technologies. This information is intended to guide USCG personnel when making decisions regarding the selection of appropriate remediation technologies. This document has been developed to be used as a companion document to the Remediation Technologies Screening Matrix and Reference Guide (EPN542/B-94/013).

  4. Bioelectrochemical system platform for sustainable environmental remediation and energy generation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heming; Luo, Haiping; Fallgren, Paul H; Jin, Song; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2015-01-01

    The increasing awareness of the energy-environment nexus is compelling the development of technologies that reduce environmental impacts during energy production as well as energy consumption during environmental remediation. Countries spend billions in pollution cleanup projects, and new technologies with low energy and chemical consumption are needed for sustainable remediation practice. This perspective review provides a comprehensive summary on the mechanisms of the new bioelectrochemical system (BES) platform technology for efficient and low cost remediation, including petroleum hydrocarbons, chlorinated solvents, perchlorate, azo dyes, and metals, and it also discusses the potential new uses of BES approach for some emerging contaminants remediation, such as CO2 in air and nutrients and micropollutants in water. The unique feature of BES for environmental remediation is the use of electrodes as non-exhaustible electron acceptors, or even donors, for contaminant degradation, which requires minimum energy or chemicals but instead produces sustainable energy for monitoring and other onsite uses. BES provides both oxidation (anode) and reduction (cathode) reactions that integrate microbial-electro-chemical removal mechanisms, so complex contaminants with different characteristics can be removed. We believe the BES platform carries great potential for sustainable remediation and hope this perspective provides background and insights for future research and development.

  5. Bioelectrochemical system platform for sustainable environmental remediation and energy generation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heming; Luo, Haiping; Fallgren, Paul H; Jin, Song; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2015-01-01

    The increasing awareness of the energy-environment nexus is compelling the development of technologies that reduce environmental impacts during energy production as well as energy consumption during environmental remediation. Countries spend billions in pollution cleanup projects, and new technologies with low energy and chemical consumption are needed for sustainable remediation practice. This perspective review provides a comprehensive summary on the mechanisms of the new bioelectrochemical system (BES) platform technology for efficient and low cost remediation, including petroleum hydrocarbons, chlorinated solvents, perchlorate, azo dyes, and metals, and it also discusses the potential new uses of BES approach for some emerging contaminants remediation, such as CO2 in air and nutrients and micropollutants in water. The unique feature of BES for environmental remediation is the use of electrodes as non-exhaustible electron acceptors, or even donors, for contaminant degradation, which requires minimum energy or chemicals but instead produces sustainable energy for monitoring and other onsite uses. BES provides both oxidation (anode) and reduction (cathode) reactions that integrate microbial-electro-chemical removal mechanisms, so complex contaminants with different characteristics can be removed. We believe the BES platform carries great potential for sustainable remediation and hope this perspective provides background and insights for future research and development. PMID:25886880

  6. Environmental Response to Remedial Actions at the Weldon Spring Site--An Environmental Success Story

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, J. A.; Welton, T. D.

    2002-02-27

    Environmental remediation activities have been ongoing at the Weldon Spring Site for over a decade, beginning with small interim response actions and culminating in completion of surface cleanup as represented by closure of the 17 hectare (42-acre) on-site disposal cell. As remedial actions have incrementally been accomplished, the occurrence of site-related contaminants in on and off-site environmental media have effectively been reduced. The DOE-WSSRAP has demonstrated success through the effective reduction or elimination of site related water and airborne contaminants along multiple migration pathways. This paper briefly describes the remedial measures affected at Weldon Spring, and quantifies the environmental responses to those remedial measures.

  7. Environmental Restoration Strategic Plan. Remediating the nuclear weapons complex

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    With the end of the cold war, the US has a reduced need for nuclear weapons production. In response, the Department of Energy has redirected resources from weapons production to weapons dismantlement and environmental remediation. To this end, in November 1989, the US Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (renamed the Office of Environmental Management in 1994). It was created to bring under a central authority the management of radioactive and hazardous wastes at DOE sites and inactive or shut down facilities. The Environmental Restoration Program, a major component of DOE`s Environmental Management Program, is responsible for the remediation and management of contaminated environmental media (e.g., soil, groundwater, sediments) and the decommissioning of facilities and structures at 130 sites in over 30 states and territories.

  8. National conference on environmental remediation science and technology: Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This conference was held September 8--10, 1998 in Greensboro, North Carolina. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on methods and site characterization technologies for environmental monitoring and remedial action planning of hazardous materials. This report contains the abstracts of sixty-one papers presented at the conference.

  9. Managing Complex Environmental Remediation amidst Aggressive Facility Revitalization Milestones

    SciTech Connect

    Richter Pack, S.

    2008-07-01

    Unlike the final closure projects at Rocky Flats and Fernald, many of the Department of Energy's future CERCLA and RCRA closure challenges will take place at active facilities, such as the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) central campus. ORNL has aggressive growth plans for a Research Technology Park and cleanup must address and integrate D and D, soil and groundwater remediation, and on-going and future business plans for the Park. Different planning and tracking tools are needed to support closures at active facilities. To support some large Airport redevelopment efforts, we created tools that allowed the Airline lease-holder to perform environmental remediation on the same schedule as building D and D and new building construction, which in turn allowed them to migrate real estate from unusable to usable within an aggressive schedule. In summary: The FIM and OpenGate{sup TM} spatial analysis system were two primary tools developed to support simultaneous environmental remediation, D and D, and construction efforts at an operating facility. These tools helped redevelopers to deal with environmental remediation on the same schedule as building D and D and construction, thereby meeting their goals of opening gates, restarting their revenue streams, at the same time complying with all environmental regulations. (authors)

  10. Environmental impacts of remediation of a trichloroethene-contaminated site: life cycle assessment of remediation alternatives.

    PubMed

    Lemming, Gitte; Hauschild, Michael Z; Chambon, Julie; Binning, Philip J; Bulle, Cécile; Margni, Manuele; Bjerg, Poul L

    2010-12-01

    The environmental impacts of remediation of a chloroethene-contaminated site were evaluated using life cycle assessment (LCA). The compared remediation options are (i) in situ bioremediation by enhanced reductive dechlorination (ERD), (ii) in situ thermal desorption (ISTD), and (iii) excavation of the contaminated soil followed by off-site treatment and disposal. The results showed that choosing the ERD option will reduce the life-cycle impacts of remediation remarkably compared to choosing either ISTD or excavation, which are more energy-demanding. In addition to the secondary impacts of remediation, this study includes assessment of local toxic impacts (the primary impact) related to the on-site contaminant leaching to groundwater and subsequent human exposure via drinking water. The primary human toxic impacts were high for ERD due to the formation and leaching of chlorinated degradation products, especially vinyl chloride during remediation. However, the secondary human toxic impacts of ISTD and excavation are likely to be even higher, particularly due to upstream impacts from steel production. The newly launched model, USEtox, was applied for characterization of primary and secondary toxic impacts and combined with a site-dependent fate model of the leaching of chlorinated ethenes from the fractured clay till site.

  11. Technology needs for environmental restoration remedial action. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.S.

    1992-11-01

    This report summarizes the current view of the most important technology needs for the US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. These facilities are the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The sources of information used in this assessment were a survey of selected representatives of the Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at each facility, results from a questionnaire distributed by Geotech CWM, Inc., for DOE, and associated discussions with individuals from each facility. This is not a final assessment, but a brief look at an ongoing assessment; the needs will change as the plans for restoration change and, it is hoped, as some technical problems are solved through successful development programs.

  12. Hanford site tank waste remediation system programmatic environmental review report

    SciTech Connect

    Haass, C.C.

    1998-09-03

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) committed in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) Record of Decision (ROD) to perform future National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analysis at key points in the Program. Each review will address the potential impacts that new information may have on the environmental impacts presented in the TWRS EIS and support an assessment of whether DOE`s plans for remediating the tank waste are still pursuing the appropriate plan for remediation or whether adjustments to the program are needed. In response to this commitment, DOE prepared a Supplement Analysis (SA) to support the first of these reevaluations. Subsequent to the completion of the SA, the Phase IB negotiations process with private contractors resulted in several changes to the planned approach. These changes along with other new information regarding the TWRS Program have potential implications for Phase 1 and Phase 2 of tank waste retrieval and waste storage and/or disposal that may influence the environmental impacts of the Phased Implementation alternative. This report focuses on identifying those potential environmental impacts that may require NEPA analysis prior to authorization to begin facility construction and operations.

  13. Application of a World Wide Web technology to environmental remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.; Durham, L. A.

    2000-03-09

    As part of the Formerly Utilized Site Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Buffalo District, is responsible for overseeing the remediation of several sites within its jurisdiction. FUSRAP sites are largely privately held facilities that were contaminated by activities associated with the nuclear weapons program in the 1940s, 50s, and 60s. The presence of soils and structures contaminated with low levels of radionuclides is a common problem at these sites. Typically, contaminated materials must be disposed of off-site at considerable expense (up to several hundred dollars per cubic yard of waste material). FUSRAP is on an aggressive schedule, with most sites scheduled for close-out in the next couple of years. Among the multitude of tasks involved in a typical remediation project is the need to inform and coordinate with active stakeholder communities, including local, state, and federal regulators.

  14. Environmental remediation of the 200 Areas, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.L.; Wittreich, C.D.

    1993-04-01

    The Hanford Site, established in 1943, was originally designed, built, and operated to produce plutonium for nuclear weapons using production reactors and chemical reprocessing plants. Operations in the 200 Areas were mainly related to separation of special nuclear materials from spent nuclear fuel and contain related chemical and fuel processing and waste management facilities. Large quantities of chemical and radioactive waste associated with these processes were often disposed to the environment. This has resulted in extensive contamination in several types of environmental media including air, vadose zone, groundwater, surface water, ground surface, and biota. Efforts are currently underway to remediate chemical and nuclear processing areas of the Hanford Site. Because of the complexity and extent of environmental contamination that has resulted from decades of hazardous and radioactive waste disposal practices, an innovative approach to remediating the site was required. A comprehensive study, referred to as the 200 Aggregate Area Management Study (AAMS) Program, of waste disposal and environmental monitoring data with field investigations was conducted in 1992 to assess the scope of the remediation effort and to develop a plan to expedite the cleanup process.

  15. Environmental Remediation Technologies Derived from Space Industry Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Jacqueline; Sauser, Brian; Helminger, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    Beginning in the 1950s and 1960s, an abundance of effort and initiative was focused on propelling the space industry outward for planetary exploration and habitation. During these early years, the push to take space science to new levels indirectly contributed to the evolution of another science field that would not fully surface until the early 1980s, environmental remediation. This field is associated with the remediation or cleanup of environmental resources such as groundwater, soil, and sediment. Because the space-exploration initiative began prior to the establishment of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in December of 1970, many NASA Centers as well as space-related support contractors allowed for the release of spent chemicals into the environment. Subsequently, these land owners have been directed by the EPA to responsibly initiate cleanup of their impacted sites. This paper will focus on the processes and lessons learned with the development, testing, and commercialization initiatives associated with four remediation technologies. The technologies include installation techniques for permeable reactive barriers (PRBs), the use of ultrasound to improve long-term performance of PRBs, emulsified zero-valent iron for product-level solvent degradation, and emulsion technologies for application to metal and polychlorinated biphenyl contaminated media. Details of the paper cover technology research, evaluation, and testing; contracts and grants; and technology transfer strategies including patenting, marketing, and licensing.

  16. Proposed environmental remediation at Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment evaluating proposed environmental remediation activity at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E), Argonne, Illinois. The environmental remediation work would (1) reduce, eliminate, or prevent the release of contaminants from a number of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) and two radiologically contaminated sites located in areas contiguous with SWMUs, and (2) decrease the potential for exposure of the public, ANL-E employees, and wildlife to such contaminants. The actions proposed for SWMUs are required to comply with the RCRA corrective action process and corrective action requirements of the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency; the actions proposed are also required to reduce the potential for continued contaminant release. Based on the analysis in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required.

  17. Environmental hazard analysis and effective remediation of highway seepage.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Renmao; Yang, Y S; Qiu, X; Ma, F S

    2007-04-01

    Risk assessment and minimisation of environmental hazards are critical issues to consider in the geotechnical engineering projects. A case of highway pavement seepage induced by groundwater, at a locality along the section of Hua-Qing Highway of Guangdong Province, China, is presented for environmental hazard analysis and effective remediation. The environmental hazard analyses were based on in situ hydrogeologic investigation, rock-soil testing and integrated environmental understanding. The analyses indicate that the highway seepage was caused by elevation of groundwater hydraulic pressure in low permeable strata near the highway pavement, which was controlled by landform, hydrology, weather and road structure. The risk source of groundwater 'flooding' was the groundwater and surface water in the ring-like valley around Fenshui Village. A blind-ditch system for effective remediation of the pavement seepage hazard was proposed and successfully implemented by declining groundwater table near the highway based on the comprehensive assessment of various conditions. This geotechnical accident shows that the role of groundwater is an essential factor to consider in the geotechnical and environmental engineering studies and multidisciplinary effort for risk assessment of environmental hazards is important under current global climate change condition.

  18. Role of natural processes and risk in environmental remediation decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Breckenridge, R.P.; Maiers, D.T.; Wichlacz, P.L.

    1996-10-01

    Much attention is currently given to risk-based approaches to managing natural resources and hazardous waste. In order to apply a risk-based approach, input from the various stakeholders needs to be obtained early and updated throughout the effort. Applying a risk-based approach allows decisionmakers to evaluate options based upon sound scientific data. This paper discusses two examples of how risk-based approaches have been used to evaluate remediation options for management of natural resources and hazardous material problems in the Intermountain West. These examples demonstrate that without stakeholder involvement and using a risk-based approach, time and effort would have been wasted and decisions made to correct perceived rather than actual problems. The paper also describes the role that natural attenuation plays in making both risk and remedial action decisions.

  19. Role of natural processes and risk in environmental remediation decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Breckenridge, R.P.; Maiers, D.T.; Wichlacz, P.L.

    1996-12-31

    Much attention is currently given to risk-based approaches to managing natural resources and hazardous waste. In order to apply a risk-based approach, input from the various stakeholders needs to be obtained early and updated throughout the effort. Applying a risk-based approach allows decisionmakers to evaluate options based upon sound scientific data. This paper discusses two examples of how risk-based approaches have been used to evaluate remediation options for management of natural resources and hazardous material problems in the Intermountain West. These examples demonstrate that without stakeholder involvement and using a risk-based approach, time and effort would have been wasted and decisions made to correct perceived rather than actual problems. The paper also describes the role that natural attenuation plays in making both risk and remedial action decisions.

  20. Activities of HPS standards committee in environmental remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Stencel, J.R.; Chen, S.Y.

    1994-12-31

    The Health Physics Society (HPS) develops American National Standards in the area of radiation protection using methods approved by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Two of its sections, Environmental Health Physics and Contamination Limits, have ongoing standards development which are important to some environmental remediation efforts. This paper describes the role of the HPS standards process and indicates particular standards under development which will be of interest to the reader. In addition, the authors solicit readers to participate in the voluntary standards process by either joining active working groups (WG) or suggesting appropriate and relevant topics which should be placed into the standards process.

  1. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project. 1995 Environmental Report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    In accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 23 1. 1, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting, the DOE prepares an annual report to document the activities of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project environmental monitoring program. This monitoring must comply with appropriate laws, regulations, and standards, and it must identify apparent and meaningful trends in monitoring results. The results of all monitoring activities must be communicated to the public. The UMTRA Project has prepared annual environmental reports to the public since 1989.

  2. Integrating GIS and GPS in environmental remediation oversight

    SciTech Connect

    Kaletsky, K.; Earle, J.R.; Schneider, T.A.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents findings on Ohio EPA Office of Federal Facilities Oversight`s (OFFO) use of GIS and GPS for environmental remediation oversight at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Fernald Site. The Fernald site is a former uranium metal production facility within DOE`s nuclear weapons complex. Significant uranium contamination of soil and groundwater is being remediated under state and federal regulations. OFFO uses GIS/GPS to enhance environmental monitoring and remediation oversight. These technologies are utilized within OFFO`s environmental monitoring program for sample location and parameter selection, data interpretation and presentation. GPS is used to integrate sample data into OFFO`s GIS and for permanently linking precise and accurate geographic data to samples and waste units. It is important to identify contamination geographically as all visual references (e.g., buildings, infrastructure) will be removed during remediation. Availability of the GIS allows OFFO to perform independent analysis and review of DOE contractor generated data, models, maps, and designs. This ability helps alleviate concerns associated with {open_quotes}black box{close_quotes} models and data interpretation. OFFO`s independent analysis has increased regulatory confidence and the efficiency of design reviews. GIS/GPS technology allows OFFO to record and present complex data in a visual format aiding in stakeholder education and awareness. Presented are OFFO`s achievements within the aforementioned activities and some reasons learned in implementing the GIS/GPS program. OFFO`s two years of GIS/GPS development have resulted in numerous lessons learned and ideas for increasing effectiveness through the use of GIS/GPS.

  3. Catalytic nanomotors for environmental monitoring and water remediation

    PubMed Central

    Soler, Lluís

    2014-01-01

    Self-propelled nanomotors hold considerable promise for developing innovative environmental applications. This review highlights the recent progress in the use of self-propelled nanomotors for water remediation and environmental monitoring applications, as well as the effect of the environmental conditions on the dynamics of nanomotors. Artificial nanomotors can sense different analytes—and therefore pollutants, or “chemical threats”—can be used for testing the quality of water, selective removal of oil, and alteration of their speeds, depending on the presence of some substances in the solution in which they swim. Newly introduced micromotors with double functionality to mix liquids at the microscale and enhance chemical reactions for the degradation of organic pollutants greatly broadens the range of applications to that of environmental. These “self-powered remediation systems” could be seen as a new generation of “smart devices” for cleaning water in small pipes or cavities difficult to reach with traditional methods. With constant improvement and considering the key challenges, we expect that artificial nanomachines could play an important role in environmental applications in the near future. PMID:24752489

  4. Catalytic nanomotors for environmental monitoring and water remediation.

    PubMed

    Soler, Lluís; Sánchez, Samuel

    2014-07-01

    Self-propelled nanomotors hold considerable promise for developing innovative environmental applications. This review highlights the recent progress in the use of self-propelled nanomotors for water remediation and environmental monitoring applications, as well as the effect of the environmental conditions on the dynamics of nanomotors. Artificial nanomotors can sense different analytes-and therefore pollutants, or "chemical threats"-can be used for testing the quality of water, selective removal of oil, and alteration of their speeds, depending on the presence of some substances in the solution in which they swim. Newly introduced micromotors with double functionality to mix liquids at the microscale and enhance chemical reactions for the degradation of organic pollutants greatly broadens the range of applications to that of environmental. These "self-powered remediation systems" could be seen as a new generation of "smart devices" for cleaning water in small pipes or cavities difficult to reach with traditional methods. With constant improvement and considering the key challenges, we expect that artificial nanomachines could play an important role in environmental applications in the near future.

  5. Catalytic nanomotors for environmental monitoring and water remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soler, Lluís; Sánchez, Samuel

    2014-06-01

    Self-propelled nanomotors hold considerable promise for developing innovative environmental applications. This review highlights the recent progress in the use of self-propelled nanomotors for water remediation and environmental monitoring applications, as well as the effect of the environmental conditions on the dynamics of nanomotors. Artificial nanomotors can sense different analytes--and therefore pollutants, or ``chemical threats''--can be used for testing the quality of water, selective removal of oil, and alteration of their speeds, depending on the presence of some substances in the solution in which they swim. Newly introduced micromotors with double functionality to mix liquids at the microscale and enhance chemical reactions for the degradation of organic pollutants greatly broadens the range of applications to that of environmental. These ``self-powered remediation systems'' could be seen as a new generation of ``smart devices'' for cleaning water in small pipes or cavities difficult to reach with traditional methods. With constant improvement and considering the key challenges, we expect that artificial nanomachines could play an important role in environmental applications in the near future.

  6. Environmental Problems and the Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batisse, Michel

    1973-01-01

    Suggests that any environmental problem can be traced at biosphere, technosphere, sociosphere, and noosphere level. Scientists have generally ignored the latter two spheres in making scientific discoveries. New social ethics need to be recognized that are based on progress, and scientists must consider how these ethics are influenced by their…

  7. Environmental restoration and remediation technical data management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Key, K.T.; Fox, R.D.

    1994-02-01

    The tasks performed in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) work plan for each Hanford Site operable unit must meet the requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) and the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement, Ecology et. al 1992). An extensive amount of data will be generated in the evaluation and remediation of hazardous waste sites at the Site. The data must be of sufficient quality, as they will be used to evaluate the need, select the method(s), and support the full remediation of the waste sites as stipulated in the Tri-Party Agreement. In particular, a data management plan (DMP) is to be included in an RI/FS work plan for managing the technical data obtained during the characterization of an operable unit, as well as other data related to the study of the operable unit. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) sites are involved in the operable unit. Thus, the data management activities for the operable unit should be applied consistently to RCRA sites in the operable unit as well. This DMP provides common direction for managing-the environmental technical data of all defined operable units at the Hanford Site during the RI/FS activities. Details specific to an operable unit will be included in the actual work plan of that operable unit.

  8. Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program environmental compliance assessment checklists

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, M.B.; Sigmon, C.F.

    1989-09-29

    The purpose of the Environmental Compliance Assessment Program is to assess the compliance of Formerly Utilized Site Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) sites with applicable environmental regulations and Department of Energy (DOE) Orders. The mission is to identify, assess, and decontaminate sites utilized during the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s to process and store uranium and thorium ores in support of the Manhattan Engineer District and the Atomic Energy Commission. To conduct the FUSRAP environmental compliance assessment, checklists were developed that outline audit procedures to determine the compliance status of the site. The checklists are divided in four groups to correspond to these regulatory areas: Hazardous Waste Management, PCB Management, Air Emissions, and Water Discharges.

  9. Metallic iron for environmental remediation: A review of reviews.

    PubMed

    Noubactep, Chicgoua

    2015-11-15

    This article critically evaluates recent review articles on using metallic iron (Fe(0)) for environmental remediation in order to provide insight for more efficient Fe(0)-based systems. The presentation is limited to peer-reviewed articles published during 2014 and 2015, excluding own contributions, dealing mostly with granular Fe(0). A literature search was conducted up to June 15th 2015 using Science Direct, SCOPUS, Springer and Web of Science databases. The search yielded eight articles that met the final inclusion criteria. The evaluation clearly shows that seven articles provide a narrative description of processes occurring in the Fe(0)/H20 system according to the concept that Fe(0) is a reducing agent. Only one article clearly follows a different path, presenting Fe(0) as a generator of adsorbing (hydroxides, oxides) and reducing (Fe(II), H/H2) agents. The apparent discrepancies between the two schools are identified and extensively discussed based on the chemistry of the Fe(0)/H20 system. The results of this evaluation indicate clearly that research on 'Fe(0) for environmental remediation' is in its infancy. Despite the current paucity of reliable data for the design of efficient Fe(0)-based systems, this review demonstrates that sensible progress could be achieved within a short period of time, specific recommendations to help guide future research are suggested. PMID:26311273

  10. Metallic iron for environmental remediation: A review of reviews.

    PubMed

    Noubactep, Chicgoua

    2015-11-15

    This article critically evaluates recent review articles on using metallic iron (Fe(0)) for environmental remediation in order to provide insight for more efficient Fe(0)-based systems. The presentation is limited to peer-reviewed articles published during 2014 and 2015, excluding own contributions, dealing mostly with granular Fe(0). A literature search was conducted up to June 15th 2015 using Science Direct, SCOPUS, Springer and Web of Science databases. The search yielded eight articles that met the final inclusion criteria. The evaluation clearly shows that seven articles provide a narrative description of processes occurring in the Fe(0)/H20 system according to the concept that Fe(0) is a reducing agent. Only one article clearly follows a different path, presenting Fe(0) as a generator of adsorbing (hydroxides, oxides) and reducing (Fe(II), H/H2) agents. The apparent discrepancies between the two schools are identified and extensively discussed based on the chemistry of the Fe(0)/H20 system. The results of this evaluation indicate clearly that research on 'Fe(0) for environmental remediation' is in its infancy. Despite the current paucity of reliable data for the design of efficient Fe(0)-based systems, this review demonstrates that sensible progress could be achieved within a short period of time, specific recommendations to help guide future research are suggested.

  11. Environmental remediation: Addressing public concerns through effective community relations

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.; Heywood, J.; Wood, M.B.; Arellano, M.; Pfister, S.

    1998-12-31

    The public`s perception of risk drives their response to any potential environmental remediation project. Even if the actual environmental and health risks may be relatively low, public perception of high risk may doom the project to an uphill struggle characterized by heated public meetings, negative media coverage, reluctant regulators, project delays and increased costs. The ultimate Catch 22 in such a case is that the contamination remains in-place until the public drama is concluded. This paper explores the development and implementation of a Community Relations Plan for the clean up of a Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) site owned and operated by corporate predecessors of Arizona Public Service Company (APS) near the turn of the century. The unique challenges associated with this project were that the former MGP was located in downtown Phoenix at the site of a future federal courthouse. Although the MGP site had been under investigation for some time, the clean-up schedule was driven by a tight courthouse construction schedule. Compounding these challenges were the logistics associated with conducting a large-scale cleanup in a congested, highly visible downtown location. An effective Community Relations Plan can mean the difference between the success and failure of an environmental remediation project. Elements of an effective plan are: identifying key stakeholders and involving them in the project from the beginning; providing timely information and being open and honest about the potential environmental and health risks; involving your company`s community relations and media staff; and educating affected company employees. The Community Relations Plan developed for this project was designed to alleviate public concern about potential risks (perceived or real) associated with the project by keeping key stakeholders informed of all activities well in advance.

  12. Emerging Technologies for Environmental Remediation: Integrating Data and Judgment.

    PubMed

    Bates, Matthew E; Grieger, Khara D; Trump, Benjamin D; Keisler, Jeffrey M; Plourde, Kenton J; Linkov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Emerging technologies present significant challenges to researchers, decision-makers, industry professionals, and other stakeholder groups due to the lack of quantitative risk, benefit, and cost data associated with their use. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) can support early decisions for emerging technologies when data is too sparse or uncertain for traditional risk assessment. It does this by integrating expert judgment with available quantitative and qualitative inputs across multiple criteria to provide relative technology scores. Here, an MCDA framework provides preliminary insights on the suitability of emerging technologies for environmental remediation by comparing nanotechnology and synthetic biology to conventional remediation methods. Subject matter experts provided judgments regarding the importance of criteria used in the evaluations and scored the technologies with respect to those criteria. The results indicate that synthetic biology may be preferred over nanotechnology and conventional methods for high expected benefits and low deployment costs but that conventional technology may be preferred over emerging technologies for reduced risks and development costs. In the absence of field data regarding the risks, benefits, and costs of emerging technologies, structuring evidence-based expert judgment through a weighted hierarchy of topical questions may be helpful to inform preliminary risk governance and guide emerging technology development and policy.

  13. Emerging Technologies for Environmental Remediation: Integrating Data and Judgment.

    PubMed

    Bates, Matthew E; Grieger, Khara D; Trump, Benjamin D; Keisler, Jeffrey M; Plourde, Kenton J; Linkov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Emerging technologies present significant challenges to researchers, decision-makers, industry professionals, and other stakeholder groups due to the lack of quantitative risk, benefit, and cost data associated with their use. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) can support early decisions for emerging technologies when data is too sparse or uncertain for traditional risk assessment. It does this by integrating expert judgment with available quantitative and qualitative inputs across multiple criteria to provide relative technology scores. Here, an MCDA framework provides preliminary insights on the suitability of emerging technologies for environmental remediation by comparing nanotechnology and synthetic biology to conventional remediation methods. Subject matter experts provided judgments regarding the importance of criteria used in the evaluations and scored the technologies with respect to those criteria. The results indicate that synthetic biology may be preferred over nanotechnology and conventional methods for high expected benefits and low deployment costs but that conventional technology may be preferred over emerging technologies for reduced risks and development costs. In the absence of field data regarding the risks, benefits, and costs of emerging technologies, structuring evidence-based expert judgment through a weighted hierarchy of topical questions may be helpful to inform preliminary risk governance and guide emerging technology development and policy. PMID:26580228

  14. Active capping technology: a new environmental remediation of contaminated sediment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chang; Zhu, Meng-Ying; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Yu, Zhi-Gang; Cui, Fang; Yang, Zhong-Zhu; Shen, Liu-Qing

    2016-03-01

    The management and treatment of contaminated sediment is a worldwide problem and poses major technical and economic challenges. Nowadays, various attempts have been committed to investigating a cost-effective way in contaminated sediment restoration. Among the remediation options, in situ capping turns out to be a less expensive, less disruptive, and more durable approach. However, by using the low adsorption capacity materials, traditional caps do not always fulfill the reduction of risks that can be destructive for human health, ecosystem, and even natural resources. Active caps, therefore, are designed to employ active materials (activated carbon, apatite, zeolite, organoclay, etc.) to strengthen their adsorption and degradation capacity. The active capping technology promises to be a permanent and cost-efficient solution to contaminated sediments. This paper provides a review on the types of active materials and the ways of these active materials employed in recent active capping studies. Cap design considerations including site-specific conditions, diffusion/advection, erosive forces, and active material selection that should be noticed in an eligible remediation project are also presented. PMID:26762937

  15. Active capping technology: a new environmental remediation of contaminated sediment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chang; Zhu, Meng-Ying; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Yu, Zhi-Gang; Cui, Fang; Yang, Zhong-Zhu; Shen, Liu-Qing

    2016-03-01

    The management and treatment of contaminated sediment is a worldwide problem and poses major technical and economic challenges. Nowadays, various attempts have been committed to investigating a cost-effective way in contaminated sediment restoration. Among the remediation options, in situ capping turns out to be a less expensive, less disruptive, and more durable approach. However, by using the low adsorption capacity materials, traditional caps do not always fulfill the reduction of risks that can be destructive for human health, ecosystem, and even natural resources. Active caps, therefore, are designed to employ active materials (activated carbon, apatite, zeolite, organoclay, etc.) to strengthen their adsorption and degradation capacity. The active capping technology promises to be a permanent and cost-efficient solution to contaminated sediments. This paper provides a review on the types of active materials and the ways of these active materials employed in recent active capping studies. Cap design considerations including site-specific conditions, diffusion/advection, erosive forces, and active material selection that should be noticed in an eligible remediation project are also presented.

  16. [Immobilization remediation of Cd and Pb contaminated soil: remediation potential and soil environmental quality].

    PubMed

    Sun, Yue-Bing; Wang, Peng-Chao; Xu, Ying-Ming; Sun, Yang; Qin, Xu; Zhao, Li-Jie; Wang, Lin; Liang, Xue-Feng

    2014-12-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the immobilization remediation effects of sepiolite on soils artificially combined contamination by Cd and Pb using a set of various pH and speciation of Cd and Pb in soil, heavy metal concentration in Oryza sativa L., and soil enzyme activity and microbial quantity. Results showed that the addition of sepiolite increased the soil pH, and the exchangeable fraction of heavy metals was converted into Fe-Mn oxide, organic and residual forms, the concentration of exchangeable form of Cd and Pb reduced by 1.4% - 72.9% and 11.8% - 51.4%, respectively, when compared with the control. The contents of heavy metals decreased with increasing sepiolite, with the maximal Cd reduction of 39.8%, 36.4%, 55.2% and 32.4%, respectively, and 22.1%, 54.6%, 43.5% and 17.8% for Pb, respectively, in the stems, leaves, brown rice and husk in contrast to CK. The addition of sepiolite could improve the soil environmental quality, the catalase and urease activities and the amount of bacteria and actinomycete were increased to some extents. Although the fungi number and invertase activity were inhibited compared with the control group, it was not significantly different (P > 0.05). The significant correlation between pH, available heavy metal content, urease and invertase activities and heavy metal concentration in the plants indicated that these parameters could be used to evaluate the effectiveness of stabilization remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil.

  17. [Immobilization remediation of Cd and Pb contaminated soil: remediation potential and soil environmental quality].

    PubMed

    Sun, Yue-Bing; Wang, Peng-Chao; Xu, Ying-Ming; Sun, Yang; Qin, Xu; Zhao, Li-Jie; Wang, Lin; Liang, Xue-Feng

    2014-12-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the immobilization remediation effects of sepiolite on soils artificially combined contamination by Cd and Pb using a set of various pH and speciation of Cd and Pb in soil, heavy metal concentration in Oryza sativa L., and soil enzyme activity and microbial quantity. Results showed that the addition of sepiolite increased the soil pH, and the exchangeable fraction of heavy metals was converted into Fe-Mn oxide, organic and residual forms, the concentration of exchangeable form of Cd and Pb reduced by 1.4% - 72.9% and 11.8% - 51.4%, respectively, when compared with the control. The contents of heavy metals decreased with increasing sepiolite, with the maximal Cd reduction of 39.8%, 36.4%, 55.2% and 32.4%, respectively, and 22.1%, 54.6%, 43.5% and 17.8% for Pb, respectively, in the stems, leaves, brown rice and husk in contrast to CK. The addition of sepiolite could improve the soil environmental quality, the catalase and urease activities and the amount of bacteria and actinomycete were increased to some extents. Although the fungi number and invertase activity were inhibited compared with the control group, it was not significantly different (P > 0.05). The significant correlation between pH, available heavy metal content, urease and invertase activities and heavy metal concentration in the plants indicated that these parameters could be used to evaluate the effectiveness of stabilization remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil. PMID:25826946

  18. Environmental Remediation Sciences Program at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Bargar, John R.

    2006-11-15

    Synchrotron radiation (SR)-based techniques provide unique capabilities to address scientific issues underpinning environmental remediation science and have emerged as major research tools in this field. The high intensity of SR sources and x-ray photon-in/photon-out detection allow noninvasive in-situ analysis of dilute, hydrated, and chemically/structurally complex natural samples. SR x-rays can be focused to beams of micron and sub-micron dimension, which allows the study of microstructures, chemical microgradients, and microenvironments such as in biofilms, pore spaces, and around plant roots, that may control the transformation of contaminants in the environment. The utilization of SR techniques in environmental remediation sciences is often frustrated, however, by an ''activation energy barrier'', which is associated with the need to become familiar with an array of data acquisition and analysis techniques, a new technical vocabulary, beam lines, experimental instrumentation, and user facility administrative procedures. Many investigators find it challenging to become sufficiently expert in all of these areas or to maintain their training as techniques evolve. Another challenge is the dearth of facilities for hard x-ray micro-spectroscopy, particularly in the 15 to 23 KeV range, which includes x-ray absorption edges of the priority DOE contaminants Sr, U, Np, Pu, and Tc. Prior to the current program, there were only two (heavily oversubscribed) microprobe facilities in the U.S. that could fully address this energy range (one at each of APS and NSLS); none existed in the Western U.S., in spite of the relatively large number of DOE laboratories in this region.

  19. Applications of polymeric smart materials to environmental problems.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, H N; Bergbreiter, D E

    1997-01-01

    New methods for the reduction and remediation of hazardous wastes like carcinogenic organic solvents, toxic materials, and nuclear contamination are vital to environmental health. Procedures for effective waste reduction, detection, and removal are important components of any such methods. Toward this end, polymeric smart materials are finding useful applications. Polymer-bound smart catalysts are useful in waste minimization, catalyst recovery, and catalyst reuse. Polymeric smart coatings have been developed that are capable of both detecting and removing hazardous nuclear contaminants. Such applications of smart materials involving catalysis chemistry, sensor chemistry, and chemistry relevant to decontamination methodology are especially applicable to environmental problems. PMID:9114277

  20. Characterization of Carbon Onion Nanomaterials for Environmental Remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Su, C.; Bailes, A.; Lu, Y.

    2009-12-01

    The unique properties of carbonaceous nanomaterials, including small particle size, high surface area, and manipulatable surface chemistry, provide high potential for their applications to environmental remediation. While research has been devoted to develop nanotechnology for environmental applications using carbonaceous nanomaterials, e.g. carbon nanotubes and C60 fullerenes, the practical applications are limited due to their high cost of production of about 50-100/g. We introduce a relatively new carbonaceous nanomaterial, i.e. carbon onion nanomaterials, which could be produced in a cost-effective way of about 1/g, by oxygen-depleted combustion of hydrocarbon gases. Carbon onion nanomaterials consist of spherical fullerene cores surrounded by onion-like nested spherical graphite layers, with diameters of around 20 nm. In this work, we characterized the properties of carbon onion nanomaterials to investigate their potential applications in environmental remediation. Dry carbon onion powders were first characterized using transmission electron microcopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and gas sorption Surface Area Analyzer. Sorption capacity of carbon onion nanomaterials for heavy metals, including Zn(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), Cd(II), and Cu(II), was explored using different pH conditions and surface modification approaches. We found that carbon onion nanomaterials can effectively adsorb heavy metal contaminants at high pH or when surface functionalized with carboxylate groups. Stable aqueous suspension of carbon onion aggregates was produced by exchange of toluene organic solvent. The properties of carbon onion aggregates in aqueous suspension, including particle size, zeta potential, and concentration, were determined using a Zetasizer Nano ZS analyzer, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) / Energy-Dispersive X-Ray (EDX), and UV-VIS Scanning Spectrophotometer. Carbon onion nanomaterials were found to be very well dispersed in aqueous phase, forming stable aggregates

  1. Clean Slate Environmental Remediation DSA for 10 CFR 830 Compliance

    SciTech Connect

    James L. Traynor, Stephen L. Nicolosi, Michael L. Space, Louis F. Restrepo

    2006-08-01

    Clean Slate Sites II and III are scheduled for environmental remediation (ER) to remove elevated levels of radionuclides in soil. These sites are contaminated with legacy remains of non-nuclear yield nuclear weapons experiments at the Nevada Test Site, that involved high explosive, fissile, and related materials. The sites may also hold unexploded ordnance (UXO) from military training activities in the area over the intervening years. Regulation 10 CFR 830 (Ref. 1) identifies DOE-STD-1120-98 (Ref. 2) and 29 CFR 1910.120 (Ref. 3) as the safe harbor methodologies for performing these remediation operations. Of these methodologies, DOE-STD-1120-98 has been superseded by DOE-STD-1120-2005 (Ref. 4). The project adopted DOE-STD-1120-2005, which includes an approach for ER projects, in combination with 29 CFR 1910.120, as the basis documents for preparing the documented safety analysis (DSA). To securely implement the safe harbor methodologies, we applied DOE-STD-1027-92 (Ref. 5) and DOE-STD-3009-94 (Ref. 6), as needed, to develop a robust hazard classification and hazards analysis that addresses non-standard hazards such as radionuclides and UXO. The hazard analyses provided the basis for identifying Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) level controls. The DOE-STD-1186-2004 (Ref. 7) methodology showed that some controls warranted elevation to Specific Administrative Control (SAC) status. In addition to the Evaluation Guideline (EG) of DOE-STD-3009-94, we also applied the DOE G 420.1 (Ref. 8) annual, radiological dose, siting criterion to define a controlled area around the operation to protect the maximally exposed offsite individual (MOI).

  2. Remediation activities at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, T.J.; Danner, R.

    1996-07-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) is a United States Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southwestern Ohio. The facility began manufacturing uranium products in the early 1950`s and continued processing uranium ore concentrates until 1989. The facility used a variety of chemical and metallurgical processes to produce uranium metals for use at other DOE sites across the country. Since the facility manufactured uranium metals for over thirty years, various amounts of radiological contamination exists at the site. Because of the chemical and metallurgical processes employed at the site, some hazardous wastes as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) were also generated at the site. In 1989. the FEMP was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) requiring cleanup of the facility`s radioactive and chemical contamination under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). This paper discusses the proposed remediation activities at the five Operable Units (OUs) designated at the FEMP. In addition, the paper also examines the ongoing CERCLA response actions and RCRA closure activities at the facility.

  3. Remediation of old environmental liabilities in the Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc

    SciTech Connect

    Podlaha, J.

    2007-07-01

    The Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (NRI) is a leading institution in all areas of nuclear R and D in the Czech Republic. The NRI's activity encompasses nuclear physics, chemistry, nuclear power, experiments at research nuclear reactors and many other topics. The NRI operates two research nuclear reactors, many facilities as a hot cell facility, research laboratories, technology for radioactive waste (RAW) management, radionuclide irradiators, an electron accelerator, etc. After 50 years of activities in the nuclear field, there are some environmental liabilities that shall be remedied in the NRI. There are three areas of remediation: (1) decommissioning of old obsolete facilities (e.g. decay tanks, RAW treatment technology, special sewage system), (2) treatment of RAW from operation and dismantling of nuclear facilities, and (3) elimination of spent fuel from research nuclear reactors operated by the NRI. The goal is to remedy the environmental liabilities and eliminate the potential negative impact on the environment. Based on this postulate, optimal remedial actions have been selected and recommended for the environmental remediation. Remediation of the environmental liabilities started in 2003 and will be finished in 2012. Some liabilities have already been successfully remedied. The most significant items of environmental liabilities are described in the paper together with information about the history, the current state, the progress, and the future activities in the field of remediation of environmental liabilities in the NRI. (authors)

  4. DESIGNING PROCESSES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Designing for the environment requires consideration of environmental impacts. The Generalized WAR Algorithm is the methodology that allows the user to evaluate the potential environmental impact of the design of a chemical process. In this methodology, chemicals are assigned val...

  5. Partnering for environmental restoration: The Port Hope Harbour Remedial Action Plan (RAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, S.M.C.

    1995-12-31

    A Remedial Action Plan (RAP) is being developed for Port Hope Harbour, one of 43 Areas of Concern (AOCs) identified by the International Joint Commission (IJC). The RAP, when implemented, will lead to the restoration and protection of desirable water conditions in Port Hope Harbour. The environmental concern associated with the harbor can be best viewed as a historical contaminated sediment problem. Approximately 90,000 m{sup 3} of sediment located in Port Hope Harbour`s turning basin and west slip are contaminated by uranium and thorium series radionuclides, heavy metals, and PCBs. There are several groups contributing to the development of the RAP. All of these groups have the common goal of developing an environmentally sound plan that reflects the views of the community. Strategic partnerships have been established that recognize the need to integrate and coordinate the efforts of all agencies, stakeholders, and the community. The objective is to develop an environmentally sound remediation plan through an efficient and effective management framework.

  6. Environmental problems and developing countries.

    PubMed

    1992-06-01

    The status of environmental conditions for forests, soils, water, air, and atmospheric changes is presented for developing countries. Loss and degradation of forests continue. The rate of cutting of moist tropical forests is 17-20 million hectares/year. The consequences would be eventual total destruction within several generations, lost soil and watershed protection, local climate change, and habitat destruction. The human toll can also be great as seen by the flooding deaths of 5000 Philippine villagers. Soil erosion is a greater danger than desertification. In sub-Saharan Africa, total harvest and yields of important food crops have declined compared to increases elsewhere in the world. In countries such as Costa Rica, Malawi, Mali, and Mexico the soil losses approximate .5-1.5% of gross domestic product annually. Progress has been made in water purification, but there are still nearly 1 million people in the developing world without access to clean water for drinking and bathing. 1.7 billion have inadequate sanitation. Access to sanitation in urban areas is on the rise. Waterborne diseases are a result of poor sanitation: 900 million cases of diarrheal disease/year, 500 million with trachoma, 200 million with schistosomiasis, or bilharzia, and 900 million from hookworm. Other diseases resulting from improper sanitation are cholera, typhoid, and paratyphoid. Water scarcity is another problem. Air quality is threatened by dust and smoke pollution which contribute to respiratory illnesses, by indoor burning of wood and charcoal particularly in rural Africa and south Asia, and high levels of lead from automobile emissions. Hundreds of thousands of people are affected through increased illness and even loss of mental functioning as in the case of lead poisoning. Atmospheric changes such as ozone depletion or global warming may not show their impact until decades later. The consequences are high levels of ultraviolet radiation which cause cancers, cataracts, and

  7. Environmental problems and developing countries.

    PubMed

    1992-06-01

    The status of environmental conditions for forests, soils, water, air, and atmospheric changes is presented for developing countries. Loss and degradation of forests continue. The rate of cutting of moist tropical forests is 17-20 million hectares/year. The consequences would be eventual total destruction within several generations, lost soil and watershed protection, local climate change, and habitat destruction. The human toll can also be great as seen by the flooding deaths of 5000 Philippine villagers. Soil erosion is a greater danger than desertification. In sub-Saharan Africa, total harvest and yields of important food crops have declined compared to increases elsewhere in the world. In countries such as Costa Rica, Malawi, Mali, and Mexico the soil losses approximate .5-1.5% of gross domestic product annually. Progress has been made in water purification, but there are still nearly 1 million people in the developing world without access to clean water for drinking and bathing. 1.7 billion have inadequate sanitation. Access to sanitation in urban areas is on the rise. Waterborne diseases are a result of poor sanitation: 900 million cases of diarrheal disease/year, 500 million with trachoma, 200 million with schistosomiasis, or bilharzia, and 900 million from hookworm. Other diseases resulting from improper sanitation are cholera, typhoid, and paratyphoid. Water scarcity is another problem. Air quality is threatened by dust and smoke pollution which contribute to respiratory illnesses, by indoor burning of wood and charcoal particularly in rural Africa and south Asia, and high levels of lead from automobile emissions. Hundreds of thousands of people are affected through increased illness and even loss of mental functioning as in the case of lead poisoning. Atmospheric changes such as ozone depletion or global warming may not show their impact until decades later. The consequences are high levels of ultraviolet radiation which cause cancers, cataracts, and

  8. A Solution Framework for Environmental Characterization Problems

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes experiences developing a grid-enabled framework for solving environmental inverse problems. The solution approach taken here couples environmental simulation models with global search methods and requires readily available computational resources of the grid ...

  9. Operable Unit 3: Proposed Plan/Environmental Assessment for interim remedial action

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This document presents a Proposed Plan and an Environmental Assessment for an interim remedial action to be undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) within Operable Unit 3 (OU3) at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). This proposed plan provides site background information, describes the remedial alternatives being considered, presents a comparative evaluation of the alternatives and a rationnale for the identification of DOE`s preferred alternative, evaluates the potential environmental and public health effects associated with the alternatives, and outlines the public`s role in helping DOE and the EPA to make the final decision on a remedy.

  10. Problem-Framing: A perspective on environmental problem-solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardwell, Lisa V.

    1991-09-01

    The specter of environmental calamity calls for the best efforts of an involved public. Ironically, the way people understand the issues all too often serves to discourage and frustrate rather than motivate them to action. This article draws from problem-solving perspectives offered by cognitive psychology and conflict management to examine a framework for thinking about environmental problems that promises to help rather than hinder efforts to address them. Problem-framing emphasizes focusing on the problem definition. Since how one defines a problem determines one's understanding of and approach to that problem, being able to redefine or reframe a problem and to explore the “problem space” can help broaden the range of alternatives and solutions examined. Problem-framing incorporates a cognitive perspective on how people respond to information. It explains why an emphasis on problem definition is not part of people's typical approach to problems. It recognizes the importance of structure and of having ways to organize that information on one's problem-solving effort. Finally, problem-framing draws on both cognitive psychology and conflict management for strategies to manage information and to create a problem-solving environment that not only encourages participation but can yield better approaches to our environmental problems.

  11. The Orbital Debris Problem and the Challenges for Environment Remediation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, J.-C.

    2014-01-01

    LEO debris population will continue to increase even with a good implementation of the commonly-adopted mitigation measures. The root-cause of the increase is catastrophic collisions involving large/massive intact objects (rocket bodies or spacecraft). The major mission-ending risks for most operational spacecraft, however, come from impacts with debris just above the threshold of the protection shields (5-mm to 1-cm). A solution-driven approach is to seek: Concepts for removal of massive intacts with high P(collision); Concepts capable of preventing collisions involving intacts; Concepts for removal of 5-mm to 1-cm debris; Enhanced impact protection shields for valuable space assets. Key questions for remediation consideration of orbital debris: What is the acceptable threat level? What are the mission objectives? What is the appropriate roadmap/timeframe for remediation? Support advanced technology development when an economically viable approach is identified. Address non-technical issues, such as policy, coordination, ownership, legal, and liability at the national and international levels.

  12. Environmental Problems Associated With Decommissioning The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E. B.; Jannik, G. T.; Marra, J. C.; Oskolkov, B. Ya.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Gaschak, S. P.; Maksymenko, A. M.; Maksymenko, V. M.; Martynenko, V. I.

    2009-11-09

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning.

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH DECOMMISSIONING THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT COOLING POND

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.

    2009-09-30

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning.

  14. Environmental remediation 1991: ``Cleaning up the environment for the 21st Century``. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, D.E.

    1991-12-31

    This report presents discussions given at a conference on environmental remediation, September 8--11, Pasco, Washington. Topics include: public confidence; education; in-situ remediation; Hanford tank operations; risk assessments; field experiences; standards; site characterization and monitoring; technology discussions; regulatory issues; compliance; and the UMTRA project. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  15. Environmental problems and geothermal permitting

    SciTech Connect

    Windrem, P.F.; Marr, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the stages of geothermal development, the attendant environmental hazards, and the jurisdictions of the various government agencies. Most examples of environmental hazards are drawn from the electric-power production in the geysers of northern California. The major enviromental effects of geothermal development are observed on air quality (including noise), land (including soil erosion, seismic activity and subsidence, wildlife habitat, and visual quality), and water quality. Ownership determines which agencies have jurisdiction, with the preparation of an environmental impact statement at the heart of the federal regulatory process and an environmental-impact report required at the state level. Environmental rules also cover power-plant construction and geothermal field abandonment. 58 references.

  16. Potential environmental implications of nanoscale zero-valent iron particles for environmental remediation

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Min-Hee; Lim, Myunghee; Hwang, Yu Sik

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles are widely used in the field of various environmental contaminant remediation. Although the potential benefits of nZVI are considerable, there is a distinct need to identify any potential risks after environmental exposure. In this respect, we review recent studies on the environmental applications and implications of nZVI, highlighting research gaps and suggesting future research directions. Methods Environmental application of nZVI is briefly summarized, focusing on its unique properties. Ecotoxicity of nZVI is reviewed according to type of organism, including bacteria, terrestrial organisms, and aquatic organisms. The environmental fate and transport of nZVI are also summarized with regards to exposure scenarios. Finally, the current limitations of risk determination are thoroughly provided. Results The ecotoxicity of nZVI depends on the composition, concentration, size and surface properties of the nanoparticles and the experimental method used, including the species investigated. In addition, the environmental fate and transport of nZVI appear to be complex and depend on the exposure duration and the exposure conditions. To date, field-scale data are limited and only short-term studies using simple exposure methods have been conducted. Conclusions In this regard, the primary focus of future study should be on 1) the development of an appropriate and valid testing method of the environmental fate and ecotoxicity of reactive nanoparticles used in environmental applications and 2) assessing their potential environmental risks using in situ field scale applications. PMID:25518840

  17. Space Life Support Technology Applications to Terrestrial Environmental Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzkopf, Steven H.; Sleeper, Howard L.

    1993-01-01

    Many of the problems now facing the human race on Earth are, in fact, life support issues. Decline of air Quality as a result of industrial and automotive emissions, pollution of ground water by organic pesticides or solvents, and the disposal of solid wastes are all examples of environmental problems that we must solve to sustain human life. The technologies currently under development to solve the problems of supporting human life for advanced space missions are extraordinarily synergistic with these environmental problems. The development of these technologies (including both physicochemical and bioregenerative types) is increasingly focused on closing the life support loop by removing and recycling contaminants and wastes to produce the materials necessary to sustain human life. By so doing, this technology development effort also focuses automatically on reducing resupply logistics requirements and increasing crew safety through increased self-sufficiency. This paper describes several technologies that have been developed to support human life in space and illustrates the applicability of the technologies to environmental problems including environmental remediation and pollution prevention.

  18. Integrated Systems-Based Approach to Monitoring Environmental Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Bunn, Amoret L.; Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Carroll, Kenneth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2013-02-24

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for risk reduction and cleanup of its nuclear weapons complex. Remediation strategies for some of the existing contamination use techniques that mitigate risk, but leave contaminants in place. Monitoring to verify remedy performance and long-term mitigation of risk is a key element for implementing these strategies and can be a large portion of the total cost of remedy implementation. Especially in these situations, there is a need for innovative monitoring approaches that move away from the cost and labor intensive point-source monitoring. A systems-based approach to monitoring design focuses monitoring on controlling features and processes to enable effective interpretation of remedy performance.

