Science.gov

Sample records for environmental strategies nordic

  1. Nordic in Nature: Friluftsliv and Environmental Connectedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beery, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the question of whether a relationship exists between the Nordic cultural idea of friluftsliv and the psychological construct of environmental connectedness (EC). This quantitative study employed a correlational design with existing data from the Swedish Outdoor Recreation in Change national survey. Results indicate that there…

  2. Environmental services provided from riparian forests in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Gundersen, Per; Laurén, Ari; Finér, Leena; Ring, Eva; Koivusalo, Harri; Saetersdal, Magne; Weslien, Jan-Olov; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D; Högbom, Lars; Laine, Jukka; Hansen, Karin

    2010-12-01

    Riparian forests (RF) growing along streams, rivers and lakes comprise more than 2% of the forest area in the Nordic countries (considering a 10 m wide zone from the water body). They have special ecological functions in the landscape. They receive water and nutrients from the upslope areas, are important habitats for biodiversity, have large soil carbon stores, but may emit more greenhouse gases (GHG) than the uplands. In this article, we present a review of the environmental services related to water protection, terrestrial biodiversity, carbon storage and greenhouse gas dynamics provided by RF in the Nordic countries. We discuss the benefits and trade-offs when leaving the RF as a buffer against the impacts from upland forest management, in particular the impacts of clear cutting. Forest buffers are effective in protecting water quality and aquatic life, and have positive effects on terrestrial biodiversity, particularly when broader than 40 m, whereas the effect on the greenhouse gas exchange is unclear.

  3. Cost-Effectiveness of a New Nordic Diet as a Strategy for Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Saxe, Henrik; Denver, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    Inappropriate diets constitute an important health risk and an increasing environmental burden. Healthy regional diets may contribute to meeting this dual challenge. A palatable, healthy and sustainable New Nordic diet (NND) based on organic products from the Nordic region has been developed. This study assesses whether a large-scale introduction of NND is a cost-effective health promotion strategy by combining an economic model for estimating the utility-maximizing composition of NND, a life cycle assessment model to assess environmental effects of the dietary change, and a health impact model to assess impacts on the disease burden. Consumer expenditure for food and beverages in the NND is about 16% higher than currently, with the largest relative difference in low-income households. Environmental loads from food consumption are 15%–25% lower, and more than 18,000 disability-adjusted life years (DALY) will be saved per year in Denmark. NND exhibits a cost-effectiveness ratio of about €73,000–94,000 per DALY saved. This cost-effectiveness improves considerably, if the NND’s emphasis on organic and Nordic-origin products is relaxed. PMID:26133129

  4. Cost-Effectiveness of a New Nordic Diet as a Strategy for Health Promotion.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Saxe, Henrik; Denver, Sigrid

    2015-06-30

    Inappropriate diets constitute an important health risk and an increasing environmental burden. Healthy regional diets may contribute to meeting this dual challenge. A palatable, healthy and sustainable New Nordic diet (NND) based on organic products from the Nordic region has been developed. This study assesses whether a large-scale introduction of NND is a cost-effective health promotion strategy by combining an economic model for estimating the utility-maximizing composition of NND, a life cycle assessment model to assess environmental effects of the dietary change, and a health impact model to assess impacts on the disease burden. Consumer expenditure for food and beverages in the NND is about 16% higher than currently, with the largest relative difference in low-income households. Environmental loads from food consumption are 15%-25% lower, and more than 18,000 disability-adjusted life years (DALY) will be saved per year in Denmark. NND exhibits a cost-effectiveness ratio of about €73,000-94,000 per DALY saved. This cost-effectiveness improves considerably, if the NND's emphasis on organic and Nordic-origin products is relaxed.

  5. "Don't We Have a Storyline?" Negotiating Devising Strategy in a Nordic-Baltic Teacher Education Programme's Artistic Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauge, Torunn Bakken; Paulsen, Anne Synnøve; Ødemotland, Siv

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the process of devising strategy in an intercultural Baltic-Nordic setting. Sixty teacher education participants collaborated on an interdisciplinary artistic production based on Norwegian folk beliefs and wights through an intensive, week-long program called Nordplus. Using this as a case study, we explored how the…

  6. Environmental Education Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bootrach, Pradit; Thiengkamol, Nongnapas; Thiengkamol, Tanarat Khoowaranyoo

    2015-01-01

    Data was collected from 403 primary school administrators in Maha Sarakham Province, Thailand, to develop causal relationship model of Administrator Characteristics (AC), Teacher Characteristics (TC) and Environmental Education Principle (EE) that affect Environmental Education Strategy (EES) through Inspiration of Public Mind for Environmental…

  7. Assessment of diet-related GHG emissions using the environmental hourglass approach for the Mediterranean and new Nordic diets.

    PubMed

    Ulaszewska, Maria M; Luzzani, Gloria; Pignatelli, Sonia; Capri, Ettore

    2017-01-01

    Food production and preparation affect the environment in many ways, with effects on greenhouse gases, use of land, biodiversity, etc. The impact is influenced by consumer demand and eating habits. Two different recommended dietary models were considered, the Mediterranean Diet and the New Nordic Diet, with quantitative analysis of GHG emissions through LCA. An environmental hourglass (EH) approach based on LCA was introduced to help translate health-promoting dietary recommendations that consider regional circumstances and cultural diversity into practical eating habits, to promote sustainable and environmentally friendly consumption. Using the environmental hourglass approach, we examined whether dietary choices based on nutritional recommendations can minimise certain negative effects on the food production environment. Using two examples of health-enhancing, regionally-oriented and culturally appropriate dietary patterns - the Mediterranean Diet and the New Nordic Diet - we showed that consumption of high protein foods has a similar and comparable environmental impact to fruit and vegetable consumption. The results of this work may provide a starting point for integrated policy addressing issues related to the healthy diet of the population, aware food choices and sustainable agriculture.

  8. Republicans rethink environmental strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Fairley, P.

    1996-01-03

    {open_quotes}This year is grinding to a close with nothing being passed in either house of Congress,{close_quotes} says Paul Portney, president of Resources for the Future, a Washington-based think tank. And, say experts, regulatory reform-long on the industry`s wish list-has been a casualty of the legislative impasse. Although the House passed a bill requiring cost-benefit and risk analysis for every major regulation, the regulatory reform bill stalled in the Senate this past summer and has not moved since. {open_quotes}If regulatory reform is still alive, it is on life support,{close_quotes} says Portney. Regulatory reform is only one of many environmental efforts, including reauthorization of Superfund and repeal of the Delaney clause, that remain incomplete after the Republican majority term in Congress. Congressional and industry sources say a misguided GOP strategy on the environment and overzealous pursuit of the Contract with America deserve much of the blame.

  9. Handbook of Environmental Education Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    The educational approach of this guide involves instructional strategies for integrating environmental concerns into subject matter areas. Its objective is to enumerate and illustrate numerous interdisciplinary strategies, showing how they and other teaching devices may serve environmental education goals within the operative instructional mode.…

  10. Some Strategies for Environmental Remediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jerrold M.

    1975-01-01

    Analyzed are three strategies for reducing or eliminating environmental pollution: private market, legal, and effluent tax. Since private market solutions function well only with small numbers of parties and legal solutions oscillate too much, the author recommends effluent taxes. This strategy optimizes the abatement benefits and implementation…

  11. Identification and evaluation of computer models for predicting environmental concentrations of pharmaceuticals and veterinary products in the Nordic environment.

    PubMed

    Wajsman, David; Rudén, Christina

    2006-01-01

    According to European Union Council directive 2001/83, an application for the marketing authorization of a medicinal product shall be accompanied by an environmental risk assessment, including an exposure assessment. Computerized exposure models constitute an important tool in predicting environmental exposure to substances yet to be introduced on the market. This paper reports the process of identifying appropriate exposure models for estimating PECs (Predicted Environmental Concentrations) for pharmaceuticals and veterinary products, focusing on emissions to Swedish aquatic and terrestrial environments via water and sludge from sewage treatment plants. From a large number of information sources, a set of 181 potentially relevant exposure models was identified. A process of scrutinizing and testing these models resulted in a final selection of two models, namely SimpleTreat 3.1 that is used to estimate distribution and elimination of chemicals in sewage treatment plants (resulting in a PEC), and VetPec, suited for veterinary products, that estimates PEC in soil (including pore water), groundwater, and surface water. It is concluded that there is still potential for further development of exposure model(s) specifically designed for pharmaceutical emissions to the Nordic environment and climate. Furthermore, increased regulatory data requirements would facilitate the use of existing models, and improve the quality of the output data from these models.

  12. Evaluating the environmental fate of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in the Nordic environment using a dynamic multimedia model.

    PubMed

    Krogseth, Ingjerd S; Breivik, Knut; Arnot, Jon A; Wania, Frank; Borgen, Anders R; Schlabach, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) raise concerns due to their potential for persistence, bioaccumulation, long-range transport and adverse effects. An understanding of their environmental fate remains limited, partly due to the complexity of the mixture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a mechanistic, integrated, dynamic environmental fate and bioaccumulation multimedia model (CoZMoMAN) can reconcile what is known about environmental emissions and human exposure of SCCPs in the Nordic environment. Realistic SCCP emission scenarios, resolved by formula group, were estimated and used to predict the composition and concentrations of SCCPs in the environment and the human food chain. Emissions at the upper end of the estimated range resulted in predicted total concentrations that were often within a factor of 6 of observations. Similar model performance for a complex group of organic contaminants as for the well-known polychlorinated biphenyls strengthens the confidence in the CoZMoMAN model and implies a relatively good mechanistic understanding of the environmental fate of SCCPs. However, the degree of chlorination predicted for SCCPs in sediments, fish, and humans was higher than observed and poorly established environmental half-lives and biotransformation rate constants contributed to the uncertainties in the predicted composition and ∑SCCP concentrations. Improving prediction of the SCCP composition will also require better constrained estimates of the composition of SCCP emissions. There is, however, also large uncertainty and lack of coherence in the existing observations, and better model-measurement agreement will require improved analytical methods and more strategic sampling. More measurements of SCCP levels and compositions in samples from background regions are particularly important.

  13. Environmental Issues in the Media--Students' Perceptions in the Three Nordic-Baltic Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keinonen, Tuula; Yli-Panula, Eija; Svens, Maria; Vilkonis, Rytis; Persson, Christel; Palmberg, Irmeli

    2014-01-01

    The media, as a source of information, is supposed to have a significant role in effecting people's environmental knowledge and attitudes. The purpose of this study was to find students' perceptions of environmental issues as presented in the media and how students in Finland, Lithuania and Sweden used these media sources in the matters related to…

  14. Innovative strategies for environmental sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    Rouhani, S. |

    1995-12-31

    Since the early 1980s our preception of sustainability has fundamentally changed. History sustainability was primarily concerned with the scarcity of natural resources in the face of a growing world population. Awareness of ecological and environmental degradations has come gradually. At first the solution to environmental problems such as global warming, ozone layer depletion, and hazardous waste appeared to require a halt in global economic growth. However creative solutions which address environmental issues and produce economic growth have come to the fore. This paper focuses this with respect to the clean-up of contaminated sites - remediation and case studies.

  15. Environmental Management Strategy: Four Forces Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Martin W.; Von Windheim, Jesko

    2015-01-01

    We develop an analytical approach for more systematically analyzing environmental management problems in order to develop strategic plans. This approach can be deployed by agencies, non-profit organizations, corporations, or other organizations and institutions tasked with improving environmental quality. The analysis relies on assessing the underlying natural processes followed by articulation of the relevant societal forces causing environmental change: (1) science and technology, (2) governance, (3) markets and the economy, and (4) public behavior. The four forces analysis is then used to strategize which types of actions might be most effective at influencing environmental quality. Such strategy has been under-used and under-valued in environmental management outside of the corporate sector, and we suggest that this four forces analysis is a useful analytic to begin developing such strategy.

  16. The Nordic seas: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drange, Helge; Dokken, Trond; Furevik, Tore; Gerdes, Rüdiger; Berger, Wolfgang; Nesje, Atle; Arild Orvik, Kjell; Skagseth, Øystein; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Østerhus, Svein

    The aim of this overview paper is to provide a brief synthesis of the five review papers contained in the monograph. Prevailing southwesterly winds, oceanic flow patterns, and oceanic summer heat storage make the temperatures of the Nordic Seas region 10—20°C above the mean temperature of locations at similar latitudes. The combination of the large heat import from the south plus the polar location implies that the region is prone to natural climate variations and is particularly vulnerable for external forcings. Indeed, proxy data for the Holocene epoch reveal large, high-frequency climate fluctuations, as well as long-term variations spanning the "Medieval Warm Period" and the "Little Ice Age". In phase with a strengthening of the westerly winds since the 1960s, several oceanic key variables show trends unprecedented in available instrumental records, some of which extend back 50—100 years. State-of-the-art climate models indicate that several of the changes may be linked to increased forcing of greenhouse gases and are therefore likely to be sustained or even amplified in the future. Furthermore, the marine cycling of carbon, and through that the major greenhouse gas carbon dioxide, is closely linked to the climate state of the region. The Nordic Seas region is, as one of few ocean locations, a sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide throughout the year. With the rapid developments in data acquisition, computational resources, and societal concerns for climate change and environmental issues, the review papers give an updated account of the present knowledge of the complex climate states of the Nordic Seas and how the Nordic Seas influence the climate outside the region.

  17. Adaptation Strategies for Global Environmental Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojima, D. S.; Corell, R.

    2007-12-01

    The global environmental challenges society faces today are unheralded due to the pace at which human activities are affecting the earth system. The rates of energy consumption, nitrogen use and production, and water use increases each year leading to greater global environmental changes affecting warming of the earth system and loss of ecosystem services. The challenge we face today as a society is the manner and speed at which we can adapt to these changes affecting the ecosystem services we depend upon. Innovative strategies are needed to develop the adaptive management tools to integrate the sectors and science necessary to deal with the complexity of effects. Developing strategies to better guide decision making related to climate change trends into changing weather patterns at meaningful temporal and spatial scales are needed, observations and prognostic analyses of climate related triggers of threshold events in ecosystem dynamics, and transfer of knowledge between science, technology, and decision makers. These strategies need to better integrate science (physical, biological, and social knowledge), engineering, policy, and economics interests to create a framework to develop strategies for adaptation and mitigation to global change and to create bridges with institutions and organizations that deal with these issues as a governmental agency or private sector enterprise.

  18. Iodine status in the Nordic countries – past and present

    PubMed Central

    Nyström, Helena Filipsson; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Erlund, Iris; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Hulthén, Lena; Laurberg, Peter; Mattisson, Irene; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Virtanen, Suvi; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2016-01-01

    Background Adequate iodine nutrition is dependent on ground water content, seafood, and, as many countries use iodized cow fodder, dairy products. In most countries, salt fortification programs are needed to assure adequate iodine intake. Objectives The objectives are threefold: 1) to describe the past and present iodine situation in the Nordic countries, 2) to identify important gaps of knowledge, and 3) to highlight differences among the Nordic countries’ iodine biomonitoring and fortification policies. Design Historical data are compared with the current situation. The Nordic countries’ strategies to achieve recommended intake and urine iodine levels and their respective success rates are evaluated. Results In the past, the iodine situation ranged from excellent in Iceland to widespread goiter and cretinism in large areas of Sweden. The situation was less severe in Norway and Finland. According to a 1960 World Health Organization (WHO) report, there were then no observations of iodine deficiency in Denmark. In Sweden and Finland, the fortification of table salt was introduced 50–75 years ago, and in Norway and Finland, the fortification of cow fodder starting in the 1950s helped improve the population's iodine status due to the high intake of milk. In Denmark, iodine has been added to household salt and salt in bread for the past 15 years. The Nordic countries differ with regard to regulations and degree of governmental involvement. There are indications that pregnant and lactating women, the two most vulnerable groups, are mildly deficient in iodine in several of the Nordic countries. Conclusion The Nordic countries employ different strategies to attain adequate iodine nutrition. The situation is not optimal and is in need of re-evaluation. Iodine researchers, Nordic national food administrations, and Nordic governmental institutions would benefit from collaboration to attain a broader approach and guarantee good iodine health for all. PMID:27283870

  19. Strategy for Environmental Education: An Approach for India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarabhai, Kartikeya V.

    In outlining a national strategy for environmental education in India, this document describes some current and future efforts of the Center for Environmental Education at Ahmedabad. It provides an historical account of India's environmental problems and its recent efforts at addressing those problems in light of rapid developmental efforts and…

  20. Strategies for addressing global environmental health concerns.

    PubMed

    Suk, William A; Davis, E Ann

    2008-10-01

    While each region of the world faces unique public health challenges, environmental threats to vulnerable populations in Asia constitute a significant global public health challenge. Environmental threats to health are widespread and are increasing as nations in the region undergo rapid industrial development. One of the major predictors of ill health is poverty. Regional poverty puts large populations at risk for ill health, which exacerbates poverty and increases the exposure risk to environmental factors, such as pollution and disease. Patterns of illness have changed dramatically in the last century, and will continue to change in this century. Chemical toxicants in the environment, poverty, and little or no access to health care are all factors contributing to life-threatening diseases. Therefore, it is vital that we develop a better understanding of the mechanisms and interactions between nutrition, infectious disease, environmental exposures, and genetic predisposition in order to develop better prevention methods.

  1. The World Conservation Strategy and Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nature Conservation Education Committee, Rijswijk (Netherlands).

    On March 5, 1980, the "World Conservation Strategy: Living Resource Conservation for Sustainable Development" (WCS) report was submitted to the Dutch government. The Nature Conservation Education Committee (CNBE) was then asked to prepare another report based on its initial reactions to the WCS, particularly to section 13, which deals…

  2. Assessing Environmental Understanding: An Application of the Concept Mapping Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Kristen E.; Tressler, Kurt D.; Mintzes, Joel J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite its importance as a central goal in environmental education, there appears to be little consensus about how best to document, assess and evaluate understanding of environmental concepts. This illustrative case study describes and demonstrates the use of the concept mapping strategy as an effective tool for assessing environmental…

  3. Nordic criteria for reproductive toxicity.

    PubMed

    Taskinen, H K

    1995-08-01

    Scientific criteria for assessment of the reproductive toxicity of chemicals have been proposed by a Nordic group of experts and regulatory representatives. The criteria take into account the results of clinical studies as well as of experimental research. The criteria should be useful in, for example, product control and labeling and planning of a safe work environment. The proposed Nordic criteria and examples of the assessment of the reproductive toxicity of some chemicals are presented.

  4. Environmental performance evaluation and strategy management using balanced scorecard.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yu-Lung; Liu, Chun-Chu

    2010-11-01

    Recently, environmental protection and regulations such as WEEE, ELV, and RoHS are rapidly emerging as an important issue for business to consider. The trend of swinging from end-of-pipe control to product design, green innovation, and even the establishment of image or brand has affected corporations in almost every corner in the world, and enlarged to the all modern global production network. Corporations must take proactive environmental strategies to response the challenges. This study adopts balanced scorecard structure and aim at automobile industries to understand the relationships of internal and external, financial and non-financial, and outcome and driving factors. Further relying on these relationships to draw the "map of environment strategy" to probe and understand the feasibility of environmental performance evaluation and environmental strategy control.

  5. Electricity from biomass: An environmental review and strategy

    SciTech Connect

    1993-06-01

    This report presents an environmental assessment and strategy for the US Department of Energy Biomass Power Program. The regulatory context and the environmental impact of biomass power technologies are described, and an environmental plan for the program is suggested. The plan suggest a proactive, synergistic approach, involving multiple parties with a stake in the successful commercialization of a biomass power industry. These parties include feedstock growers, state regulators. Forest Service and agricultural agents, utilities and independent power producers, rural electric cooperatives, and environmental activists.

  6. History of the Nordic psychiatric cooperation.

    PubMed

    von Knorring, Lars

    2012-03-01

    The Nordic countries include Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden as well the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Svalbard and Åland. The countries share much common history as well as common traits in their respective societies. As early as 1906, a Scandinavian Psychiatric Association was suggested. The first Nordic Psychiatric Congress was held in Copenhagen 1913. After the First World War, at the 6th Nordic Psychiatric Congress in Stockholm 1935, a Nordic Psychiatric Association was founded and it was decided that a Nordic Journal of Psychiatry should be founded. After the Second World War, at the 8th Nordic Psychiatric Congress in Copenhagen 1946, the Nordic Psychiatric Association was terminated. At this time, the most important task of the Association, to found a Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, had been achieved. After 1946, there has been a close cooperation between the Nordic countries but no common Nordic Psychiatric Association. Today, the Nordic Psychiatric Cooperation is active and ongoing. The 30th Nordic Psychiatric Congress is scheduled to be held in Tromsö, in 2012. The Nordic Journal of Psychiatry is publishing its 64 th volume. The Journal is indexed in the important international databases and the impact factor is increasing. The Joint Committee of the Nordic psychiatric associations has established itself as the owner of the Journal and the organizer of the congresses. There are also a series of Nordic cooperations in a series of different fields, such as the Scandinavian Societies of Biological Psychiatry, the Scandinavian College of Neuropsychopharmacology (SCNP), the bi-annual Nordic Psychoanalytical Congresses, the Scandinavian Psychoanalytic Review, the Nordic Association of Psychiatric Epidemiology, NAPE, and so on.

  7. Strategies and perspectives of influential environmental organizations toward tropical deforestation

    SciTech Connect

    Ozanne, L.K.; Smith, P.M. )

    1993-04-01

    In recent years, environmental nongovernment organizations (NGOs) have been active in alerting the public and governments to tropical forest issues. Many feel that these efforts have begun to affect the trade in tropical timber and influence the perceptions of logging in the tropics. However, the influence of environmental organizations is not restricted to tropical timber trade but has the potential to impact the global wood products industry. The wood products industry has an opportunity to address these pressures by understanding the strategies and perceptions of the environmental community on this issue and developing proactive strategies to deal with the situation. This study included a phase 1 prestudy, which reported the results of interview with over 39 environmental NGOs in both the US and Europe to develop an overview of this complex industry. A phase 2 followup fax questionnaire was administered to the most relevant US environmental NGOs in order to classify them on two important criteria: (1) their level of specialization; and (2) their organizational strategy. This paper provides an overview of the complex issues in the environmental debate regarding tropical deforestation and how environmental organizations are attempting to address these issues.

  8. Targeting environmental priorities in agriculture: Reforming program strategies

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This report responds to a bipartisan request from the Senate Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry Committee. The analysis identifies priority environmental tergets across the country for quality, wildlife, and soil quality. A triparite set of programs designed to lower cost and achieve more enduring solutions illustrates possible approaches to the targets. One program strategy, the development of a new generation of technologies that retain frame profits while achieving environmental gains, has received litle emphasis but appears to hold considerable promise.

  9. Bridge to a sustainable future: National environmental technology strategy

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    For the past two years the Administration has sought the views of Congress, the states, communities, industry, academia, nongovernmental organizations, and interested citizens on ways to spur the development and use of a new generation of environmental technologies. This document represents the views of thousands of individuals who participated in events around the country to help craft a national environmental technology strategy that will put us on the path to sustainable development.

  10. Nordic Snow Radar Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmetyinen, Juha; Kontu, Anna; Pulliainen, Jouni; Vehviläinen, Juho; Rautiainen, Kimmo; Wiesmann, Andreas; Mätzler, Christian; Werner, Charles; Rott, Helmut; Nagler, Thomas; Schneebeli, Martin; Proksch, Martin; Schüttemeyer, Dirk; Kern, Michael; Davidson, Malcolm W. J.

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the Nordic Snow Radar Experiment (NoSREx) campaign was to provide a continuous time series of active and passive microwave observations of snow cover at a representative location of the Arctic boreal forest area, covering a whole winter season. The activity was a part of Phase A studies for the ESA Earth Explorer 7 candidate mission CoReH2O (Cold Regions Hydrology High-resolution Observatory). The NoSREx campaign, conducted at the Finnish Meteorological Institute Arctic Research Centre (FMI-ARC) in Sodankylä, Finland, hosted a frequency scanning scatterometer operating at frequencies from X- to Ku-band. The radar observations were complemented by a microwave dual-polarization radiometer system operating from X- to W-bands. In situ measurements consisted of manual snow pit measurements at the main test site as well as extensive automated measurements on snow, ground and meteorological parameters. This study provides a summary of the obtained data, detailing measurement protocols for each microwave instrument and in situ reference data. A first analysis of the microwave signatures against snow parameters is given, also comparing observed radar backscattering and microwave emission to predictions of an active/passive forward model. All data, including the raw data observations, are available for research purposes through the European Space Agency and the Finnish Meteorological Institute. A consolidated dataset of observations, comprising the key microwave and in situ observations, is provided through the ESA campaign data portal to enable easy access to the data.

  11. 76 FR 71066 - HUD Draft Environmental Justice Strategy, Extension of Public Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT HUD Draft Environmental Justice Strategy, Extension of Public Comment Period AGENCY... extends the period by which comments may be submitted on HUD's draft Environmental Justice Strategy, for... Environmental Justice Strategy (EJ Strategy). HUD's EJ Strategy is a four-year plan to address...

  12. Pandemic vaccination strategies and influenza severe outcomes during the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic and the post-pandemic influenza season: the Nordic experience.

    PubMed

    Gil Cuesta, Julita; Aavitsland, Preben; Englund, Hélène; Gudlaugsson, Ólafur; Hauge, Siri Helene; Lyytikäinen, Outi; Sigmundsdóttir, Guðrún; Tegnell, Anders; Virtanen, Mikko; Krause, Tyra Grove

    2016-04-21

    During the 2009/10 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic, the five Nordic countries adopted different approaches to pandemic vaccination. We compared pandemic vaccination strategies and severe influenza outcomes, in seasons 2009/10 and 2010/11 in these countries with similar influenza surveillance systems. We calculated the cumulative pandemic vaccination coverage in 2009/10 and cumulative incidence rates of laboratory confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 infections, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions and deaths in 2009/10 and 2010/11. We estimated incidence risk ratios (IRR) in a Poisson regression model to compare those indicators between Denmark and the other countries. The vaccination coverage was lower in Denmark (6.1%) compared with Finland (48.2%), Iceland (44.1%), Norway (41.3%) and Sweden (60.0%). In 2009/10 Denmark had a similar cumulative incidence of A(H1N1)pdm09 ICU admissions and deaths compared with the other countries. In 2010/11 Denmark had a significantly higher cumulative incidence of A(H1N1)pdm09 ICU admissions (IRR: 2.4; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.9-3.0) and deaths (IRR: 8.3; 95% CI: 5.1-13.5). Compared with Denmark, the other countries had higher pandemic vaccination coverage and experienced less A(H1N1)pdm09-related severe outcomes in 2010/11. Pandemic vaccination may have had an impact on severe influenza outcomes in the post-pandemic season. Surveillance of severe outcomes may be used to compare the impact of influenza between seasons and support different vaccination strategies.

