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Sample records for environmental strategies nordic

  1. Nordic in Nature: Friluftsliv and Environmental Connectedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beery, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the question of whether a relationship exists between the Nordic cultural idea of friluftsliv and the psychological construct of environmental connectedness (EC). This quantitative study employed a correlational design with existing data from the Swedish Outdoor Recreation in Change national survey. Results indicate that there…

  2. Environmental services provided from riparian forests in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Gundersen, Per; Laurén, Ari; Finér, Leena; Ring, Eva; Koivusalo, Harri; Saetersdal, Magne; Weslien, Jan-Olov; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D; Högbom, Lars; Laine, Jukka; Hansen, Karin

    2010-12-01

    Riparian forests (RF) growing along streams, rivers and lakes comprise more than 2% of the forest area in the Nordic countries (considering a 10 m wide zone from the water body). They have special ecological functions in the landscape. They receive water and nutrients from the upslope areas, are important habitats for biodiversity, have large soil carbon stores, but may emit more greenhouse gases (GHG) than the uplands. In this article, we present a review of the environmental services related to water protection, terrestrial biodiversity, carbon storage and greenhouse gas dynamics provided by RF in the Nordic countries. We discuss the benefits and trade-offs when leaving the RF as a buffer against the impacts from upland forest management, in particular the impacts of clear cutting. Forest buffers are effective in protecting water quality and aquatic life, and have positive effects on terrestrial biodiversity, particularly when broader than 40 m, whereas the effect on the greenhouse gas exchange is unclear. PMID:21141775

  3. Cost-Effectiveness of a New Nordic Diet as a Strategy for Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Saxe, Henrik; Denver, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    Inappropriate diets constitute an important health risk and an increasing environmental burden. Healthy regional diets may contribute to meeting this dual challenge. A palatable, healthy and sustainable New Nordic diet (NND) based on organic products from the Nordic region has been developed. This study assesses whether a large-scale introduction of NND is a cost-effective health promotion strategy by combining an economic model for estimating the utility-maximizing composition of NND, a life cycle assessment model to assess environmental effects of the dietary change, and a health impact model to assess impacts on the disease burden. Consumer expenditure for food and beverages in the NND is about 16% higher than currently, with the largest relative difference in low-income households. Environmental loads from food consumption are 15%–25% lower, and more than 18,000 disability-adjusted life years (DALY) will be saved per year in Denmark. NND exhibits a cost-effectiveness ratio of about €73,000–94,000 per DALY saved. This cost-effectiveness improves considerably, if the NND’s emphasis on organic and Nordic-origin products is relaxed. PMID:26133129

  4. Cost-Effectiveness of a New Nordic Diet as a Strategy for Health Promotion.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Saxe, Henrik; Denver, Sigrid

    2015-06-30

    Inappropriate diets constitute an important health risk and an increasing environmental burden. Healthy regional diets may contribute to meeting this dual challenge. A palatable, healthy and sustainable New Nordic diet (NND) based on organic products from the Nordic region has been developed. This study assesses whether a large-scale introduction of NND is a cost-effective health promotion strategy by combining an economic model for estimating the utility-maximizing composition of NND, a life cycle assessment model to assess environmental effects of the dietary change, and a health impact model to assess impacts on the disease burden. Consumer expenditure for food and beverages in the NND is about 16% higher than currently, with the largest relative difference in low-income households. Environmental loads from food consumption are 15%-25% lower, and more than 18,000 disability-adjusted life years (DALY) will be saved per year in Denmark. NND exhibits a cost-effectiveness ratio of about €73,000-94,000 per DALY saved. This cost-effectiveness improves considerably, if the NND's emphasis on organic and Nordic-origin products is relaxed.

  5. Environmental Education Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bootrach, Pradit; Thiengkamol, Nongnapas; Thiengkamol, Tanarat Khoowaranyoo

    2015-01-01

    Data was collected from 403 primary school administrators in Maha Sarakham Province, Thailand, to develop causal relationship model of Administrator Characteristics (AC), Teacher Characteristics (TC) and Environmental Education Principle (EE) that affect Environmental Education Strategy (EES) through Inspiration of Public Mind for Environmental…

  6. Environmental Strategies. Technical Assistance Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    Families, schools, community organizations, and local practitioners have an important role to play in bringing about changes in the larger physical and psychosocial environment. The environmental strategies of policy, enforcement, education, communication, and collaboration can all have a significant impact. These environmental strategies for…

  7. BLM Environmental Education National Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Land Management (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This environmental education strategy was developed by a Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Washington Office Task Group in collaboration with staff at all levels of the BLM. The strategy calls for the BLM to expand its efforts in educating citizens about ecosystems and ecosystem management, and to establish environmental education as an integral…

  8. Some Strategies for Environmental Remediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jerrold M.

    1975-01-01

    Analyzed are three strategies for reducing or eliminating environmental pollution: private market, legal, and effluent tax. Since private market solutions function well only with small numbers of parties and legal solutions oscillate too much, the author recommends effluent taxes. This strategy optimizes the abatement benefits and implementation…

  9. Identification and evaluation of computer models for predicting environmental concentrations of pharmaceuticals and veterinary products in the Nordic environment.

    PubMed

    Wajsman, David; Rudén, Christina

    2006-01-01

    According to European Union Council directive 2001/83, an application for the marketing authorization of a medicinal product shall be accompanied by an environmental risk assessment, including an exposure assessment. Computerized exposure models constitute an important tool in predicting environmental exposure to substances yet to be introduced on the market. This paper reports the process of identifying appropriate exposure models for estimating PECs (Predicted Environmental Concentrations) for pharmaceuticals and veterinary products, focusing on emissions to Swedish aquatic and terrestrial environments via water and sludge from sewage treatment plants. From a large number of information sources, a set of 181 potentially relevant exposure models was identified. A process of scrutinizing and testing these models resulted in a final selection of two models, namely SimpleTreat 3.1 that is used to estimate distribution and elimination of chemicals in sewage treatment plants (resulting in a PEC), and VetPec, suited for veterinary products, that estimates PEC in soil (including pore water), groundwater, and surface water. It is concluded that there is still potential for further development of exposure model(s) specifically designed for pharmaceutical emissions to the Nordic environment and climate. Furthermore, increased regulatory data requirements would facilitate the use of existing models, and improve the quality of the output data from these models. PMID:16030525

  10. Evaluating the environmental fate of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in the Nordic environment using a dynamic multimedia model.

    PubMed

    Krogseth, Ingjerd S; Breivik, Knut; Arnot, Jon A; Wania, Frank; Borgen, Anders R; Schlabach, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) raise concerns due to their potential for persistence, bioaccumulation, long-range transport and adverse effects. An understanding of their environmental fate remains limited, partly due to the complexity of the mixture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a mechanistic, integrated, dynamic environmental fate and bioaccumulation multimedia model (CoZMoMAN) can reconcile what is known about environmental emissions and human exposure of SCCPs in the Nordic environment. Realistic SCCP emission scenarios, resolved by formula group, were estimated and used to predict the composition and concentrations of SCCPs in the environment and the human food chain. Emissions at the upper end of the estimated range resulted in predicted total concentrations that were often within a factor of 6 of observations. Similar model performance for a complex group of organic contaminants as for the well-known polychlorinated biphenyls strengthens the confidence in the CoZMoMAN model and implies a relatively good mechanistic understanding of the environmental fate of SCCPs. However, the degree of chlorination predicted for SCCPs in sediments, fish, and humans was higher than observed and poorly established environmental half-lives and biotransformation rate constants contributed to the uncertainties in the predicted composition and ∑SCCP concentrations. Improving prediction of the SCCP composition will also require better constrained estimates of the composition of SCCP emissions. There is, however, also large uncertainty and lack of coherence in the existing observations, and better model-measurement agreement will require improved analytical methods and more strategic sampling. More measurements of SCCP levels and compositions in samples from background regions are particularly important.

  11. Environmental Issues in the Media--Students' Perceptions in the Three Nordic-Baltic Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keinonen, Tuula; Yli-Panula, Eija; Svens, Maria; Vilkonis, Rytis; Persson, Christel; Palmberg, Irmeli

    2014-01-01

    The media, as a source of information, is supposed to have a significant role in effecting people's environmental knowledge and attitudes. The purpose of this study was to find students' perceptions of environmental issues as presented in the media and how students in Finland, Lithuania and Sweden used these media sources in the matters related to…

  12. Strategies for Internationalization of Higher Education. A Case Study--the Nordic Centre at Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtermann, Sigrid

    1996-01-01

    The Nordic Centre at Fudan University (China) links it with Norwegian universities, and has resulted in: a new Norwegian School of Management program; a Chinese-Norwegian dictionary; short credit courses on Scandinavian affairs for Chinese students; language courses and examinations for Norwegian students of Chinese; establishment of a library on…

  13. Innovative strategies for environmental sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    Rouhani, S. |

    1995-12-31

    Since the early 1980s our preception of sustainability has fundamentally changed. History sustainability was primarily concerned with the scarcity of natural resources in the face of a growing world population. Awareness of ecological and environmental degradations has come gradually. At first the solution to environmental problems such as global warming, ozone layer depletion, and hazardous waste appeared to require a halt in global economic growth. However creative solutions which address environmental issues and produce economic growth have come to the fore. This paper focuses this with respect to the clean-up of contaminated sites - remediation and case studies.

  14. Toward integrated strategies for achieving environmental quality

    SciTech Connect

    Kuusinen, T.; Lesperance, A.; Bilyard, G. )

    1994-03-01

    In the United States, environmentalists are constantly jumping from one environmental crisis of the day'' to another without any sense of what is important and what is trivial. Moreover, when designing fixes to the environmental problems one tries to resolve, one often comes up short. This country urgently needs a national environmental strategy that will approach environmental issues proactively and logically. Without such a strategy, the authors believe that long-term, sustainable economic growth cannot be achieved in the United States. This paper outlines a participatory process by which the framework for a national environmental strategy might be developed. It also proposes that such a strategy will likely include two fundamental components: (1) consensus principles for conducting risk assessments to decide what environmental problems are most important, and (2) a generalized, market-oriented model for resolving these problems. A viable national consensus will be required for such a strategy to succeed and will need to include industry, labor, legislators, regulators, national environmental advocacy groups, local grass roots organizations, and other interested parties.

  15. Environmental management strategy: four forces analysis.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Martin W; Von Windheim, Jesko

    2015-01-01

    We develop an analytical approach for more systematically analyzing environmental management problems in order to develop strategic plans. This approach can be deployed by agencies, non-profit organizations, corporations, or other organizations and institutions tasked with improving environmental quality. The analysis relies on assessing the underlying natural processes followed by articulation of the relevant societal forces causing environmental change: (1) science and technology, (2) governance, (3) markets and the economy, and (4) public behavior. The four forces analysis is then used to strategize which types of actions might be most effective at influencing environmental quality. Such strategy has been under-used and under-valued in environmental management outside of the corporate sector, and we suggest that this four forces analysis is a useful analytic to begin developing such strategy. PMID:25331643

  16. Environmental Management Strategy: Four Forces Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Martin W.; Von Windheim, Jesko

    2015-01-01

    We develop an analytical approach for more systematically analyzing environmental management problems in order to develop strategic plans. This approach can be deployed by agencies, non-profit organizations, corporations, or other organizations and institutions tasked with improving environmental quality. The analysis relies on assessing the underlying natural processes followed by articulation of the relevant societal forces causing environmental change: (1) science and technology, (2) governance, (3) markets and the economy, and (4) public behavior. The four forces analysis is then used to strategize which types of actions might be most effective at influencing environmental quality. Such strategy has been under-used and under-valued in environmental management outside of the corporate sector, and we suggest that this four forces analysis is a useful analytic to begin developing such strategy.

  17. 77 FR 18879 - Department of Transportation Final Environmental Justice Strategy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... Office of the Secretary of Transportation Department of Transportation Final Environmental Justice... Transportation is issuing a revised environmental justice strategy, which sets forth DOT's commitment to... Understanding on Environmental Justice (EJ MOU), confirming the importance of addressing environmental...

  18. Adaptation Strategies for Global Environmental Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojima, D. S.; Corell, R.

    2007-12-01

    The global environmental challenges society faces today are unheralded due to the pace at which human activities are affecting the earth system. The rates of energy consumption, nitrogen use and production, and water use increases each year leading to greater global environmental changes affecting warming of the earth system and loss of ecosystem services. The challenge we face today as a society is the manner and speed at which we can adapt to these changes affecting the ecosystem services we depend upon. Innovative strategies are needed to develop the adaptive management tools to integrate the sectors and science necessary to deal with the complexity of effects. Developing strategies to better guide decision making related to climate change trends into changing weather patterns at meaningful temporal and spatial scales are needed, observations and prognostic analyses of climate related triggers of threshold events in ecosystem dynamics, and transfer of knowledge between science, technology, and decision makers. These strategies need to better integrate science (physical, biological, and social knowledge), engineering, policy, and economics interests to create a framework to develop strategies for adaptation and mitigation to global change and to create bridges with institutions and organizations that deal with these issues as a governmental agency or private sector enterprise.

  19. Environmental Strategies for Portion Control in Children

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Thomas N.; Matheson, Donna M.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from laboratory and field studies indicates that large portions lead to greater food and energy intake relative to small portions. However, most children and adults demonstrate limited abilities to estimate and control the amounts of food they serve and consume. Five potential environmental strategies appear promising for improving portion control in children: (1) using tall, thin, and small volume glasses and mugs, (2) using smaller diameter and volume plates, bowls and serving utensils, (3) using plates with rims, (4) reducing total television and other screen watching and (5) reducing or eliminating eating while watching television and/or other screens. Further experimental research in real world settings is needed to test these interventions as strategies for portion control and their roles in prevention and treatment of obesity. PMID:25485874

  20. Environmental scanning: a strategy for the future.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, P L; Stanton, M P

    1992-03-01

    The rapidity of change confronting nursing at all levels will continue to challenge nursing's ultimate capacity to adapt and remain a viable profession in the 21st century. The process of meeting the challenges can be proactive based on assessment of needs and available resources, or reactive based on the reaction to challenges. A strategy identified by the authors that can be used at all levels of nursing practice, administration, education, and research is environmental scanning. This methodology has been used effectively in other disciplines for strategic, long-term planning and can be readily adapted to a wide variety of nursing service, academic, or professional associations. PMID:1593290

  1. 76 FR 62434 - HUD Draft Environmental Justice Strategy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT HUD Draft Environmental Justice Strategy AGENCY: Office of the Sustainable Housing and... Environmental Justice Strategy for review and comment. DATES: Comment Due Date: November 14, 2011. Comments may... Executive Order 12898, ``Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and...

  2. Environmentally Safe SRM Strategies Using Liquefied Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massmann, M.; Layton, K.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation includes several SRM strategies to offset global warming using the large scale release of liquefied air (Lair). Lair could be used to cool large atmospheric volumes as it expands from a liquid below minus 300 degrees F (-184 degrees C) into ambient air, which could trigger new clouds or brighten existing clouds. It is hoped that the potential feasibility and benefits of this concept would be found to warrant further development through funded research. A key trait of Lair is its enormous expansion ratio in warming from a cold liquid into ambient air. At sea level, this expansion is about 900 times. At high altitudes such as 50,000 ft (15 km) the same amount of Lair would expand 5,000 times. One strategy for this concept would be to release Lair at 50,000 ft to super-cool existing water vapor into reflective droplets or ice particles. This could create very large clouds thick enough to be highly-reflective and high enough for long residence times. Another strategy to consider for this concept would be to release CCN’s (such as salt particulates) along with Lair. This might enable the formation of clouds where Lair alone is insufficient. Water vapor could also be added to assist in cloud development if necessary. The use of these elements would be non-polluting, enabling the concept to be safely scaled as large as necessary to achieve the desired results without harming the environment. This is extremely important, because it eliminates the risk of environmental damage that is a potential roadblock for most other SRM schemes. Further strategies of this concept would include formation of clouds near the equator to maximize reflected energy, creating clouds over ocean regions so as to minimize weather changes on land, and creating clouds over Arctic regions to minimize the melting of sea ice. Because this concept requires only existing technology to implement, research and implementation timelines could be minimized (unlike most proposed schemes

  3. Iodine status in the Nordic countries – past and present

    PubMed Central

    Nyström, Helena Filipsson; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Erlund, Iris; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Hulthén, Lena; Laurberg, Peter; Mattisson, Irene; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Virtanen, Suvi; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2016-01-01

    Background Adequate iodine nutrition is dependent on ground water content, seafood, and, as many countries use iodized cow fodder, dairy products. In most countries, salt fortification programs are needed to assure adequate iodine intake. Objectives The objectives are threefold: 1) to describe the past and present iodine situation in the Nordic countries, 2) to identify important gaps of knowledge, and 3) to highlight differences among the Nordic countries’ iodine biomonitoring and fortification policies. Design Historical data are compared with the current situation. The Nordic countries’ strategies to achieve recommended intake and urine iodine levels and their respective success rates are evaluated. Results In the past, the iodine situation ranged from excellent in Iceland to widespread goiter and cretinism in large areas of Sweden. The situation was less severe in Norway and Finland. According to a 1960 World Health Organization (WHO) report, there were then no observations of iodine deficiency in Denmark. In Sweden and Finland, the fortification of table salt was introduced 50–75 years ago, and in Norway and Finland, the fortification of cow fodder starting in the 1950s helped improve the population's iodine status due to the high intake of milk. In Denmark, iodine has been added to household salt and salt in bread for the past 15 years. The Nordic countries differ with regard to regulations and degree of governmental involvement. There are indications that pregnant and lactating women, the two most vulnerable groups, are mildly deficient in iodine in several of the Nordic countries. Conclusion The Nordic countries employ different strategies to attain adequate iodine nutrition. The situation is not optimal and is in need of re-evaluation. Iodine researchers, Nordic national food administrations, and Nordic governmental institutions would benefit from collaboration to attain a broader approach and guarantee good iodine health for all. PMID:27283870

  4. Stakeholder demands and corporate environmental coping strategies in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Tang, Shui-Yan; Lo, Carlos Wing-Hung; Zhan, Xueyong

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how stakeholder demand and compliance capacity jointly shape corporate environmental coping strategies and subsequently environmental protection practices. A four-dimensional classification of coping strategies-formalism, accommodation, referencing, and self-determination-is conceptualized. Drawing on survey and interview data collected from manufacturing enterprises in China between 2010 and 2012, the paper shows that compared with formalism and accommodation, coping strategies of referencing and self-determination are associated with stronger environmental protection practices. Enterprises adjust their coping strategies by taking into account the constraints defined by both their internal and external environments. The results also demonstrate the potential synergetic effects of state and non-state stakeholders working together in promoting better corporate environmental coping strategies and environmental practices in China.

  5. Strategies for managing an environmental disaster

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    The threat of an environmental disaster is a very real concern for chemical/petrochemical plants, or any corporation that moves or markets chemicals. This presentation is concerned with the top ten tips for managing an environmental disaster, including liability, debriefing employees, and cooperation with environmental agencies.

  6. Nordic teleradiology development.

    PubMed

    Viitanen, J; Sund, T; Rinde, E; Stoermer, J; Kormano, M; Heinilä, J; Yliaho, J; Ahonen, J

    1992-05-01

    In the Nordic countries there are several reasons why teleradiology has been an interesting topic of research during the last years. The distances in rural areas are long, and radiology expert service is not available in every health centre which is able to provide X-rays. Also, the telecommunication network is on a very advanced level in the Nordic countries. The staff is well educated and they are used to operating with computers. This all means that the infrastructure to develop and use systems like teleradiology exists. This paper describes two separate systems developed in Norway and Finland. Their development has been in many respects the same. The common hardware and software features, as well as the differences and the clinical experiences, are discussed in this paper.

  7. Strategy for Environmental Education: An Approach for India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarabhai, Kartikeya V.

    In outlining a national strategy for environmental education in India, this document describes some current and future efforts of the Center for Environmental Education at Ahmedabad. It provides an historical account of India's environmental problems and its recent efforts at addressing those problems in light of rapid developmental efforts and…

  8. Strategy for environmental health research at EPA

    SciTech Connect

    Reiter, L.W.; Sexton, K.

    1990-12-01

    Major environmental legislation has given the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) the regulatory tools it needs to protect our environment and public health. Environmental protection, however, requires more than legislative vehicles; appropriate regulatory decisions based on those laws must be founded on scientific data concerning the scope and magnitude of health risks associated with the environmental hazards to which the public is exposed. To address the broad range of environmental contaminants covered under various legislative statutes, HERL research must assist EPA in evaluating the health risks for diverse environmental agents. While the chemical and physical composition of these pollutants differs significantly, the evaluation of their health effects must address a common set of issues: exposure, or the extent to which humans are exposed to pollutants in the environment; dose, or the relationship between the exposure and the dose of the pollutant received at the site(s) of toxic action within the body; and effect, or the health impact from the pollutant dose. These fundamental issues form the risk assessment paradigm that underlies the research needs of all EPA regulatory program areas, and therefore they are central to the entire HERL program.

  9. The World Conservation Strategy and Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nature Conservation Education Committee, Rijswijk (Netherlands).

    On March 5, 1980, the "World Conservation Strategy: Living Resource Conservation for Sustainable Development" (WCS) report was submitted to the Dutch government. The Nature Conservation Education Committee (CNBE) was then asked to prepare another report based on its initial reactions to the WCS, particularly to section 13, which deals with…

  10. Assessing Environmental Understanding: An Application of the Concept Mapping Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Kristen E.; Tressler, Kurt D.; Mintzes, Joel J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite its importance as a central goal in environmental education, there appears to be little consensus about how best to document, assess and evaluate understanding of environmental concepts. This illustrative case study describes and demonstrates the use of the concept mapping strategy as an effective tool for assessing environmental…

  11. Environmental performance evaluation and strategy management using balanced scorecard.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yu-Lung; Liu, Chun-Chu

    2010-11-01

    Recently, environmental protection and regulations such as WEEE, ELV, and RoHS are rapidly emerging as an important issue for business to consider. The trend of swinging from end-of-pipe control to product design, green innovation, and even the establishment of image or brand has affected corporations in almost every corner in the world, and enlarged to the all modern global production network. Corporations must take proactive environmental strategies to response the challenges. This study adopts balanced scorecard structure and aim at automobile industries to understand the relationships of internal and external, financial and non-financial, and outcome and driving factors. Further relying on these relationships to draw the "map of environment strategy" to probe and understand the feasibility of environmental performance evaluation and environmental strategy control.

  12. Environmental performance evaluation and strategy management using balanced scorecard.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yu-Lung; Liu, Chun-Chu

    2010-11-01

    Recently, environmental protection and regulations such as WEEE, ELV, and RoHS are rapidly emerging as an important issue for business to consider. The trend of swinging from end-of-pipe control to product design, green innovation, and even the establishment of image or brand has affected corporations in almost every corner in the world, and enlarged to the all modern global production network. Corporations must take proactive environmental strategies to response the challenges. This study adopts balanced scorecard structure and aim at automobile industries to understand the relationships of internal and external, financial and non-financial, and outcome and driving factors. Further relying on these relationships to draw the "map of environment strategy" to probe and understand the feasibility of environmental performance evaluation and environmental strategy control. PMID:20020324

  13. Electricity from biomass: An environmental review and strategy

    SciTech Connect

    1993-06-01

    This report presents an environmental assessment and strategy for the US Department of Energy Biomass Power Program. The regulatory context and the environmental impact of biomass power technologies are described, and an environmental plan for the program is suggested. The plan suggest a proactive, synergistic approach, involving multiple parties with a stake in the successful commercialization of a biomass power industry. These parties include feedstock growers, state regulators. Forest Service and agricultural agents, utilities and independent power producers, rural electric cooperatives, and environmental activists.

  14. Strategies and perspectives of influential environmental organizations toward tropical deforestation

    SciTech Connect

    Ozanne, L.K.; Smith, P.M. )

    1993-04-01

    In recent years, environmental nongovernment organizations (NGOs) have been active in alerting the public and governments to tropical forest issues. Many feel that these efforts have begun to affect the trade in tropical timber and influence the perceptions of logging in the tropics. However, the influence of environmental organizations is not restricted to tropical timber trade but has the potential to impact the global wood products industry. The wood products industry has an opportunity to address these pressures by understanding the strategies and perceptions of the environmental community on this issue and developing proactive strategies to deal with the situation. This study included a phase 1 prestudy, which reported the results of interview with over 39 environmental NGOs in both the US and Europe to develop an overview of this complex industry. A phase 2 followup fax questionnaire was administered to the most relevant US environmental NGOs in order to classify them on two important criteria: (1) their level of specialization; and (2) their organizational strategy. This paper provides an overview of the complex issues in the environmental debate regarding tropical deforestation and how environmental organizations are attempting to address these issues.

  15. Bridge to a sustainable future: National environmental technology strategy

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    For the past two years the Administration has sought the views of Congress, the states, communities, industry, academia, nongovernmental organizations, and interested citizens on ways to spur the development and use of a new generation of environmental technologies. This document represents the views of thousands of individuals who participated in events around the country to help craft a national environmental technology strategy that will put us on the path to sustainable development.

  16. New Strategies for Environmental Education in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jeanne

    1982-01-01

    Examples of new environmental education strategies in developing countries are provided including, among others, programs which stress that properly-conceived development should include respect for the local environment and research projects helping villagers define what is meant by development. Provides an example of the use of television in the…

  17. Nordic Snow Radar Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmetyinen, Juha; Kontu, Anna; Pulliainen, Jouni; Vehviläinen, Juho; Rautiainen, Kimmo; Wiesmann, Andreas; Mätzler, Christian; Werner, Charles; Rott, Helmut; Nagler, Thomas; Schneebeli, Martin; Proksch, Martin; Schüttemeyer, Dirk; Kern, Michael; Davidson, Malcolm W. J.

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the Nordic Snow Radar Experiment (NoSREx) campaign was to provide a continuous time series of active and passive microwave observations of snow cover at a representative location of the Arctic boreal forest area, covering a whole winter season. The activity was a part of Phase A studies for the ESA Earth Explorer 7 candidate mission CoReH2O (Cold Regions Hydrology High-resolution Observatory). The NoSREx campaign, conducted at the Finnish Meteorological Institute Arctic Research Centre (FMI-ARC) in Sodankylä, Finland, hosted a frequency scanning scatterometer operating at frequencies from X- to Ku-band. The radar observations were complemented by a microwave dual-polarization radiometer system operating from X- to W-bands. In situ measurements consisted of manual snow pit measurements at the main test site as well as extensive automated measurements on snow, ground and meteorological parameters. This study provides a summary of the obtained data, detailing measurement protocols for each microwave instrument and in situ reference data. A first analysis of the microwave signatures against snow parameters is given, also comparing observed radar backscattering and microwave emission to predictions of an active/passive forward model. All data, including the raw data observations, are available for research purposes through the European Space Agency and the Finnish Meteorological Institute. A consolidated dataset of observations, comprising the key microwave and in situ observations, is provided through the ESA campaign data portal to enable easy access to the data.

  18. Pandemic vaccination strategies and influenza severe outcomes during the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic and the post-pandemic influenza season: the Nordic experience.

    PubMed

    Cuesta, Julita Gil; Aavitsland, Preben; Englund, Hélène; Gudlaugsson, Ólafur; Hauge, Siri Helene; Lyytikäinen, Outi; Sigmundsdóttir, Guðrún; Tegnell, Anders; Virtanen, Mikko; Krause, Tyra Grove

    2016-04-21

    During the 2009/10 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic, the five Nordic countries adopted different approaches to pandemic vaccination. We compared pandemic vaccination strategies and severe influenza outcomes, in seasons 2009/10 and 2010/11 in these countries with similar influenza surveillance systems. We calculated the cumulative pandemic vaccination coverage in 2009/10 and cumulative incidence rates of laboratory confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 infections, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions and deaths in 2009/10 and 2010/11. We estimated incidence risk ratios (IRR) in a Poisson regression model to compare those indicators between Denmark and the other countries. The vaccination coverage was lower in Denmark (6.1%) compared with Finland (48.2%), Iceland (44.1%), Norway (41.3%) and Sweden (60.0%). In 2009/10 Denmark had a similar cumulative incidence of A(H1N1)pdm09 ICU admissions and deaths compared with the other countries. In 2010/11 Denmark had a significantly higher cumulative incidence of A(H1N1)pdm09 ICU admissions (IRR: 2.4; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.9-3.0) and deaths (IRR: 8.3; 95% CI: 5.1-13.5). Compared with Denmark, the other countries had higher pandemic vaccination coverage and experienced less A(H1N1)pdm09-related severe outcomes in 2010/11. Pandemic vaccination may have had an impact on severe influenza outcomes in the post-pandemic season. Surveillance of severe outcomes may be used to compare the impact of influenza between seasons and support different vaccination strategies.

  19. Integrated environmental control: Volume 1, Sample design strategy: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nold, D.G.; Baus, T.R.; Robie, C.P.

    1987-07-01

    The Volume 1 report for this study proposes an integrated design approach for coal-fired power plant environmental controls. Two characteristics distinguish the integrated environmental control (IEC) approach as defined in this study from historical design approaches. First, all major environmental control subsystems are considered to equally influence costs and overall plant performance until preliminary analysis indicates otherwise. This assures benefits derived for one subsystem (e.g., solid waste disposal) do not increase complexity for other subsystems (e.g., water management) to the level where total plant costs are higher. Second, the IEC approach maximizes compatibility between equipment, fuel properties, and site characteristics. This allows the least complex environmental control system (ECS), lowering cost and minimizing potential operating problems. The IEC design strategy, described in detail in Section 2 and Appendices A-D, can reduce ECS costs in two ways. First, the IEC approach helps insure cost savings derived for one subsystem are not offset by other increases, raising total ECS costs. Second, reliability can be increased and potential operating problems reduced if equipment and control strategies selected are most compatible with the site and fuel characteristics, and thus most simple. Selection of the best control strategy for given site and fuel characteristics is aided by a technical/economic analysis, described in Section 3, that allows ECS costs and technical features to be analyzed. 17 figs., 14 tabs.

  20. Including environmental concerns in management strategies for depleted uranium hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, M.; Avci, H.I.; Bradley, C.E.

    1995-12-31

    One of the major programs within the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) management program. The program is intended to find a long-term management strategy for the DUF{sub 6} that is currently stored in approximately 46,400 cylinders at Paducah, KY; Portsmouth, OH; and Oak Ridge, TN, USA. The program has four major components: technology assessment, engineering analysis, cost analysis, and the environmental impact statement (EIS). From the beginning of the program, the DOE has incorporated the environmental considerations into the process of strategy selection. Currently, the DOE has no preferred alternative. The results of the environmental impacts assessment from the EIS, as well as the results from the other components of the program, will be factored into the strategy selection process. In addition to the DOE`s current management plan, other alternatives continued storage, reuse, or disposal of depleted uranium, will be considered in the EIS. The EIS is expected to be completed and issued in its final form in the fall of 1997.

  1. Successful change of treatment strategy in elderly patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma by de-escalating induction and introducing temozolomide maintenance: results from a phase II study by the Nordic Lymphoma Group.

    PubMed

    Pulczynski, Elisa J; Kuittinen, Outi; Erlanson, Martin; Hagberg, Hans; Fosså, Alexander; Eriksson, Mikael; Nordstrøm, Marie; Østenstad, Bjørn; Fluge, Øystein; Leppä, Sirpa; Fiirgaard, Bente; Bersvendsen, Hanne; Fagerli, Unn-Merete

    2015-04-01

    The Nordic Lymphoma Group has conducted a phase ll trial in newly diagnosed primary central nervous system lymphoma patients applying an age-adjusted multi-agent immunochemotherapy regimen, which in elderly patients included temozolomide maintenance treatment. Patients aged 18-75 years were eligible. Thirty-nine patients aged 18-65 years and 27 patients aged 66-75 years were enrolled. The median age of the two age groups was 55 and 70 years, respectively. The overall response rate was 73.8% for the entire cohort: 69.9% in the younger and 80.8% in the elderly subgroup. With a median follow up of 22 months, the 2-year overall survival probability was 60.7% in patients aged 65 years or under and 55.6% in patients aged over 65 years (P=0.40). The estimated progression-free survival at two years was 33.1% (95%CI: 19.1%-47.9%) in patients aged under 65 years and 44.4% (95%CI: 25.6%-61.8%) in the elderly subgroup (P=0.74). Median duration of response was ten months in the younger subgroup, and not reached in the elderly patient subgroup (P=0.33). Four patients aged 64-75 years (6%) died from treatment-related complications. Survival in the two age groups was similar despite a de-escalation of induction treatment in patients aged over 65 years. Duration of response in elderly patients receiving maintenance temozolomide was longer than in the younger age subgroup. While toxicity during induction is still of concern, especially in the elderly patients, we conclude from these data that de-escalation of induction therapy in elderly primary central nervous system lymphoma patients followed by maintenance treatment seems to be a promising treatment strategy. (clinicaltrials.gov identifier:01458730). PMID:25480497

  2. Successful change of treatment strategy in elderly patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma by de-escalating induction and introducing temozolomide maintenance: results from a phase II study by the Nordic Lymphoma Group.

    PubMed

    Pulczynski, Elisa J; Kuittinen, Outi; Erlanson, Martin; Hagberg, Hans; Fosså, Alexander; Eriksson, Mikael; Nordstrøm, Marie; Østenstad, Bjørn; Fluge, Øystein; Leppä, Sirpa; Fiirgaard, Bente; Bersvendsen, Hanne; Fagerli, Unn-Merete

    2015-04-01

    The Nordic Lymphoma Group has conducted a phase ll trial in newly diagnosed primary central nervous system lymphoma patients applying an age-adjusted multi-agent immunochemotherapy regimen, which in elderly patients included temozolomide maintenance treatment. Patients aged 18-75 years were eligible. Thirty-nine patients aged 18-65 years and 27 patients aged 66-75 years were enrolled. The median age of the two age groups was 55 and 70 years, respectively. The overall response rate was 73.8% for the entire cohort: 69.9% in the younger and 80.8% in the elderly subgroup. With a median follow up of 22 months, the 2-year overall survival probability was 60.7% in patients aged 65 years or under and 55.6% in patients aged over 65 years (P=0.40). The estimated progression-free survival at two years was 33.1% (95%CI: 19.1%-47.9%) in patients aged under 65 years and 44.4% (95%CI: 25.6%-61.8%) in the elderly subgroup (P=0.74). Median duration of response was ten months in the younger subgroup, and not reached in the elderly patient subgroup (P=0.33). Four patients aged 64-75 years (6%) died from treatment-related complications. Survival in the two age groups was similar despite a de-escalation of induction treatment in patients aged over 65 years. Duration of response in elderly patients receiving maintenance temozolomide was longer than in the younger age subgroup. While toxicity during induction is still of concern, especially in the elderly patients, we conclude from these data that de-escalation of induction therapy in elderly primary central nervous system lymphoma patients followed by maintenance treatment seems to be a promising treatment strategy. (clinicaltrials.gov identifier:01458730).

  3. USGS Environmental health science strategy: providing environmental health science for a changing world: public review release

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bright, Patricia R.; Buxton, Herbert T.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Barber, Larry B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Cross, Paul C.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Toccalino, Patricia L.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    and providing it to environmental, natural resource, agricultural, and public-health managers. The USGS is a Federal science agency with a broad range of natural science expertise relevant to environmental health. USGS provides scientific information and tools as a scientific basis for management and policy decision making. USGS specializes in science at the environment-health interface, by characterizing the processes that affect the interaction among the physical environment, the living environment, and people, and the resulting factors that affect ecological and human exposure to disease agents. This report describes a 10-year strategy that encompasses the portfolio of USGS environmental health science. It summarizes national environmental health priorities that USGS is best suited to address, and will serve as a strategic framework for USGS environmental health science goals, actions, and outcomes for the next decade. Implementation of this strategy is intended to aid coordination of USGS environmental health activities and to provide a focal point for disseminating information to stakeholders. The "One Health" paradigm advocated by the World Health Organization (WHO, 2011), and the American Veterinary Medicine Association (AVMA, 2008), among others, is based on a general recognition that the health of humans, animals, and the environment are inextricably linked. Thus, successful efforts to protect that health will require increased interdisciplinary research and increased communication and collaboration among the broader scientific and health community. This strategy is built upon that paradigm. The vision, mission, and five cornerstone goals of the USGS Environmental Health Science Strategy were developed with significant input from a wide range of stakeholders. Vision - The USGS is a premier source of the environmental health science needed to safeguard the health of the environment, fish, wildlife, and people. Mission - The mission of USGS in environmental

  4. Biomarker strategies to evaluate the environmental effects of chemicals.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, C H

    1998-01-01

    Environmental risk assessment of chemicals depends on the production of toxicity data for surrogate species of mammals, birds, and fish and on making comparisons between these and estimated or predicted environmental concentrations of the chemicals. This paper gives an overview of biomarker assays and strategies that might be used as alternatives, that is, to replace, reduce, or refine currently used ecotoxicity tests that cause suffering to vertebrates. In the present context a biomarker is a biologic response to an environmental chemical at the individual level or below which demonstrates a departure from normal status. Of immediate interest and relevance are nondestructive assays that provide a measure of toxic effect in vertebrate species and that can be used in both laboratory and parallel field studies. A major shortcoming of this approach is that such assays are currently only available for a limited number of chemicals, primarily when the mode of action is known. Nondestructive assays can be performed on blood, skin, excreta, and eggs of birds, fish, reptiles, and amphibians. An interesting recent development is the use of vertebrate cell cultures, including transgenic cell lines that have been developed specifically for toxicity testing. The ultimate concern in ecotoxicology is the effects of chemicals at the level of populations and above. Current risk assessment practices do not address this problem. The development of biomarker strategies could be part of a movement toward more ecologic end points in the safety evaluation of chemicals, which would effect a reduction in animal tests that cause suffering. PMID:9599708

  5. USGS Environmental health science strategy: providing environmental health science for a changing world: public review release

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bright, Patricia R.; Buxton, Herbert T.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Barber, Larry B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Cross, Paul C.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Toccalino, Patricia L.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    and providing it to environmental, natural resource, agricultural, and public-health managers. The USGS is a Federal science agency with a broad range of natural science expertise relevant to environmental health. USGS provides scientific information and tools as a scientific basis for management and policy decision making. USGS specializes in science at the environment-health interface, by characterizing the processes that affect the interaction among the physical environment, the living environment, and people, and the resulting factors that affect ecological and human exposure to disease agents. This report describes a 10-year strategy that encompasses the portfolio of USGS environmental health science. It summarizes national environmental health priorities that USGS is best suited to address, and will serve as a strategic framework for USGS environmental health science goals, actions, and outcomes for the next decade. Implementation of this strategy is intended to aid coordination of USGS environmental health activities and to provide a focal point for disseminating information to stakeholders. The "One Health" paradigm advocated by the World Health Organization (WHO, 2011), and the American Veterinary Medicine Association (AVMA, 2008), among others, is based on a general recognition that the health of humans, animals, and the environment are inextricably linked. Thus, successful efforts to protect that health will require increased interdisciplinary research and increased communication and collaboration among the broader scientific and health community. This strategy is built upon that paradigm. The vision, mission, and five cornerstone goals of the USGS Environmental Health Science Strategy were developed with significant input from a wide range of stakeholders. Vision - The USGS is a premier source of the environmental health science needed to safeguard the health of the environment, fish, wildlife, and people. Mission - The mission of USGS in environmental

  6. Telescoping strategies for improved parameter estimation of environmental simulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matott, L. Shawn; Hymiak, Beth; Reslink, Camden; Baxter, Christine; Aziz, Shirmin

    2013-10-01

    The parameters of environmental simulation models are often inferred by minimizing differences between simulated output and observed data. Heuristic global search algorithms are a popular choice for performing minimization but many algorithms yield lackluster results when computational budgets are restricted, as is often required in practice. One way for improving performance is to limit the search domain by reducing upper and lower parameter bounds. While such range reduction is typically done prior to optimization, this study examined strategies for contracting parameter bounds during optimization. Numerical experiments evaluated a set of novel “telescoping” strategies that work in conjunction with a given optimizer to scale parameter bounds in accordance with the remaining computational budget. Various telescoping functions were considered, including a linear scaling of the bounds, and four nonlinear scaling functions that more aggressively reduce parameter bounds either early or late in the optimization. Several heuristic optimizers were integrated with the selected telescoping strategies and applied to numerous optimization test functions as well as calibration problems involving four environmental simulation models. The test suite ranged from simple 2-parameter surfaces to complex 100-parameter landscapes, facilitating robust comparisons of the selected optimizers across a variety of restrictive computational budgets. All telescoping strategies generally improved the performance of the selected optimizers, relative to baseline experiments that used no bounds reduction. Performance improvements varied but were as high as 38% for a real-coded genetic algorithm (RGA), 21% for shuffled complex evolution (SCE), 16% for simulated annealing (SA), 8% for particle swarm optimization (PSO), and 7% for dynamically dimensioned search (DDS). Inter-algorithm comparisons suggest that the SCE and DDS algorithms delivered the best overall performance. SCE appears well

  7. Environmental influence of Wuhan urban agglomeration development and strategies of environmental protection.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qun; Liu, Ying-Tao; Mao, Han-Ying

    2006-01-01

    In Wuhan urban agglomeration (WUA), the population growth and concentration, the industrial development and urban sprawl have been affecting the environment fundamentally. Comparing with Yangtze delta metropolitan region, the level of urbanization and industrialization of WUA has lagged behind for about 10 years; but the problems in environmental protection and rehabilitation are commonly serious. In the future, WUA should avoid unnecessary mistakes and seek a win-win strategy for economy and environment in its large-scale development stage. Based on the analysis of the changing of main environmental pollutants and the coupled curves in past decades, the paper discussed the important links among the urban environmental pollutions, industry growth and urban sprawl in WUA. It is concluded that the integration of economic and environmental policies in urban development is more required and significant at the large urban agglomeration region. Four proactive and long-term strategies need to be adopted to provide prior guidance and better protection for the development of WUA.

  8. The Nordic Model of Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenson, Kjell

    2006-01-01

    This article explores how the so called Nordic welfare state, with its specific institutional make up, handles Lifelong Learning in a time characterised by the challenges of economic globalisation and the hegemonic impact of the neo-liberal agenda. The analysis reveals a high participation in the Nordic countries in Lifelong Learning and, in…

  9. An environmental analysis for comparing waste management options and strategies.

    PubMed

    Marchettini, N; Ridolfi, R; Rustici, M

    2007-01-01

    The debate on different waste management practices has become an issue of utmost importance as human activities have overloaded the assimilative capacity of the biosphere. Recent Italian law on solid waste management recommends an increase in material recycling and energy recovery, and only foresees landfill disposal for inert materials and residues from recovery and recycling. A correct waste management policy should be based on the principles of sustainable development, according to which our refuse is not simply regarded as something to eliminate but rather as a potential resource. This requires the creation of an integrated waste management plan that makes full use of all available technologies. In this context, eMergy analysis is applied to evaluate three different forms of waste treatment and construct an approach capable of assessing the whole strategy of waste management. The evaluation included how much investment is needed for each type of waste management and how much "utility" is extracted from wastes, through the use of two indicators: Environmental yield ratio (EYR) and Net eMergy. Our results show that landfill is the worst system in terms of eMergy costs and eMergy benefits. Composting is the most efficient system in recovering eMergy (highest EYR) from municipal solid waste (MSW) while incineration is capable of saving the greatest quantity of eMergy per gram of MSW (highest net eMergy). This analysis has made it possible to assess the sustainability and the efficiency of individual options but could also be used to assess a greater environmental strategy for waste management, considering a system that might include landfills, incineration, composting, etc. PMID:16765586

  10. [Individual adaptation strategy under extreme environmental conditions in humans].

    PubMed

    Soroko, S I; Aldasheva, A A

    2012-01-01

    Starting from the researches of I.M. Sechenov, I.P. Pavlov, A.A. Uchtomskii, the Russian psychophysiological school considers adaptation in connection with the biological and social origin of a man as the integrated, coordinated and self-controlled human organism's reaction to maintain the vital functions in the constantly changing environmental conditions. On the base of well-known systemic-dynamic methodology and scrutinizing the issue of man and environment interaction V.I. Medvedev added to the theory of man's adaptation the activity paradigm that enable to uncover the distinctive features of professional activities in various environment conditions. The theoretical and practical investigations based on the activity methodology gave the opportunity to find out the new principles of interaction between man and environment and on the strategy of adaptive behavior. From this investigations one could see that the main characteristic of interaction "man-environment" is that man represents proactive side, man simulate different adaptation strategies using both genetically-fixed and acquired mechanisms of adaptive behavior. PMID:23393785

  11. A Cross-Cultural Study on Environmental Risk Perception and Educational Strategies: Implications for Environmental Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duan, Hongxia; Fortner, Rosanne

    2010-01-01

    This cross-cultural study examined college students' environmental risk perception and their preference in terms of risk communication and educational strategies in China and the United States. The results indicated that the Chinese respondents were more concerned about environmental risk, and they perceived the environmental issues to be more…

  12. Health and environmental sanitation in India: Issues for prioritizing control strategies.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ganesh S; Kar, Sitanshu Sekhar; Jain, Animesh

    2011-09-01

    Environmental sanitation is a major public health issue in India. Recent interventional studies on environmental sanitation in India highlighted the importance of prioritizing control strategies. Research related to the appropriate cost-effective intervention strategies and their implementation in Indian context is a big challenge. This paper discusses various intervention strategies related to environmental sanitation in India and emphasizes to prioritize it according to the need of country. PMID:22412284

  13. Health and environmental sanitation in India: Issues for prioritizing control strategies

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ganesh S; Kar, Sitanshu Sekhar; Jain, Animesh

    2011-01-01

    Environmental sanitation is a major public health issue in India. Recent interventional studies on environmental sanitation in India highlighted the importance of prioritizing control strategies. Research related to the appropriate cost-effective intervention strategies and their implementation in Indian context is a big challenge. This paper discusses various intervention strategies related to environmental sanitation in India and emphasizes to prioritize it according to the need of country. PMID:22412284

  14. Coalitional capacities and environmental strategies to prevent underage drinking.

    PubMed

    Nargiso, Jessica E; Friend, Karen B; Egan, Crystelle; Florin, Paul; Stevenson, John; Amodei, Brenda; Barovier, Linda

    2013-03-01

    Coalitions are the most common platform for implementing community-level environmental strategies (ES), such as media, policy, or enforcement for substance use prevention. The current study examines the associations between two types of coalition capacity (general and innovation-specific) and ES implementation efforts and outputs within 14 intervention communities over a three-year period. Efforts refer to the amount of energy exerted to implement an ES while outputs refer to the materials produced through these efforts. Quantitative measures of capacity were provided by coalition key informants and expert-raters. Additionally, Training and Technical Assistance (TTA) provided proactively to improve the implementation of ES was also examined. Greater general capacity, as rated by a coalition informant, was associated with more ES policy effort. Both expert-rated general and innovation-specific capacity, however, were associated with greater ES outputs. Study results also found that community coalitions that endorsed weaker mobilization, structure and task leadership, (measures of general capacity), utilized more TTA compared to those who perceived their coalition as having greater capacity. Moreover, communities that utilized more TTA resources reported a greater number of successful policy changes. The study supports the need to consider both general and innovation-specific capacity for ES implementation and offers promising preliminary findings regarding the role of TTA for improving coalitions' capacity to facilitate policy change. PMID:22752558

  15. Changing health inequalities in the Nordic countries?

    PubMed

    Lahelma, E; Lundberg, O; Manderbacka, K; Roos, E

    2001-01-01

    The Nordic countries, referring here to Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden, have often been viewed as a group of countries with many features in common, such as geographical location, history, culture, religion, language, and economic and political structures. It has also been habitual to refer to a "Nordic model" of welfare states comprising a large public sector, active labour market policies, high costs for social welfare as well as high taxes, and a general commitment to social equality. Recent research suggests that much of this "Nordicness" appears to remain despite the fact that the Nordic countries have experienced quite different changes during the 1980s and 1990s. How this relates to changes in health inequalities is in the focus of this supplement. PMID:11482792

  16. 76 FR 71066 - HUD Draft Environmental Justice Strategy, Extension of Public Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... Register on October 7, 2011 (76 FR 62434), HUD released for review and public comment its draft... URBAN DEVELOPMENT HUD Draft Environmental Justice Strategy, Extension of Public Comment Period AGENCY... extends the period by which comments may be submitted on HUD's draft Environmental Justice Strategy,...

  17. Nordic Experiences: Participants' Expectations and Experiences of Short-Term Study Abroad Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahikainen, Katariina; Hakkarainen, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Finnish high school students' and teachers' perceptions of the effects of short-term Nordic study abroad programs in which they had participated. The data presented were based on a "mixed-methods strategy." The data set consisted of responses from 158 students and 92 teachers to a…

  18. Changing environmental strategies over time: an empirical study of the steel industry in the United States.

    PubMed

    Clemens, B

    2001-06-01

    This study investigates how environmental strategies change over time. We submit evidence from the US steel industry that firms have modified their strategies over time. We offer that US industry passed through three stages--cost minimization, cost-effective compliance, and beneficial environmental controls. We compare typologies of environmental strategies and choose that of C. Oliver as the most appropriate. We investigate how environmental strategies in the steel industry changed over time a 4-year period. We offer that a further understanding of Oliver's strategies may increase understanding of the relationship between business and government on environmental issues. One over-arching problem in our field is the need to adequately operationalize how firms change strategies and pass through different stages. We hope that our study will help future researchers and practitioners better articulate the concepts of environmental strategies over time. Our study focused on the steel industry in the United States. We chose the US steel industry as one of the major environmental actors in the United States. The United States Environmental Protection Agency ranks the iron and steel industry as the largest industrial source of toxic environmental contamination. We encourage researchers to evaluate and test our methodology and findings in other contexts--both in other nations and different industries.

  19. An Implementing Strategy for Improving Wildland Fire Environmental Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCalla, M. R.; Andrus, D.; Barnett, K.

    2007-12-01

    ). The OFCM model for promoting wildland fire environmental literacy, the model's component parts, as well as an implementing strategy to execute the model will be presented. That is, the presentation will lay out the framework and methodology which the OFCM used to systematically define the wildland fire weather and climate education and outreach needs through interdepartmental collaboration within the OFCM coordinating infrastructure. A key element of the methodology is to improve the overall understanding and use of wildland fire forecast and warning climate and weather products and to exploit current and emerging technologies to improve the dissemination of customer-tailored forecast and warning information and products to stakeholders and users. Thus, the framework and methodology define the method used to determine the target public, private, and academic sector audiences. The methodology also identifies the means for determining the optimal channels, formats, and content for informing end users in time for effective action to be taken.

  20. The effects assessment of firm environmental strategy and customer environmental conscious on green product development.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Tien; Chuang, Li-Min; Chao, Shu-Tsung; Chang, Hsiao-Ping

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine why both parties (industry and consumer market) have mutual interests in protecting the environment but they still are hesitant to act green. The study used two-stage sampling from consumer market to depict ideal green product characteristics and reliable toy companies, and visit these companies for the second sample collection to examine whether the organizational eco-innovation strategy with customer value has a positive effect on green product development. In other words, the customer's benefit is an important factor for new product development strategy for green toys. This research shows that the willingness to buy green toys increases if most people in society buy green toys. This represents that customers are environmentally conscious and care about protecting the environment, or buying green toys is the result of a new economic trend and childhood education. The willingness to buy green toys increases if customers think that green products implies an enhancement on new product development to toy manufacturers. Further, if manufacturers are able to manage the difficulty of cooperation with all parties in the supply chain and difficulties related to production, they are willing to adopt customers' perceived value on green toys for their new product development strategy. It is rare to find academic research discussing the perspectives of both consumers and manufacturers in the same study because the research topic is very broad and many conditions must be considered. This research aims to find the effect of consumer-perceived value and company eco-innovation on green product development. PMID:21818538

  1. The effects assessment of firm environmental strategy and customer environmental conscious on green product development.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Tien; Chuang, Li-Min; Chao, Shu-Tsung; Chang, Hsiao-Ping

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine why both parties (industry and consumer market) have mutual interests in protecting the environment but they still are hesitant to act green. The study used two-stage sampling from consumer market to depict ideal green product characteristics and reliable toy companies, and visit these companies for the second sample collection to examine whether the organizational eco-innovation strategy with customer value has a positive effect on green product development. In other words, the customer's benefit is an important factor for new product development strategy for green toys. This research shows that the willingness to buy green toys increases if most people in society buy green toys. This represents that customers are environmentally conscious and care about protecting the environment, or buying green toys is the result of a new economic trend and childhood education. The willingness to buy green toys increases if customers think that green products implies an enhancement on new product development to toy manufacturers. Further, if manufacturers are able to manage the difficulty of cooperation with all parties in the supply chain and difficulties related to production, they are willing to adopt customers' perceived value on green toys for their new product development strategy. It is rare to find academic research discussing the perspectives of both consumers and manufacturers in the same study because the research topic is very broad and many conditions must be considered. This research aims to find the effect of consumer-perceived value and company eco-innovation on green product development.

  2. The Importance of Contexts in Strategies of Environmental Organizations with Regard to Climate Change

    PubMed

    Pleune

    1997-09-01

    / The purpose of the study was to investigate the extent to which strategies of environmental organizations depend on contexts. I examined this dependence by analyzing the strategies of five environmental organizations in the Netherlands with regard to climate change. These strategies were investigated over time and compared with the strategies these organizations had used in relation to ozone depletion and acidification. The results indicate that several of the organizations changed their strategies with respect to climate change over time. Furthermore, different strategies were used simultaneously in relation to the three problems. The findings suggest that strategies concerning climate change were to a considerable extent determined by the dominant framing of the problem in society. This framing was defined mainly by actors other than environmental organizations. The initial framing of climate change as a CO2 problem, which brought the issue into the energy debate, as well as the more general definition of the problem in the late 1980s as a greenhouse problem, were very important for determining the strategies of the organizations. It can be concluded that strategies of Dutch environmental organizations with regard to climate change were strongly dependent on the context.KEY WORDS: Environmental organization; Strategy; Climate change; Man-nature relationship; Problem definition; Context

  3. Environmental Strategies for Prevention of Drug Use and Risks in Clubs

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Brenda A.; Holder, Harold D.; Voas, Robert B.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental prevention strategies in club settings where music and dance events are featured could provide an important new arena for the prevention of drug use and other risky behaviors (e.g., sexual risk taking, intoxication and drug use, aggression, and driving under the influence). Electronic music dance events (EMDEs) occur in clubs that attract young, emerging adults (18–25 years of age) and attract individuals who engage in various types of drug use. Borrowing from the environmental prevention studies that focus on reducing alcohol use and related problems, a model for drug prevention in the club setting is proposed. Initially, an overview of the relationships between EMDEs and drug use and other risky behaviors are presented. Next, rationales for environmental strategies are provided. Finally, an environmental approach to prevention of drug use and risky behaviors in clubs is described. This comprehensive set of environmental strategies, is designed to be mutually supportive and interactive. Environmental strategies are believed to provide potential for developing an efficacious prevention strategy. The environmental prevention approach presented here is composed of three intervention domains: (1) Mobilization, (2) Strategies for the Exterior Environment, and (3) Strategies for the Interior Environment. PMID:20216925

  4. Environmentally Mediated Risks for Psychopathology: Research Strategies and Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To consider the research design requirements needed to provide a rigorous test of environmental mediation hypotheses and to summarize the main findings from research using such designs. Method: Selective review of empirical evidence dealing with psychopathology. Results: There is robust evidence of environmentally mediated risks for…

  5. The relation between proactive environmental strategies and competitive advantage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butnariu, A.; Avasilcăi, S.

    2015-11-01

    There are two distinct orientations of the environmental management that companies may adopt: the model of compliance and the strategic model. The strategic model treats environmental expenses as investments that will lead to competitive advantage for the company. Nevertheless, there are few scientific works that prove the relation between corporate environmental investments and competitive advantage. Thereby, in order to bring clarifications about the profound implications of environmental investments, in the first stage of our research we have proposed the hypothesis that the environmental investments would probably lead to competitive advantage by creating capabilities that are mediators of this relation. In the second stage we have tested this hypothesis, using the research method of survey. A questionnaire was sent to managers in textile Romanian industry, and 109 answers were received. The data was analysed using the linear multiple regression method and the results confirm our hypothesis.

  6. The Canadian Association of Nordic Ski Instructors: Instructor Certification Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Glenda

    Since its formation in 1976, the Canadian Association of Nordic Ski Instructors (CANSI) has certified over 2600 instructors across Canada. CANSI aims to provide a standard of excellence in certified nordic ski instruction by maintaining uniform and current nordic techniques, to encourage the skiing public to take advantage of the benefits of…

  7. The impact of environmental turbulence on American hospital strategies.

    PubMed

    Green, R F; Rockmore, B W; Zimmerer, T W

    1995-01-01

    It is clear that dramatic changes are taking place in the way health care organizations are being managed. Health care executives are having to make the transition from managing with a "pass the cost along to the consumer" perspective to one of extreme competitive pressure to reduce costs while maintaining appropriate levels of quality. Reports the results of a survey of 135 American hospitals' executives. Uses factor analysis to uncover four distinct strategies being operationalized. Classifies hospitals' strategies as: strategic analysers, externally focused and offensively proactive; quality providers, internally-focused and defensive reactors; price negotiators, externally-focused and offensively reactive; or cost efficiency providers, internally focused and defensively proactive. PMID:10152862

  8. Development based on carrying capacity. A strategy for environmental protection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carey, D.I.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental degradation has accelerated in recent years because economic development activities have been inconsistent with a sustainable environment. In human ecology, the concept of 'carrying capacity' implies an optimum level of development and population size based on a complex of interacting factors - physical, institutional, social, and psychological. Development studies which have explicitly recognized carrying capacity have shown that this approach can be used to promote economic activities which are consistent with a sustainable social and physical environment. The concept of carrying capacity provides a framework for integrating physical, socioeconomic, and environmental systems into planning for a sustainable environment. ?? 1993.

  9. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) has recently released a research strategy to guide its program to improve ecosystem risk assessment and risk management, which is one of the Agency's higheset priority search areas (http://www.epa.gov/ORD/WebPubs/fmal/eco.pdf). It is...

  10. Evolution of environmental protection strategies in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, A.M.

    1992-05-01

    In performing this work, interviews were conducted with members of the Supreme Soviet Committee for Rational Use of Natural Resources, Moscow, City Council, and St. Petersburg City Council. These officials provided their views on the current status of environmental protection in the former Soviet Union. Literature published in English, although limited, supplemented these discussions. In addition, a literature search was conducted of recent articles about this topic. Although the research for this paper was conducted before and during the August 1991 coup attempt in the Soviet Union, and after the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), many of the observations expressed in this report may be relevant to the new states. This report provides to historical perspective on the barriers encountered while attempting to develop environmental policy in the former Soviet Union and establishes a context for problems facing the new states in developing their environmental policies. Organization changes that have occurred in environmental protection since the August coup are included to the extent they are known.

  11. Environmental Education in Italy: Proposals for an Evaluation Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Michela

    1991-01-01

    The evolution of environmental education (EE) in elementary, secondary, and higher education in Italy is described, focusing on its role in curricula, trends in awareness, an international agency's research program on EE, values underlying EE, a suggested educational model, and use of an indicator system for evaluating educational quality. (MSE)

  12. Strategies for the prevention of environmental neurotoxic illness.

    PubMed

    Landrigan, P J; Graham, D G; Thomas, R D

    1993-04-01

    Toxic chemicals in the environment can cause a wide range of neurological disease. High-dose exposures to environmental neurotoxicants have produced encephalopathy in children ingesting chips of lead-based paint, blindness in persons who ingested methanol, blindness and ataxia in persons who consumed organic mercury, spinal cord degeneration and peripheral neuropathy in persons exposed to tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate (TOCP), and Parkinsonism in persons exposed to MPTP or to manganese. Environmental neurotoxicants have also been shown to produce a wide range of subclinical neurotoxic effects, including reduction in intelligence, impairment in reasoning ability, shortening of attention span, and alternation of behavior. The first step in the prevention of environmental neurotoxicity is to test chemicals for their toxic potential. More than 70,000 chemicals are currently in commerce. However, except for pharmaceuticals, fewer than 10% of these chemicals have been tested for neurotoxicity. A logical approach to neurotoxicologic assessment of chemical substances will build on and extend currently available test systems. It will have a tiered structure. The first or screening tier will consist of tests to measure obvious structural and functional changes, often a functional observational battery. Subsequent levels of testing will be guided by the results of initial screening. Toxicologic testing must be supplemented by epidemiologic surveillance of populations exposed to known and suspect neurotoxicants. Screening programs in these populations designed to detect excessive absorption of a neurotoxic agent or subclinical neurological dysfunction can be useful in identifying affected individuals before severe disability occurs. PMID:8472670

  13. Environmental strategy and performance in small firms: a resource-based perspective.

    PubMed

    Aragón-Correa, J Alberto; Hurtado-Torres, Nuria; Sharma, Sanjay; García-Morales, Víctor J

    2008-01-01

    In spite of the widespread recognition of the important roles that small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) play in most economies, limited research has focused on their impacts on the natural environment and the strategies such enterprises adopt to reduce these impacts. It is usually assumed that SMEs lack the resources to implement proactive environmental strategies that go beyond minimum regulatory compliance. In this study of 108 SMEs in the automotive repair sector in Southern Spain, we found that SMEs undertake a range of environmental strategies from reactive regulatory compliance to proactive pollution prevention and environmental leadership. These strategies are associated with three organizational capabilities: shared vision, stakeholder management, and strategic proactivity, hypothesized based on the unique strategic characteristics of SMEs--shorter lines of communication and closer interaction within the SMEs, the presence of a founder's vision, flexibility in managing external relationships, and an entrepreneurial orientation. We also found that firms with the most proactive practices exhibited a significantly positive financial performance.

  14. Integrated environmental control. Volume 2: application of design strategy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nold, D.G.; Robie, C.P.; Baus, T.R.

    1986-08-01

    EPRI contracted Stearns Catalytic to develop a design strategy for integrating environmental control system designs with the boiler and fuel in coal-fired power plants, and to apply that design strategy to 12 unique site/coal study cases. The study cases were selected to maximize differences in fuel and site characteristics, and regulations. Volume I presents the design strategy and a results summary. Volume II presents the results of the application of the integrated design strategy to 12 study cases. The results include viable configurations of environmental control components for each study case and an economic and technical analysis of those configurations. The results indicate that the levelized cost for environmental control can vary between 15.5 and 41.4 mills/kWh.

  15. Feasibility of quantitative environmental surveillance in poliovirus eradication strategies.

    PubMed

    Lodder, W J; Buisman, A M; Rutjes, S A; Heijne, J C; Teunis, P F; de Roda Husman, A M

    2012-06-01

    The progress of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative is monitored by acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance supplemented with environmental surveillance in selected areas. To assess the sensitivity of environmental surveillance, stools from (re)vaccinated elderly persons with a low seroprevalence and from wastewater were concurrently collected and analyzed in the Netherlands over a prolonged period of time. A total number of 228 healthy individuals with different levels of immunity were challenged with monovalent oral polio vaccine serotype 1 or 3. Poliovirus concentrations were determined by the titration of fecal suspensions on poliovirus-sensitive L20B cells and of sewage concentrates by L20B monolayer plaque assay. Almost half of the individuals (45%) shed poliovirus on day 3 after challenge, which peaked (57%) on day 8 with an average poliovirus excretion of 1.3 × 10(5) TCID(50) per g of feces and gradually decreased to less than 5% on day 42. The virus concentrations in sewage peaked on days 6 to 8 at approximately 100 PFU per liter, remained high until day 14, and subsequently decreased to less than 10 PFU per liter on day 29. The estimated poliovirus concentration in sewage approximated the measured initial virus excretion in feces, within 1 log(10) variation, resulting in a sensitivity of detection of 100 infected but mostly asymptomatic individuals in tens of thousands of individuals. An additional second peak observed in sewage may indicate secondary transmission missed by enterovirus or AFP surveillance in patients. This enables the detection of circulating poliovirus by environmental surveillance, supporting its feasibility as an early warning system.

  16. Financing Higher Education in the Nordic Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Geir

    1996-01-01

    The higher education systems and financing mechanisms in Norway, Denmark, Sweden, and Finland are described. In each, enrollment and productivity, in terms of student flow, are important financing factors. A new budget model developed for Norway is outlined, and efforts to create a cooperative community for higher education in the Nordic countries…

  17. Redefining External Stakeholders in Nordic Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musial, Kazimierz

    2010-01-01

    Present higher education reforms in the Nordic countries diminish the role and influence of the state on the governance of higher education institutions. While still providing a framework for the management of higher education, in general, the state supervises rather than controls higher education institutions (HEIs). The rhetoric of change…

  18. Values Education in Nordic Preschools: A Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberg, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The six papers in this special issue focus on how values and values education are embedded in the everyday life at Nordic preschools. The studies in this special issue provide stimulating theoretical and methodological knowledge to inform further study of values education internationally. A key contribution of the papers is that there is…

  19. Community Environmental Policing: Assessing New Strategies of Public Participation in Environmental Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Rourke, Dara; Macey, Gregg P.

    2003-01-01

    This paper evaluates a new form of public participation in environmental monitoring and regulation advanced through local "bucket brigades," which allow community members to sample air emissions near industrial facilities. These brigades represent a new form of community environmental policing, in which residents participate in collecting,…

  20. Active-to-Passive Environmental Cleanup Transition Strategies - 13220

    SciTech Connect

    Gaughan, Thomas F.; Aylward, Robert S.; Denham, Miles E.; Looney, Brian B.; Whitaker, Wade C.; Mills, Gary L.