  19. Integrated Systems-Based Approach to Monitoring Environmental Remediation - 13211

    SciTech Connect

    Truex, Mike; Oostrom, Mart; Carroll, K.C.; Bunn, Amoret; Wellman, Dawn

    2013-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for risk reduction and cleanup of its nuclear weapons complex. Remediation strategies for some of the existing contamination use techniques that mitigate risk, but leave contaminants in place. Monitoring to verify remedy performance and long-term mitigation of risk is a key element for implementing these strategies and can be a large portion of the total cost of remedy implementation. Especially in these situations, there is a need for innovative monitoring approaches that move away from the cost and labor intensive point-source monitoring. A systems-based approach to monitoring design focuses monitoring on controlling features and processes to enable effective interpretation of remedy performance. (authors)

  20. Elemental metals for environmental remediation: learning from cementation process.

    PubMed

    Noubactep, C

    2010-09-15

    The further development of Fe(0)-based remediation technology depends on the profound understanding of the mechanisms involved in the process of aqueous contaminant removal. The view that adsorption and co-precipitation are the fundamental contaminant removal mechanisms is currently facing a harsh scepticism. Results from electrochemical cementation are used to bring new insights in the process of contaminant removal in Fe(0)/H(2)O systems. The common feature of hydrometallurgical cementation and metal-based remediation is the heterogeneous nature of the processes which inevitably occurs in the presence of a surface scale. The major difference between both processes is that the surface of remediation metals is covered by layers of own oxide(s) while the surface of the reducing metal in covered by porous layers of the cemented metal. The porous cemented metal is necessarily electronic conductive and favours further dissolution of the reducing metal. For the remediation metal, neither a porous layer nor a conductive layer could be warrant. Therefore, the continuation of the remediation process depends on the long-term porosity of oxide scales on the metal surfaces. These considerations rationalized the superiority of Fe(0) as remediation agent compared to thermodynamically more favourable Al(0) and Zn(0). The validity of the adsorption/co-precipitation concept is corroborated.

  1. Remediation of problem-solving skills in schizophrenia: evidence of a persistent effect.

    PubMed

    Medalia, Alice; Revheim, Nadine; Casey, Matthew

    2002-10-01

    Neuropsychological deficits in problem solving are commonly found in patients with schizophrenia. We have previously presented the results of a study examining the feasibility of utilizing problem-solving teaching techniques developed within educational psychology, for remediating the problem-solving deficits of inpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. These techniques emphasize the importance of intrinsic motivation on therapeutic outcome and promote this through contextualization, personalization and control of learning activities. We present here the results of the follow-up assessment, which found that the gains made by the problem-solving group persisted for 4 weeks after cessation of problem-solving remediation ended. These results provide more evidence of the therapeutic benefit of problem-solving training techniques that promote intrinsic motivation and generic problem-solving strategies.

  2. Environmental assessment for 881 Hillside (High Priority Sites) interim remedial action

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This Environmental Assessment evaluates the impact of an interim remedial action proposed for the High Priority Sites (881 Hillside Area) at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). This interim action is to be conducted to minimize the release of hazardous substances from the 881 Hillside Area that pose a potential long-term threat to public health and the environment. This document integrates current site characterization data and environmental analyses required by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) or Superfund'' process, into an environmental assessment pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Characterization of the 881 Hillside Area is continuing. Consequently, a final remedial action has not yet been proposed. Environmental impacts associated with the proposed interim remedial action and reasonable alternatives designed to remove organic and inorganic contaminants, including radionuclides, from alluvial groundwater in the 881 Hillside Area are addressed. 24 refs., 5 figs., 23 tabs.

  3. [The state of environmental problems in Vietnam].

    PubMed

    Matsuda, S

    1995-06-01

    Following the introduction of a market economy, Vietnam has been faced with a variety of environmental problems. The following eight problems deserve special attention; 1) deforestation, 2) decrease of agricultural land resources, 3) irrational use of water resources, 4) over exploitation of fishery resources, 5) irrational use of mineral resources, 6) loss of genetic resources, 7) environmental pollution, 8) environmental damage due to war. In order to solve these problems, the Vietnamese government established an integrated strategy, the "National Environmental Protection Research Program: NEPRP". However, because of shortages in human resources, adequate technology, and financial resources, it is very difficult for the Vietnamese government to fully implement this program. As the realization of a sound economic development in the Indochina area is very important from the international political point of view, strong expectations exist that developed countries, including Japan, will actively contribute to the solution of these environmental problems in Vietnam.

  4. Design of optimal groundwater remediation systems under flexible environmental-standard constraints.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xing; He, Li; Lu, Hong-Wei; Li, Jing

    2015-01-01

    In developing optimal groundwater remediation strategies, limited effort has been exerted to solve the uncertainty in environmental quality standards. When such uncertainty is not considered, either over optimistic or over pessimistic optimization strategies may be developed, probably leading to the formulation of rigid remediation strategies. This study advances a mathematical programming modeling approach for optimizing groundwater remediation design. This approach not only prevents the formulation of over optimistic and over pessimistic optimization strategies but also provides a satisfaction level that indicates the degree to which the environmental quality standard is satisfied. Therefore the approach may be expected to be significantly more acknowledged by the decision maker than those who do not consider standard uncertainty. The proposed approach is applied to a petroleum-contaminated site in western Canada. Results from the case study show that (1) the peak benzene concentrations can always satisfy the environmental standard under the optimal strategy, (2) the pumping rates of all wells decrease under a relaxed standard or long-term remediation approach, (3) the pumping rates are less affected by environmental quality constraints under short-term remediation, and (4) increased flexible environmental standards have a reduced effect on the optimal remediation strategy.

  5. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 12. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The 664 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the twelfth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types -- technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions -- have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Decontamination and Decommissioning Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) Environmental Restoration Program. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and key word. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects, analyzes, and disseminates information on environmental restoration and remedial actions. RAPIC staff and resources are available to meet a variety of information needs. Contact the center at FTS 624-7764 or (615) 574-7764.

  6. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN STEAM ENHANCED REMEDIATION STEAM TECH ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Steam Enhanced Remediation is a process in which steam is injected into the subsurface to recover volatile and semivolatile organic contaminants. It has been applied successfully to recover contaminants from soil and aquifers and at a fractured granite site. This SITE demonstra...

  7. Mineral impurities in coal combustion - behaviour, problems and remedial measures

    SciTech Connect

    Raask, E.

    1985-01-01

    Chapters cover the following topics: influence of coal mineral matter on boiler design; mineral impurities in coal; quality of coal utilized in power stations; coal grinding, abrasive fuel minerals and plant wear; particulate silicate minerals in boiler flame; reactions of nonsilicate impurities in coal flames; creation, capture and coalescence of particulate ash in boiler flame; slag viscosity; sintering, fusion and slagging propensities of coal ashes; adhesion of ash deposit on boiler tubes and refractory materials; deposition mechanisms, rate measurements and the mode of formation of boiler deposits; thermal radiation and heat transfer properties of boiler deposits; measures to combat boiler fouling and slagging; some specific ash-related problems with U.S. coals; use of additives in coal-fired boilers; high temperature corrosion in coal-fired plants; ash impaction erosion wear; low temperature fouling and corrosion; and comparison of ash-related problems in pulverized fuel fired and other coal- fired systems.

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL ISOTOPES FOR RESOLUTION OF HYDROLOGY PROBLEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of environmental isotopes as tracers in the hydrosphere is increasing as analytical instrumentation improves and more applications are discovered. There exists still misconceptions on the role of isotopes in resolving hydrology problems. Naturally occurring isotopes in th...

  9. [Arsenic as an environmental problem].

    PubMed

    Jensen, K

    2000-12-01

    Chronic exposure to arsenic through drinking water is known in different continents. Arsenic compounds from disintegrating rock may be solubilized after reduction by organic material, and harmful concentrations of arsenic may be found in surface water as well as in water from drilled wells. Because of well drilling since the sixties in the Ganges delta numerous millions of people have been exposed to toxic amounts, and hundreds of thousands demonstrate signs of chronic poisoning. A changed water technology and chemical precipitation of arsenic in the drinking water can reduce the size of the problem, but the late sequelae i.e. malignant disease are incalculable. Indications for antidotal treatment of exposed individuals have not yet been outlined.

  10. Modulation of persistent organic pollutant toxicity through nutritional intervention: emerging opportunities in biomedicine and environmental remediation.

    PubMed

    Petriello, Michael C; Newsome, Bradley J; Dziubla, Thomas D; Hilt, J Zach; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar; Hennig, Bernhard

    2014-09-01

    Environmental pollution is increasing worldwide, and there is evidence that exposure to halogenated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls can contribute to the pathology of inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer. Pollutant removal from contaminated sites and subsequent pollutant degradation are critical for reducing the long-term health risks associated with exposure. However, complete remediation of a toxicant from the environment is very difficult and cost-prohibitive. Furthermore, remediation technologies often result in the generation of secondary toxicants. Considering these circumstances, environmentally-friendly and sustainable remediation technologies and biomedical solutions to reduce vulnerability to environmental chemical insults need to be explored to reduce the overall health risks associated with exposure to environmental pollutants. We propose that positive lifestyle changes such as healthful nutrition and consumption of diets rich in fruits and vegetables or bioactive nutrients with antioxidant and/or anti-inflammatory properties will reduce the body's vulnerability to environmental stressors and thus reduce toxicant-mediated disease pathologies. Interestingly, emerging evidence now implicates the incorporation of bioactive nutrients, such as plant-derived polyphenols, in technologies focused on the capture, sensing and remediation of halogenated POPs. We propose that human nutritional intervention in concert with the use of natural polyphenol sensing and remediation platforms may provide a sensible means to develop primary and long-term prevention strategies of diseases associated with many environmental toxic insults including halogenated POPs.

  11. Environmental materials for remediation of soils contaminated with lead and cadmium using maize (Zea mays L.) growth as a bioindicator.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yu; Huang, Zhanbin; Liu, Xiujie; Imran, Suheryani; Peng, Licheng; Dai, Rongji; Deng, Yulin

    2016-04-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a severe environmental problem. Remediation of contaminated soils can be accomplished using environmental materials that are low cost and environmentally friendly. We evaluated the individual and combination effects of humic acid (HA), super absorbent polymer (SAP), zeolite (ZE), and fly ash composites (FC) on immobilization of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in contaminated soils. We also investigated long-term practical approaches for remediation of heavy metal pollution in soil. The biochemical and morphological properties of maize (Zea mays L.) were selected as biomarkers to assess the effects of environmental materials on heavy metal immobilization. The results showed that addition of test materials to soil effectively reduced heavy metal accumulation in maize foliage, improving chlorophyll levels, plant growth, and antioxidant enzyme activity. The test materials reduced heavy metal injury to maize throughout the growth period. A synergistic effect from combinations of different materials on immobilization of Pb and Cd was determined based on the reduction of morphological and biochemical injuries to maize. The combination of zeolite and humic acid was especially effective. Treatment with a combination of HA + SAP + ZE + FC was superior for remediation of soils contaminated with high levels of Pb and Cd. PMID:26604199

  12. Hierarchical Multiple Regression in Counseling Research: Common Problems and Possible Remedies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrocelli, John V.

    2003-01-01

    A brief content analysis was conducted on the use of hierarchical regression in counseling research published in the "Journal of Counseling Psychology" and the "Journal of Counseling & Development" during the years 1997-2001. Common problems are cited and possible remedies are described. (Contains 43 references and 3 tables.) (Author)

  13. The unexploded ordnance (UXO) contamination problem and the state of the art of UXO remediation technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Thomsen, K.O.; Richardson, C.B.; Valder, K.M.; Dauchy, J.W.

    1996-12-31

    Millions of acres of US government property are contaminated with unexploded ordnance (UXO) as a result of weapons system testing and troop training activities conducted over the past century at Department of Defense (DoD) sites. Recent DoD downsizing has resulted in the closing of many military bases, many of which are contaminated with UXO. One unexpected result of DoD`s downsizing is the attention focused on the unique problems associated with UXO remediation at these closed military bases. The U.S. Army Environmental Center (U SAEC) is the lead DoD agency for UXO clearance technology demonstrations, evaluation, and technology transfer. USAEC directed the Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technology Division (NAVEODTECHDIV) to serve as the technical lead for the advanced technology demonstration (ATD) program. In 1994, USAEC and NAVEODTECHDIV created controlled test facilities at the U.S. Army Jefferson Proving Ground in Madison, Indiana, to demonstrate and evaluate commercial UXO clearance systems and technologies. Phase I controlled site demonstrations were conducted during the summer of 1994. These demonstrations were followed by the Phase II controlled site demonstrations at JPG. This paper presents the results of the Phase II controlled site demonstrations. The overall performance of the demonstrators is presented along with the operational characteristics and limitations of the various systems and technologies evaluated. Individual demonstrator performance statistics are evaluated by sensor type and sensor transport method.

  14. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Maybell uranium mill tailings site near Maybell, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to evaluate the environmental impacts resulting from remedial action at the Maybell uranium mill tailings site near Maybell, Colorado. A biological assessment (Attachment 1) and a floodplain/wetlands assessment (Assessment 2) are included as part of this EA. The following sections and attachments describe the proposed action, affected environment, and environmental impacts associated with the proposed remedial action, including impacts to threatened and endangered species listed or proposed for listing by the US Fish and Wildlife Service.

  15. Teaching Tips on Current Environmental Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Phyllis S.

    This manual, prepared by the Science Project Related to Upgrading Conservation Education (Project S.P.R.U.C.E.), contains suggestions for introducing elementary school students to current environmental problems. Problems treated are population density, social pollution, visual pollution, air pollution, and water pollution. A background discussion…

  16. Integrating NEPA (National Environmental Policy Act) and CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) requirements during remedial responses at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, M.B.; Smith, E.D.; Sharples, F.E.; Eddlemon, G.K.

    1990-07-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.4, issued October 6, 1989, calls for integrating the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) with those of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for DOE remedial actions under CERCLA. CERCLA requires that decisions on site remediation be made through a formal process called a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS). According to the DOE order, integration is to be accomplished by conducting the NEPA and CERCLA environmental planning and review procedures concurrently. The primary instrument for integrating the processes is to be the RI/FS process, which will be supplemented as needed to meet the procedural and documentational requirements of NEPA. The final product of the integrated process will be a single, integrated set of documents; namely, an RI report and an FS-EIS that satisfy the requirements of both NEPA and CERCLA. The contents of the report include (1) an overview and comparison of the requirements of the two processes; (2) descriptions of the major tasks included in the integrated RI/FS-EIS process; (3) recommended contents for integrated RI/FS-EIS documents; and (4)a discussion of some potential problems in integrating NEPA and CERCLA that fall outisde the scope of the RI/FS-EIS process, with suggestions for resolving some of these problems. 15 refs.

  17. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita Uranium Processing Site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law (PL) 95-604, authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform remedial action at the Naturita, Colorado, uranium processing site to reduce the potential health effects from the radioactive materials at the site and at vicinity properties associated with the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards for the UMTRCA that contain measures to control the contaminated materials and to protect groundwater quality. Remedial action at the Naturita site must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of Colorado. The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to either the Dry Flats disposal site, 6 road miles (mi) [10 kilometers (km)] to the southeast, or a licensed non-DOE disposal facility capable of handling RRM. At either disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed Dry Flats disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal site would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action would be conducted by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. This report discusses environmental impacts associated with the proposed remedial action.

  18. Nanoscale Metallic Iron for Environmental Remediation: Prospects and Limitations.

    PubMed

    Noubactep, Chicgoua; Caré, Sabine; Crane, Richard

    2012-03-01

    The amendment of the subsurface with nanoscale metallic iron particles (nano-Fe(0)) has been discussed in the literature as an efficient in situ technology for groundwater remediation. However, the introduction of this technology was controversial and its efficiency has never been univocally established. This unsatisfying situation has motivated this communication whose objective was a comprehensive discussion of the intrinsic reactivity of nano-Fe(0) based on the contemporary knowledge on the mechanism of contaminant removal by Fe(0) and a mathematical model. It is showed that due to limitations of the mass transfer of nano-Fe(0) to contaminants, available concepts cannot explain the success of nano-Fe(0) injection for in situ groundwater remediation. It is recommended to test the possibility of introducing nano-Fe(0) to initiate the formation of roll-fronts which propagation would induce the reductive transformation of both dissolved and adsorbed contaminants. Within a roll-front, Fe(II) from nano-Fe(0) is the reducing agent for contaminants. Fe(II) is recycled by biotic or abiotic Fe(III) reduction. While the roll-front concept could explain the success of already implemented reaction zones, more research is needed for a science-based recommendation of nano-Fe(0) for subsurface treatment by roll-fronts.

  19. Environmental assessment on electrokinetic remediation of multimetal-contaminated site: a case study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Hyung; Yoo, Jong-Chan; Hwang, Bo-Ram; Yang, Jung-Seok; Baek, Kitae

    2014-05-01

    In this study, an environmental assessment on an electrokinetic (EK) system for the remediation of a multimetal-contaminated real site was conducted using a green and sustainable remediation (GSR) tool. The entire EK process was classified into major four phases consisting of remedial investigations (RIs), remedial action construction (RAC), remedial action operation (RAO), and long-term monitoring (LTM) for environmental assessment. The environmental footprints, including greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, total energy used, air emissions of criteria pollutants, such as NOx, SOx, and PM10, and water consumption, were calculated, and the relative contribution in each phase was analyzed in the environmental assessment. In the RAC phase, the relative contribution of the GHG emissions, total energy used, and PM10 emissions were 77.3, 67.6, and 70.4%, respectively, which were higher than those of the other phases because the material consumption and equipment used for system construction were high. In the RAO phase, the relative contributions of water consumption and NOx and SOx emissions were 94.7, 85.2, and 91.0%, respectively, which were higher than those of the other phases, because the water and electricity consumption required for system operation was high. In the RIs and LTM phases, the environmental footprints were negligible because the material and energy consumption was less. In conclusion, the consumable materials and electrical energy consumption might be very important for GSR in the EK remediation process, because the production of consumable materials and electrical energy consumption highly affects the GHG emissions, total energy used, and air emissions such as NOx and SOx. PMID:24515871

  20. Topics and Terms in Environmental Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holum, John R.

    This reference is an expanded glossary of topics and terms currently related to environmental problems. These topics and terms are associated with energy, air pollution, water pollution, wastes, and pesticides. Included are 239 main entries ranging from acaricide to weathering. Each entry briefly describes the topic or term and often presents a…

  1. Environmental Education - A Problem Approach. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presnell, Richard W.

    The envrionmental education project, "A Problem Approach," was designed to involve University faculty and community leaders in a number of goals. They attempted to produce a series of audio-taped slide presentations designed to develop a working level of environmental literacy in the project participants and in those people who subsequently…

  2. Introduction to Environmental Studies, Human Ecological Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, J. Y.

    This introductory text of general readings for environmental studies is specifically prepared for undergraduate college students although useful also as a reference book for graduate students and instructors and as an information resource for the general public. The book is problem oriented emphasizing the interaction and interdependence of man…

  3. Environmental problem-solving: Psychosocial factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Alan

    1982-11-01

    This is a study of individual differences in environmental problem-solving, the probable roots of these differences, and their implications for the education of resource professionals. A group of student Resource Managers were required to elaborate their conception of a complex resource issue (Spruce Budworm management) and to generate some ideas on management policy. Of particular interest was the way in which subjects dealt with the psychosocial aspects of the problem. A structural and content analysis of responses indicated a predominance of relatively compartmentalized styles, a technological orientation, and a tendency to ignore psychosocial issues. A relationship between problem-solving behavior and personal (psychosocial) style was established which, in the context of other evidence, suggests that problem-solving behavior is influenced by more deep seated personality factors. The educational implication drawn was that problem-solving cannot be viewed simply as an intellectual-technical activity but one that involves, and requires the education of, the whole person.

  4. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to the Dry Flats disposal site, 6 road miles (mi) [10 kilometers (km)] to the southeast. At the disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal site would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action activities would be conducted by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The proposed remedial action would result in the loss of approximately 162 ac (66 ha) of soils at the processing and disposal sites; however, 133 ac (55 ha) of these soils at and adjacent to the processing site are contaminated and cannot be used for other purposes. If supplemental standards are approved by the NRC and state of Colorado, approximately 112 ac (45 ha) of contaminated soils adjacent to the processing site would not be cleaned up. This area is steeply sloped. The cleanup of this contamination would have adverse environmental consequences and would be potentially hazardous to remedial action workers. Another 220 ac (89 ha) of soils would be temporarily disturbed during the remedial action. The final disposal site would result in approximately 57 ac (23 ha) being removed from livestock grazing and wildlife use.

  5. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita Uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to the Dry Flats disposal sits, 6 road miles (mi) [10 kilometers (km)) to the southeast. At the disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal sits would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action activities would be conducted by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The proposed remedial action would result in the loss of approximately 162 ac (66 ha) of soils at the processing and disposal sites; however, 133 ac (55 ha) of these soils at and adjacent to the processing site are contaminated and cannot be used for other purposes. If supplemental standards are approved by the NRC and state of Colorado, approximately 112 ac (45 ha) of contaminated soils adjacent to the processing site would not be cleaned up. This area is steeply sloped. The cleanup of this contamination would have adverse environmental consequences and would be potentially hazardous to remedial action workers. Another 220 ac (89 ha) of soils would be temporarily disturbed during the remedial action. The final disposal site would result in approximately 57 ac (23 ha) being removed from livestock grazing and wildlife use.

  6. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita Uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to the Dry Flats disposal site, 6 road miles (mi) [ 1 0 kilometers (km)] to the southeast. At the disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal site would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action activities would be conducted by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The remedial action would result in the loss of approximately 164 ac (66 ha) of soils, but 132 ac (53 ha) of these soils are contaminated and cannot be used for other purposes. Another 154 ac (62 ha) of soils would be temporarily disturbed. Approximately 57 ac (23 ha) of open range land would be permanently removed from livestock grazing and wildlife use. The removal of the contaminated materials would affect the 1 00-year floodplain of the San Miguel River and would result in the loss of riparian habitat along the river. The southwestern willow flycatcher, a Federal candidate species, may be affected by the remedial action, and the use of water from the San Miguel River ``may affect`` the Colorado squawfish, humpback chub, bonytail chub, and razorback sucker. Traffic levels on State Highways 90 and 141 would be increased during the remedial action, as would the noise levels along these transportation routes. Measures for mitigating the adverse environmental impacts of the proposed remedial action are discussed in Section 6.0 of this environmental assessment (EA).

  7. Scientific Opportunities for Monitoring of Environmental Remediation Sites - (SOMERS)

    SciTech Connect

    Bunn, Amoret L.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Deeb, Rula A.; Hawley, Elizabeth L.; Truex, Michael J.; Peterson, Mark; Freshley, Mark D.; Pierce, Eric M.; McCord, John; Young, Michael H.; Gilmore, Tyler J.; Miller, Rick; Miracle, Ann L.; Kaback, Dawn; Eddy-Dilek, Carol; Rossabi, Joe; Lee, Hope; Bush, Richard P.; Beam , Paul; Chamberlain, G. M.; Gerdes, Kurt D.; Collazo, Yvette

    2012-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for risk reduction and cleanup of its nuclear weapons complex. DOE maintains the largest cleanup program in the world, currently spanning over a million acres in 13 states. The inventory of contaminated materials includes 90 million gallons of radioactive waste, 6.4 trillion liters of groundwater, and 40 million cubic meters of soil and debris. It is not feasible to completely restore many sites to predisposal conditions. Any contamination left in place will require monitoring, engineering controls and/or land use restrictions to protect human health and environment. Research and development efforts to date have focused on improving characterization and remediation. Yet, monitoring will result in the largest life-cycle costs and will be critical to improving performance and protection. Through an inter-disciplinary effort, DOE is addressing a need to advance monitoring approaches from sole reliance on cost- and labor-intensive point-source monitoring to integrated systems-based approaches such as flux-based approaches and the use of early indicator parameters. Key objectives include identifying current scientific, technical and implementation opportunities and challenges, prioritizing science and technology strategies to meet current needs within the DOE complex for the most challenging environments, and developing an integrated and risk-informed monitoring framework.

  8. Scientific Opportunities for Monitoring of Environmental Remediation Sites (SOMERS) - 12224

    SciTech Connect

    Bunn, Amoret L.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Truex, Michael J.; Freshley, Mark D.; Gilmore, Tyler J.; Miracle, Ann L.; Deeb, Rula A.; Hawley, Elisabeth L.; McCord, John; Young, Michael H.; Miller, Rick; Kaback, Dawn; Eddy-Dilek, Carol; Rossabi, Joe; Hope Lee, M.; Bush, Richard; Beam, Paul; Chamberlain, Grover; Gerdes, Kurt; Collazo, Yvette T.

    2012-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for risk reduction and cleanup of its nuclear weapons complex. DOE maintains the largest cleanup program in the world, currently spanning over a million acres in 13 states. The inventory of contaminated materials includes 90 million gallons of radioactive waste, 6.4 trillion liters of groundwater, and 40 million cubic meters of soil and debris. It is not feasible to completely restore many sites to pre-disposal conditions. Any contamination left in place will require monitoring, engineering controls and/or land use restrictions to protect human health and environment. Research and development efforts to date have focused on improving characterization and remediation. Yet, monitoring will result in the largest life-cycle costs and will be critical to improving performance and protection. Through an inter-disciplinary effort, DOE is addressing a need to advance monitoring approaches from sole reliance on cost- and labor-intensive point-source monitoring to integrated systems-based approaches such as flux-based approaches and the use of early indicator parameters. Key objectives include identifying current scientific, technical and implementation opportunities and challenges, prioritizing science and technology strategies to meet current needs within the DOE complex for the most challenging environments, and developing an integrated and risk-informed monitoring framework. (authors)

  9. Use of life cycle assessments to evaluate the environmental footprint of contaminated sediment remediation.

    PubMed

    Sparrevik, Magnus; Saloranta, Tuomo; Cornelissen, Gerard; Eek, Espen; Fet, Annik Magerholm; Breedveld, Gijs D; Linkov, Igor

    2011-05-15

    Ecological and human risks often drive the selection of remedial alternatives for contaminated sediments. Traditional human and ecological risk assessment (HERA) includes assessing risk for benthic organisms and aquatic fauna associated with exposure to contaminated sediments before and after remediation as well as risk for human exposure but does not consider the environmental footprint associated with implementing remedial alternatives. Assessment of environmental effects over the whole life cycle (i.e., Life Cycle Assessment, LCA) could complement HERA and help in selecting the most appropriate sediment management alternative. Even though LCA has been developed and applied in multiple environmental management cases, applications to contaminated sediments and marine ecosystems are in general less frequent. This paper implements LCA methodology for the case of the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/F)-contaminated Grenland fjord in Norway. LCA was applied to investigate the environmental footprint of different active and passive thin-layer capping alternatives as compared to natural recovery. The results showed that capping was preferable to natural recovery when analysis is limited to effects related to the site contamination. Incorporation of impacts related to the use of resources and energy during the implementation of a thin layer cap increase the environmental footprint by over 1 order of magnitude, making capping inferior to the natural recovery alternative. Use of biomass-derived activated carbon, where carbon dioxide is sequestered during the production process, reduces the overall environmental impact to that of natural recovery. The results from this study show that LCA may be a valuable tool for assessing the environmental footprint of sediment remediation projects and for sustainable sediment management.

  10. Environmental Remediation to Address Childhood Lead Poisoning Epidemic due to Artisanal Gold Mining in Zamfara, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Tirima, Simba; Bartrem, Casey; von Lindern, Ian; von Braun, Margrit; Lind, Douglas; Anka, Shehu Mohammed; Abdullahi, Aishat

    2016-01-01

    Background: From 2010 through 2013, integrated health and environmental responses addressed an unprecedented epidemic lead poisoning in Zamfara State, northern Nigeria. Artisanal gold mining caused widespread contamination resulting in the deaths of > 400 children. Socioeconomic, logistic, and security challenges required remediation and medical protocols within the context of local resources, labor practices, and cultural traditions. Objectives: Our aim was to implement emergency environmental remediation to abate exposures to 17,000 lead poisoned villagers, to facilitate chelation treatment of children ≤ 5 years old, and to establish local technical capacity and lead health advocacy programs to prevent future disasters. Methods: U.S. hazardous waste removal protocols were modified to accommodate local agricultural practices. Remediation was conducted over 4 years in three phases, progressing from an emergency response by international personnel to comprehensive cleanup funded and accomplished by the Nigerian government. Results: More than 27,000 m3 of contaminated soils and mining waste were removed from 820 residences and ore processing areas in eight villages, largely by hand labor, and disposed in constructed landfills. Excavated areas were capped with clean soils (≤ 25 mg/kg lead), decreasing soil lead concentrations by 89%, and 2,349 children received chelation treatment. Pre-chelation geometric mean blood lead levels for children ≤ 5 years old decreased from 149 μg/dL to 15 μg/dL over the 4-year remedial program. Conclusions: The unprecedented outbreak and response demonstrate that, given sufficient political will and modest investment, the world’s most challenging environmental health crises can be addressed by adapting proven response protocols to the capabilities of host countries. Citation: Tirima S, Bartrem C, von Lindern I, von Braun M, Lind D, Anka SM, Abdullahi A. 2016. Environmental remediation to address childhood lead poisoning epidemic

  11. International cooperation and support in environmental remediation - is there any room for improvement?

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Horst Monken; Recio, Manuel Santamaria; Forsstrom, Hans; Carson, Philip Michael

    2013-05-01

    The challenges faced by states seeking to implement Environmental Remediation works are many. To this end, the International Atomic Energy Agency attempts to provide assistance and guidance to Member States wherever possible. This review article provides a brief overview of these challenges and highlights the international sources of financial and implementation support discussed at an international conference on the topic in Astana, Kazakhstan in 2009. The conference concluded the importance of institutional structures as a pre-requisite for remediation work, recognized privatization as a useful but limited financing tool for remediation and illustrated the need for better coordination between international funding organizations to reduce overlap and optimization of resources to secure the best outcomes.

  12. Sonochemistry in environmental remediation. 2. Heterogeneous sonophotocatalytic oxidation processes for the treatment of pollutants in water.

    PubMed

    Adewuyi, Yusuf G

    2005-11-15

    Recent advances in advanced oxidation technologies for applications in environmental remediation involve the use of acoustic cavitation. Cavitation is the formation, growth, and implosive collapse of gas- or vapor-filled microbubbles formed from acoustical wave-induced compression/ rarefaction in a body of liquid. Cavitation is effective in treating most liquid-phase pollutants but it is highly energy intensive and not economical or practically feasible when used alone. One of the most interesting topics in the recent advances in environmental sonochemistry is the intensification of the ultrasonic degradation process by coupling ultrasound with other types of energy, chemical oxidants, or photocataysts. In Part II of this series, a critical review of the applications of ultrasound in environmental remediation focusing on the simultaneous or hybrid use of ultrasonic irradiation and photocatalysis in aqueous solutions, namely, sonophotocatalytic oxidation processes, is presented. PMID:16323748

  13. A hands-on approach to teaching environmental awareness and pollutant remediation to undergraduate chemistry students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salman Ashraf, S.; Rauf, M. A.; Abdullah, Fatema H.

    2012-07-01

    Background : One of the unfortunate side effects of the industrial revolution has been the constant assault of the environment with various forms of pollution. Lately, this issue has taken a more critical dimension as prospects of global climate change and irreversible ecosystem damage are becoming a reality. Purpose : College graduates (especially chemists), should therefore not only be aware of these issues but also be taught how chemistry can help reduce environmental pollution. Furthermore, the role and importance of chemistry in sustainable development and solving environmental problems needs to be highlighted. Programme/intervention description : To this effect, we have designed a simple undergraduate experiment that is based on the green chemistry approach of using photolytic oxidation to degrade a model organic pollutant. This approach used UV light and hydrogen peroxide to produce reactive hydroxyl radicals, which subsequently break down and degrade Acridine Orange (model pollutant). The dye degradation was monitored spectrophotometrically and the apparent rate of decolouration was found to be first order. Possible radical initiated mechanisms that may be involved in this remediation experiment have been used to explain the observed dye decolouration. Sample : To test the usefulness of this newly developed experiment, we incorporated it as a module into a second year 'Professional skills' chemistry course with an enrollment of six female students. Anonymous survey of the students after the completion of the module was very positive and indicated that objectives of the experiment were satisfactorily achieved. Results : We believe this experiment not only raises students' awareness about green chemistry and environmental issues, but also teaches them valuable experimental skills such as experimental design, data manipulation and basic kinetics. Survey of students who were taught this unit in a second year course was very positive and supported the usefulness

  14. Documenting cost and performance for environmental remediation projects: Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-08

    The purpose of this DOE guide is to facilitate the use of consistent procedures to document cost and performance information for projects involving the remediation of media contaminated with hazardous and radioactive wastes. It provides remedial action project managers with a standardized set of data to document completed remediation projects. Standardized reporting of data will broaden the utility of the information, increase confidence in the effectiveness of future remedial technologies, and enhance the organization, storage and retrieval of relevant information for future cleanup projects. The foundation for this guide was laid down by the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (FRTR) in their publication, Guide to Documenting Cost and Performance for Remediation Projects, EPA-542-B- 95-002. Member agencies of the FRTR include the US EPA, the US DOD, the US DOE, and the US DOI. All the member agencies are involved in site remediation projects and anticipate following the guidance provided in the above reference. Therefore, there is much to be gained for DOE to be consistent with the other member agencies as it will be easier to compare projects across different agencies and also to learn from the experiences of a wider spectrum of prior completed projects.

  15. Evaluation of the environmental impact of Brownfield remediation options: comparison of two life cycle assessment-based evaluation tools.

    PubMed

    Cappuyns, Valérie; Kessen, Bram

    2012-01-01

    The choice between different options for the remediation of a contaminated site traditionally relies on economical, technical and regulatory criteria without consideration of the environmental impact of the soil remediation process itself. In the present study, the environmental impact assessment of two potential soil remediation techniques (excavation and off-site cleaning and in situ steam extraction) was performed using two life cycle assessment (LCA)-based evaluation tools, namely the REC (risk reduction, environmental merit and cost) method and the ReCiPe method. The comparison and evaluation of the different tools used to estimate the environmental impact of Brownfield remediation was based on a case study which consisted of the remediation of a former oil and fat processing plant. For the environmental impact assessment, both the REC and ReCiPe methods result in a single score for the environmental impact of the soil remediation process and allow the same conclusion to be drawn: excavation and off-site cleaning has a more pronounced environmental impact than in situ soil remediation by means of steam extraction. The ReCiPe method takes into account more impact categories, but is also more complex to work with and needs more input data. Within the routine evaluation of soil remediation alternatives, a detailed LCA evaluation will often be too time consuming and costly and the estimation of the environmental impact with the REC method will in most cases be sufficient. The case study worked out in this paper wants to provide a basis for a more sounded selection of soil remediation technologies based on a more detailed assessment of the secondary impact of soil remediation.

  16. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Maybell Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Maybell, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to evaluate the environmental impacts resulting from remedial action at the Maybell uranium mill tailings site near Maybell, Colorado. A biological assessment (Attachment 1) and a floodplain/wetlands attachments describe the proposed action, affected environment, and environmental impacts associated with the proposed remedial action, including impacts to threatened and endangered species listed or proposed for listing by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS).

  17. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Maybell uranium mill tailings site near Maybell, Colorado: Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to evaluate the environmental impacts resulting from remedial action at the Maybell uranium mill tailings site near Maybell, Colorado. A biological assessment and a floodplain/wetlands assessment are included as part of this EA. This report and attachments describe the proposed action, affected environment, and environmental impacts associated with the proposed remedial action, including impacts to threatened and endangered species listed or proposed for listing by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS).

  18. Environmental Assessment of Remedial Action at the Riverton Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Riverton, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    1987-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-0254) on the proposed remedial action at the inactive uranium milling site near Riverton, Wyoming. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321, et seq.). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required.

  19. Remediating Number Combination and Word Problem Deficits Among Students With Mathematics Difficulties: A Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Powell, Sarah R.; Seethaler, Pamela M.; Cirino, Paul T.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L.; Zumeta, Rebecca O.

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to assess the efficacy of remedial tutoring for 3rd graders with mathematics difficulty, to investigate whether tutoring is differentially efficacious depending on students’ math difficulty status (mathematics difficulty alone vs. mathematics plus reading difficulty), to explore transfer from number combination (NC) remediation, and to examine the transportability of the tutoring protocols. At 2 sites, 133 students were stratified on mathematics difficulty status and site and then randomly assigned to 3 conditions: control (no tutoring), tutoring on automatic retrieval of NCs (i.e., Math Flash), or tutoring on word problems with attention to the foundational skills of NCs, procedural calculations, and algebra (i.e., Pirate Math). Tutoring occurred for 16 weeks, 3 sessions per week and 20–30 min per session. Math Flash enhanced fluency with NCs with transfer to procedural computation but without transfer to algebra or word problems. Pirate Math enhanced word problem skill as well as fluency with NCs, procedural computation, and algebra. Tutoring was not differentially efficacious as a function of students’ mathematics difficulty status. The tutoring protocols proved transportable across sites. PMID:19865600

  20. Burnout in Mental Health Services: A Review of the Problem and Its Remediation

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Gary; Salyers, Michelle P.; Rollins, Angela L.; Monroe-DeVita, Maria; Pfahler, Corey

    2011-01-01

    Staff burnout is increasingly viewed as a concern in the mental health field. In this article we first examine the extent to which burnout is a problem for mental health services in terms of two critical issues: its prevalence and its association with a range of undesirable outcomes for staff, organizations, and consumers. We subsequently provide a comprehensive review of the limited research attempting to remediate burnout among mental health staff. We conclude with recommendations for the development and rigorous testing of intervention approaches to address this critical area. Keywords: burnout, burnout prevention, mental health staff PMID:21533847

  1. Fe(0) Nanomotors in Ton Quantities (10(20) Units) for Environmental Remediation.

    PubMed

    Teo, Wei Zhe; Zboril, Radek; Medrik, Ivo; Pumera, Martin

    2016-03-24

    Despite demonstrating potential for environmental remediation and biomedical applications, the practical environmental applications of autonomous self-propelled micro-/nanorobots have been limited by the inability to fabricate these devices in large (kilograms/tons) quantities. In view of the demand for large-scale environmental remediation by micro-/nanomotors, which are easily synthesized and powered by nontoxic fuel, we have developed bubble-propelled Fe(0) Janus nanomotors by a facile thermally induced solid-state procedure and investigated their potential as decontamination agents of pollutants. These Fe(0) Janus nanomotors, stabilized by an ultrathin iron oxide shell, were fuelled by their decomposition in citric acid, leading to the asymmetric bubble propulsion. The degradation of azo-dyes was dramatically increased in the presence of moving self-propelled Fe(0) nanomotors, which acted as reducing agents. Such enhanced pollutant decomposition triggered by biocompatible Fe(0) (nanoscale zero-valent iron motors), which can be handled in the air and fabricated in ton quantities for low cost, will revolutionize the way that environmental remediation is carried out.

  2. An Overview of Public Domain Tools for Measuring the Sustainability of Environmental Remediation - 12060

    SciTech Connect

    Claypool, John E.; Rogers, Scott

    2012-07-01

    The application of sustainability principles to the investigation and remediation of contaminated sites is an area of rapid development within the environmental profession, with new business practices, tools, and performance standards for identifying, evaluating, and managing the 'collateral' impacts of cleanup projects to the environment, economy and society coming from many organizations. Guidelines, frameworks, and standards of practice for 'green and sustainable remediation' (GSR) have been released and are under development by the Sustainable Remediation Forum (SURF), the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM), the Interstate Technology Roundtable Commission (ITRC) and other organizations in the U.S. and internationally. In response to Executive Orders from the President, Federal government agencies have developed policies, procedures and guidelines for evaluating and reporting the sustainability of their environmental restoration projects. Private sector companies in the petroleum, utility, manufacturing, defense, and other sectors are developing their own corporate GSR programs to improve day-to-day management of contaminated sites and to support external reporting as part of their corporate social responsibility (CSR) efforts. The explosion of mandates, policy, procedures and guidance raises the question of how to determine whether a remediation technology or cleanup approach is green and/or sustainable. The environmental profession has responded to this question by designing, developing and deploying a wide array of tools, calculators, and databases that enable regulatory agencies, site managers and environmental professionals to calculate the collateral impacts of their remediation projects in the environmental, social, and economic domains. Many of these tools are proprietary ones developed by environmental engineering/consulting firms for use in their consulting engagements and/or tailored specifically to meet the needs of their clients. When it

  3. Medical Monitoring: A Beneficial Remedy for Residents Living Near an Environmental Hazard Site

    PubMed Central

    Wones, Robert; Pinney, Susan M.; Buckholz, Jeanette M.; Deck-Tebbe, Colleen; Freyberg, Ronald; Pesce, Amadeo

    2010-01-01

    Objective People living close to an environmental hazard site may suffer health harms from real or perceived contaminant exposures. In class-action litigation, medical monitoring is a potential remedy that has been allowed in some jurisdictions but not others. From 1952-1989 a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) uranium metal plant near Fernald, Ohio, released ionizing radiation and uranium particulates into the surrounding community. Methods Settlement of litigation between nearby residents and the DOE resulted in an 18-year medical monitoring program (N=9775) which focused on general health promotion rather than effects of uranium. Results Participation was higher than projected; decreases in common risk factors (cholesterol and blood pressure) and deaths from cancer have been observed. Conclusions These data support the appropriateness of comprehensive medical monitoring as a remedy for people affected by defined sources of environmental contaminants. PMID:19952785

  4. Environmental compliance assessment findings for Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Program

    SciTech Connect

    Sigmon, C.F.; Levine, M.B.

    1990-03-02

    This report presents the results of an environmental assessment conducted at Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) in St. Charles County, Missouri, in accordance with the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Environmental Compliance Assessment Checklists. The purpose of this assessment was to evaluate the compliance of the site with applicable federal and Missouri environment regulations. Assessments activities included the following: review of site records, reports ,and files; inspection of the WSSRAP storage building, other selected buildings, and the adjacent grounds; and interviews with project personnel. This assessment was conducted on August 28-30, 1989. The assessment covered five management areas as set forth in the Checklist: Hazardous Waste Management, Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Management; Air Emissions; Wastewater Discharges and Petroleum Management. No samples were collected. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Environmental life-cycle comparisons of two polychlorinated biphenyl remediation technologies: incineration and base catalyzed decomposition.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xintao; Zhu, Jianxin; Ding, Qiong

    2011-07-15

    Remediation action is critical for the management of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated sites. Dozens of remediation technologies developed internationally could be divided in two general categories incineration and non-incineration. In this paper, life cycle assessment (LCA) was carried out to study the environmental impacts of these two kinds of remediation technologies in selected PCB contaminated sites, where Infrared High Temperature Incineration (IHTI) and Base Catalyzed Decomposition (BCD) were selected as representatives of incineration and non-incineration. A combined midpoint/damage approach was adopted by using SimaPro 7.2 and IMPACTA2002+ to assess the human toxicity, ecotoxicity, climate change impact, and resource consumption from the five subsystems of IHTI and BCD technologies, respectively. It was found that the major environmental impacts through the whole lifecycle arose from energy consumption in both IHTI and BCD processes. For IHTI, primary and secondary combustion subsystem contributes more than 50% of midpoint impacts concerning with carcinogens, respiratory inorganics, respiratory organics, terrestrial ecotoxity, terrestrial acidification/eutrophication and global warming. In BCD process, the rotary kiln reactor subsystem presents the highest contribution to almost all the midpoint impacts including global warming, non-renewable energy, non-carcinogens, terrestrial ecotoxity and respiratory inorganics. In the view of midpoint impacts, the characterization values for global warming from IHTI and BCD were about 432.35 and 38.5 kg CO(2)-eq per ton PCB-containing soils, respectively. LCA results showed that the single score of BCD environmental impact was 1468.97 Pt while IHTI's score is 2785.15 Pt, which indicates BCD potentially has a lower environmental impact than IHTI technology in the PCB contaminated soil remediation process.

  6. Environmental life-cycle comparisons of two polychlorinated biphenyl remediation technologies: incineration and base catalyzed decomposition.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xintao; Zhu, Jianxin; Ding, Qiong

    2011-07-15

    Remediation action is critical for the management of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated sites. Dozens of remediation technologies developed internationally could be divided in two general categories incineration and non-incineration. In this paper, life cycle assessment (LCA) was carried out to study the environmental impacts of these two kinds of remediation technologies in selected PCB contaminated sites, where Infrared High Temperature Incineration (IHTI) and Base Catalyzed Decomposition (BCD) were selected as representatives of incineration and non-incineration. A combined midpoint/damage approach was adopted by using SimaPro 7.2 and IMPACTA2002+ to assess the human toxicity, ecotoxicity, climate change impact, and resource consumption from the five subsystems of IHTI and BCD technologies, respectively. It was found that the major environmental impacts through the whole lifecycle arose from energy consumption in both IHTI and BCD processes. For IHTI, primary and secondary combustion subsystem contributes more than 50% of midpoint impacts concerning with carcinogens, respiratory inorganics, respiratory organics, terrestrial ecotoxity, terrestrial acidification/eutrophication and global warming. In BCD process, the rotary kiln reactor subsystem presents the highest contribution to almost all the midpoint impacts including global warming, non-renewable energy, non-carcinogens, terrestrial ecotoxity and respiratory inorganics. In the view of midpoint impacts, the characterization values for global warming from IHTI and BCD were about 432.35 and 38.5 kg CO(2)-eq per ton PCB-containing soils, respectively. LCA results showed that the single score of BCD environmental impact was 1468.97 Pt while IHTI's score is 2785.15 Pt, which indicates BCD potentially has a lower environmental impact than IHTI technology in the PCB contaminated soil remediation process. PMID:21571422

  7. Environmental features of two commercial surfactants widely used in soil remediation.

    PubMed

    Franzetti, Andrea; Di Gennaro, Patrizia; Bevilacqua, Alessandro; Papacchini, Maddalena; Bestetti, Giuseppina

    2006-03-01

    One of the main limitations for a wider application of surfactants in soil remediation is the lack of knowledge about environmental fate and toxicity of surfactant itself especially for in situ application. Sorption behaviour, biodegradability, toxicity of parent compound and its metabolites are important processes that affect environmental fate of surfactants in site remediation applications. Tween 80 (poly(oxyethylene)(20)-sorbitane monooleate) and Aerosol MA+80 (dihexyl sodium sulfosuccinate) are surfactants that have been tested in laboratory and field scale remediation of soil and groundwater. In this work, the sorption and biodegradability of these surfactants were assessed to provide conditions and limitations for their use. The soil used in this experimentation was analysed for organic carbon content, soil bacteria, and size fraction and resulted to be a good model because is characterised by mean values for almost all considered parameters. Tween 80 showed high degree of biodegradability but a high affinity for soil matrix. Results suggest that Tween 80 could find its best application in ex situ solid phase remediation like ex situ bioremediation; its high affinity to soil could limit in situ applications. Biodegradation tests for Aerosol MA+80 show low degree of biodegradability and mineralisation. Biodegradation experiments, coupled with analysis of toxicity, could support the hypothesis that degradation of Aerosol MA+80 is not complete and leads to an accumulation of intermediates with at least the same toxicity of the parental compound. Therefore, aquifer remediation application with Aerosol MA+80 has to be conducted with necessary precautions to avoid product loss and excess surfactant should be flushed from the soil.

  8. Sustainable nanocomposites toward electrochemical energy storage and environmental remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jiahua

    Energy shortage and environmental pollution are the two most concerns right now for the long term sustainable development of human society. New technology developments are the key solutions to these challenges, which strongly rely on the continuous upgrading of advanced material performance. In this dissertation, sustainable nanocomposites with multifunctionalities are designed and fabricated targeting to the applications in high energy/power density capacitor electrodes and efficient heavy metal adsorbent for polluted water purification. Contrary to the helical carbon structure from pure cotton fabrics under microwave heating and radical oxidized ignition of nanoparticles from conventional heating, magnetic carbon tubular nanocomposite fabrics decorated with unifromally dispersed Co-Co3O4 nanoparticles were successfully synthesized via a microwave heating process using cotton fabric and inorganic salt as precursors, which have shown better anti-corrosive performance and demonstrated great potential as novel electrochemical pseudocapacitor electrode. Polyaniline nanofibers (PANI-NFs)/graphite oxide (GO) nanocomposites with excellent interfacial interaction and elongated fiber structure were synthesized via a facile interfacial polymerization method. The PANI-NFs/GO hybrid materials showed orders of magnitude enhancement in capacitance and energy density than that of individual GO and PANI-NF components. At the same weight loading of PANI in the composites, fibrous PANI demonstrated higher energy density and long term stability than that of particle-shaped PANI at higher power density. Besides the efforts focusing on the inside of the capacitor including new electrodes, electrolyte materials, and capacitor configuration designs. A significant small external magnetic field (720 Gauss) induced capacitance enhancement is reported for graphene and graphene nanocomposite electrodes. The capacitance of Fe2O3/graphene nanocomposites increases by 154.6% after appling

  9. Environmental Remediation in the Treatment of Allergy and Asthma: Latest Updates

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Lakiea S.; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    In the modern era, the prevalence of asthma and allergies are increasing. It has been speculated that environmental exposures are contributing to this rise. Several studies demonstrate that common indoor allergen exposures exacerbate asthma. Minimizing exposure to allergens and remediating the environment play a critical role in the treatment of asthma and allergies. The most effective environmental control measures are tailored multifaceted interventions which include education, thorough cleaning, using high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, integrated pest management, and maintenance of these practices. PMID:24488258

  10. Environmental remediation in the treatment of allergy and asthma: latest updates.

    PubMed

    Wright, Lakiea S; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2014-03-01

    In the modern era, the prevalence of asthma and allergies are increasing. It has been speculated that environmental exposures are contributing to this rise. Several studies demonstrate that common indoor allergen exposures exacerbate asthma. Minimizing exposure to allergens and remediating the environment play a critical role in the treatment of asthma and allergies. The most effective environmental control measures are tailored multifaceted interventions which include education, thorough cleaning, using high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, integrated pest management, and maintenance of these practices.

  11. Marginal reserves of energy and environmental problems

    SciTech Connect

    Raveloson, E.A.; Rakotomaria, E.; Gazerian, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    Madagascar is a country which has a variety of energy fields that present limited reserves in quantity and quality. Up till now, these fields were not economically viable. When and how to change this situation? In the classical project management approach, there will not be any chance to drive up the development of these energy fields. Nowadays, the economical crisis is general at a world-wide level, but for each developing country it appears that poverty is closely linked to environmental problems. Drought, starvation, deforestation, intensive migration of population without taking into account the standard constraints of under-development, non existence of roads or of modern agriculture and industry, limitation of financing availability, etc. The preliminary conditions to answer efficiently the common problems of development and of environment should be the reduction of the project size to a reasonable investment, the splitting of the field to a small zones of {open_quotes}development and environment,{close_quotes} identifying the economic potential (agriculture, industry, tourism, trade, and consumer centers), then determining the model of energy production adapted to the in situ available raw material. Project management methods and competitive intelligence methods should be combined to find the right solution in due time for the southern part of Madagascar. From the logical framework method, the Logiframe software has been designed to be an efficient tool for developing countries project managers and decision makers to solve the projects integratability problems on behalf of a regional development program.