  13. Revisiting life strategy concepts in environmental microbial ecology.

    PubMed

    Ho, Adrian; Di Lonardo, D Paolo; Bodelier, Paul L E

    2017-03-01

    Microorganisms are physiologically diverse, possessing disparate genomic features and mechanisms for adaptation (functional traits), which reflect on their associated life strategies and determine at least to some extent their prevalence and distribution in the environment. Unlike animals and plants, there is an unprecedented diversity and intractable metabolic versatility among bacteria, making classification or grouping these microorganisms based on their functional traits as has been done in animal and plant ecology challenging. Nevertheless, based on representative pure cultures, microbial traits distinguishing different life strategies had been proposed, and had been the focus of previous reviews. In the environment, however, the vast majority of naturally occurring microorganisms have yet to be isolated, restricting the association of life strategies to broad phylogenetic groups and/or physiological characteristics. Here, we reviewed the literature to determine how microbial life strategy concepts (i.e. copio- and oligotrophic strategists, and competitor-stress tolerator-ruderals framework) are applied in complex microbial communities. Because of the scarcity of direct empirical evidence elucidating the associated life strategies in complex communities, we rely heavily on observational studies determining the response of microorganisms to (a)biotic cues (e.g. resource availability) to infer microbial life strategies. Although our focus is on the life strategies of bacteria, parallels were drawn from the fungal community. Our literature search showed inconsistency in the community response of proposed copiotrophic- and oligotrophic-associated microorganisms (phyla level) to changing environmental conditions. This suggests that tracking microorganisms at finer phylogenetic and taxonomic resolution (e.g. family level or lower) may be more effective to capture changes in community response and/or that edaphic factors exert a stronger effect in community response

  14. Successful change of treatment strategy in elderly patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma by de-escalating induction and introducing temozolomide maintenance: results from a phase II study by the Nordic Lymphoma Group.

    PubMed

    Pulczynski, Elisa J; Kuittinen, Outi; Erlanson, Martin; Hagberg, Hans; Fosså, Alexander; Eriksson, Mikael; Nordstrøm, Marie; Østenstad, Bjørn; Fluge, Øystein; Leppä, Sirpa; Fiirgaard, Bente; Bersvendsen, Hanne; Fagerli, Unn-Merete

    2015-04-01

    The Nordic Lymphoma Group has conducted a phase ll trial in newly diagnosed primary central nervous system lymphoma patients applying an age-adjusted multi-agent immunochemotherapy regimen, which in elderly patients included temozolomide maintenance treatment. Patients aged 18-75 years were eligible. Thirty-nine patients aged 18-65 years and 27 patients aged 66-75 years were enrolled. The median age of the two age groups was 55 and 70 years, respectively. The overall response rate was 73.8% for the entire cohort: 69.9% in the younger and 80.8% in the elderly subgroup. With a median follow up of 22 months, the 2-year overall survival probability was 60.7% in patients aged 65 years or under and 55.6% in patients aged over 65 years (P=0.40). The estimated progression-free survival at two years was 33.1% (95%CI: 19.1%-47.9%) in patients aged under 65 years and 44.4% (95%CI: 25.6%-61.8%) in the elderly subgroup (P=0.74). Median duration of response was ten months in the younger subgroup, and not reached in the elderly patient subgroup (P=0.33). Four patients aged 64-75 years (6%) died from treatment-related complications. Survival in the two age groups was similar despite a de-escalation of induction treatment in patients aged over 65 years. Duration of response in elderly patients receiving maintenance temozolomide was longer than in the younger age subgroup. While toxicity during induction is still of concern, especially in the elderly patients, we conclude from these data that de-escalation of induction therapy in elderly primary central nervous system lymphoma patients followed by maintenance treatment seems to be a promising treatment strategy. (clinicaltrials.gov identifier:01458730).

  15. Strategies for sustainable management of renewable resources during environmental change.

    PubMed

    Lindkvist, Emilie; Ekeberg, Örjan; Norberg, Jon

    2017-03-15

    As a consequence of global environmental change, management strategies that can deal with unexpected change in resource dynamics are becoming increasingly important. In this paper we undertake a novel approach to studying resource growth problems using a computational form of adaptive management to find optimal strategies for prevalent natural resource management dilemmas. We scrutinize adaptive management, or learning-by-doing, to better understand how to simultaneously manage and learn about a system when its dynamics are unknown. We study important trade-offs in decision-making with respect to choosing optimal actions (harvest efforts) for sustainable management during change. This is operationalized through an artificially intelligent model where we analyze how different trends and fluctuations in growth rates of a renewable resource affect the performance of different management strategies. Our results show that the optimal strategy for managing resources with declining growth is capable of managing resources with fluctuating or increasing growth at a negligible cost, creating in a management strategy that is both efficient and robust towards future unknown changes. To obtain this strategy, adaptive management should strive for: high learning rates to new knowledge, high valuation of future outcomes and modest exploration around what is perceived as the optimal action.

  16. USGS Environmental health science strategy: providing environmental health science for a changing world: public review release

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bright, Patricia R.; Buxton, Herbert T.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Barber, Larry B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Cross, Paul C.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Toccalino, Patricia L.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    and providing it to environmental, natural resource, agricultural, and public-health managers. The USGS is a Federal science agency with a broad range of natural science expertise relevant to environmental health. USGS provides scientific information and tools as a scientific basis for management and policy decision making. USGS specializes in science at the environment-health interface, by characterizing the processes that affect the interaction among the physical environment, the living environment, and people, and the resulting factors that affect ecological and human exposure to disease agents. This report describes a 10-year strategy that encompasses the portfolio of USGS environmental health science. It summarizes national environmental health priorities that USGS is best suited to address, and will serve as a strategic framework for USGS environmental health science goals, actions, and outcomes for the next decade. Implementation of this strategy is intended to aid coordination of USGS environmental health activities and to provide a focal point for disseminating information to stakeholders. The "One Health" paradigm advocated by the World Health Organization (WHO, 2011), and the American Veterinary Medicine Association (AVMA, 2008), among others, is based on a general recognition that the health of humans, animals, and the environment are inextricably linked. Thus, successful efforts to protect that health will require increased interdisciplinary research and increased communication and collaboration among the broader scientific and health community. This strategy is built upon that paradigm. The vision, mission, and five cornerstone goals of the USGS Environmental Health Science Strategy were developed with significant input from a wide range of stakeholders. Vision - The USGS is a premier source of the environmental health science needed to safeguard the health of the environment, fish, wildlife, and people. Mission - The mission of USGS in environmental

  17. Breaking the Nordic Defense Deadlock

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    War weariness in the aftermath of the Great War , the perceived weak- ness of Soviet Russia and Germany, the forming of the League of Nations and...superpowers 14 and the old great powers in Europe. According to one argument: Nordic identity politics and Cold War value promo- tion in the...gives the Russians great advantages in preparation for waging large- scale war . The Russian exercises have developed in quality as well as quantity

  18. The Nordic Model of Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenson, Kjell

    2006-01-01

    This article explores how the so called Nordic welfare state, with its specific institutional make up, handles Lifelong Learning in a time characterised by the challenges of economic globalisation and the hegemonic impact of the neo-liberal agenda. The analysis reveals a high participation in the Nordic countries in Lifelong Learning and, in…

  19. The Nordic Health Promotion Research Network (NHPRN).

    PubMed

    Ringsberg, Karin C

    2015-08-01

    The Nordic Health Promotion Research Network (NHPRN) was established in 2007 at the Nordic School of Public Health (NHV). This article aims to describe the foundation of the NHPRN, the development and the present status of the work of NHPRN. The NHPRN consists of about 50 senior and junior researchers from all Nordic countries. It is a working network that aims to develop the theoretical understanding of health promotion, to create research cooperation in health promotion from a Nordic perspective and to extend the scope of health promotion through education. Network members meet biannually to discuss and further develop research within the field and are also responsible for the Nordic conference on Health Promotion, organized every 3 years. The NHV hosted the network between 2007 and 2014; and the World Health Organisation (WHO) will assume this role in 2015.

  20. Environmental influence of Wuhan urban agglomeration development and strategies of environmental protection.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qun; Liu, Ying-Tao; Mao, Han-Ying

    2006-01-01

    In Wuhan urban agglomeration (WUA), the population growth and concentration, the industrial development and urban sprawl have been affecting the environment fundamentally. Comparing with Yangtze delta metropolitan region, the level of urbanization and industrialization of WUA has lagged behind for about 10 years; but the problems in environmental protection and rehabilitation are commonly serious. In the future, WUA should avoid unnecessary mistakes and seek a win-win strategy for economy and environment in its large-scale development stage. Based on the analysis of the changing of main environmental pollutants and the coupled curves in past decades, the paper discussed the important links among the urban environmental pollutions, industry growth and urban sprawl in WUA. It is concluded that the integration of economic and environmental policies in urban development is more required and significant at the large urban agglomeration region. Four proactive and long-term strategies need to be adopted to provide prior guidance and better protection for the development of WUA.

  1. North Atlantic Nordic Seas exchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, B.; Østerhus, S.

    2000-02-01

    The northeastern part of the North Atlantic is unique in the sense that it is much warmer in the surface than other ocean areas at similar latitudes. The main reason for this is the large northward transport of heat that extends to high latitudes and crosses the Greenland-Scotland Ridge to enter the Nordic Seas and the Arctic. There the warm Atlantic water is converted to colder water masses that return southwards over the ridge partly as surface outflows and partly as overflows through the deep passages across the ridge. In this paper, the state of knowledge on the exchanges especially across the eastern part of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge is reviewed based on results from the ICES NANSEN (North Atlantic-Norwegian Sea Exchanges) project, from the Nordic WOCE project and from other sources. The accumulated evidence allows us to describe the exchanges in fair detail; the origins of the waters, the patterns of their flow towards and over the ridge and their ultimate fate. There is also increasing information on temporal variations of the exchanges although dynamical changes are still not well understood. Quantitative estimates for the volume transport of most of the overflow branches seem reasonably well established, and transport measurements of the Atlantic inflows to the Nordic Seas are approaching acceptable levels of confidence which allows preliminary budgets to be presented. The deep overflows are driven by pressure gradients set up by the formation of deep and intermediate water. The dominance of deep overflows over surface outflows in the water budget argues that this thermohaline forcing also dominates over direct wind stress and estuarine forcing in driving the Atlantic water inflow across the Greenland-Scotland Ridge, while wind stress seems to influence the characteristics and distribution of the Atlantic water north of the ridge.

  2. An environmental analysis for comparing waste management options and strategies.

    PubMed

    Marchettini, N; Ridolfi, R; Rustici, M

    2007-01-01

    The debate on different waste management practices has become an issue of utmost importance as human activities have overloaded the assimilative capacity of the biosphere. Recent Italian law on solid waste management recommends an increase in material recycling and energy recovery, and only foresees landfill disposal for inert materials and residues from recovery and recycling. A correct waste management policy should be based on the principles of sustainable development, according to which our refuse is not simply regarded as something to eliminate but rather as a potential resource. This requires the creation of an integrated waste management plan that makes full use of all available technologies. In this context, eMergy analysis is applied to evaluate three different forms of waste treatment and construct an approach capable of assessing the whole strategy of waste management. The evaluation included how much investment is needed for each type of waste management and how much "utility" is extracted from wastes, through the use of two indicators: Environmental yield ratio (EYR) and Net eMergy. Our results show that landfill is the worst system in terms of eMergy costs and eMergy benefits. Composting is the most efficient system in recovering eMergy (highest EYR) from municipal solid waste (MSW) while incineration is capable of saving the greatest quantity of eMergy per gram of MSW (highest net eMergy). This analysis has made it possible to assess the sustainability and the efficiency of individual options but could also be used to assess a greater environmental strategy for waste management, considering a system that might include landfills, incineration, composting, etc.

  3. Changing health inequalities in the Nordic countries?

    PubMed

    Lahelma, E; Lundberg, O; Manderbacka, K; Roos, E

    2001-01-01

    The Nordic countries, referring here to Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden, have often been viewed as a group of countries with many features in common, such as geographical location, history, culture, religion, language, and economic and political structures. It has also been habitual to refer to a "Nordic model" of welfare states comprising a large public sector, active labour market policies, high costs for social welfare as well as high taxes, and a general commitment to social equality. Recent research suggests that much of this "Nordicness" appears to remain despite the fact that the Nordic countries have experienced quite different changes during the 1980s and 1990s. How this relates to changes in health inequalities is in the focus of this supplement.

  4. Nordic Experiences: Participants' Expectations and Experiences of Short-Term Study Abroad Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahikainen, Katariina; Hakkarainen, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Finnish high school students' and teachers' perceptions of the effects of short-term Nordic study abroad programs in which they had participated. The data presented were based on a "mixed-methods strategy." The data set consisted of responses from 158 students and 92 teachers to a specifically…

  5. An Implementing Strategy for Improving Wildland Fire Environmental Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCalla, M. R.; Andrus, D.; Barnett, K.

    2007-12-01

    ). The OFCM model for promoting wildland fire environmental literacy, the model's component parts, as well as an implementing strategy to execute the model will be presented. That is, the presentation will lay out the framework and methodology which the OFCM used to systematically define the wildland fire weather and climate education and outreach needs through interdepartmental collaboration within the OFCM coordinating infrastructure. A key element of the methodology is to improve the overall understanding and use of wildland fire forecast and warning climate and weather products and to exploit current and emerging technologies to improve the dissemination of customer-tailored forecast and warning information and products to stakeholders and users. Thus, the framework and methodology define the method used to determine the target public, private, and academic sector audiences. The methodology also identifies the means for determining the optimal channels, formats, and content for informing end users in time for effective action to be taken.

  6. The effects assessment of firm environmental strategy and customer environmental conscious on green product development.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Tien; Chuang, Li-Min; Chao, Shu-Tsung; Chang, Hsiao-Ping

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine why both parties (industry and consumer market) have mutual interests in protecting the environment but they still are hesitant to act green. The study used two-stage sampling from consumer market to depict ideal green product characteristics and reliable toy companies, and visit these companies for the second sample collection to examine whether the organizational eco-innovation strategy with customer value has a positive effect on green product development. In other words, the customer's benefit is an important factor for new product development strategy for green toys. This research shows that the willingness to buy green toys increases if most people in society buy green toys. This represents that customers are environmentally conscious and care about protecting the environment, or buying green toys is the result of a new economic trend and childhood education. The willingness to buy green toys increases if customers think that green products implies an enhancement on new product development to toy manufacturers. Further, if manufacturers are able to manage the difficulty of cooperation with all parties in the supply chain and difficulties related to production, they are willing to adopt customers' perceived value on green toys for their new product development strategy. It is rare to find academic research discussing the perspectives of both consumers and manufacturers in the same study because the research topic is very broad and many conditions must be considered. This research aims to find the effect of consumer-perceived value and company eco-innovation on green product development.

  7. How to reconcile environmental and economic performance to improve corporate sustainability: corporate environmental strategies in the European paper industry.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Marcus

    2005-07-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between environmental and economic performance and the influence of corporate strategies with regard to sustainability and the environment. After formulating a theoretical model, results are reported from an empirical analysis of the European paper manufacturing industry. New data are used to test hypotheses derived from the theoretical model, using environmental performance indices representing different corporate environmental strategy orientations. In particular, an emissions-based index largely reflecting end-of-pipe strategies and an inputs-based index reflecting integrated pollution prevention are distinguished. For the emissions-based index, a predominantly negative relationship between environmental and economic performance is found, whereas for the inputs-based index no significant link is found. This is consistent with the theoretical model, which predicts the possibility of different relationships. The results also show that for firms with pollution prevention-oriented corporate environmental strategies, the relationship between environmental and economic performance is more positive, thus making improvements in corporate sustainability more likely. Based on this last insight, managerial implications of this are discussed with regard to strategy choices, investment decisions and operations management.

  8. The Canadian Association of Nordic Ski Instructors: Instructor Certification Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Glenda

    Since its formation in 1976, the Canadian Association of Nordic Ski Instructors (CANSI) has certified over 2600 instructors across Canada. CANSI aims to provide a standard of excellence in certified nordic ski instruction by maintaining uniform and current nordic techniques, to encourage the skiing public to take advantage of the benefits of…

  9. Environmental Strategies for Prevention of Drug Use and Risks in Clubs

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Brenda A.; Holder, Harold D.; Voas, Robert B.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental prevention strategies in club settings where music and dance events are featured could provide an important new arena for the prevention of drug use and other risky behaviors (e.g., sexual risk taking, intoxication and drug use, aggression, and driving under the influence). Electronic music dance events (EMDEs) occur in clubs that attract young, emerging adults (18–25 years of age) and attract individuals who engage in various types of drug use. Borrowing from the environmental prevention studies that focus on reducing alcohol use and related problems, a model for drug prevention in the club setting is proposed. Initially, an overview of the relationships between EMDEs and drug use and other risky behaviors are presented. Next, rationales for environmental strategies are provided. Finally, an environmental approach to prevention of drug use and risky behaviors in clubs is described. This comprehensive set of environmental strategies, is designed to be mutually supportive and interactive. Environmental strategies are believed to provide potential for developing an efficacious prevention strategy. The environmental prevention approach presented here is composed of three intervention domains: (1) Mobilization, (2) Strategies for the Exterior Environment, and (3) Strategies for the Interior Environment. PMID:20216925

  10. U.S. Air Force Environmental Restoration Contracting Strategies Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Uability Act ( CERCLA ) and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act...Federal Legislation The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 ( CERCLA ) and the Superfund Amendments and...276c); McNamara - O’Hara Service Contract Act; and CERCLA , as amended by Superfund Amendments & Reauthorization Act (SARA). A.7 ORGANIZATIONAL

  11. To Catch a Falling Star. Environmental Education Implementation Strategy Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellner, Robert

    This handbook has been prepared to provide suggestions to school districts for implementation of environmental education programs. Initially, environmental education is defined as "a process of learning about man's interrelationship with natural and man-made surroundings, developing skills and values for resource conservation...fostering…

  12. Environmentally Mediated Risks for Psychopathology: Research Strategies and Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To consider the research design requirements needed to provide a rigorous test of environmental mediation hypotheses and to summarize the main findings from research using such designs. Method: Selective review of empirical evidence dealing with psychopathology. Results: There is robust evidence of environmentally mediated risks for…

  13. Environmental Strategies To Prevent Alcohol Problems on College Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Deborah A.

    This document describes strategies that are used to create healthier campus environments in which alcohol is less available, more responsibly promoted and served, and poses less of a threat to the health, safety, and well-being of all students. The strategies described in this document accomplish these objectives by changing conditions on campus…

  14. 77 FR 18879 - Department of Transportation Final Environmental Justice Strategy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... agency policies and activities on minority and low-income populations. This strategy is published as a final document; however, it is a revision of a previous version published in 1995, and may be adjusted... considerations in agency programs, policies, and activities. The strategy identifies actions the...

  15. Environmental management strategies: The 21st century perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Crognale, G.

    1999-07-01

    This book provides a look at how to integrate EH and S issues throughout your organization. Specialists in the field have contributed their first-hand accounts and actual case studies to give a balanced overview of how environmental management issues affect everyone in an organization. Moving away from a regulations-driven viewpoint, a proactive view is taken that integrates environmental issues into the fabric of the organization at every level. Issues covered in the book include federal regulations from OSHA, EC, and EPA; meeting ISO 14001; assessing the value of EH and S as a management tool; progressive environmental stewardship and effective communications; risk management; EH and S software and other resources; and future trends in environmental management.

  16. Forefront. An Environmental Awareness Strategy for the United States Peace Corps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Andrew S.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    An environmental initiative designed to increase the skill and knowledge levels of Peace Corps staff and volunteers is described. The objectives, accomplishments, strategies, and evaluation of the program are discussed. (CW)

  17. Less is More: DoD’s Strategy for Facility Energy Security and Environmental Sustainability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-22

    Less is More: DoD’s Strategy for Facility Energy Security and Environmental Sustainability Dorothy Robyn Deputy Under Secretary of Defense...Installations & Environment ) E2S2 Symposium May 22, 2012 1 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden...AND SUBTITLE Less is More: DoD’s Strategy for Facility Energy Security and Environmental Sustainability 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  18. Development based on carrying capacity. A strategy for environmental protection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carey, D.I.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental degradation has accelerated in recent years because economic development activities have been inconsistent with a sustainable environment. In human ecology, the concept of 'carrying capacity' implies an optimum level of development and population size based on a complex of interacting factors - physical, institutional, social, and psychological. Development studies which have explicitly recognized carrying capacity have shown that this approach can be used to promote economic activities which are consistent with a sustainable social and physical environment. The concept of carrying capacity provides a framework for integrating physical, socioeconomic, and environmental systems into planning for a sustainable environment. ?? 1993.

  19. Redefining External Stakeholders in Nordic Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musial, Kazimierz

    2010-01-01

    Present higher education reforms in the Nordic countries diminish the role and influence of the state on the governance of higher education institutions. While still providing a framework for the management of higher education, in general, the state supervises rather than controls higher education institutions (HEIs). The rhetoric of change…

  20. Values Education in Nordic Preschools: A Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberg, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The six papers in this special issue focus on how values and values education are embedded in the everyday life at Nordic preschools. The studies in this special issue provide stimulating theoretical and methodological knowledge to inform further study of values education internationally. A key contribution of the papers is that there is…

  1. Environmental Education throughout FE. 1: Policy and Strategy. FEDA Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Shirley Ali; Parkin, Christopher

    1995-01-01

    In 1992 the Further Education Unit (FEU) published a guide to environmental action in Further Education colleges, "Colleges Going Green," that drew attention to the moral principle of sustainability that includes a duty of care for other people and forms of life and acknowledges the need to limit and to share the use of the earth's…

  2. Evolution of environmental protection strategies in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, A.M.

    1992-05-01

    In performing this work, interviews were conducted with members of the Supreme Soviet Committee for Rational Use of Natural Resources, Moscow, City Council, and St. Petersburg City Council. These officials provided their views on the current status of environmental protection in the former Soviet Union. Literature published in English, although limited, supplemented these discussions. In addition, a literature search was conducted of recent articles about this topic. Although the research for this paper was conducted before and during the August 1991 coup attempt in the Soviet Union, and after the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), many of the observations expressed in this report may be relevant to the new states. This report provides to historical perspective on the barriers encountered while attempting to develop environmental policy in the former Soviet Union and establishes a context for problems facing the new states in developing their environmental policies. Organization changes that have occurred in environmental protection since the August coup are included to the extent they are known.

  3. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) has recently released a research strategy to guide its program to improve ecosystem risk assessment and risk management, which is one of the Agency's higheset priority search areas (http://www.epa.gov/ORD/WebPubs/fmal/eco.pdf). It is...

  4. The World Conservation Strategy: Environmental Education and Local Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thibodeau, Francis R.; Field, Hermann H.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a course which teaches about the world conservation strategy and its application in a local context. Includes goals, participants, instructors, format, evaluation, and future direction of this course cosponsored by Tufts University (Massachusetts) and the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. (DC)

  5. Environmental Management: A Comprehensive Strategy for Reducing Alcohol and Other Drug Use on College Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William; Vince-Whitman, Cheryl; Colthurst, Tom; Cretella, Maggie; Gilbreath, Michael; Rosati, Michael; Zweig, Karen

    This guide presents a comprehensive strategy, called "environmental management," for alcohol and other drug (AOD) prevention in institutions of higher education. The environmental management approach utilizes, in addition to educational programs, changes in the physical, social, economic, and legal environment accomplished through a…

  6. Environmental strategy and performance in small firms: a resource-based perspective.

    PubMed

    Aragón-Correa, J Alberto; Hurtado-Torres, Nuria; Sharma, Sanjay; García-Morales, Víctor J

    2008-01-01

    In spite of the widespread recognition of the important roles that small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) play in most economies, limited research has focused on their impacts on the natural environment and the strategies such enterprises adopt to reduce these impacts. It is usually assumed that SMEs lack the resources to implement proactive environmental strategies that go beyond minimum regulatory compliance. In this study of 108 SMEs in the automotive repair sector in Southern Spain, we found that SMEs undertake a range of environmental strategies from reactive regulatory compliance to proactive pollution prevention and environmental leadership. These strategies are associated with three organizational capabilities: shared vision, stakeholder management, and strategic proactivity, hypothesized based on the unique strategic characteristics of SMEs--shorter lines of communication and closer interaction within the SMEs, the presence of a founder's vision, flexibility in managing external relationships, and an entrepreneurial orientation. We also found that firms with the most proactive practices exhibited a significantly positive financial performance.

  7. Multicriteria analysis of environmental quality in Taipei: public preferences and improvement strategies.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Gwo-Hshiung; Tsaur, Sheng-Hshiung; Laiw, Yiou-Dong; Opricovic, Serafim

    2002-06-01

    The public preferences for environmental quality should be a primary consideration of planners and decision-makers in environmental systems planning. In the first stage of multicriteria analysis, a multi-attribute evaluation model for determining public preferences is formulated. The environmental indices are defined for a comparison of environmental quality in different metropolitan districts. The public preferences of the environmental quality in Taipei are obtained using the weighted average rating method. The results indicate air quality and noise pollution as main public concern. In the second stage of multicriteria analysis, strategies are proposed to improve the air quality, and criteria are established. The experts evaluated all alternative strategies according to the criteria. The alternatives are ranked applying the compromise ranking method.

  8. Active-to-Passive Environmental Cleanup Transition Strategies - 13220

    SciTech Connect

    Gaughan, Thomas F.; Aylward, Robert S.; Denham, Miles E.; Looney, Brian B.; Whitaker, Wade C.; Mills, Gary L.

