Science.gov

Sample records for environmental samples collected

  1. Automated collection and processing of environmental samples

    DOEpatents

    Troyer, Gary L.; McNeece, Susan G.; Brayton, Darryl D.; Panesar, Amardip K.

    1997-01-01

    For monitoring an environmental parameter such as the level of nuclear radiation, at distributed sites, bar coded sample collectors are deployed and their codes are read using a portable data entry unit that also records the time of deployment. The time and collector identity are cross referenced in memory in the portable unit. Similarly, when later recovering the collector for testing, the code is again read and the time of collection is stored as indexed to the sample collector, or to a further bar code, for example as provided on a container for the sample. The identity of the operator can also be encoded and stored. After deploying and/or recovering the sample collectors, the data is transmitted to a base processor. The samples are tested, preferably using a test unit coupled to the base processor, and again the time is recorded. The base processor computes the level of radiation at the site during exposure of the sample collector, using the detected radiation level of the sample, the delay between recovery and testing, the duration of exposure and the half life of the isotopes collected. In one embodiment, an identity code and a site code are optically read by an image grabber coupled to the portable data entry unit.

  2. Collecting Samples of Workplace Air. Module 8. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on collecting samples of workplace air. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) collecting information about…

  3. Salmonella Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Among Dairy Farm Environmental Samples Collected in Texas.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Rivera, Lorraine D; Cummings, Kevin J; Loneragan, Guy H; Rankin, Shelley C; Hanson, Devin L; Leone, William M; Edrington, Thomas S

    2016-04-01

    Dairy cattle are a reservoir of several Salmonella serovars that are leading causes of human salmonellosis. The objectives of this study were to estimate the environmental prevalence of Salmonella on dairy farms in Texas and to characterize the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates. Eleven dairy farms throughout Texas were sampled from August through October 2013, using a cross-sectional approach. Samples were collected from four locations within each farm (hospital pen, maternity pen, cow housing area, and calf housing area), and feces were collected from cull cows as available. Environmental and fecal samples were processed for Salmonella, and isolates were tested for susceptibility to 15 antimicrobial agents. Serovar characterization was performed on a subset of these isolates. Salmonella was isolated from 67.0% (236/352) of the environmental samples and 64.2% (43/67) of the cull cow fecal samples. Environmental samples from the maternity pen were significantly more likely to be Salmonella positive than samples from the cow and calf housing areas. Multidrug resistance was evident in 11.9% (27/226) of environmental isolates and 19.5% (8/41) of fecal isolates. Salmonella isolates from the calf housing area and maternity pen were significantly more likely to be multidrug resistant (MDR) than isolates from the cow housing area. The most common serovars found among the MDR isolates were Newport, Muenchen, and Typhimurium. These results help provide a focus for efforts to mitigate the burden of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella at the preharvest level. PMID:26954516

  4. Collecting Stream Samples for Water Quality. Module 16. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on collecting stream samples for water quality. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) using a job aid to…

  5. Activity concentrations of environmental samples collected in Fukushima Prefecture immediately after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    PubMed Central

    Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Monzen, Satoru; Osanai, Minoru; Akata, Naofumi; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Omori, Yasutaka; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sahoo, Sarata K.; Kovács, Tibor; Yamada, Masatoshi; Nakata, Akifumi; Yoshida, Mitsuaki; Yoshino, Hironori; Mariya, Yasushi; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2013-01-01

    Radionuclide concentrations in environmental samples such as surface soils, plants and water were evaluated by high purity germanium detector measurements. The contribution rate of short half-life radionuclides such as 132I to the exposure dose to residents was discussed from the measured values. The highest values of the 131I/137Cs activity ratio ranged from 49 to 70 in the environmental samples collected at Iwaki City which is located to the south of the F1-NPS. On the other hand, the 132I/131I activity ratio in the same environmental samples had the lowest values, ranging from 0.01 to 0.02. By assuming that the 132I/131I activity ratio in the atmosphere was equal to the ratio in the environmental samples, the percent contribution to the thyroid equivalent dose by 132I was estimated to be less than 2%. Moreover, the contribution to the thyroid exposure by 132I might be negligible if 132I contamination was restricted to Iwaki City. PMID:23887080

  6. ISOLATION OF Cryptococcus neoformans FROM ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES COLLECTED IN SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA.

    PubMed

    Nweze, Emeka I; Kechia, Fred A; Dibua, Uju E; Eze, Charles; Onoja, Uwakwe S

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcosis caused by Cryptococcus neoformans is the second most common fungal opportunistic pathogen and a life-threatening infection with serious clinical manifestations especially in HIV/AIDS and other immunocompromised patients. In Nigeria, HIV/AIDS infection has reached an alarming level. Despite this, information on the presence of this fungus in clinical and environmental samples is very scanty in Nigeria and many other parts of Africa. We set out to evaluate the presence of Cryptococcus neoformans or C. gattiiin pigeon droppings obtained from Southeastern Nigeria. One hundred and seventy-seven samples of pigeon droppings from six sample types were collected. The area covered comprised of ten cities and other locations spanning across five States in Nigeria. Using established techniques, Cryptococcus neoformans was isolated from 39 of the 177 (22.0%) samples overall. No C. gattiiwas isolated. Most of the isolates (32.4%) were recovered from dovecotes (11 of 34) followed closely by samples taken from markets (31.8%; seven of 22) and least from the church (4.0%; one of 25). The highest isolation rate (38.9%) was found in samples from Enugu-Ezike(seven of 23) while the least came from Afikpo and the other locations each with 9.1% isolation rate. This is the first large-scale screening of Cryptococcus neoformans from pigeon droppings in Nigeria. The ecological and epidemiological significance of these findings are discussed. PMID:26422152

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF A TAMPER RESISTANT/INDICATING AEROSOL COLLECTION SYSTEM FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING AT BULK HANDLING FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, L.

    2012-06-06

    Environmental sampling has become a key component of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards approaches since its approval for use in 1996. Environmental sampling supports the IAEA's mission of drawing conclusions concerning the absence of undeclared nuclear material or nuclear activities in a Nation State. Swipe sampling is the most commonly used method for the collection of environmental samples from bulk handling facilities. However, augmenting swipe samples with an air monitoring system, which could continuously draw samples from the environment of bulk handling facilities, could improve the possibility of the detection of undeclared activities. Continuous sampling offers the opportunity to collect airborne materials before they settle onto surfaces which can be decontaminated, taken into existing duct work, filtered by plant ventilation, or escape via alternate pathways (i.e. drains, doors). Researchers at the Savannah River National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been working to further develop an aerosol collection technology that could be installed at IAEA safeguarded bulk handling facilities. The addition of this technology may reduce the number of IAEA inspector visits required to effectively collect samples. The principal sample collection device is a patented Aerosol Contaminant Extractor (ACE) which utilizes electrostatic precipitation principles to deposit particulates onto selected substrates. Recent work has focused on comparing traditional swipe sampling to samples collected via an ACE system, and incorporating tamper resistant and tamper indicating (TRI) technologies into the ACE system. Development of a TRI-ACE system would allow collection of samples at uranium/plutonium bulk handling facilities in a manner that ensures sample integrity and could be an important addition to the international nuclear safeguards inspector's toolkit. This work was supported by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), Office

  8. 9 CFR 147.12 - Procedures for collection, isolation, and identification of Salmonella from environmental samples...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., litter, dust, or floor litter surface or nest box drag swab samples to be submitted for bacteriological... common; e.g., on or near waterers, feeders, nests, or rafters, etc. When the volume of material collected... the surface of random, flock-representative floor litter and nest box areas. The sampler pads shall...

  9. 9 CFR 147.12 - Procedures for collection, isolation, and identification of Salmonella from environmental samples...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., litter, dust, or floor litter surface or nest box drag swab samples to be submitted for bacteriological... common; e.g., on or near waterers, feeders, nests, or rafters, etc. When the volume of material collected... the surface of random, flock-representative floor litter and nest box areas. The sampler pads shall...

  10. Seawater sampling and collection.

    PubMed

    Zaikova, Elena; Hawley, Alyse; Walsh, David A; Hallam, Steven J

    2009-01-01

    This video documents methods for collecting coastal marine water samples and processing them for various downstream applications including biomass concentration. nucleic acid purification, cell abundance, nutrient and trace gas analyses. For today's demonstration samples were collected from the deck of the HMS John Strickland operating in Saanich Inlet. An A-frame derrick, with a multi-purpose winch and cable system, is used in combination with Niskin or Go-Flo water sampling bottles. A Conductivity, Temperature, and Depth (CTD) sensor is also be used to sample the underlying water mass. To minimize outgassing, trace gas samples are collected first. Then, nutrients, chemistry, and cell counts are determined. Finally, waters are collected for biomass filtration. The set-up and collection time for a single cast is approximately 1.5 hours at a maximum depth of 215 meters. Therefore, a total of 6 hours is generally needed to complete the four-part collection series described here. PMID:19536065

  11. Bacterial mutagenicity and chemical analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and some nitro derivatives in environmental samples collected in West Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, R.C.; Stanton, C.A.; Martin, C.N.; Chow, F.L.; Thomas, W.; Hubner, D.; Herrmann, R.

    1986-01-01

    Snow and air particulate samples collected in Upper Frankonia, Federal Republic of Germany, have been analyzed for nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and PAH content. A novel clean-up technique has been developed enabling interfering organochlorine environmental contaminants to be removed prior to analysis of the hydrocarbons by GC-MS. Mass fragmentation patterns are presented for 1-nitropyrene, 6-nitrobenzo(a)pyrene, 6-nitrochrysene, and 3-nitrofluoranthene. The level of these compounds found in air samples was in the range of 0.2-2.0 ng.m-3 with the exception of 6-nitrobenzo(a)pyrene, which was not detected. This compares with PAH values of between 1 and 6 ng.m-3. The freshly fallen snow sample collected at the side of a motorway had no detectable PAHs or nitro-PAHs. Parallel studies on the bacterial mutagenicity of the collected air samples using Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 in the presence and absence of aroclor-induced rat liver S9 revealed both direct and indirect activity. Larger numbers of mutants were induced in the presence of S9 than in its absence. The snow sample was devoid of mutagenic activity. These studies show the utility of the biological approach to screen environmental samples prior to expensive and time-consuming chemical analysis.

  12. [Detection of Avian Influenza Virus in Environmental Samples Collected from Live Poultry Markets in China during 2009-2013].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Li, Xiaodan; Zou, Shumei; Bo, Hong; Dong, Libo; Gao, Rongbao; Wang, Dayan; Shu, Yuelong

    2015-11-01

    Abstract: To investigate the distribution of avian influenza virus in environmental samples from live poultry markets (LPM) in China, samples were collected and tested by nucleic acid during 2009-2013 season. Each sample was tested by real-time RT PCR using flu A specific primers. If any real-time PCR was positive, the sample was inoculated into specific-pathogen-free (SPF) embryonated chicken eggs for viral isolation. The results indicated that the positive rate of nucleic acid in enviromental samples exhibited seasonality. The positive rate of nucleic acid was significantly higher in Winter and Spring. The positive rate of nucleic acid in LPM located in the south of China was higher than in northern China. Samples of Sewage for cleaning poultry and chopping board showed that higher positive rate of nucleic acid than other samples. The Subtype identification showed that H5 and H9 were main subtypes in the enviromental samples. Viral isolation indicated H5 subtypes was more than H9 subtypes between 2009 and 2013 while H9 subtypes increased in 2013. Our findings suggested the significance of public health based on LPM surveillance and provided the basis of prevention and early warning for avian flu infection human. PMID:26951005

  13. Salmonella prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility among dairy farm environmental samples collected in Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy cattle are a reservoir of several Salmonella serovars that are leading causes of human salmonellosis. The objectives of this study were to determine the environmental prevalence of Salmonella on dairy farms in Texas and to characterize the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates. Eleven...

  14. HOST GENE CELL RESEARCH FOR DETERMINING VIRULENCE OF AEROMONAS SPP. COLLECTED FROM ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is interested in assessing health risks associated with emerging or potential waterborne pathogens. To this end, the Agency has established a Candidate Contaminant List (CCL) that includes Aeromonas hydrophila an...

  15. 9 CFR 147.12 - Procedures for collection, isolation, and identification of Salmonella from environmental samples...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...: For Federal Register citations affecting § 147.12, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which..., litter, dust, or floor litter surface or nest box drag swab samples to be submitted for bacteriological... common; e.g., on or near waterers, feeders, nests, or rafters, etc. When the volume of material...

  16. 9 CFR 147.12 - Procedures for collection, isolation, and identification of Salmonella from environmental samples...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...: For Federal Register citations affecting § 147.12, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which..., litter, dust, or floor litter surface or nest box drag swab samples to be submitted for bacteriological... common; e.g., on or near waterers, feeders, nests, or rafters, etc. When the volume of material...

  17. 9 CFR 147.12 - Procedures for collection, isolation, and identification of Salmonella from environmental samples...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...: For Federal Register citations affecting § 147.12, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which..., litter, dust, or floor litter surface or nest box drag swab samples to be submitted for bacteriological... common; e.g., on or near waterers, feeders, nests, or rafters, etc. When the volume of material...

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING AND MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods of probability sampling provide a rigorous protocol which scientifically reliable information on environmental issues may e obtained. he authors review fundamentals of probability sampling from the perspective of monitoring environmental resources. hey first describe basi...

  19. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Samples are routinely collected and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, ground water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

  20. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1996-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1996 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

  1. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)(a) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1997 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. In addition, Section 3.0, Biota, also reflects a rotating collection schedule identifying the year a specific sample is scheduled for collection. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The sampling methods will be the same as those described in the Environmental Monitoring Plan, US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, DOE/RL91-50, Rev. 1, US Department of Energy, Richland, Washington.

  2. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control, and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling .events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling is indicated as annual, semi-annual, quarterly, or monthly in the sampling schedule. Some samples are collected and analyzed as part of ground-water monitoring and characterization programs at Hanford (e.g. Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), or Operational). The number of samples planned by other programs are identified in the sampling schedule by a number in the analysis column and a project designation in the Cosample column. Well sampling events may be merged to avoid redundancy in cases where sampling is planned by both-environmental surveillance and another program.

  3. Evaluation of some pollutant levels in environmental samples collected from the area of the new campus of Taif University.

    PubMed

    Sharshar, Taher; Hassan, H Ebrahim; Arida, Hassan A; Aydarous, Abdulkadir; Bazaid, Salih A; Ahmed, Mamdouh A

    2013-01-01

    The levels of radioactivity and heavy metals in soil, plant and groundwater samples collected from the area of the new campus of Taif University, Saudi Arabia, and its neighbouring areas have been determined. High-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy was used for radioactivity measurements, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy was used to determine the concentration of heavy metals. The means of (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (40)K concentrations in water samples collected from four wells were found to be 0.13 ± 0.03, 0.05 ± 0.03 and 1.3 ± 0.5 Bq l(-1), respectively. The means of (238)U, (226)Ra, (228)Ra ((232)Th for soil samples) and (40)K concentrations in wild plant and soil samples were found to be 3.7 ± 4.1, 8.8 ± 11.6, 3.8 ± 2.9 and 1025 ± 685, and 8.6 ± 3.4, 12.8 ± 3.4, 16.6 ± 7.1 and 618 ± 82 Bq kg(-1) dry weight (DW), respectively. The (137)Cs of artificial origin was also detected in soil samples with a mean concentration of 3.8 ± 2.2 Bq kg(-1) DW. Evaluating the results, it can be concluded that the concentrations of (238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in soil samples fall within the world average. Furthermore, 19 trace and major elements in groundwater samples and 22 elements in soil and plant samples were determined. The sampling locations of soil can be classified into three groups (relatively high, medium and low polluted) according to their calculated metal pollution index using the contents of trace and major elements. A cluster analysis of the contents of radioactivity and trace element contents in soil samples shows the presence of two main distinct clusters of sampling locations. PMID:22568514

  4. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2000-01-27

    This document contains the CY2000 schedules for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes sampling locations, sample types, and analyses to be performed.

  5. Solving the ecological puzzle of mycorrhizal associations using data from annotated collections and environmental samples - an example of saddle fungi.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jonathan; Zhao, Qi; Yang, Zhu L; Wang, Zheng; Townsend, Jeffrey P

    2015-08-01

    The relation between ecological and genetic divergence of Helvella species (saddle fungi) has been perplexing. While a few species have been clearly demonstrated to be ectomycorrhizal fungi, ecological roles of many other species have been controversial, alternately considered as either saprotrophic or mycorrhizal. We applied SATé to build an inclusive deoxyribonucleic acid sequence alignment for the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of annotated Helvella species and related environmental sequences. Phylogenetic informativeness of ITS and its regions were assessed using PhyDesign. Mycorrhizal lineages present a diversity of ecology, host type and geographic distribution. In two Helvella clades, no Helvella ITS sequences were recovered from root tips. Inclusion of environmental sequences in the ITS phylogeny from these sequences has the potential to link these data and reveal Helvella ecology. This study can serve as a model for revealing the diversity of relationships between unculturable fungi and their potential plant hosts. How non-mycorrhizal life styles within Helvella evolved will require expanded metagenomic investigation of soil and other environmental samples along with study of Helvella genomes. PMID:26033481

  6. PBDEs in environmental samples: sampling and analysis.

    PubMed

    Król, Sylwia; Zabiegała, Bożena; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2012-05-15

    The paper reviews the subject literature concerning analytical procedures routinely sed for monitoring polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in environmental samples. It describes and summarizes subsequent stages of analytical procedure including sample collection and preparation, extraction, clean-up and final determination. Different approaches with their advantages and limitations are presented. Special attention is drawn to the newly developed, promising extraction techniques, especially: liquid-liquid-microextraction (LLME) with its modifications, cloud point extraction (CPE) and hollow fiber microextraction. The review compares available detection techniques taking into account their usefulness for determining different PBDEs in complex matrix as well as discussing possible limitations that may occur during the analysis. The quality assurance and quality control aspect of analytical procedure is described. Finally special attention is paid to the determination of highly brominated PBDE compounds (e.g. BDE209), which requires implementation of different analytical approach. PMID:22483870

  7. Detection of environmental DNA of Bigheaded Carps in samples collected from selected locations in the St. Croix River and in the Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amberg, Jon J.; McCalla, S. Grace; Miller, Loren; Sorensen, Peter; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2013-01-01

    The use of molecular methods, such as the detection of environmental deoxyribonucleic acid (eDNA), have become an increasingly popular tool in surveillance programs that monitor for the presence of invasive species in aquatic systems. One early application of these methods in aquatic systems was surveillance for DNA of Asian carps (specifically bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp H. molitrix) in water samples taken from the Chicago Area Waterway System. The ability to identify DNA of a species in an environmental sample presents a potentially powerful tool because these sensitive analyses can presumably detect the presence of DNA in water even when the species is not abundant or are difficult to catch or monitor with traditional gear. Prior to research presented in this report, an initial eDNA surveillance effort was completed in selected locations in the Upper Mississippi and St. Croix Rivers in 2011 after the capture of a bighead carp in the St. Croix River near Prescott, WI. Data presented in this report were developed to duplicate the 2011 monitoring results from the Upper Mississippi and St. Croix Rivers and to provide critical insight into the technique to inform future work in these locations. We specifically sought to understand the potential confounding effects of other pathways of eDNA movement (e.g., fish-eating birds, watercraft) on the variation in background DNA by collecting water samples from (1) sites within the St. Croix River and the upper Mississippi River where the DNA of silver carp was previously detected, (2) sites considered to be free of Asian carp, and (3) a site known to have a large population of Asian carp. We also sought to establish a baseline Asian carp eDNA signature to which future eDNA sampling efforts could be compared. All samples taken as part of this effort were processed using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) according to procedures outlined in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Quality

  8. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring the onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. The Hanford Environmental Health Foundation is responsible for monitoring the nonradiological parameters as defined in the National Drinking Water Standards while PNL conducts the radiological monitoring of the onsite drinking water. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize the expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site.

  9. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Ground-Water Monitoring Project. The routine sampling plan for the SESP has been revised this year to reflect changing site operations and priorities. Some sampling previously performed at least annually has been reduced in frequency, and some new sampling to be performed at a less than annual frequency has been added. Therefore, the SESP schedule reflects sampling to be conducted in calendar year 1991 as well as future years. The ground-water sampling schedule is for 1991. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operation, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford evirons.

  10. Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples

    SciTech Connect

    MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject`s body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

  11. Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples

    SciTech Connect

    MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject's body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

  12. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L E

    1992-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Ground-Water Monitoring Project. Samples for radiological analyses include Air-Particulate Filter, gases and vapor; Water/Columbia River, Onsite Pond, Spring, Irrigation, and Drinking; Foodstuffs/Animal Products including Whole Milk, Poultry and Eggs, and Beef; Foodstuffs/Produce including Leafy Vegetables, Vegetables, and Fruit; Foodstuffs/Farm Products including Wine, Wheat and Alfalfa; Wildlife; Soil; Vegetation; and Sediment. Direct Radiation Measurements include Terrestrial Locations, Columbia River Shoreline Locations, and Onsite Roadway, Railway and Aerial, Radiation Surveys.

  13. COMPOSITE SAMPLING FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Guidance for selecting a plan to tomposite environmental or biological samples is provided in the form of models, equations, tables, and criteria. Composite sampling procedures can increase sensitivity, reduce sampling variance, and dramatically reduce analytical costs, depending...

  14. Molecular detection of native and invasive marine invertebrate larvae present in ballast and open water environmental samples collected in Puget Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, J.B.J.; Hoy, M.S.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Non-native marine species have been and continue to be introduced into Puget Sound via several vectors including ship's ballast water. Some non-native species become invasive and negatively impact native species or near shore habitats. We present a new methodology for the development and testing of taxon specific PCR primers designed to assess environmental samples of ocean water for the presence of native and non-native bivalves, crustaceans and algae. The intergenic spacer regions (IGS; ITS1, ITS2 and 5.8S) of the ribosomal DNA were sequenced for adult samples of each taxon studied. We used these data along with those available in Genbank to design taxon and group specific primers and tested their stringency against artificial populations of plasmid constructs containing the entire IGS region for each of the 25 taxa in our study, respectively. Taxon and group specific primer sets were then used to detect the presence or absence of native and non-native planktonic life-history stages (propagules) from environmental samples of ballast water and plankton tow net samples collected in Puget Sound. This methodology provides an inexpensive and efficient way to test the discriminatory ability of taxon specific oligonucleotides (PCR primers) before creating molecular probes or beacons for use in molecular ecological applications such as probe hybridizations or microarray analyses. This work addresses the current need to develop molecular tools capable of diagnosing the presence of planktonic life-history stages from non-native marine species (potential invaders) in ballast water and other environmental samples. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Environmental radiation levels in soil and sediment samples collected from floating water from a land runway resulting from heavy rains in the Jeddah region, KSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohery, M.; Baz, Shadiah; Kelany, Adel M.; Abdallah, A. M.

    2014-04-01

    The natural radiation levels in soil and sediment samples collected from floating water from a land runway resulting from heavy rains in the Jeddah region as well as the activity in the population of its surrounding environments were studied. In the regions surrounding Jeddah, the movements of floating water may increase the concentration of radioactivity due to the movement of soil due to heavy rains. In addition, the technological development of industry, agriculture and other sources around the Jeddah region has increased environmental pollution, resulting in noticeable concentrations of radioactivity. The measured activity concentrations of 214Pb, 214Bi, 228Ac, 208Tl, 40K, 226Ra and 228Ra in the studied area suggest that they are within the world average for soils and sediments, except those for water sample no. 4; the concentration in this sample was five times higher than the world average concentration (this water is not consumable). Herein, the radioactivity concentrations that were obtained from the analysis of soil and sediment samples that were collected from the investigated area are discussed. Additionally, the absorbed dose rate (D), radium equivalent activity (Raeq), external hazard index (Hex), annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE) and annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) were evaluated. For the soil and sediment samples, the average radioactivity concentrations were determined for each site and are expressed in Becquerels per kilogram (Bq/kg) of dry weight, while for the measurement of both the 226Ra and 228Ra isotopes in the water samples, the activity concentration is expressed in picoCuries per liter (pCi/l). The obtained results were compared with other measurements from different countries. The movement of floating water around the Jeddah region increases the concentration of radioactivity due to the movement of soils with heavy rains.

  16. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2002-01-16

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs. The document contains the CY 2002 schedules for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project.

  17. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    LE Bisping

    2000-01-27

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program: and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The sampling design is described in the Operations Office, Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland DOE/RL-91-50, Rev.2, U.S. Department of Energy, Richland, Washington. This document contains the CY 2000 schedules for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes sampling locations, sample types, and analyses to be performed. In some cases, samples are scheduled on a rotating basis and may not be collected in 2000 in which case the anticipated year for collection is provided. In addition, a map showing approximate sampling locations is included for each media scheduled for collection.

  18. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    LE Bisping

    1999-02-12

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental protection Program,'' and DOE Order 5400.5, ''Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment.'' The sampling methods are described in the Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, DOE/RL-91-50, Rev.2, U.S. Department of Energy, Richland, Washington. This document contains the CY1999 schedules for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes the sampling location, sample type, and analyses to be performed on the sample. In some cases, samples are scheduled on a rotating basis and may not be collected in 1999 in which case the anticipated year for collection is provided. In addition, a map is included for each media showing approximate sampling locations.

  19. Hanford site environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1998-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1 {open_quotes}General Environmental Protection Program,{close_quotes} and DOE Order 5400.5, {open_quotes}Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment.{close_quotes} The sampling methods are described in the Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, DOE/RL91-50, Rev. 2, U.S. Department of Energy, Richland, Washington. This document contains the 1998 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section of this document describes the planned sampling schedule for a specific media (air, surface water, biota, soil and vegetation, sediment, and external radiation). Each section includes the sample location, sample type, and analyses to be performed on the sample. In some cases, samples are scheduled on a rotating basis and may not be planned for 1998 in which case the anticipated year for collection is provided. In addition, a map is included for each media showing sample locations.

  20. Gamma spectroscopy of environmental samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, P. B.

    2013-05-01

    We describe experiments for the undergraduate laboratory that use a high-resolution gamma detector to measure radiation in environmental samples. The experiments are designed to instruct the students in the quantitative analysis of gamma spectra and secular equilibrium. Experiments include the radioactive dating of Brazil nuts, determining radioisotope concentrations in natural samples, and measurement of the 235U abundance in uranium rich rocks.

  1. Characterization of Cronobacter spp. isolated from food of plant origin and environmental samples collected from farms and from supermarkets in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Vojkovska, Hana; Karpiskova, Renata; Orieskova, Maria; Drahovska, Hana

    2016-01-18

    The Cronobacter genus (previously known as Enterobacter sakazakii) comprises seven species (Cronobacter sakazakii, Cronobacter malonaticus, Cronobacter muytjensii, Cronobacter turicensis, Cronobacter dublinensis, Cronobacter universalis and Cronobacter condimenti)which cause serious infections in neonates and immunocompromised people.Most of the documented outbreaks of these bacteria have been associated with consumption of contaminated powdered infant formula. The plant environment is considered to be the natural habitat of these bacteria. Therefore, a total number of 563 samples of vegetables, fruit, water and environmental swabs were collected from local farms and supermarkets in the Czech Republic and investigated for the presence of Cronobacter spp. The obtained 45 isolates (8.0%) were further characterized by phenotyping (antimicrobial resistance, capsule and pigment production) and genotyping (fusA sequencing,MLST, PCR-serotyping) methods. Most of the Cronobacter isolates (42.2%) were identified as C. sakazakii, followed by C. turicensis (31.1%), C. dublinensis (22.2%), C. malonaticus (2.2%) and C. universalis (2.2%). The 25 identified sequence types, out of which 17 were unique for only one strain, indicated a high diversity of strains. C. sakazakii sequence type 4 (ST 4), which has been associated with many cases of meningitis, was isolated only in one case. A strong association of C. turicensis and C. dublinensis with the plant environment can be deduced from our results. PMID:26513253

  2. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule, January 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2001-01-08

    This document contains the CY 2001 schedules for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes sampling locations, sample types, and analyses to be performed.

  3. Dynamic Method for Identifying Collected Sample Mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, John

    2008-01-01

    G-Sample is designed for sample collection missions to identify the presence and quantity of sample material gathered by spacecraft equipped with end effectors. The software method uses a maximum-likelihood estimator to identify the collected sample's mass based on onboard force-sensor measurements, thruster firings, and a dynamics model of the spacecraft. This makes sample mass identification a computation rather than a process requiring additional hardware. Simulation examples of G-Sample are provided for spacecraft model configurations with a sample collection device mounted on the end of an extended boom. In the absence of thrust knowledge errors, the results indicate that G-Sample can identify the amount of collected sample mass to within 10 grams (with 95-percent confidence) by using a force sensor with a noise and quantization floor of 50 micrometers. These results hold even in the presence of realistic parametric uncertainty in actual spacecraft inertia, center-of-mass offset, and first flexibility modes. Thrust profile knowledge is shown to be a dominant sensitivity for G-Sample, entering in a nearly one-to-one relationship with the final mass estimation error. This means thrust profiles should be well characterized with onboard accelerometers prior to sample collection. An overall sample-mass estimation error budget has been developed to approximate the effect of model uncertainty, sensor noise, data rate, and thrust profile error on the expected estimate of collected sample mass.

  4. Scientific guidelines for preservation of samples collected from Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gooding, James L. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The maximum scientific value of Martian geologic and atmospheric samples is retained when the samples are preserved in the conditions that applied prior to their collection. Any sample degradation equates to loss of information. Based on detailed review of pertinent scientific literature, and advice from experts in planetary sample analysis, number values are recommended for key parameters in the environmental control of collected samples with respect to material contamination, temperature, head-space gas pressure, ionizing radiation, magnetic fields, and acceleration/shock. Parametric values recommended for the most sensitive geologic samples should also be adequate to preserve any biogenic compounds or exobiological relics.

  5. Sample collection system for gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Olivares, Jose A.; Stark, Peter C.; Dunbar, John M.; Hill, Karen K.; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Roybal, Gustavo

    2004-09-21

    An automatic sample collection system for use with an electrophoretic slab gel system is presented. The collection system can be used with a slab gel have one or more lanes. A detector is used to detect particle bands on the slab gel within a detection zone. Such detectors may use a laser to excite fluorescently labeled particles. The fluorescent light emitted from the excited particles is transmitted to low-level light detection electronics. Upon the detection of a particle of interest within the detection zone, a syringe pump is activated, sending a stream of buffer solution across the lane of the slab gel. The buffer solution collects the sample of interest and carries it through a collection port into a sample collection vial.

  6. Chapter A4. Collection of Water Samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilde, Franceska D., (Edited By)

    1999-01-01

    The National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (National Field Manual) describes protocols and provides guidelines for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel who collect data that are used to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. This chapter addresses preparations and appropriate methods for the collection of surface-water, groundwater, and associated quality-control samples. Among the topics covered are considerations and procedures to prevent sample contamination; establishing site files; instructions for collecting depth-integrated isokinetic and nonisokinetic samples at flowing- and still-water sites; and guidelines for collecting formation water from wells having various types of construction and hydraulic and aquifer characteristics.

  7. Asteroid Redirect Mission: EVA and Sample Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul; Stich, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) Overview (1) Notional Development Schedule, (2) ARV Crewed Mission Accommodations; Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) Mission Summary; ARCM Accomplishments; Sample collection/curation plan (1) CAPTEM Requirements; SBAG Engagement Plan

  8. Final Report BW Sample Collection& Preparation Device

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, R P; Belgrader, P; Meyer, G; Benett, W J; Richards, J B; Hadley, D R; Stratton, P L; Milanovich, F P

    2002-01-31

    The objective of this project was to develop the technique needed to prepare a field collected sample for laboratory analysis and build a portable integrated biological detection instrument with new miniaturized and automated sample purification capabilities. The device will prepare bacterial spores, bacterial vegetative cells, and viral particles for PCR amplification.

  9. 75 FR 43989 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Sample Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Sample Collection Plan for Dogs Treated With SLENTROL AGENCY: Food and Drug... response to the notice. This notice solicits comments on the sample collection plan for dogs treated with... appropriate, and other forms of information technology. Sample Collection Plan for Dogs Treated With...

  10. Collection of Samples for DNA Analysis.

    PubMed

    van Oorschot, Roland A H; Verdon, Timothy J; Ballantyne, Kaye N

    2016-01-01

    Effective sampling of biological material is critical to the ability to acquire DNA profiles of probative value. The main methods of collection are swabbing, tapelifting, or direct excision. This chapter describes the key aspects to consider when applying these methods, in addition to suggested procedures for swabbing and tapelifting. Important issues to be considered, such as exhibit triaging, pre-examination preparation, contamination risk reduction, sample localization, sample identification, and sample prioritization as well as aspects of record keeping, packaging, and storage, are also raised. PMID:27259727

  11. Automated Sample collection and Analysis unit

    SciTech Connect

    Latner, Norman; Sanderson, Colin G.; Negro, Vincent C.

    1999-03-31

    Autoramp is an atmospheric radionuclide collection and analysis unit designed for unattended operation. A large volume of air passes through one of 31 filter cartridges which is then moved from a sampling chamber and past a bar code reader, to a shielded enclosure. The collected dust-borne radionuclides are counted with a high resolution germanium gamma-ray detector. An analysis is made and the results are transmitted to a central station that can also remotely control the unit.

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING: A BRIEF REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Proper application of statistical principles at the outset of an environmental study can make the difference between an effective, efficient study and wasted resources. This review distills some of the thoughts current among environmental scientists from a variety of backgrounds ...

  13. 40 CFR 761.310 - Collecting the sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collecting the sample. 761.310 Section 761.310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND...

  14. Firearms discharge residue sample collection techniques.

    PubMed

    Goleb, J A; Midkiff, C R

    1975-10-01

    Critical comparisons of Ba and Sb in firearms discharge residue were made on samples collected by three independent collection technqiues. Collection materials studied were transparent adhesive tape, (Scotch Brand), a solution of cellulose acetate in acetone ("Film Lift"), and plastic-shafted cotton swabs wetted with dilute nitric acid. Flameless atomic absorption analyses were performed with a Jarrell-Ash Model 810 instrument equipped with a tantalum strip atomizer. Tape and cotton swabs gave comparable positive indications of residue, with frequencies of 90 and 80%, respectively. The plastic Film Lift gave fewer positives, with a frequency of 50%. With the transparent tape lift, gunshot residue particles are discernible, making nondestructive microscopic identification possible prior to destructive elemental analysis. PMID:1176924

  15. Astronaut John Young photographed collecting lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, is photographed collecting lunar samples near North Ray crater during the third Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Descartes landing site. This picture was taken by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot. Young is using the lunar surface rake and a set of tongs. The Lunar Roving Vehicle is parked in the field of large boulders in the background.

  16. MUTAGENIC AND CARCINOGENIC POTENCY OF EXTRACTS OF DIESEL AND RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL EMISSIONS: STUDY DESIGN, SAMPLE GENERATION, COLLECTION, AND PREPARATION (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major diesel emissions research program has been initiated by the US Environmental Protection Agency to assess the human health risk associated with increased use of diesel automobiles. This program is intended to establish the mutagenic and carcinogenic potency of complex orga...

  17. Differences in results of analyses of concurrent and split stream-water samples collected and analyzed by the US Geological Survey and the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency, 1985-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melching, C.S.; Coupe, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    During water years 1985-91, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) cooperated in the collection and analysis of concurrent and split stream-water samples from selected sites in Illinois. Concurrent samples were collected independently by field personnel from each agency at the same time and sent to the IEPA laboratory, whereas the split samples were collected by USGS field personnel and divided into aliquots that were sent to each agency's laboratory for analysis. The water-quality data from these programs were examined by means of the Wilcoxon signed ranks test to identify statistically significant differences between results of the USGS and IEPA analyses. The data sets for constituents and properties identified by the Wilcoxon test as having significant differences were further examined by use of the paired t-test, mean relative percentage difference, and scattergrams to determine if the differences were important. Of the 63 constituents and properties in the concurrent-sample analysis, differences in only 2 (pH and ammonia) were statistically significant and large enough to concern water-quality engineers and planners. Of the 27 constituents and properties in the split-sample analysis, differences in 9 (turbidity, dissolved potassium, ammonia, total phosphorus, dissolved aluminum, dissolved barium, dissolved iron, dissolved manganese, and dissolved nickel) were statistically significant and large enough to con- cern water-quality engineers and planners. The differences in concentration between pairs of the concurrent samples were compared to the precision of the laboratory or field method used. The differences in concentration between pairs of the concurrent samples were compared to the precision of the laboratory or field method used. The differences in concentration between paris of split samples were compared to the precision of the laboratory method used and the interlaboratory precision of measuring a given

  18. Environmental Technology (Laboratory Analysis and Environmental Sampling) Curriculum Development Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinojosa, Oscar V.; Guillen, Alfonso

    A project assessed the need and developed a curriculum for environmental technology (laboratory analysis and environmental sampling) in the emerging high technology centered around environmental safety and health in Texas. Initial data were collected through interviews by telephone and in person and through onsite visits. Additional data was…

  19. 76 FR 23603 - New Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Environmental Science Formative Research Methodology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... collection, storage, management, and assay of environmental samples and accompanying questionnaires. The...), acceptability (burden to participants and study logistics) and cost of NCS Vanguard and Main Study environmental... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health New Proposed Collection; Comment Request;...

  20. Designing an enhanced groundwater sample collection system

    SciTech Connect

    Schalla, R.

    1994-10-01

    As part of an ongoing technical support mission to achieve excellence and efficiency in environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory for Energy and Health-Related Research (LEHR), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) provided guidance on the design and construction of monitoring wells and identified the most suitable type of groundwater sampling pump and accessories for monitoring wells. The goal was to utilize a monitoring well design that would allow for hydrologic testing and reduce turbidity to minimize the impact of sampling. The sampling results of the newly designed monitoring wells were clearly superior to those of the previously installed monitoring wells. The new wells exhibited reduced turbidity, in addition to improved access for instrumentation and hydrologic testing. The variable frequency submersible pump was selected as the best choice for obtaining groundwater samples. The literature references are listed at the end of this report. Despite some initial difficulties, the actual performance of the variable frequency, submersible pump and its accessories was effective in reducing sampling time and labor costs, and its ease of use was preferred over the previously used bladder pumps. The surface seals system, called the Dedicator, proved to be useful accessory to prevent surface contamination while providing easy access for water-level measurements and for connecting the pump. Cost savings resulted from the use of the pre-production pumps (beta units) donated by the manufacturer for the demonstration. However, larger savings resulted from shortened field time due to the ease in using the submersible pumps and the surface seal access system. Proper deployment of the monitoring wells also resulted in cost savings and ensured representative samples.

  1. PBDES IN US HUMANS, FOOD, AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants were measured in US human milk and blood, food and environmental samples. All 59 milk samples were positive for multiple congeners measured. Milk was collected beginning in 2001 from various locations in the US. PBDEs varied f...

  2. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule for Calendar Year 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2011-01-21

    This document contains the calendar year 2011 schedule for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project and the Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes sampling locations, sampling frequencies, sample types, and analyses to be performed. In some cases, samples are scheduled on a rotating basis. If a sample will not be collected in 2011, the anticipated year for collection is provided. Maps showing approximate sampling locations are included for media scheduled for collection in 2011.

  3. Comparison of aquatic macroinvertebrate samples collected using different field methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lenz, Bernard N.; Miller, Michael A.

    1996-01-01

    Government agencies, academic institutions, and volunteer monitoring groups in the State of Wisconsin collect aquatic macroinvertebrate data to assess water quality. Sampling methods differ among agencies, reflecting the differences in the sampling objectives of each agency. Lack of infor- mation about data comparability impedes data shar- ing among agencies, which can result in duplicated sampling efforts or the underutilization of avail- able information. To address these concerns, com- parisons were made of macroinvertebrate samples collected from wadeable streams in Wisconsin by personnel from the U.S. Geological Survey- National Water Quality Assessment Program (USGS-NAWQA), the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR), the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Forest Service (USDA-FS), and volunteers from the Water Action Volunteer-Water Quality Monitoring Program (WAV). This project was part of the Intergovernmental Task Force on Monitoring Water Quality (ITFM) Wisconsin Water Resources Coordination Project. The numbers, types, and environmental tolerances of the organ- isms collected were analyzed to determine if the four different field methods that were used by the different agencies and volunteer groups provide comparable results. Additionally, this study com- pared the results of samples taken from different locations and habitats within the same streams.

  4. MEASUREMENT OF CONTAMINATION IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contamination of environmental samples and measurement system can be monitored through the systematic use of appropriate quality control (QC) blanks. uring the last decade, a proliferation of terms for these QC samples has taken place, making the specification of appropriate blan...

  5. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule for Calendar Year 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2007-01-31

    This document contains the calendar year 2007 schedule for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes sampling locations, sampling frequencies, sample types, and analyses to be performed. In some cases, samples are scheduled on a rotating basis and may not be collected in 2007 in which case the anticipated year for collection is provided. Maps showing approximate sampling locations are included for media scheduled for collection in 2007.

  6. Astronaut Alan Bean holds Special Environmental Sample Container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot for the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission, holds a Special Environmental Sample Container filled with lunar soil collected during the extravehicular activity (EVA) in which Astronauts Charles Conrad Jr., commander, and Bean participated. Connrad, who took this picture, is reflected in the helmet visor of the lunar module pilot.

  7. Characterizing bioaerosol risk from environmental sampling.

    PubMed

    Hong, Tao; Gurian, Patrick L

    2012-06-19

    In the aftermath of a release of microbiological agents, environmental sampling must be conducted to characterize the release sufficiently so that mathematical models can then be used to predict the subsequent dispersion and human health risks. Because both the dose-response and environmental transport of aerosolized microbiological agents are functions of the effective aerodynamic diameter of the particles, environmental assessments should consider not only the total amount of agents but also the size distributions of the aerosolized particles. However, typical surface sampling cannot readily distinguish among different size particles. This study evaluates different approaches to estimating risk from measurements of microorganisms deposited on surfaces after an aerosol release. For various combinations of sampling surfaces, size fractions, HVAC operating conditions, size distributions of release spores, uncertainties in surface measurements, and the accuracy of model predictions are tested in order to assess how much detail can realistically be identified from surface sampling results. The recommended modeling and sampling scheme is one choosing 3, 5, and 10 μm diameter particles as identification targets and taking samples from untracked floor, wall, and the HVAC filter. This scheme provides reasonably accurate, but somewhat conservative, estimates of risk across a range of different scenarios. Performance of the recommended sampling scheme is tested by using data from a large-scale field test as a case study. Sample sizes of 10-25 in each homogeneously mixed environmental compartment are sufficient to develop order of magnitude estimates of risk. Larger sample sizes have little benefit unless uncertainties in sample recoveries can be reduced. PMID:22568610

  8. Collecting live ant specimens (colony sampling).

    PubMed

    Smith, Chris R; Tschinkel, Walter R

    2009-07-01

    Because of the great diversity of ants, it is difficult to give a single protocol for the collection of live specimens. Ant body size can be very small or extremely large; the ants can be hard or soft, sting or spray toxic chemicals, live in the open or in hard-to-reach places; and colony size can range from tens of individuals to millions. Thus, collection techniques must be tailored to each particular species. In particular, caution must always be taken when dealing with stinging species, and symptoms and basic first-aid measures, especially for the treatment of anaphylactic shock, should be reviewed before beginning fieldwork. Nonetheless, many species are collectable as whole colonies. This protocol reviews some basic techniques for collecting ground-nesting species and describes how to collect whole live colonies (with queens), which are necessary for long-term laboratory studies and addressing questions of social organization and ecology. PMID:20147204

  9. Collection of Stratospheric Samples using Balloon-Borne Payload System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Ajin; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant; Sreejith, A. G.; Kumble, Sheshashayi; Mathew, Joice; Sarpotdar, Mayuresh; Kj, Nirmal; Suresh, Ambily; Chakravortty, Dipshikha; Rangarajan, Annapoorni

    2016-07-01

    Earth's atmosphere at stratospheric altitudes contains dust particles from soil lifted by weather, volcanic dust, man-made aerosols, IDP (Interplanetary Dust Particles) - remnants of comets and asteroids, and even interstellar dust. Satellite observations suggest that approximately 100--300 tons of cosmic dust enter Earth's atmosphere every day. However, very little is known about the microbial life in the upper atmosphere, where conditions are very much similar to that on Mars and possibly on some exoplanets. Stratosphere provides a good opportunity to study the existence or survival of biological life in these conditions. Despite the importance of this topic to astrobiology, stratospheric microbial diversity/survival remains largely unexplored, probably due to significant difficulties in the access and ensuring the absence of contamination of the samples. To conduct a detailed study into this, we are developing the balloon-borne payload system SAMPLE (Stratospheric Altitude Microbiology Probe for Life Existence) to collect dust samples from stratosphere and bring them in an hygienic and uncontaminated manner to a suitable laboratory environment, where further study will be conducted to establish the possibility of microbial life in the upper atmosphere. This balloon-borne payload system will rise through the atmosphere till it reaches an altitude of about 25-30 km above sea level. The payload consists of detachable pre-sterilized sampling chambers designed to collect and contain the dust samples and get them back to the surface without contamination during the flight, a microprocessor and a controller which will determine the altitude of the payload system to actively monitor the opening and closing of the sample collection chambers. For contamination control, we will have two extra chambers, one of which will fly but not open, and one will remain closed on the ground. Other onboard devices include environmental sensors, GPS tracking devices, cameras to monitor

  10. Total airborne mold particle sampling: evaluation of sample collection, preparation and counting procedures, and collection devices.

    PubMed

    Godish, Diana; Godish, Thad

    2008-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate (i) procedures used to collect, prepare, and count total airborne mold spore/particle concentrations, and (ii) the relative field performance of three commercially available total airborne mold spore/particle sampling devices. Differences between factory and laboratory airflow calibration values of axial fan-driven sampling instruments (used in the study) indicated a need for laboratory calibration using a mass flow meter to ensure that sample results were accurately calculated. An aniline blue-amended Calberla's solution adjusted to a pH of 4.2-4.4 provided good sample mounting/counting results using Dow Corning high vacuum grease, Dow Corning 280A adhesive, and Dow Corning 316 silicone release spray for samples collected using mini-Burkard and Allergenco samplers. Count variability among analysts was most pronounced in 5% counts of relatively low mold particle deposition density samples and trended downward with increased count percentage and particle deposition density. No significant differences were observed among means of 5, 10, and 20% counts and among analysts; a significant interaction effect was observed between analysts' counts and particle deposition densities. Significantly higher mini-Burkard and Air-O-Cell total mold spore/particle counts for 600x vs. 400x (1.9 and 2.3 x higher, respectively), 1000x vs. 600x (1.9 and 2.2 x higher, respectively) and 1000x vs. 400x (3.6 and 4.6 x higher, respectively) comparisons indicated that 1000x magnification counts best quantified total airborne mold spore/particles using light microscopy, and that lower magnification counts may result in unacceptable underreporting of airborne mold spore/particle concentrations. Modest but significantly higher (1.2x) total mold spore concentrations were observed with Allergenco vs. mini-Burkard samples collected in co-located, concurrently operated sampler studies; moderate but significantly higher mini-Burkard count values (1.4x) were

  11. Analysis procedure for americium in environmental samples

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, R.W.; Hayes, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    Several methods for the analysis of /sup 241/Am in environmental samples were evaluated and a preferred method was selected. This method was modified and used to determine the /sup 241/Am content in sediments, biota, and water. The advantages and limitations of the method are discussed. The method is also suitable for /sup 244/Cm analysis.

  12. Appendix C. Collection of Samples for Chemical Agent Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Koester, C; Thompson, C; Doerr, T; Scripsick, R

    2005-09-23

    This chapter describes procedures for the collection and analysis of samples of various matrices for the purpose of determining the presence of chemical agents in a civilian setting. This appendix is intended to provide the reader with sufficient information to make informed decisions about the sampling and analysis process and to suggest analytical strategies that might be implemented by the scientists performing sampling and analysis. This appendix is not intended to be used as a standard operating procedure to provide detailed instructions as to how trained scientists should handle samples. Chemical agents can be classified by their physical and chemical properties. Table 1 lists the chemical agents considered by this report. In selecting sampling and analysis methods, we have considered procedures proposed by the Organization for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and peer-reviewed scientific literature. EPA analytical methods are good resources describing issues of quality assurance with respect to chain-of-custody, sample handling, and quality control requirements.

  13. INCORPORATING PRIOR KNOWLEDGE IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING: RANKED SET SAMPLING AND OTHER DOUBLE SAMPLING PROCEDURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental sampling can be difficult and expensive to carry out. Those taking the samples would like to integrate their knowledge of the system of study or their judgment about the system into the sample selection process to decrease the number of necessary samples. However,...

  14. 7 CFR 160.22 - Collecting samples; issuing certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... analysis, classification, or grading shall be limited to official inspectors and to such other personnel of... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Methods of Analysis, Inspection, Sampling and Grading § 160.22 Collecting samples; issuing certificates. The collection of official samples for the purpose of putting...

  15. 7 CFR 160.22 - Collecting samples; issuing certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... analysis, classification, or grading shall be limited to official inspectors and to such other personnel of... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Methods of Analysis, Inspection, Sampling and Grading § 160.22 Collecting samples; issuing certificates. The collection of official samples for the purpose of putting...

  16. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule for Calendar Year 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2006-01-27

    This document contains the calendar year 2006 schedules for the routine and non-routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes sampling locations, sample types, and analyses to be performed. In some cases, samples are scheduled on a rotating basis and may not be collected in 2006 in which case the anticipated year for collection is provided. The project document package (PDP) for Surface Environmental Surveillance contains the milestone control log for the issuing of CY06 Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule WBS 4.2.3.21.3.03, milestone: RL00430306 (4830106-12).

  17. Snow White Trench Prepared for Sample Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The informally named 'Snow White' trench is the source for the next sample to be acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander for analysis by the wet chemistry lab.

    The Surface Stereo Imager on Phoenix took this shadow-enhanced image of the trench, on the eastern end of Phoenix's work area, on Sol 103, or the 103rd day of the mission, Sept. 8, 2008. The trench is about 23 centimeters (9 inches) wide.

    The wet chemistry lab is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity suite of instruments.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. Environmental monitoring master sampling schedule: January--December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1989-01-01

    Environmental monitoring of the Hanford Site is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for calendar year 1989 for the Surface and Ground-Water Environmental Monitoring Projects. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operations, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. This schedule includes routine ground-water sampling performed by PNL for Westinghouse Hanford Company, but does not include samples that may be collected in 1989 to support special studies or special contractor projects, or for quality control. The sampling schedule for Site-wide chemical monitoring is not included here, because it varies each quarter as needed, based on past results and operating needs. This schedule does not include Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water sampling performed by PNL for Hanford Site contractors, nor does it include sampling that may be done by other DOE Hanford contractors.

  19. Environmental sampling and analysis in support of NTI-3

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, R.R.; Harrar, J.E.; Haas, J.S.; Eagle, R.J.; Andresen, B.D.

    1991-04-06

    The third National Trail Inspection took place at the Monsanto Chemical Plant in Luling, Louisiana. In order to test the effectiveness of environmental sampling (soil, water and air) in determining the nature of the chemical process in a given production plant and to examine the distance from a process building that samples can effectively be taken, we needed to select some materials that constituted components of process streams. Three materials were selected: 1. isopropyl amine for air monitoring, 2. 4-nitrophenol, one of the precursors in the acetaminophen process, and 3. an intermediate in the production of glyphosate for ROUNDUP that is known simply as glyphosate intermediated. LLNL did not participate in the air sampling nor the analysis for isopropyl amine. This paper discussed the steps in this experiment including sample collection, sample workshop, sample analysis the results and discussion and the conclusion. 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Sampling and Data Analysis for Environmental Microbiology

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, Christopher J.

    2001-06-01

    A brief review of the literature indicates the importance of statistical analysis in applied and environmental microbiology. Sampling designs are particularly important for successful studies, and it is highly recommended that researchers review their sampling design before heading to the laboratory or the field. Most statisticians have numerous stories of scientists who approached them after their study was complete only to have to tell them that the data they gathered could not be used to test the hypothesis they wanted to address. Once the data are gathered, a large and complex body of statistical techniques are available for analysis of the data. Those methods include both numerical and graphical techniques for exploratory characterization of the data. Hypothesis testing and analysis of variance (ANOVA) are techniques that can be used to compare the mean and variance of two or more groups of samples. Regression can be used to examine the relationships between sets of variables and is often used to examine the dependence of microbiological populations on microbiological parameters. Multivariate statistics provides several methods that can be used for interpretation of datasets with a large number of variables and to partition samples into similar groups, a task that is very common in taxonomy, but also has applications in other fields of microbiology. Geostatistics and other techniques have been used to examine the spatial distribution of microorganisms. The objectives of this chapter are to provide a brief survey of some of the statistical techniques that can be used for sample design and data analysis of microbiological data in environmental studies, and to provide some examples of their use from the literature.

  1. Protocol for sampling environmental sites for legionellae.

    PubMed

    Barbaree, J M; Gorman, G W; Martin, W T; Fields, B S; Morrill, W E

    1987-07-01

    A protocol for sampling environmental sites was developed and used to identify possible sources of Legionella species in support of epidemiologic investigations at two hospitals. In hospital A, legionellae were isolated from 43 of 106 (40%) different sites. Three separate Legionella pneumophila serotypes and a previously unrecognized species were present in different combinations in the positive samples. Two of five cooling towers contained the same L. pneumophila serogroup 1 monoclonal type (1,2,4,5) as was isolated from patients. The same monoclonal type was also isolated from make-up water for the two cooling towers, a hot water tank, water separators in four main air compressor systems for respiratory therapy, and cold and hot water faucets. In hospital B, 13 of 37 (38%) sample sites contained legionellae, all of which were L. pneumophila serogroup 1. The monoclonal type matching isolates from patients (1,2,4,5) was found at the highest concentration in a hot water tank, but it was also present at four other sample sites. Since legionellae not related to disease may be found in many of the sites sampled, an epidemiologic association with the probable source should be established before intervention methods, such as disinfection, are undertaken. PMID:3662501

  2. Environmental monitoring master sampling schedule, January--December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    Environmental monitoring of the Hanford Site is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for calendar year 1990 for the Environment Surveillance and Ground-Water Monitoring Projects. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operations, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs. This schedule includes ground-water sampling performed by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site.

  3. The development of a Martian atmospheric Sample collection canister

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulczycki, E.; Galey, C.; Kennedy, B.; Budney, C.; Bame, D.; Van Schilfgaarde, R.; Aisen, N.; Townsend, J.; Younse, P.; Piacentine, J.