    2013-07-01

    The Savannah River Site uses a graded approach to environmental cleanup. The selection of groundwater and vadose zone remediation technologies for a specific contamination area is based on the size, contaminant type, contaminant concentration, and configuration of the plume. These attributes are the result of the nature and mass of the source of contamination and the subsurface characteristics in the area of the plume. Many large plumes consist of several zones that are most efficiently addressed with separate complementary corrective action/remedial technologies. The highest concentrations of contaminants are found in the source zone. The most robust, high mass removal technologies are often best suited for remediation of the source zone. In the primary plume zone, active remedies, such as pump-and-treat, may be necessary to remove contaminants and exert hydraulic control of the plume. In the dilute fringe zone, contaminants are generally lower in concentration and can often be treated with passive techniques. A key determination in achieving an acceptable and cost-effective end state for a given waste unit is when to transition from an active treatment system to a more passive or natural approach (e.g., monitored natural attenuation or enhanced attenuation). This paper will discuss the considerations for such a transition as well as provide examples of successful transitions at the Savannah River Site. (authors)

  1. Functional strategies drive community assembly of stream fishes along environmental gradients and across spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Troia, Matthew J; Gido, Keith B

    2015-02-01

    Trade-offs among functional traits produce multi-trait strategies that shape species' interactions with the environment and drive the assembly of local communities from regional species pools. Stream fish communities vary along stream size gradients and among hierarchically structured habitat patches, but little is known about how the dispersion of strategies varies along environmental gradients and across spatial scales. We used null models to quantify the dispersion of reproductive life history, feeding, and locomotion strategies in communities sampled at three spatial scales in a prairie stream network in Kansas, USA. Strategies were generally underdispersed at all spatial scales, corroborating the longstanding notion of abiotic filtering in stream fish communities. We tested for variation in strategy dispersion along a gradient of stream size and between headwater streams draining different ecoregions. Reproductive life history strategies became increasingly underdispersed moving from downstream to upstream, suggesting that abiotic filtering is stronger in headwaters. This pattern was stronger among reaches compared to mesohabitats, supporting the premise that differences in hydrologic regime among reaches filter reproductive life history strategies. Feeding strategies became increasingly underdispersed moving from upstream to downstream, indicating that environmental filters associated with stream size affect the dispersion of feeding and reproductive life history in opposing ways. Weak differences in strategy dispersion were detected between ecoregions, suggesting that different abiotic filters or strategies drive community differences between ecoregions. Given the pervasiveness of multi-trait strategies in plant and animal communities, we conclude that the assessment of strategy dispersion offers a comprehensive approach for elucidating mechanisms of community assembly. PMID:25502608

  2. Functional strategies drive community assembly of stream fishes along environmental gradients and across spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Troia, Matthew J; Gido, Keith B

    2015-02-01

    Trade-offs among functional traits produce multi-trait strategies that shape species' interactions with the environment and drive the assembly of local communities from regional species pools. Stream fish communities vary along stream size gradients and among hierarchically structured habitat patches, but little is known about how the dispersion of strategies varies along environmental gradients and across spatial scales. We used null models to quantify the dispersion of reproductive life history, feeding, and locomotion strategies in communities sampled at three spatial scales in a prairie stream network in Kansas, USA. Strategies were generally underdispersed at all spatial scales, corroborating the longstanding notion of abiotic filtering in stream fish communities. We tested for variation in strategy dispersion along a gradient of stream size and between headwater streams draining different ecoregions. Reproductive life history strategies became increasingly underdispersed moving from downstream to upstream, suggesting that abiotic filtering is stronger in headwaters. This pattern was stronger among reaches compared to mesohabitats, supporting the premise that differences in hydrologic regime among reaches filter reproductive life history strategies. Feeding strategies became increasingly underdispersed moving from upstream to downstream, indicating that environmental filters associated with stream size affect the dispersion of feeding and reproductive life history in opposing ways. Weak differences in strategy dispersion were detected between ecoregions, suggesting that different abiotic filters or strategies drive community differences between ecoregions. Given the pervasiveness of multi-trait strategies in plant and animal communities, we conclude that the assessment of strategy dispersion offers a comprehensive approach for elucidating mechanisms of community assembly.

  3. Evaluation of Contrail Reduction Strategies Based on Environmental and Operational Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Neil Y.; Sridhar, Banavar; Ng, Hok K.; Li, Jinhua

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates a set of contrail reduction strategies based on environmental and operational costs. A linear climate model was first used to convert climate effects of carbon dioxide emissions and aircraft contrails to changes in Absolute Global Temperature Potential, a metric that measures the mean surface temperature change due to aircraft emissions and persistent contrail formations. The concept of social cost of carbon and the carbon auction price from recent California's cap-and-trade system were then used to relate the carbon dioxide emissions and contrail formations to an environmental cost index. The strategy for contrail reduction is based on minimizing contrail formations by altering the aircraft's cruising altitude. The strategy uses a user-defined factor to trade off between contrail reduction and additional fuel burn and carbon dioxide emissions. A higher value of tradeoff factor results in more contrail reduction but also more fuel burn and carbon emissions. The strategy is considered favorable when the net environmental cost benefit exceeds the operational cost. The results show how the net environmental benefit varies with different decision-making time-horizon and different carbon cost. The cost models provide a guidance to select the trade-off factor that will result in the most net environmental benefit.

  4. Milestones in the development of Nordic general practice*

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The common history and development of Nordic family medicine is important and interesting. This paper looks back on the aspects and factors influencing academic family medicine in the Nordic countries and especially the central position of the Nordic Congresses and the Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care. The importance of pioneers and bringing people together is emphasized. More than 30 years of Nordic academic family medicine has indeed had an incredible impact and has initiated development from only a few people to become world leading. PMID:23336114

  5. Environmental management cognitive strategies: Acid rain in the Yamaska watershed, Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasseville, Jean-Louis; Lachance, Marius

    1983-05-01

    Systematic budgetary restrictions foreseen for the next few years will require greater organizational effectiveness in public management systems, particularly in environmental management, in which costs are seen as a burden to the national economy Environmental management efficiency could be increased, among other means, by the adoption of knowledge acquisition strategies that take into account the multiple facets of environmental management, these cognitive strategies involve the development and use of methods to establish facts and to analyze complex environmental situations It is the purpose of this paper to show that an efficient approach is possible in establishing facts from existing data. The method involves a heuristic use of advanced statistical tools to integrate multiple data into the description of environmental phenomena An example is given in which the method has been applied to a data base obtained from the inventory of Yamaska watershed; it revealed 16 facts of potential interest to environmental managers The case study suggests that management system efficiency could be improved by a more comprehensive understanding of the environmental situation that takes into account the structure of biophysical processes and the elements involved in information processing

  6. NOVEL STRATEGIES FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF IONIC LIQUIDS IN AN ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY MANNER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The collaborative research effort established between the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and Kreido Laboratories has focused on the development of reaction strategies for the synthesis of chemicals and materials in a green and sustainable manner. One such area of ...

  7. Strategies for School Environmental Management in Nigerian Secondary Schools: A Case of Calabar, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obong, Linus Beba; Okey, Stella-Maris; Aniah, E. J.; Okaba, Lydia A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper on strategies for school environmental management in Nigerian secondary schools was carried out in Calabar, Nigeria. To guide the study three research questions were formulated. This was achieved through administration of structured questionnaires in three randomly sampled schools. Findings show regular grass clearing, sweeping of the…

  8. Bayesian inference-based environmental decision support systems for oil spill response strategy selection.

    PubMed

    Davies, Andrew J; Hope, Max J

    2015-07-15

    Contingency plans are essential in guiding the response to marine oil spills. However, they are written before the pollution event occurs so must contain some degree of assumption and prediction and hence may be unsuitable for a real incident when it occurs. The use of Bayesian networks in ecology, environmental management, oil spill contingency planning and post-incident analysis is reviewed and analysed to establish their suitability for use as real-time environmental decision support systems during an oil spill response. It is demonstrated that Bayesian networks are appropriate for facilitating the re-assessment and re-validation of contingency plans following pollutant release, thus helping ensure that the optimum response strategy is adopted. This can minimise the possibility of sub-optimal response strategies causing additional environmental and socioeconomic damage beyond the original pollution event.

  9. Environmental Strategies to Promote Food Intake in Older Adults: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Stroebele-Benschop, Nanette; Depa, Julia; de Castro, John M

    2016-01-01

    Aging is often accompanied by lower intakes of food energy and consequent negative effects on health. To some extent this is due to declines in physiological ability, including the sensory responsiveness to regulate food intake. Fortunately, environmental factors may still influence food intake in older adults. Factors such as social facilitation, modeling, and nutrition knowledge and skills have been shown to stimulate their food intake. While environmental factors such as the eating location, portion size, food presentation, and labeling are known to influence eating behavior, their effectiveness in stimulating food intake in older persons is not well delineated. It is suggested that improving the environmental stimuli that promote food intake is a viable strategy to overcome age-related declines in nutrient intakes. This strategy is so promising that further research is warranted. PMID:27153250

  10. Evaluating Community Readiness to Implement Environmental and Policy-Based Alcohol Abuse Prevention Strategies in Wisconsin

    PubMed Central

    Paltzer, Jason; Black, Penny; Moberg, D. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background Matching evidence-based alcohol prevention strategies with a community’s readiness to support those strategies is the basis for the Tri-Ethnic Community Readiness Model (CRM). The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the association of a community’s readiness to address alcohol abuse in their community with the implementation of environmental and policy-based strategies. Methods Twenty-one substance abuse prevention coalitions in Wisconsin participated in a pre-post intervention group-only evaluation using the CRM. As part of a Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) grant, all grantees were obligated by the Wisconsin Department of Health Services to implement environmental and policy-based strategies focused on one of three priority areas: young adult binge drinking, underage drinking, and alcohol-related motor-vehicle injuries and fatalities. Results At baseline, all communities (n=21) scored at or below a Stage 4 (on a scale of 1–9) readiness level (“preparedness”). The mean change in community readiness over the three-year period (2009–2011) was significant, but was less than one complete CRM stage (0.77, p=<0.001; 95% CI: 0.49, 1.05). Conclusion These findings suggest that implementation of environmental and policy-based strategies may improve a community’s progression in perceived readiness to address alcohol abuse regardless of the community’s baseline level of readiness to address alcohol abuse. Recommendation An assessment specific for measuring community readiness for policy-related strategies should be developed. The assessment would include community-level factors (e.g. community climate) for implementing policy-related prevention strategies, and not assume a linear readiness model. PMID:25346555

  11. Environmental strategy and performance in small firms: a resource-based perspective.

    PubMed

    Aragón-Correa, J Alberto; Hurtado-Torres, Nuria; Sharma, Sanjay; García-Morales, Víctor J

    2008-01-01

    In spite of the widespread recognition of the important roles that small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) play in most economies, limited research has focused on their impacts on the natural environment and the strategies such enterprises adopt to reduce these impacts. It is usually assumed that SMEs lack the resources to implement proactive environmental strategies that go beyond minimum regulatory compliance. In this study of 108 SMEs in the automotive repair sector in Southern Spain, we found that SMEs undertake a range of environmental strategies from reactive regulatory compliance to proactive pollution prevention and environmental leadership. These strategies are associated with three organizational capabilities: shared vision, stakeholder management, and strategic proactivity, hypothesized based on the unique strategic characteristics of SMEs--shorter lines of communication and closer interaction within the SMEs, the presence of a founder's vision, flexibility in managing external relationships, and an entrepreneurial orientation. We also found that firms with the most proactive practices exhibited a significantly positive financial performance. PMID:17239519

  12. Nordic Walking Practice Might Improve Plantar Pressure Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Soriano, Pedro; Llana-Belloch, Salvador; Martinez-Nova, Alfonso; Morey-Klapsing, G.; Encarnacion-Martinez, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Nordic walking (NW), characterized by the use of two walking poles, is becoming increasingly popular (Morgulec-Adamowicz, Marszalek, & Jagustyn, 2011). We studied walking pressure patterns of 20 experienced and 30 beginner Nordic walkers. Plantar pressures from nine foot zones were measured during trials performed at two walking speeds (preferred…

  13. Equality, Inclusion and Marketization of Nordic Education: Introductory Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundahl, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    The concept of a Nordic model of education is sometimes used to refer to the considerable similarities of education reforms and systems of the five Nordic countries (i.e. Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) during the second half of the 20th century--reforms that aimed at social justice, equality and cohesion not least by providing…

  14. Learning for the Workplace: Nordic and Canadian Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Gail, Ed.

    This book contains 21 papers from the Nordic-Canadian Learning for the Workplace Conference, which was held in Hanasaari, Espoo, Finland in June 1995. The following papers are included: "Introduction to the Nordic-Canadian Learning for the Workplace Conference" (Olli-Pekka Heinonen); "Conference Design and Process" (Diane Abbey-Livingston); "From…

  15. The School of Tomorrow - Nordic Network of Educational Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette

    This paper describes the Nordic "School of Tomorrow" network of educational buildings. It is commonly agreed among the Nordic countries that no one optimal school exists, but that there are many suitable architectural answers. The Network, established in 2000, meets once a year to exchange and discuss knowledge, experience, and ideas concerning…

  16. EDITORIAL The 23rd Nordic Semiconductor Meeting The 23rd Nordic Semiconductor Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ólafsson, Sveinn; Sveinbjörnsson, Einar

    2010-12-01

    A Nordic Semiconductor Meeting is held every other year with the venue rotating amongst the Nordic countries of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The focus of these meetings remains 'original research and science being carried out on semiconductor materials, devices and systems'. Reports on industrial activity have usually featured. The topics have ranged from fundamental research on point defects in a semiconductor to system architecture of semiconductor electronic devices. Proceedings from these events are regularly published as a topical issue of Physica Scripta. All of the papers in this topical issue have undergone critical peer review and we wish to thank the reviewers and the authors for their cooperation, which has been instrumental in meeting the high scientific standards and quality of the series. This meeting of the 23rd Nordic Semiconductor community, NSM 2009, was held at Háskólatorg at the campus of the University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland, 14-17 June 2009. Support was provided by the University of Iceland. Almost 50 participants presented a broad range of topics covering semiconductor materials and devices as well as related material science interests. The conference provided a forum for Nordic and international scientists to present and discuss new results and ideas concerning the fundamentals and applications of semiconductor materials. The meeting aim was to advance the progress of Nordic science and thus aid in future worldwide technological advances concerning technology, education, energy and the environment. Topics Theory and fundamental physics of semiconductors Emerging semiconductor technologies (for example III-V integration on Si, novel Si devices, graphene) Energy and semiconductors Optical phenomena and optical devices MEMS and sensors Program 14 June Registration 13:00-17:00 15 June Meeting program 09:30-17:00 and Poster Session I 16 June Meeting program 09:30-17:00 and Poster Session II 17 June Excursion and dinner

  17. Strategies for assessing the implications of malformed frogs for environmental health.

    PubMed Central

    Burkhart, J G; Ankley, G; Bell, H; Carpenter, H; Fort, D; Gardiner, D; Gardner, H; Hale, R; Helgen, J C; Jepson, P; Johnson, D; Lannoo, M; Lee, D; Lary, J; Levey, R; Magner, J; Meteyer, C; Shelby, M D; Lucier, G

    2000-01-01

    The recent increase in the incidence of deformities among natural frog populations has raised concern about the state of the environment and the possible impact of unidentified causative agents on the health of wildlife and human populations. An open workshop on Strategies for Assessing the Implications of Malformed Frogs for Environmental Health was convened on 4-5 December 1997 at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. The purpose of the workshop was to share information among a multidisciplinary group with scientific interest and responsibility for human and environmental health at the federal and state level. Discussions highlighted possible causes and recent findings directly related to frog deformities and provided insight into problems and strategies applicable to continuing investigation in several areas. Possible causes of the deformities were evaluated in terms of diagnostics performed on field amphibians, biologic mechanisms that can lead to the types of malformations observed, and parallel laboratory and field studies. Hydrogeochemistry must be more integrated into environmental toxicology because of the pivotal role of the aquatic environment and the importance of fates and transport relative to any potential exposure. There is no indication of whether there may be a human health factor associated with the deformities. However, the possibility that causal agents may be waterborne indicates a need to identify the relevant factors and establish the relationship between environmental and human health in terms of hazard assessment. PMID:10620528

  18. Strategic plan strategy of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This report provides information about the use of an integrated strategic plan, strategy, and life-cycle baseline in the long range planning and risk process employed by the environmental restoration program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Long-range planning is essential because the ER Program encompasses hundreds of sites; will last several decades; and requires complex technology, management, and policy. Long-range planning allows a focused, cost-effective approach to identify and meet Program objectives. This is accomplished through a strategic plan, a strategy, and a life-cycle baseline. This long-range methodology is illustrated below.

  19. College and University Environmental Programs as a Policy Problem (Part 2): Strategies for Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Susan G.; Rutherford, Murray B.; Auer, Matthew R.; Cherney, David N.; Wallace, Richard L.; Mattson, David J.; Clark, Douglas A.; Foote, Lee; Krogman, Naomi; Wilshusen, Peter; Steelman, Toddi

    2011-05-01

    Environmental studies and environmental sciences programs in American and Canadian colleges and universities seek to ameliorate environmental problems through empirical enquiry and analytic judgment. In a companion article (Part 1) we describe the environmental program movement (EPM) and discuss factors that have hindered its performance. Here, we complete our analysis by proposing strategies for improvement. We recommend that environmental programs re-organize around three principles. First, adopt as an overriding goal the concept of human dignity—defined as freedom and social justice in healthy, sustainable environments. This clear higher-order goal captures the human and environmental aspirations of the EPM and would provide a more coherent direction for the efforts of diverse participants. Second, employ an explicit, genuinely interdisciplinary analytical framework that facilitates the use of multiple methods to investigate and address environmental and social problems in context. Third, develop educational programs and applied experiences that provide students with the technical knowledge, powers of observation, critical thinking skills and management acumen required for them to become effective professionals and leaders. Organizing around these three principles would build unity in the EPM while at the same time capitalizing on the strengths of the many disciplines and diverse local conditions involved.

  20. College and university environmental programs as a policy problem (Part 2): Strategies for improvement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, S.G.; Rutherford, M.B.; Auer, M.R.; Cherney, D.N.; Wallace, R.L.; Mattson, D.J.; Clark, D.A.; Foote, L.; Krogman, N.; Wilshusen, P.; Steelman, T.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental studies and environmental sciences programs in American and Canadian colleges and universities seek to ameliorate environmental problems through empirical enquiry and analytic judgment. In a companion article (Part 1) we describe the environmental program movement (EPM) and discuss factors that have hindered its performance. Here, we complete our analysis by proposing strategies for improvement. We recommend that environmental programs re-organize around three principles. First, adopt as an overriding goal the concept of human dignity-defined as freedom and social justice in healthy, sustainable environments. This clear higher-order goal captures the human and environmental aspirations of the EPM and would provide a more coherent direction for the efforts of diverse participants. Second, employ an explicit, genuinely interdisciplinary analytical framework that facilitates the use of multiple methods to investigate and address environmental and social problems in context. Third, develop educational programs and applied experiences that provide students with the technical knowledge, powers of observation, critical thinking skills and management acumen required for them to become effective professionals and leaders. Organizing around these three principles would build unity in the EPM while at the same time capitalizing on the strengths of the many disciplines and diverse local conditions involved. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  1. Annotated bibliography of the Northwest Territories action on water component of the Arctic environmental strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, R.

    1998-01-01

    Water-related research conducted under the 1991--97 Arctic Environmental Strategy resulted in the production of 215 publications listed in this bibliography. The main section sorts citations by author and then by title. All citations are annotated and are keyed to the database of the Arctic Science and Technology Information System (ASTIS). The bibliography has three indexes that refer back to the main section: Subject, geographic area, and title. Topics covered include Northwest Territories hydrology, environmental fate of contaminants, water quality, snow, the water cycle, modelling, and limnology.

  2. Annotated bibliography of the Northwest Territories action on water component of the Arctic environmental strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, R.

    1998-12-31

    Water-related research conducted under the 1991--97 Arctic Environmental Strategy resulted in the production of 215 publications listed in this bibliography. The main section sorts citations by author and then by title. All citations are annotated and are keyed to the database of the Arctic Science and Technology Information System (ASTIS). The bibliography has three indexes that refer back to the main section: Subject, geographic area, and title. Topics covered include Northwest Territories hydrology, environmental fate of contaminants, water quality, snow, the water cycle, modelling, and limnology.

  3. EDITORIAL: The 21st Nordic Semiconductor Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-09-01

    This Topical Issue contains works presented at the 21st Nordic Semiconductor Meeting (21NSM) held at Sundvolden, Norway, 18-19 August 2005. The institutions supporting 21NSM were: University of Oslo, SINTEF, the Norwegian Defense Research Establishment and Vestfold University College. The Nordic Semiconductor Meeting has become an international forum that has been held every other year in a relay fashion in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The focus of the meeting has been on original research and science being carried out on semiconductor materials, devices and systems. Reports on industrial activity have usually been featured at the meetings. The topics have ranged from fundamental research on point defects in a semiconductor to system architecture of semiconductor electronic devices. For the last five meetings the proceedings have been printed in a dedicated volume of Physica Scripta in the Topical Issue series. The papers in this Topical Issue have undergone critical peer review and we wish to thank the reviewers and the authors for their cooperation, which has been instrumental in meeting the expected high standards of the series. The range of topics covered by this volume is broad, reflecting the call for papers; most of the papers have an element of materials science and the largest portion of these deal with other semiconductor materials other than silicon. The 21NSM was supported by the following sponsors: Renewable Energy Corporation (REC), EMF III-V Innovations (EMF), and the Nordic Research Board (NordForsk). Terje G Finstad Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Norway Andrej Y Kuznetsov and Bengt G Svensson Centre for Materials Science and Nanotechnology, University of Oslo, Norway

  4. Energetic optimisation of foraging honeybees: flexible change of strategies in response to environmental challenges.

    PubMed

    Stabentheiner, Anton; Kovac, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Heterothermic insects like honeybees, foraging in a variable environment, face the challenge of keeping their body temperature high to enable immediate flight and to promote fast exploitation of resources. Because of their small size they have to cope with an enormous heat loss and, therefore, high costs of thermoregulation. This calls for energetic optimisation which may be achieved by different strategies. An 'economizing' strategy would be to reduce energetic investment whenever possible, for example by using external heat from the sun for thermoregulation. An 'investment-guided' strategy, by contrast, would be to invest additional heat production or external heat gain to optimize physiological parameters like body temperature which promise increased energetic returns. Here we show how honeybees balance these strategies in response to changes of their local microclimate. In a novel approach of simultaneous measurement of respiration and body temperature foragers displayed a flexible strategy of thermoregulatory and energetic management. While foraging in shade on an artificial flower they did not save energy with increasing ambient temperature as expected but acted according to an 'investment-guided' strategy, keeping the energy turnover at a high level (∼56-69 mW). This increased thorax temperature and speeded up foraging as ambient temperature increased. Solar heat was invested to increase thorax temperature at low ambient temperature ('investment-guided' strategy) but to save energy at high temperature ('economizing' strategy), leading to energy savings per stay of ∼18-76% in sunshine. This flexible economic strategy minimized costs of foraging, and optimized energetic efficiency in response to broad variation of environmental conditions.

  5. Energetic Optimisation of Foraging Honeybees: Flexible Change of Strategies in Response to Environmental Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Stabentheiner, Anton; Kovac, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Heterothermic insects like honeybees, foraging in a variable environment, face the challenge of keeping their body temperature high to enable immediate flight and to promote fast exploitation of resources. Because of their small size they have to cope with an enormous heat loss and, therefore, high costs of thermoregulation. This calls for energetic optimisation which may be achieved by different strategies. An ‘economizing’ strategy would be to reduce energetic investment whenever possible, for example by using external heat from the sun for thermoregulation. An ‘investment-guided’ strategy, by contrast, would be to invest additional heat production or external heat gain to optimize physiological parameters like body temperature which promise increased energetic returns. Here we show how honeybees balance these strategies in response to changes of their local microclimate. In a novel approach of simultaneous measurement of respiration and body temperature foragers displayed a flexible strategy of thermoregulatory and energetic management. While foraging in shade on an artificial flower they did not save energy with increasing ambient temperature as expected but acted according to an ‘investment-guided’ strategy, keeping the energy turnover at a high level (∼56–69 mW). This increased thorax temperature and speeded up foraging as ambient temperature increased. Solar heat was invested to increase thorax temperature at low ambient temperature (‘investment-guided’ strategy) but to save energy at high temperature (‘economizing’ strategy), leading to energy savings per stay of ∼18–76% in sunshine. This flexible economic strategy minimized costs of foraging, and optimized energetic efficiency in response to broad variation of environmental conditions. PMID:25162211

  6. Energetic optimisation of foraging honeybees: flexible change of strategies in response to environmental challenges.

    PubMed

    Stabentheiner, Anton; Kovac, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Heterothermic insects like honeybees, foraging in a variable environment, face the challenge of keeping their body temperature high to enable immediate flight and to promote fast exploitation of resources. Because of their small size they have to cope with an enormous heat loss and, therefore, high costs of thermoregulation. This calls for energetic optimisation which may be achieved by different strategies. An 'economizing' strategy would be to reduce energetic investment whenever possible, for example by using external heat from the sun for thermoregulation. An 'investment-guided' strategy, by contrast, would be to invest additional heat production or external heat gain to optimize physiological parameters like body temperature which promise increased energetic returns. Here we show how honeybees balance these strategies in response to changes of their local microclimate. In a novel approach of simultaneous measurement of respiration and body temperature foragers displayed a flexible strategy of thermoregulatory and energetic management. While foraging in shade on an artificial flower they did not save energy with increasing ambient temperature as expected but acted according to an 'investment-guided' strategy, keeping the energy turnover at a high level (∼56-69 mW). This increased thorax temperature and speeded up foraging as ambient temperature increased. Solar heat was invested to increase thorax temperature at low ambient temperature ('investment-guided' strategy) but to save energy at high temperature ('economizing' strategy), leading to energy savings per stay of ∼18-76% in sunshine. This flexible economic strategy minimized costs of foraging, and optimized energetic efficiency in response to broad variation of environmental conditions. PMID:25162211

  7. Recent health policy initiatives in Nordic countries

    PubMed Central

    Saltman, Richard B.

    1992-01-01

    Health care systems in Sweden, Finland, and Denmark are in the midst of substantial organizational reconfiguration. Although retaining their tax-based single source financing arrangements, they have begun experiments that introduce a limited measure of competitive behavior in the delivery of health services. The emphasis has been on restructuring public operated hospitals and health centers into various forms of public firms, rather than on the privatization of ownership of institutions. If successful, the reforms will enable these Nordic countries to combine their existing macroeconomic controls with enhanced microeconomic efficiency, effectiveness, and responsiveness to patients. PMID:10122003

  8. Identifying potential environmental impacts of waste handling strategies in textile industry.

    PubMed

    Yacout, Dalia M M; Hassouna, M S

    2016-08-01

    Waste management is a successful instrument to minimize generated waste and improve environmental conditions. In spite of the large share of developing countries in the textile industry, limited information is available concerning the waste management strategies implemented for textiles on those countries and their environmental impacts. In the current study, two waste management approaches for hazardous solid waste treatment of acrylic fibers (landfill and incineration) were investigated. The main research questions were: What are the different impacts of each waste management strategy? Which waste management strategy is more ecofriendly? Life cycle assessment was employed in order to model the environmental impacts of each waste streaming approach separately then compare them together. Results revealed that incineration was the more ecofriendly approach. Highest impacts of both approaches were on ecotoxicity and carcinogenic potentials due to release of metals from pigment wastes. Landfill had an impact of 46.8 % on human health as compared to 28 % by incineration. Incineration impact on ecosystem quality was higher than landfill impact (68.4 and 51.3 %, respectively). As for resources category, incineration had a higher impact than landfill (3.5 and 2.0 %, respectively). Those impacts could be mitigated if state-of-the-art landfill or incinerator were used and could be reduced by applying waste to energy approaches for both management systems In conclusion, shifting waste treatment from landfill to incineration would decrease the overall environmental impacts and allow energy recovery. The potential of waste to energy approach by incineration with heat recovery could be considered in further studies. Future research is needed in order to assess the implementation of waste management systems and the preferable waste management strategies in the textile industry on developing countries. PMID:27372905

  9. Identifying potential environmental impacts of waste handling strategies in textile industry.

    PubMed

    Yacout, Dalia M M; Hassouna, M S

    2016-08-01

    Waste management is a successful instrument to minimize generated waste and improve environmental conditions. In spite of the large share of developing countries in the textile industry, limited information is available concerning the waste management strategies implemented for textiles on those countries and their environmental impacts. In the current study, two waste management approaches for hazardous solid waste treatment of acrylic fibers (landfill and incineration) were investigated. The main research questions were: What are the different impacts of each waste management strategy? Which waste management strategy is more ecofriendly? Life cycle assessment was employed in order to model the environmental impacts of each waste streaming approach separately then compare them together. Results revealed that incineration was the more ecofriendly approach. Highest impacts of both approaches were on ecotoxicity and carcinogenic potentials due to release of metals from pigment wastes. Landfill had an impact of 46.8 % on human health as compared to 28 % by incineration. Incineration impact on ecosystem quality was higher than landfill impact (68.4 and 51.3 %, respectively). As for resources category, incineration had a higher impact than landfill (3.5 and 2.0 %, respectively). Those impacts could be mitigated if state-of-the-art landfill or incinerator were used and could be reduced by applying waste to energy approaches for both management systems In conclusion, shifting waste treatment from landfill to incineration would decrease the overall environmental impacts and allow energy recovery. The potential of waste to energy approach by incineration with heat recovery could be considered in further studies. Future research is needed in order to assess the implementation of waste management systems and the preferable waste management strategies in the textile industry on developing countries.

  10. A national environmental monitoring system to support the Moroccan sustainable development strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourhir, A.; Rachidi, T.

    2010-12-01

    Morocco is a mountainous country, subject to both marine and Saharan influences. The increase in population has led to an increase of the gross domestic product (GDP), which accentuated by inadequate resource management, has been accompanied by the degradation of the environment. The annual cost of environmental damage has been estimated at nearly eight percent of Morocco’s GDP. Morocco is a country that has scarce natural resources, especially arable land and water. In recent years, intensive agricultural production, large-scale irrigation schemes, industrialization, and urbanization have been creating serious problems. The country has faced severe air, water and soil pollution, environmental health problems, deforestation and soil erosion. The country is very vulnerable to impacts of global climate change. Morocco’s approach to sustainable development (SD) is mainly environmental. The two main documents for Morocco’s SD strategy are the National Strategy for the Protection of the Environment and Sustainable Development (SNPEDD), 1995, and the National Plan of Action for the Environment (PANE), 1998. SNPEDD’s main objective is the integration and strengthening of environmental concerns in economic development activities. The activities for the formulation and implementation of the strategy include: a) studies on the state of the Moroccan environment; b) formulation of the PANE; c) preparation of a sensitization program on environmental issues and the implementation of a database and information system on the environment; (d) preparation of regional and local environmental monographies. The aim of the current work is to create an information system as an approach to complex sustainability analyses at the national level using GIS technologies. This information system includes the following: 1.Development of a database of SD indicators and historical data. Morocco has been involved in the working framework of the Mediterranean Commission for Sustainable

  11. An Integrated Environmental Assessment of Green and Gray Infrastructure Strategies for Robust Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Casal-Campos, Arturo; Fu, Guangtao; Butler, David; Moore, Andrew

    2015-07-21

    The robustness of a range of watershed-scale "green" and "gray" drainage strategies in the future is explored through comprehensive modeling of a fully integrated urban wastewater system case. Four socio-economic future scenarios, defined by parameters affecting the environmental performance of the system, are proposed to account for the uncertain variability of conditions in the year 2050. A regret-based approach is applied to assess the relative performance of strategies in multiple impact categories (environmental, economic, and social) as well as to evaluate their robustness across future scenarios. The concept of regret proves useful in identifying performance trade-offs and recognizing states of the world most critical to decisions. The study highlights the robustness of green strategies (particularly rain gardens, resulting in half the regret of most options) over end-of-pipe gray alternatives (surface water separation or sewer and storage rehabilitation), which may be costly (on average, 25% of the total regret of these options) and tend to focus on sewer flooding and CSO alleviation while compromising on downstream system performance (this accounts for around 50% of their total regret). Trade-offs and scenario regrets observed in the analysis suggest that the combination of green and gray strategies may still offer further potential for robustness. PMID:26066313

  12. An Integrated Environmental Assessment of Green and Gray Infrastructure Strategies for Robust Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Casal-Campos, Arturo; Fu, Guangtao; Butler, David; Moore, Andrew

    2015-07-21

    The robustness of a range of watershed-scale "green" and "gray" drainage strategies in the future is explored through comprehensive modeling of a fully integrated urban wastewater system case. Four socio-economic future scenarios, defined by parameters affecting the environmental performance of the system, are proposed to account for the uncertain variability of conditions in the year 2050. A regret-based approach is applied to assess the relative performance of strategies in multiple impact categories (environmental, economic, and social) as well as to evaluate their robustness across future scenarios. The concept of regret proves useful in identifying performance trade-offs and recognizing states of the world most critical to decisions. The study highlights the robustness of green strategies (particularly rain gardens, resulting in half the regret of most options) over end-of-pipe gray alternatives (surface water separation or sewer and storage rehabilitation), which may be costly (on average, 25% of the total regret of these options) and tend to focus on sewer flooding and CSO alleviation while compromising on downstream system performance (this accounts for around 50% of their total regret). Trade-offs and scenario regrets observed in the analysis suggest that the combination of green and gray strategies may still offer further potential for robustness.

  13. Effectiveness of international environmental regimes: Existing knowledge, cutting-edge themes, and research strategies

    PubMed Central

    Young, Oran R.

    2011-01-01

    International environmental regimes—especially those regimes articulated in multilateral environmental agreements—have been a subject of intense interest within the scientific community over the last three decades. However, there are substantial differences of opinion regarding the effectiveness of these governance systems or the degree to which they are successful in solving the problems leading to their creation. This article provides a critical review of the literature on this topic. It extracts and summarizes what is known about the effectiveness of environmental regimes in the form of a series of general and specific propositions. It identifies promising topics for consideration in the next phase of research in this field. Additionally, it comments on the research strategies available to pursue this line of analysis. The general conclusions are that international environmental regimes can and do make a difference, although often in conjunction with a number of other factors, and that a strategy of using a number of tools combined can help to improve understanding of the determinants of success. PMID:22143795

  14. Investigating the genetic architecture of conditional strategies using the environmental threshold model.

    PubMed

    Buzatto, Bruno A; Buoro, Mathieu; Hazel, Wade N; Tomkins, Joseph L

    2015-12-22

    The threshold expression of dichotomous phenotypes that are environmentally cued or induced comprise the vast majority of phenotypic dimorphisms in colour, morphology, behaviour and life history. Modelled as conditional strategies under the framework of evolutionary game theory, the quantitative genetic basis of these traits is a challenge to estimate. The challenge exists firstly because the phenotypic expression of the trait is dichotomous and secondly because the apparent environmental cue is separate from the biological signal pathway that induces the switch between phenotypes. It is the cryptic variation underlying the translation of cue to phenotype that we address here. With a 'half-sib common environment' and a 'family-level split environment' experiment, we examine the environmental and genetic influences that underlie male dimorphism in the earwig Forficula auricularia. From the conceptual framework of the latent environmental threshold (LET) model, we use pedigree information to dissect the genetic architecture of the threshold expression of forceps length. We investigate for the first time the strength of the correlation between observable and cryptic 'proximate' cues. Furthermore, in support of the environmental threshold model, we found no evidence for a genetic correlation between cue and the threshold between phenotypes. Our results show strong correlations between observable and proximate cues and less genetic variation for thresholds than previous studies have suggested. We discuss the importance of generating better estimates of the genetic variation for thresholds when investigating the genetic architecture and heritability of threshold traits. By investigating genetic architecture by means of the LET model, our study supports several key evolutionary ideas related to conditional strategies and improves our understanding of environmentally cued decisions. PMID:26674955

  15. DEACTIVATION AND DECOMMISSIONING ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY FOR THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT COMPLEX, HANFORD NUCLEAR RESERVATION

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, A.M.; Heineman, R.; Norton, S.; Miller, M.; Oates, L.

    2003-02-27

    Maintaining compliance with environmental regulatory requirements is a significant priority in successful completion of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Nuclear Material Stabilization (NMS) Project. To ensure regulatory compliance throughout the deactivation and decommissioning of the PFP complex, an environmental regulatory strategy was developed. The overall goal of this strategy is to comply with all applicable environmental laws and regulations and/or compliance agreements during PFP stabilization, deactivation, and eventual dismantlement. Significant environmental drivers for the PFP Nuclear Material Stabilization Project include the Tri-Party Agreement; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA); the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA); the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA); the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA); the Clean Air Act (CAA), and the Clean Water Act (CWA). Recent TPA negotiation s with Ecology and EPA have resulted in milestones that support the use of CERCLA as the primary statutory framework for decommissioning PFP. Milestones have been negotiated to support the preparation of Engineering Evaluations/Cost Analyses for decommissioning major PFP buildings. Specifically, CERCLA EE/CA(s) are anticipated for the following scopes of work: Settling Tank 241-Z-361, the 232-Z Incinerator, , the process facilities (eg, 234-5Z, 242, 236) and the process facility support buildings. These CERCLA EE/CA(s) are for the purpose of analyzing the appropriateness of the slab-on-grade endpoint Additionally, agreement was reached on performing an evaluation of actions necessary to address below-grade structures or other structures remaining after completion of the decommissioning of PFP. Remaining CERCLA actions will be integrated with other Central Plateau activities at the Hanford site.

  16. Common pathways toward informing policy and environmental strategies to promote health: a study of CDC's Prevention Research Centers.

    PubMed

    Neri, Elizabeth M; Stringer, Kate J; Spadaro, Antonia J; Ballman, Marie R; Grunbaum, Jo Anne

    2015-03-01

    This study examined the roles academic researchers can play to inform policy and environmental strategies that promote health and prevent disease. Prevention Research Centers (PRCs) engage in academic-community partnerships to conduct applied public health research. Interviews were used to collect data on the roles played by 32 PRCs to inform policy and environmental strategies that were implemented between September 2009 and September 2010. Descriptive statistics were calculated in SAS 9.2. A difference in roles played was observed depending on whether strategies were policy or environmental. Of the policy initiatives, the most common roles were education, research, and partnership. In contrast, the most prevalent roles the PRCs played in environmental approaches were research and providing health promotion resources. Academic research centers play various roles to help inform policy and environmental strategies.

  17. [Scandinavian eugenics: Nordic historians provide new approaches].

    PubMed

    Zylberman, Patrick

    2004-10-01

    Late disclosure of the large scale of sterilization practices in the Nordic countries created an outburst of scandal: did these policies rely on coercion? To what extent? Who in the end was responsible? Sterilization practices targeted underpriviledged people first. The mentally retarded and women were their first victims. Operations were very frequently determined by other people's manipulative or coercive influences. Should the blame be put on the Social-Democrats in power throughout the period (except in Finland and Estonia)? Apart from Denmark, perhaps, local physicians and local services, more than governments, seemed to have strongly supported sterilization practices. Teetotalers and feminists shared responsibilities. How can one explain that eugenics finally declined? Based on a sound application of the Hardy-Weinberg law, the science of the eugenicists was correct. Was it politics? But uncovering of the Nazi crimes had only a very small impact on eugenics. Some authors underline the fact that the Nordic scientific institutions were particularly suited to liberal values. Others point to the devastating effect on eugenics once hereditarist psychiatry fell from favour in the middle of the sixties. PMID:15461971

  18. Spring bloom onset in the Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignot, A.; Ferrari, R.; Mork, K. A.

    2015-08-01

    The North Atlantic spring bloom is a massive annual growth event of marine phytoplankton, tiny free-floating algae that form the base of the ocean's food web and generates a large fraction of the global primary production of organic matter. The conditions that trigger the onset of the spring bloom in the Nordic Seas, at the northern edge of the North Atlantic, are studied using in-situ data from five bio-optical floats released above the Arctic Circle. It is often assumed that spring blooms start as soon as phytoplankton cells daily irradiance is sufficiently abundant that division rates exceed losses. The bio-optical float data instead suggest the tantalizing hypothesis that Nordic Seas blooms start when the photoperiod, the number of daily light hours experienced by phytoplankton, exceeds a critical value, independently of division rates. This bloom behavior may be explained by realizing that photosynthesis is impossible during polar nights and phytoplankton enters in a dormant stage in winter, only to be awaken by a photoperiodic trigger. While the first accumulation of biomass recorded by the bio-optical floats is consistent with the photoperiod hypothesis, it is possible that some biomass accumulation started before the critical photoperiod but at levels too low to be detected by the fluorometers. Thus more precise observations are needed to test the photoperiod hypothesis.

  19. Spring bloom onset in the Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignot, Alexandre; Ferrari, Raffaele; Mork, Kjell Arne

    2016-06-01

    The North Atlantic spring bloom is a massive annual growth event of marine phytoplankton, tiny free-floating algae that form the base of the ocean's food web and generates a large fraction of the global primary production of organic matter. The conditions that trigger the onset of the spring bloom in the Nordic Seas, at the northern edge of the North Atlantic, are studied using in situ data from six bio-optical floats released north of the Arctic Circle. It is often assumed that spring blooms start as soon as phytoplankton cells daily irradiance is sufficiently abundant that division rates exceed losses. The bio-optical float data instead suggest the tantalizing hypothesis that Nordic Seas blooms start when the photoperiod, the number of daily light hours experienced by phytoplankton, exceeds a critical value, independently of division rates. The photoperiod trigger may have developed at high latitudes where photosynthesis is impossible during polar nights and phytoplankton enters into a dormant stage in winter. While the first accumulation of biomass recorded by the bio-optical floats is consistent with the photoperiod hypothesis, it is possible that some biomass accumulation started before the critical photoperiod but at levels too low to be detected by the fluorometers. More precise observations are needed to test the photoperiod hypothesis.

  20. Nordic Medical Birth Registers in epidemiological research.

    PubMed

    Gissler, M; Louhiala, P; Hemminki, E

    1997-02-01

    This review discusses the use of Nordic Medical Birth Registers (MBRs) in epidemiological studies, paying special attention to the topics that have been investigated and to other data sources that increase the usefulness of MBRs. We divided the reviewed studies into four groups according to the data sources on which they were based: (1) studies using MBR data only; (2) studies combining maternal or paternal background information, obtained from other data sources, with MBR data; (3) studies combining MBR data with subsequent outcome information on newborns; and (4) studies using information about consecutive pregnancies and generations. Our review shows that MBRs are good sources for studying the following topics: maternal biological and obstetric background; interventions and health care during pregnancy and birth; newborns' short-term outcome; and the relations between these factors. In addition, the usefulness of MBRs increases when the data they contain are combined with data from other sources. We found that data from more than twenty different sources have been linked with MBR data in the Nordic counties. As time passes, national MBRs become a useful source of information for studies on consecutive pregnancies or generations. In addition, the associations between pregnancy, delivery, perinatal health and long-term outcome can be studied by using an MBR as the basic data source.

  1. Environmental management practices in the Lebanese pharmaceutical industries: implementation strategies and challenges.

    PubMed

    Massoud, May A; Makarem, N; Ramadan, W; Nakkash, R

    2015-03-01

    This research attempts to provide an understanding of the Lebanese pharmaceutical industries' environmental management strategies, priorities, and perceptions as well as drivers, barriers, and incentives regarding the implementation of the voluntary ISO 14001 Environmental Management System. Accordingly, a semistructured in-depth interview was conducted with the pharmaceutical industries. The findings revealed a significant lack of knowledge about the standard among the industries. The main perceived drivers for adopting the ISO 14001 are improving the companies' image and overcoming international trade. The main perceived barriers for acquiring the standard are the lack of government support and the fact that ISO 14001 is not being legally required or enforced by the government. Moreover, results revealed that adopting the ISO 14001 standard is not perceived as a priority for the Lebanese pharmaceutical industries. Although the cost of certification was not considered as a barrier for the implementation of ISO 14001, the majority of the pharmaceutical industries are neither interested nor willing to adopt the Standard if they are not exposed to any regulatory pressure or external demand. They are more concerned with quality and safety issues with the most adopted international standard among the industries being the ISO 9001 quality management system. This study highlights the aspect that financial barriers are not always the hurdles for implementing environmental management strategies in developing countries and underscores the need for regulatory frameworks and enforcement.

  2. INTEGRATING TOXICITY PATHWAY-SPECIFIC IN VITRO TESTING WITH ADVANCED CHEMICAL SELECTION STRATEGIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL QSAR DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental risk assessments often require the evaluation of large numbers of untested chemicals. Chemical assessment protocols that include QSARs have been widely applied for endpoint prediction as well as chemical ranking and prioritization. Approaches are needed to strategi...

  3. Intimate partner violence against women and the Nordic paradox.

    PubMed

    Gracia, Enrique; Merlo, Juan

    2016-05-01

    Nordic countries are the most gender equal countries in the world, but at the same time they have disproportionally high prevalence rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. High prevalence of IPV against women, and high levels of gender equality would appear contradictory, but these apparently opposite statements appear to be true in Nordic countries, producing what could be called the 'Nordic paradox'. Despite this paradox being one of the most puzzling issues in the field, this is a research question rarely asked, and one that remains unanswered. This paper explores a number of theoretical and methodological issues that may help to understand this paradox. Efforts to understand the Nordic paradox may provide an avenue to guide new research on IPV and to respond to this major public health problem in a more effective way.

  4. Body Composition and Somatotype of Male and Female Nordic Skiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinning, Wayne E.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Anthropometric measurements (body composition and somatotype characteristics) for male and female Nordic skiers showed small values for measures of variance, suggesting that the subjects represented a select body type for the sport. (Author/MJB)

  5. Perspectives on Dental Education in the Nordic Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiehn, Nils-Erik

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the state of dental education and current developments at Nordic dental schools. Discusses similarities and differences in the institutional circumstances of the schools, including demands on the schools, their educational philosophies, and the educational system and its regulation. (EV)

  6. Evolution of the social-learner-explorer strategy in an environmentally heterogeneous two-island model.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Kenichi

    2010-09-01

    Social-learner-explorer (SE) is a learning strategy that combines accurate social learning with exploratory individual learning in that order. Arguably, it is one of the few plausible learning strategies that can support cumulative culture. We investigate numerically the factors that affect the evolution of SE in an environmentally heterogeneous two-island model. Conditions favorable to the evolution of SE include a small exogenous cost of social learning, the occurrence of migration after social learning but before individual learning, the ability to adaptively modify the behavioral phenotype in the postmigration environment (asymmetrical individual learning), and a relatively high migration rate. The implications of our model for the evolution of SE in humans are discussed. Of particular interest is the prediction that behaviors affecting fitness would have to be socially learned in the natal environment and then subsequently modified by individual learning in the postmigration environment, suggesting a life-cycle stage dependent reliance on the two types of learning.

  7. Environmental-scale map use in middle childhood: links to spatial skills, strategies, and gender.

    PubMed

    Liben, Lynn S; Myers, Lauren J; Christensen, Adam E; Bower, Corinne A

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have shown that young children solve mapping tasks in small spaces, but have rarely tested children's performance in large, unfamiliar environments. In the current research, children (9-10 years; N = 40) explored an unfamiliar campus and marked flags' locations on a map. As hypothesized, better performance was predicted by higher spatial-test scores, greater spontaneous use of map-space coordinating strategies, and participant sex (favoring boys). Data supported some but not all hypotheses about the roles of specific spatial skills for mapping performance. Data patterns were similar on a computer mapping task that displayed environmental-scale videos of walks through a park. Patterns of children's mapping errors suggested both idiosyncratic and common mapping strategies that should be addressed in future research and educational interventions. PMID:23550840

  8. Comparative environmental assessment of valorization strategies of the invasive macroalgae Sargassum muticum.

    PubMed

    Pérez-López, Paula; Balboa, Elena M; González-García, Sara; Domínguez, Herminia; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, M Teresa

    2014-06-01

    The invasive brown seaweed Sargassum muticum (Yendo) exhibits a significant content of phenolic compounds, polysaccharides and fucoxanthin, with potential biological activities. In this study, four valorization strategies for S. muticum biomass were compared under a life cycle perspective. Depending on the alternative, three products were obtained: sodium alginate, antioxidant extract and fucoxanthin-containing extract. Regardless of the approach, the combined extraction of alginate and antioxidant from wet algae constituted the most efficient scenario. Among the stages, supercritical extraction of fucoxanthin and non-isothermal autohydrolysis were identified as the major environmental burdens due to electricity consumption. Although changes in product distribution fairly affected the environmental impacts of the scenarios, the single extraction of antioxidant fraction and the integral valorization to obtain fucoxanthin, alginate and antioxidant were only competitive when considering a functional unit based on the value of the products through an economic allocation approach instead of the amount of valorized algae. PMID:24698741

  9. Engaging All Americans: Innovative Strategies for Reaching the Public with Climate and Environmental Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinoza, S.

    2014-12-01

    From extensive drought and heat waves to floods, tornadoes and Superstorm Sandy, extreme weather and climate events provide teachable moments to help communities prepare for and respond to related environmental, economic and health impacts. The National Environmental Education Foundation (www.neefusa.org) works with the American Meteorological Society, the media and other trusted messengers to provide weather, climate and environmental information to the public in accessible and widely used formats, whether via TV, radio or social media. NEEF will provide an overview of innovative partnerships and projects that are engaging Americans in understanding and using climate and environmental information to make the best choices in their daily lives and improve the health of their communities, including: Assessing knowledge, attitudes and behaviors: NEEF will share results from its national survey research and targeted focus groups on current attitudes and practices relating to our nation's environment. Simplifying and amplifying key messages: NEEF provides a national network of more than 350 meteorologists, radio broadcasters and journalists with the science-based information and resources they need to present climate and environmental topics to their viewers on-air, online and in community outreach. Engaging television viewers in citizen science: Eyes on Central PA, a pilot project of NEEF, Project Noah and WTAJ-TV, harnesses Project Noah's citizen science platform to collect and display photos of wildlife from WTAJ-TV viewers. NEEF and WTAJ provide regular blogs and on-air stories that highlight viewers' photos and link them to local weather conditions and climate trends. Expanding the conversation: NEEF's multimedia strategy in the Mid-Atlantic U.S. is reaching Spanish-speaking audiences with climate and environmental information through regular radio and television broadcasts. We are also exploring ways to reach other non-traditional audiences, including faith

  10. Childhood Obesity Policy Research and Practice Evidence for Policy and Environmental Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Laura K.; Brownson, Ross C.; Orleans, C. Tracy

    2016-01-01

    Investigators developed a review system to evaluate the growing literature on policy and environmental strategies to prevent childhood obesity. Over 2000 documents published between January 2000 and May 2009 in the scientific and grey literature were identified (2008–2009) and systematically analyzed (2009–2012). These focused on policy or environmental strategies to reduce obesity/overweight, increase physical activity, and/or improve nutrition/diet among youth (aged 3–18 years). Guided by the RE-AIM framework, investigators abstracted studies of 24 intervention strategies and assessed evidence for their effectiveness (i.e., study design, intervention duration, and outcomes) and population impact (i.e., effectiveness and reach – participation or exposure, and representativeness) in 142 evaluation study groupings and 254 associational study groupings (n=396 groupings of 600 peer-reviewed studies). The 24 strategies yielded 25 classifications (school wellness policies yielded nutrition and physical activity classifications): 1st-tier effective (n=5); 2nd-tier effective (n=6); “promising” (n=5); or “emerging” (n=9). Evidence for intervention effectiveness was reported in 56% of the evaluation, and 77% of the associational, study groupings. Among the evaluation study groupings, only 49% reported sufficient data for population impact ratings, and only 22% qualified for a rating of high population impact. Effectiveness and impact ratings were summarized in graphic evidence maps, displaying effects/associations with behavioral and obesity/overweight outcomes. This paper describes the results and products of the review, with recommendations for policy research and practice. PMID:24355679

  11. Optimal environmental management strategy and implementation for groundwater contamination prevention and restoration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingyu

    2006-04-01

    An innovative management strategy is proposed for optimized and integrated environmental management for regional or national groundwater contamination prevention and restoration allied with consideration of sustainable development. This management strategy accounts for availability of limited resources, human health and ecological risks from groundwater contamination, costs for groundwater protection measures, beneficial uses and values from groundwater protection, and sustainable development. Six different categories of costs are identified with regard to groundwater prevention and restoration. In addition, different environmental impacts from groundwater contamination including human health and ecological risks are individually taken into account. System optimization principles are implemented to accomplish decision-makings on the optimal resources allocations of the available resources or budgets to different existing contaminated sites and projected contamination sites for a maximal risk reduction. Established management constraints such as budget limitations under different categories of costs are satisfied at the optimal solution. A stepwise optimization process is proposed in which the first step is to select optimally a limited number of sites where remediation or prevention measures will be taken, from all the existing contaminated and projected contamination sites, based on a total regionally or nationally available budget in a certain time frame such as 10 years. Then, several optimization steps determined year-by-year optimal distributions of the available yearly budgets for those selected sites. A hypothetical case study is presented to demonstrate a practical implementation of the management strategy. Several issues pertaining to groundwater contamination exposure and risk assessments and remediation cost evaluations are briefly discussed for adequately understanding implementations of the management strategy.

  12. Nordic exchange of students and climate change.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsson, A.

    2012-04-01

    Since the end of 2010 and until the summer of 2011 two upper secondary schools in Höyanger, Norway and Ronneby, Sweden had the possibility to take part in a project called Nordplus junior. The main aims of the program are: • To promote Nordic languages and culture and mutual Nordic-Baltic linguistic and cultural understanding. • To contribute to the development of quality and innovation in the educational systems for life-long learning in the participating countries by means of educational cooperation, development projects, exchanges and networking. • To support, develop, draw benefit from and spread innovative products and processes in education through systematic exchange of experiences and best practice. • To strengthen and develop Nordic educational cooperation and contribute to the establishment of a Nordic-Baltic educational area. The students did research on climate change and the impact on local and regional areas. Many questions had to be answered, giving an explanation to what happens if the climate changes. Questions related to Höyanger, Norway What happens to life in Norwegian fiords? Which attitudes do youngsters and adults have about climate change and what actions do they take? What does a rise in sea level mean for Höyanger? How are different tourist attractions affected in western Norway? Questions related to Ronneby, Sweden How is the regional fauna and flora affected? What will happen to agriculture and forestry? What do adults and youngsters know about consequences of a possible climate change? What happens to the people of Ronneby if the sea level rises? Are there any positive outcomes if the climate changes? Conclusions In Norwegian fiords there could be benefits because fish are growing faster in the winter because of an increased temperature. At the same time there could be an imbalance in the ecosystem because of a change in the living ranges of different species. Most of the young boys and girls in Höyanger, Norway were

  13. Environmental Quality of Italian Marine Water by Means of Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) Descriptor 9

    PubMed Central

    Maggi, Chiara; Lomiri, Serena; Di Lorenzo, Bianca; d’Antona, Marco; Berducci, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    ISPRA, on behalf of the Italian Ministry of Environment, carried out the initial assessment of environmental quality status of the 3 Italian subregions (Mediterranean Sea Region) on Descriptor 9. The approach adopted to define the GES started to verify that contaminants in fish and other seafood for human consumption did not exceed levels established by Community legislation (Reg. 1881/2006 and further updates). As the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requires to use health tools to assess the environment, Italy decided to adopt a statistical range of acceptance of thresholds identified by national (D.Lgs. 152/2006 concerning water quality required for mussel farms) and international legislation (Reg. 1881/2006 and further updates), which allowed to use the health results and to employ them for the assessment of environmental quality. Italy proposed that Good Environmental Status (GES) is achieved when concentrations are lower than statistical range of acceptance, estimated on samples of fish and fishery products coming from only national waters. GIS-based approach a to perform different integration levels for station, cell’s grid and years, was used; the elaborations allowed to judge the environmental quality good. PMID:25251745

  14. European environmental research infrastructures are going for common 30 years strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmi, Ari; Konjin, Jacco; Pursula, Antti

    2014-05-01

    Environmental Research infrastructures are facilities, resources, systems and related services that are used by research communities to conduct top-level research. Environmental research is addressing processes at very different time scales, and supporting research infrastructures must be designed as long-term facilities in order to meet the requirements of continuous environmental observation, measurement and analysis. This longevity makes the environmental research infrastructures ideal structures to support the long-term development in environmental sciences. ENVRI project is a collaborative action of the major European (ESFRI) Environmental Research Infrastructures working towards increased co-operation and interoperability between the infrastructures. One of the key products of the ENVRI project is to combine the long-term plans of the individual infrastructures towards a common strategy, describing the vision and planned actions. The envisaged vision for environmental research infrastructures toward 2030 is to support the holistic understanding of our planet and it's behavior. The development of a 'Standard Model of the Planet' is a common ambition, a challenge to define an environmental standard model; a framework of all interactions within the Earth System, from solid earth to near space. Indeed scientists feel challenged to contribute to a 'Standard Model of the Planet' with data, models, algorithms and discoveries. Understanding the Earth System as an interlinked system requires a systems approach. The Environmental Sciences are rapidly moving to become a one system-level science. Mainly since modern science, engineering and society are increasingly facing complex problems that can only be understood in the context of the full overall system. The strategy of the supporting collaborating research infrastructures is based on developing three key factors for the Environmental Sciences: the technological, the cultural and the human capital. The technological

  15. Current research in transcultural psychiatry in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Ekblad, Solvig; Kastrup, Marianne Carisius

    2013-12-01

    This article discusses major themes in recent transcultural psychiatric research in the Nordic countries from 2008 to 2011: (a) epidemiological studies of migration, (b) indigenous populations, and (c) quality of psychiatric care for migrants. Over the past several decades, the populations of the Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden, which were relatively homogeneous, have become increasingly culturally diverse. Many migrants to Nordic countries have been exposed to extreme stress, such as threats of death and/or torture and other severe social adversities before, during, and after migration, with potential effects on their physical, mental, social, and spiritual health. Growing interest in transcultural issues is reflected in the level of scientific research and clinical activity in the field by Nordic physicians, psychologists, social scientists, demographers, medical anthropologists, as well as other clinicians and policy planners. Research includes work with migrants and indigenous minorities in the Nordic countries, as well as comparisons with mental health in postconflict countries. We conclude by suggesting future directions for transcultural psychiatry research and providing guidelines for the education and training of future clinicians in the Nordic countries.

  16. Development of the Environmental Strategies Instrument to Measure Adolescent Alcohol Prevention-Related Outcomes in Community Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervantes, Richard C.; Goldbach, Jeremy; Yeung, Albert; Rey, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Recently, evidence-based community policy approaches to preventing substance use and alcohol abuse, called environmental strategies, have gained in popularity. The environmental survey instrument (ESI) was developed to evaluate perceptions around drinking and related problems. Specifically, the authors were interested in assessing community…

  17. Hoppergrass and Stickerbush: A Beginning. A Guide to Activities and Strategies in Environmental Education, Grades K-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Cleo; And Others

    This publication serves as a guide to activities and strategies in environmental education. Lesson plans include objectives and suggested procedures in dealing with the following environmental concepts: (1) The earth is a vast but limited natural system; (2) The total environment is in constant change; (3) A living thing is the product of its…

  18. Stakeholder Interaction in Participatory Land Restoration in Iceland: Environmental Officers' Challenges and Strategies.

    PubMed

    Berglund, Brita; Hallgren, Lars; Aradóttir, Ása L

    2015-08-01

    Participatory approaches involve stakeholder interaction but environmental agency employees engaged in participatory undertakings often lack training for interaction tasks. This study explored how district officers at the Soil Conservation Service of Iceland (SCSI) experienced and dealt with stakeholder interaction in participatory land restoration. We made semi-structured interviews with all district officers with at least 1-year experience; seven in total. A thematic content analysis revealed five challenges facing the officers in their interaction activities and seven strategies that they used to deal with these challenges. The core challenge was to establish and maintain contacts with farmers and other stakeholders as it enabled the SCSI to support and influence their land restoration practices. Other challenges were to: accomplish SCSI's objectives; represent the SCSI and the government; have adequate skills, knowledge, and background; and deal with one's own emotions. Four of the strategies seemed to promote collaboration: create win-win scenarios; "go local"; direct and positive communication; and motivation and knowledge sharing. The other strategies: supportive district officer team; self-reliance and personal background; and self-control supported the officers in their interaction tasks. Factors undermining their collaboration efforts included insufficient time and other resources, an unsupportive organizational culture and a legal duty to assess the condition of vegetation cover on farmland. Increased resource allocation to the SCSI's local operations, more attention to emotional issues, and efforts to develop a more flexible and learning organizational culture that supports collaboration could counteract these factors.

  19. Interactive effects of environmental change and management strategies on regional forest carbon emissions.

    PubMed

    Hudiburg, Tara W; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Thornton, Peter E; Law, Beverly E

    2013-11-19

    Climate mitigation activities in forests need to be quantified in terms of the long-term effects on forest carbon stocks, accumulation, and emissions. The impacts of future environmental change and bioenergy harvests on regional forest carbon storage have not been quantified. We conducted a comprehensive modeling study and life-cycle assessment of the impacts of projected changes in climate, CO2 concentration, and N deposition, and region-wide forest management policies on regional forest carbon fluxes. By 2100, if current management strategies continue, then the warming and CO2 fertilization effect in the given projections result in a 32-68% increase in net carbon uptake, overshadowing increased carbon emissions from projected increases in fire activity and other forest disturbance factors. To test the response to new harvesting strategies, repeated thinnings were applied in areas susceptible to fire to reduce mortality, and two clear-cut rotations were applied in productive forests to provide biomass for wood products and bioenergy. The management strategies examined here lead to long-term increased carbon emissions over current harvesting practices, although semiarid regions contribute little to the increase. The harvest rates were unsustainable. This comprehensive approach could serve as a foundation for regional place-based assessments of management effects on future carbon sequestration by forests in other locations.

  20. Environmental Control and Life Support Integration Strategy for 6-Crew Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duchesne, Stephanie M.; Tressler, Chad H.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) crew complement has increased in size from 3 to 6 crew members. In order to support this increase in crew on ISS, the United States on-orbit Segment (USOS) has been outfitted with a suite of regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) hardware including an Oxygen Generation System (OGS), Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC), and a Water Recovery System (WRS). The WRS includes the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) and the Water Processor Assembly (WPA). With this additional life support hardware, the ISS has achieved full redundancy in its on-orbit life support system between the t OS and Russian Segment (RS). The additional redundancy created by the Regenerative ECLS hardware creates the opportunity for independent support capabilities between segments, and for the first time since the start of ISS, the necessity to revise Life Support strategy agreements. Independent operating strategies coupled with the loss of the Space Shuttle supply and return capabilities in 2010 offer new and unique challenges. This paper will discuss the evolution of the ISS Life Support hardware strategy in support of 6-Crew on ISS, as well as the continued work that is necessary to ensure the support of crew and ISS Program objectives through the life of station

  1. Stakeholder Interaction in Participatory Land Restoration in Iceland: Environmental Officers' Challenges and Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berglund, Brita; Hallgren, Lars; Aradóttir, Ása L.

    2015-08-01

    Participatory approaches involve stakeholder interaction but environmental agency employees engaged in participatory undertakings often lack training for interaction tasks. This study explored how district officers at the Soil Conservation Service of Iceland (SCSI) experienced and dealt with stakeholder interaction in participatory land restoration. We made semi-structured interviews with all district officers with at least 1-year experience; seven in total. A thematic content analysis revealed five challenges facing the officers in their interaction activities and seven strategies that they used to deal with these challenges. The core challenge was to establish and maintain contacts with farmers and other stakeholders as it enabled the SCSI to support and influence their land restoration practices. Other challenges were to: accomplish SCSI's objectives; represent the SCSI and the government; have adequate skills, knowledge, and background; and deal with one's own emotions. Four of the strategies seemed to promote collaboration: create win-win scenarios; "go local"; direct and positive communication; and motivation and knowledge sharing. The other strategies: supportive district officer team; self-reliance and personal background; and self-control supported the officers in their interaction tasks. Factors undermining their collaboration efforts included insufficient time and other resources, an unsupportive organizational culture and a legal duty to assess the condition of vegetation cover on farmland. Increased resource allocation to the SCSI's local operations, more attention to emotional issues, and efforts to develop a more flexible and learning organizational culture that supports collaboration could counteract these factors.

  2. Effect of farming strategies on environmental impact of intensive dairy farms in Italy.

    PubMed

    Guerci, Matteo; Bava, Luciana; Zucali, Maddalena; Sandrucci, Anna; Penati, Chiara; Tamburini, Alberto

    2013-08-01

    Agriculture and animal husbandry are important contributors to global emissions of greenhouse (GHG) and acidifying gases. Moreover, they contribute to water pollution and to consumption of non-renewable natural resources such as land and energy. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology allows evaluation of the environmental impact of a process from the production of inputs to the final product and to assess simultaneously several environmental impact categories among which GHG emissions, acidification, eutrophication, land use and energy use. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate, using the LCA methodology, the environmental impact of milk production in a sample of 41 intensive Italian dairy farms and to identify, among different farming strategies, those associated with the best environmental performances. The functional unit was 1 kg Fat and Protein Corrected Milk (FPCM). Farms showed characteristics of high production intensity: FPCM, expressed as tonnes per hectare, was 30·8±15·1. Total GHG emission per kg FPCM at farm gate was 1·30±0·19 kg CO2 eq. The main contributors to climate change potential were emissions from barns and manure storage (50·1%) and emissions for production and transportation of purchased feeds (21·2%). Average emission of gases causing acidification to produce 1 kg FPCM was 19·7±3·6 g of SO2 eq. Eutrophication potential was 9·01±1·78 ${\\rm PO}_{\\rm 4}^{{\\rm 3} -} {\\rm eq}.$ per kg FPCM on average. Farms from this study needed on average 5·97±1·32 MJ per kg FPCM from non-renewable energy sources. Energy consumption was mainly due to off-farm activities (58%) associated with purchased factors. Land use was 1·51±0·25 m2 per kg FPCM. The farming strategy based on high conversion efficiency at animal level was identified as the most effective to mitigate the environmental impact per kg milk at farm gate, especially in terms of GHG production and non-renewable energy use per kg FPCM. PMID:23806128

  3. Effect of farming strategies on environmental impact of intensive dairy farms in Italy.

    PubMed

    Guerci, Matteo; Bava, Luciana; Zucali, Maddalena; Sandrucci, Anna; Penati, Chiara; Tamburini, Alberto

    2013-08-01

    Agriculture and animal husbandry are important contributors to global emissions of greenhouse (GHG) and acidifying gases. Moreover, they contribute to water pollution and to consumption of non-renewable natural resources such as land and energy. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology allows evaluation of the environmental impact of a process from the production of inputs to the final product and to assess simultaneously several environmental impact categories among which GHG emissions, acidification, eutrophication, land use and energy use. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate, using the LCA methodology, the environmental impact of milk production in a sample of 41 intensive Italian dairy farms and to identify, among different farming strategies, those associated with the best environmental performances. The functional unit was 1 kg Fat and Protein Corrected Milk (FPCM). Farms showed characteristics of high production intensity: FPCM, expressed as tonnes per hectare, was 30·8±15·1. Total GHG emission per kg FPCM at farm gate was 1·30±0·19 kg CO2 eq. The main contributors to climate change potential were emissions from barns and manure storage (50·1%) and emissions for production and transportation of purchased feeds (21·2%). Average emission of gases causing acidification to produce 1 kg FPCM was 19·7±3·6 g of SO2 eq. Eutrophication potential was 9·01±1·78 ${\\rm PO}_{\\rm 4}^{{\\rm 3} -} {\\rm eq}.$ per kg FPCM on average. Farms from this study needed on average 5·97±1·32 MJ per kg FPCM from non-renewable energy sources. Energy consumption was mainly due to off-farm activities (58%) associated with purchased factors. Land use was 1·51±0·25 m2 per kg FPCM. The farming strategy based on high conversion efficiency at animal level was identified as the most effective to mitigate the environmental impact per kg milk at farm gate, especially in terms of GHG production and non-renewable energy use per kg FPCM.

  4. Ontogenetic resource-use strategies in a rare long-lived cycad along environmental gradients

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Yépiz, Juan C.; Cueva, Alejandro; Dovčiak, Martin; Teece, Mark; Yepez, Enrico A.