  12. DEEP VADOSE ZONE APPLIED FIELD RESEARCH CENTER: TRANSFORMATIONAL TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Triplett, Mark B.; Freshley, Mark D.; Truex, Michael J.; Gephart, Roy E.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Chronister, Glen B.; Gerdes, Kurt D.; Chamberlain, Skip; Marble, Justin; Ramirez, Rosa

    2011-02-27

    DOE-EM, Office of Groundwater and Soil Remediation and DOE Richland, in collaboration with the Hanford site and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, have established the Deep Vadose Zone Applied Field Research Center (DVZ-AFRC). The DVZ-AFRC leverages DOE investments in basic science from the Office of Science, applied research from DOE EM Office of Technology Innovation and Development, and site operation (e.g., site contractors [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Contractor and Washington River Protection Solutions], DOE-EM RL and ORP) in a collaborative effort to address the complex region of the deep vadose zone. Although the aim, goal, motivation, and contractual obligation of each organization is different, the integration of these activities into the framework of the DVZ-AFRC brings the resources and creativity of many to provide sites with viable alternative remedial strategies to current baseline approaches for persistent contaminants and deep vadose zone contamination. This cooperative strategy removes stove pipes, prevents duplication of efforts, maximizes resources, and facilitates development of the scientific foundation needed to make sound and defensible remedial decisions that will successfully meet the target cleanup goals for one of DOE EM's most intractable problems, in a manner that is acceptable by regulators.

  13. Can Pollution Problems Be Effectively Solved by Environmental Science and Technology? An Analysis of Critical Limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Huesemann, Michael H. )

    2000-12-01

    It is currently believed that science and technology can provide effective solutions to most, if not all, environmental problems facing western industrial societies. The validity of this optimistic assumption is highly questionable for at least three reasons: First, current mechanistic, reductionist science is inherently incapable of providing the complete and accurate information which is required to successfully address environmental problems. Second, both the conservation of mass principle and the second law of thermodynamics dictate that most remediation technologies - while successful in solving specific pollution problems - cause unavoidable negative environmental impacts elsewhere or in the future. Third, it is intrinsically impossible to design industrial processes that have no negative environmental impacts. This follows not only from the entropy law but also from the fact that any generation of energy is impossible without negative environmental consequences. It can therefore be concluded that science and technology have only very limited potential in solving current and future environmental problems. Consequently, it will be necessary to address the root cause of environmental deterioration, namely the prevailing materialistic values that are the main driving force for both overpopulation and overconsumption. The long-term protection of the environment is therefore not primarily a technical problem but rather a social and moral problem that can only be solved by drastically reducing the strong influence of materialistic values.

  14. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Tuba City uranium mill tailings site, Tuba City, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    1986-11-01

    This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the Tuba City uranium mill tailings site located approximately six miles east of Tuba City, Arizona. The site covers 105 acres and contains 25 acres of tailings and some of the original mill structures. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), Public Law 95-604, authorizes the US Department of Energy to clean up the site to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at the site and at associated properties off the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated standards for the remedial actions (40 CFR Part 192). Remedial actions must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The proposed action is to stabilize the tailings at their present location by consolidating the tailings and associated contaminated materials into a recontoured pile. A radon barrier would be constructed over the pile and various erosion control measures would be taken to assure the long-term stability of the pile. Another alternative which would involve moving the tailings to a new location is also assessed in this document. This alternative would generally involve greater short-term impacts and costs but would result in stabilization of the tailings at a more remote location. The no action alternative is also assessed in this document.

  15. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Gunnison, Colorado. [UMTRA Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bachrach, A.; Hoopes, J.; Morycz, D. ); Bone, M.; Cox, S.; Jones, D.; Lechel, D.; Meyer, C.; Nelson, M.; Peel, R.; Portillo, R.; Rogers, L.; Taber, B.; Zelle, P. , Inc., Washington, DC ); Rice, G. )

    1984-12-01

    This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the Gunnison uranium of mill tailings site located 0.5 miles south of Gunnison, Colorado. The site covers 56 acres and contains 35 acres of tailings, 2 of the original mill buildings and a water tower. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control of Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), Public Law 95-604, authorizes the US Department of Energy to clean up the site to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at the site and at associated (vicinity) properties off the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated standards for the remedial actions (40 CFR 192). Remedial actions must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the occurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Four alternatives have been addressed in this document. The first alternative is to consolidate the tailings and associated contaminated soils into a recontoured pile on the southern portion of the existing site. A radon barrier of silty clay would be constructed over the pile and various erosion control measures would be taken to assure the long-term integrity of the pile. Two other alternatives which involve moving the tailings to new locations are assessed in this document. These alternatives generally involve greater short-term impacts and are more costly but would result in the tailings being stabilized in a location farther from the city of Gunnison. The no action alternative is also assessed.

  16. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 13: Part 1, Main text. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Goins, L.F.; Webb, J.R.; Cravens, C.D.; Mallory, P.K.

    1992-09-01

    This publication contains 1035 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions. These citations constitute the thirteenth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types. There are 13 major sections of the publication, including: (1) DOE Decontamination and Decommissioning Program; (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (3) DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program; (4) DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project; (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; (6) DOE Environmental Restoration Program; (7) DOE Site-Specific Remedial Actions; (8) Contaminated Site Restoration; (9) Remediation of Contaminated Soil and Groundwater; (10) Environmental Data Measurements, Management, and Evaluation; (11) Remedial Action Assessment and Decision-Making; (12) Technology Development and Evaluation; and (13) Environmental and Waste Management Issues. Bibliographic references are arranged in nine subject categories by geographic location and then alphabetically by first author, corporate affiliation, or publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and key word.

  17. A demonstration of the applicability of implementing the enhanced Remedial Action Priority System (RAPS) for environmental releases

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, G.; Droppo, J.G. Jr.; Strenge, D.L.; Walter, M.B.; Buck, J.W.

    1989-12-01

    The Remedial Action Priority System (RAPS) and the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) were developed to prioritize problems associated with potential releases of hazardous chemical and radioactive materials in a scientific and objective manner based on limited site information. This report documents the model testing efforts of the RAPS/MEPAS methodology for the atmospheric, surface water, groundwater, and exposure components. Comparisons are given of model outputs with measured data at three sites: the US Department of Energy's Mound facility in Ohio and Hanford facility in Washington, and a chromium-cadmium plating site in New York. The results show that the simulated magnitudes, spacial and temporal trends, and distributions of contaminants corresponded well with the measured data. 25 refs., 86 figs., 26 tabs.

  18. The Near-Earth Orbital Debris Problem and the Challenges for Environment Remediation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi

    2012-01-01

    The near-Earth space environment has been gradually polluted with orbital debris (OD) since the beginning of space activities 55 years ago. Although this problem has been known to the research community for decades, the public was, in general, unaware of the issue until the anti-satellite test conducted by China in 2007 and the collision between Cosmos 2251 and the operational Iridium 33 in 2009. The latter also underlined the potential of an ongoing collision cascade effect (the "Kessler Syndrome") in the low Earth orbit (LEO, the region below 2000 km altitude). Recent modeling results have indicated that mitigation measures commonly adopted by the international space community will be insufficient to stabilize the LEO debris population. To better limit the OD population increase, more aggressive actions must be considered. There are three options for OD environment remediation-removal of large/massive intact objects to address the root cause of the OD population growth problem, removal of 5-mm-to-1 cm debris to mitigate the main mission-ending threats for the majority of operational spacecraft, and prevention of major debris-generating collisions as a temporary means to slow down the OD population increase. The technology, engineering, and cost challenges to carry out any of these three options are monumental. It will require innovative ideas, game-changing technologies, and major collaborations at the international level to address the OD problem and preserve the near-Earth environment for future generations.

  19. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado: Revision 5

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    Title 1 of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law (PL) 95-604, authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform remedial action at the inactive Naturita, Colorado, uranium processing site to reduce the potential health effects from the radioactive materials at the site and at vicinity properties associated with the site. Title 2 of the UMTRCA authorized the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or agreement state to regulate the operation and eventual reclamation of active uranium processing sites. The uranium mill tailings at the site were removed and reprocessed from 1977 to 1979. The contaminated areas include the former tailings area, the mill yard, the former ore storage area, and adjacent areas that were contaminated by uranium processing activities and wind and water erosion. The Naturita remedial action would result in the loss of 133 acres (ac) of contaminated soils at the processing site. If supplemental standards are approved by the NRC and the state of Colorado, approximately 112 ac of steeply sloped contaminated soils adjacent to the processing site would not be cleaned up. Cleanup of this contamination would have adverse environmental consequences and would be potentially hazardous to remedial action workers.

  20. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Slick Rock uranium mill tailings sites, Slick Rock, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978, hereafter referred to as the UMTRCA, authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to clean up two uranium mill tailings processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, in San Miguel County. The purpose of the cleanup is to reduce the potential health effects associated with the radioactive materials remaining on the processing sites and on vicinity properties (VPs) associated with the sites. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards for the UMTRCA that contained measures to control the contaminated materials and to protect the ground water from further degradation. The sites contain concrete foundations of mill buildings, tailings piles, and areas contaminated by windblown and waterborne radioactive tailings materials. The proposed action is to remediate the UC and NC sites by removing all contaminated materials within the designated site boundaries or otherwise associated with the sites, and relocating them to, and stabilizing them at, a location approximately 5 road mi (8 km) northeast of the processing sites on land administered by the US Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Remediation would be performed by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project.

  1. Secondary environmental impacts of remedial alternatives for sediment contaminated with hydrophobic organic contaminants.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yongju; Thompson, Jay M; Lin, Diana; Cho, Yeo-Myoung; Ismail, Niveen S; Hsieh, Ching-Hong; Luthy, Richard G

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluates secondary environmental impacts of various remedial alternatives for sediment contaminated with hydrophobic organic contaminants using life cycle assessment (LCA). Three alternatives including two conventional methods, dredge-and-fill and capping, and an innovative sediment treatment technique, in-situ activated carbon (AC) amendment, are compared for secondary environmental impacts by a case study for a site at Hunters Point Shipyard, San Francisco, CA. The LCA results show that capping generates substantially smaller impacts than dredge-and-fill and in-situ amendment using coal-based virgin AC. The secondary impacts from in-situ AC amendment can be reduced effectively by using recycled or wood-based virgin AC as production of these materials causes much smaller impacts than coal-based virgin AC. The secondary environmental impacts are highly sensitive to the dredged amount and the distance to a disposal site for dredging, the capping thickness and the distance to the cap materials for capping, and the AC dose for in-situ AC amendment. Based on the analysis, this study identifies strategies to minimize secondary impacts caused by different remediation activities: optimize the dredged amount, the capping thickness, or the AC dose by extensive site assessments, obtain source materials from local sites, and use recycled or bio-based AC. PMID:26590871

  2. Is there an environmental benefit from remediation of a contaminated site? Combined assessments of the risk reduction and life cycle impact of remediation.

    PubMed

    Lemming, Gitte; Chambon, Julie C; Binning, Philip J; Bjerg, Poul L

    2012-12-15

    A comparative life cycle assessment is presented for four different management options for a trichloroethene-contaminated site with a contaminant source zone located in a fractured clay till. The compared options are (i) long-term monitoring (ii) in-situ enhanced reductive dechlorination (ERD), (iii) in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) with permanganate and (iv) long-term monitoring combined with treatment by activated carbon at the nearby waterworks. The life cycle assessment included evaluation of both primary and secondary environmental impacts. The primary impacts are the local human toxic impacts due to contaminant leaching into groundwater that is used for drinking water, whereas the secondary environmental impacts are related to remediation activities such as monitoring, drilling and construction of wells and use of remedial amendments. The primary impacts for the compared scenarios were determined by a numerical risk assessment and remedial performance model, which predicted the contaminant mass discharge over time at a point of compliance in the aquifer and at the waterworks. The combined assessment of risk reduction and life cycle impacts showed that all management options result in higher environmental impacts than they remediate, in terms of person equivalents and assuming equal weighting of all impacts. The ERD and long-term monitoring were the scenarios with the lowest secondary life cycle impacts and are therefore the preferred alternatives. However, if activated carbon treatment at the waterworks is required in the long-term monitoring scenario, then it becomes unfavorable because of large secondary impacts. ERD is favorable due to its low secondary impacts, but only if leaching of vinyl chloride to the groundwater aquifer can be avoided. Remediation with ISCO caused the highest secondary impacts and cannot be recommended for the site.

  3. Research on metallic iron for environmental remediation: Stopping growing sloppy science.

    PubMed

    Noubactep, Chicgoua

    2016-06-01

    Research on using metallic iron (Fe(0)) for environmental remediation has boomed during the passed two decades. Achieved results have established filtration on Fe(0) packed beds as an efficient technology for water treatment at several scales. However, the further development of Fe(0)-based filtration systems is impaired by useless discussion on the mechanism of contaminant removal. However, the whole discussion becomes superfleous while properly considering the difference between a chemical and an electrochemical reaction. This note ends the discussion and suggests practical ways to avoid the further propagation of the mistake.

  4. Research on metallic iron for environmental remediation: Stopping growing sloppy science.

    PubMed

    Noubactep, Chicgoua

    2016-06-01

    Research on using metallic iron (Fe(0)) for environmental remediation has boomed during the passed two decades. Achieved results have established filtration on Fe(0) packed beds as an efficient technology for water treatment at several scales. However, the further development of Fe(0)-based filtration systems is impaired by useless discussion on the mechanism of contaminant removal. However, the whole discussion becomes superfleous while properly considering the difference between a chemical and an electrochemical reaction. This note ends the discussion and suggests practical ways to avoid the further propagation of the mistake. PMID:27037660

  5. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project quarterly environmental data summary (QEDS) for fourth quarter 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    This report contains the Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the fourth quarter of 1998 in support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement. The data, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses) were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group, and merged into the database during the fourth quarter of 1998. KPA results for on-site total uranium analyses performed during fourth quarter 1998 are included. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data.

  6. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Remediation Progress Toward Closure of Contaminated Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Matthews and Robert Boehlecke

    2011-03-03

    The Environmental Restoration activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office assess the environmental impacts that resulted from atmospheric and underground nuclear tests conducted from 1951 to 1992 on the Nevada National Security Site and Nevada Test and Training Range (which includes the Tonopah Test Range). The goal is to protect public health and the environment through investigations and corrective actions. The Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO), established in 1996 between the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), DOE, and the U.S. Department of Defense, serves as the cleanup agreement for the Environmental Restoration activities and provides the framework for identifying, prioritizing, investigating, remediating, and monitoring contaminated sites. This agreement satisfies the corrective action requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. To ensure efficiency in managing these corrective actions, the sites are grouped according to location, physical and geological characteristics, and/or contaminants. These groups, called corrective action units, are prioritized based on potential risk to workers and the public, available technology, future land use, agency and stakeholder concerns, and other criteria. Environmental Restoration activities include: Industrial Sites, Soils, and Underground Test Area. Nearly 15 years have passed since the FFACO was established, and during this time, more than 3,000 sites have been identified as requiring investigation or corrective actions. To date, approximately 1,945 sites have been investigated and closed through no further action, clean closure, or closure in place. Another 985 sites are currently being investigated or are in the remediation phase, leaving approximately 80 contaminated sites yet to be addressed.

  7. Environmental Remediation Activities in Japan Following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Reactor Incident - 12603

    SciTech Connect

    Lively, J.W.; Kelley, J.L.; Marcial, M.R.; Yashio, Shoko; Kuriu, Nobou; Kamijo, Hiroaki; Jotatsu, Kato

    2012-07-01

    In March 2011, the Fukushima Dai-ichi reactor power plant was crippled by the Great Pacific earthquake and subsequent tsunami. Much of the focus in the news was on the reactor site itself as the utility company (TEPCO), the Japanese government, and experts from around the world worked to bring the damaged plants into a safe shutdown condition and stem the release of radioactivity to the environment. Most of the radioactivity released was carried out to sea with the prevailing winds. Still, as weather patterns changed and winds shifted, a significant plume of radioactive materials released from the plant deposited in the environment surrounding the plant, contaminating large land areas of the Fukushima Prefecture. The magnitude of the radiological impact to the surrounding environmental is so large that the Japanese government has had to reevaluate the meaning of 'acceptably clean'. In many respects, 'acceptably clean' cannot be a one-size-fits-all standard. The economics costs of such an approach would make impossible what is already an enormous and costly environmental response and remediation task. Thus, the Japanese government has embarked upon an approach that is both situation-specific and reasonably achievable. For example, the determination of acceptably clean for a nursery school or kindergarten play yard may be different from that for a parking lot. The acceptably clean level of residual radioactivity in the surface soil of a rice paddy is different from that in a forested area. The recognized exposure situation (scenario) thus plays a large role in the decision process. While sometimes complicated to grasp or implement, such an approach does prioritize national resources to address environment remediation based upon immediate and significant risks. In addition, the Japanese government is testing means and methods, including advanced or promising technologies, that could be proven to be effective in reducing the amount of radioactivity in the environment

  8. Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment for the Colonie site, Colonie, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    This work plan has been prepared to document the scoping and planning process performed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to support remedial action activities at the Colonie site. The site is located in eastern New York State in the town of Colonie near the city of Albany. Remedial action of the Colonie site is being planned as part of DOE's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. The DOE is responsible for controlling the release of all radioactive and chemical contaminants from the site. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) must be prepared to support the decision-making process for evaluating remedial action alternatives. This work plan contains a summary of information known about the site as of January 1988, presents a conceptual site model that identifies potential routes of human exposure to site containments, identifies data gaps, and summarizes the process and proposed studies that will be used to fill the data gaps. In addition, DOE activities must be conducted in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which requires consideration of the environmental consequences of a proposed action as part of its decision-making process. This work also describes the approach that will be used to evaluate potential remedial action alternatives and includes a description of the organization, project controls, and task schedules that will be employed to fulfill the requirements of both CERCLA and NEPA. 48 refs., 18 figs., 25 tabs.

  9. NASA Technology Evaluation for Environmental Risk Mitigation Remediation Technology Collaboration Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romeo, James

    2013-01-01

    NASA is committed to finding solutions to agency cleanup problems that are better, cheaper, and more effective than the status quo. Unfortunately, some potential solutions involve innovative technologies for which NASA remediation managers may not have a high level of understanding or confidence. Since 2004, NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC) in Mississippi has been pumping groundwater contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and other halogenated volatile organic compounds (HVOC) from their cleanup location designated "Area G" through extraction wells to an aboveground treatment system. Over time, however, the effectiveness of this treatment strategy has diminished and an alternative approach is needed. In 2012, professionals from NASA's Principal Center for Technology Evaluation for Environmental Risk Mitigation (TEERM) introduced SSC managers to an innovative technology for enhancing the performance of SSC's existing pump and treat system. The technology, generally referred to as in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), involves slowly and continuously injecting a strong but safe chemical oxidant into the groundwater. Treatment is enhanced by a "surfactant-type effect" which causes residual contamination from saturated soil to be released into the dissolved-phase where it can be readily oxidized. Any dissolved-phase contamination that was not oxidized can be collected by the extraction well network and treated aboveground. SSC was not familiar with the technology so to increase their confidence, TEERM identified a contractor who was willing to demonstrate their product and process at a significantly reduced price. An initial, small-scale demonstration of ISCO began at sse in March 2012 and completed in August 2012. This successful demonstration was followed by three larger-scale ISCO demonstrations between August and December 2012. The contractor's innovative Continuous Injection System (CIS) incorporated "green" and sustainable technologies and practices. A slow

  10. Electrospun and oxidized cellulose materials for environmental remediation of heavy metals in groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Dong; Halada, Gary P.; Spalding, Brian Patrick; Brooks, Scott C

    2009-12-01

    This chapter focuses on the use of modified cellulosic materials in the field of environmental remediation. Two different chemical methods were involved in fabricating oxidized cellulose (OC), which has shown promise as a metal ion chelator in environmental applications. Electrospinning was utilized to introduce a more porous structure into an oxidized cellulose matrix. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy were used to study both the formation of OC and its surface complexation with metal ions. IR and Raman spectroscopic data demonstrate the formation of characteristic carboxylic groups in the structure of the final products and the successful formation of OC-metal complexes. Subsequent field tests at the Field Research Site at Oak Ridge National Laboratory confirmed the value of OC for sorption of both U and Th ions.

  11. An Environmental Decision Support System for Spatial Assessment and Selective Remediation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spatial Analysis and Decision Assistance (SADA) is a Windows freeware program that incorporates environmental assessment tools for effective problem-solving. The software integrates modules for GIS, visualization, geospatial analysis, statistical analysis, human health and ecolog...

  12. Environmental Remediation and Application of Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron and Its Composites for the Removal of Heavy Metal Ions: A Review.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yidong; Wang, Xiangxue; Khan, Ayub; Wang, Pengyi; Liu, Yunhai; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Hayat, Tasawar; Wang, Xiangke

    2016-07-19

    The presence of heavy metals in the industrial effluents has recently been a challenging issue for human health. Efficient removal of heavy metal ions from environment is one of the most important issues from biological and environmental point of view, and many studies have been devoted to investigate the environmental behavior of nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) for the removal of toxic heavy metal ions, present both in the surface and underground wastewater. The aim of this review is to show the excellent removal capacity and environmental remediation of NZVI-based materials for various heavy metal ions. A new look on NZVI-based materials (e.g., modified or matrix-supported NZVI materials) and possible interaction mechanism (e.g., adsorption, reduction and oxidation) and the latest environmental application. The effects of various environmental conditions (e.g., pH, temperature, coexisting oxy-anions and cations) and potential problems for the removal of heavy metal ions on NZVI-based materials with the DFT theoretical calculations and EXAFS technology are discussed. Research shows that NZVI-based materials have satisfactory removal capacities for heavy metal ions and play an important role in the environmental pollution cleanup. Possible improvement of NZVI-based materials and potential areas for future applications in environment remediation are also proposed. PMID:27331413

  13. Environmental Remediation and Application of Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron and Its Composites for the Removal of Heavy Metal Ions: A Review.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yidong; Wang, Xiangxue; Khan, Ayub; Wang, Pengyi; Liu, Yunhai; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Hayat, Tasawar; Wang, Xiangke

    2016-07-19

    The presence of heavy metals in the industrial effluents has recently been a challenging issue for human health. Efficient removal of heavy metal ions from environment is one of the most important issues from biological and environmental point of view, and many studies have been devoted to investigate the environmental behavior of nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) for the removal of toxic heavy metal ions, present both in the surface and underground wastewater. The aim of this review is to show the excellent removal capacity and environmental remediation of NZVI-based materials for various heavy metal ions. A new look on NZVI-based materials (e.g., modified or matrix-supported NZVI materials) and possible interaction mechanism (e.g., adsorption, reduction and oxidation) and the latest environmental application. The effects of various environmental conditions (e.g., pH, temperature, coexisting oxy-anions and cations) and potential problems for the removal of heavy metal ions on NZVI-based materials with the DFT theoretical calculations and EXAFS technology are discussed. Research shows that NZVI-based materials have satisfactory removal capacities for heavy metal ions and play an important role in the environmental pollution cleanup. Possible improvement of NZVI-based materials and potential areas for future applications in environment remediation are also proposed.

  14. Problem-Solving Environmental Science on the Chesapeake Bay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Dean; Adkins, Jeannette C.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a continuing study on the Chesapeake Bay as an example of a problem-based approach to environmental education using real life problems. Argues that the approach gives students responsibility for their own learning. (DDR)

  15. A Course on the Physics of Urban and Environmental Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marston, Edwin H.

    1970-01-01

    Presents a physics course for social scientists. Physics problems are presented within the context of several urban and environmental case studies. The problems considered include transportation, air pollution, thermal pollution of water, and scarcity of resources. (LS)

  16. Integration of Environmental Analytical Chemistry with Environmental Law: The Development of a Problem-Based Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cancilla, Devon A.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces an undergraduate level problem-based analytical chemistry laboratory course integrated with an environmental law course. Aims to develop an understanding among students on the use of environmental indicators for environmental evaluation. (Contains 30 references.) (YDS)

  17. Phytoremediation: An Environmentally Sound Technology for Pollution Prevention, Control and Remediation in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erakhrumen, Andrew Agbontalor

    2007-01-01

    The problem of environmental pollution has assumed an unprecedented proportion in many parts of the world especially in Nigeria and its Niger-Delta region in particular. This region is bedeviled with this problem perhaps owing to interplay of demographic and socio-economic forces coupled with the various activities that revolve round the…

  18. Getting it Together: An Environmental Simulation Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackett, Jay K.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an environmental simulation exercise conducted at an outdoor camp in Colorado. The two simulations involved the physical, social, political and environmental factors which might influence construction of an airport in the Rocky Mountain National Park and factors associated with a nuclear generating plant. (BR)

  19. [Problems of pelvic girdle asymmetry in patients with spinal osteochondrosis and remedial gymnastics].

    PubMed

    Balkarova, E O; Blium, E É; Blium, Iu E

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the problems of pelvic girdle asymmetry in patients with spinal osteochondrosis. Effectiveness of medicamentous and rehabilitative treatment of such patients is compromised by destructive changes in the vertebrae. Analysis of locomotor disturbances and their dynamics under effect of remedial gymnastics prescribed on an individual basis showed that the main factor limiting success of osteochondrosis therapy is muscular disbalance in the pelvic girdle. This dictates the necessity to start prevention or treatment of the disease and rehabilitation of the patients from the correction of muscular asymmetry. The muscular corset should be formed so as to ensure dynamic equilibrium of muscular tone (between antagonist muscles) bearing in mind that disbalance in the tone of flexor and extensor muscles (both homo- and contralateral ones) contributes to recurring pain syndrome and further aggravates pelvic asymmetry. Its correction in due time constitutes a major condition for the prevention of diseases affecting not only joints of the lower extremities but also lumbar spine especially in patients subject to intense occupational and sports exertion. PMID:21086609

  20. Understanding Wicked Problems: A Key to Advancing Environmental Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreuter, Marshall W.; De Rosa, Christopher; Howze, Elizabeth H.; Baldwin, Grant T.

    2004-01-01

    Complex environmental health problems--like air and water pollution, hazardous waste sites, and lead poisoning--are in reality a constellation of linked problems embedded in the fabric of the communities in which they occur. These kinds of complex problems have been characterized by some as "wicked problems" wherein stakeholders may have…

  1. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Lowman Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Lowman, Idaho. Final

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This document assesses the environmental impacts of stabilization on site of the contaminated materials at the Lowman uranium mill tailings site. The Lowman site is 0.5 road mile northeast of the unincorporated village of Lowman, Idaho, and 73 road miles from Boise, Idaho. The Lowman site consists of piles of radioactive sands, an ore storage area, abandoned mill buildings, and windblown/waterborne contaminated areas. A total of 29.5 acres of land are contaminated and most of this land occurs within the 35-acre designated site boundary. The proposed action is to stabilize the tailings and other contaminated materials on the site. A radon barrier would be constructed over the consolidated residual radioactive materials and various erosion control measures would be implemented to ensure the long-term stability of the disposal cell. Radioactive constituents and other hazardous constituents were not detected in the groundwater beneath the Lowman site. The groundwater beneath the disposal cell would not become contaminated during or after remedial action so the maximum concentration limits or background concentrations for the contaminants listed in the draft EPA groundwater protection standards would be met at the point of compliance. No significant impacts were identified as a result of the proposed remedial action at the Lowman site.

  2. Quantification of the effects of spatially varying environmental contaminants into a cost model for soil remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Broos, M.J.; Stein, A.; Aarts, L.; Tooren, C.F. tan

    1999-06-01

    In this study the authors investigated the effects of spatial variability of soil contaminants on cost calculations for soil remediation. Most cost models only provide a single figure, whereas spatial variability is one of the sources to contribute to the uncertainty. A cost model is applied to a study site of 19 ha containing a former gasworks in the Rotterdam harbor. The site was contaminated by heavy metals, PAH and mineral oil. Two sets of environmental thresholds were applied, one for identifying the severeness of contamination and one to decide upon the future use of excavated soil. Three remediation scenarios were compared. Geostatistical simulations were applied, both on individual contaminants and on indicator variables derived from these. As it turns out, spatial uncertainty causes 2--5% uncertainty in the final cost estimates. Another source of uncertainty is the direction of application of the cost model: a least-case approach starts with the lowest threshold value, followed by increasingly higher values, whereas a worst-case approach starts with the highest threshold value followed by decreasing values. Using a worst-case approach yielded cost estimates that were 6--8% higher than cost estimates by a least-case approach. The authors concluded that 8--13% of the uncertainty in cost estimates could be explained by spatial variation of soil contaminants and lithology.

  3. DNA-polyfluorophore Chemosensors for Environmental Remediation: Vapor-phase Identification of Petroleum Products in Contaminated Soil.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Wang, Shenliang; Yuen, Lik Hang; Kwon, Hyukin; Ono, Toshikazu; Kool, Eric T

    2013-08-01

    Contamination of soil and groundwater by petroleum-based products is an extremely widespread and important environmental problem. Here we have tested a simple optical approach for detecting and identifying such industrial contaminants in soil samples, using a set of fluorescent DNA-based chemosensors in pattern-based sensing. We used a set of diverse industrial volatile chemicals to screen and identify a set of five short oligomeric DNA fluorophores on PEG-polystyrene microbeads that could differentiate the entire set after exposure to their vapors in air. We then tested this set of five fluorescent chemosensor compounds for their ability to respond with fluorescence changes when exposed to headgas over soil samples contaminated with one of ten different samples of crude oil, petroleum distillates, fuels, lubricants and additives. Statistical analysis of the quantitative fluorescence change data (as Δ(R,G,B) emission intensities) revealed that these five chemosensors on beads could differentiate all ten product mixtures at 1000 ppm in soil within 30 minutes. Tests of sensitivity with three of the contaminant mixtures showed that they could be detected and differentiated in amounts at least as low as one part per million in soil. The results establish that DNA-polyfluorophores may have practical utility in monitoring the extent and identity of environmental spills and leaks, while they occur and during their remediation.

  4. Environmental Remediation Science at Beamline X26A at the National Synchrotron Light Source- Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bertsch, Paul

    2013-11-07

    The goal of this project was to provide support for an advanced X-ray microspectroscopy facility at the National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory. This facility is operated by the University of Chicago and the University of Kentucky. The facility is available to researchers at both institutions as well as researchers around the globe through the general user program. This facility was successfully supported during the project period. It provided access to advanced X-ray microanalysis techniques which lead to fundamental advances in understanding the behavior of contaminants and geochemistry that is applicable to environmental remediation of DOE legacy sites as well as contaminated sites around the United States and beyond.

  5. Fast degradation of dyes in water using manganese-oxide-coated diatomite for environmental remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Trung-Dung; Banerjee, Arghya Narayan; Tran, Quang-Tung; Roy, Sudipta

    2016-11-01

    By a simple wet-chemical procedure using a permanganate in the acidic medium, diatomite coated with amorphous manganese oxide nanoparticles was synthesized. The structural, microstructural and morphological characterizations of the as-synthesized catalysts confirmed the nanostructure of MnO2 and its stabilization on the support - diatomite. The highly efficient and rapid degradation of methylene blue and methyl orange over synthesized MnO2 coated Diatomite has been carried out. The results revealed considerably faster degradation of the dyes against the previously reported data. The proposed mechanism of the dye-degradation is considered to be a combinatorial effect of chemical, physicochemical and physical processes. Therefore, the fabricated catalysts have potential application in waste water treatment, and pollution degradation for environmental remediation.

  6. Environmental Problems and the Social Sciences: What Should We Teach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cylke, F. Kurt, Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Environmental issues that can be explored in social science courses include problems with potential to cause serious or irreversible change to an ecosystem or biosphere. Areas for discussion include: environmental attitudes, values, and behaviors; the environmental movement; risk perceptions; and the political economy of the environment and…

  7. Stressed Stream Analysis--Addressing Environmental Problems in Local Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, James M.

    1998-01-01

    Uses environmental impact analysis as a unifying theme to provide students with real problem-solving experiences without neglecting the principles and theories of the basic scientific disciplines undergirding environmental science. Provides information about stressed stream analysis, which connects environmental impact analysis and Great Lakes…

  8. Photoreactors for Solving Problems of Environmental Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchaikovskaya, O. N.; Sokolova, I. V.

    2015-04-01

    Designs and physical aspects of photoreactors, their capabilities for a study of kinetics and mechanisms of processes proceeding under illumination with light, as well as application of photoreactors for solving various applied problem are discussed.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF REMEDIAL DREDGING AT THE NEW BEDFORD HARBOR, MA, SUPERFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    New Bedford Harbor (NBH), MA, is a Superfund site due to high sediment polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations. An initial remedial dredging operation removed the most contaminated sediments from the upper harbor ("Hot Spot"). During remediation, a monitoring program assess...

  10. Deep well injection of brine from Paradox Valley, Colorado: Potential major precipitation problems remediated by nanofiltration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Ambats, G.; Thordsen, J.J.; Davis, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    Groundwater brine seepage into the Dolores River in Paradox Valley, Colorado, increases the dissolved solids load of the Colorado River annually by ~2.0 x 108 kg. To abate this natural contamination, the Bureau of Reclamation plans to pump ~3540 m3/d of brine from 12 shallow wells located along the Dolores River. The brine, with a salinity of 250,000 mg/L, will be piped to the deepest (4.9 km) disposal well in the world and injected mainly into the Mississippian Leadville Limestone. Geochemical modeling indicates, and water-rock experiments confirm, that a huge mass of anhydrite (~1.0 x 104 kg/d) likely will precipitate from the injected brine at downhole conditions of 120??C and 500 bars. Anhydrite precipitation could increase by up to 3 times if the injected brine is allowed to mix with the highly incompatible formation water of the Leadville Limestone and if the Mg in this brine dolomitizes the calcite of the aquifer. Laboratory experiments demonstrate that nanofiltration membranes, which are selective to divalent anions, provide a new technology that remediates the precipitation problem by removing ~98% of dissolved SO4 from the hypersaline brine. The fluid pressure used (50 bars) is much lower than would be required for traditional reverse osmosis membranes because nanofiltration membranes have a low rejection efficiency (5-10%) for monovalent anions. Our results indicate that the proportion of treatable brine increases from ~60% to >85% with the addition of trace concentrations of a precipitation inhibitor and by blending the raw brine with the effluent stream.

  11. Environmental management: Integrating ecological evaluation, remediation, restoration, natural resource damage assessment and long-term stewardship on contaminated lands

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of this paper is to explore the meanings of these assessments, examine the relationships among them, and suggest methods of integration that will move environmental management forward. While remediation, restoration, and NRDA, among others, are often conducted separately, it is important to integrate them for contaminated land where the risks to ecoreceptors (including humans) can be high, and the potential damage to functioning ecosystems great. Ecological evaluations can range from inventories of local plants and animals, determinations of reproductive success of particular species, levels of contaminants in organisms, kinds and levels of effects, and environmental impact assessments, to very formal ecological risk assessments for a chemical or other stressor. Such evaluations can range from the individual species to populations, communities, ecosystems or the landscape scale. Ecological evaluations serve as the basis for making decisions about the levels and kinds of remediation, the levels and kinds of restoration possible, and the degree and kinds of natural resource injuries that have occurred because of contamination. Many different disciplines are involved in ecological evaluation, including biologists, conservationists, foresters, restoration ecologists, ecological engineers, economists, hydrologist, and geologists. Since ecological evaluation forms the basis for so many different types of environmental management, it seems reasonable to integrate management options

  12. Environmental management: integrating ecological evaluation, remediation, restoration, natural resource damage assessment and long-term stewardship on contaminated lands.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna

    2008-08-01

    Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of this paper is to explore the meanings of these assessments, examine the relationships among them, and suggest methods of integration that will move environmental management forward. While remediation, restoration, and NRDA, among others, are often conducted separately, it is important to integrate them for contaminated land where the risks to ecoreceptors (including humans) can be high, and the potential damage to functioning ecosystems great. Ecological evaluations can range from inventories of local plants and animals, determinations of reproductive success of particular species, levels of contaminants in organisms, kinds and levels of effects, and environmental impact assessments, to very formal ecological risk assessments for a chemical or other stressor. Such evaluations can range from the individual species to populations, communities, ecosystems or the landscape scale. Ecological evaluations serve as the basis for making decisions about the levels and kinds of remediation, the levels and kinds of restoration possible, and the degree and kinds of natural resource injuries that have occurred because of contamination. Many different disciplines are involved in ecological evaluation, including biologists, conservationists, foresters, restoration ecologists, ecological engineers, economists, hydrologist, and geologists. Since ecological evaluation forms the basis for so many different types of environmental management, it seems reasonable to integrate management options

  13. Executive summary: Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1992. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    This report has been prepared to provide information about the public safety and environmental protection programs conducted by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project. The Weldon Spring site is located in southern St. Charles County, Missouri, approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site consists of two main areas, the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. The objectives of the Site Environmental Report are to present a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. The report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring these activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment. The scope of the environmental monitoring program at the Weldon Spring site has changed since it was initiated. Previously, the program focused on investigations of the extent and level of contaminants in the groundwater, surface waters, buildings, and air at the site. In 1992, the level of remedial activities required monitoring for potential impacts of those activities, particularly on surface water runoff and airborne effluents. This report includes monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological sampling activities. These data include estimates of dose to the public from the Weldon Spring site; estimates of effluent releases; and trends in groundwater contaminant levels. Also, applicable compliance requirements, quality assurance programs, and special studies conducted in 1992 to support environmental protection programs are reviewed.

  14. Investigation of the Use of "Cucumis Sativus" for Remediation of Chromium from Contaminated Environmental Matrices: An Interdisciplinary Instrumental Analysis Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Lynsey R.; Edwards, Michael R.; Farmer, Russell; Greenly, Kathryn J.; Hensler, Sherri; Jenkins, Scott E.; Joyce, J. Michael; Mann, Jason A.; Prentice, Boone M.; Puckette, Andrew E.; Shuford, Christopher M.; Porter, Sarah E. G.; Rhoten, Melissa C.

    2009-01-01

    An interdisciplinary, semester-long project is presented in which students grow Cucumis sativus (cucumber) plants from seeds and study the ability of the plants to remediate a heavy metal from contaminated soil or water or both. Phytoremediation strategies for environmental cleanup are presented as possible alternatives to chemical based clean-up…

  15. Weldon Spring Site environmental report for calendar year 1993. Weldon Springs Site Remedial Action Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1993 describes the environmental monitoring programs at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The objectives of these programs are to assess actual or potential exposure to contaminant effluents from the project area by providing public use scenarios and dose estimates, to demonstrate compliance with Federal and State permitted levels, and to summarize trends and/or changes in contaminant concentrations from environmental monitoring program. In 1993, the maximum committed dose to a hypothetical individual at the chemical plant site perimeter was 0.03 mrem (0.0003 mSv). The maximum committed dose to a hypothetical individual at the boundary of the Weldon Spring Quarry was 1.9 mrem (0.019 mSv). These scenarios assume an individual walking along the perimeter of the site-once a day at the chemical plant/raffinate pits and twice a day at the quarry-250 days per year. This hypothetical individual also consumes fish, sediment, and water from lakes and other bodies of water in the area. The collective dose, based on an effected population of 112,000 was 0.12 person-rem (0.0012 person-Sv). This calculation is based on recreational use of the August A. Busch Memorial Conservation Area and the Missouri Department of Conservation recreational trail (the Katy Trail) near the quarry. These estimates are below the U.S. Department of Energy requirement of 100 mrem (I mSv) annual committed effective dose equivalent for all exposure pathways. Results from air monitoring for the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) program indicated that the estimated dose was 0.38 mrem, which is below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard of 10 mrem per year.

  16. Understanding wicked problems: a key to advancing environmental health promotion.

    PubMed

    Kreuter, Marshall W; De Rosa, Christopher; Howze, Elizabeth H; Baldwin, Grant T

    2004-08-01

    Complex environmental health problems--like air and water pollution, hazardous waste sites, and lead poisoning--are in reality a constellation of linked problems embedded in the fabric of the communities in which they occur. These kinds of complex problems have been characterized by some as "wicked problems" wherein stakeholders may have conflicting interpretations of the problem and the science behind it, as well as different values, goals, and life experiences. Accordingly, policy makers, public health professionals, and other stakeholders who grapple with these problems cannot expect to effectively resolve them by relying solely on expert-driven approaches to problem solving. Rather, they need to acknowledge that wicked environmental health problems are most likely to yield to (1) the application of effective community health promotion skills, (2) a sustained commitment to sound toxicological and epidemiological science, (3) the application of systems thinking, and (4) transparent communication among all stakeholders.

  17. Evaluation of unit risk factors in support of the Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    Strenge, D.L.; Chamberlain, P.J. II

    1994-11-01

    This report describes the generation of unit risk factors for use with the Graphical Information System (GIS) being developed by Advanced Sciences, Inc. for the Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement. The GIS couples information on source inventory and environmental transport with unit risk factors to estimate the potential risk from contamination at all locations on the Hanford Site. The major components of the effort to generate the unit risk factors were: determination of pollutants to include in the study, definition of media of concern, and definition of exposure assessment scenarios, methods, and parameters. The selection of pollutants was based on inventory lists which indicated the pollutants likely to be encountered at the known waste sites. The final pollutants selected included 47 chemical pollutants and 101 radionuclides. Unit risk factors have been generated for all 148 pollutants per unit initial concentration in five media: soil (per unit mass), soil (per unit area), air, groundwater, and surface water. The exposure scenarios were selected as the basis for the unit risk factor generation. The endpoint in the exposure assessment analysis is expressed as risk of developing cancer for radionuclides and carcinogenic chemicals. For noncarcinogenic chemicals, the risk endpoint is the hazard quotient. The cancer incidence and hazard quotient values are evaluated for all exposure pathways, pollutants, and scenarios. The hazard index values and unit risk values are used by the GIS to produce maps of risk for the Hanford Site.

  18. Study of space shuttle environmental control and life support problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dibble, K. P.; Riley, F. E.

    1971-01-01

    Four problem areas were treated: (1) cargo module environmental control and life support systems; (2) space shuttle/space station interfaces; (3) thermal control considerations for payloads; and (4) feasibility of improving system reusability.

  19. Chemical and biological methods for the analysis and remediation of environmental contaminants frequently identified at superfund sites

    SciTech Connect

    Melinda Christine Wiles

    2004-08-15

    Substantial environmental contamination has occurred from coal tar creosote and pentachlorophenol (C5P) in wood preserving solutions. The present studies focused on the characterization and remediation of these contaminants. The first objective was to delineate a sequence of biological changes caused by chlorinated phenol (CP) exposure. The second study was to develop multi-functional sorbents to remediate CPs and other components of wood preserving waste from groundwater. Following water remediation, the final aim of this work was to explore the safety of the parent clay minerals as potential enterosorbents for contaminants ingested in water and food. Based on evaluations of toxicity and neutron activation analysis of tissues, no significant differences were observed between animals receiving clay supplements and control animals, with the exception of slightly decreased brain Rb in animals ingesting clay. Overall, the results suggest that neither clay mineral, at relatively high dietary concentrations, influences mineral uptake or utilization in the pregnant rat. 420 refs., 28 figs, 15 tabs.

  20. Environmental monitoring in soil contamination and remediation programs: how practitioners are using the Internet to share knowledge.

    PubMed

    Guerin, T F

    2001-06-01

    Internet listservers provide a means for professionals from all sectors of the industry and profession, to communicate and collaborate with each other, as well as other stakeholders (e.g., suppliers, academics, the general public and community members) in real time. This article highlights key Internet listservers in the field of environmental monitoring in soil contamination and remediation and how to subscribe to them. The most active and relevant listservers for environmental scientists, technologists and professionals in the soil contamination and remediation profession are the Bioremediation Discussion Group (BioGroup), Phytonet, Phytoremediation listserver, Groundwater listserver and Environmental Forensics listserver. Other observations and lessons so far from the use of Internet listservers are: (i) that moderators provide an important role in maintaining the level of quality and participation, (ii) do not underestimate the knowledge base held within these, and (iii) if not selected and managed properly, e-mail from listservers can generate an excess of e-mail and waste time.

  1. Technology To Enhance Special Education: Remediation of Problems in Logical Thinking and Memory. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavalier, Al; And Others

    A federally sponsored project was designed to incorporate a memory-assessment task and a memory strategy into a computer-based instructional system for assessing and assisting in remediating basic memory-processing and metacognitive deficiencies. The project resulted in an instructional system for school-aged children and youth with mild to…

  2. Remediating Number Combination and Word Problem Deficits among Students with Mathematics Difficulties: A Randomized Control Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Powell, Sarah R.; Seethaler, Pamela M.; Cirino, Paul T.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L.; Zumeta, Rebecca O.

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to assess the efficacy of remedial tutoring for 3rd graders with mathematics difficulty, to investigate whether tutoring is differentially efficacious depending on students' math difficulty status (mathematics difficulty alone vs. mathematics plus reading difficulty), to explore transfer from number combination (NC)…

  3. Assessment and Remediation for Physicians with Suspected Performance Problems: An International Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Little is known about the overall appropriateness and value of the various programs available internationally for assessment and remediation for individual physicians whose performance in their clinical practice has been identified as giving cause for concern. Method: A questionnaire was e-mailed to members of the International…

  4. Using Computer Technology To Monitor Student Progress and Remediate Reading Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, C. Sue

    1995-01-01

    Focuses on research about application of text-to-speech systems in diagnosing and remediating word recognition, vocabulary knowledge, and comprehension disabilities. As school psychologists move toward a consultative model of service delivery, they need to know about technology such as speech synthesizers, digitizers, optical-character-recognition…

  5. Environmental Problems, Causes, and Solutions: An Open Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negev, Maya; Garb, Yaakov; Biller, Roni; Sagy, Gonen; Tal, Alon

    2010-01-01

    In a national evaluation of environmental literacy in Israel, (Negev, Sagy, Garb, Salzberg, & Tal, 2008), the authors included both multiple choice questions and open questions. In this article the authors describe the qualitative analysis of the answers to an open question regarding a local environmental problem. Most participants specified solid…

  6. Transnational Environmental Problems--The United States, Canada, Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcher, Marshall E.

    1983-01-01

    Examines problems associated with transboundary environmental pollution, focusing on problems arising between the United States and Mexico and between the United States and Canada. Also discusses new organizational forms developed to bring transboundary issues to a higher policy-making level. (JN)

  7. Y-12 Plant remedial action Technology Logic Diagram: Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets: Part A, Remedial action

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Remedial Action Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) problems at the Y-12 Plant to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to remedial action (RA) activities. The TLD consists of three volumes. Volume 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the rankings of remedial technologies. Volume 2 contains the logic linkages among environmental management goals, environmental problems and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 contains the TLD data sheets. This report is Part A of Volume 3 and contains the Remedial Action section.

  8. Nanoscale zero-valent metals: a review of synthesis, characterization, and applications to environmental remediation.

    PubMed

    Li, Lingyun; Hu, Jiwei; Shi, Xuedan; Fan, Mingyi; Luo, Jin; Wei, Xionghui

    2016-09-01

    Engineered nanoscale zero-valent metals (NZVMs) representing the forefront of technologies have been considered as promising materials for environmental remediation and antimicrobial effect, due to their high reducibility and strong adsorption capability. This review is focused on the methodology for synthesis of bare NZVMs, supported NZVMs, modified NZVMs, and bimetallic systems with both traditional and green methods. Recent studies have demonstrated that self-assembly methods can play an important role for obtaining ordered, controllable, and tunable NZVMs. In addition to common characterization methods, the state-of-the-art methods have been developed to obtain the properties of NZVMs (e.g., granularity, size distribution, specific surface area, shape, crystal form, and chemical bond) with the resolution down to subnanometer scale. These methods include spherical aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (Cs-corrected STEM), electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS). A growing body of experimental data has proven that nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) is highly effective and versatile. This article discusses the applications of NZVMs to treatment of heavy metals, halogenated organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nutrients, radioelements, and microorganisms, using both ex situ and in situ methods. Furthermore, this paper briefly describes the ecotoxicological effects for NZVMs and the research prospects related to their synthesis, modification, characterization, and applications. PMID:27094266

  9. Evaluation of remedial alternatives for the Solar Ponds Plume, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hranac, K.C.; Chromec, F.W.; Fiehweg, R.; Hopkins, J.

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes the process used to select a remedial alternative for handling contaminated groundwater emanating from the Solar Evaporation Ponds (Solar Ponds) at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) and prevent it from reaching the nearest surface water body, North Walnut Creek. Preliminary results of field investigations conducted to provide additional information for the alternatives analysis are also presented. The contaminated groundwater is referred to as the Solar Ponds Plume (SPP). The primary contaminants in the SPP are nitrate and uranium; however, some metals exceed the site action levels at several locations and volatile organic compounds, originating from other sources, also have been detected. Currently the SPP, local surface water runoff, and infiltrated precipitation are collected by a trench system located downgradient of the Solar Ponds and pumped to three storage tanks. The water (two to three million gallons annually) is then pumped to an on-site treatment plant for evaporation at an approximate cost of $7.57 per liter.

  10. Home environmental problems and physical function in Taiwanese older adults.

    PubMed

    Lan, Tzuo-Yun; Wu, Shwu-Chong; Chang, Wen-Chiung; Chen, Ching-Yu

    2009-01-01

    Environmental hazards play an important role in the disablement process. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between home environmental problems and personal physical function. Data were based on a two-stage nationwide survey and evaluation on the needs of long-term care in Taiwan. A total of 10,596 individuals aged 65 and over were included in this study. These participants were identified with physical or cognitive problems at the screening interview and further evaluated at the second interview on health condition, functional status, needs of long-term care, and home environmental problems. Six items of environmental hazards were assessed at the participants' homes with direct observation. The prevalence rates of home environmental problems were similar among older adults with different levels of physical function. No grab bars (79.6-85.1%) and no protections against slip (81.9-92.8%) in the bathroom were two commonly present hazards in older adults' homes. Older adults with a higher income (Odds ratio=OR=0.75), without income information (OR=0.78) or living with other persons (OR=0.74) were less likely to experience environmental problems at home. Results from this study revealed that home environment condition was associated with factors other than personal disabling conditions for the elderly. Modifying home environment, especially the bathroom, should be attached with great importance for physically disabled older adults. PMID:19124167

  11. Worker and Environmental Protection Issues in the Remediation Of an Abandoned Source Manufacturing Facility.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Daniel E.

    2003-02-01

    The Gulf Nuclear Superfund Site located in Odessa, Texas, was an abandoned radioactive source production facility slated for cleanup as a Removal Action under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region VI Superfund program. Prior to cessation of operations and abandonment of the facility in 1992, it was used for the production of radioactive sources used in the oil and gas industry and nuclear medicine applications. Pangea Group was contracted by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Kansas City District to perform remediation of the site and other contaminated debris, cleaning of interior building surfaces, building demolition, and excavation/removal of contaminated soils and septic system. The project scope also included loading, containerization and transportation of low-level radioactive wastes for offsite disposal. Primary radionuclides present at the facility were Cs, Co, and Am. The project also included packaging and removal of radioactive sources and mixed waste consisting of radiologically contaminated lead shot and lead source containers. Included in the paper is a discussion of primary worker protection and environmental protection measures employed on the project. Worker protection issues included the control of industrial and construction safety hazards as well as control of external and internal radiation dose. Control of air emissions and contaminated wastewater were also very important, especially due to the location of the site. The site was located in an area containing both residential and commercial properties. Several residences and businesses were located immediately adjacent to the site. The project involved the participation of the USACE Kansas City District, EPA Region 6, and the Texas Bureau of Radiological Health. Field work on the project started in April 2001 and was completed approximately five months later.

  12. Worker and environmental protection issues in the remediation of an abandoned source manufacturing facility.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Daniel E

    2003-02-01

    The Gulf Nuclear Superfund Site located in Odessa, Texas, was an abandoned radioactive source production facility slated for cleanup as a Removal Action under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region VI Superfund program. Prior to cessation of operations and abandonment of the facility in 1992, it was used for the production of radioactive sources used in the oil and gas industry and nuclear medicine applications. Pangea Group was contracted by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Kansas City District to perform remediation of the site and other contaminated debris, cleaning of interior building surfaces, building demolition, and excavation/removal of contaminated soils and septic system. The project scope also included loading, containerization and transportation of low-level radioactive wastes for offsite disposal. Primary radionuclides present at the facility were 137Cs, 60Co, and 241Am. The project also included packaging and removal of radioactive sources and mixed waste consisting of radiologically contaminated lead shot and lead source containers. Included in the paper is a discussion of primary worker protection and environmental protection measures employed on the project. Worker protection issues included the control of industrial and construction safety hazards as well as control of external and internal radiation dose. Control of air emissions and contaminated wastewater were also very important, especially due to the location of the site. The site was located in an area containing both residential and commercial properties. Several residences and businesses were located immediately adjacent to the site. The project involved the participation of the USACE Kansas City District, EPA Region 6, and the Texas Bureau of Radiological Health. Field work on the project started in April 2001 and was completed approximately five months later.