    The collection of an atmospheric sample from Mars would provide significant insight to the understanding of the elemental composition and sub-surface out-gassing rates of noble gases. A team of engineers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology have developed an atmospheric sample collection canister for Martian application. The engineering strategy has two basic elements: first, to collect two separately sealed 50 cubic centimeter unpressurized atmospheric samples with minimal sensing and actuation in a self contained pressure vessel; and second, to package this atmospheric sample canister in such a way that it can be easily integrated into the orbiting sample capsule for collection and return to Earth. Sample collection and integrity are demonstrated by emulating the atmospheric collection portion of the Mars Sample Return mission on a compressed timeline. The test results achieved by varying the pressure inside of a thermal vacuum chamber while opening and closing the valve on the sample canister at Mars ambient pressure. A commercial off-the-shelf medical grade micro-valve is utilized in the first iteration of this design to enable rapid testing of the system. The valve has been independently leak tested at JPL to quantify and separate the leak rates associated with the canister. The results are factored in to an overall system design that quantifies mass, power, and sensing requirements for a Martian atmospheric Sample Collection (MASC) canister as outlined in the Mars Sample Return mission profile. Qualitative results include the selection of materials to minimize sample contamination, preliminary science requirements, priorities in sample composition, flight valve selection criteria, a storyboard from sample collection to loading in the orbiting sample capsule, and contributions to maintaining “ Earth” clean exterior surfaces on the orbiting sample capsule.

  4. 7 CFR 29.426 - Collection of pesticide test samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Collection of pesticide test samples. 29.426 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.426 Collection of pesticide test samples. Any lot of tobacco not certified by the importer as being free of prohibited pesticide...

  5. 7 CFR 29.426 - Collection of pesticide test samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Collection of pesticide test samples. 29.426 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.426 Collection of pesticide test samples. Any lot of tobacco not certified by the importer as being free of prohibited pesticide...

  6. 7 CFR 29.426 - Collection of pesticide test samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Collection of pesticide test samples. 29.426 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.426 Collection of pesticide test samples. Any lot of tobacco not certified by the importer as being free of prohibited pesticide...

  7. 7 CFR 29.426 - Collection of pesticide test samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Collection of pesticide test samples. 29.426 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.426 Collection of pesticide test samples. Any lot of tobacco not certified by the importer as being free of prohibited pesticide...

  8. 7 CFR 29.426 - Collection of pesticide test samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collection of pesticide test samples. 29.426 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.426 Collection of pesticide test samples. Any lot of tobacco not certified by the importer as being free of prohibited pesticide...

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF CORE SAMPLE COLLECTED FROM THE SALTSTONE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Cozzi, A.; Duncan, A.

    2010-01-28

    During the month of September 2008, grout core samples were collected from the Saltstone Disposal Facility, Vault 4, cell E. This grout was placed during processing campaigns in December 2007 from Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjustment Batch 2 salt solution. The 4QCY07 Waste Acceptance Criteria sample collected on 11/16/07 represents the salt solution in the core samples. Core samples were retrieved to initiate the historical database of properties of emplaced Saltstone and to demonstrate the correlation between field collected and laboratory prepared samples. Three samples were collected from three different locations. Samples were collected using a two-inch diameter concrete coring bit. In April 2009, the core samples were removed from the evacuated sample container, inspected, transferred to PVC containers, and backfilled with nitrogen. Samples furthest from the wall were the most intact cylindrically shaped cored samples. The shade of the core samples darkened as the depth of coring increased. Based on the visual inspection, sample 3-3 was selected for all subsequent analysis. The density and porosity of the Vault 4 core sample, 1.90 g/cm{sup 3} and 59.90% respectively, were comparable to values achieved for laboratory prepared samples. X-ray diffraction analysis identified phases consistent with the expectations for hydrated Saltstone. Microscopic analysis revealed morphology features characteristic of cementitious materials with fly ash and calcium silicate hydrate gel. When taken together, the results of the density, porosity, x-ray diffraction analysis and microscopic analysis support the conclusion that the Vault 4, Cell E core sample is representative of the expected waste form.

  10. Matrix isolation apparatus with extended sample collection capability

    DOEpatents

    Reedy, Gerald T.

    1987-01-01

    A gas-sample collection device provides for the matrix isolation of increased amounts of a sample material for spectrographic analysis from a gas chromatographic separation. The device includes an evacuated sample collection chamber containing a disc-like specular carousel having a generally circular lateral surface upon which the sample is deposited in an inert gas matrix for infrared (IR) spectral analysis. The evacuated sample chamber is mounted in a fixed manner and is coupled to and supports a rotating cryostatic coupler which, in turn, supports the specular carousel within the collection chamber. A rotational drive system connected to the cryostatic coupler provides for its rotational displacement as well as that of the sample collecting carousel. In addition, rotation of the cryostatic coupler effects vertical displacement of the carousel to permit the collection of an extended sample band in a helical configuration on the entire lateral surface of the carousel. The various components of the carousel's angular/linear displacement drive system are located exterior to the cryostatic coupler for easy access and improved operation. The cryostatic coupler includes a 360.degree. rotary union assembly for permitting the delivery of a high pressure working fluid to the cryostatic coupler in a continuous flow manner for maintaining the specular carousel at a low temperature, e.g., 10.degree.-20.degree. K., for improved uninterrupted gas sample collection and analysis.

  11. A perception and manipulation system for collecting rock samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, T.; Delingette, H.; Deluise, M.; Hsin, Y.; Hebert, M.; Ikeuchi, Katsushi

    1991-01-01

    An important part of a planetary exploration mission is to collect and analyze surface samples. As part of the Carnegie Mellon University Ambler Project, researchers are investigating techniques for collecting samples using a robot arm and a range sensor. The aim of this work is to make the sample collection operation fully autonomous. Described here are the components of the experimental system, including a perception module that extracts objects of interest from range images and produces models of their shapes, and a manipulation module that enables the system to pick up the objects identified by the perception module. The system was tested on a small testbed using natural terrain.

  12. Collecting Ground Samples for Balloon-Borne Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack; Zimmerman, Wayne; Wu, Jiunn Jenq

    2009-01-01

    A proposed system in a gondola containing scientific instruments suspended by a balloon over the surface of the Saturn moon Titan would quickly acquire samples of rock or ice from the ground below. Prototypes of a sample-collecting device that would be a major part of the system have been tested under cryogenic and non-cryogenic conditions on Earth. Systems like this one could also be used in non-cryogenic environments on Earth to collect samples of rock, soil, ice, mud, or other ground material from such inaccessible or hazardous locations as sites of suspected chemical spills or biological contamination. The sample-collecting device would be a harpoonlike device that would be connected to the balloon-borne gondola by a tether long enough to reach the ground. The device would be dropped from the gondola to acquire a sample, then would be reeled back up to the gondola, where the sample would be analyzed by the onboard instruments. Each prototype of the sample-collecting device has a sharp front (lower) end, a hollow core for retaining a sample, a spring for holding the sample in the hollow core, and a rear (upper) annular cavity for retaining liquid sample material. Aerodynamic fins at the rear help to keep the front end pointed downward. In tests, these prototype devices were dropped from various heights and used to gather samples of dry sand, moist sand, cryogenic water ice, and warmer water ice.

  13. SAMPLE COLLECTION AND HANDLING FOR MICROBIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this presentation is to discuss sample collection and handling methods currently in use for detection and enumeration of microorganisms in biosolids and municipal wastewater sludges. Untreated sludges and biosolids are rarely homogeneous and present a challenge ...

  14. COLLECTING URINE SAMPLES FROM YOUNG CHILDREN FOR PESTICIDE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To estimate pesticide exposure for young children wearing diapers, a method for collecting urine samples for analysis of pesticide metabolites is needed. To find a practical method, two possibilities were investigated: (1) analysis of expressed urine from cotton diaper inserts ...

  15. Adaptive Sampling approach to environmental site characterization: Phase 1 demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Floran, R.J.; Bujewski, G.E.; Johnson, R.L.

    1995-07-01

    A technology demonstration that optimizes sampling strategies and real-time data collection was carried out at the Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) RB-11 Radioactive Burial Site, Albuquerque, New Mexico in August 1994. The project, which was funded by the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), involved the application of a geostatistical-based Adaptive Sampling methodology and software with on-site field screening of soils for radiation, organic compounds and metals. The software, known as Plume{trademark}, was developed at Argonne National Laboratory as part of the DOE/OTD-funded Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID). The objective of the investigation was to compare an innovative Adaptive Sampling approach that stressed real-time decision-making with a conventional RCRA-driven site characterization carried out by the Air Force. The latter investigation used a standard drilling and sampling plan as mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). To make the comparison realistic, the same contractors and sampling equipment (Geoprobe{reg_sign} soil samplers) were used. In both investigations, soil samples were collected at several depths at numerous locations adjacent to burial trenches that contain low-level radioactive waste and animal carcasses; some trenches may also contain mixed waste. Neither study revealed the presence of contaminants appreciably above risk based action levels, indicating that minimal to no migration has occurred away from the trenches. The combination of Adaptive Sampling with field screening achieved a similar level of confidence compared to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) investigation regarding the potential migration of contaminants at the site.

  16. Hydrodynamic effects in buccal cell DNA sample collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aidun, C. K.; Sozer, A. C.

    2003-11-01

    Many different methods can be used for collection of biological samples from individuals for DNA profiling purposes. However, blood and buccal cells are the two most popular sources of DNA. In situations where large numbers of samples have to be collected, buccal cell collection methods are the preferred choice because of minimized health risks and ease of collection, transportation, and storage. The normal practice in buccal cell collection is to rub a cotton swab or a piece of paper through the inner check of the subject in order to release the cells and to attach and collect the cells on the cotton or paper fibers. The problem with the current forms of sample collection and storage is that in some cases up to 20% of the samples collected do not result in a DNA profile of adequate quality to be reported by the laboratory without repeated testing. In this study, we consider the mechanics of a small sheet of paper being rubbed on the surface of the inner check. The process is not too different from coating a paper substrate with highly deformable material. The shear field developed between the paper and the fluid adjacent to the cells are estimated based on the available data. The action of the cell release and the cell adherence to the surface will be outlined.

  17. Analyses of coal samples collected 1975-1977

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, J.A. Jr.; Oman, C.S.; Coleman, S.L.

    1981-01-01

    In late 1975 the Virginia Division of Mineral Resources began a sampling program of coal beds in Virginia in cooperation with the US Geological Survey and the US Bureau of Mines. A total of 134 samples were collected from coal beds of Pennsylvanian Age in five of the seven counties in the southwest Virginia coal field. Channel samples were collected at each of the sampling sites. In addition, supplemental samples of the roof- and floor-rock and major partings were collected at many sample sites, but were not analyzed. The samples are from most of the major coal beds in southwest Virginia, and are from fresh exposures in active surface and underground mines. Chemical analyses were made by the US Bureau of Mines and the US Geological Survey. The US Bureau of Mines analyses include the proximate and ultimate analyses, forms of sulfur, heat value, fusibility of ash, and the free, swelling index. The US Geological Survey analyses include the major-, minor-, and trace-element concentrations in both ash and whole coal. Statistical tables contain arithmetic and geometric means, observed range, and the standard deviation for samples collected in Virginia and are compared with samples in the National Coal Resources Data System for Tennessee, Kentucky and West Virginia.

  18. Understanding Environmental Education. A Collection of Readings in Environmental Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Book excerpts, editorials, poems, speeches, newsletter and journal articles, and congressional testimony are compiled in this anthology to aid in the understanding of environmental education and environmental awareness. Major items include: "Poems and Other Expressions of Environmental Concern" by Morton Leeds; "Man, Nature, and the Ecological…

  19. DOE methods for evaluating environmental and waste management samples

    SciTech Connect

    Goheen, S.C.; McCulloch, M.; Thomas, B.L.; Riley, R.G.; Sklarew, D.S.; Mong, G.M.; Fadeff, S.K.

    1994-10-01

    DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods) is a resource intended to support sampling and analytical activities for the evaluation of environmental and waste management samples from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites. DOE Methods is the result of extensive cooperation from all DOE analytical laboratories. All of these laboratories have contributed key information and provided technical reviews as well as significant moral support leading to the success of this document. DOE Methods is designed to encompass methods for collecting representative samples and for determining the radioisotope activity and organic and inorganic composition of a sample. These determinations will aid in defining the type and breadth of contamination and thus determine the extent of environmental restoration or waste management actions needed, as defined by the DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, or others. The development of DOE Methods is supported by the Analytical Services Division of DOE. Unique methods or methods consolidated from similar procedures in the DOE Procedures Database are selected for potential inclusion in this document. Initial selection is based largely on DOE needs and procedure applicability and completeness. Methods appearing in this document are one of two types, {open_quotes}Draft{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}Verified{close_quotes}. {open_quotes}Draft{close_quotes} methods that have been reviewed internally and show potential for eventual verification are included in this document, but they have not been reviewed externally, and their precision and bias may not be known. {open_quotes}Verified{close_quotes} methods in DOE Methods have been reviewed by volunteers from various DOE sites and private corporations. These methods have delineated measures of precision and accuracy.

  20. Core List for an Environmental Reference Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Information and Resources Management.

    This bibliography identifies key books, reports, and documents for research in the areas of environmental protection, management, and science. The titles included are those used most frequently by librarians and their staffs working in Environmental Protection Agency libraries in support of the Agency's mission. Recommended titles are listed under…

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT SAMPLING AND ANALYTICAL STRATEGY PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a costing methodology for environmental assessment that has been generated for industrial processes at various phases of development. The demonstrated environmental assessment strategies provide a framework for determining industry, process, and stream priori...

  2. 28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... lawfully admitted for permanent residence as defined in 8 CFR 1.1(p). Unless otherwise directed by the... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample...

  3. 28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... lawfully admitted for permanent residence as defined in 8 CFR 1.1(p). Unless otherwise directed by the... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample...

  4. 28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... lawfully admitted for permanent residence as defined in 8 CFR 1.1(p). Unless otherwise directed by the... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample...

  5. 28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... lawfully admitted for permanent residence as defined in 8 CFR 1.1(p). Unless otherwise directed by the... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample...

  6. 28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... lawfully admitted for permanent residence as defined in 8 CFR 1.1(p). Unless otherwise directed by the... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample...

  7. A direct method for e-cigarette aerosol sample collection.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, Pablo; Navas-Acien, Ana; Hess, Catherine; Jarmul, Stephanie; Rule, Ana

    2016-08-01

    E-cigarette use is increasing in populations around the world. Recent evidence has shown that the aerosol produced by e-cigarettes can contain a variety of toxicants. Published studies characterizing toxicants in e-cigarette aerosol have relied on filters, impingers or sorbent tubes, which are methods that require diluting or extracting the sample in a solution during collection. We have developed a collection system that directly condenses e-cigarette aerosol samples for chemical and toxicological analyses. The collection system consists of several cut pipette tips connected with short pieces of tubing. The pipette tip-based collection system can be connected to a peristaltic pump, a vacuum pump, or directly to an e-cigarette user for the e-cigarette aerosol to flow through the system. The pipette tip-based system condenses the aerosol produced by the e-cigarette and collects a liquid sample that is ready for analysis without the need of intermediate extraction solutions. We tested a total of 20 e-cigarettes from 5 different brands commercially available in Maryland. The pipette tip-based collection system condensed between 0.23 and 0.53mL of post-vaped e-liquid after 150 puffs. The proposed method is highly adaptable, can be used during field work and in experimental settings, and allows collecting aerosol samples from a wide variety of e-cigarette devices, yielding a condensate of the likely exact substance that is being delivered to the lungs. PMID:27200479

  8. Collection requirements for trace-element analyses of extraterrestrial samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, George J.; Sutton, S. R.

    1994-01-01

    Trace-element abundances have proven important in understanding the evolution of and interrelationships between different meteorites. Preliminary investigations of the trace-element contents of interplanetary dust particles indicate that trace-element abundances will prove equally important in distinguishing between micrometeorites of different types, comparing the interplanetary dust to the meteorites, and assessing the degree of thermal alteration experienced either on the parent body or during the collection process. Sample collection, delivery, and curation must be accomplished in a manner to avoid contamination with even trace amounts of the elements to be analyzed. The present SXRF sensitivity for micrometeorite analysis is of order 1 femtogram, but anticipated improvements in sensitivity will require sample contamination substantially below this level. Sample collection and handling equipment should be constructed from materials selected for ultrahigh purity, and serious consideration should be given in selecting the particular set of elements from which the collection apparatus is composed so as not to compromise useful information.

  9. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule for Calendar Year 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2009-01-20

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy. Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 450.1 and DOE Order 5400.5. This document contains the calendar year 2009 schedule for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes sampling locations, sampling frequencies, sample types, and analyses to be performed. In some cases, samples are scheduled on a rotating basis. If a sample will not be collected in 2009, the anticipated year for collection is provided. Maps showing approximate sampling locations are included for media scheduled for collection in 2009.

  10. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule for Calendar Year 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2010-01-08

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford Site environs per regulatory requirements. This document contains the calendar year 2010 schedule for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project and the Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes sampling locations, sampling frequencies, sample types, and analyses to be performed. In some cases, samples are scheduled on a rotating basis. If a sample will not be collected in 2010, the anticipated year for collection is provided. Maps showing approximate sampling locations are included for media scheduled for collection in 2010.

  11. Methods for collection and analysis of water samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rainwater, Frank Hays; Thatcher, Leland Lincoln

    1960-01-01

    This manual contains methods used by the U.S. Geological Survey to collect, preserve, and analyze water samples. Throughout, the emphasis is on obtaining analytical results that accurately describe the chemical composition of the water in situ. Among the topics discussed are selection of sampling sites, frequency of sampling, field equipment, preservatives and fixatives, analytical techniques of water analysis, and instruments. Seventy-seven laboratory and field procedures are given for determining fifty-three water properties.

  12. On the improvement of blood sample collection at clinical laboratories

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Blood samples are usually collected daily from different collection points, such hospitals and health centers, and transported to a core laboratory for testing. This paper presents a project to improve the collection routes of two of the largest clinical laboratories in Spain. These routes must be designed in a cost-efficient manner while satisfying two important constraints: (i) two-hour time windows between collection and delivery, and (ii) vehicle capacity. Methods A heuristic method based on a genetic algorithm has been designed to solve the problem of blood sample collection. The user enters the following information for each collection point: postal address, average collecting time, and average demand (in thermal containers). After implementing the algorithm using C programming, this is run and, in few seconds, it obtains optimal (or near-optimal) collection routes that specify the collection sequence for each vehicle. Different scenarios using various types of vehicles have been considered. Unless new collection points are added or problem parameters are changed substantially, routes need to be designed only once. Results The two laboratories in this study previously planned routes manually for 43 and 74 collection points, respectively. These routes were covered by an external carrier company. With the implementation of this algorithm, the number of routes could be reduced from ten to seven in one laboratory and from twelve to nine in the other, which represents significant annual savings in transportation costs. Conclusions The algorithm presented can be easily implemented in other laboratories that face this type of problem, and it is particularly interesting and useful as the number of collection points increases. The method designs blood collection routes with reduced costs that meet the time and capacity constraints of the problem. PMID:24406140

  13. Use of Electronic Hand-held Devices for Collection of Savannah River Site Environmental Data - 13329

    SciTech Connect

    Marberry, Hugh; Moore, Winston

    2013-07-01

    Savannah River Nuclear Solutions has begun using Xplore Tablet PC's to collect data in the field for soil samples, groundwater samples, air samples and round sheets at the Savannah River Site (SRS). EPA guidelines for groundwater sampling are incorporated into the application to ensure the sample technician follows the proper protocol. The sample technician is guided through the process for sampling and round sheet data collection by a series of menus and input boxes. Field measurements and well stabilization information are entered into the tablet for uploading into Environmental Restoration Data Management System (ERDMS). The process helps to eliminate input errors and provides data integrity. A soil sample technician has the ability to collect information about location of sample, field parameter, describe the soil sample, print bottle labels, and print chain of custody for the sample that they have collected. An air sample technician has the ability to provide flow, pressure, hours of operation, print bottle labels and chain of custody for samples they collect. Round sheets are collected using the information provided in the various procedures. The data are collected and uploaded into ERDMS. The equipment used is weather proof and hardened for the field use. Global Positioning System (GPS) capabilities are integrated into the applications to provide the location where samples were collected and to help sample technicians locate wells that are not visited often. (authors)

  14. Rapid determination of 226Ra in environmental samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.

    2012-02-04

    A new rapid method for the determination of {sup 228}Ra in natural water samples has been developed at the SRNL/EBL (Savannah River National Lab/ Environmental Bioassay Laboratory) that can be used for emergency response or routine samples. While gamma spectrometry can be employed with sufficient detection limits to determine {sup 228}Ra in solid samples (via {sup 228}Ac) , radiochemical methods that employ gas flow proportional counting techniques typically provide lower MDA (Minimal Detectable Activity) levels for the determination of {sup 228}Ra in water samples. Most radiochemical methods for {sup 228}Ra collect and purify {sup 228}Ra and allow for {sup 228}Ac daughter ingrowth for ~36 hours. In this new SRNL/EBL approach, {sup 228}Ac is collected and purified from the water sample without waiting to eliminate this delay. The sample preparation requires only about 4 hours so that {sup 228}Ra assay results on water samples can be achieved in < 6 hours. The method uses a rapid calcium carbonate precipitation enhanced with a small amount of phosphate added to enhance chemical yields (typically >90%), followed by rapid cation exchange removal of calcium. Lead, bismuth, uranium, thorium and protactinium isotopes are also removed by the cation exchange separation. {sup 228}Ac is eluted from the cation resin directly onto a DGA Resin cartridge attached to the bottom of the cation column to purify {sup 228}Ac. DGA Resin also removes lead and bismuth isotopes, along with Sr isotopes and {sup 90}Y. La is used to determine {sup 228}Ac chemical yield via ICP-MS, but {sup 133}Ba can also be used instead if ICP-MS assay is not available. Unlike some older methods, no lead or strontium holdback carriers or continual readjustment of sample pH is required.

  15. Development of a Sampling Collection Device with Diagnostic Procedures.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jhih-Yan; Feng, Mow-Jung; Wu, Chia-Chi; Wang, Jane; Chang, Ting-Chang; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2016-08-01

    Cervicovaginal fluid plays an important role in the detection of many female genital diseases, but the lack of suitable collection devices in the market severely challenges test success rate. Appropriate clinical sampling devices for cervicovaginal fluid collection would help physicians detect diseases and disease states more rapidly, efficiently, and accurately. The objective of this study was to develop a readily usable sampling collection device that would eliminate macromolecular interference and accurately provide specimens for further studies. This study was designed to develop an effective device to collect cervicovaginal fluid from women with symptoms of endometrial lesions, women appearing in the clinic for a routine Papanicolaou smear, and/or women seeking a routine gynecologic checkup. Paper-based assay, ELISA, and qNano were used to provide accurate diagnoses. A total of 103 patients successfully used the developed device to collect cervicovaginal fluid. Some of the collected specimens were used to detect glycogen, lactate, and pH for determining pathogen infection. Other specimen samples were tested for the presence of female genital cancer by comparing interleukin 6 concentration and microvesicle concentration. We proposed a noninvasive screening test for the diagnosis of female genital diseases using a dual-material collection device. The outer, nonwoven fabric portion of this device was designed to filter macromolecules, and the inner cotton portion was designed to absorb cervicovaginal fluid. PMID:27338148

  16. Study of heavy metals in some environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Imtiaz; Rashid, Haroon; Rehman, Zia Ur

    2009-11-01

    Fuels like coal and rubber are frequently used for brick burning. However, both coal and rubber contain heavy metals. These heavy metals may elutriate in the wake of fly ash or may adsorb or absorb in the product. The present work deals with the analysis of heavy metals in some samples collected from brick burning industries located in the vicinity of a metropolitan city, Peshawar, Pakistan. Samples from raw clay, product, chimney scale and fossil fuel & rubber were collected and leached with acid mixture. The leachates were concentrated and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer for the determination of chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and antimony (Sb). It was observed that heavy metals are present in clay, brick and chimney scale. However, significant amount of these metals was observed in chimney scale. It is inferred that such emanations laden with heavy metals are accompanying the stack gases which are being dumped in to the environment. In order to avoid environmental problems, strict environmental regulations shall be enforced and a constant check on these emanations to the environment must be made to ensure clean air act. PMID:18853266

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS - GETTING IT RIGHT

    SciTech Connect

    CONNELL CW

    2008-01-22

    The Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State was established in the 1940s as part of the Manhattan Project. Hanford's role was to produce weapons-grade nuclear material for defense, and by 1989, when the Site's mission changed from operations to cleanup, Hanford had produced more than 60 percent of the nation's plutonium. The legacy of Hanford's production years is enormous in terms of nuclear and hazardous waste, especially the 270 billion gallons of contaminated groundwater and the 5 million cubic yards of contaminated soil. Managing the contaminated soil and groundwater are particularly important because the Columbia River, the lifeblood of the northwest and the nation's eighth largest river, bounds the Site. Fluor Hanford's Soil & Groundwater Remediation Project (S&GRP) integrates all of the activities that deal with remediating and monitoring the groundwater across the Site. The S&GRP uses a detailed series of steps to record, track, and verify information. The Sample and Data Management (SDM) Process consists of 10 integrated steps that start with the data quality objectives process that establishes the mechanism for collecting the right information with the right people. The process ends with data quality assessment, which is used to ensure that all quantitative data (e.g., field screening, fixed laboratory) are the right type, and of adequate quality to support the decision-making process. Steps 3 through 10 of the process are production steps and are integrated electronically. The detailed plans, procedures, and systems used day-to-day by the SDM process require a high degree of accuracy and reliability. Tools must be incorporated into the processes that minimize errors. This paper discusses all of the elements of the SDM process in detail.

  18. DATA COLLECTION ON ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OF ASTHMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are working with CDC to determine if we can add a module to one or more of their surveys which would provide information on awareness of and existing attitudes toward asthma and its environmental triggers, actions implemented and barriers to implementation encountered by adult...

  19. Collecting Fecal Samples for Microbiome Analyses in Epidemiology Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Rashmi; Chen, Jun; Amir, Amnon; Vogtmann, Emily; Shi, Jianxin; Inman, Kristin S.; Flores, Roberto; Sampson, Joshua; Knight, Rob; Chia, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Background The need to develop valid methods for sampling and analyzing fecal specimens for microbiome studies is increasingly important, especially for large population studies. Methods Some of the most important attributes of any sampling method are reproducibility, stability, and accuracy. We compared seven fecal sampling methods (no additive, RNAlater, 70% ethanol, EDTA, dry swab, and pre/post development fecal occult blood test (FOBT)) using 16S rRNA microbiome profiling in two laboratories. We evaluated nine commonly used microbiome metrics: abundance of 3 phyla, two alpha-diversities, and four beta-diversities. We determined the technical reproducibility, stability at ambient temperature, and accuracy. Results While microbiome profiles showed systematic biases according to sample method and time at ambient temperature, the highest source of variation was between individuals. All collection methods showed high reproducibility. FOBT and RNAlater resulted in the highest stability without freezing for four days. In comparison to no-additive samples, swab, FOBT, and 70% ethanol exhibited the greatest accuracy when immediately frozen. Conclusions Overall, optimal stability and reproducibility was achieved using FOBT, making this a reasonable sample collection method for 16s analysis. Impact Having standardized method of collecting and storing stable fecal samples will allow future investigations into the role of gut microbiota in chronic disease etiology in large population studies. PMID:26604270

  20. Curating NASA's Past, Present, and Future Astromaterial Sample Collections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Allton, J. H.; Evans, C. A.; Fries, M. D.; McCubbin, F. M.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Righter, K.; Zolensky, M.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2016-01-01

    The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office at NASA Johnson Space Center (hereafter JSC curation) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. JSC presently curates 9 different astromaterials collections in seven different clean-room suites: (1) Apollo Samples (ISO (International Standards Organization) class 6 + 7); (2) Antarctic Meteorites (ISO 6 + 7); (3) Cosmic Dust Particles (ISO 5); (4) Microparticle Impact Collection (ISO 7; formerly called Space-Exposed Hardware); (5) Genesis Solar Wind Atoms (ISO 4); (6) Stardust Comet Particles (ISO 5); (7) Stardust Interstellar Particles (ISO 5); (8) Hayabusa Asteroid Particles (ISO 5); (9) OSIRIS-REx Spacecraft Coupons and Witness Plates (ISO 7). Additional cleanrooms are currently being planned to house samples from two new collections, Hayabusa 2 (2021) and OSIRIS-REx (2023). In addition to the labs that house the samples, we maintain a wide variety of infra-structure facilities required to support the clean rooms: HEPA-filtered air-handling systems, ultrapure dry gaseous nitrogen systems, an ultrapure water system, and cleaning facilities to provide clean tools and equipment for the labs. We also have sample preparation facilities for making thin sections, microtome sections, and even focused ion-beam sections. We routinely monitor the cleanliness of our clean rooms and infrastructure systems, including measurements of inorganic or organic contamination, weekly airborne particle counts, compositional and isotopic monitoring of liquid N2 deliveries, and daily UPW system monitoring. In addition to the physical maintenance of the samples, we track within our databases the current and ever changing characteristics (weight, location, etc.) of more than 250,000 individually numbered samples across our various collections, as well as more than 100,000 images, and countless "analog" records that record the sample processing records of each individual sample. JSC Curation is co-located with JSC

  1. Urine sampling and collection system optimization and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.; Geating, J. A.; Koesterer, M. G.

    1975-01-01

    A Urine Sampling and Collection System (USCS) engineering model was developed to provide for the automatic collection, volume sensing and sampling of urine from each micturition. The purpose of the engineering model was to demonstrate verification of the system concept. The objective of the optimization and testing program was to update the engineering model, to provide additional performance features and to conduct system testing to determine operational problems. Optimization tasks were defined as modifications to minimize system fluid residual and addition of thermoelectric cooling.

  2. Collection and control of tritium bioassay samples at Pantex

    SciTech Connect

    Fairrow, N.L.; Ivie, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    Pantex is the final assembly/disassembly point for US nuclear weapons. The Pantex internal dosimetry section monitors radiation workers once a month for tritium exposure. In order to manage collection and control of the bioassay specimens efficiently, a bar code system for collection of samples was developed and implemented to speed up the process and decrease the number of errors probable when transferring data. In the past, all the bioassay data from samples were entered manually into a computer database. Transferring the bioassay data from the liquid scintillation counter to each individual's dosimetry record required as much as two weeks of concentrated effort.

  3. Collection and control of tritium bioassay samples at Pantex

    SciTech Connect

    Fairrow, N.L.; Ivie, W.E.

    1992-12-31

    Pantex is the final assembly/disassembly point for US nuclear weapons. The Pantex internal dosimetry section monitors radiation workers once a month for tritium exposure. In order to manage collection and control of the bioassay specimens efficiently, a bar code system for collection of samples was developed and implemented to speed up the process and decrease the number of errors probable when transferring data. In the past, all the bioassay data from samples were entered manually into a computer database. Transferring the bioassay data from the liquid scintillation counter to each individual`s dosimetry record required as much as two weeks of concentrated effort.

  4. APOLLO 12: C.Conrad Jr. collects geological samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    APOLLO 12: 'Pete' Conrad collects samples from the lunar surface, while at the same time adjusting to, and remarking on, the working conditions. From the film documentary 'APOLLO 12: 'Pinpoint for Science'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLLO 12: Second manned lunar landing and return with Charles 'Pete' Conrad, Jr., Richard F. Gordon, and Alan F. Bean. Landed in the Ocean of Storms on November 19, 1969; deployed television camera and ALSEP experiments; two EVA's performed; collected core samples and lunar materials; photographed and retrieved parts from surveyor 3 spacecraft. Mission duration 244hrs 36min 24sec

  5. Apparatus and process for collection of gas and vapor samples

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, Dennis G.; Peterson, Kurt D.; Riha, Brian D.

    2008-04-01

    A gas sampling apparatus and process is provided in which a standard crimping tool is modified by an attached collar. The collar permits operation of the crimping tool while also facilitating the introduction of a supply of gas to be introduced into a storage vial. The introduced gas supply is used to purge ambient air from a collection chamber and an interior of the sample vial. Upon completion of the purging operation, the vial is sealed using the crimping tool.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS IN THE AFTERMATH OF HURRICANE KATRINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes the environmental sampling completed by EPA in southeastern Louisiana after Hurricane Katrina caused major catastrophic damage. Presentation also describes EPA's Environmental Unit activities in Baton Rouge and New Orleans, LA, and Dallas, TX.

  7. Determination of Atmospheric PCB Level Variations in Continuously Collected Samples.

    PubMed

    Sakin, Ahmet Egemen; Tasdemir, Yücel

    2016-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in ambient air samples (n = 48) that were collected for a 2- to 3-day period in each season (winter, spring, summer, fall) of 2013. The samples were collected on the Campus of Uludag University, which is in a semirural region. The samples were collected using a high-volume air sampler. The gas and particle phase concentrations of 87 PCB congeners (Σ87PCB) were measured in these samples. The average gas and particle phase concentrations of the Σ87PCB were calculated to be 293 ± 257 and 52 ± 56 ng/m(3), respectively. However, the results of short-term measurements showed that the variation among the measurements in the gas phase was up to 39-fold and up to 84-fold in the particle phase. These results demonstrated that the ambient air PCB concentrations were not stable and changed dramatically on a daily basis. Therefore, it was clear that a small number of samples could not be representative of the entire region. Furthermore, the obtained concentrations showed differences that depended on the meteorological conditions and long distance transportation. The sampling indicated that PCB homologues with 3 or 4 chlorines were dominant. PMID:27290669

  8. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule for Calendar Year 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy. Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 450.1, "Environmental Protection Program," and DOE Order 5400.5, "Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment." The environmental surveillance sampling design is described in the "Hanford Site Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office." This document contains the calendar year 2008 schedule for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes sampling locations, sampling frequencies, sample types, and analyses to be performed. In some cases, samples are scheduled on a rotating basis. If a sample will not be collected in 2008, the anticipated year for collection is provided. Maps showing approximate sampling locations are included for media scheduled for collection in 2008.

  9. Experimental Design for the INL Sample Collection Operational Test

    SciTech Connect

    Amidan, Brett G.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Matzke, Brett D.; Filliben, James J.; Jones, Barbara

    2007-12-13

    This document describes the test events and numbers of samples comprising the experimental design that was developed for the contamination, decontamination, and sampling of a building at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This study is referred to as the INL Sample Collection Operational Test. Specific objectives were developed to guide the construction of the experimental design. The main objective is to assess the relative abilities of judgmental and probabilistic sampling strategies to detect contamination in individual rooms or on a whole floor of the INL building. A second objective is to assess the use of probabilistic and Bayesian (judgmental + probabilistic) sampling strategies to make clearance statements of the form “X% confidence that at least Y% of a room (or floor of the building) is not contaminated. The experimental design described in this report includes five test events. The test events (i) vary the floor of the building on which the contaminant will be released, (ii) provide for varying or adjusting the concentration of contaminant released to obtain the ideal concentration gradient across a floor of the building, and (iii) investigate overt as well as covert release of contaminants. The ideal contaminant gradient would have high concentrations of contaminant in rooms near the release point, with concentrations decreasing to zero in rooms at the opposite end of the building floor. For each of the five test events, the specified floor of the INL building will be contaminated with BG, a stand-in for Bacillus anthracis. The BG contaminant will be disseminated from a point-release device located in the room specified in the experimental design for each test event. Then judgmental and probabilistic samples will be collected according to the pre-specified sampling plan. Judgmental samples will be selected based on professional judgment and prior information. Probabilistic samples will be selected in sufficient numbers to provide desired confidence

  10. Collective behaviour, uncertainty and environmental change.

    PubMed

    Bentley, R Alexander; O'Brien, Michael J

    2015-11-28

    A central aspect of cultural evolutionary theory concerns how human groups respond to environmental change. Although we are painting with a broad brush, it is fair to say that prior to the twenty-first century, adaptation often happened gradually over multiple human generations, through a combination of individual and social learning, cumulative cultural evolution and demographic shifts. The result was a generally resilient and sustainable population. In the twenty-first century, however, considerable change happens within small portions of a human generation, on a vastly larger range of geographical and population scales and involving a greater degree of horizontal learning. As a way of gauging the complexity of societal response to environmental change in a globalized future, we discuss several theoretical tools for understanding how human groups adapt to uncertainty. We use our analysis to estimate the limits of predictability of future societal change, in the belief that knowing when to hedge bets is better than relying on a false sense of predictability. PMID:26460111

  11. Sample Collection Method Bias Effects in Quantitative Phosphoproteomics.

    PubMed

    Kanshin, Evgeny; Tyers, Michael; Thibault, Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Current advances in selective enrichment, fractionation, and MS detection of phosphorylated peptides allowed identification and quantitation of tens of thousands phosphosites from minute amounts of biological material. One of the major challenges in the field is preserving the in vivo phosphorylation state of the proteins throughout the sample preparation workflow. This is typically achieved by using phosphatase inhibitors and denaturing conditions during cell lysis. Here we determine if the upstream cell collection techniques could introduce changes in protein phosphorylation. To evaluate the effect of sample collection protocols on the global phosphorylation status of the cell, we compared different sample workflows by metabolic labeling and quantitative mass spectrometry on Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell cultures. We identified highly similar phosphopeptides for cells harvested in ice cold isotonic phosphate buffer, cold ethanol, trichloroacetic acid, and liquid nitrogen. However, quantitative analyses revealed that the commonly used phosphate buffer unexpectedly activated signaling events. Such effects may introduce systematic bias in phosphoproteomics measurements and biochemical analysis. PMID:26040406

  12. The World of Hidden Biases: From Collection to Sample Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurette, Michel

    Any study of micrometeorites involves a variety of biases, which start right away during their collection, and which have not been suffciently publicized. This section deals with the astonishing folklore of these biases. We shall question whether major differences observed between Antarctic micrometeorites and stratospheric micrometeorites could reflect kinds of complementary biases between the two collections of micrometeorites. Astonishingly, some of them would converge to enrich the SMMs collection in the most fine-grained fluffy dust particles accreted by the Earth. They might be possibly the most primitive material accreted by the Earth. But they would not give a representative sampling of the bulk micrometeorite flux, which is best obtained with the new Concordia micrometeorites collected in central Antarctica. For a change, biases developing around a small metallic plate flying at ~200m/sec in the stratosphere turned out to be quite helpful!

  13. Stardust Sample Collection at Wild 2 and Its Preliminary Examination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsou, P.; Brownlee, D. E.; Hoerz, F.; Newburn, R. L.; Sandford, S. A.; Sekanina, Z.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2004-01-01

    The primary objective of STARDUST is to collect coma samples from 81P/Wild 2. This was made on January 2, 2004. Before the encounter three significant model predictions existed for the number and size of samples to be captured. Three investigations during the Wild 2 encounter (Dust Flux Monitor, Comet and Interstellar Dust Analyzer and Dynamic Science) made in situ measurements of the dust. Spectacular images were captured of the Wild 2 nucleus and dust jets. This abstract compares the model predictions with the in situ measurements and Wild 2 images and assesses the likely samples to be returned for analysis on January 15, 2006. To give some lead time for sample analysts to prepare for the analyses of the returned samples, the organization of the Preliminary Examination is presented.

  14. Collection, isolation, and flow cytometric analysis of human endocervical samples.

    PubMed

    Juno, Jennifer A; Boily-Larouche, Genevieve; Lajoie, Julie; Fowke, Keith R

    2014-01-01

    Despite the public health importance of mucosal pathogens (including HIV), relatively little is known about mucosal immunity, particularly at the female genital tract (FGT). Because heterosexual transmission now represents the dominant mechanism of HIV transmission, and given the continual spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), it is critical to understand the interplay between host and pathogen at the genital mucosa. The substantial gaps in knowledge around FGT immunity are partially due to the difficulty in successfully collecting and processing mucosal samples. In order to facilitate studies with sufficient sample size, collection techniques must be minimally invasive and efficient. To this end, a protocol for the collection of cervical cytobrush samples and subsequent isolation of cervical mononuclear cells (CMC) has been optimized. Using ex vivo flow cytometry-based immunophenotyping, it is possible to accurately and reliably quantify CMC lymphocyte/monocyte population frequencies and phenotypes. This technique can be coupled with the collection of cervical-vaginal lavage (CVL), which contains soluble immune mediators including cytokines, chemokines and anti-proteases, all of which can be used to determine the anti- or pro-inflammatory environment in the vagina. PMID:25045942

  15. Collection, Isolation, and Flow Cytometric Analysis of Human Endocervical Samples

    PubMed Central

    Juno, Jennifer A.; Boily-Larouche, Genevieve; Lajoie, Julie; Fowke, Keith R.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the public health importance of mucosal pathogens (including HIV), relatively little is known about mucosal immunity, particularly at the female genital tract (FGT). Because heterosexual transmission now represents the dominant mechanism of HIV transmission, and given the continual spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), it is critical to understand the interplay between host and pathogen at the genital mucosa. The substantial gaps in knowledge around FGT immunity are partially due to the difficulty in successfully collecting and processing mucosal samples. In order to facilitate studies with sufficient sample size, collection techniques must be minimally invasive and efficient. To this end, a protocol for the collection of cervical cytobrush samples and subsequent isolation of cervical mononuclear cells (CMC) has been optimized. Using ex vivo flow cytometry-based immunophenotyping, it is possible to accurately and reliably quantify CMC lymphocyte/monocyte population frequencies and phenotypes. This technique can be coupled with the collection of cervical-vaginal lavage (CVL), which contains soluble immune mediators including cytokines, chemokines and anti-proteases, all of which can be used to determine the anti- or pro-inflammatory environment in the vagina. PMID:25045942

  16. Variability of collagen crosslinks: impact of sample collection period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Dillon, E. L.; DeKerlegand, D. E.; Davis-Street, J. E.

    2004-01-01

    Because of the variability of collagen crosslinks, their use as markers for bone resorption is often criticized. We hypothesized that the variability could be reduced by collecting urine for 24 hours (or longer) instead of using single voids, and by not normalizing to creatinine. Urine samples were collected from 22 healthy subjects during two or more 24-hour periods. Each 24-hour pool and each 2nd void of the day were analyzed for N-telopeptide (NTX), pyridinium (PYD), and deoxypyridinoline (DPD) crosslinks. Data were analyzed by using linear regression. For NTX, R2 for the two, 2nd-void samples (n = 38) was 0.55, whereas R2 for the two 24-hour pools was 0.51 or 0.52, expressed per day or per creatinine. For PYD and DPD, R2 for the 2nd-void samples was 0.26 and 0.18, R2 for the 24-hour pools expressed per day was 0.58 and 0.74, and R2 for the 24-hour pools expressed per creatinine was 0.65 and 0.76, respectively. Regression of the 2nd void and the corresponding 24-hour pool, expressed per day, yielded R2 = 0.19, 0.19, and 0.08, for NTX, PYD, and DPD, respectively (n = 76 each). For the 2nd-void sample and its corresponding 24-hour pool, expressed per creatinine, R2 = 0.24, 0.33, and 0.08, respectively. In a separate study, the coefficient of variation for NTX was reduced (P < 0.05) when data from more than one 24-hour collection were combined. Thus, the variability inherent in crosslink determinations can be reduced by collecting urine for longer periods. In research studies, the high variability of single-void collections, compounded by creatinine normalization, may alter or obscure findings.

  17. Environmental Sampling with an Inexpensive Electric Pump.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seely, Jeffery K.

    1992-01-01

    Provides instructions to construct a device that measures air pollutant concentrations using an inexpensive modified portable aerator. Describes sampling strategies by which students examine the concentrations of pollutants in school and industrial settings. (MDH)

  18. Occurrence of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Environmental Samples

    PubMed Central

    Covert, Terry C.; Rodgers, Mark R.; Reyes, Antolin L.; Stelma, Gerard N.

    1999-01-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are a major cause of opportunistic infection in immunocompromised hosts. Because there is no evidence of person-to-person transmission and NTM have been found in drinking water, the environment is considered a likely source of infection. In this study the widespread occurrence of NTM was examined in drinking water, bottled water, and ice samples. A total of 139 samples were examined for NTM by a membrane filtration culture technique followed by PCR amplification and 16S rRNA sequence determination to identify the isolates. NTM were not detected in bottled water or cisterns but were detected in 54% of the ice samples and 35% of the public drinking-water samples from 21 states. The most frequently occurring isolate was M. mucogenicum (formerly referred to as an M. chelonae-like organism). PMID:10347032

  19. Bio-banking in microbiology: from sample collection to epidemiology, diagnosis and research.

    PubMed

    De Paoli, Paolo

    2005-11-01

    Millions of biological samples, including cells of human, animal or bacterial origin, viruses, serum/plasma or DNA/RNA, are stored every year throughout the world for diagnostics and research. The purpose of this review is to summarize the resources necessary to set up a bio-banking facility, the challenges and pitfalls of sample collection, and the most important techniques for separation and storage of samples. Biological samples can be stored for up to 30 years, but specific protocols are required to reduce the damage induced by preservation techniques. Software dedicated to biological banks facilitate sample registration and identification, the cataloguing of sample properties (type of sample/specimen, associated diseases and/or therapeutic protocols, environmental information, etc.), sample tracking, quality assurance and specimen availability. Bio-bank facilities must adopt good laboratory practices and a stringent quality control system and, when required, comply with ethical issues. PMID:16219511

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - GROUNDWATER SAMPLING TECHNOLOGIES - QED ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS INC. WELL WIZARD DEDICATED SAMPLING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has created the Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental technologies through performance verification and dissemination of information. The goal of the ...

  1. Fluid sample collection and distribution system. [qualitative analysis of aqueous samples from several points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, R. L. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A multipoint fluid sample collection and distribution system is provided wherein the sample inputs are made through one or more of a number of sampling valves to a progressive cavity pump which is not susceptible to damage by large unfiltered particles. The pump output is through a filter unit that can provide a filtered multipoint sample. An unfiltered multipoint sample is also provided. An effluent sample can be taken and applied to a second progressive cavity pump for pumping to a filter unit that can provide one or more filtered effluent samples. The second pump can also provide an unfiltered effluent sample. Means are provided to periodically back flush each filter unit without shutting off the whole system.

  2. A review of historical data on the radionuclide content of soil samples collected from the Hanford Site and vicinity

    SciTech Connect

    Price, K.R.

    1988-11-01

    The measurement of radioactive materials in soil samples collected from the environs of the Hanford Site has been a routine part of environmental monitoring since 1971. Soil samples have also been collected and analyzed for special-purpose studies. The main objective of this report is to review and summarize the historical record of soil sampling results related to environmental monitoring from the late 1950s through 1987. Other objectives are to publish previously unpublished data and to consolidate results from routine environmental monitoring and special studies into a single document. 51 refs., 9 figs., 14 tabs.

  3. Astronaut Charles Duke photographed collecting lunar samples at Station 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, is photographed collecting lunar samples at Station no. 1 during the first Apollo 16 extravehicular activity at the Descartes landing site. This picture, looking eastward, was taken by Astronaut John W. Young, commander. Duke is standing at the rim of Plum crater, which is 40 meters in diameter and 10 meters deep. The parked Lunar Roving Vehicle can be seen in the left background.

  4. DOE methods for evaluating environmental and waste management samples.

    SciTech Connect

    Goheen, S C; McCulloch, M; Thomas, B L; Riley, R G; Sklarew, D S; Mong, G M; Fadeff, S K

    1994-04-01

    DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods) provides applicable methods in use by. the US Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories for sampling and analyzing constituents of waste and environmental samples. The development of DOE Methods is supported by the Laboratory Management Division (LMD) of the DOE. This document contains chapters and methods that are proposed for use in evaluating components of DOE environmental and waste management samples. DOE Methods is a resource intended to support sampling and analytical activities that will aid in defining the type and breadth of contamination and thus determine the extent of environmental restoration or waste management actions needed, as defined by the DOE, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), or others.

  5. FURTHER CHARACTERIZATION OF SORBENTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an ongoing experimental program to evaluate the breakthrough characteristics of sorbent resins for sampling of organic vapors using an elution analysis chromatographic technique. The effects of water vapor and CO2, at levels typical of gaseous effluent...

  6. Device for collecting and analyzing matrix-isolated samples

    DOEpatents

    Reedy, Gerald T.

    1979-01-01

    A gas-sample collection device is disclosed for matrix isolation of individual gas bands from a gas chromatographic separation and for presenting these distinct samples for spectrometric examination. The device includes a vacuum chamber containing a rotatably supported, specular carrousel having a number of external, reflecting surfaces around its axis of rotation for holding samples. A gas inlet is provided for depositing sample and matrix material on the individual reflecting surfaces maintained at a sufficiently low temperature to cause solidification. Two optical windows or lenses are installed in the vacuum chamber walls for transmitting a beam of electromagnetic radiation, for instance infrared light, through a selected sample. Positioned within the chamber are two concave mirrors, the first aligned to receive the light beam from one of the lenses and focus it to the sample on one of the reflecting surfaces of the carrousel. The second mirror is aligned to receive reflected light from that carrousel surface and to focus it outwardly through the second lens. The light beam transmitted from the sample is received by a spectrometer for determining absorption spectra.

  7. Regression modeling of particle size distributions in urban storm water: advancements through improved sample collection methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fienen, Michael N.; Selbig, William R.

    2012-01-01

    A new sample collection system was developed to improve the representation of sediment entrained in urban storm water by integrating water quality samples from the entire water column. The depth-integrated sampler arm (DISA) was able to mitigate sediment stratification bias in storm water, thereby improving the characterization of suspended-sediment concentration and particle size distribution at three independent study locations. Use of the DISA decreased variability, which improved statistical regression to predict particle size distribution using surrogate environmental parameters, such as precipitation depth and intensity. The performance of this statistical modeling technique was compared to results using traditional fixed-point sampling methods and was found to perform better. When environmental parameters can be used to predict particle size distributions, environmental managers have more options when characterizing concentrations, loads, and particle size distributions in urban runoff.

  8. PIXE analysis of cascade impactor samples collected over the Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raemdonck, H.; Maenhaut, W.; Ferek, R. J.; Andreae, M. O.

    1984-04-01

    Aerosol samples were collected on a cruise of the R/V Conrad in the Pacific Ocean. The cruise track was divided into two legs, the first one on the Peru/Ecuador shelf, the second through the equatorial and tropical Pacific to Hawaii. Sampling took place by means of two 1 l/min, ten-stage Battelle-type cascade impactors positioned on the foremast of the ship at about 20 m above the sea surface. Strict precautions were taken to avoid contamination of the samples by the ship itself. The impactor slides and back-up filters were analyzed for 25 elements by PIXE using a 2.4 MeV proton beam, produced by a compact cyclotron. In the samples, collected on leg 1, a significant anthropogenic component could be detected. Excess fine sulfur, excess fine potassium, and V, Ni, Cu and Zn in < 2 μ m particles were as high as 600, 10, 0.8, 0.2, 3 and 4 ng/m 3, respectively. On the other hand, most of the samples, collected on leg 2, were representative of clean marine air which was little influenced by continentally derived aerosols. The sulfur size distribution showed a very pronounced submicrometer mode of about 100 ng/m 3, suggesting a nearby sulfur source of marine origin. After crossing the intertropical convergence zone from south to north, concentrations of Fe and other crustal elements increased significantly. The size distributions and interelement ratios indicated that the elevated concentrations of these elements were due to long-range transport of mineral dust.

  9. Polonium-210 levels in different environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Fonollosa, E; Peñalver, A; Aguilar, C; Borrull, F

    2015-12-01

    Polonium-210 is analysed in different samples which can be affected by the presence of a dicalcium phosphate plant (DCP). Particularly, it was determined in sludge samples from a drinking water treatment plant located downstream of the phosphate plant. From the obtained results, it was not possible to establish a correlation with the industrial activities carried out in the DCP plant since the measured activities were comparable to the reported in the literature for normal soils. This isotope was also monitored in different biota species (as mussels) taken also downstream of the DCP, and the potential risk of their ingestion by calculating the total effective doses was evaluated. As a result, it is important to highlight that the ingestion of these mussels does not constitute a risk for the population since the found doses were lower than the values published by UNSCEAR. PMID:26298337

  10. Comparison of DNA preservation methods for environmental bacterial community samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, Michael A.; Pratte, Zoe A.; Kellogg, Christina A.

    2013-01-01

    Field collections of environmental samples, for example corals, for molecular microbial analyses present distinct challenges. The lack of laboratory facilities in remote locations is common, and preservation of microbial community DNA for later study is critical. A particular challenge is keeping samples frozen in transit. Five nucleic acid preservation methods that do not require cold storage were compared for effectiveness over time and ease of use. Mixed microbial communities of known composition were created and preserved by DNAgard™, RNAlater®, DMSO–EDTA–salt (DESS), FTA® cards, and FTA Elute® cards. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and clone libraries were used to detect specific changes in the faux communities over weeks and months of storage. A previously known bias in FTA® cards that results in lower recovery of pure cultures of Gram-positive bacteria was also detected in mixed community samples. There appears to be a uniform bias across all five preservation methods against microorganisms with high G + C DNA. Overall, the liquid-based preservatives (DNAgard™, RNAlater®, and DESS) outperformed the card-based methods. No single liquid method clearly outperformed the others, leaving method choice to be based on experimental design, field facilities, shipping constraints, and allowable cost.

  11. Experimental and Sampling Design for the INL-2 Sample Collection Operational Test

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Matzke, Brett D.

    2009-02-16

    This report describes the experimental and sampling design developed to assess sampling approaches and methods for detecting contamination in a building and clearing the building for use after decontamination. An Idaho National Laboratory (INL) building will be contaminated with BG (Bacillus globigii, renamed Bacillus atrophaeus), a simulant for Bacillus anthracis (BA). The contamination, sampling, decontamination, and re-sampling will occur per the experimental and sampling design. This INL-2 Sample Collection Operational Test is being planned by the Validated Sampling Plan Working Group (VSPWG). The primary objectives are: 1) Evaluate judgmental and probabilistic sampling for characterization as well as probabilistic and combined (judgment and probabilistic) sampling approaches for clearance, 2) Conduct these evaluations for gradient contamination (from low or moderate down to absent or undetectable) for different initial concentrations of the contaminant, 3) Explore judgment composite sampling approaches to reduce sample numbers, 4) Collect baseline data to serve as an indication of the actual levels of contamination in the tests. A combined judgmental and random (CJR) approach uses Bayesian methodology to combine judgmental and probabilistic samples to make clearance statements of the form "X% confidence that at least Y% of an area does not contain detectable contamination” (X%/Y% clearance statements). The INL-2 experimental design has five test events, which 1) vary the floor of the INL building on which the contaminant will be released, 2) provide for varying the amount of contaminant released to obtain desired concentration gradients, and 3) investigate overt as well as covert release of contaminants. Desirable contaminant gradients would have moderate to low concentrations of contaminant in rooms near the release point, with concentrations down to zero in other rooms. Such gradients would provide a range of contamination levels to challenge the sampling

  12. Plume Collection Strategies for Icy World Sample Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neveu, M.; Glavin, D. P.; Tsou, P.; Anbar, A. D.; Williams, P.