    2014-01-01

    Functional traits can drive plant responses to short- and long-term stressful conditions, with potential effects on species persistence in local habitats, changes in population size and structure, and potential species range shifts in changing environments. We investigated whether ecophysiological traits in a rare cycad vary along environmental gradients and with ontogeny to understand intra-specific resource-use variation (e.g. symbiotic nitrogen fixation, nitrogen- and water-use efficiency) and possible species adaptations for different environments. Environmental gradients were characterized with 14 soil and topographic variables. Nitrogen- and water-use efficiency improved with ontogeny (from seedling to juvenile and adult stages) but declined as soil fertility decreased with increasing elevation. Conversely, reliance on symbiotic nitrogen fixation increased with elevation and varied slightly with ontogeny. Improved water-use efficiency at lower elevation and nitrogen fixation at higher elevation may represent key functional strategies for maintaining the lower and upper altitudinal species range limits, especially in arid environments where stressful conditions are intensifying due to climatic and land-use changes. In addition to facilitation linked to the regeneration niche, improved resource-use efficiency linked to the adult niche may strongly influence cycad distribution and persistence in contemporary environments. A functional approach to conservation of rare or endangered plant species may be needed in order to target the most sensitive stages to changing environmental conditions and to better understand potential range shifts and adaptive responses to global land-use and climate changes. PMID:27293655

  5. Substance-related environmental monitoring strategies regarding soil, groundwater and surface water - an overview.

    PubMed

    Kördel, Werner; Garelick, Hemda; Gawlik, Bernd M; Kandile, Nadia G; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Rüdel, Heinz

    2013-05-01

    Substance-related monitoring is an essential tool within environmental risk assessment processes. The soundness of policy decisions including risk management measures is often directly related to the reliability of the environmental monitoring programs. In addition, monitoring programs are required for identifying new and less-investigated pollutants of concern in different environmental media. Scientifically sound and feasible monitoring concepts strongly depend on the aim of the study. The proper definition of questions to be answered is thus of pivotal importance. Decisions on sample handling, storage and the analysis of the samples are important steps for the elaboration of problem-oriented monitoring strategies. The same applies to the selection of the sampling sites as being representative for scenarios to be investigated. These steps may become critical to handle for larger international monitoring programs and thus trigger the quality of their results. This study based on the work of an IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) task group addresses different kinds and approaches of substance-related monitoring of different compartments of soil, groundwater and surface water, and discusses their advantages and limitations. Further important aspects are the monitoring across policies and the monitoring data management using information systems.

  6. European Plate Observing System - the Arctic dimension and the Nordic collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atakan, K.; Heikkinen, P.; Juhlin, C.; Thybo, H.; Vogfjord, K.

    2012-04-01

    Within the framework of the EPOS project, Nordic interests are significant, not only in fundamental scientific issues related to geodynamic processes, but also in terms of the application of these to several central problems such as, hydrocarbon exploration and production including the related environmental issues, CO2 storage (or other toxic waste repositories) in geological formations, geothermal energy (natural and hot-dry rock) utilization and mining, geohazards (earthquakes, landslides and volcanic eruptions) and their consequences to the society. The Arctic dimension including Fennoscandia, the northern North Atlantic and the Arctic Sea constitutes an area of considerable geographical extent within the European plate. The region also contains a significant part of the European plate boundary submerged under the North Atlantic and the Arctic sea, where geodynamic processes such as rifting and fracturing are especially energetic. In particular, where the plate boundary is exposed on land in the South Iceland seismic zone, large earthquakes are frequently observed including two Mw6.5 events in 2000 and one Mw6.3 event in 2008. But, seismic hazard is not confined to the plate boundary. Significant intra-plate earthquakes have recently occurred in the region (Mw6.1 in the continental shelf near Spitsbergen in 2008, Mw5.0 in Southern Sweden in 2008, Mw5.2 near Kaliningrad in 2004) showing that there is considerable seismic hazard in the region. In addition, submarine landslide earthquakes are always of concern due to possible tsunami generation. Volcanic activity occurs on the plate boundary and is particularly strong in the rift zones of Iceland, where on average two volcanic eruptions occur per decade. subaerial volcanic eruptions also occur on Jan Mayen island, farther north on the Mid Atlantic ridge. Together, the Danish seismic network in Greenland, the Norwegian seismic arrays and national network traversing the length of Norway and the Icelandic seismic and

  7. Microbial interactions in the arsenic cycle: adoptive strategies and applications in environmental management.

    PubMed

    Dhuldhaj, Umesh Praveen; Yadav, Ishwar Chandra; Singh, Surendra; Sharma, Naveen Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a nonessential element that is often present in plants and in other organisms. However, it is one of the most hazardous of toxic elements globally. In many parts of the world, arsenic contamination in groundwater is a serious and continuing threat to human health. Microbes play an important role in regulating the environmental fate of arsenic. Different microbial processes influence the biogeochemical cycling of arsenic in ways that affect the accumulation of different arsenic species in various ecosystem compartments. For example, in soil, there are bacteria that methylate arsenite to trimethylarsine gas, thereby releasing arsenic to the atmosphere.In marine ecosystems, microbes exist that can convert inorganic arsenicals to organic arsenicals (e.g., di- and tri-methylated arsenic derivatives, arsenocholine,arsenobetaine, arsenosugars, arsenolipids). The organo arsenicals are further metabolized to complete the arsenic cycle.Microbes have developed various strategies that enable them to tolerate arsenic and to survive in arsenic-rich environments. Such strategies include As exclusion from cells by establishing permeability barrier, intra- and extracellular sequestration,active efflux pumps, enzymatic reduction, and reduction in the sensitivity of cellular targets. These strategies are used either singly or in combination. In bacteria,the genes for arsenic resistance/detoxification are encoded by the arsenic resistance operons (ars operon).In this review, we have addressed and emphasized the impact of different microbial processes (e.g., arsenite oxidation, cytoplasmic arsenate reduction, respiratory arsenate reduction, arsenite methylation) on the arsenic cycle. Microbes are the only life forms reported to exist in heavy arsenic-contaminated environments. Therefore,an understanding of the strategies adopted by microbes to cope with arsenic stress is important in managing such arsenic-contaminated sites. Further future insights into the different

  8. Climate impacts of parameterized Nordic Sea overflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Large, William G.; Briegleb, Bruce P.

    2010-11-01

    A new overflow parameterization (OFP) of density-driven flows through ocean ridges via narrow, unresolved channels has been developed and implemented in the ocean component of the Community Climate System Model version 4. It represents exchanges from the Nordic Seas and the Antarctic shelves, associated entrainment, and subsequent injection of overflow product waters into the abyssal basins. We investigate the effects of the parameterized Denmark Strait (DS) and Faroe Bank Channel (FBC) overflows on the ocean circulation, showing their impacts on the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and the North Atlantic climate. The OFP is based on the Marginal Sea Boundary Condition scheme of Price and Yang (1998), but there are significant differences that are described in detail. Two uncoupled (ocean-only) and two fully coupled simulations are analyzed. Each pair consists of one case with the OFP and a control case without this parameterization. In both uncoupled and coupled experiments, the parameterized DS and FBC source volume transports are within the range of observed estimates. The entrainment volume transports remain lower than observational estimates, leading to lower than observed product volume transports. Due to low entrainment, the product and source water properties are too similar. The DS and FBC overflow temperature and salinity properties are in better agreement with observations in the uncoupled case than in the coupled simulation, likely reflecting surface flux differences. The most significant impact of the OFP is the improved North Atlantic Deep Water penetration depth, leading to a much better comparison with the observational data and significantly reducing the chronic, shallow penetration depth bias in level coordinate models. This improvement is due to the deeper penetration of the southward flowing Deep Western Boundary Current. In comparison with control experiments without the OFP, the abyssal ventilation rates increase in the North

  9. 77 FR 20100 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel NORDIC STAR; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel NORDIC STAR... the vessel NORDIC STAR is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Sailing excursions and...

  10. NASA's Agency-wide Strategy for Environmental Regulatory Risk Analysis and Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duda, Kristen; Scroggins. Sharon

    2008-01-01

    NASA's mission is to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery, and aeronautics research. To help enable existing and future programs to pursue this mission, NASA has established the Principal Center for Regulatory Risk Analysis and Communication (RRAC PC) to proactively identify, analyze, and communicate environmental regulatory risks to the NASA community. The RRAC PC is chartered to evaluate the risks posed to NASA Programs and facilities by environmentally related drivers. The RRAC PC focuses on emerging environmental regulations, as well as risks related to operational changes that can trigger existing environmental requirements. Changing regulations have the potential to directly affect program activities. For example, regulatory changes can restrict certain activities or operations by mandating changes in how operations may be done or limiting where or how certain operations can take place. Regulatory changes also can directly affect the ability to use certain materials by mandating a production phase-out or restricting usage aPi'iications of certain materials. Such changes can result in NASA undertaking material replacement efforts. Even if a regulation does not directly affect NASA operations, U.S. and international regulations can pose program risks indirectly through requirements levied on manufacturers and vendors of components and materials. For example, manufacturers can change their formulations to comply with new regulatory requirements. Such changes can require time-consuming and costly requalification certification for use in human spaceflight programs. The RRAC PC has implemented several strategies for proactively managing regulatory change to minimize potential adverse impacts to NASA Programs and facilities. This presentation highlights the lessons learned through establishing the RRAC PC, the process by which the RRAC PC monitors and distributes information about emerging regulatory requirements, and the cross

  11. NASA's Agency-Wide Strategy for Environmental Regulatory Risk Analysis and Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duda, Kristen; Scroggins, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    NASA's mission is to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery, and aeronautics research. To help enable existing and future programs to pursue this mission, NASA has established the Principal Center for Regulatory Risk Analysis and Communication (RRAC PC) to proactively identify, analyze, and communicate environmental regulatory risks to the NASA community. The RRAC PC is chartered to evaluate the risks posed to NASA Programs and facilities by environmentally related drivers. The RRAC PC focuses on emerging environmental regulations, as well as risks related to operational changes that can trigger existing environmental requirements. Changing regulations have the potential to directly affect program activities. For example, regulatory changes can restrict certain activities or operations by mandating changes in how operations may be done or limiting where or how certain operations can take place. Regulatory changes also can directly affect the ability to use certain materials by mandating a production phase-out or restricting usage applications of certain materials. Such changes can result in NASA undertaking material replacement efforts. Even if a regulation does not directly affect NASA operations, U.S. and international regulations can pose program risks indirectly through requirements levied on manufacturers and vendors of components and materials. For example, manufacturers can change their formulations to comply with new regulatory requirements. Such changes can require time-consuming and costly requalification certification for use in human spaceflight programs. The RRAC PC has implemented several strategies for proactively managing regulatory change to minimize potential adverse impacts to NASA Programs and facilities. This presentation highlights the lessons learned through establishing the RRAC PC, the process by which the RRAC PC monitors and distributes information about emerging regulatory requirements, and the cross

  12. EFFECTIVE ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLIANCE STRATEGY FOR THE CLEANUP OF K BASINS AT HANFORD SITE WASHINGTON

    SciTech Connect

    AMBALAM, T.

    2004-12-01

    , sludge, debris and water. At present, almost all of the spent fuel has been removed from the basins and other activities to remove sludge, debris and water are scheduled to be completed in 2007. Developing environmental documentation and obtaining regulatory approvals for a project which was initiated outside CERCLA and came under CERCLA during execution, was a significant priority to the successful completion of the SNF retrieval, transfer, drying, transport and storage of fuel, within the purview of strong conduct-of-operations culture associated with nuclear facilities. Environmental requirements promulgated in the state regulations by Washington Department of Public Health for radiation were recognized as ''applicable or relevant and appropriate.'' Effective implementation of the environmental compliance strategy in a project that transitioned to CERCLA became a significant challenge involving multiple contractors. This paper provides an overview of the development and implementation of an environmental permitting and surveillance strategy that enabled us to achieve full compliance in a challenging environment, with milestones and cost constraints, while meeting the high safety standards. The details of the strategy as to how continuous rapport with the regulators, facility operators and surveillance groups helped to avoid impacts on the clean-up schedule are discussed. Highlighted are the role of engineered controls, surveillance protocols and triggers for monitoring and reporting, and active administrative controls that were established for the control of emissions, water loss and transport of waste shipments, during the different phases of the project.

  13. Safety evaluation of some wild plants in the New Nordic Diet.

    PubMed

    Mithril, Charlotte; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2012-12-01

    One of the dietary components in the New Nordic Diet, is plants from the wild countryside. However, these may have a high content of bioactive components, some of which could be toxic in larger quantities. The objective of this paper is to outline a strategy for safety evaluation of wild plants not covered in current food compositional databases and to apply the method for selected plants used in the New Nordic Diet recipes. Four examples of typical wild edible plants were evaluated (stinging nettle, sorrel, chickweed and common lambsquarters), and based on substantial equivalence with known food plants the majority of the bioactive components reported were within the range experienced when eating or drinking typical food stuffs. For most compounds the hazards could be evaluated as minor. The only precaution found was for common lambsquarters because of its presumed high level of oxalic acid. It is concluded that a substance-by-substance evaluation of intake by equivalence to common foods is a useful and efficient strategy to evaluate the safety of newly introduced wild edible plants. Further evaluation and better compositional analyses are warranted before a daily consumption of significant amounts of wild edible plants can be generally regarded as safe.

  14. Ecological models supporting environmental decision making: a strategy for the future

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmolke, Amelie; Thorbek, Pernille; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Grimm, Volker

    2010-01-01

    Ecological models are important for environmental decision support because they allow the consequences of alternative policies and management scenarios to be explored. However, current modeling practice is unsatisfactory. A literature review shows that the elements of good modeling practice have long been identified but are widely ignored. The reasons for this might include lack of involvement of decision makers, lack of incentives for modelers to follow good practice, and the use of inconsistent terminologies. As a strategy for the future, we propose a standard format for documenting models and their analyses: transparent and comprehensive ecological modeling (TRACE) documentation. This standard format will disclose all parts of the modeling process to scrutiny and make modeling itself more efficient and coherent.

  15. Climate, Water and Renewable Energy in the Nordic Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snorrason, A.; Jonsdottir, J. F.

    2004-05-01

    Climate and Energy (CE) is a new Nordic research project with funding from Nordic Energy Research (NEFP) and the Nordic energy sector. The project has the objective of a comprehensive assessment of the impact of climate variability and change on Nordic renewable energy resources including hydropower, wind power, bio-fuels and solar energy. This will include assessment of the power production of the hydropower dominated Nordic energy system and its sensitivity and vulnerability to climate change on both temporal and spatial scales; assessment of the impacts of extremes including floods, droughts, storms, seasonal patterns and variability. Within the CE project several thematic groups work on specific issues of climatic change and their impacts on renewable energy. A primary aim of the CE climate group is to supply a standard set of common scenarios of climate change in northern Europe and Greenland, based on recent global and regional climate change experiments. The snow and ice group has chosen glaciers from Greenland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden for an analysis of the response of glaciers to climate changes. Mass balance and dynamical changes, corresponding to the common scenario for climate changes, will be modelled and effects on glacier hydrology will be estimated. Preliminary work with dynamic modelling and climate scenarios shows a dramatic response of glacial runoff to increased temperature and precipitation. The statistical analysis group has reported on the status of time series analysis in the Nordic countries. The group has selected and quality controlled time series of stream flow to be included in the Nordic component of the database FRIEND. Also the group will collect information on time series for other variables and these series will be systematically analysed with respect to trend and other long-term changes. Preliminary work using multivariate analysis on stream flow and climate variables shows strong linkages with the long term atmospheric

  16. FOREWORD: Proceedings of the Nordic Conference on Surface Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessa, V. M.; Nieminen, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    The present issue of Physica Scripta contains the Proceedings of the Nordic Conference on Surface Science. This meeting was held in Tampere, Finland 18-20 August, 1982. The original motivation for the conference was to bring together the various Nordic research groups engaged in surface science and related activities. However, soon after the initial announcement the conference attracted considerable interest also beyond the Nordic area, and it eventually obtained a truly international character: more than half of the 150 participants came from non-Nordic countries. At least to some extent this reflects the high international esteem of surface physics and chemistry in the Nordic area, which hosts some of the strongest research centers in this exciting and important branch of science. The conference provided an opportunity to exchange information in this rapidly moving field, to establish new contacts and strengthen old ones. It showed that there certainly is scope for increased collaboration between various groups, both within the Nordic countries and also more internationally. The opinion was expressed by several participants that this conference was a particularly successful one, both in scientific content and in format. It is the hope of the organizers of the Nordic Conference on Surface Science that this would serve as an incentive to consider having this kind of meetings on a more or less regular basis, as an established event in the Nordic surface science community. The cross-disciplinary nature of surface science is clearly reflected in these proceedings. The topics discussed range from those close to more traditional condensed matter spectroscopy through physical chemistry to biology. The formidable array of sophisticated techniques developed for surface investigations is given ample attention, but nevertheless the proceedings also show the trend towards more problem-oriented instead of technique-oriented emphasis. The proceedings are organized in accordance

  17. Democracy, Caring and Competence: Values Perspectives in ECEC Curricula in the Nordic Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einarsdottir, Johanna; Purola, Anna-Maija; Johansson, Eva Marianne; Broström, Stig; Emilson, Anette

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to explore how Nordic Early Childhood Education and Care policies frame values education in preschools with a special focus on the values of democracy, caring and competence. The study is part of a larger Nordic project, "Values education in Nordic preschools: Basis of education for tomorrow," the aim of which is…

  18. The Effects of Multiple Intelligences Instructional Strategy on the Environmental Awareness Knowledge and Environmental Attitude Levels of Elementary Students in Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bas, Gökhan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the effects of Multiple Intelligences strategy and traditional methods of instruction on elementary students' environmental awareness knowledge levels and their attitudes towards the environment. The pre/post-test control group research model was used in this study. The research was carried out in…

  19. Occupational cancer research in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed Central

    Kjaerheim, K

    1999-01-01

    Occupational cancer research in the Nordic countries benefits from certain structural advantages, including the existence of computerized population registries, national cancer registries with high-quality data on cancer incidence, and a personal identification number for each inhabitant. This article outlines the utilization of this research infrastructure in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, together with research examples from the different countries. Future research on occupational cancer in this region requires that national legislation on electronic handling of sensitive personal information should not be stricter than the European Union Directive on individual protection with regard to personal data. A personal identification number is essential both for keeping up the high quality of data of the registers and for the high quality of the process of linking the different data sources together. Although previous occupational research has focused on male workers, a broader approach is needed in the future, including a study of how cancer risk in women may be affected by occupational activity and the question of possible cancer risk in offspring of men and women exposed to workplace carcinogens. PMID:10350505

  20. Research on workplace health promotion in the Nordic countries: a literature review, 1986-2008.

    PubMed

    Torp, Steffen; Eklund, Leena; Thorpenberg, Stefan

    2011-09-01

    Workplace health promotion may include approaches focusing on behavioral change among employees and approaches with a holistic system-oriented thinking aiming at changing the physical, social and organizational factors of a setting. This literature review aimed to identify studies on workplace health promotion in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden), to describe when, where and how the studies were performed and to further analyze the use of settings approaches and empowerment processes. Using scientific literature databases, we found 1809 hits when searching for Nordic studies published from 1986 to 2008 with the search term health promotion. Of these, 116 studies were related to workplace health promotion and 33 included interventions. We used content analysis to analyze the abstracts of all articles and the full articles of the intervention studies. Most studies were performed in Sweden and Finland. The focus was mainly on behavioral change rather than on holistic health promotion as defined by the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This was especially obvious for the intervention studies. In addition to the intervention studies using non-settings approaches with top-down driven behavioral change, we identified studies with participatory settings approaches aimed at changing the setting. We categorized relatively few studies as having a non-participatory settings approach. The studies aiming specifically at improving employees' empowerment were evenly distributed between the categories market-oriented persuasion of empowerment, therapeutic empowerment and empowerment as a liberal management strategy. More studies on workplace health promotion using empowering and participatory settings approaches are needed in the Nordic countries, and a more theory-based approach towards this research field is needed.

  1. Effect of organizational and environmental factors on service differentiation strategy of integrated healthcare networks.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y J; Wan, T T

    2001-02-01

    During the past decade, the missions/goals of medical providers of healthcare services in the United States have shifted--from emphasizing individual, independent illness treatments to focusing on the continuum of care, population-based wellness, and providing the appropriate care in the most efficient way. Integrated healthcare networks (IHNs)--or integrated healthcare delivery systems--have been focusing heavily on their level of various partnership integration (i.e. service differentiation strategy) in order to offer a full continuum of care. The aim of this study, using the individual IHN as the unit of analysis, was to identify organizational and environmental factors that influence IHN administrators to focus on their service differentiation of market lines, including the establishment of third-party payers' contracts, the affiliation of managed-care organizations, and the alliances of various nonhospital medical providers, to provide a continuum of care. The study findings show that tax status of an IHN, its age, and market competition affect its service differentiation strategy in the provision of a full continuum of care.

  2. Make it Fit, evaluating strategies to reduce the environmental impacts of meeting human needs in 2050

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, J.; Polasky, S.; Hawthorne, P.

    2014-12-01

    Sustainable development requires providing for human well-being by meeting basic demands for food, energy and consumer goods and services, all while maintaining an environment capable of sustaining the provisioning of those demands for future generations. Failure to meet the basic needs of human well-being is not an ethically viable option and strategies for doubling agricultural production and providing energy and goods for a growing population exist. However, the question is, at what cost to environmental quality? We developed an integrated modeling approach to test strategies for meeting multiple objectives within the limits of the earth system. We use scenarios to explore a range of assumptions on socio-economic factors like population growth, per capita income and technological change; food systems factors like food waste, production intensification and expansion, and meat demand; and technological developments in energy efficiency and wastewater treatment. We use these scenario to test the conditions in which we can fit the simultaneous goals of sustainable development.

  3. Hibernation in Malagasy mouse lemurs as a strategy to counter environmental challenge.

    PubMed

    Kobbe, Susanne; Dausmann, Kathrin H

    2009-10-01

    The spiny forest of southwestern Madagascar is the driest and most unpredictable region of the island. It is characterized by a pronounced seasonality with high fluctuations in ambient temperature, low availability of food, and a lack of water during the cool dry season and, additionally, by changes in environmental conditions between years. One of the few mammalian species that manages to inhabit this challenging habitat is the reddish-gray mouse lemur (Microcebus griseorufus). The aim of our study was to determine whether this small primate uses continuous hibernation as an energy saving strategy, and if so, to characterize its physiological properties. We measured skin temperature of 16 free-ranging individuals continuously over 3 months during the cool dry season using collar temperature data loggers. Prolonged hibernation was found in three mouse lemurs and was not sex dependent (one male, two females). Skin temperature of hibernating individuals tracked ambient temperature passively with a minimum skin temperature of 6.5 degrees C and fluctuated strongly each day (up to 20 degrees C), depending on the insulation capacity of the hibernacula. Individuals remained in continuous hibernation even at an ambient temperature of 37 degrees C. The animals hibernated continuously during the dry season, and hibernation bouts were only interrupted by short spontaneous arousals. The study emphasizes that hibernation is an important measure to counter environmental challenge for more tropical species than previously thought, including primates. It furthermore provides evidence that tropical hibernation is functionally similar among tropical species.

  4. Hibernation in Malagasy mouse lemurs as a strategy to counter environmental challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobbe, Susanne; Dausmann, Kathrin H.

    2009-10-01

    The spiny forest of southwestern Madagascar is the driest and most unpredictable region of the island. It is characterized by a pronounced seasonality with high fluctuations in ambient temperature, low availability of food, and a lack of water during the cool dry season and, additionally, by changes in environmental conditions between years. One of the few mammalian species that manages to inhabit this challenging habitat is the reddish-gray mouse lemur ( Microcebus griseorufus). The aim of our study was to determine whether this small primate uses continuous hibernation as an energy saving strategy, and if so, to characterize its physiological properties. We measured skin temperature of 16 free-ranging individuals continuously over 3 months during the cool dry season using collar temperature data loggers. Prolonged hibernation was found in three mouse lemurs and was not sex dependent (one male, two females). Skin temperature of hibernating individuals tracked ambient temperature passively with a minimum skin temperature of 6.5°C and fluctuated strongly each day (up to 20°C), depending on the insulation capacity of the hibernacula. Individuals remained in continuous hibernation even at an ambient temperature of 37°C. The animals hibernated continuously during the dry season, and hibernation bouts were only interrupted by short spontaneous arousals. The study emphasizes that hibernation is an important measure to counter environmental challenge for more tropical species than previously thought, including primates. It furthermore provides evidence that tropical hibernation is functionally similar among tropical species.

  5. Coastal zone problems and environmental strategies to be implemented at Edremit Bay, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Irtem, Emel; Kabdasli, Sedat; Azbar, Nuri

    2005-07-01

    This case study examines the coastal zone problems focusing on the existing conflicts between tourism and commercial activities on the coasts of Edremit Bay, Turkey, and attempts to suggest solutions to these problems. Edremit Bay is a characteristic example of such a conflict in collective use of natural resources. The study area, with its 100-km-long sandy beach, naturally attracts different coastal user groups with different beneficial expectations: in terms of rest and recreation for one group and commercial gain offered in a variety of ways for another group. Significant coastal zone problems exist in the study area. Deterioration of shoreline due to tourism activities and illegal constructions, damage to the coastal ecosystem due to domestic/industrial wastewater discharges and some agricultural activities, and disordered urbanization are only a few of the many problems. The data presented here were partly derived from field study and partly collected from local state or private organizations. In this study, it is emphasized that there is a need for viable economic and environmental strategies to be designated in Edremit Bay, Turkey, in order to provide sustainable resource use. For this purpose, an integrated project together with a relevant planning chart including subprojects is also suggested. The success of a local environmental protection management project depends on active participation of all stakeholders including governmental organizations and nongovernmental organizations.

  6. Nonlinear regression in environmental sciences by support vector machines combined with evolutionary strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Aranildo R.; Cannon, Alex J.; Hsieh, William W.

    2013-01-01

    A hybrid algorithm combining support vector regression with evolutionary strategy (SVR-ES) is proposed for predictive models in the environmental sciences. SVR-ES uses uncorrelated mutation with p step sizes to find the optimal SVR hyper-parameters. Three environmental forecast datasets used in the WCCI-2006 contest - surface air temperature, precipitation and sulphur dioxide concentration - were tested. We used multiple linear regression (MLR) as benchmark and a variety of machine learning techniques including bootstrap-aggregated ensemble artificial neural network (ANN), SVR-ES, SVR with hyper-parameters given by the Cherkassky-Ma estimate, the M5 regression tree, and random forest (RF). We also tested all techniques using stepwise linear regression (SLR) first to screen out irrelevant predictors. We concluded that SVR-ES is an attractive approach because it tends to outperform the other techniques and can also be implemented in an almost automatic way. The Cherkassky-Ma estimate is a useful approach for minimizing the mean absolute error and saving computational time related to the hyper-parameter search. The ANN and RF are also good options to outperform multiple linear regression (MLR). Finally, the use of SLR for predictor selection can dramatically reduce computational time and often help to enhance accuracy.

  7. Spatial structuring of an evolving life-history strategy under altered environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Hegg, Jens C; Kennedy, Brian P; Chittaro, Paul M; Zabel, Richard W

    2013-08-01

    Human disturbances to ecosystems have created challenges to populations worldwide, forcing them to respond phenotypically in ways that increase their fitness under current conditions. One approach to examining population responses to disturbance in species with complex life histories is to study species that exhibit spatial patterns in their phenotypic response across populations or demes. In this study, we investigate a threatened population of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Snake River of Idaho, in which a significant fraction of the juvenile population have been shown to exhibit a yearling out-migration strategy which had not previously been thought to exist. It has been suggested that dam-related environmental changes may have altered the selective pressures experienced by out-migrating fall chinook, driving evolution of a later and more selectively advantageous migration strategy. Using isotopic analysis of otoliths from returning adult spawners, we reconstructed the locations of individual fish at three major juvenile life stages to determine if the representation of the yearling life history was geographically structured within the population. We reconstructed juvenile locations for natal, rearing and overwintering life stages in each of the major spawning areas in the basin. Our results indicate that the yearling life-history strategy is predominantly represented within one of the main spawning regions, the Clearwater River, rather than being distributed throughout the basin. Previous studies have shown the Clearwater River to have cooler temperatures, later hatch dates, and later outmigration of juveniles, indicating a link between environment and expression of the yearling life history. Our data suggest that this new yearling life history may be disproportionally represented in returning adult spawners, indicating selection for this life history within the population.

  8. Holocene Sea Surface Conditions in the Nordic Seas According to Dinocyst Assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Nieuwenhove, N.; Baumann, A.; Bonnet, S.; Matthiessen, J. J.; de Vernal, A.; Bauch, H. A.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Holocene evolution of the upper ocean in the Nordic Seas is assessed based on the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of 16 dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) records retrieved from the warm and saline Atlantic Domain in the east, across the seasonally sea-ice covered Arctic Domain, to the Arctic-outflow influenced Polar Domain in the west. First signs of interglacial conditions are observed from ~11.5 ka BP onwards in the Atlantic Domain, and expanded time-transgressively westward, with deglacial processes appearing to have persisted ~2 kyr longer in the west. No clear peak warming can be observed in the dinocyst data during the interval that is generally considered to correspond to the Holocene climatic optimum, and the disparity between the dinocyst and other phytoplankton records suggests a pronounced seasonality at that time. A slightly freshened upper ocean appears to have facilitated seasonal sea ice formation even at the Vøring Plateau. Despite the strongly contrasting environmental conditions across the Nordic Seas, a basin-wide uniform change in the assemblage compositions is seen between ~7 and 6.1 ka BP, and appears to be linked to the establishment of the modern surface circulation pattern. Potential density estimates for the surface water close to modern convection sites reveals values that would imply an increased likeliness of dense enough surface waters to permit sinking from that time onwards. The changes in the Nordic Seas appear to follow a similar reorganisation in the Labrador Sea and the onset of strong winter convection there. Finally, a gradual eastward expansion of the Arctic Domain can be observed from ~4.5 ka BP onwards, with a delayed consequent reaction of the Atlantic-sourced water inflow at the Vøring Plateau showing a slight recovery of cool taxa from ~2.4 ka BP onwards.

  9. Epidemiology and statistics at the Nordic School of Public Health: Teaching and research 1979-2014.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Bo

    2015-08-01

    The Nordic School of Public Health (NHV) was jointly founded in 1953 by the Nordic countries. Until 1979, the school provided ad hoc courses on public health topics, using external teachers drawn mainly from the Nordic countries. At the time, the permanent staff of the school was small. In 1979, it began a Master's degree programme and a few academic positions were established and filled, to support these courses. The programme included four main areas: Epidemiology, Social Medicine, Environmental Health and Health Services Administration. Epidemiology was compulsory in all Master of Public Health (MPH) exams, but there were a handful of optional courses that could be substituted for the other subjects.This paper tells the story of Epidemiology at NHV from about 1980, up until closure of the school in 2014. The original MPH model ran until 1995. Nursing Science entered NHV from about 1985 and worked mainly with qualitative research that often focused on individual patients. The new methods attracted nurses, midwives, psychologists and other groups that previously had been less represented in NHV. Being quantitative and population oriented, Epidemiology lost its unique position as a mandatory subject for the MPH examination. In addition the 'New Public Health' proposed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) that advocated health promotion and the philosophy of salutogenesis became a challenge for the programme in epidemiology: pathogenesis no longer was of primary interest. From 1995, the MPH format changed repeatedly and a DrPH programme was begun. For the last 8 years of its existence, NHV offered a reasonably comprehensive, basic course in Epidemiology.Throughout the years, epidemiology training and research at NHV were very traditional. In being a relatively free institution in terms of academic choices, NHV should have contributed to the development and innovation of epidemiology in public health. For several reasons, this did not happen. PMID:26311794

  10. Epidemiology and statistics at the Nordic School of Public Health: Teaching and research 1979-2014.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Bo

    2015-08-01

    The Nordic School of Public Health (NHV) was jointly founded in 1953 by the Nordic countries. Until 1979, the school provided ad hoc courses on public health topics, using external teachers drawn mainly from the Nordic countries. At the time, the permanent staff of the school was small. In 1979, it began a Master's degree programme and a few academic positions were established and filled, to support these courses. The programme included four main areas: Epidemiology, Social Medicine, Environmental Health and Health Services Administration. Epidemiology was compulsory in all Master of Public Health (MPH) exams, but there were a handful of optional courses that could be substituted for the other subjects.This paper tells the story of Epidemiology at NHV from about 1980, up until closure of the school in 2014. The original MPH model ran until 1995. Nursing Science entered NHV from about 1985 and worked mainly with qualitative research that often focused on individual patients. The new methods attracted nurses, midwives, psychologists and other groups that previously had been less represented in NHV. Being quantitative and population oriented, Epidemiology lost its unique position as a mandatory subject for the MPH examination. In addition the 'New Public Health' proposed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) that advocated health promotion and the philosophy of salutogenesis became a challenge for the programme in epidemiology: pathogenesis no longer was of primary interest. From 1995, the MPH format changed repeatedly and a DrPH programme was begun. For the last 8 years of its existence, NHV offered a reasonably comprehensive, basic course in Epidemiology.Throughout the years, epidemiology training and research at NHV were very traditional. In being a relatively free institution in terms of academic choices, NHV should have contributed to the development and innovation of epidemiology in public health. For several reasons, this did not happen.

  11. Approach and Strategy for Performing Ecological Risk Assessments for the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Office Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Suter, G.W. II

    1992-01-01

    This technical memorandum provides guidance for planning and performing ecological risk assessments (ERAs) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). This work was performed under Work Breakdown Structure 1.4.12.2.3.04.07.02 (Activity Data Sheet 8304) and meets an Environmental Restoration Program milestone for FY 95. The strategy discussed in this report is consistent with the overall strategy for site management and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) compliance developed for the ORR and relevant U.S. Environmental Protection Agency documents and guidance. The general approach and strategy presented herein was developed for the ORR, but it could be applicable to other complex CERCLA sites that possess significant ecological resources.

  12. Foodborne cryptosporidiosis: is there really more in Nordic countries?

    PubMed

    Robertson, Lucy J; Chalmers, Rachel M

    2013-01-01

    Most waterborne outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis are reported from the USA, and in Europe from the UK. However, since 2000 reports of foodborne cryptosporidiosis seem to be skewed towards Nordic countries, although consumers in these countries are apparently less concerned about microbiological contamination of food than consumers elsewhere. Possible reasons for this unexpected geographical distribution might include prolonged survival of oocysts in the Nordic climate, greater exposure due to elevated consumption of higher-risk products (possibly including imported foods), and better outbreak investigation and reporting. Although the risk of foodborne cryptosporidiosis is probably underestimated globally, we suggest that the next outbreak is no more likely to be in a Nordic country than anywhere else.

  13. The Nordic diet and cognition--The DR's EXTRA Study.

    PubMed

    Männikkö, Reija; Komulainen, Pirjo; Schwab, Ursula; Heikkilä, Harri M; Savonen, Kai; Hassinen, Maija; Hänninen, Tuomo; Kivipelto, Miia; Rauramaa, Rainer

    2015-07-01

    The rapid increase in the prevalence of dementia associated with ageing populations has stimulated interest in identifying modifiable lifestyle factors that could prevent cognitive impairment. One such potential preventive lifestyle factor is the Nordic diet that has been shown to reduce the risk of CVD; however, its effect on cognition has not been studied. The aim of the present study was to estimate the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of the baseline Nordic diet with cognitive function at baseline and after a 4-year follow-up in a population-based random sample (n 1140 women and men, age 57-78 years) as secondary analyses of the Finnish Dose-Responses to Exercise Training study. The Nordic diet score was created based on reported dietary components in 4-d food records. Cognition was assessed by the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) neuropsychological battery and the Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE). The baseline Nordic diet score had been positively associated with Verbal Fluency (β 0.08 (95% CI 0.00, 0.16), P = 0.039) and Word List Learning (β 0.06 (95% CI 0.01, 0.10), P = 0.022) at 4 years but not with the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease total score (CERAD-TS) or MMSE at 4 years, after adjustment for baseline cognitive scores, demographic factors and health-related factors. After excluding individuals with impaired cognition at baseline, the baseline Nordic diet score had also been positively associated with the CERAD-TS (β 0.10 (95% CI 0.00, 0.20), P = 0.042) and MMSE (β 0.03 (95% CI 0.00, 0.06), P = 0.039) at 4 years. These associations disappeared after further adjustment for energy intake. In conclusion, the Nordic diet might have a positive association with cognition in individuals with normal cognition.

  14. Exploring environmental literacy in low-literate communities of Pakistan: A descriptive study to recommend strategies for planning environmental education programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daudi, Sabiha Shafique

    2000-10-01

    The widely accepted definition of environmental education as stated by The Tbilisi Declaration of 1978 focuses on developing an environmentally literate citizenry which is capable of working "...individually and collectively toward solutions of current [environmental] problems and the prevention of new ones". The two basic tenets of environmental literacy are further defined in this study as the ability to understand environmental problems and the ability to address those environmental problems in a responsible manner. Acquisition of knowledge has also been considered an important element when developing environmental literacy programs. However, a large sector of the world population is non- or low-literate and communication is through channels other than the written word. The challenge for environmental educators is to reach the low-literate learners who have not had many opportunities to participate in formal education activities through established institutions. The purpose of this study was to describe levels of environmental literacy in communities with varying levels of formal literacy in two cities, Karachi and Islamabad, Pakistan to determine the role formal literacy plays in enhancing environmental literacy and decision making in relation to age, sex, location, number of years spent in formal education, and the socio-economic status (SES) of adult learners. Based on the outcomes, recommendations were made for designing effective programs to ensure involvement of low-literate communities in established decision-making processes through relevant program planning. This study suggested strategies to program planners and environmental educators for designing programs that reach low-literate communities, highlight local environmental concerns, and empower these communities in addressing local environmental issues. A purposive sample was identified from the constituencies of five non-governmental organizations in Karachi and Islamabad, Pakistan. Two instruments

  15. Climate, Water and Energy in the Nordic Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snorrason, A.; Jonsdottir, J. F.

    2003-04-01

    In light of the recent IPCC Climate Change Assessment and recent progress made in meteorological and hydrological modelling, the directors of the Nordic hydrological institutes (CHIN) initiated a research project "Climate, Water and Energy" (CWE) with funding from the Nordic Energy Research and the Nordic Council of Ministers focusing on climatic impact assessment in the energy sector. Climatic variability and change affect the hydrological systems, which in turn affect the energy sector, this will increase the risk associated with the development and use of water resources in the Nordic countries. Within the CWE project four thematic groups work on this issue of climatic change and how changes in precipitation and temperature will have direct influences on runoff. A primary aim of the CWE climate group is to derive a common scenario or a "best-guess" estimate of climate change in northern Europe and Greenland, based on recent regional climate change experiments and representing the change from 1990 to 2050 under the IPCC SRES B2 emission scenario. A data set, along with the most important information for using the scenario is available at the project web site. The glacier group has chosen 8 glaciers from Greenland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden for an analysis of the response of glaciers to climate changes. Mass balance and dynamical changes, corresponding to the common scenario for climate changes, will be modelled and effects on glacier hydrology will be estimated. The long time series group has reported on the status of time series analysis in the Nordic countries. The group will select and quality control time series of stream flow to be included in the Nordic component of the database FRIEND. Also the group will collect information on time series for other variables and these series will be systematically analysed with respect to trend and other long-term changes. The hydrological modelling group has reported on "Climate change impacts on water resources in the

  16. Strategies for Developing an Environmental Education Curriculum: A Discussion Guide for Unesco Training Workshops on Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hungerford, Harold R.; Peyton, Robert Ben

    Prepared as a basis for environmental education curriculum development, this manual establishes guidelines for curriculum decision-making in any school, community, region or nation. In addition, the current status of environmental education is analyzed, and the character of contemporary curricula and materials development efforts is summarized.…

  17. Life cycle assessment of biofuel production from brown seaweed in Nordic conditions.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Boldrin, Alessio; Karakashev, Dimitar B; Holdt, Susan L; Angelidaki, Irini; Astrup, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    The use of algae for biofuel production is expected to play an important role in securing energy supply in the next decades. A consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) and an energy analysis of seaweed-based biofuel production were carried out in Nordic conditions to document and improve the sustainability of the process. Two scenarios were analyzed for the brown seaweed (Laminaria digitata), namely, biogas production (scenario 1) and bioethanol+biogas production (scenario 2). Potential environmental impact categories under investigation were Global Warming, Acidification and Terrestrial Eutrophication. The production of seaweed was identified to be the most energy intensive step. Scenario 1 showed better performance compared to scenario 2 for all impact categories, partly because of the energy intensive bioethanol separation process and the consequently lower overall efficiency of the system. For improved environmental performance, focus should be on optimization of seaweed production, bioethanol distillation, and management of digestate on land.

  18. Evaluating environmental and economic consequences of alternative pest management strategies: results of modeling workshops

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Richard L.; Andrews, Austin K.; Auble, Gregor T.L.; Ellison, Richard A.; Hamilton, David B.; Roelle, James E.; McNamee, Peter J.

    1983-01-01

    The model conceptualized at the first workshop simulates the effect of corn agrecosystem decisions on crop production, economic returns, and environmental indicators. The model is composed of five interacting submodels: 1) a Production Strategies submodel which makes decisions concerning tillage, planting, fertilizer and pesticide applications, and harvest; 2) a Hydrology/Chemical Transport submodel which represents soil hydrology, erosion, and concentrations of fertilizers and pesticides in the soil, runoff, surface waters, and percolation; 3) a Vegetation submodel which simulates growth of agricultural crops (corns and soybeans) and weeds; 4) a Pests submodel which calculates pest population levels and resulting crop damage; and 5) an Environmental Effects submodel which calculates indicators of potential fish kills, human health effects, and wildlife habitat. The most persistent data gaps encountered in quantifying the model were coefficients to relate environmental consequences to alternative pest management strategies. While the model developed in the project is not yet accurate enough to be used for real-world decisions about the use of pesticides on corn, it does contain the basic structure upon which such a model could be built. More importantly at this stage of development, the project has shown that very complex systems can be modeled in short periods of time and that the process of building such models increases understanding among disciplinary specialists and between diverse institutional interests. This process can be useful to EPA as the agency cooperates with other institutions to meet its responsibilities in less costly ways. Activities at the second 2 1/2-day workshop included a review of the model, incorporation of necessary corrections, simulation of policy scenarios, and examination of techniques to address remaining institutional conflicts. Participants were divided into three groups representing environmental, production or industry, and

  19. Soviet Nordic nuclear-weapon free-zone proposal. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lumsden, C.A.

    1990-06-01

    This thesis examines the Soviet proposal and its ramifications for the United States and the West. The central theme running through each Soviet proposal has been removal of American nuclear guarantees. Preservation of US national security interests and hence US ability to extend its forward defense would be gravely threatened by such a NWFZ. However, unilateral agreement on a NWFZ is unlikely by the anticipated members of the Nordic NWFZ the US, USSR, Denmark, Norway, Finland, Iceland, Greenland, and Sweden. The US has military installations in Iceland and Greenland and banning of nuclear weapons during wartime is inconceivable. The question then arises as to which nation or groups of nations will dominate and which will acquiesce. Inevitably the debate breaks down to a tug of war between the two superpowers. It is really the politics surrounding the nuclear weapons that is the heart of the nuclear-free-zone debate. Changing world politics demand that the West develop a unified strategy toward the USSR. Through NATO it must preserve its vital economic political and military objectives in the Northern Flank. Flexible naval forces and strong political and economic ties to the governments of the nations bordering the Baltic are essential. Strong NATO naval forces operating in the Baltic Sea must be seen as guarantors of the West's strategic aims and interests. A Nordic NWFZ would prevent this.

  20. The Crop Evaluation Research for Environmental Strategies (CERES) Remote Sensing 2008 Project Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casas, Joseph C.; Glaser, John A.; Copenhaver, Kenneth L.; May, George

    2009-01-01

    resistance development. The two agencies have entered into an agreement which could potentially lead to the development of next generation NASA sensors that will more specifically address the requirements of the USEPA's resistance development strategy and offer opportunities to study the ever changing ecosystem complexities. The USEPA/NASA/ITD team has developed a broad research project entitled CERES (Crop Evaluation Research for Environmental Strategies). CERES is a research effort leading to decision support system tools that are designed to integrate multi-resolution NASA remote sensing data products and USEPA geo -spatial models to monitor the potential for insect pest resistance development from the regional to the landscape and then to the field level.

  1. Female Weddell seals show flexible strategies of colony attendance related to varying environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Chambert, Thierry; Rotella, Jay J; Garrott, Robert A

    2015-02-01

    temporary movements from/to reproductive sites represent flexible behavioral strategies that can play an important role in coping with environmental variability. PMID:26240869

  2. Environmental enrichment as a viable neurorehabilitation strategy for experimental traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Bondi, Corina O; Klitsch, Kyle C; Leary, Jacob B; Kline, Anthony E

    2014-05-15

    Environmental enrichment (EE) emerged as a robust independent variable capable of influencing behavioral outcome in experimental studies after the fortuitous observation by renowned neuropsychologist Donald O. Hebb that rats raised as pets in his home performed markedly better on problem-solving tasks than those kept in the laboratory. In the subsequent years, numerous studies ensued demonstrating that EE was also capable of inducing neuroplasticity in normal (i.e., noninjured) rats. These behavioral and neural alterations provided the impetus for investigating EE as a potential therapy for traumatic brain injury (TBI), which, over the past two decades, has resulted in several reports. Hence, the aim of this review is to integrate the findings and present the current state of EE as a viable neurorehabilitation strategy for TBI. Using the specific key term searches "traumatic brain injury" and "environmental enrichment" or "enriched environment," 30 and 30 experimental TBI articles were identified by PubMed and Scopus, respectively. Of these, 27 articles were common to both search engines. An additional article was found on PubMed using the key terms "enriched environment" and "fluid percussion." A review of the bibliographies in the 34 articles did not yield additional citations. The overwhelming consensus of the 34 publications is that EE benefits behavioral and histological outcome after brain injury produced by various models. Further, the enhancements are observed in male and female as well as adult and pediatric rats and mice. Taken together, these cumulative findings provide strong support for EE as a generalized and robust preclinical model of neurorehabilitation. However, to further enhance the model and to more accurately mimic the clinic, future studies should continue to evaluate EE during more rehabilitation-relevant conditions, such as delayed and shorter time periods, as well as in combination with other therapeutic approaches, as we have been doing

  3. Female Weddell seals show flexible strategies of colony attendance related to varying environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Chambert, Thierry; Rotella, Jay J; Garrott, Robert A

    2015-02-01

    temporary movements from/to reproductive sites represent flexible behavioral strategies that can play an important role in coping with environmental variability.

  4. The Influence of Supports Strategies, Environmental Factors, and Client Characteristics on Quality of Life-Related Personal Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claes, Claudia; Van Hove, Geert; Vandevelde, Stijn; van Loon, Jos; Schalock, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The concept of quality of life (QOL) is increasingly being used as a support provision and outcomes evaluation framework in the field of intellectual disability (ID). The present study used a hierarchical multiple regression research design to determine the role that available supports strategies, environmental factors, and client characteristics…

  5. Environmental Contingency in Life History Strategies: The Influence of Mortality and Socioeconomic Status on Reproductive Timing

    PubMed Central

    Griskevicius, Vladas; Delton, Andrew W.; Robertson, Theresa E.; Tybur, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Why do some people have children early, whereas others delay reproduction? By considering the trade-offs between using one’s resources for reproduction versus other tasks, the evolutionary framework of life history theory predicts that reproductive timing should be influenced by mortality and resource scarcity. A series of experiments examined how mortality cues influenced the desire to have children sooner rather than later. The effects of mortality depended critically on whether people grew up in a relatively resource-scarce or resource-plentiful environment. For individuals growing up relatively poor, mortality cues produced a desire to reproduce sooner—to want children now, even at the cost of furthering one’s education or career. Conversely, for individuals growing up relatively wealthy, mortality cues produced a desire to delay reproduction—to further one’s education or career before starting a family. Overall, mortality cues appear to shift individuals into different life history strategies as a function of childhood socioeconomic status, suggesting important implications for how environmental factors can influence fertility and family size. PMID:20873933

  6. A Planetary Protection Strategy for the Mars Aerial Regional-Scale Environmental Survey (ARES) Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhl, Christopher A.

    2008-01-01

    The Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Survey (ARES) is a Mars exploration mission concept designed to send an airplane to fly through the lower atmosphere of Mars, with the goal of taking scientific measurements of the atmosphere, surface, and subsurface phenomenon. ARES was first proposed to the Mars Scout program in December 2002 for a 2007 launch opportunity and was selected to proceed with a Phase A study, step-2 proposal which was submitted in May 2003. ARES was not selected for the Scout mission, but efforts continued on risk reduction of the atmospheric flight system in preparation for the next Mars Scout opportunity in 2006. The ARES concept was again proposed in July 2006 to the Mars Scout program but was not selected to proceed into Phase A. This document describes the Planetary Protection strategy that was developed in ARES Pre Phase-A activities to help identify, early in the design process, certain hardware, assemblies, and/or subsystems that will require unique design considerations based on constraints imposed by Planetary Protection requirements. Had ARES been selected as an exploration project, information in this document would make up the ARES Project Planetary Protection Plan.

  7. Photosynthetic adaptation strategy of Ulva prolifera floating on the sea surface to environmental changes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinyu; Tang, Xuexi; Zhang, Huanxin; Qu, Tongfei; Wang, Ying

    2016-10-01

    For 8 consecutive years, a green tide has originated in the southern Yellow Sea and spread to the Qingdao offshore area. The causative species, Ulva prolifera, always forms a very thick thallus mat that is capable of drifting long distances over long periods. During this process, although the thalli face disturbance by complex environmental factors, they maintain high biomass and proliferation. We hypothesized that some form of photosynthetic adaptation strategy must exist to protect the thalli. Therefore, we studied the different photosynthetic response characteristics of the surface and lower layers of the floating thallus mats, and investigated the physiological and molecular-level adaptation mechanisms. The results showed that: (1) U. prolifera has strong photosynthetic capability that ensures it can gain sufficient energy to increase its biomass and adapt to long-distance migration. (2) Surface layer thalli adapt to the complex environment by dissipating excess energy via photosynthetic quantum control (energy quenching and energy redistribution between PSII/PSI) to avoid irreversible damage to the photosynthetic system. (3) Lower layer thalli increase their contents of Chlorophyll a (Chl a) and Chlorophyll b (Chl b) and decrease their Chl a/Chl b ratio to improve their ability to use light energy. (4) U. prolifera has strong photosynthetic plasticity and can adapt to frequent exchange between the surface and lower layer environments because of wave disturbance. Pigment component changes, energy quenching, and energy redistribution between PSII/PSI contribute to this photosynthetic plasticity.

  8. Exploiting Quorum Sensing Interfering Strategies in Gram-Negative Bacteria for the Enhancement of Environmental Applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weiwei; Li, Chenghua

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a widespread intercellular form of communication to coordinate physiological processes and cooperative activities of bacteria at the population level, and it depends on the production, secretion, and detection of small diffusible autoinducers, such as acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), auto-inducing oligo-peptides (AIPs) and autoinducer 2. In this review, the function of QS autoinducers of gram-negative bacteria in different aspects of wastewater treatment systems is examined. Based on research primarily performed over the past 10 years, QS involvement in the formation of biofilm and aerobic granules and changes of the microbial community and degradation/transformation pathways is discussed. In particular, the QS pathway in the role of bacterial infections and disease prevention in aquaculture is addressed. Interference of QS autoinducer-regulated pathways is considered potential treatment for a variety of environmentally related problems. This review is expected to serve as a stepping stone for further study and development strategies based on the mediation of QS-regulated pathways to enhance applications in both wastewater treatment systems and aquaculture. PMID:26779175

  9. Photosynthetic adaptation strategy of Ulva prolifera floating on the sea surface to environmental changes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinyu; Tang, Xuexi; Zhang, Huanxin; Qu, Tongfei; Wang, Ying

    2016-10-01

    For 8 consecutive years, a green tide has originated in the southern Yellow Sea and spread to the Qingdao offshore area. The causative species, Ulva prolifera, always forms a very thick thallus mat that is capable of drifting long distances over long periods. During this process, although the thalli face disturbance by complex environmental factors, they maintain high biomass and proliferation. We hypothesized that some form of photosynthetic adaptation strategy must exist to protect the thalli. Therefore, we studied the different photosynthetic response characteristics of the surface and lower layers of the floating thallus mats, and investigated the physiological and molecular-level adaptation mechanisms. The results showed that: (1) U. prolifera has strong photosynthetic capability that ensures it can gain sufficient energy to increase its biomass and adapt to long-distance migration. (2) Surface layer thalli adapt to the complex environment by dissipating excess energy via photosynthetic quantum control (energy quenching and energy redistribution between PSII/PSI) to avoid irreversible damage to the photosynthetic system. (3) Lower layer thalli increase their contents of Chlorophyll a (Chl a) and Chlorophyll b (Chl b) and decrease their Chl a/Chl b ratio to improve their ability to use light energy. (4) U. prolifera has strong photosynthetic plasticity and can adapt to frequent exchange between the surface and lower layer environments because of wave disturbance. Pigment component changes, energy quenching, and energy redistribution between PSII/PSI contribute to this photosynthetic plasticity. PMID:27262405

  10. Academisation of Nursing Education in the Nordic Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laiho, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Nursing Science represents a new academic discipline in the Nordic Countries. The article focuses on the academisation of nursing education and the development of nursing to a specific discipline in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The education of nurses has developed within the national framework of each country, but not within a national…

  11. Hourly wind power variations in the Nordic countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holttinen, Hannele

    2005-04-01

    Studies of the effects that wind power production imposes on the power system involve assessing the variations of large-scale wind power production over the whole power system area. Large geographical spreading of wind power will reduce variability, increase predictability and decrease the occasions with near zero or peak output. In this article the patterns and statistical properties of large-scale wind power production data are studied using the data sets available for the Nordic countries. The existing data from Denmark give the basis against which the data collected from the other Nordic countries are benchmarked. The main goal is to determine the statistical parameters describing the reduction of variability in the time series for the different areas in question. The hourly variations of large-scale wind power stay 91%-94% of the time within +/-5% of installed capacity in one country, and for the whole of the Nordic area 98% of the time. For the Nordic time series studied, the best indicator of reduced variability in the time series was the standard deviation of the hourly variations. According to the Danish data, it is reduced to less than 3% from a single site value of 10% of capacity. Copyright

  12. A Nordic Perspective on Early Childhood Education and Care Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karila, Kirsti

    2012-01-01

    The national policies and historical roots of early childhood education (ECE) vary from society to society. In the Nordic countries, early childhood education and care (ECEC) policies have been built in the context of the welfare state. As such, they are closely connected to other welfare policy areas such as social policy, family policy and…

  13. Degree Mobility from the Nordic Countries: Background and Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiers-Jenssen, Jannecke

    2013-01-01

    Full-degree mobility from Western countries is a topic that has been little researched. Existing literature tends to be normative; mobility is seen as an advantage per se. In this article it is questioned whether mobility is an advantage when investigating degree mobility and employability of students from the Nordic countries. Results show that…

  14. Special Protective Legislation for Women in the Nordic Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Ruth

    1980-01-01

    In the first of three articles in this issue on special protective legislation for women workers, the author explains that the Nordic countries are generally opposed to protection on the basis of sex. Reviewing work environment and equal opportunity legislation, the arguments for and against special protection are presented. (SK)

  15. Different Images of Science at Nordic Science Centres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidsson, Eva; Jakobsson, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Science centres aim to present science in ways that will attract visitors and enhance public interest in, and knowledge of, science. But what images and different aspects of science are visitors confronted with at Nordic science centres? This study aims to explore the different aspects of science that are displayed and the ways in which these…

  16. Multilingual Policies and Multilingual Education in the Nordic Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Björklund, Mikaela; Björklund, Siv; Sjöholm, Kaj

    2013-01-01

    This article presents some aspects of multilingualism and multilingual education in the Nordic countries, drawing upon experiences from the project "Network for Researchers of Multilingualism and Multilingual Education, RoMME" (2011-2013), where Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden are represented. The aim is to briefly present and…

  17. PETRO-SAFE '92 conference papers: Volume 1 (Keynote session, environmental and safety regulations update, management strategies update, safety regulations) and Volume 2 (Environmental regulations)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This book is the first of three volumes generated from a conference on the environment and safety aspects of the oil, gas, and petrochemical industries. This volume presents papers on environmental and safety regulations, methods for developing safety programs, hazardous operations/training regulations, and management planning strategies to meet these regulations. Papers discuss remediation of contaminated sites, emergency response planning, pending and developing regulations, and waste management practices.

  18. The common objectives of the European Nordic countries and the role of space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, Christopher; Giannopapa, Christina; Vaudo, Ersilia

    2016-11-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has twenty two Member States with common goals of engaging in European space activities. However, the various Member States have a variety of governance structures, strategic priorities regarding space and other sectorial areas depending on their cultural and geopolitical aspirations. The Nordic countries, namely Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, have similarities which result often in common geopolitical and cultural aspects. These in turn shape their respective priorities and interests in setting up their policies in a number of sectorial areas like shipping and fisheries, energy, immigration, agriculture, security and defence, infrastructures, climate change and the Arctic. Space technology, navigation, earth observation, telecommunication and integrated applications can assist the Nordic countries in developing, implementing and monitoring policies of common interest. This paper provides an in-depth overview and a comprehensive assessment of these common interests in policy areas where space can provide support in their realisation. The first part provides a synthesis of the Nordic countries respective priorities through analysing their government programmes and plans. The priorities are classified according to the six areas of sustainability: energy, environment and climate change, transport, knowledge and innovation, natural resources (fisheries, agriculture, forestry, mining, etc), and security and external relations. Although the national strategies present different national perspectives, at the same time, there are a number of similarities when it comes to overall policy objectives in a number of areas such as the Arctic and climate change. In other words, even though the Arctic plays a different role in each country's national context and there are clear differences as regards geography, access to resources and security policies, the strategies display common general interest in sustainable development and management of

  19. Environmental remediation through sequestration of airfall-derived metals contamination by selective revegetation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahagian, D.; Peters, S.; Yasko, G.

    2006-12-01

    Industrial activities in the 20th century left a legacy of contaminated air, water, and soils. The relative environmental enlightenment of the 21st century has already led to reductions in pollution sources, and has improved air and surface water quality in many areas. However, the residence time of contaminants in soils can be lengthy, presenting a challenge to 21st century restoration of impacted ecosystems and communities. The present study is centered on the Borough of Palmerton, PA, and a broad region of adjacent communities that were affected by two zinc smelters that operated continuously for more than 80 years, emitting thousands of tons of heavy metals including zinc, cadmium, lead and arsenic. While the air quality has vastly improved since the closure of the zinc smelters, the community remains adversely affected by the ecological damage caused by the pollution. The north face of the Kittatiny ridge was completely denuded of vegetation from the high metals concentrations. The region suffers further due to the ongoing perception of contaminated soils and water, leaving the town and surrounding areas economically depressed. In this study, we are examining the impact of revegetation strategies, particularly those using warm season grasses to determine which species survive and indeed thrive in the metals-contaminated soils. Because of the large areal extent and locally steep slopes in the broad area of concern, removal of metals from the entire region is impractical. It is considered more effective to sequester the metals in the soil so that they do not leach into the rivers, or enter the food web. Vegetation that absorbs and transports the metals throughout its tissues would mobilize these pollutants into the food web as well as make the metals available to reach the river via leaves and other vegetative structures. In this study, we are monitoring the uptake of metals by test grasses and other plants that are colonizing the contaminated area, as well as

  20. Environmental response to sewage treatment strategies: Hong Kong's experience in long term water quality monitoring.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Lee, Joseph H W; Yin, Kedong; Liu, Hongbin; Harrison, Paul J

    2011-11-01

    In many coastal cities around the world, marine outfalls are used for disposal of partially treated wastewater effluent. The combined use of land-based treatment and marine discharge can be a cost-effective and environmentally acceptable sewage strategy. Before 2001, screened sewage was discharged into Victoria Harbour through many small outfalls. After 2001, the Hong Kong Harbour Area Treatment Scheme (HATS) was implemented to improve the water quality in Victoria Harbour and surrounding waters. Stage I of HATS involved the construction of a 24 km long deep tunnel sewerage system to collect sewage from the densely populated urban areas of Hong Kong to a centralized sewage treatment plant at Stonecutters Island. A sewage flow of 1.4 million m3 d(-1) receives Chemically Enhanced Primary Treatment (CEPT) followed by discharge via a 1.2 km long outfall 2 km west of the harbor. The ecosystem recovery in Victoria Harbour and the environmental response to sewage abatement after the implementation of HATS was studied using a 21-year data set from long term monthly water quality monitoring. Overall, the pollution control scheme has achieved the intended objectives. The sewage abatement has resulted in improved water quality in terms of a significant reduction in nutrients and an increase in bottom DO levels. Furthermore, due to the efficient tidal mixing and flushing, the impact of the HATS discharge on water quality in the vicinity of the outfall location is relatively limited. However, Chl a concentrations have not been reduced in Victoria Harbour where algal growth is limited by hydrodynamic mixing and water clarity rather than nutrient concentrations. Phosphorus removal in the summer is suggested to reduce the risk of algal blooms in the more weakly-flushed and stratified southern waters, while nutrient removal is less important in other seasons due to the pronounced role played by hydrodynamic mixing. The need for disinfection of the effluent to reduce bacterial (E

  1. The premises is the premise: understanding off- and on-premises alcohol sales outlets to improve environmental alcohol prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Chinman, Matthew; Burkhart, Q; Ebener, Patricia; Fan, Cha-Chi; Imm, Pamela; Osilla, Karen Chan; Paddock, Susan M; Wright, Annie

    2011-06-01

    Environmental strategies to prevent the misuse of alcohol among youth--e.g., use of public policies to restrict minors' access to alcohol--have been shown to reduce underage drinking. However, implementation of policy changes often requires public and private partnerships. One way to support these partnerships is to better understand the target of many of the environmental strategies, which is the alcohol sales outlet. Knowing more about how off-premises outlets (e.g., liquor and convenience stores) and on-premises outlets (e.g., bars and restaurants) are alike and different could help community-based organizations better tailor, plan, and implement their environmental strategies and strengthen partnerships between the public and commercial sectors. We conducted a survey of managerial or supervisory staff and/or owners of 336 off- and on-premises alcohol outlets in six counties in South Carolina, comparing these two outlet types on their preferences regarding certain alcohol sales practices, beliefs toward underage drinking, alcohol sales practices, and outcomes. Multilevel logistic regression showed that while off- and on-premises outlets did have many similarities, off-premises outlets appear to engage in more practices designed to prevent sales of alcohol to minors than on-premises outlets. The relationship between certain Responsible Beverage Service (RBS) practices and outcomes varied by outlet type. This study furthers the understanding of the differences between off- and on-premises alcohol sales outlets and offers options for increasing and tailoring environmental prevention efforts to specific settings.

  2. Crop and irrigation management strategies for saline-sodic soils and waters aimed at environmentally sustainable agriculture.

    PubMed

    Qadir, M; Oster, J D

    2004-05-01

    Irrigation has long played a key role in feeding the expanding world population and is expected to play a still greater role in the future. As supplies of good-quality irrigation water are expected to decrease in several regions due to increased municipal-industrial-agricultural competition, available freshwater supplies need to be used more efficiently. In addition, reliance on the use and reuse of saline and/or sodic drainage waters, generated by irrigated agriculture, seems inevitable for irrigation. The same applies to salt-affected soils, which occupy more than 20% of the irrigated lands, and warrant attention for efficient, inexpensive and environmentally acceptable management. Technologically and from a management perspective, a couple of strategies have shown the potential to improve crop production under irrigated agriculture while minimizing the adverse environmental impacts. The first strategy, vegetative bioremediation--a plant-assisted reclamation approach--relies on growing appropriate plant species that can tolerate ambient soil salinity and sodicity levels during reclamation of salt-affected soils. A variety of plant species of agricultural significance have been found to be effective in sustainable reclamation of calcareous and moderately sodic and saline-sodic soils. The second strategy fosters dedicating soils to crop production systems where saline and/or sodic waters predominate and their disposal options are limited. Production systems based on salt-tolerant plant species using drainage waters may be sustainable with the potential of transforming such waters from an environmental burden into an economic asset. Such a strategy would encourage the disposal of drainage waters within the irrigated regions where they are generated rather than exporting these waters to other regions via discharge into main irrigation canals, local streams, or rivers. Being economically and environmentally sustainable, these strategies could be the key to future

  3. Crop and irrigation management strategies for saline-sodic soils and waters aimed at environmentally sustainable agriculture.