    2013-07-01

    The Savannah River Site uses a graded approach to environmental cleanup. The selection of groundwater and vadose zone remediation technologies for a specific contamination area is based on the size, contaminant type, contaminant concentration, and configuration of the plume. These attributes are the result of the nature and mass of the source of contamination and the subsurface characteristics in the area of the plume. Many large plumes consist of several zones that are most efficiently addressed with separate complementary corrective action/remedial technologies. The highest concentrations of contaminants are found in the source zone. The most robust, high mass removal technologies are often best suited for remediation of the source zone. In the primary plume zone, active remedies, such as pump-and-treat, may be necessary to remove contaminants and exert hydraulic control of the plume. In the dilute fringe zone, contaminants are generally lower in concentration and can often be treated with passive techniques. A key determination in achieving an acceptable and cost-effective end state for a given waste unit is when to transition from an active treatment system to a more passive or natural approach (e.g., monitored natural attenuation or enhanced attenuation). This paper will discuss the considerations for such a transition as well as provide examples of successful transitions at the Savannah River Site. (authors)

  9. Community dentistry in Nordic dental schools.

    PubMed

    Riordan, P J; Widström, E

    1984-12-01

    Approximately a decade after the first plans for the teaching of community dentistry were made in the Nordic countries, a questionnaire survey of Nordic dental schools was conducted to find out to what extent community dentistry subjects had been introduced in undergraduate curricula. Replies were received from the 12 dental schools in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. These schools admitted 915 students in 1982-83. Seven had a department of community dentistry, and at least two others had plans to start one. About 100 h of teaching were given on community dentistry subjects during the 5-yr course of study, mostly on the traditional subjects of epidemiology, statistics, law and ethics. In some schools health education and other behavioral sciences subjects received a large amount of curriculum time. Decisionmaking theory and political science were not reported taught at any school. Three departments had attached clinics, with widely differing functions. The Nordic textbook in community dentistry was widely used, and separate examinations were held in community dentistry at most schools. Full-time postgraduate courses were offered at three schools. Although schools in all four countries expected the number of dental students to decrease in coming years, several schools expected community dentistry to expand with regard to curriculum time and staff, in keeping with trends in other countries.

  10. Functional strategies drive community assembly of stream fishes along environmental gradients and across spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Troia, Matthew J; Gido, Keith B

    2015-02-01

    Trade-offs among functional traits produce multi-trait strategies that shape species' interactions with the environment and drive the assembly of local communities from regional species pools. Stream fish communities vary along stream size gradients and among hierarchically structured habitat patches, but little is known about how the dispersion of strategies varies along environmental gradients and across spatial scales. We used null models to quantify the dispersion of reproductive life history, feeding, and locomotion strategies in communities sampled at three spatial scales in a prairie stream network in Kansas, USA. Strategies were generally underdispersed at all spatial scales, corroborating the longstanding notion of abiotic filtering in stream fish communities. We tested for variation in strategy dispersion along a gradient of stream size and between headwater streams draining different ecoregions. Reproductive life history strategies became increasingly underdispersed moving from downstream to upstream, suggesting that abiotic filtering is stronger in headwaters. This pattern was stronger among reaches compared to mesohabitats, supporting the premise that differences in hydrologic regime among reaches filter reproductive life history strategies. Feeding strategies became increasingly underdispersed moving from upstream to downstream, indicating that environmental filters associated with stream size affect the dispersion of feeding and reproductive life history in opposing ways. Weak differences in strategy dispersion were detected between ecoregions, suggesting that different abiotic filters or strategies drive community differences between ecoregions. Given the pervasiveness of multi-trait strategies in plant and animal communities, we conclude that the assessment of strategy dispersion offers a comprehensive approach for elucidating mechanisms of community assembly.

  11. A Cercla-Based Decision Support System for Environmental Remediation Strategy Selection.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-03-01

    A CERCLA -BASED DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION STRATEGY SELECTION 2Lt Brian J. Grelk AFIT/GORI97M- 10 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR...FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio vimC ’QEjA BP3f AFIT/GOR/ENS/97M- 10 A CERCLA -BASED DECISION...unlimited MC QULM TnpEOM1 AFIT/GOR/ENS/97M- 10 A CERCLA -BASED DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION STRATEGY SELECTION THESIS Presented to

  12. Evaluation of Contrail Reduction Strategies Based on Environmental and Operational Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Neil Y.; Sridhar, Banavar; Ng, Hok K.; Li, Jinhua

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates a set of contrail reduction strategies based on environmental and operational costs. A linear climate model was first used to convert climate effects of carbon dioxide emissions and aircraft contrails to changes in Absolute Global Temperature Potential, a metric that measures the mean surface temperature change due to aircraft emissions and persistent contrail formations. The concept of social cost of carbon and the carbon auction price from recent California's cap-and-trade system were then used to relate the carbon dioxide emissions and contrail formations to an environmental cost index. The strategy for contrail reduction is based on minimizing contrail formations by altering the aircraft's cruising altitude. The strategy uses a user-defined factor to trade off between contrail reduction and additional fuel burn and carbon dioxide emissions. A higher value of tradeoff factor results in more contrail reduction but also more fuel burn and carbon emissions. The strategy is considered favorable when the net environmental cost benefit exceeds the operational cost. The results show how the net environmental benefit varies with different decision-making time-horizon and different carbon cost. The cost models provide a guidance to select the trade-off factor that will result in the most net environmental benefit.

  13. Living under stressful conditions: Fish life history strategies across environmental gradients in estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teichert, Nils; Pasquaud, Stéphanie; Borja, Angel; Chust, Guillem; Uriarte, Ainhize; Lepage, Mario

    2017-03-01

    The life history strategies of fishes can be defined by specific combinations of demographic traits that influence species performances depending on environmental features. Hence, the constraints imposed by the local conditions restrict the range of successful strategies by excluding species poorly adapted. In the present study, we compared the demographic strategies of fish caught in 47 estuaries of the North East Atlantic coast, aiming to determine the specific attributes of resident species and test for changes in trait associations along the environmental gradients. Eight demographic traits were considered to project our findings within a conceptual triangular model, composed on three endpoint strategies: (i) periodic (large size, long generation time, high fecundity); (ii) opportunistic (small size, short generation time, high reproductive effort); and (iii) equilibrium (low fecundity, large egg size, parental care). We demonstrated that various life history strategies co-exist in estuaries, but equilibrium species were scarce and restricted to euhaline open-water. Resident species form a specialised assemblage adapted to high spatiotemporal variability of estuarine conditions, i.e. opportunistic attributes associated with parental care. Even with these singular attributes, our findings revealed changes in distribution of resident species across the estuarine gradients linked to their life history traits. Among other patterns, the diversity of life history strategies significantly decreased from euhaline to oligohaline areas and along gradient of human disturbances. These trends were associated with a convergence of species traits toward short generation times, suggesting that long-lived species with late maturation are more severely impacted by disturbance and environmental stress.

  14. Nitrogen concentrations and losses from agricultural streams in the Nordic and Baltic countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stålnacke, Per; Bechmann, Marianne; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte; Iital, Arvo; Kyllmar, Katarina; Koskiaho, Jari; Lagzdins, Ainis; Povilaitis, Arvydas

    2015-04-01

    Assessment of long-term trends is one of the key objectives in most national water quality monitoring programmes. It is for example essential that we know how long it can take to detect the response in agricultural streams to changes in agriculture and implemented measures, because such information is needed to allow environmental authorities and decision and policy makers to establish realistic goals. Thus, long-term monitoring data is the key to cover future management needs and demands such as implementation of various EU-Directives (e.g., WFD, the Nitrates Directive). This paper in a uniform fashion examines the levels and temporal trends of nitrogen concentrations and losses in streams draining agricultural catchment areas in the Nordic and Baltic countries. 35 catchments (range 0.1-33km2) in Norway (9), Denmark (5), Sweden (8), Finland (4), Estonia (3), Latvia (3) and Lithuania (3) were selected for the study. Most of these catchments are part of national water quality monitoring programmes and initially selected to represent the major crops, soil types and climatic conditions in each country. The longest time series where 23 years (1988-2010) while the shortest one was 10 years (2002-2011). The reasons for these identified trends and no-trends will be discussed during the oral presentation in relation to land use, agricultural management and implementation of mitigation measures. Furthermore, the difference in mean level concentrations and losses will be discussed in relation to differences in climate, land use and agricultural management Overall the results show that agricultural catchments in the Nordic and Baltic countries exhibit different levels of nitrogen concentrations and losses, with a large interannual variability in all catchments. For example, the overall range in annual long-term mean TN losses was 6-102 kg N ha-1. Nearly one third of the investigated agricultural catchments showed statistically significant downward trends in nitrogen losses or

  15. NOVEL STRATEGIES FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF IONIC LIQUIDS IN AN ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY MANNER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The collaborative research effort established between the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and Kreido Laboratories has focused on the development of reaction strategies for the synthesis of chemicals and materials in a green and sustainable manner. One such area of ...

  16. Strategies for School Environmental Management in Nigerian Secondary Schools: A Case of Calabar, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obong, Linus Beba; Okey, Stella-Maris; Aniah, E. J.; Okaba, Lydia A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper on strategies for school environmental management in Nigerian secondary schools was carried out in Calabar, Nigeria. To guide the study three research questions were formulated. This was achieved through administration of structured questionnaires in three randomly sampled schools. Findings show regular grass clearing, sweeping of the…

  17. Preferred Strategies for Responding to Hostile Questions in Environmental Public Meetings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Kim Sydow; Follender, Saroya I.; Shane, Guy

    1998-01-01

    States that current guidance for organizational spokespersons lacks a clear theoretical and empirical foundation. Describes a study designed to rank preferences for five previously identified rhetorical strategies for responding to hostile questions in environmental meetings based on speech act theory. Finds responses based on the timing strategy…

  18. The Student Team Project: A Long-Term Cooperative Strategy in Graduate Environmental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Lawrence W.; Woy-Hazleton, Sandra

    A year-long, cooperatively structured, student team strategy is described that is being used as a major component in an interdisciplinary Master of Environmental Science degree program. The general philosophy of the degree program and the rationale for including the Student Team Project (STP) are described. The most basic goal of the program is…

  19. Equality, Inclusion and Marketization of Nordic Education: Introductory Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundahl, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    The concept of a Nordic model of education is sometimes used to refer to the considerable similarities of education reforms and systems of the five Nordic countries (i.e. Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) during the second half of the 20th century--reforms that aimed at social justice, equality and cohesion not least by providing…

  20. Nordic Walking Practice Might Improve Plantar Pressure Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Soriano, Pedro; Llana-Belloch, Salvador; Martinez-Nova, Alfonso; Morey-Klapsing, G.; Encarnacion-Martinez, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Nordic walking (NW), characterized by the use of two walking poles, is becoming increasingly popular (Morgulec-Adamowicz, Marszalek, & Jagustyn, 2011). We studied walking pressure patterns of 20 experienced and 30 beginner Nordic walkers. Plantar pressures from nine foot zones were measured during trials performed at two walking speeds (preferred…

  1. Learning for the Workplace: Nordic and Canadian Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Gail, Ed.

    This book contains 21 papers from the Nordic-Canadian Learning for the Workplace Conference, which was held in Hanasaari, Espoo, Finland in June 1995. The following papers are included: "Introduction to the Nordic-Canadian Learning for the Workplace Conference" (Olli-Pekka Heinonen); "Conference Design and Process" (Diane…

  2. Waste management strategy for cost effective and environmentally friendly NPP decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Per Lidar; Arne Larsson; Niklas Bergh; Gunnar Hedin

    2013-07-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants generates large volumes of radioactive or potentially radioactive waste. The proper management of the dismantling waste plays an important role for the time needed for the dismantling phase and thus is critical to the decommissioning cost. An efficient and thorough process for inventorying, characterization and categorization of the waste provides a sound basis for the planning process. As part of comprehensive decommissioning studies for Nordic NPPs, Westinghouse has developed the decommissioning inventories that have been used for estimations of the duration of specific work packages and the corresponding costs. As part of creating the design basis for a national repository for decommissioning waste, the total production of different categories of waste packages has also been predicted. Studsvik has developed a risk based concept for categorization and handling of the generated waste using six different categories with a span from extremely small risk for radiological contamination to high level waste. The two companies have recently joined their skills in the area of decommissioning on selected market in a consortium named ndcon to further strengthen the proposed process. Depending on the risk for radiological contamination or the radiological properties and other properties of importance for waste management, treatment routes are proposed with well-defined and proven methods for on-site or off-site treatment, activity determination and conditioning. The system is based on a graded approach philosophy aiming for high confidence and sustainability, aiming for re-use and recycling where found applicable. The objective is to establish a process where all dismantled material has a pre-determined treatment route. These routes should through measurements, categorization, treatment, conditioning, intermediate storage and final disposal be designed to provide a steady, un-disturbed flow of material to avoid interruptions. Bottle

  3. EDITORIAL: The 21st Nordic Semiconductor Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-09-01

    This Topical Issue contains works presented at the 21st Nordic Semiconductor Meeting (21NSM) held at Sundvolden, Norway, 18-19 August 2005. The institutions supporting 21NSM were: University of Oslo, SINTEF, the Norwegian Defense Research Establishment and Vestfold University College. The Nordic Semiconductor Meeting has become an international forum that has been held every other year in a relay fashion in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The focus of the meeting has been on original research and science being carried out on semiconductor materials, devices and systems. Reports on industrial activity have usually been featured at the meetings. The topics have ranged from fundamental research on point defects in a semiconductor to system architecture of semiconductor electronic devices. For the last five meetings the proceedings have been printed in a dedicated volume of Physica Scripta in the Topical Issue series. The papers in this Topical Issue have undergone critical peer review and we wish to thank the reviewers and the authors for their cooperation, which has been instrumental in meeting the expected high standards of the series. The range of topics covered by this volume is broad, reflecting the call for papers; most of the papers have an element of materials science and the largest portion of these deal with other semiconductor materials other than silicon. The 21NSM was supported by the following sponsors: Renewable Energy Corporation (REC), EMF III-V Innovations (EMF), and the Nordic Research Board (NordForsk). Terje G Finstad Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Norway Andrej Y Kuznetsov and Bengt G Svensson Centre for Materials Science and Nanotechnology, University of Oslo, Norway

  4. Recent health policy initiatives in Nordic countries

    PubMed Central

    Saltman, Richard B.

    1992-01-01

    Health care systems in Sweden, Finland, and Denmark are in the midst of substantial organizational reconfiguration. Although retaining their tax-based single source financing arrangements, they have begun experiments that introduce a limited measure of competitive behavior in the delivery of health services. The emphasis has been on restructuring public operated hospitals and health centers into various forms of public firms, rather than on the privatization of ownership of institutions. If successful, the reforms will enable these Nordic countries to combine their existing macroeconomic controls with enhanced microeconomic efficiency, effectiveness, and responsiveness to patients. PMID:10122003

  5. The ways that people talk about natural resources: discursive strategies as barriers to environmentally sustainable practices.

    PubMed

    Kurz, Tim; Donaghue, Ngaire; Rapley, Mark; Walker, Iain

    2005-12-01

    In this paper, we analyse talk about water and energy use taken from nine interviews with citizens of Perth, Western Australia. Participants' talk offered representations of water as a scarce, shared, natural resource that must not be wasted, whereas talk about energy use focused on the environmental impacts of different technologies for generating electricity, rather than on energy as a consumable resource. Participants accounted for their water-use habits by positioning themselves as caught between a personal desire to conserve water and an (incompatible) social obligation to maintain the appearance of their gardens in keeping with the aesthetic appeal of the suburbs in which they lived. We identify several discursive strategies by which people construct the environmental impact of their actions as minimal or unavoidable. These constitute a barrier to the promotion of more environmentally sustainable practices. Potential implications for environmental policy development are discussed, as are the wider issues associated with the development of 'applied' discourse analysis.

  6. Strategies for assessing the implications of malformed frogs for environmental health.

    PubMed Central

    Burkhart, J G; Ankley, G; Bell, H; Carpenter, H; Fort, D; Gardiner, D; Gardner, H; Hale, R; Helgen, J C; Jepson, P; Johnson, D; Lannoo, M; Lee, D; Lary, J; Levey, R; Magner, J; Meteyer, C; Shelby, M D; Lucier, G

    2000-01-01

    The recent increase in the incidence of deformities among natural frog populations has raised concern about the state of the environment and the possible impact of unidentified causative agents on the health of wildlife and human populations. An open workshop on Strategies for Assessing the Implications of Malformed Frogs for Environmental Health was convened on 4-5 December 1997 at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. The purpose of the workshop was to share information among a multidisciplinary group with scientific interest and responsibility for human and environmental health at the federal and state level. Discussions highlighted possible causes and recent findings directly related to frog deformities and provided insight into problems and strategies applicable to continuing investigation in several areas. Possible causes of the deformities were evaluated in terms of diagnostics performed on field amphibians, biologic mechanisms that can lead to the types of malformations observed, and parallel laboratory and field studies. Hydrogeochemistry must be more integrated into environmental toxicology because of the pivotal role of the aquatic environment and the importance of fates and transport relative to any potential exposure. There is no indication of whether there may be a human health factor associated with the deformities. However, the possibility that causal agents may be waterborne indicates a need to identify the relevant factors and establish the relationship between environmental and human health in terms of hazard assessment. PMID:10620528

  7. College and university environmental programs as a policy problem (Part 2): Strategies for improvement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, S.G.; Rutherford, M.B.; Auer, M.R.; Cherney, D.N.; Wallace, R.L.; Mattson, D.J.; Clark, D.A.; Foote, L.; Krogman, N.; Wilshusen, P.; Steelman, T.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental studies and environmental sciences programs in American and Canadian colleges and universities seek to ameliorate environmental problems through empirical enquiry and analytic judgment. In a companion article (Part 1) we describe the environmental program movement (EPM) and discuss factors that have hindered its performance. Here, we complete our analysis by proposing strategies for improvement. We recommend that environmental programs re-organize around three principles. First, adopt as an overriding goal the concept of human dignity-defined as freedom and social justice in healthy, sustainable environments. This clear higher-order goal captures the human and environmental aspirations of the EPM and would provide a more coherent direction for the efforts of diverse participants. Second, employ an explicit, genuinely interdisciplinary analytical framework that facilitates the use of multiple methods to investigate and address environmental and social problems in context. Third, develop educational programs and applied experiences that provide students with the technical knowledge, powers of observation, critical thinking skills and management acumen required for them to become effective professionals and leaders. Organizing around these three principles would build unity in the EPM while at the same time capitalizing on the strengths of the many disciplines and diverse local conditions involved. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  8. Maintenance-based strategies for environmental risk minimization in the process industries.

    PubMed

    Vassiliadis, C G; Pistikopoulos, E N

    2000-01-07

    Industry, environmental agencies and the scientific community have all emphasized the need to include environmental impact considerations next to profitability objectives in the design phase of modern chemical processes, responding to the increasing social concern over environmental degradation in the past years. Most environmental impact assessment and minimization approaches, however, are rather qualitative, providing general guidelines. In this work, to overcome their limitations and rigorously represent the defining elements of environmental risk, i.e. the mechanism of occurrence of unexpected events usually related to equipment failure and the severity of their consequences, detailed process, reliability and maintenance characteristics are incorporated within a process optimization framework. The objective concerns the optimization of overall process performance defined as a system effectiveness vector characterized by both the environmental and the profitability functions of the system. Implementation of the framework on a process example identifies the optimal combination of process design and operation as well as preventive maintenance strategies that accomplish the conflicting environmental and profitability targets and quantifies the existing trade-offs between them.

  9. College and University Environmental Programs as a Policy Problem (Part 2): Strategies for Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Susan G.; Rutherford, Murray B.; Auer, Matthew R.; Cherney, David N.; Wallace, Richard L.; Mattson, David J.; Clark, Douglas A.; Foote, Lee; Krogman, Naomi; Wilshusen, Peter; Steelman, Toddi

    2011-05-01

    Environmental studies and environmental sciences programs in American and Canadian colleges and universities seek to ameliorate environmental problems through empirical enquiry and analytic judgment. In a companion article (Part 1) we describe the environmental program movement (EPM) and discuss factors that have hindered its performance. Here, we complete our analysis by proposing strategies for improvement. We recommend that environmental programs re-organize around three principles. First, adopt as an overriding goal the concept of human dignity—defined as freedom and social justice in healthy, sustainable environments. This clear higher-order goal captures the human and environmental aspirations of the EPM and would provide a more coherent direction for the efforts of diverse participants. Second, employ an explicit, genuinely interdisciplinary analytical framework that facilitates the use of multiple methods to investigate and address environmental and social problems in context. Third, develop educational programs and applied experiences that provide students with the technical knowledge, powers of observation, critical thinking skills and management acumen required for them to become effective professionals and leaders. Organizing around these three principles would build unity in the EPM while at the same time capitalizing on the strengths of the many disciplines and diverse local conditions involved.

  10. College and university environmental programs as a policy problem (part 2): strategies for improvement.

    PubMed

    Clark, Susan G; Rutherford, Murray B; Auer, Matthew R; Cherney, David N; Wallace, Richard L; Mattson, David J; Clark, Douglas A; Foote, Lee; Krogman, Naomi; Wilshusen, Peter; Steelman, Toddi

    2011-05-01

    Environmental studies and environmental sciences programs in American and Canadian colleges and universities seek to ameliorate environmental problems through empirical enquiry and analytic judgment. In a companion article (Part 1) we describe the environmental program movement (EPM) and discuss factors that have hindered its performance. Here, we complete our analysis by proposing strategies for improvement. We recommend that environmental programs re-organize around three principles. First, adopt as an overriding goal the concept of human dignity-defined as freedom and social justice in healthy, sustainable environments. This clear higher-order goal captures the human and environmental aspirations of the EPM and would provide a more coherent direction for the efforts of diverse participants. Second, employ an explicit, genuinely interdisciplinary analytical framework that facilitates the use of multiple methods to investigate and address environmental and social problems in context. Third, develop educational programs and applied experiences that provide students with the technical knowledge, powers of observation, critical thinking skills and management acumen required for them to become effective professionals and leaders. Organizing around these three principles would build unity in the EPM while at the same time capitalizing on the strengths of the many disciplines and diverse local conditions involved.

  11. Annotated bibliography of the Northwest Territories action on water component of the Arctic environmental strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, R.

    1998-12-31

    Water-related research conducted under the 1991--97 Arctic Environmental Strategy resulted in the production of 215 publications listed in this bibliography. The main section sorts citations by author and then by title. All citations are annotated and are keyed to the database of the Arctic Science and Technology Information System (ASTIS). The bibliography has three indexes that refer back to the main section: Subject, geographic area, and title. Topics covered include Northwest Territories hydrology, environmental fate of contaminants, water quality, snow, the water cycle, modelling, and limnology.

  12. Annotated bibliography of the Northwest Territories action on water component of the Arctic environmental strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, R.

    1998-01-01

    Water-related research conducted under the 1991--97 Arctic Environmental Strategy resulted in the production of 215 publications listed in this bibliography. The main section sorts citations by author and then by title. All citations are annotated and are keyed to the database of the Arctic Science and Technology Information System (ASTIS). The bibliography has three indexes that refer back to the main section: Subject, geographic area, and title. Topics covered include Northwest Territories hydrology, environmental fate of contaminants, water quality, snow, the water cycle, modelling, and limnology.

  13. The design, results and future development of the National Energy Strategy Environmental Analysis Model (NESEAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R.E.; Boyd, G.A. ); Breed, W.S. . Office of Environmental Analysis)

    1991-01-01

    The National Energy Strategy Environmental Model (NESEAM) has been developed to project emissions for the National Energy Strategy (NES). Two scenarios were evaluated for the NES, a Current Policy Base Case and a NES Action Case. The results from the NES Actions Case project much lower emissions than the Current Policy Base Case. Future enhancements to NESEAM will focus on fuel cycle analysis, including future technologies and additional pollutants to model. NESEAM's flexibility will allow it to model other future legislative issues. 7 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Spring bloom onset in the Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignot, A.; Ferrari, R.; Mork, K. A.

    2015-08-01

    The North Atlantic spring bloom is a massive annual growth event of marine phytoplankton, tiny free-floating algae that form the base of the ocean's food web and generates a large fraction of the global primary production of organic matter. The conditions that trigger the onset of the spring bloom in the Nordic Seas, at the northern edge of the North Atlantic, are studied using in-situ data from five bio-optical floats released above the Arctic Circle. It is often assumed that spring blooms start as soon as phytoplankton cells daily irradiance is sufficiently abundant that division rates exceed losses. The bio-optical float data instead suggest the tantalizing hypothesis that Nordic Seas blooms start when the photoperiod, the number of daily light hours experienced by phytoplankton, exceeds a critical value, independently of division rates. This bloom behavior may be explained by realizing that photosynthesis is impossible during polar nights and phytoplankton enters in a dormant stage in winter, only to be awaken by a photoperiodic trigger. While the first accumulation of biomass recorded by the bio-optical floats is consistent with the photoperiod hypothesis, it is possible that some biomass accumulation started before the critical photoperiod but at levels too low to be detected by the fluorometers. Thus more precise observations are needed to test the photoperiod hypothesis.

  15. [Scandinavian eugenics: Nordic historians provide new approaches].

    PubMed

    Zylberman, Patrick

    2004-10-01

    Late disclosure of the large scale of sterilization practices in the Nordic countries created an outburst of scandal: did these policies rely on coercion? To what extent? Who in the end was responsible? Sterilization practices targeted underpriviledged people first. The mentally retarded and women were their first victims. Operations were very frequently determined by other people's manipulative or coercive influences. Should the blame be put on the Social-Democrats in power throughout the period (except in Finland and Estonia)? Apart from Denmark, perhaps, local physicians and local services, more than governments, seemed to have strongly supported sterilization practices. Teetotalers and feminists shared responsibilities. How can one explain that eugenics finally declined? Based on a sound application of the Hardy-Weinberg law, the science of the eugenicists was correct. Was it politics? But uncovering of the Nazi crimes had only a very small impact on eugenics. Some authors underline the fact that the Nordic scientific institutions were particularly suited to liberal values. Others point to the devastating effect on eugenics once hereditarist psychiatry fell from favour in the middle of the sixties.