    2015-01-01

    Three icy worlds in the solar system display evidence of pluming activity. Water vapor and ice particles emanate from cracks near the south pole of Saturn's moon Enceladus. The plume gas contains simple hydrocarbons that could be fragments of larger, more complex organics. More recently, observations using the Hubble and Herschel space telescopes have hinted at transient water vapor plumes at Jupiter's moon Europa and the dwarf planet Ceres. Plume materials may be ejected directly from possible sub-surface oceans, at least on Enceladus. In such oceans, liquid water, organics, and energy may co-exist, making these environments habitable. The venting of habitable ocean material into space provides a unique opportunity to capture this material during a relatively simple flyby mission and return it to Earth. Plume collection strategies should enable investigations of evidence for life in the returned samples via laboratory analyses of the structure, distribution, isotopic composition, and chirality of the chemical components (including biomolecules) of plume materials. Here, we discuss approaches for the collection of dust and volatiles during flybys through Enceladus' plume, based on Cassini results and lessons learned from the Stardust comet sample return mission. We also highlight areas where sample collector and containment technology development and testing may be needed for future plume sample return missions.

  13. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule for Calendar Year 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2005-01-19

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs. This document contains the calendar year 2005 schedules for the routine and non-routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project.

  14. Guidance for establishment and implementation of field sample management programs in support of EM environmental sampling and analysis activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-18

    The role of the National Sample Management Program (NSMP) proposed by the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management (EM) is to be a resource for EM programs and for local Field Sample Management Programs (FSMPs). It will be a source of information on sample analysis and data collection within the DOE complex. The purpose of this document is to establish the suggested scope of the FSMP activities to be performed under each Operations Office, list the drivers under which the program will operate, define terms and list references. This guidance will apply only to EM sampling and analysis activities associated with project planning, contracting, laboratory selection, sample collection, sample transportation, laboratory analysis and data management.

  15. Metagenomics: DNA sequencing of environmental samples

    SciTech Connect

    Tringe, Susannah Green; Rubin, Edward M.

    2005-09-01

    While genomics has classically focused on pure,easy-to-obtain samples, such as microbes that grow readily in culture orlarge animals and plants, these organisms represent but a fraction of theliving or once living organisms of interest. Many species are difficultto study in isolation, because they fail to grow in laboratory culture,depend on other organisms for critical processes, or have become extinct.DNA sequence-based methods circumvent these obstacles, as DNA can bedirectly isolated from live or dead cells in a variety of contexts, andhave led to the emergence of a new field referred to asmetagenomics.

  16. Processing and transport of environmental virus samples.

    PubMed Central

    Dahling, D R; Wright, B A

    1984-01-01

    Poliovirus-seeded tap water, conditioned with MgCl2 and passed through virus-adsorbing filters, gave better poliovirus recovery than water identically treated but conditioned with AlCl3. Elution of several filter types with beef extract yielded higher recoveries than did elution with glycine. Seeded samples filtered through various filters and stored showed considerable virus loss in 2 days when stored at 4 degrees C, whereas those stored at -70 degrees C gave stable virus recovery up to 4 days. Additionally, the use of antifoam during the elution process reduced foaming and increased virus recovery by 28%. PMID:6331312

  17. Adsorptive Films in Support of In-field UF6 Destructive Assay Sample Collection and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, Christopher A.; Martinez, Alonzo; McNamara, Bruce K.; Cannon, Bret D.; Anheier, Norman C.

    2014-07-20

    International Atom Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguard verification measures in gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) rely on environmental sampling, non-destructive assay (NDA), and destructive assay (DA) sampling and analysis to determine uranium enrichment. UF6 bias defect measurements are made by DA sampling and analysis to assure that enrichment is consistent with declarations. DA samples are collected from a limited number of cylinders for high precision, offsite mass spectrometer analysis. Samples are typically drawn from a sampling tap into a UF6 sample bottle, then packaged, sealed, and shipped under IAEA chain of custody to an offsite analytical laboratory. Future DA safeguard measures may require improvements in efficiency and effectiveness as GCEP capacities increase and UF6 shipping regulations become increasingly more restrictive. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) DA sampler concept and Laser Ablation Absorption Ratio Spectrometry (LAARS) assay method are under development to potentially provide DA safeguard tools that increase inspection effectiveness and reduce sample shipping constraints. The PNNL DA sampler concept uses a handheld sampler to collect DA samples for either onsite LAARS assay or offsite laboratory analysis. The DA sampler design will use a small sampling planchet that is coated with an adsorptive film to collect controlled quantities of UF6 gas directly from a cylinder or process sampling tap. Development efforts are currently underway at PNNL to enhance LAARS assay performance to allow high-precision onsite bias defect measurements. In this paper, we report on the experimental investigation to develop adsorptive films for the PNNL DA sampler concept. These films are intended to efficiently capture UF6 and then stabilize the collected DA sample prior to onsite LAARS or offsite laboratory analysis. Several porous material composite films were investigated, including a film designed to maximize the chemical adsorption

  18. JSC Advanced Curation: Research and Development for Current Collections and Future Sample Return Mission Demands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fries, M. D.; Allen, C. C.; Calaway, M. J.; Evans, C. A.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2015-01-01

    Curation of NASA's astromaterials sample collections is a demanding and evolving activity that supports valuable science from NASA missions for generations, long after the samples are returned to Earth. For example, NASA continues to loan hundreds of Apollo program samples to investigators every year and those samples are often analyzed using instruments that did not exist at the time of the Apollo missions themselves. The samples are curated in a manner that minimizes overall contamination, enabling clean, new high-sensitivity measurements and new science results over 40 years after their return to Earth. As our exploration of the Solar System progresses, upcoming and future NASA sample return missions will return new samples with stringent contamination control, sample environmental control, and Planetary Protection requirements. Therefore, an essential element of a healthy astromaterials curation program is a research and development (R&D) effort that characterizes and employs new technologies to maintain current collections and enable new missions - an Advanced Curation effort. JSC's Astromaterials Acquisition & Curation Office is continually performing Advanced Curation research, identifying and defining knowledge gaps about research, development, and validation/verification topics that are critical to support current and future NASA astromaterials sample collections. The following are highlighted knowledge gaps and research opportunities.

  19. Lunar Samples: Apollo Collection Tools, Curation Handling, Surveyor III and Soviet Luna Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allton, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    The 6 Apollo missions that landed on the lunar surface returned 2196 samples comprised of 382 kg. The 58 samples weighing 21.5 kg collected on Apollo 11 expanded to 741 samples weighing 110.5 kg by the time of Apollo 17. The main goal on Apollo 11 was to obtain some material and return it safely to Earth. As we gained experience, the sampling tools and a more specific sampling strategy evolved. A summary of the sample types returned is shown in Table 1. By year 1989, some statistics on allocation by sample type were compiled [2]. The "scientific interest index" is based on the assumption that the more allocations per gram of sample, the higher the scientific interest. It is basically a reflection of the amount of diversity within a given sample type. Samples were also set aside for biohazard testing. The samples set aside and used for biohazard testing were represen-tative, as opposed to diverse. They tended to be larger and be comprised of less scientifically valuable mate-rial, such as dust and debris in the bottom of sample containers.

  20. Master schedule for CY-1984 Hanford environmental surveillance routine sampling program

    SciTech Connect

    Blumer, P.J.; Price, K.R.; Eddy, P.A.; Carlile, J.M.V.

    1983-12-01

    This report provides the current schedule of data collection for the routine Hanford environmental surveillance and ground-water Monitoring Programs at the Hanford Site. The purpose is to evaluate and report the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs. The routine sampling schedule provided herein does not include samples that are planned to be collected during FY-1984 in support of special studies, special contractor support programs, or for quality control purposes.

  1. The Case for Environmental Education. A Collection of Readings in Environmental Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Embodied in this collection of readings in environmental awareness are excerpts, statements, testimony, and personal philosophies presented by national leaders concerned with our environment. Major items include: "Environmental Literacy" by Richard Nixon from his introduction to the First Annual Report of the Council on Environmental Quality,…

  2. Concepts for Environmental Radioactive Air Sampling and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew

    2011-11-04

    Environmental radioactive air sampling and monitoring is becoming increasingly important as regulatory agencies promulgate requirements for the measurement and quantification of radioactive contaminants. While researchers add to the growing body of knowledge in this area, events such as earthquakes and tsunamis demonstrate how nuclear systems can be compromised. The result is the need for adequate environmental monitoring to assure the public of their safety and to assist emergency workers in their response. Two forms of radioactive air monitoring include direct effluent measurements and environmental surveillance. This chapter presents basic concepts for direct effluent sampling and environmental surveillance of radioactive air emissions, including information on establishing the basis for sampling and/or monitoring, criteria for sampling media and sample analysis, reporting and compliance, and continual improvement.

  3. Organic analysis of ambient samples collected near Tank 241-C-103: Results from samples collected on May 12, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.; McVeety, B.D.; Lucke, R.B.; Young, J.S.; McCulloch, M.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-06-01

    This report describes organic analyses results from ambient samples collected both upwind and through the vapor sampling system (VSS) near Hanford waste storage Tank 241-C-103 (referred to as Tank C-103). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed. Quantitative results were obtained for organic compounds. Five organic tentatively identified compounds (TICS) were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppbv, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and the reported concentrations are semiquantitative estimates. In addition, we looked for the 40 standard TO-14 analytes. We observed 39. Of these, only one was observed above the 2-ppbv calibrated instrument detection limit. Dichloromethane was above the detection limits using both methods, but the result from the TO-14 method is traceable to a standard gas mixture and is considered more accurate. Organic analytes were found only in the sample collected through the VSS, suggesting that these compounds were residual contamination from a previous sampling job. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text.

  4. A Survey of Current Literature on Sampling, Sample Handling, and Long Term Storage for Environmental Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maienthal, E. J.; Becker, D. A.

    This report presents the results of an extensive literature survey undertaken to establish optimum sampling, sample handling and long-term storage techniques for a wide variety of environmental samples to retain sample integrity. The components of interest are trace elements, organics, pesticides, radionuclides and microbiologicals. A bibliography…

  5. Organically bound tritium analysis in environmental samples

    SciTech Connect

    Baglan, N.; Cossonnet, C.; Fournier, M.; Momoshima, N.; Ansoborlo, E.

    2015-03-15

    Organically bound tritium (OBT) has become of increased interest within the last decade, with a focus on its behaviour and also its analysis, which are important to assess tritium distribution in the environment. In contrast, there are no certified reference materials and no standard analytical method through the international organization related to OBT. In order to resolve this issue, an OBT international working group was created in May 2012. Over 20 labs from around the world participated and submitted their results for the first intercomparison exercise results on potato (Sep 2013). The samples, specially-prepared potatoes, were provided in March 2013 to each participant. Technical information and results from this first exercise are discussed here for all the labs which have realised the five replicates necessary to allow a reliable statistical treatment. The results are encouraging as the increased number of participating labs did not degrade the observed dispersion of the results for a similar activity level. Therefore, the results do not seem to depend on the analytical procedure used. From this work an optimised procedure can start to be developed to deal with OBT analysis and will guide subsequent planned OBT trials by the international group.

  6. Tritium concentrations of blood samples collected throughout Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Hisamatsu, Shun`ichi; Takizawa, Yukio; Inoue, Yoshikazu

    1995-04-01

    Tritium concentrations were measured for blood samples collected from 20 cities throughout Japan during 1989-1990. The mean {sup 3}H concentration was found to be 1.4 {plus_minus} 0.4 Bq L{sup -1} and 1.0 {plus_minus} 0.4 Bq L{sup -1} (combustion water) for free water {sup 3}H and organically-bound {sup 3}H, respectively, excluding the abnormally high data of one city. The organically-bound {sup 3}H contents clearly depended on the latitudes of sampling locations, although the free water {sup 3}H concentrations showed no correlation with the latitudes. Organically-bound {sup 3}H is considered to be more suitable than free water {sup 3}H as an indicator of long time {sup 3}H exposure to human.

  7. Detection of Paracoccidioides spp. in environmental aerosol samples.

    PubMed

    Arantes, Thales Domingos; Theodoro, Raquel Cordeiro; Da Graça Macoris, Severino Assis; Bagagli, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Taking into account that paracoccidioidomycosis infection occurs by inhalation of the asexual conidia produced by Paracoccidioides spp. in its saprobic phase, this work presents the collection of aerosol samples as an option for environmental detection of this pathogen, by positioning a cyclonic air sampler at the entrance of armadillo burrows. Methods included direct culture, extinction technique culture and Nested PCR of the rRNA coding sequence, comprising the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region. In addition, we evaluated one armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) as a positive control for the studied area. Although the pathogen could not be isolated by the culturing strategies, the aerosol sampling associated with molecular detection through Nested PCR proved the best method for discovering Paracoccidioides spp. in the environment. Most of the ITS sequences obtained in this investigation proved to be highly similar with the homologous sequences of Paracoccidioides lutzii from the GenBank database, suggesting that this Paracoccidioides species may not be exclusive to mid-western Brazil as proposed so far. PMID:22762209

  8. 75 FR 12496 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; DOC National Environmental Policy Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... the potential environmental impacts of a project, and help in determining the appropriate level of documentation (Categorical Exclusion, Environmental Assessment, or Environmental Impact Statement) necessary to... facilitating the collection of data concerning potential environmental impacts, streamlining the collection...

  9. Capability of environmental sampling to detect undeclared cask openings

    SciTech Connect

    Beckstead, L.W.; Efurd, D.W.; Hemberger, P.H.; Abhold, M.E.; Eccleston, G.W.

    1997-12-01

    The goal of this study is to determine the signatures that would allow monitors to detect diversion of nuclear fuel (by a diverter) from a storage area such as a geological repository. Due to the complexity of operations surrounding disposal of spent nuclear fuel in a geologic repository, there are several places that a diversion of fuel could take place. After the canister that contains the fuel rods is breached, the diverter would require a hot cell to process or repackage the fuel. A reference repository and possible diversion scenarios are discussed. When a canister is breached, or during reprocessing to extract nuclear weapons material (primarily Pu), several important isotopes or signatures including tritium, {sup 85}Kr, and {sup 129}I are released to the surrounding environment and have the potential for analysis. Estimates of release concentrations of the key signatures from the repository under a hypothetical diversion scenario are presented and discussed. Gas analysis data collected from above-ground storage casks at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) are included and discussed in the report. In addition, LANL participated in gas sampling of one TAN cask, the Castor V/21, in July 1997. Results of xenon analysis from the cask gas sample are presented and discussed. The importance of global fallout and recent commercial reprocessing activities and their effects on repository monitoring are discussed. Monitoring and instrumental equipment for analysis of the key signature isotopes are discussed along with limits of detection. A key factor in determining if diversion activities are in progress at a repository is the timeliness of detection and analysis of the signatures. Once a clandestine operation is suspected, analytical data should be collected as quickly as possible to support any evidence of diversion.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF SORBENT RESINS FOR USE IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the use of chromatographic techniques to characterize resins which are used to trap vapors in environmental sampling schemes. It describes two such techniques (frontal and elution analysis) which have been applied to characterize sorbent cartridges packed wit...

  11. Environmental-benefit analysis of two urban waste collection systems.

    PubMed

    Aranda Usón, Alfonso; Ferreira, Germán; Zambrana Vásquez, David; Zabalza Bribián, Ignacio; Llera Sastresa, Eva

    2013-10-01

    Sustainable transportation infrastructure and travel policies aim to optimise the use of transportation systems to achieve economic and related social and environmental goals. To this end, a novel methodology based on life cycle assessment (LCA) has been developed in this study, with the aim of quantifying, in terms of CO2 emissions equivalent, the impact associated with different alternatives of waste collection systems in different urban typologies. This new approach is focussed on saving energy and raw materials and reducing the environmental impact associated with the waste collection system in urban areas, as well as allowing the design and planning of the best available technologies and most environment-friendly management. The methodology considers a large variety of variables from the point of view of sustainable urban transport such as the location and size of the urban area, the amount of solid waste generated, the level of social awareness on waste separation procedures, the distance between houses and waste collection points and the distance from the latter to the possible recovery plants and/or landfills, taking into account the material and energy recovery ratio within an integrated waste management system. As a case study, two different waste collection systems have been evaluated with this methodology in the ecocity Valdespartera located in Zaragoza, Spain, consisting of approximately 10,000 homes: (i) a system based on traditional truck transportation and manual collection, and (ii) a stationary vacuum waste collection system. Results show that, when operating at loads close to 100%, the stationary collection system has the best environmental performance in comparison with the conventional system. In contrast, when operating at load factors around 13% the environmental benefits in terms of net CO2-eq. emissions for the stationary collection system are around 60% lower in comparison with the conventional one. PMID:23792249

  12. Environmental monitoring via the ERTS-1 Data Collection System.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Painter, J. E.; Seitner, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    The Data Collection System (DCS) provides users with near real-time environmental data from earth-based sensors relayed via the Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-1) to Goddard Space Flight Center. Data is received at Goddard at least twice per day from each sensor and distributed to users (who operate the sensors and transmitters) by mail and teletype. Data collection platforms are discussed together with DCS equipment and the ground receiving and processing equipment.

  13. Taking Environmental Action: The Role of Local Composition, Context, and Collective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakefield, Sarah E. L.; Elliott, Susan J.; Eyles, John D.; Cole, Donald C.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores individual and community action taken in response to perceived environmental risks by investigating the determinants of environmental action across a range of action types. A conceptual framework is first presented, which provides a foundation for investigating the role of local compositional (i.e., individual characteristics), contextual (i.e., neighborhood environment), and collective (i.e., social networks) factors in environmental action. To test the utility of the conceptual framework, a quantitative survey was administered to a random sample of households (n = 512) in Hamilton, Canada. The results suggest that the predictors of environmental action vary by action type (i.e., personal change, individual civic action, and cooperative civic action), and that factors related to perceived environmental exposure and social capital generally play a stronger, more consistent role in civic environmental action than sociodemographic or neighborhood factors. The results underscore the role of social connection in responses to perceived environmental risks.

  14. Study of Cloud Water Samples Collected over Northern Poland.

    PubMed

    Polkowska, Ż; Błaś, M; Lech, D; Namieśnik, J

    2014-01-01

    The paper gives the results of the first studies on the chemistry of cloud water collected during 3 mo (Aug.-Oct. 2010) in the free atmosphere over the area to the south of the Tri-City (Gdansk-Sopot-Gdynia) conurbation on the Gulf of Gdansk, Poland. Taken from cumulus, stratus, and stratocumulus clouds by means of an aircraft-mounted collector, the water samples were analyzed for the following contaminants: anions (chlorides, fluorides, nitrates, sulfates, and phosphates), cations (lithium, sodium, potassium, ammonium, calcium, and magnesium), and trace metals. In addition, pH values were measured, and the type and composition of suspended particulate matter was determined. We discuss the relationship between the concentration of inorganic ions and the type of cloud from which water was sampled. The chemistry is also likely related to the circulation pattern and inflow of clean air masses from the Baltic Sea. Moreover, a relationship was found between the composition of the samples examined and the location of pollutant emission sources. PMID:25602567

  15. METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF METALS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thirteen analytical methods covering 36 analytes which may be present in a ariety of environmental sample types are described in detail. hree of these methods are sample preparation procedures that require a separate determinate step found in other methods in this manual or elsew...

  16. Extravehicular Activity Asteroid Exploration and Sample Collection Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scoville, Zebulon; Sipila, Stephanie; Bowie, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) is challenged with primary mission objectives of demonstrating deep space Extravehicular Activity (EVA) and tools, and obtaining asteroid samples to return to Earth for further study. Although the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES) is used for the EVAs, it has limited mobility which increases fatigue and decreases the crews' capability to perform EVA tasks. Furthermore, previous Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) spacewalks have benefited from EVA interfaces which have been designed and manufactured on Earth. Rigid structurally mounted handrails, and tools with customized interfaces and restraints optimize EVA performance. For ARCM, some vehicle interfaces and tools can leverage heritage designs and experience. However, when the crew ventures onto an asteroid capture bag to explore the asteroid and collect rock samples, EVA complexity increases due to the uncertainty of the asteroid properties. The variability of rock size, shape and composition, as well as bunching of the fabric bag will complicate EVA translation, tool restraint and body stabilization. The unknown asteroid hardness and brittleness will complicate tool use. The rock surface will introduce added safety concerns for cut gloves and debris control. Feasible solutions to meet ARCM EVA objectives were identified using experience gained during Apollo, Shuttle, and ISS EVAs, terrestrial mountaineering practices, NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) 16 mission, and during Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory testing in the MACES suit. The proposed concept utilizes expandable booms and integrated features of the asteroid capture bag to position and restrain the crew at the asteroid worksite. These methods enable the capability to perform both finesse, and high load tasks necessary to collect samples for scientific characterization of the asteroid. This paper will explore the design trade space and options that were examined for EVA, the

  17. Miniature Blimps for Surveillance and Collection of Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack

    2004-01-01

    Miniature blimps are under development as robots for use in exploring the thick, cold, nitrogen atmosphere of Saturn's moon, Titan. Similar blimps can also be used for surveillance and collection of biochemical samples in buildings, caves, subways, and other, similar structures on Earth. The widely perceived need for means to thwart attacks on buildings and to mitigate the effects of such attacks has prompted consideration of the use of robots. Relative to rover-type (wheeled) robots that have been considered for such uses, miniature blimps offer the advantage of ability to move through the air in any direction and, hence, to perform tasks that are difficult or impossible for wheeled robots, including climbing stairs and looking through windows. In addition, miniature blimps are expected to have greater range and to cost less, relative to wheeled robots.

  18. Sulfate and nitrate collected by filter sampling near the tropopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humenik, F. M.; Lezberg, E. A.; Otterson, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    Filter samples collected near the tropopause with an F-106 aircraft and two Boeing 747 aircraft were analyzed for sulfate and nitrate ion content. Within the range of routine commercial flight altitudes (at or below 12.5 km), stratospheric mass mixing ratios for the winter-spring group averaged 0.26 ppbm for sulfate and 0.35 ppbm for nitrate. For the summer-fall group, stratosphere mixing ratios averaged 0.13 ppbm and 0.25 ppbm for sulfate and nitrate, respectively. Winter-spring group tropospheric mass mixing ratios averaged 0.08 ppbm for sulfate and 0.10 ppbm for nitrate, while summer-fall group tropospheric mixing ratios averaged 0.05 ppbm for sulfate and 0.08 ppbm for nitrate. Correlations of the filter data with available ozone data suggest that the sulfate and nitrate are transported from the stratosphere to the troposphere.

  19. Quality assurance guidance for field sampling and measurement assessment plates in support of EM environmental sampling and analysis activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This document is one of several guidance documents developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). These documents support the EM Analytical Services Program (ASP) and are based on applicable regulatory requirements and DOE Orders. They address requirements in DOE Orders by providing guidance that pertains specifically to environmental restoration and waste management sampling and analysis activities. DOE 5700.6C Quality Assurance (QA) defines policy and requirements to establish QA programs ensuring that risks and environmental impacts are minimized and that safety, reliability, and performance are maximized. This is accomplished through the application of effective management systems commensurate with the risks imposed by the facility and the project. Every organization supporting EM`s environmental sampling and analysis activities must develop and document a QA program. Management of each organization is responsible for appropriate QA program implementation, assessment, and improvement. The collection of credible and cost-effective environmental data is critical to the long-term success of remedial and waste management actions performed at DOE facilities. Only well established and management supported assessment programs within each EM-support organization will enable DOE to demonstrate data quality. The purpose of this series of documents is to offer specific guidance for establishing an effective assessment program for EM`s environmental sampling and analysis (ESA) activities.

  20. Collection, chemical analysis, and evaluation of coal samples in 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swanson, Vernon Emanuel; Medlin, J.H.; Hatch, J.R.; Coleman, S.L.; Wood, G.H., Jr.; Woodruff, S.D.; Hildebrand, R.T.

    1976-01-01

    During 1975, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with other Federal and State agencies, university groups, and private companies, continued its program to augment and refine information on the composition of coal in the United States. This report includes all analytical data on 799 channel samples of coal beds from major operating mines and core holes in 28 States, collected mainly by State Geological Surveys under a cooperative program funded largely by the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration. For each sample, the U.S. Geological Survey has quantitatively determined the amounts of 24 major, minor, and trace elements (including AI, As, Cd, Cu, F, Hg, Mn, Na, Pb, Se, U, and Zn), and has semiquantitatively determined the concentrations of 15 to 20 additional trace elements (including B, Be, Cr, Ge, Mo, Ni, and V). In addition, the U.S. Bureau of Mines has provided proximate and ultimate analyses, and Btu and forms-of-sulfur determinations on 488 of the samples. Statistical summaries of the data are given for all coal samples in the United States, for coal divided by rank (53 anthracite, 509 bituminous coal, 183 subbituminous coal, and 54 lignite samples), and the arithmetic means, ranges, and geometric means and deviations are given for the coal in each of seven different major coal areas in the United States. For example, the average coal in the United States contains 11.3 percent ash, 10.0 percent moisture, 2.0 percent sulfur, and has 11,180 Btu per pound; of the 10 major oxides determined on the 525?C ash, the average SiO2 content is 38 percent, Al2O3 20 percent, and Na2O 0.67 percent; the average Cd content is 7.3 ppm, Pb 114 ppm, and Zn 151 ppm (range 1 ppm to 6.0 percent). As determined on the raw coal, the average Hg content is 0.18 ppm (range <0.01 to 63.0 ppm), the Se content 4.1 ppm (range <0.1 to 150 ppm), and the U content 1.8 ppm (range <0.2 to 42.9 ppm).

  1. Air sampling filtration media: Collection efficiency for respirable size-selective sampling

    PubMed Central

    Soo, Jhy-Charm; Monaghan, Keenan; Lee, Taekhee; Kashon, Mike; Harper, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The collection efficiencies of commonly used membrane air sampling filters in the ultrafine particle size range were investigated. Mixed cellulose ester (MCE; 0.45, 0.8, 1.2, and 5 μm pore sizes), polycarbonate (0.4, 0.8, 2, and 5 μm pore sizes), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE; 0.45, 1, 2, and 5 μm pore sizes), polyvinyl chloride (PVC; 0.8 and 5 μm pore sizes), and silver membrane (0.45, 0.8, 1.2, and 5 μm pore sizes) filters were exposed to polydisperse sodium chloride (NaCl) particles in the size range of 10–400 nm. Test aerosols were nebulized and introduced into a calm air chamber through a diffusion dryer and aerosol neutralizer. The testing filters (37 mm diameter) were mounted in a conductive polypropylene filter-holder (cassette) within a metal testing tube. The experiments were conducted at flow rates between 1.7 and 11.2 l min−1. The particle size distributions of NaCl challenge aerosol were measured upstream and downstream of the test filters by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Three different filters of each type with at least three repetitions for each pore size were tested. In general, the collection efficiency varied with airflow, pore size, and sampling duration. In addition, both collection efficiency and pressure drop increased with decreased pore size and increased sampling flow rate, but they differed among filter types and manufacturer. The present study confirmed that the MCE, PTFE, and PVC filters have a relatively high collection efficiency for challenge particles much smaller than their nominal pore size and are considerably more efficient than polycarbonate and silver membrane filters, especially at larger nominal pore sizes. PMID:26834310

  2. Hanford Environmental Monitoring Program schedule for samples, analyses, and measurements for calendar year 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Blumer, P.J.; Price, K.R.; Eddy, P.A.; Carlile, J.M.V.

    1984-12-01

    This report provides the CY 1985 schedule of data collection for the routine Hanford Surface Environmental Monitoring and Ground-Water Monitoring Programs at the Hanford Site. The purpose is to evaluate and report the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5484.1. The routine sampling schedule provided herein does not include samples scheduled to be collected during FY 1985 in support of special studies, special contractor support programs, or for quality control purposes. In addition, the routine program outlined in this schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in site operations, program requirements, or unusual sample results.

  3. Free water 3H concentrations in serum samples collected during 1969-1992 in Akita, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Inoue, Yoshikazu; Hachiya, Noriyuki; Katoh, Kiyoshi; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Nakagomi, Osamu; Motohashi, Yutaka; Takizawa, Yukio

    2003-08-01

    The measurements for human and environmental samples from the 1960's and 1970's are important to understand the long-term transfer of 3H from the environment to the human body. The authors have previously reported 3H concentrations in diet samples collected in Akita Prefecture during 1969-1988. Serum samples from persons living in Akita Prefecture during 1969-1992 were recently obtained. The samples were originally gathered for medical examinations and stored in freezers at -20 degrees C. Composite samples from 100 persons on average were made for analysis. The free water 3H (FWT) concentrations in those samples were determined and compared with 3H concentrations in diet samples and precipitation. The long-term variation pattern of the FWT concentrations in the serum samples was similar to patterns in the diet samples and precipitation, but the FWT concentrations in the serum samples were slightly higher than those in the latter two. A single compartment model calculation showed that the apparent mean residence time of serum FWT was 1.4 y using precipitation as an input to the compartment. PMID:12938967

  4. Toward Lower Organic Environments in Astromaterial Sample Curation for Diverse Collections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allton, J. H.; Allen, C. C.; Burkett, P. J.; Calaway, M. J.; Oehler, D. Z.

    2012-01-01

    Great interest was taken during the frenzied pace of the Apollo lunar sample return to achieve and monitor organic cleanliness. Yet, the first mission resulted in higher organic contamination to samples than desired. But improvements were accomplished by Apollo 12 [1]. Quarantine complicated the goal of achieving organic cleanliness by requiring negative pressure glovebox containment environments, proximity of animal, plant and microbial organic sources, and use of organic sterilants in protocols. A special low organic laboratory was set up at University of California Berkeley (UCB) to cleanly subdivide a subset of samples [2, 3, 4]. Nevertheless, the basic approach of handling rocks and regolith inside of a positive pressure stainless steel glovebox and restrict-ing the tool and container materials allowed in the gloveboxes was established by the last Apollo sample re-turn. In the last 40 years, the collections have grown to encompass Antarctic meteorites, Cosmic Dust, Genesis solar wind, Stardust comet grains and Hayabusa asteroid grains. Each of these collections have unique curation requirements for organic contamination monitor-ing and control. Here is described some changes allowed by improved technology or driven by changes in environmental regulations and economy, concluding with comments on organic witness wafers. Future sample return missions (OSIRIS-Rex; Mars; comets) will require extremely low levels of organic contamination in spacecraft collection and thus similarly low levels in curation. JSC Curation is undertaking a program to document organic baseline levels in current operations and devise ways to reduce those levels.

  5. Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS). Volume 7: Sample and Data Tracking subject area

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) Sample and Data Tracking subject area allows insertion of tracking information into a central repository where the data is immediately available for viewing. For example, a technical coordinator is able to view the current status of a particular sampling effort, from sample collection to data package validation dates. Four major types of data comprise the Sample and Data Tracking subject area: data about the mechanisms that groups a set of samples for a particular sampling effort; data about how constituents are grouped and assigned to a sample; data about when, where, and how samples are sent to a laboratory for analysis; and data bout the status of a sample`s constituent analysis requirements, i.e., whether the analysis results have been returned from the laboratory.

  6. Detection of the actinides and cesium from environmental samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, Mathew Spencer

    Detection of the actinides and cesium in the environment is important for a variety of applications ranging from environmental remediation to safeguards and nuclear forensics. The utilization of multiple different elemental concentrations and isotopic ratios together can significantly improve the ability to attribute contamination to a unique source term and/or generation process; however, the utilization of multiple elemental "signatures" together from environmental samples requires knowledge of the impact of chemical fractionation for various elements under a variety of environmental conditions (including predominantly aqueous versus arid conditions). The research reported in this dissertation focuses on three major areas: 1. Improving the understanding of actinide-mineral interactions at ultra-low concentrations. Chapter 2 reports a batch sorption and modeling study of Np(V) sorption to the mineral goethite from attomolar to micromolar concentrations. 2. Improving the detection capabilities for Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) analyses of ultra-trace cesium from environmental samples. Chapter 4 reports a new method which significantly improves the chemical yields, purification, sample processing time, and ultimately, the detection limits for TIMS analyses of femtogram quantities of cesium from a variety of environmental sample matrices. 3. Demonstrating how actinide and cesium concentrations and isotopic ratios from environmental samples can be utilized together to determine a wealth of information including environmental transport mechanisms (e.g. aqueous versus arid transport) and information on the processes which generated the original material. Chapters1, 3 and 5 demonstrate these principles using Pu, Am, Np, and Cs concentrations and isotopic ratios from contaminated soils taken near the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) of Idaho National Laboratory (INL) (a low level radioactive waste disposal site in southeastern Idaho).

  7. Extended Characterization of Chemical Processes in Hot Cells Using Environmental Swipe Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Khris B.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Thomas, M-L; Lepel, Elwood A.; Brunson, Ronald R.; Ladd-Lively, Jennifer

    2012-09-15

    Environmental sampling is used extensively by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for verification of information from State declarations or a facility’s design regarding nuclear activities occurring within the country or a specific facility. Environmental sampling of hot cells within a facility under safeguards is conducted using 10.2 cm x 10.2 cm cotton swipe material or cellulose swipes. Traditional target analytes used by the IAEA to verify operations within a facility include a select list of gamma-emitting radionuclides and total and isotopic U and Pu. Analysis of environmental swipe samples collected within a hot-cell facility where chemical processing occurs may also provide information regarding specific chemicals used in fuel processing. However, using swipe material to elucidate what specific chemical processes were/are being used within a hot cell has not been previously evaluated. Staff from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) teamed to evaluate the potential use of environmental swipe samples as collection media for volatile and semivolatile organic compounds. This evaluation was initiated with sample collection during a series of Coupled End-to-End (CETE) reprocessing runs at ORNL. The study included measurement of gamma emitting radionuclides, total and isotopic U and Pu, and volatile and semivolatile organic compounds. These results allowed us to elucidate what chemical processes used in the hot cells during reprocessing of power reactor and identify other legacy chemicals used in hot cell operations which predate the CETE process.

  8. 76 FR 17127 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Environmentally Sound Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Environmentally Sound Products AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DOD... extension of a currently approved information collection requirement concerning environmentally sound...., Washington, DC 20405, telephone (202) 501-4755. Please cite OMB control No. 9000-0134, Environmentally...

  9. DS — Software for analyzing data collected using double sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bart, Jonathan; Hartley, Dana

    2011-01-01

    DS analyzes count data to estimate density or relative density and population size when appropriate. The software is available at http://iwcbm.dev4.fsr.com/IWCBM/default.asp?PageID=126. The software was designed to analyze data collected using double sampling, but it also can be used to analyze index data. DS is not currently configured to apply distance methods or methods based on capture-recapture theory. Double sampling for the purpose of this report means surveying a sample of locations with a rapid method of unknown accuracy and surveying a subset of these locations using a more intensive method assumed to yield unbiased estimates. "Detection ratios" are calculated as the ratio of results from rapid surveys on intensive plots to the number actually present as determined from the intensive surveys. The detection ratios are used to adjust results from the rapid surveys. The formula for density is (results from rapid survey)/(estimated detection ratio from intensive surveys). Population sizes are estimated as (density)(area). Double sampling is well-established in the survey sampling literature—see Cochran (1977) for the basic theory, Smith (1995) for applications of double sampling in waterfowl surveys, Bart and Earnst (2002, 2005) for discussions of its use in wildlife studies, and Bart and others (in press) for a detailed account of how the method was used to survey shorebirds across the arctic region of North America. Indices are surveys that do not involve complete counts of well-defined plots or recording information to estimate detection rates (Thompson and others, 1998). In most cases, such data should not be used to estimate density or population size but, under some circumstances, may be used to compare two densities or estimate how density changes through time or across space (Williams and others, 2005). The Breeding Bird Survey (Sauer and others, 2008) provides a good example of an index survey. Surveyors record all birds detected but do not record

  10. Detection of Mycobacterium ulcerans in environmental samples during an outbreak of ulcerative disease.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, B C; Johnson, P D; Oppedisano, F; Marino, L; Sievers, A; Stinear, T; Hayman, J A; Veitch, M G; Robins-Browne, R M

    1997-01-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans is an environmental bacterium which causes chronic skin ulcers. Despite significant epidemiological evidence to suggest that water is the source of infection, the organism has never been identified in the environment. Environmental water samples were collected from a small town in which an outbreak of 29 cases had occurred in a 3-year period. These were examined by mycobacterial culture and PCR amplification. Similar to previous studies, M. ulcerans was not cultured from the water samples. However, five samples were positive for M. ulcerans by PCR. These samples were collected from a swamp and a golf course irrigation system within the outbreak area. This is the first time that M. ulcerans has been demonstrated to be present in the environment and supports the postulated epidemiology of disease due to this organism. PMID:9327583

  11. Optimizing detection of noble gas emission at a former UNE site: sample strategy, collection, and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkham, R.; Olsen, K.; Hayes, J. C.; Emer, D. F.

    2013-12-01

    Underground nuclear tests may be first detected by seismic or air samplers operated by the CTBTO (Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization). After initial detection of a suspicious event, member nations may call for an On-Site Inspection (OSI) that in part, will sample for localized releases of radioactive noble gases and particles. Although much of the commercially available equipment and methods used for surface and subsurface environmental sampling of gases can be used for an OSI scenario, on-site sampling conditions, required sampling volumes and establishment of background concentrations of noble gases require development of specialized methodologies. To facilitate development of sampling equipment and methodologies that address OSI sampling volume and detection objectives, and to collect information required for model development, a field test site was created at a former underground nuclear explosion site located in welded volcanic tuff. A mixture of SF-6, Xe127 and Ar37 was metered into 4400 m3 of air as it was injected into the top region of the UNE cavity. These tracers were expected to move towards the surface primarily in response to barometric pumping or through delayed cavity pressurization (accelerated transport to minimize source decay time). Sampling approaches compared during the field exercise included sampling at the soil surface, inside surface fractures, and at soil vapor extraction points at depths down to 2 m. Effectiveness of various sampling approaches and the results of tracer gas measurements will be presented.

  12. Some thoughts on problems associated with various sampling media used for environmental monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, A.J.

    1997-01-01

    Modern analytical instrumentation is capable of measuring a variety of trace elements at concentrations down into the single or double digit parts-per-trillion (ng l-1) range. This holds for the three most common sample media currently used in environmental monitoring programs: filtered water, whole-water and separated suspended sediment. Unfortunately, current analytical capabilities have exceeded the current capacity to collect both uncontaminated and representative environmental samples. The success of any trace element monitoring program requires that this issue be both understood and addressed. The environmental monitoring of trace elements requires the collection of calendar- and event-based dissolved and suspended sediment samples. There are unique problems associated with the collection and chemical analyses of both types of sample media. Over the past 10 years, reported ambient dissolved trace element concentrations have declined. Generally, these decreases do not reflect better water quality, but rather improvements in the procedures used to collect, process, preserve and analyze these samples without contaminating them during these steps. Further, recent studies have shown that the currently accepted operational definition of dissolved constituents (material passing a 0.45 ??m membrane filter) is inadequat owing to sampling and processing artifacts. The existence of these artifacts raises questions about the generation of accurate, precise and comparable 'dissolved' trace element data. Suspended sediment and associated trace elements can display marked short- and long-term spatial and temporal variability. This implies that spatially representative samples only can be obtained by generating composites using depth- and width-integrated sampling techniques. Additionally, temporal variations have led to the view that the determination of annual trace element fluxes may require nearly constant (e.g., high-frequency) sampling and subsequent chemical analyses

  13. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF URINE SAMPLES (SOP-2.14)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the method for collecting urine samples from the study participants (children and their primary caregivers). Urine samples will be approximate 48-hr collections, collected as spot urine samples accumulated over the 48-hr sampling period. If the household or da...

  14. RAPID DETERMINATION OF RA-226 IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.

    2012-01-03

    A new rapid method for the determination of {sup 226}Ra in environmental samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used for emergency response or routine sample analyses. The need for rapid analyses in the event of a Radiological Dispersive Device or Improvised Nuclear Device event is well-known. In addition, the recent accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in March, 2011 reinforces the need to have rapid analyses for radionuclides in environmental samples in the event of a nuclear accident. {sup 226}Ra (T1/2 = 1,620 years) is one of the most toxic of the long-lived alpha-emitters present in the environment due to its long life and its tendency to concentrate in bones, which increases the internal radiation dose of individuals. The new method to determine {sup 226}Ra in environmental samples utilizes a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method for solid samples, calcium carbonate precipitation to preconcentrate Ra, and rapid column separation steps to remove interferences. The column separation process uses cation exchange resin to remove large amounts of calcium, Sr Resin to remove barium and Ln Resin as a final purification step to remove {sup 225}Ac and potential interferences. The purified {sup 226}Ra sample test sources are prepared using barium sulfate microprecipitation in the presence of isopropanol for counting by alpha spectrometry. The method showed good chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. The determination of {sup 226}Ra in environmental samples can be performed in less than 16 h for vegetation, concrete, brick, soil, and air filter samples with excellent quality for emergency or routine analyses. The sample preparation work takes less than 6 h. {sup 225}Ra (T1/2 = 14.9 day) tracer is used and the {sup 225}Ra progeny {sup 217}At is used to determine chemical yield via alpha spectrometry. The rapid fusion technique is a rugged sample digestion method that ensures that any

  15. Design of an Unattended Environmental Aerosol Sampling and Analysis System for Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Munley, John T.; Alexander, M. L.

    2011-07-19

    The resources of the IAEA continue to be challenged by the rapid, worldwide expansion of nuclear energy production. Gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) represent an especially formidable dilemma to the application of safeguard measures, as the size and enrichment capacity of GCEPs continue to escalate. During the early part of the 1990's, the IAEA began to lay the foundation to strengthen and make cost-effective its future safeguard regime. Measures under Part II of 'Programme 93+2' specifically sanctioned access to nuclear fuel production facilities and environmental sampling by IAEA inspectors. Today, the Additional Protocol grants inspection and environmental sample collection authority to IAEA inspectors at GCEPs during announced and low frequency unannounced (LFUA) inspections. During inspections, IAEA inspectors collect environmental swipe samples that are then shipped offsite to an analytical laboratory for enrichment assay. This approach has proven to be an effective deterrence to GCEP misuse, but this method has never achieved the timeliness of detection goals set forth by IAEA. Furthermore it is questionable whether the IAEA will have the resources to even maintain pace with the expansive production capacity of the modern GCEP, let alone improve the timeliness in reaching current safeguards conclusions. New safeguards propositions, outside of familiar mainstream safeguard measures, may therefore be required that counteract the changing landscape of nuclear energy fuel production. A new concept is proposed that offers rapid, cost effective GCEP misuse detection, without increasing LFUA inspection access or introducing intrusive access demands on GCEP operations. Our approach is based on continuous onsite aerosol collection and laser enrichment analysis. This approach mitigates many of the constraints imposed by the LFUA protocol, reduces the demand for onsite sample collection and offsite analysis, and overcomes current limitations associated with

  16. Mobile on-site sample collection, preparation, and analysis in Iraq. Final report, January-April 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Swahn, I.D.; Brzezinski, J.H.

    1996-11-01

    The U.S. Army Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center has developed mobile on-site sample collection, preparation, and analysis equipment to collect environmental samples in highly contaminated areas. This equipment is being used by the United Nations Special Commission at the Baghdad Monitoring and Verification Center (BMVC), which provides long-term monitoring of dual-purpose chemical sites in Iraq, especially those with potential for chemical warfare (CW) production. A mobile laboratory was set-up in the BMVC to prepare and analyze samples collected throughout Iraq. Automatic air samplers were installed at various sites to collect vapor samples on absorption tubes that were analyzed using a gas chromatographic (GC) flame photometric detector (FPD). Mobile sample collection kits were used to collect solid, liquid, air, and wipe samples during challenge inspections. These samples were prepared using a sample preparation kit, which concentrates CW agent, breakdown products, and their precursors in complex matrices down to sub part per million levels for chemical analysis by a GC mass selective detector (MSD). This report describes the problems and solutions encountered with setting up a self-sufficient mobile analytical laboratory. Details of the various components associated with the laboratory and the collection kits are included.

  17. COLLECTION EFFICIENCY OF FIELD SAMPLING CASSETTES: INTERAGENCY ENERGY/ENVIRONMENT R AND D PROGRAM REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Industrial hygiene particulate samples are often collected under anisokinetic sampling conditions and in crosswinds. Experiments were conducted to quantitate errors associated with sampling under these non-ideal conditions. Three types of field sampling cassetts were tested to de...

  18. Determination of radium-226 in environmental and personal monitoring samples.

    PubMed

    Lawrie, W C; Desmond, J A; Spence, D; Anderson, S; Edmondson, C

    2000-01-01

    Radium-226 is a member of the Uranium-238 natural decay series and is the most hazardous radionuclide released to the environment from uranium mining and milling. Due to its long half-life (1600 years) and radiological effects it is one of the most important isotopes to be determined among the naturally occurring nuclides in environmental samples. It is also among the most toxic long-lived alpha-emitters present in environmental samples, as well as one of the most widespread. The requirement for the determination of radium has become a matter of interest in public health due to its hazardous nature with respect to internal exposure. It is concentrated in bones, thus increasing the internal radiation dose of individuals. The methodology developed involves dissolving solid samples by microwave digestion. The radium is then separated from matrix interferents by cation exchange chromatography and subsequently electrodeposited onto a stainless steel disc. Alpha-Spectrometry is employed to determine the activity in the sample. A limit of detection of 20 mBq l(-1) for ground water samples (100 ml) and 20 mBq g(-1) for solid samples (0.1 g) is achievable. The method has been validated via an intercomparison exercise and analysis of a marine sediment reference material. Samples analysed include run off waters from uranium mines, coal and fly ash and also trapping media such as silica gel, charcoal and activated carbon. PMID:10879851

  19. Potential applications of environmental sampling and analysis for the IAEA

    SciTech Connect

    Raber, E.

    1993-03-01

    This objective of this paper is to address the usefulness of envirorunental sampling and analysis in support of the IAEA. In particular, whether state-of-the-art analytical methods may provide detection of undeclared nuclear activities. It is important to emphasize that envirorunental sampling offers the IAEA a method of improving the assurance that a particular facility has no ongoing undeclared nuclear activities. It is suggested as a supplement to the existing IAEA safeguards inspections and activities. Enviromental sampling with appropriate analytical techniques can detect unknown activity fairly well, but it is not very reliable for determining how much or when activity has actually occured. Additionally, it is important to point out that the cost of such an envirorunental sampling program needs to be balanced with the confidence provided to detect undeclared nuclear activities. Environmental sampling wig probably not allow the IAEA to reduce or eliminate some of its existing baseline activities. The addition of an environmental sampling and analysis program will entail a cost of its own, and adding such a program may not reduce IAEA total costs. The overall cost of such a program will depend on the level of confidence required, (e.g. number and type of samples and analyses), the Quality Assurance plan to be implemented and the number of sites to be inspected. A more detailed cost analysis is not within the scope of this paper.

  20. Collection and analysis of Nicotine as a marker for environmental tobacco smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, S. Katharine; Leaderer, Brian P.; Roche, Anne C.; Schenker, Marc

    Nicotine is a potential marker for environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) because it is unique to tobacco smoke and is a major constituent of the smoke. An air sampling method is presented which efficiently collects both particulate and vapor phase nicotine. Two filters are assembled in tandem in a personal sampling cassette. The first filter collects total or size fractional particules and the second is treated with sodium bisulfate to collect vapor phase nicotine and nicotine which has volatilized from the paniculate material collected on the first filler. The nicotine is then desorbed from the filters and analyzed by gas chromatography with nitrogen sensitive detection. The sampling method was evaluated in an environmental chamber under controlled conditions of temperature, humidity, ventilation and smoking rate. It was then employed in a field study of particulate exposures of railroad office workers and railroad mechanics to determine the portion of the particulate exposure attributable to environmental tobacco smoke. The method was found to be efficient and sensitive for the determination of nicotine levels in air.

  1. Atmospheric CO sub 2 concentrations derived from flask samples collected at USSR-operated sampling sites

    SciTech Connect

    Boden, T.A. . Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center); Brounshtein, A.M.; Faber, E.V.; Shashkov, A.A. )

    1991-12-01

    This document presents daily atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations from four USSR-operated sampling sites (Teriberka Station, Ocean Station Charlie, Bering Island, and Kotelny Island). The period of record varies by station with the earliest measurements dating back to 1983 and recent estimates from early 1991. These CO{sub 2} concentrations are derived from air samples collected in 1.5-L stainless steel electropolished flasks and later analyzed at the Main Geophysical Observatory (St. Petersburg, USSR) using a nondispersive infrared gas analyzer. Measurements not meeting wind direction, wind speed, inter-flask agreement, and climate condition criteria were either discarded or flagged. All measurements have been corrected for drift biases introduced during flask storage. These atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations are considered indicative of regional background air conditions and are directly traceable to the World Meteorological Organization's primary CO{sub 2} standards. These measurements support the rising trend in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations measured at other monitoring sites around the world and may be compared with similar measurements made by various monitoring programs at other northern latitude sites. The document presents the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations in graphical and tabular form, describes the sampling methods, defines limitations and restrictions of the data, and describes the information on the magnetic media.

  2. Filtration recovery of extracellular DNA from environmental water samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    qPCR methods are able to analyze DNA from microbes within hours of collecting water samples, providing the promptest notification and public awareness possible when unsafe pathogenic levels are reached. Health risk, however, may be overestimated by the presence of extracellular ...

  3. 24 CFR 35.1315 - Collection and laboratory analysis of samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... authorized by EPA in accordance with 40 CFR part 745, subpart Q, or by the EPA in accordance with 40 CFR 745... Collection and laboratory analysis of samples. All paint chip, dust, or soil samples shall be collected...

  4. Three sample preparation protocols for polymerase chain reaction based detection of Cryptosporidium parvum in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Kostrzynska, M; Sankey, M; Haack, E; Power, C; Aldom, J E; Chagla, A H; Unger, S; Palmateer, G; Lee, H; Trevors, J T; De Grandis, S A

    1999-02-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a protozoan parasite responsible for an increasing number of outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness worldwide. In this report, we describe development of sample preparation protocols for polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based detection of C. parvum in fecal material and environmental water samples. Two of these methods were found adequate for isolation of Cryptosporidium DNA from filtered water pellet suspensions. The first involved several filtration steps, immunomagnetic separation and freeze-thaw cycles. The second method involved filtration, addition of EnviroAmp lysis reagent, freeze-thaw cycles and precipitation of the DNA with isopropanol. Using nested PCR, we detected 100 oocysts/ml of filtered water pellet suspension, with either of the above sample preparation procedures. Nested PCR increased sensitivity of the assay by two to three orders of magnitude as compared to the primary PCR. The detection limit for seeded fecal samples was 10-fold higher than for filtered environmental water pellet suspension. Nested PCR results showed 62.4 and 91.1% correlation with immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for fecal samples and filtered environmental water pellet suspensions, respectively. This correlation decreased to 47.2% and 44.4%, respectively, when only IFA positive samples were analyzed. However, in fecal samples contaminated with a high number (> 10(5)/g) of C. parvum oocysts, this correlation was 100%. PMID:10076632

  5. Stability of explosives in environmental water and soil samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maskarinec, M.P.; Bayne, C.K.; Johnson, L.H.; Holladay, S.K.; Jenkins, R.A.; Tomkins, B.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report focuses on data generated for the purpose of establishing the stability of HMX, RDX, TNT, and DNT explosives in environmental water and soil samples. The study was carried out over a one year time frame and took into account as many variables as possible within the constraints of budget and time. The objectives of the study were: (1) to provide a data base which could be used to provide guidance on pre-analytical holding times for regulatory purposes; and (2) and to provide a basis for the evaluation of data which is generated outside of the currently allowable holding times for quality assurance purposes. The experimental design consisted of three water samples and three soil samples. The water samples were distilled-in-glass water, a ground water, and surface water. The soil samples were a US Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency soil, a Captina silt loam from Roane County, Tennessee, and a McLaurin sandy loam from Stone County, Mississippi. The analytes consisted of four explosives HMX, RDX, TNT and DNT. Several approaches were taken to estimate the MHTs for each explosive because a standard definition for MHT has not been adopted by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). First, a procedure recommended by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) was modified and applied to the data base. Secondly, a procedure developed by Environmental Science and Engineering (ESE) for the analysis of a similar data base was applied. This report is intended to summarize the findings of the study in such a way as to allow individual decisions to be made regarding the quality of environmental data. The use of the data base may well be different for analyses conducted under RCRA, for example, than for those conducted under NPDES permit requirements. For this reason, the summary statistics for each replicate analysis is presented in the appendices of this report. 18 refs., 4 figs., 14 tabs.

  6. Sample Collection for Investigation of Mars (SCIM): An Early Mars Sample Return Mission Through the Mars Scout Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leshin, L. A.; Yen, A.; Bomba, J.; Clark, B.; Epp, C.; Forney, L.; Gamber, T.; Graves, C.; Hupp, J.; Jones, S.

    2002-01-01

    The Sample Collection for Investigation of Mars (SCIM) mission is designed to: (1) make a 40 km pass through the Martian atmosphere; (2) collect dust and atmospheric gas; and (3) return the samples to Earth for analysis. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  7. Sensitive detection of sample interference in environmental qPCR.