    PubMed

    Qadir, M; Oster, J D

    2004-05-01

    Irrigation has long played a key role in feeding the expanding world population and is expected to play a still greater role in the future. As supplies of good-quality irrigation water are expected to decrease in several regions due to increased municipal-industrial-agricultural competition, available freshwater supplies need to be used more efficiently. In addition, reliance on the use and reuse of saline and/or sodic drainage waters, generated by irrigated agriculture, seems inevitable for irrigation. The same applies to salt-affected soils, which occupy more than 20% of the irrigated lands, and warrant attention for efficient, inexpensive and environmentally acceptable management. Technologically and from a management perspective, a couple of strategies have shown the potential to improve crop production under irrigated agriculture while minimizing the adverse environmental impacts. The first strategy, vegetative bioremediation--a plant-assisted reclamation approach--relies on growing appropriate plant species that can tolerate ambient soil salinity and sodicity levels during reclamation of salt-affected soils. A variety of plant species of agricultural significance have been found to be effective in sustainable reclamation of calcareous and moderately sodic and saline-sodic soils. The second strategy fosters dedicating soils to crop production systems where saline and/or sodic waters predominate and their disposal options are limited. Production systems based on salt-tolerant plant species using drainage waters may be sustainable with the potential of transforming such waters from an environmental burden into an economic asset. Such a strategy would encourage the disposal of drainage waters within the irrigated regions where they are generated rather than exporting these waters to other regions via discharge into main irrigation canals, local streams, or rivers. Being economically and environmentally sustainable, these strategies could be the key to future

  4. Indicator Properties of Baltic Zooplankton for Classification of Environmental Status within Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

    PubMed

    Gorokhova, Elena; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Postel, Lutz; Rubene, Gunta; Amid, Callis; Lesutiene, Jurate; Uusitalo, Laura; Strake, Solvita; Demereckiene, Natalja

    2016-01-01

    The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires the EU Member States to estimate the level of anthropogenic impacts on their marine systems using 11 Descriptors. Assessing food web response to altered habitats is addressed by Descriptor 4 and its indicators, which are being developed for regional seas. However, the development of simple foodweb indicators able to assess the health of ecologically diverse, spatially variable and complex interactions is challenging. Zooplankton is a key element in marine foodwebs and thus comprise an important part of overall ecosystem health. Here, we review work on zooplankton indicator development using long-term data sets across the Baltic Sea and report the main findings. A suite of zooplankton community metrics were evaluated as putative ecological indicators that track community state in relation to Good Environmental Status (GES) criteria with regard to eutrophication and fish feeding conditions in the Baltic Sea. On the basis of an operational definition of GES, we propose mean body mass of zooplankton in the community in combination with zooplankton stock measured as either abundance or biomass to be applicable as an integrated indicator that could be used within the Descriptor 4 in the Baltic Sea. These metrics performed best in predicting zooplankton being in-GES when considering all datasets evaluated. However, some other metrics, such as copepod biomass, the contribution of copepods to the total zooplankton biomass or biomass-based Cladocera: Copepoda ratio, were equally reliable or even superior in certain basin-specific assessments. Our evaluation suggests that in several basins of the Baltic Sea, zooplankton communities currently appear to be out-of-GES, being comprised by smaller zooplankters and having lower total abundance or biomass compared to the communities during the reference conditions; however, the changes in the taxonomic structure underlying these trends vary widely across the sea basins due to

  5. Indicator Properties of Baltic Zooplankton for Classification of Environmental Status within Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

    PubMed

    Gorokhova, Elena; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Postel, Lutz; Rubene, Gunta; Amid, Callis; Lesutiene, Jurate; Uusitalo, Laura; Strake, Solvita; Demereckiene, Natalja

    2016-01-01

    The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires the EU Member States to estimate the level of anthropogenic impacts on their marine systems using 11 Descriptors. Assessing food web response to altered habitats is addressed by Descriptor 4 and its indicators, which are being developed for regional seas. However, the development of simple foodweb indicators able to assess the health of ecologically diverse, spatially variable and complex interactions is challenging. Zooplankton is a key element in marine foodwebs and thus comprise an important part of overall ecosystem health. Here, we review work on zooplankton indicator development using long-term data sets across the Baltic Sea and report the main findings. A suite of zooplankton community metrics were evaluated as putative ecological indicators that track community state in relation to Good Environmental Status (GES) criteria with regard to eutrophication and fish feeding conditions in the Baltic Sea. On the basis of an operational definition of GES, we propose mean body mass of zooplankton in the community in combination with zooplankton stock measured as either abundance or biomass to be applicable as an integrated indicator that could be used within the Descriptor 4 in the Baltic Sea. These metrics performed best in predicting zooplankton being in-GES when considering all datasets evaluated. However, some other metrics, such as copepod biomass, the contribution of copepods to the total zooplankton biomass or biomass-based Cladocera: Copepoda ratio, were equally reliable or even superior in certain basin-specific assessments. Our evaluation suggests that in several basins of the Baltic Sea, zooplankton communities currently appear to be out-of-GES, being comprised by smaller zooplankters and having lower total abundance or biomass compared to the communities during the reference conditions; however, the changes in the taxonomic structure underlying these trends vary widely across the sea basins due to

  6. Indicator Properties of Baltic Zooplankton for Classification of Environmental Status within Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    PubMed Central

    Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Postel, Lutz; Rubene, Gunta; Amid, Callis; Lesutiene, Jurate; Uusitalo, Laura; Strake, Solvita; Demereckiene, Natalja

    2016-01-01

    The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires the EU Member States to estimate the level of anthropogenic impacts on their marine systems using 11 Descriptors. Assessing food web response to altered habitats is addressed by Descriptor 4 and its indicators, which are being developed for regional seas. However, the development of simple foodweb indicators able to assess the health of ecologically diverse, spatially variable and complex interactions is challenging. Zooplankton is a key element in marine foodwebs and thus comprise an important part of overall ecosystem health. Here, we review work on zooplankton indicator development using long-term data sets across the Baltic Sea and report the main findings. A suite of zooplankton community metrics were evaluated as putative ecological indicators that track community state in relation to Good Environmental Status (GES) criteria with regard to eutrophication and fish feeding conditions in the Baltic Sea. On the basis of an operational definition of GES, we propose mean body mass of zooplankton in the community in combination with zooplankton stock measured as either abundance or biomass to be applicable as an integrated indicator that could be used within the Descriptor 4 in the Baltic Sea. These metrics performed best in predicting zooplankton being in-GES when considering all datasets evaluated. However, some other metrics, such as copepod biomass, the contribution of copepods to the total zooplankton biomass or biomass-based Cladocera: Copepoda ratio, were equally reliable or even superior in certain basin-specific assessments. Our evaluation suggests that in several basins of the Baltic Sea, zooplankton communities currently appear to be out-of-GES, being comprised by smaller zooplankters and having lower total abundance or biomass compared to the communities during the reference conditions; however, the changes in the taxonomic structure underlying these trends vary widely across the sea basins due to

  7. Campus Ecology: A Guide to Assessing Environmental Quality and Creating Strategies for Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, April A.; And Others

    This book is designed to take the environmental issues and principles currently being studied in the classroom and move them outside the classroom doors into the campus community and the larger world. By making environmental knowledge part and parcel of campus environmental practice, students, faculty, and administrators have an extraordinary…

  8. U.S. Geological Survey environmental health science strategy: providing environmental health science for a changing world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bright, Patricia R.; Buxton, Herbert T.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Barber, Larry B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Cross, Paul C.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Toccalino, Patricia L.; Winton, James R.

    2013-01-01

    The “One Health” paradigm advocated by the World Health Organization (WHO; World Health Organization, 2011), and the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA; American Veterinary Medical Association, 2008), among others, is based on a general recognition that the health of humans, animals, and the environment are inextricably linked. Thus, successful efforts to protect that health will require increased interdisciplinary research and increased communication and collaboration among the broader scientific and health community. This strategy is built upon that paradigm.

  9. Life cycle thinking and assessment tools on environmentally-benign electronics: Convergent optimization of materials use, end-of-life strategy and environmental policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaoying

    The purpose of this study is to integrate the quantitative environmental performance assessment tools and the theory of multi-objective optimization within the boundary of electronic product systems to support the selection among design alternatives in terms of environmental impact, technical criteria, and economic feasibility. To meet with the requirements that result from emerging environmental legislation targeting electronics products, the research addresses an important analytical methodological approach to facilitate environmentally conscious design and end-of-life management with a life cycle viewpoint. A synthesis of diverse assessment tools is applied on a set of case studies: lead-free solder materials selection, cellular phone design, and desktop display technology assessment. In the first part of this work, an in-depth industrial survey of the status and concerns of the U.S. electronics industry on the elimination of lead (Pb) in solders is described. The results show that the trade-offs among environmental consequences, technology challenges, business risks, legislative compliance and stakeholders' preferences must be explicitly, simultaneously, and systematically addressed in the decision-making process used to guide multi-faceted planning of environmental solutions. In the second part of this work, the convergent optimization of the technical cycle, economic cycle and environmental cycle is addressed in a coherent and systematic way using the application of environmentally conscious design of cellular phones. The technical understanding of product structure, components analysis, and materials flow facilitates the development of "Design for Disassembly" guidelines. A bottom-up disassembly analysis on a "bill of materials" based structure at a micro-operational level is utilized to select optimal end-of-life strategies on the basis of economic feasibility. A macro-operational level life cycle model is used to investigate the environmental consequences

  10. Geologic carbon sequestration as a global strategy to mitigate CO2 emissions: Sustainability and environmental risk

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2011-04-01

    Fossil fuels are abundant, inexpensive to produce, and are easily converted to usable energy by combustion as demonstrated by mankind's dependence on fossil fuels for over 80% of its primary energy supply (13). This reliance on fossil fuels comes with the cost of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions that exceed the rate at which CO{sub 2} can be absorbed by terrestrial and oceanic systems worldwide resulting in increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration as recorded by direct measurements over more than five decades (14). Carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas linked to global warming and associated climate change, the impacts of which are currently being observed around the world, and projections of which include alarming consequences such as water and food shortages, sea level rise, and social disruptions associated with resource scarcity (15). The current situation of a world that derives the bulk of its energy from fossil fuel in a manner that directly causes climate change equates to an energy-climate crisis. Although governments around the world have only recently begun to consider policies to avoid the direst projections of climate change and its impacts, sustainable approaches to addressing the crisis are available. The common thread of feasible strategies to the energy climate crisis is the simultaneous use of multiple approaches based on available technologies (e.g., 16). Efficiency improvements (e.g., in building energy use), increased use of natural gas relative to coal, and increased development of renewables such as solar, wind, and geothermal, along with nuclear energy, are all available options that will reduce net CO{sub 2} emissions. While improvements in efficiency can be made rapidly and will pay for themselves, the slower pace of change and greater monetary costs associated with increased use of renewables and nuclear energy suggests an additional approach is needed to help bridge the time period between the present and a future when

  11. Strategies for quantifying C60 fullerenes in environmental and biological samples and implications for studies in environmental health and ecotoxicology

    PubMed Central

    Pycke, Benny F.G.; Benn, Troy M.; Herckes, Pierre; Westerhoff, Paul; Halden, Rolf U.

    2010-01-01

    Fullerenes are sphere-like molecules with unique physico-chemical properties, which render them of particular interest in biomedical research, consumer products and industrial applications. Human and environmental exposure to fullerenes is not a new phenomenon, due to a long history of hydrocarbon-combustion sources, and will only increase in the future, as incorporation of fullerenes into consumer products becomes more widespread for use as anti-aging, anti-bacterial or anti-apoptotic agents. An essential step in the determination of biological effects of fullerenes (and their surface-functionalized derivatives) is establishment of exposure-assessment techniques. However, in ecotoxicological studies, quantification of fullerenes is performed infrequently because robust, uniformly applicable analytical approaches have yet to be identified, due to the wide variety of sample types. Moreover, the unique physico-chemistry of fullerenes in aqueous matrices requires reassessment of conventional analytical approaches, especially in more complex biological matrices (e.g., urine, blood, plasma, milk, and tissue). Here, we present a review of current analytical approaches for the quantification of fullerenes and propose a consensus approach for determination of these nanomaterials in a variety of environmental and biological matrices. PMID:21359100

  12. Taking Space to the Classroom in the Nordic Countries- Challenges and Opportunites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biebricher, A.

    2015-09-01

    The Norwegian Centre for Space-related Education (NAROM) has a mandate to teach about space and space technology in four Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, via the Nordic European Space Education Resources Office (ESERO). The geographical distances in the Nordic countries make it difficult for any one entity such as NAROM to coordinate teaching comprehensively. Identification, delegation of responsibility and support to local teachers is therefore paramount. An important tool in this respect is advanced teacher training which employs flexible teaching methods. This paper is a discussion of how flexible teaching is implemented within Nordic ESERO's advanced teacher training.

  13. Summary of third Nordic symposium on digital pathology

    PubMed Central

    Lundström, Claes; Waltersson, Marie; Persson, Anders; Treanor, Darren

    2016-01-01

    Cross-disciplinary and cross-sectorial collaboration is a key success factor for turning the promise of digital pathology into actual clinical benefits. The Nordic symposium on digital pathology (NDP) was created to promote knowledge exchange in this area, among stakeholders in health care, industry, and academia. This article is a summary of the third NDP symposium in Linkφping, Sweden. The Nordic experiences, including several hospitals using whole-slide imaging for substantial parts of their primary reviews, formed a fertile base for discussions among the 190 NDP attendees originating from 15 different countries. This summary also contains results from a survey on adoption and validation aspects of clinical digital pathology use. PMID:27141318

  14. Anaerobic digestion and milking frequency as mitigation strategies of the environmental burden in the milk production system.

    PubMed

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Bava, Luciana; Zucali, Maddalena; Lovarelli, Daniela; Sandrucci, Anna; Tamburini, Alberto; Fiala, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess, through a cradle to farm gate Life Cycle Assessment, different mitigation strategies of the potential environmental impacts of milk production at farm level. The environmental performances of a conventional intensive dairy farm in Northern Italy (baseline scenario) were compared with the results obtained: from the introduction of the third daily milking and from the adoption of anaerobic digestion (AD) of animal slurry in a consortium AD plant. The AD plant, fed only with animal slurries coming also from nearby farms. Key parameters concerning on-farm activities (forage production, energy consumptions, agricultural machines maintenance, manure and livestock management), off-farm activities (production of fertilizers, pesticides, bedding materials, purchased forages, purchased concentrate feed, replacement animals, agricultural machines manufacturing, electricity, fuel) and transportation were considered. The functional unit was 1kg fat and protein corrected milk (FPCM) leaving the farm gate. The selected environmental impact categories were: global warming potential, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidation and non-renewable energy use. The production of 1kg of FPCM caused, in the baseline scenario, the following environmental impact potentials: global warming potential 1.12kg CO2 eq; acidification 15.5g SO2 eq; eutrophication 5.62g PO4(3-) eq; photochemical oxidation 0.87g C2H4 eq/kg FPCM; energy use 4.66MJeq. The increase of milking frequency improved environmental performances for all impact categories in comparison with the baseline scenario; in particular acidification and eutrophication potentials showed the largest reductions (-11 and -12%, respectively). In anaerobic digestion scenario, compared to the baseline one, most of the impact potentials were strongly reduced. In particular the most important advantages were in terms of acidification (-29%), global warming (-22%) and eutrophication potential (-18

  15. Anaerobic digestion and milking frequency as mitigation strategies of the environmental burden in the milk production system.

    PubMed

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Bava, Luciana; Zucali, Maddalena; Lovarelli, Daniela; Sandrucci, Anna; Tamburini, Alberto; Fiala, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess, through a cradle to farm gate Life Cycle Assessment, different mitigation strategies of the potential environmental impacts of milk production at farm level. The environmental performances of a conventional intensive dairy farm in Northern Italy (baseline scenario) were compared with the results obtained: from the introduction of the third daily milking and from the adoption of anaerobic digestion (AD) of animal slurry in a consortium AD plant. The AD plant, fed only with animal slurries coming also from nearby farms. Key parameters concerning on-farm activities (forage production, energy consumptions, agricultural machines maintenance, manure and livestock management), off-farm activities (production of fertilizers, pesticides, bedding materials, purchased forages, purchased concentrate feed, replacement animals, agricultural machines manufacturing, electricity, fuel) and transportation were considered. The functional unit was 1kg fat and protein corrected milk (FPCM) leaving the farm gate. The selected environmental impact categories were: global warming potential, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidation and non-renewable energy use. The production of 1kg of FPCM caused, in the baseline scenario, the following environmental impact potentials: global warming potential 1.12kg CO2 eq; acidification 15.5g SO2 eq; eutrophication 5.62g PO4(3-) eq; photochemical oxidation 0.87g C2H4 eq/kg FPCM; energy use 4.66MJeq. The increase of milking frequency improved environmental performances for all impact categories in comparison with the baseline scenario; in particular acidification and eutrophication potentials showed the largest reductions (-11 and -12%, respectively). In anaerobic digestion scenario, compared to the baseline one, most of the impact potentials were strongly reduced. In particular the most important advantages were in terms of acidification (-29%), global warming (-22%) and eutrophication potential (-18

  16. Assessing the role of GPs in Nordic health care systems.

    PubMed

    Quaye, Randolph K

    2016-05-01

    Purpose This paper examines the changing role of general practitioners (GPs) in Nordic countries of Sweden, Norway and Denmark. It aims to explore the "gate keeping" role of GPs in the face of current changes in the health care delivery systems in these countries. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from existing literature, interviews with GPs, hospital specialists and representatives of Danish regions and Norwegian Medical Association. Findings The paper contends that in all these changes, the position of the GPs in the medical division of labor has been strengthened, and patients now have increased and broadened access to choice. Research limitations/implications Health care cost and high cancer mortality rates have forced Nordic countries of Sweden, Norway and Denmark to rethink their health care systems. Several attempts have been made to reduce health care cost through market reform and by strenghtening the position of GPs. The evidence suggests that in Norway and Denmark, right incentives are in place to achieve this goal. Sweden is not far behind. The paper has limitations of a small sample size and an exclusive focus on GPs. Practical implications Anecdotal evidence suggests that physicians are becoming extremely unhappy. Understanding the changing status of primary care physicians will yield valuable information for assessing the effectiveness of Nordic health care delivery systems. Social implications This study has wider implications of how GPs see their role as potential gatekeepers in the Nordic health care systems. The role of GPs is changing as a result of recent health care reforms. Originality/value This paper contends that in Norway and Denmark, right incentives are in place to strengthen the position of GPs.

  17. Determining proper strategies for health, safety, security and environmental (HSSE) management system.

    PubMed

    Zaeimdar, Mojgan; Nasiri, Parvin; Taghdisi, Mohammadhoseyn; Abbaspour, Majid; Arjmandi, Reza; Kalatipor, Omid

    2013-01-01

    Today, managing an organization is concerned with many problems. Adopting proper strategies can promote an organization's survival. This study aimed at developing an appropriate HSSE Strategy for regional operation associated companies of Iran National Gas Company (INGS) using SWOT analysis. The analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of HSSE was carried out and according to the results suitable strategies were recommended. In this regard, senior and junior managers, supervisors, and experts active in regional operation associated companies of Iran National Gas Company participated in SWOT analysis from HSSE angle. Then, they selected the most applicable SWOT factors pertaining to the organization. In the next step, these factors were weighted and scored. Based on the results four categories of strategies were developed including SO, WO, ST, and WT. Further examination showed that SO Strategies were the most applicable for the organization.

  18. Determining proper strategies for health, safety, security and environmental (HSSE) management system.

    PubMed

    Zaeimdar, Mojgan; Nasiri, Parvin; Taghdisi, Mohammadhoseyn; Abbaspour, Majid; Arjmandi, Reza; Kalatipor, Omid

    2013-01-01

    Today, managing an organization is concerned with many problems. Adopting proper strategies can promote an organization's survival. This study aimed at developing an appropriate HSSE Strategy for regional operation associated companies of Iran National Gas Company (INGS) using SWOT analysis. The analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of HSSE was carried out and according to the results suitable strategies were recommended. In this regard, senior and junior managers, supervisors, and experts active in regional operation associated companies of Iran National Gas Company participated in SWOT analysis from HSSE angle. Then, they selected the most applicable SWOT factors pertaining to the organization. In the next step, these factors were weighted and scored. Based on the results four categories of strategies were developed including SO, WO, ST, and WT. Further examination showed that SO Strategies were the most applicable for the organization. PMID:23324707

  19. Environmental Education Evaluation: Reinterpreting Education as a Strategy for Meeting Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimlich, Joe E.

    2010-01-01

    Critical consideration of the role of environmental education in meeting conservation outcomes is increasingly necessary for environmental agencies and organizations. Evaluation can help move organizations to alignment between educational goals and organizational mission. Moving theory-driven evaluation into mission-based program theory, this…

  20. Bilingual Pairs in Teacher Education: Exploring Wild Strategies in an Environmental Education Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arreguín-Anderson, María Guadalupe; Garza, Esther V.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the authors narrate the results of a linguistically accommodated environmental education workshop in which monolingual and bilingual preservice teachers were exposed to instruction in English and Spanish. The authors contend that environmental initiatives, such as Project Wildlife in Learning Design, can promote an understanding of…

  1. Conservation genetics of Nordic carnivores: lessons from zoos.

    PubMed

    Laikre, L

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes results from genetic studies of Nordic carnivore populations bred in captivity. The conservation genetic implications of those results for the management of wild populations of the same species are discussed. Inbreeding depression has been documented in the brown bear (Ursus arctos), wolf (Canis lupus), and lynx (Lynx lynx) populations held in Nordic zoos. The characters negatively affected by inbreeding include litter size (brown bear and wolf), longevity (lynx and wolf), female reproduction, and weight (wolf). In addition, hereditary defects caused by single autosomal alleles occur in the wolf and brown bear populations. These deleterious alleles cause blindness (wolf) and albinism (brown bear) in the homozygous state. The amount of inbreeding depression observed in Nordic carnivores are similar to that documented in other species. The captive populations have the same genetic background as the current wild ones and inbreeding depression is therefore a potential threat to wild carnivore populations in Sweden. This threat is presently not being adequately recognized in the management of these species. Frequently occurring misunderstandings regarding the kind of conclusions that can be drawn from the presented genetic observations are also discussed.

  2. The unique effects of environmental strategies in health promotion campaigns: a review.

    PubMed

    Randolph, Karen A; Whitaker, Pippin; Arellano, Adriana

    2012-08-01

    Various strategies are used as tools in health promotion campaigns to increase health-related outcomes among target populations. Evaluations of these campaigns examine effects on changing people's knowledge, attitudes, and/or behaviors. Most evaluations examine the combined impact of multiple strategies. Less is known about the unique effects of particular strategies. To address this gap, we used highly systematic methods to identify and review scientifically rigorous evaluations of 18 campaigns that examined the unique effects of three sets of intervention strategies (entertainment education, law enforcement, and mass media) on changes in knowledge, attitudes, and practice with regard to various health behaviors. Results showed differences in evaluation processes based on the type of strategy used to promote campaign messages. For instance, evaluations of mass-media based campaigns were more likely to examine changes in knowledge, relative to evaluations of campaigns that used law enforcement strategies. In addition, campaign effects varied by particular strategies. Mass media-based campaigns were more likely to affect knowledge, relative to behaviors. Law enforcement and entertainment education-based campaigns showed positive effects on behaviors. The implications for planning and evaluating health promotion campaigns are described.

  3. Environmental forcing on life history strategies: Evidence for multi-trophic level responses at ocean basin scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suryan, Robert M.; Saba, Vincent S.; Wallace, Bryan P.; Hatch, Scott A.; Frederiksen, Morten; Wanless, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Variation in life history traits of organisms is thought to reflect adaptations to environmental forcing occurring from bottom-up and top-down processes. Such variation occurs not only among, but also within species, indicating demographic plasticity in response to environmental conditions. From a broad literature review, we present evidence for ocean basin- and large marine ecosystem-scale variation in intra-specific life history traits, with similar responses occurring among trophic levels from relatively short-lived secondary producers to very long-lived apex predators. Between North Atlantic and North Pacific Ocean basins, for example, species in the Eastern Pacific exhibited either later maturation, lower fecundity, and/or greater annual survival than conspecifics in the Western Atlantic. Parallel variations in life histories among trophic levels also occur in adjacent seas and between eastern vs. western ocean boundaries. For example, zooplankton and seabird species in cooler Barents Sea waters exhibit lower fecundity or greater annual survival than conspecifics in the Northeast Atlantic. Sea turtles exhibit a larger size and a greater reproductive output in the Western Pacific vs. Eastern Pacific. These examples provide evidence for food-web-wide modifications in life history strategies in response to environmental forcing. We hypothesize that such dichotomies result from frequency and amplitude shifts in resource availability over varying temporal and spatial scales. We review data that supports three primary mechanisms by which environmental forcing affects life history strategies: (1) food-web structure; (2) climate variability affecting the quantity and seasonality of primary productivity; (3) bottom-up vs. top-down forcing. These proposed mechanisms provide a framework for comparisons of ecosystem function among oceanic regions (or regimes) and are essential in modeling ecosystem response to climate change, as well as for creating dynamic ecosystem

  4. Preliminary Strategic Environmental Assessment of the Great Western Development Strategy: Safeguarding Ecological Security for a New Western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Liu, Yan-Ju; Yang, Zhifeng

    2012-02-01

    The Great Western Development Strategy (GWDS) is a long term national campaign aimed at boosting development of the western area of China and narrowing the economic gap between the western and the eastern parts of China. The Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) procedure was employed to assess the environmental challenges brought about by the western development plans. These plans include five key developmental domains (KDDs): water resource exploitation and use, land utilization, energy generation, tourism development, and ecological restoration and conservation. A combination of methods involving matrix assessment, incorporation of expert judgment and trend analysis was employed to analyze and predict the environmental impacts upon eight selected environmental indicators: water resource availability, soil erosion, soil salinization, forest destruction, land desertification, biological diversity, water quality and air quality. Based on the overall results of the assessment, countermeasures for environmental challenges that emerged were raised as key recommendations to ensure ecological security during the implementation of the GWDS. This paper is intended to introduce a consensus-based process for evaluating the complex, long term pressures on the ecological security of large areas, such as western China, that focuses on the use of combined methods applied at the strategic level.

  5. Preliminary strategic environmental assessment of the Great Western Development Strategy: safeguarding ecological security for a new western China.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Liu, Yan-ju; Yang, Zhifeng

    2012-02-01

    The Great Western Development Strategy (GWDS) is a long term national campaign aimed at boosting development of the western area of China and narrowing the economic gap between the western and the eastern parts of China. The Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) procedure was employed to assess the environmental challenges brought about by the western development plans. These plans include five key developmental domains (KDDs): water resource exploitation and use, land utilization, energy generation, tourism development, and ecological restoration and conservation. A combination of methods involving matrix assessment, incorporation of expert judgment and trend analysis was employed to analyze and predict the environmental impacts upon eight selected environmental indicators: water resource availability, soil erosion, soil salinization, forest destruction, land desertification, biological diversity, water quality and air quality. Based on the overall results of the assessment, countermeasures for environmental challenges that emerged were raised as key recommendations to ensure ecological security during the implementation of the GWDS. This paper is intended to introduce a consensus-based process for evaluating the complex, long term pressures on the ecological security of large areas, such as western China, that focuses on the use of combined methods applied at the strategic level. PMID:22190169

  6. NASA's Agency-Wide Strategy for Environmental Regulatory Risk Analysis and Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scroggins, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Agency-wide.resource for identifying and managing risks associated with changing environmental regulations Goals of the RRAC PC: 1) Proactively. detect, analyze and communicate environmental regulatory risks to NASA Programs and facilities; 2) Communicate with regulators and participate in the mitigation of such risks; and 3) Provide centralized support on emerging regulations to NASA HQ Environmental Management Division. When significant regulatory changes are identified, timely communication is essential. Communication of changing requirements to the regulatory stakeholders - NASA Programs and Facilities. Communication of potential issues to management and, when appropriate, back to the regulating agency.

  7. EDITORIAL: The Third Nordic Symposium on Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecseli, Hans; Trulsen, Jan

    2006-02-01

    The Third Nordic Symposium on Plasma Physics was organized at Lysebu, Oslo, Norway on 4 7 October 2004, under the auspices of the Norwegian Centre for Advanced Study (CAS). The arrangement was preceded by two similar meetings organized at the Risø National Laboratory in Denmark by one of us (HP): Nonlinear Waves in Plasmas, 13 16 August 1985, and The Second Nordic Symposium on Nonlinear Phenomena in Plasmas and Related Topics, 8 12 August 1988. The proceedings from these two previous meetings were published as Physica Scripta Reprint Series No. 2, and RS 16 (with a few copies still being available). The idea of `Nordic' in the title of this latest meeting was interpreted somewhat liberally, by including also scientific organizations in northern Germany, where a collaboration facing Nordic countries comes naturally, and indeed has solid historical roots pointing also to ongoing activities. We hope that this series of meetings can continue, suggesting that the interval should be kept to a minimum of three years to ensure that all participants present new results. (We hope not to have to wait 16 years until next time, though!) The aim of our meetings is to stimulate collaboration among plasma physicists by creating a forum where the participants can exchange ideas and seek inspiration under relaxed conditions. We have the distinct impression that the meeting was very successful in this respect. Many Nordic institutes have widespread international collaborations, and we were happy to welcome also foreign representatives for some of these activities. Altogether 28 contributed talks were presented by 30 participants. The abstracts of all talks were distributed at the meeting. The present proceedings cover a selection of the contributions. One participant had to cancel, but the contribution is included in these proceedings. All the papers have been refereed according to the usual standards of the journal We, the organizers, thank CAS for the generous financial support

  8. Maternal and infant characteristics: differences and similarities between the Nordic countries and the US

    PubMed Central

    Löfling, Lukas; Bröms, Gabriella; Bahmanyar, Shahram; Kieler, Helle

    2016-01-01

    Background Data from the Nordic health care registers have been of great value in perinatal epidemiological research. It has been assumed that findings from the Nordic population (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) are applicable to other populations as well, including the population of the US. Objective To describe and compare maternal and infant characteristics between the Nordic and the American populations as recorded in the official statistics. Materials and methods This population-based study included data on all females who gave birth and their infants in the Nordic countries and the US. The data were obtained from the US National Center for Health Statistics and the official statistics data for the Nordic countries. The data from all six countries included births from 2006 to 2010. Results The mean maternal age at delivery was lower in the US than in the Nordic countries (27.5 vs 30.3 years). Cesarean sections (32.2% vs 17.9%), low birth weight (8.2% vs 4.8%), and preterm birth (12.3% vs 5.9%) were more common in the US than in the Nordic countries. Smoking during early pregnancy was slightly less common in the US compared with Nordic countries (9.8% vs 11.2%). Restricting the data from the US to females with a university degree, characteristics such as age at delivery, birth weight, and preterm deliveries were more in alignment with the Nordic data. Conclusion There are differences in some key maternal and neonatal characteristics between the Nordic countries and the US. However, some characteristics are related to socioeconomic status, suggesting that the Nordic data seem to be applicable to the part of the population in the US with a higher socioeconomic status. PMID:27536160

  9. Integrated environmental mapping and monitoring, a methodological approach to optimise knowledge gathering and sampling strategy.

    PubMed

    Nilssen, Ingunn; Ødegård, Øyvind; Sørensen, Asgeir J; Johnsen, Geir; Moline, Mark A; Berge, Jørgen

    2015-07-15

    New technology has led to new opportunities for a holistic environmental monitoring approach adjusted to purpose and object of interest. The proposed integrated environmental mapping and monitoring (IEMM) concept, presented in this paper, describes the different steps in such a system from mission of survey to selection of parameters, sensors, sensor platforms, data collection, data storage, analysis and to data interpretation for reliable decision making. The system is generic; it can be used by authorities, industry and academia and is useful for planning- and operational phases. In the planning process the systematic approach is also ideal to identify areas with gap of knowledge. The critical stages of the concept is discussed and exemplified by two case studies, one environmental mapping and one monitoring case. As an operational system, the IEMM concept can contribute to an optimised integrated environmental mapping and monitoring for knowledge generation as basis for decision making.

  10. Environmental Hazard Identification Technique Developing of Territorial Administrations Strategy as Exemplified in Siberian Federal District

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeeva, S. S.; Garmishev, V. V.; Lugovtsova, N. Yu

    2016-04-01

    This work, on the example of the Siberian Federal District of the Russian Federation, presents a method for determining mass airbursts of combustion gaseous eco-toxicants, as a technique for assessing the contributory environmental load on the atmosphere. Potential environmental hazards are analyzed by mass of contaminated airbursts. A comparison of specific gross toxicants’ emissions in territorial entities of the Russian Federation is made.

  11. Environmental education evaluation: reinterpreting education as a strategy for meeting mission.

    PubMed

    Heimlich, Joe E

    2010-05-01

    Critical consideration of the role of environmental education in meeting conservation outcomes is increasingly necessary for environmental agencies and organizations. Evaluation can help move organizations to alignment between educational goals and organizational mission. Moving theory-driven evaluation into mission-based program theory, this chapter examines the ways in which educational goals can and should be linked to conservation outcomes for an agency or organization.

  12. Mapping the Future of Environmental Health and Nursing: Strategies for Integrating National Competencies into Nursing Practice

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Laura S.; Butterfield, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Nurses are increasingly the primary contact for clients concerned about health problems related to their environment. In response to the need for nursing expertise in the field of environmental health, the Institute of Medicine (IOM), Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) have designed core competencies for the nursing profession. The IOM competencies focus on four areas: (1) knowledge and concepts; (2) assessment and referral; advocacy, ethics, and risk communication; and (4) legislation and regulation. The competencies establish a baseline of knowledge and awareness in order for nurses to prevent and minimize health problems associated with exposure to environmental agents. To address the known difficulties of incorporating new priorities into established practice, nurses attending an environmental health short course participated in a nominal group process focusing on the question, “What specific actions can we take to bring environmental health into the mainstream of nursing practice?” This exercise was designed to bring the concepts of the national initiatives (IOM, NINR, ATSDR) to the awareness of individual nurses involved in the direct delivery of care. Results include 38 action items nurses identified as improving awareness and utilization of environmental health principles. The top five ideas were: (1) get environmental health listed as a requirement or competency in undergraduate nursing education; (2) improve working relationships with interdepartmental persons—a team approach; (3) strategically place students in essential organizations such as NIOSH, ATSDR, or CDC; (4) educate nurse educators; and (5) create environmental health awards in nursing. The 38 original ideas were also reorganized into a five-tiered conceptual model. The concepts of this model include: (1) developing partnerships; (2) strengthening publications; (3) enhancing continuing education; (4) updating nursing

  13. The avoidance strategy of environmental constraints by an aquatic plant Potamogeton alpinus in running waters

    PubMed Central

    Robionek, Alicja; Banaś, Krzysztof; Chmara, Rafał; Szmeja, Józef

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic plants anchored in streams are under pressure from various constraints linked to the water flow and display strategies to prevent their damage or destruction. We assume that the responses of aquatic plants to fast-water flow are a manifestation of a trade-off consisting in either maximizing the resistance to damage (tolerance strategy) in minimizing the hydrodynamic forces (avoidance strategy), or both. Our main hypothesis was that Potamogeton alpinus demonstrate the avoidance strategy. We analyzed architecture traits of the modules of this clonal plant from slow- and fast-flowing streams. In fast-flowing waters, the avoidance strategy of P. alpinus is reflected by the following: (1) the presence of floating leaves that stabilize the vertical position of the stem and protect the inflorescence against immersion; (2) elongation of submerged leaves (weakens the pressure of water); and (3) shoot diameter reduction and increase in shoot density (weakens the pressure of water, increases shoot elasticity), and by contrast in slow-water flow include the following: (4) the absence of floating leaves in high intensity of light (avoiding unnecessary outlays on a redundant organ); (5) the presence of floating leaves in low intensity of light (avoidance of stress caused by an insufficient assimilation area of submerged leaves). PMID:26380667

  14. The avoidance strategy of environmental constraints by an aquatic plant Potamogeton alpinus in running waters.

    PubMed

    Robionek, Alicja; Banaś, Krzysztof; Chmara, Rafał; Szmeja, Józef

    2015-08-01

    Aquatic plants anchored in streams are under pressure from various constraints linked to the water flow and display strategies to prevent their damage or destruction. We assume that the responses of aquatic plants to fast-water flow are a manifestation of a trade-off consisting in either maximizing the resistance to damage (tolerance strategy) in minimizing the hydrodynamic forces (avoidance strategy), or both. Our main hypothesis was that Potamogeton alpinus demonstrate the avoidance strategy. We analyzed architecture traits of the modules of this clonal plant from slow- and fast-flowing streams. In fast-flowing waters, the avoidance strategy of P. alpinus is reflected by the following: (1) the presence of floating leaves that stabilize the vertical position of the stem and protect the inflorescence against immersion; (2) elongation of submerged leaves (weakens the pressure of water); and (3) shoot diameter reduction and increase in shoot density (weakens the pressure of water, increases shoot elasticity), and by contrast in slow-water flow include the following: (4) the absence of floating leaves in high intensity of light (avoiding unnecessary outlays on a redundant organ); (5) the presence of floating leaves in low intensity of light (avoidance of stress caused by an insufficient assimilation area of submerged leaves).

  15. Breastfeeding, introduction of other foods and effects on health: a systematic literature review for the 5th Nordic Nutrition Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Hörnell, Agneta; Lagström, Hanna; Lande, Britt; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2013-01-01

    The present systematic literature review is part of the 5th revision of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. The overall aim was to review recent scientific data valid in a Nordic setting on the short- and long-term health effects of breastfeeding (duration of both any and exclusive breastfeeding) and introduction of foods other than breast milk. The initial literature search resulted in 2,011 abstracts; 416 identified as potentially relevant. Full paper review resulted in 60 quality assessed papers (6A, 48B, and 6C). A complementary search found some additional papers. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, limited-suggestive, and limited-no conclusion. The evidence was convincing of a protective dose/duration effect of breastfeeding against overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence, overall infections, acute otitis media, and gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infections. The evidence was probable that exclusive breastfeeding for longer than 4 months is associated with slower weight gain during the second half of the first year which could be part of the reason behind the reduced risk of later overweight or obesity. There was also probable evidence that breastfeeding is a protective factor against inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and diabetes (type 1 and 2), provides beneficial effects on IQ and developmental scores of children as well as a small reductive effect on blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels in adulthood. Other associations explored were limited-suggestive or inconclusive. In conclusion, convincing and probable evidence was found for benefits of breastfeeding on several outcomes. The recommendation in NNR2004 about exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months and continued partial breastfeeding thereafter can stand unchanged. The relatively low proportion of infants in the Nordic countries following this recommendation indicates that strategies that protect, support and promote breastfeeding should be

  16. Reconstructions of Nordic Teachers: Reform Policies and Teachers' Work during the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlgren, Ingrid; Klette, Kirsti

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with the question of how the restructuring of educational systems in Nordic countries affects teachers' working conditions. It is based on results from the project "Restructuring in Education: Reform policy and teacher professionalism in different Nordic contexts" in which the construction of the "New Teacher" in Nordic…

  17. The Current State and Developments in Higher Education in Gerontology in the Nordic Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hietanen, Heidi; Lyyra, Tiina-Mari; Parkatti, Terttu; Heikkinen, Eino

    2012-01-01

    The growing size of the older population challenges not only researchers but also higher education in gerontology. On the basis of an online survey the authors describe the situation of Nordic higher education in gerontology in 2008 and 2009 and also give some good examples of Nordic- and European-level collaboration. The survey results showed…

  18. Interpreting Values in the Daily Practices of Nordic Preschools: A Cross-Cultural Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puroila, Anna-Maija; Johansson, Eva; Estola, Eila; Emilson, Anette; Einarsdóttir, Johanna; Broström, Stig

    2016-01-01

    This study explored how practitioners interpreted educational practices from the perspective of values in Nordic preschools. Drawing data from group interviews in five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden), practitioners reflected on an observational episode about children dressing for outdoor play in a Swedish preschool.…

  19. Institutional Autonomy and Academic Freedom in the Nordic Context--Similarities and Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nokkala, Terhi; Bladh, Agneta

    2014-01-01

    Owing to their common history, similarities in language and culture, long traditions in political collaboration and the shared Nordic societal model, an assumption is often made that the operational and regulatory context of universities is similar in the five Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. In this article, we…

  20. Social Change and Adult Education Research--Adult Education Research in Nordic Countries 1990/91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linkoping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Education and Psychology.

    This yearbook contains papers that provide the reader with a general idea of the aspects and issues that interest Nordic researchers today and how they approach these problems. To provide a more uniform picture of the status of adult education in the different Nordic countries, four brief general surveys begin the book: "Adult Education Research…

  1. Education for Internationalism at the Nordic School for Adult Education in Geneva 1931-1939

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppanen, Katarina

    2011-01-01

    Internationalism in the interwar era carried different meaning for different groups. A Nordic school for adult education, with the aim of raising the "international citizenship proficiency" of the Nordic peoples, was established in Geneva in 1931, through cooperation between representatives of international organisations and adult educationists.…

  2. Library Cooperation at the NOVA University--the Nordic University in Agriculture, Forestry and Veterinary Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myllys, Heli

    The Nordic University in Agriculture, Forestry and Veterinary Medicine--the NOVA University-was established in 1995 to increase the cooperation between the Nordic agricultural universities. The NOVA libraries of the seven institutions and facilities involved wanted to show that they are a very useful partner in launching new ideas. They have the…

  3. Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan 1990-1999 : Environmental Strategy. Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-09-01

    In operating and maintaining its regional power transmission system, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) must address environmental concerns. Pollution sources and pathways for pollution migration, including potential contamination from hazardous or toxic materials, are present. BPA must develop and follow precautionary measures, respond to emergencies, minimize wastes, redress past problems, alert and train employees to problems and safety needs, constantly evaluate this effort and update the program for improvements and changes in regulations and technology. Part of BPA's mission is to conduct its operation, maintenance, and replacement programs in an environmentally sound manner. BPA recognizes its responsibility to be good stewards of the environment. BPA will meet its environmental obligations as set forth in environmental laws and regulations. BPA intends to make consistent and measurable progress toward meeting these responsibilities. The target for the 10-Year Plan is to achieve environmental compliance and meet the following goals: (1) protect human health and the environment; (2) avoid or limit liability (3) set up an effective internal management structure to maintain compliance; and (4) achieve cost-effective compliance. 6 figs.

  4. Estimating the economic impact of environmental investments on retail costs and dealer strategies for offsetting these costs

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, G.S.

    1995-09-01

    Retail agrichemical dealers have become increasingly familiar with the concept of containment over the past several years. Currently, containment regulations are in place in 13 states, and are being drafted in 7 others. Agrichemical dealers in these states will be required to assess the potential environmental impact of their operating practices on the land under and around the retail production site. A recent survey of TVA model site and individual technology demonstration dealers attempted to gain insight into the impact these investments in containment structures, changing operating practices, and state containment regulations were having on annual production costs. The purpose of this paper is to (1) provide the agrichemical dealer a methodology for quickly estimating the potential impact that environmental investments will have on annual production costs, and (2) to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative management strategies employed to offset some, or in some cases, all of these additional costs.

  5. An Implementing Strategy for Promoting Environmental Literacy as an OFCM Crosscutting Priority

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCalla, M. R.

    2005-12-01

    The National Environmental Education Advisory Council of the Environmental Protection Agency defines environmental education as "the interdisciplinary process of developing a citizenry that is knowledgeable about the total environment in its natural and built aspects and has the capacity and commitment to insure environmental quality by engaging in inquiry, problem solving, decision making and action." This definition calls for providing citizens (whether child or adult) with a basic understanding of the concepts within science in order to manage their lives. Literacy defined in this manner is the foundation of national security, economic growth, health, and prosperity. Promoting science literacy, therefore, is absolutely critical to every citizen. It is not just about ensuring that people become scientists or have a career that is engaged in the sciences. Promoting environmental literacy means providing people with a means of confronting the science as it confronts them in their personal and/or professional lives. The Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorological Services and Supporting Research (OFCM) is an interdepartmental office established in response to Public Law 87-843 with the mission to ensure the effective use of federal meteorological resources by leading the systematic coordination of operational weather and climate requirements, services, products, and supporting research among the federal agencies. Through interdepartmental collaboration, the OFCM and the agencies within its coordinating infrastructure have a direct environmental literacy impact on the public, private, and academic sectors. For example, governmental departments and agencies within the OFCM infrastructure have provided a number of education, outreach, and training opportunities to end users, helping them understand and apply weather and climate information in their endeavors. Thus promoting environmental literacy is not new to the OFCM. What is new, however, is that for the

  6. Evaluating Community Readiness to Implement Environmental and Policy-Based Alcohol Abuse Prevention Strategies in Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paltzer, Jason; Black, Penny; Moberg, D. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Matching evidence-based alcohol prevention strat- egies with a community's readiness to support those strategies is the basis for the Tri-Ethnic Community Readiness Model (CRM). The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the association of a community's readiness to address alcohol abuse in their community with the…

  7. Zinc deficiency in children with environmental enteropathy - development of new strategies: Report from an expert workshop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinc deficiency is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. The WHO/UNICEF strategy for zinc supplementation as adjunctive therapy for diarrhea is poorly implemented. A conference of experts in zinc nutrition and gastrointestinal disorders was convened to consider approaches that might co...

  8. Learning Environmental Science from Text Aided by a Diagnostic and Prescriptive Instructional Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farragher, Pierce; Szabo, Michael

    Reported is a study of two instructional strategies: (1) the placement of key questions in text materials, and (2) the use of prescriptive feedback to direct students who missed text questions to appropriate remedial work. Learning that resulted from these two techniques was examined relative to achievement, time-on-task, and efficiency.…

  9. Environmental Education, A Teacher's Guide with Inquiry and Value Seeking Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamann, Julianna M.

    This guide is written to focus attention on both the cognitive and affective aspects of environmental education. Its format provides four levels of development: primary, intermediate, junior high, and senior high school grades, with the first two subdivided into three categories each. Performance objectives, teaching-learning inquiries, and…

  10. Potential environmental benefits of feed additives and other strategies for ruminant production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental pollution and food safety are two important concerns that impact ruminant production around the world. The growing public concern over chemical residues in animal-derived foods and threats of antibiotic-resistant bacteria have renewed interest in exploring safer alternatives to chemic...

  11. NASA's Agency-Wide Strategy for Environmental Regulatory Risk Analysis and Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scroggins, Sharon; Duda, Kristen

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of NASA's risk analysis communication programs associated with changing environmental policies. The topics include: 1) NASA Program Transition; 2) Principal Center for Regulatory Risk Analysis and Communication (RRAC PC); and 3) Regulatory Tracking and Communication Process.

  12. Strategies and Activities for Using Local Communities as Environmental Education Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Charles E.; Lockwood, Linda G.

    Presented are over 100 environmental education activities which use the local community for a learning site and resource. These lessons are grouped under seven topical headings: (1) biological neighbors, (2) physical environs, (3) built environs, (4) social environs, (5) understanding ourselves, (6) influencing change, and (7) improvement and…

  13. Popullution or Conservival: A Guide to Activities and Strategies in Environmental Education, Grades 6-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Phyllis; And Others

    This teaching guide contains a variety of environmental education activities divided by grade level. A general objective is stated, followed by as many as 25 related activities. Each activity is short, and many are followed by discussion questions. This guide should prepare students for critical appraisal and responsible decision-making in…

  14. Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions.

  15. INTERIM REPORT, DEVELOP A SAMPLING STRATEGY: PREPARE TO IMPLEMENT A COHORT STUDY OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Overview

    The goal of the National Children's Study (NCS) is to collect information on environmental and

    social factors in the lives of children, starting before birth and continuing until age 21, to inform

    researchers about their effects on the health and dev...

  16. An Analysis of Strategies for Teaching Environmental Concepts and Values Clarification in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Covey K.; Hungerford, Harold R.

    1977-01-01

    Kindergarten students were given an instructional unit dealing with environmental problems. At the end of the unit, the students were evaluated by giving four oral questions and taping the answers. The research suggests that many kindergarten children can form concepts concerning issues and citizenship responsibility. (MA)

  17. Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua

    1992-09-01

    The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION AND PROTECTION STRATEGIES AT MULTIPLE SCALES IN RHODE ISLAND WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public concerns for the environment are often the basis for environmental regulations. The Clean Water Act seeks to ensure that water quality and quantity fully support aquatic life and human health. The legislative requirements help focus limited resources on areas where problem...

  19. An Intensive ICT-Integrated Environmental Learning Strategy for Enhancing Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, King-Dow

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to design information communication technology (ICT) courses related to experimental chemistry for junior college freshmen (aged from 16 to 18), entitled "ICT-integrated environmental learning", and to assess the learning performance of these students after completing the courses. This study adopts a quasi-experimental…

  20. In Search of Excellence: Practical Strategies for Managing Change in Environmental Health Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veninga, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    Describes three methods intended to assist in assessing the attitudes of environmental health organization employees with regard to change. Focuses on ways to bring about orderly organizational change, how to evaluate whether the changes are effective, and how to diminish resistance to new ideas. (Author/TW)

  1. Integrated crop–livestock systems: Strategies to achieve synergy between agricultural production and environmental quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A need to increase agricultural production across the world for food security appears to be at odds with the urgency to reduce agriculture’s negative environmental impacts. We suggest that a cause of this dichotomy is loss of diversity within agricultural systems at field, farm and landscape scales....

  2. International Strategy for Action in the Field of Environmental Education and Training for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya).

    This document is the result of discussion, additions, amendments, and approval of a working document submitted for this purpose to the Unesco-UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) International Congress on Environmental Education and Training (Moscow, USSR, August 1987). Part 1 seeks to highlight certain needs and priorities in respect to…

  3. Nutrition-Related Policy and Environmental Strategies to Prevent Obesity in Rural Communities: A Systematic Review of the Literature, 2002–2013

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Jennifer; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B.; Khan, Laura Kettel; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Evenson, Kelly R.; Schreiner, Michelle; Byker, Carmen; Owens, Clint; McGuirt, Jared; Barnidge, Ellen; Dean, Wesley; Johnson, Donna; Kolodinsky, Jane; Piltch, Emily; Pinard, Courtney; Quinn, Emilee; Whetstone, Lauren; Ammerman, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Residents of rural communities in the United States are at higher risk for obesity than their urban and suburban counterparts. Policy and environmental-change strategies supporting healthier dietary intake can prevent obesity and promote health equity. Evidence in support of these strategies is based largely on urban and suburban studies; little is known about use of these strategies in rural communities. The purpose of this review was to synthesize available evidence on the adaptation, implementation, and effectiveness of policy and environmental obesity-prevention strategies in rural settings. Methods The review was guided by a list of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Recommended Community Strategies and Measurements to Prevent Obesity in the United States, commonly known as the “COCOMO” strategies. We searched PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Public Affairs Information Service, and Cochrane databases for articles published from 2002 through 2013 that reported findings from research on nutrition-related policy and environmental strategies in rural communities in the United States and Canada. Two researchers independently abstracted data from each article, and resolved discrepancies by consensus. Results Of the 663 articles retrieved, 33 met inclusion criteria. The interventions most commonly focused on increasing access to more nutritious foods and beverages or decreasing access to less nutritious options. Rural adaptations included accommodating distance to food sources, tailoring to local food cultures, and building community partnerships. Conclusions Findings from this literature review provide guidance on adapting and implementing policy and environmental strategies in rural communities. PMID:25927605

  4. Toxicity considerations when revising the Nordic nutrition recommendations.

    PubMed

    Sandström, B

    1998-02-01

    The Nordic countries have issued common nutrition recommendations since 1980. In connection with the 3rd revision, a joint working group of nutritionists and toxicologists assessed the toxicology of selected trace elements. Values for upper limits of intake were established for iron, zinc, iodine and selenium. The safety factors between the lowest intakes at which adverse effects had been reported and the suggested upper limits of intake were small. In the toxicological evaluation of upper safe intake levels of essential trace elements, interactions between trace elements as well as long-term exposure to moderately elevated trace element intakes have to be considered. PMID:9478028

  5. 394delTT: a Nordic cystic fibrosis mutation.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, M; Anvret, M; Claustres, M; Eiken, H G; Eiklid, K; Schaedel, C; Stolpe, L; Tranebjaerg, L

    1994-02-01

    In a systematic screening for mutations in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator among Danish cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, we identified a mutation in exon 3 (394delTT); this mutation was found to be relatively common in Denmark. We therefore screened for 394delTT in Sweden and Norway, where it turned out to be the second most frequent mutation, accounting for 4% of all CF mutations. It also occurs with a high frequency in Finland, but has not been found in larger surveys of mutations in the CFTR gene. Thus, 394delTT seems to be a specific Nordic CF mutation.

  6. Environmental assessment of alternative municipal solid waste management strategies. A Spanish case study.

    PubMed

    Bovea, M D; Ibáñez-Forés, V; Gallardo, A; Colomer-Mendoza, F J

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study is to compare, from an environmental point of view, different alternatives for the management of municipal solid waste generated in the town of Castellón de la Plana (Spain). This town currently produces 207 ton of waste per day and the waste management system employed today involves the collection of paper/cardboard, glass and light packaging from materials banks and of rest waste at street-side containers. The proposed alternative scenarios were based on a combination of the following elements: selective collection targets to be accomplished by the year 2015 as specified in the Spanish National Waste Plan (assuming they are reached to an extent of 50% and 100%), different collection models implemented nationally, and diverse treatments of both the separated biodegradable fraction and the rest waste to be disposed of on landfills. This resulted in 24 scenarios, whose environmental behaviour was studied by applying the life cycle assessment methodology. In accordance with the ISO 14040-44 (2006) standard, an inventory model was developed for the following stages of the waste management life cycle: pre-collection (bags and containers), collection, transport, pre-treatment (waste separation) and treatment/disposal (recycling, composting, biogasification+composting, landfill with/without energy recovery). Environmental indicators were obtained for different impact categories, which made it possible to identify the key variables in the waste management system and the scenario that offers the best environmental behaviour. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was used to test some of the assumptions made in the initial life cycle inventory model.

  7. Debt-for-nature swaps: A new strategy for protecting environmental interests in developing nations

    SciTech Connect

    Hamlin, T.B. )

    1989-01-01

    Nature swaps are a generally well-conceived approach to mitigating the destruction of environmentally sensitive areas in developing nations while remaining sensitive to the economic needs of developing countries. They allow developing countries to dedicate some of their debt repayment to local projects, thus benefiting both their economies and the environment. Swaps also help them obtain assistance from environmental organizations in developed nations to manage their own natural resources. Environmentalists, through the purchase of steeply discounted debt, maximize their investment in tropical forest preservation. In addition they can strengthen environmental organizations in developing nations by including local environmentalists in both policy decisionmaking and the implementation of conservation projects. Debt-for-nature swaps also keep the subject of tropical deforestation on the agenda of the international community and offer small international lending institutions a socially redeeming means of removing bad loans from their ledgers. Finally, each government's authority to choose its own development objectives is only slightly encumbered by sharing decisionmaking authority with the environmentalists. Essentially, the swapping governments have agreed to cooperate. consequently, tropical forests only have as much protection as the tropical states desire. This does not mean that swaps are of little moment. Hopefully, collaboration between conservationists in the developed world and leaders of the developing nations will contribute to a constructive framework for future efforts to preserve the earth's tropical forests.

  8. Changes in body composition during breeding: Reproductive strategies of three species of seabirds under poor environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Shoshanah R; Edwards, Darryl B; Ringrose, Julian; Elliott, Kyle H; Weber, Jean-Michel; Gaston, Anthony J

    2011-01-01

    Seabirds differ dramatically in life history traits and breeding strategies. For example, gulls have short incubation shifts (several hours) and high metabolic rates, auks have medium-length incubation shifts (12-24h) and high metabolic rates, and petrels have long incubation shifts (days) and low metabolic rates. How these different strategies affect the dynamics of body components is poorly known. We compared body, organ and lipid mass changes among three different seabirds (gull: black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla; auk: thick-billed murre Uria lomvia; petrel: northern fulmar Fulmarus glacialis) at Prince Leopold Island, Nunavut, Canada during 2002 (a year with low reproductive success and poor chick growth across all three species). This study is among the first to compare mass and lipid dynamics among different species foraging in the same food web and at similar trophic levels during the same breeding season (same environmental conditions). In fulmars and murres, most of decreases in body mass reflected decreases in lipid mass while in kittiwakes the increase in body mass reflected an increase in lean mass, especially the muscle. The species with the longest fasting endurance (incubation shift length) had the highest percent body lipids during incubation (fulmars: 13.3%, murres: 7.3%, kittiwakes: 6.9%), the highest variability in body lipids, tended to regulate body mass primarily through lipid stores and tended to regulate exercise and digestive organs separately. In contrast, in the species with the highest metabolic rate, all organ systems were adjusted similarly and in relation to body mass, and in a similar manner between incubation (stress due to heavy ice conditions) and chick-rearing (lower stress due to ice-free conditions). In high metabolic rate species, we suggest that organ size varies in response to environmental stress. We conclude that the organ dynamics of seabirds are set by a combination of key life history traits (like incubation shift

  9. The integration of gender in medical research and education-obstacles and possibilities from a Nordic perspective.

    PubMed

    Hammarström, Anne

    2003-01-01

    Research on women's issues in medicine was developed in the Nordic countries from the beginning of the 1980s. The theoretical developments led to a change of concepts from women's health to gender research, within which the structurally organised relations between men and women are analysed. Over the last decades, gender research has slowly been established in medical faculties, as a result of a strong political commitment for increased research and integration of gender issues in the university curriculum in Sweden. The government has made substantial investments in order to stimulate gender research and education in different disciplines, with special focus on medicine. Academic medicine has responded to this development with different strategies, including resistance and redefining concepts. Gender research has slowly become integrated into both research and teaching within Nordic academic medicine, although the pathway has not been easy. Gender research has had political support but there is a risk of backlash. Medical students' reactions to gender education can be compared with academic medicine's reactions towards gender research. Obstacles and possibilities are described in relation to teaching gender in schools of medicine. Most important is to recognise the risks for increased gender stereotypes and increased essentialism among the students, unless gender is taught from a theoretical perspective. PMID:12956218

  10. Biodiversity losses and carbon emissions in Amazon region - the situation of contemporary period and strategies for reduce these environmental changes

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, M.A.V. de; Aquino, L.C.; Rosa, L.P.

    1997-12-31

    The forest removal is a major contributor to local, regional and global environmental changes. Many of the tropical`s species are gravely threatened Numerous studies suggest that from 1970 to 1990 between 5 and 20 percent of the tropical`s species were committed to extinction. In 1995, the deforested lands in Brazilian Amazon account an amount Superior to 470,000 Km{sup 2}, old deforestation included, for a total surface of tropical`s rain forest of 3.4 and 3.8 million square kilometres. In 1990`s, the amount of carbon released to the atmosphere (as CO{sub 2}) from Brazilian Amazon deforestation was 3.5 % to 4.9 % and 250 % to 360 % of the World and Brazilian annual emission from fossil fuels, respectively. On the other hand, if deforestation is stopped and replaced with a rational forest management, a reuse of degraded lands for agro-forestry and biomass production for energy and industrial purposes, we can reduce the pressure on forests lands and the net carbon flux will be reversed. In this paper, we discuss the relations with biodiversity losses and carbon emissions in Brazilian Amazon region in the last thirty years and find suggest the principal`s strategies to reduce this environmental`s destruction.

  11. Pollution prevention as a market-enhancing strategy: a storehouse of economical and environmental opportunities.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, J S

    1992-01-01

    EPA's (Environmental Protection Agency) Green Lights Program for energy-efficient lighting illustrates the economic benefits and the market-transforming value of a pollution prevention philosophy. Using technologies available today, and assuming current prices, this program is expected to reduce air pollution 5%, while saving the nation's businesses up to 20 billion in electric bills every year. However, these pollution prevention and savings estimates may be low. As Green Lights transforms the market for lighting services by creating a higher demand for better technologies at lower costs, the program will likely achieve even larger pollution reductions and electricity savings. PMID:11607262

  12. Human Coronaviruses: Insights into Environmental Resistance and Its Influence on the Development of New Antiseptic Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Geller, Chloé; Varbanov, Mihayl; Duval, Raphaël E.

    2012-01-01

    The Coronaviridae family, an enveloped RNA virus family, and, more particularly, human coronaviruses (HCoV), were historically known to be responsible for a large portion of common colds and other upper respiratory tract infections. HCoV are now known to be involved in more serious respiratory diseases, i.e. bronchitis, bronchiolitis or pneumonia, especially in young children and neonates, elderly people and immunosuppressed patients. They have also been involved in nosocomial viral infections. In 2002–2003, the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), due to a newly discovered coronavirus, the SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV); led to a new awareness of the medical importance of the Coronaviridae family. This pathogen, responsible for an emerging disease in humans, with high risk of fatal outcome; underline the pressing need for new approaches to the management of the infection, and primarily to its prevention. Another interesting feature of coronaviruses is their potential environmental resistance, despite the accepted fragility of enveloped viruses. Indeed, several studies have described the ability of HCoVs (i.e. HCoV 229E, HCoV OC43 (also known as betacoronavirus 1), NL63, HKU1 or SARS-CoV) to survive in different environmental conditions (e.g. temperature and humidity), on different supports found in hospital settings such as aluminum, sterile sponges or latex surgical gloves or in biological fluids. Finally, taking into account the persisting lack of specific antiviral treatments (there is, in fact, no specific treatment available to fight coronaviruses infections), the Coronaviridae specificities (i.e. pathogenicity, potential environmental resistance) make them a challenging model for the development of efficient means of prevention, as an adapted antisepsis-disinfection, to prevent the environmental spread of such infective agents. This review will summarize current knowledge on the capacity of human coronaviruses to survive in the

  13. Pollution prevention as a market-enhancing strategy: a storehouse of economical and environmental opportunities.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, J S

    1992-02-01

    EPA's (Environmental Protection Agency) Green Lights Program for energy-efficient lighting illustrates the economic benefits and the market-transforming value of a pollution prevention philosophy. Using technologies available today, and assuming current prices, this program is expected to reduce air pollution 5%, while saving the nation's businesses up to 20 billion in electric bills every year. However, these pollution prevention and savings estimates may be low. As Green Lights transforms the market for lighting services by creating a higher demand for better technologies at lower costs, the program will likely achieve even larger pollution reductions and electricity savings.

  14. Human coronaviruses: insights into environmental resistance and its influence on the development of new antiseptic strategies.

    PubMed

    Geller, Chloé; Varbanov, Mihayl; Duval, Raphaël E

    2012-11-12

    The Coronaviridae family, an enveloped RNA virus family, and, more particularly, human coronaviruses (HCoV), were historically known to be responsible for a large portion of common colds and other upper respiratory tract infections. HCoV are now known to be involved in more serious respiratory diseases, i.e. bronchitis, bronchiolitis or pneumonia, especially in young children and neonates, elderly people and immunosuppressed patients. They have also been involved in nosocomial viral infections. In 2002-2003, the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), due to a newly discovered coronavirus, the SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV); led to a new awareness of the medical importance of the Coronaviridae family. This pathogen, responsible for an emerging disease in humans, with high risk of fatal outcome; underline the pressing need for new approaches to the management of the infection, and primarily to its prevention. Another interesting feature of coronaviruses is their potential environmental resistance, despite the accepted fragility of enveloped viruses. Indeed, several studies have described the ability of HCoVs (i.e. HCoV 229E, HCoV OC43 (also known as betacoronavirus 1), NL63, HKU1 or SARS-CoV) to survive in different environmental conditions (e.g. temperature and humidity), on different supports found in hospital settings such as aluminum, sterile sponges or latex surgical gloves or in biological fluids. Finally, taking into account the persisting lack of specific antiviral treatments (there is, in fact, no specific treatment available to fight coronaviruses infections), the Coronaviridae specificities (i.e. pathogenicity, potential environmental resistance) make them a challenging model for the development of efficient means of prevention, as an adapted antisepsis-disinfection, to prevent the environmental spread of such infective agents. This review will summarize current knowledge on the capacity of human coronaviruses to survive in the

  15. Krafting an agreement: Negotiations to reduce pollution from the Nordic pulp industry, 1985--1989

    SciTech Connect

    Auer, M.R.

    1996-05-01

    International environmental accords frequently contain obligations that may be easily satisfied by their signatories. Observers have speculated why it is in a state`s interests to sign agreements that lack strict conditions, but policy analysts lack a coherent model explaining how such agreements are formalized. Knowledge, values, and authority are key forces that elucidate how environmental accords are developed with provisions that are easily executable. This dissertation examines the formulation of Helsinki Commission recommendations to reduce emissions of organochlorines from Nordic kraft pulp mills. The kraft pulp industry, the largest industrial pollution emitter to the Baltic Sea, is also a crucial foreign exchange earner for both Sweden and Finland. Hence, Swedes and Finns were the most active participants in regional negotiations to reduce organochlorine emissions. Key variable analysis explains how obstacles in various regional negotiations were overcome, and how parties constructed a recommendation with obligations that could be easily accommodated. The two sides never agreed about the level of risk posed by organochlorines in the marine environment. This problem influenced the strictness of pollution limits specified in the final agreement. But, the parties overcame formidable obstacles in the negotiations, including: (1) concerns about costs to industry and competitive disadvantages in the pulp and paper sector; (2) disagreement about technologies to combat the problem; and (3) domestic rule-making schedules that were out of sync.

  16. NORDHOM - a Nordic collaboration to homogenize long-term climate data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engström, Erik; Carlund, Thomas; Laapas, Mikko; Aalto, Juha; Drebs, Achim; Lundstad, Elin; Motrøen Gjelte, Herdis; Vint, Kairi

    2015-04-01

    High-quality instrumental climate records are crucial for analysis of climate variability. Long-term climate series are however often affected by inhomogeneities (artificial shifts) due to changes in measurement conditions (relocations, instrumentation, change in environment, etc.). To deal with this problem homogenization procedures have been developed for detecting and adjusting inhomogeneities. The climate services at the Nordic NMHSs have a long profound tradition in cooperation on activities of common interest. One successful activity within this collaboration was establishing the North Atlantic Climatological Dataset (NACD) in the 1990s. The NACD data set (1890-) was later continued as the Nordic Climate Dataset (NkDS). Since the mid-1990s there have been little systematic homogenization efforts at the Nordic NMHSs. It was agreed at an expert meeting within the "Nordic Framework for Climate services (NFCS)" in 2012, to establish a NFCS-project NORDHOM: "Nordic collaboration on long-term homogeneous climate data records". The ongoing activities in NORDHOM are to establish common methods for homogeneity testing and adjustment for inhomogeneities, homogenize long Nordic temperature and precipitation series, and update the Nordic Climate Dataset. We are now summarizing what we have achieved during the first phase (2013-2014) of the project and have an outlook what will follow during the second phase (2015-2016). There will also be some examples from each participating country in the collaboration.

  17. Energy allocation strategy modifies growth-survival trade-offs in juvenile fish across ecological and environmental gradients.

    PubMed

    Mogensen, Stephanie; Post, John R

    2012-04-01

    In young temperate zone fishes, conflicting energy demands lead to variability in growing season and winter survival. Growing season survival is driven by size-dependent predation risk whereas winter survival is constrained by autumn body size, energy storage and winter duration. We developed a model of the seasonality of energetics coupled to empirical measures of resource availability, size-dependent predation and temperature seasonality for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in two sets of lakes in British Columbia, Canada, representing endpoints of a gradient of temperature, growing season duration and winter duration. This model was used to determine the energy allocation strategy which maximized first-year survival across these gradients. Survival was sensitive to the timing of the switch from somatic to storage strategies in cold, short growing season, low resource environments. A broader range of energy allocation strategies were viable in warmer, longer growing season and higher resource lakes. We used empirical observations of autumn energy storage and our modeled values for size-dependent minimal lipid levels needed to survive winter in each system to estimate winter survival for juvenile rainbow trout. Winter survival estimates were 6% in cold lakes with low resources, 82% in warm, lakes with low resources and 100% in warm lakes with high resources. Fish in warm lakes with ample resources allocated substantially more to storage than the minimum required to survive winter generated from our model, suggesting additional selection pressures for increased storage when there was ample surplus energy. We concluded that growth-survival trade-offs, modified by seasonality of the environment, influenced the growing season energy allocation strategies for young-of-the-year fish, and suggested this may be important for understanding population viability across environmental gradients.

  18. A System of Oceanic Reanalysis (SOR) fot the Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pnyushkov, A.

    2009-04-01

    A system of oceanic reanalysis of the Nordic seas (Norwegian, Greenland and Barents seas) directed to the investigations of long period changes in the oceanic climate of the Arctic sub-polar seas was developed. The system of oceanic reanalysys (SOR) includes hybrid coordinate 22-th level ocean model HYCOM [Bleck,2002] and modern oceanographic data assimilation technique based on spectral nudging method. A series of test experiments was carried out and optimal parameters for assimilation routine were choused. These parameters take into account the accuracy of spatial restoring by means objective analysis procedure and phase distortion in modeling fields during monotonous assimilation of monthly distributions. On the basis of modeling results a set of monthly mean hydrological distributions of thermohaline parameters was created for the Nordic seas that was used for climatic field compilations on the standard levels for period 1957-1990. The data of reanalysis system projections allow us to restore the information about structure and dynamic of oceanographic fields for the periods and areas with a small number of direct measurements, for example East-Greenland currents area, north and north-east parts of the Barents sea. A series of additional experiments with SOR were performed directed to the simple assimilation of sea ice concentration data. A significant improvement of the system of objectively analyzed field preparation was done during 2008 including additional validation procedure of gridded arrays with using the direct data of oceanographic stations. This work was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant 07-05-00393).