  13. Environmental analysis and data report prepared for the environmental assessment of remedial action at the inactive uranium mill tailings site near Falls City, Texas. [Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This document contains information and data gathered in support of the preparation of the environmental assessment (EA) of the proposed remedial action at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site near Falls City, Texas. The Falls City EA was prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which requires Federal agencies to assess the impacts of their actions on the environment. It examines the short- and long-term effects of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) remedial action for the Falls City site as well as the no action alternative. The DOE will use the information and analyses presented in the EA to determine whether the proposed action would have a significant impact on the environment. If the impacts are determined to be significant, an environmental impact statement (EIS) will be prepared. If the impacts are not determined to be significant, the DOE may issue a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and implement the proposed action. The information and data presented in this report are for background purposes only and are not required as part of the NEPA decision-making process.

  14. Performance-Based Acquisition: A tool to reduce costs and improve performance at US Army environmental remediation sites

    SciTech Connect

    Kosko, Nancy; Gilman, Janet; White, Debbie

    2007-07-01

    The US Army, like most US federal and state environmental organizations, is faced with limited resources to conduct environmental work, an increasing workload, and challenges in achieving closeout of its environmental cleanup programs. In 2001, in an effort to incorporate proven private sector tools into federal cleanup programs, the Department of Defense (DoD) Business Initiative Council (BIC), initiated the use of Performance-Based Acquisition (PBA) for environmental cleanup. Since fiscal year 2000, the US Army Environmental Command (USAEC) has successfully awarded more than 55 performance-based contracts for environmental remediation. These contracts range in size from $500,000 to $52.4 million, and include closing properties (Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC)) and some of the US Army's most complex active installations. The contracts address a range of activities including investigation through monitoring and site completion, as well as various technical challenges including dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) in ground water, karst systems, munitions and explosives of concern, and biological agents. The contracts are most often firm-fixed price, and 50 percent of the contracts required contractors to purchase environmental insurance in the form of remediation stop loss insurance (also known as cleanup cost cap insurance). The USAEC has conducted continuous process improvement since inception of the initiative. This paper presents results of two studies that were conducted in 2005-2006 to determine what lessons learned can be applied to future activities and to measure performance of contractors currently executing work under the performance based contracts. (authors)

  15. Environmental- and health-risk-induced remediation design for benzene-contaminated groundwater under parameter uncertainty: a case study in Western Canada.

    PubMed

    Fan, X; He, L; Lu, H W; Li, J

    2014-09-01

    This study proposes an environmental- and health-risk-induced remediation design approach for benzene-contaminated groundwater. It involves exposure frequency and intake rates that are important but difficult to be exactly quantified as breakthrough point. Flexible health-risk control is considered in the simulation and optimization work. The proposed approach is then applied to a petroleum-contaminated site in western Canada. Different situations about remediation durations, public concerns, and satisfactory degrees are addressed by the approach. The relationship between environmental standards and health-risk limits is analyzed, in association with their effect on remediation costs. Insights of three uncertain factors (i.e. exposure frequency, intake rate and health-risk threshold) for the remediation system are also explored, on a basis of understanding their impacts on health risk as well as their importance order. The case study results show that (1) nature attenuation plays a more important role in long-term remediation scheme than the pump-and-treat system; (2) carcinogenic risks have greater impact on total pumping rates than environmental standards for long-term remediation; (3) intake rates are the second important factor affecting the remediation system's performance, followed by exposure frequency; (4) the 10-year remediation scheme is the most robust choice when environmental and health-risk concerns are not well quantified.

  16. Environmental- and health-risk-induced remediation design for benzene-contaminated groundwater under parameter uncertainty: a case study in Western Canada.

    PubMed

    Fan, X; He, L; Lu, H W; Li, J

    2014-09-01

    This study proposes an environmental- and health-risk-induced remediation design approach for benzene-contaminated groundwater. It involves exposure frequency and intake rates that are important but difficult to be exactly quantified as breakthrough point. Flexible health-risk control is considered in the simulation and optimization work. The proposed approach is then applied to a petroleum-contaminated site in western Canada. Different situations about remediation durations, public concerns, and satisfactory degrees are addressed by the approach. The relationship between environmental standards and health-risk limits is analyzed, in association with their effect on remediation costs. Insights of three uncertain factors (i.e. exposure frequency, intake rate and health-risk threshold) for the remediation system are also explored, on a basis of understanding their impacts on health risk as well as their importance order. The case study results show that (1) nature attenuation plays a more important role in long-term remediation scheme than the pump-and-treat system; (2) carcinogenic risks have greater impact on total pumping rates than environmental standards for long-term remediation; (3) intake rates are the second important factor affecting the remediation system's performance, followed by exposure frequency; (4) the 10-year remediation scheme is the most robust choice when environmental and health-risk concerns are not well quantified. PMID:24997972

  17. The Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative--Performance Monitoring for DOE Environmental Remediation and Contaminant Containment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, W. J.; Venedam, R. J.; Lohrstorfer, C. F.; Weeks, S. J.

    2005-05-01

    The Advanced Monitoring System Initiative (AMSI) is a new approach to accelerate the development and application of advanced sensors and monitoring systems in support of Department of Energy needs in monitoring the performance of environmental remediation and contaminant containment activities. The Nevada Site Office of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Bechtel Nevada manage AMSI, with funding provided by the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM). AMSI has easy access to unique facilities and capabilities available at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), including the Hazardous Materials (HazMat) Spill Center, a one-of-a-kind facility built and permitted for releases of hazardous materials for training purposes, field-test detection, plume dispersion experimentation, and equipment and materials testing under controlled conditions. AMSI also has easy access to the facilities and considerable capabilities of the DOE and NNSA National Laboratories, the Special Technologies Laboratory, Remote Sensing Laboratory, Desert Research Institute, and Nevada Universities. AMSI provides rapid prototyping, systems integration, and field-testing, including assistance during initial site deployment. The emphasis is on application. Important features of the AMSI approach are: (1) customer investment, involvement and commitment to use - including definition of needs, desired mode of operation, and performance requirements; and (2) employment of a complete systems engineering approach, which allows the developer to focus maximum attention on the essential new sensing element or elements while AMSI assumes principal responsibility for infrastructure support elements such as power, packaging, and general data acquisition, control, communication, visualization and analysis software for support of decisions. This presentation describes: (1) the needs for sensors and performance monitoring for environmental systems as seen by the DOE Long Term Stewardship Science and

  18. Remediation; An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, J.

    1988-09-01

    The U.SD. government began committing the nation legally and financially in the last decade to the ultimate remediation of virtually all of the hazardous wastes that were produced in the past and remain to threaten human health and the environment, all that continue to be generated, and all that will be created in the future. Whether engendered by acts of God or human industry, the laws and regulations mandate, hazardous wastes and the threats they pose will be removed or rendered harmless. As mobilization for tackling the monumental task implied by those commitments has progressed, key concepts have changed in meaning. The remedy of remediation once literally meant burying our hazardous waste problems in landfills, for example, a solution now officially defined as the least desirable-although still commonly chosen - course of action. The process of identifying hazardous substances and determining in what quantities they constitute health and environmental hazards continues apace. As measurement technologies become increasingly precise and capable to detecting more 9s to the right of the decimal point, acceptable levels of emissions into the air and concentrations in the ground or water are reduced. This article is intended as a sketch of where the national commitment of remediation currently stands, with examples of implications for both generators of hazardous wastes and those who have entered-or seek to enter-the rapidly growing business of remediation.

  19. Hyperactivity/Inattention Problems Moderate Environmental but Not Genetic Mediation between Negative Parenting and Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujisawa, Keiko K.; Yamagata, Shinji; Ozaki, Koken; Ando, Juko

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the association between negative parenting (NP) and conduct problems (CP) in 6-year-old twins, taking into account the severity of hyperactivity/inattention problems (HIAP). Analyses of the data from 1,677 pairs of twins and their parents revealed that the shared environmental covariance between NP and CP was moderated by…

  20. Environmental assessment for the Hoe Creek underground, Coal Gasification Test Site Remediation, Campbell County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this EA to assess environmental and human health Issues and to determine potential impacts associated with the proposed Hoe Creek Underground Coal Gasification Test Site Remediation that would be performed at the Hoe Creek site in Campbell County, Wyoming. The Hoe Creek site is located south-southwest of the town of Gillette, Wyoming, and encompasses 71 acres of public land under the stewardship of the Bureau of Land Management. The proposed action identified in the EA is for the DOE to perform air sparging with bioremediation at the Hoe Creek site to remove contaminants resulting from underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments performed there by the DOE in the late 1970s. The proposed action would involve drilling additional wells at two of the UCG test sites to apply oxygen or hydrogen peroxide to the subsurface to volatilize benzene dissolved in the groundwater and enhance bioremediation of non-aqueous phase liquids present in the subsurface. Other alternatives considered are site excavation to remove contaminants, continuation of the annual pump and treat actions that have been used at the site over the last ten years to limit contaminant migration, and the no action alternative. Issues examined in detail in the EA are air quality, geology, human health and safety, noise, soils, solid and hazardous waste, threatened and endangered species, vegetation, water resources, and wildlife. Details of mitigative measures that could be used to limit any detrimental effects resulting from the proposed action or any of the alternatives are discussed, and information on anticipated effects identified by other government agencies is provided.

  1. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite processing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota. [UMTRA Project

    SciTech Connect

    Beranich, S.; Berger, N.; Bierley, D.; Bond, T.M.; Burt, C.; Caldwell, J.A.; Dery, V.A.; Dutcher, A.; Glover, W.A.; Heydenburg, R.J.; Larson, N.B.; Lindsey, G.; Longley, J.M.; Millard, J.B.; Miller, M.; Peel, R.C.; Persson-Reeves, C.H.; Titus, F.B.; Wagner, L.

    1989-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), to clean up the Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota, uraniferous lignite processing sites to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at these sites. Remedial action at these sites must be performed in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) standards promulgated for the remedial action and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of North Dakota. The inactive Belfield uraniferous lignite processing site is one mile southeast of Belfield, North Dakota. The inactive Bowman uraniferous lignite processing site at the former town of Griffin, is seven miles northwest of Bowman, North Dakota and 65 road miles south of Belfield. Lignite ash from the processing operations has contaminated the soils over the entire 10.7-acre designated Belfield site and the entire 12.1-acre designated Bowman site. Dispersion of the ash has contaminated an additional 20.6 acres surrounding the Belfield processing site and an additional 59.2 acres surrounding the Bowman processing site. The proposed remedial action is to relocate the contaminated materials at the Belfield processing site to the Bowman processing/disposal site for codisposal with the Bowman contaminated soils. The environmental impacts assessed in this EA were evaluated for the proposed remedial action and the no action alternative and demonstrate that the proposed action would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment and would be performed in compliance with applicable environmental laws. The no action alternative would not be consistent with the intent of Public Law 95-604 and would not comply with the EPA standards. 48 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs) for Remedial Action at the Oak Ridge Reservation: A compendium of major environmental laws. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Etnier, E.L.; McDonald, E.P.; Houlberg, L.M.

    1993-07-01

    Section 121 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 specifies that remedial actions for cleanup of hazardous substances must comply with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARS) or standards under federal and state environmental laws. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was placed on the National Priorities List by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on November 21, 1989, effective December 21, 1989. As a result of this listing, DOE, EPA, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation have signed a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the environmental restoration of the ORR. Section XXI(F) of the FFA calls for the preparation of a draft listing of all ARARs as mandated by CERCLA {section}121. This report supplies a preliminary list of available federal and state ARARs that might be considered for remedial response at the ORR. A description of the terms ``applicable`` and ``relevant and appropriate`` is provided, as well as definitions of chemical-, location-, and action-specific ARARS. ARARs promulgated by the federal government and by the state of Tennessee are listed in tables. In addition, the major provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air and other acts, as they apply to hazardous waste cleanup, are discussed. In the absence of ARARS, CERCLA {section}121 provides for the use of nonpromulgated federal criteria, guidelines, and advisories in evaluating the human risk associated with remedial action alternatives. Such nonpromulgated standards are classified as ``to-be-considered`` (TBC) guidance. A ion of available guidance is given; summary tables fist the available federal standards and guidance information. In addition, the substantive contents of the DOE orders as they apply to remediation of radioactively contaminated sites are discussed as TBC guidance.

  3. Environmental Assessment of remedial action at the Ambrosia Lake uranium mill tailings site, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the Ambrosia Lake uranium mill tailings site located near Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. The designated site covers 196 acres and contains 111 acres of tailings and some of the original mill structures. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA), Public Law 95-604, authorizes the US Department of Energy to clean up the site to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at the site and at associated properties off the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated standards for th remedial action (40 CFR Part 192). Remedial action must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The proposed action is to stabilize the tailings at their present location by consolidating the tailings and associated contaminated materials into a recontoured pile. A radon barrier would be constructed over the pile and various erosion protection measures would be taken to assure the long-term stability of the pile. Another alternative which would involve moving the tailings to a new location is also assessed in this document. This alternative would generally involve greater short-term impacts and costs but would result in stabilization of the tailings at an undeveloped location. The no action alternative is also assessed in this document.

  4. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Shiprock uranium mill tailings site, Shiprock, New Mexico: Volume 1, Text

    SciTech Connect

    1984-05-01

    This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the shiprock uranium mill tailings site located on the Navajo Indian Reservation, one mile south of Shiprock, New Mexico. The site contains 72 acres of tailings and four of the original mill buildings. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), Public Law 95-604, authorizes the US Department of Energy to clean up the site to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at the site and at associated properties off the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated standards for the remedial actions (40 CFR 192). Remedial actions must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The proposed action is to stabilize the tailings at their present location by consolidating the tailings and associated contaminated soils into a recontoured pile. A seven-foot-thick radon barrier would be constructed over the pile and various erosion control measures would be taken to assure the long-term integrity of the pile. Three other alternatives which involve moving the tailings to new locations are assessed in this document. These alternatives which involve moving the tailings to new locations are assessed in this document. These alternatives generally involve greater short-term impacts and are more costly but would result in the tailings being stabilized in a more remote location. The no action alternative is also assessed. 99 refs., 40 figs., 58 tabs.

  5. Estimation of costs for applications of remediation technologies for the Department of Energy`s Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    Villegas, A.J.; Hansen, R.I.; Humphreys, K.K.; Paananen, J.M.; Gildea, L.F.

    1994-03-01

    The Programmatic Environmental impact Statement (PEIS) being developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) activities expected to be carried out across the DOE`s nationwide complex of facilities is assessing the impacts of removing, transporting, treating, storing, and disposing of waste from these ER and WM activities. Factors being considered include health and safety impacts to the public and to workers, impacts on the environment, costs and socio-economic impacts, and near-term and residual risk during those ER and WM operations. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the methodology developed specifically for the PEIS to estimate costs associated with the deployment and application of individual remediation technologies. These individual costs are used in developing order-of-magnitude cost estimates for the total remediation activities. Costs are developed on a per-unit-of-material-to-be-treated basis (i.e., $/m{sup 3}) to accommodate remediation projects of varying sizes. The primary focus of this cost-estimating effort was the development of capital and operating unit cost factors based on the amount of primary media to be removed, handled, and treated. The unit costs for individual treatment technologies were developed using information from a variety of sources, mainly from periodicals, EPA documentation, handbooks, vendor contacts, and cost models. The unit cost factors for individual technologies were adjusted to 1991 dollars.

  6. Model environmental assessment for a property-cleanup/interim-storage remedial action at a formerly utilized site. [Preparation of environmental assessment document

    SciTech Connect

    Merry-Libby, P.

    1982-07-01

    This document has been prepared as a model for the preparation of an Environmental Assessment (EA) for a property-cleanup/interim-storage type of remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). For major federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) must be prepared to aid DOE in making its decision. However, when it is not clear that an action is major and the impacts are significant, an EA may be prepared to determine whether to prepare an EIS or a finding of no significant impact (FONSI). If it is likely that an action may be major and the impacts significant, it is usually more cost-effective and timely to directly prepare an EIS. If it is likely that a FONSI can be reached after some environmental assessment, as DOE believes may be the case for most property-cleanup/interim-storage remedial actions, preparation of site-specific EAs is an effective means of compliance with NEPA.

  7. Environmental analysis and data report prepared for the environmental assessment of remedial action at the inactive uranium mill tailings site near Falls City, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This document contains information and data gathered in support of the preparation of the environmental assessment (EA) of the proposed remedial action at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site near Falls City, Texas. The Falls City EA was prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which requires Federal agencies to assess the impacts of their actions on the environment. It examines the short- and long-term effects of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) remedial action for the Falls City site as well as the no action alternative. The DOE will use the information and analyses presented in the EA to determine whether the proposed action would have a significant impact on the environment. If the impacts are determined to be significant, an environmental impact statement (EIS) will be prepared. If the impacts are not determined to be significant, the DOE may issue a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and implement the proposed action. The information and data presented in this report are for background purposes only and are not required as part of the NEPA decision-making process.

  8. Use of infrared thermography in detection, remediation, and commissioning of thermal comfort problems in office buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colantonio, Antonio

    2001-03-01

    Thermal comfort complaints within work places are one of the leading causes of workforce productivity loss within office environments. Generally, mechanical systems are relied on to provide adequate indoor environments. In many situations, these systems cannot provide suitable work environments due to unacceptable asymmetrical radiant temperature conditions found in exterior zones of building interiors. Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC) has developed methodologies using infrared technology to assist building and office managers in reducing thermal comfort complaints and improve workforce productivity. Detection, verification, remediation and commissioning of solutions are easily and effectively carried out with the assistance of infrared radiometers and proper inspection and analysis procedures. This paper will outline two case studies and detail methodologies used in each case.

  9. Environmental problems in the People`s Republic of China: Current magnitude and possible control options

    SciTech Connect

    Bhadtti, N.; Biang, C.A.; Poch, L.A.; Tompkins, M.M.

    1995-09-01

    The People`s Republic of China has been undergoing rapid economic development over the past several decades. This development has taken place with little or no attention being paid to its environmental consequences. This situation has resulted in severe contamination of the air, water, and soil resources of China, with attendant damage to human and natural populations. This report determines the major causes of air, water, and soil pollution in China and assesses their extent and magnitude. It then examines the impacts of the pollutants on various components of the human and natural environment. It identifies possible regulatory and ameliorative options available to China to deal with these pollution problems and provides information on specific strategies and the costs associated with their implementation. The objective is to shed light on China`s pollution control and remediation requirements in the near future.

  10. A Collaborative Problem-Solving Process through Environmental Field Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mijung; Tan, Hoe Teck

    2013-01-01

    This study explored and documented students' responses to opportunities for collective knowledge building and collaboration in a problem-solving process within complex environmental challenges and pressing issues with various dimensions of knowledge and skills. Middle-school students ("n" =?16; age 14) and high-school students…

  11. Implementation of Problem-Based Learning in Environmental Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansson, Stina; So¨derstro¨m, Hanna; Andersson, Patrik L.; Nording, Malin L.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental Chemistry covers a range of topics within the discipline of chemistry, from toxicology to legislation, which warrants interdisciplinary study. Consequently, problem-based learning (PBL), a style of student-centered learning which facilitates the integration of multiple subjects, was investigated to determine if it would be a more…

  12. Students' Preconceptions about Urban Environmental Problems and Solid Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Membiela, Pedro; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined students' preconceptions about environmental problems in cities, particularly that of urban disposable waste. They found that students' ideas were dominated by what they perceived, without regard to existing interactions, and that students were unaware of the fundamental role of reuse and recycling in the solution of the disposal of solid…

  13. Challenges of Environmental Problems to the Philosophy of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Moricmichi

    2015-01-01

    We live in an age in which the destruction of the environment has become a major concern. However, until recently, environmental problems have not become a major issue for the philosophy of education. The reason for this is that for a very long time the philosophy of education was intimately related to the concept of nature as the foundation and…

  14. Energy Crisis: Environmental Issue Exacerbates Power Supply Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boffey, Philip M.

    1970-01-01

    Analyzes problems of providing sufficient electrical power in terms of inefficiency of industry and of the conflict between need for power and need for environmental quality. Suggests ways of slowing the growth in demand, and indicates needed research into energy production. (EB)

  15. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Mexican Hat uranium mill tailings site, Mexican Hat, Utah. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-10-01

    This document assesses the environmental impacts of the proposed remedial action at the Mexican Hat uranium mill tailings site located on the Navajo Reservation in southern Utah. The site covers 235 acres and contains 69 acres of tailings and several of the original mill structures. Remedial action must be performed in accordance with standards and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Navajo Nation. The proposed action is to stabilize the tailings within the present tailings site by consolidating the tailings and associated contaminated soils into a recontoured pile. A radon barrier of compacted earth would be constructed over the pile, and various erosion control measures would be taken to assure the long-term stability of the pile. The no action alternative is also assessed in this document. 240 refs., 12 figs., 20 tabs.

  16. Environmental biotechnology: biotechnology solutions for a global environmental problem, hazardous chemical wastes.

    PubMed

    Omenn, G S

    Biotechnology has a growing place in the remediation of hazardous waste sites throughout the world, and especially in Asia where population density is high and land and fresh water are scarce. In-situ bioremediation has been demonstrated already to be highly effective for petroleum hydrocarbons (alkanes, aromatics, polychlorophenols) and organophosphate pesticides in soils and for gasoline by-products (benzene, toluene, xylene) and chlorinated solvents (trichloroethylene) in groundwater. Heavy metals and PCBs are not suitable for bioremediation. Environmental biotechnology includes solid-phase and slurry-phase bioremediation for contaminated soils and site-specific bioreactors for contaminated groundwater. Specific examples are presented. From a policy point of view, accumulated wastes must be detoxified, preferably at sites where they already exist. We cannot continue to rely on their removal and disposal "elsewhere". For current waste streams, we must minimize the volumes and toxicity. Environmental biotechnology will play a key role.

  17. Environmental impact of ongoing sources of metal contamination on remediated sediments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Knox, Anna Sophia; Paller, Michael H.; Milliken, Charles E.; Redder, Todd M.; Wolfe, John R.; Seaman, John

    2016-04-29

    One challenge to all remedial approaches for contaminated sediments is the continued influx of contaminants from uncontrolled sources following remediation. We investigated the effects of ongoing contamination in mesocosms employing sediments remediated by different types of active and passive caps and in-situ treatment. Our hypothesis was that the sequestering agents used in active caps and in situ treatment will bind elements (arsenic, chromium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, nickel, lead, selenium, and zinc) from ongoing sources thereby reducing their bioavailability and protecting underlying remediated sediments from recontamination. Most element concentrations in surface water remained significantly lower in mesocosms with apatite and mixedmore » amendment caps than in mesocosms with passive caps (sand), uncapped sediment, and spike solution throughout the 2520 hour experiment. Element concentrations were significantly higher in Lumbriculus variegatus from untreated sediment than in Lumbriculus from most active caps. Moreover, Pearson correlations between element concentrations in Lumbriculus and metal concentrations in the top 2.5 cm of sediment or cap measured by diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) sediment probes were generally strong (as high as 0.98) and significant (p<0.05) for almost all tested elements. Metal concentrations in both Lumbriculus and sediment/cap were lowest in apatite, mixed amendment, and activated carbon treatments. Finally, these findings show that some active caps can protect remediated sediments by reducing the bioavailable pool of metals/metalloids in ongoing sources of contamination.« less

  18. Environmental Journalism in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan: Reporting Scarce amid Environmental and Media Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Independence for the former Soviet republics of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan in Central Asia has not led to press freedom, solutions to pressing environmental problems, or development of effective grassroots nongovernmental organizations. This article examines relations between journalists and environmental nongovernmental organizations, and it…

  19. Anion exchange selectivity of surfactant modified clinoptilolite-rich tuff for environmental remediation.

    PubMed

    de Gennaro, Bruno; Catalanotti, Lilia; Bowman, Robert S; Mercurio, Mariano

    2014-09-15

    Lately, the functionalization of industrial minerals with high technological properties, such as natural zeolites, is shaping as a promising approach in environmental sphere. In fact, under the specific conditions, the surface functionalization via adsorption of cationic surfactants reverses the surface charge of the mineral, enabling zeolites to simultaneously interact either with organic contaminants or inorganic anions. This aspect allows zeolites to be used in the remediation of contaminated fluids. The present research shed new light on some still not fully understood aspects concerning exchange kinetics such as anion-exchange mechanisms and selectivity of surface modified minerals. For this purpose the mineralogical characterization and the surface properties evaluation (X Ray Powder Diffraction, chemical analysis, thermal analysis, ECEC and AEC) of a clinoptilolite-rich tuff were performed, and the anion exchange isotherms of the sample, modified with hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride or bromide (HDTMA-Cl/-Br), were determined. Ion-exchange equilibrium data of uni-uni valent reaction were obtained by solutions containing Br(-), Cl(-), NO3(-) or ClO4(-). Liquid phase was analysed via high performance liquid chromatography. Thermodynamic quantities (Ka and ΔG(0)) were determined and compared with the Hofmeister series. The value of the ECEC, calculated in batch conditions, was about 137 mmol/kg, in good agreement with that evaluated in dynamic conditions, while the AEC data were different for the SMNZ-Br and -Cl samples, amounting to 137 and 106 mmol/kg, respectively, thus indicating a different compactness of the bilayer formed in the two cases. Moreover, the anion isotherm results and the mathematical evaluation of the thermodynamic parameters, demonstrated the good affinity of SMNZ-Br towards chloride, nitrate and perchlorate, and of SMNZ-Cl for nitrate and perchlorate, also endorsing the possibility of using the same thermodynamic approach developed to

  20. Environmental Problems on the Earth and Life Beyond the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenney, Denise; Listiak, Tamara; Matthews, Ethel

    The adaptability and metabolic resourcefulness of microbial life was highlighted during a bioremediation study. The soil in need of remediation was contained in a pit located next to crude oil storage tanks where overflow oil and saltwater had been collecting for at least 30 years. The pit was located in West Texas in a semi-arid environment known for high summer temperatures and low rainfall. The lighter oil fractions had vaporized, leaving only the heave end hydrocarbons known as weathered crude. Analysis of the soil showed low nitrogen, low phosphorous, high salt, high iron levels and high chromium levels, as well as high concentrations of the heavy end hydrocarbons that inhibited water absorption. The extreme environment found in the pit presented biological problems for the organisms living there, and yet both bacterial and fungal species were isolated that could use the hydrocarbons for their energy needs. The ability of organisms on Earth to survive and thrive in such an environment illustrates both their use in solving pollution problems here on Earth, and also that extreme extraterrestrial environments could support life.

  1. Environmental assessment of remedial action at vicinity properties associated with the former Climax Uranium Company Uranium Mill Site, Grand Junction, Mesa County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1986-07-01

    This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the UMTRA Project vicinity properties in Mesa County, Colorado. Vicinity properties are homes, businesses, public buildings, and vacant lots which may have been contaminated during construction by the use of tailings as a building material or as fill material before the hazards associated with this material were known. It is estimated that 3585 contaminated properties remain to be formally included on the vicinity property list and thereby require remedial action. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law 95-604, authorized the US Department of Energy to perform remedial action at these properties. The US Environmental Protection Agency promulqated standards for remedial action (40 CRF Part 192). The alternatives addressed in this environmental assessment (EA) including taking no action toward remedial action at the vicinity properties, conducting remedial action at a rate of 500 properties per year, and conducting remedial action at a rate of 800 properties per year. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. A facility for using cluster research to study environmental problems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This report begins by describing the general application of cluster based research to environmental chemistry and the development of a Cluster Structure and Dynamics Research Facility (CSDRF). Next, four important areas of cluster research are described in more detail, including how they can impact environmental problems. These are: surface-supported clusters, water and contaminant interactions, time-resolved dynamic studies in clusters, and cluster structures and reactions. These facilities and equipment required for each area of research are then presented. The appendices contain workshop agenda and a listing of the researchers who participated in the workshop discussions that led to this report.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF REMEDIAL DREDGING AT THE NEW BEDFORD HARBOR, MA, SUPERFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    New Bedford Harbor (NBH), MA, is a Superfund site because of high polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in the sediment. From April 1994 to September 1995, a remedial dredging operation (termed the 'Hot Spot') removed the most contaminated sediments (PCB concentrations gr...

  4. Environmental, Safety, and Health Plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Revision 1, Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, C. M.; El-Messidi, O. E.; Cowser, D. K.; Kannard, J. R.; Carvin, R. T.; Will, III, A. S.; Clark, Jr., C.; Garland, S. B.

    1993-05-01

    This Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Plan presents the concepts and methodologies to be followed during the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to protect the health and safety of employees, the public, and the environment. This ES&H Plan acts as a management extension for ORNL and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) to direct and control implementation of the project ES&H program. The subsections that follow describe the program philosophy, requirements, quality assurance measures, and methods for applying the ES&H program to individual waste area grouping (WAG) remedial investigations. Hazardous work permits (HWPs) will be used to provide task-specific health and safety requirements.

  5. Reimagining Remediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handel, Stephen J.; Williams, Ronald A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, the College Board's Community College Advisory Panel--a group of college presidents that advises the organization's membership on community college issues--asked these authors to write a paper describing effective remedial education programs. They never wrote the paper. The problem was not the lack of dedicated faculty and staff working…

  6. Implementing GIS to resolve environmental coastal problems in Varna.

    PubMed

    Dimov, L N

    2002-01-01

    The city of Varna, like many other coastal cities along the Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea, has a lot of problems related to the environmental protection for many years, including those with coastal zone management. Recently, the coastal slope problems due to land-slides appeared as very urgent and difficult to be solved. This paper describes a method to solve some of the problems by analysing the data collected. A data layer representing the complete hydrologic network including transport lines through slopes, lakes, streams, rivers, is a necessary component of many hydrologic and coastal applications. The coastal area of the city has significant importance--sea ports, resorts, cargo terminals. Most of them add environmental problems to the Black Sea in adjacent territories and the region as a whole. The attempt described is to solve these problems on the ground. This paper describes a process to analyse the area specific geographical data for a decision. Making a front-end application using ESRI's ArcView 3.0a/Avenue, user-friendly procedures were prepared to automate most of the functions. This application generates maps using data collected during the last two years. The data acquisition is performed according to the Bulgarian standards. Converting procedures are created and tested as well. Finally, a technology for updating data is approved. PMID:12420979

  7. Guidance for modeling causes and effects in environmental problem solving

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armour, Carl L.; Williamson, Samuel C.

    1988-01-01

    Environmental problems are difficult to solve because their causes and effects are not easily understood. When attempts are made to analyze causes and effects, the principal challenge is organization of information into a framework that is logical, technically defensible, and easy to understand and communicate. When decisionmakers attempt to solve complex problems before an adequate cause and effect analysis is performed there are serious risks. These risks include: greater reliance on subjective reasoning, lessened chance for scoping an effective problem solving approach, impaired recognition of the need for supplemental information to attain understanding, increased chance for making unsound decisions, and lessened chance for gaining approval and financial support for a program/ Cause and effect relationships can be modeled. This type of modeling has been applied to various environmental problems, including cumulative impact assessment (Dames and Moore 1981; Meehan and Weber 1985; Williamson et al. 1987; Raley et al. 1988) and evaluation of effects of quarrying (Sheate 1986). This guidance for field users was written because of the current interest in documenting cause-effect logic as a part of ecological problem solving. Principal literature sources relating to the modeling approach are: Riggs and Inouye (1975a, b), Erickson (1981), and United States Office of Personnel Management (1986).

  8. Unit environmental transport assessment of contaminants from Hanford`s past-practice waste sites. Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, G.; Buck, J.W.; Castleton, K.J.

    1995-06-01

    The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) contracted Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide support to Advanced Sciences, Incorporated (ASI) in implementing tile regional no-action risk assessment in the Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement. Researchers at PNL were charged with developing unit concentrations for soil, groundwater, surface water, and air at multiple locations within an 80-km radius from the center of tile Hanford installation. Using the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS), PNL simulated (1) a unit release of one ci for each radionuclide and one kg for each chemical from contaminated soils and ponded sites, (2) transport of the contaminants in and through various environmental media and (3) exposure/risk of four exposure scenarios, outlined by the Hanford Site Baseline Remedial Action Methodology. These four scenarios include residential, recreational, industrial, and agricultural exposures. Spacially and temporally distributed environmental concentrations based on unit releases of radionuclides and chemicals were supported to ASI in support of the HRA-EIS. Risk for the four exposure scenarios, based on unit environment concentrations in air, water, and soil. were also supplied to ASI. This report outlines the procedure that was used to implement the unit transport portion of the HRA-EIS baseline risk assessment. Deliverables include unit groundwater, surface water, air, and soil concentrations at multiple locations within an 80-km radius from the center of the Hanford installation.

  9. Urban Stormwater Runoff: A New Class of Environmental Flow Problem

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Christopher J.; Fletcher, Tim D.; Burns, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental flow assessment frameworks have begun to consider changes to flow regimes resulting from land-use change. Urban stormwater runoff, which degrades streams through altered volume, pattern and quality of flow, presents a problem that challenges dominant approaches to stormwater and water resource management, and to environmental flow assessment. We used evidence of ecological response to different stormwater drainage systems to develop methods for input to environmental flow assessment. We identified the nature of hydrologic change resulting from conventional urban stormwater runoff, and the mechanisms by which such hydrologic change is prevented in streams where ecological condition has been protected. We also quantified the increase in total volume resulting from urban stormwater runoff, by comparing annual streamflow volumes from undeveloped catchments with the volumes that would run off impervious surfaces under the same rainfall regimes. In catchments with as little as 5–10% total imperviousness, conventional stormwater drainage, associated with poor in-stream ecological condition, reduces contributions to baseflows and increases the frequency and magnitude of storm flows, but in similarly impervious catchments in which streams retain good ecological condition, informal drainage to forested hillslopes, without a direct piped discharge to the stream, results in little such hydrologic change. In urbanized catchments, dispersed urban stormwater retention measures can potentially protect urban stream ecosystems by mimicking the hydrologic effects of informal drainage, if sufficient water is harvested and kept out of the stream, and if discharged water is treated to a suitable quality. Urban stormwater is a new class of environmental flow problem: one that requires reduction of a large excess volume of water to maintain riverine ecological integrity. It is the best type of problem, because solving it provides an opportunity to solve other problems such

  10. Urban stormwater runoff: a new class of environmental flow problem.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Christopher J; Fletcher, Tim D; Burns, Matthew J

    2012-01-01

    Environmental flow assessment frameworks have begun to consider changes to flow regimes resulting from land-use change. Urban stormwater runoff, which degrades streams through altered volume, pattern and quality of flow, presents a problem that challenges dominant approaches to stormwater and water resource management, and to environmental flow assessment. We used evidence of ecological response to different stormwater drainage systems to develop methods for input to environmental flow assessment. We identified the nature of hydrologic change resulting from conventional urban stormwater runoff, and the mechanisms by which such hydrologic change is prevented in streams where ecological condition has been protected. We also quantified the increase in total volume resulting from urban stormwater runoff, by comparing annual streamflow volumes from undeveloped catchments with the volumes that would run off impervious surfaces under the same rainfall regimes. In catchments with as little as 5-10% total imperviousness, conventional stormwater drainage, associated with poor in-stream ecological condition, reduces contributions to baseflows and increases the frequency and magnitude of storm flows, but in similarly impervious catchments in which streams retain good ecological condition, informal drainage to forested hillslopes, without a direct piped discharge to the stream, results in little such hydrologic change. In urbanized catchments, dispersed urban stormwater retention measures can potentially protect urban stream ecosystems by mimicking the hydrologic effects of informal drainage, if sufficient water is harvested and kept out of the stream, and if discharged water is treated to a suitable quality. Urban stormwater is a new class of environmental flow problem: one that requires reduction of a large excess volume of water to maintain riverine ecological integrity. It is the best type of problem, because solving it provides an opportunity to solve other problems such

  11. The Back Pay Remedy in Title VII Class Actions: Problems of Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Charles A.

    1974-01-01

    The class action for back pay has developed as a significant factor in employment discrimination litigation under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Problems of demonstrating each class member's entitlement are examined and a bifurcated trial procedure is proposed as a method for handling such cases. (JT)

  12. Teachers' and Students' Perceptions of Students' Problem-Solving Difficulties in Physics: Implications for Remediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunleye, Ayodele O.

    2009-01-01

    In recent times, science education researchers have identified a lot of instruments for evaluating conceptual understanding as well as students' attitudes and beliefs about physics; unfortunately however, there are no broad based evaluation instruments in the field of problem-solving in physics. This missing tool is an indication of the complexity…

  13. Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum: Assessment and Remediation of School-Related Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puente, Antonio, E.

    The paper examines three cases of children born with brain damage (absence of corpus callosum). Common problems (attentional, cognitive, visuo-motor, and motor deficits) are noted, and the impact of secondary emotional involvement is considered. Intervention approaches with two of the children are described as inconsistent and inadequate, while…

  14. Environmental health: an analysis of available and proposed remedies for victims of toxic waste contamination.

    PubMed

    Hurwitz, W J

    1981-01-01

    Past and present residents of the Love Canal area near Niagara Falls, New York, fear that they and their homes have been contaminated by toxic wastes seeping out from nearby chemical disposal sites. Hundreds of landfills nationwide are as potentially dangerous as Love Canal. In the absence of a statutory remedy, victims of contamination must rely upon common law theories of lability in order to recover damages for injuries suffered as a result of toxic waste contamination. This Note examines the merits and deficiencies of four common law theories: negligence, strict liability, nuisance and trespass. The Note concludes that none of these remedies is adequate to assure recovery to a person injured by toxic waste disposal, and recommends that legislation be adopted to ensure that victims of toxic waste contamination can be compensated for their injuries. PMID:7258193

  15. Graphical remedial assessment and cost evaluation (GRACE): A hydrologic- and economic-based environmental design tool

    SciTech Connect

    Franco, J.; Murdoch, L.; Koustubh, J.H.A.; Savage, K.; Uber, J. . USEPA Center Hill Solid and Hazardous Waste Research Facility )

    1992-01-01

    The cost and effectiveness of most in situ remedial efforts are closely tied to the performance of recovery systems, such as wells or interceptor trenches. GRACE is a graphic-based, recovery-system design package developed for the PC environment. The software allows engineers to design recovery systems based on both hydrologic and economic performance, evaluate the effectiveness of the design, and modify it if necessary. This capability is the result of combining a contaminant transport simulator with a cost database; the transport simulator-cost database combination allows the user to arrive at design scenarios that both meet remedial objectives and minimize costs. GRACE allows a recovery system, including such items as wells, interceptor trenches, and slurry walls, to be located on a site basemap. the on-screen layout of the recovery system components (and associated treatment and disposal facilities) accesses a detailed cost database, providing immediate feedback on the capital cost of the facility. Designing the recovery system automatically prepares an input file for the contaminant transport simulator. Output from the contaminant transport simulator is displayed in map-view via full color animation. Plume migration across the basemap graphically shows the effectiveness of the design. Individual windows may opened to display graphs of head, drawdown, or concentration through time at any location. Recovery system components are easily moved, and the contaminant transport re-simulated until the remedial objectives are met. Additionally, the system accesses information describing operating and maintenance costs of the designed system, providing estimates of total remedial cost through time.

  16. Oil Spill Remediation Using Magnetic Particles: An Experiment in Environmental Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orbell, John D.; Godhino, Leroy; Bigger, Stephen W.; Nguyen, Thi Man; Ngeh, Lawrence N.

    1997-12-01

    A simple experiment is described in which the potential of commercially available steel pellets coated with polyethylene (PE) or poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) to remediate an oil spill is demonstrated. Polymer-coated particles are weighed, immersed in oil, magnetically harvested and the remaining oil is weighed in order to enable students to quantitatively investigate the adsorption process. The possibility of recycling the beads and reclaiming the oil is also demonstrated.

  17. Advanced fuel hydrocarbon remediation national test location - groundwater circulation well environmental cleanup systems

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, J.; Lory, E.

    1997-03-01

    When a contaminant is treated in place on the original site it is termed in situ remediation. Bioremediation refers to cleanup effected by living organisms such as bacteria and fungi. Certain species of bacteria are able to consume pollutants as a food source, thus detoxifying these compounds. In situ bioremediation is being considered as a viable and practical solution for reducing petroleum contamination levels in groundwater.

  18. Pilot test of a vacuum extraction system for environmental remediation of chlorinated solvents at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B.B.; Pickett, J.B.; Malot, J.J.

    1991-12-29

    Vacuum extraction is an environmental restoration technique that is currently being applied to the remediation of soils and shallow segments that are contaminated with volatile constituents. In 1987, a h study was performed to evaluate the performance and potential applicability of this technology at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Vacuum extraction is useful when volatile constituents are present in the vadose zone. The technology has been used to remediate a number of sites across the country, including leading underground storage tanks, spill sites, landfill, and production facilities. The primary objective of the pilot study was to test the performance of the technology under the conditions specific to many of the potential areas of application at SRS. There is only a limited body of literature documenting field studiesin similar environments with in sands and clayey zones and a relatively thick vadose zone. Careful studies of this type are needed to develop full scale designs at SRS. The vacuum extraction pilot study at SRS was performed by a mm consisting of technical representatives of the Environmental Sciences Section in the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL), the Raw Materials Engineering and Technology Section of SRS, and TerraVac Inc., a subcontractor with experience in this field.

  19. Environmental audit of the Maywood Site: Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, Maywood Interim Storage Site vicinity properties

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    This report presents the results of the Environmental Audit of the Maywood Site managed by the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The Audit was carried out from November 7 through 16, 1990. The Audit Team found overall technical competence and knowledge of management and staff to be excellent. This applies to DOE as well as to Bechtel National, Incorporated (BNI). In particular, there was excellent knowledge of federal, state, and local environmental regulations, as well as analysis for applicability of these regulations to FUSRAP. Project management of the Maywood Site is also excellent. BNI and DOE project staff have made frequent contact with members of the community, and all removal actions and remedial investigation activities have been planned, scheduled, and accomplished with competence and attention to total quality principles. To date, all actions taken for the Maywood Site cleanup have been completed ahead of schedule and on or under budget. Weakness noted include self-assessment efforts by DOE, failure to fully implement DOE Order requirements throughout the program, and some discrepancies in formally documenting and reviewing procedures. 7 figs., 10 tabs.

  20. Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for remedial actions at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant: A compendium of environmental laws and guidance. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Etnier, E.L.; Eaton, L.A.

    1992-03-01

    Section 121 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 specifies that remedial actions for cleanup of hazardous substances found at sites placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must comply with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) or standards under federal and state environmental laws. To date, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) has not been on the NPL. Although DOE and EPA have entered into an Administrative Consent Order (ACO), the prime regulatory authority for cleanup at PGDP will be the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This report supplies a preliminary list of available federal and state ARARs that might be considered for remedial response at PGDP in the event that the plant becomes included on the NPL or the ACO is modified to include CERCLA cleanup. A description of the terms ``applicable`` and ``relevant and appropriate`` is provided, as well as definitions of chemical-, location-, and action-specific ARARS. ARARs promulgated by the federal government and by the state of Kentucky are listed in tables. In addition, the major provisions of RCRA, the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, and other acts, as they apply to hazardous and radioactive waste cleanup, are discussed.

  1. Environmental remediation and conversion of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) into useful green products by accelerated carbonation technology.

    PubMed

    Lim, Mihee; Han, Gi-Chun; Ahn, Ji-Whan; You, Kwang-Suk

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the application of carbonation technology to the environmental industry as a way of reducing carbon dioxide (CO(2)), a green house gas, including the presentation of related projects of our research group. An alternative technology to very slow natural carbonation is the co-called 'accelerated carbonation', which completes its fast reaction within few hours by using pure CO(2). Carbonation technology is widely applied to solidify or stabilize solid combustion residues from municipal solid wastes, paper mill wastes, etc. and contaminated soils, and to manufacture precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC). Carbonated products can be utilized as aggregates in the concrete industry and as alkaline fillers in the paper (or recycled paper) making industry. The quantity of captured CO(2) in carbonated products can be evaluated by measuring mass loss of heated samples by thermo-gravimetric (TG) analysis. The industrial carbonation technology could contribute to both reduction of CO(2) emissions and environmental remediation. PMID:20195442

  2. Risk assessment and optimization (ALARA) analysis for the environmental remediation of Brookhaven National Laboratory`s hazardous waste management facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dionne, B.J.; Morris, S.C. III; Baum, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) sought examples of risk-based approaches to environmental restoration to include in their guidance for DOE nuclear facilities. Extensive measurements of radiological contamination in soil and ground water have been made at Brookhaven National Laboratory`s Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process. This provided an ideal opportunity for a case study. This report provides a risk assessment and an {open_quotes}As Low as Reasonably Achievable{close_quotes} (ALARA) analysis for use at other DOE nuclear facilities as an example of a risk-based decision technique. This document contains the Appendices for the report.

  3. Risk assessment and optimization (ALARA) analysis for the environmental remediation of Brookhaven National Laboratory`s hazardous waste management facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dionne, B.J.; Morris, S. III; Baum, J.W.

    1998-03-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) sought examples of risk-based approaches to environmental restoration to include in their guidance for DOE nuclear facilities. Extensive measurements of radiological contamination in soil and ground water have been made at Brookhaven National Laboratory`s Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process. This provided an ideal opportunity for a case study. This report provides a risk assessment and an {open_quotes}As Low as Reasonably Achievable{close_quotes} (ALARA) analysis for use at other DOE nuclear facilities as an example of a risk-based decision technique.

  4. Environmental Remediation and Conversion of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) into Useful Green Products by Accelerated Carbonation Technology

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Mihee; Han, Gi-Chun; Ahn, Ji-Whan; You, Kwang-Suk

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the application of carbonation technology to the environmental industry as a way of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2), a green house gas, including the presentation of related projects of our research group. An alternative technology to very slow natural carbonation is the co-called ‘accelerated carbonation’, which completes its fast reaction within few hours by using pure CO2. Carbonation technology is widely applied to solidify or stabilize solid combustion residues from municipal solid wastes, paper mill wastes, etc. and contaminated soils, and to manufacture precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC). Carbonated products can be utilized as aggregates in the concrete industry and as alkaline fillers in the paper (or recycled paper) making industry. The quantity of captured CO2 in carbonated products can be evaluated by measuring mass loss of heated samples by thermo-gravimetric (TG) analysis. The industrial carbonation technology could contribute to both reduction of CO2 emissions and environmental remediation. PMID:20195442

  5. Final Environmental Assessment of remedial action at the Falls City uranium mill tailings site, Falls City, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) is prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which requires Federal agencies to assess the impacts that their actions may have on the environment. This EA examines the short- and long-term effects of the DOE`s proposed remedial action for the Falls City tailings site. The no action alternative is also examined. The DOE will use the information and analyses presented here to determine whether the proposed action would have a significant impact on the environment. If the impacts are determined to be significant, an EIS will be prepared. If the impacts are not judged to be significant, the DOE will issue an official ``Finding of No Significant Impact`` and implement the proposed action.

  6. Environmental remediation and conversion of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) into useful green products by accelerated carbonation technology.

    PubMed

    Lim, Mihee; Han, Gi-Chun; Ahn, Ji-Whan; You, Kwang-Suk

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the application of carbonation technology to the environmental industry as a way of reducing carbon dioxide (CO(2)), a green house gas, including the presentation of related projects of our research group. An alternative technology to very slow natural carbonation is the co-called 'accelerated carbonation', which completes its fast reaction within few hours by using pure CO(2). Carbonation technology is widely applied to solidify or stabilize solid combustion residues from municipal solid wastes, paper mill wastes, etc. and contaminated soils, and to manufacture precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC). Carbonated products can be utilized as aggregates in the concrete industry and as alkaline fillers in the paper (or recycled paper) making industry. The quantity of captured CO(2) in carbonated products can be evaluated by measuring mass loss of heated samples by thermo-gravimetric (TG) analysis. The industrial carbonation technology could contribute to both reduction of CO(2) emissions and environmental remediation.

  7. Integrated Multi-Scale Environmental Monitoring to Evaluate Remediation Effectiveness of Sediment-related Disaster Induced Typhoon Morakot for Tseng-Wen Reservoir Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Bor-shiun; Ho, Hsing-Chuan; Hsiao, Cheng-Yang; Chi, Shu-Yeong; Chien, Yi-Da; Tsai, Ming-Fa

    2013-04-01

    Utilizing measurements obtained from multi-scale monitoring techniques, this study creates a database for the Tseng-Wen Reservoir watershed that includes digital topography measurements taken both before and after implementation of watershed remediation engineering. From these data sets, the conservation efficiency and environmental recovery are assessed. Results from this study can be incorporated into later remediative techniques, planning, watershed health assessments and management strategies. This study presents primary findings and draws specific conclusions from those findings. Results are summarized below: (1)Analysis of multi-period, high-accuracy digital topography data sets reveals that after implementation of remediative works, sediment yields in the Dapu remediation area ranged between 5 to 97% of pre-remediation levels. Also, regarding trapped sediment, remediation has increased sediment trapping rates, which now range from 4.9 to 37.8% and average 19.5%. (2)Results from a soil erosion pin study reveal that soil loss due to erosion on remediated slopes has been reduced by at least 33.64%, indicating that remediation has very effectively reduced erosion-induced soil loss. (3)Vegetative cover on "mountain-slope" zoned areas dropped from 92.23% to 77.48% as a result of typhoon Morakot. In 2010, remediation works were commenced and by September of 2011, shortly after typhoon Nanmadol, vegetative cover reached a level of 90.05%. (4) Before typhoon Morakot and subsequent soil and water remediation works, 200 to 300 days of natural re-vegetation in the Tseng-Wen reservoir watershed resulted in 220 ha of restored or re-vegetated landslides. After typhoon Morakot, remediation works commenced. Given the number of days in which it took to naturally restore 220 ha using natural re-vegetation, in the same amount of time, assuming no extreme weather events, over 1,000 ha of land could have been restored using remediation techniques. This result shows that soil and

  8. Environmental, Safety, and Health Plan for the remedial investigation of the liquid low-level waste tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Plan presents the concepts and methodologies to be used during the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) RI/FS project to protect the health and safety of employees, the public, and the environment. The ES&H Plan acts as a management extension for ORNL and Energy Systems to direct and control implementation of the project ES&H program. This report describes the program philosophy, requirements, quality assurance measures, and methods for applying the ES&H program to individual task remedial investigations, project facilities, and other major tasks assigned to the project.

  9. Examining the Implementation of a Problem-Based Learning and Traditional Hybrid Model of Instruction in Remedial Mathematics Classes Designed for State Testing Preparation of Eleventh Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Lindsay D.

    2011-01-01

    The following paper examined the effects of a new method of teaching for remedial mathematics, named the hybrid model of instruction. Due to increasing importance of high stakes testing, the study sought to determine if this method of instruction, that blends traditional teaching and problem-based learning, had different learning effects on…

  10. Outline for Remediation of Problem Areas for Children with Learning Disabilities. Revised. = Bosquejo para la Correccion de Areas Problematicas para Ninos con Impedimientos del Aprendizaje.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Joan L.

    The booklet outlines ways to help children with learning disabilities in specific subject areas. Characteristic behavior and remedial exercises are listed for seven areas of auditory problems: auditory reception, auditory association, auditory discrimination, auditory figure ground, auditory closure and sound blending, auditory memory, and grammar…

  11. Chemical recycling of cell phone Li-ion batteries: Application in environmental remediation.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Mariana C Abreu; Garcia, Eric M; Taroco, Hosane A; Gorgulho, Honória F; Melo, Júlio O F; Silva, Rafael R A; Souza, Amauri G

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents, for the first time, the recycling and use of spent Li-ion battery cathode tape as a catalyst in the degradation of an organic dye. In our proposal, two major environmental problems can be solved: the secure disposal of cell phone batteries and the treatment of effluents with potentially toxic organic dyes. The spent Li-ion battery cathode investigated in this paper corresponds to 29% of the mass of Li-ion batteries and is made up of 83% LiCoO2, 14.5% C and less than 2.5% Al, Al2O3 and Co3O4. The use of spent Li-ion battery cathode tape increased the degradation velocity constant of methylene blue in the absence of light by about 200 times in relation to pure H2O2. This increase can be explained by a reduction in the activation energy from 83 kJ mol(-1) to 26 kJ mol(-1). The mechanism of degradation promoted by LiCoO2 is probably related to the generation of superoxide radical (O2(-)). The rupture of the aromatic rings of methylene blue was analyzed by ESI-MS.