  16. Spring bloom onset in the Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignot, Alexandre; Ferrari, Raffaele; Mork, Kjell Arne

    2016-06-01

    The North Atlantic spring bloom is a massive annual growth event of marine phytoplankton, tiny free-floating algae that form the base of the ocean's food web and generates a large fraction of the global primary production of organic matter. The conditions that trigger the onset of the spring bloom in the Nordic Seas, at the northern edge of the North Atlantic, are studied using in situ data from six bio-optical floats released north of the Arctic Circle. It is often assumed that spring blooms start as soon as phytoplankton cells daily irradiance is sufficiently abundant that division rates exceed losses. The bio-optical float data instead suggest the tantalizing hypothesis that Nordic Seas blooms start when the photoperiod, the number of daily light hours experienced by phytoplankton, exceeds a critical value, independently of division rates. The photoperiod trigger may have developed at high latitudes where photosynthesis is impossible during polar nights and phytoplankton enters into a dormant stage in winter. While the first accumulation of biomass recorded by the bio-optical floats is consistent with the photoperiod hypothesis, it is possible that some biomass accumulation started before the critical photoperiod but at levels too low to be detected by the fluorometers. More precise observations are needed to test the photoperiod hypothesis.

  17. Office of Environmental Information (OEI) Tribal Strategy: Partnership to Support Environmental Information and Decision-Making in Indian Country and Alaska Native Villages

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This draft strategy provides a description of goals OEI seeks to accomplish to support tribal information and environmental decision-making. States objectives to facilitate and strengthen tribal capacity to collect, analyze and share data.

  18. Identifying potential environmental impacts of waste handling strategies in textile industry.

    PubMed

    Yacout, Dalia M M; Hassouna, M S

    2016-08-01

    Waste management is a successful instrument to minimize generated waste and improve environmental conditions. In spite of the large share of developing countries in the textile industry, limited information is available concerning the waste management strategies implemented for textiles on those countries and their environmental impacts. In the current study, two waste management approaches for hazardous solid waste treatment of acrylic fibers (landfill and incineration) were investigated. The main research questions were: What are the different impacts of each waste management strategy? Which waste management strategy is more ecofriendly? Life cycle assessment was employed in order to model the environmental impacts of each waste streaming approach separately then compare them together. Results revealed that incineration was the more ecofriendly approach. Highest impacts of both approaches were on ecotoxicity and carcinogenic potentials due to release of metals from pigment wastes. Landfill had an impact of 46.8 % on human health as compared to 28 % by incineration. Incineration impact on ecosystem quality was higher than landfill impact (68.4 and 51.3 %, respectively). As for resources category, incineration had a higher impact than landfill (3.5 and 2.0 %, respectively). Those impacts could be mitigated if state-of-the-art landfill or incinerator were used and could be reduced by applying waste to energy approaches for both management systems In conclusion, shifting waste treatment from landfill to incineration would decrease the overall environmental impacts and allow energy recovery. The potential of waste to energy approach by incineration with heat recovery could be considered in further studies. Future research is needed in order to assess the implementation of waste management systems and the preferable waste management strategies in the textile industry on developing countries.

  19. Energetic optimisation of foraging honeybees: flexible change of strategies in response to environmental challenges.

    PubMed

    Stabentheiner, Anton; Kovac, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Heterothermic insects like honeybees, foraging in a variable environment, face the challenge of keeping their body temperature high to enable immediate flight and to promote fast exploitation of resources. Because of their small size they have to cope with an enormous heat loss and, therefore, high costs of thermoregulation. This calls for energetic optimisation which may be achieved by different strategies. An 'economizing' strategy would be to reduce energetic investment whenever possible, for example by using external heat from the sun for thermoregulation. An 'investment-guided' strategy, by contrast, would be to invest additional heat production or external heat gain to optimize physiological parameters like body temperature which promise increased energetic returns. Here we show how honeybees balance these strategies in response to changes of their local microclimate. In a novel approach of simultaneous measurement of respiration and body temperature foragers displayed a flexible strategy of thermoregulatory and energetic management. While foraging in shade on an artificial flower they did not save energy with increasing ambient temperature as expected but acted according to an 'investment-guided' strategy, keeping the energy turnover at a high level (∼56-69 mW). This increased thorax temperature and speeded up foraging as ambient temperature increased. Solar heat was invested to increase thorax temperature at low ambient temperature ('investment-guided' strategy) but to save energy at high temperature ('economizing' strategy), leading to energy savings per stay of ∼18-76% in sunshine. This flexible economic strategy minimized costs of foraging, and optimized energetic efficiency in response to broad variation of environmental conditions.

  20. A national environmental monitoring system to support the Moroccan sustainable development strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourhir, A.; Rachidi, T.

    2010-12-01

    Morocco is a mountainous country, subject to both marine and Saharan influences. The increase in population has led to an increase of the gross domestic product (GDP), which accentuated by inadequate resource management, has been accompanied by the degradation of the environment. The annual cost of environmental damage has been estimated at nearly eight percent of Morocco’s GDP. Morocco is a country that has scarce natural resources, especially arable land and water. In recent years, intensive agricultural production, large-scale irrigation schemes, industrialization, and urbanization have been creating serious problems. The country has faced severe air, water and soil pollution, environmental health problems, deforestation and soil erosion. The country is very vulnerable to impacts of global climate change. Morocco’s approach to sustainable development (SD) is mainly environmental. The two main documents for Morocco’s SD strategy are the National Strategy for the Protection of the Environment and Sustainable Development (SNPEDD), 1995, and the National Plan of Action for the Environment (PANE), 1998. SNPEDD’s main objective is the integration and strengthening of environmental concerns in economic development activities. The activities for the formulation and implementation of the strategy include: a) studies on the state of the Moroccan environment; b) formulation of the PANE; c) preparation of a sensitization program on environmental issues and the implementation of a database and information system on the environment; (d) preparation of regional and local environmental monographies. The aim of the current work is to create an information system as an approach to complex sustainability analyses at the national level using GIS technologies. This information system includes the following: 1.Development of a database of SD indicators and historical data. Morocco has been involved in the working framework of the Mediterranean Commission for Sustainable

  1. Soil environmental quality in greenhouse vegetable production systems in eastern China: Current status and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wenyou; Zhang, Yanxia; Huang, Biao; Teng, Ying

    2017-03-01

    Greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) has become an important source of public vegetable consumption and farmers' income in China. However, various pollutants can be accumulated in GVP soils due to the high cropping index, large agricultural input, and closed environment. Ecological toxicity caused by excessive pollutants' accumulation can then lead to serious health risks. This paper was aimed to systematically review the current status of soil environmental quality, analyze their impact factors, and consequently to propose integrated management strategies for GVP systems. Results indicated a decrease in soil pH, soil salinization, and nutrients imbalance in GVP soils. Fungicides, remaining nutrients, antibiotics, heavy metals, and phthalate esters were main pollutants accumulating in GVP soils comparing to surrounding open field soils. Degradation of soil ecological function, accumulation of major pollutants in vegetables, deterioration of neighboring water bodies, and potential human health risks has occurred due to the changes of soil properties and accumulation of pollutants such as heavy metals and fungicides in soils. Four dominant factors were identified leading to the above-mentioned issues including heavy application of agricultural inputs, outmoded planting styles with poor environmental protection awareness, old-fashion regulations, unreasonable standards, and ineffective supervisory management. To guarantee a sustainable GVP development, several strategies were suggested to protect and improve soil environmental quality. Implementation of various strategies not only requires the concerted efforts among different stakeholders, but also the whole lifecycle assessment throughout the GVP processes as well as effective enforcement of policies, laws, and regulations.

  2. Effectiveness of international environmental regimes: Existing knowledge, cutting-edge themes, and research strategies

    PubMed Central

    Young, Oran R.

    2011-01-01

    International environmental regimes—especially those regimes articulated in multilateral environmental agreements—have been a subject of intense interest within the scientific community over the last three decades. However, there are substantial differences of opinion regarding the effectiveness of these governance systems or the degree to which they are successful in solving the problems leading to their creation. This article provides a critical review of the literature on this topic. It extracts and summarizes what is known about the effectiveness of environmental regimes in the form of a series of general and specific propositions. It identifies promising topics for consideration in the next phase of research in this field. Additionally, it comments on the research strategies available to pursue this line of analysis. The general conclusions are that international environmental regimes can and do make a difference, although often in conjunction with a number of other factors, and that a strategy of using a number of tools combined can help to improve understanding of the determinants of success. PMID:22143795

  3. Effectiveness of international environmental regimes: existing knowledge, cutting-edge themes, and research strategies.

    PubMed

    Young, Oran R

    2011-12-13

    International environmental regimes--especially those regimes articulated in multilateral environmental agreements--have been a subject of intense interest within the scientific community over the last three decades. However, there are substantial differences of opinion regarding the effectiveness of these governance systems or the degree to which they are successful in solving the problems leading to their creation. This article provides a critical review of the literature on this topic. It extracts and summarizes what is known about the effectiveness of environmental regimes in the form of a series of general and specific propositions. It identifies promising topics for consideration in the next phase of research in this field. Additionally, it comments on the research strategies available to pursue this line of analysis. The general conclusions are that international environmental regimes can and do make a difference, although often in conjunction with a number of other factors, and that a strategy of using a number of tools combined can help to improve understanding of the determinants of success.

  4. DEACTIVATION AND DECOMMISSIONING ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY FOR THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT COMPLEX, HANFORD NUCLEAR RESERVATION

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, A.M.; Heineman, R.; Norton, S.; Miller, M.; Oates, L.

    2003-02-27

    Maintaining compliance with environmental regulatory requirements is a significant priority in successful completion of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Nuclear Material Stabilization (NMS) Project. To ensure regulatory compliance throughout the deactivation and decommissioning of the PFP complex, an environmental regulatory strategy was developed. The overall goal of this strategy is to comply with all applicable environmental laws and regulations and/or compliance agreements during PFP stabilization, deactivation, and eventual dismantlement. Significant environmental drivers for the PFP Nuclear Material Stabilization Project include the Tri-Party Agreement; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA); the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA); the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA); the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA); the Clean Air Act (CAA), and the Clean Water Act (CWA). Recent TPA negotiation s with Ecology and EPA have resulted in milestones that support the use of CERCLA as the primary statutory framework for decommissioning PFP. Milestones have been negotiated to support the preparation of Engineering Evaluations/Cost Analyses for decommissioning major PFP buildings. Specifically, CERCLA EE/CA(s) are anticipated for the following scopes of work: Settling Tank 241-Z-361, the 232-Z Incinerator, , the process facilities (eg, 234-5Z, 242, 236) and the process facility support buildings. These CERCLA EE/CA(s) are for the purpose of analyzing the appropriateness of the slab-on-grade endpoint Additionally, agreement was reached on performing an evaluation of actions necessary to address below-grade structures or other structures remaining after completion of the decommissioning of PFP. Remaining CERCLA actions will be integrated with other Central Plateau activities at the Hanford site.

  5. Investigating the genetic architecture of conditional strategies using the environmental threshold model

    PubMed Central

    Hazel, Wade N.; Tomkins, Joseph L.

    2015-01-01

    The threshold expression of dichotomous phenotypes that are environmentally cued or induced comprise the vast majority of phenotypic dimorphisms in colour, morphology, behaviour and life history. Modelled as conditional strategies under the framework of evolutionary game theory, the quantitative genetic basis of these traits is a challenge to estimate. The challenge exists firstly because the phenotypic expression of the trait is dichotomous and secondly because the apparent environmental cue is separate from the biological signal pathway that induces the switch between phenotypes. It is the cryptic variation underlying the translation of cue to phenotype that we address here. With a ‘half-sib common environment’ and a ‘family-level split environment’ experiment, we examine the environmental and genetic influences that underlie male dimorphism in the earwig Forficula auricularia. From the conceptual framework of the latent environmental threshold (LET) model, we use pedigree information to dissect the genetic architecture of the threshold expression of forceps length. We investigate for the first time the strength of the correlation between observable and cryptic ‘proximate’ cues. Furthermore, in support of the environmental threshold model, we found no evidence for a genetic correlation between cue and the threshold between phenotypes. Our results show strong correlations between observable and proximate cues and less genetic variation for thresholds than previous studies have suggested. We discuss the importance of generating better estimates of the genetic variation for thresholds when investigating the genetic architecture and heritability of threshold traits. By investigating genetic architecture by means of the LET model, our study supports several key evolutionary ideas related to conditional strategies and improves our understanding of environmentally cued decisions. PMID:26674955

  6. Investigating the genetic architecture of conditional strategies using the environmental threshold model.

    PubMed

    Buzatto, Bruno A; Buoro, Mathieu; Hazel, Wade N; Tomkins, Joseph L

    2015-12-22

    The threshold expression of dichotomous phenotypes that are environmentally cued or induced comprise the vast majority of phenotypic dimorphisms in colour, morphology, behaviour and life history. Modelled as conditional strategies under the framework of evolutionary game theory, the quantitative genetic basis of these traits is a challenge to estimate. The challenge exists firstly because the phenotypic expression of the trait is dichotomous and secondly because the apparent environmental cue is separate from the biological signal pathway that induces the switch between phenotypes. It is the cryptic variation underlying the translation of cue to phenotype that we address here. With a 'half-sib common environment' and a 'family-level split environment' experiment, we examine the environmental and genetic influences that underlie male dimorphism in the earwig Forficula auricularia. From the conceptual framework of the latent environmental threshold (LET) model, we use pedigree information to dissect the genetic architecture of the threshold expression of forceps length. We investigate for the first time the strength of the correlation between observable and cryptic 'proximate' cues. Furthermore, in support of the environmental threshold model, we found no evidence for a genetic correlation between cue and the threshold between phenotypes. Our results show strong correlations between observable and proximate cues and less genetic variation for thresholds than previous studies have suggested. We discuss the importance of generating better estimates of the genetic variation for thresholds when investigating the genetic architecture and heritability of threshold traits. By investigating genetic architecture by means of the LET model, our study supports several key evolutionary ideas related to conditional strategies and improves our understanding of environmentally cued decisions.

  7. [Waste management strategy and the role of the environmental protection and energy efficiency fund].

    PubMed

    Kalambura, Sanja

    2006-09-01

    On 14 October 2005, the Croatian Parliament adopted the National Strategy of Waste Management pursuant to Article 8 of the Waste Act. This strategy defines its objectives and the means to reach them, and gives an overview of the current situation in waste management. It seeks to provide a realistic framework for the effective reduction of national waste load and for a sustainable waste management. This Strategy defines 15 major waste flows which are in concordance with the EU practice. It also defines waste management buildings and plants, and looks into the remediation of municipal waste landfills. According to the Strategy, waste management will be present on all levels of administration: from national to local, and will include all areas of production, consumption, and everyday life. Founded on the EU's general principles of waste management, this Strategy provides the ideal framework for a sustained waste management in Croatia by the year 2025. Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund is one of the key administration bodies within the waste management system. It collects taxes for motor vehicles, for sulphur and nitrogen oxide pollution sources, for environmental hazardous and non-hazardous industrial waste load, and for the use of the environment. The Fund participates in the ongoing municipal landfill remediation projects and programmes all over Croatia (currently 161 landfills are being remedied) and helps to establish new regional and county waste management centres. It co-finances clean production technology projects, projects whose aim is to reduce the emission of harmful gases, projects for reusable energy sources and for more efficient use of energy, projects for remediation of unregulated municipal landfills, projects for primary recycling, and projects for biodiversity landscapes. According to an estimate, the implementation of the National Strategy of Waste Management will cost over 24 billion Croatian kunas (about 3.3 billion Euros

  8. Common pathways toward informing policy and environmental strategies to promote health: a study of CDC's Prevention Research Centers.

    PubMed

    Neri, Elizabeth M; Stringer, Kate J; Spadaro, Antonia J; Ballman, Marie R; Grunbaum, Jo Anne

    2015-03-01

    This study examined the roles academic researchers can play to inform policy and environmental strategies that promote health and prevent disease. Prevention Research Centers (PRCs) engage in academic-community partnerships to conduct applied public health research. Interviews were used to collect data on the roles played by 32 PRCs to inform policy and environmental strategies that were implemented between September 2009 and September 2010. Descriptive statistics were calculated in SAS 9.2. A difference in roles played was observed depending on whether strategies were policy or environmental. Of the policy initiatives, the most common roles were education, research, and partnership. In contrast, the most prevalent roles the PRCs played in environmental approaches were research and providing health promotion resources. Academic research centers play various roles to help inform policy and environmental strategies.

  9. Nordic Seas nutrients data in CARINA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olafsson, J.; Olsen, A.

    2010-09-01

    Water column data of carbon and carbon relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from 188 cruises in the Arctic, Atlantic, and Southern Ocean have been assembled and the collection merged into a new database: CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic). The data have been subject to rigorous quality control (QC) in order to ensure highest possible quality and consistency. The data for most of the parameters included were examined in order to quantify systematic biases in the reported values, i.e. secondary quality control. Significant biases have been corrected for in the data products, i.e. the three merged files with measured, calculated and interpolated values for each of the three CARINA regions; the Arctic Mediterranean Seas (AMS), the Atlantic (ATL) and the Southern Ocean (SO). With the adjustments, the CARINA database is consistent both internally as well as with GLODAP (Key et al., 2004) and is suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, oceanic carbon inventories and uptake rates, and for model validation. The Arctic Mediterranean Seas is the collective term for the Arctic Ocean and the Nordic Seas, and the quality control was carried out separately in these two areas. This contribution presents an account of the quality control of the nutrients (nitrate, phosphate, and silicate) data from the Nordic Seas in CARINA. Out of the 35 cruises from the Nordic Seas included in CARINA, 33 had nutrients data. The nitrate data from 4 of these appeared to be of so poor quality that they should not be used, for phosphate this number is 7 and for silicate it is 3. We also recommend that the nitrate data from 4 of the cruises should be adjusted, for phosphate and silicate only data from one cruise should be adjusted. The final data appears consistent to 5% based on evaluation of deep data. For nitrate this corresponds to 0.6 μmol kg-1, and for phosphate and silicate it corresponds to 0.04 and 0.6 μmol kg-1, respectively.

  10. Nordic Seas nutrients data in CARINA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olafsson, J.; Olsen, A.

    2010-03-01

    Water column data of carbon and carbon relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from 188 previously non-publicly available cruises in the Arctic, Atlantic, and Southern Ocean have been retrieved and merged into a new database: CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic). The data have been subject to rigorous quality control (QC) in order to ensure highest possible quality and consistency. The data for most of the parameters included were examined in order to quantify systematic biases in the reported values, i.e. secondary quality control. Significant biases have been corrected for in the data products, i.e.~the three merged files with measured, calculated and interpolated values for each of the three CARINA regions; the Arctic Mediterranean Seas (AMS), the Atlantic (ATL) and the Southern Ocean (SO). With the adjustments, the CARINA database is consistent both internally as well as with GLODAP (Key et al., 2004) and is suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, oceanic carbon inventories and uptake rates, and for model validation. The Arctic Mediterranean Seas is the collective term for the Arctic Ocean and the Nordic Seas, and the quality control was carried out separately in these two areas. This contribution presents an account of the quality control of the nutrients (nitrate, phosphate, and silicate) data from the Nordic Seas in CARINA. Out of the 35 cruises from the Nordic Seas included in CARINA, 33 had nutrients data. The nitrate data from 4 of these appeared to be of so poor quality that they should not be used, for phosphate this number is 7 and for silicate it is 3. We also recommend that the nitrate data from 4 of the cruises should be adjusted, for phosphate and silicate only data from one cruise should be adjusted. The final data appears consistent to 5% based on evaluation of deep data. For nitrate this corresponds to 0.6 μmol kg-1, and for phosphate and silicate it corresponds to 0.04 and 0.6 μmol kg-1, respectively.

  11. NERC's Science Information Strategy - promoting information fusion across the Environmental Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorley, M.; Thomas, D.; Brown, M.; Giles, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    The Natural Environmental Research Council (NERC) in the UK is responsible for funding environmental research in universities and running a number of research centres; such as the British Geological Survey. Data and information created by this research, and deposited by third parties, is managed by a number of environmental data centres for the purpose of preserving research outputs and promoting their re-use, re-purposing and information fusion. These data centres are: British Atmospheric Data Centre (http://badc.nerc.ac.uk) British Oceanographic Data Centre (http://bodc.nerc.ac.uk) Environmental Information Data Centre (http://eidc.nerc.ac.uk) National Geoscience Data Centre (http://ngdc.nerc.ac.uk) NERC Earth Observation Data Centre (http://neodc.nec.ac.uk) Polar Data Centre (http://pdc.anerc.ac.uk) The NERC Science Information Strategy (SIS) has been created to provide the framework for NERC to work more closely and effectively with its scientific communities in delivering data and information management services to support its 5 year science strategy, the Next Generation Science for Planet Earth. The strategy focuses on the continuing development of NERC’s information management processes and sets the context under which all of its science data and information activities will be carried out in the future. The anticipated benefits of the science information strategy that promote information fusion include: (1) Easier discovery and access to the data that underpin the objective scientific evidence; (2) A clear understanding of stakeholders' needs and aspirations; (3) A common understanding of the data of high value to NERC's mission and clear processes to ensure such data is ingested, managed and disseminated to the environmental science community; (4) Greater commonality of approach, development and sharing of infrastructure; leading to simpler information fusion; (5) A clear understanding of the intellectual property rights; and (6) Compliance with

  12. An integrated biomarker-based strategy for ecotoxicological evaluation of risk in environmental management.

    PubMed

    Moore, Michael N; Depledge, Michael H; Readman, James W; Paul Leonard, D R

    2004-08-18

    uptake, detoxication and pathology with each other and higher level effects. It is further proposed here that this process will be facilitated by pursuing a holistic or whole systems approach with the development of computational simulation models of cells, organs and animals in tandem with empirical data (i.e., the middle-out approach). In conclusion, an effective integrated environmental management strategy to secure resource sustainability requires an integrated capability for risk assessment and prediction. Furthermore, if such a strategy is to influence and help in the formulation of environmental policy decisions, then it is crucial to demonstrate scientific robustness of predictions concerning the long-term consequences of pollution to politicians, industrialists and environmental managers; and also increase stakeholder awareness of environmental problems.

  13. Perspectives on Dental Education in the Nordic Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiehn, Nils-Erik

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the state of dental education and current developments at Nordic dental schools. Discusses similarities and differences in the institutional circumstances of the schools, including demands on the schools, their educational philosophies, and the educational system and its regulation. (EV)

  14. Intimate partner violence against women and the Nordic paradox.

    PubMed

    Gracia, Enrique; Merlo, Juan

    2016-05-01

    Nordic countries are the most gender equal countries in the world, but at the same time they have disproportionally high prevalence rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. High prevalence of IPV against women, and high levels of gender equality would appear contradictory, but these apparently opposite statements appear to be true in Nordic countries, producing what could be called the 'Nordic paradox'. Despite this paradox being one of the most puzzling issues in the field, this is a research question rarely asked, and one that remains unanswered. This paper explores a number of theoretical and methodological issues that may help to understand this paradox. Efforts to understand the Nordic paradox may provide an avenue to guide new research on IPV and to respond to this major public health problem in a more effective way.

  15. Body Composition and Somatotype of Male and Female Nordic Skiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinning, Wayne E.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Anthropometric measurements (body composition and somatotype characteristics) for male and female Nordic skiers showed small values for measures of variance, suggesting that the subjects represented a select body type for the sport. (Author/MJB)

  16. Nordic exchange of students and climate change.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsson, A.

    2012-04-01

    Since the end of 2010 and until the summer of 2011 two upper secondary schools in Höyanger, Norway and Ronneby, Sweden had the possibility to take part in a project called Nordplus junior. The main aims of the program are: • To promote Nordic languages and culture and mutual Nordic-Baltic linguistic and cultural understanding. • To contribute to the development of quality and innovation in the educational systems for life-long learning in the participating countries by means of educational cooperation, development projects, exchanges and networking. • To support, develop, draw benefit from and spread innovative products and processes in education through systematic exchange of experiences and best practice. • To strengthen and develop Nordic educational cooperation and contribute to the establishment of a Nordic-Baltic educational area. The students did research on climate change and the impact on local and regional areas. Many questions had to be answered, giving an explanation to what happens if the climate changes. Questions related to Höyanger, Norway What happens to life in Norwegian fiords? Which attitudes do youngsters and adults have about climate change and what actions do they take? What does a rise in sea level mean for Höyanger? How are different tourist attractions affected in western Norway? Questions related to Ronneby, Sweden How is the regional fauna and flora affected? What will happen to agriculture and forestry? What do adults and youngsters know about consequences of a possible climate change? What happens to the people of Ronneby if the sea level rises? Are there any positive outcomes if the climate changes? Conclusions In Norwegian fiords there could be benefits because fish are growing faster in the winter because of an increased temperature. At the same time there could be an imbalance in the ecosystem because of a change in the living ranges of different species. Most of the young boys and girls in Höyanger, Norway were

  17. Evaluation of the environmental impact of apple pest control strategies using pesticide risk indicators.

    PubMed

    Ioriatti, Claudio; Agnello, Arthur M; Martini, Fabrizio; Kovach, Joseph

    2011-10-01

    Various pesticide risk indicators have been developed for estimating pesticide impact on human health and the environment. The present work applied a pesticide risk indicator to estimate change in pesticide risk in apple production between 2001 and 2009. The "Environmental Impact Quotient" was used, which evaluates potential impacts of pesticide active ingredients on farm workers, consumers, and nontarget organisms. A modified Environmental Impact Quotient was also tested, which accounts for all ingredients in the formulation presenting a health or environmental hazard, as identified in the Security Data Sheet. Irrespective of the rating system applied, an overall average improvement in environmental impact of apple protection strategies was indicated ranging from 23 to 24%. Hazard reduction was more significant when estimated per treatment, and was higher for acaricides and insecticides than for fungicides. Improvement appeared to be a consequence of using more selective and more effective active ingredients, applying alternative pest control techniques, compulsory periodic sprayer calibration, and wider use of dwarfing orchards. The modified Environmental Impact Quotient does not overcome all limitations regarding accuracy of pesticide risk indicators, but its ease of use in relying on official, easily accessible data, and the consistency of its results, makes it a good candidate for monitoring the success of reduced risk policies.