  19. The NORDIC WIND TUNNEL­ -- a very large turbulence research facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wosnik, Martin; George, William K.; Karlsson, Rolf I.; Johansson, T. Gunnar

    2001-11-01

    Many ideas in turbulence theory have never truly been tested because of the absence of large and long enough research facilities with low background turbulence. A separation of turbulence scales, energy/dissipation, of 10^5 or larger is required -- while still resolving the smallest scales with the smallest technically feasible probes (>10μm). Experiments in a large research wind tunnel are needed. Such a facility has been proposed at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden. The Nordic Wind Tunnel has a test section length of 40 m, cross section after contraction 3 m x 3 m, maximum free stream speed 40 m/s and a free stream turbulence u'/U of 0.01%. The planned wind tunnel will be wide enough to remove the effect of side walls on the energetic turbulence scales, fast and large enough to get the necessary high Reynolds numbers, yet still resolve the dissipative scales and long enough and with low enough background disturbances to obtain the necessary downstream development times. For a model of the wind tunnel see http://www.tfd.chalmers.se/trl/windtunnel/ The Nordic Wind Tunnel will be made available to turbulence researchers worldwide, expressions of interest are hereby solicited.

  20. Alcohol problems among suicide attempters in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, A S; Bille-Brahe, U; Hjelmeland, H; Jensen, B; Ostamo, A; Salander-Renberg, E; Wasserman, D

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to see whether and how the number of suicide attempters with alcohol problems and their drinking habits differ between the Nordic areas under study. Problem-drinkers were defined as persons who themselves felt that they had an alcohol problem. The analyses were based on data collected at five Nordic research centers participating in the WHO/Euro Multicentre Study on Parasuicide, namely: Helsinki (Finland); Umeå and Stockholm (Sweden); Słr-Trłndelag (Norway); and Odense (Denmark). The results showed that the frequency of problem-drinking among suicide attempters differed markedly between the areas under study; the Finnish male and the Danish female suicide attempters included the highest proportions of self-identified problem-drinkers. The pattern of drinking among the suicide attempters also differed between the areas. The analyses indicate that the point when alcohol becomes a problem to somebody, especially to a degree that it increases the risk of suicidal behavior, not only depends on how much and how often the person drinks alcohol; the prevailing drinking pattern, the attitudes towards drinking alcohol, and the level of social control are also important factors to take into consideration when relations between alcohol and suicidal behavior are under study. PMID:9018904

  1. Water masses and 129I distribution in the Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfimov, Vasily; Aldahan, Ala; Possnert, Göran

    2013-01-01

    The application of the radioactive isotope iodine-129 as a tracer of water circulation in the oceans has provided interesting information with respect to sources and mixing of different water masses. We here present results of 129I distribution in water profiles located in the Nordic Seas and use the isotope to fingerprint water masses in the region. The samples were collected by the US research vessel Knorr in May-June 2002. 129I signatures along the Norwegian Sea reflect a mixing of 129I-rich surface water along the Scandinavian continental slope and 129I-poor North Atlantic surface water. These two water masses become less segregated along the Fram Strait where apparent 129I enrichment penetrates the return Arctic flow into the East Greenland Current. The 129I data further suggest existence of a water mass that is not entirely labeled with respect to origin at the Denmark Strait bottom water. This water parcel probably originates from the Iceland Sea. 129I data also shed light on the major deep water outflow from the Nordic Seas located at the Faeroe Bank Channel.

  2. Environmental Education as a social mobilization strategy to face water scarcity.

    PubMed

    Piccoli, Andrezza de Souza; Kligerman, Débora Cynamon; Cohen, Simone Cynamon; Assumpção, Rafaela Facchetti

    2016-03-01

    Article 225 of the Brazilian Constitution establishes that all citizens have the right to an ecologically balanced environment, as a common good that is essential for a healthy life, and that the government and society have the duty to protect and preserve the environment for present and future generations. This article outlines a methodology for promoting social mobilization to address water scarcity developed under the National Environmental Education and Social Mobilization for Sanitation Program (PEAMSS, acronym in Portuguese). The main aim of this article is to show the importance of education as a driving force for empowerment for water resources management. It outlines the main concepts of emancipatory environmental education and then goes on to describe the elaboration of a PEAMMS action plan. It concludes that the universalization of the right to safe and clean drinking water and access to sanitation is only possible through democratic and participatory water resources management. Actions are necessary to evaluate the reach of the PEAMSS and define the way ahead for the program.

  3. Environmental Education as a social mobilization strategy to face water scarcity.

    PubMed

    Piccoli, Andrezza de Souza; Kligerman, Débora Cynamon; Cohen, Simone Cynamon; Assumpção, Rafaela Facchetti

    2016-03-01

    Article 225 of the Brazilian Constitution establishes that all citizens have the right to an ecologically balanced environment, as a common good that is essential for a healthy life, and that the government and society have the duty to protect and preserve the environment for present and future generations. This article outlines a methodology for promoting social mobilization to address water scarcity developed under the National Environmental Education and Social Mobilization for Sanitation Program (PEAMSS, acronym in Portuguese). The main aim of this article is to show the importance of education as a driving force for empowerment for water resources management. It outlines the main concepts of emancipatory environmental education and then goes on to describe the elaboration of a PEAMMS action plan. It concludes that the universalization of the right to safe and clean drinking water and access to sanitation is only possible through democratic and participatory water resources management. Actions are necessary to evaluate the reach of the PEAMSS and define the way ahead for the program. PMID:26960092

  4. Energy expenditure and comfort during Nordic walking with different pole lengths.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Ernst A; Smith, Gerald

    2009-07-01

    Energy expenditure and comfort for Nordic walking with self-selected and 7.5-cm shorter poles and ordinary walking were measured during uphill (12 degrees ), downhill (12 degrees ), and horizontally. Twelve (11 women and 1 man) Nordic walking practitioners participated (mean +/- SEM: 171.5 +/- 1.5 cm, 67.0 +/- 2.7 kg, 50.6 +/- 2.4 years, and maximal oxygen uptake of 43.4 +/- 2.8 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)). Energy expenditure was calculated from oxygen uptake and comfort was self-rated. Differences in physiological responses between the 3 locomotion types at each slope were first analyzed by a 1-way analysis of variance. In case of significance, Student's paired samples 2-tailed t-test was applied twice to test for differences between the 2 pole lengths and between Nordic walking (with self-selected pole length) and ordinary walking. The corresponding differences in comfort were evaluated by a Wilcoxon matched pairs test. The relative exercise intensity during Nordic walking with self-selected pole length ranged between approximately 44 and 87% of the maximal oxygen uptake across the different slopes. For comparison, it ranged between approximately 29 and 80% during ordinary walking. Uphill Nordic walking with short poles compared with poles of self-selected length caused 3% greater energy expenditure. Notwithstanding, comfort was similar. Horizontally and downhill energy expenditure and comfort were similar between pole lengths. Compared with ordinary walking, Nordic walking required as much as 67% greater energy expenditure. Comfort was similar for ordinary and Nordic walking for each slope. In conclusion, shorter poles caused greater energy expenditure during uphill Nordic walking, whereas comfort was similar to poles of self-selected length. The substantially enhanced energy expenditure of Nordic walking compared with previous studies reflects the vigorous technique used here.

  5. Physical Activity–Related Policy and Environmental Strategies to Prevent Obesity in Rural Communities: A Systematic Review of the Literature, 2002–2013

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Cynthia K.; Sumrall, Jasmin C.; Patterson, Megan S.; Walsh, Shana M.; Clendennen, Stephanie C.; Hooker, Steven P.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Goins, Karin V.; Heinrich, Katie M.; O’Hara Tompkins, Nancy; Eyler, Amy A.; Jones, Sydney; Tabak, Rachel; Valko, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Health disparities exist between rural and urban residents; in particular, rural residents have higher rates of chronic diseases and obesity. Evidence supports the effectiveness of policy and environmental strategies to prevent obesity and promote health equity. In 2009, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended 24 policy and environmental strategies for use by local communities: the Common Community Measures for Obesity Prevention (COCOMO); 12 strategies focus on physical activity. This review was conducted to synthesize evidence on the implementation, relevance, and effectiveness of physical activity–related policy and environmental strategies for obesity prevention in rural communities. Methods A literature search was conducted in PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, CINHAL, and PAIS databases for articles published from 2002 through May 2013 that reported findings from physical activity–related policy or environmental interventions conducted in the United States or Canada. Each article was extracted independently by 2 researchers. Results Of 2,002 articles, 30 articles representing 26 distinct studies met inclusion criteria. Schools were the most common setting (n = 18 studies). COCOMO strategies were applied in rural communities in 22 studies; the 2 most common COCOMO strategies were “enhance infrastructure supporting walking” (n = 11) and “increase opportunities for extracurricular physical activity” (n = 9). Most studies (n = 21) applied at least one of 8 non-COCOMO strategies; the most common was increasing physical activity opportunities at school outside of physical education (n = 8). Only 14 studies measured or reported physical activity outcomes (10 studies solely used self-report); 10 reported positive changes. Conclusion Seven of the 12 COCOMO physical activity–related strategies were successfully implemented in 2 or more studies, suggesting that these 7 strategies are relevant in rural communities and the

  6. Strategy for the meteorological and environmental airborne observations over the Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chulkyu; Chang, Ki-Ho; Jung, Jae-Won; Cha, Joo-Wan; Choi, Young-Jean; Kim, Kyungsik

    2011-01-01

    Aircraft campaigns for the meteorological and environmental research have been conducted in regional and global scales. The aircraft is increasingly considered as one of the best platforms to get the atmospheric three-dimensional information, especially over sea. We discuss the airborne observation plan and payloads designed for the aircraft campaigns over the Korean Peninsula. The main goals of the campaigns are to (i) conduct precipitation (snow) enhancement experiments with observations of the microphysical properties of clouds, dominantly in winter, (ii) monitor the severe weather generally in summer, (iii) characterize the climate change composition and the outflow of pollution from the Asian continent of the troposphere over the Korean Peninsula generally in spring or fall, and (iv) validate satellite and ground-based remote measurements of tropospheric composition generally in spring or fall.

  7. [Azo dyes, their environmental effects, and defining a strategy for their biodegradation and detoxification].

    PubMed

    Gudelj, Ivana; Hrenović, Jasna; Dragičević, Tibela Landeka; Delaš, Frane; Soljan, Vice; Gudelj, Hrvoje

    2011-03-01

    Intense industrial development has been accompanied by the production of wastewaters of very complex content, which pose a serious hazard to the environment, put at risk sustainable development, and call for new treatment technologies that would more effectively address the issue. One particular challenge in terms of science and technology is how to biodegrade xenobiotics such as azo dyes, which practically do not degrade under natural environmental conditions. These compounds tend to bioaccumulate in the environment, and have allergenic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic properties for humans. Removal of azo dyes from effluents is mostly based on physical-chemical methods. These methods are often very costly and limited, as they accumulate concentrated sludge, which also poses a significant secondary disposal problem, or produce toxic end-products. Biotechnological approach may offer alternative, lowcost biological treatment systems that can completely biodegrade and detoxify even the hard-to-biodegrade azo dyes.

  8. Environmental prediction, risk assessment and extreme events: adaptation strategies for the developing world.

    PubMed

    Webster, Peter J; Jian, Jun

    2011-12-13

    The uncertainty associated with predicting extreme weather events has serious implications for the developing world, owing to the greater societal vulnerability to such events. Continual exposure to unanticipated extreme events is a contributing factor for the descent into perpetual and structural rural poverty. We provide two examples of how probabilistic environmental prediction of extreme weather events can support dynamic adaptation. In the current climate era, we describe how short-term flood forecasts have been developed and implemented in Bangladesh. Forecasts of impending floods with horizons of 10 days are used to change agricultural practices and planning, store food and household items and evacuate those in peril. For the first time in Bangladesh, floods were anticipated in 2007 and 2008, with broad actions taking place in advance of the floods, grossing agricultural and household savings measured in units of annual income. We argue that probabilistic environmental forecasts disseminated to an informed user community can reduce poverty caused by exposure to unanticipated extreme events. Second, it is also realized that not all decisions in the future can be made at the village level and that grand plans for water resource management require extensive planning and funding. Based on imperfect models and scenarios of economic and population growth, we further suggest that flood frequency and intensity will increase in the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Yangtze catchments as greenhouse-gas concentrations increase. However, irrespective of the climate-change scenario chosen, the availability of fresh water in the latter half of the twenty-first century seems to be dominated by population increases that far outweigh climate-change effects. Paradoxically, fresh water availability may become more critical if there is no climate change.

  9. Environmental prediction, risk assessment and extreme events: adaptation strategies for the developing world

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Peter J.; Jian, Jun

    2011-01-01

    The uncertainty associated with predicting extreme weather events has serious implications for the developing world, owing to the greater societal vulnerability to such events. Continual exposure to unanticipated extreme events is a contributing factor for the descent into perpetual and structural rural poverty. We provide two examples of how probabilistic environmental prediction of extreme weather events can support dynamic adaptation. In the current climate era, we describe how short-term flood forecasts have been developed and implemented in Bangladesh. Forecasts of impending floods with horizons of 10 days are used to change agricultural practices and planning, store food and household items and evacuate those in peril. For the first time in Bangladesh, floods were anticipated in 2007 and 2008, with broad actions taking place in advance of the floods, grossing agricultural and household savings measured in units of annual income. We argue that probabilistic environmental forecasts disseminated to an informed user community can reduce poverty caused by exposure to unanticipated extreme events. Second, it is also realized that not all decisions in the future can be made at the village level and that grand plans for water resource management require extensive planning and funding. Based on imperfect models and scenarios of economic and population growth, we further suggest that flood frequency and intensity will increase in the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Yangtze catchments as greenhouse-gas concentrations increase. However, irrespective of the climate-change scenario chosen, the availability of fresh water in the latter half of the twenty-first century seems to be dominated by population increases that far outweigh climate-change effects. Paradoxically, fresh water availability may become more critical if there is no climate change. PMID:22042897

  10. Environmental variability drives rapid and dramatic changes in nutrient limitation of tropical macroalgae with different ecological strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausing, Rachel J.; Fong, Peggy

    2016-06-01

    Nitrogen (N) or phosphorus (P) limits primary productivity in nearly every ecosystem worldwide, yet how limitation changes over time, particularly in connection to variation in environmental drivers, remains understudied. We evaluated temporal and species-specific variability in the relative importance of N and P limitation among tropical macroalgae in two-factor experiments conducted twice after rains and twice after dry conditions to explore potential linkages to environmental drivers. We studied three common macroalgal species with varying ecological strategies: a fast-growing opportunist, Dictyota bartayresiana; and two calcifying species likely to be slower growing, Galaxaura fasciculata and Padina boryana. On the scale of days to weeks, nutrient responses ranged among and within species from no limitation to increases in growth by 20 and 40 % over controls in 3 d with N and P addition, respectively. After light rain or dry conditions, Dictyota grew rapidly (up to ~60 % in 3 d) with little indication of nutrient limitation, while Padina and Galaxaura shifted between N, P, or no limitation. All species grew slowly or lost mass after a large storm, presumably due to unfavorable conditions on the reef prior to the experiment that limited nutrient uptake. Padina and Galaxaura both became nutrient limited 3 d post-storm, while Dictyota did not. These results suggest that differing capabilities for nutrient uptake and storage dictate the influence of nutrient history and thus drive nutrient responses and, in doing so, may allow species with differing ecological strategies to coexist in a fluctuating environment. Moreover, the great variability in species' responses indicates that patterns of nutrient limitation are more complex than previously recognized, and generalizations about N versus P limitation of a given system may not convey the inherent complexity in governing conditions and processes.

  11. A Rapid Strategy for the Isolation of New Faustoviruses from Environmental Samples Using Vermamoeba vermiformis.

    PubMed

    Bou Khalil, Jacques Yaacoub; Andreani, Julien; Raoult, Didier; La Scola, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    The isolation of giant viruses is of great interest in this new era of virology, especially since these giant viruses are related to protists. Giant viruses may be potentially pathogenic for many species of protists. They belong to the recently described order of Megavirales. The new lineage Faustovirus that has been isolated from sewage samples is distantly related to the mammalian pathogen African swine fever virus. This virus is also specific to its amoebal host, Vermamoeba vermiformis, a protist common in health care water systems. It is crucial to continue isolating new Faustovirus genotypes in order to enlarge its genotype collection and study its pan-genome. We developed new strategies for the isolation of additional strains by improving the use of antibiotic and antifungal combinations in order to avoid bacterial and fungal contaminations of the amoeba co-culture and favoring the virus multiplication. We also implemented a new starvation medium to maintain V. vermiformis in optimal conditions for viruses co-culture. Finally, we used flow cytometry rather than microscopic observation, which is time-consuming, to detect the cytopathogenic effect. We obtained two isolates from sewage samples, proving the efficiency of this method and thus widening the collection of Faustoviruses, to better understand their environment, host specificity and genetic content. PMID:27341059

  12. A Rapid Strategy for the Isolation of New Faustoviruses from Environmental Samples Using Vermamoeba vermiformis.

    PubMed

    Bou Khalil, Jacques Yaacoub; Andreani, Julien; Raoult, Didier; La Scola, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    The isolation of giant viruses is of great interest in this new era of virology, especially since these giant viruses are related to protists. Giant viruses may be potentially pathogenic for many species of protists. They belong to the recently described order of Megavirales. The new lineage Faustovirus that has been isolated from sewage samples is distantly related to the mammalian pathogen African swine fever virus. This virus is also specific to its amoebal host, Vermamoeba vermiformis, a protist common in health care water systems. It is crucial to continue isolating new Faustovirus genotypes in order to enlarge its genotype collection and study its pan-genome. We developed new strategies for the isolation of additional strains by improving the use of antibiotic and antifungal combinations in order to avoid bacterial and fungal contaminations of the amoeba co-culture and favoring the virus multiplication. We also implemented a new starvation medium to maintain V. vermiformis in optimal conditions for viruses co-culture. Finally, we used flow cytometry rather than microscopic observation, which is time-consuming, to detect the cytopathogenic effect. We obtained two isolates from sewage samples, proving the efficiency of this method and thus widening the collection of Faustoviruses, to better understand their environment, host specificity and genetic content.

  13. Environmental issues and management strategies for waste electronic and electrical equipment.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Timothy G

    2011-06-01

    Issues surrounding the impact and management of discarded or waste electronic and electrical equipment (WEEE) have received increasing attention in recent years. This attention stems from the growing quantity and diversity of electronic and electrical equipment (EEE) used by modern society, the increasingly rapid turnover of EEE with the accompanying burden on the waste stream, and the occurrence of toxic chemicals in many EEE components that can pose a risk to human and environmental health if improperly managed. In addition, public awareness of the WEEE or "e-waste" dilemma has grown in light of popular press features on events such as the transition to digital television and the exportation of WEEE from the United States and other developed countries to Africa, China, and India, where WEEE has often not been managed in a safe manner (e.g., processed with proper safety precautions, disposed of in a sanitary landfill, combusted with proper air quality procedures). This paper critically reviews current published information on the subject of WEEE. The definition, magnitude, and characteristics of this waste stream are summarized, including a detailed review of the chemicals of concern associated with different components and how this has changed and continues to evolve over time. Current and evolving management practices are described (e.g., reuse, recycling, incineration, landfilling). This review discusses the role of regulation and policies developed by governments, institutions, and product manufacturers and how these initiatives are shaping current and future management practices.

  14. Eco-environmentally friendly operational regulation: an effective strategy to diminish the TDG supersaturation of reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, J. J.; Li, R.; Liang, R. F.; Shen, X.

    2013-11-01

    The presence of elevated total dissolved gas (TDG) downstream of a spillway may result in an increased incidence of gas bubble disease in fish. Supersaturated TDG is transported and dissipated more slowly in reservoirs than in natural rivers because of a higher water depth and lower turbulence and endangers fish. This paper presents the operational regulations concerning the mitigation of the TDG supersaturation impact on fish in the Bala Reservoir on the Zumuzu River. The paper includes the joint operations of the upstream and downstream power stations. A laterally averaged two-dimensional model is employed to simulate the TDG transportation and dissipation in the Bala Reservoir in addition to the hydrodynamics and water temperature. According to a comparison of the simulation results of different operational scenarios, this paper suggests a regulation scheme. With respect to the upstream power station, the adoption of an interval-discharge pattern instead of a continuous-discharge pattern is recommended to minimize the negative effect on the reservoir caused by supersaturated TDG. With respect to the downstream power station, the adoption of a surface tunnel rather than a bottom tunnel is recommended as a release structure. This paper is a reference for the eco-environmentally friendly operation of large and deep reservoirs.

  15. Eco-environmentally friendly operational regulation: an effective strategy to diminish the TDG supersaturation of reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, J.; Li, R.; Liang, R.; Shen, X.

    2014-03-01

    The presence of elevated total dissolved gas (TDG) downstream of a spillway may result in an increased incidence of gas bubble disease in fish. Supersaturated TDG is transported and dissipated more slowly in reservoirs than in natural rivers because of a higher water depth and lower turbulence and thus endangers fish. This paper presents the operational regulations concerning the mitigation of the TDG supersaturation impact on fish in the Bala Reservoir on the Zumuzu River. The paper includes the joint operations of the upstream and downstream power stations. A laterally averaged two-dimensional model is employed to simulate the TDG transportation and dissipation in the Bala Reservoir in addition to the hydrodynamics and water temperature. According to a comparison of the simulation results of different operational scenarios, this paper suggests a regulation scheme. With respect to the upstream power station, the adoption of an interval-discharge pattern instead of a continuous-discharge pattern is recommended to minimize the negative effect on the reservoir caused by supersaturated TDG. With respect to the downstream power station, the adoption of a surface tunnel rather than a bottom tunnel is recommended as a release structure. This paper is a reference for the eco-environmentally friendly operation of large and deep reservoirs.

  16. Multiple environmental controls on phytoplankton growth strategies determine adaptive responses of the N : P ratio.

    PubMed

    Daines, Stuart J; Clark, James R; Lenton, Timothy M

    2014-04-01

    The controls on the 'Redfield' N : P stoichiometry of marine phytoplankton and hence the N : P ratio of the deep ocean remain incompletely understood. Here, we use a model for phytoplankton ecophysiology and growth, based on functional traits and resource-allocation trade-offs, to show how environmental filtering, biotic interactions, and element cycling in a global ecosystem model determine phytoplankton biogeography, growth strategies and macromolecular composition. Emergent growth strategies capture major observed patterns in marine biomes. Using a new synthesis of experimental RNA and protein measurements to constrain per-ribosome translation rates, we determine a spatially variable lower limit on adaptive rRNA:protein allocation and hence on the relationship between the largest cellular P and N pools. Comparison with the lowest observed phytoplankton N : P ratios and N : P export fluxes in the Southern Ocean suggests that additional contributions from phospholipid and phosphorus storage compounds play a fundamental role in determining the marine biogeochemical cycling of these elements.

  17. Biodiversity and Environmental Gradients Across the Tropical Pacific Islands: A New Strategy for Research and Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller-Dombois, Dieter

    The theory of island biogeography of MacArthur and Wilson (1967) represents a first attempt at developing a unifying concept for biodiversity research across islands and fragmented biomes. It uses two physical parameters, distance (or isolation) and size of area to define species equilibria. This contribution expands on the theory by adding a third physical parameter, elevation (or topography), to focus on biodiversity relationships. This third parameter allows island ecosystems to be connected horizontally across Pacific-wide biomes. It also permits the establishment of ecological gradients across the Pacific to study and compare the structure and function of enriched versus impoverished biodiversities in similar habitats. In combination with this horizontal approach, a vertical approach is suggested for interdisciplinary research. For this, the fresh-water flow or hydrology is seen as the unifying parameter that links several ecosystems in an upland/lowland relationship. The two approaches represent a new strategy for biodiversity research and conservation in the Pacific area. A biodiversity transect with ILTER (International Long-Term Ecological Research) sites forming a network from Eastern and Northern Polynesia to Borneo, and including the oceanic archipelagoes near the American continents, is currently envisioned by the PSA (Pacific Science Association) Task Force on Biodiversity (Kitayama and Mueller-Dombois 1997). This new program, which has evolved from a first synthesis of Pacific island vegetation and landscapes (Mueller-Dombois and Fosberg 1998) is to become a contribution to the DIVERSITAS program launched in 1994 under the auspices of the IUBS (International Union of Biological Sciences) and the International Council of Scientific Unions in Paris, and by DIWPA (Diversitas in Western Pacific and Asia in Kyoto).

  18. A whole-farm strategy to reduce environmental impacts of nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Sonneveld, M P W; Schröder, J J; de Vos, J A; Monteny, G J; Mosquera, J; Hol, J M G; Lantinga, E A; Verhoeven, F P M; Bouma, J

    2008-01-01

    Dutch regulations for ammonia emission require farmers to inject slurry into the soil (shallow) or to apply it in narrow bands at the surface. For one commercial dairy farm in the Netherlands it was hypothesized that its alternative farming strategy, including low-protein feeding and surface spreading, could be an equally effective tool for ammonia emission abatement. The overall objective of the research was to investigate how management at this farm is related to nitrogen (N) losses to the environment, including groundwater and surface water. Gaseous emission of ammonia and greenhouse gasses from the naturally ventilated stables were 8.1 and 3.1 kg yr(-1) AU(-1) on average using the internal tracer (SF(6))-ratio method. Measurements on volatilization of ammonia from slurry application to the field using an integrated horizontal flux method and the micrometeorological mass balance method yielded relatively low values of ammonia emissions per ha (3.5-10.9 kg NH(3)-N ha(-1)). The mean nitrate concentration in the upper ground water was 6.7 mg L(-1) for 2004 and 3.0 mg L(-1) for 2005, and the half-year summer means of N in surface water were 2.3 mg N L(-1) and 3.4 mg N L(-1) for 2004 and 2005, respectively. Using a nutrient budget model for this farm, partly based on these findings, it was found that the calculated ammonia loss per ton milk (range 5.3-7.5 kg N Mg(-1)) is comparable with the estimated ammonia loss of a conventional farm that applies animal slurry using prescribed technologies.

  19. Radon Update: Facts concerning environmental radon: Levels, mitigation strategies, dosimetry, effects and guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Brill, A.B.; Becker, D.V.; Donahoe, K.

    1994-02-01

    The risk from environmental radon levels is not higher now than in the past, when residential exposures were not considered to be a significant health hazard. The majority of the radon dose is not from radon itself, but from short-lived alpha-emitting radon daughters, most notably {sup 218}Po (T{sub {1/2}}3min) and {sup 214}Po(T{sub {1/2}}19.7 min). Radon gas can penetrate homes from many sources and in various fashions. Measuring radon in homes is simple and relatively inexpensive and may be accomplished in a variety of ways. Although it is not possible to radon-proof a house, it is possible to reduce the level. In high radon areas, if the average level is higher than 4-8 pCi/liter (NCRP recommended level is 8 pCi/liter; EPA recommmended level is 4 PCi/liter), appropriate action is advised. The shape of the dose response curves for miners exposed to alpha-emitting particles in the workplace is consistent with current biologic knowledge. It is linear in the low dose range and saturates in the high dose range. No detectable increase in lung cancer frequency is seen in the lowest exposed miners (those with exposures <120 WLM, the relevant dose interval for most homes). Evidence for a health effect from radon exposure is based on data from animal studies and epidemiologic studies of mines. Extensive radiobiologic data predict a linear dose-response curve in the low dose region due to poor biological repair mechanisms for the high density of ionizing events that alpha particles create. However, no compelling evidence for increased cancer risks has yet been demonstrated from {open_quotes}acceptable{close_quotes}levels (<4-8 pCi/liter). 58 refs., 11 figs., 12 tabs.

  20. Overview of eutrophication indicators to assess environmental status within the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, João G.; Andersen, Jesper H.; Borja, Angel; Bricker, Suzanne B.; Camp, Jordi; Cardoso da Silva, Margarida; Garcés, Esther; Heiskanen, Anna-Stiina; Humborg, Christoph; Ignatiades, Lydia; Lancelot, Christiane; Menesguen, Alain; Tett, Paul; Hoepffner, Nicolas; Claussen, Ulrich

    2011-06-01

    In 2009, following approval of the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC), the European Commission (EC) created task groups to develop guidance for eleven quality descriptors that form the basis for evaluating ecosystem function. The objective was to provide European countries with practical guidelines for implementing the MSFD, and to produce a Commission Decision that encapsulated key points of the work in a legal framework. This paper presents a review of work carried out by the eutrophication task group, and reports our main findings to the scientific community. On the basis of an operational, management-oriented definition, we discuss the main methodologies that could be used for coastal and marine eutrophication assessment. Emphasis is placed on integrated approaches that account for physico-chemical and biological components, and combine both pelagic and benthic symptoms of eutrophication, in keeping with the holistic nature of the MSFD. We highlight general features that any marine eutrophication model should possess, rather than making specific recommendations. European seas range from highly eutrophic systems such as the Baltic to nutrient-poor environments such as the Aegean Sea. From a physical perspective, marine waters range from high energy environments of the north east Atlantic to the permanent vertical stratification of the Black Sea. This review aimed to encapsulate that variability, recognizing that meaningful guidance should be flexible enough to accommodate the widely differing characteristics of European seas, and that this information is potentially relevant in marine ecosystems worldwide. Given the spatial extent of the MSFD, innovative approaches are required to allow meaningful monitoring and assessment. Consequently, substantial logistic and financial challenges will drive research in areas such as remote sensing of harmful algal blooms, in situ sensor development, and mathematical models. Our review takes into

  1. Nordic Walking and chronic low back pain: design of a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Morsø, Lars; Hartvigsen, Jan; Puggaard, Lis; Manniche, Claus

    2006-01-01

    Background Low Back Pain is a major public health problem all over the western world. Active approaches including exercise in the treatment of low back pain results in better outcomes for patients, but it is not known exactly which types of back exercises are most beneficial or whether general physical activity provide similar benefits. Nordic Walking is a popular and fast growing type of exercise in Northern Europe. Initial studies have demonstrated that persons performing Nordic Walking are able to exercise longer and harder compared to normal walking thereby increasing their cardiovascular metabolism. Until now no studies have been performed to investigate whether Nordic Walking has beneficial effects in relation to low back pain. The primary aim of this study is to investigate whether supervised Nordic Walking can reduce pain and improve function in a population of chronic low back pain patients when compared to unsupervised Nordic Walking and advice to stay active. In addition we investigate whether there is an increase in the cardiovascular metabolism in persons performing supervised Nordic Walking compared to persons who are advised to stay active. Finally, we investigate whether there is a difference in compliance between persons receiving supervised Nordic Walking and persons doing unsupervised Nordic Walking. Methods One hundred and fifty patients with low back pain for at least eight weeks and referred to a specialized secondary sector outpatient back pain clinic are included in the study. After completion of the standard back centre treatment patients are randomized into one of three groups: A) Nordic Walking twice a week for eight weeks under supervision of a specially trained instructor; B) Unsupervised Nordic Walking for eight weeks after one training session with an instructor; C) A one hour motivational talk including advice to stay active. Outcome measures are pain, function, overall health, cardiovascular ability and activity level. Results No

  2. Utilizing the National Physical Activity Plan to create a disease-specific approach: Environmental and Policy Strategies to Increase Physical Activity Among Adults with Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Waterman, Mary B; White, Patience H

    2014-03-01

    The Environmental and Policy Strategies to Increase Physical Activity Among Adults with Arthritis report focuses on the ways to make physical activity more convenient and accessible for adults with arthritis. The report is designed to engage 6 important sectors, which were adapted from the National Physical Activity Plan, as partners with a mutual interest in increasing physical activity among adults with arthritis using environmental and policy strategies. It serves as a call to action for each of these sectors to collaborate and focus more attention on helping people live well with arthritis and be a productive part of our society.

  3. Multidisciplinary Management of Mastocytosis: Nordic Expert Group Consensus.

    PubMed

    Broesby-Olsen, Sigurd; Dybedal, Ingunn; Gülen, Theo; Kristensen, Thomas K; Møller, Michael B; Ackermann, Leena; Sääf, Maria; Karlsson, Maria A; Agertoft, Lone; Brixen, Kim; Hermann, Pernille; Stylianou, Eva; Mortz, Charlotte G; Torfing, Trine; Havelund, Troels; Sander, Birgitta; Bergström, Anna; Bendix, Marie; Garvey, Lene H; Bjerrum, Ole Weis; Valent, Peter; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Nilsson, Gunnar; Vestergaard, Hanne; Hägglund, Hans

    2016-06-15

    Mastocytosis is a heterogeneous group of diseases defined by an increased number and accumulation of mast cells, and often also by signs and symptoms of mast cell activation. Disease subtypes range from indolent to rare aggressive forms. Mastocytosis affects people of all ages and has been considered rare; however, it is probably underdiagnosed with potential severe implications. Diagnosis can be challenging and symptoms may be complex and involve multiple organ-systems. In general it is advised that patients should be referred to centres with experience in the disease offering an individualized, multidisciplinary approach. We present here consensus recommendations from a Nordic expert group for the diagnosis and general management of patients with mastocytosis.

  4. PREFACE: The 6th Nordic Meeting on Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Løvhøiden, G.; Thorsteinsen, T. F.; Vaagen, J. S.

    1990-01-01

    After an unintended time gap of five years, the series of regular Nordic meetings on nuclear physics was continued with the 6th Nordic Meeting, August 10-15, 1989. The site was Utgarden in the outskirts of Kopervik, the administration center for the Saga island of Karmøy on the west-coast of Norway. Utgarden, a "peoples high-school'' with a kitchen, housing facility and a neighboring modern gymnasium with fine lecture halls, proved to be an inexpensive and adequate site for the meeting. From the time of the Vikings, the sound between Karmøyy and the mainland has been a vital part of the way to the north. Mobility and international orientation is still a signature of an area where today essential parts of Norway's oil- and metal industry are located. The conference program included a session on nuclear physics in industry and society, with contributed talks from a number of companies and technology/research institutions, which also sponsored the meeting. Lunch visits to Hydro's aluminium plant on Karmøy or alternatively to Statoil's gas terminal on the mainland, were included in the program. The scientific program gives a cross section of nuclear physics activities in which researchers from the Nordic countries are involved nowadays. The spectrum is rich, and the emphasis has shifted to higher energies than was the case five years ago. We appreciate the possibility to present this overview in a separate volume of Physica Scripta. The present issue covers nearly all the talks given at the meeting. The order deviates, however, somewhat from that of the conference program. The organizing committee tried to encourage in various ways the participation of young physicists; this effort was truely rewarded. The young participants put their imprint on the activities in the lecture halls and even more on the soccer arena. The meeting was sponsored by The University of Bergen, The Nordic Accelerator Committee, NORDITA, The Norwegian Research Council for Science and the

  5. Cost calculations at early stages of nuclear research facilities in the nordic countries

    SciTech Connect

    Iversen, Klaus; Salmenhaara, Seppo; Backe, Steinar; Cato, Anna; Lindskog, Staffan; Callander, Clas; Efraimsson, Henrik; Andersson, Inga; Sjoeblom, Rolf

    2007-07-01

    The Nordic countries Denmark, Norway and Sweden, and to some extent also Finland, had very large nuclear research and development programs for a few decades starting in the nineteen fifties. Today, only some of the facilities are in use. Some have been decommissioned and dismantled while others are at various stages of planning for shutdown. The perspective ranges from imminent to several decades. It eventually became realized that considerable planning for the future decommissioning is warranted and that an integral part of this planning is financial, including how financial funds should be acquired, used and allocated over time. This necessitates that accurate and reliable cost estimates be obtained at all stages. However, this is associated with fundamental difficulties and treacherous complexities, especially for the early ones. Eventually, Denmark and Norway decided not to build any nuclear power plants while Finland and Sweden did. This is reflected in the financing where the latter countries have established systems with special funds in which money is being collected now to cover the future costs for the decommissioning of the research facilities. Nonetheless, the needs for planning for the decommissioning of nuclear research facilities are very similar. However, they differ considerably from those of nuclear power reactors, especially with regard to cost calculations. It has become apparent in the course of work that summation types of cost estimation methodologies give rise to large systematic errors if applied at early stages, in which case comparison based assessments are less biased and may be more reliable. Therefore, in order to achieve the required quality of the cost calculations, it is necessary that data and experience from authentic cases be utilized in models for cost calculations. It also implies that this calculation process should include a well adopted learning process. Thus, a Nordic co-operation has been established for the exchange and

  6. Overview of the Nordic Seas CARINA data and salinity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Are; Key, Robert; Jeansson, Emil; Falck, E.; Olafsson, J.; Van Heuven, S.; Skjelvan, I.; Omar, A.M.; Olsson, K.A.; Anderson, L.G.; Jutterström, S.; Rey, F.; Johannessen, T.; Bellerby, R.G.J.; Bullister, J.L.; Pfeil, B.; Lin, X.; Kozyr, Alexander; Schirnick, C.; Tanhua, T.; Wallace, D.W.R.

    2009-01-01

    Water column data of carbon and carbon relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from 188 previously non-publicly available cruises in the Arctic, Atlantic, and Southern Ocean have been retrieved and merged into a new database: CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic). The data have been subject to rigorous quality control (QC) in order to ensure highest possible quality and consistency. The data for most of the parameters included were examined in order to quantify systematic biases in the reported values, i.e. secondary quality control. Significant biases have been corrected for in the data products, i.e. the three merged files with measured, calculated and interpolated values for each of the three CARINA regions; the Arctic Mediterranean Seas (AMS), the Atlantic (ATL) and the Southern Ocean (SO).With the adjustments the CARINA database is consistent both internally as well as with GLODAP (Key et al., 2004) and is suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, oceanic carbon inventories and uptake rates and for model validation. The Arctic Mediterranean Seas include the Arctic Ocean and the Nordic Seas, and the quality control was carried out separately in these two areas. This contribution provides an overview of the CARINA data from the Nordic Seas and summaries the findings of the QC of the salinity data. One cruise had salinity data that were of questionable quality, and these have been removed from the data product. An evaluation of the consistency of the quality controlled salinity data suggests that they are consistent to at least 0.005.

  7. Fatal poisoning in drug addicts in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Steentoft, A; Teige, B; Ceder, G; Vuori, E; Kristinsson, J; Simonsen, K W; Holmgren, P; Wethe, G; Kaa, E

    2001-11-15

    The study includes medicolegally examined fatal poisonings among drug addicts in 1997 in the five Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, and the results are compared to a similar investigation from 1991. A common definition of "drug addict" was applied by the participating countries. The highest death rate by poisoning in drug addicts was observed in Denmark, where it was 6.54 per 10(5)inhabitants, followed by Norway with 6.35, Sweden with 2.21, Finland with 1.63 and Iceland with 1.20 per 10(5)inhabitants. All countries showed a higher death rate in 1997 than in 1991. For all countries the distribution of deaths according to geographical regions showed a decreasing number of drug deaths in the metropolitan area and an increasing number in other cities. Heroin/morphine dominated as the cause of death and was responsible for about 90% of the cases in Norway. In Sweden and Denmark, however, heroin/morphine caused only about 70% of the fatal poisonings. About 30% of the fatal poisonings in Denmark and Sweden were caused by other group I drugs, in Denmark mainly methadone and in Sweden mainly propoxyphene. Apart from two cases in Sweden methadone deaths were not seen in the other Nordic countries. In Finland heroin/morphine deaths have increased from about 10% in 1991 to about 40% in 1997. Forty-four percent of the fatal poisonings in Finland were caused by other group I drugs, mainly codeine and propoxyphene. The two fatal poisonings in Iceland were caused by carbon monoxide. Only few deaths in this investigation were caused by amphetamine and cocaine. A widespread use of alcohol, cannabis and benzodiazepines, especially diazepam, was seen in all the countries. PMID:11731199

  8. Early Pliocene onset of modern Nordic Seas circulation related to ocean gateway changes.

    PubMed

    De Schepper, Stijn; Schreck, Michael; Beck, Kristina Marie; Matthiessen, Jens; Fahl, Kirsten; Mangerud, Gunn

    2015-10-28

    The globally warm climate of the early Pliocene gradually cooled from 4 million years ago, synchronous with decreasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In contrast, palaeoceanographic records indicate that the Nordic Seas cooled during the earliest Pliocene, before global cooling. However, a lack of knowledge regarding the precise timing of Nordic Seas cooling has limited our understanding of the governing mechanisms. Here, using marine palynology, we show that cooling in the Nordic Seas was coincident with the first trans-Arctic migration of cool-water Pacific mollusks around 4.5 million years ago, and followed by the development of a modern-like Nordic Seas surface circulation. Nordic Seas cooling precedes global cooling by 500,000 years; as such, we propose that reconfiguration of the Bering Strait and Central American Seaway triggered the development of a modern circulation in the Nordic Seas, which is essential for North Atlantic Deep Water formation and a precursor for more widespread Greenland glaciation in the late Pliocene.

  9. Early Pliocene onset of modern Nordic Seas circulation related to ocean gateway changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Schepper, Stijn; Schreck, Michael; Beck, Kristina Marie; Matthiessen, Jens; Fahl, Kirsten; Mangerud, Gunn

    2015-10-01

    The globally warm climate of the early Pliocene gradually cooled from 4 million years ago, synchronous with decreasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In contrast, palaeoceanographic records indicate that the Nordic Seas cooled during the earliest Pliocene, before global cooling. However, a lack of knowledge regarding the precise timing of Nordic Seas cooling has limited our understanding of the governing mechanisms. Here, using marine palynology, we show that cooling in the Nordic Seas was coincident with the first trans-Arctic migration of cool-water Pacific mollusks around 4.5 million years ago, and followed by the development of a modern-like Nordic Seas surface circulation. Nordic Seas cooling precedes global cooling by 500,000 years; as such, we propose that reconfiguration of the Bering Strait and Central American Seaway triggered the development of a modern circulation in the Nordic Seas, which is essential for North Atlantic Deep Water formation and a precursor for more widespread Greenland glaciation in the late Pliocene.

  10. Early Pliocene onset of modern Nordic Seas circulation related to ocean gateway changes

    PubMed Central

    De Schepper, Stijn; Schreck, Michael; Beck, Kristina Marie; Matthiessen, Jens; Fahl, Kirsten; Mangerud, Gunn

    2015-01-01

    The globally warm climate of the early Pliocene gradually cooled from 4 million years ago, synchronous with decreasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In contrast, palaeoceanographic records indicate that the Nordic Seas cooled during the earliest Pliocene, before global cooling. However, a lack of knowledge regarding the precise timing of Nordic Seas cooling has limited our understanding of the governing mechanisms. Here, using marine palynology, we show that cooling in the Nordic Seas was coincident with the first trans-Arctic migration of cool-water Pacific mollusks around 4.5 million years ago, and followed by the development of a modern-like Nordic Seas surface circulation. Nordic Seas cooling precedes global cooling by 500,000 years; as such, we propose that reconfiguration of the Bering Strait and Central American Seaway triggered the development of a modern circulation in the Nordic Seas, which is essential for North Atlantic Deep Water formation and a precursor for more widespread Greenland glaciation in the late Pliocene. PMID:26507275

  11. Early Pliocene onset of modern Nordic Seas circulation related to ocean gateway changes.

    PubMed

    De Schepper, Stijn; Schreck, Michael; Beck, Kristina Marie; Matthiessen, Jens; Fahl, Kirsten; Mangerud, Gunn

    2015-01-01

    The globally warm climate of the early Pliocene gradually cooled from 4 million years ago, synchronous with decreasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In contrast, palaeoceanographic records indicate that the Nordic Seas cooled during the earliest Pliocene, before global cooling. However, a lack of knowledge regarding the precise timing of Nordic Seas cooling has limited our understanding of the governing mechanisms. Here, using marine palynology, we show that cooling in the Nordic Seas was coincident with the first trans-Arctic migration of cool-water Pacific mollusks around 4.5 million years ago, and followed by the development of a modern-like Nordic Seas surface circulation. Nordic Seas cooling precedes global cooling by 500,000 years; as such, we propose that reconfiguration of the Bering Strait and Central American Seaway triggered the development of a modern circulation in the Nordic Seas, which is essential for North Atlantic Deep Water formation and a precursor for more widespread Greenland glaciation in the late Pliocene. PMID:26507275

  12. Using evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental strategies to increase access to healthy food and opportunities for physical activity among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shilpa; Kwon, Simona; Arista, Pedro; Tepporn, Ed; Chung, Marianne; Ko Chin, Kathy; Rideout, Catlin; Islam, Nadia; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2015-07-01

    Recent initiatives have focused on the dissemination of evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental (EBPSE) strategies to reduce health disparities. Targeted, community-level efforts are needed to supplement these approaches for comparable results among Asian Americans and Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPIs).The STRIVE Project funded 15 Asian American and NHPI community-based organizations (CBOs) to implement culturally adapted strategies. Partners reached more than 1.4 million people at a cost of $2.04 per person. CBOs are well positioned to implement EBPSE strategies to reduce health disparities. PMID:25905839

  13. Using Evidence-Based Policy, Systems, and Environmental Strategies to Increase Access to Healthy Food and Opportunities for Physical Activity Among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Simona; Arista, Pedro; Tepporn, Ed; Chung, Marianne; Ko Chin, Kathy; Rideout, Catlin; Islam, Nadia; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2015-01-01

    Recent initiatives have focused on the dissemination of evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental (EBPSE) strategies to reduce health disparities. Targeted, community-level efforts are needed to supplement these approaches for comparable results among Asian Americans and Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPIs).The STRIVE Project funded 15 Asian American and NHPI community-based organizations (CBOs) to implement culturally adapted strategies. Partners reached more than 1.4 million people at a cost of $2.04 per person. CBOs are well positioned to implement EBPSE strategies to reduce health disparities. PMID:25905839

  14. Approach and strategy for performing ecological risk assessments for the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Office Environmental Restoration Program. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Suter, G.W. II; Redfearn, A.; White, R.K.; Shaw, R.A.

    1992-07-01

    This document is intended to supplement exiting US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance for ecological risk assessment at hazardous waste sites by providing guidance that is more specific and more tailored to US Department of Energy sites than the guidance available from the EPA. However, it is a conceptual strategy document and does not include specific guidance on data, assumptions, and models. That detailed guidance is under development and will be presented in subsequent documents. Ecological risk assessments are equal to human health risk assessments in regulatory importance and can use many of the same data and some of the same estimation methods. However, they also have peculiar data needs and methods. Ecological risk assessments begin with an initial scoping phase, termed hazard definition, that characterizes the sources, the potentially environment, and the assessment endpoints. In the subsequent measurement and estimation phase, in which data are obtained concerning source of the endpoint biota to the contaminants and the effects of those exposures, and assumptions and models are used to relate the data to the desired exposure and effects parameters. Finally, in an integration phase, termed risk characterization, the various exposure and effects estimates are combined to infer the existence, cause, magnitude, and extent of effects of contaminants on the ecological endpoints. This phase is much more complicated for ecological risk assessments than for human health assessments because more types of data are available. Ecological risk assessments estimate effects using laboratory toxicity test results, like human health assessments, but also use results of ambient toxicity tests and biological surveys.

  15. Integrating pro-environmental behavior with transportation network modeling: User and system level strategies, implementation, and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, H. M. Abdul

    Personal transport is a leading contributor to fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse (GHG) emissions in the U.S. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) reports that light-duty vehicles (LDV) are responsible for 61% of all transportation related energy consumption in 2012, which is equivalent to 8.4 million barrels of oil (fossil fuel) per day. The carbon content in fossil fuels is the primary source of GHG emissions that links to the challenge associated with climate change. Evidently, it is high time to develop actionable and innovative strategies to reduce fuel consumption and GHG emissions from the road transportation networks. This dissertation integrates the broader goal of minimizing energy and emissions into the transportation planning process using novel systems modeling approaches. This research aims to find, investigate, and evaluate strategies that minimize carbon-based fuel consumption and emissions for a transportation network. We propose user and system level strategies that can influence travel decisions and can reinforce pro-environmental attitudes of road users. Further, we develop strategies that system operators can implement to optimize traffic operations with emissions minimization goal. To complete the framework we develop an integrated traffic-emissions (EPA-MOVES) simulation framework that can assess the effectiveness of the strategies with computational efficiency and reasonable accuracy. The dissertation begins with exploring the trade-off between emissions and travel time in context of daily travel decisions and its heterogeneous nature. Data are collected from a web-based survey and the trade-off values indicating the average additional travel minutes a person is willing to consider for reducing a lb. of GHG emissions are estimated from random parameter models. Results indicate that different trade-off values for male and female groups. Further, participants from high-income households are found to have higher trade-off values

  16. Development of innovative tools for understanding marine biodiversity and assessing good environmental status, within the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borja, Angel; Uyarra, María C.

    2014-05-01

    Marine natural resources and ecosystem services constitute the natural capital that supports economies, societies and individual well-being. Good governance requires a quantification of the interactions and trade-offs among ecosystem services and understanding of how biodiversity underpins ecosystem functions and services across time, scales and sectors. Marine biodiversity is a key descriptor for the assessment within the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), approved in 2008, which comprises a total of 11 descriptors. However, the relationships between pressures from human activities and climatic influences and their effects on marine biological diversity are still only partially understood. Hence, these relationships need to be better understood in order to fully achieve a good environmental status (GEnS), as required by the MSFD. This contribution is based upon the FP7 EU project DEVOTES (DEVelopment Of innovative Tools for understanding marine biodiversity and assessing good Environmental Status), which focus on developing innovative conceptual frameworks, methods and coherent, shared protocols to provide consistent datasets and knowledge at different scales, within four regional seas (Black Sea, Mediterranean, Atlantic and Baltic Sea). This project is developing innovative approaches to valuate biodiversity and ecosystem services and to develop public goods and sustainable economic activities from them. The research will benefit sea users and stakeholders, and will contribute to assess and monitor the environmental status of marine waters. The main objectives are: (i) to improve our understanding of the impact of human activities and variations associated to climate on marine biodiversity, (ii) to test indicators (referred in the Commission Decision on GEnS) and develop new ones for assessment at several ecological levels (species, habitat, ecosystems) and for the characterization and status classification of the marine waters, (iii) to develop, test

  17. Improved detection of multiple environmental antibiotics through an optimized sample extraction strategy in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xinzhu; Bayen, Stéphane; Kelly, Barry C; Li, Xu; Zhou, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    A solid-phase extraction/liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/multi-stage mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-ESI-MS/MS) method was optimized in this study for sensitive and simultaneous detection of multiple antibiotics in urban surface waters and soils. Among the seven classes of tested antibiotics, extraction efficiencies of macrolides, lincosamide, chloramphenicol, and polyether antibiotics were significantly improved under optimized sample extraction pH. Instead of only using acidic extraction in many existing studies, the results indicated that antibiotics with low pK a values (<7) were extracted more efficiently under acidic conditions and antibiotics with high pK a values (>7) were extracted more efficiently under neutral conditions. The effects of pH were more obvious on polar compounds than those on non-polar compounds. Optimization of extraction pH resulted in significantly improved sample recovery and better detection limits. Compared with reported values in the literature, the average reduction of minimal detection limits obtained in this study was 87.6% in surface waters (0.06-2.28 ng/L) and 67.1% in soils (0.01-18.16 ng/g dry wt). This method was subsequently applied to detect antibiotics in environmental samples in a heavily populated urban city, and macrolides, sulfonamides, and lincomycin were frequently detected. Antibiotics with highest detected concentrations were sulfamethazine (82.5 ng/L) in surface waters and erythromycin (6.6 ng/g dry wt) in soils. The optimized sample extraction strategy can be used to improve the detection of a variety of antibiotics in environmental surface waters and soils.

  18. Sticks and Stones Will Break My Bones but Failure Feedback May Not Hurt Me: Gender Differences in the Relationship between Achievement Motive, Coping Strategies and Environmental Mastery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Ser Hong; Pang, Joyce S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the processes through which achievement motivation guides the selection of coping strategies which in turn affects environmental mastery post-failure feedback. Seventy-six college students received failure feedback after completing a professional aptitude test. Findings showed that gender moderated the relationship between…

  19. Renewable and sustainable bioenergies production from palm oil mill effluent (POME): win-win strategies toward better environmental protection.

    PubMed

    Lam, Man Kee; Lee, Keat Teong

    2011-01-01

    Palm oil industry is one of the leading agricultural industries in Malaysia with average crude palm oil production of more than 13 million tonne per year. However, production of such huge amount of crude palm oil has consequently resulted to even larger amount of palm oil mill effluent (POME). POME is a highly polluting wastewater with high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in which can caused severe pollution to the environment, typically pollution to water resources. On the other hand, POME was identified as a potential source to generate renewable bioenergies such as biomethane and biohydrogen through anaerobic digestion. In other words, a combination of wastewater treatment and renewable bioenergies production would be an added advantage to the palm oil industry. In line with the world's focus on sustainability concept, such strategy should be implemented immediately to ensure palm oil is produced in an environmental friendly and sustainable manner. This review aims to discuss various technologies to convert POME to biomethane and biohydrogen in a commercial scale. Furthermore, discussion on using POME to culture microalgae for biodiesel and bioethanol production was included in the present paper as a new remedy to utilize POME with a greater beneficial return.

  20. Tree foliar chemistry in an African savanna and its relation to life history strategies and environmental filters.

    PubMed

    Colgan, Matthew S; Martin, Roberta E; Baldeck, Claire A; Asner, Gregory P

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the relative importance of environment and life history strategies in determining leaf chemical traits remains a key objective of plant ecology. We assessed 20 foliar chemical properties among 12 African savanna woody plant species and their relation to environmental variables (hillslope position, precipitation, geology) and two functional traits (thorn type and seed dispersal mechanism). We found that combinations of six leaf chemical traits (lignin, hemi-cellulose, zinc, boron, magnesium, and manganese) predicted the species with 91% accuracy. Hillslope position, precipitation, and geology accounted for only 12% of the total variance in these six chemical traits. However, thorn type and seed dispersal mechanism accounted for 46% of variance in these chemical traits. The physically defended species had the highest concentrations of hemi-cellulose and boron. Species without physical defense had the highest lignin content if dispersed by vertebrates, but threefold lower lignin content if dispersed by wind. One of the most abundant woody species in southern Africa, Colophospermum mopane, was found to have the highest foliar concentrations of zinc, phosphorus, and δ(13)C, suggesting that zinc chelation may be used by this species to bind metallic toxins and increase uptake of soil phosphorus. Across all studied species, taxonomy and physical traits accounted for the majority of variability in leaf chemistry. PMID:25993539

  1. Tree foliar chemistry in an African savanna and its relation to life history strategies and environmental filters.

    PubMed

    Colgan, Matthew S; Martin, Roberta E; Baldeck, Claire A; Asner, Gregory P

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the relative importance of environment and life history strategies in determining leaf chemical traits remains a key objective of plant ecology. We assessed 20 foliar chemical properties among 12 African savanna woody plant species and their relation to environmental variables (hillslope position, precipitation, geology) and two functional traits (thorn type and seed dispersal mechanism). We found that combinations of six leaf chemical traits (lignin, hemi-cellulose, zinc, boron, magnesium, and manganese) predicted the species with 91% accuracy. Hillslope position, precipitation, and geology accounted for only 12% of the total variance in these six chemical traits. However, thorn type and seed dispersal mechanism accounted for 46% of variance in these chemical traits. The physically defended species had the highest concentrations of hemi-cellulose and boron. Species without physical defense had the highest lignin content if dispersed by vertebrates, but threefold lower lignin content if dispersed by wind. One of the most abundant woody species in southern Africa, Colophospermum mopane, was found to have the highest foliar concentrations of zinc, phosphorus, and δ(13)C, suggesting that zinc chelation may be used by this species to bind metallic toxins and increase uptake of soil phosphorus. Across all studied species, taxonomy and physical traits accounted for the majority of variability in leaf chemistry.

  2. Tree Foliar Chemistry in an African Savanna and Its Relation to Life History Strategies and Environmental Filters

    PubMed Central

    Colgan, Matthew S.; Martin, Roberta E.; Baldeck, Claire A.; Asner, Gregory P.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the relative importance of environment and life history strategies in determining leaf chemical traits remains a key objective of plant ecology. We assessed 20 foliar chemical properties among 12 African savanna woody plant species and their relation to environmental variables (hillslope position, precipitation, geology) and two functional traits (thorn type and seed dispersal mechanism). We found that combinations of six leaf chemical traits (lignin, hemi-cellulose, zinc, boron, magnesium, and manganese) predicted the species with 91% accuracy. Hillslope position, precipitation, and geology accounted for only 12% of the total variance in these six chemical traits. However, thorn type and seed dispersal mechanism accounted for 46% of variance in these chemical traits. The physically defended species had the highest concentrations of hemi-cellulose and boron. Species without physical defense had the highest lignin content if dispersed by vertebrates, but threefold lower lignin content if dispersed by wind. One of the most abundant woody species in southern Africa, Colophospermum mopane, was found to have the highest foliar concentrations of zinc, phosphorus, and δ13C, suggesting that zinc chelation may be used by this species to bind metallic toxins and increase uptake of soil phosphorus. Across all studied species, taxonomy and physical traits accounted for the majority of variability in leaf chemistry. PMID:25993539

  3. Renewable and sustainable bioenergies production from palm oil mill effluent (POME): win-win strategies toward better environmental protection.

    PubMed

    Lam, Man Kee; Lee, Keat Teong

    2011-01-01

    Palm oil industry is one of the leading agricultural industries in Malaysia with average crude palm oil production of more than 13 million tonne per year. However, production of such huge amount of crude palm oil has consequently resulted to even larger amount of palm oil mill effluent (POME). POME is a highly polluting wastewater with high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in which can caused severe pollution to the environment, typically pollution to water resources. On the other hand, POME was identified as a potential source to generate renewable bioenergies such as biomethane and biohydrogen through anaerobic digestion. In other words, a combination of wastewater treatment and renewable bioenergies production would be an added advantage to the palm oil industry. In line with the world's focus on sustainability concept, such strategy should be implemented immediately to ensure palm oil is produced in an environmental friendly and sustainable manner. This review aims to discuss various technologies to convert POME to biomethane and biohydrogen in a commercial scale. Furthermore, discussion on using POME to culture microalgae for biodiesel and bioethanol production was included in the present paper as a new remedy to utilize POME with a greater beneficial return. PMID:20940036

  4. Work-related cancer in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Andersen, A; Barlow, L; Engeland, A; Kjaerheim, K; Lynge, E; Pukkala, E

    1999-01-01

    This report presents 20 years' of cancer incidence data by occupational group for the Nordic populations. The study covers the 10 million people aged 25-64 years at the time of the 1970 censuses in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden, and the 1 million incident cancer cases diagnosed among these people during the subsequent 20 years. The project was undertaken as a cohort study with linkage of individual records based on the personal identification numbers used in all the Nordic countries. In the 1970 censuses, information on occupation for each economically active member of the household was provided in free text in self-administered questionnaires. The data were centrally coded and computerized in the statistical offices. Norway, Sweden, and Finland used the Nordic Classification of Occupations, while Denmark used a national coding scheme. However, all the data could be reclassified into 53 occupational groups and 1 group of economically inactive persons. Person-years at risk were accumulated from 1 January 1971 until the date of emigration, date of death or 31 December 1987 in Denmark, 1989 in Sweden, 1990 in Finland, and 1991 in Norway. The 4 countries all had nationwide registration of incident cancer cases during the entire study period. All incident cancer cases during the individual risk periods were included in the analysis. Despite minor differences between the countries, the International Classification of Diseases, 7th revision, formed the core basis for the diagnostic coding in all 4 countries. For the present study the incident cancer cases have been classified into 35 broad diagnostic groups. The observed number of cancer cases in each group of persons defined by country, gender, and occupation was compared with the expected number calculated from the age-, gender-, and period-specific person-years and the incidence rates for the national population. The result has been presented as a standardized incidence ratio (SIR), defined as the observed

  5. Work-related cancer in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Andersen, A; Barlow, L; Engeland, A; Kjaerheim, K; Lynge, E; Pukkala, E

    1999-01-01

    This report presents 20 years' of cancer incidence data by occupational group for the Nordic populations. The study covers the 10 million people aged 25-64 years at the time of the 1970 censuses in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden, and the 1 million incident cancer cases diagnosed among these people during the subsequent 20 years. The project was undertaken as a cohort study with linkage of individual records based on the personal identification numbers used in all the Nordic countries. In the 1970 censuses, information on occupation for each economically active member of the household was provided in free text in self-administered questionnaires. The data were centrally coded and computerized in the statistical offices. Norway, Sweden, and Finland used the Nordic Classification of Occupations, while Denmark used a national coding scheme. However, all the data could be reclassified into 53 occupational groups and 1 group of economically inactive persons. Person-years at risk were accumulated from 1 January 1971 until the date of emigration, date of death or 31 December 1987 in Denmark, 1989 in Sweden, 1990 in Finland, and 1991 in Norway. The 4 countries all had nationwide registration of incident cancer cases during the entire study period. All incident cancer cases during the individual risk periods were included in the analysis. Despite minor differences between the countries, the International Classification of Diseases, 7th revision, formed the core basis for the diagnostic coding in all 4 countries. For the present study the incident cancer cases have been classified into 35 broad diagnostic groups. The observed number of cancer cases in each group of persons defined by country, gender, and occupation was compared with the expected number calculated from the age-, gender-, and period-specific person-years and the incidence rates for the national population. The result has been presented as a standardized incidence ratio (SIR), defined as the observed

  6. China's strategy towards environmental governance: An examination of the interaction between pedagogy and practice of environmental education in creating and achieving objectives for sustainable development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darkhor, Patrick

    This thesis involves a case-study methodology that explores programs and initiatives undertaken in the fields of environmental education focusing on the elementary and middle school curriculum and teacher education programs in China. The major objectives of this research are (1) to study the status of environmental education in Chinese elementary and middle schools; (2) to study the commonalities in approaches to environmental education and education for sustainable development in the existing curriculum; and (3) to study the lived challenges of implementing environmental education in today's schools in China. The study will address the following question: How can elementary and middle schools integrate environmental education objectives into their existing school programs without radical curricula changes? The thesis suggests that environmental education programs can be combined naturally with a school curriculum by identifying points of overlap between existing curricula and environmental education goals to facilitate natural, unforced integration of these programs. I have investigated these programs and initiatives concomitantly with the proposals for curriculum reform developed in China. This investigation includes an in-depth examination of the impact of such programs on students, teacher education programs, school systems and local communities. Qualitative data was collected and used to describe the evolution of environmental education programs within schools in the country scrutinized in this study. Research was also conducted on the etiology, nature and potential of any program developed by Chinese school systems for the purpose of integrating environmental education within the teacher education programs and consequently within the regular classroom curriculum.

  7. Adaptation strategies to seasonal changes in environmental conditions of a domesticated horse breed, the Shetland pony (Equus ferus caballus).

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Lea; Gerken, Martina; Riek, Alexander

    2012-04-01

    Recent results suggest that the wild ancestor of the horse, the Przewalski horse, exhibits signs of a hypometabolism. However, there are speculations that domestic animals lost the ability to reduce energy expenditure during food shortage and adverse environmental conditions. Therefore, we investigated physiological and behavioural strategies employed by a robust domesticated horse breed, the Shetland pony, over the course of a year under temperate conditions by measuring ambient temperature (T(a)), subcutaneous temperature (T(s)), locomotor activity (LA), lying time, resting heart rate, body mass and body condition score. Ten animals were kept on pasture in summer and in open stables in winter; further, in winter the animals were allocated into one control and one feed-restricted group of five animals each to simulate natural seasonal food shortage. The annual course of the mean daily T(s) of all horses showed distinct fluctuations from a mean of 35.6±0.5°C, with higher variations in summer than in winter. Diurnal amplitudes in T(s) were highest (P<0.001) in April (12.6°C) and lowest in January (4.0°C), with a nadir around dawn and a peak around mid-day. The feed-restricted group had a significantly lower daily T(s) compared with the control group on cold winter days, with T(a) values below 0°C. Mean annual heart rate and LA followed T(a) closely. Heart rate of the feed-restricted animals significantly decreased from a mean of 52.8±8.1 beats min(-1) in summer to 29±3.9 beats min(-1) in winter and differed from the control group (P<0.001). Mean daily LA was lowest at the end of winter (7000 activity impulses day(-1)) and highest in summer (25,000 activity impulses day(-1)). Our results show that Shetland ponies exhibit signs of a winter hypometabolism indicated by reduced heart rate and T(s). Thus, domesticated horses seem to have maintained the capacity for seasonal adaptation to environmental conditions by seasonal fluctuations in their metabolic rate.

  8. A successful programmatic structure and strategies to attract and educate students in earth and environmental sciences: an example from the University of Delaware, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levia, Delphis

    2013-04-01

    The achievement of sustainable use of our natural world is one of the major issues confronting humankind today. Environmental issues are inherently complex and difficult to resolve. Successful resolution of our most pressing environmental problems, such as climate change and ocean acidification, will require well-trained earth and environmental scientists that think critically in a multi-dimensional framework at variable spatial and temporal scales. This begs the question as to how we can both attract and successfully educate students in such a way that will permit them to tackle the multitude of environmental problems currently facing society. This poster details one way to successfully attract and train students in an interdisciplinary environmental education framework by sharing: (1) some of the successful strategies and programmatic structure of the University of Delaware's undergraduate environmental programs that have grown over 60% in two years after a major programmatic revision; and (2) the current round of programmatic revisions that will complete the strategic planning process.* The interdisciplinary environmental education program at the University of Delaware has a strong programmatic core that provides students with the requisite quantitative training and field experience to solve complicated environmental issues. At the same time, the environmental program includes the social, political, and economic contexts of environmental issues. Together, these two parts of the core best equip students to mitigate environmental problems. Following a strategic planning effort, the University of Delaware is building upon past successes in training environmental scientists and managers by further reformulating its environmental programs to leverage the power of theme-based learning which complements the programmatic core in such a way to teach problem-solving skills. This poster details the multidimensional nature of the University of Delaware's environmental

  9. FOREWORD: Third Nordic Symposium on Computer Simulation in Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaski, K.; Salomaa, M.

    1990-01-01

    Prizes were some of the newest books on the beauty of fractals. The First Prize was won by Hanna Viertio, the Second Prize by Miguel Zendejas and the Third Prize was shared by Leo Kärkkäinen and Kari Rummukainen. As for the future of Computational Science, we identify two principal avenues: (a) big science - large centers with ultrafast supercomputers, and (b) small science - active groups utilizing personal minisupercomputers or supenvorkstations. At present, it appears that the latter already compete extremely favourably in their performance with the massive supercomputers - at least in their throughput and, especially, in tasks where a broad range of diverse software support is not absolutely necessary. In view of this important emergence of "personal supercomputing", we envisage that the role and the development of large computer centers will have to be reviewed critically and modified accordingly. Furthermore, a promise for some radically new approaches to Computational Science could be provided by massively parallel computers; among them, maybe solutions based on ideas of neural computing could be utilized, especially for restricted applications. Therefore, in order not to overlook any important advances within such a forefront field, one should rather choose the strategy of actively following each and every one of these routes. In perspective of the large variety of simultaneous developments, we want to emphasize the importance of Nordic collaboration in sharing expertise and experience in the rapidly progressing research - it ought to be cultivated and could be expanded. Therefore, we think that it is vitally important to continue with and to further promote the kind of Nordic Symposia that have been held at Lund, Kolle-Kolle, and Lahti. We want to thank most cordially the plenary and invited speakers, contributors, students, and in particular the Conference Secretary, Ms Ulla Ahlfors and Dr Milja Mäkelä, who was responsible for the local arrangements. The

  10. Genetic conditions of joint Nordic genetic evaluations of lifetime competition performance in warmblood sport horses.