    PubMed

    Green, Hyatt C; Field, Katharine G

    2012-06-15

    Sample interference in environmental applications of quantitative PCR (qPCR) can prevent accurate estimations of molecular markers in the environment. We developed a spike-and-recovery approach using a mutant strain of Escherichia coli that contains a chromosomal insertion of a mutant GFP gene. The method was tested in water samples by separately reducing extraction efficiency or adding humic acids and ethanol, compounds that often contaminate environmental DNA extracts, and analyzing qPCR amplification of the spiked E. coli control and human fecal Bacteroides markers (HF183 and HF134). This approach, coupled with previously developed kinetic outlier detection (KOD) methods, allowed sensitive detection of PCR inhibition at much lower inhibitor concentrations than alternative approaches using Cq values or amplification efficiencies. Although HF183 was more sensitive to the effects of qPCR inhibitors than the E. coli control assay, KOD methods correctly identified inhibition of both control and HF183 assays in samples containing as little as 0.1 ng humic acids per reaction or 5% ethanol. Because sigmoidal modeling methods allow distinction of qPCR inhibition from poor DNA recovery, we were able to simultaneously identify qPCR-inhibited reactions and estimate recovery of nucleic acids in environmental samples using a single control assay. Since qPCR is currently used to estimate important water quality parameters that have serious economic and human health outcomes, these results are timely. While we demonstrate the methods in the context of water quality regulation, they will be useful in all areas of environmental research that use qPCR. PMID:22560896

  8. Determination of technetium-99 in environmental samples: a review.

    PubMed

    Shi, Keliang; Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per; Wu, Wangsuo

    2012-01-01

    Due to the lack of a stable technetium isotope, and the high mobility and long half-life, (99)Tc is considered to be one of the most important radionuclides in safety assessment of environmental radioactivity as well as nuclear waste management. (99)Tc is also an important tracer for oceanographic research due to the high technetium solubility in seawater as TcO(4)(-). A number of analytical methods, using chemical separation combined with radiometric and mass spectrometric measurement techniques, have been developed over the past decades for determination of (99)Tc in different environmental samples. This article summarizes and compares recently reported chemical separation procedures and measurement methods for determination of (99)Tc. Due to the extremely low concentration of (99)Tc in environmental samples, the sample preparation, pre-concentration, chemical separation and purification for removal of the interferences for detection of (99)Tc are the most important issues governing the accurate determination of (99)Tc. These aspects are discussed in detail in this article. Meanwhile, the different measurement techniques for (99)Tc are also compared with respect to advantages and drawbacks. Novel automated analytical methods for rapid determination of (99)Tc using solid extraction or ion exchange chromatography for separation of (99)Tc, employing flow injection or sequential injection approaches are also discussed. PMID:22122926

  9. Quantification for total demethylation potential of environmental samples utilizing the EGFP reporter gene.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yan; Wang, Xiao-li; Lv, Zhan-lu; Tysklind, Mats; Guo, Chen; Liang, Bao; Wu, Jia-bing; Yang, Yong-jian; Yang, Yi-shu; Wang, Fei-fei; Duan, Xiao-li; Ma, Jin; Wei, Yong-jie; Wang, Chun-hui; Yang, Li-xin; Zhang, Jin-liang; Shi, Xiao-ming; Wang, Xian-liang

    2016-04-01

    The demethylation potential of pollutants is arguably an innate component of their toxicity in environmental samples. A method was developed for determining the total demethylation potential of food samples (TDQ). The demethylation epigenetic toxicity was determined using the Hep G2 cell line transfected with pEGFP-C3 plasmids containing a methylated promoter of the EGFP reporter gene. The total demethylation potential of the sample extracts (the 5-AZA-CdR demethylation toxic equivalency) can be quantified within one week by using a standard curve of the 5-AZA-CdR demethylation agent. To explore the applicability of TDQ for environmental samples, 17 groundwater samples were collected from heavy polluted Kuihe river and the total demethylation potentials of the sample extracts were measured successfully. Meaningful demethylation toxic equivalencies ranging from 0.00050 to 0.01747μM were found in all groundwater sample extracts. Among 19 kinds of inorganic substance, As and Cd played important roles for individual contribution to the total demethylation epigenetic toxicity. The TDQ assay is reliable and fast for quantifying the DNA demethylation potential of environmental sample extracts, which may improve epigenetic toxicity evaluations for human risk assessment, and the consistent consuming of groundwater alongside the Kuihe river pose unexpected epigenetic health risk to the local residents. PMID:26774982

  10. Use of immunomagnetic separation for the detection of Desulfovibrio vulgaris from environmental samples

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, R.; Hazen, T.C.; Joyner, D.C.; Kusel, K.; Singer, M.E.; Sitte, J.; Torok, T.

    2011-04-15

    Immunomagnetic separation (IMS) has proved highly efficient for recovering microorganisms from heterogeneous samples. Current investigation targeted the separation of viable cells of the sulfate-reducing bacterium, Desulfovibrio vulgaris. Streptavidin-coupled paramagnetic beads and biotin labeled antibodies raised against surface antigens of this microorganism were used to capture D. vulgaris cells in both bioreactor grown laboratory samples and from extremely low-biomass environmental soil and subsurface drilling samples. Initial studies on detection, recovery efficiency and viability for IMS were performed with laboratory grown D. vulgaris cells using various cell densities. Efficiency of cell isolation and recovery (i.e., release of the microbial cells from the beads following separation) was followed by microscopic imaging and acridine orange direct counts (AODC). Excellent recovery efficiency encouraged the use of IMS to capture Desulfovibrio spp. cells from low-biomass environmental samples. The environmental samples were obtained from a radionuclide-contaminated site in Germany and the chromium (VI)-contaminated Hanford site, an ongoing bioremediation project of the U.S. Department of Energy. Field deployable IMS technology may greatly facilitate environmental sampling and bioremediation process monitoring and enable transcriptomics and proteomics/metabolomics-based studies directly on cells collected from the field.

  11. Apollo Lunar Sample Photographs: Digitizing the Moon Rock Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lofgren, Gary E.; Todd, Nancy S.; Runco, S. K.; Stefanov, W. L.

    2011-01-01

    The Acquisition and Curation Office at JSC has undertaken a 4-year data restoration project effort for the lunar science community funded by the LASER program (Lunar Advanced Science and Exploration Research) to digitize photographs of the Apollo lunar rock samples and create high resolution digital images. These sample photographs are not easily accessible outside of JSC, and currently exist only on degradable film in the Curation Data Storage Facility

  12. Ion chromatographic measurement of fluoride and sulfur dioxide in samples collected at aluminum smelters.

    PubMed

    Balya, D R

    1991-08-01

    Measurement of airborne fluoride and sulfur dioxide in aluminum smelting plants is important for both industrial hygiene and environmental reasons. The traditional analytical techniques employed have been ion-selective electrodes (ISE) for fluoride and barium/thorin titration for SO2. In this study, ion chromatography (IC) was evaluated as a substitute for these two techniques. Dust for particulate fluoride was collected on membrane filters with carbonate-treated backup pads to collect HF and SO2. Gaseous fluoride and SO2 were ultrasonically extracted from the treated pad, but particulate fluoride required a borate/carbonate fusion. Collection efficiency and recovery of the analytes, along with the acceptable working ranges and instrument conditions used with IC, are discussed. IC is a desirable substitute for the electrode and titration methods because it is easily automated and the two determinations may be performed simultaneously. Organic compounds may cause interference in low-level fluoride measurement. Comparison of the techniques for field samples indicates that IC is an adequate substitute for the traditional measurement methods for full-shift samples of fluoride. PMID:1927909

  13. Ion chromatographic measurement of fluoride and sulfur dioxide in samples collected at aluminum smelters

    SciTech Connect

    Balya, D.R. )

    1991-08-01

    Measurement of airborne fluoride and sulfur dioxide in aluminum smelting plants is important for both industrial hygiene and environmental reasons. The traditional analytical techniques employed have been ion-selective electrodes (ISE) for fluoride and barium/thorin titration for SO2. In this study, ion chromatography (IC) was evaluated as a substitute for these two techniques. Dust for particulate fluoride was collected on membrane filters with carbonate-treated backup pads to collect HF and SO2. Gaseous fluoride and SO2 were ultrasonically extracted from the treated pad, but particulate fluoride required a borate/carbonate fusion. Collection efficiency and recovery of the analytes, along with the acceptable working ranges and instrument conditions used with IC, are discussed. IC is a desirable substitute for the electrode and titration methods because it is easily automated and the two determinations may be performed simultaneously. Organic compounds may cause interference in low-level fluoride measurement. Comparison of the techniques for field samples indicates that IC is an adequate substitute for the traditional measurement methods for full-shift samples of fluoride.

  14. 76 FR 62077 - Submission for OBM Review; Comment Request; New Proposed Collection, Environmental Science...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... Collection, Environmental Science Formative Research Methodology Studies for the National Children's Study... Collection: Title: Environmental Science Formative Research Methodology Studies for the National Children's... of the Children's Health Act, the results of formative research will be used to maximize...

  15. Environmental sampling of lead near a battery reprocessing factory

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, H.W.

    1988-09-01

    Exposed workers in lead smelting plants and lead storage battery factories have reported illnesses related to inhalation of lead oxide fumes. The residential community of La Gloria, a town of about 15,000 people located approximately 13 km southwest of Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico was an area where residents were concerned about possible health effects and environmental contamination from lead due to the proximity of battery factory that used lead oxide in the battery grid separation procedure. This study was undertaken to investigate the lead levels in the soil, plant and water collected in various areas around this battery reprocessing plant.

  16. The stability of collected human scent under various environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Davia T; Curran, Allison M; Furton, Kenneth G

    2009-11-01

    Human scent evidence collected from objects at a crime scene is used for scent discrimination with specially trained canines. Storage of the scent evidence is usually required yet no optimized storage protocol has been determined. Storage containers including glass, polyethylene, and aluminized pouches were evaluated to determine the optimal medium for storing human scent evidence of which glass was determined to be the optimal storage matrix. Hand odor samples were collected on three different sorbent materials, sealed in glass vials and subjected to different storage environments including room temperature, -80 degrees C conditions, dark storage, and UVA/UVB light exposure over a 7-week period. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the headspace of the samples were extracted and identified using solid-phase micro-extraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). Three-dimensional covariance mapping showed that glass containers subjected to minimal UVA/UVB light exposure provide the most stable environment for stored human scent samples. PMID:19737339

  17. Separation and preconcentration of heavy metals in environmental samples by nicotinium molybdophosphate basin

    SciTech Connect

    Nyangababo, J.T.; Hamya, J.W.

    1986-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure absorption properties of nicotinium molybdophosphate and to test extraction and recovery procedures for different metal pollutants (e.g. Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb). Procedures have been tested for single metal pollutants and for complex synthetic mixtures of them. Furthermore the nicotinium molybdophosphate resin technique is extended to the analysis of environmental samples collected in different areas of Kampala City.

  18. Curating NASA's Past, Present, and Future Extraterrestrial Sample Collections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Allton, J. H.; Evans, C. A.; Fries, M. D.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Righter, K.; Zeigler, R. A.; Zolensky, M.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2016-01-01

    The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office (henceforth referred to herein as NASA Curation Office) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. Under the governing document, NASA Policy Directive (NPD) 7100.10E "Curation of Extraterrestrial Materials", JSC is charged with "...curation of all extra-terrestrial material under NASA control, including future NASA missions." The Directive goes on to define Curation as including "...documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach." Here we describe some of the past, present, and future activities of the NASA Curation Office.

  19. 78 FR 57847 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Environmental Impact Assessment of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... activity. Moreover, an operator needs to monitor key environmental indicators for an activity proceeding on... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Environmental Impact Assessment...

  20. 78 FR 64234 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Environmental Review Procedures for Entities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... Entities Assuming HUD Environmental Responsibilities AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD... Responsibilities. OMB Approval Number: 2506-0087. Type of Request: Revision of a currently approved collection..., ``Environmental Review Procedures for Entities Assuming HUD Environmental Responsibilities'' requires units...

  1. Methodological Issues of Sample Collection and Analysis of Exhaled Breath

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recommended standardized procedures have been developed for measurement of exhaled lower respiratory nitric oxide (NO) and nasal NO. It would be desirable to develop similar guidelines for the sampling of exhaled breath related to other compounds. For such systemic volatile o...

  2. Interlaboratory Comparison of Organically Bound Tritium Measurements in Environmental Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Workman, W.J.G.; Kim, S.B.; Kotzer, T.G.

    2005-07-15

    The measurement of organically bound tritium in environmental samples is essential for assessing the impact of tritium releases in terms of doses to the general public and a growing number of laboratories are now required to make them. Interlaboratory comparisons provide one way for laboratories to practice and check their analytical methods and procedures. At AECL's Chalk River Laboratories, two organic matrices with tritium concentrations less than 1.5 kBq/g were developed and distributed to seven laboratories in Canada, Europe and Russia for measurement. Some participants experienced difficulties in analysing the samples, especially with the lower concentrations, where results varied by more than an order of magnitude. Laboratories incorporating procedures such as rinsing to remove tritium from exchangeable sites, using standardized combustion methods and purifying the combustion water obtained more reliable, consistent results. The preparation of the standard reference material must be carefully executed in order to produce a homogeneous sample of uniform size. The tritium measurement community would benefit if standard reference materials in the environmental concentration range were available.

  3. Recovery and identification of Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) frustules from natural samples acquired using the environmental sample processor.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Holly A; Marin, Roman; Birch, James M; Scholin, Christopher A; Doucette, Gregory J

    2016-02-01

    Many species within the diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia are difficult to distinguish without applying molecular analytical or microscopy-based methods. DNA, antibody and lectin probes have previously been used to provide rapid and specific detection of species and strains in complex field assemblages. Recently, however, well-documented cryptic genetic diversity within the group has confounded results of DNA probe tests in particular. Moreover, the number of species descriptions within the genus continues to increase, as do insights into toxin production by both new and previously described species. Therefore, a combination of classical morphological techniques and modern molecular methodologies is needed to resolve ecophysiological traits of Pseudo-nitzschia species. Here, we present an approach to recover and identify frustules from sample collection filters used for toxin analysis onboard the Environmental Sample Processor (ESP), an in situ sample collection and analytical platform. This approach provides a new and powerful tool for correlating species presence with toxin detected remotely and in situ by the ESP, and has the potential to be applied broadly to other sampling configurations. This new technique will contribute to a better understanding of naturally occurring Pseudo-nitzschia community structure with respect to observed domoic acid outbreaks. PMID:26987095

  4. Groundwater environmental tracer data collected from the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers in Montgomery County and adjacent counties, Texas, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oden, Timothy D.

    2011-01-01

    The Gulf Coast aquifer system is the primary water supply for Montgomery County in southeastern Texas, including part of the Houston metropolitan area and the cities of Magnolia, Conroe, and The Woodlands Township, Texas. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Lone Star Groundwater Conservation District, collected environmental tracer data in the Gulf Coast aquifer system, primarily in Montgomery County. Forty existing groundwater wells screened in the Gulf Coast aquifer system were selected for sampling in Montgomery County (38 wells), Waller County (1 well), and Walker County (1 well). Groundwater-quality samples, physicochemical properties, and water-level data were collected once from each of the 40 wells during March-September 2008. Groundwater-quality samples were analyzed for dissolved gases and the environmental tracers sulfur hexafluoride, chlorofluorocarbons, tritium, helium-4, and helium-3/tritium. Water samples were collected and processed onsite using methods designed to minimize changes to the water-sample chemistry or contamination from the atmosphere. Replicate samples for quality assurance and quality control were collected with each environmental sample. Well-construction information and environmental tracer data for March-September 2008 are presented.

  5. Inherent variability in lead and copper collected during standardized sampling.

    PubMed

    Masters, Sheldon; Parks, Jeffrey; Atassi, Amrou; Edwards, Marc A

    2016-03-01

    Variability in the concentration of lead and copper sampled at consumers' taps poses challenges to assessing consumer health threats and the effectiveness of corrosion control. To examine the minimum variability that is practically achievable, standardized rigs with three lead and copper containing plumbing materials (leaded brass, copper tube with lead solder, and a lead copper connection) were deployed at five utilities and sampled with regimented protocols. Variability represented by relative standard deviation (RSD) in lead release was high in all cases. The brass had the lowest variability in lead release (RSD = 31 %) followed by copper-solder (RSD = 49%) and lead-copper (RSD = 80%). This high inherent variability is due to semi-random detachment of particulate lead to water, and represents a modern reality of water lead problems that should be explicitly acknowledged and considered in all aspects of exposure, public education, and monitoring. PMID:26896965

  6. Self-Collected versus Clinician-Collected Sampling for Chlamydia and Gonorrhea Screening: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lunny, Carole; Taylor, Darlene; Hoang, Linda; Wong, Tom; Gilbert, Mark; Lester, Richard; Krajden, Mel; Ogilvie, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Background The increases in STI rates since the late 1990s in Canada have occurred despite widespread primary care and targeted public health programs and in the setting of universal health care. More innovative interventions are required that would eliminate barriers to STI testing such as internet-based or mail-in home and community service testing for patients that are hard to reach, who refuse to go for clinician-based testing, or who decline an examination. Jurisdictions such as New Zealand and some American states currently use self-collected sampling, but without the required evidence to determine whether self-collected specimens are as accurate as clinician-collected specimens in terms of chlamydia and gonorrhea diagnostic accuracy. The objective of the review is to compare self-collected vaginal, urine, pharyngeal and rectal samples to our reference standard - clinician-collected cervical, urethral, pharyngeal and rectal sampling techniques to identify a positive specimen using nucleic acid amplification test assays. Methods The hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic and the fixed effect models were used to assess the accuracy of comparable specimens that were collected by patients compared to clinicians. Sensitivity and specificity estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported as our main outcome measures. Findings We included 21 studies based on over 6100 paired samples. Fourteen included studies examined chlamydia only, 6 compared both gonorrhea and chlamydia separately in the same study, and one examined gonorrhea. The six chlamydia studies comparing self-collection by vaginal swab to a clinician-collected cervical swab had the highest sensitivity (92%, 95% CI 87-95) and specificity (98%, 95% CI 97-99), compared to other specimen-types (urine/urethra or urine/cervix). Six studies compared urine self-samples to urethra clinician-collected samples in males and produced a sensitivity of 88% (95% CI 83-93) and a specificity of

  7. Extravehicular Activity Asteroid Exploration and Sample Collection Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipila, Stephanie A.; Scoville, Zebulon C.; Bowie, Jonathan T.; Buffington, Jesse A.

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenging primary objectives associated with NASA's Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) is to demonstrate deep space Extravehicular Activity (EVA) and tools and to obtain asteroid samples to return to Earth for further study. Prior Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) spacewalks have benefited from engineered EVA interfaces which have been designed and manufactured on Earth. Rigid structurally mounted handrails, and tools with customized interfaces and restraints optimize EVA performance. For ARCM, EVA complexity increases due to the uncertainty of the asteroid properties. The variability of rock size, shape and composition, as well as behavior of the asteroid capture mechanism will complicate EVA translation, tool restraint, and body stabilization. The unknown asteroid hardness and brittleness will complicate tool use. The rock surface will introduce added safety concerns for cut gloves and debris control. Feasible solutions to meet ARCM EVA objectives were identified using experience gained during Apollo, Shuttle, and ISS EVAs, terrestrial mountaineering practices, NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) 16 mission, and during Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory testing in the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES) suit. This paper will summarize the overall operational concepts for conducting EVAs for the ARCM mission including translation paths and body restraint methods, potential tools used to extract the samples, design implications for the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV) for EVA, and the results of early development testing of potential EVA tasks.

  8. 40 CFR 761.283 - Determination of the number of samples to collect and sample collection locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-Implementing Cleanup and On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With... locations for bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces destined to remain at a cleanup site after cleanup. (a) Minimum number of samples. (1) At each separate cleanup site at a PCB remediation...

  9. 40 CFR 761.283 - Determination of the number of samples to collect and sample collection locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Implementing Cleanup and On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With... locations for bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces destined to remain at a cleanup site after cleanup. (a) Minimum number of samples. (1) At each separate cleanup site at a PCB remediation...

  10. 40 CFR 761.283 - Determination of the number of samples to collect and sample collection locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Implementing Cleanup and On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With... locations for bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces destined to remain at a cleanup site after cleanup. (a) Minimum number of samples. (1) At each separate cleanup site at a PCB remediation...

  11. 40 CFR 761.283 - Determination of the number of samples to collect and sample collection locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Implementing Cleanup and On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With... locations for bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces destined to remain at a cleanup site after cleanup. (a) Minimum number of samples. (1) At each separate cleanup site at a PCB remediation...

  12. 40 CFR 761.283 - Determination of the number of samples to collect and sample collection locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Implementing Cleanup and On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With... locations for bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces destined to remain at a cleanup site after cleanup. (a) Minimum number of samples. (1) At each separate cleanup site at a PCB remediation...

  13. An Environmentally Friendly, Cost-Effective Determination of Lead in Environmental Samples Using Anodic Stripping Voltammetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldcamp, Michael J.; Underwood, Melinda N.; Cloud, Joshua L.; Harshman, Sean

    2008-01-01

    Contamination of the environment with heavy metals such as lead presents many health risks. Simple, effective, and field-portable methods for the measurement of toxic metals in environmental samples are vital tools for evaluating the risks that these contaminants pose. This article describes the use of new developments in anodic stripping…

  14. Improvements of reliability for methylmercury determination in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dan-Yi; Truong, Hoang-Yen Thi; Chen, Yu-Wei; Belzile, Nelson

    2009-02-01

    The determination of methylmercury (MeHg) in environmental samples by ethylation derivation-gas chromatography-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (ED-GC-AFS) is associated with an intimate problem of water moisture accumulation introduced in the ethylation step, which enters the detection system and cause a spectroscopic interference. With a simple modification on the GC-AFS system, this problem was eliminated and the analytical quality of the measurements was significantly improved. The presence of dissolved sulfide in samples can also cause serious chemical interference in the ethylation step resulting in lower or total loss of the MeHg signal. It was found that a masking system of CuSO(4)-Na(2)C(2)O(4) was able to eliminate this interference. With this system, the accurate determination of trace amount of MeHg in high dissolved sulfide containing samples was achieved. Satisfactory analytical results were obtained with the certified reference sediment IAEA405, sulfate reducing bacteria culture and sulfide containing water samples. The limit of detection and quantitation of this masking system is 0.01 and 0.04ngL(-1) respectively. Other factors affecting ethylation are also discussed. PMID:19166718

  15. ANALYSIS OF ACID PRECIPITATION SAMPLES COLLECTED BY STATE AGENCIES--SAMPLING PERIOD JAN 1988 - DEC 1988

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents analytical data from the 30 acid precipitation collection sites in the State-operated Network. amples are collected weekly in plastic bag liners and shipped in 500 mL polyethylene bottles to Global Geochemistry Corporation (the central laboratory for the netw...

  16. ANALYSIS OF ACID PRECIPITATION SAMPLES COLLECTED BY STATE AGENCIES SAMPLING PERIOD JANUARY 1990 - DECEMBER 1990

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents analytical data from the 30 acid precipitation collection sites in the State-Operated Network. amples are collected weekly in plastic bag liners and shipped in 500 mL polyethylene bottles to Global Geochemistry Corporation (the central laboratory for the netw...

  17. ANALYSIS OF ACID PRECIPITATION SAMPLES COLLECTED BY STATE AGENCIES SAMPLING PERIOD: JANUARY 1992 - DECEMBER 1992

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents analytical data from 30 acid precipitation collection sites in the State-Operated Network. amples are collected weekly in plastic bag bucket liners and shipped in 500 mL polyethylene bottled to Global Geochemistry Corporation, the central laboratory for the n...

  18. Quantum dot conjugates as labels for bacteria in environmental samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, Jay; Neal, Andrea; Holden, Patricia; Mielke, Randall

    Quantum dots (fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals, QDs) have optical and physical properties that make them superior to fluorescent dyes for detection of microorganisms in environmental samples, especially in the field or in flight instruments where optical instrumentation is limited. They are extremely bright, providing a significant fluorescent signal even upon excitation with low-power LEDs. Their absorbance is broad, but their emission spectra are narrow, allowing for many colours to be excited with a single light source and the resulting emission to be readily deconvolved without output filters. They are both fluorescent and electron-dense, permitting them to be used for both fluorescence and electron microscopy. They are resistant to electron radiation and the oxidants most likely to be found on Mars. The challenge for their use in a potential wet-chemistry instrument is two-fold: first, to coat them with specific organic ligands for targeting bacteria in a non-Earth-centric fashion. Second, to ensure their stability during transport and determine potential false-positive results that may arise due to environmental conditions. We present some results on labelling of biofilm samples from the Canadian High Arctic, and some future plans for improvement of labelling techniques and targets that will address the goals of near-term Mars missions.

  19. Actinide determination and analytical support for characterization of environmental samples

    SciTech Connect

    Rokop, D.J.; Efurd, D.W.; Perrin, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Clean chemical and Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) procedures have been developed to permit the determination of environmental actinide element concentrations and isotopic signatures. The isotopic signatures help identify element origin and separate naturally occurring or background contributions from local anthropogenic sources. Typical sample sizes for processing are 2 liters of water, 1--10 grams of sediment, and 1--20 grams of soil. Measurement limits for Pu, Am, and Np are < 1 {times} 18{sup 8} atoms, and for U are < 2.5 {times} 10{sup 12} atoms. For isotopic signatures, < 5 {times} 10{sup 8} atoms of Pu, Am, and Np are necessary, and 8 {times} 10{sup 12} atoms of U are required. Of potential interest to the IAEA is the incorporation of these techniques into their Safeguards Analytical Laboratory for environmental sampling. Studies made of surface waters, sediments and soils from the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Colorado, US, are used as examples of this methodology. These studies showed that, although plant boundary actinide concentrations approached, on the downstream side, natural or background levels, isotopic signatures characteristic of plant operations were still discernible.

  20. Development of a multicopter-carried whole air sampling apparatus and its applications in environmental studies.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Chung; Wang, Jia-Lin; Chang, Chih-Yuan; Liang, Mao-Chang; Lin, Ming-Ren

    2016-02-01

    To advance the capabilities of probing chemical composition aloft, we designed a lightweight remote-controlled whole air sampling component (WASC) and integrated it into a multicopter drone with agile maneuverability to perform aerial whole air sampling. A field mission hovering over an exhaust shaft of a roadway tunnel to collect air samples was performed to demonstrate the applicability of the multicopter-carried WASC apparatus. Ten aerial air samples surrounding the shaft vent were collected by the multicopter-carried WASC. Additional five samples were collected manually inside the shaft for comparison. These samples were then analyzed in the laboratory for the chemical composition of 109 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CH4, CO, CO2, or CO2 isotopologues. Most of the VOCs in the upwind samples (the least affected by shaft exhaust) were low in concentrations (5.9 ppbv for total 109 VOCs), posting a strong contrast to those in the shaft exhaust (235.8 ppbv for total 109 VOCs). By comparing the aerial samples with the in-shaft samples for chemical compositions, the influence of the shaft exhaust on the surrounding natural air was estimated. Through the aerial measurements, three major advantages of the multicopter-carried WASC were demonstrated: 1. The highly maneuverable multicopter-carried WASC can be readily deployed for three-dimensional environmental studies at a local scale (0-1.5 km); 2. Aerial sampling with superior sample integrity and preservation conditions can now be performed with ease; and 3. Data with spatial resolution for a large array of gaseous species with high precision can be easily obtained. PMID:26386435

  1. Lessons from the Navajo: Assistance with Environmental Data Collection Ensures Cultural Humility and Data Relevance

    PubMed Central

    deLemos, Jamie; Rock, Tommy; Brugge, Doug; Slagowski, Naomi; Manning, Thomas; Lewis, Johnnye

    2008-01-01

    Background The Navajo Nation suffers from a legacy of environmental pollution from historical uranium mining activities, resulting in adverse public health outcomes and continuous exposure. Objective Partner with a Navajo graduate student and community members in a field campaign to characterize the spatial distribution and geochemistry of uranium for a multipathway uranium exposure assessment under development by the Dine Network for Environmental Health (DiNEH) project. Methods Attend community meetings, acquire Navajo language skills, and integrate local knowledge into sampling approach of sediment, water, and vegetation. Results Navajo participation (1) helped to foster trust in research efforts during community interactions, (2) taught aspects of Navajo culture and language to maintain positive and respectful relations, and (3) conveyed information on Navajo culture that would impact sampling strategies. Conclusions Community engagement helps to sustain equitable partnerships and aids in culturally appropriate, relevant data collection. PMID:19655034

  2. Environmental DNA sampling protocol - filtering water to capture DNA from aquatic organisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laramie, Matthew B.; Pilliod, David S.; Goldberg, Caren S.; Strickler, Katherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis is an effective method of determining the presence of aquatic organisms such as fish, amphibians, and other taxa. This publication is meant to guide researchers and managers in the collection, concentration, and preservation of eDNA samples from lentic and lotic systems. A sampling workflow diagram and three sampling protocols are included as well as a list of suggested supplies. Protocols include filter and pump assembly using: (1) a hand-driven vacuum pump, ideal for sample collection in remote sampling locations where no electricity is available and when equipment weight is a primary concern; (2) a peristaltic pump powered by a rechargeable battery-operated driver/drill, suitable for remote sampling locations when weight consideration is less of a concern; (3) a 120-volt alternating current (AC) powered peristaltic pump suitable for any location where 120-volt AC power is accessible, or for roadside sampling locations. Images and detailed descriptions are provided for each step in the sampling and preservation process.

  3. Collection and analysis of NASA clean room air samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, L. S.; Keever, J.

    1985-01-01

    The environment of the HALOE assembly clean room at NASA Langley Research Center is analyzed to determine the background levels of airborne organic compounds. Sampling is accomplished by pumping the clean room air through absorbing cartridges. For volatile organics, cartridges are thermally desorbed and then analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, compounds are identified by searching the EPA/NIH data base using an interactive operator INCOS computer search algorithm. For semivolatile organics, cartridges are solvent entracted and concentrated extracts are analyzed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection, compound identification is made by matching gas chromatogram retention times with known standards. The detection limits for the semivolatile organics are; 0.89 ng cu m for dioctylphlhalate (DOP) and 1.6 ng cu m for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). The detection limit for volatile organics ranges from 1 to 50 parts per trillion. Only trace quantities of organics are detected, the DOP levels do not exceed 2.5 ng cu m and the PCB levels do not exceed 454 ng cu m.

  4. Ectomycorrhizal identification in environmental samples of tree roots by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Pena, Rodica; Lang, Christa; Naumann, Annette; Polle, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Roots of forest trees are associated with various ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal species that are involved in nutrient exchange between host plant and the soil compartment. The identification of ECM fungi in small environmental samples is difficult. The present study tested the feasibility of attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy followed by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) to discriminate in situ collected ECM fungal species. Root tips colonized by distinct ECM fungal species, i.e., Amanita rubescens, Cenococcum geophilum, Lactarius subdulcis, Russula ochroleuca, and Xerocomus pruinatus were collected in mono-specific beech (Fagus sylvatica) and mixed deciduous forests in different geographic areas to investigate the environmental variability of the ECM FTIR signatures. A clear HCA discrimination was obtained for ECM fungal species independent of individual provenance. Environmental variability neither limited the discrimination between fungal species nor provided sufficient resolution to discern species sub-clusters for different sites. However, the de-convoluted FTIR spectra contained site-related spectral information for fungi with wide nutrient ranges, but not for Lactarius subdulcis, a fungus residing only in the litter layer. Specific markers for distinct ECM were identified in spectral regions associated with carbohydrates (i.e., mannans), lipids, and secondary protein structures. The present results support that FTIR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis is a reliable and fast method to identify ECM fungal species in minute environmental samples. Moreover, our data suggest that the FTIR spectral signatures contain information on physiological and functional traits of ECM fungi. PMID:24904624

  5. 40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6... PCB remediation waste or porous surfaces, collect at least 20 milliliters of waste, or a portion...

  6. 40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6... PCB remediation waste or porous surfaces, collect at least 20 milliliters of waste, or a portion...

  7. 40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6... PCB remediation waste or porous surfaces, collect at least 20 milliliters of waste, or a portion...

  8. 40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6... PCB remediation waste or porous surfaces, collect at least 20 milliliters of waste, or a portion...

  9. 40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6... PCB remediation waste or porous surfaces, collect at least 20 milliliters of waste, or a portion...

  10. [DOE method for evaluating environmental and waste management samples: Revision 1, Addendum 1

    SciTech Connect

    Goheen, S.C.

    1995-04-01

    The US Dapartment of Energy`s (DOE`s) environmental and waste management (EM) sampling and analysis activities require that large numbers of samples be analyzed for materials characterization, environmental surveillance, and site-remediation programs. The present document, DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods), is a supplemental resource for analyzing many of these samples.

  11. Data for periphyton and water samples collected from the south Florida ecosystem, 1995 and 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simon, N.S.; Cox, T.; Spencer, R.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents data for samples of periphyton and water collected in 1995 and 1996 from Water Conservation Areas, the Big Cypress National Preserve, and the Everglades National Park in south Florida. Periphyton samples were analyzed for concentrations of total mercury, methyl mercury, nitrogen, phosphorus, organic carbon, and inorganic carbon . Water-column samples collected on the same dates as the periphyton samples were analyzed for concentrations of major ions.

  12. Environmental variables associated with immature stage habitats of culicidae collected in aboriginal villages in Pahang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ali, Wan Najdah Wan Mohamad; Ahmad, Rohani; Nor, Zurainee Mohamed; Ismail, Zamree; Ibrahim, Mohd Noor; Hadi, Azahari Abdul; Hassan, Rahimi; Lim, Lee Han

    2012-11-01

    Many of the most widely spread vector-borne diseases are water related, in that the mosquito vectors concerned breed or pass part of their lifecycle in or close to water. A major reason for the study of mosquito larval ecology is to gather information on environmental variables that may determine the species of mosquitoes and the distribution of larvae in the breeding habitats. Larval surveillance studies were conducted six times between May 2008 and October 2009 in Pos Lenjang, Kuala Lipis, Pahang. Twelve environmental variables were recorded for each sampling site, and samples of mosquito larvae were collected. Larval survey studies showed that anopheline and culicine larvae were collected from 79 and 67 breeding sites, respectively. All breeding sites were classified into nine habitat groups. Culicine larvae were found in all habitat groups, suggesting that they are very versatile and highly adaptable to different types of environment. Rock pools or water pockets with clear water formed on the bank of rivers and waterfalls were the most common habitats associated with An. maculatus. Environmental variables influence the suitability of aquatic habitats for anopheline and culicine larvae, but not significantly associated with the occurrence of both larvae genera (p>0.05). This study provides information on mosquito ecology in relation to breeding habitats that will be useful in designing and implementing larval control operations. PMID:23413702

  13. PCR for detection of Clostridium botulinum type C in avian and environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Franciosa, G; Fenicia, L; Caldiani, C; Aureli, P

    1996-04-01

    A PCR was developed and applied for the detection of Clostridium botulinum type C in 18 avian and environmental samples collected during an outbreak of avian botulism, and the results were compared with those obtained by conventional methodologies based on the mouse bioassay. PCR and mouse bioassay results compared well (100%) after the enrichment of samples, but PCR results directly indicated the presence of this microorganism in six samples, while only one of these contained the type C botulinal neurotoxin before enrichment. The PCR assay was sensitive (limit of detection between 15 and 15 x 10(3) spores per PCR), specific (no amplification products were obtained with other clostridia), and rapid, since sonicated and heated samples provided enough template for amplification without any DNA purification. Eleven isolates of C. botulinum type C were recovered from mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), grey herons (Ardea cinerea), and mud during investigation of this outbreak. PMID:8815101

  14. PCR for detection of Clostridium botulinum type C in avian and environmental samples.

    PubMed Central

    Franciosa, G; Fenicia, L; Caldiani, C; Aureli, P

    1996-01-01

    A PCR was developed and applied for the detection of Clostridium botulinum type C in 18 avian and environmental samples collected during an outbreak of avian botulism, and the results were compared with those obtained by conventional methodologies based on the mouse bioassay. PCR and mouse bioassay results compared well (100%) after the enrichment of samples, but PCR results directly indicated the presence of this microorganism in six samples, while only one of these contained the type C botulinal neurotoxin before enrichment. The PCR assay was sensitive (limit of detection between 15 and 15 x 10(3) spores per PCR), specific (no amplification products were obtained with other clostridia), and rapid, since sonicated and heated samples provided enough template for amplification without any DNA purification. Eleven isolates of C. botulinum type C were recovered from mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), grey herons (Ardea cinerea), and mud during investigation of this outbreak. PMID:8815101

  15. Enzymatic electrochemical detection coupled to multivariate calibration for the determination of phenolic compounds in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Silvia R; Kergaravat, Silvina V; Pividori, Maria Isabel

    2013-03-15

    An approach based on the electrochemical detection of the horseradish peroxidase enzymatic reaction by means of square wave voltammetry was developed for the determination of phenolic compounds in environmental samples. First, a systematic optimization procedure of three factors involved in the enzymatic reaction was carried out using response surface methodology through a central composite design. Second, the enzymatic electrochemical detection coupled with a multivariate calibration method based in the partial least-squares technique was optimized for the determination of a mixture of five phenolic compounds, i.e. phenol, p-aminophenol, p-chlorophenol, hydroquinone and pyrocatechol. The calibration and validation sets were built and assessed. In the calibration model, the LODs for phenolic compounds oscillated from 0.6 to 1.4 × 10(-6) mol L(-1). Recoveries for prediction samples were higher than 85%. These compounds were analyzed simultaneously in spiked samples and in water samples collected close to tanneries and landfills. PMID:23598144

  16. Handbook: Collecting Groundwater Samples from Monitoring Wells in Frenchman Flat, CAU 98

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Jenny; Lyles, Brad; Cooper, Clay; Hershey, Ron; Healey, John

    2015-06-01

    Frenchman Flat basin on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) contains Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 98, which is comprised of ten underground nuclear test locations. Environmental management of these test locations is part of the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996, as amended) with the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and the State of Nevada. A Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been approved for CAU 98 (DOE, 2011). The CADD/CAP reports on the Corrective Action Investigation that was conducted for the CAU, which included characterization and modeling. It also presents the recommended corrective actions to address the objective of protecting human health and the environment. The recommended corrective action alternative is “Closure in Place with Modeling, Monitoring, and Institutional Controls.” The role of monitoring is to verify that Contaminants of Concern (COCs) have not exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) limits (Code of Federal Regulations, 2014) at the regulatory boundary, to ensure that institutional controls are adequate, and to monitor for changed conditions that could affect the closure conditions. The long-term closure monitoring program will be planned and implemented as part of the Closure Report stage after activities specified in the CADD/CAP are complete. Groundwater at the NNSS has been monitored for decades through a variety of programs. Current activities were recently consolidated in an NNSS Integrated Sampling Plan (DOE, 2014). Although monitoring directed by the plan is not intended to meet the FFACO long-term monitoring requirements for a CAU (which will be defined in the Closure Report), the objective to ensure public health protection is similar. It is expected that data collected in accordance with the plan will support the transition to long-term monitoring at each

  17. New quantitative detection of pathogens in heterogeneous environmental samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eun-Hee; Wang, Xiaofang; Mitchell, Kristi; Chae, Seon-Ha; Son, Ahjeong

    2015-04-01

    Quantum dots and magnetic beads based genomic assay (NanoGene assay) has been developed for sensitive and inhibition resistant gene quantification to achieve in-situ bacteria monitoring in environmental samples. In this study, eaeA gene of pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 was quantified. The result demonstrated the excellent sensitivity (i.e., limit of detection: 87 gene copies for dsDNA and 890 zeptomolar for ssDNA) in the presence of nonspecific microbial populations (Kim et al., 2010; 2011a). The feasibility of the developed gene quantification for non-laboratory environment usage (in-situ use) was investigated. Therefore, DNA hybridization was achieved at ambient temperature and minimum agitation, and the analysis was completed within hours. Most importantly, the NanoGene assay demonstrated the resistance to the presence of naturally occurring inhibitors (humic acids, cations) and residual reagents (surfactants, alcohols) from DNA extraction (Kim et al., 2011b). The assay was also applied to humic acids laden soils (7 types of soils with various amount of organic matters) and successfully quantified 105 to 108 CFU of E. coli O157:H7 per gram soil (R2 = 0.99). The results indicate that the presented NanoGene assay is suitable for further development as an in-situ bacteria monitoring method for working with heterogeneous environmental samples (Wang et al., 2013). Another aspect of the method is to transform the NanoGene assay into a portable device that can be used as a pathogenic bacteria detector in environment. The project consisted of the first inline fluidic components development and characterization as well as the first integration effort on a briefcase platform for the in-situ pathogen detection system (IPDS) (Mitchell et al., 2014). Our long term vision is to further miniaturize the briefcase platform implementation of the IPDS and to commercialize the handheld version of the IPDS.

  18. Environmental sampling and analysis as a safeguards tool

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, R.W.; Wogman, N.A.; Holdren, G.R.

    1994-03-01

    Environmental sampling and radionuclide analysis of the resulting material can be utilized as a supplemental approach in safeguarding practices and particularly for detection of undeclared nuclear activities. The production of nuclear weapons could be pursued by uranium enrichment processes to produce highly enriched U-235 or by nuclear reactor operations followed by chemical separations to produce Pu-239. The application of either of these processes results in the production of signature materials, some of which will be released to the environs. Results from the operations of the Hanford production facilities are discussed and indicate the type of signatures that may be expected from plutonium production facilities. These include noble gas emissions from the reactors and chemical separations processes, the production of radionuclides in reactor cooling water followed by their subsequent release to the Columbia River, and the release of mildly contaminated process water from the chemical processing facilities. These signature materials are carried by both gaseous and liqid effluents and enter various compartments of the environment. The types of signature materials which are most likely to be accumulated are discussed, together with examples of the quantities which have been released during past separations. There are numerous processes by which natural uranium may be enriched to produce highly enriched U-235. The most definitive signature of such processes is always a modification in uranium isotope ratios, and materials showing either enriched or depleted uranium in gaseous and liquid effluents provide the best indication that uramium enrichment processes are taking place. Therefore, techniques for sampling and analysis of airborne, waterborne, or deposited uranium in environmental matrices provide a means of detecting uranium enrichment which may lead to proliferation products.

  19. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in tie-stall dairy herds using a standardized environmental sampling technique and targeted pooled samples.

    PubMed

    Arango-Sabogal, Juan C; Côté, Geneviève; Paré, Julie; Labrecque, Olivia; Roy, Jean-Philippe; Buczinski, Sébastien; Doré, Elizabeth; Fairbrother, Julie H; Bissonnette, Nathalie; Wellemans, Vincent; Fecteau, Gilles

    2016-07-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of Johne's disease, a chronic contagious enteritis of ruminants that causes major economic losses. Several studies, most involving large free-stall herds, have found environmental sampling to be a suitable method for detecting MAP-infected herds. In eastern Canada, where small tie-stall herds are predominant, certain conditions and management practices may influence the survival and transmission of MAP and recovery (isolation). Our objective was to estimate the performance of a standardized environmental and targeted pooled sampling technique for the detection of MAP-infected tie-stall dairy herds. Twenty-four farms (19 MAP-infected and 5 non-infected) were enrolled, but only 20 were visited twice in the same year, to collect 7 environmental samples and 2 pooled samples (sick cows and cows with poor body condition). Concurrent individual sampling of all adult cows in the herds was also carried out. Isolation of MAP was achieved using the MGIT Para TB culture media and the BACTEC 960 detection system. Overall, MAP was isolated in 7% of the environmental cultures. The sensitivity of the environmental culture was 44% [95% confidence interval (CI): 20% to 70%] when combining results from 2 different herd visits and 32% (95% CI: 13% to 57%) when results from only 1 random herd visit were used. The best sampling strategy was to combine samples from the manure pit, gutter, sick cows, and cows with poor body condition. The standardized environmental sampling technique and the targeted pooled samples presented in this study is an alternative sampling strategy to costly individual cultures for detecting MAP-infected tie-stall dairies. Repeated samplings may improve the detection of MAP-infected herds. PMID:27408329

  20. Forensic source differentiation of petrogenic, pyrogenic, and biogenic hydrocarbons in Canadian oil sands environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhendi; Yang, C; Parrott, J L; Frank, R A; Yang, Z; Brown, C E; Hollebone, B P; Landriault, M; Fieldhouse, B; Liu, Y; Zhang, G; Hewitt, L M

    2014-04-30

    To facilitate monitoring efforts, a forensic chemical fingerprinting methodology has been applied to characterize and differentiate pyrogenic (combustion derived) and biogenic (organism derived) hydrocarbons from petrogenic (petroleum derived) hydrocarbons in environmental samples from the Canadian oil sands region. Between 2009 and 2012, hundreds of oil sands environmental samples including water (snowmelt water, river water, and tailings pond water) and sediments (from river beds and tailings ponds) have been analyzed. These samples were taken from sites where assessments of wild fish health, invertebrate communities, toxicology and detailed chemistry are being conducted as part of the Canada-Alberta Joint Oil Sands Monitoring Plan (JOSMP). This study describes the distribution patterns and potential sources of PAHs from these integrated JOSMP study sites, and findings will be linked to responses in laboratory bioassays and in wild organisms collected from these same sites. It was determined that hydrocarbons in Athabasca River sediments and waters were most likely from four sources: (1) petrogenic heavy oil sands bitumen; (2) biogenic compounds; (3) petrogenic hydrocarbons of other lighter fuel oils; and (4) pyrogenic PAHs. PAHs and biomarkers detected in snowmelt water samples collected near mining operations imply that these materials are derived from oil sands particulates (from open pit mines, stacks and coke piles). PMID:24632369

  1. The use of Vacutainer tubes for collection of soil samples for helium analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, Margaret E.; Kilburn, James E.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements of the helium concentration of soil samples collected and stored in Vacutainer-brand evacuated glass tubes show that Vacutainers are reliable containers for soil collection. Within the limits of reproducibility, helium content of soils appears to be independent of variations in soil temperature, barometric pressure, and quantity of soil moisture present in the sample.

  2. 21 CFR 111.80 - What representative samples must you collect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What representative samples must you collect? 111.80 Section 111.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Process Control System § 111.80 What representative samples must you collect? The representative...

  3. Collecting cometary soil samples? Development of the ROSETTA sample acquisition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coste, P. A.; Fenzi, M.; Eiden, Michael

    1993-01-01

    In the reference scenario of the ROSETTA CNRS mission, the Sample Acquisition System is mounted on the Comet Lander. Its tasks are to acquire three kinds of cometary samples and to transfer them to the Earth Return Capsule. Operations are to be performed in vacuum and microgravity, on a probably rough and dusty surface, in a largely unknown material, at temperatures in the order of 100 K. The concept and operation of the Sample Acquisition System are presented. The design of the prototype corer and surface sampling tool, and of the equipment for testing them at cryogenic temperatures in ambient conditions and in vacuum in various materials representing cometary soil, are described. Results of recent preliminary tests performed in low temperature thermal vacuum in a cometary analog ice-dust mixture are provided.

  4. Guidelines for collection and field analysis of ground-water samples for selected unstable constituents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Warren W.

    1976-01-01

    The unstable nature of many chemical and physical constituents in ground water requires special collection procedures and field analysis immediately after collection. This report describes the techniques and equipment commonly used m the collection and field analysis of samples for pH, temperature, carbonate, bicarbonate, specific conductance, Eh, and dissolved oxygen.

  5. Collection and analysis of environmental radiation data using a desktop computer

    SciTech Connect

    Gogolak, C V

    1982-04-01

    A portable instrumentation sytem using a Hewlett-Packard HP-9825 desktop computer for the collection and analysis of environmental radiation data is described. Procedures for the transmission of data between the HP-9825 and various nuclear counters are given together with a description of the necessary hardware and software. Complete programs for the analysis of Ge(Li) and NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectra, high pressure ionization chamber monitor data, /sup 86/Kr monitor data and air filter sample alpha particle activity measurements are presented. Some utility programs, intended to increase system flexibility, are included.

  6. Technical Note: New methodology for measuring viscosities in small volumes characteristic of environmental chamber particle samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renbaum-Wolff, L.; Grayson, J. W.; Bertram, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    Herein, a method for the determination of viscosities of small sample volumes is introduced, with important implications for the viscosity determination of particle samples from environmental chambers (used to simulate atmospheric conditions). The amount of sample needed is < 1 μl, and the technique is capable of determining viscosities (η) ranging between 10-3 and 103 Pascal seconds (Pa s) in samples that cover a range of chemical properties and with real-time relative humidity and temperature control; hence, the technique should be well-suited for determining the viscosities, under atmospherically relevant conditions, of particles collected from environmental chambers. In this technique, supermicron particles are first deposited on an inert hydrophobic substrate. Then, insoluble beads (~1 μm in diameter) are embedded in the particles. Next, a flow of gas is introduced over the particles, which generates a shear stress on the particle surfaces. The sample responds to this shear stress by generating internal circulations, which are quantified with an optical microscope by monitoring the movement of the beads. The rate of internal circulation is shown to be a function of particle viscosity but independent of the particle material for a wide range of organic and organic-water samples. A calibration curve is constructed from the experimental data that relates the rate of internal circulation to particle viscosity, and this calibration curve is successfully used to predict viscosities in multicomponent organic mixtures.

  7. Technical Note: New methodology for measuring viscosities in small volumes characteristic of environmental chamber particle samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renbaum-Wolff, L.; Grayson, J. W.; Bertram, A. K.

    2012-10-01

    Herein, a method for the determination of viscosities of small sample volumes is introduced, with important implications for the viscosity determination of particle samples from environmental chambers (used to simulate atmospheric conditions). The amount of sample needed is < 1 μl, and the technique is capable of determining viscosities (η) ranging between 10-3 and 103 Pascal seconds (Pa s) in samples that cover a range of chemical properties and with real-time relative humidity and temperature control; hence, the technique should be well-suited for determining the viscosities, under atmospherically relevant conditions, of particles collected from environmental chambers. In this technique, supermicron particles are first deposited on an inert hydrophobic substrate. Then, insoluble beads (~1 μm in diameter) are embedded in the particles. Next, a flow of gas is introduced over the particles, which generates a shear stress on the particle surfaces. The sample responds to this shear stress by generating internal circulations, which are quantified with an optical microscope by monitoring the movement of the beads. The rate of internal circulation is shown to be a function of particle viscosity but independent of the particle material for a wide range of organic and organic-water samples. A calibration curve is constructed from the experimental data that relates the rate of internal circulation to particle viscosity, and this calibration curve is successfully used to predict viscosities in multicomponent organic mixtures.

  8. Multiplex PCR for detection of botulinum neurotoxin-producing clostridia in clinical, food, and environmental samples.

    PubMed

    De Medici, Dario; Anniballi, Fabrizio; Wyatt, Gary M; Lindström, Miia; Messelhäusser, Ute; Aldus, Clare F; Delibato, Elisabetta; Korkeala, Hannu; Peck, Michael W; Fenicia, Lucia

    2009-10-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), the most toxic substance known, is produced by the spore-forming bacterium Clostridium botulinum and, in rare cases, also by some strains of Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium baratii. The standard procedure for definitive detection of BoNT-producing clostridia is a culture method combined with neurotoxin detection using a standard mouse bioassay (SMB). The SMB is highly sensitive and specific, but it is expensive and time-consuming and there are ethical concerns due to use of laboratory animals. PCR provides a rapid alternative for initial screening for BoNT-producing clostridia. In this study, a previously described multiplex PCR assay was modified to detect all type A, B, E, and F neurotoxin genes in isolated strains and in clinical, food, environmental samples. This assay includes an internal amplification control. The effectiveness of the multiplex PCR method for detecting clostridia possessing type A, B, E, and F neurotoxin genes was evaluated by direct comparison with the SMB. This method showed 100% inclusivity and 100% exclusivity when 182 BoNT-producing clostridia and 21 other bacterial strains were used. The relative accuracy of the multiplex PCR and SMB was evaluated using 532 clinical, food, and environmental samples and was estimated to be 99.2%. The multiplex PCR was also used to investigate 110 freshly collected food and environmental samples, and 4 of the 110 samples (3.6%) were positive for BoNT-encoding genes. PMID:19684163

  9. Detection of the Antimicrobial Triclosan in Environmental Samples by Immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Ki Chang; Ranganathan, Anupama; Bever, Candace S; Hwang, Sung Hee; Holland, Erika B; Morisseau, Kevin; Pessah, Isaac N; Hammock, Bruce D; Gee, Shirley J

    2016-04-01

    A sensitive, competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of the antimicrobial triclosan (TCS; 2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxydiphenyl ether) was developed. Novel immunizing haptens were synthesized by derivatizing at the 4-Cl position of the TCS molecule. Compounds derived from substitutions at 4'-Cl and that replaced the 2'-OH with a Cl atom were designed as unique coating antigen haptens. Polyclonal rabbit antisera were screened against the coating antigen library to identify combinations of immunoreagents resulting in the most sensitive assays. The most sensitive assay identified was one utilizing antiserum no. 1155 and a heterologous competitive hapten, where the 2'-OH group was substituted with a Cl atom. An IC50 value and the detection range for TCS in assay buffer were 1.19 and 0.21-6.71 μg/L, respectively. The assay was selective for TCS, providing low cross-reactivity (<5%) to the major metabolites of TCS and to brominated diphenyl ether-47. A second assay utilizing a competitive hapten containing Br instead of Cl substitutions was broadly selective for both brominated and chlorinated diphenylethers. Using the most sensitive assay combination, we measured TCS concentrations in water samples following dilution. Biosolid samples were analyzed following the dilution of a simple solvent extract. The immunoassay results were similar to those determined by LC-MS/MS. This immunoassay can be used as a rapid and convenient tool to screen for human and environmental exposure. PMID:26937944

  10. Analyses of native water, core material, and elutriate samples collected from the Atchafalaya River and Atchafalaya Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demas, Charles R.

    1977-01-01

    During October and November 1976 the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, collected native water and core material from 14 sites along the Atchafalya River in Louisiana (from the head of Whiskey Bay Pilot Channel to American Pass) and 5 sites in Atchafalya Bay for evaluation of possible environmental effects of a proposed channel-enlargement project. Core material from all river sites and one bay site was collected to a depth of 50 feet (15 meters). At the remaining bay sites, samples were collected to a depth of less than 6 inches (15 centimeters) using a pipe dredge. Core material and native water were analyzed (separately and as elutriate samples prepared from mixtures) for selected metals, nutrients, organic compounds, and physical characteristics. No interpretation of the data is given. (Woodard-USGS)

  11. Adaptive Sampling-Based Information Collection for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaobin; Zhao, Fang; Wang, Wendong; Tian, Hui

    2016-01-01

    To collect important health information, WBAN applications typically sense data at a high frequency. However, limited by the quality of wireless link, the uploading of sensed data has an upper frequency. To reduce upload frequency, most of the existing WBAN data collection approaches collect data with a tolerable error. These approaches can guarantee precision of the collected data, but they are not able to ensure that the upload frequency is within the upper frequency. Some traditional sampling based approaches can control upload frequency directly, however, they usually have a high loss of information. Since the core task of WBAN applications is to collect health information, this paper aims to collect optimized information under the limitation of upload frequency. The importance of sensed data is defined according to information theory for the first time. Information-aware adaptive sampling is proposed to collect uniformly distributed data. Then we propose Adaptive Sampling-based Information Collection (ASIC) which consists of two algorithms. An adaptive sampling probability algorithm is proposed to compute sampling probabilities of different sensed values. A multiple uniform sampling algorithm provides uniform samplings for values in different intervals. Experiments based on a real dataset show that the proposed approach has higher performance in terms of data coverage and information quantity. The parameter analysis shows the optimized parameter settings and the discussion shows the underlying reason of high performance in the proposed approach. PMID:27589758

  12. Chemical analyses of soil samples collected from the Sandia National Laboratories/NM, Tonopah Test Range environs, 1994-2005.

    SciTech Connect

    Deola, Regina Anne; Oldewage, Hans D.; Herrera, Heidi M.; Miller, Mark Laverne

    2006-05-01

    From 1994 through 2005, the Environmental Management Department of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), NV, has collected soil samples at numerous locations on-site, on the perimeter, and off-site for the purpose of determining potential impacts to the environs from operations at TTR. These samples were submitted to an analytical laboratory of metal-in-soil analyses. Intercomparisons of these results were then made to determine if there was any statistical difference between on-site, perimeter, and off-site samples, or if there were increasing or decreasing trends which indicated that further investigation may be warranted. This work provided the SNL Environmental Management Department with a sound baseline data reference against which to compare future operational impacts. In addition, it demonstrates the commitment that the Laboratories have to go beyond mere compliance to achieve excellence in its operations. This data is presented in graphical format with narrative commentaries on particular items of interest.