  18. EDITORIAL: The 24th Nordic Semiconductor Meeting The 24th Nordic Semiconductor Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Páll Gunnlaugsson, Haraldur; Nylandsted Larsen, Arne; Uhrenfeldt, Christian

    2012-03-01

    A Nordic Semiconductor Meeting is held every other year with the venue rotating amongst the Nordic countries of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The focus of these meetings remains 'original research and science being carried out on semiconductor materials, devices and systems'. Reports on industrial activity have usually featured. The topics have ranged from fundamental research on point defects in a semiconductor to system architecture of semiconductor electronic devices. Proceedings from these events are regularly published as a Topical Issue of Physica Scripta. All of the papers in this Topical Issue have undergone critical peer review and we wish to thank the reviewers and the authors for their cooperation, which has been instrumental in meeting the high scientific standards and quality of the series. This 24th meeting of the Nordic Semiconductor community, NSM 2011, was held at Fuglsøcentret, close to Aarhus, Denmark, 19-22 June 2011. Support was provided by the Carlsberg Foundation, Danfysik and the semiconductor group at Aarhus University. Over 30 participants presented a broad range of topics covering semiconductor materials and devices as well as related material science interests. The conference provided a forum for Nordic and international scientists to present and discuss new results and ideas concerning the fundamentals and applications of semiconductor materials. The aim of the meeting was to advance the progress of Nordic science and thus aid in future worldwide technological advances concerning technology, education, energy and the environment. The 25th Nordic Semiconductor Meeting will be organized in June 2013 in Finland, chaired by Dr Filip Tuomisto, Aalto University. A Nordic Summer School on Semiconductor Science will be organized in connection with the conference (just before), chaired by Dr Jonatan Slotte, Aalto University. Information on these events can be found at physics.aalto.fi/nsm2013. List of participants Søren Vejling

  19. Current research in transcultural psychiatry in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Ekblad, Solvig; Kastrup, Marianne Carisius

    2013-12-01

    This article discusses major themes in recent transcultural psychiatric research in the Nordic countries from 2008 to 2011: (a) epidemiological studies of migration, (b) indigenous populations, and (c) quality of psychiatric care for migrants. Over the past several decades, the populations of the Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden, which were relatively homogeneous, have become increasingly culturally diverse. Many migrants to Nordic countries have been exposed to extreme stress, such as threats of death and/or torture and other severe social adversities before, during, and after migration, with potential effects on their physical, mental, social, and spiritual health. Growing interest in transcultural issues is reflected in the level of scientific research and clinical activity in the field by Nordic physicians, psychologists, social scientists, demographers, medical anthropologists, as well as other clinicians and policy planners. Research includes work with migrants and indigenous minorities in the Nordic countries, as well as comparisons with mental health in postconflict countries. We conclude by suggesting future directions for transcultural psychiatry research and providing guidelines for the education and training of future clinicians in the Nordic countries.

  20. Environmental management practices in the Lebanese pharmaceutical industries: implementation strategies and challenges.

    PubMed

    Massoud, May A; Makarem, N; Ramadan, W; Nakkash, R

    2015-03-01

    This research attempts to provide an understanding of the Lebanese pharmaceutical industries' environmental management strategies, priorities, and perceptions as well as drivers, barriers, and incentives regarding the implementation of the voluntary ISO 14001 Environmental Management System. Accordingly, a semistructured in-depth interview was conducted with the pharmaceutical industries. The findings revealed a significant lack of knowledge about the standard among the industries. The main perceived drivers for adopting the ISO 14001 are improving the companies' image and overcoming international trade. The main perceived barriers for acquiring the standard are the lack of government support and the fact that ISO 14001 is not being legally required or enforced by the government. Moreover, results revealed that adopting the ISO 14001 standard is not perceived as a priority for the Lebanese pharmaceutical industries. Although the cost of certification was not considered as a barrier for the implementation of ISO 14001, the majority of the pharmaceutical industries are neither interested nor willing to adopt the Standard if they are not exposed to any regulatory pressure or external demand. They are more concerned with quality and safety issues with the most adopted international standard among the industries being the ISO 9001 quality management system. This study highlights the aspect that financial barriers are not always the hurdles for implementing environmental management strategies in developing countries and underscores the need for regulatory frameworks and enforcement.

  1. Management of patients with Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy in the Nordic countries

    PubMed Central

    Haugaa, Kristina H.; Bundgaard, Henning; Edvardsen, Thor; Eschen, Ole; Gilljam, Thomas; Hansen, Jim; Jensen, Henrik Kjærulf; Platonov, Pyotr G.; Svensson, Anneli; Svendsen, Jesper H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract> Objectives. Diagnostics of patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) are complex, and based on the 2010 Task Force document including different diagnostic modalities. However, recommendations for clinical management and follow-up of patients with ARVC and their relatives are sparse. This paper aims to give a practical overview of management strategies, risk stratification, and selection of appropriate therapies for patients with ARVC and their family members. Design. This paper summarizes follow-up and treatment strategies in ARVC patients in the Nordic countries. The author group represents cardiologists who are actively involved in the Nordic ARVC Registry which was established in 2009, and contains prospectively collected clinical data from more than 590 ARVC patients from Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Finland. Results. Different approaches of management and follow-up are required in patients with definite ARVC and in genetic-mutation-positive family members. Furthermore, ARVC patients with and without implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) require different follow-up strategies. Conclusion. Careful follow-up is required in patients with ARVC diagnosis to evaluate the need of anti-arrhythmic therapy and ICD implantation. Mutation-positive family members should be followed regularly for detection of early disease and risk stratification of ventricular arrhythmias. PMID:26395672

  2. Engaging All Americans: Innovative Strategies for Reaching the Public with Climate and Environmental Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinoza, S.

    2014-12-01

    From extensive drought and heat waves to floods, tornadoes and Superstorm Sandy, extreme weather and climate events provide teachable moments to help communities prepare for and respond to related environmental, economic and health impacts. The National Environmental Education Foundation (www.neefusa.org) works with the American Meteorological Society, the media and other trusted messengers to provide weather, climate and environmental information to the public in accessible and widely used formats, whether via TV, radio or social media. NEEF will provide an overview of innovative partnerships and projects that are engaging Americans in understanding and using climate and environmental information to make the best choices in their daily lives and improve the health of their communities, including: Assessing knowledge, attitudes and behaviors: NEEF will share results from its national survey research and targeted focus groups on current attitudes and practices relating to our nation's environment. Simplifying and amplifying key messages: NEEF provides a national network of more than 350 meteorologists, radio broadcasters and journalists with the science-based information and resources they need to present climate and environmental topics to their viewers on-air, online and in community outreach. Engaging television viewers in citizen science: Eyes on Central PA, a pilot project of NEEF, Project Noah and WTAJ-TV, harnesses Project Noah's citizen science platform to collect and display photos of wildlife from WTAJ-TV viewers. NEEF and WTAJ provide regular blogs and on-air stories that highlight viewers' photos and link them to local weather conditions and climate trends. Expanding the conversation: NEEF's multimedia strategy in the Mid-Atlantic U.S. is reaching Spanish-speaking audiences with climate and environmental information through regular radio and television broadcasts. We are also exploring ways to reach other non-traditional audiences, including faith

  3. Monitoring and research strategy for forests - environmental monitoring and assessment program

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, C.J.; Ritters, K.H.; Strickland, T.; Cassell, D.L.; Byers, G.E.

    1992-03-01

    To protect, manage, and use forest resources effectively, the condition of these resources must be known. Concern about documented and potential effects of air pollutants in combination with other multiple, interacting stresses has been a major impetus behind the development of monitoring programs in forests. During the past two years, the forest component of the Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP-Forests) has been working closely with the Forest Service's Forest Health Monitoring (FS-FHM) program and other government agencies to develop a multi-agency program to monitor the condition of the nation's forested ecosystems. The purpose of the document is to present a strategy that can be used as a starting point by all government agencies interested in participating in a nationwide FHM program. Monitoring issues such as design, indicator selection, and assessment are presented along with approaches to resolving these issues.

  4. Status and practicality of detritiation and tritium production strategies for environmental remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Fulbright, H.H.; Schwirian-Spann, A.L.; Brunt, V. van; Jerome, K.M.; Looney, B.B.

    1996-02-26

    Operation of nuclear facilities throughout the world generates wastewater, groundwater and surface water contaminated with tritium. Because of a commitment to minimize radiation exposures to ''levels as low as reasonably achievable'', the US Department of Energy supports development of tritium isotope separation technologies. Also, DOE periodically documents the status and potential viability of alternative tritium treatment technologies and management strategies. The specific objectives of the current effort are to evaluate practical engineering issues, technology acceptability issues, and costs for realistic tritium treatment scenarios. A unique feature of the assessment is that the portfolio of options was expanded to include various management strategies rather than only evaluating detritiation technologies. The ultimate purpose of this effort is to assist Environmental Restoration and its support organizations in allocating future investments.

  5. Environmental Quality of Italian Marine Water by Means of Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) Descriptor 9

    PubMed Central

    Maggi, Chiara; Lomiri, Serena; Di Lorenzo, Bianca; d’Antona, Marco; Berducci, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    ISPRA, on behalf of the Italian Ministry of Environment, carried out the initial assessment of environmental quality status of the 3 Italian subregions (Mediterranean Sea Region) on Descriptor 9. The approach adopted to define the GES started to verify that contaminants in fish and other seafood for human consumption did not exceed levels established by Community legislation (Reg. 1881/2006 and further updates). As the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requires to use health tools to assess the environment, Italy decided to adopt a statistical range of acceptance of thresholds identified by national (D.Lgs. 152/2006 concerning water quality required for mussel farms) and international legislation (Reg. 1881/2006 and further updates), which allowed to use the health results and to employ them for the assessment of environmental quality. Italy proposed that Good Environmental Status (GES) is achieved when concentrations are lower than statistical range of acceptance, estimated on samples of fish and fishery products coming from only national waters. GIS-based approach a to perform different integration levels for station, cell’s grid and years, was used; the elaborations allowed to judge the environmental quality good. PMID:25251745

  6. Childhood Obesity Policy Research and Practice Evidence for Policy and Environmental Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Laura K.; Brownson, Ross C.; Orleans, C. Tracy

    2016-01-01

    Investigators developed a review system to evaluate the growing literature on policy and environmental strategies to prevent childhood obesity. Over 2000 documents published between January 2000 and May 2009 in the scientific and grey literature were identified (2008–2009) and systematically analyzed (2009–2012). These focused on policy or environmental strategies to reduce obesity/overweight, increase physical activity, and/or improve nutrition/diet among youth (aged 3–18 years). Guided by the RE-AIM framework, investigators abstracted studies of 24 intervention strategies and assessed evidence for their effectiveness (i.e., study design, intervention duration, and outcomes) and population impact (i.e., effectiveness and reach – participation or exposure, and representativeness) in 142 evaluation study groupings and 254 associational study groupings (n=396 groupings of 600 peer-reviewed studies). The 24 strategies yielded 25 classifications (school wellness policies yielded nutrition and physical activity classifications): 1st-tier effective (n=5); 2nd-tier effective (n=6); “promising” (n=5); or “emerging” (n=9). Evidence for intervention effectiveness was reported in 56% of the evaluation, and 77% of the associational, study groupings. Among the evaluation study groupings, only 49% reported sufficient data for population impact ratings, and only 22% qualified for a rating of high population impact. Effectiveness and impact ratings were summarized in graphic evidence maps, displaying effects/associations with behavioral and obesity/overweight outcomes. This paper describes the results and products of the review, with recommendations for policy research and practice. PMID:24355679

  7. Childhood obesity policy research and practice: evidence for policy and environmental strategies.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Laura K; Brownson, Ross C; Orleans, C Tracy

    2014-01-01

    Investigators developed a review system to evaluate the growing literature on policy and environmental strategies to prevent childhood obesity. More than 2000 documents published between January 2000 and May 2009 in the scientific and grey literature were identified (2008-2009) and systematically analyzed (2009-2012). These focused on policy or environmental strategies to reduce obesity/overweight, increase physical activity, and/or improve nutrition/diet among youth (aged 3-18 years). Guided by the RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance) framework, investigators abstracted studies of 24 intervention strategies and assessed evidence for their effectiveness (i.e., study design, intervention duration, and outcomes) and population impact (i.e., effectiveness and reach--participation or exposure, and representativeness) in 142 evaluation study groupings and 254 associational study groupings (n=396 groupings of 600 peer-reviewed studies). The 24 strategies yielded 25 classifications (school wellness policies yielded nutrition and physical activity classifications): 1st-tier effective (n=5); 2nd-tier effective (n=6); "promising" (n=5); or "emerging" (n=9). Evidence for intervention effectiveness was reported in 56% of the evaluation, and 77% of the associational, study groupings. Among the evaluation study groupings, only 49% reported sufficient data for population impact ratings, and only 22% qualified for a rating of high population impact. Effectiveness and impact ratings were summarized in graphic evidence maps, displaying effects/associations with behavioral and obesity/overweight outcomes. This paper describes the results and products of the review, with recommendations for policy research and practice.

  8. European environmental research infrastructures are going for common 30 years strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmi, Ari; Konjin, Jacco; Pursula, Antti

    2014-05-01

    Environmental Research infrastructures are facilities, resources, systems and related services that are used by research communities to conduct top-level research. Environmental research is addressing processes at very different time scales, and supporting research infrastructures must be designed as long-term facilities in order to meet the requirements of continuous environmental observation, measurement and analysis. This longevity makes the environmental research infrastructures ideal structures to support the long-term development in environmental sciences. ENVRI project is a collaborative action of the major European (ESFRI) Environmental Research Infrastructures working towards increased co-operation and interoperability between the infrastructures. One of the key products of the ENVRI project is to combine the long-term plans of the individual infrastructures towards a common strategy, describing the vision and planned actions. The envisaged vision for environmental research infrastructures toward 2030 is to support the holistic understanding of our planet and it's behavior. The development of a 'Standard Model of the Planet' is a common ambition, a challenge to define an environmental standard model; a framework of all interactions within the Earth System, from solid earth to near space. Indeed scientists feel challenged to contribute to a 'Standard Model of the Planet' with data, models, algorithms and discoveries. Understanding the Earth System as an interlinked system requires a systems approach. The Environmental Sciences are rapidly moving to become a one system-level science. Mainly since modern science, engineering and society are increasingly facing complex problems that can only be understood in the context of the full overall system. The strategy of the supporting collaborating research infrastructures is based on developing three key factors for the Environmental Sciences: the technological, the cultural and the human capital. The technological

  9. Development of the Environmental Strategies Instrument to Measure Adolescent Alcohol Prevention-Related Outcomes in Community Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervantes, Richard C.; Goldbach, Jeremy; Yeung, Albert; Rey, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Recently, evidence-based community policy approaches to preventing substance use and alcohol abuse, called environmental strategies, have gained in popularity. The environmental survey instrument (ESI) was developed to evaluate perceptions around drinking and related problems. Specifically, the authors were interested in assessing community…

  10. European Plate Observing System - the Arctic dimension and the Nordic collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atakan, K.; Heikkinen, P.; Juhlin, C.; Thybo, H.; Vogfjord, K.

    2012-04-01

    Within the framework of the EPOS project, Nordic interests are significant, not only in fundamental scientific issues related to geodynamic processes, but also in terms of the application of these to several central problems such as, hydrocarbon exploration and production including the related environmental issues, CO2 storage (or other toxic waste repositories) in geological formations, geothermal energy (natural and hot-dry rock) utilization and mining, geohazards (earthquakes, landslides and volcanic eruptions) and their consequences to the society. The Arctic dimension including Fennoscandia, the northern North Atlantic and the Arctic Sea constitutes an area of considerable geographical extent within the European plate. The region also contains a significant part of the European plate boundary submerged under the North Atlantic and the Arctic sea, where geodynamic processes such as rifting and fracturing are especially energetic. In particular, where the plate boundary is exposed on land in the South Iceland seismic zone, large earthquakes are frequently observed including two Mw6.5 events in 2000 and one Mw6.3 event in 2008. But, seismic hazard is not confined to the plate boundary. Significant intra-plate earthquakes have recently occurred in the region (Mw6.1 in the continental shelf near Spitsbergen in 2008, Mw5.0 in Southern Sweden in 2008, Mw5.2 near Kaliningrad in 2004) showing that there is considerable seismic hazard in the region. In addition, submarine landslide earthquakes are always of concern due to possible tsunami generation. Volcanic activity occurs on the plate boundary and is particularly strong in the rift zones of Iceland, where on average two volcanic eruptions occur per decade. subaerial volcanic eruptions also occur on Jan Mayen island, farther north on the Mid Atlantic ridge. Together, the Danish seismic network in Greenland, the Norwegian seismic arrays and national network traversing the length of Norway and the Icelandic seismic and

  11. 77 FR 20100 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel NORDIC STAR; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel NORDIC STAR... the vessel NORDIC STAR is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Sailing excursions and...

  12. Five-stage environmental exposure assessment strategy for mixtures: gasoline as a case study.

    PubMed

    Foster, Karen L; Mackay, Don; Parkerton, Thomas F; Webster, Eva; Milford, Lynne

    2005-04-15

    A five-stage strategy is suggested for conducting an exposure assessment of mixtures that may contain numerous chemical components. The stages are: (1) determination of mixture composition and variability, (2) selection of component groups within the mixture and documentation of criteria used for this selection, (3) compilation of relevant property data for each group, (4) assessment of environmental fate of each group, and (5) assessment of environmental and human exposure to each group and to the mixture as a whole. A subsequent step is the assessment of environmental and/or human risk associated with the individual and aggregate exposure to each group. The approach is illustrated by application to gasoline, which is treated as 24 component groups or hydrocarbon blocks. Focusing on stages 2-4, the illustration shows that the groups display widely different environmental fates as a result of their different physicochemical properties, degradation half-lives, and mode-of-entry into the environment. As a result, the relative proportions of groups in each environmental medium (such as air and water) differ greatly from that of the original mixture. It is thus important to treat gasoline and similar mixtures as a number of component groups instead of as a single substance. A generic procedure is suggested in which the model is run for unit emissions of each component group to air, water, and soil. These results are compiled into matrices that can then be conveniently scaled to actual emission rates without rerunning the model. Methods for determining subsequent exposure and risk are also briefly outlined.

  13. Safety evaluation of some wild plants in the New Nordic Diet.

    PubMed

    Mithril, Charlotte; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2012-12-01

    One of the dietary components in the New Nordic Diet, is plants from the wild countryside. However, these may have a high content of bioactive components, some of which could be toxic in larger quantities. The objective of this paper is to outline a strategy for safety evaluation of wild plants not covered in current food compositional databases and to apply the method for selected plants used in the New Nordic Diet recipes. Four examples of typical wild edible plants were evaluated (stinging nettle, sorrel, chickweed and common lambsquarters), and based on substantial equivalence with known food plants the majority of the bioactive components reported were within the range experienced when eating or drinking typical food stuffs. For most compounds the hazards could be evaluated as minor. The only precaution found was for common lambsquarters because of its presumed high level of oxalic acid. It is concluded that a substance-by-substance evaluation of intake by equivalence to common foods is a useful and efficient strategy to evaluate the safety of newly introduced wild edible plants. Further evaluation and better compositional analyses are warranted before a daily consumption of significant amounts of wild edible plants can be generally regarded as safe.

  14. FOREWORD: Proceedings of the Nordic Conference on Surface Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessa, V. M.; Nieminen, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    The present issue of Physica Scripta contains the Proceedings of the Nordic Conference on Surface Science. This meeting was held in Tampere, Finland 18-20 August, 1982. The original motivation for the conference was to bring together the various Nordic research groups engaged in surface science and related activities. However, soon after the initial announcement the conference attracted considerable interest also beyond the Nordic area, and it eventually obtained a truly international character: more than half of the 150 participants came from non-Nordic countries. At least to some extent this reflects the high international esteem of surface physics and chemistry in the Nordic area, which hosts some of the strongest research centers in this exciting and important branch of science. The conference provided an opportunity to exchange information in this rapidly moving field, to establish new contacts and strengthen old ones. It showed that there certainly is scope for increased collaboration between various groups, both within the Nordic countries and also more internationally. The opinion was expressed by several participants that this conference was a particularly successful one, both in scientific content and in format. It is the hope of the organizers of the Nordic Conference on Surface Science that this would serve as an incentive to consider having this kind of meetings on a more or less regular basis, as an established event in the Nordic surface science community. The cross-disciplinary nature of surface science is clearly reflected in these proceedings. The topics discussed range from those close to more traditional condensed matter spectroscopy through physical chemistry to biology. The formidable array of sophisticated techniques developed for surface investigations is given ample attention, but nevertheless the proceedings also show the trend towards more problem-oriented instead of technique-oriented emphasis. The proceedings are organized in accordance

  15. Effect of farming strategies on environmental impact of intensive dairy farms in Italy.

    PubMed

    Guerci, Matteo; Bava, Luciana; Zucali, Maddalena; Sandrucci, Anna; Penati, Chiara; Tamburini, Alberto

    2013-08-01

    Agriculture and animal husbandry are important contributors to global emissions of greenhouse (GHG) and acidifying gases. Moreover, they contribute to water pollution and to consumption of non-renewable natural resources such as land and energy. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology allows evaluation of the environmental impact of a process from the production of inputs to the final product and to assess simultaneously several environmental impact categories among which GHG emissions, acidification, eutrophication, land use and energy use. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate, using the LCA methodology, the environmental impact of milk production in a sample of 41 intensive Italian dairy farms and to identify, among different farming strategies, those associated with the best environmental performances. The functional unit was 1 kg Fat and Protein Corrected Milk (FPCM). Farms showed characteristics of high production intensity: FPCM, expressed as tonnes per hectare, was 30·8±15·1. Total GHG emission per kg FPCM at farm gate was 1·30±0·19 kg CO2 eq. The main contributors to climate change potential were emissions from barns and manure storage (50·1%) and emissions for production and transportation of purchased feeds (21·2%). Average emission of gases causing acidification to produce 1 kg FPCM was 19·7±3·6 g of SO2 eq. Eutrophication potential was 9·01±1·78 ${\\rm PO}_{\\rm 4}^{{\\rm 3} -} {\\rm eq}.$ per kg FPCM on average. Farms from this study needed on average 5·97±1·32 MJ per kg FPCM from non-renewable energy sources. Energy consumption was mainly due to off-farm activities (58%) associated with purchased factors. Land use was 1·51±0·25 m2 per kg FPCM. The farming strategy based on high conversion efficiency at animal level was identified as the most effective to mitigate the environmental impact per kg milk at farm gate, especially in terms of GHG production and non-renewable energy use per kg FPCM.

  16. Ontogenetic resource-use strategies in a rare long-lived cycad along environmental gradients

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Yépiz, Juan C.; Cueva, Alejandro; Dovčiak, Martin; Teece, Mark; Yepez, Enrico A.

    2014-01-01

    Functional traits can drive plant responses to short- and long-term stressful conditions, with potential effects on species persistence in local habitats, changes in population size and structure, and potential species range shifts in changing environments. We investigated whether ecophysiological traits in a rare cycad vary along environmental gradients and with ontogeny to understand intra-specific resource-use variation (e.g. symbiotic nitrogen fixation, nitrogen- and water-use efficiency) and possible species adaptations for different environments. Environmental gradients were characterized with 14 soil and topographic variables. Nitrogen- and water-use efficiency improved with ontogeny (from seedling to juvenile and adult stages) but declined as soil fertility decreased with increasing elevation. Conversely, reliance on symbiotic nitrogen fixation increased with elevation and varied slightly with ontogeny. Improved water-use efficiency at lower elevation and nitrogen fixation at higher elevation may represent key functional strategies for maintaining the lower and upper altitudinal species range limits, especially in arid environments where stressful conditions are intensifying due to climatic and land-use changes. In addition to facilitation linked to the regeneration niche, improved resource-use efficiency linked to the adult niche may strongly influence cycad distribution and persistence in contemporary environments. A functional approach to conservation of rare or endangered plant species may be needed in order to target the most sensitive stages to changing environmental conditions and to better understand potential range shifts and adaptive responses to global land-use and climate changes. PMID:27293655

  17. Ontogenetic resource-use strategies in a rare long-lived cycad along environmental gradients.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Yépiz, Juan C; Cueva, Alejandro; Dovčiak, Martin; Teece, Mark; Yepez, Enrico A

    2014-01-01

    Functional traits can drive plant responses to short- and long-term stressful conditions, with potential effects on species persistence in local habitats, changes in population size and structure, and potential species range shifts in changing environments. We investigated whether ecophysiological traits in a rare cycad vary along environmental gradients and with ontogeny to understand intra-specific resource-use variation (e.g. symbiotic nitrogen fixation, nitrogen- and water-use efficiency) and possible species adaptations for different environments. Environmental gradients were characterized with 14 soil and topographic variables. Nitrogen- and water-use efficiency improved with ontogeny (from seedling to juvenile and adult stages) but declined as soil fertility decreased with increasing elevation. Conversely, reliance on symbiotic nitrogen fixation increased with elevation and varied slightly with ontogeny. Improved water-use efficiency at lower elevation and nitrogen fixation at higher elevation may represent key functional strategies for maintaining the lower and upper altitudinal species range limits, especially in arid environments where stressful conditions are intensifying due to climatic and land-use changes. In addition to facilitation linked to the regeneration niche, improved resource-use efficiency linked to the adult niche may strongly influence cycad distribution and persistence in contemporary environments. A functional approach to conservation of rare or endangered plant species may be needed in order to target the most sensitive stages to changing environmental conditions and to better understand potential range shifts and adaptive responses to global land-use and climate changes.