    PubMed

    Viklund, Å; Furre, S; Eriksson, S; Vangen, O; Philipsson, J

    2015-08-01

    Breeding programmes for warmblood sport horses are similar in the Nordic countries Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Norway, and stallions of same origin are used. The aim was to investigate whether a joint Nordic genetic evaluation based on lifetime competition performance is feasible and beneficial for breeding competitive sport horses in the Nordic countries. Results for almost 45,000 horses in show jumping and 30,000 horses in dressage were available. The larger populations in Sweden and Denmark contributed with 85% of the results. Heritabilities and genetic correlations between performances in the different countries were estimated, and comparisons of accuracies of estimated breeding values (EBVs) and number of stallions with EBVs based on national or joint data were studied. The heritabilities ranged between 0.25 and 0.42 for show jumping and between 0.14 and 0.55 for dressage. The genetic correlations between competition performances in the Nordic countries were estimated to 0.63-1.00. EBVs based on joint data increased accuracies for EBVs for stallions by 38-81% and increased the number of available stallions with EBVs by 40-288%, compared to EBVs based on national data only. A joint Nordic genetic evaluation for sport horses is recommended.

  11. Towards a new era in fetal medicine in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Sitras, Vasilis

    2016-08-01

    Fetal medicine is a subspecialty of obstetrics investigating the development, growth and disease of the human fetus. The advances in fetal imaging (ultrasonography, MRI) and molecular diagnostic techniques, together with the possibility of intervention in utero, make fetal medicine an important, rapidly developing field within women's healthcare. Therefore, a variety of specialists, such as neonatologists, pediatric cardiologists, medical geneticists, radiologists and pediatric surgeons, are necessary to adjunct in the diagnosis and treatment of the fetus as a patient. In this commentary, we provide a description of some organizational and educational aspects of fetal medicine in the Nordic countries, using examples of the management of specific conditions such as aneuploidy screening, red cell allo-immunization and fetal interventions. Clearly, there are several cultural, legal, organizational and practical differences between the Nordic countries; these are not necessarily negative, given the high standards of care in all Nordic countries. The scope of the newly founded Nordic Network of Fetal Medicine is to enhance cooperation in clinical practice, education and research between the participant countries. Hopefully, this initiative will find the necessary political and economic support from the national authorities and bring a new era in the field of fetal medicine in the Nordic region. PMID:27124273

  12. Effects of a Flexibility and Relaxation Programme, Walking, and Nordic Walking on Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Reuter, I.; Mehnert, S.; Leone, P.; Kaps, M.; Oechsner, M.; Engelhardt, M.

    2011-01-01

    Symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) progress despite optimized medical treatment. The present study investigated the effects of a flexibility and relaxation programme, walking, and Nordic walking (NW) on walking speed, stride length, stride length variability, Parkinson-specific disability (UPDRS), and health-related quality of life (PDQ 39). 90 PD patients were randomly allocated to the 3 treatment groups. Patients participated in a 6-month study with 3 exercise sessions per week, each lasting 70 min. Assessment after completion of the training showed that pain was reduced in all groups, and balance and health-related quality of life were improved. Furthermore, walking, and Nordic walking improved stride length, gait variability, maximal walking speed, exercise capacity at submaximal level, and PD disease-specific disability on the UPDRS in addition. Nordic walking was superior to the flexibility and relaxation programme and walking in improving postural stability, stride length, gait pattern and gait variability. No significant injuries occurred during the training. All patients of the Nordic walking group continued Nordic walking after completing the study. PMID:21603199

  13. Ethical aspects of registry-based research in the Nordic countries

    PubMed Central

    Ludvigsson, Jonas F; Håberg, Siri E; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Lafolie, Pierre; Zoega, Helga; Sarkkola, Catharina; von Kraemer, Stephanie; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Nørgaard, Mette

    2015-01-01

    National health care registries in the Nordic countries share many attributes, but different legal and ethical frameworks represent a challenge to promoting effective joint research. Internationally, there is a lack of knowledge about how ethical matters are considered in Nordic registry-based research, and a lack of knowledge about how Nordic ethics committees operate and what is needed to obtain an approval. In this paper, we review ethical aspects of registry-based research, the legal framework, the role of ethics review boards in the Nordic countries, and the structure of the ethics application. We discuss the role of informed consent in registry-based research and how to safeguard the integrity of study participants, including vulnerable subjects and children. Our review also provides information on the different government agencies that contribute registry-based data, and a list of the major health registries in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Both ethical values and conditions for registry-based research are similar in the Nordic countries. While Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden have chosen different legal frameworks, these differences can be resolved through mutual recognition of ethical applications and by harmonizing the different systems, likely leading to increased collaboration and enlarged studies. PMID:26648756

  14. Early Pliocene Nordic Seas Palaeoceanography - Relation with Ocean Gateways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Schepper, S.; Schreck, M.; Beck, K. M.; Mangerud, G.; Matthiessen, J. J.; Risebrobakken, B.

    2014-12-01

    In the northern high latitude oceans, organic-walled phytoplankton is often the only microfossil group present in the sediment record that can be used for palaeoceanographic and palaeoenvironmental studies. Recently collected dinoflagellate cyst and acritarch records from the Norwegian and Iceland Seas reveal a wide-scale, major assemblage turnover including extinction of several taxa, disappearance of heterotrophic species and decrease in productivity around 4.5 Ma. These changes can most likely be attributed to a reorganization of the ocean circulation and can be interpreted as the establishment of a more modern-like Norwegian Atlantic Current and proto-East Greenland Current. The timing at around 4.5 Ma corresponds favorably to the shoaling of the Central American Seaway and northward flow of Pacific water via the Bering Strait into the North Atlantic, the latter being evidenced by the first arrival of Pacific molluscs in the Iceland (Tjörnes section). The changes in ocean circulation are not restricted to the Nordic Seas, with increased sediment accumulation at several North Atlantic drifts (e.g. Gloria and Eirik drifts) also illustrating important changes in the North Atlantic deep-water circulation.

  15. Overview of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae from a Nordic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Brolund, Alma

    2014-01-01

    Extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) are increasing rapidly worldwide. E. coli producing CTX-M type ESBLs are the most common clinically encountered. The majority of E. coli ESBL infections are represented by urinary tract infections, but they can also cause severe infections, for example, in the blood stream and central nervous system. Since E. coli is a common colonizer of the normal gut microbiota, increasing prevalence of ESBL-producing strains is particularly worrisome. Once disseminated in the community, containment of this resistance type will be challenging. The driver of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (EPE) is debated. Some suggest that the ESBL genes were introduced to particularly successful bacterial clones. Others imply that very successful plasmids drive the rapid dissemination. More research and epidemiological studies of strain types, plasmids and mobile genetic elements are needed for these questions to be answered. In order to combat, or at least slow down, the worrisome trend of increasing numbers of EPE more knowledge is also needed on persistence of EPE in carriers as well as better understanding of how antibiotic treatment and other risk factors affect persistence and further dissemination. This review aims at giving an overview of this global problem from a Nordic perspective. PMID:25317262

  16. Nordic meals: methodological notes on a comparative survey.

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, J; Kjaernes, U; Pipping Ekström, M; L'orange Fürst, E; Gronow, J; Holm, L

    1999-02-01

    This article discusses some methodological aspects of the project "Eating and Modern Everyday Life. A Comparative Survey of Nordic Countries". Data were collected in April 1997 with computer assisted telephone interviews in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Questionnaires included a record of the informant's eating on the day before the interview, attitudes related to current food discourses, socio-demographic information and a few open-ended questions. The emphasis was on social and cultural aspects of eating. One aim of this study is to investigate whether regular meals are substituted by irregular eating patterns. In order to avoid any predefined meal concepts the questionnaire therefore focused on eating events. The reconstruction of data is based on a model called the eating system. The model has three dimensions: the eating pattern (the rhythm and the number of eating events, the alternations of hot and cold eating events), the meal format (the composition of the main course, the sequence of the whole meal) and the social organization of eating (where and with whom people are eating, who did the cooking). Some preliminary results are presented suggesting that the questionnaire and the analytical model suit the purpose of studying modernization through the field of food. PMID:9989916

  17. Nordic Sea Level - Analysis of PSMSL RLR Tide Gauge data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, Per; Andersen, Ole

    2015-04-01

    Tide gauge data from the Nordic region covering a period of time from 1920 to 2000 are evaluated. 63 stations having RLR data for at least 40 years have been used. Each tide gauge data record was averaged to annual averages after the monthly average seasonal anomalies were removed. Some stations lack data, especially before around 1950. Hence, to compute representative sea level trends for the 1920-2000 period a procedure for filling in estimated sea level values in the voids, is needed. To fill in voids in the tide gauge data records a reconstruction method was applied that utilizes EOF.s in an iterative manner. Subsequently the trends were computed. The estimated trends range from about -8 mm/year to 2 mm/year reflecting both post-glacial uplift and sea level rise. An evaluation of the first EOFs show that the first EOF clearly describes the trends in the time series. EOF #2 and #3 describe differences in the inter-annual sea level variability with-in the Baltic Sea and differences between the Baltic and the North Atlantic / Norwegian seas, respectively.

  18. Determinations of performance and mechanical efficiency in nordic skiing.

    PubMed Central

    Niinimaa, V.; Shephard, R. J.; Dyon, M.

    1979-01-01

    Determinants of performance and mechanical efficiency of effort have been made on a group of ten male nordic skiers, all participants in the University of Toronto ski-team. The oxygen intake at the maximum attainable speed of skiing on a level course averaged 89.6 percent of the maximum oxygen intake observed during uphill treadmill running; the latter (average 63.9 ml.kg-1 min-1) may be compared with values greater than 80 ml.kg1 min-1 for international competitors. Maximum heart rates and respiratory gas exchange ratios were generally lower during skiing than running, and it is suggested that the maximum oxygen intake attained during skiing is limited by the individual's skill. In support of this the more experienced skiers were able to reach close to 100 percent of the treadmill maximum oxygen intake during level skiing. A multiple regression analysis indicated that the skiing speed sustained over a one-hour period was related to experience of skiing, maximum oxygen intake, and the percentage of body fat. Assuming a dynamic friction coefficient of 0.075, a drag area of 0.7 m2 and a drag coefficient of 1.0, the gross mechanical efficiency of the university-class skier averaged a little under 20 percent, with a net efficiency of 21.3 percent. PMID:465911

  19. Approach and strategy for performing ecological risk assessments for the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Office Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Suter, G.W. II; Redfearn, A.; White, R.K.; Shaw, R.A.

    1992-07-01

    This document is intended to supplement exiting US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance for ecological risk assessment at hazardous waste sites by providing guidance that is more specific and more tailored to US Department of Energy sites than the guidance available from the EPA. However, it is a conceptual strategy document and does not include specific guidance on data, assumptions, and models. That detailed guidance is under development and will be presented in subsequent documents. Ecological risk assessments are equal to human health risk assessments in regulatory importance and can use many of the same data and some of the same estimation methods. However, they also have peculiar data needs and methods. Ecological risk assessments begin with an initial scoping phase, termed hazard definition, that characterizes the sources, the potentially environment, and the assessment endpoints. In the subsequent measurement and estimation phase, in which data are obtained concerning source of the endpoint biota to the contaminants and the effects of those exposures, and assumptions and models are used to relate the data to the desired exposure and effects parameters. Finally, in an integration phase, termed risk characterization, the various exposure and effects estimates are combined to infer the existence, cause, magnitude, and extent of effects of contaminants on the ecological endpoints. This phase is much more complicated for ecological risk assessments than for human health assessments because more types of data are available. Ecological risk assessments estimate effects using laboratory toxicity test results, like human health assessments, but also use results of ambient toxicity tests and biological surveys.

  20. The First Sourcebook on Nordic Research in Mathematics Education: Norway, Sweden, Iceland, Denmark and Contributions from Finland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sriraman, Bharath, Ed.; Bergsten, Christer, Ed.; Goodchild, Simon, Ed.; Palsdottir, Gudbjorg, Ed.; Sondergaard, Bettina Dahl, Ed.; Haapasalo, Lenni, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The First Sourcebook on Nordic Research in Mathematics Education: Norway, Sweden, Iceland, Denmark and contributions from Finland provides the first comprehensive and unified treatment of historical and contemporary research trends in mathematics education in the Nordic world. The book is organized in sections co-ordinated by active researchers in…

  1. Cross-Border Collaboration in History among Nordic Students: A Case Study about Creating Innovative ICT Didactic Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spante, Maria; Karlsen, Asgjerd Vea; Nortvig, Anne-Mette; Christiansen, Rene B.

    2014-01-01

    Gränsöverskridande Nordisk Undervisning/Utdanelse (GNU, meaning Cross-Border Nordic Education), the larger Nordic project, under which this case study was carried out, aims at developing innovative, cross-border teaching models in different subject domains in elementary school, including mathematics, language, science, social studies and history.…

  2. Study designs and analytic strategies for environmental and policy research on obesity, physical activity, and diet: recommendations from a meeting of experts.

    PubMed

    Sallis, James F; Story, Mary; Lou, Deborah

    2009-02-01

    Numerous authoritative reports have identified environmental and policy interventions as the most promising strategies for creating population-wide improvements in diet, physical activity, and obesity. Yet many methodologic challenges to conducting environmental and policy research must be overcome to enable this area of study to advance. A meeting titled "Study Designs and Analytic Strategies for Environmental and Policy Research on Obesity, Physical Activity, and Diet" was held April 8, 2008. Participants from diverse backgrounds identified priority gaps in knowledge and generated recommendations for promising methods to enhance environmental and policy research related to obesity. Final recommendations were based on a postmeeting participant survey. Existing methods were identified that could be applied to advance the field, including prospective studies, evaluations of natural experiments, and economic studies. Training for investigators in the use of appropriate statistical methods for complex designs and interdisciplinary collaboration were recommended. Methodologic research priorities included the development of measures of policy, health impact assessments, and the investigation of policy adoption and implementation. The results of this conference can be used to improve the quality and quantity of environmental and policy research as well as the translation to action to control obesity.

  3. The air-sea transformation and diapycnal overturning circulation within the Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isachsen, P. E.; Nøst, O. A.

    2012-04-01

    Air-sea flux climatologies and reanalyzes show that the bulk of the oceanic heat and buoyancy loss over the Nordic Seas takes place over interior regions not easily accessible by the time-mean large-scale currents. Eddy transport of heat and buoyancy, from the boundary currents and into the deep basins, is thought to be a key mechanism. Here we use gridded observations, theory and a modern parametrization of eddy transport to quantify the buoyancy budget of this region. The calculations confirm that mean currents are unable to explain the air-sea transformation that takes place over the interior basins of the Nordic Seas and that eddy transport instead dominates. The parametrization of eddy transport also suggests a significant overturning cell between the eastern and western parts of the Nordic Seas. This cell is, however, unaccounted for in the remaining data sets studied here.

  4. Large-scale wind power integration in Norway and impact on damping in the Nordic grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagstrøm, Espen; Norheim, Ian; Uhlen, Kjetil

    2005-07-01

    The Nordic energy market is in need of new power generation capacity. Norway is today in shortage of electrical energy, and the hydropower-based system must rely on importing electrical power from its neighbours in a normal year of hydro inflow. One solution to this problem is to invest in new generation capacity, e.g. by integrating more wind power into the Norwegian grid. The Norwegian government has announced that 1000 MW of wind power will be installed in Norway by 2010, corresponding to an eventual energy production of approximately 3 TWh year-1. This article investigates the impact of wind power integration in Norway on the damping of interarea mode oscillations in the Nordic grid. The impact on the interarea mode oscillations is tested for various types of generators. Results from computer analyses of a simplified yet realistic equivalent of the Nordic power system are used to compute the interarea mode oscillations. Copyright

  5. Physiological Responses Associated with Nordic-walking training in Systolic Hypertensive Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Latosik, Ewelina; Zubrzycki, Igor Z.; Ossowski, Zbigniew; Bojke, Olgierd; Clarke, Anna; Wiacek, Magdalena; Trabka, Bartosz

    2014-01-01

    Loss of physical strength and hypertension are among the most pronounced detrimental factors accompanying aging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a supervised 8-week Nordic-walking training program on systolic blood pressure in systolic-hypertensive postmenopausal women. This study was a randomized control trial on a sample of 24 subjects who did not take any hypertension medications. There was a statistically significant decrease in systolic blood pressure and an increase in lower and upper-body strength in the group following Nordic-walking training. There was a decrease in serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density cholesterol. The obtained results indicate that an 8-week Nordic-walking program may be efficiently employed for counteracting systolic hypertension through a direct abatement of systolic blood pressure and an increase of maximal aerobic capacity. PMID:25713659

  6. Changes in the strength of the Nordic Seas Overflows over the past 3000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffa-Sanchez, Paola; Hall, Ian R.; Thornalley, David J. R.; Barker, Stephen; Stewart, Connor

    2015-09-01

    The Nordic Seas Overflows constitute the densest component of the deep limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Changes in the vigour of the overflows may have had important climatic effects in the past and may also have in the future. Yet, evidence for multidecadal to millennial changes in the deep limb of the AMOC and their potential relationship to North Atlantic climate variability during the Holocene remains weakly constrained. Here we present grain size data, as a proxy for near-bottom current speed, from sub-decadal to decadally resolved sediment cores located in the direct pathway of the two Nordic Overflows east and west of Iceland, the Iceland-Scotland Overflow Water (ISOW) and the Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW), respectively. The results show no clear relationship between reconstructed changes in the vigour of the Nordic Overflows and the well-known periods of centennial-scale climate variability recorded in the North Atlantic region. However, well-defined millennial-scale trends are found in both of the overflow strength records over the last 3000 years, which were possibly related to hydrographic reorganizations in the Nordic Seas, driven by the decrease in Northern Hemisphere summer insolation over the Neoglacial period. A comparison between the near-bottom flow speed reconstructions from ISOW and DSOW suggests an anti-phased relationship between the Nordic Seas Overflows east and west of Iceland over the last 3000 years. This feature has been observed in climate models potentially as a result of shifts in the deep water formation sites as a response to changes in atmospheric patterns over the Nordic Seas.

  7. Establishing Reliability and Construct Validity for an Instrument to Measure Environmental Connectedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beery, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study is to establish a reliable and valid measure of environmental connectedness (EC) to allow for further exploration of the Swedish Outdoor Recreation in Change national survey data. The Nordic concept of friluftsliv (nature-based outdoor recreation) and the environmental psychology concept of EC are explored to…

  8. Influence of Vectors’ Risk-Spreading Strategies and Environmental Stochasticity on the Epidemiology and Evolution of Vector-Borne Diseases: The Example of Chagas’ Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pelosse, Perrine; Kribs-Zaleta, Christopher M.; Ginoux, Marine; Rabinovich, Jorge E.; Gourbière, Sébastien; Menu, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Insects are known to display strategies that spread the risk of encountering unfavorable conditions, thereby decreasing the extinction probability of genetic lineages in unpredictable environments. To what extent these strategies influence the epidemiology and evolution of vector-borne diseases in stochastic environments is largely unknown. In triatomines, the vectors of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas’ disease, juvenile development time varies between individuals and such variation most likely decreases the extinction risk of vector populations in stochastic environments. We developed a simplified multi-stage vector-borne SI epidemiological model to investigate how vector risk-spreading strategies and environmental stochasticity influence the prevalence and evolution of a parasite. This model is based on available knowledge on triatomine biodemography, but its conceptual outcomes apply, to a certain extent, to other vector-borne diseases. Model comparisons between deterministic and stochastic settings led to the conclusion that environmental stochasticity, vector risk-spreading strategies (in particular an increase in the length and variability of development time) and their interaction have drastic consequences on vector population dynamics, disease prevalence, and the relative short-term evolution of parasite virulence. Our work shows that stochastic environments and associated risk-spreading strategies can increase the prevalence of vector-borne diseases and favor the invasion of more virulent parasite strains on relatively short evolutionary timescales. This study raises new questions and challenges in a context of increasingly unpredictable environmental variations as a result of global climate change and human interventions such as habitat destruction or vector control. PMID:23951018

  9. Influence of vectors' risk-spreading strategies and environmental stochasticity on the epidemiology and evolution of vector-borne diseases: the example of Chagas' disease.

    PubMed

    Pelosse, Perrine; Kribs-Zaleta, Christopher M; Ginoux, Marine; Rabinovich, Jorge E; Gourbière, Sébastien; Menu, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Insects are known to display strategies that spread the risk of encountering unfavorable conditions, thereby decreasing the extinction probability of genetic lineages in unpredictable environments. To what extent these strategies influence the epidemiology and evolution of vector-borne diseases in stochastic environments is largely unknown. In triatomines, the vectors of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas' disease, juvenile development time varies between individuals and such variation most likely decreases the extinction risk of vector populations in stochastic environments. We developed a simplified multi-stage vector-borne SI epidemiological model to investigate how vector risk-spreading strategies and environmental stochasticity influence the prevalence and evolution of a parasite. This model is based on available knowledge on triatomine biodemography, but its conceptual outcomes apply, to a certain extent, to other vector-borne diseases. Model comparisons between deterministic and stochastic settings led to the conclusion that environmental stochasticity, vector risk-spreading strategies (in particular an increase in the length and variability of development time) and their interaction have drastic consequences on vector population dynamics, disease prevalence, and the relative short-term evolution of parasite virulence. Our work shows that stochastic environments and associated risk-spreading strategies can increase the prevalence of vector-borne diseases and favor the invasion of more virulent parasite strains on relatively short evolutionary timescales. This study raises new questions and challenges in a context of increasingly unpredictable environmental variations as a result of global climate change and human interventions such as habitat destruction or vector control.

  10. WILDLIFE RESEARCH STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document describes a strategy for conducting wildlife effects research within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agencys (EPA) National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL). The NHEEL wildlife research strategy is designed to address critical researc...

  11. Fundamental Dimensions of Environmental Risk : The Impact of Harsh versus Unpredictable Environments on the Evolution and Development of Life History Strategies.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Bruce J; Figueredo, Aurelio José; Brumbach, Barbara H; Schlomer, Gabriel L

    2009-06-01

    The current paper synthesizes theory and data from the field of life history (LH) evolution to advance a new developmental theory of variation in human LH strategies. The theory posits that clusters of correlated LH traits (e.g., timing of puberty, age at sexual debut and first birth, parental investment strategies) lie on a slow-to-fast continuum; that harshness (externally caused levels of morbidity-mortality) and unpredictability (spatial-temporal variation in harshness) are the most fundamental environmental influences on the evolution and development of LH strategies; and that these influences depend on population densities and related levels of intraspecific competition and resource scarcity, on age schedules of mortality, on the sensitivity of morbidity-mortality to the organism's resource-allocation decisions, and on the extent to which environmental fluctuations affect individuals versus populations over short versus long timescales. These interrelated factors operate at evolutionary and developmental levels and should be distinguished because they exert distinctive effects on LH traits and are hierarchically operative in terms of primacy of influence. Although converging lines of evidence support core assumptions of the theory, many questions remain unanswered. This review demonstrates the value of applying a multilevel evolutionary-developmental approach to the analysis of a central feature of human phenotypic variation: LH strategy.

  12. Effects of Full and Quasi-Participatory Learning Strategies on Nigerian Senior Secondary Students' Environmental Knowledge: Implications for Classroom Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajiboye, Josiah O.; Ajitoni, S. O.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental education is considered an appropriate intervention for creating awareness of, and an understanding of the challenges of environmental degradation. The introduction of EE into the Nigerian school curricular creates a challenge of how to teach it. A majority of the teachers still employ the old, traditional "chalk and talk" method.…

  13. The Culture of Denial. Why the Environmental Movement Needs a Strategy for Reforming Universities and Public Schools. SUNY Series in Environmental Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, C. A.

    This book posits that public schools and universities currently reinforce a culture of denial regarding global environmental trends, and that education, from the primary grades to universities, must be totally revamped to support new, ecologically sustainable paths for society. In Chapter 1, it is argued that few public school teachers and…

  14. Environmental Health: High-level Strategy and Leadership Needed to Continue Progress toward Protecting Children from Environmental Threats. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-10-205

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, John B.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to toxic chemicals or environmental pollutants may harm the health of the nation's 74 million children and contribute to increases in asthma and developmental impairments. In 2007, 66 percent of children lived in counties exceeding allowable levels for at least one of the six principal air pollutants that cause or aggravate asthma,…

  15. Shorter adult stature increases the impact of risk factors for cognitive impairment: a comparison of two Nordic twin cohorts.

    PubMed

    Laitala, Venla S; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Koskenvuo, Markku; Räihä, Ismo; Rinne, Juha O; Christensen, Kaare; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2011-12-01

    We analyzed the association between mean height and old age cognition in two Nordic twin cohorts with different childhood living conditions. The cognitive performance of 4720 twin individuals from Denmark (mean age 81.6 years, SD = 4.59) and Finland (mean age 74.4 years, SD = 5.26) was measured using validated cognitive screens. Taller height was associated with better cognitive performance in Finland (beta-estimates 0.18 SD/10cm, p value < .001, for men and 0.13 SD, p = .008, for women), but this association was not significant in Denmark (beta-estimates 0.0093 SD, p value = .16, for men and 0.0075 SD, p value = .016, for women) when adjusted for age and education/social class. Among Finnish participants higher variability of cognitive performance within shorter height quintiles was observed. Analysis using gene-environment interaction models showed that environmental factors exerted a greater impact on cognitive performance in shorter participants, whereas in taller participants' it was explained mainly by genetic factors. Our results suggest that shorter participants with childhood adversity are more vulnerable to environmental risk factors for cognitive impairment. PMID:22506310

  16. Development and Application of a Framework to Assess Community Nutritionists’ Use of Environmental Strategies to Prevent Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Angela H.; Dickin, Katherine; Dollahite, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop and apply a framework exploring the extent of involvement in promoting environmental changes to prevent obesity by a group of nutrition educators (NE) Design Cross-sectional, mixed methods: qualitative interviews informed framework development; survey applied framework to describe NE’s involvement in environmental changes. Setting Cooperative Extension in New York State Participants Interviewees (n=7) selected to vary in environmental change activities and rural/urban location. Survey response rate was 100% (n=58). Phenomenon of Interest/Variables Measured Dimensions and degree of NE’s involvement in promoting environmental change. Analysis Thematic analysis of qualitative data, triangulated with descriptive analyses of NE’s performance of tasks in various settings. Results NE’s promotion of environmental changes was characterized using framework based on settings and tasks, dimensions that emerged from qualitative analysis. NE’s actions varied across these dimensions and ranged from low to high intensity of collaboration and leadership for environmental change. Most NE surveyed reported actions limited to providing information and recommendations on healthy eating and physical activity. Few reported intensive engagement in developing, implementing, and evaluating plans to change environments for obesity prevention. Conclusions and Implications Framework identifies the levels of engagement in promoting environmental changes and supports future research and practice of community nutrition professionals by providing a roadmap for assessing their involvement on multiple levels to prevent obesity. PMID:25087747

  17. Plate waste and intake of school lunch based on the new Nordic diet and on packed lunches: a randomised controlled trial in 8- to 11-year-old Danish children.

    PubMed

    Thorsen, Anne V; Lassen, Anne D; Andersen, Elisabeth W; Christensen, Lene M; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Andersen, Rikke; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Michaelsen, Kim F; Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare total food intake, total and relative edible plate waste and self-reported food likings between school lunch based on the new Nordic diet (NND) and packed lunch from home. In two 3-month periods in a cluster-randomised controlled unblinded cross-over study 3rd- and 4th-grade children (n 187) from two municipal schools received lunch meals based on NND principles and their usual packed lunch (control). Food intake and plate waste (n 1558) were calculated after weighing lunch plates before and after the meal for five consecutive days and self-reported likings (n 905) assessed by a web-based questionnaire. Average food intake was 6 % higher for the NND period compared with the packed lunch period. The quantity of NND intake varied with the menu (P < 0·0001) and was positively associated with self-reported likings. The edible plate waste was 88 (sd 80) g for the NND period and 43 (sd 60) g for the packed lunch period whereas the relative edible plate waste was no different between periods for meals having waste (n 1050). Edible plate waste differed between menus (P < 0·0001), with more waste on soup days (36 %) and vegetarian days (23 %) compared with the packed lunch period. Self-reported likings were negatively associated with percentage plate waste (P < 0·0001). The study suggests that portion sizes need to be considered in new school meal programmes. New strategies with focus on reduction of plate waste, children's likings and nutritious school meals are crucial from both a nutritional, economic and environmental point of view. PMID:26097703

  18. Plate waste and intake of school lunch based on the new Nordic diet and on packed lunches: a randomised controlled trial in 8- to 11-year-old Danish children.

    PubMed

    Thorsen, Anne V; Lassen, Anne D; Andersen, Elisabeth W; Christensen, Lene M; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Andersen, Rikke; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Michaelsen, Kim F; Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare total food intake, total and relative edible plate waste and self-reported food likings between school lunch based on the new Nordic diet (NND) and packed lunch from home. In two 3-month periods in a cluster-randomised controlled unblinded cross-over study 3rd- and 4th-grade children (n 187) from two municipal schools received lunch meals based on NND principles and their usual packed lunch (control). Food intake and plate waste (n 1558) were calculated after weighing lunch plates before and after the meal for five consecutive days and self-reported likings (n 905) assessed by a web-based questionnaire. Average food intake was 6 % higher for the NND period compared with the packed lunch period. The quantity of NND intake varied with the menu (P < 0·0001) and was positively associated with self-reported likings. The edible plate waste was 88 (sd 80) g for the NND period and 43 (sd 60) g for the packed lunch period whereas the relative edible plate waste was no different between periods for meals having waste (n 1050). Edible plate waste differed between menus (P < 0·0001), with more waste on soup days (36 %) and vegetarian days (23 %) compared with the packed lunch period. Self-reported likings were negatively associated with percentage plate waste (P < 0·0001). The study suggests that portion sizes need to be considered in new school meal programmes. New strategies with focus on reduction of plate waste, children's likings and nutritious school meals are crucial from both a nutritional, economic and environmental point of view.

  19. Normalization Fifty Years Beyond--Current Trends in the Nordic Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tossebro, Jan; Bonfils, Inge S.; Teittinen, Antti; Tideman, Magnus; Traustadottir, Rannveig; Vesala, Hannu T.

    2012-01-01

    The authors discuss recent developments in services for people with intellectual disabilities (ID) in the Nordic countries. They note that all of the countries saw important reforms during the 1990s, regarding both deinstitutionalization and decentralization. However, they posit that the litmus test of the reforms is not what happens during reform…

  20. Younger Children in ECEC: Focus on the National Steering Documents in the Nordic Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hännikäinen, Maritta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the national steering documents on early childhood education and care (ECEC) in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, with the focus on children up to the age of three, posing the question: What do these documents tell us about ECEC for younger children in the Nordic early childhood settings?…

  1. Low-frequency Pliocene climate variability in the eastern Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risebrobakken, Bjørg; Andersson, Carin; De Schepper, Stijn; McClymont, Erin L.

    2016-09-01

    The Pliocene (5.3-2.6 Ma) is often described as a relatively stable climatic period, with warm temperatures characterizing high latitudes. New suborbital resolved stable isotope records from Ocean Drilling Program Hole 642B in the eastern Nordic Seas document that the Pliocene was not a stable period characterized by one climate. Rather, seven distinct climate phases, each lasting between 150,000 and 400,000 years, are identified and characterized in the time interval 5.1-3.1 Ma. Four of the transitions between the defined climate phases occurred close to an eccentricity minimum and a minimum in amplitude of change for Northern Hemisphere summer insolation, while two occurred around an eccentricity maximum and a maximum in amplitude in insolation change. Hence, a low-frequency response of the Nordic Seas to insolation forcing is indicated. In addition, paleogeographic and related paleoceanographic changes, expansion of the Arctic sea ice cover, and onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation were important factors behind the evolving Pliocene low-frequency variability in the eastern Nordic Seas. It is likely that the identified climate phases and transitions are important beyond the Nordic Seas, due to their association with changes to both insolation and paleogeography. However, a strong and variable degree of diagenetic calcite overgrowth is documented for the planktic foraminifera, especially influencing the planktic δ18O results; the absolute values and amplitude of change cannot be taken at face value.

  2. Innovative Pedagogical Practice with ICT in Three Nordic Countries--Differences and Similarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottestad, G.

    2010-01-01

    Three Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland and Norway, participated in the IEA SITES 2006 study. All the three countries have launched huge policy and investment programmes to promote digital literacy and readiness for the information age. In relation to the remarkable Finnish Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) results, it is…

  3. Second Chance Education Matters! Income Trajectories of Poorly Educated Non-Nordics in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordlund, Madelene; Bonfanti, Sara; Strandh, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examine the long-term impact of second chance education (SCE) on incomes of poorly educated individuals who live in Sweden but were not born in a Nordic country, using data on income changes from 1992 to 2003 compiled by Statistics Sweden. Ordinary Least Squares regression analyses show that participation in SCE increased the work…

  4. Social Change and Adult Education Research. Adult Education Research in Nordic Countries 1992/93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tampere Univ., Hameelinna (Finland). Dept. of Education.

    This yearbook contains 18 papers reflecting the major trends in adult education research in the Nordic countries in 1992-93. The following papers are included: "Popular Adult Education and Social Mobilization: Reflections in Connection with the Swedish Committee on Power" (Rubenson); "Direction of Finnish Adult Education Policies within the…

  5. Participation in Job-Related Lifelong Learning among Well-Educated Employees in the Nordic Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikkanen, Tarja; Nissinen, Kari

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore participation in job-related lifelong learning (LLL) among well-educated mature workers and compare it across four Nordic countries. Although this group generally is very active in LLL, the centrality of knowledge work in society, rapid pace of skills-renewal and rising learning demands for all…

  6. Source Apportionment of the Summer Time Carbonaceous Aerosol at Nordic Rural Background Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the present study, natural and anthropogenic sources of particulate organic carbon (OCp) and elemental carbon (EC) have been quantified based on weekly filter samples of PM10 (particles with aerodynamic diameter <10µ collected at four Nordic rural backgro...

  7. An Air of Sharing. A Format of Open Interviewing in a Joint Nordic Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omar, P. L.; Borsheim, A.; Lindesjoo, E.; Solvhjelm, C.; Liuhanen, A-M.

    2007-01-01

    The five Nordic countries and their respective quality assurance agencies have convened annually for over a decade to exchange experiences and discuss issues concerning quality assurance in higher education. In recent years this has resulted in a regional network for the quality assurance agencies (NOQA). During this period, methodological issues…

  8. Imported tungiasis in a Finnish journalist: the first case reported from the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Jalava-Karvinen, Päivi; Marttila, Harri; Talve, Lauri; Rantakokko-Jalava, Kaisu; Jokiranta, Sakari; Kotilainen, Pirkko

    2008-03-01

    Tungiasis is a parasitic infection widely spread in tropical Africa and in South and Central America. Only a few cases involving travellers have been reported from Europe, and none from the Nordic countries. We report a case of tungiasis in a Finnish journalist returning from Uganda. In this era of increasing intercontinental travel it is important that all physicians are aware of tungiasis.

  9. Re-evaluating high-latitude warming in the Pliocene Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Daniel; Smith, Yvonne; Dolan, Aisling

    2016-04-01

    The Pliocene warm period was generally been seen as stable warm climate with global temperatures of 2-3K above pre-industrial and significant polar amplification. Northern Hemisphere ice has been reconstructed to be restricted to the high altitude areas of Greenland and global reconstructions of sea surface temperatures show an especially strong warming in the Nordic Seas, most often attributed to increased ocean heat transport in the North Atlantic Ocean. Here we present climate model results that show that the strongest warming recorded in the Nordic Seas and Arctic is forced by changes in orbital forcing and palaeogeographic changes. Of particular importance is the presence of a sub-aerial landmass in the Barents Sea region, which has subsequently been eroded by Pleistocene glaciation. While climate models can produce strong warming signals in the Nordic Seas, a new iceberg modelling study showing that through much of the Pliocene the conditions in the Nordic Seas were suitable for the presence of significant quantities of icebergs. The locations of IRD records also raises the possibility of significant glaciations in places previously considered to be ice free in the Pliocene.

  10. Proceedings of the Nordic Conference on Mathematics Teaching (NORMA-94) Lahti 1994. Research Report 141.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pehkonen, Erkki, Ed.

    This report contains papers from the Nordic Conference on Mathematics Teaching (NORMA-94). The first three papers are plenary talks aimed at giving the participants an opportunity to form a coherent view of the new theories of learning. The themes of the paper sessions addressed a variety of topics on different levels from elementary school to…

  11. Nordic Research on Text and Discourse. NORDTEXT Symposium (Espoo, Finland, May 10-13, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindeberg, Ann-Charlotte, Ed.; And Others

    Papers presented at the 1990 Symposium of the Nordic Research Group for Theoretical and Applied Text Linguistics include the following: "Success Concepts" (Enkvist); "Reconciling the Psychological with the Linguistic in Accounts of Text Comprehension" (Garrod); "Particles as Fundaments of Discourse Structuring" (Fernandez-Vest); "Macrostructure in…

  12. A Nordic Approach to Early Childhood Education (ECE) and Socially Endangered Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Bente

    2009-01-01

    In this paper I examine the Nordic model, i.e. a child-centred and holistic approach, in order to discuss Early Childhood Education (ECE) as a key policy instrument for fighting social inequality. Since 1999 it has been an important goal for the Danish government to ensure equal opportunities for all by starting with early intervention. This is…

  13. Physical Activity of Depressed Patients and Their Motivation to Exercise: Nordic Walking in Family Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suija, Kadri; Pechter, Ulle; Kalda, Ruth; Tahepold, Heli; Maaroos, Jaak; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to find out how motivated depressed patients are to exercise regularly, to measure the physical activity of depressed patients and to find out how regular Nordic Walking affects the mood and physical fitness of depressed patients. A cross-sectional study was carried out. Three years after the Prediction of Primary…

  14. The effects of Nordic and general walking on depression disorder patients' depression, sleep, and body composition.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong Doo; Yu, Seong Hun

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] This study examined Nordic walking as an exercise intervention for the elderly with depression. [Subjects] Twenty-four patients who were diagnosed with depression were randomly selected and divided into two groups, an experimental group which performed Nordic walking, and a control group, which performed normal walking. [Methods] Both groups practiced their respective walking exercise for 50 minutes per day, three times a week for eight weeks. To compare the effects of the intervention, psychological factors using the Beck depression inventory and sleep quality was assessed using the Korean version Pittsburgh sleep quality index. Skeletal muscle mass, fat free mass, body mass index, body fat percentage, and basal metabolism were estimated three times by a body composition analyzer, before the intervention, four weeks after the intervention, and eight weeks after the intervention. [Results] There was a significant difference in depression with a main effect of time in both groups. There was also a significant difference in sleep in over time and interaction. The differences over time between the two groups were significant for depression, sleep, and skeletal muscle mass. [Conclusion] The results suggests that Nordic walking has a positive effect on depression and sleeping disorders of the elderly, suggesting that Nordic walking based exercise programs should be developed for the elderly who suffer from depression or a sleeping disorder. PMID:26357429

  15. Strategy for developing environmental sampling and analysis programs at coal-gasification pilot and demonstration plants. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, F.D.

    1989-02-01

    This report provides assistance in the development of sampling and analysis programs to obtain the data needed to support environmental permitting and environmental control-system design and evaluation for coal-to-substitute natural gas plants. The approach involved in the development of such a program involves: (1) determining the emission and discharge streams from the plant; (2) deciding which of the species that are likely to be present in these streams will be controlled under major Federal environmental regulations or need to be measured to evaluate the performance of potential environmental control processes; and (3) developing a test plant for obtaining the required data. A step-by-step example is given illustrating how to use the information presented in the report.

  16. STRATEGIES FOR EVALUATING INDICATORS BASED ON GUIDELINES FROM THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development (ORD) has prepared technical guidelines to evaluate the suitability of ecological indicators for monitoring programs. The guidelines were adopted by ORD to provide a consistent framework for indicator review...

  17. Decadal-scale Holocene climate variability in the Nordic seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koc, N.; Andersen, C.; Andrews, J.; Jennings, A.

    2003-04-01

    Sea-surface temperatures (SST) at decadal resolution have been reconstructed from core MD 95-2011, core MD 99-2269 and core BS88-6-5A based on diatom transfer functions. Core MD 95-2011 is located on the Vöring Plateau (66^o58.18N; 07^o38.36E, 1050 m water depth) along the main axis of the northward flowing warm Atlantic water. It is, therefore, in an ideal position to monitor changes in the northward heat flux to northwestern Europe. Core MD 99-2269 is located in the deep Hunafloi trough, off N Iceland (66^o37.53N; 20^o51.16W, 365 m water depth). Today the core lies under the influence of the Irminger current, but it also may be influenced by the cold East Greenland current (EGC) as the Polar front migrates eastward. Core BS88-6-5A is located on the East Greenland shelf (67^o07.54N; 30^o54.26W, 707 m water depth) and is influenced by the EGC. The cores has been dated by AMS C-14 and Pb 210 isotope profiles. SST variations are estimated by means of 3 different diatom transfer function methods. Results indicate a division of the Holocene into three periods and a climate development in step with the decreasing Northern Hemisphere insolation. However, regional differences between the surface currents occur regarding both timing and magnitude of changes. Superimposed on the general Holocene cooling trend there is a high frequency SST variability, which is in the order of 1--1.5 degrees C for the Vöring Plateau and the East Greenland shelf, and 2.5--3 degrees C for the North Iceland shelf. There is clear evidence for late Holocene climatic events such as the "Little Ice Age" and the "Medieval Warm Period". Timing of late Holocene climatic events at the eastern versus western Nordic Seas will be discussed.

  18. Changes in winter warming events in the Nordic Arctic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikhamar-Schuler, Dagrun; Isaksen, Ketil; Haugen, Jan Erik; Bjerke, Jarle Werner; Tømmervik, Hans

    2015-04-01

    In recent years winter warming events are frequently reported from Arctic areas. Extraordinarily warm weather episodes, occasionally combined with intense rainfall, cause severe ecological disturbance and great challenges for Arctic infrastructure. For example, the formation of ground ice due to winter rain or melting prevents reindeer from grazing, leads to vegetation browning, and impacts soil temperatures. The infrastructure may be affected by avalanches and floods resulting from intense snowmelt. The aim of our analysis is to study changes in warm spells during winter in the Nordic Arctic Region, here defined as the regions in Norway, Sweden and Finland north of the Arctic circle (66.5°N), including the Arctic islands Svalbard and Jan Mayen. Within this study area we have selected the longest available high quality observation series with daily temperature and precipitation. For studying future climate we use available regionally downscaled scenarios. We analyse three time periods: 1) the past 50-100 years, 2) the present (last 15 years, 2000-2014) and 3) the future (next 50-100 years). We define an extended winter season (October-April) and further divide it into three subseasons: 1) Early winter (October and November), 2) Mid-winter (December, January and February) and 3) Late-winter (March and April). We identify warm spells using two different classification criteria: a) days with temperature above 0°C (the melting temperature); and b) days with temperature in excess of the 90th percentile of the 1985-2014 temperature for each subseason. Both wet and dry warm spells are analysed. We compare the results for the mainland stations (maritime and inland stations) with the Arctic islands. All stations have very high frequency of warm weather events in the period 1930-1940s and for the last 15 years (2000-2014). For the most recent period the largest increase in number of warm spells are observed at the northernmost stations. We also find a continuation of this

  19. Identifying Determinants of Oncomelania hupensis Habitats and Assessing the Effects of Environmental Control Strategies in the Plain Regions with the Waterway Network of China at the Microscale

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Juan; Li, Rendong; Xu, Xingjian; Yu, Chuanhua; Xia, Xin; Hong, Xicheng; Chang, Bianrong; Yi, Fengjia; Shi, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to identify the landscape ecological determinants related to Oncomelania hupensis distribution, map the potential high risk of O. hupensis habitats at the microscale, and assess the effects of two environmental control strategies. Sampling was performed on 242 snail sites and 726 non-snail sites throughout Qianjiang City, Hubei Province, China. An integrated approach of landscape pattern analysis coupled with multiple logistic regression modeling was applied to investigate the effects of environmental factors on snail habitats. The risk probability of snail habitats positively correlated with patch fractal dimension (FD), paddy farm land proportion, and wetness index but inversely correlated with categorized normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and elevation. These findings indicate that FD can identify irregular features (e.g., irrigation ditches) in plain regions and that a moderate NDVI increases the microscale risk probability. Basing on the observed determinants, we predicted a map showing high-risk areas of snail habitats and simulated the effects of conduit hardening and paddy farming land rotation to dry farming land. The two approaches were confirmed effective for snail control. These findings provide an empirical basis for health professionals in local schistosomiasis control stations to identify priority areas and promising environmental control strategies for snail control and prevention. PMID:25003174

  20. The National Environmental Respiratory Center (NERC) experiment in multi-pollutant air quality health research: I. Background, experimental strategy and critique.

    PubMed

    Mauderly, Joe L

    2014-09-01

    The National Environmental Respiratory Center Program was initiated as an experiment to explore strategies for identifying the components of complex air pollution mixtures that cause health effects associated statistically with air pollution. A strategy involving multivariate analysis of a composition-concentration-response database was adopted. A novel database was created by exposing rodents daily for up to six months to one of four combustion-related mixtures and measuring respiratory, cardiovascular and general toxicological responses after one week or six months of exposure. The mixtures included multiple concentrations of diesel and gasoline engine exhaust, hardwood smoke and simulated downwind coal combustion emissions. After reporting the biological effects of each mixture and comparing effects among them, 47 significant effects were selected for multiple additive regression tree analysis to identify putative causal components. Although the four mixtures provided a database marginally sufficient for the analysis, the results suggested the putative causes of 19 significant effects with acceptable confidence. This article describes and critiques the Program and its strategy. The integrated results are presented in two accompanying papers, and mixture-specific results were presented in preceding papers, which are cited. The experiment demonstrated the potential utility of the general approach and identified certain cause-effect relationships for confirmatory studies. A follow-up study provided support for causation by the components implicated for one of those relationships. The advantages and disadvantages of the Program's management and funding strategies are discussed. PMID:25162718

  1. “You have to hunt for the fruits, the vegetables”: Environmental Barriers and Adaptive Strategies to Acquire Food in a Low-Income African-American Neighborhood

    PubMed Central

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Odoms-Young, Angela; Dallas, Constance; Hardy, Elaine; Watkins, April; Hoskins-Wroten, Jacqueline; Holland, Loys

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study sought to understand food acquisition behaviors and environmental factors that influence those behaviors among women in a low-income African American community with limited food resources. We drew upon in-depth interviews with 30 women ages 21 to 45 recruited from a community health center in Chicago, Illinois. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Emergent themes revealed that women identified multiple environmental barriers—material, economic, and social-interactional—to acquiring food in an acceptable setting. In response, they engaged in several adaptive strategies to manage or alter these challenges including optimizing, settling, being proactive, and advocating. These findings indicate that efforts to improve neighborhood food environments should address not only food availability and prices, but also the physical and social environments of stores as well. PMID:21511955

  2. A Strategy and Case Study Example for Designing and Implementing Environmental Long-Term Monitoring at Legacy Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Earl D. Mattson; Roelof J. Versteeg; Mark Ankeny; Gail Heath; Alex Richardson

    2004-04-01

    Environmental monitoring objectives of site owners, regulators, consultants, and scientists typically share the common elements of (1) cost management, (2) risk management, and (3) information management (Figure 1). Many site owners focus on minimizing monitoring costs while regulators typically focus on risk and regulatory compliance. Scientists and consultants typically provide information management in the form of spreadsheets with extracted information provided in reports to other users. This common piecemeal approach upon individual focus on elements of the monitoring objectives, rather than the common objective of minimizing cost and risk using site information, results in missed opportunities for cost savings, environmental protection, and improved understanding of site performance.

  3. Environmental Stratification Framework and Water-Quality Monitoring Design Strategy for the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedel, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Mauritania anticipates an increase in mining activities throughout the country and into the foreseeable future. Because mining-induced changes in the landscape are likely to affect their limited ground-water resources and sensitive aquatic ecosystems, a water-quality assessment program was designed for Mauritania that is based on a nationally consistent environmental stratification framework. The primary objectives of this program are to ensure that the environmental monitoring systems can quantify near real-time changes in surface-water chemistry at a local scale, and quantify intermediate- to long-term changes in groundwater and aquatic ecosystems over multiple scales.

  4. Longitudinal Assessment of the Effectiveness of Environmental Management and Enforcement Strategies on College Student Substance Abuse Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen-Cico, Dessa; Urtz, Anastasia; Barreto, Charmaine

    2004-01-01

    In 1998, the Higher Education Act of 1965 (HEA Reauthorization) was amended by the United States Congress, thereby encouraging the development of new strategies on college and university campuses for addressing alcohol and other drug (AOD) abuse. The HEA Reauthorization also served as a catalyst for colleges and universities to develop new…

  5. Environmental Sense Box: A Strategy for Helping Elementary School Students Understand Abstract Environments through Concrete Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sesow, F. Wm.

    This paper suggests a technique for the development, collection, and organization of materials that will aid learning through the use of the senses by building an environmental sense box. England is used as an example of a place that provides many sensory experiences which can be duplicated in such a box. The box can be made from a cardboard…

  6. CHEMICAL HAZARD EVALUATION FOR MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES: A METHOD FOR RANKING AND SCORING CHEMICALS BY POTENTIAL HUMAN HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Between 60,000 and 100,000 of the over than 8,000,000 chemicals listed by the Chemical Abstracts Services Registry are commercially produced and are potential environmental pollutants. Risk-based evaluation for these chemicals is often required to evaluate the potential impacts...

  7. Recruitment and Retention Strategies for Environmental Exposure Studies: Lessons from the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency’s Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) was a complex 3-year personal exposure study. The six geographically defined areas in the Detroit (Wayne County), Michigan, area used as study locations are ethnically diverse; the majority ...

  8. INTERIM REPORT, DEVELOP A COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT STRATEGY: PREPARE TO IMPLEMENT A COHORT STUDY OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction

    The National Children's Study (NCS) is an ambitious undertaking: a 20-year prospective cohort

    study that will investigate the relationships between a broad range of environmental factors and the health

    and well-being of children. Approximately 10...

  9. Strategies for reconciling environmental goals, productivity improvement, and increased energy efficiency in the industrial sector: Analytic framework

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, G.A.

    1995-06-01

    The project is motivated by recommendations that were made by industry in a number of different forums: the Industry Workshop of the White House Conference on Climate Change, and more recently, industry consultations for EPAct Section 131(c) and Section 160(b). These recommendations were related to reconciling conflicts in environmental goals, productivity improvements and increased energy efficiency in the industrial sector.

  10. Strategies for Public Engagement on Environmental Matters: You Can Lead a Horse to Water, but Can You Make It Drink?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mmojieje, Josephine

    2015-01-01

    With no tangible evidence of widespread public engagement in the UK on matters relating to the environment, this article assesses the benefits of adopting the principles of key theoretical models on learning (e.g., Kolb's Experiential Model) in environmental campaigns. In addition, in order to facilitate the transition from environmental…

  11. World Conservation Strategy: A Programme for Youth. Manual for Youth Environmental Projects. Education Training and Awareness Series No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkmuller, Klaus; Monroe, Martha C.

    This manual was written to help youth groups organize and implement environmental action projects in their communities. Because numerous types of groups exist around the world, the term "youth group" is used to represent any organized effort of young people. The activities in this document were designed for ages 12-20. Although groups with prior…

  12. Researchers Offer Strategies to Build Community-Driven Research in Nordic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukes, Laura A.; Fleming-Sharp, Laura; Fugmann, Gerlis

    2014-07-01

    More effective incorporation of traditional knowledge into Arctic research, as well as better communication between northern residents and researchers, is crucial to understanding the Arctic and the changes it is experiencing. Furthermore, training opportunities for Arctic researchers in how to approach indigenous peoples, work with local experts, and incorporate traditional knowledge successfully and respectfully into research projects is essential.

  13. Effects of Nordic Walking Compared to Conventional Walking and Band-Based Resistance Exercise on Fitness in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Takeshima, Nobuo; Islam, Mohammod M.; Rogers, Michael E.; Rogers, Nicole L.; Sengoku, Naoko; Koizumi, Daisuke; Kitabayashi, Yukiko; Imai, Aiko; Naruse, Aiko

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Nordic walking with conventional walking and band-based resistance exercise on functional fitness, static balance and dynamic balance in older adults. Volunteers (n = 65) were divided into four groups: Nordic walking (NW), conventional walking (CW), resistance (RES), and control. Each group performed activity 50-70 min·day−1 (warm-up 10-15 min, main exercise 30-40, and cool down 10-15 min), 3 days·week−1 (NW and CW) or 2 day·week−1 (RES) for 12 wks. Upper-body strength improved (p < 0. 05) in the RES (22.3%) and the NW (11.6%) groups compared to the CW and control groups. Cardio- respiratory fitness improved more in the NW (10.9%) and CW (10.6%) groups compared to the RES and control groups. Upper- and lower-body flexibility also improved in all exercise groups compared to the control group. There were no improvements in balance measures in any group. While all modes of exercise improved various components of fitness, Nordic walking provided the best well-rounded benefits by improving upper-body strength, cardiovascular endurance, and flexibility. Therefore, Nordic walking is recommended as an effective and efficient mode of concurrent exercise to improve overall functional fitness in older adults. Key Points Nordic walking, conventional walking, and resistance training are beneficial for older adults. Nordic walking and conventional walking both improve cardio-respiratory fitness while resistance training does not. Nordic walking provides additional benefits in upper-body muscular strength compared to conventional walking. Nordic walking is an effective and efficient mode of exercise to improve overall fitness in older adults. PMID:24149147

  14. An environmental assessment strategy for the identification of pollution prevention opportunities in the southern Urals Region of Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, M.A.; Ott, R.L.

    1993-08-23

    The serious environmental problems of the South Urals Region of Russia have been broadly described in a report coauthored by Russian weapons scientists. The importance of taking the first steps to prevent further environmental damage and adverse public health effects has been recognized by the international scientific community. Scientists at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have initiated a project to assist the Russians in their pollution prevention efforts. The specific objectives of this project are to: (1) conduct a pragmatic survey of the industrial and governmental pollution sources in a limited geographic region of the South Urals and (2) identify the priorities for pollution prevention and for food and water supply improvements at distribution points. The emphasis is on preventing adverse impacts to human health and improving industrial productivity. This project focuses on immediate pollution problems resulting from current operations and their solutions, not on long-term research related to the large-scale cleanup of legacy wastes. The project emphasizes near-term cost effective solutions to prevent pollution while longer term research aimed at contamination from past practices is pursued by other scientists. The project is being conducted in collaboration with environmental and physical scientists from institutes associated with the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences; government officials at the national, regional, and local levels; and non-governmental Russian environmental groups. A broad cross section of Russian technical, political, and environmental abilities and interests is mandatory. This cross section will ensure the technical quality, the political acceptability, and the popular credibility of the project results to the affected Russians in the South Urals. Progress on this project is presented in this paper.

  15. eSACP - a new Nordic initiative towards developing statistical climate services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorarinsdottir, Thordis; Thejll, Peter; Drews, Martin; Guttorp, Peter; Venälainen, Ari; Uotila, Petteri; Benestad, Rasmus; Mesquita, Michel d. S.; Madsen, Henrik; Fox Maule, Cathrine

    2015-04-01

    The Nordic research council NordForsk has recently announced its support for a new 3-year research initiative on "statistical analysis of climate projections" (eSACP). eSACP will focus on developing e-science tools and services based on statistical analysis of climate projections for the purpose of helping decision-makers and planners in the face of expected future challenges in regional climate change. The motivation behind the project is the growing recognition in our society that forecasts of future climate change is associated with various sources of uncertainty, and that any long-term planning and decision-making dependent on a changing climate must account for this. At the same time there is an obvious gap between scientists from different fields and between practitioners in terms of understanding how climate information relates to different parts of the "uncertainty cascade". In eSACP we will develop generic e-science tools and statistical climate services to facilitate the use of climate projections by decision-makers and scientists from all fields for climate impact analyses and for the development of robust adaptation strategies, which properly (in a statistical sense) account for the inherent uncertainty. The new tool will be publically available and include functionality to utilize the extensive and dynamically growing repositories of data and use state-of-the-art statistical techniques to quantify the uncertainty and innovative approaches to visualize the results. Such a tool will not only be valuable for future assessments and underpin the development of dedicated climate services, but will also assist the scientific community in making more clearly its case on the consequences of our changing climate to policy makers and the general public. The eSACP project is led by Thordis Thorarinsdottir, Norwegian Computing Center, and also includes the Finnish Meteorological Institute, the Norwegian Meteorological Institute, the Technical University of Denmark

  16. The environmental monitoring of Cultural Heritage through Low Cost strategies: The frescoes of the crypt of St. Francesco d'Assisi's, Irsina (Basilicata, Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sileo, Maria; Gizzi, Fabrizio; Masini, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    One of the main tools of assessment and diagnosis used to define appropriate strategies for the preservation of cultural heritage is the environmental monitoring. To achieve an environmental monitoring are needed high costs of purchase and maintenance, high costs of instrumental and for the management of the plants and processing of results. These costs imply that the technologies for environmental monitoring are not as common but their use is limited to the study very famous monuments or sites. To extend the use and dissemination of such technologies to a greater number of monuments, through the project Pro_Cult (Advanced methodological approaches and technologies for Protection and Security of Cultural Heritage) a research aimed at testing low cost technologies has been performed. The aim of the research is to develop low cost monitoring systems, assessing their effectiveness in a comparative way with commercial high cost ones. To this aim an environmental monitoring system using the Arduino system was designed and developed. It is an electronics prototyping platform based on open-source hardware and software flexible and user friendly. This system is connected to sensors for the detection of environmental parameters of non high purchase cost but with respect to the medium potential detection sensors accurately. This low cost system was tested in the framework of a microclimate monitoring project of the crypt of St. Francis of Assisi in Irsina (Southern Italy) enriched by a precious cycle of medieval frescoes. The aim of this research was to compare two monitoring systems, the first, at low cost, using Arduino system, and the second, a standard commercial product for a full yearly cycle and assess the reliability and the results obtained by the two systems. This paper shows the results of the comparative analysis of an entire monitoring yearly cycle in relation to the problems of degradation affecting the paintings of medieval crypt [1]. The obtained results

  17. The DMRT3 'Gait keeper' mutation affects performance of Nordic and Standardbred trotters.

    PubMed

    Jäderkvist, K; Andersson, L S; Johansson, A M; Árnason, T; Mikko, S; Eriksson, S; Andersson, L; Lindgren, G

    2014-10-01

    In a previous study it was shown that a nonsense mutation in the DMRT3 gene alters the pattern of locomotion in horses and that this mutation has a strong positive impact on trotting performance of Standardbreds. One aim of this study was to test if racing performance and trotting technique in the Nordic (Coldblood) trotters are also influenced by the DMRT3 genotype. Another aim was to further investigate the effect of the mutation on performance in Standardbreds, by using a within-family analysis and genotype-phenotype correlations in a larger horse material than in the previous study. We genotyped 427 Nordic trotters and 621 Standardbreds for the DMRT3 nonsense mutation and a SNP in strong linkage disequilibrium with it. In Nordic trotters, we show that horses homozygous for the DMRT3 mutation (A) had significantly higher EBV for trotting performance traits than heterozygous (CA) or homozygous wild-type (CC) horses (P = 0.001). Furthermore, AA homozygotes had a higher proportion of victories and top 3 placings than horses heterozygous or homozygous wild-type, when analyzing performance data for the period 3 to 6 yr of age (P = 0.06 and P = 0.05, respectively). Another finding in the Nordic trotters was that the DMRT3 mutation influenced trotting technique (P = 2.1 × 10(-8)). Standardbred horses homozygous AA had significantly higher EBV for all traits than horses with at least 1 wild-type allele (CA and CC; P = 1.6 × 10(-16)). In a within-family analysis of Standardbreds, we found significant differences in several traits (e.g., earnings, P = 0.002; number of entered races, P = 0.004; and fraction of offspring that entered races, P = 0.002) among paternal half-sibs with genotype AA or CA sired by a CA stallion. For most traits, we found significant differences at young ages. For Nordic trotters, most of the results were significant at 3 yr of age but not for the older ages, and for the Standardbreds most of the results for the ages 3 to 5 were significant. For

  18. The DMRT3 'Gait keeper' mutation affects performance of Nordic and Standardbred trotters.

    PubMed

    Jäderkvist, K; Andersson, L S; Johansson, A M; Árnason, T; Mikko, S; Eriksson, S; Andersson, L; Lindgren, G

    2014-10-01

    In a previous study it was shown that a nonsense mutation in the DMRT3 gene alters the pattern of locomotion in horses and that this mutation has a strong positive impact on trotting performance of Standardbreds. One aim of this study was to test if racing performance and trotting technique in the Nordic (Coldblood) trotters are also influenced by the DMRT3 genotype. Another aim was to further investigate the effect of the mutation on performance in Standardbreds, by using a within-family analysis and genotype-phenotype correlations in a larger horse material than in the previous study. We genotyped 427 Nordic trotters and 621 Standardbreds for the DMRT3 nonsense mutation and a SNP in strong linkage disequilibrium with it. In Nordic trotters, we show that horses homozygous for the DMRT3 mutation (A) had significantly higher EBV for trotting performance traits than heterozygous (CA) or homozygous wild-type (CC) horses (P = 0.001). Furthermore, AA homozygotes had a higher proportion of victories and top 3 placings than horses heterozygous or homozygous wild-type, when analyzing performance data for the period 3 to 6 yr of age (P = 0.06 and P = 0.05, respectively). Another finding in the Nordic trotters was that the DMRT3 mutation influenced trotting technique (P = 2.1 × 10(-8)). Standardbred horses homozygous AA had significantly higher EBV for all traits than horses with at least 1 wild-type allele (CA and CC; P = 1.6 × 10(-16)). In a within-family analysis of Standardbreds, we found significant differences in several traits (e.g., earnings, P = 0.002; number of entered races, P = 0.004; and fraction of offspring that entered races, P = 0.002) among paternal half-sibs with genotype AA or CA sired by a CA stallion. For most traits, we found significant differences at young ages. For Nordic trotters, most of the results were significant at 3 yr of age but not for the older ages, and for the Standardbreds most of the results for the ages 3 to 5 were significant. For

  19. Relationship between Los Angeles attrition test and Nordic abrasion test of volcanic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krutilová, Kateřina; Prikryl, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Various volcanic rocks contribute significantly to the production of crushed stone in the Czech Republic. When used for road surfacing, results of Los Angeles attrition test (LA value below 25 or 30 depending on the mode of use) together with polished stone value are required. In the recent study, we have focused on the search for possible correlation between results obtained by Los Angeles attrition test and Nordic abrasion test, a test widely employed in Scandinavia. For the experimental study, a set of volcanic rocks from 36 active quarries was used. The rocks under study represent range of volcanic rocks from ultrabasic to acid members, formed form Neoproterozoic to Tertiary. The most favourable results of Los Angeles attrition test (i.e. the lowest LA values) were obtained for basalts (range of values 9.4-19.4) and spilites (range of values 8.4-14.9) which are in fact Neoproterozoic to Late Palaeozoic basalts affected by low grade metamorphism. Nordic abrasion test exhibited much broader range of values (6.4 to 36.9) with average value at 15.2 for basalts, resulting in weak coefficient of determination (0.19). . On contrary, narrow range of values from Nordic abrasion test of spilites (7.2-15.9), very similar to the range of LA values, is reflect in higher coefficient of determination (0.56). On contrary, the least favourable properties (LA values 12.3-29.2, Nordic abrasion 16.8-43.3) have been observed for a group of basic to intermediate rocks classified in older literature as melaphyres and diabases (ranging from basalts to trachyndesites and/or trachybasalts) of Palaeozoic age. However, in this specific group of volcanic rocks, the highest coefficient of determination (0.89) between both tests has been achieved. For volcanic rocks exhibiting acid composition (rhyolites and quartz porphyry), coefficient of determination between LA values (15.1-19.3) and Nordic abrasion test (7.3-21.9) is weak (0.42). The weakest relationship between LA values (14

  20. Living, training and playing in the heat: challenges to the football player and strategies for coping with environmental extremes.

    PubMed

    Maughan, R J; Shirreffs, S M; Ozgünen, K T; Kurdak, S S; Ersöz, G; Binnet, M S; Dvorak, J

    2010-10-01

    Dehydration and hyperthermia both, if sufficiently severe, will impair exercise performance. Dehydration can also impair performance of tasks requiring cognition and skill. Body temperature may exceed 40 °C in competitive games played in hot weather, but limited data are available. Football played in the heat, therefore, poses a challenge, and effects on some aspects of performance become apparent as environmental temperature increases above about 12-15 °C. Prior acclimatization will reduce the impact of high environmental temperatures but provides limited protection when humidity is also high. Ingestion of fluids is effective in limiting the detrimental effects on performance: drinks with added carbohydrate and electrolytes are generally more effective than plain water and drinks may be more effective if taken cold than if taken at ambient temperature. Pre-exercise lowering of body temperature may aid some aspects of performance, but the efficacy has not been demonstrated in football.