  12. Measuring the reactivity of commercially available zero-valent iron nanoparticles used for environmental remediation with iopromide.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Doris; Micić, Vesna; Laumann, Susanne; Hofmann, Thilo

    2015-10-01

    The high specific surface area and high reactivity of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles have led to much research on their application to environmental remediation. The reactivity of nZVI is affected by both the water chemistry and the properties of the particular type of nZVI particle used. We have investigated the reactivity of three types of commercially available Nanofer particles (from Nanoiron, s.r.o., Czech Republic) that are currently either used in, or proposed for use in full scale environmental remediation projects. The performance of one of these, the air-stable and thus easy-to-handle Nanofer Star particle, has not previously been reported. Experiments were carried out first in batch shaking reactors in order to derive maximum reactivity rates and provide a rapid estimate of the Nanofer particle's reactivity. The experiments were performed under near-natural environmental conditions with respect to the pH value of water and solute concentrations, and results were compared with those obtained using synthetic water. Thereafter, the polyelectrolyte-coated Nanofer 25S particles (having the highest potential for transport within porous media) were chosen for the experiments in column reactors, in order to elucidate nanoparticle reactivity under a more field-site realistic setting. Iopromide was rapidly dehalogenated by the investigated nZVI particles, following pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics that was independent of the experimental conditions. The specific surface area normalized reaction rate constant (kSA) value in the batch reactors ranged between 0.12 and 0.53Lm(-2)h(-1); it was highest for the uncoated Nanofer 25 particles, followed by the polyacrylic acid-coated Nanofer 25S and air-stable Nanofer Star particles. In the batch reactors all particles were less reactive in natural water than in synthetic water. The kSA values derived from the column reactor experiments were about 1000 times lower than those from the batch reactors, ranging

  13. Trial of a negative ion generator device in remediating problems related to indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Daniell, W.; Camp, J.; Horstman, S. )

    1991-06-01

    It has been suggested that supplementation of indoor air with negative ions can improve air quality. This study examined the effects of a negative ion-generator device on air contaminants and symptom reporting in two office buildings. Separate sets of functional and nonfunctional negative ion generators were monitored using a double blind, crossover design involving two 5-week exposure periods. There were no detectable direct or residual effects of negative ion generator use on air ion levels, airborn particulates, carbon dioxide levels, or symptom reporting. Symptom reporting declined at both sites initially and appeared to be consistent with placebo effect. Job dissatisfaction was an apparent contributor to symptom reporting, with a magnitude comparable to presumed effects of air quality. Further testing of such devices is needed before they should be considered for office air quality problems.

  14. The problem with total error models in establishing performance specifications and a simple remedy.

    PubMed

    Krouwer, Jan S

    2016-08-01

    A recent issue in this journal revisited performance specifications since the Stockholm conference. Of the three recommended methods, two use total error models to establish performance specifications. It is shown that the most commonly used total error model - the Westgard model - is deficient, yet even more complete models fail to capture all errors that comprise total error. Moreover, total error models are often set at 95% of results, which leave 5% of results as unspecified. Glucose meter performance standards are used to illustrate these problems. The Westgard model is useful to asses assay performance but not to set performance specifications. Total error can be used to set performance specifications if the specifications include 100% of the results.

  15. Rising rates of vaccine exemptions: problems with current policy and more promising remedies.

    PubMed

    Constable, Catherine; Blank, Nina R; Caplan, Arthur L

    2014-04-01

    Parents of school-age children are increasingly claiming nonmedical exemptions to refuse vaccinations required for school entry. The resultant unvaccinated pockets in many areas of the country have been linked with outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. Many states are now focused on reducing rates of nonmedical exemptions by making exemption processes more restrictive or burdensome for the exemptor. These strategies, however, pose ethical problems and may ultimately be inadequate. A shift to strategies that raise the financial liabilities of exemptors may lead to better success and prove ethically more sound. Potential areas of reform include tax law, health insurance, and private school funding programs. We advocate an approach that combines this type of incentive with more effective vaccination education.

  16. Remediation of a large contaminated reactor cooling reservoir: Resolving and environmental/regulatory paradox

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, J.A.: Gladden, J.B.; Hickey, H.M.; Jones, M.P.; Mackey, H.E.; Mayer, J.J.; Doswell, A.

    1994-05-01

    This paper presents a case study of a former reactor cooling water reservoir, PAR Pond, located Savannah River Site. PAR Pond, a 2640 acre, man-made reservoir was built in 1958 and until 1988, received cooling water from two DOE nuclear production reactors, P and R. The lake sediments were contaminated with low levels of radiocesium (CS-137) and transuranics in the late 1950s and early 1960s because of leaking fuel elements. Elevated levels of mercury accumulated in the sediments from pumping water from the Savannah River to maintain a full pool. PAR Ponds` stability, size, and nutrient content made a significant, unique, and highly studied ecological resource for fish and wildlife populations until it was partially drained in 1991 due to a depression in the downslope of the earthen dam. The drawdown, created 1340 acres of exposed, radioactively contaminated sediments along 33 miles of shoreline. This led US EPA to declare PAR Pond as a CERCLA operable unit subject to remediation. The drawdown also raised concerns for the populations of aquatic plants, fish, alligators, and endangered species and increased the potential for off-site migration of contaminated wildlife from contact with the exposed sediments. Applicable regulations, such as NEPA and CERCLA, require wetland loss evaluations, human health and ecological risk assessments, and remediation feasibility studies. DOE is committed to spending several million dollars to repair the dam for safety reasons, even though the lake will probably not be used for cooling purposes. At the same time, DOE must make decisions whether to refill and expend additional public funds to maintain a full pool to reduce the risks defined under CERCLA or spend hundreds of millions in remediation costs to reduce the risks of the exposed sediments.

  17. Anthropogenic vs. natural pollution: An environmental study of an industrial site under remediation (Naples, Italy)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tarzia, M.; de Vivo, B.; Somma, R.; Ayuso, R.A.; McGill, R.A.R.; Parrish, R.R.

    2002-01-01

    Heavy metal concentrations and Pb isotopic composition were determined in the soils, slags, scums and landfill materials from a shut down industrial (brownfield) site. This was the second largest integrated steelworks in Italy, and is now under remediation by a Government project. It is located in the outskirts of Napoli on the Bagnoli-Fuorigrotta plain (BFP), which is part of the Campi Flegrei (CF) volcanic caldera, where many spas and geothermal springs occur. The purpose of this work is to distinguish the natural (geogenic) component, originated by hydrothermal activity, from anthropogenic contamination owing to industrial activity. 'In-situ sediments' (soils), slags, scums and landfill materials from 20 drill-cores were selected from a network of 197 drills carried out on a 100 ?? 100 m grid, covering the entire brownfield site. In general, heavy metal enrichments in the upper 3 m of the cores strongly suggest mixing between natural (geogenic) and anthropogenic components. Pb isotopic data are suggestive of three potential end members, and confirm the existence of a strong natural component in addition to contamination from anthropogenic activities. The slags, scums and landfill materials have been proved, through mineralogy and leachate experiments, to be geochemically stable; this shows that metal pollutants are not bio-available and, hence, do not pose a risk to future developments on this site. The natural contribution of hydrothermal fluids to soil pollution, in addition to the non-bio-availability of metal pollutants from industrial materials, indicate that heavy metal remediation of soils in this area would be of little use. Continuous discharge from mineralized hydrothermal solutions would cancel out any remediation effort.

  18. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the slick rock Uranium Mill Tailings sites Slick Rock, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (42 USC {section} 7901 et seq.), hereafter referred to as the UMTRCA, authorized the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to clean up two uranium mill tailings processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, in San Miguel County. The purpose of the cleanup is to reduce the potential health effects associated with the radioactive materials remaining on the sites and on vicinity properties (VPs) associated with the sites. Contaminated materials cover an estimated 55 acres of the Union Carbide (UC) processing site and 12 ac of the North Continent (NC) processing site. The total estimated volume of contaminated materials is approximately 61 8,300 cubic yards. In addition to the contamination in the two processing site areas, four VPs were found to contain contamination. As a result of the tailings being exposed to the environment, contamination associated with the UC and NC sites has leached into shallow ground water. Surface water has not been affected. The closest residence is approximately 0.3 air mi from either site. The proposed action is to remediate the UC and NC sites by removing all contaminated materials within the designated site boundaries or otherwise associated with the sites, and relocating them to, and stabilizing them at, a location approximately 5 road mi (8 km) northeast of the sites on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Remediation would be performed by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. All solid contaminated materials would be buried under 5 feet (ft) of rock and soil materials. The proposed disposal site area is currently used by ranchers for cattle grazing over a 7-month period. The closest residence to the proposed disposal site is 2 air mi. An estimated 44 ac of land would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future use.

  19. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Annual Environmental Monitoring Report calendar year 1992: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    This report contains environmental monitoring information for the following UMTRA sites for the 1992 Calendar Year: Lakeview, OR; Lowman, ID; Mexican Hat, UT; Monument Valley, AZ; Rifle, CO; Riverton, WY; Shiprock, NM; Spook, WY; Tuba City, AZ. Each site report contains a site description, compliance summary, environmental program information, environmental radiological and non-radiological program information, water resources protection, and quality assurance information.

  20. Arsenic in Drinking Water—A Global Environmental Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaofen Wang, Joanna; Wai, Chien M.

    2004-02-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a global environmental problem affecting a large number of populations, especially in developing countries. The "blackfoot disease"that occurred in Taiwan more than half of a century ago was attributed to drinking arsenic-contaminated water from deep wells containing high concentrations of the trivalent arsenite species. Similar arsenic poisoning cases were reported later in Chinese Inner Mongolia, Bangladesh, and India—all related to drinking groundwater contaminated with arsenic. The maximum contaminant level (MCL) of arsenic in drinking water has been changed recently by the U.S. EPA from 50 ppb to 10 ppb; the compliance date is January 2006. This article summarizes documented global arsenic contamination problems, the regulatory controversy regarding MCL of arsenic in drinking water, and available technologies for removing arsenic from contaminated waters. Methods for analyzing total arsenic and arsenic species in water are also described.

  1. Design, synthesis, and characterization of materials for controlled line deposition, environmental remediation, and doping of porous manganese oxide material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvert, Craig A.

    This thesis covers three topics: (1) coatings formed from sol-gel phases, (2) environmental remediation, and (3) doping of a porous manganese oxide. Synthesis, characterization, and application were investigated for each topic. Line-formations were formed spontaneously by self-assembly from vanadium sol-gels and other metal containing solutions on glass substrates. The solutions were prepared by the dissolution of metal oxide or salt in water. A more straightforward method is proposed than used in previous work. Analyses using optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, and infrared spectroscopy showed discreet lines whose deposition could be controlled by varying the concentration. A mechanism was developed from the observed results. Microwave heating, the addition of graphite rods, and oxidants, can enhance HCB remediation from soil. To achieve remediation, a TeflonRTM vessel open to the atmosphere along with an oxidant, potassium persulfate (PerS) or potassium hydroxide, along with uncoated or aluminum oxide coated, graphite rods were heated in a research grade microwave oven. Microwave heating was used to decrease the heating time, and graphite rods were used to increase the absorption of the microwave energy by providing thermal centers. The results showed that the percent HCB removed was increased by adding graphite rods and oxidants. Tungsten, silver, and sulfur were investigated as doping agents for K--OMS-2. The synthesis of these materials was carried out with a reflux method. The doping of K--OMS-2 led to changes in the properties of a tungsten doped K--OMS-2 had an increased resistivity, the silver doped material showed improved epoxidation of trans-stilbene, and the addition of sulfur produced a paper-like material. Rietveld refinement of the tungsten doped K--OMS-2 showed that the tungsten was doped into the framework.

  2. Environmental, safety, and health plan for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping 10, Operable Unit 3, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This document outlines the environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) approach to be followed for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 10 at Oak at Ridge National Laboratory. This ES&H Plan addresses hazards associated with upcoming Operable Unit 3 field work activities and provides the program elements required to maintain minimal personnel exposures and to reduce the potential for environmental impacts during field operations. The hazards evaluation for WAG 10 is presented in Sect. 3. This section includes the potential radiological, chemical, and physical hazards that may be encountered. Previous sampling results suggest that the primary contaminants of concern will be radiological (cobalt-60, europium-154, americium-241, strontium-90, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, cesium-134, cesium-137, and curium-244). External and internal exposures to radioactive materials will be minimized through engineering controls (e.g., ventilation, containment, isolation) and administrative controls (e.g., procedures, training, postings, protective clothing).

  3. Environmental enrichment alters structural plasticity of the adolescent brain but does not remediate the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure.

    PubMed

    Mychasiuk, Richelle; Muhammad, Arif; Kolb, Bryan

    2014-07-01

    Exposure to both drugs of abuse and environmental enrichment (EE) are widely studied experiences that induce large changes in dendritic morphology and synaptic connectivity. As there is an abundance of literature using EE as a treatment strategy for drug addiction, we sought to determine whether EE could remediate the effects of prenatal nicotine (PN) exposure. Using Golgi-Cox staining, we examined eighteen neuroanatomical parameters in four brain regions [medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), orbital frontal cortex (OFC), nucleus accumben, and Par1] of Long-Evans rats. EE in adolescence dramatically altered structural plasticity in the male and female brain, modifying 60% of parameters investigated. EE normalized three parameters (OFC spine density and dendritic branching and mPFC dendritic branching) in male offspring exposed to nicotine prenatally but did not remediate any measures in female offspring. PN exposure interfered with adolescent EE-induced changes in five neuroanatomical measurements (Par1 spine density and dendritic branching in both male and female offspring, and mPFC spine density in male offspring). And in four neuroanatomical parameters examined, PN exposure and EE combined to produce additive effects [OFC spine density in females and mPFC dendritic length (apical and basilar) and branching in males]. Despite demonstrated efficacy in reversing drug addiction, EE was not able to reverse many of the PN-induced changes in neuronal morphology, indicating that modifications in neural circuitry generated in the prenatal period may be more resistant to change than those generated in the adult brain.

  4. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform remedial actions at Belfield and Bowman inactive lignite ashing sites in southwestern North Dakota to reduce the potential public health impacts from the residual radioactivity remaining at the sites. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards (40 CFR 192) that contain measures to control the residual radioactive materials and other contaminated materials, and proposed standards to protect the groundwater from further degradation. Remedial action at the Belfield and Bowman sites must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of North Dakota. The Belfield and Bowman designated sites were used by Union Carbide and Kerr-McGee, respectively, to process uraniferous lignite in the 1960s. Uranium-rich ash from rotary kiln processing of the lignite was loaded into rail cars and transported to uranium mills in Rifle, Colorado, and Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, respectively. As a result of the ashing process, there is a total of 158,400 cubic yards (yd{sup 3}) [121,100 cubic meters (m{sup 3})] of radioactive ash-contaminated soils at the two sites. Windblown ash-contaminated soil covers an additional 21 acres (8.5 ha) around the site, which includes grazing land, wetlands, and a wooded habitat.

  5. Identification of remediation needs and technology development focus areas for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Project at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM)

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, M.D.; Valdez, J.M.; Khan, M.A.

    1995-06-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Project has been tasked with the characterization, assessment, remediation and long-term monitoring of contaminated waste sites at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). Many of these sites will require remediation which will involve the use of baseline technologies, innovative technologies that are currently under development, and new methods which will be developed in the near future. The Technology Applications Program (TAP) supports the ER Project and is responsible for development of new technologies for use at the contaminated waste sites, including technologies that will be used for remediation and restoration of these sites. The purpose of this report is to define the remediation needs of the ER Project and to identify those remediation needs for which the baseline technologies and the current development efforts are inadequate. The area between the remediation needs and the existing baseline/innovative technology base represents a technology gap which must be filled in order to remediate contaminated waste sites at SNL/NM economically and efficiently. In the first part of this report, the remediation needs of the ER Project are defined by both the ER Project task leaders and by TAP personnel. The next section outlines the baseline technologies, including EPA defined Best Demonstrated Available Technologies (BDATs), that are applicable at SNL/NM ER sites. This is followed by recommendations of innovative technologies that are currently being developed that may also be applicable at SNL/NM ER sites. Finally, the gap between the existing baseline/innovative technology base and the remediation needs is identified. This technology gap will help define the future direction of technology development for the ER Project.

  6. Environmental lead exposure: a public health problem of global dimensions.

    PubMed Central

    Tong, S.; von Schirnding, Y. E.; Prapamontol, T.

    2000-01-01

    Lead is the most abundant of the heavy metals in the Earth's crust. It has been used since prehistoric times, and has become widely distributed and mobilized in the environment. Exposure to and uptake of this non-essential element have consequently increased. Both occupational and environmental exposures to lead remain a serious problem in many developing and industrializing countries, as well as in some developed countries. In most developed countries, however, introduction of lead into the human environment has decreased in recent years, largely due to public health campaigns and a decline in its commercial usage, particularly in petrol. Acute lead poisoning has become rare in such countries, but chronic exposure to low levels of the metal is still a public health issue, especially among some minorities and socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. In developing countries, awareness of the public health impact of exposure to lead is growing but relatively few of these countries have introduced policies and regulations for significantly combating the problem. This article reviews the nature and importance of environmental exposure to lead in developing and developed countries, outlining past actions, and indicating requirements for future policy responses and interventions. PMID:11019456

  7. A Collaborative Problem-solving Process Through Environmental Field Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Mijung; Teck Tan, Hoe

    2013-02-01

    This study explored and documented students' responses to opportunities for collective knowledge building and collaboration in a problem-solving process within complex environmental challenges and pressing issues with various dimensions of knowledge and skills. Middle-school students (n = 16; age 14) and high-school students (n = 16; age 17) from two Singapore public institutions participated in an environmental science field study to experience knowledge integration and a decision-making process. Students worked on six research topics to understand the characteristics of an organic farm and plan for building an ecological village. Students collected and analysed data from the field and shared their findings. Their field work and discussions were video-recorded, and their reflective notes and final reports were collected for data coding and interpretation. The results revealed that throughout the study, students experienced the needs and development of integrated knowledge, encountered the challenges of knowledge sharing and communication during their collaboration, and learned how to cope with the difficulties. Based on research findings, this study further discusses students' learning through a collaborative problem-solving process, including the interdependence of knowledge and the development of mutual relationships such as respect and care for others' knowledge and learning.

  8. Situated student learning and spatial informational analysis for environmental problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Timothy Paul

    Ninth and tenth grade high school Biology student research teams used spatial information analysis tools to site a prairie restoration plot on a 55 acre campus during a four-week environment unit. Students made use of innovative technological practices by applying geographic information systems (GIS) approaches to solving environmental and land use problems. Student learning was facilitated by starting with the students' initial conceptions of computing, local landscape and biological environment, and then by guiding them through a problem-based science project process. The project curriculum was framed by the perspective of legitimate peripheral participation (Lave & Wenger, 1991) where students were provided with learning opportunities designed to allow them to act like GIS practitioners. Sociocultural lenses for learning were employed to create accounts of human mental processes that recognize the essential relationship between these processes and their cultural, historical, and institutional settings (Jacob, 1997; Wertsch, 1991). This research investigated how student groups' meaning-making actions were mediated by GIS tools on the periphery of a scientific community of practice. Research observations focused on supporting interpretations of learners' socially constructed actions and the iterative building of assertions from multiple sources. These included the artifacts students produced, the tools they used, the cultural contexts that constrained their activity, and how people begin to adopt ways of speaking (speech genres) of the referent community to negotiate meanings and roles. Students gathered field observations and interpreted attributes of landscape entities from the GIS data to advocate for an environmental decision. However, even while gaining proficiencies with GIS tools, most students did not begin to appropriate roles from the GIS community of practice. Students continued to negotiate their project actions simply as school exercises motivated by

  9. Integration of Environmental Analytical Chemistry with Environmental Law: The Development of a Problem-Based Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cancilla, Devon A.

    2001-12-01

    Environmental chemists face difficult challenges related to generating, interpreting, and communicating complex chemical data in a manner understandable by nonchemists. For this reason, it is essential that environmental chemistry students develop the skills necessary not only to collect and interpret complex data sets, but also to communicate their findings in a credible manner in nonscientific forums. Key to this requirement is an understanding of the quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) elements used to support specific findings. This paper describes the development of a problem-based undergraduate environmental analytical chemistry laboratory and its integration with an undergraduate environmental law course. The course is designed to introduce students to the principles of performance-based analytical methods and the use of environmental indicators to perform environmental assessments. Conducting a series of chemical and toxicological tests, chemistry students perform an environmental assessment on the watershed of the mythical City of Rowan. Law students use these assessments to develop legal arguments under both the Safe Drinking Water Act and the Clean Water Act.

  10. The fibres with fluoro-edenitic composition in Biancavilla (Sicily, Italy): health impact and clues for environmental remediation.

    PubMed

    Comba, Pietro; Scondotto, Salvatore; Musmeci, Loredana

    2014-01-01

    Subsequently to the observation of a localized excess of mortality from malignant pleural neoplasms in the town of Biancavilla (Sicily), previously unknown amphibolic fibres with fluoro-edenitic composition were detected as naturally occurring soil contaminants. Less then two years after the initial report, ISS provided a set of public health recommendations that were complied by regional and local institutions. The recognition of Biancavilla as a National Priority Contaminated Site in 2002 opened the way to clean-up interventions. An up-dating of epidemiological studies, exposure assessment investigations and in vivo and in vitro mechanistic studies on fluoro-edenite fibres is provided in this issue. Scientific evidence can provide a sound foundation to public health action and environmental remediation. Finally, it is now necessary to properly tune the response of the health system to the community needs in terms of diagnostic procedures and medical treatment.

  11. An approach for assessing total instrumental uncertainty in compound-specific carbon isotope analysis: implications for environmental remediation studies.

    PubMed

    Lollar, Barbara Sherwood; Hirschorn, Sarah K; Chartrand, Michelle M G; Lacrampe-Couloume, Georges

    2007-05-01

    Determination of compound-specific carbon isotope values by continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry is impacted by variation in several routine operating parameters of which one of the most important is signal size, or linearity. Experiments were carried out to evaluate the implications of these operating parameters on both reproducibility and accuracy of delta13C measurements. A new method is described for assessing total instrumental uncertainty of routine compound-specific delta13C analysis, incorporating both accuracy and reproducibility. These findings have important implications for application of compound-specific isotope analysis in environmental geochemistry and in particular for the rapidly developing field of isotopic investigation of biodegradation and remediation of organic chemicals in contaminant hydrogeology. PMID:17391005

  12. Environmental risk management for radiological accidents: integrating risk assessment and decision analysis for remediation at different spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Yatsalo, Boris; Sullivan, Terrence; Didenko, Vladimir; Linkov, Igor

    2011-07-01

    The consequences of the Tohuku earthquake and subsequent tsunami in March 2011 caused a loss of power at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, in Japan, and led to the release of radioactive materials into the environment. Although the full extent of the contamination is not currently known, the highly complex nature of the environmental contamination (radionuclides in water, soil, and agricultural produce) typical of nuclear accidents requires a detailed geospatial analysis of information with the ability to extrapolate across different scales with applications to risk assessment models and decision making support. This article briefly summarizes the approach used to inform risk-based land management and remediation decision making after the Chernobyl, Soviet Ukraine, accident in 1986. PMID:21608109

  13. An approach for assessing total instrumental uncertainty in compound-specific carbon isotope analysis: implications for environmental remediation studies.

    PubMed

    Lollar, Barbara Sherwood; Hirschorn, Sarah K; Chartrand, Michelle M G; Lacrampe-Couloume, Georges

    2007-05-01

    Determination of compound-specific carbon isotope values by continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry is impacted by variation in several routine operating parameters of which one of the most important is signal size, or linearity. Experiments were carried out to evaluate the implications of these operating parameters on both reproducibility and accuracy of delta13C measurements. A new method is described for assessing total instrumental uncertainty of routine compound-specific delta13C analysis, incorporating both accuracy and reproducibility. These findings have important implications for application of compound-specific isotope analysis in environmental geochemistry and in particular for the rapidly developing field of isotopic investigation of biodegradation and remediation of organic chemicals in contaminant hydrogeology.

  14. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Slick Rock uranium mill tailings sites Slick Rock, Colorado. Draft

    SciTech Connect

    1993-06-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA) authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to clean up two uranium mill tailings processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, in San Miguel County. The purpose of the cleanup is to reduce the potential health effects associated with the radioactive materials remaining on the sites and on vicinity properties (VP) associated with the sites. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards for the UMTRCA that contained measures to control the contaminated materials and to protect the groundwater from further degradation. Remedial actions at the Slick Rock sites must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).

  15. Fe3O4@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization and application in environmental remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majeed, J.; Ramkumar, Jayshree; Chandramouleeswaran, S.; Tyagi, A. K.

    2014-04-01

    In this study, Fe3O4@SiO2 core-shell structure was synthesized by a one pot co-precipitation method, and its applicability as Low-Cost Abundantly available adsorbent for removal of heavy metal ions from simulated industrial waste water was examined. The detailed characterization of morphology showed that the Fe3O4 nanoparticle was coated with amorphous silica of a shell thickness of 2-3 nm. The core-shell magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) showed a great removal capability of four different heavy metal ions (Zn (II), Co (II), Ni (II), and Cu (II). These MNPs showed high magnetic saturation values, which ensure the convenience of recovering sorbent for reusability with the assistance of external magnetic field. Specifically, this present study shows the use of MNPs as an effective recyclable adsorbent for environmental remediation.

  16. Environmental remediation of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution through hydrogel adsorption: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Muya, Francis Ntumba; Sunday, Christopher Edoze; Baker, Priscilla; Iwuoha, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metal ions such as Cd(2+), Pb(2+), Cu(2+), Mg(2+), and Hg(2+) from industrial waste water constitute a major cause of pollution for ground water sources. These ions are toxic to man and aquatic life as well, and should be removed from wastewater before disposal. Various treatment technologies have been reported to remediate the potential toxic elements from aqueous media, such as adsorption, precipitation and coagulation. Most of these technologies are associated with some shortcomings, and challenges in terms of applicability, effectiveness and cost. However, adsorption techniques have the capability of effectively removing heavy metals at very low concentration (1-100 mg/L). Various adsorbents have been reported in the literature for this purpose, including, to a lesser extent, the use of hydrogel adsorbents for heavy metal removal in aqueous phase. Here, we provide an in-depth perspective on the design, application and efficiency of hydrogel systems as adsorbents. PMID:26942518

  17. Environmental Justice in Indian Country: Dumpsite Remediation on the Swinomish Indian Reservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaferatos, Nicholas C.

    2006-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines environmental justice as the “fair treatment for people of all races, cultures, and incomes, regarding the development of environmental laws, regulations, and policies.” The last decade has focused considerable national attention on the environmental pollution inequity that persists among the nation’s poorest communities. Despite these environmental justice efforts, poor communities continue to face adverse environmental conditions. For the more than 550 Native American communities, the struggle to attain environmental justice is more than a matter of enforcing national laws equitably; it is also a matter of a federal trust duty for the protection of Indian lands and natural resources, honoring a promise that Native American homelands would forever be sustainable. Equally important is the federal promise to assist tribes in managing their reservation environments under their reserved powers of self-government, an attribute that most distinguishes tribes from other communities. The PM Northwest, Inc. (PMNW) dumpsite is located within the boundaries of the Swinomish Indian Reservation in Washington State. Between approximately 1958 and 1970, PMNW contracted with local oil refineries to dispose of hazardous wastes from their operations at the reservation dumpsite. Almost two decades would pass before the Swinomish tribe was able to persuade EPA that a cleanup action under Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) was warranted. This article reviews the enduring struggle to achieve Indian environmental justice in the Swinomish homeland, a process that was dependent upon the development of the tribe’s political and environmental management capacity as well as EPA’s eventual acknowledgement that Indian environmental justice is integrally linked to its federal trust responsibility.

  18. Environmental justice in Indian country: dumpsite remediation on the Swinomish Indian reservation.

    PubMed

    Zaferatos, Nicholas C

    2006-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines environmental justice as the "fair treatment for people of all races, cultures, and incomes, regarding the development of environmental laws, regulations, and policies." The last decade has focused considerable national attention on the environmental pollution inequity that persists among the nation's poorest communities. Despite these environmental justice efforts, poor communities continue to face adverse environmental conditions. For the more than 550 Native American communities, the struggle to attain environmental justice is more than a matter of enforcing national laws equitably; it is also a matter of a federal trust duty for the protection of Indian lands and natural resources, honoring a promise that Native American homelands would forever be sustainable. Equally important is the federal promise to assist tribes in managing their reservation environments under their reserved powers of self-government, an attribute that most distinguishes tribes from other communities. The PM Northwest, Inc. (PMNW) dumpsite is located within the boundaries of the Swinomish Indian Reservation in Washington State. Between approximately 1958 and 1970, PMNW contracted with local oil refineries to dispose of hazardous wastes from their operations at the reservation dumpsite. Almost two decades would pass before the Swinomish tribe was able to persuade EPA that a cleanup action under Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) was warranted. This article reviews the enduring struggle to achieve Indian environmental justice in the Swinomish homeland, a process that was dependent upon the development of the tribe's political and environmental management capacity as well as EPA's eventual acknowledgement that Indian environmental justice is integrally linked to its federal trust responsibility. PMID:17058033

  19. Maywood Interim Storage Site: Annual site environmental report, Maywood, New Jersey, Calendar year 1986: Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program

    SciTech Connect

    1987-06-01

    During 1986, the environmental monitoring program was continued at the Maywood Interim Storage Site (MISS), a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in the Borough of Maywood and the Township of Rochelle Park, New Jersey. The MISS is presently used for the storage of low-level radioactively contaminated soils. The MISS is part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). As part of the decontamination research and development project authorized by Congress under the 1984 Energy and Water Appropriations Act, remedial action and environmental monitoring programs are being conducted at this site and at vicinity properties by Bechtel National, Inc., Project Management Contractor for FUSRAP. The monitoring program at the MISS measures thoron and radon gas concentrations in air; external gamma radiation levels; and thorium, uranium, and radium concentrations in surface water, groundwater, and sediment. To verify that the site is in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard (100 mrem/y) and to assess the potential effect on public health, the radiation dose was calculated for the maximally exposed individual. Based on the conservative scenario described in the report, the maximally exposed individual would receive an annual external exposure approximately equivalent to 1% of the DOE radiation protection standard of 100 mrem/y. This exposure is less than the exposure a person would receive during a round-trip flight from New York to Los Angeles (due to greater amounts of cosmic radiation at higher altitudes). The cumulative dose to the population within an 80-km (50-mi) radius of the MISS that would result from radioactive materials present at the site would be indistinguishable from the dose the same population would receive from naturally occurring radioactive sources. Results of the 1986 monitoring show that the MISS is in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard. 16 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs.

  20. ENVIROSUITE: USING STATE-OF-THE-ART SYNCHROTRON TECHNIQUES TO UNDERSTAND ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION SCIENCE ISSUES AT THE MOLECULAR LEVEL.

    SciTech Connect

    FITTS,J.P.; KALB,P.D.; FRANCIS,A.J.; FUHRMANN,M.; DODGE,C.J.; GILLOW,J.B.

    2004-03-01

    Although DOE's Environmental Management program has made steady progress in cleaning up environmental legacies throughout the DOE complex, there are still significant remediation issues that remain to be solved. For example, DOE faces difficult challenges related to potential mobilization of radionuclides (e.g., actinides) and other hazardous contaminants in soils, removal and final treatment of high-level waste and residuals from leaking tanks, and the long-term stewardship of remediated sites and engineered disposal facilities, to name just a few. In some cases, new technologies and technology applications will be required based on current engineering expertise. In others, however, basic scientific research is needed to understand the mechanisms of how contaminants behave under specific conditions and how they interact with the environment, from which new engineering solutions can emerge. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Stony Brook University, scientists have teamed to use state-of-the-art synchrotron techniques to help understand the basic interactions of contaminants in the environment. Much of this work is conducted at the BNL National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), which is a user facility that provides high energy X-ray and ultraviolet photon beams to facilitate the examination of contaminants and materials at the molecular level. These studies allow us to determine how chemical speciation and structure control important parameters such as solubility, which in turn drive critical performance characteristics such as leaching. In one study for example, we are examining the effects of microbial activity on actinide contaminants under conditions anticipated at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. One possible outcome of this research is the identification of specific microbes that can trap uranium or other contaminants within the intracellular structure and help mitigate mobility. In another study, we are exploring the interaction of contaminants with

  1. Mitigation of environmental problems in Lake Victoria, East Africa: causal chain and policy options analyses.

    PubMed

    Odada, Eric O; Olago, Daniel O; Kulindwa, Kassim; Ntiba, Micheni; Wandiga, Shem

    2004-02-01

    Lake Victoria is an international waterbody that offers the riparian communities a large number of extremely important environmental services. Over the past three decades or so, the lake has come under increasing and considerable pressure from a variety of interlinked human activities such as overfishing, species introductions, industrial pollution, eutrophication, and sedimentation. In this paper we examine the root causes for overfishing and pollution in Lake Victoria and give possible policy options that can help remediate or mitigate the environmental degradation. PMID:15083646

  2. Mitigation of environmental problems in Lake Victoria, East Africa: causal chain and policy options analyses.

    PubMed

    Odada, Eric O; Olago, Daniel O; Kulindwa, Kassim; Ntiba, Micheni; Wandiga, Shem

    2004-02-01

    Lake Victoria is an international waterbody that offers the riparian communities a large number of extremely important environmental services. Over the past three decades or so, the lake has come under increasing and considerable pressure from a variety of interlinked human activities such as overfishing, species introductions, industrial pollution, eutrophication, and sedimentation. In this paper we examine the root causes for overfishing and pollution in Lake Victoria and give possible policy options that can help remediate or mitigate the environmental degradation.

  3. Environmental assessment and management of metal-rich wastes generated in acid mine drainage passive remediation systems.

    PubMed

    Macías, Francisco; Caraballo, Manuel A; Nieto, José Miguel

    2012-08-30

    As acid mine drainage (AMD) remediation is increasingly faced by governments and mining industries worldwide, the generation of metal-rich solid residues from the treatments plants is concomitantly raising. A proper environmental management of these metal-rich wastes requires a detailed characterization of the metal mobility as well as an assessment of this new residues stability. The European standard leaching test EN 12457-2, the US EPA TCLP test and the BCR sequential extraction procedure were selected to address the environmental assessment of dispersed alkaline substrate (DAS) residues generated in AMD passive treatment systems. Significant discrepancies were observed in the hazardousness classification of the residues according to the TCLP or EN 12457-2 test. Furthermore, the absence of some important metals (like Fe or Al) in the regulatory limits employed in both leaching tests severely restricts their applicability for metal-rich wastes. The results obtained in the BCR sequential extraction suggest an important influence of the landfill environmental conditions on the metals released from the wastes. To ensure a complete stability of the pollutants in the studied DAS-wastes the contact with water or any other leaching solutions must be avoided and a dry environment needs to be provided in the landfill disposal selected. PMID:22717063

  4. Cognitive remediation and vocational rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    McGurk, Susan R; Wykes, Til

    2008-01-01

    Persons with severe mental illness (SMI) who are striving to improve their work prospects are often hindered in work endeavors because of difficulties with cognitive skills, such as paying attention or concentrating, learning and remembering information, responding in a reasonable amount of time to environmental demands, and planning ahead and solving problems. In addition to limiting work functioning, cognitive impairments are obstacles to receiving the full benefits of vocational rehabilitation, including supported employment. Efforts to improve cognition in people with SMI, or cognitive remediation, have produced modest but consistent gains in a variety of cognitive domains. More recent efforts have focused on combining cognitive remediation with vocational rehabilitation in order to improve work functioning. Initial results from four published studies of combined cognitive remediation and vocational programs are encouraging, indicating improvements in both cognitive and work functioning. The approaches to cognitive remediation used in these studies vary considerably, as do the characteristics of participants, the vocational rehabilitation models, and the methods of combining cognitive and vocational therapies. The differences in key components of programs combining cognitive remediation and vocational rehabilitation indicate the need to replicate findings, and raise important questions about what aspects of the programs are associated with improvements in work.

  5. Characterization of Iron Welding Fumes for Potential Beneficial Use in Environmental Remediation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research regarding nanoparticles generated as waste byproducts during industrial practices has received little attention in the environmental science and engineering literature. The physical and chemical characteristics and properties need to be considered when evaluating potent...

  6. Electrical and electronic waste: a global environmental problem.

    PubMed

    Ramesh Babu, Balakrishnan; Parande, Anand Kuber; Ahmed Basha, Chiya

    2007-08-01

    The production of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) is one of the fastest growing global manufacturing activities. This development has resulted in an increase of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE). Rapid economic growth, coupled with urbanization and growing demand for consumer goods, has increased both the consumption of EEE and the production of WEEE, which can be a source of hazardous wastes that pose a risk to the environment and to sustainable economic growth. To address potential environmental problems that could stem from improper management of WEEE, many countries and organizations have drafted national legislation to improve the reuse, recycling and other forms of material recovery from WEEE to reduce the amount and types of materials disposed in landfills. Recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment is important not only to reduce the amount of waste requiring treatment, but also to promote the recovery of valuable materials. EEE is diverse and complex with respect to the materials and components used and waste streams from the manufacturing processes. Characterization of these wastes is of paramount importance for developing a cost-effective and environmentally sound recycling system. This paper offers an overview of electrical and e-waste recycling, including a description of how it is generated and classified, strategies and technologies for recovering materials, and new scientific developments related to these activities. Finally, the e-waste recycling industry in India is also discussed.

  7. Electrical and electronic waste: a global environmental problem.

    PubMed

    Ramesh Babu, Balakrishnan; Parande, Anand Kuber; Ahmed Basha, Chiya

    2007-08-01

    The production of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) is one of the fastest growing global manufacturing activities. This development has resulted in an increase of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE). Rapid economic growth, coupled with urbanization and growing demand for consumer goods, has increased both the consumption of EEE and the production of WEEE, which can be a source of hazardous wastes that pose a risk to the environment and to sustainable economic growth. To address potential environmental problems that could stem from improper management of WEEE, many countries and organizations have drafted national legislation to improve the reuse, recycling and other forms of material recovery from WEEE to reduce the amount and types of materials disposed in landfills. Recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment is important not only to reduce the amount of waste requiring treatment, but also to promote the recovery of valuable materials. EEE is diverse and complex with respect to the materials and components used and waste streams from the manufacturing processes. Characterization of these wastes is of paramount importance for developing a cost-effective and environmentally sound recycling system. This paper offers an overview of electrical and e-waste recycling, including a description of how it is generated and classified, strategies and technologies for recovering materials, and new scientific developments related to these activities. Finally, the e-waste recycling industry in India is also discussed. PMID:17874657

  8. Carbon supported Nano-Iron for environmental remediation: Transport observations using column tests, magnet resonance imaging and synchrotron tomography.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, J.; Oswald, S. E.; Mackenzie, K.

    2012-04-01

    The use of nano-zerovalent iron (nZVI) for environmental remediation is a promising new technique for in situ remediation of contaminated groundwater. Due to its high surface area and high reactivity, nZVI is able to dechlorinate organic contaminants and render them harmless. Limited mobility, however, due to fast aggregation and sedimentation of nZVI, restricts the practical applicability for source and plume remediation. Carbo-Iron is a newly developed composite material consisting of activated carbon particles (d50 about 500 nm) that act as carrier for nZVI particles. Together with a polyanionic stabilizer (CMC) Carbo-Iron is able to form a stable injectable suspension. These particles are designed to combine the mobility of activated carbon and the reactivity of nZVI. Various methods were used to observe and describe transport properties, with a focus on column tests and tomographic methods: Column tests were performed in chromatography columns of 40 and 60 cm length, filled with sand grains or glass beads. Results indicate high mobility and breakthrough after addition of CMC, but changing transport properties at different pH and ionic strength. Magnet Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Synchrotron Imaging are technologies of growing interest in observing flow and transport in porous media. Even though both methods are based on different physical principles, both are sensible to iron loads in colloids and allow two- and three-dimensional reconstruction and visualization. Therefore both methods may principally be suitable for observing Carbo-Iron in porous media and might give information complementary to other experimental investigations. A suitable MRI method was developed using a medical MRI. The method based on T1 weighted measurement with short repetition time (TR = 7.0 ms) and echo time (TE = 2.95 ms) can detect different particle concentrations in a porous medium. The synchrotron tomography method used an energy rich (13 keV) parallel X-ray beam to collect

  9. Biodegradation of aged diesel in diverse soil matrixes: impact of environmental conditions and bioavailability on microbial remediation capacity.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Nora B; van Gaans, Pauline; Langenhoff, Alette A M; Maphosa, Farai; Smidt, Hauke; Grotenhuis, Tim; Rijnaarts, Huub H M

    2013-07-01

    While bioremediation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) is in general a robust technique, heterogeneity in terms of contaminant and environmental characteristics can impact the extent of biodegradation. The current study investigates the implications of different soil matrix types (anthropogenic fill layer, peat, clay, and sand) and bioavailability on bioremediation of an aged diesel contamination from a heterogeneous site. In addition to an uncontaminated sample for each soil type, samples representing two levels of contamination (high and low) were also used; initial TPH concentrations varied between 1.6 and 26.6 g TPH/kg and bioavailability between 36 and 100 %. While significant biodegradation occurred during 100 days of incubation under biostimulating conditions (64.4-100 % remediation efficiency), low bioavailability restricted full biodegradation, yielding a residual TPH concentration. Respiration levels, as well as the abundance of alkB, encoding mono-oxygenases pivotal for hydrocarbon metabolism, were positively correlated with TPH degradation, demonstrating their usefulness as a proxy for hydrocarbon biodegradation. However, absolute respiration and alkB presence were dependent on soil matrix type, indicating the sensitivity of results to initial environmental conditions. Through investigating biodegradation potential across a heterogeneous site, this research illuminates the interplay between soil matrix type, bioavailability, and bioremediation and the implications of these parameters for the effectiveness of an in situ treatment.

  10. Amorphous Solid Water (ASW): Macroscale Environmentally-Neutral Application for Remediation of Hazardous Pollutants using Condensed-Phase Cryogenic Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Strulle, Ronald; Rheinhart, Maximilian

    2012-03-01

    We report macroscale environmentally-neutral use of cryogenic fluids to induce phase transitions from crystalline water-ices to amorphous solid water (ASW). New IP and uses in remediation of oil-spills and hazardous immiscibles from aquatic environments. We display high-resolution images of the transitions from hexagonal to cubic crystalline water-ice, then to hydrophobic ASW. Accretion and encapsulation of viscous pollutants within crystalline water-ice, and sequestration of condensed volatiles (PAH, methane) and low viscosity fluids within the interstitial cavities of ASW are shown and differentiated for: crude oils, diesel (heating) and blended oils, petroleum byproducts, vegetable and mineral oils, lipids, and light immiscible fluids. The effects of PdV work and thermal energy transfers during phase changes are shown, along with the sequestration efficiencies for hexagonal and cubic ice lattices vs. non-crystalline ASW, for a range of pollutant substances. The viability of ASW as a medium for study of quantum criticality phases is also proposed. The process is environmentally-neutral in that only substantially condensed-phase air liquefaction products, e.g. nitrogen in >90% liquid phase are employed as an active agent. The applications are also presented in terms of the scale-up of experiments performed at the nanoscale.

  11. Remedial actions at the former Vitro Rare Metals plant site, Canonsburg, Washington County, Pennsylvania. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume II. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-07-01

    This report provides a summary of the conceptual design and other information necessary to understand the proposed remedial action at the expanded Canonsburg, Pennsylvania site. This design constitutes the current approach to stabilizing the radioactively contaminated materials in place in a manner that would fully protect the public health and environment. This summary is intended to provide sufficient detail for the reader to understand the proposed remedial action and the anticipated environmental impacts. The site conceptual design has been developed using available data. In some cases, elements of the design have not been developed fully and will be made final during the detailed design process.

  12. Cost-Effective Remediation of Depleted Uranium (DU) at Environmental Restoration Sites

    SciTech Connect

    MILLER,MARK; GALLOWAY,ROBERT B.; VANDERPOEL,GLENN; JOHNSON,ED; COPLAND,JOHN; SALAZAR,MICHAEL

    1999-11-03

    Numerous sites in the United States and around the world are contaminated with depleted uranium (DU) in various forms. A prevalent form is fragmented DU originating from various scientific tests involving high explosives and DU during weapon-development programs, at firing practice ranges, or in war theaters where DU was used in armor-piercing projectiles. The contamination at these sites is typically very heterogeneous, with discrete, visually identifiable DU fragments mixed with native soil. The bulk-averaged DU activity is quite low, whereas DU fragments, which are distinct from the soil matrix, have much higher specific activity. DU is best known as a dark metal that is nearly twice as dense as lead, but DU in the environment readily weathers (oxidizes) to a distinctive bright yellow color that is quite visible. While the specific activity (amount of radioactivity per mass of soil) of DU is relatively low and presents only a minor radiological hazard, the fact that DU is radioactive and visually identifiable makes it desirable to remove the DU ''contamination'' from the environment. The typical approach to conducting this DU remediation is to use radiation-detection instruments to identify the contaminant and then to separate it from the adjacent soil, packaging it for disposal as radioactive waste. This process can be performed manually or by specialized, automated equipment. Alternatively, a more cost-effective approach might be simple mechanical or gravimetric separation of the DU fragments from the host soil matrix. At SNL/NM, both the automated and simple mechanical approaches have recently been employed. This paper discusses the pros/cons of the two approaches.

  13. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Gunnison, Colorado. Final

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The presence of contaminated uranium mill tailings adjacent to the city of Gunnison has been a local concern for many years. The following issues were identified during public meetings that were held by the DOE prior to distribution of an earlier version of this EA. Many of these issues will require mitigation. Groundwater contamination; in December 1989, a herd of 105 antelope were introduced in an area that includes the Landfill disposal site. There is concern that remedial action-related traffic in the area would result in antelope mortality. The proposed Tenderfoot Mountain haul road may restrict antelope access to their water supply; a second wildlife issue concerns the potential reduction in sage grouse use of breeding grounds (leks) and nesting habitat; the proposed Tenderfoot Mountain haul road would cross areas designated as wetlands by US Army Corps of Engineers (COE); the proposed disposal site is currently used for grazing by cattle six weeks a year in the spring. Additional concerns were stated in comments on a previous version of this EA. The proposed action is to consolidate and remove all contaminated materials associated with the Gunnison processing site to the Landfill disposal site six air miles east of Gunnison. All structures on the site (e.g., water tower, office buildings) were demolished in 1991. The debris is being stored on the site until it can be incorporated into the disposal cell at the disposal site. All contaminated materials would be trucked to the Landfill disposal site on a to-be-constructed haul road that crosses BLM-administered land.

  14. Revelations from a meta database system on environmental health problems.

    PubMed

    Simon, P; Ménesi, L; Fekete, A; Varga, G

    1995-01-01

    workstation modules of experts and research institutions may be linked to the meta database. Information property created as a result of special analysis and annotation might create a knowledge basis for free access by participants. Thus not only would their scientific backgrounds be strengthened, but services would also be provided by the meta database which could be diversified continuously. The satellite systems, the sorting and retrieval functions of the database, and its graphical services would provide a loose but flexible micro-computer system that could be linked together by autonomous or networked workstations. Our system is written on FoxPro and uses FoxGraph. At a medium level of capacity, it requires 1 MB free RAM and 14-16 MB fixed memory. The system already shows a certain specialization: the 'PubHealth' system from general issues of environmental health care leans towards problems related to sub-toxic long term effects and correlations to health insurance risk assessment (cost-benefit, risk-benefit analysis). However, new issues are also emerging when experts wish foremost to utilize the philosophy of the system (e.g., epidemiological mental-hygienic surveys related to life style and social status).

  15. Revelations from a meta database system on environmental health problems.

    PubMed

    Simon, P; Ménesi, L; Fekete, A; Varga, G

    1995-01-01

    workstation modules of experts and research institutions may be linked to the meta database. Information property created as a result of special analysis and annotation might create a knowledge basis for free access by participants. Thus not only would their scientific backgrounds be strengthened, but services would also be provided by the meta database which could be diversified continuously. The satellite systems, the sorting and retrieval functions of the database, and its graphical services would provide a loose but flexible micro-computer system that could be linked together by autonomous or networked workstations. Our system is written on FoxPro and uses FoxGraph. At a medium level of capacity, it requires 1 MB free RAM and 14-16 MB fixed memory. The system already shows a certain specialization: the 'PubHealth' system from general issues of environmental health care leans towards problems related to sub-toxic long term effects and correlations to health insurance risk assessment (cost-benefit, risk-benefit analysis). However, new issues are also emerging when experts wish foremost to utilize the philosophy of the system (e.g., epidemiological mental-hygienic surveys related to life style and social status). PMID:8591279

  16. Learning as the Construction and Re-Mediation of Activity Systems: Environmental Management in Biogas Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira Querol, Marco A.; Suutari, Timo; Seppanen, Laura

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present theoretical tools for understanding the dynamics of change and learning during the emergence and development of environmental management activities. The methodology consists of a historical analysis of a case of biogas production that took place in the Southwest region of Finland. The theoretical tools used…

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: INNOVATIVE MEASURES FOR SUBSURFACE CHROMIUM REMEDIATION: SOURCE ZONE, CONCENTRATED PLUME, AND DILUTE PLUME.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This environmental research brief reports on innovative measures for addressing 1) the source zone soils, 2) the concentrated portion of the ground-water plume, and 3) the dilute portion of the ground-water plume. For the source zone, surfactant-enhanced chromium extraction is ev...

  18. Using Heavy Metal Content and Lipid Peroxidation Indicators in the Tissues of the Mussel Crenomytilus grayanus for Pollution Assessment After Marine Environmental Remediation.

    PubMed

    Belcheva, Nina; Istomina, Alexandra; Dovzhenko, Nadezhda; Lishavskaya, Tatiana; Chelomin, Victor

    2015-10-01

    We examined the effects of environmental remediation on the heavy metal concentration and lipid peroxidation activity in the digestive gland and gills of the marine mussel Crenomytilus grayanus. Changes in heavy metal concentrations and lipid peroxidation biomarkers in the tissues of mussels collected at a contaminated site were compared with those obtained from a reference site. Prior to remediation the concentration of Pb, Cu, Cd, Fe and Zn and the levels of malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes and lipofuscin in mussels collected from the contaminated site were significantly increased compared with those obtained from the reference site. Three years after remediation, these parameters did not significantly exceed the reference site parameters, except Pb, whose concentration, though markedly decreased, yet was much higher than in tissues of mussels from the reference site.