  18. Substance-related environmental monitoring strategies regarding soil, groundwater and surface water - an overview.

    PubMed

    Kördel, Werner; Garelick, Hemda; Gawlik, Bernd M; Kandile, Nadia G; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Rüdel, Heinz

    2013-05-01

    Substance-related monitoring is an essential tool within environmental risk assessment processes. The soundness of policy decisions including risk management measures is often directly related to the reliability of the environmental monitoring programs. In addition, monitoring programs are required for identifying new and less-investigated pollutants of concern in different environmental media. Scientifically sound and feasible monitoring concepts strongly depend on the aim of the study. The proper definition of questions to be answered is thus of pivotal importance. Decisions on sample handling, storage and the analysis of the samples are important steps for the elaboration of problem-oriented monitoring strategies. The same applies to the selection of the sampling sites as being representative for scenarios to be investigated. These steps may become critical to handle for larger international monitoring programs and thus trigger the quality of their results. This study based on the work of an IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) task group addresses different kinds and approaches of substance-related monitoring of different compartments of soil, groundwater and surface water, and discusses their advantages and limitations. Further important aspects are the monitoring across policies and the monitoring data management using information systems.

  19. Stakeholder Interaction in Participatory Land Restoration in Iceland: Environmental Officers' Challenges and Strategies.

    PubMed

    Berglund, Brita; Hallgren, Lars; Aradóttir, Ása L

    2015-08-01

    Participatory approaches involve stakeholder interaction but environmental agency employees engaged in participatory undertakings often lack training for interaction tasks. This study explored how district officers at the Soil Conservation Service of Iceland (SCSI) experienced and dealt with stakeholder interaction in participatory land restoration. We made semi-structured interviews with all district officers with at least 1-year experience; seven in total. A thematic content analysis revealed five challenges facing the officers in their interaction activities and seven strategies that they used to deal with these challenges. The core challenge was to establish and maintain contacts with farmers and other stakeholders as it enabled the SCSI to support and influence their land restoration practices. Other challenges were to: accomplish SCSI's objectives; represent the SCSI and the government; have adequate skills, knowledge, and background; and deal with one's own emotions. Four of the strategies seemed to promote collaboration: create win-win scenarios; "go local"; direct and positive communication; and motivation and knowledge sharing. The other strategies: supportive district officer team; self-reliance and personal background; and self-control supported the officers in their interaction tasks. Factors undermining their collaboration efforts included insufficient time and other resources, an unsupportive organizational culture and a legal duty to assess the condition of vegetation cover on farmland. Increased resource allocation to the SCSI's local operations, more attention to emotional issues, and efforts to develop a more flexible and learning organizational culture that supports collaboration could counteract these factors.

  20. Environmental Control and Life Support Integration Strategy for 6-Crew Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duchesne, Stephanie M.; Tressler, Chad H.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) crew complement has increased in size from 3 to 6 crew members. In order to support this increase in crew on ISS, the United States on-orbit Segment (USOS) has been outfitted with a suite of regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) hardware including an Oxygen Generation System (OGS), Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC), and a Water Recovery System (WRS). The WRS includes the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) and the Water Processor Assembly (WPA). With this additional life support hardware, the ISS has achieved full redundancy in its on-orbit life support system between the t OS and Russian Segment (RS). The additional redundancy created by the Regenerative ECLS hardware creates the opportunity for independent support capabilities between segments, and for the first time since the start of ISS, the necessity to revise Life Support strategy agreements. Independent operating strategies coupled with the loss of the Space Shuttle supply and return capabilities in 2010 offer new and unique challenges. This paper will discuss the evolution of the ISS Life Support hardware strategy in support of 6-Crew on ISS, as well as the continued work that is necessary to ensure the support of crew and ISS Program objectives through the life of station

  1. Stakeholder Interaction in Participatory Land Restoration in Iceland: Environmental Officers' Challenges and Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berglund, Brita; Hallgren, Lars; Aradóttir, Ása L.

    2015-08-01

    Participatory approaches involve stakeholder interaction but environmental agency employees engaged in participatory undertakings often lack training for interaction tasks. This study explored how district officers at the Soil Conservation Service of Iceland (SCSI) experienced and dealt with stakeholder interaction in participatory land restoration. We made semi-structured interviews with all district officers with at least 1-year experience; seven in total. A thematic content analysis revealed five challenges facing the officers in their interaction activities and seven strategies that they used to deal with these challenges. The core challenge was to establish and maintain contacts with farmers and other stakeholders as it enabled the SCSI to support and influence their land restoration practices. Other challenges were to: accomplish SCSI's objectives; represent the SCSI and the government; have adequate skills, knowledge, and background; and deal with one's own emotions. Four of the strategies seemed to promote collaboration: create win-win scenarios; "go local"; direct and positive communication; and motivation and knowledge sharing. The other strategies: supportive district officer team; self-reliance and personal background; and self-control supported the officers in their interaction tasks. Factors undermining their collaboration efforts included insufficient time and other resources, an unsupportive organizational culture and a legal duty to assess the condition of vegetation cover on farmland. Increased resource allocation to the SCSI's local operations, more attention to emotional issues, and efforts to develop a more flexible and learning organizational culture that supports collaboration could counteract these factors.

  2. Interactive effects of environmental change and management strategies on regional forest carbon emissions.

    PubMed

    Hudiburg, Tara W; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Thornton, Peter E; Law, Beverly E

    2013-11-19

    Climate mitigation activities in forests need to be quantified in terms of the long-term effects on forest carbon stocks, accumulation, and emissions. The impacts of future environmental change and bioenergy harvests on regional forest carbon storage have not been quantified. We conducted a comprehensive modeling study and life-cycle assessment of the impacts of projected changes in climate, CO2 concentration, and N deposition, and region-wide forest management policies on regional forest carbon fluxes. By 2100, if current management strategies continue, then the warming and CO2 fertilization effect in the given projections result in a 32-68% increase in net carbon uptake, overshadowing increased carbon emissions from projected increases in fire activity and other forest disturbance factors. To test the response to new harvesting strategies, repeated thinnings were applied in areas susceptible to fire to reduce mortality, and two clear-cut rotations were applied in productive forests to provide biomass for wood products and bioenergy. The management strategies examined here lead to long-term increased carbon emissions over current harvesting practices, although semiarid regions contribute little to the increase. The harvest rates were unsustainable. This comprehensive approach could serve as a foundation for regional place-based assessments of management effects on future carbon sequestration by forests in other locations.

  3. Occupational cancer research in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed Central

    Kjaerheim, K

    1999-01-01

    Occupational cancer research in the Nordic countries benefits from certain structural advantages, including the existence of computerized population registries, national cancer registries with high-quality data on cancer incidence, and a personal identification number for each inhabitant. This article outlines the utilization of this research infrastructure in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, together with research examples from the different countries. Future research on occupational cancer in this region requires that national legislation on electronic handling of sensitive personal information should not be stricter than the European Union Directive on individual protection with regard to personal data. A personal identification number is essential both for keeping up the high quality of data of the registers and for the high quality of the process of linking the different data sources together. Although previous occupational research has focused on male workers, a broader approach is needed in the future, including a study of how cancer risk in women may be affected by occupational activity and the question of possible cancer risk in offspring of men and women exposed to workplace carcinogens. PMID:10350505

  4. Meridional Overturning Exchange with the Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, B.; Osterhus, S.

    2004-12-01

    The flow of Atlantic water towards the Arctic crosses the Greenland-Scotland Ridge in three current branches. By the heat that it carries along, it keeps the subarctic regions abnormally warm and by its import of salt, it helps maintain a high salinity and hence high density in the surface waters as a precondition for thermohaline ventilation. In mid 1990's an extensive monitoring program for all three branches was lunched as a Nordic contribution to WOCE and is still going on. The western branch, the Irminger Current, has been monitored by means of traditional current meters moorings on a section crossing the current northwest of Iceland. A number of ADCPs have been moored on a section going north from the Faroes, crossing the Faroes Current. The eastern branch, the Continental Slope Current, is monitored by ADCPs moorings across the Faroe-Shetland Channel. CTD observations from research vessels along all the current meter sections are obtained on seasonal basis. Here we present for the first time the results from all the branches and offer numbers for the Atlantic water transport as well as seasonal and interannual variations. In addition we offer numbers for the dense overflowe trough the faroe Bank Channel.

  5. Democracy, Caring and Competence: Values Perspectives in ECEC Curricula in the Nordic Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einarsdottir, Johanna; Purola, Anna-Maija; Johansson, Eva Marianne; Broström, Stig; Emilson, Anette

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to explore how Nordic Early Childhood Education and Care policies frame values education in preschools with a special focus on the values of democracy, caring and competence. The study is part of a larger Nordic project, "Values education in Nordic preschools: Basis of education for tomorrow," the aim of which is…

  6. Epidemiology and statistics at the Nordic School of Public Health: Teaching and research 1979-2014.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Bo

    2015-08-01

    The Nordic School of Public Health (NHV) was jointly founded in 1953 by the Nordic countries. Until 1979, the school provided ad hoc courses on public health topics, using external teachers drawn mainly from the Nordic countries. At the time, the permanent staff of the school was small. In 1979, it began a Master's degree programme and a few academic positions were established and filled, to support these courses. The programme included four main areas: Epidemiology, Social Medicine, Environmental Health and Health Services Administration. Epidemiology was compulsory in all Master of Public Health (MPH) exams, but there were a handful of optional courses that could be substituted for the other subjects.This paper tells the story of Epidemiology at NHV from about 1980, up until closure of the school in 2014. The original MPH model ran until 1995. Nursing Science entered NHV from about 1985 and worked mainly with qualitative research that often focused on individual patients. The new methods attracted nurses, midwives, psychologists and other groups that previously had been less represented in NHV. Being quantitative and population oriented, Epidemiology lost its unique position as a mandatory subject for the MPH examination. In addition the 'New Public Health' proposed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) that advocated health promotion and the philosophy of salutogenesis became a challenge for the programme in epidemiology: pathogenesis no longer was of primary interest. From 1995, the MPH format changed repeatedly and a DrPH programme was begun. For the last 8 years of its existence, NHV offered a reasonably comprehensive, basic course in Epidemiology.Throughout the years, epidemiology training and research at NHV were very traditional. In being a relatively free institution in terms of academic choices, NHV should have contributed to the development and innovation of epidemiology in public health. For several reasons, this did not happen.

  7. Research on workplace health promotion in the Nordic countries: a literature review, 1986-2008.

    PubMed

    Torp, Steffen; Eklund, Leena; Thorpenberg, Stefan

    2011-09-01

    Workplace health promotion may include approaches focusing on behavioral change among employees and approaches with a holistic system-oriented thinking aiming at changing the physical, social and organizational factors of a setting. This literature review aimed to identify studies on workplace health promotion in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden), to describe when, where and how the studies were performed and to further analyze the use of settings approaches and empowerment processes. Using scientific literature databases, we found 1809 hits when searching for Nordic studies published from 1986 to 2008 with the search term health promotion. Of these, 116 studies were related to workplace health promotion and 33 included interventions. We used content analysis to analyze the abstracts of all articles and the full articles of the intervention studies. Most studies were performed in Sweden and Finland. The focus was mainly on behavioral change rather than on holistic health promotion as defined by the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This was especially obvious for the intervention studies. In addition to the intervention studies using non-settings approaches with top-down driven behavioral change, we identified studies with participatory settings approaches aimed at changing the setting. We categorized relatively few studies as having a non-participatory settings approach. The studies aiming specifically at improving employees' empowerment were evenly distributed between the categories market-oriented persuasion of empowerment, therapeutic empowerment and empowerment as a liberal management strategy. More studies on workplace health promotion using empowering and participatory settings approaches are needed in the Nordic countries, and a more theory-based approach towards this research field is needed.

  8. NASA's Agency-wide Strategy for Environmental Regulatory Risk Analysis and Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duda, Kristen; Scroggins. Sharon

    2008-01-01

    NASA's mission is to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery, and aeronautics research. To help enable existing and future programs to pursue this mission, NASA has established the Principal Center for Regulatory Risk Analysis and Communication (RRAC PC) to proactively identify, analyze, and communicate environmental regulatory risks to the NASA community. The RRAC PC is chartered to evaluate the risks posed to NASA Programs and facilities by environmentally related drivers. The RRAC PC focuses on emerging environmental regulations, as well as risks related to operational changes that can trigger existing environmental requirements. Changing regulations have the potential to directly affect program activities. For example, regulatory changes can restrict certain activities or operations by mandating changes in how operations may be done or limiting where or how certain operations can take place. Regulatory changes also can directly affect the ability to use certain materials by mandating a production phase-out or restricting usage aPi'iications of certain materials. Such changes can result in NASA undertaking material replacement efforts. Even if a regulation does not directly affect NASA operations, U.S. and international regulations can pose program risks indirectly through requirements levied on manufacturers and vendors of components and materials. For example, manufacturers can change their formulations to comply with new regulatory requirements. Such changes can require time-consuming and costly requalification certification for use in human spaceflight programs. The RRAC PC has implemented several strategies for proactively managing regulatory change to minimize potential adverse impacts to NASA Programs and facilities. This presentation highlights the lessons learned through establishing the RRAC PC, the process by which the RRAC PC monitors and distributes information about emerging regulatory requirements, and the cross

  9. NASA's Agency-Wide Strategy for Environmental Regulatory Risk Analysis and Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duda, Kristen; Scroggins, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    NASA's mission is to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery, and aeronautics research. To help enable existing and future programs to pursue this mission, NASA has established the Principal Center for Regulatory Risk Analysis and Communication (RRAC PC) to proactively identify, analyze, and communicate environmental regulatory risks to the NASA community. The RRAC PC is chartered to evaluate the risks posed to NASA Programs and facilities by environmentally related drivers. The RRAC PC focuses on emerging environmental regulations, as well as risks related to operational changes that can trigger existing environmental requirements. Changing regulations have the potential to directly affect program activities. For example, regulatory changes can restrict certain activities or operations by mandating changes in how operations may be done or limiting where or how certain operations can take place. Regulatory changes also can directly affect the ability to use certain materials by mandating a production phase-out or restricting usage applications of certain materials. Such changes can result in NASA undertaking material replacement efforts. Even if a regulation does not directly affect NASA operations, U.S. and international regulations can pose program risks indirectly through requirements levied on manufacturers and vendors of components and materials. For example, manufacturers can change their formulations to comply with new regulatory requirements. Such changes can require time-consuming and costly requalification certification for use in human spaceflight programs. The RRAC PC has implemented several strategies for proactively managing regulatory change to minimize potential adverse impacts to NASA Programs and facilities. This presentation highlights the lessons learned through establishing the RRAC PC, the process by which the RRAC PC monitors and distributes information about emerging regulatory requirements, and the cross

  10. EFFECTIVE ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLIANCE STRATEGY FOR THE CLEANUP OF K BASINS AT HANFORD SITE WASHINGTON

    SciTech Connect

    AMBALAM, T.

    2004-12-01

    , sludge, debris and water. At present, almost all of the spent fuel has been removed from the basins and other activities to remove sludge, debris and water are scheduled to be completed in 2007. Developing environmental documentation and obtaining regulatory approvals for a project which was initiated outside CERCLA and came under CERCLA during execution, was a significant priority to the successful completion of the SNF retrieval, transfer, drying, transport and storage of fuel, within the purview of strong conduct-of-operations culture associated with nuclear facilities. Environmental requirements promulgated in the state regulations by Washington Department of Public Health for radiation were recognized as ''applicable or relevant and appropriate.'' Effective implementation of the environmental compliance strategy in a project that transitioned to CERCLA became a significant challenge involving multiple contractors. This paper provides an overview of the development and implementation of an environmental permitting and surveillance strategy that enabled us to achieve full compliance in a challenging environment, with milestones and cost constraints, while meeting the high safety standards. The details of the strategy as to how continuous rapport with the regulators, facility operators and surveillance groups helped to avoid impacts on the clean-up schedule are discussed. Highlighted are the role of engineered controls, surveillance protocols and triggers for monitoring and reporting, and active administrative controls that were established for the control of emissions, water loss and transport of waste shipments, during the different phases of the project.

  11. Summary of avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Olsen, J H; Andersen, A; Dreyer, L; Pukkala, E; Tryggvadottir, L; Gerhardsson de Verdier, M; Winther, J F

    1997-01-01

    An overview is given of the most important known causes of cancer in the five Nordic countries and the resulting number of cancers that are potentially avoidable. The main causes include active and passive smoking, alcohol consumption, exposure to asbestos and other occupational carcinogens, solar and ionizing radiation, obesity, human papillomavirus infection in the female genital tract and infection with Helicobacter pylori. The organs most commonly affected are those of the respiratory system, the upper digestive tract and stomach, skin, the lower urinary tract and the uterine cervix. Annually, more than 18,000 cancers in men and 11,000 in women in the Nordic populations could be avoided by eliminating exposure to known carcinogens which is equivalent to 33% and 20% of all cancers arising in men and women, respectively, around the year 2000. Smoking habits account for a little more than half of these avoidable cases. Estimates of avoidable cancers are given for each Nordic country, separately.

  12. The Nordic diet and cognition--The DR's EXTRA Study.

    PubMed

    Männikkö, Reija; Komulainen, Pirjo; Schwab, Ursula; Heikkilä, Harri M; Savonen, Kai; Hassinen, Maija; Hänninen, Tuomo; Kivipelto, Miia; Rauramaa, Rainer

    2015-07-01

    The rapid increase in the prevalence of dementia associated with ageing populations has stimulated interest in identifying modifiable lifestyle factors that could prevent cognitive impairment. One such potential preventive lifestyle factor is the Nordic diet that has been shown to reduce the risk of CVD; however, its effect on cognition has not been studied. The aim of the present study was to estimate the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of the baseline Nordic diet with cognitive function at baseline and after a 4-year follow-up in a population-based random sample (n 1140 women and men, age 57-78 years) as secondary analyses of the Finnish Dose-Responses to Exercise Training study. The Nordic diet score was created based on reported dietary components in 4-d food records. Cognition was assessed by the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) neuropsychological battery and the Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE). The baseline Nordic diet score had been positively associated with Verbal Fluency (β 0.08 (95% CI 0.00, 0.16), P = 0.039) and Word List Learning (β 0.06 (95% CI 0.01, 0.10), P = 0.022) at 4 years but not with the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease total score (CERAD-TS) or MMSE at 4 years, after adjustment for baseline cognitive scores, demographic factors and health-related factors. After excluding individuals with impaired cognition at baseline, the baseline Nordic diet score had also been positively associated with the CERAD-TS (β 0.10 (95% CI 0.00, 0.20), P = 0.042) and MMSE (β 0.03 (95% CI 0.00, 0.06), P = 0.039) at 4 years. These associations disappeared after further adjustment for energy intake. In conclusion, the Nordic diet might have a positive association with cognition in individuals with normal cognition.

  13. The Effects of Multiple Intelligences Instructional Strategy on the Environmental Awareness Knowledge and Environmental Attitude Levels of Elementary Students in Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bas, Gökhan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the effects of Multiple Intelligences strategy and traditional methods of instruction on elementary students' environmental awareness knowledge levels and their attitudes towards the environment. The pre/post-test control group research model was used in this study. The research was carried out in…

  14. Ecological models supporting environmental decision making: a strategy for the future

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmolke, Amelie; Thorbek, Pernille; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Grimm, Volker

    2010-01-01

    Ecological models are important for environmental decision support because they allow the consequences of alternative policies and management scenarios to be explored. However, current modeling practice is unsatisfactory. A literature review shows that the elements of good modeling practice have long been identified but are widely ignored. The reasons for this might include lack of involvement of decision makers, lack of incentives for modelers to follow good practice, and the use of inconsistent terminologies. As a strategy for the future, we propose a standard format for documenting models and their analyses: transparent and comprehensive ecological modeling (TRACE) documentation. This standard format will disclose all parts of the modeling process to scrutiny and make modeling itself more efficient and coherent.

  15. Determination of optimal environmental policy for reclamation of land unearthed in lignite mines - Strategy and tactics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batzias, Dimitris F.; Pollalis, Yannis A.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, optimal environmental policy for reclamation of land unearthed in lignite mines is defined as a strategic target. The tactics concerning the achievement of this target, includes estimation of optimal time lag between each lignite site (which is a segment of the whole lignite field) complete exploitation and its reclamation. Subsidizing of reclamation has been determined as a function of this time lag and relevant implementation is presented for parameter values valid for the Greek economy. We proved that the methodology we have developed gives reasonable quantitative results within the norms imposed by legislation. Moreover, the interconnection between strategy and tactics becomes evident, since the former causes the latter by deduction and the latter revises the former by induction in the time course of land reclamation.

  16. Telescoping Strategies for Improved Simulation-based Optimization of Environmental Remediation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hymiak, B.; Matott, L.

    2012-12-01

    Water contamination is a worldwide problem that is often addressed through simulation-based design and optimization of site-specific environmental remediation systems. Heuristic global search algorithms are particularly appropriate for such activity and have aided with the design of pump-and-treat systems and landfill liners, among others. However, many algorithms yield lackluster performance when computational budgets are restricted, as is often required in practice. This research explored the performance of a suite of 5 heuristic optimizers when applied to a diverse array of 45 optimization test functions. The test functions ranged in dimensionality from easily visualized 2-parameter surfaces to much more complex 100-parameter landscapes. Taken as a whole, these test functions are representative of the variety of cost surfaces encountered in real environmental remediation applications. Massively parallel numerical experiments were applied using the test suite, facilitating benchmark comparisons of the selected optimizers across a variety of restrictive computational budgets. Additional numerical experiments were performed to evaluate so-called "telescoping" strategies - a set of alternative range reduction techniques that work in conjunction with a given optimizer to scale the bounds of the search space in accordance with the remaining computational budget. Preliminary benchmarking results identify the shuffled complex evolutionary algorithm as delivering "best-in-class" performance for most of the test functions. However, the dynamically dimensioned search algorithm was notable for its stellar performance when applied to so-called 'deceptive' cost functions. Furthermore, in some cases the performances of several different algorithms were not statistically different. Finally, it appears that range-reduction strategies have a normalizing effect on algorithm performance in that they increase the frequency at which different algorithms yield statistically the same

  17. Hibernation in Malagasy mouse lemurs as a strategy to counter environmental challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobbe, Susanne; Dausmann, Kathrin H.

    2009-10-01

    The spiny forest of southwestern Madagascar is the driest and most unpredictable region of the island. It is characterized by a pronounced seasonality with high fluctuations in ambient temperature, low availability of food, and a lack of water during the cool dry season and, additionally, by changes in environmental conditions between years. One of the few mammalian species that manages to inhabit this challenging habitat is the reddish-gray mouse lemur ( Microcebus griseorufus). The aim of our study was to determine whether this small primate uses continuous hibernation as an energy saving strategy, and if so, to characterize its physiological properties. We measured skin temperature of 16 free-ranging individuals continuously over 3 months during the cool dry season using collar temperature data loggers. Prolonged hibernation was found in three mouse lemurs and was not sex dependent (one male, two females). Skin temperature of hibernating individuals tracked ambient temperature passively with a minimum skin temperature of 6.5°C and fluctuated strongly each day (up to 20°C), depending on the insulation capacity of the hibernacula. Individuals remained in continuous hibernation even at an ambient temperature of 37°C. The animals hibernated continuously during the dry season, and hibernation bouts were only interrupted by short spontaneous arousals. The study emphasizes that hibernation is an important measure to counter environmental challenge for more tropical species than previously thought, including primates. It furthermore provides evidence that tropical hibernation is functionally similar among tropical species.

  18. Hibernation in Malagasy mouse lemurs as a strategy to counter environmental challenge.

    PubMed

    Kobbe, Susanne; Dausmann, Kathrin H

    2009-10-01

    The spiny forest of southwestern Madagascar is the driest and most unpredictable region of the island. It is characterized by a pronounced seasonality with high fluctuations in ambient temperature, low availability of food, and a lack of water during the cool dry season and, additionally, by changes in environmental conditions between years. One of the few mammalian species that manages to inhabit this challenging habitat is the reddish-gray mouse lemur (Microcebus griseorufus). The aim of our study was to determine whether this small primate uses continuous hibernation as an energy saving strategy, and if so, to characterize its physiological properties. We measured skin temperature of 16 free-ranging individuals continuously over 3 months during the cool dry season using collar temperature data loggers. Prolonged hibernation was found in three mouse lemurs and was not sex dependent (one male, two females). Skin temperature of hibernating individuals tracked ambient temperature passively with a minimum skin temperature of 6.5 degrees C and fluctuated strongly each day (up to 20 degrees C), depending on the insulation capacity of the hibernacula. Individuals remained in continuous hibernation even at an ambient temperature of 37 degrees C. The animals hibernated continuously during the dry season, and hibernation bouts were only interrupted by short spontaneous arousals. The study emphasizes that hibernation is an important measure to counter environmental challenge for more tropical species than previously thought, including primates. It furthermore provides evidence that tropical hibernation is functionally similar among tropical species.

  19. Washington State's federal adequacy determination strategy for compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency's state implementation rule

    SciTech Connect

    Alb, J.W. )

    1994-03-01

    On October 9, 1991, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published in the Federal Register a rule relating to municipal solid waste landfill units, 40 CFR 258, also known as the State and Tribal Implementation Rule, or STIR. This set into motion federal mandates established under Subtitle D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), as amended, which requires state adoption and implementation of a solid waste permit program or other system of prior approval, with approval of the state program by the EPA required by October 9, 1993. Washington State's solid waste permit program is, in comparison with other states' programs, unique, since the state of Washington does not issue permits. This task is and has remained the responsibility of local jurisdiction health departments since Washington State promulgated its first solid waste laws in 1969. The challenge of the state is to develop a strategy for adequacy determination'' that meets federal criteria yet addresses the historical traditions of Washington State. This paper outlines the strategy and process followed and issues examined by the state of Washington's Department of Ecology as it has prepared its application for determination of adequacy with the EPA to meet the federal requirements established under RCRA Subtitle D.

  20. Make it Fit, evaluating strategies to reduce the environmental impacts of meeting human needs in 2050

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, J.; Polasky, S.; Hawthorne, P.

    2014-12-01

    Sustainable development requires providing for human well-being by meeting basic demands for food, energy and consumer goods and services, all while maintaining an environment capable of sustaining the provisioning of those demands for future generations. Failure to meet the basic needs of human well-being is not an ethically viable option and strategies for doubling agricultural production and providing energy and goods for a growing population exist. However, the question is, at what cost to environmental quality? We developed an integrated modeling approach to test strategies for meeting multiple objectives within the limits of the earth system. We use scenarios to explore a range of assumptions on socio-economic factors like population growth, per capita income and technological change; food systems factors like food waste, production intensification and expansion, and meat demand; and technological developments in energy efficiency and wastewater treatment. We use these scenario to test the conditions in which we can fit the simultaneous goals of sustainable development.