  1. Liver transplantation in the Nordic countries – An intention to treat and post-transplant analysis from The Nordic Liver Transplant Registry 1982–2013

    PubMed Central

    Fosby, Bjarte; Melum, Espen; Bjøro, Kristian; Bennet, William; Rasmussen, Allan; Andersen, Ina Marie; Castedal, Maria; Olausson, Michael; Wibeck, Christina; Gotlieb, Mette; Gjertsen, Henrik; Toivonen, Leena; Foss, Stein; Makisalo, Heikki; Nordin, Arno; Sanengen, Truls; Bergquist, Annika; Larsson, Marie E.; Soderdahl, Gunnar; Nowak, Greg; Boberg, Kirsten Muri; Isoniemi, Helena; Keiding, Susanne; Foss, Aksel; Line, Pål-Dag; Friman, Styrbjörn; Schrumpf, Erik; Ericzon, Bo-Göran; Höckerstedt, Krister; Karlsen, Tom H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aim and background. The Nordic Liver Transplant Registry (NLTR) accounts for all liver transplants performed in the Nordic countries since the start of the transplant program in 1982. Due to short waiting times, donor liver allocation has been made without considerations of the model of end-stage liver disease (MELD) score. We aimed to summarize key outcome measures and developments for the activity up to December 2013. Materials and methods. The registry is integrated with the operational waiting-list and liver allocation system of Scandiatransplant (www.scandiatransplant.org) and accounted at the end of 2013 for 6019 patients out of whom 5198 were transplanted. Data for recipient and donor characteristics and relevant end-points retransplantation and death are manually curated on an annual basis to allow for statistical analysis and the annual report. Results. Primary sclerosing cholangitis, acute hepatic failure, alcoholic liver disease, primary biliary cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma are the five most frequent diagnoses (accounting for 15.3%, 10.8%, 10.6%, 9.3% and 9.0% of all transplants, respectively). Median waiting time for non-urgent liver transplantation during the last 10-year period was 39 days. Outcome has improved over time, and for patients transplanted during 2004–2013, overall one-, five- and 10-year survival rates were 91%, 80% and 71%, respectively. In an intention-to-treat analysis, corresponding numbers during the same time period were 87%, 75% and 66%, respectively. Conclusion. The liver transplant program in the Nordic countries provides comparable outcomes to programs with a MELD-based donor liver allocation system. Unique features comprise the diagnostic spectrum, waiting times and the availability of an integrated waiting list and transplant registry (NLTR). PMID:25959101

  2. School meal provision, health, and cognitive function in a Nordic setting – the ProMeal-study: description of methodology and the Nordic context

    PubMed Central

    Waling, Maria; Olafsdottir, Anna S.; Lagström, Hanna; Wergedahl, Hege; Jonsson, Bert; Olsson, Cecilia; Fossgard, Eldbjørg; Holthe, Asle; Talvia, Sanna; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Hörnell, Agneta

    2016-01-01

    Background School meals, if both nutritious and attractive, provide a unique opportunity to improve health equality and public health. Objective To describe the study rationale, data collection, and background of participants in the study ‘Prospects for promoting health and performance by school meals in Nordic countries’ (ProMeal). The general aim was to determine whether overall healthiness of the diet and learning conditions in children can be improved by school lunches, and to capture the main concerns regarding school lunches among children in a Nordic context. Design A cross-sectional, multidisciplinary study was performed in Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden on pupils (n=837) born in 2003. Results In total 3,928 pictures of school lunches were taken to capture pupils’ school lunch intake. A mean of 85% of all parents responded to a questionnaire about socioeconomic background, dietary intake, and habitual physical activity at home. Cognitive function was measured on one occasion on 93% of the pupils during optimal conditions with a Stroop and a Child Operation Span test. A mean of 169 pupils also did an Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test after lunch over 3 days. In total, 37,413 10-sec observations of classroom learning behavior were performed. In addition, 753 empathy-based stories were written and 78 focus groups were conducted. The pupils had high socioeconomic status. Conclusions This study will give new insights into which future interventions are needed to improve pupils’ school lunch intake and learning. The study will provide valuable information for policy making, not least in countries where the history of school meals is shorter than in some of the Nordic countries. PMID:27514723

  3. Identification and association of relationships between selected personal and environmental factors and formal components of temperament and strategies of coping with stress in asthmatic patients.

    PubMed

    Panek, Michał; Pietras, Tadeusz; Witusik, Andrzej; Wieteska, Łukasz; Małachowska, Beata; Mokros, Łukasz; Fendler, Wojciech; Szemraj, Janusz; Kuna, Piotr

    2015-10-01

    Background: Personal and environmental factors might have an impact on strategies of coping with stress and temperamental traits according to the Regulative Theory of Temperament in asthmatic patients. They can modify the clinical picture, the course of a disease and effectiveness of treatment. Personal variables are key factors in determining formal characteristic of behavior and effective management method in asthmatic patients. Aim of study: The aim of the study was to identify selected personal and environmental factors, as well as factors inducing attacks and asthma exacerbations or maintaining them in a complex of personal traits of patients. Methods: Two hundred and eighty one participants were included in the study. Of this number 122 subjects were healthy volunteers and 159 were asthmatic patients. In all the subjects the authors applied the Formal Characteristic of Behaviour – FCZ-KT – Temperament Inventory, Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) Scale. Genotyping of polymorphic forms of NR3C1 gene was conducted with PCR-RFLP and PCR-HRM methods. Expression of TGFβ1 gene was measured with the use of qRT-PCR. Results: The authors confirmed a significant influence of personal and environmental factors, such as: age, height, body weight, sex, asthma exacerbations, drugs administered by patients, allergy and psychopathological variables on strategies of coping with stress by asthmatic patients (Task-Oriented Coping, Emotion-Oriented Coping, Avoidance-Oriented Coping, distraction seeking, social diversion). Temperamental traits (Briskness, Perseverance, Sensory Sensitivity, Emotional Reactivity, Endurance, Activity) depend on age, sex, body weight, genetic predispositions and they are modified by asthma exacerbations, allergy, drugs administered by patients, depression and anxiety (state and trait). The authors confirmed a correlation between

  4. Herbicide-related signaling in plants reveals novel insights for herbicide use strategies, environmental risk assessment and global change assessment challenges.

    PubMed

    Alberto, Diana; Serra, Anne-Antonella; Sulmon, Cécile; Gouesbet, Gwenola; Couée, Ivan

    2016-11-01

    Herbicide impact is usually assessed as the result of a unilinear mode of action on a specific biochemical target with a typical dose-response dynamics. Recent developments in plant molecular signaling and crosstalk between nutritional, hormonal and environmental stress cues are however revealing a more complex picture of inclusive toxicity. Herbicides induce large-scale metabolic and gene-expression effects that go far beyond the expected consequences of unilinear herbicide-target-damage mechanisms. Moreover, groundbreaking studies have revealed that herbicide action and responses strongly interact with hormone signaling pathways, with numerous regulatory protein-kinases and -phosphatases, with metabolic and circadian clock regulators and with oxidative stress signaling pathways. These interactions are likely to result in mechanisms of adjustment that can determine the level of sensitivity or tolerance to a given herbicide or to a mixture of herbicides depending on the environmental and developmental status of the plant. Such regulations can be described as rheostatic and their importance is discussed in relation with herbicide use strategies, environmental risk assessment and global change assessment challenges. PMID:27318518

  5. Environmental potential of the use of CO2 from alcoholic fermentation processes. The CO2-AFP strategy.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Moreno, Carlos; García-Yuste, Santiago

    2016-10-15

    A novel Carbon Dioxide Utilization (CDU) approach from a relatively minor CO2 emission source, i.e., alcoholic fermentation processes (AFP), is presented. The CO2 produced as a by-product from the AFP is estimated by examining the EtOH consumed per year reported by the World Health Organization in 2014. It is proposed that the extremely pure CO2 from the AFP is captured in NaOH solutions to produce one of the Top 10 commodities in the chemical industry, Na2CO3, as a good example of an atomic economy process. The novel CDU strategy could yield over 30.6Mt of Na2CO3 in oversaturated aqueous solution on using ca. 12.7Mt of captured CO2 and this process would consume less energy than the synthetic methodology (Solvay ammonia soda process) and would not produce low-value by-products. The quantity of Na2CO3 obtained by this strategy could represent ca. 50% of the world Na2CO3 production in one year. In terms of the green economy, the viability of the strategy is discussed according to the recommendations of the CO2Chem network, and an estimation of the CO2negative emission achieved suggests a capture of around 280.0Mt of CO2 from now to 2020 or ca. 1.9Gt from now to 2050. Finally, the results obtained for this new CDU proposal are discussed by considering different scenarios; the CO2 production in a typical winemaking corporation, the CO2 released in the most relevant wine-producing countries, and the use of CO2 from AFP as an alternative for the top Na2CO3-producing countries. PMID:27300565

  6. Environmental potential of the use of CO2 from alcoholic fermentation processes. The CO2-AFP strategy.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Moreno, Carlos; García-Yuste, Santiago

    2016-10-15

    A novel Carbon Dioxide Utilization (CDU) approach from a relatively minor CO2 emission source, i.e., alcoholic fermentation processes (AFP), is presented. The CO2 produced as a by-product from the AFP is estimated by examining the EtOH consumed per year reported by the World Health Organization in 2014. It is proposed that the extremely pure CO2 from the AFP is captured in NaOH solutions to produce one of the Top 10 commodities in the chemical industry, Na2CO3, as a good example of an atomic economy process. The novel CDU strategy could yield over 30.6Mt of Na2CO3 in oversaturated aqueous solution on using ca. 12.7Mt of captured CO2 and this process would consume less energy than the synthetic methodology (Solvay ammonia soda process) and would not produce low-value by-products. The quantity of Na2CO3 obtained by this strategy could represent ca. 50% of the world Na2CO3 production in one year. In terms of the green economy, the viability of the strategy is discussed according to the recommendations of the CO2Chem network, and an estimation of the CO2negative emission achieved suggests a capture of around 280.0Mt of CO2 from now to 2020 or ca. 1.9Gt from now to 2050. Finally, the results obtained for this new CDU proposal are discussed by considering different scenarios; the CO2 production in a typical winemaking corporation, the CO2 released in the most relevant wine-producing countries, and the use of CO2 from AFP as an alternative for the top Na2CO3-producing countries.

  7. Global Proteomics Reveal An Atypical Strategy for Carbon/Nitrogen Assimilation by a Cyanobacterium Under Diverse Environmental Perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Wegener, Kimberly M.; Singh, Abhay K.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Elvitigala, Thanura R.; Welsh, Eric A.; Keren, Nir S.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Ghosh, Bijoy K.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

    2010-12-01

    Cyanobacteria, the only prokaryotes capable of oxygenic photosynthesis, are present in diverse ecological niches and play crucial roles in global carbon and nitrogen cycles. To proliferate in nature, cyanobacteria utilize a host of stress responses to accommodate periodic changes in environmental conditions. A detailed knowledge of the composition of, as well as the dynamic changes in, the proteome is necessary to gain fundamental insights into such stress responses. Toward this goal, we have performed a largescale proteomic analysis of the widely studied model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 under 33 different environmental conditions. The resulting high-quality dataset consists of 22,318 unique peptides corresponding to 1,955 proteins, a coverage of 53% of the predicted proteome. Quantitative determination of protein abundances has led to the identification of 1,198 differentially regulated proteins. Notably, our analysis revealed that a common stress response under various environmental perturbations, irrespective of amplitude and duration, is the activation of atypical pathways for the acquisition of carbon and nitrogen from urea and arginine. In particular, arginine is catabolized via putrescine to produce succinate and glutamate, sources of carbon and nitrogen, respectively. This study provides the most comprehensive functional and quantitative analysis of the Synechocystis proteome to date, and shows that a significant stress response of cyanobacteria involves an uncommon mode of acquisition of carbon and nitrogen. Oxygenic phototrophic prokaryotes, the progenitors of the chloroplast, are crucial to global oxygen production and worldwide carbon and nitrogen cycles. These microalgae are robust organisms capable carbon neutral biofuel production. Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 has historically been a model cyanobacterium for photosynthetic research and is emerging as a promising biofuel platform. Cellular responses are severely modified by environmental

  8. Healthy aspects of the Nordic diet are related to lower total mortality.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Anja; Egeberg, Rikke; Halkjær, Jytte; Christensen, Jane; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne

    2011-04-01

    Health-promoting effects of the Mediterranean diet have been in focus for decades, whereas less interest has been given to existing healthy dietary habits within other Western cultures. The aim of the study was to develop a food index based on traditional Nordic food items with expected health-promoting effects and relate this to all-cause mortality in a cohort of Danes. Detailed information about diet, lifestyle, and anthropometry was provided by 57,053 Danes aged 50-64 y. During 12 y of follow-up, 4126 of the cohort participants died. A healthy Nordic food index, consisting of traditional Nordic food items with expected health-promoting effects (fish, cabbages, rye bread, oatmeal, apples and pears, and root vegetables), was extracted and associated with mortality by Cox proportional hazard models. Mortality rate ratios (MRR) with 95% CI were used to associate the index to mortality. In an adjusted model, a 1-point higher index score was associated with a significantly lower MRR for both men [0.96 (0.92-0.99)] and women [0.96 (0.92-1.00)] (P = 0.03). When the index components were evaluated separately, whole grain rye bread intake was the factor most consistently associated with lower mortality in men. In conclusion, an index based on traditional healthy Nordic foods was found to be related to lower mortality among middle-aged Danes, in particular among men. This study indicates that traditional, healthy food items should be considered before public recommendations for major dietary changes are made. PMID:21346102

  9. On model differences and skill in predicting sea surface temperature in the Nordic and Barents Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langehaug, H. R.; Matei, D.; Eldevik, T.; Lohmann, K.; Gao, Y.

    2016-04-01

    The Nordic Seas and the Barents Sea is the Atlantic Ocean's gateway to the Arctic Ocean, and the Gulf Stream's northern extension brings large amounts of heat into this region and modulates climate in northwestern Europe. We have investigated the predictive skill of initialized hindcast simulations performed with three state-of-the-art climate prediction models within the CMIP5-framework, focusing on sea surface temperature (SST) in the Nordic Seas and Barents Sea, but also on sea ice extent, and the subpolar North Atlantic upstream. The hindcasts are compared with observation-based SST for the period 1961-2010. All models have significant predictive skill in specific regions at certain lead times. However, among the three models there is little consistency concerning which regions that display predictive skill and at what lead times. For instance, in the eastern Nordic Seas, only one model has significant skill in predicting observed SST variability at longer lead times (7-10 years). This region is of particular promise in terms of predictability, as observed thermohaline anomalies progress from the subpolar North Atlantic to the Fram Strait within the time frame of a couple of years. In the same model, predictive skill appears to move northward along a similar route as forecast time progresses. We attribute this to the northward advection of SST anomalies, contributing to skill at longer lead times in the eastern Nordic Seas. The skill at these lead times in particular beats that of persistence forecast, again indicating the potential role of ocean circulation as a source for skill. Furthermore, we discuss possible explanations for the difference in skill among models, such as different model resolutions, initialization techniques, and model climatologies and variance.

  10. Healthy aspects of the Nordic diet are related to lower total mortality.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Anja; Egeberg, Rikke; Halkjær, Jytte; Christensen, Jane; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne

    2011-04-01

    Health-promoting effects of the Mediterranean diet have been in focus for decades, whereas less interest has been given to existing healthy dietary habits within other Western cultures. The aim of the study was to develop a food index based on traditional Nordic food items with expected health-promoting effects and relate this to all-cause mortality in a cohort of Danes. Detailed information about diet, lifestyle, and anthropometry was provided by 57,053 Danes aged 50-64 y. During 12 y of follow-up, 4126 of the cohort participants died. A healthy Nordic food index, consisting of traditional Nordic food items with expected health-promoting effects (fish, cabbages, rye bread, oatmeal, apples and pears, and root vegetables), was extracted and associated with mortality by Cox proportional hazard models. Mortality rate ratios (MRR) with 95% CI were used to associate the index to mortality. In an adjusted model, a 1-point higher index score was associated with a significantly lower MRR for both men [0.96 (0.92-0.99)] and women [0.96 (0.92-1.00)] (P = 0.03). When the index components were evaluated separately, whole grain rye bread intake was the factor most consistently associated with lower mortality in men. In conclusion, an index based on traditional healthy Nordic foods was found to be related to lower mortality among middle-aged Danes, in particular among men. This study indicates that traditional, healthy food items should be considered before public recommendations for major dietary changes are made.

  11. Bringing Environmentalism Home: Children's Influence on Family Consumption in the Nordic Countries and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Bengt; Andersson, Magnus; Osbeck, Christina

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses children as contributors to sustainable ecological development. The aim of the article is to develop a framework for researching two questions: What are the prerequisites for children to become responsible environmentalists? What actual and potential influence do children have on their family's consumption? Three theoretical…

  12. Identifying/Quantifying Environmental Trade-offs Inherent in GHG Reduction Strategies for Coal-Fired Power.

    PubMed

    Schivley, Greg; Ingwersen, Wesley W; Marriott, Joe; Hawkins, Troy R; Skone, Timothy J

    2015-07-01

    Improvements to coal power plant technology and the cofired combustion of biomass promise direct greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions for existing coal-fired power plants. Questions remain as to what the reduction potentials are from a life cycle perspective and if it will result in unintended increases in impacts to air and water quality and human health. This study provides a unique analysis of the potential environmental impact reductions from upgrading existing subcritical pulverized coal power plants to increase their efficiency, improving environmental controls, cofiring biomass, and exporting steam for industrial use. The climate impacts are examined in both a traditional-100 year GWP-method and a time series analysis that accounts for emission and uptake timing over the life of the power plant. Compared to fleet average pulverized bed boilers (33% efficiency), we find that circulating fluidized bed boilers (39% efficiency) may provide GHG reductions of about 13% when using 100% coal and reductions of about 20-37% when cofiring with 30% biomass. Additional greenhouse gas reductions from combined heat and power are minimal if the steam coproduct displaces steam from an efficient natural gas boiler. These upgrades and cofiring biomass can also reduce other life cycle impacts, although there may be increased impacts to water quality (eutrophication) when using biomass from an intensely cultivated source. Climate change impacts are sensitive to the timing of emissions and carbon sequestration as well as the time horizon over which impacts are considered, particularly for long growth woody biomass. PMID:26001040

  13. Identifying/Quantifying Environmental Trade-offs Inherent in GHG Reduction Strategies for Coal-Fired Power.

    PubMed

    Schivley, Greg; Ingwersen, Wesley W; Marriott, Joe; Hawkins, Troy R; Skone, Timothy J

    2015-07-01

    Improvements to coal power plant technology and the cofired combustion of biomass promise direct greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions for existing coal-fired power plants. Questions remain as to what the reduction potentials are from a life cycle perspective and if it will result in unintended increases in impacts to air and water quality and human health. This study provides a unique analysis of the potential environmental impact reductions from upgrading existing subcritical pulverized coal power plants to increase their efficiency, improving environmental controls, cofiring biomass, and exporting steam for industrial use. The climate impacts are examined in both a traditional-100 year GWP-method and a time series analysis that accounts for emission and uptake timing over the life of the power plant. Compared to fleet average pulverized bed boilers (33% efficiency), we find that circulating fluidized bed boilers (39% efficiency) may provide GHG reductions of about 13% when using 100% coal and reductions of about 20-37% when cofiring with 30% biomass. Additional greenhouse gas reductions from combined heat and power are minimal if the steam coproduct displaces steam from an efficient natural gas boiler. These upgrades and cofiring biomass can also reduce other life cycle impacts, although there may be increased impacts to water quality (eutrophication) when using biomass from an intensely cultivated source. Climate change impacts are sensitive to the timing of emissions and carbon sequestration as well as the time horizon over which impacts are considered, particularly for long growth woody biomass.

  14. Frequency of injuries, in particular dental injuries, in ski jumping and Nordic combined.

    PubMed

    Stillhard, Angela; Buschor, Cornel; Krastl, Gabriel; Kühl, Sebastian; Filippi, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the frequency of injuries, in particular dental injuries, among ski jumpers and Nordic combined athletes. It also examines the level of knowledge regarding tooth protection and tooth rescue boxes in this population. Of the 465 sportswomen and sportsmen who took part in the study, 230 (62.5%) of the 368 ski jumpers and 56 (56.5%) of the 97 Nordic combined athletes had sustained an injury. In both disciplines injury was most likely among professionals. The survey participants reported injuries to the limbs (n = 216), head and lips (n = 273 and n = 253, respectively), torso or spine (n = 249), teeth (n = 246), nose (n = 229) and jaw (n = 26). Dental injuries were more common among professionals than either amateur or junior ski jumpers, whereas, among the Nordic combined athletes, juniors were most likely to sustain a dental injury. Overall, the frequency of dental injury was significantly (p = 0.019) higher among adults 12.7% (n = 234) than junior athletes 6.1% (n = 212). The level of awareness of mouthguards and tooth rescue boxes varied between countries. The high injury rate recorded in this study demonstrates that ski jumping contains a considerable risk of injury, including tooth damage. Consequently, it seems reasonable to inform skiing organisations, trainers and athletes about the potential benefits of mouthguards and tooth rescue boxes in order to reduce the risk of dental injury. PMID:26345232

  15. Frequency of injuries, in particular dental injuries, in ski jumping and Nordic combined.

    PubMed

    Stillhard, Angela; Buschor, Cornel; Krastl, Gabriel; Kühl, Sebastian; Filippi, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the frequency of injuries, in particular dental injuries, among ski jumpers and Nordic combined athletes. It also examines the level of knowledge regarding tooth protection and tooth rescue boxes in this population. Of the 465 sportswomen and sportsmen who took part in the study, 230 (62.5%) of the 368 ski jumpers and 56 (56.5%) of the 97 Nordic combined athletes had sustained an injury. In both disciplines injury was most likely among professionals. The survey participants reported injuries to the limbs (n = 216), head and lips (n = 273 and n = 253, respectively), torso or spine (n = 249), teeth (n = 246), nose (n = 229) and jaw (n = 26). Dental injuries were more common among professionals than either amateur or junior ski jumpers, whereas, among the Nordic combined athletes, juniors were most likely to sustain a dental injury. Overall, the frequency of dental injury was significantly (p = 0.019) higher among adults 12.7% (n = 234) than junior athletes 6.1% (n = 212). The level of awareness of mouthguards and tooth rescue boxes varied between countries. The high injury rate recorded in this study demonstrates that ski jumping contains a considerable risk of injury, including tooth damage. Consequently, it seems reasonable to inform skiing organisations, trainers and athletes about the potential benefits of mouthguards and tooth rescue boxes in order to reduce the risk of dental injury.

  16. What is a healthy Nordic diet? Foods and nutrients in the NORDIET study

    PubMed Central

    Adamsson, Viola; Reumark, Anna; Cederholm, Tommy; Vessby, Bengt; Risérus, Ulf; Johansson, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    Background A healthy Nordic diet (ND), a diet based on foods originating from the Nordic countries, improves blood lipid profile and insulin sensitivity and lowers blood pressure and body weight in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Objective To describe and compare food and nutrient composition of the ND in relation to the intake of a Swedish reference population (SRP) and the recommended intake (RI) and average requirement (AR), as described by the Nordic nutrition recommendations (NNR). Design The analyses were based on an estimate of actual food and nutrient intake of 44 men and women (mean age 53±8 years, BMI 26±3), representing an intervention arm receiving ND for 6 weeks. Results The main difference between ND and SRP was the higher intake of plant foods, fish, egg and vegetable fat and a lower intake of meat products, dairy products, sweets and desserts and alcoholic beverages during ND (p<0.001 for all food groups). Intake of cereals and seeds was similar between ND and SRP (p>0.3). The relative intake of protein, fat and carbohydrates during ND was in accordance with RI. Intake of all vitamins and minerals was above AR, whereas sodium intake was below RI. Conclusions When compared with the food intake of an SRP, ND is primarily a plant-based diet. ND represents a balanced food intake that meets the current RI and AR of NNR 2004 and has a dietary pattern that is associated with decreased morbidity and mortality. PMID:22761599

  17. Turning a Student into a Researcher: Challenges and Strategies of Teaching Research Methods to Environmental Studies and Earth Science Juniors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmochowski, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    Most agree that research is an important aspect of a geoscience undergraduate program, but simply making research opportunities available to undergraduates sometimes is not enough. Teaching research and making research mandatory are often necessary, as these steps can play a vital role in turning a student into a researcher and preparing them for the work force or graduate school. As part of our revised Environmental Studies curriculum in 2008, the Earth and Environmental Science Department at the University of Pennsylvania now teaches a junior seminar on research methods that is mandatory for all Environmental Studies majors, and for all Earth Science majors who wish to do a senior thesis. Since this course has been mandatory, the course has been taught twice, with 11 students the first time and 28 students the second time, and we have seen improvements in the quality of senior theses in our department. The course is broken into three parts: introduction to the importance of research, reading the primary scientific literature and finding a project, and data analysis. There is a corresponding assignment for each section, and the course culminates in the students writing a senior thesis proposal and giving a presentation on their proposal. Assignments 1 and 2 are papers, but in assignment 3 (data analysis) students are given an Excel file with 7 different small datasets, and they use Excel and SPSS to answer several questions about the datasets, employing tools discussed in class (t-test, chi-square test, histogram, standard deviation, linear regression, ANOVA, etc.). From student reviews and questionnaires, we have found that students feel the most helpful aspects of the course are discussions with current seniors about their theses, reading past senior theses and discussing them as a class, guest talks from professors about their research, assignment 2 (writing a literature review), assignment 3 (data analysis), and working in small groups to brainstorm thesis

  18. Are health inequalities really not the smallest in the Nordic welfare states? A comparison of mortality inequality in 37 countries

    PubMed Central

    Popham, Frank; Dibben, Chris; Bambra, Clare

    2013-01-01

    Background Research comparing mortality by socioeconomic status has found that inequalities are not the smallest in the Nordic countries. This is in contrast to expectations given these countries’ policy focus on equity. An alternative way of studying inequality has been little used to compare inequalities across welfare states and may yield a different conclusion. Methods We used average life expectancy lost per death as a measure of total inequality in mortality derived from death rates from the Human Mortality Database for 37 countries in 2006 that we grouped by welfare state type. We constructed a theoretical ‘lowest mortality comparator country’ to study, by age, why countries were not achieving the smallest inequality and the highest life expectancy. We also studied life expectancy as there is an important correlation between it and inequality. Results On average, Nordic countries had the highest life expectancy and smallest inequalities for men but not women. For both men and women, Nordic countries had particularly low younger age mortality contributing to smaller inequality and higher life expectancy. Although older age mortality in the Nordic countries is not the smallest. There was variation within Nordic countries with Sweden, Iceland and Norway having higher life expectancy and smaller inequalities than Denmark and Finland (for men). Conclusions Our analysis suggests that the Nordic countries do have the smallest inequalities in mortality for men and for younger age groups. However, this is not the case for women. Reducing premature mortality among older age groups would increase life expectancy and reduce inequality further in Nordic countries. PMID:23386671

  19. The environmental, health, and safety issues of acoustical materials: A strategy for finding, using, and evaluating information effectively

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischel, Marsha S.

    2005-09-01

    Concern over the safety of our indoor environments has increased in recent years. The definition of safety has also evolved to include not just life safety issues such as fire, but issues such as mold growth, toxins, the emission of volatile organic compounds, seismic concerns, and ergonomic issues. Consequently, the understanding of product safety has become increasingly more complex. Simultaneously, there has been an explosion in the number of products available to specifiers, due largely to access to the World Wide Web by international manufacturers of all sizes. Some of these manufacturers may be unable to test all aspects of product safety, or simply may be unaware of safety regulations. Specifiers can no longer assume a product is inherently safe and must do their own evaluations of product safety attributes. This paper will lay out a basic methodology for finding, using, and evaluating environmental, health, and safety information on acoustical products in an effective manner.

  20. Flash flooding: Toward an Interdisciplinary and Integrated Strategy for Disaster Reduction in a Global Environmental Change Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruin, Isabelle

    2014-05-01

    How do people answer to heavy precipitation and flood warnings? How do they adapt their daily schedule and activity to the fast evolution of the environmental circumstances? More generally, how do social processes interact with physical ones? Such questions address the dynamical interactions between hydro-meteorological variables, human perception and representation of the environment, and actual individual and social behavioral responses. It also poses the question of scales and hierarchy issues through seamless interactions between smaller and larger scales. These questions are relevant for both social and physical scientists. They are more and more pertinently addressed in the Global Environmental Change perspective through the concepts of Coupled Human And Natural Systems (CHANS), resilience or panarchy developped in the context of interdisciplinary collaborations. Nevertheless those concepts are complex and not easy to handle, specially when facing with operational goals. One of the main difficulty to advance these integrated approaches is the access to empirical data informing the processes at various scales. In fact, if physical and social processes are well studied by distinct disciplines, they are rarely jointly explored within similar spatial and temporal resolutions. Such coupled observation and analysis poses methodological challenges, specially when dealing with responses to short-fuse and extreme weather events. In fact, if such coupled approach is quite common to study large scale phenomenon like global change (for instance using historical data on green house gaz emissions and the evolution of temperatures worldwide), it is rarer for studing smaller nested sets of scales of human-nature systems where finer resolution data are sparse. Another problem arise from the need to produce comparable analysis on different case studies where social, physical and even cultural contexts may be diverse. Generic and robust framework for data collection, modeling

  1. Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine among People with Multiple Sclerosis in the Nordic Countries

    PubMed Central

    Skovgaard, L.; Nicolajsen, P. H.; Pedersen, E.; Kant, M.; Fredrikson, S.; Verhoef, M.; Meyrowitsch, D. W.

    2012-01-01

    Aims. The aim of the study was to describe and compare (1) the types and prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments used among individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) in the Nordic countries; (2) the types of conventional treatments besides disease-modifying medicine for MS that were used in combination with CAM treatments; (3) the types of symptoms/health issues addressed by use of CAM treatments. Methods. An internet-based questionnaire was used to collect data from 6455 members of the five Nordic MS societies. The response rates varied from 50.9% in Norway to 61.5% in Iceland. Results. A large range of CAM treatments were reported to be in use in all five Nordic countries. Supplements of vitamins and minerals, supplements of oils, special diet, acupuncture, and herbal medicine were among the CAM treatment modalities most commonly used. The prevalence of the overall use of CAM treatments within the last twelve months varied from 46.0% in Sweden to 58.9% in Iceland. CAM treatments were most often used in combination with conventional treatments. The conventional treatments that were most often combined with CAM treatment were prescription medication, physical therapy, and over-the-counter (OTC) medications. The proportion of CAM users who reported exclusive use of CAM (defined as use of no conventional treatments besides disease-modifying medicine for MS) varied from 9.5% in Finland to 18.4% in Norway. In all five Nordic countries, CAM treatments were most commonly used for nonspecific/preventative purposes such as strengthening the body in general, improving the body's muscle strength, and improving well-being. CAM treatments were less often used for the purpose of improving specific symptoms such as body pain, problems with balance, and fatigue/lack of energy. Conclusions. A large range of CAM treatments were used by individuals with MS in all Nordic countries. The most commonly reported rationale for CAM treatment use focused on

  2. 2012 NEHA/UL sabbatical report: vulnerability to potential impacts of climate change: adaptation and risk communication strategies for environmental health practitioners in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut

    2014-04-01

    Climate change risk assessment, adaptation, and mitigation planning have become increasingly important to environmental health practitioners (EHPs). The NEHA/UL Sabbatical Exchange Award allowed me to investigate how EHPs in the UK are incorporating climate change planning and communication strategies into their work. Projected climate change risks in the UK include flooding, extreme heat, water shortages, severe weather, decreased air quality, and changes in vectors. Despite public perception and funding challenges, all the local government representatives with whom I met incorporated climate change risk assessment, adaptation, and mitigation planning into their work. The mandated Community Risk Register serves as a key planning document developed by each local government authority and is a meaningful way to look at potential climate change health risks. Adaptation and sustainability were common threads in my meetings. These often took the form of "going green" with transportation, energy efficiency, conserving resources, and building design because the efforts made sense monetarily as future cost savings. Communication strategies targeted a variety of audiences (EHPs, non-EHP government employees, politicians, and the general public) using a broad range of communication channels (professional training, lobbying, conferences and fairs, publications, print materials, Internet resources, social media, billboards, etc).

  3. 2012 NEHA/UL sabbatical report: vulnerability to potential impacts of climate change: adaptation and risk communication strategies for environmental health practitioners in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut

    2014-04-01

    Climate change risk assessment, adaptation, and mitigation planning have become increasingly important to environmental health practitioners (EHPs). The NEHA/UL Sabbatical Exchange Award allowed me to investigate how EHPs in the UK are incorporating climate change planning and communication strategies into their work. Projected climate change risks in the UK include flooding, extreme heat, water shortages, severe weather, decreased air quality, and changes in vectors. Despite public perception and funding challenges, all the local government representatives with whom I met incorporated climate change risk assessment, adaptation, and mitigation planning into their work. The mandated Community Risk Register serves as a key planning document developed by each local government authority and is a meaningful way to look at potential climate change health risks. Adaptation and sustainability were common threads in my meetings. These often took the form of "going green" with transportation, energy efficiency, conserving resources, and building design because the efforts made sense monetarily as future cost savings. Communication strategies targeted a variety of audiences (EHPs, non-EHP government employees, politicians, and the general public) using a broad range of communication channels (professional training, lobbying, conferences and fairs, publications, print materials, Internet resources, social media, billboards, etc). PMID:24749223

  4. Economic-energy-industrial-environmental optimization (EEIEO) model for identification of optimal strategies - a case study of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Long, H. L.; Wan, J.; Jia, JL; Li, X.; Chu, CJ

    2016-08-01

    An economic-energy-industrial-environmental optimization (EEIEO) model is proposed for identification of optimal economic, industry, energy and environment strategies. The EEIEO model is applied to a real case of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, which is the important economic growth pole of northern China. The EEIEO model could fully consider the interaction between industrial, energy, urbanization and environment sector, and generate the optimized economic development, industrial restructuring, energy consumption and environment management schemes. This is first attempt to introduce economic, energy, industrial, urbanization and environmental sectors into an optimization framework, while sustainable energy and environment development pathways are explored through EEIEO model. The results suggest that: (i) the GDP of BTH region would increase about 73.80% over the planning horizon; (ii) the contribution of tertiary industry for BTH region's economic development would gradually increase from 54.00% in 2015 to 65.00% in 2030; (iii) the consumption of coal would decrease by 36%, and the natural gas would obviously increase by 97.70% over the planning horizon; and (iv) the SO2, smoke and dust emissions and CO2 would reduce by 30.20%, 35.30% and 4.50% from 2015 to 2030, respectively.

  5. Strategy making and power in environmental assessments. Lessons from the establishment of an out-of-town shopping centre in Vaesteras, Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Isaksson, Karolina; Storbjoerk, Sofie

    2012-04-15

    This paper seeks to provide deeper insights into how EA ineffectiveness is produced in land use planning practice. This is explored in a study of local development planning in the city of Vaesteras, Sweden. The case in question is the development of a large out-of-town shopping centre, propelled by the establishment of a new IKEA furniture store. The Healey (2007) framework of planning as strategy making is applied as an analytical framework, together with a focus on power-knowledge relations. In the analysis, we identify a range of mechanisms that produced ineffectiveness by limiting the role of environmental knowledge throughout the planning process. The specific mechanisms we identified were related to the overall consensus perspective in local development strategies and plans, a lack of concretisation and integration of various policies and strategies, a range of exclusion mechanisms and an overall focus on mitigation and benefits of the process in question. In practice, these mechanisms were closely intertwined. Our main conclusion is, consequently, that increased effectiveness of EA would require fundamental transformation of the norms, frameworks and routines that implicitly and explicitly guide land use planning in practice. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyse how EA-ineffectiveness is produced in land use planning practice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Several mechanisms produce EA-ineffectiveness throughout the whole planning process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These mechanisms are often closely intertwined and mutually reinforcing each other. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhancing EA-effectiveness requires a fundamental shift of the norms, frameworks and routines shaping planning practice.

  6. A healthy Nordic diet and physical performance in old age: findings from the longitudinal Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Perälä, Mia-Maria; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela; Männistö, Satu; Salonen, Minna K; Simonen, Mika; Kanerva, Noora; Pohjolainen, Pertti; Kajantie, Eero; Rantanen, Taina; Eriksson, Johan G

    2016-03-14

    Epidemiological studies have shown that a number of nutrients are associated with better physical performance. However, little is still known about the role of the whole diet, particularly a healthy Nordic diet, in relation to physical performance. Therefore, we examined whether a healthy Nordic diet was associated with measures of physical performance 10 years later. We studied 1072 participants from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Participants' diet was assessed using a validated 128-item FFQ at the mean age of 61 years, and a priori-defined Nordic diet score (NDS) was calculated. The score included Nordic fruits and berries, vegetables, cereals, PUFA:SFA and trans-fatty acids ratio, low-fat milk, fish, red and processed meat, total fat and alcohol. At the mean age of 71 years, participants' physical performance was measured using the Senior Fitness Test (SFT), and an overall SFT score was calculated. Women in the highest fourth of the NDS had on average 5 points higher SFT score compared with those in the lowest fourth (P for trend 0·005). No such association was observed in men. Women with the highest score had 17% better result in the 6-min walk test, 16% better arm curl and 20% better chair stand results compared with those with the lowest score (all P values<0·01). In conclusion, a healthy Nordic diet was associated with better overall physical performance among women and might help decrease the risk of disability in old age.

  7. A healthy Nordic diet and physical performance in old age: findings from the longitudinal Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Perälä, Mia-Maria; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela; Männistö, Satu; Salonen, Minna K; Simonen, Mika; Kanerva, Noora; Pohjolainen, Pertti; Kajantie, Eero; Rantanen, Taina; Eriksson, Johan G

    2016-03-14

    Epidemiological studies have shown that a number of nutrients are associated with better physical performance. However, little is still known about the role of the whole diet, particularly a healthy Nordic diet, in relation to physical performance. Therefore, we examined whether a healthy Nordic diet was associated with measures of physical performance 10 years later. We studied 1072 participants from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Participants' diet was assessed using a validated 128-item FFQ at the mean age of 61 years, and a priori-defined Nordic diet score (NDS) was calculated. The score included Nordic fruits and berries, vegetables, cereals, PUFA:SFA and trans-fatty acids ratio, low-fat milk, fish, red and processed meat, total fat and alcohol. At the mean age of 71 years, participants' physical performance was measured using the Senior Fitness Test (SFT), and an overall SFT score was calculated. Women in the highest fourth of the NDS had on average 5 points higher SFT score compared with those in the lowest fourth (P for trend 0·005). No such association was observed in men. Women with the highest score had 17% better result in the 6-min walk test, 16% better arm curl and 20% better chair stand results compared with those with the lowest score (all P values<0·01). In conclusion, a healthy Nordic diet was associated with better overall physical performance among women and might help decrease the risk of disability in old age. PMID:26785760

  8. Clean Water Act assessment processes in relation to changing U.S. Environmental Protection Agency management strategies.

    PubMed

    Cooter, William S

    2004-10-15

    During the 1970s the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) devised a multiscale system of basin planning and regional implementation that encouraged a balanced mixture of monitoring and modeling-based assessments. By the 1980s, this goal had not been achieved. Modeling and monitoring assessment approaches became largely decoupled. To a significant degree, modeling was viewed as too inaccurate to handle issues such as setting permit limits involving toxics. During the 1980s, EPA also encouraged the idea that monitoring approaches were adequate to document water quality problems, guide the development of management plans, and demonstrate the achievement of management goals. By the late 1990s, large numbers of waters listed under the Clean Water Act's Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) provisions showed the widespread nature of pollutant concerns, but the uneven nature of the listing information also revealed fundamental problems in the ability of state monitoring programs to achieve credible and comprehensive assessments. Statistics are presented from the 1998 and the most current publicly available 2000 baseline periods showing the limitations in the scope of state assessments. There are significant opportunities for the increased use of relatively simple modeling systems that can be flexibly implemented over a variety of spatial scales. In addition to conventional modeling frameworks, the value of bioassessment monitoring techniques is stressed. Bioassessment indicators can often be combined with landscape modeling methods, as well as analyses from conventional modeling outputs, to help target small area monitoring by use of tiered approaches. These findings underscore the value of integrated monitoring and modeling approaches to build properly balanced assessment systems. PMID:15543725

  9. Clean Water Act assessment processes in relation to changing U.S. Environmental Protection Agency management strategies.

    PubMed

    Cooter, William S

    2004-10-15

    During the 1970s the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) devised a multiscale system of basin planning and regional implementation that encouraged a balanced mixture of monitoring and modeling-based assessments. By the 1980s, this goal had not been achieved. Modeling and monitoring assessment approaches became largely decoupled. To a significant degree, modeling was viewed as too inaccurate to handle issues such as setting permit limits involving toxics. During the 1980s, EPA also encouraged the idea that monitoring approaches were adequate to document water quality problems, guide the development of management plans, and demonstrate the achievement of management goals. By the late 1990s, large numbers of waters listed under the Clean Water Act's Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) provisions showed the widespread nature of pollutant concerns, but the uneven nature of the listing information also revealed fundamental problems in the ability of state monitoring programs to achieve credible and comprehensive assessments. Statistics are presented from the 1998 and the most current publicly available 2000 baseline periods showing the limitations in the scope of state assessments. There are significant opportunities for the increased use of relatively simple modeling systems that can be flexibly implemented over a variety of spatial scales. In addition to conventional modeling frameworks, the value of bioassessment monitoring techniques is stressed. Bioassessment indicators can often be combined with landscape modeling methods, as well as analyses from conventional modeling outputs, to help target small area monitoring by use of tiered approaches. These findings underscore the value of integrated monitoring and modeling approaches to build properly balanced assessment systems.

  10. Identifying the dominant metabolic strategies used by microorganisms within basalt-hosted, anoxic deep subsurface basement fluids via environmental genomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappe, M. S.; Jungbluth, S.; Carr, S. A.; Lin, H. T.; Hsieh, C. C.; Nigro, O. D.; Steward, G. F.; Orcutt, B.

    2014-12-01

    A microbial ecosystem distinct from both overlying sediments and bottom seawater lies within the basaltic crust of the Juan de Fuca Ridge flank. The metabolic potential and genomic characteristics of microbes residing in fluids of this remote, anoxic region of the subsurface ocean were investigated using environmental DNA extracted from large-volume fluid samples obtained from advanced borehole observatories installed at two recently drilled IODP Boreholes, U1362A and U1362B. Fluids were collected from the deep (204 meters sub-basement) horizon of Borehole U1362A and shallow (40 meters sub-basement) horizon of Borehole U1362B and used to generate 503 and 705 million base-pairs of genomic DNA sequence data, respectively. Phylogenetically informative genes revealed that the community structure recovered via metagenomics was generally consistent with that obtained previously by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and was dominated by uncultivated bacterial lineages of Proteobacteria, Nitrospirae, Candidate Division OP8 (Aminicenantes), Thermotoga and archaeal groups THSCG, MCG (Bathyarchaeota), MBGE, and Archaeoglobus. Genes involved in phage integration, chemotaxis, nitrate reduction, methanogenesis, and amino acid degradation were all detected, revealing potentially dynamic microbial communities. Putative sulfate reduction genes were discovered within previously identified Firmicutes lineage Candidatus Desulforudis, along with other groups (e.g. Archaeoglobus). Significant metagenome assembly resulted in 72 and 105 contigs of >100 Kbp from U1362B and U1362A, respectively, including 1137, 977 and 356 Kbp-long contigs from Candidate Division OP8 residing in U1362B. These assemblies have revealed novel metabolic potential within abundant members of the deep subsurface microbial community, which can be directly related to their survival in the deep oceanic crust.

  11. Drama and Theatre in a Nordic Curriculum Perspective--A Challenged Arts Subject Used as a Learning Medium in Compulsory Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Österlind, Eva; Østern, Anna-Lena; Thorkelsdóttir, Rannveig Björk

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present a Nordic curriculum perspective on drama and theatre in education ranging from preschool to upper secondary education and cultural schools. Underlined in the Nordic welfare model is an equity, inclusive and democracy perspective, which guarantees free access to compulsory education and to upper secondary…

  12. Fish status survey of Nordic lakes: effects of acidification, eutrophication and stocking activity on present fish species composition.

    PubMed

    Tammi, Jouni; Appelberg, Magnus; Beier, Ulrika; Hesthagen, Trygve; Lappalainen, Antti; Rask, Martti

    2003-03-01

    The status of fish populations in 3821 lakes in Norway, Sweden and Finland was assessed in 1995-1997. The survey lakes were chosen by stratified random sampling from all (126 482) Fennoscandian lakes > or = 0.04 km2. The water chemistry of the lakes was analyzed and information on fish status was obtained by a postal inquiry. Fish population losses were most frequent in the most highly acidified region of southern Norway and least common in eastern Fennoscandia. According to the inquiry results, the number of lost stocks of brown trout (Salmo trutta), roach (Rutilus rutilus), Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and perch (Perca fluviatilis) was estimated to exceed 10000. The number of stocks of these species potentially affected by the low alkalinity of lake water was estimated to exceed 11000. About 3300 lakes showed high total phosphorus (> 25 microg L(-1)) and cyprinid dominance in eastern Fennoscandia, notably southwestern Finland. This survey did not reveal any extinction of fish species due to eutrophication. One-third of the lakes had been artificially stocked with at least one new species, most often brown trout, whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus s.l.), Arctic char, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), pike-perch (Stizostedion lucioperca), grayling (Thymallus thymallus), pike (Esox lucius), bream (Abramis brama), tench (Tinca tinca) and European minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus). The number of artificially manipulated stocks of these species in Fennoscandian lakes was estimated to exceed 52000. Hence, the number of fish species occurring in Nordic lakes has recently been changed more by stockings than by losses of fish species through environmental changes such as acidification.

  13. Drug addict deaths in the Nordic countries: a study based on medicolegally examined cases in the five Nordic countries in 1991.

    PubMed

    Steentoft, A; Teige, B; Holmgren, P; Vuori, E; Kristinsson, J; Kaa, E; Wethe, G; Ceder, G; Pikkarainen, J; Simonsen, K W

    1996-01-12

    The study includes medicolegally examined deaths among drug addicts in 1991 in the five Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. A common definition of 'drug addict' was applied by the participating countries. The greatest number of drug addict deaths per 10(5) inhabitants was observed in Denmark followed, in descending order by Norway, Sweden, Finland and finally Iceland with only four deaths. The main difference between the countries was found in the number of fatal poisonings. The distribution according to geographical regions showed that about half of all drug addict deaths occurred in the metropolitan areas. Of the capitals, the greatest number of fatal poisonings per 10(5) inhabitants was seen in Oslo, followed by Copenhagen with a similar number, Stockholm with only the half, and Helsinki with a quarter. Heroin/morphine dominated as cause of death in fatal poisonings in Norway and Sweden. In Denmark, heroin/morphine caused about half of the fatal poisonings only, and nearly one third of the fatal poisonings was caused by methadone. Except for two cases in Sweden, methadone deaths were not seen in the other Nordic countries. Amphetamine caused one tenth of the fatal poisonings in Sweden. In Finland only one tenth of the deaths were caused by heroin/morphine and more by codeine, ethylmorphine and different drugs and poisons not classified in Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs 1961 or the International Convention on Psychotropic Substances 1971. A widespread use of alcohol, cannabis and benzodiazepines, diazepam especially, was seen in all the countries. PMID:8675131

  14. INFORMATION: Management Alert on Environmental Management's Select Strategy for Disposition of Savannah River Site Depleted Uranium Oxides

    SciTech Connect

    2010-04-01

    existing licensing criteria. As a consequence, the Governor of Utah met with Department officials to voice concerns regarding further shipments of the material and to seek return of the initial shipment of DU oxides to SRS. Utah's objections and the Department's agreement to accede to the State's demands effectively prohibit the transfer of the remaining material from South Carolina to Utah. In response, the Department evaluated its options and issued a draft decision paper on March 1, 2010, which outlined an alternative for temporary storage until the final disposition issue could be resolved. Under the terms of the proposed option, the remaining shipments from SRS are to be sent on an interim basis to a facility owned by Waste Control Specialists (WCS) in Andrews, Texas. Clearly, this choice carries with it a number of significant logistical burdens, including substantial additional costs for, among several items, repackaging at SRS, transportation to Texas, storage at the interim site, and, repackaging and transportation to the yet-to-be-determined final disposition point. The Department source expressed the concern that the proposal to store the material on an interim basis in Texas was inefficient and unnecessary, asserting: (1) that the materials could remain at SRS until a final disposition path is identified, and that this could be done safely, securely and cost effectively; and, (2) that the nature of the material was not subject to existing compliance agreements with the State of South Carolina, suggesting the viability of keeping the material in storage at SRS until a permanent disposal site is definitively established. We noted that, while the Department's decision paper referred to 'numerous project and programmatic factors that make it impractical to retain the remaining inventory at Savannah River,' it did not outline the specific issues involved nor did it provide any substantive economic or environmental analysis supporting the need for the planned interim

  15. The Nordic energy market model an electricity power exchange across national borders

    SciTech Connect

    Randen, H.; Andersen, J.H.

    1998-07-01

    As a first step towards a Nordic Power Exchange the Swedish and the Norwegian electricity market were merged into one free trade area. Norwegian and Swedish participants trade on equal terms on the market. Finnish and Danish participants trade on special terms towards the common Norwegian-Swedish free trade area. Finland will be included in the free trade area in 1998. Nord Pool is responsible for two markets. The Spot Market is the Nordic market for physical delivery power. In this market participants trade power contracts for next-day delivery. A price is determined for each hour based on bids and offer from the participants. The Spot Market serves as reference price for Nord Pool's Futures and Forward Market and reference price in the bilateral wholesale market. The Futures and Forward Markets are financial markets for price hedging and risk management. Through these market the participants can hedge purchase and sale of power within a time horizon of up to three years. In the bilateral wholesale market there is a high trade activity of financial contracts that are standardized in the same manner as Nord Pools forwards. Nord Pool has therefore established a clearing service where contracts that are traded on bilateral basis can be cleared through Nord Pool and with Nord Pool as counterpart. More than 200 participants from Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark and England trade through Nord Pool. A general goal is to develop the market to include all four nordic countries in one common free trade area in close co-operation with the power business in the countries. There are different conditions for competition in the four countries, and much coordinating work is therefore still left to be done.

  16. The association between adherence to the New Nordic Diet and diet quality

    PubMed Central

    Bjørnarå, Helga Birgit; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Stea, Tonje Holte; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Hillesund, Elisabet Rudjord; Andersen, Lene Frost; Berntsen, Sveinung; Bere, Elling

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have reported a positive association between scoring on healthy Nordic diet scales and the intake of healthy foods and nutrients, and also with higher intake of meat, sweets, cakes, and energy in general. These studies have used the same food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) responses for constructing the diet score as for calculating intakes of foods and nutrients. Thus, it is not clear whether the coexistence of healthy and less healthy dietary aspects among adherers to Nordic diets would occur even though separate methods were applied for exploring these relations. Objective To assess the association between adherence to the New Nordic Diet (NND), derived from an FFQ, and diet quality, determined from two 24-h dietary recall interviews. Design In total, 65 parents of toddlers in Southern Norway answered the NND FFQ and two 24-h dietary recall interviews. NND adherence was determined from the FFQ and categorized into low, medium, and high adherence. The two 24-h recalls provided data for the intake of specific foods and nutrients, selected on the basis of the Norwegian food-based guidelines as an indicator of a healthy diet. The Kruskal–Wallis test was used for assessing differences in food and nutrient intake across NND groups. Results High NND adherence derived from FFQ was associated with a high intake of fruits (p=0.004) and fiber (p=0.02), and a low intake of meat (p=0.004) and margarines (p=0.05), derived from recalls. A larger proportion of high NND adherers (68%) complied with the national dietary recommendation targeting meat intake compared with low NND adherers (29%) (p=0.04). Conclusion The present study showed that higher NND adherence measured with FFQ was associated with a higher intake of selected healthy foods and nutrients, measured with recalls. However, a higher intake of meat, sweets, and energy, as earlier reported, was not observed. PMID:27257844

  17. TELE-X and its role in a future operational Nordic satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Lars

    In the middle of 1987 it is planned to launch TELE-X, the first Nordic telecommunications satellite. The Swedish-Norwegian company NOTELSAT (Nordic Telecommunications Satellite Corporation) will be responsible for the operation of the TELE-X system. Via the experimental TELE-X satellite the Nordic countries will get access to direct broadcasting of two TV-programs and at least four digital sound programs in stereo by use of two transponders in the 12.2 to 12.5 GHz band. The programs are planned to be composed of nationally produced programs in Norway. Sweden and Finland. By means of distributing these programs via satellite they will reach up to 4 times as many viewers and listernes as presently in the terrestrial national systems. The basic motivations for exchanging programs are to strengthen the cultural ties between the Nordic countries and to give the individuals more freedom in the choice of programs. Another goal is to give the public a better sound and picture quality than can be achieved today. These quality improvements shall be met by using small receiver parabolas of less than 1 m in diameter. Contributing to the improved quality is the choice of the C-MAC (Multiplexed Analoque Components) modulation system. TELE-X is a multipurpose satellite which besides the two TV-transponders will have two transponders for data/video communication in the frequency band 12.5 to 12.75 GHz. The choice of system for data and video is based on the philosophy of thin-route traffic between small and low cost earth stations (1.8 to 2.5 m) placed directly at the subscribers premises. The system includes an advanced Data/Video Control Station which automatically connects the traffic stations with standarized transmission speeds up to 2 Mbps. The system which is based on the SCPC/DAMA method can be expanded up to 5000 traffic stations. Numerous data/video applications will be investigated in the initial experimental phase of the project which also will be used for market

  18. Fatal poisoning in drug addicts in the Nordic countries in 2012.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, K Wiese; Edvardsen, H M E; Thelander, G; Ojanperä, I; Thordardottir, S; Andersen, L V; Kriikku, P; Vindenes, V; Christoffersen, D; Delaveris, G J M; Frost, J

    2015-03-01

    This report is a follow-up to a study on fatal poisoning in drug addicts conducted in 2012 by a Nordic working group. Here we analyse data from the five Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. Data on sex, number of deaths, places of death, age, main intoxicants and other drugs detected in the blood were recorded. National data are presented and compared between the Nordic countries and with data from similar studies conducted in 1991, 1997, 2002 and 2007. The death rates (number of deaths per 100,000 inhabitants) increased in drug addicts in Finland, Iceland and Sweden but decreased in Norway compared to the rates in earlier studies. The death rate was stable in Denmark from 1991 to 2012. The death rate remained highest in Norway (5.79) followed by Denmark (5.19) and Iceland (5.16). The differences between the countries diminished compared to earlier studies, with death rates in Finland (4.61) and Sweden (4.17) approaching the levels in the other countries. Women accounted for 15-27% of the fatal poisonings. The median age of the deceased drug addicts was still highest in Denmark, and deaths of addicts >45 years old increased in all countries. Opioids remained the main cause of death, but medicinal opioids like methadone, buprenorphine, fentanyl and tramadol mainly replaced heroin. Methadone was the main intoxicant in Denmark and Sweden, whereas heroin/morphine caused the most deaths in Norway. Finland differed from the other Nordic countries in that buprenorphine was the main intoxicant with only a few heroin/morphine and methadone deaths. Deaths from methadone, buprenorphine and fentanyl increased immensely in Sweden compared to 2007. Poly-drug use was widespread in all countries. The median number of drugs per case varied from 4 to 5. Heroin/morphine, medicinal opioids, cocaine, amphetamines, benzodiazepines and alcohol were the main abused drugs. However, less widely used drugs, like gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), methylphenidate

  19. Fatal poisoning in drug addicts in the Nordic countries in 2012.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, K Wiese; Edvardsen, H M E; Thelander, G; Ojanperä, I; Thordardottir, S; Andersen, L V; Kriikku, P; Vindenes, V; Christoffersen, D; Delaveris, G J M; Frost, J

    2015-03-01

    This report is a follow-up to a study on fatal poisoning in drug addicts conducted in 2012 by a Nordic working group. Here we analyse data from the five Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. Data on sex, number of deaths, places of death, age, main intoxicants and other drugs detected in the blood were recorded. National data are presented and compared between the Nordic countries and with data from similar studies conducted in 1991, 1997, 2002 and 2007. The death rates (number of deaths per 100,000 inhabitants) increased in drug addicts in Finland, Iceland and Sweden but decreased in Norway compared to the rates in earlier studies. The death rate was stable in Denmark from 1991 to 2012. The death rate remained highest in Norway (5.79) followed by Denmark (5.19) and Iceland (5.16). The differences between the countries diminished compared to earlier studies, with death rates in Finland (4.61) and Sweden (4.17) approaching the levels in the other countries. Women accounted for 15-27% of the fatal poisonings. The median age of the deceased drug addicts was still highest in Denmark, and deaths of addicts >45 years old increased in all countries. Opioids remained the main cause of death, but medicinal opioids like methadone, buprenorphine, fentanyl and tramadol mainly replaced heroin. Methadone was the main intoxicant in Denmark and Sweden, whereas heroin/morphine caused the most deaths in Norway. Finland differed from the other Nordic countries in that buprenorphine was the main intoxicant with only a few heroin/morphine and methadone deaths. Deaths from methadone, buprenorphine and fentanyl increased immensely in Sweden compared to 2007. Poly-drug use was widespread in all countries. The median number of drugs per case varied from 4 to 5. Heroin/morphine, medicinal opioids, cocaine, amphetamines, benzodiazepines and alcohol were the main abused drugs. However, less widely used drugs, like gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), methylphenidate

  20. Drastic changes in the Nordic Seas oceanic circulation and deepwater formation in a Pliocene context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contoux, Camille; Zhang, Zhongshi; De Schepper, Stijn; Li, Camille; Nisancioglu, Kerim; Risebrobakken, Bjorg

    2016-04-01

    The Nordic Seas are a major area of deepwater formation, thus playing a crucial role in the global oceanic circulation. In the recent years a cooling and freshening of the Norwegian Sea has been observed (Blindheim et al., 2000), highlighting potential changes in this area linked to climate change. Here, we use climate simulations of the mid-Pliocene warm period with the NorESM-L model. This period is considered to be the last interval when Earth experienced temperatures higher than today for a sustained period of time, in equilibrium with CO2 concentrations similar to present-day and a reduced Greenland Ice Sheet. We find that oceanic circulation in the Nordic Seas is drastically modified. The strength of the East Greenland Current is reduced, which implies less Arctic water going to the North Atlantic from the west of the Fram strait, which creates a compensating outflow current from the east of the Fram Strait to the North Atlantic along the Voring plateau (coast of Norway). The Norwegian Atlantic current is shifted westward, meaning that there is increased Atlantic water influence in the Greenland Sea, which becomes much warmer, and increased Arctic influence along Norway, which becomes colder than present. Circulation becomes anticyclonic instead of cyclonic. Circulation in the subpolar gyre is strongly reduced, together with deepwater formation on average both in the Irminger Sea and the Nordic Seas. Convection sites in the Nordic Seas shift from the eastern part to the western part. Sensitivity experiments show that these changes are not reproduced in other Pliocene contexts, such as when CO2 is low (280 ppm) or when Barents Sea is turned to land, suggesting that the ultimate driver of these changes is higher CO2. When Barents Sea is land, which was the reality of the Pliocene, circulation and sea-surface temperature show a good agreement with reconstructions from marine proxies (De Schepper et al., 2015). This means that NorESM-L is able to properly

  1. Bone Histology Reveals a High Environmental and Metabolic Plasticity as a Successful Evolutionary Strategy in a Long-Lived Homeostatic Triassic Temnospondyl.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, S; Schoch, R R

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary stasis (long-term stability of morphology in an evolving lineage) is a pattern for which explanations are usually elusive. The Triassic tetrapod Gerrothorax pulcherrimus, a gill-bearing temnospondyl, survived for 35 million years in the Germanic Basin of Central Europe persisting throughout the dinosaur-dominated Late Triassic period. This evolutionary stasis coincides with the occurrence of this species in a wide range of habitats and environmental conditions. By the combination of palaeoecological and palaeohistological analyses, we found great ecological flexibility in G. pulcherrimus and present substantial evidence of developmental and metabolic plasticity despite the morphological stasis. We conclude that G. pulcherrimus could show the capacity to settle in water bodies too harsh or unpredictable for most other tetrapods. This would have been made possible by a unique life history strategy that involved a wide reaction norm, permitting adjustment to fluctuating conditions such as salinity and level of nutrients. Growth rate, duration of juvenile period, age at maturity, and life span were all subject to broad variation within specimens of G. pulcherrimus in one single lake and in between different lakes. In addition to providing a better understanding of fossil ecosystems, this study shows the potential of such a methodology to encourage palaeobiologists and evolutionary biologists to consider the mechanisms of variation in extant and fossil organisms by using a similar time-scope reference. PMID:24293739

  2. Bone Histology Reveals a High Environmental and Metabolic Plasticity as a Successful Evolutionary Strategy in a Long-Lived Homeostatic Triassic Temnospondyl.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, S; Schoch, R R

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary stasis (long-term stability of morphology in an evolving lineage) is a pattern for which explanations are usually elusive. The Triassic tetrapod Gerrothorax pulcherrimus, a gill-bearing temnospondyl, survived for 35 million years in the Germanic Basin of Central Europe persisting throughout the dinosaur-dominated Late Triassic period. This evolutionary stasis coincides with the occurrence of this species in a wide range of habitats and environmental conditions. By the combination of palaeoecological and palaeohistological analyses, we found great ecological flexibility in G. pulcherrimus and present substantial evidence of developmental and metabolic plasticity despite the morphological stasis. We conclude that G. pulcherrimus could show the capacity to settle in water bodies too harsh or unpredictable for most other tetrapods. This would have been made possible by a unique life history strategy that involved a wide reaction norm, permitting adjustment to fluctuating conditions such as salinity and level of nutrients. Growth rate, duration of juvenile period, age at maturity, and life span were all subject to broad variation within specimens of G. pulcherrimus in one single lake and in between different lakes. In addition to providing a better understanding of fossil ecosystems, this study shows the potential of such a methodology to encourage palaeobiologists and evolutionary biologists to consider the mechanisms of variation in extant and fossil organisms by using a similar time-scope reference.

  3. Hearing among 75-year-old people in three Nordic localities: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Hietanen, Anne; Era, Pertti; Henrichsen, Jorgen; Rosenhall, Ulf; Sorri, Martti; Heikkinen, Eino

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare auditory functions and to analyse the prevalence of hearing impairment and the relationship of self-reported hearing disability with audiometric test results among 75-year-old people in three Nordic localities. The representative samples came from Glostrup, Denmark (n = 571), Göteborg, Sweden (n =450), and Jyväskylä, Finland (n =388). The median pure-tone thresholds were rather similar in all three populations. The prevalence of moderate hearing impairment varied between 26% and 34% in men, and between 17% and 23% in women. The corresponding figures in the prevalence of self-reported hearing difficulties were 41%-57%, and 28%-37%. The self-reported difficulties were broadly in accordance with the audiometric test results, but there also were individuals with conflicting results. It is concluded that the prevalence of hearing impairment in the three Nordic localities is fairly similar. To assess hearing disorders in elderly people, both audiometry and self-report data are needed. PMID:16238180

  4. Nordic adolescents' school lunch patterns and their suggestions for making healthy choices at school easier.

    PubMed

    Kainulainen, Kristiina; Benn, Jette; Fjellström, Christina; Palojoki, Päivi

    2012-08-01

    This article examines Nordic adolescents' school lunch patterns and their perceptions of how making healthy choices at school could be easier. Analysis is based on a quantitative data-set collected between 2006 and 2007 as part of a Nordic research project. The sample of 1539 respondents consisted of 14-17 year old adolescents from Finland, Sweden, Denmark, and Norway. The number of adolescents regularly eating either a packed lunch or a hot school lunch differed between countries and statistically significant differences were found between girls' and boys' school lunch patterns in the Swedish and Finnish data. Results suggest that adolescents have an understanding of what is healthy, but that school resources do not always support their ability to make healthy choices. Adolescents' own suggestions for improvement imply that more attention should be paid to building a healthy school food environment. An important future challenge is trying to involve school health care personnel and aligning classroom activities more coherently with adolescents' eating patterns during the school day. PMID:22445774

  5. Silica dust and lung cancer: results from the Nordic occupational mortality and cancer incidence registers

    SciTech Connect

    Lynge, E.; Kurppa, K.; Kristofersen, L.; Malker, H.; Sauli, H.

    1986-10-01

    Autopsy studies of the relationship between silicosis and lung cancer have been mainly negative; but recent epidemiologic studies have indicated a positive association, and an excess lung cancer risk has been observed in some occupational groups with exposure to silica dust. For the further shedding of light on the possible association between silica dust and lung cancer, analysis was made on mortality and cancer incidence data available in census-based record linkage studies from the Nordic countries for males in occupational groups with potential exposure to silica dust. The study showed an excess lung cancer risk for foundry workers in all the Nordic countries and for miners in Sweden. These results were consistent with findings from previous in-depth epidemiologic studies. The lung cancer risk did not differ significantly from that of the respective national populations for males working in excavation; stone quarries; sand and gravel pits; and glass, porcelain, ceramic, and tile manufacture. Stonecutters, who are probably not exposed to known lung carcinogens at the workplace but in some places to high concentrations of silica dust, showed a significant excess lung cancer risk in both Finland and Denmark. Excess lung cancer risks furthermore were seen for Finish miners, for Finnish males in excavation work, and for Danish glassworkers.

  6. Modelling ocean acidification in the Nordic and Barents Seas in present and future climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skogen, Morten D.; Olsen, Are; Børsheim, Knut Yngve; Sandø, Anne Britt; Skjelvan, Ingunn

    2014-03-01

    An ecosystem model, NORWECOM.E2E including a module for the carbonate system, has been used to investigate the effects of rising atmospheric CO2 and climate change on the ocean's acid-base state in the Nordic and Barents Seas. Using the 20C3M control run and the A1B emission scenario, a downscaling of the GISS-AOM global climate model has been used to force the ecosystem model for a reference (1981-2000) and a future climate (2046-2065) simulation respectively. The simulations demonstrate how the saturation state of seawater with respect to aragonite will evolve, with a shoaling of the saturation horizon of approximately 1200 m in the Nordic Seas, and a large increase in area extent of under saturated surface waters. The simulated pH change in the surface water is - 0.19 from 2000 to 2065, while the model estimates an almost doubling of the CO2 air-sea flux in the Barents Sea increasing the uptake from 23 to 37 gC m- 2 yr- 1. The main driver for the modelled changes in surface fCO2 is the change in DIC, with only minor contributions from temperature, salinity and total alkalinity.

  7. Bootstrap study of genome-enabled prediction reliabilities using haplotype blocks across Nordic Red cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Cuyabano, B C D; Su, G; Rosa, G J M; Lund, M S; Gianola, D

    2015-10-01

    This study compared the accuracy of genome-enabled prediction models using individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) or haplotype blocks as covariates when using either a single breed or a combined population of Nordic Red cattle. The main objective was to compare predictions of breeding values of complex traits using a combined training population with haplotype blocks, with predictions using a single breed as training population and individual SNP as predictors. To compare the prediction reliabilities, bootstrap samples were taken from the test data set. With the bootstrapped samples of prediction reliabilities, we built and graphed confidence ellipses to allow comparisons. Finally, measures of statistical distances were used to calculate the gain in predictive ability. Our analyses are innovative in the context of assessment of predictive models, allowing a better understanding of prediction reliabilities and providing a statistical basis to effectively calibrate whether one prediction scenario is indeed more accurate than another. An ANOVA indicated that use of haplotype blocks produced significant gains mainly when Bayesian mixture models were used but not when Bayesian BLUP was fitted to the data. Furthermore, when haplotype blocks were used to train prediction models in a combined Nordic Red cattle population, we obtained up to a statistically significant 5.5% average gain in prediction accuracy, over predictions using individual SNP and training the model with a single breed.

  8. Bringing Ideals into Dialogue with Practices: On the Principles and Practices of the Nordic Network for Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rönnerman, Karin; Salo, Petri; Furu, Eli Moksnes; Lund, Torbjørn; Olin, Anette; Jakhelln, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    In this article we present the Nordic Network for Action Research, established in 2004. We describe how the network has explored, bridged and nurtured the inherent action research dynamics of ideology and methodology. This has been done through an understanding anchored in educational traditions, and by focus on three important ideal-shaping…

  9. Decreasing overflow from the Nordic seas into the Atlantic Ocean through the Faroe Bank channel since 1950.

    PubMed

    Hansen, B; Turrell, W R; Østerhus, S

    2001-06-21

    The overflow of cold, dense water from the Nordic seas, across the Greenland-Scotland ridge and into the Atlantic Ocean is the main source for the deep water of the North Atlantic Ocean. This flow also helps drive the inflow of warm, saline surface water into the Nordic seas. The Faroe Bank channel is the deepest path across the ridge, and the deep flow through this channel accounts for about one-third of the total overflow. Previous work has demonstrated that the overflow has become warmer and less saline over time. Here we show, using direct measurements and historical hydrographic data, that the volume flux of the Faroe Bank channel overflow has also decreased. Estimating the volume flux conservatively, we find a decrease by at least 20 per cent relative to 1950. If this reduction in deep flow from the Nordic seas is not compensated by increased flow from other sources, it implies a weakened global thermohaline circulation and reduced inflow of Atlantic water to the Nordic seas.