  13. 78 FR 77427 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Building for Environmental and Economic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... for Environmental and Economic Sustainability (BEES) Please AGENCY: National Institute of Standards... performance of building products. Known as BEES (Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability), the... visually intuitive graphical format. BEES Please is a voluntary program to collect data from...

  14. 75 FR 78225 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Building for Environmental and Economic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ... for Environmental and Economic Sustainability (BEES) Please AGENCY: National Institute of Standards... performance of building products. Known as BEES (Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability), the... visually intuitive graphical format. BEES Please is a voluntary program to collect data from...

  15. Sampling protocols for collecting surface water, bed sediment, bivalves, and fish for priority pollutant analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-28

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water Regulations and Standards, is conducting a program to evaluate exposure and associated risk from the presence of toxic pollutants in our nation's aquatic environment. The program addresses the goals of the Clean Water Act of 1977 by developing exposure profiles for the 129 priority pollutants. The sampling document describes procedures for collecting, preserving, and shipping samples that will be analyzed to provide information on ambient levels of the priority pollutants, which is an essential component of the data base necessary for characterizing exposure.

  16. Molecular Signatures of Methanogens in Cultures and Environmental Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summons, R. E.; Embaye, T.; Jahnke, L. L.; Baumgartner, M.

    2002-12-01

    The core lipids of methanogens comprise C20 and C40 isoprenoid chains, linked through ether bonds to glycerol. Additional structural diversity is encoded into the polar head groups that are attached to the glycerol ether cores. These compounds are potentially very useful as taxonomic markers in microbial mats and other environmental samples while the nature of the hydrocarbon chains provide a means to identify methanogenic inputs to ancient sediments. The structural diversity of methanogen polar lipids is most valuable when it can be directly correlated to 16S rRNA phylogeny. On the other hand, this diversity can also leads to analytical challenges because there is no single approach that works for all structural types. While some intact methanogen lipids have been identified using mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy, the most common means of analysing the lipid cores involves cleavage of the ether bonds using HI and subsequent reduction of the alkyl iodides to hydrocarbons with LiAlH4. One class of methanogenic lipids, the 3?-hydroxyarchaeols, escaped detection for some years because strong acid treatments in the analysis protocols destroyed hydroxyl-containing isoprenoid chains. We have been systematically re-examining the lipids of methanogens, using milder procedures involving weak acid hydrolysis of polar head groups, derivatisation to form trimethylsilyl ethers and analysis by GC-MS. As well as archaeol, sn-2- and sn-3-hydroxyarchaeol, we have tentatively identified a dihydroxyarchaeol in several Methanococcus sp. For Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus an analysis of the total lipid extracts using BBr3 as an ether cleavage reagent followed by LiBEt3H, reduction revealed a very complex mixture consisting of phytane, phytenes, biphytane, biphytenes and a suite of related alcohols. The latter compounds were analysed by GC-MS as their trimethylsilyl ethers and found to comprise a mixture tentatively identified as phytan-N-ol and biphytan-N-ol where N= 3 or 7

  17. Speciation of Cr(VI) in environmental samples in the vicinity of the ferrochrome smelter.

    PubMed

    Sedumedi, Hilda N; Mandiwana, Khakhathi L; Ngobeni, Prince; Panichev, Nikolay

    2009-12-30

    The impact of ferrochrome smelter on the contamination of its environment with toxic hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), was assessed by analyzing smelter dusts, soil, grass and tree barks. For the separation of Cr(VI) from Cr(III), solid samples were treated with 0.1M Na(2)CO(3) and filtered through hydrophilic PDVF 0.45 microm filter prior to the determination of Cr(VI) by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET-AAS). Ferrochrome smelter dust was found to contain significant levels of Cr(VI), viz. 43.5 microg g(-1) (cyclone dust), 2710 microg g(-1) (fine dust), and 7800 microg g(-1) (slimes dust) which exceeded the maximum acceptable risk concentration (20 microg g(-1)). The concentration of Cr(VI) in environmental samples of grass (3.4+/-0.2), soil (7.7+/-0.2), and tree bark (11.8+/-1.2) collected in the vicinity of the chrome smelter were higher as compared with the same kind of samples collected from uncontaminated area. The results of the investigation show that ferrochrome smelter is a source of environmental pollution with contamination factors of Cr(VI) ranging between 10 and 50. PMID:19716233

  18. Prototype Device for Computerized Blood Sampling and Data Collection in Freely Moving Swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Collecting biofluid samples or physiological and behavioral data from animals presents challenges from excessive human intervention, and the stress of manual sampling. Our objective was to construct a device capable of protecting external leads and tubing used to facilitate automated sampling, dosin...

  19. 21 CFR 111.80 - What representative samples must you collect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Process Control System § 111.80 What representative samples must you collect? The representative samples... unique lot within each unique shipment); (b) Representative samples of in-process materials for each manufactured batch at points, steps, or stages, in the manufacturing process as specified in the...

  20. 21 CFR 111.80 - What representative samples must you collect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Process Control System § 111.80 What representative samples must you collect? The representative samples... unique lot within each unique shipment); (b) Representative samples of in-process materials for each manufactured batch at points, steps, or stages, in the manufacturing process as specified in the...

  1. 21 CFR 111.80 - What representative samples must you collect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Process Control System § 111.80 What representative samples must you collect? The representative samples... unique lot within each unique shipment); (b) Representative samples of in-process materials for each manufactured batch at points, steps, or stages, in the manufacturing process as specified in the...

  2. Plutonium in Colorado residents: results of autopsy bone samples collected during 1975-1979.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, S A; Warren, G M; Whicker, F W; Efurd, D W

    2002-08-01

    Concentrations of (239,240)Pu and the 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios were measured in rib samples from 55 non-occupationally exposed Colorado residents. Samples were collected at autopsy during 1975-1979 under an earlier study intended to compare plutonium levels in liver and lung of people who lived at various proximities to the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) near Denver. Overall, median (239,240)Pu concentrations from rib samples were 100, 80, and 57 microBq g(-1) ash weight for area locations A, B, and C, respectively. Area A encompassed subjects who lived within 25 km of RFETS, area B was between 25 and 50 km from RFETS, and area C included all of Colorado outside 50 km from the site and east of the continental divide. The corresponding median plutonium skeletal burdens estimated for these area locations were 146, 93, and 71 mBq, respectively. A statistically significant difference was noted only between plutonium concentrations in male rib samples and their skeletal burdens from area A compared to area C. However, based on a regression analysis of all study subjects, distance from RFETS was not statistically correlated to plutonium rib concentrations or skeletal burdens in this sample. Overall, median 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios were 0.20, 0.18, and 0.17 for areas A, B, and C, respectively. Although higher (239,240)Pu concentrations and skeletal burdens were indicated in area A males than area C males, we cannot conclude that RFETS releases may have caused this difference. The decreasing trends in the 240Pu/239Pu ratios with distance from RFETS are contrary with such a conclusion and strongly indicate that the material was primarily global fallout rather than weapons-grade plutonium that was processed at RFETS. Furthermore, there are other plausible explanations for the differences observed between area A and C residents. These include a decreasing trend in global fallout from the Rocky Mountain foothills eastward, smoking history differences, sample

  3. Acceptability and validity of hair collection from Latino children to assess exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, Susan I; Conway, Terry L; Edwards, Christine C; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2003-06-01

    This study assessed the acceptability of collecting hair from Latino children to measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and examined the concurrent validity between nicotine and cotinine levels in children's hair in relation to adult reports of the children's ETS exposure. Trained Latina lay community health advisors recruited 143 Spanish-speaking Latino adult volunteers and their children. Bilingual-bicultural measurement technicians collected two types of data: (a) the adult's paper-and-pencil report about the child's past-month exposure to cigarettes in the home and car and (b) a sample of the child's hair to be analyzed for nicotine and cotinine. Of the eligible subjects, 8.5% declined to participate because of the hair collection protocol, some citing cultural beliefs. Among participants in the study, few problems arose related to hair collected, probably because of the culturally sensitive approach used during recruitment and measurement. Adults' reports of exposure, hair nicotine, and hair cotinine showed considerable variation and were skewed to the right. Average nicotine levels for these children appeared to be comparable to those reported elsewhere, whereas cotinine levels appeared to be somewhat lower. Hair nicotine was more detectable than hair cotinine and, compared with cotinine, showed a clearer linear relationship with adults' reports. However, associations between adults' reports and both biological measures were modest. Collecting hair samples in the field (i.e., participants' homes) to measure Latino children's ETS exposure is generally acceptable when appropriate methods are used. Hair nicotine may be a more valid and practical biological measure than hair cotinine. Hair sampling may be a potentially useful, noninvasive technique in ETS studies, although the modest associations of constituents in children's hair with adults' reports indicates that each measure provides different information about ETS exposure. PMID:12791534

  4. A Review of Metal Concentrations Measured in Surface Soil Samples Collected on and Around the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Brad G.

    2009-07-27

    The data used in this report was collected by two separate projects. The Surface Environmental Surveillance Project collected routine samples in 2008 at 41 locations on and around the Hanford Site, and had them analyzed for metals in addition to the normal radiological constituents. In 2004 and 2005, soil samples were collected at 117 locations on the Hanford Reach National Monument (HRNM) in support of the radiological release of that property. In 2008, archived HRNM soil samples were analyzed for metals to supplement the radiological analyses. Concentration results for 30 individual metals were generated by the analytical methods. Selenium and antimony were not measured at detectable concentrations in most of the samples. Mercury was detected in about half of the samples analyzed. All other constituents were measured at detectable concentrations in nearly all samples analyzed. The average concentrations measured in this study were well below the soil cleanup levels for unrestricted land use established by the Model Toxics Control Act (MTCA). In addition to the average concentration being less than the benchmark, the 90th percentile concentration was also lower than the benchmark for the metals included in the MTCA. The results indicate that the measured concentrations of metals in surface soil were within the expected natural range of concentrations.

  5. Improved purification and PCR amplification of DNA from environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Arbeli, Ziv; Fuentes, Cilia L

    2007-07-01

    Purification and PCR amplification procedures for DNA extracted from environmental samples (soil, compost, and river sediment) were improved by introducing three modifications: precipitation of DNA with 5% polyethylene glycol 8000 (PEG) and 0.6 M NaCl; filtration with a Sepharose 4B-polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) spin column; and addition of skim milk (0.3% w/v) to the PCR reaction solution. Humic substances' concentration after precipitation with 5% PEG was 2.57-, 5.3-, and 78.9-fold lower than precipitation with 7.5% PEG, 10% PEG, and isopropanol, respectively. After PEG precipitation, Sepharose, PVPP and the combined (Sepharose-PVPP) column removed 92.3%, 89.5%, and 98%, respectively, of the remaining humic materials. Each of the above-mentioned modifications improved PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene. DNA extracted by the proposed protocol is cleaner than DNA extracted by a commercial kit. Nevertheless, the improvement of DNA purification did not improve the detection limit of atrazine degradation gene atzA. PMID:17521406

  6. Determination of alpha-emitting Pu isotopes in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Vioque, I; Manjón, G; García-Tenorio, R; El-Daoushy, F

    2002-04-01

    This paper presents an improved radiochemical procedure for the determination of alpha-emitting Pu isotopes in environmental samples (soils, sediments, vegetation) by alpha-particle spectrometry. Quantitative Pu recovery yields were obtained (average 60%), 0.1 mBq being the average minimum detectable activity by the complete technique. Special efforts were made to ensure the removal of traces of different natural alpha-emitting radionuclides, which can interfere with the correct determination of 239+240Pu and 238Pu concentrations. The radiochemical procedure was validated by application to reference material and by participation in intercomparison exercises. This radiochemical procedure was applied to the different layers of a high-resolution sediment core taken from a lake in Sweden. The 239+240Pu and 238Pu/239+240Pu profiles obtained in the high-resolution sediment core correctly reproduced the expected evolution of these quantities as observed historically in the atmosphere, validating the procedure for this purpose and showing the power of these radionuclides for dating purposes. PMID:12022654

  7. Assembly for collecting samples for purposes of identification or analysis and method of use

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Cyril V [Knoxville, TN; Smith, Rob R [Knoxville, TN

    2010-02-02

    An assembly and an associated method for collecting a sample of material desired to be characterized with diagnostic equipment includes or utilizes an elongated member having a proximal end with which the assembly is manipulated by a user and a distal end. In addition, a collection tip which is capable of being placed into contact with the material to be characterized is supported upon the distal end. The collection tip includes a body of chemically-inert porous material for binding a sample of material when the tip is placed into contact with the material and thereby holds the sample of material for subsequent introduction to the diagnostic equipment.

  8. Clinical and Environmental Influences on Metabolic Biomarkers Collected for Newborn Screening

    PubMed Central

    Ryckman, Kelli K.; Berberich, Stanton L.; Shchelochkov, Oleg A.; Cook, Daniel E; Murray, Jeffrey C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Identifying common clinical and environmental factors that influence newborn metabolic biomarkers will improve the utilization of metabolite panels for clinical diagnostic medicine. Design and Methods Environmental effects including gender, season of birth, gestational age, birth weight, feeding method and age at time of collection were evaluated for over 50 metabolites collected by the Iowa Neonatal Metabolic Screening Program on 221,788 newborns over a six year period. Results We replicated well known observations that low birth weight and preterm infants have higher essential amino acids and lower medium and long chain acylcarnitine levels than their term counterparts. Smaller, but still significant, differences were observed for gender and timing of sample collection, specifically the season in which the infant was born. Most intriguing were our findings of higher thyroid stimulating hormone in the winter months (P<1×10−40) which correlated with an increased false positive rate of congenital hypothyroidism in the winter (0.9%) compared to summer (0.6%). Previous studies, conducted globally, have identified an increased prevalence of suspected and confirmed cases of congenital hypothyroidism in the winter months. We found that the percentage of unresolved suspected cases were slightly higher in the winter (0.3% vs 0.2%). Conclusions We identified differences in metabolites by gestational age, birth weight, gender and season. Some are widely reported such as gestational age and birth weight, while others such as the effect of seasonality are not as well studied. PMID:23010448

  9. Characterization and survival of environmental Escherichia coli O26 isolates in ground beef and environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Christine E; Bratcher, Christy L; Singh, Manpreet; Wang, Luxin

    2015-04-01

    In addition to Escherichia coli O157:H7, shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) O26 was added to the zero-tolerance adulterant list together with other 5 non-O157 STEC serogroups in 2012. Four farm O26 isolates were used in this study; they were obtained from a on-farm survey study conducted in Alabama. The presence of 3 major pathogenic genes (stx1, stx2, and eaeA) was determined through multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Two major pathogenic gene profiles were observed: 3 of the farm isolates contain only the eaeA gene whereas 1 farm isolate has both the eaeA and the stx1 genes. No significant difference was seen among the 4 farm isolates in the antibiotic resistance tests. To test their survival in ground beef and environmental samples, 2 inoculums were prepared and inoculated at various concentrations into samples of ground beef, bovine feces, bedding materials, and trough water. One inoculum was made of 3 farm isolates containing only the eaeA gene and another inoculum contained the isolate with both the eaeA and stx1 genes. Inoculated beef samples were stored at 4 °C for 10 d and the inoculated environmental samples were stored at ambient temperature for 30 d. Results showed that virulence gene profiles do not have an impact on O26's ability to survive in ground beef and in environment (P > 0.05). The inoculation levels, sample types as well as the storage times are the major factors that impact O26 survival (P < 0.05). PMID:25765176

  10. Veterinary antibiotic resistance, residues, and ecological risks in environmental samples obtained from poultry farms, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A; Nabawy, Ehab Elsayed

    2015-02-01

    In Egypt, poultry production constitutes one of the main sources of pollution with veterinary antibiotics (VAs) into the environment. About 80 % of meat production in Egypt is of poultry origin, and the potential environmental risks associated with the use of VAs in these farms have not yet been properly evaluated. Thus, the main purpose of this research was to evaluate the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant enteric key bacteria and the incidence of residual antibiotics in poultry farm environmental samples and to determine whether fertilizing soils with poultry litter from farms potentially brings ecological risks. From December 2011 to September 2012, a total of 225 litter, bird dropping, and water samples were collected from 75 randomly selected boiler poultry farms. A high prevalence of Escherichia coli (n = 179; 79.5 %) in contrast to the low prevalence of Salmonella spp. (n = 7; 3.1 %) was detected. Amongst E. coli isolates, serotypes O142:K86, O125:K70, O91:K, and O119:K69 were the most common. Meanwhile, Salmonella enterica serotypes emek and enteritidis were recovered. The antibiograms using the disc diffusion method revealed significantly more common resistant and multi-resistant isolates in broiler poultry farms. Residues of tetracycline and ciprofloxacin were detected at 2.125 and 1.401 mg kg(-1) mean levels, respectively, in environmental samples contaminated with E. coli-resistant strains by HPLC. The risk evaluations highlighted that tetracycline residues in poultry litter significantly display environmental risks with a hazard quotient value above 1 (1.64). Our study implies that ineffective implementation of veterinary laws which guide and guard against incorrect VA usage may potentially bring health and environmental risks. PMID:25600402

  11. Collection of solid and gaseous samples to diagnose inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Stoyer, M. A.; Velsko, C. A.; Spears, B. K.; Hicks, D. G.; Hudson, G. B.; Sangster, T. C.; Freeman, C. G.

    2012-02-15

    Collection of representative samples of debris following inertial confinement fusion implosions in order to diagnose implosion conditions and efficacy is a challenging endeavor because of the unique conditions within the target chamber such as unconverted laser light, intense pulse of x-rays, physical chunks of debris, and other ablative effects. We present collection of gas samples following an implosion for the first time. High collection fractions for noble gases were achieved. We also present collection of solid debris samples on flat plate collectors. Geometrical collection efficiencies for Au hohlraum material were achieved and collection of capsule debris (Be and Cu) was also observed. Asymmetric debris distributions were observed for Au and Be samples. Collection of Be capsule debris was higher for solid collectors viewing the capsule through the laser entrance hole in the hohlraum than for solid collectors viewing the capsule around the waist of the hohlraum. Collection of Au hohlraum material showed the opposite pattern: more Au debris was collected around the waist than through the laser entrance hole. The solid debris collectors were not optimized for minimal Cu backgrounds, which limited the conclusions about the symmetry of the Cu debris. The quality of the data limited conclusions on chemical fractionation effects within the burning, expanding, and then cooling plasma.

  12. Collection of solid and gaseous samples to diagnose inertial confinement fusion implosions.

    PubMed

    Stoyer, M A; Velsko, C A; Spears, B K; Hicks, D G; Hudson, G B; Sangster, T C; Freeman, C G

    2012-02-01

    Collection of representative samples of debris following inertial confinement fusion implosions in order to diagnose implosion conditions and efficacy is a challenging endeavor because of the unique conditions within the target chamber such as unconverted laser light, intense pulse of x-rays, physical chunks of debris, and other ablative effects. We present collection of gas samples following an implosion for the first time. High collection fractions for noble gases were achieved. We also present collection of solid debris samples on flat plate collectors. Geometrical collection efficiencies for Au hohlraum material were achieved and collection of capsule debris (Be and Cu) was also observed. Asymmetric debris distributions were observed for Au and Be samples. Collection of Be capsule debris was higher for solid collectors viewing the capsule through the laser entrance hole in the hohlraum than for solid collectors viewing the capsule around the waist of the hohlraum. Collection of Au hohlraum material showed the opposite pattern: more Au debris was collected around the waist than through the laser entrance hole. The solid debris collectors were not optimized for minimal Cu backgrounds, which limited the conclusions about the symmetry of the Cu debris. The quality of the data limited conclusions on chemical fractionation effects within the burning, expanding, and then cooling plasma. PMID:22380089

  13. Estimating occupancy and abundance of stream amphibians using environmental DNA from filtered water samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilliod, David S.; Goldberg, Caren S.; Arkle, Robert S.; Waits, Lisette P.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) methods for detecting aquatic species are advancing rapidly, but with little evaluation of field protocols or precision of resulting estimates. We compared sampling results from traditional field methods with eDNA methods for two amphibians in 13 streams in central Idaho, USA. We also evaluated three water collection protocols and the influence of sampling location, time of day, and distance from animals on eDNA concentration in the water. We found no difference in detection or amount of eDNA among water collection protocols. eDNA methods had slightly higher detection rates than traditional field methods, particularly when species occurred at low densities. eDNA concentration was positively related to field-measured density, biomass, and proportion of transects occupied. Precision of eDNA-based abundance estimates increased with the amount of eDNA in the water and the number of replicate subsamples collected. eDNA concentration did not vary significantly with sample location in the stream, time of day, or distance downstream from animals. Our results further advance the implementation of eDNA methods for monitoring aquatic vertebrates in stream habitats.

  14. The representativeness of pore water samples collected from the unsaturated zone using pressure-vacuum lysimeters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, C.A.; Healy, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    Studies have indicated that the chemistry of water samples may be altered by the collection technique, creating concern about the representativeness of the pore water samples obtained. A study using soil water pressure-vacuum lysimeters in outwash sand and glacial till deposits demonstrates that for non-dilute-solution samples the effect of pH of sampling with lysimeters is minimal, and that measured major cation and anion concentrations are representative of the natural pore water; trace-metal concentrations can be significantly altered by collection procedures at low concentrations. -from Authors

  15. DCS - A global satellite environmental data collection system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claire, E. J.

    1973-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the results of a comparative study of satellite data collection systems which utilize remote ground data collection platforms transmitting data directly to a satellite and down to low-cost direct read-out local user terminals. The general objective of the study was to evaluate cost and technical feasibility of five medium orbiting and six geo-synchronous satellite data collection system (DCS) configurations with varying degrees of spacecraft and local user terminal (LUT) complexity. The goal of trading spacecraft and LUT complexity was to determine practical feasible systems with low-cost terminals, yet with a reasonable overall system cost the would permit the broad worldwide utilization of a highly beneficial data collection system. Results presented include data collection system analyses, satellite and local user terminal designs, and estimated costs. A summary of the types of local users and their requirements is also included.

  16. Vacuum hand pump apparatus for collecting water samples from a horizontal intragravel pipe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, Michael K.; Martin, Barbara A.

    1996-01-01

    We describe a lightweight, portable vacuum hand pump apparatus for use in collecting water samples from horizontal intragravel pipe samplers buried in the stream bottom. The apparatus is easily fabricated from relatively inexpensive materials available at many laboratory supply houses.

  17. Historical review of long-term soil sampling for environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site and vicinity

    SciTech Connect

    Price, K.R.; Rickard, W.H.

    1997-08-01

    Soil samples have been collected routinely from the environs of the Hanford Site and analyzed since 1971. Correct interpretation of results depends on samples being collected from the same locations, the locations remaining relatively undisturbed, and collection and analytical procedures remaining the same or being equivalent. Historical files, documents, and annual environmental reports were reviewed to evaluate these factors. It was determined that 20 soil sampling locations, 11 onsite and 9 offsite, were established between 1971 and 1977 and represent long-term sampling locations. Sample collection and analytical procedures have remained essentially the same since 1971. The physical ecological attributes of each long-term soil sampling location were evaluated. During the review of historical records, a few results for 1970, 1971, and 1972 were noted as previously unreported in annual or special reports. These results are included in Appendix A. To complete the record, results previously reported in annual environmental reports are given in Appendix B. Global Positioning System (GPS) reading for 20 long-term soil sampling locations are provided in Appendix C.

  18. SAMPLING OIL-WATER MIXTURES AT OHMSETT (OIL AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SIMULATED ENVIRONMENTAL TEST TANK)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes procedures developed at the Oil and Hazardous Material Simulated Environmental Test Tank (OHMSETT) for sampling oil and water mixtures. Two procedures for sampling in containers are discussed: grab and stratified sampling. Both of these techniques require str...

  19. Mars Rover Sample Return: A sample collection and analysis strategy for exobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, M. H.; Fischler, M.; Schwartz, D. E.; Rosenthal, Donald A.; Mancinelli, Rocco L.; Nedell, Susan S.; Gamble, E.; Mckay, Christopher P.

    1989-01-01

    For reasons defined elsewhere it is reasonable to search for biological signatures, both chemical and morphological, of extinct life on Mars. Life on Earth requries the presence of liquid water, therefore, it is important to explore sites on Mars where standing bodies of water may have once existed. Outcrops of layered deposits within the Valles Marineris appear to be ancient lake beds. Because the outcrops are well exposed, relatively shallow core samples would be very informative. The most important biological signature to detect would be organics, microfossils, or larger stromato-like structures, although the presence of cherts, carbonates, clays, and shales would be significant. In spite of the limitations of current robotics and pattern recognition, and the limitations of rover power, computation, Earth communication bandwidth, and time delays, a partial scenario was developed to implement such a scientific investigation. The rover instrumentation and the procedures and decisions and IR spectrometer are described in detail. Preliminary results from a collaborative effort are described, which indicate the rover will be able to autonomously detect stratification, and hence will ease the interpretation burden and lead to greater scientific productivity during the rover's lifetime.

  20. The Internet of Samples in the Earth Sciences: Providing Access to Uncurated Collections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, M. R.; Lehnert, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    Vast amounts of physical samples have been collected in the Earth Sciences for studies that address a wide range of scientific questions. Only a fraction of these samples are well curated and preserved long-term in sample repositories and museums. Many samples and collections are stored in the offices and labs of investigators, or in basements and sheds of institutions and investigators' homes. These 'uncurated' collections often contain samples that have been well studied, or are unique and irreplaceable. They may also include samples that could reveal new insights if re-analyzed using new techniques, or specimens that could have unanticipated relevance to research being conducted in fields other than the one for which they were collected. Currently, these samples cannot be accessed or discovered online by the broader science community. Investigators and departments often lack the resources to properly catalog and curate the samples and respond to requests for splits. Long-term preservation of and access to these samples is usually not provided for. iSamplES, a recently-funded EarthCube Research Coordination Network (RCN), seeks to integrate scientific samples, including 'uncurated' samples, into digital data and information infrastructure in the Earth Sciences and to facilitate their curation, discovery, access, sharing, and analysis. The RCN seeks to develop and implement best practices that increase digital access to samples with the goal of establishing a comprehensive infrastructure not only for the digital, but also physical curation of samples. The RCN will engage a broad group of individuals from domain scientists to curators to publishers to computer scientists to define, articulate, and address the needs and challenges of digital sample management and recommend community-endorsed best practices and standards for registering, describing, identifying, and citing physical specimens, drawing upon other initiatives and existing or emerging software tools for

  1. Genomic Sequencing of Single Microbial Cells from Environmental Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Ishoey, Thomas; Woyke, Tanja; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Novotny, Mark; Lasken, Roger S.

    2008-02-01

    Recently developed techniques allow genomic DNA sequencing from single microbial cells [Lasken RS: Single-cell genomic sequencing using multiple displacement amplification, Curr Opin Microbiol 2007, 10:510-516]. Here, we focus on research strategies for putting these methods into practice in the laboratory setting. An immediate consequence of single-cell sequencing is that it provides an alternative to culturing organisms as a prerequisite for genomic sequencing. The microgram amounts of DNA required as template are amplified from a single bacterium by a method called multiple displacement amplification (MDA) avoiding the need to grow cells. The ability to sequence DNA from individual cells will likely have an immense impact on microbiology considering the vast numbers of novel organisms, which have been inaccessible unless culture-independent methods could be used. However, special approaches have been necessary to work with amplified DNA. MDA may not recover the entire genome from the single copy present in most bacteria. Also, some sequence rearrangements can occur during the DNA amplification reaction. Over the past two years many research groups have begun to use MDA, and some practical approaches to single-cell sequencing have been developed. We review the consensus that is emerging on optimum methods, reliability of amplified template, and the proper interpretation of 'composite' genomes which result from the necessity of combining data from several single-cell MDA reactions in order to complete the assembly. Preferred laboratory methods are considered on the basis of experience at several large sequencing centers where >70% of genomes are now often recovered from single cells. Methods are reviewed for preparation of bacterial fractions from environmental samples, single-cell isolation, DNA amplification by MDA, and DNA sequencing.

  2. ELECTROCHEMICAL METHODS APPLIED TO THE ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fundamental principles of electroanalytical methods based on potentiometry, coulometry, conductance, and voltammetry are reviewed, and examples are given of applications to environmental analyses.

  3. AUTOMATED SYSTEM FOR COLLECTING MULTIPLE, SEQUENTIAL SAMPLES FROM SOIL WATER SAMPLERS UNDER CONTINUOUS VACUUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manually collecting a series of sequential, discrete water samples from soil water percolation samplers, or similar devices, that withdraw water from unsaturated porous media under continuous vacuum is a logistical challenge, though the resulting collection can provide valuable information on the dy...

  4. ANALYSIS OF ACID PRECIPITATION SAMPLES COLLECTED BY STATE AGENCIES: JANUARY 1987 - DECEMBER 1987

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents the analytical data from the 31 acid precipitation collection sites in the State Operated Network. Samples are collected weekly in plastic bag liners and shipped in 500 mL polyethylene bottles to Global Geochemistry Corp. (the central laboratory for the networ...

  5. Tick community composition in Midwestern US habitats in relation to sampling method and environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Rynkiewicz, Evelyn C; Clay, Keith

    2014-01-01

    The ranges of many tick species are changing due to climate change and human alteration of the landscape. Understanding tick responses to environmental conditions and how sampling method influences measurement of tick communities will improve our assessment of human disease risk. We compared tick sampling by three collection methods (dragging, CO2 trapping and rodent surveys) in adjacent forested and grassland habitats in the lower Midwest, USA, and analyzed the relationship between tick abundance and microclimate conditions. The study areas were within the overlapping ranges of three tick species, which may provide conditions for pathogen exchange and spread into new vectors. Dermacentor variabilis (American dog tick) was found using all methods, Amblyomma americanum (lonestar tick) was found by dragging and CO2 trapping and Ixodes scapularis (blacklegged deer tick) was found only on rodents. Proportion of each species differed significantly among sampling methods. More ticks were found in forests compared to open habitats. Further, more ticks were collected by dragging and from rodents in hotter, drier conditions. Our results demonstrate that multiple sampling methodologies better measure the tick community and that microclimate conditions strongly influence the abundance and activity of individual tick species. PMID:24705853

  6. A simple and novel method for retrieval of Pasteurellaceae from swab samples collected in the field.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Mie J; Bertelsen, Mads F; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Bojesen, Anders M

    2013-10-01

    Traditionally it has been difficult or impossible to collect and preserve bacterial samples of especially fastidious bacteria in mixed primary cultures, unless the samples could be transported to a laboratory within approximately 24 h. Therefore, a simple novel method for preserving swab samples until bacterial isolation can be completed in the laboratory was developed and evaluated. Pasteurellaceae bacteria were used as a representative for fastidious bacteria. A 7.5% glucose serum medium was used as freeze medium. Swab samples were soaked in the medium a maximum of 2 h after collection and stored at -20°C. As a control study, 15 samples were collected from the oral cavity of a captive brown bear. One was immediately plated, while the remaining 12 swabs were stored at -20°C for 7 days and multiples of 30 days up to 330 days prior to plating. Two samples were stored without the medium for 7 and 30 days prior to plating. From a field setting in Greenland, eight polar bear samples were collected and subsequently stored for 240 to 259 days at -20°C before incubation. Pasteurellaceae bacteria were isolated and genotyped from all samples stored in the freeze medium, indicating that the medium enabled the bacteria to survive for at least 330 days at -20°C. The 100% recovery of target organisms in the polar bear samples even following lengthy storage and transport demonstrates that the method is very useful under remote field conditions. PMID:23897719

  7. OSIRIS-REx Touch-and-Go (TAG) Mission Design for Asteroid Sample Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Alexander; Sutter, Brian; Linn, Timothy; Bierhaus, Beau; Berry, Kevin; Mink, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission is a NASA New Frontiers mission launching in September 2016 to rendezvous with the near-Earth asteroid Bennu in October 2018. After several months of proximity operations to characterize the asteroid, OSIRIS-REx flies a Touch-And-Go (TAG) trajectory to the asteroid's surface to collect at least 60 g of pristine regolith sample for Earth return. This paper provides mission and flight system overviews, with more details on the TAG mission design and key events that occur to safely and successfully collect the sample. An overview of the navigation performed relative to a chosen sample site, along with the maneuvers to reach the desired site is described. Safety monitoring during descent is performed with onboard sensors providing an option to abort, troubleshoot, and try again if necessary. Sample collection occurs using a collection device at the end of an articulating robotic arm during a brief five second contact period, while a constant force spring mechanism in the arm assists to rebound the spacecraft away from the surface. Finally, the sample is measured quantitatively utilizing the law of conservation of angular momentum, along with qualitative data from imagery of the sampling device. Upon sample mass verification, the arm places the sample into the Stardust-heritage Sample Return Capsule (SRC) for return to Earth in September 2023.

  8. Evaluation of a New Environmental Sampling Protocol for Detection of Human Norovirus on Inanimate Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Park, Geun Woo; Lee, David; Treffiletti, Aimee; Hrsak, Mario; Shugart, Jill; Vinjé, Jan

    2015-09-01

    Inanimate surfaces are regarded as key vehicles for the spread of human norovirus during outbreaks. ISO method 15216 involves the use of cotton swabs for environmental sampling from food surfaces and fomites for the detection of norovirus genogroup I (GI) and GII. We evaluated the effects of the virus drying time (1, 8, 24, or 48 h), swab material (cotton, polyester, rayon, macrofoam, or an antistatic wipe), surface (stainless steel or a toilet seat), and area of the swabbed surface (25.8 cm(2) to 645.0 cm(2)) on the recovery of human norovirus. Macrofoam swabs produced the highest rate of recovery of norovirus from surfaces as large as 645 cm(2). The rates of recovery ranged from 2.2 to 36.0% for virus seeded on stainless-steel coupons (645.0 cm(2)) to 1.2 to 33.6% for toilet seat surfaces (700 cm(2)), with detection limits of 3.5 log10 and 4.0 log10 RNA copies. We used macrofoam swabs to collect environmental samples from several case cabins and common areas of a cruise ship where passengers had reported viral gastroenteritis symptoms. Seventeen (18.5%) of 92 samples tested positive for norovirus GII, and 4 samples could be sequenced and had identical GII.1 sequences. The viral loads of the swab samples from the cabins of the sick passengers ranged from 80 to 31,217 RNA copies, compared with 16 to 113 RNA copies for swab samples from public spaces. In conclusion, our swab protocol for norovirus may be a useful tool for outbreak investigations when no clinical samples are available to confirm the etiology. PMID:26116675

  9. Evaluation of a New Environmental Sampling Protocol for Detection of Human Norovirus on Inanimate Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Lee, David; Treffiletti, Aimee; Hrsak, Mario; Shugart, Jill; Vinjé, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Inanimate surfaces are regarded as key vehicles for the spread of human norovirus during outbreaks. ISO method 15216 involves the use of cotton swabs for environmental sampling from food surfaces and fomites for the detection of norovirus genogroup I (GI) and GII. We evaluated the effects of the virus drying time (1, 8, 24, or 48 h), swab material (cotton, polyester, rayon, macrofoam, or an antistatic wipe), surface (stainless steel or a toilet seat), and area of the swabbed surface (25.8 cm2 to 645.0 cm2) on the recovery of human norovirus. Macrofoam swabs produced the highest rate of recovery of norovirus from surfaces as large as 645 cm2. The rates of recovery ranged from 2.2 to 36.0% for virus seeded on stainless-steel coupons (645.0 cm2) to 1.2 to 33.6% for toilet seat surfaces (700 cm2), with detection limits of 3.5 log10 and 4.0 log10 RNA copies. We used macrofoam swabs to collect environmental samples from several case cabins and common areas of a cruise ship where passengers had reported viral gastroenteritis symptoms. Seventeen (18.5%) of 92 samples tested positive for norovirus GII, and 4 samples could be sequenced and had identical GII.1 sequences. The viral loads of the swab samples from the cabins of the sick passengers ranged from 80 to 31,217 RNA copies, compared with 16 to 113 RNA copies for swab samples from public spaces. In conclusion, our swab protocol for norovirus may be a useful tool for outbreak investigations when no clinical samples are available to confirm the etiology. PMID:26116675

  10. Evaluation and interpretation of the effects of environmental enrichment utilizing varying degrees of sampling effort.

    PubMed

    Quirke, Thomas; O'Riordan, Ruth M

    2013-01-01

    Documenting the effects of novel forms of enrichment is becoming increasingly important within the field of environmental enrichment. Appropriate documentation and evaluation must accompany any enrichment research project in order for accurate results to be obtained. The objective of the present study was to provide an example of how the level of effort in documenting the effect of enrichment is linked to how it is evaluated. This study was carried out on eight cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) at Fota Wildlife Park, Ireland. Temporal feeding variation was the enrichment type used during this study. Behavior data were collected in five different ways in order to simulate varying degrees of effort. Randomization tests were utilized to analyze behavior data. Significant behavioral differences were observed in the first four sampling methods with patterns of behavior remaining similar in all five methods. However, only the most time intensive method concurred with findings previously published utilizing this form of enrichment. No significant differences in behavior were detected when the least time intensive method was used. Between 1 and 2 hr of data collection daily is necessary to evaluate temporal feeding variation accurately. However, 30-45 min of data collection also gave an insight into the effectiveness of the enrichment. Methods of evaluation can influence the interpretations of the strength of the enriching effect of the treatment. Appropriate evaluation and accurate reporting of enrichment is crucial for the future development of the environmental enrichment field. PMID:22383365

  11. Dynamic simulation tools for the analysis and optimization of novel collection, filtration and sample preparation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Clague, D; Weisgraber, T; Rockway, J; McBride, K

    2006-02-12

    The focus of research effort described here is to develop novel simulation tools to address design and optimization needs in the general class of problems that involve species and fluid (liquid and gas phases) transport through sieving media. This was primarily motivated by the heightened attention on Chem/Bio early detection systems, which among other needs, have a need for high efficiency filtration, collection and sample preparation systems. Hence, the said goal was to develop the computational analysis tools necessary to optimize these critical operations. This new capability is designed to characterize system efficiencies based on the details of the microstructure and environmental effects. To accomplish this, new lattice Boltzmann simulation capabilities where developed to include detailed microstructure descriptions, the relevant surface forces that mediate species capture and release, and temperature effects for both liquid and gas phase systems. While developing the capability, actual demonstration and model systems (and subsystems) of national and programmatic interest were targeted to demonstrate the capability. As a result, where possible, experimental verification of the computational capability was performed either directly using Digital Particle Image Velocimetry or published results.

  12. Efficiency of Different Sampling Tools for Aquatic Macroinvertebrate Collections in Malaysian Streams

    PubMed Central

    Ghani, Wan Mohd Hafezul Wan Abdul; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; Hamid, Suhaila Abd; Al-Shami, Salman Abdo

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses the sampling performance of three benthic sampling tools commonly used to collect freshwater macroinvertebrates. Efficiency of qualitative D-frame and square aquatic nets were compared to a quantitative Surber sampler in tropical Malaysian streams. The abundance and diversity of macroinvertebrates collected using each tool evaluated along with their relative variations (RVs). Each tool was used to sample macroinvertebrates from three streams draining different areas: a vegetable farm, a tea plantation and a forest reserve. High macroinvertebrate diversities were recorded using the square net and Surber sampler at the forested stream site; however, very low species abundance was recorded by the Surber sampler. Relatively large variations in the Surber sampler collections (RVs of 36% and 28%) were observed for the vegetable farm and tea plantation streams, respectively. Of the three sampling methods, the square net was the most efficient, collecting a greater diversity of macroinvertebrate taxa and a greater number of specimens (i.e., abundance) overall, particularly from the vegetable farm and the tea plantation streams (RV<25%). Fewer square net sample passes (<8 samples) were sufficient to perform a biological assessment of water quality, but each sample required a slightly longer processing time (±20 min) compared with those gathered via the other samplers. In conclusion, all three apparatuses were suitable for macroinvertebrate collection in Malaysian streams and gathered assemblages that resulted in the determination of similar biological water quality classes using the Family Biotic Index (FBI) and the Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP). However, despite a slightly longer processing time, the square net was more efficient (lowest RV) at collecting samples and more suitable for the collection of macroinvertebrates from deep, fast flowing, wadeable streams with coarse substrates. PMID:27019685

  13. Efficiency of Different Sampling Tools for Aquatic Macroinvertebrate Collections in Malaysian Streams.

    PubMed

    Ghani, Wan Mohd Hafezul Wan Abdul; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; Hamid, Suhaila Abd; Al-Shami, Salman Abdo

    2016-02-01

    This study analyses the sampling performance of three benthic sampling tools commonly used to collect freshwater macroinvertebrates. Efficiency of qualitative D-frame and square aquatic nets were compared to a quantitative Surber sampler in tropical Malaysian streams. The abundance and diversity of macroinvertebrates collected using each tool evaluated along with their relative variations (RVs). Each tool was used to sample macroinvertebrates from three streams draining different areas: a vegetable farm, a tea plantation and a forest reserve. High macroinvertebrate diversities were recorded using the square net and Surber sampler at the forested stream site; however, very low species abundance was recorded by the Surber sampler. Relatively large variations in the Surber sampler collections (RVs of 36% and 28%) were observed for the vegetable farm and tea plantation streams, respectively. Of the three sampling methods, the square net was the most efficient, collecting a greater diversity of macroinvertebrate taxa and a greater number of specimens (i.e., abundance) overall, particularly from the vegetable farm and the tea plantation streams (RV<25%). Fewer square net sample passes (<8 samples) were sufficient to perform a biological assessment of water quality, but each sample required a slightly longer processing time (±20 min) compared with those gathered via the other samplers. In conclusion, all three apparatuses were suitable for macroinvertebrate collection in Malaysian streams and gathered assemblages that resulted in the determination of similar biological water quality classes using the Family Biotic Index (FBI) and the Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP). However, despite a slightly longer processing time, the square net was more efficient (lowest RV) at collecting samples and more suitable for the collection of macroinvertebrates from deep, fast flowing, wadeable streams with coarse substrates. PMID:27019685

  14. Storage Effects on Sample Integrity of Environmental Surface Sampling Specimens with Bacillus anthracis Spores

    PubMed Central

    Perry, K. Allison; O’Connell, Heather A.; Rose, Laura J.; Noble-Wang, Judith A.; Arduino, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of packaging, shipping temperatures and storage times on recovery of Bacillus anthracis. Sterne spores from swabs was investigated. Macrofoam swabs were pre-moistened, inoculated with Bacillus anthracis spores, and packaged in primary containment or secondary containment before storage at −15°C, 5°C, 21°C, or 35°C for 0–7 days. Swabs were processed according to validated Centers for Disease Control/Laboratory Response Network culture protocols, and the percent recovery relative to a reference sample (T0) was determined for each variable. No differences were observed in recovery between swabs held at −15° and 5°C, (p ≥ 0.23). These two temperatures provided significantly better recovery than swabs held at 21°C or 35°C (all 7 days pooled, p ≤ 0.04). The percent recovery at 5°C was not significantly different if processed on days 1, 2 or 4, but was significantly lower on day 7 (day 2 vs. 7, 5°C, 102, p=0.03). Secondary containment provided significantly better percent recovery than primary containment, regardless of storage time (5°C data, p ≤ 0.008). The integrity of environmental swab samples containing Bacillus anthracis spores shipped in secondary containment was maintained when stored at −15°C or 5°C and processed within 4 days to yield the optimum percent recovery of spores. PMID:27213119

  15. Soil sample collection and analysis for the Fugitive Dust Characterization Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashbaugh, Lowell L.; Carvacho, Omar F.; Brown, Michael S.; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.; Magliano, Karen C.

    A unique set of soil samples was collected as part of the Fugitive Dust Characterization Study. The study was carried out to establish whether or not source profiles could be constructed using novel analytical methods that could distinguish soil dust sources from each other. The soil sources sampled included fields planted in cotton, almond, tomato, grape, and safflower, dairy and feedlot facilities, paved and unpaved roads (both urban and rural), an agricultural staging area, disturbed land with salt buildup, and construction areas where the topsoil had been removed. The samples were collected using a systematic procedure designed to reduce sampling bias, and were stored frozen to preserve possible organic signatures. For this paper the samples were characterized by particle size (percent sand, silt, and clay), dry silt content (used in EPA-recommended fugitive dust emission factors), carbon and nitrogen content, and potential to emit both PM 10 and PM 2.5. These are not the "novel analytical methods" referred to above; rather, it was the basic characterization of the samples to use in comparing analytical methods by other scientists contracted to the California Air Resources Board. The purpose of this paper is to document the methods used to collect the samples, the collection locations, the analysis of soil type and potential to emit PM 10, and the sample variability, both within field and between fields of the same crop type.

  16. 77 FR 36567 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application and Approval To Manipulate, Examine, Sample...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... Approval To Manipulate, Examine, Sample, or Transfer Goods AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP... requirement concerning the: Application and Approval to Manipulate, Examine, Sample, or Transfer Goods. This... respondents or record keepers from the collection of information (total capital/startup costs and...

  17. A new device for collecting time-integrated water samples from springs and surface water bodies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panno, S.V.; Krapac, I.G.; Keefer, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    A new device termed the 'seepage sampler' was developed to collect representative water samples from springs, streams, and other surface-water bodies. The sampler collects composite, time-integrated water samples over short (hours) or extended (weeks) periods without causing significant changes to the chemical composition of the samples. The water sample within the sampler remains at the ambient temperature of the water body and does not need to be cooled. Seepage samplers are inexpensive to construct and easy to use. A sampling program of numerous springs and/or streams can be designed at a relatively low cost through the use of these samplers. Transient solutes migrating through such flow systems, potentially unnoticed by periodic sampling, may be detected. In addition, the mass loading of solutes (e.g., agrichemicals) may be determined when seepage samplers are used in conjunction with discharge measurements.

  18. Onondaga Lake: A Forsaken Superfund Site, or a Sampling Playground for Environmental Geochemistry Classes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmosky, C. C.; Harpp, K. S.

    2004-05-01

    Onondaga Lake, in Syracuse, NY, is described by the EPA as one of the most polluted lakes in the US. High levels of heavy metal and semi-volatile organic contamination provide an excellent case study that serves as the cornerstone for an environmental geochemistry course at Colgate University. Our course is designed to teach students basic environmental analysis skills including experimental design, sample preparation, analytical instrumentation operation, data processing and statistical analysis, and preparation of a collaborative scientific paper. Participating students generally have some background in environmental geology, but rarely more than one semester of chemistry. The Onondaga Lake project is the focus of the course for approximately half the semester. At the outset of the project, students are presented with a driving question that is answered through a series of guided field and lab investigations, such as an assessment of the environmental consequences of a proposed marina along the lakefront. The students' first task is to delve into the lake's environmental history, including identification of contaminants, location of point and non-point pollution sources, and clean-up efforts. Students then participate in 2 field trips to the site. First, students learn the geography of the lake system, collect sediment and water samples, and observe mitigation efforts at the wastewater treatment plant. The second trip is 2-3 weeks later, after students have assessed further sampling needs. Identification and quantification of organic compounds are accomplished by GC-MS, and heavy metal contents are determined by ICP-MS. Students compile their results, perform statistical analyses, and collaboratively draw their conclusions regarding the impact of the proposed project. The final product is a single report written by the entire class, an exercise in organization, cooperation, and planning that is usually the most challenging, but ultimately the most rewarding

  19. Evaluation of a novel tagging and tissue preservation system for potential use in forensic sample collection.

    PubMed

    Grassberger, Martin; Stein, Christina; Hanslik, Stefan; Hochmeister, Manfred

    2005-07-16

    The authors describe a new, easy-to-use barcode-based tissue collection, preservation and body tracking system, which might prove instrumental in the containment of mass fatalities such as aircraft accidents, war related accidents, environmental disasters (e.g. earthquakes, hurricanes, and floods) terrorist bombings or mass murders. PMID:15939157

  20. Collecting Comet Samples by ER-2 Aircraft: Cosmic Dust Collection During the Draconid Meteor Shower in October 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastien, Ron; Burkett, P. J.; Rodriquez, M.; Frank, D.; Gonzalez, C.; Robinson, G.-A.; Zolensky, M.; Brown, P.; Campbell-Brown, M.; Broce, S.; Kapitzke, M.; Moes, T.; Steel, D.; Williams, T.; Gearheart, D.

    2014-01-01

    Many tons of dust grains, including samples of asteroids and comets, fall from space into the Earth's atmosphere each day. NASA periodically collects some of these particles from the Earth's stratosphere using sticky collectors mounted on NASA's high-flying aircraft. Sometimes, especially when the Earth experiences a known meteor shower, a special opportunity is presented to associate cosmic dust particles with a known source. NASA JSC's Cosmic Dust Collection Program has made special attempts to collect dust from particular meteor showers and asteroid families when flights can be planned well in advance. However, it has rarely been possible to make collections on very short notice. In 2012, the Draconid meteor shower presented that opportunity. The Draconid meteor shower, originating from Comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner, has produced both outbursts and storms several times during the last century, but the 2012 event was not predicted to be much of a show. Because of these predictions, the Cosmic Dust team had not targeted a stratospheric collection effort for the Draconids, despite the fact that they have one of the slowest atmospheric entry velocities (23 km/s) of any comet shower, and thus offer significant possibilities of successful dust capture. However, radar measurements obtained by the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar during the 2012 Draconids shower indicated a meteor storm did occur October 8 with a peak at 16:38 (+/-5 min) UTC for a total duration of approximately 2 hours.

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING USING LOCATION SPECIFIC AIR MONITORING IN BULK HANDLING FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, L.; Hanks, D.; Degange, J.; Brant, H.; Hall, G.; Cable-Dunlap, P.; Anderson, B.

    2011-06-07

    Since the introduction of safeguards strengthening measures approved by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Board of Governors (1992-1997), international nuclear safeguards inspectors have been able to utilize environmental sampling (ES) (e.g. deposited particulates, air, water, vegetation, sediments, soil and biota) in their safeguarding approaches at bulk uranium/plutonium handling facilities. Enhancements of environmental sampling techniques used by the IAEA in drawing conclusions concerning the absence of undeclared nuclear materials or activities will soon be able to take advantage of a recent step change improvement in the gathering and analysis of air samples at these facilities. Location specific air monitoring feasibility tests have been performed with excellent results in determining attribute and isotopic composition of chemical elements present in an actual test-bed sample. Isotopic analysis of collected particles from an Aerosol Contaminant Extractor (ACE) collection, was performed with the standard bulk sampling protocol used throughout the IAEA network of analytical laboratories (NWAL). The results yielded bulk isotopic values expected for the operations. Advanced designs of air monitoring instruments such as the ACE may be used in gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEP) to detect the production of highly enriched uranium (HEU) or enrichments not declared by a State. Researchers at Savannah River National Laboratory in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing the next generation of ES equipment for air grab and constant samples that could become an important addition to the international nuclear safeguards inspector's toolkit. Location specific air monitoring to be used to establish a baseline environmental signature of a particular facility employed for comparison of consistencies in declared operations will be described in this paper. Implementation of air monitoring will be contrasted against the use of smear ES

  2. Crossing Subject Boundaries: Collection Management of Environmental Studies in a Multi-Library System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFelice, Barbara; Rinaldo, Constance

    1994-01-01

    Describes a process for creating a collection development policy for managing an environmental studies collection in a multilibrary system. The policy rationale, the process of developing subject terms, and the creation of a format for the information are covered. Ideas for handling a physically and intellectually dispersed collection are…

  3. Isolation of new Brazilian giant viruses from environmental samples using a panel of protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Dornas, Fábio P.; Khalil, Jacques Y. B.; Pagnier, Isabelle; Raoult, Didier; Abrahão, Jônatas; La Scola, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    The Megavirales are a newly described order capable of infecting different types of eukaryotic hosts. For the most part, the natural host is unknown. Several methods have been used to detect these viruses, with large discrepancies between molecular methods and co-cultures. To isolate giant viruses, we propose the use of different species of amoeba as a cellular support. The aim of this work was to isolate new Brazilian giant viruses by comparing the protozoa Acanthamoeba castellanii, A. polyphaga, A. griffini, and Vermamoeba vermiformis (VV) as a platform for cellular isolation using environmental samples. One hundred samples were collected from 3 different areas in September 2014 in the Pampulha lagoon of Belo Horizonte city, Minas Gerais, Brazil. PCR was used to identify the isolated viruses, along with hemacolor staining, labelling fluorescence and electron microscopy. A total of 69 viruses were isolated. The highest ratio of isolation was found in A. polyphaga (46.38%) and the lowest in VV (0%). Mimiviruses were the most frequently isolated. One Marseillevirus and one Pandoravirus were also isolated. With Brazilian environmental samples, we demonstrated the high rate of lineage A mimiviruses. This work demonstrates how these viruses survive and circulate in nature as well the differences between protozoa as a platform for cellular isolation. PMID:26500630

  4. Somatic Coliphage Profiles of Produce and Environmental Samples from Farms in Northern México.

    PubMed

    Bartz, Faith E; Hodge, Domonique Watson; Heredia, Norma; de Aceituno, Anna Fabiszewski; Solís, Luisa; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Garcia, Santos; Leon, Juan S

    2016-09-01

    Somatic coliphages were quantified in 459 produce and environmental samples from 11 farms in Northern Mexico to compare amounts of somatic coliphages among different types of fresh produce and environmental samples across the production steps on farms. Rinsates from cantaloupe melons, jalapeño peppers, tomatoes, and the hands of workers, soil, and water were collected during 2011-2012 at four successive steps on each farm, from the field before harvest through the packing facility, and assayed by FastPhage MPN Quanti-tray method. Cantaloupe farm samples contained more coliphages than jalapeño or tomato (p range <0.01-0.03). Across production steps, jalapeños had higher coliphage percentages before harvest than during packing (p = 0.03), while tomatoes had higher coliphage concentrations at packing than all preceding production steps (p range <0.01-0.02). These findings support the use of targeted produce-specific interventions at multiple points in the process of growing and packing produce to reduce the risk of enteric virus contamination and improve food safety during fruit and vegetable production. PMID:27153836

  5. Metagenomic analyses of novel viruses and plasmids from a cultured environmental sample of hyperthermophilic neutrophiles.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Roger A; Prangishvili, David; Shah, Shiraz A; Reuter, Monika; Stetter, Karl O; Peng, Xu

    2010-11-01

    Two novel viral genomes and four plasmids were assembled from an environmental sample collected from a hot spring at Yellowstone National Park, USA, and maintained anaerobically in a bioreactor at 85°C and pH 6. The double-stranded DNA viral genomes are linear (22.7 kb) and circular (17.7 kb), and derive apparently from archaeal viruses HAV1 and HAV2. Genomic DNA was obtained from samples enriched in filamentous and tadpole-shaped virus-like particles respectively. They yielded few significant matches in public sequence databases reinforcing, further, the wide diversity of archaeal viruses. Several variants of HAV1 exhibit major genomic alterations, presumed to arise from viral adaptation to different hosts. They include insertions up to 350 bp, deletions up to 1.5 kb, and genes with extensively altered sequences. Some result from recombination events occurring at low complexity direct repeats distributed along the genome. In addition, a 33.8 kb archaeal plasmid pHA1 was characterized, encoding a possible conjugative apparatus, as well as three cryptic plasmids of thermophilic bacterial origin, pHB1 of 2.1 kb and two closely related variants pHB2a and pHB2b, of 5.2 and 4.8 kb respectively. Strategies are considered for assembling genomes of smaller genetic elements from complex environmental samples, and for establishing possible host identities on the basis of sequence similarity to host CRISPR immune systems. PMID:20545752

  6. A Cryosampler Payload for Aseptic Air Sample Collection at Stratospheric Altitudes Using Balloons.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreenivasan, S.; Dutt, C. B. S.; Bhargava, P.; Shivaji, S.; Manchanda, R. K.