  1. Approach and Strategy for Performing Ecological Risk Assessments for the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Office Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Suter, G.W. II

    1992-01-01

    This technical memorandum provides guidance for planning and performing ecological risk assessments (ERAs) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). This work was performed under Work Breakdown Structure 1.4.12.2.3.04.07.02 (Activity Data Sheet 8304) and meets an Environmental Restoration Program milestone for FY 95. The strategy discussed in this report is consistent with the overall strategy for site management and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) compliance developed for the ORR and relevant U.S. Environmental Protection Agency documents and guidance. The general approach and strategy presented herein was developed for the ORR, but it could be applicable to other complex CERCLA sites that possess significant ecological resources.

  2. Life cycle assessment of biofuel production from brown seaweed in Nordic conditions.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Boldrin, Alessio; Karakashev, Dimitar B; Holdt, Susan L; Angelidaki, Irini; Astrup, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    The use of algae for biofuel production is expected to play an important role in securing energy supply in the next decades. A consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) and an energy analysis of seaweed-based biofuel production were carried out in Nordic conditions to document and improve the sustainability of the process. Two scenarios were analyzed for the brown seaweed (Laminaria digitata), namely, biogas production (scenario 1) and bioethanol+biogas production (scenario 2). Potential environmental impact categories under investigation were Global Warming, Acidification and Terrestrial Eutrophication. The production of seaweed was identified to be the most energy intensive step. Scenario 1 showed better performance compared to scenario 2 for all impact categories, partly because of the energy intensive bioethanol separation process and the consequently lower overall efficiency of the system. For improved environmental performance, focus should be on optimization of seaweed production, bioethanol distillation, and management of digestate on land.

  3. Exploring environmental literacy in low-literate communities of Pakistan: A descriptive study to recommend strategies for planning environmental education programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daudi, Sabiha Shafique

    2000-10-01

    The widely accepted definition of environmental education as stated by The Tbilisi Declaration of 1978 focuses on developing an environmentally literate citizenry which is capable of working "...individually and collectively toward solutions of current [environmental] problems and the prevention of new ones". The two basic tenets of environmental literacy are further defined in this study as the ability to understand environmental problems and the ability to address those environmental problems in a responsible manner. Acquisition of knowledge has also been considered an important element when developing environmental literacy programs. However, a large sector of the world population is non- or low-literate and communication is through channels other than the written word. The challenge for environmental educators is to reach the low-literate learners who have not had many opportunities to participate in formal education activities through established institutions. The purpose of this study was to describe levels of environmental literacy in communities with varying levels of formal literacy in two cities, Karachi and Islamabad, Pakistan to determine the role formal literacy plays in enhancing environmental literacy and decision making in relation to age, sex, location, number of years spent in formal education, and the socio-economic status (SES) of adult learners. Based on the outcomes, recommendations were made for designing effective programs to ensure involvement of low-literate communities in established decision-making processes through relevant program planning. This study suggested strategies to program planners and environmental educators for designing programs that reach low-literate communities, highlight local environmental concerns, and empower these communities in addressing local environmental issues. A purposive sample was identified from the constituencies of five non-governmental organizations in Karachi and Islamabad, Pakistan. Two instruments

  4. Soviet Nordic nuclear-weapon free-zone proposal. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lumsden, C.A.

    1990-06-01

    This thesis examines the Soviet proposal and its ramifications for the United States and the West. The central theme running through each Soviet proposal has been removal of American nuclear guarantees. Preservation of US national security interests and hence US ability to extend its forward defense would be gravely threatened by such a NWFZ. However, unilateral agreement on a NWFZ is unlikely by the anticipated members of the Nordic NWFZ the US, USSR, Denmark, Norway, Finland, Iceland, Greenland, and Sweden. The US has military installations in Iceland and Greenland and banning of nuclear weapons during wartime is inconceivable. The question then arises as to which nation or groups of nations will dominate and which will acquiesce. Inevitably the debate breaks down to a tug of war between the two superpowers. It is really the politics surrounding the nuclear weapons that is the heart of the nuclear-free-zone debate. Changing world politics demand that the West develop a unified strategy toward the USSR. Through NATO it must preserve its vital economic political and military objectives in the Northern Flank. Flexible naval forces and strong political and economic ties to the governments of the nations bordering the Baltic are essential. Strong NATO naval forces operating in the Baltic Sea must be seen as guarantors of the West's strategic aims and interests. A Nordic NWFZ would prevent this.

  5. Spatiotemporal environmental variation, risk aversion, and the evolution of cooperative breeding as a bet-hedging strategy

    PubMed Central

    Rubenstein, Dustin R.

    2011-01-01

    In cooperatively breeding systems in which some individuals delay reproduction to help raise others’ offspring, environmental variation in space and time influences individual reproductive strategies as well as interspecific patterns of sociality. Although most environmental explanations for cooperative breeding emphasize the mean fitness gains of living socially, the fittest individuals are not always those that produce on average the highest number of offspring. At times, variance in fecundity can influence fitness as much as mean fecundity, particularly in small populations like those of cooperative breeders. Cooperative breeding behavior could therefore be a risk-averse strategy to maximize fitness by reducing environmentally induced fecundity variance. Such a within-generation bet-hedging hypothesis for social evolution predicts that (i) variance in reproductive success should be related to environmental variation, (ii) variance in reproductive success should be related to the potential for cooperation in a group, and (iii) the potential for cooperation should be related to environmental variation. Using data from a 10-y study of cooperatively breeding superb starlings (Lamprotornis superbus) living in a temporally and spatially variable savanna ecosystem, I found that variance in reproductive success declined with increasing environmental quality (temporal variation), increasing territory quality (spatial variation), and increasing group size (potential for cooperation), which is itself related to environmental variation. To understand the adaptive value of cooperative breeding behavior in variable environments, researchers must consider both mean and environmentally induced variance in fecundity. Determining how spatiotemporal environmental variation drives risk-averse strategies may provide insights into the evolution of complex social behavior. PMID:21690415

  6. Multilingual Policies and Multilingual Education in the Nordic Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Björklund, Mikaela; Björklund, Siv; Sjöholm, Kaj

    2013-01-01

    This article presents some aspects of multilingualism and multilingual education in the Nordic countries, drawing upon experiences from the project "Network for Researchers of Multilingualism and Multilingual Education, RoMME" (2011-2013), where Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden are represented. The aim is to briefly present and…

  7. Degree Mobility from the Nordic Countries: Background and Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiers-Jenssen, Jannecke

    2013-01-01

    Full-degree mobility from Western countries is a topic that has been little researched. Existing literature tends to be normative; mobility is seen as an advantage per se. In this article it is questioned whether mobility is an advantage when investigating degree mobility and employability of students from the Nordic countries. Results show that…

  8. Academisation of Nursing Education in the Nordic Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laiho, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Nursing Science represents a new academic discipline in the Nordic Countries. The article focuses on the academisation of nursing education and the development of nursing to a specific discipline in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The education of nurses has developed within the national framework of each country, but not within a national…

  9. A Nordic Perspective on Early Childhood Education and Care Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karila, Kirsti

    2012-01-01

    The national policies and historical roots of early childhood education (ECE) vary from society to society. In the Nordic countries, early childhood education and care (ECEC) policies have been built in the context of the welfare state. As such, they are closely connected to other welfare policy areas such as social policy, family policy and…

  10. The common objectives of the European Nordic countries and the role of space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, Christopher; Giannopapa, Christina; Vaudo, Ersilia

    2016-11-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has twenty two Member States with common goals of engaging in European space activities. However, the various Member States have a variety of governance structures, strategic priorities regarding space and other sectorial areas depending on their cultural and geopolitical aspirations. The Nordic countries, namely Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, have similarities which result often in common geopolitical and cultural aspects. These in turn shape their respective priorities and interests in setting up their policies in a number of sectorial areas like shipping and fisheries, energy, immigration, agriculture, security and defence, infrastructures, climate change and the Arctic. Space technology, navigation, earth observation, telecommunication and integrated applications can assist the Nordic countries in developing, implementing and monitoring policies of common interest. This paper provides an in-depth overview and a comprehensive assessment of these common interests in policy areas where space can provide support in their realisation. The first part provides a synthesis of the Nordic countries respective priorities through analysing their government programmes and plans. The priorities are classified according to the six areas of sustainability: energy, environment and climate change, transport, knowledge and innovation, natural resources (fisheries, agriculture, forestry, mining, etc), and security and external relations. Although the national strategies present different national perspectives, at the same time, there are a number of similarities when it comes to overall policy objectives in a number of areas such as the Arctic and climate change. In other words, even though the Arctic plays a different role in each country's national context and there are clear differences as regards geography, access to resources and security policies, the strategies display common general interest in sustainable development and management of

  11. Evaluating environmental and economic consequences of alternative pest management strategies: results of modeling workshops

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Richard L.; Andrews, Austin K.; Auble, Gregor T.L.; Ellison, Richard A.; Hamilton, David B.; Roelle, James E.; McNamee, Peter J.

    1983-01-01

    The model conceptualized at the first workshop simulates the effect of corn agrecosystem decisions on crop production, economic returns, and environmental indicators. The model is composed of five interacting submodels: 1) a Production Strategies submodel which makes decisions concerning tillage, planting, fertilizer and pesticide applications, and harvest; 2) a Hydrology/Chemical Transport submodel which represents soil hydrology, erosion, and concentrations of fertilizers and pesticides in the soil, runoff, surface waters, and percolation; 3) a Vegetation submodel which simulates growth of agricultural crops (corns and soybeans) and weeds; 4) a Pests submodel which calculates pest population levels and resulting crop damage; and 5) an Environmental Effects submodel which calculates indicators of potential fish kills, human health effects, and wildlife habitat. The most persistent data gaps encountered in quantifying the model were coefficients to relate environmental consequences to alternative pest management strategies. While the model developed in the project is not yet accurate enough to be used for real-world decisions about the use of pesticides on corn, it does contain the basic structure upon which such a model could be built. More importantly at this stage of development, the project has shown that very complex systems can be modeled in short periods of time and that the process of building such models increases understanding among disciplinary specialists and between diverse institutional interests. This process can be useful to EPA as the agency cooperates with other institutions to meet its responsibilities in less costly ways. Activities at the second 2 1/2-day workshop included a review of the model, incorporation of necessary corrections, simulation of policy scenarios, and examination of techniques to address remaining institutional conflicts. Participants were divided into three groups representing environmental, production or industry, and

  12. The Crop Evaluation Research for Environmental Strategies (CERES) Remote Sensing 2008 Project Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casas, Joseph C.; Glaser, John A.; Copenhaver, Kenneth L.; May, George

    2009-01-01

    resistance development. The two agencies have entered into an agreement which could potentially lead to the development of next generation NASA sensors that will more specifically address the requirements of the USEPA's resistance development strategy and offer opportunities to study the ever changing ecosystem complexities. The USEPA/NASA/ITD team has developed a broad research project entitled CERES (Crop Evaluation Research for Environmental Strategies). CERES is a research effort leading to decision support system tools that are designed to integrate multi-resolution NASA remote sensing data products and USEPA geo -spatial models to monitor the potential for insect pest resistance development from the regional to the landscape and then to the field level.

  13. Environmental Enrichment as a Viable Neurorehabilitation Strategy for Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bondi, Corina O.; Klitsch, Kyle C.; Leary, Jacob B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Environmental enrichment (EE) emerged as a robust independent variable capable of influencing behavioral outcome in experimental studies after the fortuitous observation by renowned neuropsychologist Donald O. Hebb that rats raised as pets in his home performed markedly better on problem-solving tasks than those kept in the laboratory. In the subsequent years, numerous studies ensued demonstrating that EE was also capable of inducing neuroplasticity in normal (i.e., noninjured) rats. These behavioral and neural alterations provided the impetus for investigating EE as a potential therapy for traumatic brain injury (TBI), which, over the past two decades, has resulted in several reports. Hence, the aim of this review is to integrate the findings and present the current state of EE as a viable neurorehabilitation strategy for TBI. Using the specific key term searches “traumatic brain injury” and “environmental enrichment” or “enriched environment,” 30 and 30 experimental TBI articles were identified by PubMed and Scopus, respectively. Of these, 27 articles were common to both search engines. An additional article was found on PubMed using the key terms “enriched environment” and “fluid percussion.” A review of the bibliographies in the 34 articles did not yield additional citations. The overwhelming consensus of the 34 publications is that EE benefits behavioral and histological outcome after brain injury produced by various models. Further, the enhancements are observed in male and female as well as adult and pediatric rats and mice. Taken together, these cumulative findings provide strong support for EE as a generalized and robust preclinical model of neurorehabilitation. However, to further enhance the model and to more accurately mimic the clinic, future studies should continue to evaluate EE during more rehabilitation-relevant conditions, such as delayed and shorter time periods, as well as in combination with other therapeutic

  14. Developing Better Environmental Assessment and Protection Strategies: A Case Example on Early Detection Monitoring for Aquatic Invasive Species

    EPA Science Inventory

    A principal theme of our research group is to develop, evaluate, and improve monitoring approaches, ecological assessments, and environmental protection strategies. Over the past decade, we have conducted a number of studies under this general theme, across the Great Lakes basin...

  15. Exploitation or Conservation: Today's Choices for Tomorrow. A Guide to Activities and Strategies in Environmental Education, Grades 9-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayer, Robert; And Others

    Presented in this guide are classroom and outdoor lessons intended to assist high school teachers in implementing environmental education objectives. Provided for each objective are background information, up to 15 related activities, and teacher questions designed to facilitate students' investigations. Among the learning strategies used are…

  16. The Influence of Supports Strategies, Environmental Factors, and Client Characteristics on Quality of Life-Related Personal Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claes, Claudia; Van Hove, Geert; Vandevelde, Stijn; van Loon, Jos; Schalock, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The concept of quality of life (QOL) is increasingly being used as a support provision and outcomes evaluation framework in the field of intellectual disability (ID). The present study used a hierarchical multiple regression research design to determine the role that available supports strategies, environmental factors, and client characteristics…

  17. Environmental Contingency in Life History Strategies: The Influence of Mortality and Socioeconomic Status on Reproductive Timing

    PubMed Central

    Griskevicius, Vladas; Delton, Andrew W.; Robertson, Theresa E.; Tybur, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Why do some people have children early, whereas others delay reproduction? By considering the trade-offs between using one’s resources for reproduction versus other tasks, the evolutionary framework of life history theory predicts that reproductive timing should be influenced by mortality and resource scarcity. A series of experiments examined how mortality cues influenced the desire to have children sooner rather than later. The effects of mortality depended critically on whether people grew up in a relatively resource-scarce or resource-plentiful environment. For individuals growing up relatively poor, mortality cues produced a desire to reproduce sooner—to want children now, even at the cost of furthering one’s education or career. Conversely, for individuals growing up relatively wealthy, mortality cues produced a desire to delay reproduction—to further one’s education or career before starting a family. Overall, mortality cues appear to shift individuals into different life history strategies as a function of childhood socioeconomic status, suggesting important implications for how environmental factors can influence fertility and family size. PMID:20873933

  18. The impacts of different management strategies and environmental forcing in ecological communities

    PubMed Central

    Enberg, Katja; Fowler, Mike S; Ranta, Esa

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the effects of population management on the community a target species belongs to is of key importance for successful management. It is known that the removal or extinction of a single species in a community may lead to extinctions of other community members. In our study, we assess the impacts of population management on competitive communities, studying the response of both locally stable and unstable communities of varying size (between four and 10 species) to three different management strategies; harvesting of a target species, harvesting with non-targeted catch, and stocking of the target species. We also studied the consequences of selecting target species with different relative abundances, as well as the effects of varying environmental conditions. We show here how the effects of management in competitive communities extend far beyond the target population. A crucial role is played by the underlying stability properties of the community under management. In general, locally unstable communities are more vulnerable to perturbation through management. Furthermore, the community response is shown to be sensitive to the relative density of the target species. Of considerable interest is the result that even a small (2.5%) increase in the population size of the target species through stocking may lead to extinction of other community members. These results emphasize the importance of considering and understanding multi-species interactions in population management. PMID:16959640

  19. A Planetary Protection Strategy for the Mars Aerial Regional-Scale Environmental Survey (ARES) Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhl, Christopher A.

    2008-01-01

    The Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Survey (ARES) is a Mars exploration mission concept designed to send an airplane to fly through the lower atmosphere of Mars, with the goal of taking scientific measurements of the atmosphere, surface, and subsurface phenomenon. ARES was first proposed to the Mars Scout program in December 2002 for a 2007 launch opportunity and was selected to proceed with a Phase A study, step-2 proposal which was submitted in May 2003. ARES was not selected for the Scout mission, but efforts continued on risk reduction of the atmospheric flight system in preparation for the next Mars Scout opportunity in 2006. The ARES concept was again proposed in July 2006 to the Mars Scout program but was not selected to proceed into Phase A. This document describes the Planetary Protection strategy that was developed in ARES Pre Phase-A activities to help identify, early in the design process, certain hardware, assemblies, and/or subsystems that will require unique design considerations based on constraints imposed by Planetary Protection requirements. Had ARES been selected as an exploration project, information in this document would make up the ARES Project Planetary Protection Plan.

  20. Strategies for reducing the environmental impact of gaseous detector operation at the CERN LHC experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capeans, M.; Guida, R.; Mandelli, B.

    2017-02-01

    A wide range of gas mixtures is used for the operation of different gaseous detectors at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments. Nowadays some of these gases, as C2H2F4, CF4 and SF6, are indicated as greenhouse gases (GHG) and dominate the overall GHG emission from particle detectors at the LHC experiments. The release of GHG is an important subject for the design of future particle detectors as well as for the operation of the current experiments. Different strategies have been adopted at CERN for reducing the GHG emissions. The standard approach is the recirculation of the gas mixture with complex gas systems where system stability and the possible accumulation of impurities need to be attentively evaluated for the good operation and safety of the detectors. A second approach is based on the recuperation of the gas mixture exiting the detectors and the separation of its gas components for re-use. At long-term, the use of less invasive gases is being investigated, especially for the Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) systems. Operation of RPC with environmentally friendly gas mixtures is demonstrated for streamer mode while avalanche mode operation needs more complex gas mixtures.

  1. Exploiting Quorum Sensing Interfering Strategies in Gram-Negative Bacteria for the Enhancement of Environmental Applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weiwei; Li, Chenghua

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a widespread intercellular form of communication to coordinate physiological processes and cooperative activities of bacteria at the population level, and it depends on the production, secretion, and detection of small diffusible autoinducers, such as acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), auto-inducing oligo-peptides (AIPs) and autoinducer 2. In this review, the function of QS autoinducers of gram-negative bacteria in different aspects of wastewater treatment systems is examined. Based on research primarily performed over the past 10 years, QS involvement in the formation of biofilm and aerobic granules and changes of the microbial community and degradation/transformation pathways is discussed. In particular, the QS pathway in the role of bacterial infections and disease prevention in aquaculture is addressed. Interference of QS autoinducer-regulated pathways is considered potential treatment for a variety of environmentally related problems. This review is expected to serve as a stepping stone for further study and development strategies based on the mediation of QS-regulated pathways to enhance applications in both wastewater treatment systems and aquaculture. PMID:26779175

  2. Photosynthetic adaptation strategy of Ulva prolifera floating on the sea surface to environmental changes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinyu; Tang, Xuexi; Zhang, Huanxin; Qu, Tongfei; Wang, Ying

    2016-10-01

    For 8 consecutive years, a green tide has originated in the southern Yellow Sea and spread to the Qingdao offshore area. The causative species, Ulva prolifera, always forms a very thick thallus mat that is capable of drifting long distances over long periods. During this process, although the thalli face disturbance by complex environmental factors, they maintain high biomass and proliferation. We hypothesized that some form of photosynthetic adaptation strategy must exist to protect the thalli. Therefore, we studied the different photosynthetic response characteristics of the surface and lower layers of the floating thallus mats, and investigated the physiological and molecular-level adaptation mechanisms. The results showed that: (1) U. prolifera has strong photosynthetic capability that ensures it can gain sufficient energy to increase its biomass and adapt to long-distance migration. (2) Surface layer thalli adapt to the complex environment by dissipating excess energy via photosynthetic quantum control (energy quenching and energy redistribution between PSII/PSI) to avoid irreversible damage to the photosynthetic system. (3) Lower layer thalli increase their contents of Chlorophyll a (Chl a) and Chlorophyll b (Chl b) and decrease their Chl a/Chl b ratio to improve their ability to use light energy. (4) U. prolifera has strong photosynthetic plasticity and can adapt to frequent exchange between the surface and lower layer environments because of wave disturbance. Pigment component changes, energy quenching, and energy redistribution between PSII/PSI contribute to this photosynthetic plasticity.

  3. Ranking current and prospective NO2 pollution mitigation strategies: An environmental and economic modelling investigation in Oxford Street, London.

    PubMed

    Jeanjean, A P R; Gallagher, J; Monks, P S; Leigh, R J

    2017-03-21

    Air pollution continues to be a problem in the urban environment. A range of different pollutant mitigation strategies that promote dispersion and deposition exist, but there is little evidence with respect to their comparative performance from both an environmental and economic perspective. This paper focuses on examining different NO2 mitigation strategies such as trees, buildings facades coated with photocatalytic paint and solid barriers in Oxford Street in London. The case study findings will support ranking the environmental and economic impacts of these different strategies to improve personal exposure conditions on the footpath and on the road in a real urban street canyon. CFD simulations of airflow and NO2 dispersion in Oxford Street in London were undertaken using the OpenFOAM software platform with the k-ε model, taking into account local prevailing wind conditions. Trees are shown to be the most cost-effective strategy, with a small reduction in NO2 concentrations of up to 0.7% on the road. However, solid barriers with and without the application of photocatalytic paint and an innovative material (20 times more expensive than trees) can improve air quality on the footpaths more substantially, up to 7.4%, yet this has a significant detrimental impact on NO2 concentrations (≤23.8%) on the road. Photocatalytic paint on building surfaces presented a minimal environmental reductions (1.2%) and economic (>100 times more expensive than trees) mitigation strategy. The findings recognised the differences between footpath and road concentrations occurred and that a focused examination of three pollution hotspots can provide more cost effective pollution mitigation. This study considers how a number of pollutant mitigation measures can be applied in a single street canyon and demonstrates the strengths and weaknesses of these strategies from economic and environmental perspectives. Further research is required to extrapolate the findings presented here to

  4. The premises is the premise: understanding off- and on-premises alcohol sales outlets to improve environmental alcohol prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Chinman, Matthew; Burkhart, Q; Ebener, Patricia; Fan, Cha-Chi; Imm, Pamela; Osilla, Karen Chan; Paddock, Susan M; Wright, Annie

    2011-06-01

    Environmental strategies to prevent the misuse of alcohol among youth--e.g., use of public policies to restrict minors' access to alcohol--have been shown to reduce underage drinking. However, implementation of policy changes often requires public and private partnerships. One way to support these partnerships is to better understand the target of many of the environmental strategies, which is the alcohol sales outlet. Knowing more about how off-premises outlets (e.g., liquor and convenience stores) and on-premises outlets (e.g., bars and restaurants) are alike and different could help community-based organizations better tailor, plan, and implement their environmental strategies and strengthen partnerships between the public and commercial sectors. We conducted a survey of managerial or supervisory staff and/or owners of 336 off- and on-premises alcohol outlets in six counties in South Carolina, comparing these two outlet types on their preferences regarding certain alcohol sales practices, beliefs toward underage drinking, alcohol sales practices, and outcomes. Multilevel logistic regression showed that while off- and on-premises outlets did have many similarities, off-premises outlets appear to engage in more practices designed to prevent sales of alcohol to minors than on-premises outlets. The relationship between certain Responsible Beverage Service (RBS) practices and outcomes varied by outlet type. This study furthers the understanding of the differences between off- and on-premises alcohol sales outlets and offers options for increasing and tailoring environmental prevention efforts to specific settings.

  5. Environmental response to sewage treatment strategies: Hong Kong's experience in long term water quality monitoring.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Lee, Joseph H W; Yin, Kedong; Liu, Hongbin; Harrison, Paul J

    2011-11-01

    In many coastal cities around the world, marine outfalls are used for disposal of partially treated wastewater effluent. The combined use of land-based treatment and marine discharge can be a cost-effective and environmentally acceptable sewage strategy. Before 2001, screened sewage was discharged into Victoria Harbour through many small outfalls. After 2001, the Hong Kong Harbour Area Treatment Scheme (HATS) was implemented to improve the water quality in Victoria Harbour and surrounding waters. Stage I of HATS involved the construction of a 24 km long deep tunnel sewerage system to collect sewage from the densely populated urban areas of Hong Kong to a centralized sewage treatment plant at Stonecutters Island. A sewage flow of 1.4 million m3 d(-1) receives Chemically Enhanced Primary Treatment (CEPT) followed by discharge via a 1.2 km long outfall 2 km west of the harbor. The ecosystem recovery in Victoria Harbour and the environmental response to sewage abatement after the implementation of HATS was studied using a 21-year data set from long term monthly water quality monitoring. Overall, the pollution control scheme has achieved the intended objectives. The sewage abatement has resulted in improved water quality in terms of a significant reduction in nutrients and an increase in bottom DO levels. Furthermore, due to the efficient tidal mixing and flushing, the impact of the HATS discharge on water quality in the vicinity of the outfall location is relatively limited. However, Chl a concentrations have not been reduced in Victoria Harbour where algal growth is limited by hydrodynamic mixing and water clarity rather than nutrient concentrations. Phosphorus removal in the summer is suggested to reduce the risk of algal blooms in the more weakly-flushed and stratified southern waters, while nutrient removal is less important in other seasons due to the pronounced role played by hydrodynamic mixing. The need for disinfection of the effluent to reduce bacterial (E

  6. Indicator Properties of Baltic Zooplankton for Classification of Environmental Status within Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    PubMed Central

    Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Postel, Lutz; Rubene, Gunta; Amid, Callis; Lesutiene, Jurate; Uusitalo, Laura; Strake, Solvita; Demereckiene, Natalja

    2016-01-01

    The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires the EU Member States to estimate the level of anthropogenic impacts on their marine systems using 11 Descriptors. Assessing food web response to altered habitats is addressed by Descriptor 4 and its indicators, which are being developed for regional seas. However, the development of simple foodweb indicators able to assess the health of ecologically diverse, spatially variable and complex interactions is challenging. Zooplankton is a key element in marine foodwebs and thus comprise an important part of overall ecosystem health. Here, we review work on zooplankton indicator development using long-term data sets across the Baltic Sea and report the main findings. A suite of zooplankton community metrics were evaluated as putative ecological indicators that track community state in relation to Good Environmental Status (GES) criteria with regard to eutrophication and fish feeding conditions in the Baltic Sea. On the basis of an operational definition of GES, we propose mean body mass of zooplankton in the community in combination with zooplankton stock measured as either abundance or biomass to be applicable as an integrated indicator that could be used within the Descriptor 4 in the Baltic Sea. These metrics performed best in predicting zooplankton being in-GES when considering all datasets evaluated. However, some other metrics, such as copepod biomass, the contribution of copepods to the total zooplankton biomass or biomass-based Cladocera: Copepoda ratio, were equally reliable or even superior in certain basin-specific assessments. Our evaluation suggests that in several basins of the Baltic Sea, zooplankton communities currently appear to be out-of-GES, being comprised by smaller zooplankters and having lower total abundance or biomass compared to the communities during the reference conditions; however, the changes in the taxonomic structure underlying these trends vary widely across the sea basins due to

  7. Surface plasmon resonance biosensors for detection of pathogenic microorganisms: strategies to secure food and environmental safety.