  19. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the uranium mill tailings remedial action ground water project. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This programmatic environmental impact statement (PElS) was prepared for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Ground Water Project to comply with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). This PElS provides an analysis of the potential impacts of the alternatives and ground water compliance strategies as well as potential cumulative impacts. On November 8, 1978, Congress enacted the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law, codified at 42 USC §7901 et seq. Congress found that uranium mill tailings " ... may pose a potential and significant radiation health hazard to the public, and that every reasonable effort should be made to provide for stabilization, disposal, and control in a safe, and environmentally sound manner of such tailings in order to prevent or minimize other environmental hazards from such tailings." Congress authorized the Secretary of Energy to designate inactive uranium processing sites for remedial action by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Congress also directed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to set the standards to be followed by the DOE for this process of stabilization, disposal, and control. On January 5, 1983, EPA published standards (40 CFR Part 192) for the disposal and cleanup of residual radioactive materials. On September 3, 1985, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit set aside and remanded to EPA the ground water provisions of the standards. The EPA proposed new standards to replace remanded sections and changed other sections of 40 CFR Part 192. These proposed standards were published in the Federal Register on September 24, 1987 (52 FR 36000). Section 108 of the UMTRCA requires that DOE comply with EPA's proposed standards in the absence of final standards. The Ground Water Project was planned under the proposed standards. On January 11, 1995, EPA published the final rule, with which the DOE must now comply. The PElS and the Ground Water Project are in

  20. Environmental remediation and superhydrophilicity of ultrafine antibacterial tungsten oxide-based nanofibers under visible light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srisitthiratkul, Chutima; Yaipimai, Wittaya; Intasanta, Varol

    2012-10-01

    Fabrication of nanosilver-decorated WO3 nanofibers was successfully performed. First, deposition of nanosilver onto electrospun WO3 nanofibers' surface was done via photoreduction of silver ion under visible or UV light. The resulting hybrid nanofibers not only revealed antibacterial characteristics but also maintained their photocatalytic performance towards methylene blue decomposition. Unexpectedly, the nanofibrous layers prepared from these nanofibers showed superhydrophilicity under a visible light source. The nanofibers might be advantageous in environmental and hygienic nanofiltration under natural light sources, where the self-cleaning characteristics could be valuable in maintenance processes.

  1. Ex-Situ Remediation Technologies for Environmental Pollutants: A Critical Perspective.

    PubMed

    Kuppusamy, Saranya; Palanisami, Thavamani; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Pollution and the global health impacts from toxic environmental pollutants are presently of great concern. At present, more than 100 million people are at risk from exposure to a plethora of toxic organic and inorganic pollutants. This review is an exploration of the ex-situ technologies for cleaning-up the contaminated soil, groundwater and air emissions, highlighting their principles, advantages, deficiencies and the knowledge gaps. Challenges and strategies for removing different types of contaminants, mainly heavy metals and priority organic pollutants, are also described.

  2. A Study towards Views of Teacher Candidates about National and Global Environmental Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alagoz, Bulent; Akman, Ozkan

    2016-01-01

    In this research, determination of primary school, social studies and mathematics candidate teachers' awareness and susceptibility levels about environmental problems, solution suggestions about these problems, activities used in environmental education and views about environmental education were targeted. Sample of this research comprised of 449…

  3. Engineering of air-stable Fe/C/Pd composite nanoparticles for environmental remediation applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haham, Hai; Grinblat, Judith; Sougrati, Moulay-Tahar; Stievano, Lorenzo; Margel, Shlomo

    2015-09-01

    The present manuscript presents a convenient method for the synthesis of iron/carbon (Fe/C) nanoparticles (NPs) coated with much smaller Pd NPs for the removal of halogenated organic pollutants. For this purpose, iron oxide/polyvinylpyrrolidone (IO/PVP) NPs were first prepared by the thermal decomposition of ferrocene mixed with PVP at 350 °C under an inert atmosphere. IO,Fe/C and Fe/C NPs coated with graphitic and amorphous carbon layers were then produced by annealing the IO/PVP NPs at 500 and 600 °C, respectively, under an inert atmosphere. The effect of the annealing temperature on the chemical composition, shape, crystallinity, surface area and magnetic properties of the IO/PVP, IO,Fe/C and Fe/C NPs has been elucidated. Air-stable Fe/C/Pd NPs were produced by mixing the precursor palladium acetate with the air-stable Fe/C NPs in ethanol. The obtained Fe/C/Pd NPs demonstrated significantly higher environmental activity than the Fe/C NPs on eosin Y, a model halogenated organic pollutant. The environmental activity of the Fe/C/Pd NPs also increased with their increasing Pd content.

  4. Fundamental base closure environmental principles

    SciTech Connect

    Yim, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    Military base closures present a paradox. The rate, scale and timing of military base closures is historically unique. However, each base itself typically does not present unique problems. Thus, the challenge is to design innovative solutions to base redevelopment and remediation issues, while simultaneously adopting common, streamlined or pre-approved strategies to shared problems. The author presents six environmental principles that are fundamental to base closure. They are: remediation not clean up; remediation will impact reuse; reuse will impact remediation; remediation and reuse must be coordinated; environmental contamination must be evaluated as any other initial physical constraint on development, not as an overlay after plans are created; and remediation will impact development, financing and marketability.

  5. Environmental impact of phosphogypsum stockpile in remediated Schistos waste site (Piraeus, Greece) using a combination of γ-ray spectrometry with geographic information systems.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, F; Godelitsas, A; Mertzimekis, T J; Xanthos, S; Voulgaris, N; Katsantonis, G

    2016-03-01

    From 1979 to 1989, ten million tons of phosphogypsum, a waste by-product of the Greek phosphate fertilizer industry, was disposed into an abandoned limestone quarry in Schistos former waste site, Piraeus (Greece). The quarry has been recently closed and remediated using geomembranes and thick soil cover with vegetation. A part of the deposited phosphogypsum has been exposed due to intense rainfall episodes leading to concerns about how could potentially released radioactivity affect the surrounding environment. This study seeks to assess the environmental impact of the phosphogypsum deposited in the Schistos quarry, using laboratory-based γ-ray spectrometry measurements and geographical information systems. Radioactivity concentrations were mapped onto spatial-data to yield a spatial-distribution of radioactivity in the area. The data indicate elevated (226)Ra concentrations in a specific area on the steep south-eastern cliff of the remediated waste site that comprises uncovered phosphogypsum and is known to be affected by local weather conditions. (226)Ra concentrations range from 162 to 629 Bq/kg, with an average activity being on the low side, compared to the global averages for phosphogypsum. Nevertheless, the low environmental risk may be minimized by remediating this area with geomembranes and thick soil cover with vegetation, a technique, which has worked successfully over the remainder of the remediated quarry.

  6. Environmental impact of phosphogypsum stockpile in remediated Schistos waste site (Piraeus, Greece) using a combination of γ-ray spectrometry with geographic information systems.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, F; Godelitsas, A; Mertzimekis, T J; Xanthos, S; Voulgaris, N; Katsantonis, G

    2016-03-01

    From 1979 to 1989, ten million tons of phosphogypsum, a waste by-product of the Greek phosphate fertilizer industry, was disposed into an abandoned limestone quarry in Schistos former waste site, Piraeus (Greece). The quarry has been recently closed and remediated using geomembranes and thick soil cover with vegetation. A part of the deposited phosphogypsum has been exposed due to intense rainfall episodes leading to concerns about how could potentially released radioactivity affect the surrounding environment. This study seeks to assess the environmental impact of the phosphogypsum deposited in the Schistos quarry, using laboratory-based γ-ray spectrometry measurements and geographical information systems. Radioactivity concentrations were mapped onto spatial-data to yield a spatial-distribution of radioactivity in the area. The data indicate elevated (226)Ra concentrations in a specific area on the steep south-eastern cliff of the remediated waste site that comprises uncovered phosphogypsum and is known to be affected by local weather conditions. (226)Ra concentrations range from 162 to 629 Bq/kg, with an average activity being on the low side, compared to the global averages for phosphogypsum. Nevertheless, the low environmental risk may be minimized by remediating this area with geomembranes and thick soil cover with vegetation, a technique, which has worked successfully over the remainder of the remediated quarry. PMID:26837381

  7. Magnetite and zero-valent iron nanoparticles for the remediation of uranium contaminated environmental water.

    PubMed

    Crane, R A; Dickinson, M; Popescu, I C; Scott, T B

    2011-04-01

    The current work presents a comparative and site specific study for the application of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nano-Fe(0)) and magnetite nanoparticles (nano-Fe(3)O(4)) for the removal of U from carbonate-rich environmental water taken from the Lişava valley, Banat, Romania. Nanoparticles were introduced to the Lişava water under surface and deep aquifer oxygen conditions, with a U(VI)-only solution studied as a simple system comparator. Thebatch systems were analysed over an 84 day reaction period, during which the liquid and nanoparticulate solids were periodically sampled to determine chemical evolution of the solutions and particulates. Results indicated that U was removed by all nano-Fe(0) systems to <10 μg L(-1) (>98% removal) within 2 h of reaction, below EPA and WHO specified drinking water regulations. Similar U concentrations were maintained until approximately 48 h. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of the nanoparticulate solids confirmed partial chemical reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) concurrent with Fe oxidation. In contrast, nano-Fe(3)O(4) failed to achieve >20% U removal from the Lişava water. Whilst the outer surface of both the nano-Fe(0) and nano-Fe(3)O(4) was initially near-stoichiometric magnetite, the greater performance exhibited by nano-Fe(0) is attributed to the presence of a Fe(0) core for enhanced aqueous reactivity, sufficient to achieve near-total removal of aqueous U despite any competing reactions within the carbonate-rich Lişava water. Over extended reaction periods (>1 week) the chemically simple U(VI)-only solution treated using nano-Fe(0) exhibited near-complete and maintained U removal. In contrast, appreciable U re-release was recorded for the Lişava water solutions treated using nano-Fe(0). This behaviour is attributed to the high stability of U in the presence of ligands (predominantly carbonate) within the Lişava water, inducing preferential re-release to the aqueous phase during nano-Fe(0) corrosion. The

  8. Eco-friendly synthesis of metal dichalcogenides nanosheets and their environmental remediation potential driven by visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Ashish Kumar; Lakshmi, K. V.; Huang, Liping

    2015-10-01

    Exfoliated transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) such as WS2 and MoS2 have shown exciting potential for energy storage, catalysis and optoelectronics. So far, solution based methods for scalable production of few-layer TMDs usually involve the use of organic solvents or dangerous chemicals. Here, we report an eco-friendly method for facile synthesis of few-layer WS2 and MoS2 nanosheets using dilute aqueous solution of household detergent. Short time sonication of varying amount of bulk samples in soapy water was used to scale up the production of nanosheets. Thermal stability, optical absorption and Raman spectra of as-synthesized WS2 and MoS2 nanosheets are in close agreement with those from other synthesis techniques. Efficient photocatalytic activity of TMDs nanosheets was demonstrated by decomposing Brilliant Green dye in aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. Our study shows the great potential of TMDs nanosheets for environmental remediation by degrading toxic industrial chemicals in wastewater using sunlight.

  9. High performance computing equipment for environmental remediation modeling and first principles simulation of materials properties. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Glimm, J.; Lindquist, W.B.

    1994-08-01

    A 56-node Intel Paragon parallel computer was purchased with major support provided by this grant, and installed in July, 1993, in the Center for Scientific Computing, Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, SUNY - Stony Brook. The targeted research funded by this proposal consists of work to support the Stony Brook and Brookhaven National Laboratory contributions to the Partnership in Computational Science (PICS) program; namely environmental remediation modeling of ground water transport, Car-Parrinello first principles molecular dynamics calculations, and the supporting development of the parallelized VolVis graphics package. Research accomplishments to date for this targeted research is discussed in {section}2. This computer has also enabled or enhanced many other projects conducted both by the Center for Scientific Computing and by the Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics. These other projects include two- and three-dimensional gas dynamics using front tracking, other molecular dynamics applications, kidney modeling, and global optimization techniques applied to DNA-protein interactions. Technical summaries of these additional projects are presented in {section}3. The targeted research includes users from the Departments of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science at SUNY - Stony Brook, as well as staff scientists from the Departments of Physics and Applied Sciences at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The additional projects involve university faculty from the above departments as well as the Departments of Physics and Chemistry. Regular users of this machine currently include 10 faculty members, 8 postdoctoral fellows, more that 12 PhD students and approximately 8 staff members from BNL.

  10. Eco-friendly synthesis of metal dichalcogenides nanosheets and their environmental remediation potential driven by visible light.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ashish Kumar; Lakshmi, K V; Huang, Liping

    2015-01-01

    Exfoliated transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) such as WS2 and MoS2 have shown exciting potential for energy storage, catalysis and optoelectronics. So far, solution based methods for scalable production of few-layer TMDs usually involve the use of organic solvents or dangerous chemicals. Here, we report an eco-friendly method for facile synthesis of few-layer WS2 and MoS2 nanosheets using dilute aqueous solution of household detergent. Short time sonication of varying amount of bulk samples in soapy water was used to scale up the production of nanosheets. Thermal stability, optical absorption and Raman spectra of as-synthesized WS2 and MoS2 nanosheets are in close agreement with those from other synthesis techniques. Efficient photocatalytic activity of TMDs nanosheets was demonstrated by decomposing Brilliant Green dye in aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. Our study shows the great potential of TMDs nanosheets for environmental remediation by degrading toxic industrial chemicals in wastewater using sunlight. PMID:26503125

  11. Three dimensional graphene based materials: Synthesis and applications from energy storage and conversion to electrochemical sensor and environmental remediation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hou; Yuan, Xingzhong; Zeng, Guangming; Wu, Yan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Qian; Gu, Shansi

    2015-07-01

    With superior electrical/thermal conductivities and mechanical properties, two dimensional (2D) graphene has become one of the most intensively explored carbon allotropes in materials science. To exploit the inherent properties fully, 2D graphene sheets are often fabricated or assembled into functional architectures (e.g. hydrogels, aerogels) with desired three dimensional (3D) interconnected porous microstructures. The 3D graphene based materials show many excellent characteristics including increased active material per projected area, accessible mass transport or storage, electro/thermo conductivity, chemical/electrochemical stability and flexibility. It has paved the way for practical requirements in electronics, adsorption as well as catalysis related system. This review shows an extensive overview of the main principles and the recent synthetic technologies about fabricating various innovative 3D graphene based materials. Subsequently, recent progresses in electrochemical energy devices (lithium/lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, fuel cells and solar cells) and hydrogen energy generation/storage are explicitly discussed. The up to date advances for pollutants detection and environmental remediation are also reviewed. Finally, challenges and outlooks in materials development for energy and environment are suggested.

  12. Environmental summary of the F- and H-area seepage basins groundwater remediation project, Savannah River site

    SciTech Connect

    Friday, G.P.

    1997-12-31

    This report summarizes the results of nearly 70 investigations of the baseline environment, describes the remedial action, and identifies constituents of interest that pose potential risk to human health and the environment. It also proposes an approach for evaluating the effectiveness of the remedial action.

  13. Streamlined environmental remediation characterization using remote sensing techniques: Case studies for the US Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Carden, D.M.; Smyre, J.L.; Evers, T.K.; King, A.L.

    1996-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Remote Sensing Program and discusses how data from this program have assisted the environmental restoration program in streamlining site-characterization activities. Three case studies are described where remote sensing imagery has provided a more focused understanding of site problems with a resultant reduction in the need for costly and time-consuming, ground-based sampling approaches.

  14. The importance of natural history and research collections to environmental reconstruction and remediation, and the establishment of shifting baselines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roopnarine, P. D.; Anderson, L.; Roopnarine, D.; Gillikin, D. P.; Leal, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Earth's environments are changing more rapidly today than at almost any time in the Phanerozoic. These changes are driven by human activities, and include climate change, landscape alteration, fragmentation and destruction, environmental pollution, species overexploitation, and invasive species. The rapidity of the changes challenges our best efforts to document what is changing, how it has changed, and what has been lost. Central to these efforts, therefore, is the proper documentation, archiving and curation of past environments. Natural history and other research collections form the core of this documentation, and have proven vital to recent studies of environmental change. Those collections are, however, generally under-utilized and under-appreciated by the general research community. Also, their utility is hampered by insufficient availability of the data, and the very nature of what has been collected in the past. Past collections emphasized a typological approach, placing emphasis on individual specimens and diversity, whether geological or biological, while what is needed today is greater emphasis on archiving entire environments. The concept of shifting baselines establishes that even on historical time scales, the notion of what constitutes an unaltered environment is biased by a lack of documentation and understanding of environments in the recent past. Baselines are necessary, however, for the proper implementation of mitigating procedures, for environmental restoration or remediation, and for predicting the near-term future. Here we present results from a study of impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH) on the American oyster Crassostrea virginica. Natural history collections of specimens from the Gulf and elsewhere have been crucial to this effort, and serve as an example of how important such collections are to current events. We are examining the effects of spill exposure on shell growth and tissue development, as well as the potential

  15. Environmental Policies and Problems in Japan, China, and Hong Kong: Travel Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Therivel, Riki; Wrisberg, Mette

    1988-01-01

    Compared are some of the environmental planning policies and developmental policies of three regions of the Far East. Discusses the relationship between social structures and environmental problems such as pollution, erosion, waste disposal, and the uses of technology. (CW)

  16. Perils of categorical thinking: "Oxic/anoxic" conceptual model in environmental remediation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Given ambient atmospheric oxygen concentrations of about 21 percent (by volume), the lower limit for reliable quantitation of dissolved oxygen concentrations in groundwater samples is in the range of 0.1–0.5 mg/L. Frameworks for assessing in situ redox condition are often applied using a simple two-category (oxic/anoxic) model of oxygen condition. The "oxic" category defines the environmental range in which dissolved oxygen concentrations are clearly expected to impact contaminant biodegradation, either by supporting aerobic biodegradation of electron-donor contaminants like petroleum hydrocarbons or by inhibiting anaerobic biodegradation of electron-acceptor contaminants like chloroethenes. The tendency to label the second category "anoxic" leads to an invalid assumption that oxygen is insignificant when, in fact, the dissolved oxygen concentration is less than detection but otherwise unknown. Expressing dissolved oxygen concentrations as numbers of molecules per volume, dissolved oxygen concentrations that fall below the 0.1 mg/L field detection limit range from 1 to 1017 molecules/L. In light of recent demonstrations of substantial oxygen-linked biodegradation of chloroethene contaminants at dissolved oxygen concentrations well below the 0.1–0.5 mg/L field detection limit, characterizing "less than detection" oxygen concentrations as "insignificant" is invalid.

  17. Environmental Impacts of Metal Cladding Operations and Remedial Measures: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, P. P.; Sawmliana, C.; Singh, R. K.

    2014-04-01

    In metal cladding operations, a mixture of 11 % TNT flakes, 44 % ammonium nitrate (non-explosive) and 45 % dehydrated salt (non-explosive) are mixed uniformly to produce an explosive mixture with velocity of detonation 1,800-2,000 m/s. To study the environmental impacts of such operations which led to serious complaints from neighbouring villagers and even closure of some units, a study was carried out to investigate the levels of ground vibration, air overpressure and noise generated by blasting operations of different explosive charge quantities during the metal cladding operations and their impacts on the surrounding villages. Following the safety norms of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB, Model Rules of the Factories Act on Noise Pollution Control) [1] and Directorate General of Mines Safety (DGMS, Damage to the structures due to blast induced ground vibration in the mining areas) [2] of India, generalised guidelines for such safe operations were framed. This paper describes the operational aspects of metal cladding, experimental results and scientific analyses of data to propose certain guidelines for safe metal cladding operations.

  18. The effect of environmental remediation on the cesium-137 levels in white-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Rispoli, Fred J; Green, Timothy; Fasano, Thomas A; Shah, Vishal

    2014-10-01

    Due to activities involving nuclear energy research during the latter half of the 1900 s, environmental contamination in the form of elevated cesium-137 levels was observed within the Brookhaven National Laboratory, a US Department of Energy facility. Between the years 2000 and 2005, the laboratory carried out a major soil cleanup effort to remove cesium-137 from contaminated sites. In this study, we examine the effectiveness of the cleanup effort by comparing the levels of cesium-137 in the meat of white-tailed deer found within and around the laboratory. Results suggest that the cleanup was effective, with mean concentration of cesium-137 in the meat from within the laboratory decreasing from 2.04 Bq/g prior to 1.22 Bq/g after cleanup. At the current level, the consumption of deer would not pose any human health hazard. Nevertheless, statistically higher levels of cesium-137 were detected in the deer within the laboratory as opposed to levels found in deer 1 mi beyond the laboratory site.

  19. Highly-selective and Regenerable Ion Exchange for Perchlorate Remediation, Recovery, and Environmental Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, B.; Brown, G.

    2007-12-01

    Perchlorate (ClO4-) has recently emerged as a widespread contaminant found in drinking water and groundwater supplies in the United States and is known to disrupt thyroid function by inhibiting iodide uptake. Among various treatment technologies, the highly-selective and regenerable ion-exchange technology has recently been developed at ORNL for removing ClO4- from contaminated water. The selective ion exchange technology relies on a unique, highly specific resin to trap ClO4- from contaminated water. The treatment system is then regenerated and perchlorate is destroyed. The reaction that destroys ClO4- produces Cl- and Fe(III) that are used to regenerate the resin, resulting in practically zero secondary waste production. In comparison with conventional non-selective ion-exchange technology, this new treatment process is expected to result in not only a reduced O&M cost but also the elimination of the disposal of hazardous wastes containing perchlorate. Additionally, the selective and regenerable ion exchange technology has allowed the quantitative recovery of perchlorate from contaminated water for reuse, or from other environmental matrices such as sediment, groundwater, and salt deposits for perchlorate isotopic and source identification. Naturally-forming perchlorate has been found to contain distinct oxygen and chlorine isotope signatures or anomalies as compared with anthropogenic perchlorate and can thus provide unambiguous identification of the sources of perchlorate contamination as a powerful tool for the forensics of perchlorate in the environment.

  20. Environmental enrichment and the sensory brain: the role of enrichment in remediating brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Alwis, Dasuni S.; Rajan, Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    The brain's life-long capacity for experience-dependent plasticity allows adaptation to new environments or to changes in the environment, and to changes in internal brain states such as occurs in brain damage. Since the initial discovery by Hebb (1947) that environmental enrichment (EE) was able to confer improvements in cognitive behavior, EE has been investigated as a powerful form of experience-dependent plasticity. Animal studies have shown that exposure to EE results in a number of molecular and morphological alterations, which are thought to underpin changes in neuronal function and ultimately, behavior. These consequences of EE make it ideally suited for investigation into its use as a potential therapy after neurological disorders, such as traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this review, we aim to first briefly discuss the effects of EE on behavior and neuronal function, followed by a review of the underlying molecular and structural changes that account for EE-dependent plasticity in the normal (uninjured) adult brain. We then extend this review to specifically address the role of EE in the treatment of experimental TBI, where we will discuss the demonstrated sensorimotor and cognitive benefits associated with exposure to EE, and their possible mechanisms. Finally, we will explore the use of EE-based rehabilitation in the treatment of human TBI patients, highlighting the remaining questions regarding the effects of EE. PMID:25228861

  1. The effect of environmental remediation on the cesium-137 levels in white-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Rispoli, Fred J; Green, Timothy; Fasano, Thomas A; Shah, Vishal

    2014-10-01

    Due to activities involving nuclear energy research during the latter half of the 1900 s, environmental contamination in the form of elevated cesium-137 levels was observed within the Brookhaven National Laboratory, a US Department of Energy facility. Between the years 2000 and 2005, the laboratory carried out a major soil cleanup effort to remove cesium-137 from contaminated sites. In this study, we examine the effectiveness of the cleanup effort by comparing the levels of cesium-137 in the meat of white-tailed deer found within and around the laboratory. Results suggest that the cleanup was effective, with mean concentration of cesium-137 in the meat from within the laboratory decreasing from 2.04 Bq/g prior to 1.22 Bq/g after cleanup. At the current level, the consumption of deer would not pose any human health hazard. Nevertheless, statistically higher levels of cesium-137 were detected in the deer within the laboratory as opposed to levels found in deer 1 mi beyond the laboratory site. PMID:25028321

  2. In Situ Remediation Integrated Program: Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) was instituted out of recognition that in situ remediation could fulfill three important criteria: significant cost reduction of cleanup by eliminating or minimizing excavation, transportation, and disposal of wastes; reduced health impacts on workers and the public by minimizing exposure to wastes during excavation and processing; and remediation of inaccessible sites, including: deep subsurfaces, in, under, and around buildings. Buried waste, contaminated soils and groundwater, and containerized wastes are all candidates for in situ remediation. Contaminants include radioactive wastes, volatile and non-volatile organics, heavy metals, nitrates, and explosive materials. The ISR IP intends to facilitate development of in situ remediation technologies for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes in soils, groundwater, and storage tanks. Near-term focus is on containment of the wastes, with treatment receiving greater effort in future years. ISR IP is an applied research and development program broadly addressing known DOE environmental restoration needs. Analysis of a sample of 334 representative sites by the Office of Environmental Restoration has shown how many sites are amenable to in situ remediation: containment--243 sites; manipulation--244 sites; bioremediation--154 sites; and physical/chemical methods--236 sites. This needs assessment is focused on near-term restoration problems (FY93--FY99). Many other remediations will be required in the next century. The major focus of the ISR EP is on the long term development of permanent solutions to these problems. Current needs for interim actions to protect human health and the environment are also being addressed.

  3. Helping Young Students to Better Pose an Environmental Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruneau, Diane; Freiman, Viktor; Barbier, Pierre-Yves; Langis, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    Grade 3 students were asked to solve a sedimentation problem in a local river. With scientists, students explored many aspects of the problem and proposed solutions. Graphic representation tools were used to help students to better pose the problem. Using questionnaires and interviews, researchers observed students' capacity to pose the problem…

  4. Phase Transfer of Palladized Nanoscale Zerovalent Iron for Environmental Remediation of Trichloroethene.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Sourjya; Ghoshal, Subhasis

    2016-08-16

    Palladium-doped nanoscale zerovalent iron (Pd-NZVI) has been shown to degrade environmental contaminants such as trichloroethene (TCE) to benign end-products through aqueous phase reactions. In this study we show that rhamnolipid (biosurfactant)-coated Pd-NZVI (RL-Pd-NZVI) when reacted with TCE in a 1-butanol organic phase with limited amounts of water results in 50% more TCE mass degradation per unit mass of Pd-NZVI, with a 4-fold faster degradation rate (kobs of 0.413 day(-1) in butanol organic phase versus 0.099 day(-1) in aqueous phase). RL-Pd-NZVI is preferentially suspended in water in biphasic organic liquid-water systems because of its hydrophilic nature. We demonstrate herein for the first time that their rapid phase transfer to a butanol/TCE organic phase can be achieved by adding NaCl and creating water-in-oil emulsions in the organic phase. The significant enhancement in reactivity is caused by a higher electron release (3e(-) per mole of Fe(0)) from Pd-NZVI in the butanol organic phase compared to the same reaction with TCE in the aqueous phase (2e(-) per mole of Fe(0)). XPS characterization studies of Pd-NZVI show Fe(0) oxidation to Fe(III) oxides for Pd-NZVI reacted with TCE in the butanol organic phase compared to Fe(II) oxides in the aqueous phase, which accounted for differences in the TCE reactivity extents and rates observed in the two phases. PMID:27377979

  5. [Feasibility of applying ornamental plants in contaminated soil remediation].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia-Nü; Zhou, Qi-Xing; Sun, Ting; Wang, Xiao-Fei

    2007-07-01

    Phytoremediation is one of the effective ways in resolving problems of contaminated soils, but limited hyperaccumulation plant species were reported and documented. This shortage could be offset if remediation plants can be screened out from various ornamental plants. In addition, such doing can beautify the environment while bring some economic effects. Starting from the importance of phytoremediation, this paper generalized the characters and standards of remediation plants. Through describing the resources of ornamental plants and their functions on environmental protection, particularizing their superiorities to other plants, and analyzing their endurance, accumulation traits and remediation types, the feasibility of applying ornamental plants in the practices of contaminated soil remediation was discussed. To screening out hyperaccumulators from ornamental plants would be an entirely new research area in the remediation of contaminated soils.

  6. GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION SOLUTIONS AT HANFORD

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmore, Tyler J.; Truex, Michael J.; Williams, Mark D.

    2007-02-26

    In 2006, Congress provided funding to the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) to study new technologies that could be used to treat contamination from the Hanford Site that might impact the Columbia River. The contaminants of concern are primarily metals and radionuclides, which are byproducts of Hanford’s cold war mission to produce plutonium for atomic weapons. The DOE asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to consider this problem and develop approaches to address the contamination that threatens the river. DOE identified three high priority sites that had groundwater contamination migrating towards the Columbia river for remediation. The contaminants included strontium-90, uranium and chromium. Remediation techniques for metals and radionuclides focus primarily on altering the oxidation state of the contaminant chemically or biologically, isolating the contaminants from the environment through adsorption or encapsulation or concentrating the contaminants for removal. A natural systems approach was taken that uses a mass balance concept to frame the problem and determine the most appropriate remedial approach. This approach provides for a scientifically based remedial decision. The technologies selected to address these contaminants included an apatite adsorption barrier coupled with a phytoremediation to address the strontium-90 contamination, injection of polyphosphate into the subsurface to sequester uranium, and a bioremediation approach to reduce chromium contamination in the groundwater. The ability to provide scientifically based approaches is in large part due to work developed under previous DOE Office of Science and Office of Environmental Management projects. For example, the polyphosphate and the bioremediation techniques, were developed by PNNL under the EMSP and NABIR programs. Contaminated groundwater under the Hanford Site poses a potential risk to humans and the Columbia River. These new technologies holds great promise for

  7. SEMINAR PUBLICATION: MANAGING ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS AT INACTIVE AND ABANDONED METALS MINE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental problems associated with abandoned and inactive mines are addressed along with some approaches to resolving those problems, including case studies demonstrating technologies that have worked. New technologies being investigated are addressed also.

  8. Environmental remediation through sequestration of airfall-derived metals contamination by selective revegetation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahagian, D.; Peters, S.; Yasko, G.

    2006-12-01

    Industrial activities in the 20th century left a legacy of contaminated air, water, and soils. The relative environmental enlightenment of the 21st century has already led to reductions in pollution sources, and has improved air and surface water quality in many areas. However, the residence time of contaminants in soils can be lengthy, presenting a challenge to 21st century restoration of impacted ecosystems and communities. The present study is centered on the Borough of Palmerton, PA, and a broad region of adjacent communities that were affected by two zinc smelters that operated continuously for more than 80 years, emitting thousands of tons of heavy metals including zinc, cadmium, lead and arsenic. While the air quality has vastly improved since the closure of the zinc smelters, the community remains adversely affected by the ecological damage caused by the pollution. The north face of the Kittatiny ridge was completely denuded of vegetation from the high metals concentrations. The region suffers further due to the ongoing perception of contaminated soils and water, leaving the town and surrounding areas economically depressed. In this study, we are examining the impact of revegetation strategies, particularly those using warm season grasses to determine which species survive and indeed thrive in the metals-contaminated soils. Because of the large areal extent and locally steep slopes in the broad area of concern, removal of metals from the entire region is impractical. It is considered more effective to sequester the metals in the soil so that they do not leach into the rivers, or enter the food web. Vegetation that absorbs and transports the metals throughout its tissues would mobilize these pollutants into the food web as well as make the metals available to reach the river via leaves and other vegetative structures. In this study, we are monitoring the uptake of metals by test grasses and other plants that are colonizing the contaminated area, as well as

  9. Students As Environmental Consultants Simulating Life Science Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Megan; Zydney, Janet Mannheimer

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a project in which eighth graders at East Side Middle School in New York City used an interactive multimedia program called "Pollution Solution" in a science unit on environmental pollution. Students assumed the role of environmental consultants working at fictional corporations which were being investigated for violation…

  10. Regional environmental analysis and management: New techniques for current problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honea, R. B.; Paludan, C. T. N.

    1974-01-01

    Advances in data acquisition and processing procedures for regional environmental analysis are discussed. Automated and semi-automated techniques employing Earth Resources Technology Satellite data and conventional data sources are presented. Experiences are summarized. The ERTS computer compatible tapes provide a very complete and flexible record of earth resources data and represent a viable medium to enhance regional environmental analysis research.

  11. Niagara Falls Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, 1397 Pletcher Road, Lewiston, New York. Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) and provides the results for 1992. From 1944 to the present, the primary use of NFSS has been storage of radioactive residues produced as a by-product of uranium production. All onsite areas of residual radioactivity above guidelines have been remediated. Materials generated during remediation are stored onsite in the 4-ha (10-acre) waste containment structure (WCS). The WCS is a clay-lined, clay-capped, and grass-covered storage pile. The environmental surveillance program at NFSS includes sampling networks for radon concentrations in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and total uranium and radium-226 concentrations in surface water, sediments, and groundwater. Several chemical parameters, including seven metals, are also routinely measured in groundwater. This surveillance program assists in fulfilling the DOE policy of measuring and monitoring effluents from DOE activities and calculating hypothetical doses. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other DOE requirements. Results of environmental monitoring during 1992 indicate that levels of the parameters measured were in compliance with all but one requirement: Concentrations of iron and manganese in groundwater were above NYSDEC groundwater quality standards. However, these elements occur naturally in the soils and groundwater associated with this region. In 1992 there were no environmental occurrences or reportable quantity releases.

  12. Ecotoxicological and environmental problems associated with the former chemical plant in Tarnowskie Gory, Poland.

    PubMed

    Malina, Grzegorz

    2004-12-15

    The environmental problems related to the former chemical plant in Tarnowskie Gory, with respect to the Quaternary and Triassic groundwater as main receptors, are described and the eco-toxicological impact is discussed. The historical use of that site included industrial mining of ores (Ag, Pb, Zn) and use of Ba, B, Sr, Al, Cu during production of pigment. The majority of used and produced substances were toxic or hazardous. The applied technologies resulted in generation of waste which were mostly dumped without any elementary protection principles. Hydrodynamic modelling showed potential hazard to water-intakes. The variations of spatial distributions of selected contaminants within the Triassic carbonate series indicate that the chemical waste dumped in vicinity of the plant are the sources of groundwater contamination of boron. The results of soil and groundwater monitoring at the constructed landfill show significant contamination, mainly due to leaching from dumped waste, but also from infiltration of non-operating underground installations, and spills of toxic substances during the plant operation. The Quaternary aquifers are heavily contaminated due to the leaching out of chemical compounds from dumping sites. This is hazardous to the Triassic reservoirs--the main sources of potable water for the region. The characteristics of the key contaminants (As, B, Ba and Sr) are provided, including their transport, fate and toxicity. The spatial and temporal distribution of contaminants in groundwater is presented, and observed trends of groundwater quality decrease, mainly with respect to the Triassic aquifers, are discussed. The groundwater risk assessment being developed for the Tarnowskie Gory site should consider the present situation, and provide an approach towards evaluation and assessment of the required remediation measures. PMID:15464626

  13. Ecotoxicological and environmental problems associated with the former chemical plant in Tarnowskie Gory, Poland.

    PubMed

    Malina, Grzegorz

    2004-12-15

    The environmental problems related to the former chemical plant in Tarnowskie Gory, with respect to the Quaternary and Triassic groundwater as main receptors, are described and the eco-toxicological impact is discussed. The historical use of that site included industrial mining of ores (Ag, Pb, Zn) and use of Ba, B, Sr, Al, Cu during production of pigment. The majority of used and produced substances were toxic or hazardous. The applied technologies resulted in generation of waste which were mostly dumped without any elementary protection principles. Hydrodynamic modelling showed potential hazard to water-intakes. The variations of spatial distributions of selected contaminants within the Triassic carbonate series indicate that the chemical waste dumped in vicinity of the plant are the sources of groundwater contamination of boron. The results of soil and groundwater monitoring at the constructed landfill show significant contamination, mainly due to leaching from dumped waste, but also from infiltration of non-operating underground installations, and spills of toxic substances during the plant operation. The Quaternary aquifers are heavily contaminated due to the leaching out of chemical compounds from dumping sites. This is hazardous to the Triassic reservoirs--the main sources of potable water for the region. The characteristics of the key contaminants (As, B, Ba and Sr) are provided, including their transport, fate and toxicity. The spatial and temporal distribution of contaminants in groundwater is presented, and observed trends of groundwater quality decrease, mainly with respect to the Triassic aquifers, are discussed. The groundwater risk assessment being developed for the Tarnowskie Gory site should consider the present situation, and provide an approach towards evaluation and assessment of the required remediation measures.

  14. Environmental Technology Verification Report for Instrumentation Northwest, Inc., Aquistar® TempHion Smart Sensor and Datalogger Nitrate-specific Ion-selective Electrode for Groundwater Remediation Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Technology Verification Report for Instrumentation Northwest, Inc., Aquistar® TempHion Smart Sensor and Datalogger Nitrate-specific Ion-selective Electrode for Groundwater Remediation Monitoring

  15. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 13: Part 2, Indexes. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Goins, L.F.; Webb, J.R.; Cravens, C.D.; Mallory, P.K.

    1992-09-01

    This is part 2 of a bibliography on nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial action. This report contains indexes on the following: authors, corporate affiliation, title words, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and key word.

  16. Remedial actions at the former Vitro Rare Metals plant site, Canonsburg, Washington County, Pennsylvania. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-07-01

    The environmental impacts associated with remedial actions in connection with residual radioactive materials remaining at the inactive uranium processing site located in Canonsburg, Washington County, Pennsylvania are evaluated. The Canonsburg site is an 18.5-acre property that was formerly owned by the Vitro Rare Metals Company. The expanded Canonsburg site would be 30-acre property that would include the Canonsburg site (the former Vitro Rare Metals plant), seven adjacent private houses, and the former Georges Pottery property. During the period 1942 through 1957 the Vitro Manufacturing Company and its successor, the Vitro Corporation of America, processed onsite residues and ores, and government-owned ores, concentrates, and scraps to extract uranium and other rare metals. The Canonsburg site is now the Canon Industrial Park. In addition to storing the residual radioactive materials of this process at the Canonsburg site, about 12,000 tons of radioactively contaminated materials were transferred to a railroad landfill in Burrell Township, Indiana County, Pennsylvania. This Canonsburg FEIS evaluates five alternatives for removing the potential public health hazard associated with the radioactively contaminated materials. In addition to no action, these alternatives involve various combinations of stabilization of the radioactively contaminated materials in place or decontamination of the Canonsburg and Burrell sites by removing the radioactively contaminated materials to another location. In addition to the two sites mentioned, a third site located in Hanover Township, Washington County, Pennsylvania has been considered as a disposal site to which the radioactively contaminated materials presently located at either of the other two sites might be moved.

  17. Features and News: Professional Biological Societies and Environmental Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granholm, Nels H.

    1973-01-01

    Presents concrete suggestions regarding the role of individuals and groups within the Division of Invertebrate Zoology (DIZ) of the American Society of Zoologists (ASZ) regarding their contributions toward constructive environmental action. (Author/EB)

  18. Ecological Problem-Based Learning: An Environmental Consulting Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessier, Jack T.

    2004-01-01

    Problem-based learning is becoming a popular and effective approach in Science, as it touted as an effective way to promote active learning and encourage students to develop life long learning skills. The problem-based learning could easily be adapted to the high school level and used as long-term project for a biology laboratory.

  19. Maywood Interim Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, 100 West Hunter Avenue, Maywood, New Jersey. Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Maywood Interim Storage Site (MISS) and provides the results for 1992. Environmental monitoring of MISS began in 1984, when the site was assigned to DOE by Congress through the Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act and was placed under DOE`s Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). FUSRAP was established to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation`s atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. MISS is part of a National Priorities List (NPL) site. The environmental surveillance program at MISS includes sampling networks for radon and thoron in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and radium-226, radium-228, thorium-232, and total uranium in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Additionally, chemical analysis includes metals and organic compounds in surface water and groundwater and metals in sediments. This program assists in fulfilling the DOE objective of measuring and monitoring effluents from DOE activities and calculating hypothetical doses to members of the general public. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other DOE requirements. Environmental standards are established to protect public health and the environment. The radiological data for all media sampled support the conclusion that doses to the public are not distinguishable from natural background radiation.

  20. Colonie Interim Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, 1130 Central Avenue, Colonie, New York. Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS) and provides the results for 1992. The site is located in eastern New York State, approximately 6.4 km (4.0 mi) northwest of downtown Albany. From 1958 to 1984, National Lead (NL) Industries used the facility to manufacture various components from depleted and enriched uranium natural thorium. Environmental monitoring of CISS began in 1984 when Congress added, the site to the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). FUSRAP is a program established to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation`s atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. The environmental surveillance program at CISS includes sampling networks for external gamma radiation exposure and for thorium-232 and total uranium concentrations in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Several chemical parameters are also measured in groundwater, including total metals, volatile organics, and water quality parameters. This surveillance program assists in fulfilling the DOE policy of measuring and monitoring effluents from DOE activities and calculating hypothetical doses. Results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other DOE requirements.

  1. New Brunswick Site annual environmental report for calendar year 1991, New Brunswick, New Jersey. Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    This document describes the environmental monitoring program at the New Brunswick Site (NBS) and surrounding area, implementation of the program, and monitoring results for 1991. The site, near New Brunswick,, New Jersey, is a 5.6-acre vacant, fenced, and grass-covered area. Environmental monitoring of NBS began in 1981 when the site was part of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Surplus Facilities Management Program. In 1990 responsibility for NBS was transferred to the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSP.4P). FUSRAP is a DOE program to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the,early years of the nation`s atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. The environmental monitoring program at NBS includes sampling networks for radon and thoron in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and radium-226, radium-228, thorium-228, thorium-230, thorium-232, americium-241, cesium-137, plutonium-239, and total uranium in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Several nonradiological parameters are also measured in groundwater, surface water, and sediments. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency standards, DOE derived concentration guides, dose limits, and other requirements in DOE orders. Environmental standards are established to protect public health and the environment.

  2. Analysis on the environmental problems accompanying the high-speed urbanization of small towns in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lei; Ge, Jian; Hua, Ying

    2002-01-01

    The environmental problems accompanying the rapid urbanization of many small towns like Keqiao, Shaoxing County of China and their countermeasures are presented. To settle these problems rationally as well as effectively will not only conduce to boost the environmental quality and life quality of cities, but also help to promote the development of regional economy and the realization of sustainable development.

  3. Consumption, Ecological Footprints and Global Inequality: A Lesson in Individual and Structural Components of Environmental Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obach, Brian K.

    2009-01-01

    As evidence of the growing ecological crisis mounts, it is imperative that sociologists speak to this social problem and incorporate a sociological perspective on environmental issues into the curriculum. Central to understanding how social issues relate to environmental problems is an examination of the ties between consumption and its ecological…

  4. Effect of Environmental Education Based on Transformational Learning Theory on Perceptions towards Environmental Problems and Permanency of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uyanik, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine effect of environmental education based on transformational learning theory on primary school teacher candidates' perceptions towards environmental problems and permanency of learning. Pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design have been used in this study. The study group consists of 66 teacher candidates who…

  5. Short-Term Environmental Impacts of Illite Clays When Used As An In SITU Method for Remediating 137Cs-Contaminated Wetland

    SciTech Connect

    KAPLAN, D.I.

    2004-05-17

    Over 1,200 hectares (3,000 acres) of wetlands such as L-Lake; Par Pond; Ponds A, 2, 4, 5, and B; canals; and several creeks (e.g. Steel Creek, Lower Three Runs, and Pen Branch) on the Savannah River Site (SRS) are contaminated with 560 Ci of 137Cs. These environmentally sensitive wetlands pose a significant remediation challenge to the Department of Energy (DOE). A new technology is needed to avoid environmentally destructive remediation. Current muck and truck technologies destroy the sensitive ecosystems, and may increase dose to workers. Because of relatively low amount of clay and weak 137Cs retention capabilities of kaolinite dominant sediments on the SRS, 137Cs has a greater bioavailability here than at any other DOE site. We have previously shown that naturally occurring illite minerals, with a high complexing capability for 137Cs, can sequester 137Cs and reduce its bioavailability when applied to 137Cs contaminated wetlands. Previous research showed that an in situ remediation method using illite minerals reduced 137Cs concentrations in the water 25- to 30-fold, in aquatic plants 3- to 5-fold, and in fish 2- to 3-fold. During this funding period (Fy03) we re-sampled study sites in Pond A and R-Canal that had been treated in 2001 with illite clays. The data revealed that 137Cs concentrations in water are still lower than untreated control sites, some 112 weeks later. This encouraging result indicates that the in situ remediation technique has a longer-term effectiveness than was previously reported. This positive finding occurred despite the study site experiencing a severe drought, as well as flooded conditions during the two-year period. Studies on the in situ application of illite minerals to 137Cs-contaminated wetlands continue to produce positive results. Additional measurements are needed, however, to determine the long-term effectiveness of the technique, and the environmental impacts on parameters not measured in this study. When coupled to earlier

  6. Research on environmental health interventions: ethical problems and solutions.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B; Zeldin, Darryl C; Sharp, Richard R

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews a variety of ethical issues one must consider when conducting research on environmental health interventions on human subjects. The paper uses the Kennedy Krieger Institute lead abatement study as well as a hypothetical asthma study to discuss questions concerning benefits and risks, risk minimization, safety monitoring, the duty to warn, the duty to report, the use of control groups, informed consent, equitable subject selection, privacy, conflicts of interest, and community consultation. Research on environmental health interventions can make an important contribution to our understanding of human health and disease prevention, provided it is conducted in a manner that meets prevailing scientific, ethical, and legal standards for research on human subjects.

  7. Remediation technologies for contaminated sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, L.M.

    1995-09-01

    Although soil and groundwater remediation has been conducted for many years, sediment remediation is still in its infancy. Regulatory agencies are now beginning to identify areas where contaminated sediments exist and evaluate their environmental impact. As these evaluations are completed, the projects must shift focus to how these sediments can be remediated. Also as the criteria for aquatic disposal of dredged sediments become more stringent, remediation technologies must be developed to address contaminated sediments generated by maintenance dredging.This report describes the various issues and possible technologies for sediment remediation.

  8. THERMAL REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thermal remediation is being proposed by Region I for remediation of the overburden soil and groundwater at the Solvent Recovery Services New England Superfund site. This presentation at the public meeting will acquaint area residents with thermal remediation. The two types of ...

  9. Education in Environmental Remote Sensing: Potentials and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiefer, Ralph W.; Lillesand, Thomas M.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses remote sensing principles and applications and the status and needs of remote sensing education in the United States. A summary of the fundamental policy issues that will determine remote sensing's future role in environmental and resource managements is included. (Author/BC)

  10. Moving Toward an Integrated Transdisciplinary Approach to Solving Environmental Problems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the creation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) four decades ago, much progress has been made in reducing emissions from the electric utility and mobile source sectors in the United States. These efforts have helped in improving human health and the environme...

  11. Digital Libraries Creating Environmental Identity through Solving Geographical Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chew-Hung; Hedberg, John G.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental identity, or how we orient ourselves to the natural world, leads us to personalise abstract global issues and take action (or not) according to our sense of who we are. For example, are we willing to give up our luxurious cars for more fuel-efficient models even though we know that the earth is warming? In an era where web-based…

  12. Responses to comments on the remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental impact statement for remedial action at the Chemical Plant area of the Weldon Spring site (November 1992)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. The site consists of a chemical plant area and a noncontiguous limestone quarry; both areas are radioactively and chemically contaminated as a result of past processing and disposal activities. Explosives were produced by the US Army at the chemical plant in the 1940s, and uranium and thorium materials were processed by DOE`s predecessor agency in the 1950s and 1960s. During that time, various wastes were disposed of at both areas of the site. The DOE is conducting cleanup activities at the site under its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. The integrated remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental impact statement (RI/FS-EIS) documents for the chemical plant area were issued to the public in November 1992 as the draft RI/FS-EIS. (The CERCLA RI/FS is considered final when issued to the public, whereas per the NEPA process, an EIS is initially issued as a draft and is finalized after substantive public comments have been addressed.) Four documents made up the draft RI/FS-EIS, which is hereafter referred to as the RI/FS-EIS: (1) the RI (DOE 1992d), which presents general information on the site environment and the nature and extent of contamination; (2) the baseline assessment (BA) (DOE 1992a), which evaluates human health and environmental effects that might occur if no cleanup actions were taken; (3) the FS (DOE 1992b), which develops and evaluates alternatives for site cleanup; and (4) the proposed plan (PP) (DOE 1992c), which summarizes key information from the RI, BA, and FS reports and identifies DOE`s preferred alternative for remedial action. This comment response document combined with those four documents constitutes the final RI/FS-EIS for the chemical plant area.

  13. Externalizing Problems in Late Childhood as a Function of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Environmental Risk

    PubMed Central

    Marini, Victoria A.; Berzenski, Sara R.; Carmody, Dennis P.; Lewis, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine whether prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) predicts externalizing problems in late childhood. Methods Externalizing problems were assessed using caregiver, teacher, and child ratings and a laboratory task when children (N = 179; 74 cocaine exposed) were aged 8–10 years. PCE, environmental risk, sex, neonatal health, other prenatal exposures, and foster care history were examined as predictors of externalizing problems. Results Multiple regression analyses indicated that PCE, environmental risk, and male sex explained significant variance in externalizing problems in late childhood. Models varied by source of information. PCE predicted externalizing problems for child laboratory behavior and interacted with sex because males with PCE reported more externalizing problems. PCE did not predict caregiver or teacher ratings of externalizing problems. Conclusions The effect of PCE on externalizing problems may persist into late childhood. The findings highlight the potential importance of including child-based measures of externalizing problems in studies of prenatal exposure. PMID:23248347

  14. Encapsulation as a passive soil remediation alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Mario, B.R. De

    1996-12-31

    By implementing institutional and engineering controls, a passive, cost-effective, remedial alternative has allowed redevelopment of an abandoned, industrial, site located in Newark, New Jersey. Soil and groundwater contaminants at the site include volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds and metals. The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) recognized the impracticality of requiring an aggressive, localized, remedial action to clean up contaminated soil and groundwater in a region that has historically used fill to create land along the state`s waterways. By placing an institutional control, known as a Declaration of Environmental Restriction (DER), on the property, the NJDEP allowed contaminated fill to remain on site and approved encapsulation as the remedial action for the soil. The approved engineering control, encapsulation, consisted of the design and placement of an asphalt pavement cap that covered the affected areas of concern. The asphalt pavement cap prevents direct human contact to contaminated soil and leaching of contaminants in the soil into the groundwater by surface water infiltration. This paper focuses on the subsurface soil investigation and establishment of the DER. The benefits of this remedial alternative are: (1) the urban redevelopment of contaminated land while simultaneously ensuring protection to human health and the environment; (2) costs savings of not having to clean up a regional problem as if it were local; and (3) the facilitation of a property transfer transaction without the risk of future liability for an historical problem.

  15. PCB-pollution problem in the upper Hudson River: From environmental disaster to environmental gridlock

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, J.E. )

    1989-01-01

    The PCB pollution of the upper Hudson River has been traced to two discharge pipes from capacitor-manufacturing plants of the General Electric Company (GE) at Hudson Falls and Fort Edward, located about 40 miles north of Troy, New York. In August 1974, EPA biologists carried out a field investigation upstream of, at, and downstream of the GE discharge pipes. In September 1975, goaded by articles about PCB-contaminated fish from the Hudson Estuary, the Commissioner of the New York State Department of conservation (NYS DEC) commenced an administrative proceeding against GE, alleging violations of several NY State Environmental Conservation Law sections, and seeking cessation of PCB discharges, penalties for past discharges, and rehabilitation of the upper river. One stipulation of the resulting settlement agreement was that New York State sign off with GE over PCB pollution of the Hudson River and, if the Advisory Committee recommended in favor of rehabilitation, it would use its best efforts to find funds from sources other than GE to help pay for rehabilitation. The future of the PCB problem in the upper Hudson River seems likely to be settled by the outcome of a class-action lawsuit that commercial fisherman have filed against GE. In January 1989, a NEW York Appeals Court voted in favor of the ruling that the fishermen were entitled not only to payments for lost income, but to injunctive relief (which implies that GE must clean up the River). 311 refs., 30 figs., 14 tabs.

  16. RESEARCH ON ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH INTERVENTIONS: ETHICAL PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    PubMed Central

    RESNIK, DAVID B.; ZELDIN, DARRYL C.; SHARP, RICHARD R.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews a variety of ethical issues one must consider when conducting research on environmental health interventions on human subjects. The paper uses the Kennedy Krieger Institute lead abatement study as well as a hypothetical asthma study to discuss questions concerning benefits and risks, risk minimization, safety monitoring, the duty to warn, the duty to report, the use of control groups, informed consent, equitable subject selection, privacy, conflicts of interest, and community consultation. Research on environmental health interventions can make an important contribution to our understanding of human health and disease prevention, provided it is conducted in a manner that meets prevailing scientific, ethical, and legal standards for research on human subjects. PMID:16220621

  17. Environmental Strategies to Prevent Alcohol Problems on College Campuses. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol problems on campuses cannot be solved with simple solutions, such as an alcohol awareness campaign. Instead, dangerous college drinking can be prevented with an array of protective measures that deal with alcohol availability, enforcement of existing laws and rules, and changes in how alcohol is promoted, sold and served. Many people,…

  18. An effective way to address global environmental and energy problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrienko, O.; Garelina, S.; Gysev, A.; Zakharyan, R.; Kazaryan, M.; Sachkov, V.