  10. The Admission and Academic Placement of Students from Nordic Countries. A Workshop Report: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjogren, Cliff, Ed.

    In September 1973, 22 North Americans visited Scandinavia for the purpose of improving those processes that result in the admissions and academic placement of Nordic students in the educational institutions of the United States and Canada. This report describes the major findings of the United States and Canadian admissions officers and foreign…

  11. Information Resources Management. Nordic Conference on Information and Documentation (6th, Helsinki, Finland, August 19-22, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samfundet for Informationstjanst i Finland, Helsinki.

    The 54 conference papers compiled in this proceedings include plenary addresses; reviews of Nordic databases; and discussions of documents, systems, services, and products as they relate to information resources management (IRM). Almost half of the presentations are in English: (1) "What Is Information Resources Management?" (Forest Woody Horton);…

  12. Decreasing overflow from the Nordic seas into the Atlantic Ocean through the Faroe Bank channel since 1950.

    PubMed

    Hansen, B; Turrell, W R; Østerhus, S

    2001-06-21

    The overflow of cold, dense water from the Nordic seas, across the Greenland-Scotland ridge and into the Atlantic Ocean is the main source for the deep water of the North Atlantic Ocean. This flow also helps drive the inflow of warm, saline surface water into the Nordic seas. The Faroe Bank channel is the deepest path across the ridge, and the deep flow through this channel accounts for about one-third of the total overflow. Previous work has demonstrated that the overflow has become warmer and less saline over time. Here we show, using direct measurements and historical hydrographic data, that the volume flux of the Faroe Bank channel overflow has also decreased. Estimating the volume flux conservatively, we find a decrease by at least 20 per cent relative to 1950. If this reduction in deep flow from the Nordic seas is not compensated by increased flow from other sources, it implies a weakened global thermohaline circulation and reduced inflow of Atlantic water to the Nordic seas. PMID:11418852

  13. Persistent Intermediate Water Warming during Cold Stadials in the SE Nordic Seas during the Last 65 Kyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, T. L.; Ezat, M.; Groeneveld, J.

    2014-12-01

    In the Nordic seas, conversion of inflowing warm Atlantic surface water to deep cold water through convection is closely linked with climate. During the last glacial period climate underwent rapid millennial-scale variability known as Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events, consisting of warm interstadials and cold stadials. Here we present the first benthic foraminiferal Mg/Ca-d18O record from the Nordic seas in order to reconstruct the ocean circulation on DO timescales. The record confirms that modern-like convection took place in the Nordic seas during interstadials with cold bottom water temperatures (BWT) close to modern temperatures. The results show gradual and pronounced BWT increases by 2-5 °C during stadials indicating a stop or near-stop in convection. The BWT peaks are followed by an abrupt drop in temperature at the onset of interstadials indicating the abrupt start of convection and renewed generation of cold deep water. The rise in BWT during stadials confirms earlier interpretations of subsurface inflow of warm Atlantic water below a halocline reaching >1.2 km water depth. The results suggest that warm Atlantic Water never ceased to flow into the Nordic seas during the glacial period with inflow at the surface during the Holocene and warm interstadials switching to subsurface and intermediate inflow during cold stadials. Our results suggest that it is the vertical shifts in the position of the warm Atlantic Water that cause the abrupt surface warmings.

  14. Libraries and National Development (Final Report of the Third Afro-Nordic Library Conference, Finland, September 3-7 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    Contained in this collection of presentations from the third Afro-Nordic Library Conference are a foreword describing the objectives of the meeting and 14 papers: "From Oral Tradition to Literary Writing: The Awakening of National Awareness," by Heikki Kirkinen; "African Library Systems," by L. E. Samarasinghe; "Planning of Library…

  15. Exploring Democracy: Nordic Music Teachers' Approaches to the Development of Immigrant Students' Musical Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsen, Sidsel

    2014-01-01

    In this article, a multi-sited ethnographic study was taken as a point of departure for exploring how Nordic music teachers, who work in multicultural environments, understand the development of their students' musical agency. The study was based on theories developed within general sociology and the sociology of music, as well as in previous…

  16. The Nordic Model in Education: Education as Part of the Political System in the Last 50 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telhaug, Alfred Oftedal; Medias, Odd Asbjorn; Aasen, Petter

    2006-01-01

    This article describes, analyses and discusses the development of the Nordic school model in three phases of the post-war period, viewed in the light of the development of the political system throughout the period and in comparison with the development of the school system in the western world in this period. The "classical period" from 1945…

  17. Genetic parameters for dry matter intake in primiparous Holstein, Nordic Red, and Jersey cows in the first half of lactation.

    PubMed

    Li, B; Fikse, W F; Lassen, J; Lidauer, M H; Løvendahl, P; Mäntysaari, P; Berglund, B

    2016-09-01

    Dry matter intake (DMI) is a key component of feed efficiency in dairy cattle. In this study, we estimated genetic parameters of DMI over the first 24 lactation weeks in 3 dairy cattle breeds: Holstein, Nordic Red, and Jersey. In total, 1,656 primiparous cows (717 Holstein, 663 Nordic Red, and 276 Jersey) from Denmark, Finland, and Sweden were studied. For each breed, variance components, heritability, and repeatability for weekly DMI were estimated in 6 consecutive periods of the first 24 lactation weeks based on a repeatability animal model. Genetic correlations for DMI between different lactation periods were estimated using bivariate models. Based on our results, Holstein and Nordic Red cows had similar DMI at the beginning of lactation, but later in lactation Holstein cows had a slightly higher DMI than Nordic Red cows. In comparison, Jersey cows had a significantly lower DMI than the other 2 breeds within the first 24 lactation weeks. Heritability estimates for DMI ranged from 0.20 to 0.40 in Holsteins, 0.25 to 0.41 in Nordic Red, and 0.17 to 0.42 in Jerseys within the first 24 lactation weeks. Genetic and phenotypic variances for DMI varied along lactation within each breed and tended to be higher in the middle of lactation than at the beginning of the lactation. High genetic correlations were noted for DMI in lactation wk 5 to 24 in all 3 breeds, whereas DMI at early lactation (lactation wk 1 to 4) tended to be genetically different from DMI in the middle of lactation. The 3 breeds in this study might differ in their genetic variances for DMI, but the differences were not statistically significant in most of the studied periods. Breed differences for the genetic variance tended to be more obvious than for heritability. The potential breed differences in genetic variation for DMI should be considered in a future study using feed intake information from multiple breeds. PMID:27372581

  18. Genetic parameters for dry matter intake in primiparous Holstein, Nordic Red, and Jersey cows in the first half of lactation.

    PubMed

    Li, B; Fikse, W F; Lassen, J; Lidauer, M H; Løvendahl, P; Mäntysaari, P; Berglund, B

    2016-09-01

    Dry matter intake (DMI) is a key component of feed efficiency in dairy cattle. In this study, we estimated genetic parameters of DMI over the first 24 lactation weeks in 3 dairy cattle breeds: Holstein, Nordic Red, and Jersey. In total, 1,656 primiparous cows (717 Holstein, 663 Nordic Red, and 276 Jersey) from Denmark, Finland, and Sweden were studied. For each breed, variance components, heritability, and repeatability for weekly DMI were estimated in 6 consecutive periods of the first 24 lactation weeks based on a repeatability animal model. Genetic correlations for DMI between different lactation periods were estimated using bivariate models. Based on our results, Holstein and Nordic Red cows had similar DMI at the beginning of lactation, but later in lactation Holstein cows had a slightly higher DMI than Nordic Red cows. In comparison, Jersey cows had a significantly lower DMI than the other 2 breeds within the first 24 lactation weeks. Heritability estimates for DMI ranged from 0.20 to 0.40 in Holsteins, 0.25 to 0.41 in Nordic Red, and 0.17 to 0.42 in Jerseys within the first 24 lactation weeks. Genetic and phenotypic variances for DMI varied along lactation within each breed and tended to be higher in the middle of lactation than at the beginning of the lactation. High genetic correlations were noted for DMI in lactation wk 5 to 24 in all 3 breeds, whereas DMI at early lactation (lactation wk 1 to 4) tended to be genetically different from DMI in the middle of lactation. The 3 breeds in this study might differ in their genetic variances for DMI, but the differences were not statistically significant in most of the studied periods. Breed differences for the genetic variance tended to be more obvious than for heritability. The potential breed differences in genetic variation for DMI should be considered in a future study using feed intake information from multiple breeds.

  19. Including different groups of genotyped females for genomic prediction in a Nordic Jersey population.

    PubMed

    Gao, H; Madsen, P; Nielsen, U S; Aamand, G P; Su, G; Byskov, K; Jensen, J

    2015-12-01

    Including genotyped females in a reference population (RP) is an obvious way to increase the RP in genomic selection, especially for dairy breeds of limited population size. However, the incorporation of these females must be conducted cautiously because of the potential preferential treatment of the genotyped cows and lower reliabilities of phenotypes compared with the proven pseudo-phenotypes of bulls. Breeding organizations in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden have implemented a female-genotyping project with the possibility of genotyping entire herds using the low-density (LD) chip. In the present study, 5 scenarios for building an RP were investigated in the Nordic Jersey population: (1) bulls only, (2) bulls with females from the LD project, (3) bulls with females from the LD project plus non-LD project females genotyped before their first calving, (4) bulls with females from the LD project plus non-LD project females genotyped after their first calving, and (5) bulls with all genotyped females. The genomically enhanced breeding value (GEBV) was predicted for 8 traits in the Nordic total merit index through a genomic BLUP model using deregressed proof (DRP) as the response variable in all scenarios. In addition, (daughter) yield deviation and raw phenotypic data were studied as response variables for comparison with the DRP, using stature as a model trait. The validation population was formed using a cut-off birth year of 2005 based on the genotyped Nordic Jersey bulls with DRP. The average increment in reliability of the GEBV across the 8 traits investigated was 1.9 to 4.5 percentage points compared with using only bulls in the RP (scenario 1). The addition of all the genotyped females to the RP resulted in the highest gain in reliability (scenario 5), followed by scenario 3, scenario 2, and scenario 4. All scenarios led to inflated GEBV because the regression coefficients are less than 1. However, scenario 2 and scenario 3 led to less bias of genomic predictions

  20. Characteristics of Glucose Metabolism in Nordic and South Asian Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Eriksen, Erik Fink; Birkeland, Kåre Inge

    2013-01-01

    Background Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are more prevalent in people of South Asian ethnicity than in people of Western European origin. To investigate the source of these differences, we compared insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, glucose and lipid metabolism in South Asian and Nordic subjects with type 2 diabetes. Methods Forty-three Nordic and 19 South Asian subjects with type 2 diabetes were examined with intra-venous glucose tolerance test, euglycemic clamp including measurement of endogenous glucose production, indirect calorimetry measuring glucose and lipid oxidation, and dual x-ray absorptiometry measuring body composition. Results Despite younger mean ± SD age (49.7±9.4 vs 58.3±8.3 years, p = 0.001), subjects of South Asian ethnicity had the same diabetes duration (9.3±5.5 vs 9.6±7.0 years, p = 0.86), significantly higher median [inter-quartile range] HbA1c (8.5 [1.6] vs 7.3 [1.6] %, p = 0.024) and lower BMI (28.7±4.0 vs 33.2±4.7 kg/m2, p<0.001). The South Asian group exhibited significantly higher basal endogenous glucose production (19.1 [9.1] vs 14.4 [6.8] µmol/kgFFM⋅min, p = 0.003). There were no significant differences between the groups in total glucose disposal (39.1±20.4 vs 39.2±17.6 µmol/kgFFM⋅min, p = 0.99) or first phase insulin secretion (AUC0–8 min: 220 [302] vs 124 [275] pM, p = 0.35). In South Asian subjects there was a tendency towards positive correlations between endogenous glucose production and resting and clamp energy expenditure. Conclusions Subjects of South Asian ethnicity with type 2 diabetes, despite being younger and leaner, had higher basal endogenous glucose production, indicating higher hepatic insulin resistance, and a trend towards higher use of carbohydrates as fasting energy substrate compared to Nordic subjects. These findings may contribute to the understanding of the observed differences in prevalence of type 2 diabetes between the ethnic groups. PMID:24391858

  1. Short communication: Improving accuracy of predicting breeding values in Brazilian Holstein population by adding data from Nordic and French Holstein populations.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Lund, M S; Zhang, Q; Costa, C N; Ducrocq, V; Su, G

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigated the improvement of prediction reliabilities for 3 production traits in Brazilian Holsteins that had no genotype information by adding information from Nordic and French Holstein bulls that had genotypes. The estimated across-country genetic correlations (ranging from 0.604 to 0.726) indicated that an important genotype by environment interaction exists between Brazilian and Nordic (or Nordic and French) populations. Prediction reliabilities for Brazilian genotyped bulls were greatly increased by including data of Nordic and French bulls, and a 2-trait single-step genomic BLUP performed much better than the corresponding pedigree-based BLUP. However, only a minor improvement in prediction reliabilities was observed in nongenotyped Brazilian cows. The results indicate that although there is a large genotype by environment interaction, inclusion of a foreign reference population can improve accuracy of genetic evaluation for the Brazilian Holstein population. However, a Brazilian reference population is necessary to obtain a more accurate genomic evaluation. PMID:27040784

  2. Short communication: Improving accuracy of predicting breeding values in Brazilian Holstein population by adding data from Nordic and French Holstein populations.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Lund, M S; Zhang, Q; Costa, C N; Ducrocq, V; Su, G

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigated the improvement of prediction reliabilities for 3 production traits in Brazilian Holsteins that had no genotype information by adding information from Nordic and French Holstein bulls that had genotypes. The estimated across-country genetic correlations (ranging from 0.604 to 0.726) indicated that an important genotype by environment interaction exists between Brazilian and Nordic (or Nordic and French) populations. Prediction reliabilities for Brazilian genotyped bulls were greatly increased by including data of Nordic and French bulls, and a 2-trait single-step genomic BLUP performed much better than the corresponding pedigree-based BLUP. However, only a minor improvement in prediction reliabilities was observed in nongenotyped Brazilian cows. The results indicate that although there is a large genotype by environment interaction, inclusion of a foreign reference population can improve accuracy of genetic evaluation for the Brazilian Holstein population. However, a Brazilian reference population is necessary to obtain a more accurate genomic evaluation.

  3. Nordic walking--is it suitable for patients with fractured vertebra?

    PubMed

    Wendlova, J

    2008-01-01

    This article brings the biomechanical analysis of sport--Nordic walking--for patients with osteoporotic fractured vertebrae and shows that it is suitable for them. Based on the biomechanical model of skeletal load we have developed a method of walking movement for patients, different from the method of walking movement for healthy people. And so came into being the "first sport" for patients with osteoporotic fractures. They can go for regular walks in easy terrains outdoors with friends and family, and so be liberated from social isolation. It requires only one-off financial costs of buying the poles and special footwear (Tab. 7, Fig. 3, Ref. 14). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk. PMID:18814434

  4. Deconstruction of Nordic hardwood in switchable ionic liquids and acylation of the dissolved cellulose.

    PubMed

    Eta, Valerie; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka

    2016-01-20

    Nordic hardwood (Betula pendula) was fractionated in a batch autoclave equipped with a custom-made SpinChem(®) rotating bed reactor, at 120 °C using CO2 and CS2-based switchable ionic liquids systems. Analyses of the non-dissolved wood after treatment showed that 64 wt% of hemicelluloses and 70 wt% of lignin were removed from the native wood. Long processing periods or successive short-time treatments using fresh SILs further decreased the amount of hemicelluloses and lignin in the non-dissolved fraction to 12 and 15 wt%, respectively. The cellulose-rich fraction was partially dissolved in an organic superbase and an ionic liquid system for further derivatization. Homogeneous acylation of the dissolved cellulose in the presence or absence of catalyst resulted in cellulose acetates with variable degree of substitution (DS), depending on the treatment conditions. By varying the reaction conditions, the cellulose acetate with the desired DS could be obtained under mild conditions.

  5. A dynamic model of Nordic diagonal stride skiing, with a literature review of cross country skiing.

    PubMed

    Moxnes, John F; Hausken, Kjell

    2009-10-01

    The forces during the kicking phase in Nordic diagonal stride skiing are described by differential equations and the results are compared with experiments. The difference between static and dynamic friction, interacting with characteristics of the skier such as weight, velocity and the kicking force's angle with the terrain, are essential for high-velocity diagonal striding. Analytical results for relationships between glide length, friction and kicking force are shown. Aerodynamic drag and gravity are accounted for. A propulsion force based on the Hill (1970) equation for muscle contraction velocity and activation is constructed. The model shows a feasible tool for studying the effects of ski stiffness, the kicking force and the amount of waxing during diagonal stride skiing.

  6. Socioeconomic differences in children's use of physician services in the Nordic countries

    PubMed Central

    Halldorsson, M; Kunst, A; Kohler, L; Mackenbach, J

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To assess the relation between socioeconomic factors and the use of physician services among children and whether variations of the level of co-payment are correlated with different levels of inequalities in health services use. Design: Description of the socioeconomic differences in the use of health care using data from countrywide postal surveys to parents. Setting: The five Nordic countries in 1996. Subjects: Samples of 15 000 children aged 2–17 years: 3000 children at random, from the national registry in each country. Main outcome measure: Odds ratios of use of GP, specialist, and hospital services between children according to the educational level of both parents and the disposable income of the family, for all countries together and for each country separately. Odds ratios were adjusted for age, sex, urbanisation grade, and health status. Results: There was little difference in the use of GP services according to socioeconomic factors. Parents from lower socioeconomic groups used telephone services of physicians less than parents from the higher groups and children of lower socioeconomic groups were seen less often by specialists. The reverse was true for hospitalisation of the children. The differential use of those three types of services was more marked in Denmark, Finland and Norway than in Iceland and Sweden. When controlled for other socioeconomic factors, the largest differences were observed according to the education of the mother. Conclusion: The specialist services and use of telephone services for children in the Nordic countries do not meet the criteria of equal use for equal need whereas the GP services and hospital services do to some extent. The education of the mother is a more important determinant than income for the use of each service. PMID:11854341

  7. Childhood diabetes in the Nordic countries: a comparison of quality registries.

    PubMed

    Hanberger, Lena; Birkebaek, Niels; Bjarnason, Ragnar; Drivvoll, Ann Kristin; Johansen, Anders; Skrivarhaug, Torild; Thorsson, Arni V; Samuelsson, Ulf

    2014-07-01

    In 2008 a Nordic collaboration was established between the quality registries in Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden to improve quality of care for children with diabetes. This study aimed to describe those registries and confirm that the registry variables are comparable. Selected variables were used to demonstrate outcome measurements. The organization of the registries and methodology are described. Cross-sectional data for patients between birth and 14.9 years with type 1 diabetes mellitus in 2009 (n = 6523) from 89 centers were analyzed. Variables were age, gender, and diabetic ketoacidosis at onset, together with age, gender, HbA1c, insulin regimen, and severe hypoglycemia at follow-up in 2009. All 4 registries use a standardized registration at the onset of diabetes and at follow-up, conducted at the local pediatric diabetes centers. Methods for measuring HbA1c varied as did methods of registration for factors such as hypoglycemia. No differences were found between the outcomes of the clinical variables at onset. Significant variations were found at follow-up for mean HbA1c, the proportion of children with HbA1c < 57 mmol/mol (NGSP/DCCT 7.4%), (range 15-31%), the proportion with insulin pumps (range 34-55%), and the numbers with severe hypoglycemia (range 5.6-8.3/100 patient years). In this large unselected population from 4 Nordic countries, a high proportion did not reach their treatment target, indicating a need to improve the quality of pediatric diabetes care. International collaboration is needed to develop and harmonize quality indicators and offers possibilities to study large geographic populations, identify problems, and share knowledge. PMID:24876421

  8. Assessment of the spatial and temporal distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Nordic atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anttila, Pia; Brorström-Lundén, Eva; Hansson, Katarina; Hakola, Hannele; Vestenius, Mika

    2016-09-01

    Long-term atmospheric monitoring data (1994-2011) of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were assembled from a rural site in southern Sweden, Råö, and a remote, sub-Arctic site in Finland, Pallas. The concentration levels, congener profiles, seasonal and temporal trends, and projections were evaluated in order to assess the status of POPs in the Scandinavian atmosphere. Our data include atmospheric concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), altogether comprising a selection of 27 different compounds. The atmospheric POP levels were generally higher in the south, closer to the sources (primary emissions) of the pollutants. The levels of low-chlorinated PCBs and chlordanes were equal at the two sites, and one of the studied POPs, α-HCH, showed higher levels in the north than in the south. Declining temporal trends in the atmospheric concentrations for the legacy POPs - PCBs (2-4% per year), HCHs (6-7% per year), chlordanes (3-4% per year) and DTTs (2-5% per year) - were identified both along Sweden's west coast and in the sub-Arctic area of northern Finland. Most of PAHs did not show any significant long-term trends. The future projections for POP concentrations suggest that in Scandinavia, low-chlorinated PCBs and p,p‧-DDE will remain in the atmospheric compartment the longest (beyond 2030). HCH's and PCB180 will be depleted from the Nordic atmosphere first, before 2020, whereas chlordanes and rest of the PCBs will be depleted between the years 2020 and 2025. PCBs tend to deplete sooner and chlordanes later from the sub-Arctic compared to the south of Sweden. This study demonstrates that the international bans on legacy POPs have successfully reduced the concentrations of these particular substances in the Nordic atmosphere. However, the most long-lived compounds may continue in the atmospheric cycle for another couple of decades.

  9. Characteristics of the Nordic Seas overflows in a set of Norwegian Earth System Model experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Chuncheng; Ilicak, Mehmet; Bentsen, Mats; Fer, Ilker

    2016-08-01

    Global ocean models with an isopycnic vertical coordinate are advantageous in representing overflows, as they do not suffer from topography-induced spurious numerical mixing commonly seen in geopotential coordinate models. In this paper, we present a quantitative diagnosis of the Nordic Seas overflows in four configurations of the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM) family that features an isopycnic ocean model. For intercomparison, two coupled ocean-sea ice and two fully coupled (atmosphere-land-ocean-sea ice) experiments are considered. Each pair consists of a (non-eddying) 1° and a (eddy-permitting) 1/4° horizontal resolution ocean model. In all experiments, overflow waters remain dense and descend to the deep basins, entraining ambient water en route. Results from the 1/4° pair show similar behavior in the overflows, whereas the 1° pair show distinct differences, including temperature/salinity properties, volume transport (Q), and large scale features such as the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). The volume transport of the overflows and degree of entrainment are underestimated in the 1° experiments, whereas in the 1/4° experiments, there is a two-fold downstream increase in Q, which matches observations well. In contrast to the 1/4° experiments, the coarse 1° experiments do not capture the inclined isopycnals of the overflows or the western boundary current off the Flemish Cap. In all experiments, the pathway of the Iceland-Scotland Overflow Water is misrepresented: a major fraction of the overflow proceeds southward into the West European Basin, instead of turning westward into the Irminger Sea. This discrepancy is attributed to excessive production of Labrador Sea Water in the model. The mean state and variability of the Nordic Seas overflows have significant consequences on the response of the AMOC, hence their correct representations are of vital importance in global ocean and climate modelling.

  10. External quality assessment of serum hormone determinations in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Ruokonen, A; Leskinen, E; Nyberg, A; Vihko, R

    1984-01-01

    Since 1979 the Nordic Clinical Chemistry Project (NORDKEM) has organized four external quality assessment surveys of serum hormone determinations in the five Nordic countries. Charcoal-stripped control sera with weighed additions of the following hormones have been used: thyrotropin, human placental lactogen, prolactin, estriol, estradiol, testosterone, cortisol, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and, in the fourth survey, progesterone. Human serum was usually used but in the first survey the serum matrix for the protein hormones was calf serum. In three years no systematic improvement in the coefficients of variation of the results has occurred. The change from calf serum to human serum also had no major effects on the results. Percentage coefficients of bias usually varied on both sides of the true value, but at low hormone concentrations the results were almost always positively biased. It is therefore useful to know the true hormone concentrations of the control samples because all-laboratory means are relatively often biased from these. Variation produced by different methods of calculation of the radioimmunoassay results and the influence of outlying standard points on these data processing routines were studied in the third survey. It is possible that sometimes the variation produced by different methods of calculation is one of the main components of the total variation in external quality assessment of RIA. There were no major differences between the performance of computerized or manual calculation methods. The influence of different calibration standards on serum thyroxine determination was studied in the fourth survey. Of the total coefficient of variation (10.8% to 17.0%) the component of variation produced by different thyroxine calibration standards was 0.8% to 4.6%. In conclusion, standardization of the data processing methods and further standardization of assay reagents are urgently needed to give possibilities to identify more subtle differences in

  11. Adherence to the healthy Nordic food index, dietary composition, and lifestyle among Swedish women.

    PubMed

    Roswall, Nina; Eriksson, Ulf; Sandin, Sven; Löf, Marie; Olsen, Anja; Skeie, Guri; Adami, Hans-Olov; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2015-01-01

    Background : Studies examining diet scores in relation to health outcomes are gaining ground. Thus, control for dietary factors not part of the score, and lifestyle associated with adherence, is required to allow for a causal interpretation of studies on diet scores and health outcomes. Objective : The study objective is to describe and investigate dietary composition, micronutrient density, lifestyle, socioeconomic factors, and adherence to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations across groups defined by their level of adherence to a healthy Nordic food index (HNFI). The paper examines both dietary components included in the HNFI as well as dietary components, which are not part of the HNFI, to get a broad picture of the diet. Design : The study is cross-sectional and conducted in the Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health cohort. We included 45,277 women, aged 29-49 years at baseline (1991-1992). The HNFI was defined by six items: wholegrain bread, oatmeal, apples/pears, cabbages, root vegetables and fish/shellfish, using data from a food frequency questionnaire. Proportions, means and standard deviations were calculated in the entire cohort and by adherence groups. Results : Women scoring high on the HNFI had a higher energy intake, compared to low adherers. They had a higher intake of fiber and a higher micronutrient density (components of the HNFI), but also a higher intake of items not included in the HNFI: red/processed meats, sweets, and potatoes. They were on average more physically active and less likely to smoke. Conclusions : Adherence to the HNFI was associated with a generally healthier lifestyle and a high intake of health-beneficial components. However, it was also associated with a higher energy intake and a higher intake of foods without proven health benefits. Therefore, future studies on the HNFI and health outcomes should take into account potential confounding of dietary and lifestyle factors associated with the HNFI. PMID:25773303

  12. Occupation and cancer - follow-up of 15 million people in five Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Pukkala, Eero; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Lynge, Elsebeth; Gunnarsdottir, Holmfridur Kolbrun; Sparén, Pär; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Kjaerheim, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    We present up to 45 years of cancer incidence data by occupational category for the Nordic populations. The study covers the 15 million people aged 30-64 years in the 1960, 1970, 1980/1981 and/or 1990 censuses in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, and the 2.8 million incident cancer cases diagnosed in these people in a follow-up until about 2005. The study was undertaken as a cohort study with linkage of individual records based on the personal identity codes used in all the Nordic countries. In the censuses, information on occupation for each person was provided through free text in self-administered questionnaires. The data were centrally coded and computerised in the statistical offices. For the present study, the original occupational codes were reclassified into 53 occupational categories and one group of economically inactive persons. All Nordic countries have a nation-wide registration of incident cancer cases during the entire study period. For the present study the incident cancer cases were classified into 49 primary diagnostic categories. Some categories have been further divided according to sub-site or morphological type. The observed number of cancer cases in each group of persons defined by country, sex, age, period and occupation was compared with the expected number calculated from the stratum specific person years and the incidence rates for the national population. The result was presented as a standardised incidence ratio, SIR, defined as the observed number of cases divided by the expected number. For all cancers combined (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer), the study showed a wide variation among men from an SIR of 0.79 (95% confidence interval 0.66-0.95) in domestic assistants to 1.48 (1.43-1.54) in waiters. The occupations with the highest SIRs also included workers producing beverage and tobacco, seamen and chimney sweeps. Among women, the SIRs varied from 0.58 (0.37-0.87) in seafarers to 1.27 (1.19-1.35) in tobacco workers. Low

  13. Multilocus Sequence Typing Identifies Epidemic Clones of Flavobacterium psychrophilum in Nordic Countries

    PubMed Central

    Duchaud, Eric; Nicolas, Pierre; Dalsgaard, Inger; Madsen, Lone; Aspán, Anna; Jansson, Eva; Colquhoun, Duncan J.; Wiklund, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the causative agent of bacterial cold water disease (BCWD), which affects a variety of freshwater-reared salmonid species. A large-scale study was performed to investigate the genetic diversity of F. psychrophilum in the four Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Multilocus sequence typing of 560 geographically and temporally disparate F. psychrophilum isolates collected from various sources between 1983 and 2012 revealed 81 different sequence types (STs) belonging to 12 clonal complexes (CCs) and 30 singleton STs. The largest CC, CC-ST10, which represented almost exclusively isolates from rainbow trout and included the most predominant genotype, ST2, comprised 65% of all isolates examined. In Norway, with a shorter history (<10 years) of BCWD in rainbow trout, ST2 was the only isolated CC-ST10 genotype, suggesting a recent introduction of an epidemic clone. The study identified five additional CCs shared between countries and five country-specific CCs, some with apparent host specificity. Almost 80% of the singleton STs were isolated from non-rainbow trout species or the environment. The present study reveals a simultaneous presence of genetically distinct CCs in the Nordic countries and points out specific F. psychrophilum STs posing a threat to the salmonid production. The study provides a significant contribution toward mapping the genetic diversity of F. psychrophilum globally and support for the existence of an epidemic population structure where recombination is a significant driver in F. psychrophilum evolution. Evidence indicating dissemination of a putatively virulent clonal complex (CC-ST10) with commercial movement of fish or fish products is strengthened. PMID:24561585

  14. Interannual to Decadal Variability of Atlantic Water in the Nordic and Adjacent Seas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carton, James A.; Chepurin, Gennady A.; Reagan, James; Haekkinen, Sirpa

    2011-01-01

    Warm salty Atlantic Water is the main source water for the Arctic Ocean and thus plays an important role in the mass and heat budget of the Arctic. This study explores interannual to decadal variability of Atlantic Water properties in the Nordic Seas area where Atlantic Water enters the Arctic, based on a reexamination of the historical hydrographic record for the years 1950-2009, obtained by combining multiple data sets. The analysis shows a succession of four multi-year warm events where temperature anomalies at 100m depth exceed 0.4oC, and three cold events. Three of the four warm events lasted 3-4 years, while the fourth began in 1999 and persists at least through 2009. This most recent warm event is anomalous in other ways as well, being the strongest, having the broadest geographic extent, being surface-intensified, and occurring under exceptional meteorological conditions. Three of the four warm events were accompanied by elevated salinities consistent with enhanced ocean transport into the Nordic Seas, with the exception of the event spanning July 1989-July 1993. Of the three cold events, two lasted for four years, while the third lasted for nearly 14 years. Two of the three cold events are associated with reduced salinities, but the cold event of the 1960s had elevated salinities. The relationship of these events to meteorological conditions is examined. The results show that local surface heat flux variations act in some cases to reinforce the anomalies, but are too weak to be the sole cause.

  15. Distribution, structure and function of Nordic eelgrass (Zostera marina) ecosystems: implications for coastal management and conservation

    PubMed Central

    Boström, Christoffer; Baden, Susanne; Bockelmann, Anna-Christina; Dromph, Karsten; Fredriksen, Stein; Gustafsson, Camilla; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Möller, Tiia; Nielsen, Søren Laurentius; Olesen, Birgit; Olsen, Jeanine; Pihl, Leif; Rinde, Eli

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the marine foundation eelgrass species, Zostera marina, along a gradient from the northern Baltic Sea to the north-east Atlantic. This vast region supports a minimum of 1480 km2 eelgrass (maximum >2100 km2), which corresponds to more than four times the previously quantified area of eelgrass in Western Europe.Eelgrass meadows in the low salinity Baltic Sea support the highest diversity (4–6 spp.) of angiosperms overall, but eelgrass productivity is low (<2 g dw m-2 d-1) and meadows are isolated and genetically impoverished. Higher salinity areas support monospecific meadows, with higher productivity (3–10 g dw m-2 d-1) and greater genetic connectivity. The salinity gradient further imposes functional differences in biodiversity and food webs, in particular a decline in number, but increase in biomass of mesograzers in the Baltic.Significant declines in eelgrass depth limits and areal cover are documented, particularly in regions experiencing high human pressure. The failure of eelgrass to re-establish itself in affected areas, despite nutrient reductions and improved water quality, signals complex recovery trajectories and calls for much greater conservation effort to protect existing meadows.The knowledge base for Nordic eelgrass meadows is broad and sufficient to establish monitoring objectives across nine national borders. Nevertheless, ensuring awareness of their vulnerability remains challenging. Given the areal extent of Nordic eelgrass systems and the ecosystem services they provide, it is crucial to further develop incentives for protecting them. © 2014 The Authors. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26167100

  16. Exploring Muscle Activation during Nordic Walking: A Comparison between Conventional and Uphill Walking

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrini, Barbara; Peyré-Tartaruga, Leonardo Alexandre; Zoppirolli, Chiara; Bortolan, Lorenzo; Bacchi, Elisabetta; Figard-Fabre, Hélène; Schena, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Nordic Walking (NW) owes much of its popularity to the benefits of greater energy expenditure and upper body engagement than found in conventional walking (W). Muscle activation during NW is still understudied, however. The aim of the present study was to assess differences in muscle activation and physiological responses between NW and W in level and uphill walking conditions. Nine expert Nordic Walkers (mean age 36.8±11.9 years; BMI 24.2±1.8 kg/m2) performed 5-minute treadmill trials of W and NW at 4 km/h on inclines of 0% and 15%. The electromyographic activity of seven upper body and five leg muscles and oxygen consumption (VO2) were recorded and pole force during NW was measured. VO2 during NW was 22.3% higher at 0% and only 6.9% higher at 15% than during W, while upper body muscle activation was 2- to 15-fold higher under both conditions. Lower body muscle activation was similarly increased during NW and W in the uphill condition, whereas the increase in erector spinae muscle activity was lower during NW than W. The lack of a significant increase in pole force during uphill walking may explain the lower extra energy expenditure of NW, indicating less upper body muscle activation to lift the body against gravity. NW seemed to reduce lower back muscle contraction in the uphill condition, suggesting that walking with poles may reduce effort to control trunk oscillations and could contribute to work production during NW. Although the difference in extra energy expenditure between NW and W was smaller in the uphill walking condition, the increased upper body muscle involvement during exercising with NW may confer additional benefit compared to conventional walking also on uphill terrains. Furthermore, people with low back pain may gain benefit from pole use when walking uphill. PMID:26418339

  17. Interannual to decadal variability of Atlantic Water in the Nordic and adjacent seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carton, James A.; Chepurin, Gennady A.; Reagan, James; HäKkinen, Sirpa

    2011-11-01

    Warm salty Atlantic Water is the main source water for the Arctic Ocean and thus plays an important role in the mass and heat budget of the Arctic. This study explores interannual to decadal variability of Atlantic Water properties in the Nordic Seas area where Atlantic Water enters the Arctic, based on a reexamination of the historical hydrographic record for the years 1950-2009, obtained by combining multiple data sets. The analysis shows a succession of four multiyear warm events where temperature anomalies at 100 m depth exceed 0.4°C, and three cold events. Three of the four warm events lasted 3-4 years, while the fourth began in 1999 and persists at least through 2009. This most recent warm event is anomalous in other ways as well, being the strongest, having the broadest geographic extent, being surface-intensified, and occurring under exceptional meteorological conditions. Three of the four warm events were accompanied by elevated salinities consistent with enhanced ocean transport into the Nordic Seas, with the exception of the event spanning July 1989-July 1993. Of the three cold events, two lasted for 4 years, while the third lasted for nearly 14 years. Two of the three cold events are associated with reduced salinities, but the cold event of the 1960s had elevated salinities. The relationship of these events to meteorological conditions is examined. The results show that local surface heat flux variations act in some cases to reinforce the anomalies, but are too weak to be the sole cause.

  18. Health effects associated with foods characteristic of the Nordic diet: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Åkesson, Agneta; Andersen, Lene F.; Kristjánsdóttir, Ása G.; Roos, Eva; Trolle, Ellen; Voutilainen, Eeva; Wirfält, Elisabet

    2013-01-01

    Background In preparing the fifth edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR), the scientific basis of specific food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) was evaluated. Objective A systematic review (SR) was conducted to update the NNR evidence based on the association between the consumption of potatoes, berries, whole grains, milk and milk products, and red and processed meat, and the risk of major diet-related chronic diseases. Design The SR was based on predefined research questions and eligibility criteria for independent duplicate study selection, data extraction, and assessment of methodological quality and applicability. We considered scientific data from prospective observational studies and intervention studies, published since year 2000, targeting the general adult population. Studies of meat and iron status included children, adolescents, and women of childbearing age. Results Based on 7,282 abstracts, 57 studies met the quality criteria and were evidence graded. The data were too limited to draw any conclusions regarding: red and processed meat intake in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and iron status; potatoes and berries regarding any study outcomes; and dairy consumption in relation to risk of breast cancer and CVD. However, dairy consumption seemed unlikely to increase CVD risk (moderate-grade evidence). There was probable evidence (moderate-grade) for whole grains protecting against type 2 diabetes and CVD, and suggestive evidence (low-grade) for colorectal cancer and for dairy consumption being associated with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes and increased risk of prostate cancer. The WCRF/AICR concludes that red and processed meat is a convincing cause of colorectal cancer. Conclusions Probable (moderate) evidence was only observed for whole grains protecting against type 2 diabetes and CVD. We identified a clear need for high-quality nutritional epidemiological and intervention studies and for studies of foods of the Nordic diet

  19. Benthic foraminiferal δ18O-Mg/Ca from the SE Nordic seas during the last 65 kyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezat, M.; Rasmussen, T. L.; Groeneveld, J.

    2013-12-01

    Benthic foraminiferal δ18O-Mg/Ca from the SE Nordic seas during the last 65 kyr Mohamed M. Ezat1,2*, Tine L. Rasmussen1, Jeroen Groeneveld3 1 CAGE - Centre for Arctic Gas Hydrate, Environment and Climate, and Department of Geology, University of Tromsø, NO-9037 Tromsø, Norway. 2 Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt. 3 Department of Geosciences, University of Bremen, Klagenfurter Strasse, 28359, Bremen, Germany. * e-mail: mohamed.ezat@uit.no The climate during the last glacial period underwent rapid millennial-scale variability known as Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events of warm interstadials and cold stadials. DO events are manifested in marine and continental records in the circum-North Atlantic region and throughout the globe. Several studies suggest a crucial role of the Nordic seas in regulating the climate during the last glacial period. Previous studies from the Nordic seas revealed low benthic δ18O values during stadials and high values during interstadials. The causes of the depletions in benthic 18O during stadials are highly debated. Sinking of isotope depleted-brines formed due to sea ice production has previously been proposed. Another explanation has indicated warming of the intermediate water in the Nordic seas based on the finding of warm water benthic foraminiferal species during stadials. Here we present the first benthic foraminiferal Mg/Ca-based bottom water temperature (BWT) record from the Nordic seas that, along with other proxies, aims to resolve the hydrographic changes at intermediate water depth on DO timescale during the last 65 kyr. The results show pronounced and gradual BWT increases during all cold stadials followed by an abrupt drop to modern-like BWT at interstadials onsets. The increase in BWT, caused by the subsurface inflow of warm Atlantic intermediate water, substantially contributed to the halocline collapse and onset of interstadial conditions throughout complex ocean-sea ice

  20. The story about theater organizations, the public's approval, and the actors' identity formation in Nordic disability theater.

    PubMed

    Gjærum, Rikke Gürgens; Ineland, Jens; Sauer, Lennart

    2010-01-01

    Nordic disability theater is a relatively new and interesting field of disability research. In this article, the authors provide an overview of the field of disability theater in a Nordic context. The article is based on a comparative analysis from 3 research projects conducted in Sweden and Norway. The projects used qualitative methods and were analyzed from different theoretical perspectives. Interviews were conducted at 4 different disability theaters involving actors with hearing impairments, intellectual disabilities, physical disabilities, and mental disabilities. The aim of this article is to illustrate how the organizational settings reflect different goals and aims at the political and artistic levels. The authors will also address the relationship between the theaters and the public opinion and media. Finally, they will illustrate in what way organization, recognition, and public approval play an important role for the actors' identity formation and sense of belonging. PMID:21104515

  1. WASTE RESEARCH STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Waste Research Strategy covers research necessary to support both the proper management of solid and hazardous wastes and the effective remediation of contaminated waste sites. This research includes improving the assessment of existing environmental risks, as well as develop...

  2. Adherence to the healthy Nordic food index and total and cause-specific mortality among Swedish women.

    PubMed

    Roswall, Nina; Sandin, Sven; Löf, Marie; Skeie, Guri; Olsen, Anja; Adami, Hans-Olov; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2015-06-01

    Several healthy dietary patterns have been linked to longevity. Recently, a Nordic dietary pattern was associated with a lower overall mortality. No study has, however, investigated this dietary pattern in relation to cause-specific mortality. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between adherence to a healthy Nordic food index (consisting of wholegrain bread, oatmeal, apples/pears, root vegetables, cabbages and fish/shellfish) and overall mortality, and death by cardiovascular disease, cancer, injuries/suicide and other causes. We conducted a prospective analysis in the Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health cohort, including 44,961 women, aged 29-49 years, who completed a food frequency questionnaire between 1991-1992, and have been followed up for mortality ever since, through Swedish registries. The median follow-up time is 21.3 years, and mortality rate ratios (MRR) were calculated using Cox Proportional Hazards Models. Compared to women with the lowest index score (0-1 points), those with the highest score (4-6 points) had an 18% lower overall mortality (MRR 0.82; 0.71-0.93, p < 0.0004). A 1-point increment in the healthy Nordic food index was associated with a significantly lower risk of all-cause mortality: 6% (3-9%), cancer mortality: 5% (1-9%) and mortality from other causes: 16% (8-22%). When examining the diet components individually, only wholegrain bread and apples/pears were significantly inversely associated with all-cause mortality. We observed no effect-modification by smoking status, BMI or age at baseline. The present study encourages adherence to a healthy Nordic food index, and warrants further investigation of the strong association with non-cancer, non-cardiovascular and non-injury/suicide deaths. PMID:25784368

  3. Patterns of finasteride use in the male populations of four Nordic countries: A cross-national drug utilization study.

    PubMed

    Kjærulff, T M; Ersbøll, A K; Green, A; Emneus, M; Pukkala, E; Bolin, K; Stavem, K; Iversen, P; Brasso, K; Hallas, J; Thygesen, L C

    2016-06-01

    Objective Finasteride 5 mg is a drug used to treat prostate hyperplasia. Little is known about its pattern of usage. This cross-national analysis of individual-level data from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden was undertaken to appraise its usage and describe cross-national differences. Materials and methods Individual-level data from nationwide prescription registers in Denmark (1995-2009), Finland (1997-2010), Norway (2004-2009) and Sweden (July 2005-2011) were used to examine cross-national finasteride utilization patterns in the adult male population (≥15 years). The study presents period prevalences, incidence rates, waiting time distributions and Lorenz curves. Results During the study period, 295,620 men had at least one prescription redemption of finasteride 5 mg, and there were approximately 3 million dispensing events of finasteride prescriptions in the four Nordic countries. Different patterns of finasteride use were observed among the four Nordic countries. The period prevalence was markedly higher in Finland and Sweden than in Denmark and Norway. In 2009, period prevalences were 18.2/1000 males in Finland and 12.0/1000 males in Sweden compared to 6.7/1000 males in Norway and 4.9/1000 males in Denmark. Incidence rates of finasteride use for Finland, Norway and Sweden were about three times that for Denmark in 2008-2009. Long-term use of finasteride was found in all four Nordic countries with a high ratio between prevalent and incident users. Conclusion Despite resemblances regarding political systems and healthcare services in the Nordic countries, differences in finasteride utilization were found across Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. PMID:26901820

  4. Adherence to the healthy Nordic food index and total and cause-specific mortality among Swedish women.

    PubMed

    Roswall, Nina; Sandin, Sven; Löf, Marie; Skeie, Guri; Olsen, Anja; Adami, Hans-Olov; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2015-06-01

    Several healthy dietary patterns have been linked to longevity. Recently, a Nordic dietary pattern was associated with a lower overall mortality. No study has, however, investigated this dietary pattern in relation to cause-specific mortality. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between adherence to a healthy Nordic food index (consisting of wholegrain bread, oatmeal, apples/pears, root vegetables, cabbages and fish/shellfish) and overall mortality, and death by cardiovascular disease, cancer, injuries/suicide and other causes. We conducted a prospective analysis in the Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health cohort, including 44,961 women, aged 29-49 years, who completed a food frequency questionnaire between 1991-1992, and have been followed up for mortality ever since, through Swedish registries. The median follow-up time is 21.3 years, and mortality rate ratios (MRR) were calculated using Cox Proportional Hazards Models. Compared to women with the lowest index score (0-1 points), those with the highest score (4-6 points) had an 18% lower overall mortality (MRR 0.82; 0.71-0.93, p < 0.0004). A 1-point increment in the healthy Nordic food index was associated with a significantly lower risk of all-cause mortality: 6% (3-9%), cancer mortality: 5% (1-9%) and mortality from other causes: 16% (8-22%). When examining the diet components individually, only wholegrain bread and apples/pears were significantly inversely associated with all-cause mortality. We observed no effect-modification by smoking status, BMI or age at baseline. The present study encourages adherence to a healthy Nordic food index, and warrants further investigation of the strong association with non-cancer, non-cardiovascular and non-injury/suicide deaths.

  5. The National Resource Library for Science and Technology in Sweden: A Nordic model of cooperating technology libraries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagar, Gunnar

    1994-01-01

    The scope of this presentation is to give a state-of-the-art report on the present situation of Nordic technology libraries, to elaborate on a plan for national resource libraries in Sweden, and to share how the Royal Institute of Technology Library in Stockholm (KTHB) has fostered a network of cooperating libraries in order to optimize government funding for the system of resource libraries.

  6. Effects of Nordic walking on pelvis motion and muscle activities around the hip joints of adults with hip osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Homma, Daisuke; Jigami, Hirofumi; Sato, Naritoshi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Increased compensatory pelvic movement is remarkable in limping patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA). However, a method of improving limping has not been established. The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of two types of Nordic walking by analyzing the pelvic movement and muscle activities of adults with hip OA. [Subjects and Methods] Ten patients with OA of the hip performed Japanese-style Nordic walking (JS NW), European-style Nordic walking (ES NW), and Ordinary walking (OW), and the muscle activities around the hip joint and pelvic movements were analyzed. [Results] The pelvic rotation angle was significantly larger in ES NW than in JS NW. In the stance phase, hip abductor muscle activity was significantly decreased in JS NW compared to both OW and ES NW. In the swing phase, rectus abdominis muscle activity was significantly increased in both JS NW and ES NW compared to OW and lumbar erector spinae activity was significantly lower in JS NW than in OW. [Conclusion] JS NW style may reduce the compensatory pelvic rotation in patients with hip OA. JS NW might be better for joint protection and prevention of secondary disorders of the hip in OA patients. PMID:27190455

  7. Effects of Nordic walking on pelvis motion and muscle activities around the hip joints of adults with hip osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Homma, Daisuke; Jigami, Hirofumi; Sato, Naritoshi

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] Increased compensatory pelvic movement is remarkable in limping patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA). However, a method of improving limping has not been established. The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of two types of Nordic walking by analyzing the pelvic movement and muscle activities of adults with hip OA. [Subjects and Methods] Ten patients with OA of the hip performed Japanese-style Nordic walking (JS NW), European-style Nordic walking (ES NW), and Ordinary walking (OW), and the muscle activities around the hip joint and pelvic movements were analyzed. [Results] The pelvic rotation angle was significantly larger in ES NW than in JS NW. In the stance phase, hip abductor muscle activity was significantly decreased in JS NW compared to both OW and ES NW. In the swing phase, rectus abdominis muscle activity was significantly increased in both JS NW and ES NW compared to OW and lumbar erector spinae activity was significantly lower in JS NW than in OW. [Conclusion] JS NW style may reduce the compensatory pelvic rotation in patients with hip OA. JS NW might be better for joint protection and prevention of secondary disorders of the hip in OA patients.

  8. Strategic environmental management: Today and tomorrow

    SciTech Connect

    Schlumpf, R.E.

    1996-12-31

    The strategies that are involved in effective environmental management are presented. They include the following: business/environmental integration; environmental management systems; environmental cost management; environmental management information systems; and litigation support. Gaining the competitive advantage is dependent upon the effective integration of environmental management strategies into key operational processes and activities. Methodology has been developed which addresses costs ranging from strategy, pollution prevention and compliance to remediation and waste disposal.

  9. Sensitivity of the North Atlantic Ocean Circulation to an abrupt change in the Nordic Sea overflow in a high resolution global coupled climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rong; Delworth, Thomas L.; Rosati, Anthony; Anderson, Whit G.; Dixon, Keith W.; Lee, Hyun-Chul; Zeng, Fanrong

    2011-12-01

    The sensitivity of the North Atlantic Ocean Circulation to an abrupt change in the Nordic Sea overflow is investigated for the first time using a high resolution eddy-permitting global coupled ocean-atmosphere model (GFDL CM2.5). The Nordic Sea overflow is perturbed through the change of the bathymetry in GFDL CM2.5. We analyze the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) adjustment process and the downstream oceanic response to the perturbation. The results suggest that north of 34°N, AMOC changes induced by changes in the Nordic Sea overflow propagate on the slow tracer advection timescale, instead of the fast Kelvin wave timescale, resulting in a time lead of several years between subpolar and subtropical AMOC changes. The results also show that a stronger and deeper-penetrating Nordic Sea overflow leads to stronger and deeper AMOC, stronger northward ocean heat transport, reduced Labrador Sea deep convection, stronger cyclonic Northern Recirculation Gyre (NRG), westward shift of the North Atlantic Current (NAC) and southward shift of the Gulf Stream, warmer sea surface temperature (SST) east of Newfoundland and colder SST south of the Grand Banks, stronger and deeper NAC and Gulf Stream, and stronger oceanic eddy activities along the NAC and the Gulf Stream paths. A stronger/weaker Nordic Sea overflow also leads to a contracted/expanded subpolar gyre (SPG). This sensitivity study points to the important role of the Nordic Sea overflow in the large scale North Atlantic ocean circulation, and it is crucial for climate models to have a correct representation of the Nordic Sea overflow.

  10. Contribution of the Nordic School of Public Health to the public mental health research field: a selection of research initiatives, 2007-2014.

    PubMed

    Forsman, Anna K; Fredén, Lars; Lindqvist, Rafael; Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2015-08-01

    The field of public mental health has been defined by an expert group convened by the Nordic School of Public Health (NHV) as encompassing the experience, occurrence, distribution and trajectories of positive mental health and mental health problems and their determinants; mental health promotion and prevention of mental disorders; as well as mental health system policies, governance and organization. The mental health priorities of the Nordic Council of Ministers in 2010 signalled a mutual Nordic exchange of knowledge in the following thematic areas: child and adolescent mental health; working life and mental health; mental health in older people; strengthening the role of primary care in mental health service provision; stronger involvement of users and carers; and reduction of use of coercion in psychiatric care. Efforts to realize these priorities included commissioning the Nordic Research Academy for Mental Health, an NHV-based network of research institutions with a common interest in mental health research across the Nordic countries, to develop, organize and follow-up projects on public mental health. The research initiatives included mental health policy analysis, register-based research and research focused on the users' perspective in a Nordic context, as well as EU-level research policy analysis. The public mental health research conducted at the NHV highlighted the complexity of mental health and emphasized that the broad determinants of mental health need to be increasingly addressed in both public health research and practice. For example, health promotion actions, improved access to health care, a healthy alcohol policy and prevention of suicides and violence are all needed to reduce the life expectancy gap - a red flag indicator of public health inequalities. By exchanging knowledge and best practice, the collaboration between the Nordic countries contributes to the welfare of the region. The expertise and traditions developed at the NHV are of

  11. Contribution of the Nordic School of Public Health to the public mental health research field: a selection of research initiatives, 2007-2014.

    PubMed

    Forsman, Anna K; Fredén, Lars; Lindqvist, Rafael; Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2015-08-01

    The field of public mental health has been defined by an expert group convened by the Nordic School of Public Health (NHV) as encompassing the experience, occurrence, distribution and trajectories of positive mental health and mental health problems and their determinants; mental health promotion and prevention of mental disorders; as well as mental health system policies, governance and organization. The mental health priorities of the Nordic Council of Ministers in 2010 signalled a mutual Nordic exchange of knowledge in the following thematic areas: child and adolescent mental health; working life and mental health; mental health in older people; strengthening the role of primary care in mental health service provision; stronger involvement of users and carers; and reduction of use of coercion in psychiatric care. Efforts to realize these priorities included commissioning the Nordic Research Academy for Mental Health, an NHV-based network of research institutions with a common interest in mental health research across the Nordic countries, to develop, organize and follow-up projects on public mental health. The research initiatives included mental health policy analysis, register-based research and research focused on the users' perspective in a Nordic context, as well as EU-level research policy analysis. The public mental health research conducted at the NHV highlighted the complexity of mental health and emphasized that the broad determinants of mental health need to be increasingly addressed in both public health research and practice. For example, health promotion actions, improved access to health care, a healthy alcohol policy and prevention of suicides and violence are all needed to reduce the life expectancy gap - a red flag indicator of public health inequalities. By exchanging knowledge and best practice, the collaboration between the Nordic countries contributes to the welfare of the region. The expertise and traditions developed at the NHV are of

  12. National Environmental Research Parks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The National Environmental Research Parks are outdoor laboratories that provide opportunities for environmental studies on protected lands that act as buffers around Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The research parks are used to evaluate the environmental consequences of energy use and development as well as the strategies to mitigate these effects. They are also used to demonstrate possible environmental and land-use options. The seven parks are: Fermilab National Environmental Research Park; Hanford National Environmental Research Park; Idaho National Environmental Research Park; Los Alamos National Environmental Research Park; Nevada National Environmental Research Park; Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park; and Savannah River National Environmental Research Park. This document gives an overview of the events that led to the creation of the research parks. Its main purpose is to summarize key points about each park, including ecological research, geological characteristics, facilities, and available databases.

  13. An isopycnal view of the Nordic Seas hydrography with focus on properties of the Lofoten Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossby, T.; Ozhigin, Vladimir; Ivshin, Victor; Bacon, Sheldon

    2009-11-01

    Few basins in the world exhibit such a wide range of water properties as those of the Nordic Seas with cold freshwaters from the Arctic in the western basins and warm saline waters from the Atlantic in the eastern basins. In this study we present a 50-year hydrographic climatology of the Nordic Seas in terms of depth and temperature patterns on four upper ocean specific volume anomaly surfaces. This approach allows us to better distinguish between change due to variations along such surfaces and change due to depth variations of the stratified water column. Depth variations indicate changes in the mass field while property variations along isopycnals give insight into isopycnal advection and mixing, as well as diapycnal processes. We find that the warmest waters on each surface are found in the north, close to where the isopycnal outcrops, a clear indication of downward mixing of the warmer, more saline waters on shallower isopycnals due to convective cooling at the surface. These saline waters come from the Norwegian Atlantic Slope Current by means of a very high level of eddy activity in the Lofoten Basin. The isopycnal analyses further show that the principal water mass boundary between the waters of Arctic origin in the west and Atlantic waters in the east aligns quite tightly with the Jan Mayen, Mohn, Knipovich Ridge system suggesting little cross-ridge exchange. Instead, the main routes of exchange between the eastern and western basins appear to be limited to the northern and southern ends of ridge system: Atlantic waters into the Greenland Sea in the Fram St and Artic waters into the southern Norwegian Sea just north of the Iceland-Faroe Ridge. Analysis of a representative isopycnal in the main pycnocline shows it to be stable over time with only small variations with season (except where it outcrops in winter in the Greenland and Iceland Seas). However, two very cold winters, 1968-1969, led to greater than average heat losses across the entire Lofoten

  14. Vinflunine treatment in patients with metastatic urothelial cancer: A Nordic retrospective multicenter analysis

    PubMed Central

    Holmsten, Karin; Dohn, Line; Jensen, Niels Viggo; Shah, Carl-Henrik; Jäderling, Fredrik; Pappot, Helle; Ullén, Anders

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, vinflunine was introduced as a second-line treatment to be used after the failure of platinum therapy in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC). The present study investigated the administered vinflunine to patients with mUC in standard clinical practice with the aim of evaluating treatment patterns, response, survival parameters and side-effects. Data were collected retrospectively from the first 100 mUC patients treated with vinflunine at three Nordic cancer centers associated with the Nordic Urothelial Cancer Oncology Group. The overall response rate was 23% and complete response was observed in one patient. The median progression-free survival (mPFS) and median overall survival (mOS) were 2.8 (range, 0.5–34.3) and 6.3 (range, 0.3–39.7) months, respectively. An Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) of 2 was present in 20% of the patients, and those patients exhibited significantly shorter mOS (4.1 vs. 7.0 months, P=0.001) and a significantly higher degree of grade 3/4 toxicity (P=0.026) compared with ECOG PS 0–1 patients. Furthermore, patients without visceral metastases had significantly longer mOS than patients with visceral metastases (10.6 vs. 6.0 months, P=0.008). The median number of cycles of vinflunine was 3 (range, 1–28). The current data confirms that vinflunine is an active agent for second-line treatment in an unselected clinical cohort of patients with mUC. ECOG PS and presence of visceral metastases were significant prognostic parameters. In particular, patients with ECOG PS 2 receiving vinflunine had a shorter mOS and a higher frequency of severe toxicity, and, thus, should be treated with caution. Furthermore, the present study observed large inter-individual differences in radiological response and OS, indicating the need for further development of improved patient selection tools to optimize vinflunine treatment in platinum-refractory mUC patients. PMID:27446429

  15. Across-country test-day model evaluations for Holstein, Nordic Red Cattle, and Jersey.

    PubMed

    Lidauer, Martin H; Pösö, Jukka; Pedersen, Jørn; Lassen, Jan; Madsen, Per; Mäntysaari, Esa A; Nielsen, Ulrik S; Eriksson, Jan-Åke; Johansson, Kjell; Pitkänen, Timo; Strandén, Ismo; Aamand, Gert P

    2015-02-01

    Three random regression models were developed for routine genetic evaluation of Danish, Finnish, and Swedish dairy cattle. Data included over 169 million test-day records with milk, protein, and fat yield observations from over 8.7 million dairy cows of all breeds. Variance component analyses showed significant differences in estimates between Holstein, Nordic Red Cattle, and Jersey, but only small to moderate differences within a breed across countries. The obtained variance component estimates were used to build, for each breed, their own set of covariance functions. The covariance functions describe the animal effects on milk, protein, and fat yields of the first 3 lactations as 9 different traits, assuming the same heritabilities and a genetic correlation of unity across countries. Only 15, 27, and 7 eigenfunctions with the largest eigenvalues were used to describe additive genetic animal effects and nonhereditary animal effects across lactations and within later lactations, respectively. These reduced-rank covariance functions explained 99.0 to 99.9% of the original variances but reduced the number of animal equations to be solved by 44%. Moderate rank reduction for nonhereditary animal effects and use of one-third-smaller measurement error correlations than obtained from variance component estimation made the models more robust against extreme observations. Estimation of the genetic levels of the countries' subpopulations within a breed was found sensitive to the way the breed effects were modeled, especially for the genetically heterogeneous Nordic Red Cattle. Means to ensure that only additive genetic effects entered the estimated breeding values were to describe the crossbreeding effects by fixed and random cofactors and the calving age effect by an age × breed proportion interaction, and to model phantom parent groups as random effects. To ensure that genetic variances were the same across the 3 countries in breeding value estimation, as suggested by the

  16. Environmental economics for environmental protection.

    PubMed

    van Ierland, Ekko; Brink, Corjan; Hordijk, Leen; Kroeze, Carolien

    2002-05-10

    Environmental economics deals with the optimal allocation of production factors and correcting market failure in protecting the environment. Market failure occurs because of externalities, common property resources, and public goods. Environmental policy instruments include direct regulation, taxes/subsidies, tradable permits, deposit systems, voluntary agreements, and persuasion. Environmental policies usually focus on one pollutant or environmental issue but may have substantial impacts on other emissions and environmental problems. Neglecting these impacts will result in suboptimal policies. We present an integrated optimisation model for determining cost-effective strategies to simultaneously reduce emissions of several pollutants from several sources, allowing for interrelations between sources and abatement options. Our integrated approach in regard to acidifying compounds and greenhouse gases will be able to provide cost-effective policy options that will result in lower overall abatement costs. This paper shows that efficient emission reduction can be calculated, but we argue that, for transboundary air pollution and climate change, it is difficult to implement the socially optimal solution because strong incentives exist for "free-riding". In order to implement efficient policies, international environmental agreements like the Gothenburg or the Kyoto Protocol are necessary to establish stable coalitions. The stability of these agreements depends on the distribution of costs and benefits over countries and on the redistribution of the gains of cooperation.

  17. Adherence to a healthy Nordic food index is associated with a lower incidence of colorectal cancer in women: the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kyrø, Cecilie; Skeie, Guri; Loft, Steffen; Overvad, Kim; Christensen, Jane; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja

    2013-03-14

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a multi-factorial disease in which diet is believed to play a role. Little is known about the health effects of specific regional diets. The Nordic diet is high in fat and sugar but also includes a range of traditional products with anticipated health-promoting effects. The aim of this cohort study was to determine whether a healthy Nordic food index consisting of fish, cabbage, rye bread, oatmeal, apples, pears and root vegetables was related to CRC incidence. Data were obtained from a prospective cohort study of 57,053 Danish men and women aged 50-64 years, of whom 1025 developed CRC (13 years' follow-up). Incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95 % CI were calculated from Cox proportional hazard models. Women who strongly adhered to a healthy Nordic food index had a 35 % lower incidence of CRC than women with poor adherence (adjusted IRR, 0·65; 95 % CI 0·46, 0·94); a similar tendency was found for men. Women had a 9 % lower incidence of CRC per point adherence to the healthy Nordic food index, but no significant effect was found for men. A regional diet based on healthy Nordic food items was therefore associated with a lower incidence of CRC in women. The protective effect was of the same magnitude as previously found for the Mediterranean diet, suggesting that healthy regional diets should be promoted in order to ensure health; this will also preserve cultural heredity and the environment. PMID:22874538

  18. Adherence to a healthy Nordic food index is associated with a lower incidence of colorectal cancer in women: the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kyrø, Cecilie; Skeie, Guri; Loft, Steffen; Overvad, Kim; Christensen, Jane; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja

    2013-03-14

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a multi-factorial disease in which diet is believed to play a role. Little is known about the health effects of specific regional diets. The Nordic diet is high in fat and sugar but also includes a range of traditional products with anticipated health-promoting effects. The aim of this cohort study was to determine whether a healthy Nordic food index consisting of fish, cabbage, rye bread, oatmeal, apples, pears and root vegetables was related to CRC incidence. Data were obtained from a prospective cohort study of 57,053 Danish men and women aged 50-64 years, of whom 1025 developed CRC (13 years' follow-up). Incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95 % CI were calculated from Cox proportional hazard models. Women who strongly adhered to a healthy Nordic food index had a 35 % lower incidence of CRC than women with poor adherence (adjusted IRR, 0·65; 95 % CI 0·46, 0·94); a similar tendency was found for men. Women had a 9 % lower incidence of CRC per point adherence to the healthy Nordic food index, but no significant effect was found for men. A regional diet based on healthy Nordic food items was therefore associated with a lower incidence of CRC in women. The protective effect was of the same magnitude as previously found for the Mediterranean diet, suggesting that healthy regional diets should be promoted in order to ensure health; this will also preserve cultural heredity and the environment.

  19. Genetic diversity of allozymes in turnip (Brassica rapa L. var. rapa) from the Nordic area.

    PubMed

    Persson, K; Fält, A S; von Bothmer, R

    2001-01-01

    Genetic diversity and relationships based on isozymes were studied in 31 accessions of turnip (Brassica rapa L. var. rapa). The material included varieties, elite stocks, landraces and older turnip of slash-and-burn type from the Nordic area. A total of 9 isozyme loci and 26 alleles were studied. The isozyme systems were ACO, DIA, GPI, GOT, PGM, PGD and SKD. The level of heterozygosity was reduced in the landraces, but it was high for the variety group 'Ostersundom'. Turnip has a higher genetic variation than other crops within B. rapa and than in other species with the same breeding system. The genetic diversity showed that 18.7% of the genetic variation was within the accessions, and the total H tau value was 0.358. Gpi-I and Pgd-I showed the lowest variation compared with the other loci. The cluster analysis revealed five clusters, with one main cluster including 25 of the 31 accessions. The dendrogram indicated that the variety group 'Ostersundom' clustered together whereas the variety group 'Bortfelder' was associated with country of origin. The landraces were spread in different clusters. The 'slash-and-burn' type of turnip belonged to two groups.

  20. Dietary intake and thiamin, iron, and zinc status in elite Nordic skiers during different training periods.

    PubMed

    Fogelholm, M; Rehunen, S; Gref, C G; Laakso, J T; Lehto, J; Ruokonen, I; Himberg, J J

    1992-12-01

    This study evaluated how different training periods affect dietary intake and biochemical indices of thiamin, iron, and zinc status in elite Nordic skiers. Subjects were 17 skiers and 39 controls, ages 18-38 yrs. Dietary data were collected by 7-day food records at 3-month intervals. Coefficient of variation (CV) was used to indicate magnitude of seasonal changes. Energy intake for the year (28 food record days) was 3,802 kcal/day (CV 19.1%) in male skiers, 2,754 kcal/day (CV 3.7%) in male controls, 2,812 kcal/day (CV 9.1%) in female skiers, and 2,013 kcal/day (CV 5.9%) in female controls. CVs for thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin C, calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc intake were 14.1-23.9% (male skiers), 2.9-15.0% (male controls), 4.8-24.5% (female skiers), and 4.3-11.5% (female controls). Seasonal changes in energy, carbohydrate, and micronutrient intakes reflected energy expenditure in male endurance athletes particularly. Erythrocyte transketolase activation coefficients and serum ferritin and zinc concentrations did not differ between skiers and controls. Seasonal variations in these biochemical indices of nutritional status were of the same magnitude in skiers and controls, despite large changes in skiers' physical activity.