    A balloon borne Astrobiology program is being conducted from the National Balloon Facility of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research at Hyderabad India in which a liquid Neon cooled cryo pump collects air samples under sterile conditions in the altitude regime 19 - 41 Km Pursuant to the encouraging results obtained from an earlier experiment conducted on January 2001 a new payload was configured and the balloon flight was conducted on April 20 2005 after implementing much more rigorous and enhanced sterilization protocol to completely rule out contamination from ground Air samples were collected in the altitude region 20 - 41 Km and are under analysis in the National laboratories in India for detecting the presence of living microbial cells In this paper we discuss the design and fabrication of the air sample collection probes the stringent sterilization protocol evolved for ensuring that the probes are aseptic before the commencement of the experiment and the sample retrival methods for analysis in the laboratory

  7. A sampling system for collecting gas-tight time-series hydrothermal fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, S.; Yang, C.; Ding, K.

    2012-12-01

    It is known that the hydrothermal venting has temporal variations associated with tectonic and geochemical processes. To date, the methods for long-term monitoring of the seafloor hydrothermal systems are rare. A new sampling system has been designed to be deployed at seafloor for long term to collect gas-tight time-series samples from hydrothermal vents. Based on the modular design principle, the sampling system is currently composed of a control module and six sampling modules, which is convenient to be upgraded by adding more sampling modules if needed. The control module consists of a rechargeable battery pack and a circuit board with functions of sampling control, temperature measurement, data storage and communication. Each sampling module has an independent sampling valve, a valve actuator and a sampling cylinder. The sampling cylinder consists of a sample chamber and an accumulator chamber. Compressed nitrogen gas is used to maintain the sample at in-situ pressure. A prototype of the sampling system has been constructed and tested. First, the instrument was tested in a high-pressure vessel at a pressure of 40 MPa. Six sampling modules were successfully triggered and water samples were collected and kept at in-situ pressure after experiment. Besides, the instrument was field tested at the shallow hydrothermal field near off Kueishantao islet (24°51'N, 121°55'E), which is located offshore of northeastern Taiwan, from May 25 to May 28, 2011. The sampling system worked at an automatic mode. Each sampling module was triggered according to the preset time. Time-series hydrothermal fluids have been collected from a shallow hydrothermal vent with a depth of 16 m. The preliminary tests indicated the success of the design and construction of the prototype of the sampling system. Currently, the sampling system is being upgraded by integration of a DC-DC power conversion and serial-to-Ethernet conversion module, so that it can utilize the continuous power supply and

  8. Methods for collecting algal samples as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porter, Stephen D.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Gurtz, Martin E.; Meador, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    Benthic algae (periphyton) and phytoplankton communities are characterized in the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program as part of an integrated physical, chemical, and biological assessment of the Nation's water quality. This multidisciplinary approach provides multiple lines of evidence for evaluating water-quality status and trends, and for refining an understanding of the factors that affect water-quality conditions locally, regionally, and nationally. Water quality can be characterized by evaluating the results of qualitative and quantitative measurements of the algal community. Qualitative periphyton samples are collected to develop of list of taxa present in the sampling reach. Quantitative periphyton samples are collected to measure algal community structure within selected habitats. These samples of benthic algal communities are collected from natural substrates, using the sampling methods that are most appropriate for the habitat conditions. Phytoplankton samples may be collected in large nonwadeable streams and rivers to meet specific program objectives. Estimates of algal biomass (chlorophyll content and ash-free dry mass) also are optional measures that may be useful for interpreting water-quality conditions. A nationally consistent approach provides guidance on site, reach, and habitat selection, as well as information on methods and equipment for qualitative and quantitative sampling. Appropriate quality-assurance and quality-control guidelines are used to maximize the ability to analyze data locally, regionally, and nationally.

  9. Comparison of water-quality samples collected by siphon samplers and automatic samplers in Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graczyk, David J.; Robertson, Dale M.; Rose, William J.; Steur, Jeffrey J.

    2000-01-01

    In small streams, flow and water-quality concentrations often change quickly in response to meteorological events. Hydrologists, field technicians, or locally hired stream ob- servers involved in water-data collection are often unable to reach streams quickly enough to observe or measure these rapid changes. Therefore, in hydrologic studies designed to describe changes in water quality, a combination of manual and automated sampling methods have commonly been used manual methods when flow is relatively stable and automated methods when flow is rapidly changing. Auto- mated sampling, which makes use of equipment programmed to collect samples in response to changes in stage and flow of a stream, has been shown to be an effective method of sampling to describe the rapid changes in water quality (Graczyk and others, 1993). Because of the high cost of automated sampling, however, especially for studies examining a large number of sites, alternative methods have been considered for collecting samples during rapidly changing stream conditions. One such method employs the siphon sampler (fig. 1). also referred to as the "single-stage sampler." Siphon samplers are inexpensive to build (about $25- $50 per sampler), operate, and maintain, so they are cost effective to use at a large number of sites. Their ability to collect samples representing the average quality of water passing though the entire cross section of a stream, however, has not been fully demonstrated for many types of stream sites.

  10. DCS: A global satellite environmental data collection system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Cost analysis and technical feasibility data are presented on five medium orbiting and six geosynchronous satellite data collection systems with varying degrees of spacecraft and local user terminal complexity. Data are also provided on system approaches, user requirements, and user classes. Systems considered include orbiting ERTS and EOS type satellites and geosynchronous SmS and SEOS type data collectors.

  11. Enumeration of Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. in Environmental Farm Samples and Processing Plant Carcass Rinses from Commercial Broiler Chicken Flocks

    PubMed Central

    Thayer, Stephan G.; Law, Bibiana F.; Mild, Rita M.; Hofacre, Charles L.; Singer, Randall S.

    2013-01-01

    A prospective cohort study was performed to evaluate the prevalences and loads of Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. in farm and processing plant samples collected from 55 commercial broiler chicken flocks. Environmental samples were collected from broiler houses within 48 h before slaughter, and carcass rinses were performed on birds from the same flocks at 4 different stages of processing. Salmonella was detected in farm samples of 50 (90.9%) flocks and in processing samples of 52 (94.5%) flocks. Campylobacter was detected in farm samples of 35 (63.6%) flocks and in processing samples of 48 (87.3%) flocks. There was a significant positive relationship between environmental farm samples and processing plant carcass rinses with respect to both Salmonella and Campylobacter prevalences and loads. Campylobacter loads were significantly higher than Salmonella loads, and the correlations between samples collected from the same flocks were higher for Campylobacter than they were for Salmonella. Boot socks were the most sensitive sample type for detection of Salmonella on the farm, whereas litter samples had the strongest association with Salmonella loads in pre- and postchill carcass rinses. Boot socks, drag swabs, and fecal samples all had similar sensitivities for detecting Campylobacter on the farm, and all were more strongly associated with Campylobacter loads in carcass rinses than were litter samples. Farm samples explained a greater proportion of the variability in carcass rinse prevalences and loads for Campylobacter than they did for Salmonella. Salmonella and Campylobacter prevalences and loads both decreased significantly as birds progressed through the processing plant. PMID:23624481

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, GROUNDWATER SAMPLING TECHNOLOGIES, BURGE ENVIRONMENTAL INC. MULTIPROBE 100

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has created the Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental technologies through performance verification and dissemination of information. The goal of the...

  13. Planning Considerations Related to Collecting and Analyzing Samples of the Martian Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yang; Mellon, Mike T.; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Noble, Sarah K.; Sullivan, Robert J.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Beaty, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Sample Return (MSR) End-to-End International Science Analysis Group (E2E-iSAG [1]) established scientific objectives associ-ated with Mars returned-sample science that require the return and investigation of one or more soil samples. Soil is defined here as loose, unconsolidated materials with no implication for the presence or absence of or-ganic components. The proposed Mars 2020 (M-2020) rover is likely to collect and cache soil in addition to rock samples [2], which could be followed by future sample retrieval and return missions. Here we discuss key scientific consid-erations for sampling and caching soil samples on the proposed M-2020 rover, as well as the state in which samples would need to be preserved when received by analysts on Earth. We are seeking feedback on these draft plans as input to mission requirement formulation. A related planning exercise on rocks is reported in an accompanying abstract [3].

  14. Sample collection of virulent and non-virulent B. anthracis and Y. pestis for bioforensics analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hong-geller, Elizabeth; Valdez, Yolanda E; Shou, Yulin; Yoshida, Thomas M; Marrone, Babetta L; Dunbar, John

    2009-01-01

    Validated sample collection methods are needed for recovery of microbial evidence in the event of accidental or intentional release of biological agents into the environment. To address this need, we evaluated the sample recovery efficiencies of two collection methods -- swabs and wipes -- for both non-virulent and virulent strains of B. anthracis and Y. pestis from four types of non-porous surfaces: two hydrophilic surfaces, stainless steel and glass, and two hydrophobic surfaces, vinyl and plastic. Sample recovery was quantified using Real-time qPCR to assay for intact DNA signatures. We found no consistent difference in collection efficiency between swabs or wipes. Furthermore, collection efficiency was more surface-dependent for virulent strains than non-virulent strains. For the two non-virulent strains, B. anthracis Sterne and Y. pestis A1122, collection efficiency was approximately 100% and 1 %, respectively, from all four surfaces. In contrast, recovery of B. anthracis Ames spores and Y. pestis C092 from vinyl and plastic was generally lower compared to collection from glass or stainless steel, suggesting that surface hydrophobicity may playa role in the strength of pathogen adhesion. The surface-dependent collection efficiencies observed with the virulent strains may arise from strain-specific expression of capsular material or other cell surface receptors that alter cell adhesion to specific surfaces. These findings contribute to validation of standard bioforensics procedures and emphasize the importance of specific strain and surface interactions in pathogen detection.

  15. The Importance of Meteorite Collections to Sample Return Missions: Past, Present, and Future Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welzenbach, L. C.; McCoy, T. J.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Abell, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    While much of the scientific community s current attention is drawn to sample return missions, it is the existing meteorite and cosmic dust collections that both provide the paradigms to be tested by these missions and the context for interpreting the results. Recent sample returns from the Stardust and Hayabusa missions provided us with new materials and insights about our Solar System history and processes. As an example, Stardust sampled CAIs among the population of cometary grains, requiring extensive and unexpected radial mixing in the early solar nebula. This finding would not have been possible, however, without extensive studies of meteoritic CAIs that established their high-temperature, inner Solar System formation. Samples returned by Stardust also revealed the first evidence of a cometary amino acid, a discovery that would not have been possible with current in situ flight instrument technology. The Hayabusa mission provided the final evidence linking ordinary chondrites and S asteroids, a hypothesis that developed from centuries of collection and laboratory and ground-based telescopic studies. In addition to these scientific findings, studies of existing meteorite collections have defined and refined the analytical techniques essential to studying returned samples. As an example, the fortuitous fall of the Allende CV3 and Murchison CM2 chondrites within months before the return of Apollo samples allowed testing of new state-of-the-art analytical facilities. The results of those studies not only prepared us to better study lunar materials, but unanticipated discoveries changed many of our concepts about the earliest history and processes of the solar nebula. This synergy between existing collections and future space exploration is certainly not limited to sample return missions. Laboratory studies confirmed the existence of meteorites from Mars and raised the provocative possibility of preservation of ancient microbial life. The laboratory studies in

  16. Concordant 241Pu-241Am Dating of Environmental Samples: Results from Forest Fire Ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, S. J.; Oldham, W. J.; Murrell, M. T.; Katzman, D.

    2010-12-01

    We have measured the Pu, 237Np, 241Am, and 151Sm isotopic systematics for a set of forest fire ash samples from various locations in the western U.S. including Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, and New Mexico. The goal of this study is to develop a concordant 241Pu (t1/2 = 14.4 y)-241Am dating method for environmental collections. Environmental samples often contain mixtures of components including global fallout. There are a number of approaches for subtracting the global fallout component for such samples. One approach is to use 242Pu/239Pu as a normalizing isotope ratio in a three-isotope plot, where this ratio for the non-global fallout component can be estimated or assumed to be small. This study investigates a new, complementary method of normalization using the long-lived fission product, 151Sm (t1/2 = 90 y). We find that forest fire ash concentrates actinides and fission products with ~1E10 atoms 239Pu/g and ~1E8 atoms 151Sm/g, allowing us to measure these nuclides by mass spectrometric (MIC-TIMS) and radiometric (liquid scintillation counting) methods. The forest fire ash samples are characterized by a western U.S. regional isotopic signature representing varying mixtures of global fallout with a local component from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Our results also show that 151Sm is well correlated with the Pu nuclides in the forest fire ash, suggesting that these nuclides have similar geochemical behavior in the environment. Results of this correlation indicate that the 151Sm/239Pu atom ratio for global fallout is ~0.164, in agreement with an independent estimate of 0.165 based on 137Cs fission yields for atmospheric weapons tests at the NTS. 241Pu-241Am dating of the non-global fallout component in the forest fire ash samples yield ages in the late 1950’s-early 1960’s, consistent with a peak in NTS weapons testing at that time. The age results for this component are in agreement using both 242Pu and 151Sm normalizations

  17. Concordant plutonium-241-americium-241 dating of environmental samples: results from forest fire ash

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, Steven J; Oldham, Warren J; Murrell, Michael T; Katzman, Danny

    2010-12-07

    We have measured the Pu, {sup 237}Np, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 151}Sm isotopic systematics for a set of forest fire ash samples from various locations in the western U.S. including Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, and New Mexico. The goal of this study is to develop a concordant {sup 241}Pu (t{sub 1/2} = 14.4 y)-{sup 241}Am dating method for environmental collections. Environmental samples often contain mixtures of components including global fallout. There are a number of approaches for subtracting the global fallout component for such samples. One approach is to use {sup 242}/{sup 239}Pu as a normalizing isotope ratio in a three-isotope plot, where this ratio for the nonglobal fallout component can be estimated or assumed to be small. This study investigates a new, complementary method of normalization using the long-lived fission product, {sup 151}Sm (t{sub 1/2} = 90 y). We find that forest fire ash concentrates actinides and fission products with {approx}1E10 atoms {sup 239}Pu/g and {approx}1E8 atoms {sup 151}Sm/g, allowing us to measure these nuclides by mass spectrometric (MIC-TIMS) and radiometric (liquid scintillation counting) methods. The forest fire ash samples are characterized by a western U.S. regional isotopic signature representing varying mixtures of global fallout with a local component from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Our results also show that {sup 151}Sm is well correlated with the Pu nuclides in the forest fire ash, suggesting that these nuclides have similar geochemical behavior in the environment. Results of this correlation indicate that the {sup 151}Sm/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio for global fallout is {approx}0.164, in agreement with an independent estimate of 0.165 based on {sup 137}Cs fission yields for atmospheric weapons tests at the NTS. {sup 241}Pu-{sup 241}Am dating of the non-global fallout component in the forest fire ash samples yield ages in the late 1950's-early 1960's, consistent with a peak in NTS

  18. Macroinvertebrate community sample collection methods and data collected from Sand Creek and Medano Creek, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, Colorado, 2005–07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ford, Morgan A.; Zuellig, Robert E.; Walters, David M.; Bruce, James F.

    2016-01-01

    This report provides a table of site descriptions, sample information, and semiquantitative aquatic macroinvertebrate data from 105 samples collected between 2005 and 2007 from 7 stream sites within the Sand Creek and Medano Creek watersheds in Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, Saguache County, Colorado. Additionally, a short description of sample collection methods and laboratory sample processing procedures is presented. These data were collected in anticipation of assessing the potential effects of fish toxicants on macroinvertebrates.

  19. A comprehensive approach to the determination of two benzimidazoles in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Wagil, Marta; Maszkowska, Joanna; Białk-Bielińska, Anna; Stepnowski, Piotr; Kumirska, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Among the various pharmaceuticals regarded as emerging pollutants, benzimidazoles--represented by flubendazole and fenbendazole--are of particular concern because of their large-scale use in veterinary medicine and their health effects on aquatic organisms. For this reason, it is essential to have reliable analytical methods which can be used to simultaneously monitor their appearance in environmental matrices such as water, sediment and tissue samples. To date, however, such methods relating to these three matrices have not been available. In this paper we present a comprehensive approach to the determination of both drugs in the mentioned above matrices using liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Special attention was paid to the sample preparation step. The optimal extraction methods were further validated by experiments with spiked water, sediment and fish tissue samples. Matrix effects were established. The following absolute recoveries of flubendazole and fenbendazole were achieved: 96.2% and 95.4% from waters, 103.4% and 98.3% from sediments, and 98.3% and 97.6% from fish tissue samples, respectively. Validation of the LC-MS/MS methods enable flubendazole and fenbendazole to be determined with method detection limits: 1.6 ng L(-1) and 1.7 ng L(-1) in water samples; 0.3 ng g(-1) for both compounds in sediment samples, and 3.3 ng g(-1) and 3.5 ng g(-1) in tissue samples, respectively. The proposed methods were successfully used for analysing selected pharmaceuticals in real samples collected in northern Poland. There is first data on the concentration in the environment of the target compounds in Poland. PMID:24890838

  20. Automation of high-frequency sampling of environmental waters for reactive species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Bishop, J. K.; Wood, T.; Fung, I.; Fong, M.

    2011-12-01

    Trace metals, particularly iron and manganese, play a critical role in some ecosystems as a limiting factor to determine primary productivity, in geochemistry, especially redox chemistry as important electron donors and acceptors, and in aquatic environments as carriers of contaminant transport. Dynamics of trace metals are closely related to various hydrologic events such as rainfall. Storm flow triggers dramatic changes of both dissolved and particulate trace metals concentrations and affects other important environmental parameters linked to trace metal behavior such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC). To improve our understanding of behaviors of trace metals and underlying processes, water chemistry information must be collected for an adequately long period of time at higher frequency than conventional manual sampling (e.g. weekly, biweekly). In this study, we developed an automated sampling system to document the dynamics of trace metals, focusing on Fe and Mn, and DOC for a multiple-year high-frequency geochemistry time series in a small catchment, called Rivendell located at Angelo Coast Range Reserve, California. We are sampling ground and streamwater using the automated sampling system in daily-frequency and the condition of the site is substantially variable from season to season. The ranges of pH of ground and streamwater are pH 5 - 7 and pH 7.8 - 8.3, respectively. DOC is usually sub-ppm, but during rain events, it increases by an order of magnitude. The automated sampling system focuses on two aspects- 1) a modified design of sampler to improve sample integrity for trace metals and DOC and 2) remote controlling system to update sampling volume and timing according to hydrological conditions. To maintain sample integrity, the developed method employed gravity filtering using large volume syringes (140mL) and syringe filters connected to a set of polypropylene bottles and a borosilicate bottle via Teflon tubing. Without filtration, in a few days, the

  1. Sample Collection of Ash and Burned Soils from the October 2007 Southern California Wildfires

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Martin, Deborah A.; Rochester, Carlton; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Mendez, Greg; Reichard, Eric G.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2009-01-01

    Between November 2 through 9, 2007 scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected samples of ash and burned soils from 28 sites in six areas burned as a result of the Southern California wildfires of October 2007, including the Harris, Witch, Santiago, Ammo, Canyon, and Grass Valley Fires. The primary goal of this sampling and analysis effort was to understand how differences in ash and burned soil composition relate to vegetation type, underlying bedrock geology, burn intensity, and residential versus wildland. Sampling sites were chosen with the input of local experts from the USGS Water Resources and Biological Resources Disciplines to help understand possible effects of the fires on water supplies, ecosystems, and endangered species. The sampling was also carried out in conjunction with detailed field analysis of the spectral reflectance characteristics of the ash, so that chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the field samples could be used to help interpret data collected as part of an airborne, hyperspectral remote-sensing survey of several of the burned areas in mid-late November, 2007. This report presents an overview of the field sampling methodologies used to collect the samples, includes representative photos of the sites sampled, and summarizes important characteristics of each of the collection sites. In this report we use the term 'ash' to refer collectively to white mineral ash, which results from full combustion of vegetation and black charred organic matter from partial combustion of vegetation or other materials. These materials were found to be intermingled as a deposited residue on the soil surface following the Southern California fires of 2007.

  2. Swabs as DNA collection devices for sampling different biological materials from different substrates.

    PubMed

    Verdon, Timothy J; Mitchell, Robert J; van Oorschot, Roland A H

    2014-07-01

    Currently, there is a variety of swabs for collection of biological evidence from crime scenes, but their comparative efficiency is unknown. Here, we report the results of an investigation into the efficiency of different swab types to collect blood, saliva and touch DNA from a range of substrates. The efficiency of extracting blood and saliva from each swab type was also tested. Some swabs were significantly more effective than others for sampling biological materials from different substrates. Swabs with the highest sampling efficiency, however, often did not have the highest extraction efficiency. Observations were recorded regarding practicality of each swab in a variety of situations. Our study demonstrates that selection of sampling device impacts greatly upon successful collection and extraction of DNA. We present guidelines to assist in evaluation of swab choice. PMID:24502761

  3. SURVIVAL AND RECOVERY OF MICROORGANISMS FROM ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is nearly impossible to duplicate the various ecosystems into which GEMs may be placed, mainly because of the various environmental factors, their fluxes and changes. t is quite impossible, also to specify any microbe in precise terms of its growth, structure, function, surviv...

  4. BAYESIAN ENTROPY FOR SPATIAL SAMPLING DESIGN OF ENVIRONMENTAL DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate Matter (PM) has been linked to widespread public health effects, including a range of serious respiratory and cardiovascular problems, and to reduced visibility in may parts of the United States, see the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) report (2004) and relevant...

  5. Multi-element composition of historical lichen collections and bark samples, indicators of changing atmospheric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purvis, O. W.; Chimonides, P. D. J.; Jeffries, T. E.; Jones, G. C.; Rusu, A.-M.; Read, H.

    Thirty six element signatures were compared in historical Parmelia sulcata samples from the Natural History Museum herbarium collected over the period 1797-1967 with those recorded in the same species and tree bark sampled in 2000 from Burnham Beeches, lying 40 km west of London. Nineteen elements reached highest concentrations in herbarium samples, consistent with a pollution legacy and dust contamination in the herbarium. Healthy Parmelia sampled east and down-wind of London at a farm during peak SO 2 emissions in 1967 contained highest V, Ni, Zn, Cd, Se, Ge contents, supporting derivation from fuel combustion; the same sample was previously determined as having a low δ34S and high S and N contents. Lowest V, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sn, Ba, Pb, Mo, Sb, Li, B, Cs, U, Th, Ga contents were recorded in a sample with a high δ34S and low S content collected in 1887 from a remote region from Ross-shire, Scotland. Se and Cd enrichment, never-the-less suggest a transboundary pollution influence. Lichen Pb concentrations from Burnham Beeches were amongst the lowest recorded in spite of lichens being collected close to roads. Herbarium samples help interpret changes in element deposition where few data exist, in spite of dust contamination.

  6. Archival policies and collections database for the Woods Hole Science Center's marine sediment samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buczkowski, Brian J.; Kelsey, Sarah A.

    2007-01-01

    The Woods Hole Science Center of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been an active member of the Woods Hole research community, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, for over 40 years. In that time there have been many projects that involved the collection of sediment samples conducted by USGS scientists and technicians for the research and study of seabed environments and processes. These samples were collected at sea or near shore and then brought back to the Woods Hole Science Center (WHSC) for analysis. While at the center, samples are stored in ambient temperature, refrigerated and freezing conditions ranging from +2º Celsius to -18º Celsius, depending on the best mode of preparation for the study being conducted or the duration of storage planned for the samples. Recently, storage methods and available storage space have become a major concern at the WHSC. The core and sediment archive program described herein has been initiated to set standards for the management, methods, and duration of sample storage. A need has arisen to maintain organizational consistency and define storage protocol. This handbook serves as a reference and guide to all parties interested in using and accessing the WHSC's sample archive and also defines all the steps necessary to construct and maintain an organized collection of geological samples. It answers many questions as to the way in which the archive functions.

  7. Methods for collection and analysis of aquatic biological and microbiological samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greeson, Phillip E., (Edited By); Ehlke, T.A.; Irwin, G.A.; Lium, B.W.; Slack, K.V.

    1977-01-01

    Chapter A4 contains methods used by the U.S. Geological Survey to collect, preserve, and analyze waters to determine their biological and microbiological properties. Part 1 discusses biological sampling and sampling statistics. The statistical procedures are accompanied by examples. Part 2 consists of detailed descriptions of more than 45 individual methods, including those for bacteria, phytoplankton, zooplankton, seston, periphyton, macrophytes, benthic invertebrates, fish and other vertebrates, cellular contents, productivity, and bioassays. Each method is summarized, and the application, interferences, apparatus, reagents, collection, analysis, calculations, reporting of results, precision and references are given. Part 3 consists of a glossary. Part 4 is a list of taxonomic references.

  8. Selective determination of cocaine and its metabolite benzoylecgonine in environmental samples by newly developed sorbent materials.

    PubMed

    Bujak, Renata; Gadzała-Kopciuch, Renata; Nowaczyk, Alicja; Raczak-Gutknecht, Joanna; Kordalewska, Marta; Struck-Lewicka, Wiktoria; Markuszewski, Michał J; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2016-01-01

    Sewage epidemiology, as compared to crime statistics, health, medical reports or population surveys, is becoming the most objective and realistic approach to estimate drug consumption and trends in local communities. In this study we proposed newly synthesized sorbent materials for selective extraction of cocaine and benzoylecgonine from wastewater samples. The molecular modeling calculations were conducted to provide the choice of proper template and functional monomer for synthesis of extraction materials. The physicochemical properties of synthesized sorbents were studied using various techniques. The newly developed sorbent materials were applied for selective extraction of cocaine and benzoylecgonine from wastewater samples collected from different wastewater treatment plants in Poland. The obtained recoveries values in wastewater samples were 83.6(±7.1)% and 72.1(±4.8)%, for cocaine and benzoylecgonine, respectively. The newly developed sorbents comprise an alternative to conventional ones, which are not entirely suitable for highly efficient purification of environmental samples due to the presence of contaminants. PMID:26695282

  9. Assessment of DDT levels in selected environmental media and biological samples from Mexico and Central America.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N; Trejo, Antonio; Ruepert, Clemens; Jovel, Reyna del Carmen; Méndez, Mónica Patricia; Ferrari, Mirtha; Saballos-Sobalvarro, Emilio; Alexander, Carlos; Yáñez-Estrada, Leticia; Lopez, Dania; Henao, Samuel; Pinto, Emilio R; Díaz-Barriga, Fernando

    2010-03-01

    Taking into account the environmental persistence and the toxicity of DDT, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) organized a surveillance program in Mesoamerica which included the detection of residual DDT in environmental (soil) and biological samples (fish tissue and children's blood). This program was carried out in communities from Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. This paper presents the first report of that program. As expected, the results show that the levels for [summation operator] DDT in soil (outdoor or indoor) and fish samples in the majority of the locations studied are below guidelines. However, in some locations, we found children with high concentrations of DDT as in Mexico (mean level 50.2 ng/mL). Furthermore, in some communities and for some matrices, the DDT/DDE quotient is higher than one and this may reflect a recent DDT exposure. Therefore, more efforts are needed to avoid exposure and to prevent the reintroduction of DDT into the region. In this regard it is important to know that under the surveillance of PAHO and with the support of UNEP, a regional program in Mesoamerica for the collection and disposal of DDT and other POPs stockpiles is in progress. PMID:20092871

  10. 76 FR 11751 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ...In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, this notice announces the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service's intention to request an extension of approval of an information collection associated with environmental...

  11. Speciation Mapping of Environmental Samples Using XANES Imaging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fast X-ray detectors with large solid angles and high dynamic ranges open the door to XANES imaging, in which millions of spectra are collected to image the speciation of metals at micrometre resolution, over areas up to several square centimetres. This paper explores how such mu...

  12. The effect of nocturnal sampling on semen quality and the efficiency of collection in bovine species.

    PubMed

    Yates, Jennifer H; Chandler, John E; Canal, Anita L; Braden Paul, J

    2003-12-01

    This study evaluated night and day semen collection regimes in Holstein and Brahman bulls (four bulls of each breed) that were collected weekly, each during a morning and a night collection. Ejaculates (n=64) were obtained via artificial vagina over 4 weeks. The first collection of each week alternated between night and day. Two collection teams were employed. Bull behavior parameters included reaction time to first mount, time to ejaculation, a refractory period test, and a thrust intensity test. The numbers of interruptions were counted as a managerial parameter. Pre-freeze semen parameters included total volume, initial motility and concentration. Post-freeze semen parameters measured were: 0- and 3-h post-thaw motility; percent intact acrosomes; and percent sperm abnormalities. Data were analyzed by least squares methods. The bull within breed effect differed (P<0.05) for behavior parameters. The bull within breed effect for total motile sperm harvested was not significant. The bull within breed response was mixed for post-freeze semen viability parameters. Bull within breed was not significant for sperm abnormalities. The night versus day treatment was significant for the managerial parameter (P=0.002). Although a different collection schedule for Bos indicus cattle was not warranted, the efficiency of the collection process was affected by extraneous environmental conditions. PMID:14580649

  13. NHEXAS PHASE I MARYLAND STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION, STORAGE, AND SHIPMENT OF DRINKING OR TAP WATER SAMPLES FOR METAL AND PESTICIDE ANALYSIS (F07)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to describe the procedures necessary for the collection of tap water and drinking water samples to be analyzed for metals, and pesticides by an external analytical laboratory contracted by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Cincinnati. Keywords:...

  14. An unmanned mission to Mars with sample collection and in-situ resource utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The design for the Mars Analysis and Return Vehicle with In-Situ Resource Utilization (MARVIN) project is outlined. The MARVIN mission is designed to collect samples of the Martian environment; to produce fuel from local Martian resources; and to use the fuel produced to return the samples to earth. It uses only existing technologies. Exploratory Technologies' mission-design efforts have focused on methods of orbit determination, sample collection, fuel production, power, communications, control, and structural design. Lambert Targeting provided Delta-V's, launch dates, and travel times. The landing site is the Tharsis Plateau, to the southeast of Olympus Mons, chosen for its substantial scientific value. Samples of soil, dust, and atmosphere are collected with lander-based collection devices: the soil sample, with a robotic arm similar to those used in the Viking missions; the atmospheric sample, from a bleed line to the compressor in the fuel-production facility; a dust sample, from the dust-collection container in the fuel-production facility; and a redundant dust sample, with a with a passive filter system, which relies upon neither a power source nor other collection methods. The sample-return capsule (SRC) houses these samples, which are triply contained to prevent contamination. Proven technology can be used to produce methane and oxygen for fuel with relative ease at the landing site: the Sabatier reactor produces methane and water by combining carbon dioxide and hydrogen (brought from earth); the Reverse Water-Gas Shift unit combines carbon dioxide and hydrogen to form carbon monoxide and water; a water-electrolysis unit splits the water into hydrogen and oxygen. The Mars-lander vehicle (MLV) transports the equipment from earth to Mars. The Mars-ascent vehicle (MAV) contains the SRC and the engine, which is the same for both the MLV and the MAV. All equipment that is unnecessary for the Mars-Earth trajectory remains on Mars. This report presents detailed

  15. An unmanned mission to Mars with sample collection and in-situ resource utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-05-01

    The design for the Mars Analysis and Return Vehicle with In-Situ Resource Utilization (MARVIN) project is outlined. The MARVIN mission is designed to collect samples of the Martian environment; to produce fuel from local Martian resources; and to use the fuel produced to return the samples to earth. It uses only existing technologies. Exploratory Technologies' mission-design efforts have focused on methods of orbit determination, sample collection, fuel production, power, communications, control, and structural design. Lambert Targeting provided Delta-V's, launch dates, and travel times. The landing site is the Tharsis Plateau, to the southeast of Olympus Mons, chosen for its substantial scientific value. Samples of soil, dust, and atmosphere are collected with lander-based collection devices: the soil sample, with a robotic arm similar to those used in the Viking missions; the atmospheric sample, from a bleed line to the compressor in the fuel-production facility; a dust sample, from the dust-collection container in the fuel-production facility; and a redundant dust sample, with a with a passive filter system, which relies upon neither a power source nor other collection methods. The sample-return capsule (SRC) houses these samples, which are triply contained to prevent contamination. Proven technology can be used to produce methane and oxygen for fuel with relative ease at the landing site: the Sabatier reactor produces methane and water by combining carbon dioxide and hydrogen (brought from earth); the Reverse Water-Gas Shift unit combines carbon dioxide and hydrogen to form carbon monoxide and water; a water-electrolysis unit splits the water into hydrogen and oxygen. The Mars-lander vehicle (MLV) transports the equipment from earth to Mars. The Mars-ascent vehicle (MAV) contains the SRC and the engine, which is the same for both the MLV and the MAV. All equipment that is unnecessary for the Mars-Earth trajectory remains on Mars. This report presents detailed

  16. Field Methods and Sample Collection Techniques for the Surveillance of West Nile Virus in Avian Hosts.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Sarah S; Boyce, Walter M; Reisen, William K

    2016-01-01

    Avian hosts play an important role in the spread, maintenance, and amplification of West Nile virus (WNV). Avian susceptibility to WNV varies from species to species thus surveillance efforts can focus both on birds that survive infection and those that succumb. Here we describe methods for the collection and sampling of live birds for WNV antibodies or viremia, and methods for the sampling of dead birds. Target species and study design considerations are discussed. PMID:27188560

  17. Levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and deltamethrin in humans and environmental samples in malarious areas of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Yáñez, Leticia; Ortiz-Pérez, Deogracias; Batres, Lilia E; Borja-Aburto, Víctor H; Díaz-Barriga, Fernando

    2002-03-01

    Mexico used dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) to control malaria until 1999, when it was replaced with deltamethrin for mosquito control. Thus, we performed environmental and exposure assessments to DDT and deltamethrin in the states of Chiapas and Oaxaca. In Chiapas, samples were obtained at the time when DDT was being used in the malaria control program, while in Oaxaca, samples were collected 2 years after the final spraying of DDT and 2 days after deltamethrin application. Mean concentrations of DDT and Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), as measured in whole blood, were 67.8 and 86.7 microg/L for children living in Chiapas and 27.1 and 60.8 microg/L for adults, respectively. As expected, DDT levels were lower 2 years after the final application in Oaxaca (20.4 and 13.2 microg/L for children and adults, respectively). Sprayers in Chiapas had the highest levels of exposure, with 165.5 and 188.4 microg/L of DDT and DDE, respectively. Women living in Chiapas and Oaxaca also had significantly higher blood levels of DDT and DDE than those women living in areas where less DDT had been used. Deltamethrin exposure was assessed only in children living in Oaxaca; 50% of the exposed group had urinary levels of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid above the limit of detection (LOD) and 6% had levels above 25 microg/L (five times the LOD), with a negative trend with age (r=-0.33). In Chiapas we found higher DDT and DDE levels in soil than in Oaxaca. In the latter location, large amounts of DDT and DDE were found in sediment samples and deltamethrin was detected in indoor soil samples. Considering the environmental data, the blood level results can be explained by soil/dust ingestion, human milk ingestion, and consumption of fish and other contaminated foods. PMID:12051795

  18. Comparative genetic activity of samples collected from two different urban waste incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Vellosi, R.; Galli, A.; Rossi, F.; Morichetti, E.; Bronzetti, G.

    1988-09-01

    Incineration of industrial and urban waste materials is an important problem for the environmental contamination and therefore for human health. Environmental contaminants spread by urban incinerators can contain a complex mixture of toxic compounds such as dioxin, benzofurans, alogenate acids. It is important to evaluate the genetic damage induced by complex mixtures widespread in the environment. In the present work, the genotoxic activity of samples obtained from the urban incinerator of Florence was analyzed. The results were compared with those obtained with samples drawn from the urban Snamprogetti incinerator of Schio (Vicenza), where halogenated acids contained in the smoke are neutralized with the lime wash in a salification column. Samples were tested using prokaryotic (Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100 and TA102 strains) and eukaryotic (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, D7 strain) microorganisms. These systems permit one to obtain rapid, reproducible and reliable results in order to evaluate the genotoxic activity of substances present in the environment.

  19. Sample collection and preparation methods affecting mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of coal fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Mumford, J.; Lewtas, J.

    1983-07-01

    Reports by several investigators describing the biological activity of coal fly ash have presented a variety of results which in some cases are conflicting. The biological activity of coal fly ash may differ because of one or more of the following factors: (1) the samples studied were from different sources; (2) the samples were prepared for bioassay differently; (3) the sampling method differed, and, therefore, collected samples were different in chemical or physical properties which affect the biological activity. Several variables involved in coal fly ash studies -- source, sample collection land preparation methods, bioassay method -- are undoubtedly responsible for the diversity of biological effects observed. The objectives of this study were to examine the sample preparation and collection factors which may affect the observed biological activity caused by coal fly ash and to evaluate the mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) fly ash from experimental and commercial units. The bioassays used in this study were the Ames Salmonella plate incorporation test for mutagenicity and the rabbit alveolar macrophage (RAM) system for cytotoxicity.

  20. 77 FR 39263 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed.... The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), will be... 5000.29. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives. (4) Affected public who will be asked...

  1. 77 FR 54610 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed...: The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), will be.... Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives. (4) Affected public who will be asked or required...

  2. Field guidelines for collection, treatment, and analysis of water samples, Montana district

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knapton, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    This manual provides a set of standardized guidelines and quality-control procedures for the collection and preservation of water samples and defines procedures for field analyses of unstable constituents or properties. Seldom is the water being samples of such uniformity that a single grab sample is representative of the whole. For this reason a variety of sampler types and sampling methods have been devised. Descriptions and procedures for field use are given for a number of sampler types. Several methods of sampling are described for which these samplers can be used. Sample-processing devices such as sample splitters and filtration apparatus are discussed along with methods of cleaning. Depending on the type of analysis to be performed in the laboratory, samples may need to be preserved shortly after collection. Various types of preservation are described in detail. Analyses for unstable constituents or properties are of necessity accomplished in the field. This manual addresses analytical techniques and quality assurance for: (1) Water temperature, (2) specific conductance, (3) pH, (4) alkalinity, (5) dissolved oxygen, and (6) bacteria. Examples of field report forms are given as attachments. Information pertinent to certain field calculations is also presented. (USGS)

  3. Norovirus GII.4 detection in environmental samples from patient rooms during nosocomial outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Nenonen, Nancy P; Hannoun, Charles; Svensson, Lennart; Torén, Kjell; Andersson, Lars-Magnus; Westin, Johan; Bergström, Tomas

    2014-07-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is an important cause of nosocomial gastroenteric outbreaks. This 5-month study was designed to characterize NoV contamination and airborne dispersal in patient rooms during hospital outbreaks. Air vents, overbed tables, washbasins, dust, and virus traps designed to collect charged particles from the air were swabbed to investigate the possibility of NoV contamination in patient rooms during outbreaks in seven wards and in an outbreak-free ward. Symptomatic inpatients were also sampled. Nucleic acid extracts of the samples were examined for NoV RNA using genogroup I (GI) and GII real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The NoV strains were characterized by RT-PCR, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis of the RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase-N/S capsid-coding region (1,040 nucleotides [nt]). Patient strains from two outbreaks in one ward were sequenced across the RNA-dependent-RNA-polymerase major capsid-coding region (2.5 kb), including the hypervariable P2 domain. In the outbreak wards, NoV GII was detected in 48 of 101 (47%) environmental swabs and 63 of 108 patients (58%); NoV genotype II.4 was sequenced from 18 environmental samples, dust (n = 8), virus traps (n = 4), surfaces (n = 6), and 56 patients. In contrast, NoV GII was detected in 2 (GII.4) of 28 (7%) environmental samples and in 2 (GII.6 and GII.4) of 17 patients in the outbreak-free ward. Sequence analyses revealed a high degree of similarity (>99.5%, 1,040 nt) between NoV GII.4 environmental and patient strains from a given ward at a given time. The strains clustered on 11 subbranches of the phylogenetic tree, with strong correlations to time and place. The high nucleotide similarity between the NoV GII.4 strains from patients and their hospital room environment provided molecular evidence of GII.4 dispersal in the air and dust; therefore, interventional cleaning studies are justified. PMID:24759712

  4. Norovirus GII.4 Detection in Environmental Samples from Patient Rooms during Nosocomial Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Hannoun, Charles; Svensson, Lennart; Torén, Kjell; Andersson, Lars-Magnus; Westin, Johan; Bergström, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is an important cause of nosocomial gastroenteric outbreaks. This 5-month study was designed to characterize NoV contamination and airborne dispersal in patient rooms during hospital outbreaks. Air vents, overbed tables, washbasins, dust, and virus traps designed to collect charged particles from the air were swabbed to investigate the possibility of NoV contamination in patient rooms during outbreaks in seven wards and in an outbreak-free ward. Symptomatic inpatients were also sampled. Nucleic acid extracts of the samples were examined for NoV RNA using genogroup I (GI) and GII real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The NoV strains were characterized by RT-PCR, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis of the RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase-N/S capsid-coding region (1,040 nucleotides [nt]). Patient strains from two outbreaks in one ward were sequenced across the RNA-dependent-RNA-polymerase major capsid-coding region (2.5 kb), including the hypervariable P2 domain. In the outbreak wards, NoV GII was detected in 48 of 101 (47%) environmental swabs and 63 of 108 patients (58%); NoV genotype II.4 was sequenced from 18 environmental samples, dust (n = 8), virus traps (n = 4), surfaces (n = 6), and 56 patients. In contrast, NoV GII was detected in 2 (GII.4) of 28 (7%) environmental samples and in 2 (GII.6 and GII.4) of 17 patients in the outbreak-free ward. Sequence analyses revealed a high degree of similarity (>99.5%, 1,040 nt) between NoV GII.4 environmental and patient strains from a given ward at a given time. The strains clustered on 11 subbranches of the phylogenetic tree, with strong correlations to time and place. The high nucleotide similarity between the NoV GII.4 strains from patients and their hospital room environment provided molecular evidence of GII.4 dispersal in the air and dust; therefore, interventional cleaning studies are justified. PMID:24759712

  5. The Autism Simplex Collection: an international, expertly phenotyped autism sample for genetic and phenotypic analyses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an urgent need for expanding and enhancing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) samples, in order to better understand causes of ASD. Methods In a unique public-private partnership, 13 sites with extensive experience in both the assessment and diagnosis of ASD embarked on an ambitious, 2-year program to collect samples for genetic and phenotypic research and begin analyses on these samples. The program was called The Autism Simplex Collection (TASC). TASC sample collection began in 2008 and was completed in 2010, and included nine sites from North America and four sites from Western Europe, as well as a centralized Data Coordinating Center. Results Over 1,700 trios are part of this collection, with DNA from transformed cells now available through the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G) measures are available for all probands, as are standardized IQ measures, Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales (VABS), the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), and physical measures (height, weight, and head circumference). At almost every site, additional phenotypic measures were collected, including the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ) and Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R), as well as the non-word repetition scale, Communication Checklist (Children’s or Adult), and Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC). Moreover, for nearly 1,000 trios, the Autism Genome Project Consortium (AGP) has carried out Illumina 1 M SNP genotyping and called copy number variation (CNV) in the samples, with data being made available through the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Whole exome sequencing (WES) has been carried out in over 500 probands, together with ancestry matched controls, and this data is also available through the NIH. Additional WES is being carried out by the Autism Sequencing Consortium (ASC), where the

  6. 78 FR 78998 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: HUD Environmental Review Online System (HEROS)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: HUD Environmental Review Online... Environmental Review Online System (HEROS). OMB Approval Number: 2506-New. Type of Request: New. Description...

  7. Promoting Pro-Environmental Behaviour: Collection of Used Batteries by Secondary School Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rioux, Liliane

    2011-01-01

    This research is based on Kollmuss and Agyeman's mode, and aims to determine if the prerequisites for pro-environmental behaviour, such as the collection of used batteries at school, are ethical, cognitive and environmental. A questionnaire/opinionnaire was given to 102, 14-17-year-olds to gather data on: (1) their current recycling habits, (2)…

  8. 78 FR 50079 - Information Collection Activities: Safety and Environmental Management Systems (SEMS); Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement [Docket ID BSEE-2013-0005; OMB Control Number 1014-0017: 134E1700D2 EEEE500000 ET1SF0000.DAQ000] Information Collection Activities: Safety and Environmental Management Systems (SEMS); Proposed...

  9. Curating NASA's future extraterrestrial sample collections: How do we achieve maximum proficiency?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCubbin, Francis; Evans, Cynthia; Allton, Judith; Fries, Marc; Righter, Kevin; Zolensky, Michael; Zeigler, Ryan

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office (henceforth referred to herein as NASA Curation Office) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. Under the governing document, NASA Policy Directive (NPD) 7100.10E "Curation of Extraterrestrial Materials", JSC is charged with "The curation of all extraterrestrial material under NASA control, including future NASA missions." The Directive goes on to define Curation as including "…documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach." Here we describe some of the ongoing efforts to ensure that the future activities of the NASA Curation Office are working to-wards a state of maximum proficiency. Founding Principle: Curatorial activities began at JSC (Manned Spacecraft Center before 1973) as soon as design and construction planning for the Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL) began in 1964 [1], not with the return of the Apollo samples in 1969, nor with the completion of the LRL in 1967. This practice has since proven that curation begins as soon as a sample return mission is conceived, and this founding principle continues to return dividends today [e.g., 2]. The Next Decade: Part of the curation process is planning for the future, and we refer to these planning efforts as "advanced curation" [3]. Advanced Curation is tasked with developing procedures, technology, and data sets necessary for curating new types of collections as envisioned by NASA exploration goals. We are (and have been) planning for future curation, including cold curation, extended curation of ices and volatiles, curation of samples with special chemical considerations such as perchlorate-rich samples, curation of organically- and biologically-sensitive samples, and the use of minimally invasive analytical techniques (e.g., micro-CT, [4]) to characterize samples. These efforts will be useful for Mars Sample Return

  10. Starting a European Space Agency Sample Analogue Collection for Robotic Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood Lollar, B.; Sutcliffe, C. N.; Ballentine, C. J.; Onstott, T. C.; Lau, C. Y. M.; Magnabosco, C.; Slater, G.; Moser, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Natural History Museum is working closely with the European Space Agency (ESA) and the UK Space Agency to develop a European collection of analogue materials with appropriate physical/mechanical and chemical (mineralogical) properties which can support the development and verification of both spacecraft and scientific systems for potential science and exploration missions to Phobos/Deimos, Mars, C-type asteroids and the Moon. As an ESA Collection it will be housed at the ESA Centre based at Harwell, UK. The "ESA Sample Analogues Collection" will be composed of both natural and artificial materials chosen to (as closely as possible) replicate the surfaces and near-surfaces of different Solar System target bodies of exploration interest. The analogue samples will be fully characterised in terms of both their physical/mechanical properties (compressive strength, bulk density, grain shape, grain size, cohesion and angle of internal friction) and their chemical/mineralogical properties (texture, modal mineralogy, bulk chemical composition - major, minor and trace elements and individual mineralogical compositions). The Collection will be fully curated to international standards including implementation of a user-friendly database and will be available for use by engineers and scientists across the UK and Europe. Enhancement of the initial Collection will be possible through collaborations with other ESA and UK Space Agency supported activities, such as the acquisition of new samples during field trials.

  11. Starting a European Space Agency Sample Analogue Collection for Robotic Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, C. L.; Mavris, C.; Michalski, J. R.; Rumsey, M. S.; Russell, S. S.; Jones, C.; Schroeven-Deceuninck, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Natural History Museum is working closely with the European Space Agency (ESA) and the UK Space Agency to develop a European collection of analogue materials with appropriate physical/mechanical and chemical (mineralogical) properties which can support the development and verification of both spacecraft and scientific systems for potential science and exploration missions to Phobos/Deimos, Mars, C-type asteroids and the Moon. As an ESA Collection it will be housed at the ESA Centre based at Harwell, UK. The "ESA Sample Analogues Collection" will be composed of both natural and artificial materials chosen to (as closely as possible) replicate the surfaces and near-surfaces of different Solar System target bodies of exploration interest. The analogue samples will be fully characterised in terms of both their physical/mechanical properties (compressive strength, bulk density, grain shape, grain size, cohesion and angle of internal friction) and their chemical/mineralogical properties (texture, modal mineralogy, bulk chemical composition - major, minor and trace elements and individual mineralogical compositions). The Collection will be fully curated to international standards including implementation of a user-friendly database and will be available for use by engineers and scientists across the UK and Europe. Enhancement of the initial Collection will be possible through collaborations with other ESA and UK Space Agency supported activities, such as the acquisition of new samples during field trials.

  12. New Concepts for Radiometric Measurements of Environmental Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Glen A.; Runkle, Robert C.

    2013-05-01

    There is a long history of using radioisotopes to study a variety of environmental processes. The recent release of radioisotopes from the nuclear power facilities in Fukushima, Japan, prompted a review at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) of the current measurement practices applied to the measurement of actinides and radioactive fission products in the environment. The objective of this review is to identify gaps in measurement capability that might be addressed through research and development. The scope is limited to man-made radioisotopes in the environment related to nuclear power and nuclear weapons. The focus rests on actinides and fission products. This report presents the preliminary findings of the review.

  13. Composition of selected rain samples collected at Menlo Park, California, 1971

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, Vance C.; Zellweger, Gary W.; Avanzino, Ronald J.

    1976-01-01

    Chemical analysis are tabulated for 104 rain samples that were collected at Menlo Park, California, during November and December 1971. Of the 13 constituents determined, chloride was the most prominent with a range from less than 0.1 to 15.0 mg/liter. (Woodard-USGS)

  14. An evaluation of optimal methods for avian influenza virus sample collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sample collection and transport are critical components of any diagnostic testing program and due to the amount of avian influenza virus (AIV) testing in the U.S. and worldwide, small improvements in sensitivity and specificity can translate into substantial cost savings from better test accuracy. ...

  15. 21 CFR 111.80 - What representative samples must you collect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What representative samples must you collect? 111.80 Section 111.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  16. COLLECTING URINE SAMPLES FROM YOUNG CHILDREN USING GAUZE FOR PESTICIDE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To estimate pesticide exposure, urine samples are often needed to analyze pesticide metabolites. However, this is difficult for children wearing diapers because simple and feasible techniques suitable for field collection are not available. The objectives of this study were to te...

  17. COLLECTING URINE SAMPLES FROM YOUNG CHILDREN USING COTTON GAUZE FOR PESTICIDE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To estimate pesticide exposure, urine samples are often needed to analyze pesticide metabolites. However, this is difficult for children wearing diapers because simple and feasible techniques suitable for field collection are not available. The objectives of this study were to t...

  18. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 864.3260 Section 864.3260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES...

  19. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 864.3260 Section 864.3260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES...

  20. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 864.3260 Section 864.3260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES...

  1. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 864.3260 Section 864.3260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES...

  2. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 864.3260 Section 864.3260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES...

  3. College Students' Perceptions of Collective Efficacy: Results from a Nonurban Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domoff, Sarah E.; Hayman, Jennifer; Tompsett, Carolyn J.

    2012-01-01

    Although the relationship between neighborhood characteristics and collective efficacy is well established in urban populations with community samples, it is unclear if this relationship holds in rural areas. The current study fills this gap by assessing the perceptions of adolescents from nonurban areas to examine the relationships between…

  4. Gene banking: A quality control perspective on collection, and analysis of samples for a national repository

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Animal Germplasm Program (NAGP) is developing a national repository for germplasm (semen, oocytes, embryos, blood, DNA, tissue) for all agricultural species in the United States. Currently, the swine collection consists of 127,479 samples from 886 boars representing 20 major, minor and...

  5. 78 FR 25308 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Coal Mine Dust Sampling Devices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Coal Mine Dust Sampling Devices AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: 60-Day Notice. SUMMARY: The Department...

  6. Method for rapid screening analysis of Sr-90 in edible plant samples collected near Fukushima, Japan.

    PubMed

    Amano, Hikaru; Sakamoto, Hideaki; Shiga, Norikatsu; Suzuki, Kaori

    2016-06-01

    A screening method for measuring (90)Sr in edible plant samples by focusing on (90)Y in equilibrium with (90)Sr is reported. (90)Y was extracted from samples with acid, co-precipitated with iron hydroxide, and precipitated with oxalic acid. The dissolved oxalate precipitate was loaded on an extraction chromatography resin, and the (90)Y-enriched eluate was analyzed by Cherenkov counting with a TDCR liquid scintillation counter. (90)Sr ((90)Y) concentration was determined in plant samples collected near the damaged Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants with this method. PMID:27043171

  7. Implementing Self-collection of Biological Specimens With a Diverse Sample

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, April; Skinner, Martie L.; Woelfel, Tiffany; Carpenter, Thomas; Haggerty, Kevin P.

    2013-01-01

    Collecting saliva is the most noninvasive way to detect changing levels of cortisol (Adam & Kumari, 2009; Soo-Quee Koh & Choon-Huat Koh, 2007), a stress hormone of interest to behavioral and health scientists, where there are benefits from multiple samples taken over a period of days. Various self-collection strategies have been employed, ranging from treated cards to cotton swabs and passive drool methods. The current study investigates the effectiveness of a variety of reminder techniques in encouraging adherence with procedures requiring 4 samples per day on 3 separate days of passive drool collection among African American and European American young adults. The findings suggest that direct texts were associated with the greatest level of adherence, while phone reminders were most effective when controlling for total number of contacts. Results indicate that both traditional and novel reminder methods can positively influence adherence, even with challenging populations. PMID:24376374

  8. FURTHER CHARACTERIZATION OF SORBENTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING--II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is the fourth in a series providing characterization data related to the use of sorbents for emissions sampling. It provides retention and recovery data for several sorbates on XAD-2, XAD-7, Tenax-GC, Ambersorb XE-340, and Florisil. Retention properties of two organome...

  9. VARIANCE ESTIMATION FOR SPATIALLY BALANCED SAMPLES OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The spatial distribution of a natural resource is an important consideration in designing an efficient survey or monitoring program for the resource. We review a unified strategy for designing probability samples of discrete, finite resource populations, such as lakes within som...

  10. GY SAMPLING THEORY IN ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES 2: SUBSAMPLING ERROR MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sampling can be a significant source of error in the measurement process. The characterization and cleanup of hazardous waste sites require data that meet site-specific levels of acceptable quality if scientifically supportable decisions are to be made. In support of this effort,...