    2015-12-01

    This work scales the present globalism of ecological and energetic problems. The ecological problem is connected with environment pollution by polymeric waste. The energetic problem - with traditional approaches of modern energetic, in particular, use of fossil fuel for energy production and concentration of capacities for ensuring overall performance of global power supply systems that doesn't guarantee a sustainable development of power for long prospect, doesn't provide power safety of the country. The second part of work is devoted to a choice of the most effective solutions of the present global problems. The authors have proposed the plasma-chemical method of the polymer waste processing and developed a schematic diagram of the reactor. The paper contains the results of the theoretical calculation of the polymer waste processing products. The reagents, allowing to obtain hydrogen and other liquid products from polymer waste are selected. It is proposed to use rare elements for increasing the efficiency of hydrogen production from polymer waste. The results of the calculation of the efficiency of hydrogen production from polymer waste using molybdenum are revealed in the paper.

  19. Environmental compliance plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Remedial Action Project at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    Remedial action for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek, as defined by the Record of Decision, requires that soil contaminated with >400 ppM mercury be excavated and disposed. Based on the remediation goal, soil will be excavated from areas located at the NOAA site and the Bruner site and disposed at the Industrial Landfill V at the Y-12 Plant. Objective is to minimize the risk to human health and the environment from contaminated soil in the lower EFPC floodplain pursuant to CERCLA and the Federal Facility Agreement (DOE 1992).

  20. Y-12 Plant remedial action Technology Logic Diagram: Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets: Part B, Characterization; robotics/automation

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Remedial Action Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) problems at the Y-12 Plant to potential technologies that can remediate theses problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to remedial action (RA) activities. The TLD consists of three volumes. Volume 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the rankings of remedial technologies. Volume 2 contains the logic linkages among environmental management goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 contains the TLD data sheets. This report is Part B of Volume 3 and contains the Characterization and Robotics/Automation sections.

  1. Internet-Based Recording Service Solves Maintenance Reporting Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noah, Marilyn

    2001-01-01

    Details the response to a health threat caused by illegal wastewater disposal in Wisconsin. Traces the identification of the problem, ordinances and policies adopted to guide the remedy, and subsequent monitoring of environmental quality. (DDR)

  2. Enhancement of stability of various nZVI suspensions used in groundwater remediation with environmentally friendly organic stabilizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Doris; Wagner, Stephan; Velimirović, Milica; Laumann, Susanne; Micić, Vesna; Hofmann, Thilo

    2014-05-01

    The use of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles for in situ remediation of polluted soil and groundwater has been shown as one of the most promising techniques [1]. The success of this technology depends on the mobility, reactivity, and longevity of nZVI particles. The mobility of nZVI particles depends on the properties of the single particles, stability of the particle suspension, and the aquifer material [1,2]. In order to enhance the mobility of nZVI, the mobility-decisive properties of the nZVI particles in suspension such as concentration, size distribution, surface charge, and sedimentation rate have to be investigated and optimized. Previous studies showed that pristine nZVI particles aggregate rapidly in water, reducing the particles radius of influence after injection [3]. In order to prevent aggregation and sedimentation of the nZVI particles, and consequently improve the stability of nZVI suspension and therefore the mobility of the nZVI particles, surface stabilizers can be used to provide electrostatic repulsion and steric or electrosteric stabilization [3,4]. The objective of this lab-scale study is to investigate the potential for enhancing the stability of different nZVI suspensions by means of environmentally friendly organic stabilizers, including carboxymethyl cellulose, pectin, alginate, xanthan, and guar gum. The different nZVI particles used included pristine and polyacrylic acid-coated nZVI particles provided in suspension (Nanofer 25 and Nanofer 25S, respectively, NANOIRON s.r.o., Czech Republic), air-stable nZVI particles (Nanofer Star, (NANOIRON s.r.o., Czech Republic), and milled iron flakes (UVR-FIA, Germany). In order to study the enhancement of nZVI stability (1 g L-1 total iron) different concentrations of organic stabilizers (1-20 wt.%) were applied in these nZVI suspensions. Each nZVI suspension was freshly prepared and treated for 10 minutes with Ultra-Turrax (15 000 rpm) and 10 minutes ultrasonic bath prior to

  3. Health and safety plan for the Remedial Investigation and Site Investigation of Waste Area Grouping 2 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cofer, G.H.; Holt, V.L.; Roupe, G.W.

    1993-11-01

    This health and safety plan (HASP) was developed by the members of the Measurement Applications and Development Group of the Health Science Research Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This plan was prepared to ensure that health and safety related items for the Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 Remedial Investigation (RI)/Feasibility Study and Site Investigation projects conform with the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.120 (April 18, 1992). The RI Plan calls for the characterization, monitoring, risk assessment, and identification of remedial needs and alternatives that have been structured and staged with short-term and long-term objectives. In early FY 1992, the WAG 2 RI was integrated with the ORNL Environmental Restoration (ER) Site Investigations program in order to achieve the complimentary objectives of the projects more effectively by providing an integrated basis of support. The combined effort was named the WAG 2 Remedial Investigation and Site Investigations Program (WAG 2 RI&SI). The Site Investigation activities are a series of monitoring efforts and directed investigations that support other ER activities by providing information about (1) watershed hydrogeology; (2) contaminants, pathways, and fluxes for groundwater at ORNL; (3) shallow subsurface areas that can act as secondary sources of contaminants; and (4) biological populations and contaminants in biota, in addition to other support and coordination activities.

  4. UMTRA Project remedial action planning and disposal cell design to comply with the proposed EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) standards (40 CFR Part 192)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project involves stabilizing 24 inactive uranium mill tailings piles in 10 states. Remedial work must meet standards established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Remedial action must be designed and constructed to prevent dispersion of the tailings and other contaminated materials, and must prevent the inadvertent use of the tailings by man. This report is prepared primarily for distribution to parties involved in the UMTRA Project, including the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and states and tribes. It is intended to record the work done by the DOE since publication of the proposed EPA groundwater protection standards, and to show how the DOE has attempted to respond and react in a positive way to the new requirements that result from the proposed standards. This report discusses the groundwater compliance strategies now being defined and implemented by the DOE, and details the changes in disposal cell designs that result from studies to evaluate ways to facilitate compliance with the proposed EPA groundwater protection standards. This report also serves to record the technical advances, planning, and progress made on the UMTRA Project since the appearance of the proposed EPA groundwater protection standards. The report serves to establish, document, and disseminate technical approaches and engineering and groundwater information to people who may be interested or involved in similar or related projects. 24 refs., 27 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment for the quarry residuals operable unit at the Weldon Spring Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The Weldon Spring site consists of two noncontiguous areas -- the chemical plant area, which includes four raffinate pits, and the quarry. Cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, incorporating the values of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The contents of the documents prepared for the project are not intended to represent a statement regarding the legal applicability of NEPA to remedial actions conducted under CERCLA. In accordance with the integrated CERCLA/NEPA approach, a remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment (RI/FS-EA) is being conducted to evaluate conditions and potential responses for the quarry residuals operable unit (QROU). This operable unit consists of the following areas and/or media: the residual material remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the pond water and bulk waste; underlying groundwater; and other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including adjacent soil, surface water, and sediment in Femme Osage Slough. This work plan identifies the activities within the RI/FS-EA process that are being proposed to address contamination remaining at the quarry area.

  6. Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for remedial actions at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant: A compendium of environmental laws and guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Etnier, E.L.; Eaton, L.A. )

    1992-03-01

    Section 121 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 specifies that remedial actions for cleanup of hazardous substances found at sites placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must comply with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) or standards under federal and state environmental laws. To date, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) has not been on the NPL. Although DOE and EPA have entered into an Administrative Consent Order (ACO), the prime regulatory authority for cleanup at PGDP will be the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This report supplies a preliminary list of available federal and state ARARs that might be considered for remedial response at PGDP in the event that the plant becomes included on the NPL or the ACO is modified to include CERCLA cleanup. A description of the terms applicable'' and relevant and appropriate'' is provided, as well as definitions of chemical-, location-, and action-specific ARARS. ARARs promulgated by the federal government and by the state of Kentucky are listed in tables. In addition, the major provisions of RCRA, the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, and other acts, as they apply to hazardous and radioactive waste cleanup, are discussed.

  7. Environmental, Safety, and Health Plan for the remedial investigation of the liquid low-level waste tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    DeFalco, S.; Kaiser, L. L.; May, L. E.

    1991-09-01

    The Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES H) Plan presents the concepts and methodologies to be used during the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) RI/FS project to protect the health and safety of employees, the public, and the environment. The ES H Plan acts as a management extension for ORNL and Energy Systems to direct and control implementation of the project ES H program. This report describes the program philosophy, requirements, quality assurance measures, and methods for applying the ES H program to individual task remedial investigations, project facilities, and other major tasks assigned to the project.

  8. Properties of Materials and Systems of Importance to Environmental Fates and Remediation. III. Review of Previous Thermodynamic Property Values for Chromium and Some of its Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirklin, Duane R.

    1999-11-01

    Twenty-seven (27) crystalline and aqueous chromium species from the NBS Tables of Chemical Thermodynamic Properties were selected based upon their possible importance to environmental fate and remediation processes. Their NBS files were studied to determine the sources of information and the methodology used to determine the NBS selected thermodynamic values. The NBS tables for chromium were compiled in 1966. A literature search was performed to determine the existence of additional data for these species. Documentary data are presented for the thermodynamic properties of these twenty-seven (27) species.

  9. Highlights of some environmental problems of geomedical significance in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Lar, U A; Tejan, A B

    2008-08-01

    This paper attempts to discuss the links between the geochemical composition of rocks and minerals and the geographical distribution of diseases in human beings in Nigeria. We know that the natural composition of elements in our environment (in the bedrock, soils, water, and vegetation) may be the major cause of enrichment or depletion in these elements and may become a direct risk to human health. Similarly, anthropogenic activities such as mining and mineral processes, industrial waste disposal, agriculture, etc., could distort the natural geochemical equilibrium of the environment. Thus, the enrichment or depletion of geochemical elements in the environment are controlled either by natural and/or anthropogenic processes. The increased ingestion of toxic trace elements such as As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and F, whether directly or indirectly, adversely affects human health. Of these, Cd has most dangerous long-term effect on human health. Environmental exposure to As and Hg is a causal factor in human carcinogenesis and numerous cancer health disorders. Available information on iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) in Nigeria indicates goiter prevalence rates of between 15% and 59% in several affected areas. There have been reported cases of dental fluorosis resulting from intake of water with fluoride content >1.5 ppm. Dental caries among children shows an overall prevalence rate of 39.9%. Within the Younger Granite province in central Nigeria, cases of cancer and miscarriages in pregnant women have been linked to natural radiation These examples and a number of others from the existing literature underscore the pressing need for the development of collaborative research to increase our understanding of the relationship between the geographical distribution of human and animal diseases in Nigeria and environmental factors. We submit that such knowledge is essential for the control and management of these diseases.

  10. Highlights of some environmental problems of geomedical significance in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Lar, U A; Tejan, A B

    2008-08-01

    This paper attempts to discuss the links between the geochemical composition of rocks and minerals and the geographical distribution of diseases in human beings in Nigeria. We know that the natural composition of elements in our environment (in the bedrock, soils, water, and vegetation) may be the major cause of enrichment or depletion in these elements and may become a direct risk to human health. Similarly, anthropogenic activities such as mining and mineral processes, industrial waste disposal, agriculture, etc., could distort the natural geochemical equilibrium of the environment. Thus, the enrichment or depletion of geochemical elements in the environment are controlled either by natural and/or anthropogenic processes. The increased ingestion of toxic trace elements such as As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and F, whether directly or indirectly, adversely affects human health. Of these, Cd has most dangerous long-term effect on human health. Environmental exposure to As and Hg is a causal factor in human carcinogenesis and numerous cancer health disorders. Available information on iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) in Nigeria indicates goiter prevalence rates of between 15% and 59% in several affected areas. There have been reported cases of dental fluorosis resulting from intake of water with fluoride content >1.5 ppm. Dental caries among children shows an overall prevalence rate of 39.9%. Within the Younger Granite province in central Nigeria, cases of cancer and miscarriages in pregnant women have been linked to natural radiation These examples and a number of others from the existing literature underscore the pressing need for the development of collaborative research to increase our understanding of the relationship between the geographical distribution of human and animal diseases in Nigeria and environmental factors. We submit that such knowledge is essential for the control and management of these diseases. PMID:18365754

  11. Environmental and engineering problems of karst geology in China

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Daoxian )

    1988-10-01

    Karst terrane is generally regarded as a fragile and vulnerable environment. Its underground drainage system can aggravate both drought and flood problems; the lack of filtration in an underground conduit makes waste disposal more difficult; and the lack of soil cover in bare karstland can enhance deforestation. Moreover, karst terranes are quite often haunted by a series of engineering problems, such as water gushing into mines or transportation tunnels; leakage from reservoirs; and failure of building foundations. In China, there are more than 200 cases of karst collapse, which include many thousands of individual collapse points. Some of these are paleo and natural collapses, but most of them are modern collapses induced by human activities and they have caused serious damage. Many factors such as geologic structure, overburden thickness and character, lithologic features of karstified rock, and intensity of karstification are related to development and distribution of modern collapses. However, China's karst is mainly developed in pre-Triassic, old phase, hard, compact, carbonate rock. Consequently most modern collapses have occurred only in the overlying soil. So it is understandable that the fluctuation of the water table in the underlying karstified strata plays an important role in the process of collapse. Nevertheless, there are different explanations as to how the groundwater activities can induce collapse.

  12. The Mar Piccolo of Taranto: an interesting marine ecosystem for the environmental problems studies.

    PubMed

    Cardellicchio, Nicola; Annicchiarico, Cristina; Di Leo, Antonella; Giandomenico, Santina; Spada, Lucia

    2016-07-01

    The National Project RITMARE (la Ricerca ITaliana per il MARE-Italian Research for the sea) started from 1 January 2012. It is one of the national research programs funded by the Italian Ministry of University and Research. RITMARE is coordinated by the National Research Council (CNR) and involves an integrated effort of most of the scientific community working on marine and maritime issues. Within the project, different marine study areas of strategic importance for the Mediterranean have been identified: Among these, the coastal area of Taranto (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy) was chosen for its different industry settlements and the relative impact on the marine environment. In particular, the research has been concentrated on the Mar Piccolo of Taranto, a complex marine ecosystem model important in terms of ecological, social, and economic activities for the presence also of extensive mussel farms. The site has been selected also because the Mar Piccolo area is a characteristic "on field" laboratory suitable to investigate release and diffusion mechanisms of contaminants, evaluate chemical-ecological risks towards the marine ecosystem and human health, and suggest and test potential remediation strategies for contaminated sediments. In this context, within the project RITMARE, a task force of researchers has contributed to elaboration a functioning conceptual model with a multidisciplinary approach useful to identify anthropogenic forcings, its impacts, and solutions of environmental remediation. This paper describes in brief some of the environmental issues related to the Mar Piccolo basin. PMID:26111753

  13. Training tomorrow's environmental problem-solvers: an integrative approach to graduate education

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental problems are generally complex and blind to disciplinary boundaries. Efforts to devise long-term solutions require collaborative research that integrates knowledge across historically disparate fields, yet the traditional model for training new scientists emphasizes personal independe...

  14. Geothermal energy environmental problems and control methods: review of recent findings

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, V.T.; Caskey, J.F.; Pfundstein, R.T.; Rifkin, S.B.

    1980-06-01

    The findings of a literature review on the environmental concerns and associated control methods of geothermal energy utilization are presented. The document introduces the environmental problems associated with geothermal energy utilization; assesses the current status of control methods; references appropriate environmental documents; and identifies areas where additional environmental research is needed. The review attempts to consolidate current understanding of the environmental impact of geothermal energy development. Approximately 180 reports written by authors in industry, government and academia have been reviewed in the areas of air emissions, surface and subsurface liquid discharges, solid wastes, noise, subsidence, and induced seismicity.

  15. DOE/EIS-0355 Remediation of the Moab Uranium Mill Tailings, Grand and San Juan Counties, Utah, Final Environmental Impact Statement (July 2005)

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2005-08-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE or the Department) is proposing to clean up surface contamination and implement a ground water compliance strategy to address contamination that resulted from historical uranium-ore processing at the Moab Uranium Mill Tailings Site (Moab site), Grand County, Utah. Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), 42 United States Code (U.S.C.) {section} 4321 et seq., DOE prepared this environmental impact statement (EIS) to assess the potential environmental impacts of remediating the Moab site and vicinity properties (properties where uranium mill tailings were used as construction or fill material before the potential hazards associated with the tailings were known). DOE analyzed the potential environmental impacts of both on-site and off-site remediation and disposal alternatives involving both surface and ground water contamination. DOE also analyzed the No Action alternative as required by NEPA implementing regulations promulgated by the Council on Environmental Quality. DOE has determined that its preferred alternatives are the off-site disposal of the Moab uranium mill tailings pile, combined with active ground water remediation at the Moab site. The preferred off-site disposal location is the Crescent Junction site, and the preferred method of transportation is rail. The basis for this determination is discussed later in this Summary. DOE has entered into agreements with 12 federal, tribal, state, and local agencies to be cooperating agencies in the development and preparation of this EIS. Several of the cooperating agencies have jurisdiction by law and intend to use the EIS to support their own decisionmaking. The others have expertise relevant to potential environmental, social, or economic impacts within their geographic regions. During the preparation of the EIS, DOE met with the cooperating agencies, provided them with opportunities to review preliminary versions of the document, and addressed their comments

  16. Environmental benefits and risks of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) for in situ remediation: risk mitigation or trade-off?

    PubMed

    Grieger, Khara D; Fjordbøge, Annika; Hartmann, Nanna B; Eriksson, Eva; Bjerg, Poul L; Baun, Anders

    2010-11-25

    The use of nanoscaled zero-valent iron particles (nZVI) to remediate contaminated soil and groundwater has received increasing amounts of attention within the last decade, primarily due to its potential for broader application, higher reactivity, and cost-effectiveness compared to conventional zero-valent iron applications and other in situ methods. However, the potential environmental risks of nZVI in in situ field scale applications are largely unknown at the present and traditional environmental risk assessment approaches are not yet able to be completed. Therefore, it may not yet be fully clear how to consider the environmental benefits and risks of nZVI for in situ applications. This analysis therefore addresses the challenges of comprehensively considering and weighing the expected environmental benefits and potential risks of this emerging environmentally-beneficial nanotechnology, particularly relevant for environmental engineers, scientists, and decision makers. We find that most of the benefits of using nZVI are based on near-term considerations, and large data gaps currently exist within almost all aspects of environmental exposure and effect assessments. We also find that while a wide range of decision support tools and frameworks alternative to risk assessment are currently available, a thorough evaluation of these should be undertaken in the near future to assess their full relevancy for nZVI at specific sites. Due to the absence of data in environmental risk evaluations, we apply a 'best' and 'worst' case scenario evaluation as a first step to qualitatively evaluate the current state-of-knowledge regarding the potential environmental risks of nZVI. The result of this preliminary qualitative evaluation indicates that at present, there are no significant grounds on which to form the basis that nZVI currently poses a significant, apparent risk to the environment, although the majority of the most serious criteria (i.e. potential for persistency

  17. Empathy and Critical Thinking: Primary Students Solving Local Environmental Problems through Outdoor Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampuero, David; Miranda, Christian E.; Delgado, Luisa E.; Goyen, Samantha; Weaver, Sean

    2015-01-01

    The present study explores the outcomes of teaching empathy and critical thinking to solve environmental problems. This investigation was done throughout the duration of an environmental education course within a primary school located in central Chile. A community-based research methodology was used to understand the formation of empathy and…

  18. Deviant Peer Affiliation and Problem Behavior: A Test of Genetic and Environmental Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Bernadette Marie; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Leve, Leslie D.

    2006-01-01

    This study uses a multitrait, multimethod (MTMM) approach to investigate the genetic and environmental etiologies of childhood deviant peer affiliation (DPA) and problem behavior (PROB). The variability of genetic and environmental estimates by agent and method is also examined. A total of 77 monozygotic and 72 dizygotic twin pairs and each twin's…

  19. SEMINAR PUBLICATION: NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEM-SOLVING WITH GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Conference on Environmental Problem Solving with Geographic Information Systems was held in Cincinnati, Ohio, September 21-23, 1994. The conference was a forum for over 450 environmental professionals to exchange information and approaches on how to use geographic ...

  20. Educational Module on Environmental Problems in Cities. Environmental Educational Series 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Science, Technical and Vocational Education.

    The International Environmental Education Programme (IEEP) of UNESCO has determined that the enhancement of the quality of the built environment is a basic priority for future environmental action, particularly in Europe and North America. This experimental teaching module applies specifically to those two continents, and is intended for use by…

  1. Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program annual progress report, FY 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Programs (HAZWRAP), a unit of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., supports the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations Office in broadly environmental areas, especially those relating to waste management and environmental restoration. HAZWRAP comprises six program areas, which are supported by central administrative and technical organizations. Existing programs deal with airborne hazardous substances, pollution prevention, remedial actions planning, environmental restoration, technology development, and information and data systems. HAZWRAP's mission to develop, promote, and apply-cost-effective hazardous waste management and environmental technologies to help solve national problems and concerns. HAZWRAP seeks to serve as integrator for hazardous waste and materials management across the federal government. It applies the unique combination of research and development (R D) capabilities, technologies, management expertise, and facilities in the Energy Systems complex to address problems of national importance. 24 figs., 10 tabs.

  2. Current status of cadmium as an environmental health problem

    SciTech Connect

    Jaerup, Lars Akesson, Agneta

    2009-08-01

    Cadmium is a toxic metal occurring in the environment naturally and as a pollutant emanating from industrial and agricultural sources. Food is the main source of cadmium intake in the non-smoking population. The bioavailability, retention and toxicity are affected by several factors including nutritional status such as low iron status. Cadmium is efficiently retained in the kidney (half-time 10-30 years) and the concentration is proportional to that in urine (U-Cd). Cadmium is nephrotoxic, initially causing kidney tubular damage. Cadmium can also cause bone damage, either via a direct effect on bone tissue or indirectly as a result of renal dysfunction. After prolonged and/or high exposure the tubular injury may progress to glomerular damage with decreased glomerular filtration rate, and eventually to renal failure. Furthermore, recent data also suggest increased cancer risks and increased mortality in environmentally exposed populations. Dose-response assessment using a variety of early markers of kidney damage has identified U-Cd points of departure for early kidney effects between 0.5 and 3 {mu}g Cd/g creatinine, similar to the points of departure for effects on bone. It can be anticipated that a considerable proportion of the non-smoking adult population has urinary cadmium concentrations of 0.5 {mu}g/g creatinine or higher in non-exposed areas. For smokers this proportion is considerably higher. This implies no margin of safety between the point of departure and the exposure levels in the general population. Therefore, measures should be put in place to reduce exposure to a minimum, and the tolerably daily intake should be set in accordance with recent findings.

  3. Effects of electrical voltage/current on farm animals: How to detect and remedy problems. Agriculture handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Lefcourt, A.M.

    1991-12-01

    The handbook examines (1) the history of stray voltage/current problems on farms, (2) the physical and electrical sources of stray voltage/current phenomena, (3) the physiological and behavioral bases for losses in milk production, (4) methods for identifying and detecting stray voltage/current problems, (5) methods for mitigating such problems, and (6) areas where further research may be warranted. While the primary emphasis is on cattle and dairy farms, the theories and procedures discussed are completely relevant to all types of livestock and livestock housing facilities. Recommendations are made for action levels and concerning mitigation techniques. The fundamental conclusion of the handbook is that stray voltages/currents can be reduced to acceptable levels.

  4. The earth as a problem: A curriculum inquiry into the nature of environmental education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, William Frank

    1998-12-01

    This thesis is a contribution to curriculum theory in environmental education. Its purpose is to analyze the concept of education as used by environmental educators and to examine how educational purposes are related to differing concepts of human-environment interactions and the environmental problematique. It examines three published written curricula using curriculum inquiry methodology as a means of examining two major claims. The first claim is that curricula in environmental education have been affected by a focus on environmental issues or problems, which has resulted in definitions, descriptions and curriculum proposals in the field having a syntax or narrative structure in the form of problem solving. The second claim of the thesis is that while different programs share the common underlying syntax they resolve issues concerning the nature of education, the concept of environment, the role of environmental action projects, and the nature of schooling in significantly different ways. The thesis critiques the curriculum writings of William B. Stapp, Harold R. Hungerford, and Michael J. Cohen. Each has published curriculum work in environmental education and has been active in the development of the field. Their works were chosen because of their publicly accessible form. The inquiry demonstrates that the three programs present analyses of current global environmental problems as serious and in need of urgent attention. All three focus on solving or preventing environmental problems as a major purpose of environmental education. In spite of the common emphasis on problem solving, the inquiry also reveals significant differences among the three programs in regard to concepts of education, views of the environment and the place and role of humans in it, approaches to environmental action projects as curricular elements, and ideas about the place of environmental education in schools. I conclude that although some environmental educators view the continuing

  5. Cr(VI)-contaminated groundwater remediation with simulated permeable reactive barrier (PRB) filled with natural pyrite as reactive material: Environmental factors and effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Mou, Haiyan; Chen, Liqun; Mirza, Zakaria A; Liu, Li

    2015-11-15

    Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) are efficient technologies for in situ remediation of contaminated groundwater, the effectiveness of which greatly depends on the reactive media filled. Natural pyrite is an iron sulfide material with a very low content of iron and sulfur, and a mining waste which is a potential material for Cr(VI) immobilization. In this study, we conducted a series of batch tests to research the effects of typical environmental factors on Cr(VI) removal and also simulated PRB filled with natural pyrite to investigate its effectiveness, in order to find a both environmentally and economically fine method for groundwater remediation. Batch tests showed that pH had the significant impact on Cr(VI) removal with an apparently higher efficiency under acidic conditions, and dissolved oxygen (DO) would inhibit Cr(VI) reduction; a relatively high initial Cr(VI) concentration would decrease the rate of Cr(VI) sorption; ionic strength and natural organic matter resulted in no significant effects on Cr(VI) removal. Column tests demonstrated that the simulated PRB with natural pyrite as the reactive media was considerably effective for removing Cr(VI) from groundwater, with a sorption capability of 0.6222 mg Cr per gram of natural pyrite at an initial Cr(VI) concentration of 10mg/L at pH 5.5 in an anoxic environment. PMID:26026959

  6. Surface Water Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/ Environmental and Decision Document, South Walnut Creek Basin, Operable Unit No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-08

    Water quality investigations have identified the presence of volatile organic compound (VOC) and radionuclide contamination of surface water at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). The subject interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/Environmental Assessment (IM/IRAP/EA) addresses contaminated surface water in a portion of the South Walnut Creek drainage basin located within an area identified as Operable Unit No. 2 (OU 2). There is no immediate threat to public health and the environment posed by this surface water contamination. The affected surface water is contained within the plant boundary by existing detention ponds, and is treated prior to discharge for removal of volatile contaminants and suspended particulates to which radionuclides, if present, are likely to absorb. However, there is a potential threat and the Department of Energy (DOE) is implementing this Surface Water IM/IRAP at the request of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Colorado Department of Health (CDH). Implementation of the Surface Water IM/IRA will enhance the DOE's efforts towards containing and managing contaminated surface water, and will mitigate downgradient migration of contaminants. Another factor in implementing this IM/IRA is the length of time it will take to complete the investigations and engineering studies necessary to determine the final remedy for OU 2. 44 refs., 23 figs., 14 tabs.

  7. Cr(VI)-contaminated groundwater remediation with simulated permeable reactive barrier (PRB) filled with natural pyrite as reactive material: Environmental factors and effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Mou, Haiyan; Chen, Liqun; Mirza, Zakaria A; Liu, Li

    2015-11-15

    Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) are efficient technologies for in situ remediation of contaminated groundwater, the effectiveness of which greatly depends on the reactive media filled. Natural pyrite is an iron sulfide material with a very low content of iron and sulfur, and a mining waste which is a potential material for Cr(VI) immobilization. In this study, we conducted a series of batch tests to research the effects of typical environmental factors on Cr(VI) removal and also simulated PRB filled with natural pyrite to investigate its effectiveness, in order to find a both environmentally and economically fine method for groundwater remediation. Batch tests showed that pH had the significant impact on Cr(VI) removal with an apparently higher efficiency under acidic conditions, and dissolved oxygen (DO) would inhibit Cr(VI) reduction; a relatively high initial Cr(VI) concentration would decrease the rate of Cr(VI) sorption; ionic strength and natural organic matter resulted in no significant effects on Cr(VI) removal. Column tests demonstrated that the simulated PRB with natural pyrite as the reactive media was considerably effective for removing Cr(VI) from groundwater, with a sorption capability of 0.6222 mg Cr per gram of natural pyrite at an initial Cr(VI) concentration of 10mg/L at pH 5.5 in an anoxic environment.

  8. Community Ecology and Capacity: Keys to Progressing the Environmental Communication of Wicked Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caron, Rosemary M.; Serrell, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Wicked problems are multifactorial in nature and possess no clear resolution due to numerous community stakeholder involvement. We demonstrate childhood lead poisoning as a wicked problem and illustrate how understanding a community's ecology can build community capacity to affect local environmental management by (1) forming an academic-community…

  9. Problem-Based Learning: A New Tool for Environmental Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gist, Ginger L.

    1992-01-01

    Describes problem-based learning (PBL) as an alternative to internships in Environmental Health Education. Discusses teaching strategies, case study problem set development, and evaluation techniques applicable to PBL. Presents an overview of small group structures for cooperative learning, a list of learning resources, and a flow chart indicating…

  10. The Effects of Process Instruction on Problem Identification Skills in Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volk, Trudi L.; Hungerford, Harold R.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a study of the influence of an investigative skills environmental education program upon the problem identification skills of junior high students. Members of the experimental group (N=43) consistently outperformed students in a general science course (N=40) on measures of skills in problem identification. (Author/WB)

  11. Gauging the Potential of Socially Critical Environmental Education (EE): Examining Local Environmental Problems through Children's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsoubaris, Dimitris; Georgopoulos, Aleksandros

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this qualitative research work is to detect the needs, aspirations and feelings of pupils experiencing local environmental problems and elaborate them through the prism of a socially critical educational approach. Semi-structured focus group interviews are used as a research method applied to four primary schools located near…

  12. The role of innovative remediation technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Doesburg, J.M.

    1992-05-01

    There are currently over 1200 sites on the US Superfund`s National Priorities List (NPL) of hazardous waste sites, and there are over 30, 000 sites listed by the Comprehensive Environmental Responsibility, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS). The traditional approach to remediating sites in the US has been to remove the material and place it in a secure landfill, or in the case of groundwater, pump and treat the effluent. These technologies have proven to be very expensive and don`t really fix the problem. The waste is just moved from one place to another. In recent years, however, alternative and innovative technologies have been increasingly used in the US to replace the traditional approaches. This paper will focus on just such innovative remediation technologies in the US, looking at the regulatory drivers, the emerging technologies, some of the problems in deploying technologies, and a case study.

  13. The role of innovative remediation technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Doesburg, J.M.

    1992-05-01

    There are currently over 1200 sites on the US Superfund's National Priorities List (NPL) of hazardous waste sites, and there are over 30, 000 sites listed by the Comprehensive Environmental Responsibility, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS). The traditional approach to remediating sites in the US has been to remove the material and place it in a secure landfill, or in the case of groundwater, pump and treat the effluent. These technologies have proven to be very expensive and don't really fix the problem. The waste is just moved from one place to another. In recent years, however, alternative and innovative technologies have been increasingly used in the US to replace the traditional approaches. This paper will focus on just such innovative remediation technologies in the US, looking at the regulatory drivers, the emerging technologies, some of the problems in deploying technologies, and a case study.

  14. Nanotechnology in environmental remediation: degradation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) over visible-light-active nanostructured materials.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, Rengaraj; Al-Kindy, Salma M Z; Silanpaa, Mika; Kim, Younghun

    2014-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are major pollutants and are considered to be one of the most important contaminants generated by human beings living in urban and industrial areas. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a VOC that has been widely used as a gasoline additive to reduce VOC emissions from motor vehicles. However, new gasoline additives like MTBE are having negative environmental impacts. Recent survey reports clearly show that groundwater is often polluted owing to leakage of petroleum products from underground storage tanks. MTBE is highly soluble in water (e.g., 0.35-0.71 M) and has been detected at high concentrations in groundwater. The presence of MTBE in groundwater poses a potential health problem. The documented effects of MTBE exposure are headaches, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, cough, muscle aches, sleepiness, disorientation, dizziness, and skin and eye irritation. To address these problems, photocatalytic treatment is the preferred treatment for polluted water. In the present work, a simple and template-free solution phase synthesis method has been developed for the preparation of novel cadmium sulfide (CdS) hollow microspheres using cadmium nitrate and thioacetamide precursors. The synthesized products have been characterized by a variety of methods, including X-ray powder diffraction, high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-visible diffused reflectance spectroscopy. The HR-SEM measurements revealed the spherical morphology of the CdS microspheres, which evolved by the oriented aggregation of the primary CdS nanocrystals. Furthermore, studies of photocatalytic activity revealed that the synthesized CdS hollow microspheres exhibit an excellent photocatalytic performance in rapidly degrading MTBE in aqueous solution under visible light illumination. These results suggest that CdS microspheres will be an interesting candidate for photocatalytic detoxification studies under visible light

  15. Diagnostic reframing of intractable environmental problems: case of a contested multiparty public land-use conflict.

    PubMed

    Asah, Stanley T; Bengston, David N; Wendt, Keith; Nelson, Kristen C

    2012-10-15

    Intractable conflicts are omnipresent in environmental management. These conflicts do not necessarily resist resolution but need to be fundamentally transformed in order to reach agreement. Reframing, a process that allows disputants to create new alternative understandings of the problem, is one way of transforming these conflicts. Cognitive and interactional reframing are the two major approaches to conflict transformation. These approaches have some drawbacks. Cognitive reframing does not guarantee commensurate consideration of all disputants' views about the problem. Interactional reframing is prone to inter-disputant influences that interfere with presenting the problems as accurately as they exist in disputants' minds. Inadequate consideration of other disputants' views and inter-disputant influences often lead to inaccurate problem identification and definition. This in turn leads to solving the wrong problem, enabling intractability to persist. Proper problem identification and definition requires commensurate consideration of all sides of the conflict while minimizing inter-disputant influences. From a problem diagnosis perspective, we show how Q methodology is used to reframe environmental problems, rendering them more tractable to analysis while minimizing the influence of who disputants are talking with, and without ignoring the perspectives of other disputants. Using a case of contentious All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV) use in a state-administered public land, conflicting parties reframed the problem by prioritizing issues, outlining areas and levels of consensus and disagreement, and revealing inherent unrecognized and/or unspoken agendas. The reframing process surprisingly revealed several areas of common ground in disputants' diagnosis of the problem, including lack of emphasis on environmental protection and uncoordinated management factions. Emergent frames were misaligned on some issues, such as the behaviors of ATV riders and the role of management

  16. Diagnostic reframing of intractable environmental problems: case of a contested multiparty public land-use conflict.

    PubMed

    Asah, Stanley T; Bengston, David N; Wendt, Keith; Nelson, Kristen C

    2012-10-15

    Intractable conflicts are omnipresent in environmental management. These conflicts do not necessarily resist resolution but need to be fundamentally transformed in order to reach agreement. Reframing, a process that allows disputants to create new alternative understandings of the problem, is one way of transforming these conflicts. Cognitive and interactional reframing are the two major approaches to conflict transformation. These approaches have some drawbacks. Cognitive reframing does not guarantee commensurate consideration of all disputants' views about the problem. Interactional reframing is prone to inter-disputant influences that interfere with presenting the problems as accurately as they exist in disputants' minds. Inadequate consideration of other disputants' views and inter-disputant influences often lead to inaccurate problem identification and definition. This in turn leads to solving the wrong problem, enabling intractability to persist. Proper problem identification and definition requires commensurate consideration of all sides of the conflict while minimizing inter-disputant influences. From a problem diagnosis perspective, we show how Q methodology is used to reframe environmental problems, rendering them more tractable to analysis while minimizing the influence of who disputants are talking with, and without ignoring the perspectives of other disputants. Using a case of contentious All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV) use in a state-administered public land, conflicting parties reframed the problem by prioritizing issues, outlining areas and levels of consensus and disagreement, and revealing inherent unrecognized and/or unspoken agendas. The reframing process surprisingly revealed several areas of common ground in disputants' diagnosis of the problem, including lack of emphasis on environmental protection and uncoordinated management factions. Emergent frames were misaligned on some issues, such as the behaviors of ATV riders and the role of management

  17. [Saskatchewan Fund for environmental problems]. Annual report and financial statements 1996--1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    This gives the annual report of the Fund, established by the Provincial Government in 1989 to replace the well deposit system and to provide the government with a means to address unique oil and gas related environmental problems. The Fund guarantees the proper drilling, completion and abandonment of wells, including surface restoration, and allows the government to respond to a major spill or environmental problem when liability for the problem cannot initially be determined. This report describes the purpose of the Fund, and summarizes its activities. A financial statement is included.

  18. Community Ecology and Capacity: Keys to Progressing the Environmental Communication of Wicked Problems.

    PubMed

    Caron, Rosemary M; Serrell, Nancy

    2009-07-01

    Wicked problems are multifactorial in nature and possess no clear resolution due to numerous community stakeholder involvement. We demonstrate childhood lead poisoning as a wicked problem and illustrate how understanding a community's ecology can build community capacity to affect local environmental management by (1) forming an academic-community partnership and (2) developing a place-specific strategy grounded in the cultural-experiential model of risk. We propose that practitioners need to consider a community's ecology and social context of risk as it pertains to wicked problems. These factors will determine how a diverse community interprets and responds to environmental communication and capacity-building efforts.

  19. 25 Years Of Environmental Remediation In The General Separations Area Of The Savannah River Site: Lessons Learned About What Worked And What Did Not Work In Soil And Groundwater Cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Blount, Gerald; Thibault, Jeffrey; Millings, Margaret; Prater, Phil

    2015-03-16

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is owned and administered by the US Department of Energy (DOE). SRS covers an area of approximately 900 square kilometers. The General Separation Area (GSA) is located roughly in the center of the SRS and includes: radioactive material chemical separations facilities, radioactive waste tank farms, a variety of radioactive seepage basins, and the radioactive waste burial grounds. Radioactive wastes were disposed in the GSA from the mid-1950s through the mid-1990s. Radioactive operations at the F Canyon began in 1954; radioactive operations at H Canyon began in 1955. Waste water disposition to the F and H Seepage Basins began soon after operations started in the canyons. The Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground (ORWBG) began operations in 1952 to manage solid waste that could be radioactive from all the site operations, and ceased receiving waste in 1972. The Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) and Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (LLRWDF) received radioactive solid waste from 1969 until 1995. Environmental legislation enacted in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s led to changes in waste management and environmental cleanup practices at SRS. The US Congress passed the Clean Air Act in 1970, and the Clean Water Act in 1972; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) was enacted in 1976; the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) was enacted by Congress in 1980; the Federal Facilities Compliance Act (FFCA) was signed into law in 1992. Environmental remediation at the SRS essentially began with a 1987 Settlement Agreement between the SRS and the State of South Carolina (under the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control - SCDHEC), which recognized linkage between many SRS waste management facilities and RCRA. The SRS manages several of the larger groundwater remedial activities under RCRA for facilities recognized early on as environmental problems. All subsequent

  20. Physiochemical technologies for HCB remediation and disposal: a review.

    PubMed

    Tong, Man; Yuan, Songhu

    2012-08-30

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is one of the 12 persistent organic pollutants (POPs) listed in "Stockholm Convention". It is hydrophobic, toxic and persistent in the environment. Due to extensive use in the past, HCB contamination is still a serious environmental problem. Strong adsorption on solid particles makes the remediation difficult. This paper presents an overview of the physiochemical technologies for HCB remediation and disposal. The adsorption/desorption behavior of HCB is firstly described because it comprises the fundamental for most remediation technologies. Physiochemical technologies concerned mostly for HCB remediation and disposal, i.e., chemical enhanced washing, electrokinetic remediation, reductive dechlorination and thermal decomposition, are reviewed in terms of fundamentals, state of the art and perspectives. The other physiochemical technologies including chemical oxidation, radiation induced catalytic dechlorination, ultrasonic assisted treatment and mechanochemical dechlorination are also reviewed. The pilot and large scale tests on HCB remediation or disposal are summarized in the end. This review aims to provide useful information to researchers and practitioners regarding HCB remediation and disposal. PMID:22709849

  1. Attitudes About Recreation, Environmental Problems, and Estuarine Health Along the New Jersey Shore, USA.

    PubMed

    BURGER

    1998-11-01

    / Management of ecosystems has advanced by an improvement in our understanding not only of how ecosystems function, but of how people perceive their functioning and what they consider to be environmental problems within those systems. Central to such management is understanding how people view estuaries. In this article I explore the perceptions and attitudes of people about coastal recreation, environmental problems, and future land use along the New Jersey shore (USA) by interviewing people who attended a duck decoy and craft show on Barnegat Bay. The people who were interviewed engaged in more days of fishing than any other recreational activity and engaged in camping the least. There were significant differences in recreational rates as a function of gender and location of residence, with men hunting and fishing more than women and photographing less than women. Jet skis were perceived as the most severe environmental problem, with chemical pollution, junk, oil runoff and overfishing as second level problems. Birds were perceived as not an environmental problem at all. Fishing, hiking, preservation, and camping ranked as the highest preferred future land uses for the two sites examined (Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Naval Weapons Station Earle). The preferred future land uses for these two sites, which are not under consideration for land-use changes, were very similar to those of people living near the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in South Carolina, despite the media attention and considerations of nuclear storage.KEY WORDS: Recreation; Perceptions; Environmental problem; Gender; Land use; Coastal

  2. Executive summary for the Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1991. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This report is the sixth in a series of annual reports produced by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) since 1986. It reports the results of a comprehensive, year-round program to monitor the impact of the Weldon Spring site (WSS) on the surrounding region`s groundwater and surface waters; air quality; vegetation and wildlife; and, through these multiple pathways, the potential for exposure to receptor human populations. Information is also presented on the environmental monitoring quality assurance program, waste management activities, audits and reviews, and special environmental studies. Data are included for both the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. Based on the consistent exercise of quality assurance in both standard operating procedures and quality control sample collection, the WSSRAP asserts that the data presented in the WSS Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1991 accurately reflect the environmental conditions monitored at the WSS. This report presents narratives, summaries, and conclusions on environmental monitoring at the WSS and surrounding vicinity properties for the entire 1991 monitoring year. During 1991 the WSSRAP also published quarterly data reports, wherein all routine monitoring data were tabulated and presented quarterly to allow the public to review the data in a timely fashion prior to issuance of the annual report.

  3. Defining the role of risk assessment in the comprehensive environmental response compensation and liability act remedial investigation process at the DOE-OR

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, P.D.; McGinn, C.W.; White, R.K.; Purucker, S.T.; Redfearn, A.

    1994-03-08

    Cleanup of hazardous waste sites under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) is a complicated and painstaking process, particularly at facilities with a multitude of individual hazardous waste sites, each having a multitude of chemicals and radonuclides. The US Department of Energy-Oak Ridge, Environmental Restoration Division (DOE-OR/ERD) administers five such facilities which are undergoing environmental cleanup under the CERCLA Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (RI/FS) process or the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) investigation process. The nature of the wastes treated, stored, or disposed of at the US DOE-OR sites is heterogeneous and often unknown. The amount of environmental sampling, chemical analysis, and document preparation and review required to support a baseline risk assessment alone at each facility often requires years before arriving at a final Record of Decision. Therefore, there is clearly a need to streamline the investigative and decision processes in order to realize the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) goal of reducing contaminant levels to those that are protective human health and the environment in a timely and cost-effective manner.

  4. Wayne Interim Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, 868 Black Oak Ridge Road, Wayne, New Jersey. Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS) and provides the results for 1992. The fenced, site, 32 km (20 mi) northwest of Newark, New Jersey, was used between 1948 and 1971 for commercial processing of monazite sand to separate natural radioisotopes - predominantly thorium. Environmental surveillance of WISS began in 1984 in accordance with Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 when Congress added the site to DOE`s Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The environmental surveillance program at WISS includes sampling networks for radon and thoron in air; external gamma radiation exposure; radium-226, radium-228, thorium-230, thorium-232, total uranium, and several chemicals in surface water and sediment; and total uranium, radium-226, radium-228, thorium-230, thorium-232, and organic and inorganic chemicals in groundwater. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other DOE requirements. This monitoring program assists in fulfilling the DOE policy of measuring and monitoring effluents from DOE activities and calculating hypothetical doses. Results for environmental surveillance in 1992 show that the concentrations of all radioactive and most chemical contaminants were below applicable standards.

  5. Application of chaos theory to solving the problems of social and environmental decline in Lesotho.

    PubMed

    Kakonge, John O

    2002-05-01

    This paper examines the definition of chaos theory and its use in different circumstances. The paper explains that environmental crisis is complex, chaotic and unstable and will remain so unless actions are taken to reverse the trend. It further suggests that chaos theory could be used to interpret the crisis and help identify solutions. By recommending the application of chaos theory to the environmental problems in Lesotho, the paper explores some of the key issues that contribute to and perpetuate the environmental situation, for example, the current land tenure system and the problem of overgrazing. In addition, it identifies appropriate and realistic government policies that could be implemented to address the environmental degradation in the country. The paper concludes that the application of chaos theory may be unable to help solve the environmental crisis in Lesotho unless there is political will and commitment and collective effort from all stakeholders, coupled with an attitudinal change. PMID:12173423

  6. Development, application and assessment of a taxonomy for characterizing international environmental problems. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, M.D.; Marrs, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    As national leaders become increasingly aware of the environmental risks that modern technology adds to existing natural environmental problems, they have begun to search for ways to prioritize the risks they face. Several experts in risk assessment, including Professor Gordon Goodman of the Stockholm Environmental Institute, researchers at Clark University's Center for Environment, Technology, Development (CENTED), and the United States Environmental Protection Agency, have already developed some hazard characterization taxonomies that attempt to fill this need. The Kennedy School of Government (KSG) taxonomy if the next iteration of taxonomies designed to characterize environmental problems. The purpose of this Policy Analysis Exercise (PAE) is to test and evaluate the KSG taxonomy. In order to accomplish these goals, the United States and India are presented as case studies. The final section of this PAE provides recommendations to policy makers who use the KSG taxonomy.

  7. From Environmental Risks, As Problems, To Earth Observations As Solutions To Those Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rycroft, M. J.

    This paper introduces the topic of space techniquesfor environmental risks. It does this by giving someexamples of the damage and havoc wrought in recent tragic events -mudslides, floods, cyclones, earthquakes and theChernobyl disaster. It introduces the concept ofa Geographic Information System where informationderived from remote sensing observations made fromspace is combined with other types of informationand processed in a computer.Seven examples are then considered in more detail -the early 1995 flood in The Netherlands and otherhydrological issues, land use studies for agriculture,the Vegetation Index and land degradation ordesertification, hurricane Fran over South andNorth Carolina in September 1996, change detection,ocean catastrophes and atmospheric disasters. Theyillustrate some ways in which information derivedfrom space observations can be used to benefitthe Earth's population.

  8. Cognitive constraints on high school students' representations of real environmental problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Ervin Kenneth

    One class of juniors and seniors was studied through one semester in the investigation of how students think about, learn from, and solve real environmental problems. The intention was to listen to student voices while researching the features of their representations of these problems, the beliefs they held (tenets), the cognitive processes they employed, and the principles of science, ecology, problem solving, and ethics they held as tenets. The focus was upon two self-selected groups as they perceived, engaged, analyzed, and proposed solutions for problems. Analysis of the student representations involved interpretation of the features to include both the perspective tenets and the envisioning processes. These processes included the intentive and attentive constraints as tenet acquisition and volitive and agential constraints as tenet affirmation. The perspective tenets included a variety of conceptual (basic science, ecological, ethical, and problem-solving) constraints as well as ontological, epistemological, and other cultural (role, status, power, and community) constraints. The perspective tenets were interpreted thematically including the ways populations of people cause and care about environmental problems, the magnitude of environmental problems and the science involved, the expectations and limitations students perceive for themselves, and the importance of community awareness and cooperation to addressing these problems. Some of these tenets were interpreted to be principles in that they were rules that were accepted by some people as true. The perspective tenets, along with the envisioning processes, were perceived to be the constraints that determined the environmental problems and limited the solution possibilities. The students thought about environmental problems in mature and principled ways using a repertoire of cognitive processes. They learned from them as they acquired and affirmed tenets. They solved them through personal choices and

  9. Air-Based Remediation Workshop - Section 7 Sustainable Remediation And Air-Based Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pursuant to the EPA-AIT Implementing Arrangement 7 for Technical Environmental Collaboration, Activity 11 "Remediation of Contaminated Sites, " the USEPA Office of International Affairs Organized a Forced Air Remediation Workshop in Taipei to deliver expert training to the Enviro...

  10. Air-Based Remediation Workshop - Section 8 Air-Based Remediation Technology Selection Logic

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pursuant to the EPA-AIT Implementing Arrangement 7 for Technical Environmental Collaboration, Activity 11 "Remediation of Contaminated Sites," the USEPA Office of International Affairs Organized a Forced Air Remediation Workshop in Taipei to deliver expert training to the Environ...

  11. Remediation of mutually aversive interactions between a problem student and four teachers by training the student in reinforcement techniques.

    PubMed Central

    Polirstok, S R; Greer, R D

    1977-01-01

    This study tested the effect of a social reinforcement training procedure for a problem student on the verbal and nonverbal approval and disapproval of four of the student's teachers. A design incorporating aspects of a multiple baseline within an extended reversal design (ABABA) was employed. Data were taken on the four teachers' approval and disapproval of a student regarded as a major discipline problem and the target student's approval and disapproval of the four teachers during baseline 1, experimental condition 1, baseline 2, experimental conditon 2, and a postcheck or baseline 3 condition six weeks after experimental condition 2. Results showed that increased student approval and decreased disapproval were attributable to training procedures. The increased student approval increased three of the four teachers' approval and decreased the disapproval of all four teachers. Six weeks after experimental condition 2, both approval and disapproval by three of the four teachers and the student and disapproval by all four teachers and the student remained changed over baseline conditions. Student and teacher approval and disapproval were highly correlated at statistically significant levels. PMID:599114

  12. Remedial actions at the former Climax Uranium Company, Uranium Mill site, Grand Junction, Mesa County, Colorado. Volume 1, Text: Final environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    1986-12-01

    This statement evaluates and compares the environmental impacts associated with the remedial actions of the residual radioactive materials remaining at the inactive uranium processing site and associated vicinity properties at Grand Junction, Mesa County, Colorado. This statement is also intended to aid the BLM in amending their management framework plans and final resource management plan, as well as assisting in compliance with the withdrawal application as appropriate. The site is a 114-acre tract of private and state owned land which contains approximately 3.1 million cubic yards of tailings and associated contaminated soils. The vicinity properties are homes, businesses, public buildings, and vacant lots which may have been contaminated during construction by the use of tailings as building material. An estimated 3465 vicinity properties would be cleaned up during remedial action of the tailings pile. The tailings were produced by the former Climax Uranium Company which processed uranium ore, which it sold to the US Atomic Energy Commission from 1951 to 1966 and to private sources from 1966 to 1970. This statement evaluates six alternatives for stabilization and disposal of the tailings and other contaminated materials: (1) No action. (2) Stabilization at the Grand Junction site. (3) Disposal at the Cheney Reservoir site with truck transport. (4) Disposal at the Cheney Reservoir site with train and truck transport. (5) Disposal at the Two Road site with truck transport. (6) Disposal at the Two Road site with train and truck transport. All of the alternatives except no action include remedial action at an estimated 3465 vicinity properties. Alternative 3 is DOE`s preferred alternative.

  13. Middlesex Sampling Plant environmental report for calendar year 1992, 239 Mountain Avenue, Middlesex, New Jersey. Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Middlesex Sampling Plant (MSP) and provides the results for 1992. The site, in the Borough of Middlesex, New Jersey, is a fenced area and includes four buildings and two storage piles that contain 50,800 m{sup 3} of radioactive and mixed hazardous waste. More than 70 percent of the MSP site is paved with asphalt. The MSP facility was established in 1943 by the Manhattan Engineer District (MED) to sample, store, and/or ship uranium, thorium, and beryllium ores. In 1955 the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), successor to MED, terminated the operation and later used the site for storage and limited sampling of thorium residues. In 1967 AEC activities ceased, onsite structures were decontaminated, and the site was certified for unrestricted use under criteria applicable at that time. In 1980 the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a multiphase remedial action project to clean up several vicinity properties onto which contamination from the plant had migrated. Material from these properties was consolidated into the storage piles onsite. Environmental surveillance of MSP began in 1980 when Congress added the site to DOE`s Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. The environmental surveillance program at MSP includes sampling networks for radon and thoron in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and radium-226, radium-228, thorium-230, thorium-232, and total uranium in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Additionally, chemical analyses are performed to detect metals and organic compounds in surface water and groundwater and metals in sediments. This program assists in fulfilling th DOE policy of measuring and monitoring effluents from DOE activities and calculating hypothetical doses.

  14. Environmental assessment of no remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The Belfield and Bowman sites were not included on the original congressional list of processing sites to be designated by the Secretary of Energy. Instead, the sites were nominated for designation by the Dakota Resource Council in a letter to the DOE (September 7, 1979). In a letter to the DOE (September 12, 1979), the state of North Dakota said that it did not believe the sites would qualify as processing sites under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) because the activities at the sites involved only the ashing of uraniferous lignite coal and the ash was shipped out of state for actual processing. Nevertheless, on October 11, 1979, the state of North Dakota agreed to the designation of the sites because they met the spirit of the law (reduce public exposure to radiation resulting from past uranium operations). Therefore, these sites were designated by the Secretary of Energy for remedial action. Because of the relatively low health impacts determined for these sites, they were ranked as low priority and scheduled to be included in the final group of sites to be remediated.

  15. Legal foundations of environmental planning

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    This casebook provides an introduction to the rapidly evolving field of environmental law. In the first section of this work, the author examines the procedure and remedies, as well as the substantive law, of environmental litigation. The two following sections explore statutory and common law approaches to the problems of air and water pollution. The final section of the volume departs from the traditional stuff of environmental practice by examining the problems of litigation in the field of population growth and distribution.

  16. Solutions Remediate Contaminated Groundwater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    During the Apollo Program, NASA workers used chlorinated solvents to clean rocket engine components at launch sites. These solvents, known as dense non-aqueous phase liquids, had contaminated launch facilities to the point of near-irreparability. Dr. Jacqueline Quinn and Dr. Kathleen Brooks Loftin of Kennedy Space Center partnered with researchers from the University of Central Florida's chemistry and engineering programs to develop technology capable of remediating the area without great cost or further environmental damage. They called the new invention Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron (EZVI). The groundwater remediation compound is cleaning up polluted areas all around the world and is, to date, NASA's most licensed technology.

  17. Concerning Remediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, John P.

    1977-01-01

    The author argues that the key to teaching remedial mathematics is to persuade students to believe that they will advance intellectually by learning mathematics, and that this advance will increase the possibilities open to them. (SD)

  18. Attitudes about recreation, environmental problems, and estuarine health along the New Jersey Shore, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, J.

    1998-11-01

    Management of ecosystems has advanced by an improvement in understanding not only of how ecosystems function, but of how people perceive their functioning and what they consider to be environmental problems within those systems. Central to such management is understanding how people view estuaries. In this article the author explores the perceptions and attitudes of people about coastal recreation, environmental problems, and future land use along the New Jersey shore (USA) by interviewing people who attended a duck decoy and craft show on Barnegat Bay. The people who were interviewed engaged in more days of fishing than any other recreational activity and engaged in camping the least. There were significant differences in recreational rates as a function of gender and location of residence, with men hunting and fishing more than women and photographing less than women. Jet skis were perceived as the most severe environmental problem, with chemical pollution, junk, oil runoff and overfishing as second level problems. Birds were perceived as not an environmental problem at all. Fishing, hiking, preservation, and camping ranked as the highest preferred future land uses for the two sites examined (Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Naval Weapons Station Earle). The preferred future land uses for these two sites, which are not under consideration for land-use changes, were very similar to those of people living near the Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site in South Carolina, despite the media attention and considerations of nuclear storage.

  19. 1993 International conference on nuclear waste management and environmental remediation, Prague, Czech Republic, September 5--11, 1993. Combined foreign trip report

    SciTech Connect

    Slate, S.C.; Allen, R.E.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of the trip was to attend the 1993 International Conference on Nuclear Waste Management and Environmental Remediation. The principal objective of this conference was to facilitate a truly international exchange of information on the management of nuclear wastes as well as contaminated facilities and sites emanating from nuclear operations. The conference was sponsored by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the Czech and Slovak Mechanical Engineering Societies, and the Czech and Slovak Nuclear Societies in cooperation with the Commission of the European Communities, the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the OECD Nuclear Agency. The conference was cosponsored by the American Nuclear Society, the Atomic Energy Society of Japan, the Canadian Nuclear Society, the (former USSR) Nuclear Society, and the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. This was the fourth in a series of biennial conferences, which started in Hong Kong, in 1987. This report summarizes shared aspects of the trip; however, each traveler`s observations and recommendations are reported separately.

  20. Waste management plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study of Waste Area Grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoratin Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This plan defines the criteria and methods to be used for managing waste generated during activities associated with Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). WAG 5 is located in Melton Valley, south of the main ORNL plant area. It contains 17 solid waste management units (SWMUs) to be evaluated during the remedial investigation. The SWMUs include three burial areas, two hydrofracture facilities, two settling ponds, eight tanks, and two low-level liquid waste leak sites. These locations are all considered to be within the WAG 5 area of contamination (AOC). The plan contains provisions for safely and effectively managing soils, rock cuttings, development and sampling water, decontamination fluids, and disposable personal protective equipment (PPE) consistent with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance of May 1991 (EPA 1991). Consistent with EPA guidance, this plan is designed to protect the environment and the health and safety of workers and the public.

  1. Quality Assurance Plan for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, G.P.; Miller, D.E.

    1992-12-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 Site Investigation (SI)includes the lower portion of the White Oak Creek (WOC) drainage and enbayment, and associated floodplain and subsurface environment. The ORNL main plant and the major waste storage and disposal facilities at ORNL are located in the WOC watershed and are drained by the WOC system to the Clinch River, located off-site. Environmental media are contaminated and continue to receive contaminants from hydrologically upgradient WAGS. WAG 2 is important as a conduit from upgradient areas to the Clinch River. The general objectives of the WAG 2 SI Project are to conduct a multimedia monitoring and characterization program to define and monitor the input of contaminants from adjacent WAGS, monitor and gather sufficient information for processes controlling or driving contaminant fluxes to construct an appropriate conceptual model for WAG 2, and prepare for the eventual remediation of WAG 2.

  2. Transfer of Physical and Hydraulic Properties Databases to the Hanford Environmental Information System - PNNL Remediation Decision Support Project, Task 1, Activity 6

    SciTech Connect

    Rockhold, Mark L.; Middleton, Lisa A.

    2009-03-31

    This report documents the requirements for transferring physical and hydraulic property data compiled by PNNL into the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS). The Remediation Decision Support (RDS) Project is managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to support Hanford Site waste management and remedial action decisions by the U.S. Department of Energy and one of their current site contractors - CH2M-Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC). The objective of Task 1, Activity 6 of the RDS project is to compile all available physical and hydraulic property data for sediments from the Hanford Site, to port these data into the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS), and to make the data web-accessible to anyone on the Hanford Local Area Network via the so-called Virtual Library.1 These physical and hydraulic property data are used to estimate parameters for analytical and numerical flow and transport models that are used for site risk assessments and evaluation of remedial action alternatives. In past years efforts were made by RDS project staff to compile all available physical and hydraulic property data for Hanford sediments and to transfer these data into SoilVision{reg_sign}, a commercial geotechnical software package designed for storing, analyzing, and manipulating soils data. Although SoilVision{reg_sign} has proven to be useful, its access and use restrictions have been recognized as a limitation to the effective use of the physical and hydraulic property databases by the broader group of potential users involved in Hanford waste site issues. In order to make these data more widely available and useable, a decision was made to port them to HEIS and to make them web-accessible via a Virtual Library module. In FY08 the original objectives of this activity on the RDS project were to: (1) ensure traceability and defensibility of all physical and hydraulic property data currently residing in the SoilVision{reg_sign} database

  3. The Chemical Technology Division at Argonne National Laboratory: Applying chemical innovation to environmental problems

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The Chemical Technology Division is one of the largest technical divisions at Argonne National Laboratory, a leading center for research and development related to energy and environmental issues. Since its inception in 1948, the Division has pioneered in developing separations processes for the nuclear industry. The current scope of activities includes R&D on methods for disposing of radioactive and hazardous wastes and on energy conversion processes with improved efficiencies, lower costs, and reduced environmental impact. Many of the technologies developed by CMT can be applied to solve manufacturing as well as environmental problems of industry.

  4. College and University Environmental Programs as a Policy Problem (Part 2): Strategies for Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Susan G.; Rutherford, Murray B.; Auer, Matthew R.; Cherney, David N.; Wallace, Richard L.; Mattson, David J.; Clark, Douglas A.; Foote, Lee; Krogman, Naomi; Wilshusen, Peter; Steelman, Toddi

    2011-05-01

    Environmental studies and environmental sciences programs in American and Canadian colleges and universities seek to ameliorate environmental problems through empirical enquiry and analytic judgment. In a companion article (Part 1) we describe the environmental program movement (EPM) and discuss factors that have hindered its performance. Here, we complete our analysis by proposing strategies for improvement. We recommend that environmental programs re-organize around three principles. First, adopt as an overriding goal the concept of human dignity—defined as freedom and social justice in healthy, sustainable environments. This clear higher-order goal captures the human and environmental aspirations of the EPM and would provide a more coherent direction for the efforts of diverse participants. Second, employ an explicit, genuinely interdisciplinary analytical framework that facilitates the use of multiple methods to investigate and address environmental and social problems in context. Third, develop educational programs and applied experiences that provide students with the technical knowledge, powers of observation, critical thinking skills and management acumen required for them to become effective professionals and leaders. Organizing around these three principles would build unity in the EPM while at the same time capitalizing on the strengths of the many disciplines and diverse local conditions involved.

  5. College and university environmental programs as a policy problem (Part 2): Strategies for improvement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, S.G.; Rutherford, M.B.; Auer, M.R.; Cherney, D.N.; Wallace, R.L.; Mattson, D.J.; Clark, D.A.; Foote, L.; Krogman, N.; Wilshusen, P.; Steelman, T.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental studies and environmental sciences programs in American and Canadian colleges and universities seek to ameliorate environmental problems through empirical enquiry and analytic judgment. In a companion article (Part 1) we describe the environmental program movement (EPM) and discuss factors that have hindered its performance. Here, we complete our analysis by proposing strategies for improvement. We recommend that environmental programs re-organize around three principles. First, adopt as an overriding goal the concept of human dignity-defined as freedom and social justice in healthy, sustainable environments. This clear higher-order goal captures the human and environmental aspirations of the EPM and would provide a more coherent direction for the efforts of diverse participants. Second, employ an explicit, genuinely interdisciplinary analytical framework that facilitates the use of multiple methods to investigate and address environmental and social problems in context. Third, develop educational programs and applied experiences that provide students with the technical knowledge, powers of observation, critical thinking skills and management acumen required for them to become effective professionals and leaders. Organizing around these three principles would build unity in the EPM while at the same time capitalizing on the strengths of the many disciplines and diverse local conditions involved. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  6. Some aspects of remediation of contaminated soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bech, Jaume; Korobova, Elena; Abreu, Manuela; Bini, Claudio; Chon, Hyo-Taek; Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen; Roca, Núria

    2014-05-01

    Soils are essential components of the environment, a limited precious and fragile resource, the quality of which should be preserved. The concentration, chemical form and distribution of potential harmful elements in soils depends on parent rocks, weathering, soil type and soil use. However, their concentration can be altered by mismanagement of industrial and mining activities, energy generation, traffic increase, overuse of agrochemicals, sewage sludge and waste disposal, causing contamination, environmental problems and health concerns. Heavy metals, some metalloids and radionuclides are persistent in the environment. This persistence hampers the cost/efficiency of remediation technologies. The choice of the most appropriate soil remediation techniques depends of many factors and essentially of the specific site. This contribution aims to offer an overview of the main remediation methods in contaminated soils. There are two main groups of technologies: the first group dealing with containment and confinement, minimizing their toxicity, mobility and bioavailability. Containment measures include covering, sealing, encapsulation and immobilization and stabilization. The second group, remediation with decontamination, is based on the remotion, clean up and/or destruction of contaminants. This group includes mechanical procedures, physical separations, chemical technologies such as soil washing with leaching or precipitation of harmful elements, soil flushing, thermal treatments and electrokinetic technologies. There are also two approaches of biological nature: bioremediation and phytoremediation. Case studies from Chile, Ecuador, Italy, Korea, Peru, Portugal, Russia and Spain, will be discussed in accordance with the time available.

  7. In situ soil remediation: Bacteria or fungi?

    SciTech Connect

    Cutright, T.J.; Lee, S.

    1995-07-01

    Contamination of the environment is not a new problem. For most of recorded history, the unwanted byproducts of industrial and residential processes have been dumped into unlined pits or nearby streams. Although disposal techniques have greatly improved, significant quantities of hazardous materials are still being released to the environment via accidental spills and leaking underground storage tanks. One particular group of contaminants of critical environmental concern is polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAH-contaminated sites typically cover large areas; therefore, the development of in situ remediation techniques such as bioremediation is strongly emphasized. In situations when inherent microorganisms are not capable of degrading the contaminants, foreign strains must be used. Bioremediation experiments were conducted to compare the remediation efficiencies of a bacteria and a fungus for an industrially PAH contaminated soil. Specifically, the use of three supplemental nutrient solutions were investigated in conjunction with the bacteria Achromobacter sp. and fungus Cunninghamella echinulata var. elegans.

  8. Eco-innovative design approach: Integrating quality and environmental aspects in prioritizing and solving engineering problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakroun, Mahmoud; Gogu, Grigore; Pacaud, Thomas; Thirion, François

    2014-09-01

    This study proposes an eco-innovative design process taking into consideration quality and environmental aspects in prioritizing and solving technical engineering problems. This approach provides a synergy between the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), the nonquality matrix, the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ), morphological analysis and the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). In the sequence of these tools, LCA assesses the environmental impacts generated by the system. Then, for a better consideration of environmental aspects, a new tool is developed, the non-quality matrix, which defines the problem to be solved first from an environmental point of view. The TRIZ method allows the generation of new concepts and contradiction resolution. Then, the morphological analysis offers the possibility of extending the search space of solutions in a design problem in a systematic way. Finally, the AHP identifies the promising solution(s) by providing a clear logic for the choice made. Their usefulness has been demonstrated through their application to a case study involving a centrifugal spreader with spinning discs.

  9. New ecology education: Preparing students for the complex human-environmental problems of dryland East Asia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Present-day environmental problems of Dryland East Asia are serious, and future prospects look especially disconcerting owing to current trends in population growth and economic development. Land degradation and desertification, invasive species, biodiversity losses, toxic waste and air pollution, a...

  10. The Development of Environmental Awareness through School Science: Problems and Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadzigeorgiou, Yannis; Skoumios, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses upon the problem of raising environmental awareness in the context of school science. By focusing, as it does, on the relationship between the self and the natural environment, the paper discusses the difficulties that exist, such as the students' involvement with the natural world, as their object of study, the empirical…

  11. The Human Environment, Volume II: Summaries of National Reports on Environmental Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Washington, DC.

    Seventy-one national reports submitted for consideration at the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm, June, 1972, are summarized in this compilation. They mark an effort to identify major environmental problems which are international, multinational, national or more than local concern and the actions taken or proposed…

  12. Developing Effective Brochures for Increasing Knowledge of Environmental Problems: The Case of the Gypsy Moth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Charlotte F.; Witter, John A.

    1994-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of educational brochures in increasing participants' knowledge about the environmental problem of gypsy moth infestations and associated action strategies. Results suggest that brochures rated high in communication effectiveness were most useful in increasing knowledge. (Contains 28 references.) (Author/MDH)

  13. Training Tomorrow's Environmental Problem Solvers: An Integrative Approach to Graduate Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moslemi, Jennifer M.; Capps, Krista A.; Johnson, Mark S.; Maul, Jude; McIntyre, Peter B.; Melvin, April M.; Vadas, Timothy M.; Vallano, Dena M.; Watkins, James M.; Weiss, Marissa

    2009-01-01

    Environmental problems are generally complex and blind to disciplinary boundaries. Efforts to devise long-term solutions require collaborative research that integrates knowledge across historically disparate fields, yet the traditional model for training new scientists emphasizes personal independence and disciplinary focus. Growing awareness of…

  14. Hazardous Wastes. Two Games for Teaching about the Problem. Environmental Communications Activities. Bulletin 703.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Cooperative Extension Service.

    Two games are presented which demonstrate the complexity of the hazardous waste problem through an introduction to the: (1) economics of waste disposal; (2) legislation surrounding waste disposal; (3) necessity to handle wastes with care; (4) damages to the environmental and human health resulting from improper disposal; (5) correct ways to…

  15. Case Studies in Critical Ecoliteracy: A Curriculum for Analyzing the Social Foundations of Environmental Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Rita; Donnelly, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines the features and application of a set of model curriculum materials that utilize eco-democratic principles and humanities-based content to cultivate critical analysis of the cultural foundations of socio-environmental problems. We first describe the goals and components of the materials, then discuss results of their use in…

  16. The Virginia Survey. Results from a Statewide Survey on Higher Education and Environmental Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilley, J. Wade; Dietz, Thomas

    The study described in this report was designed to measure the attitudes of Virginians towards higher education in Virginia and towards some environmental problems facing the Commonwealth. The survey questioned 517 Virginia citizens over age 18 whose households were chosen through random-digit-telephone dialing. Among the findings of the survey…

  17. Inquiry Learning of High School Students through a Problem-Based Environmental Health Science Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Nam-Hwa; DeChenne, Sue Ellen; Smith, Grant

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which high school students improved their inquiry capabilities in relation to scientific literacy through their experience of a problem-based environmental health science curriculum. The two inquiry capabilities studied were scientific questioning and approaches to inquiry into their own…

  18. Global Environmental Problems: Implications for U.S. Policy. Choices for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown Univ., Providence, RI. Center for Foreign Policy Development.

    This unit is designed to help high schools students to explore the relationship between U.S. foreign policy and the global environment. At the core of the unit is a framework of four distinct options that allows students to consider a range of alternatives for U.S. policy toward global environmental problems. Using this framework, students are…

  19. Genetic and Environmental Stability in Attention Problems across the Lifespan: Evidence from the Netherlands Twin Register

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, Kees-Jan; Dolan, Conor V.; Nivard, Michel G.; Middeldorp, Christel M.; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E. M.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To review findings on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and attention problems (AP) in children, adolescents, and adults, as established in the database of the Netherlands Twin Register and increase the understanding of stability in AP across the lifespan as a function of genetic and environmental influences. Method: A…

  20. Remediation Technologies Eliminate Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    groundwater tainted by chlorinated solvents once used to clean rocket engine components. The award-winning innovation (Spinoff 2010) is now NASA s most licensed technology to date. PCBs in paint presented a new challenge. Removing the launch stand for recycling proved a difficult operation; the toxic paint had to be fully stripped from the steel structure, a lengthy and costly process that required the stripped paint to be treated before disposal. Noting the lack of efficient, environmentally friendly options for dealing with PCBs, Quinn and her colleagues developed the Activated Metal Treatment System (AMTS). AMTS is a paste consisting of a solvent solution containing microscale particles of activated zero-valent metal. When applied to a painted surface, the paste extracts and degrades the PCBs into benign byproducts while leaving the paint on the structure. This provides a superior alternative to other methods for PCB remediation, such as stripping the paint or incinerating the structure, which prevents reuse and can release volatized PCBs into the air. Since its development, AMTS has proven to be a valuable solution for removing PCBs from paint, caulking, and various insulation and filler materials in older buildings, naval ships, and former munitions facilities where the presence of PCBs interferes with methods for removing trace explosive materials. Miles of potentially toxic caulking join sections of runways at airports. Any of these materials installed before 1979 potentially contain PCBs, Quinn says. "This is not just a NASA problem," she says. "It s a global problem."

  1. The Teaching of Global Environmental Problems According to the Constructivist Approach: As a Focal Point of the Problem and the Availability of Concept Cartoons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oluk, Sami; Ozalp, Isilay

    2007-01-01

    In this study, with selecting the focusing point of the problem as the availability of cartoons, the teaching of global environmental problems according to the constructivist theory is investigated on the 7th graders in rural areas. This study is restricted with the global warming (G), ozone depletion (O) and the acid rain (A) problems. In the…

  2. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Slick Rock uranium mill tailings sites, Slick Rock, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (42 USC {section}7901 et seq.), hereafter referred to as the UMTRCA, authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to clean up two uranium mill tailings processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, in San Miquel County. Contaminated materials cover an estimated 63 acres of the Union Carbide (UC) processing site and 15 ac of the North Continent (NC) processing site. The sites are within 1 mile of each other and are adjacent to the Dolores River. The sites contain concrete foundations of mill buildings, tailings piles, and areas contaminated by windblown and waterborne radioactive tailings materials. The total estimated volume of contaminated materials is approximately 621,300 cubic yards (yd{sup 3}). In addition to the contamination in the two processing site areas, four VPs were found to contain contamination. As a result of the tailings being exposed to the environment, contamination associated with the UC and NC sites has leached into shallow ground water. Surface water has not been affected. The closest residence is approximately 0.3 air mi from either site. The proposed action is to remediate the UC and NC sites by removing all contaminated materials within the designing site boundaries or otherwise associated with the sites, and relocating them to, and stabilizing them at, a location approximately 5 road mi northeast of the sites on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

  3. The evolutionary roots of our environmental problems: toward a Darwinian ecology.

    PubMed

    Penn, Dustin J

    2003-09-01

    It is widely acknowledged that we need to stabilize population growth and reduce our environmental impact; however, there is little consensus about how we might achieve these changes. Here I show how evolutionary analyses of human behavior provide important, though generally ignored, insights into our environmental problems. First, I review increasing evidence that Homo sapiens has a long history of causing ecological problems. This means that, contrary to popular belief, our species' capacity for ecological destruction is not simply due to "Western" culture. Second, I provide an overview of how evolutionary research can help to understand why humans are ecologically destructive, including the reasons why people often overpopulate, overconsume, exhaust common-pool resources, discount the future, and respond maladaptively to modern environmental hazards. Evolutionary approaches not only explain our darker sides, they also provide insights into why people cherish plants and animals and often support environmental and conservation efforts (e.g., Wilson's "biophilia hypothesis"). Third, I show how evolutionary analyses of human behavior offer practical implications for environmental policy, education, and activism. I suggest that education is necessary but insufficient because people also need incentives. Individual incentives are likely to be the most effective, but these include much more than narrow economic interests (e.g., they include one's reputation in society). Moralizing and other forms of social pressure used by environmentalists to bring about change appear to be effective, but this idea needs more research. Finally, I suggest that integrating evolutionary perspectives into the environmental sciences will help to break down the artificial barriers that continue to divide the biological and social sciences, which unfortunately obstruct our ability to understand ourselves and effectively address our environmental problems.

  4. Natural remediation in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Passino-Reader, Dora R.; Kamrin, Michael A.; Hickey, James P.; Swindoll, C. Michael; Stahl, Ralph G.; Ells, Stephen J.

    2000-01-01

    Overall, the existence of stricter environmental laws during the last 30 years and a reduction in the manufacturing base in the Great Lakes has resulted in improvement in conditions in harbors, rivers, and nearshore waters. Problems remain, such as the inability to dredge certain harbors and remove sediments because of lack of disposal facilities for contaminated sediments. Because of the wide extent of of contaminated sediments in the Great Lakes, much work remains to be done to document the condition of contaminated areas and the degree to which remediation of these areas is occurring from biotic and abiotic natural processes.

  5. Identification and characterization of students' attitudes toward technology as related to environmental problems

    SciTech Connect

    Lubbers, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Viewing the role of technology as either the cause of or solution to environmental problems may be unrealistic, and such extreme attitudes may inhibit the resolution of environmental problems. Courses that present a particular orientation toward the role of technology may encourage these extreme attitudes. Identifying attitudes of students enrolled in such courses and designing instruction to foster specific attitudes can lead to a more rational and objective attitude toward technology as related to environmental problems. The Scientific-Environmental-Technological (SET) literacy model was suggested as an appropriate framework for presenting the role of technology to students. A 34 item Likert scale was developed to measure attitudes as defined by two constructs: PRO-technology and ANTI-technology. Students enrolled in three courses (E200, Environment and People, K201, The Computer in Business, E100, Freshman Engineering Lectures), were asked to respond to the survey at the beginning and end of the fall, 1980 semester. The findings indicate that the survey was useful in identifying and characterizing attitudes of certain populations. The differences between the E200 and E100 students indicate that instruction that recognizes and examines the full range of perspectives on the impact of technology should be provided for these students.

  6. Quality assurance/quality control summary report for Phase 1 of the Clinch River remedial investigation. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Holladay, S.K.; Bevelhimer, M.S.; Brandt, C.C.

    1994-07-01

    The Clinch River Remedial Investigation (CRRI) is designed to address the transport, fate, and distribution of waterborne contaminants released from the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation and to assess potential risks to human health and the environment associated with these contaminants. Primary areas of investigation are Melton Hill Reservoir, the Clinch River from Melton Hill Dam to its confluence with the Tennessee River, Poplar Creek, and Watts Bar Reservoir. Phase 1 of the CRRI was a preliminary study in selected areas of the Clinch River/Watts Bar Reservoir. Fish, sediment, and water samples were collected and analyzed for inorganic, organic, and radiological parameters. Phase 1 was designed to (1) obtain high-quality data to confirm existing historical data for contaminant levels; (2) determine the range of contaminant concentrations present in the river-reservoir system; (3) identify specific contaminants of concern; and (4) establish the reference (background) concentrations for those contaminants. Quality assurance (QA) objectives for Phase I were that (1) scientific data generated would withstand scientific scrutiny; (2) data would be gathered using appropriate procedures for field sampling, chain-of-custody, laboratory analyses, and data reporting; and (3) data would be of known precision and accuracy. These objectives were met through the development and implementation of (1) a QA oversight program of audits and surveillances; (2) standard operating procedures accompanied by a training program; (3) field sampling and analytical laboratory quality control requirements; (4) data and records management systems; and (5) validation of the data by an independent reviewer. Approximately 1700 inorganic samples, 1500 organic samples, and 2200 radiological samples were analyzed and validated. The QA completeness objective for the project was to obtain valid analytical results for at least 95% of the samples collected.

  7. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The first step in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS). This document analyzes the potential impacts of four alternatives for conducting the Ground Water Project. One of these alternatives is the proposed action. These alternatives do not address site-specific ground water compliance strategies because the PEIS is a planning document only. It assesses the potential programmatic impacts of conducting the Ground Water Project, provides a method for determining the site-specific ground water compliance strategies, and provides data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impacts analyses more efficiently. This PEIS differs substantially from a site-specific environmental impact statement because multiple ground water compliance strategies, each with its own set of potential impacts, could be used to implement all the alternatives except the no action alternative. In a traditional environmental impact statement, an impacts analysis leads directly to the defined alternatives. The impacts analysis for implementing alternatives in this PEIS first involves evaluating a ground water compliance strategy or strategies, the use of which will result in site-specific impacts. This PEIS impacts analysis assesses only the potential impacts of the various ground water compliance strategies, then relates them to the alternatives to provide a comparison of impacts.

  8. Proceedings, National Congress on Environmental Health Management, AMA Congress on Environmental Health Problems (4th, New York, New York, April 24-26, 1967).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archives of Environmental Health, 1967

    1967-01-01

    Included are 18 papers presented at the fourth American Medical Association Congress on Environmental Health Problems. Topics related to environmental health include clinical and epidemiological considerations, genetics, patterns of health agencies, role of the physician and the medical society, and environmental stress. Topics related to…

  9. A facility for using cluster research to study environmental problems. Workshop proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This report begins by describing the general application of cluster based research to environmental chemistry and the development of a Cluster Structure and Dynamics Research Facility (CSDRF). Next, four important areas of cluster research are described in more detail, including how they can impact environmental problems. These are: surface-supported clusters, water and contaminant interactions, time-resolved dynamic studies in clusters, and cluster structures and reactions. These facilities and equipment required for each area of research are then presented. The appendices contain workshop agenda and a listing of the researchers who participated in the workshop discussions that led to this report.

  10. Toxic remediation

    DOEpatents

    Matthews, Stephen M.; Schonberg, Russell G.; Fadness, David R.

    1994-01-01

    What is disclosed is a novel toxic waste remediation system designed to provide on-site destruction of a wide variety of hazardous organic volatile hydrocarbons, including but not limited to halogenated and aromatic hydrocarbons in the vapor phase. This invention utilizes a detoxification plenum and radiation treatment which transforms hazardous organic compounds into non-hazardous substances.

  11. Remediation Technology Collaboration Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahoney, John; Olsen, Wade

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews programs at NASA aimed at development at Remediation Technology development for removal of environmental pollutants from NASA sites. This is challenging because there are many sites with different environments, and various jurisdictions and regulations. There are also multiple contaminants. There must be different approaches based on location and type of contamination. There are other challenges: such as costs, increased need for resources and the amount of resources available, and a regulatory environment that is increasing.

  12. Investigation and Action Skills for Environmental Problem Solving. A Curriculum Development Project Designed to Promote Autonomous Problem Solving in Environmental Education, Modules I-VI. Student Edition and Teacher's Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hungerford, Harold R.; And Others

    Presented are six modules designed to help junior high school students develop the skills needed to study and take action with respect to environmental problems. The first five modules cover basic investigation skills: identifying environmental problems, using secondary sources, conducting surveys, interpreting data, and studying environmental…

  13. Remedial investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, SY-200 Yard, Spoil Area 1) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The enactment of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1976 and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to RCRA in 1984 created management requirements for hazardous waste facilities. The facilities within the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) were in the process of meeting the RCRA requirements when ORR was placed on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) on November 21, 1989. Under RCRA, the actions typically follow the RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA)/RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI)/Corrective Measures Study (CMS)/Corrective Measures implementation process. Under CERCLA the actions follow the PA/SI/Remedial Investigation (RI)/Feasibility Study (FS)/Remedial Design/Remedial Action process. The development of this document will incorporate requirements under both RCRA and CERCLA into an RI work plan for the characterization of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Operable Unit (OU) 2.

  14. The environmental management problem of Pohorje, Slovenia: A new group approach within ANP - SWOT framework.

    PubMed

    Grošelj, Petra; Zadnik Stirn, Lidija

    2015-09-15

    Environmental management problems can be dealt with by combining participatory methods, which make it possible to include various stakeholders in a decision-making process, and multi-criteria methods, which offer a formal model for structuring and solving a problem. This paper proposes a three-phase decision making approach based on the analytic network process and SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis. The approach enables inclusion of various stakeholders or groups of stakeholders in particular stages of decision making. The structure of the proposed approach is composed of a network consisting of an objective cluster, a cluster of strategic goals, a cluster of SWOT factors and a cluster of alternatives. The application of the suggested approach is applied to a management problem of Pohorje, a mountainous area in Slovenia. Stakeholders from sectors that are important for Pohorje (forestry, agriculture, tourism and nature protection agencies) who can offer a wide range of expert knowledge were included in the decision-making process. The results identify the alternative of "sustainable development" as the most appropriate for development of Pohorje. The application in the paper offers an example of employing the new approach to an environmental management problem. This can also be applied to decision-making problems in various other fields. PMID:26163424

  15. The environmental management problem of Pohorje, Slovenia: A new group approach within ANP - SWOT framework.

    PubMed

    Grošelj, Petra; Zadnik Stirn, Lidija

    2015-09-15

    Environmental management problems can be dealt with by combining participatory methods, which make it possible to include various stakeholders in a decision-making process, and multi-criteria methods, which offer a formal model for structuring and solving a problem. This paper proposes a three-phase decision making approach based on the analytic network process and SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis. The approach enables inclusion of various stakeholders or groups of stakeholders in particular stages of decision making. The structure of the proposed approach is composed of a network consisting of an objective cluster, a cluster of strategic goals, a cluster of SWOT factors and a cluster of alternatives. The application of the suggested approach is applied to a management problem of Pohorje, a mountainous area in Slovenia. Stakeholders from sectors that are important for Pohorje (forestry, agriculture, tourism and nature protection agencies) who can offer a wide range of expert knowledge were included in the decision-making process. The results identify the alternative of "sustainable development" as the most appropriate for development of Pohorje. The application in the paper offers an example of employing the new approach to an environmental management problem. This can also be applied to decision-making problems in various other fields.

  16. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations: Generator training manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This computer-based program is designed to help waste generators in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program prevent pollution at the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR) facilities in Oak Ridge, Paducah, and Portsmouth. The Numerical Scoring System (NSS) is an interactive system designed to maintain data on ER Program pollution prevention efforts and to measure the success of these efforts through the ER Program life cycle.

  17. Remediating MGP brownfields

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, B.R.

    1997-05-01

    Before natural gas pipelines became widespread in this country, gas fuel was produced locally in more than 5,000 manufactured gas plants (MGPs). The toxic wastes from these processes often were disposed onsite and have since seeped into the surrounding soil and groundwater. Although the MGPs--commonly called gas plants, gas-works or town gas plants--have closed and most have been demolished, they have left a legacy of environmental contamination. At many MGP sites, underground storage tanks were constructed of wood or brick, with process piping and equipment which frequently leaked. Waste materials often were disposed onsite. Releases of coal tars, oils and condensates produced within the plants contributed to a wide range of contamination from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, benzene and cyanide. Remediation of selected MGP sites has been sporadic. Unless the site has been identified as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) Superfund site, the regulatory initiative to remediate often remains with the state in which the MGP is located. A number of factors are working to change that picture and to create a renewed interest in MGP site remediation. The recent Brownfield Initiative by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is such an example.

  18. Remedial Action Assessment System

    1997-02-01

    RAAS1.1 is a software-based system designed to assist remediation professionals at each stage of the environmental analysis process. RAAS1.1 provides a template for environmental restoration analysis, and provides the user with key results at each step in the analysis. RAAS1.1 assists the user to develop a coherent and consistent site description, estimate baseline and residual risk to public health from the contaminated site, identify applicable environmental restoration technologies, and formulate feasible remedial response alternatives. Inmore » addition, the RAAS1.1 methodology allows the user to then assess and compare those remedial response alternatives across EPA criteria, including: compliance with objectives; short-term and long-term effectiveness; extent of treatment; and implementability of the technologies. The analytic methodology is segmented and presented in a standardized, concise, easy-to-use format that can be viewed on the personal computer screen, saved and further manipulated, or printed for later use. Each screen and analytic step is accessed via a user-friendly personal computer graphical interface. Intuitively-designed buttons, menus, and lists help the user focus in on the particular information and analysis component of interest; the corresponding results are presented in a format that facilitates their use in decision-making.« less

  19. Deviant peer affiliation and problem behavior: a test of genetic and environmental influences.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Bernadette Marie; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Leve, Leslie D

    2006-02-01

    This study uses a multitrait, multimethod (MTMM) approach to investigate the genetic and environmental etiologies of childhood deviant peer affiliation (DPA) and problem behavior (PROB). The variability of genetic and environmental estimates by agent and method is also examined. A total of 77 monozygotic and 72 dizygotic twin pairs and each twin's close friend were assessed. The informants included parents, teachers, and twins, and the methods involved questionnaire reports and coder ratings of videotaped dyadic interactions between each twin and their close friend. Twin intraclass correlations and univariate models attributed DPA and PROB to genetic, and shared and nonshared environmental effects. Parameter estimates differed by rater and method, however. Results accentuate the imperative to attend to method effects inherent in MTMM behavioral geneticresearch.

  20. Maternal Expressed Emotion Predicts Children's Antisocial Behavior Problems: Using Monozygotic-Twin Differences to Identify Environmental Effects on Behavioral Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Morgan, Julia; Rutter,Michael; Taylor,Alan; Arseneault, Louise; Tully, Lucy; Jacobs, Catherine; Kim-Cohen, Julia

    2004-01-01

    If maternal expressed emotion is an environmental risk factor for children's antisocial behavior problems, it should account for behavioral differences between siblings growing up in the same family even after genetic influences on children's behavior problems are taken into account. This hypothesis was tested in the Environmental Risk…

  1. Environmental hazard of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in metal-contaminated soils remediated by sulfosuccinamate formulation.

    PubMed

    del Carmen Hernández-Soriano, Maria; Peña, Aránzazu; Mingorance, M Dolores

    2011-10-01

    Accumulation of metals in soil at elevated concentrations causes risks to the environmental quality and human health for more than one hundred million people globally. The rate of metal release and the alteration of metal distribution in soil phases after soil washing with a sulfosuccinamate surfactant solution (Aerosol 22) were evaluated for four contaminated soils. Furthermore, a sequential extraction scheme was carried out using selective extractants (HAcO, NH(2)OH·HCl, H(2)O(2) + NH(4)AcO) to evaluate which metal species are extracted by A22 and the alteration in metal distribution upon surfactant-washing. Efficiency of A22 to remove metals varied among soils. The washing treatment released up to 50% of Cd, 40% of Cu, 20% of Pb and 12% of Zn, mainly from the soluble and reducible soil fractions, therefore, greatly reducing the fraction of metals readily available in soil. Metal speciation analysis for the solutions collected upon soil washing with Aerosol 22 further confirmed these results. Copper and lead in solution were mostly present as soluble complexes, while Cd and Zn were present as free ions. Besides, redistribution of metals in soil was observed upon washing. The ratios of Zn strongly retained in the soil matrix and Cd complexed with organic ligands increased. Lead was mobilized to more weakly retained forms, which indicates a high bioavailability of the remaining Pb in soil after washing. Comprehensive knowledge on chemical forms of metals present in soil allows a feasible assessment of the environmental impact of metals for a given scenario, as well as possible alteration of environmental conditions, and a valuable prediction for potential leaching and groundwater contamination.

  2. Avoiding costly remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Scheels, R.H.

    1997-10-01

    Some oil and gas pipeline operations require equipment with hydraulic or oil circulation systems. These are subject to oil leaks or spills due to equipment malfunctions as well as normal operation. The potential liability and actual remediation and shutdown costs helped create the need for more environmentally friendly hydraulic fluids. Mobil has developed readily biodegradable, virtually nontoxic hydraulic fluids, Mobil EAL 224H and Mobil EAL Syndrajoc Series oils (EAL stands for Environmental Awareness Lubricants). The first is vegetable oil-based, while the others are formulated from high viscosity-index synthetic ester base stocks. Both use virtually nontoxic additive packages. These hydraulic fluids are described.

  3. Dispositional and Environmental Predictors of the Development of Internalizing Problems in Childhood: Testing a Multilevel Model.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Paul D; Helm, Jonathan; Mills, Rosemary S L; Serbin, Lisa A; Stack, Dale M; Schwartzman, Alex E

    2015-07-01

    This investigation evaluated a multilevel model of dispositional and environmental factors contributing to the development of internalizing problems from preschool-age to school-age. In a sample of 375 families (185 daughters, 190 sons) drawn from three independent samples, preschoolers' behavioral inhibition, cortisol and gender were examined as moderators of the links between mothers' negative parenting behavior, negative emotional characteristics, and socioeconomic status when children were 3.95 years, and their internalizing problems when they were 8.34 years. Children's dispositional characteristics moderated all associations between these environmental factors and mother-reported internalizing problems in patterns that were consistent with either diathesis-stress or differential-susceptibility models of individual-environment interaction, and with gender models of developmental psychopathology. Greater inhibition and lower socioeconomic status were directly predictive of more teacher reported internalizing problems. These findings highlight the importance of using multilevel models within a bioecological framework to understand the complex pathways through which internalizing difficulties develop.

  4. Coastal zone problems and environmental strategies to be implemented at Edremit Bay, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Irtem, Emel; Kabdasli, Sedat; Azbar, Nuri

    2005-07-01

    This case study examines the coastal zone problems focusing on the existing conflicts between tourism and commercial activities on the coasts of Edremit Bay, Turkey, and attempts to suggest solutions to these problems. Edremit Bay is a characteristic example of such a conflict in collective use of natural resources. The study area, with its 100-km-long sandy beach, naturally attracts different coastal user groups with different beneficial expectations: in terms of rest and recreation for one group and commercial gain offered in a variety of ways for another group. Significant coastal zone problems exist in the study area. Deterioration of shoreline due to tourism activities and illegal constructions, damage to the coastal ecosystem due to domestic/industrial wastewater discharges and some agricultural activities, and disordered urbanization are only a few of the many problems. The data presented here were partly derived from field study and partly collected from local state or private organizations. In this study, it is emphasized that there is a need for viable economic and environmental strategies to be designated in Edremit Bay, Turkey, in order to provide sustainable resource use. For this purpose, an integrated project together with a relevant planning chart including subprojects is also suggested. The success of a local environmental protection management project depends on active participation of all stakeholders including governmental organizations and nongovernmental organizations.

  5. GUIDE FOR CONDUCTING TREATABILITY STUDIES UNDER CERCLA: AEROBIC BIODEGRADATION REMEDY SCREENING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Systematically conducted, well-documented treatability studies are an important component of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (KU FS) process and the remedial design/remedial action (RD/RA) process under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and L...

  6. Understanding students visions about environmental global problems. Experience and lessons learned of teaching in Lithuania.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Siarova, Hanna; Misiūnė, Ieva; Cerda, Artemi; Úbeda, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, environment is accepted to be an important element of our welfare. Our activities and societal status are strongly related with the quality of the environment where we live. On the other hand historical and cultural backgrounds shape importantly our views about the environment and how we act towards it in our daily life. In a context of globalization and increase of competition at international level, knowledge appears to be one of the key components for the advance of the word. Most of the knowledge produced comes from high level education institutions and research centres, which have responsibility to create and encourage critical thinking. Individuals aware of the problems can be more active and can push things forward. We think that environmental knowledge and awareness are fundamental for the future of the society. In order to develop better methodologies are developed if we have a better perception of students understanding of environmental problems. The objective of this work is to study the Lithuanian university level student's perception about some environmental challenges of our society. We selected several questions for the students rate according the relevance of the question, as "Air Pollution", "Waste Management", "Resources overexplotation", "Biodiversity reduction", "Human Overpopulation" "Poverty", "Global Warming/Climate change", Natural disasters", "Terrorism", "Economical crisis", "War and armed conflicts" and the "Spread of infectious diseases". We ask to the respondents to rate the importance using a likert scale (1=Not Important, 2= not so important, 3=important, 4=very important, 5=the most important). Among all the questions, the most rated where the Water pollution, the Spread of infectious diseases and Air Pollution and the less important where Biodiversity Reduction, Human overpopulation and climate change. These results helped us to identify where some efforts should be taken to raise student's awareness about global

  7. Environmental awareness

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This brochure is intended to provide guidance on environmental regulations to National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC) employees. Topics covered include: handling of hazardous materials, disposal of hazardous wastes, spill prevention and remediation, pcb contamination, pesticide use, asbestos remediation, solid waste disposal, and environmental laws. Safety aspects are emphasized.

  8. Environmental awareness

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This brochure is intended to provide guidance on environmental regulations to National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC) employees. Topics covered include: handling of hazardous materials, disposal of hazardous wastes, spill prevention and remediation, pcb contamination, pesticide use, asbestos remediation, solid waste disposal, and environmental laws. Safety aspects are emphasized.

  9. Which environmental problems get policy attention? Examining energy and agricultural sector policies in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Engstroem, Rebecka Nilsson, Mans Finnveden, Goeran

    2008-05-15

    Not all environmental problems get the same level of policy attention. An interesting question is thus why certain aspects receive attention and others do not. This paper studies the level of policy attention given to different environmental aspects in agriculture and energy policy in Sweden and explores empirically some factors that can explain the level of attention. The first step was to explore the link between environmental issue characteristics and the level of policy attention. The level of policy attention was measured through a content analysis of Swedish government bills. The results from the content analysis are clear and stable over the studied time period. In the agriculture sector biodiversity and toxicity are in focus whereas in the energy sector climate change and resources are given the attention. Besides these aspects, the attention is limited. These results were compared with the results from sector-wide environmental assessments of the same sectors. These assessments were based on hybrid input-output analysis and life cycle assessment methodologies. A main finding from the study is that issue importance is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for policy attention. Other explanations are needed to understand which environmental issues get attention in sectoral policy. Our assessment showed that while the level of knowledge does not provide an explanation, the presence of strong and well-organised stakeholders within the sector, with an interest in having a certain issue on the agenda, might be decisive for issue attention. Path dependency and limited attention capacity are other important factors.

  10. A review of the environmental implications of in situ remediation by nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI): Behavior, transport and impacts on microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, Emilie; Bossa, Nathan; Wiesner, Mark R; Gunsch, Claudia K

    2016-09-15

    The increasing use of strategies incorporating nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) for soil and groundwater in situ remediation is raising some concerns regarding the potential adverse effects nZVI could have on indigenous microbial communities and ecosystem functioning. This review provides an overview of the current literature pertaining to the impacts of nZVI applications on microbial communities. Toxicity studies suggest that cell membrane disruption and oxidative stress through the generation of Fe(2+) and reactive oxygen species by nZVI are the main mechanisms contributing to nZVI cytotoxicity. In addition, nZVI has been shown to substantially alter the taxonomic and functional composition of indigenous microbial communities. However, because the physico-chemical conditions encountered in situ highly modulate nZVI toxicity, a better understanding of the environmental factors affecting nZVI toxicity and transport in the environment is of primary importance in evaluating the ecological consequences that could result from a more extensive use of nZVI.

  11. Air-Base Remediation Workshop - Section 3 Bioventig

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pursuant to the EPA-AIT Implementing Arrangement 7 for Technical Environmental Collaboration, Activity 11 "Remediation of Contaminated Sites," the USEPA Office of International Affairs Organized a Forced Air Remediation Workshop in Taipei to deliver expert training to the Environ...

  12. Air-Based Remediation Workshop - Section 2 Soil Vapor Extraction

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pursuant to the EPA-AIT Implementing Arrangement 7 for Technical Environmental Collaboration, Activity 11 "Remediation of Contaminated Sties," the USEPA Office of International Affairs Organized a Forced Air Remediation Workshop in Taipei to deliver expert training to the Environ...

  13. Air-Based Remediation Workshop - Section 6 Thermal Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pursuant to the EPA-AIT Implementing Arrangement 7 for Technical Environmental Collaboration, Activity 11 "Remediation of Contaminated Sites," the USEPA Office of International Affairs Organized a Forced Air Remediation Workshop in Taipei to deliver expert training to the Environ...

  14. PERFORMANCE MONITORING FOR NATURAL ATTENUATION REMEDIES IN GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental monitoring is the major component of any remedy that relies on natural attenuation processes. The objective of this document is to identify data needs and evaluation methods useful for designing monitoring networks and determining remedy effectiveness. Effective mon...

  15. Improving Hazardous Waste Remediation and Restoration Decisions Using Ecosystem Services

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hazardous site management in the US includes remediation of contaminated environmental media and restoration of injured natural resources. Site remediation decisions are informed by ecological risk assessment (ERA), while restoration and compensation decisions are informed by the...

  16. The ERGIS project-use of GIS as a decision support tool for the remediation of a superfund site in Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Laird, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    Many industrial sites in the United States formerly engaged in weapons component manufacturing are now in the process of remediation as a result of shifting post-cold war defense requirements. Although some of these sites represent serious long-term remediation and hazardous site management problems, several less polluted sites can be successfully restored and returned to non-hazardous public or private uses within a few years if limited remediation resources are allocated properly and efficiently. GIS is a tool which can be used to support operable unit and environmental restoration activities by providing the mapping and modeling analysis applications that decision makers need in order to plan a more accurate remediation strategy. This paper will examine the ERGIS system, a remediation GIS successfully implemented at the Mound Facility, in Miamisburg, Ohio, and how this system supports a variety of critical remediation activities.

  17. Long term remediation of highly polluted acid mine drainage: a sustainable approach to restore the environmental quality of the Odiel river basin.

    PubMed

    Caraballo, Manuel A; Macías, Francisco; Rötting, Tobias S; Nieto, José Miguel; Ayora, Carlos

    2011-12-01

    During 20 months of proper operation the full scale passive treatment in Mina Esperanza (SW Spain) produced around 100 mg/L of ferric iron in the aeration cascades, removing an average net acidity up to 1500 mg/L as CaCO(3) and not having any significant clogging problem. Complete Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ti and V removal from the water was accomplished through almost the entire operation time while Fe removal ranged between 170 and 620 mg/L. The system operated at a mean inflow rate of 43 m(3)/day achieving an acid load reduction of 597 g·(m(2) day)(-1), more than 10 times higher than the generally accepted 40 g·(m(2) day)(-1) value commonly used as a passive treatment system designing criteria. The high performance achieved by the passive treatment system at Mina Esperanza demonstrates that this innovative treatment design is a simple, efficient and long lasting remediation option to treat highly polluted acid mine drainage. PMID:21862191

  18. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the uranium mill tailings remedial action ground water project. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    Volume II of the programmatic environmental impact statement (PElS) is a comment and response document; it is the collection of the comments received on the draft PElS. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) response to each comment is provided after each comment. If the comment resulted in a change to the PElS, the affected section number of the PElS is provided in the response. Comments 1 through 259 were received at public hearings. The name of the hearing at which the comment was received is listed after each comment. Comments were recorded on flip charts and by notetakers. DOE representatives were present to hear the comments and respond to them. The DOE's written response is provided after each comment. Comments 260 through 576 were received in writing at the hearings, and from various federal, tribal, and state agencies and from individuals during the public comment period. Copies of the written comments follow the comments and responses.

  19. Air-Based Remediation Workshop - Section 1 Sampling And Analysis Revelant To Air-Based Remediation Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pursant to the EPA-AIT Implementing Arrangement 7 for Technical Environmental Collaboration, Activity 11 "Remediation of Contaminated Sites," the USEPA Office of International Affairs Organized a Force Air Remediation Workshop in Taipei to deliver expert training to the Environme...

  20. Examples of landscape indicators for assessing environmental conditions and problems in urban and suburban areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin-Duque, J. F.; Godfrey, A.; Diez, A.; Cleaves, E.; Pedraza, J.; Sanz, M.A.; Carrasco, R.M.; Bodoque, J.; Brebbia, C.A.; Martin-Duque, J.F.; Wadhwa, L.C.

    2002-01-01

    Geo-indicators can help to assess environmental conditions in city urban and suburban areas. Those indicators should be meaningful for understanding environmental changes. From examples of Spanish and American cities, geo-indicators for assessing environmental conditions and changes in urban and suburban areas are proposed. The paper explore two types of geo-indicators. The first type presents general information that can be used to indicate the presence of a broad array of geologic conditions, either favouring or limiting various kinds of uses of the land. The second type of geo-indicator is the one most commonly used, and as a group most easily understood; these are site and problem specific and they are generally used after a problem is identified. Among them, watershed processes, seismicity and physiographic diversity are explained in more detail. A second dimension that is considered when discussing geo-indicators is the issue of scale. Broad scale investigations, covering extensive areas are only efficient at cataloguing general conditions common to much of the area or some outstanding feature within the area. This type of information is best used for policy type decisions. Detailed scale investigations can provide information about local conditions, but are not efficient at cataloguing vast areas. Information gathered at the detailed level is necessary for project design and construction.