  11. Evaluation of tools for environmental sampling of Bacillus anthracis spores.

    PubMed

    Fujinami, Yoshihito; Hosokawa-Muto, Junji; Mizuno, Natsuko

    2015-12-01

    This study describes the validation of sampling techniques used to detect biological warfare agents used in terror attacks. For this purpose, we tested the efficiencies of different sampling media and extraction solutions for the recovery of bacterial pathogens. We first used Bacillus cereus ATCC 4342 spores as a surrogate for highly pathogenic B. anthracis to compare recovery efficiencies of spores from four different surfaces. We used three different types of sampling swabs and four different solutions to extract spores from the swabs. The most effective sampling method employed rayon swabs moistened with water. The efficencies of the four extraction solutions did not differ significantly, although yields were highest using phosphate-buffered saline containing Tween 80 (PBS-T). Using rayon swabs and sterile water, we recovered B. cereus ATCC 4342 and B. anthracis spores with equivalent efficiencies. These findings indicate that because of its reduced pathogenicity and relative ease in handling (Biosafety Level 1), use of B. cereus ATCC 4342 will facilitate further optimization of techniques to detect B. anthracis. PMID:26528669

  12. An environmental-economic assessment of residential curbside collection programs in Central Florida.

    PubMed

    Maimoun, Mousa A; Reinhart, Debra R; Madani, Kaveh

    2016-08-01

    Inefficient collection and scheduling procedures negatively affect residential curbside collection (RCC) efficiency, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and cost. As Florida aims to achieve a 75% recycling goal by 2020, municipalities have switched to single-stream recycling to improve recycling efficiency. Waste diversion and increased collection cost have forced some municipalities to reduce garbage collection frequency. The goal of this study was to explore the trade-offs between environmental and economic factors of RCC systems in Florida by evaluating the RCC system design of 25 different Central Florida communities. These communities were grouped into four sets based on their RCC garbage, yard waste, and recyclables collection design, i.e., frequency of collection and use of dual-stream (DS) or single-stream (SS) recyclables collection system. For the 25 communities studied, it was observed that RCC programs that used SS recyclables collection system recycled approximately 15-35%, by weight of the waste steam, compared to 5-20% for programs that used DS. The GHG emissions associated with collection programs were estimated to be between 36 and 51kg CO2eq per metric ton of total household waste (garbage and recyclables), depending on the garbage collection frequency, recyclables collection system (DS or SS), and recyclables compaction. When recyclables offsets were considered, the GHG emissions associated with programs using SS were estimated between -760 and -560, compared to between -270 and -210kg CO2eq per metric ton of total waste for DS programs. These data suggest that RCC system design can significantly impact recyclables generation rate and efficiency, and consequently determine environmental and economic impacts of collection systems. Recycling participation rate was found to have a significant impact on the environmental and financial performance of RCC programs. Collection emissions were insignificant compared to the benefits of recycling. SS collection

  13. Organising Collective Action for Effective Environmental Management and Social Learning in Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Jane; Gibbon, David; Ingram, Julie; Reed, Matt; Short, Christopher; Dwyer, Janet

    2011-01-01

    The paper explored key factors that might lead to successful agri-environmental social learning and collective action in order to deliver landscape-scale resource management within agri-environment schemes. Using the theory of collective action as an analytical framework the paper examined findings from in-depth interviews with 20 members of two…

  14. 78 FR 48890 - Information Collection Activities: Safety and Environmental Management Systems (SEMS); Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ...To comply with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (PRA), Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE) is inviting comments on a collection of information that we will resubmit to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval. The resubmission of this information collection request (ICR) is necessary to include a form that we developed to clarify and facilitate......

  15. Agri-Environmental Resource Management by Large-Scale Collective Action: Determining KEY Success Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uetake, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Large-scale collective action is necessary when managing agricultural natural resources such as biodiversity and water quality. This paper determines the key factors to the success of such action. Design/Methodology/Approach: This paper analyses four large-scale collective actions used to manage agri-environmental resources in Canada and…

  16. Electronic Nose and Use of Bags to Collect Odorous Air Samples in Meat Quality Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sala, G.; Masoero, G.; Battaglini, L. M.; Cornale, P.; Barbera, S.

    2009-05-01

    To test EN reliability and use of bags on meat, 17 bulls (one group of 9 and one of 8) fed similarly, except for a supplementary feedingstuff, were used. Samples were prepared according to the MCS protocol and repeated three times on different days for a total of 51 samples. Bags were used to collect raw and cooked meat air samples, and to test odour changes among samples analysed at different times. The first time analysis was performed immediately after collection then was repeated, 1 hour, 1 day and 1 week later. The Electronic Nose is very discriminant and clear differences were evident among raw, cooked and bags odorous profiles. The highest values were found in cooked samples and the broad range class (W5S) was the most representative. The EN also recognized the two tested feed treatments. In the cooked samples, all sensor responses decrease while time enhances, indicating a progressive chemical variation of the air composition in the bag, with a less correlation shown in the raw samples. When using bags, to avoid bias, is important to fix analysis in order to obtain useful results.

  17. Modeling and enhanced sampling of molecular systems with smooth and nonlinear data-driven collective variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemian, Behrooz; Millán, Daniel; Arroyo, Marino

    2013-12-01

    Collective variables (CVs) are low-dimensional representations of the state of a complex system, which help us rationalize molecular conformations and sample free energy landscapes with molecular dynamics simulations. Given their importance, there is need for systematic methods that effectively identify CVs for complex systems. In recent years, nonlinear manifold learning has shown its ability to automatically characterize molecular collective behavior. Unfortunately, these methods fail to provide a differentiable function mapping high-dimensional configurations to their low-dimensional representation, as required in enhanced sampling methods. We introduce a methodology that, starting from an ensemble representative of molecular flexibility, builds smooth and nonlinear data-driven collective variables (SandCV) from the output of nonlinear manifold learning algorithms. We demonstrate the method with a standard benchmark molecule, alanine dipeptide, and show how it can be non-intrusively combined with off-the-shelf enhanced sampling methods, here the adaptive biasing force method. We illustrate how enhanced sampling simulations with SandCV can explore regions that were poorly sampled in the original molecular ensemble. We further explore the transferability of SandCV from a simpler system, alanine dipeptide in vacuum, to a more complex system, alanine dipeptide in explicit water.

  18. PIXE Analysis of Aerosol and Soil Samples Collected in the Adirondack Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoskowitz, Joshua; Ali, Salina; Nadareski, Benjamin; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael

    2014-09-01

    We have performed an elemental analysis of aerosol and soil samples collected at Piseco Lake in Upstate New York using proton induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE). This work is part of a systematic study of airborne pollution in the Adirondack Mountains. Of particular interest is the sulfur content that can contribute to acid rain, a well-documented problem in the Adirondacks. We used a nine-stage cascade impactor to collect the aerosol samples near Piseco Lake and distribute the particulate matter onto Kapton foils by particle size. The soil samples were also collected at Piseco Lake and pressed into cylindrical pellets for experimentation. PIXE analysis of the aerosol and soil samples were performed with 2.2-MeV proton beams from the 1.1-MV Pelletron accelerator in the Union College Ion-Beam Analysis Laboratory. There are higher concentrations of sulfur at smaller particle sizes (0.25-1 μm), suggesting that it could be suspended in the air for days and originate from sources very far away. Other elements with significant concentrations peak at larger particle sizes (1-4 μm) and are found in the soil samples, suggesting that these elements could originate in the soil. The PIXE analysis will be described and the resulting data will be presented.

  19. Modeling and enhanced sampling of molecular systems with smooth and nonlinear data-driven collective variables.

    PubMed

    Hashemian, Behrooz; Millán, Daniel; Arroyo, Marino

    2013-12-01

    Collective variables (CVs) are low-dimensional representations of the state of a complex system, which help us rationalize molecular conformations and sample free energy landscapes with molecular dynamics simulations. Given their importance, there is need for systematic methods that effectively identify CVs for complex systems. In recent years, nonlinear manifold learning has shown its ability to automatically characterize molecular collective behavior. Unfortunately, these methods fail to provide a differentiable function mapping high-dimensional configurations to their low-dimensional representation, as required in enhanced sampling methods. We introduce a methodology that, starting from an ensemble representative of molecular flexibility, builds smooth and nonlinear data-driven collective variables (SandCV) from the output of nonlinear manifold learning algorithms. We demonstrate the method with a standard benchmark molecule, alanine dipeptide, and show how it can be non-intrusively combined with off-the-shelf enhanced sampling methods, here the adaptive biasing force method. We illustrate how enhanced sampling simulations with SandCV can explore regions that were poorly sampled in the original molecular ensemble. We further explore the transferability of SandCV from a simpler system, alanine dipeptide in vacuum, to a more complex system, alanine dipeptide in explicit water. PMID:24320358

  20. Micro-TLC Approach for Fast Screening of Environmental Samples Derived from Surface and Sewage Waters.

    PubMed

    Zarzycki, Paweł K; Slączka, Magdalena M; Włodarczyk, Elżbieta; Baran, Michał J

    2013-01-01

    In this work we demonstrated analytical capability of micro-planar (micro-TLC) technique comprising one and two-dimensional (2D) separation modes to generate fingerprints of environmental samples originated from sewage and ecosystems waters. We showed that elaborated separation and detection protocols are complementary to previously invented HPLC method based on temperature-dependent inclusion chromatography and UV-DAD detection. Presented 1D and 2D micro-TLC chromatograms of SPE (solid-phase extraction) extracts were optimized for fast and low-cost screening of water samples collected from lakes and rivers located in the area of Middle Pomerania in northern part of Poland. Moreover, we studied highly organic compounds loaded in the treated and untreated sewage waters obtained from municipal wastewater treatment plant "Jamno" near Koszalin City (Poland). Analyzed environmental samples contained number of substances characterized by polarity range from estetrol to progesterone as well as chlorophyll-related dyes previously isolated and pre-purified by simple SPE protocol involving C18 cartridges. Optimization of micro-TLC separation and quantification protocols of such samples were discussed from the practical point of view using simple separation efficiency criteria including total peaks number, log(product ΔhR F), signal intensity and peak asymmetry. Outcomes of the presented analytical approach, especially using detection involving direct fluorescence (UV366/Vis) and phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) visualization are compared with UV-DAD HPLC-generated data reported previously. Chemometric investigation based on principal components analysis revealed that SPE extracts separated by micro-TLC and detected under fluorescence and PMA visualization modes can be used for robust sample fingerprinting even after long-term storage of the extracts (up to 4 years) at subambient temperature (-20 °C). Such approach allows characterization of wide range of sample components that

  1. A Systematic Review of Published Respondent-Driven Sampling Surveys Collecting Behavioral and Biologic Data.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Lisa G; Hakim, Avi J; Dittrich, Samantha; Burnett, Janet; Kim, Evelyn; White, Richard G

    2016-08-01

    Reporting key details of respondent-driven sampling (RDS) survey implementation and analysis is essential for assessing the quality of RDS surveys. RDS is both a recruitment and analytic method and, as such, it is important to adequately describe both aspects in publications. We extracted data from peer-reviewed literature published through September, 2013 that reported collected biological specimens using RDS. We identified 151 eligible peer-reviewed articles describing 222 surveys conducted in seven regions throughout the world. Most published surveys reported basic implementation information such as survey city, country, year, population sampled, interview method, and final sample size. However, many surveys did not report essential methodological and analytical information for assessing RDS survey quality, including number of recruitment sites, seeds at start and end, maximum number of waves, and whether data were adjusted for network size. Understanding the quality of data collection and analysis in RDS is useful for effectively planning public health service delivery and funding priorities. PMID:26992395

  2. Concentration and characteristics of depleted uranium in biological and water samples collected in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Jia, Guogang; Belli, Maria; Sansone, Umberto; Rosamilia, Silvia; Gaudino, Stefania

    2006-01-01

    During Balkan conflicts in 1994-1995, depleted uranium (DU) ordnance was employed and was left in the battlefield. Health concern is related to the risk arising from contamination of the environment with DU penetrators and dust. In order to evaluate the impact of DU on the environment and population in Bosnia and Herzegovina, radiological survey of DU in biological and water samples were carried out over the period 12-24 October 2002. The uranium isotopic concentrations in biological samples collected in Bosnia and Herzegovina, mainly lichens, mosses and barks, were found to be in the range of 0.27-35.7 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, 0.24-16.8 Bq kg(-1) for (234)U, and 0.02-1.11 Bq kg(-1) for (235)U, showing uranium levels to be higher than in the samples collected at the control site. Moreover, the (236)U in some of the samples was detectable. The isotopic ratios of (234)U/(238)U showed DU to be detectable in many biological samples at most sites examined, but in very low levels. The presence of DU in the biological samples was as a result of DU contamination in air. The uranium concentrations in water samples collected in Bosnia and Herzegovina were found to be in the range of 0.27-16.2 m Bq l(-1) for (238)U, 0.41-15.6 m Bq l(-1) for (234)U and 0.012-0.695 m Bq l(-1) for (235)U, and two water samples were observed to be DU positive; these values are much lower than those in mineral water found in central Italy and below the WHO guideline for public drinking water. From radiotoxicological point of view, at this moment there is no significant radiological risk related to these investigated sites in terms of possible DU contamination of water and/or plants. PMID:16806612

  3. Comparison of blood chemistry values for samples collected from juvenile chinook salmon by three methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Congleton, J.L.; LaVoie, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    Thirteen blood chemistry indices were compared for samples collected by three commonly used methods: caudal transection, heart puncture, and caudal vessel puncture. Apparent biases in blood chemistry values for samples obtained by caudal transection were consistent with dilution with tissue fluids: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), triglyceride, and K+ were increased and Na+ and Cl- were decreased relative to values for samples obtained by caudal vessel puncture. Some enzyme activities (ALT, AST, LDH) and K+ concentrations were also greater in samples taken by heart puncture than in samples taken by caudal vessel puncture. Of the methods tested, caudal vessel puncture had the least effect on blood chemistry values and should be preferred for blood chemistry studies on juvenile salmonids.

  4. Analyses of human milk samples collected in Hawaii for residues of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorobiphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Takei, G.H.; Kauahikaua, S.M.; Leong, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    This work has revealed that the chlorinated hydrocarbon residues found in human milk samples collected from residents in the State of Hawaii were statistically the same residues found in mainland human milk samples. Moreover, the levels at which these residues were detected in Hawaiian samples were comparable to those detected in mainland samples, and differences between the two groups of samples were not apparent. The close correlation between residue analyses was unexpected considering Hawaii's geographic isolation and the distinct ethnic diets of its populations. They do indicate, however, that the uptake of chlorinated hdyrocarbon contaminants by the population of this state is not specific and is most likely due to some physiological means of entry which is common to the populations of the mainland states.

  5. Using SPE-LC-ESI-MS/MS Analysis to Assess Disperse Dyes in Environmental Water Samples.

    PubMed

    Zocolo, Guilherme Julião; Pilon dos Santos, Glauco; Vendemiatti, Josiane; Vacchi, Francine Inforçato; Umbuzeiro, Gisela de Aragão; Zanoni, Maria Valnice Boldrin

    2015-09-01

    We have optimized an SPE-LC-ESI-MS/MS method and used it to monitor disperse azo dyes in environmental aquatic samples. Calibration curves constructed for nine disperse dyes-Red 1, Violet 93, Blue 373, Orange 1, Orange 3, Orange 25, Yellow 3, Yellow 7 and Red 13-in aqueous solution presented good linearity between 2.0 and 100.0 ng mL(-1). The method provided limits of detection and quantification around 2.0 and 8.0 ng L(-1), respectively. For dyes at concentrations of 25.0 ng mL(-1), the intra- and interday analyses afforded relative standard deviation lower than 6 and 13%, respectively. The recovery values obtained for each target analyte in Milli-Q water, receiving waters and treated water samples spiked with the nine studied dyes at concentrations of 8.0, 25.0 and 50.0 ng L(-1) (n = 3) gave average recoveries greater than 70%, with RSD <20%. Statistical evaluation aided method validation. The validated method proved to be useful for analysis of organic extracts from effluents and receiving water samples after an SPE extraction step. More specifically, the method enabled detection of the dyes Disperse Red 1, Disperse Blue 373 and Disperse Violet 93 at concentrations ranging from 84 to 3452 ng L(-1) in the treated effluent (TE), affluent and points collected upstream and downstream of the drinking water treatment plant of a textile dye industry in Brazil. PMID:25637135

  6. Strontium Distribution Coefficients of Basalt Core Samples from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    J. J. Colello; J. J. Rosentreter; R. C. Bartholomay; M. J. Liszewski

    1998-12-01

    Strontium distribution coefficients (Kd's) were measured for 24 basalt core samples collected from selected sites at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The measurements were made to help assess the variability of strontium Kd's as part of an ongoing investigation of strontium transport properties through geologic materials at the INEEL. The investigation is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and Idaho State University in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy. Batch experiments were used to measure Kd's of basalt core samples using an aqueous solution representative of wastewater in waste-disposal ponds at the INEEL. Calculated strontium Kd's of the 24 basalt core samples ranged from 3.6{+-}1.3 to 29.4{+-}1.6 milliliters per gram. These results indicate a narrow range of variability in the strontium sorptive capacities of basalt relative to those of the sedimentary materials at the INEEL. The narrow range of the basalt Kd's can be attributed to physical and chemical properties of the basalt, and to compositional changes in the equilibrated solutions after being mixed with the basalt. The small Kd's indicate that basalt is not a major contributor in preventing the movement of strontium-90 in solution.

  7. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations derived from flask samples collected at USSR-operated sampling sites

    SciTech Connect

    Boden, T.A.; Brounshtein, A.M.; Faber, E.V.; Shashkov, A.A.

    1991-12-01

    This document presents daily atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations from four USSR-operated sampling sites (Teriberka Station, Ocean Station Charlie, Bering Island, and Kotelny Island). The period of record varies by station with the earliest measurements dating back to 1983 and recent estimates from early 1991. These CO{sub 2} concentrations are derived from air samples collected in 1.5-L stainless steel electropolished flasks and later analyzed at the Main Geophysical Observatory (St. Petersburg, USSR) using a nondispersive infrared gas analyzer. Measurements not meeting wind direction, wind speed, inter-flask agreement, and climate condition criteria were either discarded or flagged. All measurements have been corrected for drift biases introduced during flask storage. These atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations are considered indicative of regional background air conditions and are directly traceable to the World Meteorological Organization`s primary CO{sub 2} standards. These measurements support the rising trend in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations measured at other monitoring sites around the world and may be compared with similar measurements made by various monitoring programs at other northern latitude sites. The document presents the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations in graphical and tabular form, describes the sampling methods, defines limitations and restrictions of the data, and describes the information on the magnetic media.

  8. Determination of multiple toxins in whelk and clam samples collected from the Chukchi and Bering seas.

    PubMed

    Li, Aifeng; Chen, Huidan; Qiu, Jiangbing; Lin, Heshan; Gu, Haifeng

    2016-01-01

    Buccinidae whelk Neptunea varicifera (Dall), Cardiidae clam Serripes laperousii (Deshayes), and two unknown species of whelk and clam were collected from the Arctic Chukchi Sea and sub-Arctic Bering Sea in July 2014. In this study, the mollusk samples were analyzed by different liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods for multiple shellfish toxins, including okadaic acid (OA), pectenotoxin (PTX), yessotoxin (YTX), azaspiracid (AZA), cyclic imines (CI), and saxitoxin (STX) groups. PTX2 (≈2.0 μg kg(-1) whole tissues) was detected exclusively in the clam S. laperousii collected from the Chukchi Sea. OA and dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1) were restricted to mollusk samples collected from the Bering Sea, and OA was the dominant component of the whelk N. varicifera (63 μg kg(-1) digestive gland) and an unknown species of whelk (6.8 μg kg(-1) digestive gland). Spirolide-1 (SPX1) was confirmed in most samples except for the whelk N. varicifera collected from the Bering Sea. The highest content of SPX1 (≈18.5 μg kg(-1) digestive gland) occurred in the whelk N. varicifera collected from the Chukchi Sea, along with the suspected presence of SPX-C, SPX-D and didesMe-SPX-C. YTX, as well as its derivatives 45-OH-YTX and 45,46,47-Trinor-YTX, were found in all samples, with the highest YTX content (66 μg kg(-1) digestive gland) present in the whelk N. varicifera collected from the Chukchi Sea. Interestingly, STX and dcSTX were measured only in the whelk N. varicifera and unknown species of clam collected from the Chukchi Sea. No AZA-group toxins, gymnodimine (GYM), or pinnatoxin G were found in any samples analyzed. Results demonstrated that the mollusk samples were contaminated by multiple shellfish toxins in the Chukchi and Bering seas. This study highlights the need to monitor potentially toxic microalgae in the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions, as well as species of mollusk that may be included in future commercial or

  9. Chemical analyses of soil samples collected from the Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico environs, 1993-2005.

    SciTech Connect

    Deola, Regina Anne; Oldewage, Hans D.; Herrera, Heidi; Miller, Mark Laverne

    2006-03-01

    From 1993 through 2005, the Environmental Management Department of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico (SNL/NM), has collected soil and sediment samples at numerous locations on-site, on the perimeter, and off-site for the purpose of determining potential impacts to the environs from operations at the Laboratories. These samples were submitted to an analytical laboratory for metal-in-soil analyses. Intercomparisons of these results were then made to determine if there was any statistical difference between on-site, perimeter, and off-site samples, or if there were year-to-year increasing or decreasing trends which indicated that further investigation may be warranted. This work provided the SNL Environmental Management Department with a sound baseline data reference against which to assess potential current operational impacts or to compare future operational impacts. In addition, it demonstrates the commitment that the Laboratories have to go beyond mere compliance to achieve excellence in its operations. This data is presented in graphical format with narrative commentaries on particular items of interest.

  10. Chemical analyses of soil samples collected from the Sandia National Laboratories, Kauai Test Facility, HI, 1999-2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Mark Laverne

    2007-11-01

    In 1999, 2002, and 2007, the Environmental Programs and Assurance Department of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) at the Kauai Test Facility (KTF), HI, has collected soil samples at numerous locations on-site, on the perimeter, and off-site for determining potential impacts to the environs from operations at KTF. These samples were submitted to an analytical laboratory for metal-in-soil analyses. Intercomparisons of these results were then made to determine if there was any statistical difference between on-site, perimeter, and off-site samples, or if there were increasing or decreasing trends that indicated that further investigation might be warranted. This work provided the SNL Environmental Programs and Assurance Department with a sound baseline data reference against which to compare future operational impacts. In addition, it demonstrates the commitment that the Laboratories have to go beyond mere compliance to achieve excellence in its operations. This data is presented in graphical format with narrative commentaries on particular items of interest.

  11. Use of mass spectrometry coupled with a solids insertion probe to prescreen soil samples for environmental samples

    SciTech Connect

    Check, C.E.; Bach, S.B.H.

    1995-12-31

    The contamination of air, water, and soils by a myriad of sources generates a large sample Currently, sample volume for hazardous constituent analyses is approximately half a million samples per year. The total analytical costs associated with this are astronomical. The analysis of these samples is vital in terms of assessing the types of contamination present and to what degree a site has been contaminated. The results of these analyses are very important for making an informed, knowledgeable decision as to the need for remediation and what type of remediation processes should be initiated based on site suitability vs non-action for the various sample sites. With an ever growing environmental consciousness in today`s society, the assessment and subsequent remediation of a site needs to be accomplished promptly despite the time constraints traditional methods place on such actions. In order to facilitate a rapid assessment, it is desirable to utilize instrumentation and equipment which afford the most information about a site allowing for optimization in environmental assessment while maintaining a realistic time schedule for the resulting remediation process. Because there are various types of environmental samples that can be taken at a site, different combinations of instrumentation and methods are required for assessing the level and type of contamination present whether it is in air, water, or soils. This study is limited to analyzing soil-like media that would normally fall under EPA Method 8270 which is used to analyze solid waste matrices, soils, and groundwater for semi-volatile organic compounds.

  12. Measurement of actinides in environmental samples by Photo-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation

    SciTech Connect

    Cadieux, J.R.; Clark, S.; Fjeld, R.A.; Reboul, S.; Sowder, A.

    1994-05-01

    This work describes the adaptation of extractive scintillation with a Photo-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation (PERALS) (ORDELA, Inc.) spectrometer to the analysis of actinides in environmental samples from the Savannah River Site (SRS). Environmental quality assurance standards and actual water samples were treated by one of two methods; either a two step direct extraction, or for more complex samples, pretreatment by an extraction chromatographic separation prior to measurement of the alpha activity by PERALS.

  13. Transient thermal envelope for rovers and sample collecting devices on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hager, P. B.; Parzinger, S.; Haarmann, R.; Walter, U.

    2015-03-01

    The requirements for the design of rovers and sample collecting devices for the Moon are driven by the harsh and diverse thermal lunar environment. Local lunar surface temperatures are governed by boulders and craters. The present work quantifies the changes in solar and infrared heat fluxes q˙Sol and q˙IR impinging on a rover or a sample collecting device, on the surface of the Moon, by combining lunar surface models, spacecraft and manipulator models, and transient thermal calculations. The interaction between a rover, boulders, and craters was simulated for three solar elevation angles (θ = 2°, 10°, and 90°), resembling lunar surface temperatures of Treg = 170, 248, and 392 K, respectively. Infrared and solar heat fluxes for paths in the vicinity of a single boulder, a field of five boulders, and a single crater were compared to a path on an unobstructed surface. The same heat fluxes were applied to closed and open sample collecting devices to investigate the temperature development of the transported regolith sample. The results show how total received infrared heat on a rover may increase by up to 331%, over the course of a transit in front of sunlit boulders compared to the same transit over an unobstructed plane. Temporary this leads to a 12-fold increased infrared heat flux at closest distance to the obstacle. A transit through a small bowl shaped crater on the other hand may decrease total received solar heat by as much as 86%. Relative as well as absolute influence of surface features on received heat fluxes increases significantly towards smaller solar elevation angles. The temperature of pristine samples, transported in closed or open sample collecting devices, increase from 120 to 150 K within 1 to 1.3 h if exposed to direct solar illumination and infrared heat. Protection from solar illumination yields in 8-fold and 5-fold increased transport times for closed and open sample devices, respectively. Closed sample transporters dampen short exposure

  14. Determination of Alkali Ions in Biological and Environmental Samples.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Peter C

    2016-01-01

    An overview of the common methods for the determination of the alkali metals is given. These are drawn from all of the three principle branches of quantitative analysis and consist mainly of optical atomic spectrometric methods, ion-selective electrodes, and the separation methods of ion-chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. Their main characteristics and performance parameters are discussed. Important specific applications are also examined, namely clinical analysis, single cell analysis, the analysis of soil samples and hydroponic nutrient solutions, as well as the detection of the radioactive (137)Cs isotope. PMID:26860298

  15. Evaluation of Sampling Tools for Environmental Sampling of Bacterial Endospores from Porous and Non-porous Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, Nancy B.; Butcher, Mark G.; Su, Yin-Fong; Jarman, Kristin H.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Panisko, Ellen A.; Seiders, Barbara AB; Wahl, Karen L.

    2008-03-08

    Aims: Having and executing a well-defined and validated sampling protocol is critical following a purposeful release of a biological agent for response and recovery activities, for clinical and epidemiological analysis and for forensic purposes. The objective of this study was to address the need for validated sampling and analysis methods called out by the General Accounting Office and others to systematically compare the collection efficiency of various swabs and wipes for collection of bacterial endospores from five different surfaces, both porous and non-porous. This study was also designed to test the collection and extraction solutions used for endospore recovery from swabs and wipes. Methods and Results: Eight collection tools were used, five swabs and three wipes. Three collection/preservation solutions were evaluated: sterile E-pure® water, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), and phosphate buffered saline with 0.3% Tween (PBST). An Ink Jet Aerosol Generator (IJAG) was used to apply Bacillus subtilis endospores to five porous and non-porous surfaces. The collection efficiencies of the swabs and wipes were compared using a statistical multiple comparison analysis. Results indicated that wipes tend to have higher collection efficiency than swabs. Of the swabs tested, the recovery from most of the surfaces was highest with the polyurethane foam swab. Conclusions: The ScottPure® wipe had the highest collection efficiency and PBST was the best collection solution of those tested. Significance and Impact of Study: Validated sampling for potential biological warfare is of significant importance and this study answered some relevant questions.

  16. An environmental sampling model for combining judgment and randomly placed samples

    SciTech Connect

    Sego, Landon H.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Matzke, Brett D.; Sieber, Karl; Shulman, Stanley; Bennett, James; Gillen, M.; Wilson, John E.; Pulsipher, Brent A.

    2007-08-23

    In the event of the release of a lethal agent (such as anthrax) inside a building, law enforcement and public health responders take samples to identify and characterize the contamination. Sample locations may be rapidly chosen based on available incident details and professional judgment. To achieve greater confidence of whether or not a room or zone was contaminated, or to certify that detectable contamination is not present after decontamination, we consider a Bayesian model for combining the information gained from both judgment and randomly placed samples. We investigate the sensitivity of the model to the parameter inputs and make recommendations for its practical use.

  17. Escherichia coli in settled-dust and air samples collected in residential environments in Mexico City.

    PubMed Central

    Rosas, I; Salinas, E; Yela, A; Calva, E; Eslava, C; Cravioto, A

    1997-01-01

    Escherichia coli, an important indicator of the presence of fecal material, was isolated from indoor and outdoor environments in Mexico City. The heterogeneity of E. coli was represented by 89 serotypes, most of them coming from settled-dust indoor samples; 21% of them presented antibiotic multiresistance. The numbers of plasmids were higher among the antibiotic-resistant strains. The results of this study suggest that intestinal infections produced by environmental strains could be of more epidemiological impact than previously thought. PMID:9327575

  18. Aerosol sampling system for collection of Capstone depleted uranium particles in a high-energy environment.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Thomas D; Guilmette, Raymond A; Cheng, Yung Sung; Parkhurst, Mary Ann; Hoover, Mark D

    2009-03-01

    The Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Study was undertaken to obtain aerosol samples resulting from a large-caliber DU penetrator striking an Abrams or Bradley test vehicle. The sampling strategy was designed to (1) optimize the performance of the samplers and maintain their integrity in the extreme environment created during perforation of an armored vehicle by a DU penetrator, (2) collect aerosols as a function of time post perforation, and (3) obtain size-classified samples for analysis of chemical composition, particle morphology, and solubility in lung fluid. This paper describes the experimental setup and sampling methodologies used to achieve these objectives. Custom-designed arrays of sampling heads were secured to the inside of the target in locations approximating the breathing zones of the crew locations in the test vehicles. Each array was designed to support nine filter cassettes and nine cascade impactors mounted with quick-disconnect fittings. Shielding and sampler placement strategies were used to minimize sampler loss caused by the penetrator impact and the resulting fragments of eroded penetrator and perforated armor. A cyclone train was used to collect larger quantities of DU aerosol for measurement of chemical composition and solubility. A moving filter sample was used to obtain semicontinuous samples for DU concentration determination. Control for the air samplers was provided by five remotely located valve control and pressure monitoring units located inside and around the test vehicle. These units were connected to a computer interface chassis and controlled using a customized LabVIEW engineering computer control program. The aerosol sampling arrays and control systems for the Capstone study provided the needed aerosol samples for physicochemical analysis, and the resultant data were used for risk assessment of exposure to DU aerosol. PMID:19204482

  19. Optimizing the soil sample collection strategy to identify maximum volatile organic compound concentrations in soil borings

    SciTech Connect

    Siebenmann, K. )

    1993-10-01

    The primary focus of the initial stages of a remedial investigation is to collect useful data for source identification and determination of the extent of soil contamination. To achieve this goal, soil samples should be collected at locations where the maximum concentration of contaminants exist. This study was conducted to determine the optimum strategy for selecting soil sample locations within a boring. Analytical results from soil samples collected during the remedial investigation of a Department of Defense Superfund site were used for the analysis. Trichloroethene (TCE) and tetrachloroethene (PCE) results were compared with organic vapor monitor (OVM) readings, lithologies, and organic carbon content to determine if these parameters can be used to choose soil sample locations in the field that contain the maximum concentration of these analytes within a soil boring or interval. The OVM was a handheld photoionization detector (PID) for screening the soil core to indicate areas of VOC contamination. The TCE and PCE concentrations were compared across lithologic contacts and within each lithologic interval. The organic content used for this analysis was visually estimated by the geologist during soil logging.

  20. A supplement to "Methods for collection and analysis of aquatic biological and microbiological samples"

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1979-01-01

    The report contains methods used by the U.S. Geological Survey to collect, preserve, and analyze waters to determine their biological and microbiological properties. It supplements, "Methods for Collection and Analysis of Aquatic Biological and Microbiological Samples" (TWRI, Book 5, Chapter A4, 1977, edited by P. E. Greeson, T. A. Ehlke, G. A. Irwin, B. W. Lium, and K. V. Slack). Included in the supplement are 5 new methods, a new section of selected taxonomic references for Ostracoda, and 6 revised methods.

  1. Methods for collection and analysis of aquatic biological and microbiological samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Britton, L.J.; Greeson, P.E.

    1988-01-01

    Chapter A4, methods for collection and analyses of aquatic biological and microbiological samples, contains methods used by the U.S. Geological Survey to collect, preserve, and analyze waters to determine their biological and microbiological properties. Part 1 consists of detailed descriptions of more than 45 individual methods, including those for bacteria, phytoplankton, zooplankton, seston, periphyton, macrophytes, benthic invertebrates, fish and other vertebrates, cellular contents, productivity and bioassay. Each method is summarized, and the applications, interferences, apparatus, reagents, analyses, calculations, reporting of results, precisions, and references are given. Part 2 consists of a glossary. Part 3 is a list of taxonomic references. (USGS)

  2. Environmental specimen bank samples of Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens as indicators of the radiation environment at the surface.

    PubMed

    Huttunen, S; Taipale, T; Lappalainen, N M; Kubin, E; Lakkala, K; Kaurola, J

    2005-01-01

    Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. and Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) Schimp. samples from the Finnish Environmental Specimen Bank were used to study the UV-B-absorbing compounds as potential screens of the past radiation environment. The first series from southern and central Finland consisted of samples collected from 18 P. schreberi or H. splendens dominated sites in 1985 and 1995. The second series from four H. splendens dominated sites (two in southern and two in northern Finland) and two P. schreberi dominated sites (one southern and one northern) were from the years 1985, 1990, 1995 and 2000. In the first series, the moss surface area of the analyzed specimens (5 +/- 0.2 mg DW) was smaller in 1995 (40% of both species collected in June) than in 1985 (40% of P. schreberi and 55% of H. splendens collected in September). The methanol-extractable UV-B-absorbing compounds of P. schreberi in 1985 and 1995 measured as absorbance at 10 nm intervals at 280-360 nm per mg DW revealed a negative correlation with reconstructed UV-radiation data. In the second series, the UV-B-absorbing compounds per specific surface area (surface area mm2 per DW) showed significant differences between the years. The highest values in both species were obtained in 1990. In H. splendens, a difference between the southern and northern samples was observed. The preliminary study encouraged the use of environmental specimen bank samples to indicate changes in surface radiation conditions. PMID:15519462

  3. Salivary cortisol results obtainable within minutes of sample collection correspond with traditional immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Shirtcliff, E.A.; Buck, R.L.; Laughlin, M.; Hart, T.; Cole, C.R.; Slowey, P.D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cortisol is frequently assayed as a stress-responsive biomarker which changes over the course of minutes to meet the demands of an individual’s social context. Salivary cortisol is often utilized as a non-invasive sampling methodology which possesses important health implications. A critical barrier to psychobiological research involving salivary cortisol is a time-delay of days to months before cortisol results are obtained via immunoassay, long after the individual is no longer proximate to the social context in which they provided the sample. The current study was designed to address this critical barrier through creation of a lateral flow technology (LFT) cortisol device capable of measuring salivary cortisol within minutes of sample collection. LFT is frequently used within commercial point-of-care settings to obtain rapid answers to the presence/absence of a biomarker. The present study extends LFT into the research domain by presenting performance characteristics of a quantitative LFT which measures salivary cortisol within 20 minutes of sample collection. Methods Saliva samples on N=29 adults (15 males) were obtained in the morning and afternoon using Passive Drool and then the Super•SAL™ Extra Collection Device (hereafter Super•SAL™) and later assayed with LFT and a commercially available enzyme-immunoassay. Findings Results show LFT correlated well with these collection methods (R=.872 with Super•SAL™; R=.739 with Passive Drool, p-values<.0001) and at comparable levels to correspondence of Super•SAL™ with Passive Drool (R=.798, p<.0001) which were measured with the same assay. Implications These results open up an exciting new possibility to integrate this technological advance into stress research, including knowing and potentially changing the individual’s social context in a time-sensitive manner. Methodological improvements such as this have the possibility of refining conceptual models of stress reactivity and regulation

  4. Curating NASA's future extraterrestrial sample collections: How do we achieve maximum proficiency?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCubbin, Francis; Evans, Cynthia; Allton, Judith; Fries, Marc; Righter, Kevin; Zolensky, Michael; Zeigler, Ryan

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office (henceforth referred to herein as NASA Curation Office) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. Under the governing document, NASA Policy Directive (NPD) 7100.10E "Curation of Extraterrestrial Materials", JSC is charged with "The curation of all extraterrestrial material under NASA control, including future NASA missions." The Directive goes on to define Curation as including "…documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach." Here we describe some of the ongoing efforts to ensure that the future activities of the NASA Curation Office are working to-wards a state of maximum proficiency. Founding Principle: Curatorial activities began at JSC (Manned Spacecraft Center before 1973) as soon as design and construction planning for the Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL) began in 1964 [1], not with the return of the Apollo samples in 1969, nor with the completion of the LRL in 1967. This practice has since proven that curation begins as soon as a sample return mission is conceived, and this founding principle continues to return dividends today [e.g., 2]. The Next Decade: Part of the curation process is planning for the future, and we refer to these planning efforts as "advanced curation" [3]. Advanced Curation is tasked with developing procedures, technology, and data sets necessary for curating new types of collections as envisioned by NASA exploration goals. We are (and have been) planning for future curation, including cold curation, extended curation of ices and volatiles, curation of samples with special chemical considerations such as perchlorate-rich samples, curation of organically- and biologically-sensitive samples, and the use of minimally invasive analytical techniques (e.g., micro-CT, [4]) to characterize samples. These efforts will be useful for Mars Sample Return

  5. The U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Collections Management System (GCMS)—A master catalog and collections management plan for U.S. Geological Survey geologic samples and sample collections

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geologic Materials Repository Working Group

    2015-01-01

    The general consideration for implementation of the GCMS is that all active USGS geologic sample repositories will form the core of GCMS and that participating science centers will develop procedures based on proposed GCMS methodologies. The GCMS is a collective resource for the entire USGS community and the users who discover the geologic materials kept in these repositories and seek to access them.

  6. Multiple Approaches to Down Sizing of the Lunar Sample Return Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lofgren, Gary E.; Horz, F.

    2010-01-01

    Future Lunar missions are planned for at least 7 days, significantly longer than the 3 days of the later Apollo missions. The last of those missions, A-17, returned 111 kg of samples plus another 20 kg of containers. The current Constellation program requirements for return weight for science is 100 kg with the hope of raising that limit to near 250 kg including containers and other non-geological materials. The estimated return weight for rock and soil samples will, at best, be about 175 kg. One method proposed to accomplish down-sizing of the collection is the use of a Geo-Lab in the lunar habitat to complete a preliminary examination of selected samples and facilitate prioritizing the return samples.

  7. Application of flow cytometry and cell sorting to the bacterial analysis of environmental aerosol samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flow cytometry (FCM) combined with viability staining is a useful tool in discerning viable bacteria in environmental samples where traditional culture methods may fail. Contamination of aerosol samples with dust and other non-biological particles can interfere with accurate sample analysis and ther...

  8. Spectroscopic Characterization of Dust-Fall Samples Collected from Greater Cairo, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Shaltout, Abdallah A; Allam, Mousa A; Mostafa, Nasser Y; Heiba, Zein K

    2016-04-01

    This work aimed to characterize dust-fall samples collected from street's trees in Greater Cairo (GC), Egypt, and its surroundings by different spectroscopic techniques, namely; X-ray diffraction (XRD), attenuated total-reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), particle-size analyzer, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray measurements. Samples were collected from 19 different locations inside and outside of GC. Quantitative phase analysis of the dust-fall samples was performed using the Rietveld method. Results showed that the most frequently observed phases in the dust-fall samples were calcite (CaCO3), dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2), gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O), and quartz (SiO2) with average concentrations of 39 ± 16, 8 ± 7, 22 ± 13, and 33 ± 14 wt%, respectively. The occurrence of these constituents referred to a combination of different anthropogenic and natural sources. The ATR-FTIR results are in good agreements with XRD data of the different observed phases. Based on the SEM and particle-size measurements, quantitative determination of the particle-size distribution was described. It was found that not only the large-sized particles are deposited but also the small-sized ones (PM10 and PM2.5). In addition, the particle size of the collected dust-fall samples varied from 0.1 to 200 µm with an average particle size of 17.36 µm; however, the particle size ranged from 2.5 to 40 µm predominated in all of the dust-fall samples. PMID:26710766

  9. Efficient Genome-Wide Sequencing and Low-Coverage Pedigree Analysis from Noninvasively Collected Samples.

    PubMed

    Snyder-Mackler, Noah; Majoros, William H; Yuan, Michael L; Shaver, Amanda O; Gordon, Jacob B; Kopp, Gisela H; Schlebusch, Stephen A; Wall, Jeffrey D; Alberts, Susan C; Mukherjee, Sayan; Zhou, Xiang; Tung, Jenny

    2016-06-01

    Research on the genetics of natural populations was revolutionized in the 1990s by methods for genotyping noninvasively collected samples. However, these methods have remained largely unchanged for the past 20 years and lag far behind the genomics era. To close this gap, here we report an optimized laboratory protocol for genome-wide capture of endogenous DNA from noninvasively collected samples, coupled with a novel computational approach to reconstruct pedigree links from the resulting low-coverage data. We validated both methods using fecal samples from 62 wild baboons, including 48 from an independently constructed extended pedigree. We enriched fecal-derived DNA samples up to 40-fold for endogenous baboon DNA and reconstructed near-perfect pedigree relationships even with extremely low-coverage sequencing. We anticipate that these methods will be broadly applicable to the many research systems for which only noninvasive samples are available. The lab protocol and software ("WHODAD") are freely available at www.tung-lab.org/protocols-and-software.html and www.xzlab.org/software.html, respectively. PMID:27098910

  10. Efficient Genome-Wide Sequencing and Low-Coverage Pedigree Analysis from Noninvasively Collected Samples

    PubMed Central

    Snyder-Mackler, Noah; Majoros, William H.; Yuan, Michael L.; Shaver, Amanda O.; Gordon, Jacob B.; Kopp, Gisela H.; Schlebusch, Stephen A.; Wall, Jeffrey D.; Alberts, Susan C.; Mukherjee, Sayan; Zhou, Xiang; Tung, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Research on the genetics of natural populations was revolutionized in the 1990s by methods for genotyping noninvasively collected samples. However, these methods have remained largely unchanged for the past 20 years and lag far behind the genomics era. To close this gap, here we report an optimized laboratory protocol for genome-wide capture of endogenous DNA from noninvasively collected samples, coupled with a novel computational approach to reconstruct pedigree links from the resulting low-coverage data. We validated both methods using fecal samples from 62 wild baboons, including 48 from an independently constructed extended pedigree. We enriched fecal-derived DNA samples up to 40-fold for endogenous baboon DNA and reconstructed near-perfect pedigree relationships even with extremely low-coverage sequencing. We anticipate that these methods will be broadly applicable to the many research systems for which only noninvasive samples are available. The lab protocol and software (“WHODAD”) are freely available at www.tung-lab.org/protocols-and-software.html and www.xzlab.org/software.html, respectively. PMID:27098910

  11. Characterization Data Package for Containerized Sludge Samples Collected from Engineered Container SCS-CON-210

    SciTech Connect

    Fountain, Matthew S.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Baldwin, David L.; Daniel, Richard C.; Bos, Stanley J.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Carlson, Clark D.; Coffey, Deborah S.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Neiner, Doinita; Oliver, Brian M.; Pool, Karl N.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Trang-Le, Truc LT; Urie, Michael W.

    2013-09-10

    This data package contains the K Basin sludge characterization results obtained by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory during processing and analysis of four sludge core samples collected from Engineered Container SCS-CON-210 in 2010 as requested by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company. Sample processing requirements, analytes of interest, detection limits, and quality control sample requirements are defined in the KBC-33786, Rev. 2. The core processing scope included reconstitution of a sludge core sample distributed among four to six 4-L polypropylene bottles into a single container. The reconstituted core sample was then mixed and subsampled to support a variety of characterization activities. Additional core sludge subsamples were combined to prepare a container composite. The container composite was fractionated by wet sieving through a 2,000 micron mesh and a 500-micron mesh sieve. Each sieve fraction was sampled to support a suite of analyses. The core composite analysis scope included density determination, radioisotope analysis, and metals analysis, including the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit metals (with the exception of mercury). The container composite analysis included most of the core composite analysis scope plus particle size distribution, particle density, rheology, and crystalline phase identification. A summary of the received samples, core sample reconstitution and subsampling activities, container composite preparation and subsampling activities, physical properties, and analytical results are presented. Supporting data and documentation are provided in the appendices. There were no cases of sample or data loss and all of the available samples and data are reported as required by the Quality Assurance Project Plan/Sampling and Analysis Plan.

  12. Stabilization of clinical samples collected for quantitative bioanalysis--a reflection from the European Bioanalysis Forum.

    PubMed

    Hilhorst, Martijn; van Amsterdam, Peter; Heinig, Katja; Zwanziger, Elke; Abbott, Richard

    2015-01-01

    In bioanalysis of small molecules, the analyte concentration in the measured samples should reflect the concentration during sample collection. Precautions may be needed to prevent over- or under-estimation of the obtained result. This might require the addition of stabilizers to prevent degradation or nonspecific binding. For unstable drugs, it is essential to know how analytes can be stabilized before the start of the clinical study. Although the stabilization methods are well documented, the impact of the stabilization on the clinical workflow is not properly addressed. Already during method development, the clinical implications in terms of personnel safety, ease of use, training possibilities and staff capacity should be taken into account, and validation of the bioanalytical method should reflect collection procedures. PMID:25697191

  13. Environmental Sampling for Avian Influenza A(H7N9) in Live-Poultry Markets in Guangdong, China

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min; He, Jianfeng; Song, Tie; Rutherford, Shannon; Wu, Jie; Lin, Jinyan; Huang, Guofeng; Tan, Xiaohua; Zhong, Haojie

    2015-01-01

    Background To provide an increased understanding of avian influenza A(H7N9) activity in live-poultry market in space and time and hence improve H7N9 epidemic control, an ongoing environmental sampling program in multiple live-poultry markets across Guangdong, China was conducted during March 2013–June 2014. Methods A total of 625 live-poultry markets throughout 21 prefecture areas took part in the study. A total of 10 environmental sites in markets for sampling were identified to represent 4 different poultry-related activity areas. At least 10 environmental samples were collected from each market every month. The real time RT-PCR was performed to detect the avian influenza A(H7N9) virus. Field survey was conducted to investigate the sanitation status of live-poultry markets. Results There were 109 human infections with H7N9 avian influenza in Guangdong, of which 37 (34%) died. A total of 18741 environmental swabs were collected and subjected to real-time RT-PCR test, of which 905(4.83%) were found positive for H7N9 virus. There were 201 (32.16%) markets affected by H7N9 in 16 prefecture areas. The detection of H7N9 virus in markets spiked in winter months. 63.33% markets (38/60) had no physical segregation for poultry holding, slaughter or sale zones. Closing live-poultry market significantly decreased the H7N9 detection rate from 14.83% (112/755) to 1.67% (5/300). Conclusions This study indicates the importance of live-poultry market surveillance based on environmental sampling for H7N9 Avian Influenza control. Improving live-poultry market management and sanitation and changing consumer practices are critical to reduce the risk of H7N9 infection. PMID:25933138

  14. STS-55 Payload Specialist Schlegel collects fungi sample at SL-D2 Rack 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 German Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel, wearing lightweight headset, collects fungi sample while working at Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module Rack 1 Work Bench. Schlegel is conducting these procedures in conjunction with the 'Fruiting Body Development of Fungi' experiment. Schlegel was one of two payload specialists representing the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR) on the 10-day spacelab mission.

  15. STS-55 Payload Specialist Schlegel collects fungi sample at SL-D2 Rack 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 German Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel, wearing lightweight headset, collects fungi sample while working at Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module Rack 1 Work Bench. Schlegel is conducting these procedures in conjunction with the 'Fruiting Body Development of Fungi' experiment. Pieces of the experiment casing freefloat in the workstation.Schlegel represents the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR) on the 10-day spacelab mission.

  16. [Methods for sampling, collecting, preserving and carrying materials for parasitic tests (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Penna, R

    1977-01-01

    A review is made of the methods of sampling, collecting, preserving and carrying materials to search directly (by microscopical, cultural or biological tests) the most common human parasites: protozoa, helminths and arthropods, with some references of indirect, specific (immunological) and aspecific (hematological, biochemical, immunochemical) procedures to search signs of parasitoses. The aim of this paper is to propose a standardization of these procedures for protozoa, helminth and arthropod infections. PMID:356770

  17. Chromatographic sample collection from two-phase (gas+liquid) flows.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Thomas J; Windom, Bret C

    2011-12-01

    A particularly challenging sample presentation in analytical chemistry is a flowing stream that consists of both a gas and liquid phase, combined with the common situation in which a reliable analysis is needed for both phases, separately. In these cases, the vapor and liquid must be physically separated (without change to either), before the individual phases can be collected and analyzed. It is not possible to analyze two-phase flows otherwise. Although the two phases are at equilibrium, it is imperative that no liquid contaminate the vapor, and no vapor be entrained in the liquid at a given temperature and pressure. In this paper, we describe a simple on-line device that can individually separate and collect the vapor and liquid phases of a two-phase flow. The apparatus, which we call P(2)SC, uses an adaptation of the branch point separator, with vapor collection done downstream in a metal bellows. The liquid collection is done in a length of Teflon tube. The separated vapor and liquid phases are then easily transferred into any desired analytical instrument with a syringe, although any sample introduction method, such as a valve, could be used as well. We discuss the application of this device with a stream of thermally stressed rocket kerosene. PMID:22036084

  18. Statistical approaches to account for false-positive errors in environmental DNA samples.

    PubMed

    Lahoz-Monfort, José J; Guillera-Arroita, Gurutzeta; Tingley, Reid

    2016-05-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling is prone to both false-positive and false-negative errors. We review statistical methods to account for such errors in the analysis of eDNA data and use simulations to compare the performance of different modelling approaches. Our simulations illustrate that even low false-positive rates can produce biased estimates of occupancy and detectability. We further show that removing or classifying single PCR detections in an ad hoc manner under the suspicion that such records represent false positives, as sometimes advocated in the eDNA literature, also results in biased estimation of occupancy, detectability and false-positive rates. We advocate alternative approaches to account for false-positive errors that rely on prior information, or the collection of ancillary detection data at a subset of sites using a sampling method that is not prone to false-positive errors. We illustrate the advantages of these approaches over ad hoc classifications of detections and provide practical advice and code for fitting these models in maximum likelihood and Bayesian frameworks. Given the severe bias induced by false-negative and false-positive errors, the methods presented here should be more routinely adopted in eDNA studies. PMID:26558345

  19. The role of data analysis in sampling design of environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Shyr, L.J.; Herrera, H.; Haaker, R.

    1998-03-01

    The report is intended to address the need for data analysis in environmental sampling programs. Routine environmental sampling has been conducted at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) to ensure that site operations have not resulted in undue risk to the public and the environment. Over the years, large amounts of data have been accumulated. The richness of the data should be fully utilized to improve sampling design and prioritize sampling needs for a technically-sound, yet cost-effective sampling design. The report presents a methodology for analyzing environmental monitoring data and demonstrates the application by using SNL`s historical monitoring data. Recommendations for sampling design modification were derived based on the results of the analyses.

  20. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of environmental samples by laser-induced breakdown spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorov, N. B.; Popov, A. M.; Zaytsev, S. M.; Labutin, T. A.

    2015-10-01

    The key achievements in the determination of trace amounts of components in environmental samples (soils, ores, natural waters, etc.) by laser-induced breakdown spectrometry are considered. Unique capabilities of this method make it suitable for rapid analysis of metals and alloys, glasses, polymers, objects of cultural heritage, archaeological and various environmental samples. The key advantages of the method that account for its high efficiency are demonstrated, in particular, a small amount of analyzed material, the absence of sample preparation, the possibility of local and remote analysis of either one or several elements. The use of chemometrics in laser-induced breakdown spectrometry for qualitative sample classification is described in detail. Various approaches to improving the figures of merit of quantitative analysis of environmental samples are discussed. The achieved limits of detection for most elements in geochemical samples are critically evaluated. The bibliography includes 302 references.

  1. Urine concentrations of oral salbutamol in samples collected after intense exercise in endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Hostrup, Morten; Kalsen, Anders; Auchenberg, Michael; Rzeppa, Sebastian; Hemmersbach, Peter; Bangsbo, Jens; Backer, Vibeke

    2014-06-01

    Our objective was to investigate urine concentrations of 8 mg oral salbutamol in samples collected after intense exercise in endurance athletes. Nine male endurance athletes with a VO2max of 70.2 ± 5.9 mL/min/kg (mean ± SD) took part in the study. Two hours after administration of 8 mg oral salbutamol, subjects performed submaximal exercise for 15 min followed by two, 2-min exercise bouts at an intensity corresponding to 110% of VO2max and a bout to exhaustion at same intensity. Urine samples were collected 4, 8, and 12 h following administration of salbutamol. Samples were analyzed by the Norwegian World Anti-doping Agency (WADA) laboratory. Adjustment of urine concentrations of salbutamol to a urine specific gravity (USG) of 1.020 g/mL was compared with no adjustment according to WADA's technical documents. We observed greater (P = 0.01) urine concentrations of salbutamol 4 h after administration when samples were adjusted to a USG of 1.020 g/mL compared with no adjustment (3089 ± 911 vs. 1918 ± 1081 ng/mL). With the current urine decision limit of 1200 ng/mL for salbutamol on WADA's 2013 list of prohibited substances, fewer false negative urine samples were observed when adjusted to a USG of 1.020 g/mL compared with no adjustment. In conclusion, adjustment of urine samples to a USG of 1.020 g/mL decreases risk of false negative doping tests after administration of oral salbutamol. Adjusting urine samples for USG might be useful when evaluating urine concentrations of salbutamol in doping cases. PMID:24166762

  2. [Environmental tobacco smoke--assessment of formaldehyde concentration in urine samples of exposed medicine students].

    PubMed

    Szumska, Magdalena; Damasiewicz-Bodzek, Aleksandra; Tyrpień-Golder, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) is ranked as one of the factors of confirmed carcinogenicity to human. It consists of the mixture of smoke exhaled by the smoker as well as the sidestream smoke and contains many times higher concentrations of some toxic substances in comparison to the amount of toxic compounds inhaled by a smoker. From many years the issue of passive smoking has been the subject of many research and still not all of its aspects of affecting human health have been explored. Apart from the tobacco varieties, also diverse additives added during the process of tobacco manufacturing, including particularly carbohydrates, influence the composition of the environmental tobacco smoke. During smoking they can undergo many complex transformations, as a result of which toxic components of the environmental tobacco smoke are formed, carbonyl compounds in particular, like aldehydes. They are marked by a significant chemical reactivity which enables them to modify amino groups of proteins leading to the changes in their structure, biological functions and often antigenicity. Therefore their influence to the human body is the cause of numerous adverse health effects caused by the increase in free radical processes which can constitute to the source of these compounds. Well known representative of this group of xenobiotics is formaldehyde as a compound that reflects well the environmental exposure to carbonyl compounds. The considerable source of this compound is tobacco smoke. Therefore analysis of formaldehyde in body fluids is a valuable biomonitoring tool of exposure to it. The aim of this study was the evaluation of formaldehyde concentration in urine samples of medicine students exposed to ETS. The study material consisted of 149 urine samples of students from School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry in Zabrze, Medical University of Silesia. The concentration of formaldehyde in urine samples was determined by a spectrophotometric method using the

  3. Magnetically responsive polycaprolactone nanoparticles for progesterone screening in biological and environmental samples using gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Es'haghi, Zarrin; Nezhadali, Azizollah; Khatibi, Aram-Dokht

    2016-08-01

    A new Fe3O4/poly(є-caprolactone) (PCL) magnetite nanocomposite was fabricated and used as a sorbent for magnetically mediated PCL microspheres solid-phase extraction (MM-PCL-SPE) followed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) for monitoring of progesterone (PGN) hormone in biological and environmental matrices, namely blood serum, tap water, urine, and hospital wastewater. The nanomagnetite core of the sorbent was synthesized by a co-precipitation method. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were then microencapsulated with PCL microspheres using emulsion polymerization. The nanocomposite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The magnetite sorbent can be effectively dispersed in aqueous solution and attracted to an external magnetic field. The MM-PCL-SPE process for PGN assay involved (a) dispersion of the sorbent in the donor phase aqueous solution with sonication, (b) exposure to a magnetic field to collect sorbent that had adsorbed the analyte, and (c) solvent desorption of extracted PGN for GC-FID analysis. The work demonstrates the usefulness of MM-PCL-SPE in the rapid and sensitive monitoring of trace amounts of PGN in real samples. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 1.00 and 3.30 ng/mL, respectively. The relative recoveries in real samples were adequate. Linearity was observed over a wide range of 2.2-10,000.0 ng/mL in aqueous media and urine and 0.01-70.0 μg/mL in blood serum. Graphical Abstract In this research new Fe3O4/poly(є-caprolactone) (PCL) magnetite microspheres were developed as an efficient sorbent for solid-phase extraction of progesterone hormone in biological and environmental matrices. PMID:27299775

  4. Sequential sampling: cost-effective approach for monitoring benthic macroinvertebrates in environmental impact assessements

    SciTech Connect

    Resh, V.H.; Price, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    Sequential sampling is a method for monitoring benthic macroinvertebrates that can significantly reduce the number of samples required to reach a decision, and consequently, decrease the cost of benthic sampling in environmental impact assessments. Rather than depending on a fixed number of samples, this analysis cumulatively compares measured parameter values (for example, density, community diversity) from individual samples, with thresholds that are based on specified degrees of precision. In addition to reducing sample size, a monitoring program based on sequential sampling can provide clear-cut decisions as to whether a priori-defined changes in the measured parameter(s) have or have not occurred.

  5. Detection and differentiation of contamination through a comparison of observed levels in historical environmental sampling data

    SciTech Connect

    Denham, D.H.; Price, K.R.

    1992-05-01

    In summarizing more than a decade of environmental monitoring data from the Hanford Site, we noted that grouping data by analysis, rather than by medium, enhanced visual as well as statistical interpretations. By plotting running-averages of individual radionuclides on the same graph, for different media, we evaluated environmental trends to determine whether or not a local impact had been observed. This approach may enhance ones ability to interpret environmental monitoring data collected following an unplanned release of radionuclides. This technique provides a more holistic approach to the evaluation of environmental monitoring data than has traditionally been practiced.

  6. Pesticide-sampling equipment, sample-collection and processing procedures, and water-quality data at Chicod Creek, North Carolina, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manning, T.K.; Smith, K.E.; Wood, C.D.; Williams, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    Water-quality samples were collected from Chicod Creek in the Coastal Plain Province of North Carolina during the summer of 1992 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Chicod Creek is in the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage area, one of four study units designated to test equipment and procedures for collecting and processing samples for the solid-phase extraction of selected pesticides, The equipment and procedures were used to isolate 47 pesticides, including organonitrogen, carbamate, organochlorine, organophosphate, and other compounds, targeted to be analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Sample-collection and processing equipment equipment cleaning and set-up procedures, methods pertaining to collecting, splitting, and solid-phase extraction of samples, and water-quality data resulting from the field test are presented in this report Most problems encountered during this intensive sampling exercise were operational difficulties relating to equipment used to process samples.

  7. Detection of pyrethroid pesticides and their environmental degradation products in duplicate diet samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    The abstract is for an oral presentation at the Asilomar Conference on Mass Spectrometry: Mass Spectrometry in Environmental Chemistry, Toxicology, and Health. It describes analytical method development and sample results for determination of pyrethroid pesticides and environme...

  8. Microbiological Detection Systems for Molecular Analysis of Environmental Water and Soil Samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple detection systems are being targeted to track various species and genotypes of pathogens found in environmental samples with the overreaching goal of developing analytical separation and detection techniques for Salmonella enterica Serovars Typhi, Cryptosporidium parvum,...

  9. Purification of U and Pu from Bulk Environmental Samples for Analysis by MC-ICPMS

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R W; Genetti, V; Ramon, E

    2005-02-23

    This procedure gives the methods used at LLNL for the purification of uranium and plutonium from bulk environmental samples provided by the IAEA through the DOE Network of Analytical Laboratories (NWAL).

  10. Engineering Task Plan to Expand the Environmental Operational Envelope of Core Sampling

    SciTech Connect

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-12-14

    This Engineering Task Plan authorizes the development of an Alternative Generation and Analysis (AGA). The AGA will determine how to expand the environmental operating envelope during core sampling operations.

  11. ANALYTICAL METHODOLOGY FOR THE DETERMINATION OF CHLOROPHENOLS IN HUMAN AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methodology is presented for the determination of chlorophenols in human and environmental media. The methodology for air samples is a modification of the analysis of chlorophenols in blood and has not been fully investigated as to quantitative reliability.

  12. METHOD DEVELOPMENT FOR THE DETERMINATION OF FORMALDEHYDE IN SAMPLES OF ENVIRONMENTAL ORIGIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analytical method was developed for the determination of formaldehyde in samples of environmental origin. After a review of the current literature, five candidate methods involving chemical derivatization were chosen for evaluation. The five derivatization reagents studied wer...

  13. An improved combustion apparatus for the determination of organically bound tritium in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Du, Lin; Shan, Jian; Ma, Yu-Hua; Wang, Ling; Qin, Lai-Lai; Pi, Li; Zeng, You-Shi; Xia, Zheng-Hai; Wang, Guang-Hua; Liu, Wei

    2016-04-01

    This paper reports an improved combustion apparatus for the determination of organically bound tritium in environmental samples. The performance of this apparatus including the recovery rate and reproducibility was investigated by combusting lettuce and pork samples. To determine the factors for the different recovery rates of lettuce and pork and investigate whether the samples were completely oxidized, the ashes and exhaust gases produced by the combustion were analyzed. The results indicate that the apparatus showed an excellent performance in the combustion of environmental samples. Thus, the improvements conducted in this study were effective. PMID:26868274

  14. A Model Using Local Weather Data to Determine the Effective Sampling Volume for PCB Congeners Collected on Passive Air Samplers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We have developed and evaluated a mathematical model to determine the effective sampling volumes (Veff) of PCBs and similar compounds captured using polyurethane foam passive air samplers (PUF–PAS). We account for the variability in wind speed, air temperature, and equilibrium partitioning over the course of the deployment of the samplers. The model, provided as an annotated Matlab script, predicts the Veff as a function of physical-chemical properties of each compound and meteorology from the closest Integrated Surface Database (ISD) data set obtained through NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI). The model was developed to be user-friendly, only requiring basic Matlab knowledge. To illustrate the effectiveness of the model, we evaluated three independent data sets of airborne PCBs simultaneously collected using passive and active samplers: at sites in Chicago, Lancaster, UK, and Toronto, Canada. The model provides Veff values comparable to those using depuration compounds and calibration against active samplers, yielding an average congener specific concentration method ratio (active/passive) of 1.1 ± 1.2. We applied the model to PUF–PAS samples collected in Chicago and show that previous methods can underestimate concentrations of PCBs by up to 40%, especially for long deployments, deployments conducted under warming conditions, and compounds with log Koa values less than 8. PMID:26963482

  15. A Model Using Local Weather Data to Determine the Effective Sampling Volume for PCB Congeners Collected on Passive Air Samplers.

    PubMed

    Herkert, Nicholas J; Martinez, Andres; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2016-07-01

    We have developed and evaluated a mathematical model to determine the effective sampling volumes (Veff) of PCBs and similar compounds captured using polyurethane foam passive air samplers (PUF-PAS). We account for the variability in wind speed, air temperature, and equilibrium partitioning over the course of the deployment of the samplers. The model, provided as an annotated Matlab script, predicts the Veff as a function of physical-chemical properties of each compound and meteorology from the closest Integrated Surface Database (ISD) data set obtained through NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI). The model was developed to be user-friendly, only requiring basic Matlab knowledge. To illustrate the effectiveness of the model, we evaluated three independent data sets of airborne PCBs simultaneously collected using passive and active samplers: at sites in Chicago, Lancaster, UK, and Toronto, Canada. The model provides Veff values comparable to those using depuration compounds and calibration against active samplers, yielding an average congener specific concentration method ratio (active/passive) of 1.1 ± 1.2. We applied the model to PUF-PAS samples collected in Chicago and show that previous methods can underestimate concentrations of PCBs by up to 40%, especially for long deployments, deployments conducted under warming conditions, and compounds with log Koa values less than 8. PMID:26963482

  16. A remotely operated serial sampler for collecting gas-tight fluid samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shi-jun; Yang, Can-jun; Ding, Kang; Tan, Chun-yang

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the design, construction and preliminary test results for a gas-tight serial sampler intended to be deployed at seafloor for long-term operation to take time-series fluid samples from deep-sea environments such as cold seeps, water column and hydrothermal vents. The serial sampler is a modular system that is based on independent and identical sampling modules, which are designed to collect six 160 ml gas-tight fluid samples maintained at high pressure to a depth of 4000 meters. With two working modes, the sampler can be deployed either with seafloor cabled observatory for remote control or as a stand-alone device for autonomous operation. A prototype of the instrument has been constructed and tested on the MARS cabled observatory for two months. The laboratory and field tests proved the success of the design and construction of the serial sampler, and indicated the potential for future ocean sciences.

  17. Comparative quantification of Campylobacter jejuni from environmental samples using traditional and molecular biological techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is one of the most common causes of gastroenteritis in the world. Given the potential risks to human, animal and environmental health the development and optimization of methods to quantify this important pathogen in environmental samples is essential. Two of the mos...

  18. Advanced flight design systems subsystem performance models. Sample model: Environmental analysis routine library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, K. C.; Torian, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    A sample environmental control and life support model performance analysis using the environmental analysis routines library is presented. An example of a complete model set up and execution is provided. The particular model was synthesized to utilize all of the component performance routines and most of the program options.

  19. The Apollo Lunar Sample Image Collection: Digital Archiving and Online Access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, Nancy S.; Lofgren, Gary E.; Stefanov, William L.; Garcia, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of the Apollo Program was to land human beings on the Moon and bring them safely back to Earth. This goal was achieved during six missions - Apollo 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 - that took place between 1969 and 1972. Among the many noteworthy engineering and scientific accomplishments of these missions, perhaps the most important in terms of scientific impact was the return of 382 kg (842 lb.) of lunar rocks, core samples, pebbles, sand, and dust from the lunar surface to Earth. Returned samples were curated at JSC (then known as the Manned Spacecraft Center) and, as part of the original processing, high-quality photographs were taken of each sample. The top, bottom, and sides of each rock sample were photographed, along with 16 stereo image pairs taken at 45-degree intervals. Photographs were also taken whenever a sample was subdivided and when thin sections were made. This collection of lunar sample images consists of roughly 36,000 photographs; all six Apollo missions are represented.

  20. Aqueous Processing of Atmospheric Organic Particles in Cloud Water Collected via Aircraft Sampling.

    PubMed

    Boone, Eric J; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Wirth, Christopher; Shepson, Paul B; Stirm, Brian H; Pratt, Kerri A

    2015-07-21

    Cloudwater and below-cloud atmospheric particle samples were collected onboard a research aircraft during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) over a forested region of Alabama in June 2013. The organic molecular composition of the samples was studied to gain insights into the aqueous-phase processing of organic compounds within cloud droplets. High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) with nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) and direct infusion electrospray ionization (ESI) were utilized to compare the organic composition of the particle and cloudwater samples, respectively. Isoprene and monoterpene-derived organosulfates and oligomers were identified in both the particles and cloudwater, showing the significant influence of biogenic volatile organic compound oxidation above the forested region. While the average O:C ratios of the organic compounds were similar between the atmospheric particle and cloudwater samples, the chemical composition of these samples was quite different. Specifically, hydrolysis of organosulfates and formation of nitrogen-containing compounds were observed for the cloudwater when compared to the atmospheric particle samples, demonstrating that cloud processing changes the composition of organic aerosol. PMID:26068538

  1. Presence of aflatoxin M1 in raw, reconstituted, and powdered milk samples collected in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Redouane-Salah, S; Morgavi, D P; Arhab, R; Messaï, A; Boudra, H

    2015-06-01

    Aflatoxins are potent toxic metabolites produced by Aspergillus spp. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a metabolite of aflatoxin B1 that can be present in milk, and it is a public health concern. There is scarce information on the incidence of aflatoxin M1 contamination in milk consumed in Algeria. The presence of AFM1 was investigated in raw milk samples collected between February and October 2011 from 11 dairy farms representative of Algerian production conditions and that were located around Constantine city. Reconstituted and powdered milk samples were purchased from local supermarkets. The analysis was performed by liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection after immunoaffinity purification. AFM1 was detected in 5 out of 47 samples (11 %) at levels ranging from 9 to 103 ng/L, with one sample exceeding the limit of 50 ng/L set by European regulations. Traces of AFM1 (less than 8 ng/L) were also found in 11 other samples. The incidence of AFM1 contamination was higher in imported powdered milk (29 %) than in raw milk (5 %). Although the concentration of AFM1 in contaminated samples was low, the relatively considerable prevalence found in this exploratory study justifies more detailed and continuous monitoring to reduce consumers' exposure to AFM1. PMID:26009161

  2. Aqueous Processing of Atmospheric Organic Particles in Cloud Water Collected via Aircraft Sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Boone, Eric J.; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Wirth, Christopher; Shepson, Paul B.; Stirm, Brian H.; Pratt, Kerri A.

    2015-07-21

    Cloud water and below-cloud atmospheric particle samples were collected onboard a research aircraft during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) over a forested region of Alabama in June 2013. The organic molecular composition of the samples was studied to gain insights into the aqueous-phase processing of organic compounds within cloud droplets. High resolution mass spectrometry with nanospray desorption electrospray ionization and direct infusion electrospray ionization were utilized to compare the organic composition of the particle and cloud water samples, respectively. Isoprene and monoterpene-derived organosulfates and oligomers were identified in both the particles and cloud water, showing the significant influence of biogenic volatile organic compound oxidation above the forested region. While the average O:C ratios of the organic compounds were similar between the atmospheric particle and cloud water samples, the chemical composition of these samples was quite different. Specifically, hydrolysis of organosulfates and formation of nitrogen-containing compounds were observed for the cloud water when compared to the atmospheric particle samples, demonstrating that cloud processing changes the composition of organic aerosol.

  3. Study design in qualitative research--2: Sampling and data collection strategies.

    PubMed

    Devers, K J; Frankel, R M

    2000-01-01

    In two prior papers in our series on qualitative research [Frankel & Devers (2000a, 2000b) Qualitative research: a consumer's guide, Education for Health, 13, 113-123; Frankel & Devers (2000) Study design in qualitative research-1: developing research questions and assessing research needs, Education for Health, 13, 251-261], we examine two critical issues in qualitative research design: sampling, including identifying and negotiating access to research sites and subjects, and data collection and management. We describe these two key steps in the qualitative research design process, discuss challenges that often emerge when pursuing these steps, and provide guidelines for addressing them. Qualitative research most often uses "purposive," rather than random, sampling strategies. A good understanding of these sampling strategies and why they are used is central to designing a credible qualitative study. In addition, given the real-world context in which most qualitative research is carried out, identifying and negotiating access to research sites and subjects are critical parts of the process. We also provide suggestions for developing and maintaining productive and mutually satisfying research relationships with sites and subjects. Finally, data collection and management are often neglected subjects in qualitative research. We offer practical advice on how to collect and manage qualitative data, including factors to consider when deciding how structured the data collection process should be, the pros and cons of audio- and/or videotaping compared with note-taking, and tips for writing up field notes and document management. A forthcoming, final paper in the series will focus on qualitative data analysis and the publication of qualitative research results. PMID:14742088

  4. Environmental Sampling FY01 Annual Report - Understanding the Movement of Mercury in the Environmental Surrounding the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, Michael Lehman

    2001-09-01

    Environmental fate and transport of the toxic air pollutant mercury (Hg) is currently a high-priority regional concern for the INEEL, and national and global concern for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). At the INEEL’s Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), significant quantities (est. 40 kg/year) of Hg may have been released over 37 years of Environmental Management’s (EM) High-Level Waste (HLW) treatment operations. The EPA is very concerned about the continued global buildup of Hg in the atmosphere and aquatic ecosystems, and has recently invested heavily in Hg research to better understand its complex environmental cycling.1,2 The Environmental Sampling work began in FY99 as a joint INEEL/U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) field research effort to (a) better understand the fate and potential impacts of Hg emissions from the INEEL’s HLW treatment operations (operational component) and (b) contribute at a national level to the scientific understanding of local, regional, and global Hg fate and transport (research component). The USGS contributed snow sampling support in the field (Water Resources Division, Salt Lake City) and laboratory analysis of all samples (Wisconsin District Mercury Research Laboratory).

  5. Detection of Invasive Mosquito Vectors Using Environmental DNA (eDNA) from Water Samples.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Judith; Valentini, Alice; Dejean, Tony; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Taberlet, Pierre; Glaizot, Olivier; Fumagalli, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Repeated introductions and spread of invasive mosquito species (IMS) have been recorded on a large scale these last decades worldwide. In this context, members of the mosquito genus Aedes can present serious risks to public health as they have or may develop vector competence for various viral diseases. While the Tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) is a well-known vector for e.g. dengue and chikungunya viruses, the Asian bush mosquito (Ae. j. japonicus) and Ae. koreicus have shown vector competence in the field and the laboratory for a number of viruses including dengue, West Nile fever and Japanese encephalitis. Early detection and identification is therefore crucial for successful eradication or control strategies. Traditional specific identification and monitoring of different and/or cryptic life stages of the invasive Aedes species based on morphological grounds may lead to misidentifications, and are problematic when extensive surveillance is needed. In this study, we developed, tested and applied an environmental DNA (eDNA) approach for the detection of three IMS, based on water samples collected in the field in several European countries. We compared real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays specific for these three species and an eDNA metabarcoding approach with traditional sampling, and discussed the advantages and limitations of these methods. Detection probabilities for eDNA-based approaches were in most of the specific comparisons higher than for traditional survey and the results were congruent between both molecular methods, confirming the reliability and efficiency of alternative eDNA-based techniques for the early and unambiguous detection and surveillance of invasive mosquito vectors. The ease of water sampling procedures in the eDNA approach tested here allows the development of large-scale monitoring and surveillance programs of IMS, especially using citizen science projects. PMID:27626642

  6. Sample preparation, data collection and preliminary data analysis in biomolecular solution X-ray scattering

    PubMed Central

    Grishaev, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    In addition to the classic methods of structural biology - X-ray crystallography and NMR, solution X-ray scattering (SAXS) is starting to play an important role in experiential structural investigation of biological macromolecules. Ease of SAXS data collection and sophistication of its data analysis tools increasingly used as black boxes can be seen as both a blessing and a curse. On one hand, a sample set aside for solution scattering will always yield experimental data, including cases when macromolecule cannot be crystallized or when it is too large for application of solution NMR. On the other hand, any sample, whether pure or contaminated, whether mono- or polydisperse, will yield scattering data and it is up to the user to ensure the absence of artifacts in them and to choose a proper structural modeling strategy. We will discuss experimental aspects of X-ray solution scattering including sample preparation, data collection, as well as the steps in data processing and preliminary analysis that need to be carried out to ensure the absence of artifacts. Our goal is to summarize everything than can possibly go wrong with SAXS data measurement so that the user can have confidence in the data before they enter structural modeling. PMID:23151743

  7. Determination of boron contents in water samples collected from the Neelum valley, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Akram, Muhammad; Matiullah; Iqbal, Arshid; Husaini, S N; Malik, Fariha

    2011-03-01

    Intake of boron from food and drinking water may pose a risk to the public health above a certain concentration level. Therefore, knowledge of boron concentration in drinking water and food items is essential. In this context, samples of drinking water were collected from natural springs of the Neelum valley, Azad Kashmir, hit by devastating earthquake in 2005. In these samples, boron concentration was determined using neutron-induced radiography technique. To do so, unknown water samples, along with standard of known boron dried on CR-39 detectors, were irradiated with thermal neutrons. After exposure, CR-39 detectors were etched in 6 M NaOH at 70°C. The tracks produced due to the alpha particles and (7)Li ions as a result of (10)B(n,α)(7)Li reaction were counted under an optical microscope. The tracks produced in theses samples were then related to the boron contents. The measured boron concentration in water samples was found to vary from 0.105 ± 0.005 to 0.247 ± 0.013 mg/l with an average value of 0.17 ± 0.04 mg/l, which are within the acceptable limits. PMID:20306233

  8. Miniature CVD-diamond corning drills for robotic sample collection and analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Vaniman, D. T.; Trava-Airoldi, V.J.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S. J.

    2003-01-01

    Coring tools have been used etlectivelv on the Moon, but to date no such tools have been used on any other extraterrestrial surface. The lunar experience includes both manual (Apollo) and robotic (Luna) systems . These coring systems were concerned primarily with acquiring samples from depth for return to Earth or for the creation of instrument emplacement holes (e .g ., heat probes). Current designs for planetary drills differ from the lunar tools primarily in that they are integrated with robotic instrumentation for remote analysis, but the role of the drilling or coring system remains one of acquiring samples that must be extracted from the core barrel for analysis . Missing from current sample collection systems is a tool that can double as both a conng device and a sample holder. This dual utility can minimize the number of motions, the mass, and the power required for several classes of instruments in planetary surface exploration. To be effective, such a system must be durable and simple in operation. Hollow CVD diamond drills possess the hardness, excellent cutting properties, and heat resistance required for drilling into a wide variety of rocks and minerals. Because CVD diamond is also unreactive and transparent to infrared radiation and to X-rays of moderate to high energry, it can be used as a sample holder in various instruments for X-ray diffraction (XRD), Xray fluorescence (XRF), infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and thermal analysis.

  9. Comparative evaluation of vacuum-based surface sampling methods for collection of Bacillus spores

    PubMed Central

    Calfee, M. Worth; Rose, Laura J.; Morse, Stephen; Mattorano, Dino; Clayton, Matt; Touati, Abderrahmane; Griffin-Gatchalian, Nicole; Slone, Christina; McSweeney, Neal

    2016-01-01

    In this study, four commonly-used sampling devices (vacuum socks, 37 mm 0.8 μm mixed cellulose ester (MCE) filter cassettes, 37 mm 0.3 μm polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filter cassettes, and 3M™ forensic filters) were comparatively evaluated for their ability to recover surface-associated spores. Aerosolized spores (~105 CFU cm−2) of a Bacillus anthracis surrogate were allowed to settle onto three material types (concrete, carpet, and upholstery). Ten replicate samples were collected using each vacuum method, from each material type. Stainless steel surfaces, inoculated simultaneously with test materials, were sampled with pre-moistened wipes. Wipe recoveries were utilized to normalize vacuum-based recoveries across trials. Recovery (CFU cm−2) and relative recovery (vacuum recovery/wipe recovery) were determined for each method and material type. Recoveries and relative recoveries ranged from 3.8 × 103 to 7.4 × 104 CFU cm−2 and 0.035 to 1.242, respectively. ANOVA results indicated that the 37 mm MCE method exhibited higher relative recoveries than the other methods when used for sampling concrete or upholstery. While the vacuum sock resulted in the highest relative recoveries on carpet, no statistically significant difference was detected. The results of this study may be used to guide selection of sampling approaches following biological contamination incidents. PMID:24184017

  10. Control of the positional relationship between a sample collection instrument and a surface to be analyzed during a sampling procedure with image analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Van Berkel, Gary J.; Kertesz, Vilmos

    2011-08-09

    A system and method utilizes an image analysis approach for controlling the collection instrument-to-surface distance in a sampling system for use, for example, with mass spectrometric detection. Such an approach involves the capturing of an image of the collection instrument or the shadow thereof cast across the surface and the utilization of line average brightness (LAB) techniques to determine the actual distance between the collection instrument and the surface. The actual distance is subsequently compared to a target distance for re-optimization, as necessary, of the collection instrument-to-surface during an automated surface sampling operation.

  11. Analysis of Dust Samples Collected from an Unused Spent Nuclear Fuel Interim Storage Container at Hope Creek, Delaware.

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Charles R.; Enos, David

    2015-03-01

    In July, 2014, the Electric Power Research Institute and industry partners sampled dust on the surface of an unused canister that had been stored in an overpack at the Hope Creek Nuclear Generating Station for approximately one year. The foreign material exclusion (FME) cover that had been on the top of the canister during storage, and a second recently - removed FME cover, were also sampled. This report summarizes the results of analyses of dust samples collected from the unused Hope Creek canister and the FME covers. Both wet and dry samples of the dust/salts were collected, using SaltSmart(TM) sensors and Scotch - Brite(TM) abrasive pads, respectively. The SaltSmart(TM) samples were leached and the leachate analyzed chemically to determine the composition and surface load per unit area of soluble salts present on the canister surface. The dry pad samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence and by scanning electron microscopy to determine dust texture and mineralogy; and by leaching and chemical analysis to deter mine soluble salt compositions. The analyses showed that the dominant particles on the canister surface were stainless steel particles, generated during manufacturing of the canister. Sparse environmentally - derived silicates and aluminosilicates were also present. Salt phases were sparse, and consisted of mostly of sulfates with rare nitrates and chlorides. On the FME covers, the dusts were mostly silicates/aluminosilicates; the soluble salts were consistent with those on the canister surface, and were dominantly sulfates. It should be noted that the FME covers were w ashed by rain prior to sampling, which had an unknown effect of the measured salt loads and compositions. Sulfate salts dominated the assemblages on the canister and FME surfaces, and in cluded Ca - SO4 , but also Na - SO4 , K - SO4 , and Na - Al - SO4 . It is likely that these salts were formed by particle - gas conversion reactions, either

  12. GUIDELINES FOR PREPARING ENVIRONMENTAL AND WASTE SAMPLES FOR MUTAGENICITY (AMES) TESTING: INTERIM PROCEDURES AND PANEL MEETING PROCEEDINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The User's Guide presents review papers and interim protocols for the preparation of waste and environmental samples for testing with the Salmonella reverse-mutation assay (Ames test). Sample types addressed include air, drinking water (processed), environmental and wastewaters, ...

  13. Rapid Filtration Separation-Based Sample Preparation Method for Bacillus Spores in Powdery and Environmental Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Isabel, Sandra; Boissinot, Maurice; Charlebois, Isabelle; Fauvel, Chantal M.; Shi, Lu-E; Lévesque, Julie-Christine; Paquin, Amélie T.; Bastien, Martine; Stewart, Gale; Leblanc, Éric; Sato, Sachiko

    2012-01-01

    Authorities frequently need to analyze suspicious powders and other samples for biothreat agents in order to assess environmental safety. Numerous nucleic acid detection technologies have been developed to detect and identify biowarfare agents in a timely fashion. The extraction of microbial nucleic acids from a wide variety of powdery and environmental samples to obtain a quality level adequate for these technologies still remains a technical challenge. We aimed to develop a rapid and versatile method of separating bacteria from these samples and then extracting their microbial DNA. Bacillus atrophaeus subsp. globigii was used as a simulant of Bacillus anthracis. We studied the effects of a broad variety of powdery and environmental samples on PCR detection and the steps required to alleviate their interference. With a benchmark DNA extraction procedure, 17 of the 23 samples investigated interfered with bacterial lysis and/or PCR-based detection. Therefore, we developed the dual-filter method for applied recovery of microbial particles from environmental and powdery samples (DARE). The DARE procedure allows the separation of bacteria from contaminating matrices that interfere with PCR detection. This procedure required only 2 min, while the DNA extraction process lasted 7 min, for a total of <10 min. This sample preparation procedure allowed the recovery of cleaned bacterial spores and relieved detection interference caused by a wide variety of samples. Our procedure was easily completed in a laboratory facility and is amenable to field application and automation. PMID:22210204

  14. Determination of arsenic and selenium in environmental and agricultural samples by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Hershey, J.W.; Oostdyk, T.S.; Keliher, P.N.

    1988-11-01

    Agricultural and environmental samples are digested with acid, and arsenic and selenium are determined using hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Interelement interferences are eliminated by high acid concentrations or cation-exchange resins. Agreement with standard reference material is excellent. The technique is also applied to actual samples.

  15. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Mothering of Adolescents: A Comparison of Two Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Reiss, David; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Spotts, Erica L.; Hansson, Kjell; Cederblad, Marianne; Ellhammer,Olle

    2004-01-01

    This study examined 2 samples of adolescents and mothers using a child-based design (Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development [NEAD] project, N = 395 families) and a parent-based design (Twin Moms [TM] project, N = 236 twin family pairs) to compare genetic and environmental influences on mothering. For both samples, the same measures of…

  16. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Mapping of Environmental Samples across College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purvis-Roberts, Kathleen L.; Moeur, Harriet P.; Zanella, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, students take environmental samples at various locations around the college campuses, take geospatial coordinates with a global position systems (GPS) unit, and map their results on a geo-referenced campus map with geographical information systems (GIS) software. Nitrogen dioxide air pollution sampling is used as an…

  17. METHODS TO CLASSIFY ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES BASED ON MOLD ANALYSES BY QPCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitative PCR (QPCR) analysis of molds in indoor environmental samples produces highly accurate speciation and enumeration data. In a number of studies, eighty of the most common or potentially problematic indoor molds were identified and quantified in dust samples from homes...

  18. 76 FR 38189 - New Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Environmental Science Formative Research Methodology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health New Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Environmental... proposed projects to be submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval... questioned the cost and utility of the study specifically and of federally funded biomedical research...

  19. Collecting Pests for Identification. Module 12. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on collecting pests for identification. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) identifying the parts and…

  20. Reference materials and intercomparison samples available from the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory - Las Vegas

    SciTech Connect

    Kantor, E.J.; Laska, P.R.

    1985-06-01

    Reference materials and intercomparison samples may be obtained by laboratories involved in the analysis of environmental samples containing radioactivity, pesticides, toxic inorganic species, or toxic organic species. These reference materials and intercomparison samples are available from the US Environmental Protection Agency's Quality Assurance Division located at the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory in Las Vegas (EMSL-LV). These materials are useful for incorporation into a laboratory's quality control program for the evaluation of the precision and accuracy of analytical work. Media used for radiation reference materials are pitchblende, Monazite ore, uranium mill tailings, Mancos shale, fly ash, and water spiked with radionuclides. Radioactivity intercomparison samples consist of water, milk, air, urine, and a simulated diet slurry spiked with radionuclides. Media available for toxic organic reference materials are sludge, shale oil, and rag oil, and for intercomparison samples are soil and water. Characterized fly ash, foundry sludge, and river sediment serve as reference materials for toxic inorganics, while spiked soil and water serve as intercomparison samples. Finally, spiked adipose tissue, blood plasma, urine, and water comprise the pesticide intercomparison samples, and, after the disclosure of the true pesticide compositions and concentrations of these samples, the laboratory can use the samples as reference materials. The reference materials are generally available continuously, but the intercomparison samples are distributed on a scheduled basis and in some cases only to certain laboratories. 9 tables.

  1. RoboHound:developing sample collection and preconcentration hardware for a remote trace explosives detection system.

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, David J.; Denning, David J.; Hobart, Clinton G.; Lenz, Michael C.; Anderson, Robert J.; Carlson, Dennis L.; Hunter, John Anthony; Gladwell, T. Scott; Mitchell, Mary-Anne; Hannum, David W.; Baumann, Mark J.

    2005-09-01

    The RoboHound{trademark} Project was a three-year, multiphase project at Sandia National Laboratories to build and refine a working prototype trace explosive detection system as a tool for a commercial robot. The RoboHound system was envisioned to be a tool for emergency responders to test suspicious items (i.e., packages or vehicles) for explosives while maintaining a safe distance. The project investigated combining Sandia's expertise in trace explosives detection with a wheeled robotic platform that could be programmed to interrogate suspicious items remotely for the presence of explosives. All of the RoboHound field tests were successful, especially with regards to the ability to collect and detect trace samples of RDX. The project has gone from remote sampling with human intervention to a fully automatic system that requires no human intervention until the robot returns from a sortie. A proposal is being made for additional work leading towards commercialization.

  2. Geochemistry of Rock Samples Collected from the Iron Hill Carbonatite Complex, Gunnison County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    A study conducted in 2006 by the U.S. Geological Survey collected 57 surface rock samples from nine types of intrusive rock in the Iron Hill carbonatite complex. This intrusive complex, located in Gunnison County of southwestern Colorado, is known for its classic carbonatite-alkaline igneous geology and petrology. The Iron Hill complex is also noteworthy for its diverse mineral resources, including enrichments in titanium, rare earth elements, thorium, niobium (columbium), and vanadium. This study was performed to reexamine the chemistry and metallic content of the major rock units of the Iron Hill complex by using modern analytical techniques, while providing a broader suite of elements than the earlier published studies. The report contains the geochemical analyses of the samples in tabular and digital spreadsheet format, providing the analytical results for 55 major and trace elements.

  3. Strategy to obtain axenic cultures from field-collected samples of the cyanobacterium Phormidium animalis.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Martínez, Guadalupe; Rodriguez, Mario H; Hernández-Hernández, Fidel; Ibarra, Jorge E

    2004-04-01

    An efficient strategy, based on a combination of procedures, was developed to obtain axenic cultures from field-collected samples of the cyanobacterium Phormidium animalis. Samples were initially cultured in solid ASN-10 medium, and a crude separation of major contaminants from P. animalis filaments was achieved by washing in a series of centrifugations and resuspensions in liquid medium. Then, manageable filament fragments were obtained by probe sonication. Fragmentation was followed by forceful washing, using vacuum-driven filtration through an 8-microm pore size membrane and an excess of water. Washed fragments were cultured and treated with a sequential exposure to four different antibiotics. Finally, axenic cultures were obtained from serial dilutions of treated fragments. Monitoring under microscope examination and by inoculation in Luria-Bertani (LB) agar plates indicated either axenicity or the degree of contamination throughout the strategy. PMID:15003694

  4. Methods for collecting benthic invertebrate samples as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cuffney, Thomas F.; Gurtz, Martin E.; Meador, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    Benthic invertebrate communities are evaluated as part of the ecological survey component of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. These biological data are collected along with physical and chemical data to assess water-quality conditions and to develop an understanding of the factors that affect water-quality conditions locally, regionally, and nationally. The objectives of benthic invertebrate community characterizations are to (1) develop for each site a list of tax a within the associated stream reach and (2) determine the structure of benthic invertebrate communities within selected habitats of that reach. A nationally consistent approach is used to achieve these objectives. This approach provides guidance on site, reach, and habitat selection and methods and equipment for qualitative multihabitat sampling and semi-quantitative single habitat sampling. Appropriate quality-assurance and quality-control guidelines are used to maximize the ability to analyze data within and among study units.

  5. Ram-air sample collection device for a chemical warfare agent sensor

    DOEpatents

    Megerle, Clifford A.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.

    2002-01-01

    In a surface acoustic wave sensor mounted within a body, the sensor having a surface acoustic wave array detector and a micro-fabricated sample preconcentrator exposed on a surface of the body, an apparatus for collecting air for the sensor, comprising a housing operatively arranged to mount atop the body, the housing including a multi-stage channel having an inlet and an outlet, the channel having a first stage having a first height and width proximate the inlet, a second stage having a second lower height and width proximate the micro-fabricated sample preconcentrator, a third stage having a still lower third height and width proximate the surface acoustic wave array detector, and a fourth stage having a fourth height and width proximate the outlet, where the fourth height and width are substantially the same as the first height and width.

  6. EFFECT OF STORAGE TIME AND STORAGE CONDITIONS ON ANTIBODY DETECTION IN BLOOD SAMPLES COLLECTED ON FILTER PAPER.

    PubMed

    Bevins, Sarah; Pappert, Ryan; Young, John; Schmit, Brandon; Kohler, Dennis; Baeten, Laurie

    2016-07-01

    Using filter paper to collect blood from wildlife for antibody analysis can be a powerful technique to simplify the collection, transport, and storage of blood samples. Despite these advantages, there are limited data that detail how long these samples can be stored and how storage conditions affect antibody longevity. We used blood samples collected on filter paper from coyotes experimentally infected with Yersinia pestis to determine optimum sample storage conditions over time. Blood samples collected on filter paper were stored for 454 d or more in four groups: 1) at ambient temperature and at ambient relative humidity, 2) at ambient temperature with desiccant, 3) at 4 C with desiccant, and 4) at -20 C with desiccant. Samples stored at 4 C or -20 C with desiccant had detectable antibody for a longer period of time than the samples stored at room temperature. PMID:27187032

  7. Molecular Characterization of Polio from Environmental Samples: ISSP, The Israeli Sewage Surveillance Protocol.

    PubMed

    Shulman, Lester M; Manor, Yossi; Hindiyeh, Musa; Sofer, Danit; Mendelson, Ella

    2016-01-01

    Polioviruses are enteric viruses that cause paralytic poliomyelitis in less than 0.5 % of infections and are asymptomatic in >90 % infections of naïve hosts. Environmental surveillance monitors polio in populations rather than in individuals. When this very low morbidity to infection ratio, drops drastically in highly vaccinated populations, environmental surveillance employing manual or automatic sampling coupled with molecular analysis carried out in well-equipped central laboratories becomes the surveillance method of choice since polioviruses are excreted by infected individuals regardless of whether or not the infection is symptomatic. This chapter describes a high throughput rapid turn-around time method for molecular characterization of polioviruses from sewage. It is presented in five modules: (1) Sewage collection and concentration of the viruses in the sewage; (2) Cell cultures for identification of virus in the concentrated sewage; (3) Nucleic acid extractions directly from sewage and from tissue cultures infected with aliquots of concentrated sewage; (4) Nucleic Acid Amplification for poliovirus serotype identification and intratypic differentiation (discriminating wild and vaccine derived polioviruses form vaccine strains); and (5) Molecular characterization of viral RNA by qRT-PCR, TR-PCR, and Sequence analysis. Monitoring silent or symptomatic transmission of vaccine-derived polioviruses or wild polioviruses is critical for the endgame of poliovirus eradication. We present methods for adapting standard kits and validating the changes for this purpose based on experience gained during the recent introduction and sustained transmission of a wild type 1 poliovirus in Israel in 2013 in a population with an initial IPV vaccine coverage >90 %. PMID:26983731

  8. Characterizing the size distribution of particles in urban stormwater by use of fixed-point sample-collection methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selbig, William R.; Bannerman, Roger T.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) and in collaboration with the Root River Municipal Stormwater Permit Group monitored eight urban source areas representing six types of source areas in or near Madison, Wis. in an effort to improve characterization of particle-size distributions in urban stormwater by use of fixed-point sample collection methods. The types of source areas were parking lot, feeder street, collector street, arterial street, rooftop, and mixed use. This information can then be used by environmental managers and engineers when selecting the most appropriate control devices for the removal of solids from urban stormwater. Mixed-use and parking-lot study areas had the lowest median particle sizes (42 and 54 (u or mu)m, respectively), followed by the collector street study area (70 (u or mu)m). Both arterial street and institutional roof study areas had similar median particle sizes of approximately 95 (u or mu)m. Finally, the feeder street study area showed the largest median particle size of nearly 200 (u or mu)m. Median particle sizes measured as part of this study were somewhat comparable to those reported in previous studies from similar source areas. The majority of particle mass in four out of six source areas was silt and clay particles that are less than 32 (u or mu)m in size. Distributions of particles ranging from 500 (u or mu)m were highly variable both within and between source areas. Results of this study suggest substantial variability in data can inhibit the development of a single particle-size distribution that is representative of stormwater runoff generated from a single source area or land use. Continued development of improved sample collection methods, such as the depth-integrated sample arm, may reduce variability in particle-size distributions by mitigating the effect of sediment bias inherent with a fixed-point sampler.

  9. Organophosphate esters in dust samples collected from Danish homes and daycare centers.

    PubMed

    Langer, Sarka; Fredricsson, Malin; Weschler, Charles J; Bekö, Gabriel; Strandberg, Bo; Remberger, Mikael; Toftum, Jørn; Clausen, Geo

    2016-07-01

    Organophosphates are used in a wide range of materials and consumer products and are ubiquitous in indoor environments. Certain organophosphates have been associated with various adverse health effects. The present paper reports mass fractions of organophosphates in dust samples collected from 500 bedrooms and 151 daycare centers of children living in Odense, Denmark. The identified compounds include: tris(isobutyl) phosphate (TIBP), tri-n-butyl phosphate (TNBP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP), tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP), triphenylphosphate (TPHP), 2-ethylhexyl-diphenyl phosphate (EHDPP), tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP) and tris(methylphenyl) phosphate (TMPP). Both the number of organophosphates with median values above the limit of detection and the median values were higher for samples from daycare centers than for samples from homes. Organophosphates with median mass fractions above the limit of detection were: TCEP from homes (6.9 μg g(-1)), and TCEP (16 μg g(-1)), TCIPP (5.6 μg g(-1)), TDCIPP (7.1 μg g(-1)), TBOEP (26 μg g(-1)), TPHP (2.0 μg g(-1)) and EHDPP (2.1 μg g(-1)) from daycare centers. When present, TBOEP was typically the most abundant of the identified OPs. The sum of the organophosphate dust mass fractions measured in this study was roughly in the mid-range of summed mass fractions reported for dust samples collected in other countries. On a global scale, the geographical distribution of organophosphates in indoor dust is quite variable, with higher concentrations in industrialized countries. This trend differs from that for phthalate esters, whose geographic distribution is more homogeneous. Exposure to organophosphates via dust ingestion is relatively low, although there is considerable uncertainly in this assessment. PMID:27085316

  10. Combined-sewer overflow data and methods of sample collection for selected sites, Detroit, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweat, M.J.; Wolf, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    From October 1, 1994 through December 31, 1995, four combined-sewer discharging to the Detroit River in Detroit, Michigan were monitored to characterize storm-related water quantity and quality. Water velocity, stage, discharge, and precipitation were measured continuously and recorded at 5-minute intervals. Water-quality samples were collected at discrete times during each storm and analyzed for inorganic and organic pollutants. This report includes the sampling approach, field collection and processing techniques, and methods of chemical analysis, as well as a compilation of combined sewer discharge volumes, chemical data, and quality control data. These data may be used by resource managers and scientists (1) to describe temporal variation for pollutant concentrations in combined-sewage for various overflow events; (2) to describe spatial distribution of selected pollutants in the four combined-sewer overflows discharging to the Detroit River; (3) to calculate pollutant loads to the Detroit River from the four overflow sites for the monitored storm events; (4) to estimate pollutant loadings form other overflow sites; and, (5) to provide data and information which can be used to define appropriate management methods to reduce or eliminate untreated combined-sewer overflows. Selected combined-sewers were sampled between 30 and 82 times for inorganic pollutants, and between 14 and 22 times for organic pollutants, depending on the site. These samples represented between 8 and 17 storms during which one or more combined-sewers overflowed. The monitored pollutants included fecal coliform, fecal streptococci, and Escherichia coli; antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, total chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, silver, thallium and zinc; and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, volatile organic compounds, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. In general, metal and non-metal inorganic pollutants were detected at all

  11. The applicability of sample collection and analysis in support of nuclear arms control agreements

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, R.R.

    1995-08-01

    Agreements are being negotiated to halt the spread of nuclear arms both within the declared nuclear weapons states and to states not heretofore declaring their possession. With the verification regime of the recently negotiated Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) as a model, negotiators are considering variations of on-site inspection as formulas to enhance the assurance of compliance with future agreements. These on-site inspections may be part of a treaty dictated verification regime or one of a set of voluntary {open_quotes}confidence building{close_quotes} measures. In either case, the collection of material samples for analysis could be an integral component of the inspection as it is in the CWC. The following is an assessment of the applicability of sampling and analysis for compliance monitoring nuclear arms control agreements currently envisioned. There are two essentially orthogonal ways of approaching this question of applicability: the consideration of the analytical questions and the consideration of the specifics of the individual agreements. This study is meant to utilize both approaches in examining the possible impact of sampling and analysis on compliance assessment. First attention must be given to technical questions relating to the efficacy of sampling and analysis.

  12. Greenhouse gas analysis of air samples collected onboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuck, T. J.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Slemr, F.; Xueref-Remy, I.; Zahn, A.

    2009-03-01

    CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) is a long-term atmospheric measurement program based on the use of a comprehensive scientific instrument package aboard a passenger aircraft. In addition to real time measurements, whole air sampling is performed regularly at cruising altitude in the upper troposphere and the extra-tropical UT/LS region. Air samples are analysed for greenhouse gases, NMHCs, halocarbons, and isotopic composition. The routinely performed greenhouse gas analysis comprises gas chromatography measurements of CO2, CH4, N2O and SF6. The sampling procedure, the GC system used for greenhouse gas analysis and its performance are described. Comparisons with other laboratories have shown good agreement of results as has a comparison with results from a CO2 in-situ analyser that is also part of the CARIBIC instrumentation. The timeseries of CO2 obtained from the collection of 684 samples at latitudes between 30° N and 56° N on 21 roundtrips out of Germany to different destinations in Asia between November 2005 and October 2008 is shown. A timeshift in the seasonal cyle of about one month was observed between the upper troposphere and the tropopause region. For two sets of return flights from Germany to the Philippines the relations between the four greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, N2O and SF6 are discussed in more detail. Distinct seasonal changes in the correlation between CH4 and CO2 are observed.

  13. Greenhouse gas analysis of air samples collected onboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuck, T. J.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Slemr, F.; Xueref-Remy, I.; Zahn, A.

    2009-08-01

    CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) is a long-term atmospheric measurement program based on the use of a comprehensive scientific instrument package aboard a commercial passenger aircraft. In addition to real-time measurements, whole air sampling is performed regularly at cruising altitudes in the tropical middle troposphere and the extra-tropical UT/LS region. Air samples are analyzed for greenhouse gases, NMHCs, halocarbons, and trace gas isotopic composition. The routinely performed greenhouse gas analysis comprises gas chromatography measurements of CO2, CH4, N2O and SF6. The air sampling procedure, the GC system and its performance are described. Comparisons with similar systems employed in other laboratories and a comparison with results from a CO2 in-situ analyzer that is also part of the CARIBIC instrumentation are shown. In addition, the time series of CO2, obtained from the collection of 684 samples at latitudes between 30° N and 56° N on 21 round trips out of Germany to different destinations in Asia between November 2005 and October 2008, is presented. A time shift in the seasonal cycle of about one month was observed between the upper troposphere and the tropopause region. For two sets of return flights from Germany to the Philippines the relationship between the four greenhouse gases is briefly discussed.

  14. FWT and OBT concentrations in pine needle samples collected at Toki, Japan (1998-2012).

    PubMed

    Akata, N; Kakiuchi, H; Tamari, T; Tanaka, M; Kawano, T; Miyake, H; Uda, T; Nishimura, K

    2015-11-01

    Free water tritium (FWT) and organically bound tritium (OBT) concentrations in pine needles have been investigated to understand the regional background tritium concentration in Toki City. Samples were regularly collected from pine trees on the National Institute for Fusion Science campus (1998-2012) and the nearby Shiomi Park (SP; 2002-12). FWT and OBT concentrations of the former samples ranged from 0.33 to 0.92 and 0.41 to 1.10 Bq l(-1), respectively, while those of the latter samples ranged from 0.32 to 0.86 and 0.33 to 0.79 Bq l(-1), respectively. Results of both sampling sites were almost the same, and they have been gradually decreased year by year. Concentration level of tritium for Toki City was close to the average background level in Japan. The OBT/FWT ratios were almost 1.0. The apparent half-life of FWT in this period was estimated as almost 10 y, and that of OBT was estimated as almost 12 y; these values were almost the same as the physical half-life. PMID:25948831

  15. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF DISLODGEABLE RESIDUES -- PUF ROLLER SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.18)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the method to collect transferable residues from indoor floor surfaces. The sampling procedures described are applicable to bare floors or covered floor surfaces, e.g., carpeting and vinyl flooring. The samples will be collected only in the day care centers o...

  16. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF FLOOR DUST SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.19)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the method for collecting a floor dust sample from carpet. Dust samples will be collected in the room that the child uses most at home and/or at day care using a High Volume Small Surface Sampler (HVS3). In addition, participants will also be asked to donate a ...

  17. State of the art of environmentally friendly sample preparation approaches for determination of PBDEs and metabolites in environmental and biological samples: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Berton, Paula; Lana, Nerina B; Ríos, Juan M; García-Reyes, Juan F; Altamirano, Jorgelina C

    2016-01-28

    Green chemistry principles for developing methodologies have gained attention in analytical chemistry in recent decades. A growing number of analytical techniques have been proposed for determination of organic persistent pollutants in environmental and biological samples. In this light, the current review aims to present state-of-the-art sample preparation approaches based on green analytical principles proposed for the determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and metabolites (OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs) in environmental and biological samples. Approaches to lower the solvent consumption and accelerate the extraction, such as pressurized liquid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and ultrasound-assisted extraction, are discussed in this review. Special attention is paid to miniaturized sample preparation methodologies and strategies proposed to reduce organic solvent consumption. Additionally, extraction techniques based on alternative solvents (surfactants, supercritical fluids, or ionic liquids) are also commented in this work, even though these are scarcely used for determination of PBDEs. In addition to liquid-based extraction techniques, solid-based analytical techniques are also addressed. The development of greener, faster and simpler sample preparation approaches has increased in recent years (2003-2013). Among green extraction techniques, those based on the liquid phase predominate over those based on the solid phase (71% vs. 29%, respectively). For solid samples, solvent assisted extraction techniques are preferred for leaching of PBDEs, and liquid phase microextraction techniques are mostly used for liquid samples. Likewise, green characteristics of the instrumental analysis used after the extraction and clean-up steps are briefly discussed. PMID:26755134

  18. Ground-Water Data-Collection Protocols and Procedures for the National Water-Quality Assessment Program: Collection and Documentation of Water-Quality Samples and Related Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koterba, Michael T.; Wilde, Franceska D.; Lapham, Wayne W.

    1995-01-01

    Protocols for ground-water sampling are described in a report written in 1989 as part of the pilot program for the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). These protocols have been reviewed and revised to address the needs of the full-scale implementation of the NAWQA Program that began in 1991. This report, which is a collaborative effort between the NAWQA Program and the USGS Office of Water Quality, is the result of that review and revision. This report describes protocols and recommended procedures for the collection of water-quality samples and related data from wells for the NAWQA Program. Protocols and recommended procedures discussed include (1) equipment setup and other preparations for data collection; (2) well purging and field measurements; (3) collecting and processing ground-water-quality samples; (4) equipment decontamination; (5) quality-control sampling; and (6) sample handling and shipping.

  19. PIXE Analysis of Atmospheric Aerosol Samples Collected in the Adirondack Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoskowitz, Josh; Ali, Salina; Nadareski, Benjamin; Safiq, Alexandrea; Smith, Jeremy; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael

    2013-10-01

    We have performed an elemental analysis of atmospheric aerosol samples collected at Piseco Lake in Upstate New York using proton induced x-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE). This work is part of a systematic study of airborne pollution in the Adirondack Mountains. Of particular interest is the sulfur content that can contribute to acid rain, a well-documented problem in the Adirondacks. We used a nine-stage cascade impactor to collect the samples and distribute the particulate matter onto Kapton foils by particle size. The PIXE experiments were performed with 2.2-MeV proton beams from the 1.1-MV pelletron accelerator in the Union College Ion-Beam Analysis Laboratory. X-Ray energy spectra were measured with a silicon drift detector and analyzed with GUPIX software to determine the elemental concentrations of the aerosols. A broad range of elements from silicon to zinc were detected with significant sulfur concentrations measured for particulate matter between 0.25 and 0.5 μm in size. The PIXE analysis will be described and preliminary results will be presented.

  20. Comparative evaluation of the US Environmental Protection Agency`s and the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education`s environmental survey and site assessment program field sampling procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Vitkus, T.J.; Bright, T.L.; Roberts, S.A.

    1997-10-01

    At the request of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) Headquarters Office, the Environmental Survey and Site Assessment Program (ESSAP) of the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) compared the documented procedures that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and ESSAP use for collecting environmental samples. The project objectives were to review both organizations` procedures applicable to collecting various sample matrices, compare the procedures for similarities and differences, and then to evaluate the reason for any identified procedural differences and their potential impact on ESSAP`s sample data quality. The procedures reviewed included those for sampling surface and subsurface soil, surface and groundwater, vegetation, air, and removable surface contamination. ESSAP obtained copies of relevant EPA documents and reviewed and prepared a tabulated summary of each applicable procedure. The methods for collecting and handling each type of sample were evaluated for differences, and where these were identified, the significance and effect of the differences on analytical quality were determined. The results of the comparison showed that, overall, the procedures and methods that EPA and ESSAP use for sample collection are very similar. The number of minor differences noted were the result of restrictions or procedures necessary to ensure sample integrity and prevent the introduction of interfering compounds when samples are to be analyzed for chemical parameters. For most radio nuclide analyses, these additional procedures are not necessary. Another item noted was EPA`s inclusion of steps that reduce the potential for sample cross-contamination by preparing (dressing) a location prior to collecting a sample or removing a portion of a sample prior to containerization.