    PubMed

    Bergwerff, Aldert A; van Knapen, Frans

    2006-01-01

    This review describes the exploitation of exclusively optical surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors for the direct and indirect detection of pathogenic microorganisms in food chains and the environment. Direct detection is, in most cases, facilitated by the use of defined monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies raised against (a part of) the target pathogenic microorganisms. The antibodies were immobilized to a solid phase of the sensor to capture the microbe from the sample. Alternatively, antibodies were used in an inhibition-like assay involving incubation with the target organism prior to analysis of nonbound antibodies. The free immunoglobins were screened on a sensor surface coated with either purified antigens or with Fc or Fab binding antibodies. Discussed examples of these approaches are the determination of Escherichia coli O1 57:H7, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes. Another direct detection strategy involved SPR analysis of polymerase chain reaction products of Shiga toxin-2 genes reporting the presence of E. coli O157:H7 in human stool. Metabolic products have been exploited as biomarkers for the presence of a microbial agent, such as enterotoxin B and a virulence factor for the occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus suis, respectively. Indirect detection, on the other hand, is performed by analysis of a humoral immune response of the infected animal or human. By immobilization of specific antigenic structures, infections with Herpes simplex and human immunodeficiency viruses, Salmonella and Treponema pallidum bacteria, and Schistosoma spp. parasites were revealed using human, avian, and porcine sera and avian eggs. Bound antibodies were easily isotyped using an SPR biosensor to reveal the infection history of the individual. Discussed studies show the recent recognition of the suitability of this type of instrument for (rapid) detection of health-threatening microbes to food and environmental microbial safety.

  8. Campus Ecology: A Guide to Assessing Environmental Quality and Creating Strategies for Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, April A.; And Others

    This book is designed to take the environmental issues and principles currently being studied in the classroom and move them outside the classroom doors into the campus community and the larger world. By making environmental knowledge part and parcel of campus environmental practice, students, faculty, and administrators have an extraordinary…

  9. Dispersal strategies, few dominating or many coexisting: the effect of environmental spatial structure and multiple sources of mortality.

    PubMed

    Büchi, Lucie; Vuilleumier, Séverine

    2012-01-01

    Interspecific competition, life history traits, environmental heterogeneity and spatial structure as well as disturbance are known to impact the successful dispersal strategies in metacommunities. However, studies on the direction of impact of those factors on dispersal have yielded contradictory results and often considered only few competing dispersal strategies at the same time. We used a unifying modeling approach to contrast the combined effects of species traits (adult survival, specialization), environmental heterogeneity and structure (spatial autocorrelation, habitat availability) and disturbance on the selected, maintained and coexisting dispersal strategies in heterogeneous metacommunities. Using a negative exponential dispersal kernel, we allowed for variation of both species dispersal distance and dispersal rate. We showed that strong disturbance promotes species with high dispersal abilities, while low local adult survival and habitat availability select against them. Spatial autocorrelation favors species with higher dispersal ability when adult survival and disturbance rate are low, and selects against them in the opposite situation. Interestingly, several dispersal strategies coexist when disturbance and adult survival act in opposition, as for example when strong disturbance regime favors species with high dispersal abilities while low adult survival selects species with low dispersal. Our results unify apparently contradictory previous results and demonstrate that spatial structure, disturbance and adult survival determine the success and diversity of coexisting dispersal strategies in competing metacommunities.

  10. Summary of third Nordic symposium on digital pathology

    PubMed Central

    Lundström, Claes; Waltersson, Marie; Persson, Anders; Treanor, Darren

    2016-01-01

    Cross-disciplinary and cross-sectorial collaboration is a key success factor for turning the promise of digital pathology into actual clinical benefits. The Nordic symposium on digital pathology (NDP) was created to promote knowledge exchange in this area, among stakeholders in health care, industry, and academia. This article is a summary of the third NDP symposium in Linkφping, Sweden. The Nordic experiences, including several hospitals using whole-slide imaging for substantial parts of their primary reviews, formed a fertile base for discussions among the 190 NDP attendees originating from 15 different countries. This summary also contains results from a survey on adoption and validation aspects of clinical digital pathology use. PMID:27141318

  11. Taking Space to the Classroom in the Nordic Countries- Challenges and Opportunites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biebricher, A.

    2015-09-01

    The Norwegian Centre for Space-related Education (NAROM) has a mandate to teach about space and space technology in four Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, via the Nordic European Space Education Resources Office (ESERO). The geographical distances in the Nordic countries make it difficult for any one entity such as NAROM to coordinate teaching comprehensively. Identification, delegation of responsibility and support to local teachers is therefore paramount. An important tool in this respect is advanced teacher training which employs flexible teaching methods. This paper is a discussion of how flexible teaching is implemented within Nordic ESERO's advanced teacher training.

  12. U.S. Geological Survey environmental health science strategy: providing environmental health science for a changing world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bright, Patricia R.; Buxton, Herbert T.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Barber, Larry B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Cross, Paul C.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Toccalino, Patricia L.; Winton, James R.

    2013-01-01

    The “One Health” paradigm advocated by the World Health Organization (WHO; World Health Organization, 2011), and the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA; American Veterinary Medical Association, 2008), among others, is based on a general recognition that the health of humans, animals, and the environment are inextricably linked. Thus, successful efforts to protect that health will require increased interdisciplinary research and increased communication and collaboration among the broader scientific and health community. This strategy is built upon that paradigm.

  13. Assessing the role of GPs in Nordic health care systems.

    PubMed

    Quaye, Randolph K

    2016-05-03

    Purpose This paper examines the changing role of general practitioners (GPs) in Nordic countries of Sweden, Norway and Denmark. It aims to explore the "gate keeping" role of GPs in the face of current changes in the health care delivery systems in these countries. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from existing literature, interviews with GPs, hospital specialists and representatives of Danish regions and Norwegian Medical Association. Findings The paper contends that in all these changes, the position of the GPs in the medical division of labor has been strengthened, and patients now have increased and broadened access to choice. Research limitations/implications Health care cost and high cancer mortality rates have forced Nordic countries of Sweden, Norway and Denmark to rethink their health care systems. Several attempts have been made to reduce health care cost through market reform and by strenghtening the position of GPs. The evidence suggests that in Norway and Denmark, right incentives are in place to achieve this goal. Sweden is not far behind. The paper has limitations of a small sample size and an exclusive focus on GPs. Practical implications Anecdotal evidence suggests that physicians are becoming extremely unhappy. Understanding the changing status of primary care physicians will yield valuable information for assessing the effectiveness of Nordic health care delivery systems. Social implications This study has wider implications of how GPs see their role as potential gatekeepers in the Nordic health care systems. The role of GPs is changing as a result of recent health care reforms. Originality/value This paper contends that in Norway and Denmark, right incentives are in place to strengthen the position of GPs.

  14. Summary of the 4th Nordic Symposium on Digital Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Lundström, Claes; Waltersson, Marie; Persson, Anders; Treanor, Darren

    2017-01-01

    The Nordic symposium on digital pathology (NDP) was created to promote knowledge exchange across stakeholders in health care, industry, and academia. In 2016, the 4th NDP installment took place in Linköping, Sweden, promoting development and collaboration in digital pathology for the benefit of routine care advances. This article summarizes the symposium, gathering 170 attendees from 13 countries. This summary also contains results from a survey on integrated diagnostics aspects, in particular radiology-pathology collaboration. PMID:28382222

  15. Conservation genetics of Nordic carnivores: lessons from zoos.

    PubMed

    Laikre, L

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes results from genetic studies of Nordic carnivore populations bred in captivity. The conservation genetic implications of those results for the management of wild populations of the same species are discussed. Inbreeding depression has been documented in the brown bear (Ursus arctos), wolf (Canis lupus), and lynx (Lynx lynx) populations held in Nordic zoos. The characters negatively affected by inbreeding include litter size (brown bear and wolf), longevity (lynx and wolf), female reproduction, and weight (wolf). In addition, hereditary defects caused by single autosomal alleles occur in the wolf and brown bear populations. These deleterious alleles cause blindness (wolf) and albinism (brown bear) in the homozygous state. The amount of inbreeding depression observed in Nordic carnivores are similar to that documented in other species. The captive populations have the same genetic background as the current wild ones and inbreeding depression is therefore a potential threat to wild carnivore populations in Sweden. This threat is presently not being adequately recognized in the management of these species. Frequently occurring misunderstandings regarding the kind of conclusions that can be drawn from the presented genetic observations are also discussed.

  16. Life cycle thinking and assessment tools on environmentally-benign electronics: Convergent optimization of materials use, end-of-life strategy and environmental policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaoying

    The purpose of this study is to integrate the quantitative environmental performance assessment tools and the theory of multi-objective optimization within the boundary of electronic product systems to support the selection among design alternatives in terms of environmental impact, technical criteria, and economic feasibility. To meet with the requirements that result from emerging environmental legislation targeting electronics products, the research addresses an important analytical methodological approach to facilitate environmentally conscious design and end-of-life management with a life cycle viewpoint. A synthesis of diverse assessment tools is applied on a set of case studies: lead-free solder materials selection, cellular phone design, and desktop display technology assessment. In the first part of this work, an in-depth industrial survey of the status and concerns of the U.S. electronics industry on the elimination of lead (Pb) in solders is described. The results show that the trade-offs among environmental consequences, technology challenges, business risks, legislative compliance and stakeholders' preferences must be explicitly, simultaneously, and systematically addressed in the decision-making process used to guide multi-faceted planning of environmental solutions. In the second part of this work, the convergent optimization of the technical cycle, economic cycle and environmental cycle is addressed in a coherent and systematic way using the application of environmentally conscious design of cellular phones. The technical understanding of product structure, components analysis, and materials flow facilitates the development of "Design for Disassembly" guidelines. A bottom-up disassembly analysis on a "bill of materials" based structure at a micro-operational level is utilized to select optimal end-of-life strategies on the basis of economic feasibility. A macro-operational level life cycle model is used to investigate the environmental consequences

  17. Temporal and spatial variability of the sea surface salinity in the Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furevik, Tore; Bentsen, Mats; Drange, Helge; Johannessen, Johnny A.; Korablev, Alexander

    2002-12-01

    In this paper, the temporal and spatial variability of the sea surface salinity (SSS) in the Nordic Seas is investigated. The data include a Russian hydrographical database for the Nordic Seas and daily to weekly observations of salinity at Ocean Weather Station Mike (OWSM) (located at 66°N, 2°E in the Norwegian Sea). In addition, output from a medium-resolution version of the Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Ocean Model (MICOM), forced with daily National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis data, is used to complement the analysis of the temporal and spatial fields constructed from the observational data sets. The Nordic Seas show a strong seasonal variability in the vertical density stratification and the mixed layer (ML) depth, with a weak stratification and a several hundred meters deep ML during winter and a well-defined shallow ML confined to the upper few tens of meters during summer. The seasonal variability strongly influences the strength of the high-frequency variability and to what extent subsurface anomalies are isolated from the surface. High-frequency variability has been investigated in terms of standard deviation of daily SSS, calculated for the different months of the year. From observations at OWSM, typical winter values range from 0.03 to 0.04 psu and summer values range from 0.06 to 0.07 psu. Results from the model simulation show that highest variability is found in frontal areas and in areas with strong stratification and lowest variability in the less stratified areas in the central Norwegian Sea and south of Iceland. Investigation of the interannual variability over the last 50 years shows a marked freshening of the Atlantic Water in the Norwegian and Greenland Seas. Moreover, the strength of the southern sector of the Polar front, as defined by the 34.8-35.0 psu isohalines along the western boundary of the inflowing Atlantic Water, undergoes significant interannual variability

  18. Animal movement in the absence of predation: environmental drivers of movement strategies in a partial migration system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bastille-Rousseau, Guillaume; Gibbs, James P.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Frair, Jacqueline L.; Cabrera, Fredy; Rousseau, Louis-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Animal movement strategies including migration, dispersal, nomadism, and residency are shaped by broad-scale spatial-temporal structuring of the environment, including factors such as the degrees of spatial variation, seasonality and inter-annual predictability. Animal movement strategies, in turn, interact with the characteristics of individuals and the local distribution of resources to determine local patterns of resource selection with complex and poorly understood implications for animal fitness. Here we present a multi-scale investigation of animal movement strategies and resource selection. We consider the degree to which spatial variation, seasonality, and inter-annual predictability in resources drive migration patterns among different taxa and how movement strategies in turn shape local resource selection patterns. We focus on adult Galapagos giant tortoises Chelonoidis spp. as a model system since they display many movement strategies and evolved in the absence of predators of adults. Specifically, our analysis is based on 63 individuals among four taxa tracked on three islands over six years and almost 106 tortoise re-locations. Tortoises displayed a continuum of movement strategies from migration to sedentarism that were linked to the spatio-temporal scale and predictability of resource distributions. Movement strategies shaped patterns of resource selection. Specifically, migratory individuals displayed stronger selection toward areas where resources were more predictable among years than did non-migratory individuals, which indicates a selective advantage for migrants in seasonally structured, more predictable environments. Our analytical framework combines large-scale predictions for movement strategies, based on environmental structuring, with finer-scale analysis of space-use. Integrating different organizational levels of analysis provides a deeper understanding of the eco-evolutionary dynamics at play in the emergence and maintenance of

  19. Geologic carbon sequestration as a global strategy to mitigate CO2 emissions: Sustainability and environmental risk

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2011-04-01

    Fossil fuels are abundant, inexpensive to produce, and are easily converted to usable energy by combustion as demonstrated by mankind's dependence on fossil fuels for over 80% of its primary energy supply (13). This reliance on fossil fuels comes with the cost of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions that exceed the rate at which CO{sub 2} can be absorbed by terrestrial and oceanic systems worldwide resulting in increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration as recorded by direct measurements over more than five decades (14). Carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas linked to global warming and associated climate change, the impacts of which are currently being observed around the world, and projections of which include alarming consequences such as water and food shortages, sea level rise, and social disruptions associated with resource scarcity (15). The current situation of a world that derives the bulk of its energy from fossil fuel in a manner that directly causes climate change equates to an energy-climate crisis. Although governments around the world have only recently begun to consider policies to avoid the direst projections of climate change and its impacts, sustainable approaches to addressing the crisis are available. The common thread of feasible strategies to the energy climate crisis is the simultaneous use of multiple approaches based on available technologies (e.g., 16). Efficiency improvements (e.g., in building energy use), increased use of natural gas relative to coal, and increased development of renewables such as solar, wind, and geothermal, along with nuclear energy, are all available options that will reduce net CO{sub 2} emissions. While improvements in efficiency can be made rapidly and will pay for themselves, the slower pace of change and greater monetary costs associated with increased use of renewables and nuclear energy suggests an additional approach is needed to help bridge the time period between the present and a future when

  20. Maternal and infant characteristics: differences and similarities between the Nordic countries and the US

    PubMed Central

    Löfling, Lukas; Bröms, Gabriella; Bahmanyar, Shahram; Kieler, Helle

    2016-01-01

    Background Data from the Nordic health care registers have been of great value in perinatal epidemiological research. It has been assumed that findings from the Nordic population (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) are applicable to other populations as well, including the population of the US. Objective To describe and compare maternal and infant characteristics between the Nordic and the American populations as recorded in the official statistics. Materials and methods This population-based study included data on all females who gave birth and their infants in the Nordic countries and the US. The data were obtained from the US National Center for Health Statistics and the official statistics data for the Nordic countries. The data from all six countries included births from 2006 to 2010. Results The mean maternal age at delivery was lower in the US than in the Nordic countries (27.5 vs 30.3 years). Cesarean sections (32.2% vs 17.9%), low birth weight (8.2% vs 4.8%), and preterm birth (12.3% vs 5.9%) were more common in the US than in the Nordic countries. Smoking during early pregnancy was slightly less common in the US compared with Nordic countries (9.8% vs 11.2%). Restricting the data from the US to females with a university degree, characteristics such as age at delivery, birth weight, and preterm deliveries were more in alignment with the Nordic data. Conclusion There are differences in some key maternal and neonatal characteristics between the Nordic countries and the US. However, some characteristics are related to socioeconomic status, suggesting that the Nordic data seem to be applicable to the part of the population in the US with a higher socioeconomic status. PMID:27536160

  1. Anaerobic digestion and milking frequency as mitigation strategies of the environmental burden in the milk production system.

    PubMed

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Bava, Luciana; Zucali, Maddalena; Lovarelli, Daniela; Sandrucci, Anna; Tamburini, Alberto; Fiala, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess, through a cradle to farm gate Life Cycle Assessment, different mitigation strategies of the potential environmental impacts of milk production at farm level. The environmental performances of a conventional intensive dairy farm in Northern Italy (baseline scenario) were compared with the results obtained: from the introduction of the third daily milking and from the adoption of anaerobic digestion (AD) of animal slurry in a consortium AD plant. The AD plant, fed only with animal slurries coming also from nearby farms. Key parameters concerning on-farm activities (forage production, energy consumptions, agricultural machines maintenance, manure and livestock management), off-farm activities (production of fertilizers, pesticides, bedding materials, purchased forages, purchased concentrate feed, replacement animals, agricultural machines manufacturing, electricity, fuel) and transportation were considered. The functional unit was 1kg fat and protein corrected milk (FPCM) leaving the farm gate. The selected environmental impact categories were: global warming potential, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidation and non-renewable energy use. The production of 1kg of FPCM caused, in the baseline scenario, the following environmental impact potentials: global warming potential 1.12kg CO2 eq; acidification 15.5g SO2 eq; eutrophication 5.62g PO4(3-) eq; photochemical oxidation 0.87g C2H4 eq/kg FPCM; energy use 4.66MJeq. The increase of milking frequency improved environmental performances for all impact categories in comparison with the baseline scenario; in particular acidification and eutrophication potentials showed the largest reductions (-11 and -12%, respectively). In anaerobic digestion scenario, compared to the baseline one, most of the impact potentials were strongly reduced. In particular the most important advantages were in terms of acidification (-29%), global warming (-22%) and eutrophication potential (-18

  2. An assessment of the test–retest reliability of the New Nordic Diet score

    PubMed Central

    Bjørnarå, Helga Birgit; Hillesund, Elisabet Rudjord; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Stea, Tonje Holte; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Bere, Elling

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a growing interest in the New Nordic Diet (NND) as a potentially health promoting, environmentally friendly, and palatable regional diet. Also, dietary scores are gaining ground as a complementary approach for examining relations between dietary patterns and various health outcomes. A score assessing adherence to the NND has earlier been published, yet not tested for reliability. Objective To assess the test–retest reliability of the NND score in a sample of parents of toddlers, residing in Southern Norway. Design A questionnaire survey was completed on two occasions, approximately 14 days apart, by 67 parents of toddlers [85% females, mean age 34 years (SD=5.3 years)]. The NND score was constructed from 24 items and comprised 10 subscales that summarize meal pattern and intake of typical Nordic foods. Each subscale was dichotomized by the median and assigned values of ‘0’ or ‘1’. Adding the subscales yielded a score ranging from 0 to 10, which was further trichotomized. Test–retest reliability of the final NND score and individual subscales was assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficient and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, respectively. Additionally, cross tabulation and kappa measure of agreement (k) were used to assess the test–retest agreement of classification into the NND score, and the subscales. Results Test–retest correlations of the NND score and subscales were r=0.80 (Pearson) and r=0.54–0.84 (Spearman), respectively, all p<0.001. There were 69% (k=0.52) and 67–88% (k=0.32–0.76) test–retest correct classification of the trichotomized score and the dichotomized subscales, respectively. Conclusion The NND score and the 10 subscales appear to have acceptable test–retest reliability when tested in a sample of parents of toddlers. PMID:26268707

  3. Environmental Education Evaluation: Reinterpreting Education as a Strategy for Meeting Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimlich, Joe E.

    2010-01-01

    Critical consideration of the role of environmental education in meeting conservation outcomes is increasingly necessary for environmental agencies and organizations. Evaluation can help move organizations to alignment between educational goals and organizational mission. Moving theory-driven evaluation into mission-based program theory, this…

  4. Bilingual Pairs in Teacher Education: Exploring Wild Strategies in an Environmental Education Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arreguín-Anderson, María Guadalupe; Garza, Esther V.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the authors narrate the results of a linguistically accommodated environmental education workshop in which monolingual and bilingual preservice teachers were exposed to instruction in English and Spanish. The authors contend that environmental initiatives, such as Project Wildlife in Learning Design, can promote an understanding of…

  5. Determining proper strategies for health, safety, security and environmental (HSSE) management system.

    PubMed

    Zaeimdar, Mojgan; Nasiri, Parvin; Taghdisi, Mohammadhoseyn; Abbaspour, Majid; Arjmandi, Reza; Kalatipor, Omid

    2013-01-01

    Today, managing an organization is concerned with many problems. Adopting proper strategies can promote an organization's survival. This study aimed at developing an appropriate HSSE Strategy for regional operation associated companies of Iran National Gas Company (INGS) using SWOT analysis. The analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of HSSE was carried out and according to the results suitable strategies were recommended. In this regard, senior and junior managers, supervisors, and experts active in regional operation associated companies of Iran National Gas Company participated in SWOT analysis from HSSE angle. Then, they selected the most applicable SWOT factors pertaining to the organization. In the next step, these factors were weighted and scored. Based on the results four categories of strategies were developed including SO, WO, ST, and WT. Further examination showed that SO Strategies were the most applicable for the organization.

  6. Environmental forcing on life history strategies: Evidence for multi-trophic level responses at ocean basin scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryan, Robert M.; Saba, Vincent S.; Wallace, Bryan P.; Hatch, Scott A.; Frederiksen, Morten; Wanless, Sarah

    2009-04-01

    Variation in life history traits of organisms is thought to reflect adaptations to environmental forcing occurring from bottom-up and top-down processes. Such variation occurs not only among, but also within species, indicating demographic plasticity in response to environmental conditions. From a broad literature review, we present evidence for ocean basin- and large marine ecosystem-scale variation in intra-specific life history traits, with similar responses occurring among trophic levels from relatively short-lived secondary producers to very long-lived apex predators. Between North Atlantic and North Pacific Ocean basins, for example, species in the Eastern Pacific exhibited either later maturation, lower fecundity, and/or greater annual survival than conspecifics in the Western Atlantic. Parallel variations in life histories among trophic levels also occur in adjacent seas and between eastern vs. western ocean boundaries. For example, zooplankton and seabird species in cooler Barents Sea waters exhibit lower fecundity or greater annual survival than conspecifics in the Northeast Atlantic. Sea turtles exhibit a larger size and a greater reproductive output in the Western Pacific vs. Eastern Pacific. These examples provide evidence for food-web-wide modifications in life history strategies in response to environmental forcing. We hypothesize that such dichotomies result from frequency and amplitude shifts in resource availability over varying temporal and spatial scales. We review data that supports three primary mechanisms by which environmental forcing affects life history strategies: (1) food-web structure; (2) climate variability affecting the quantity and seasonality of primary productivity; (3) bottom-up vs. top-down forcing. These proposed mechanisms provide a framework for comparisons of ecosystem function among oceanic regions (or regimes) and are essential in modeling ecosystem response to climate change, as well as for creating dynamic ecosystem

  7. Environmental forcing on life history strategies: Evidence for multi-trophic level responses at ocean basin scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suryan, Robert M.; Saba, Vincent S.; Wallace, Bryan P.; Hatch, Scott A.; Frederiksen, Morten; Wanless, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Variation in life history traits of organisms is thought to reflect adaptations to environmental forcing occurring from bottom-up and top-down processes. Such variation occurs not only among, but also within species, indicating demographic plasticity in response to environmental conditions. From a broad literature review, we present evidence for ocean basin- and large marine ecosystem-scale variation in intra-specific life history traits, with similar responses occurring among trophic levels from relatively short-lived secondary producers to very long-lived apex predators. Between North Atlantic and North Pacific Ocean basins, for example, species in the Eastern Pacific exhibited either later maturation, lower fecundity, and/or greater annual survival than conspecifics in the Western Atlantic. Parallel variations in life histories among trophic levels also occur in adjacent seas and between eastern vs. western ocean boundaries. For example, zooplankton and seabird species in cooler Barents Sea waters exhibit lower fecundity or greater annual survival than conspecifics in the Northeast Atlantic. Sea turtles exhibit a larger size and a greater reproductive output in the Western Pacific vs. Eastern Pacific. These examples provide evidence for food-web-wide modifications in life history strategies in response to environmental forcing. We hypothesize that such dichotomies result from frequency and amplitude shifts in resource availability over varying temporal and spatial scales. We review data that supports three primary mechanisms by which environmental forcing affects life history strategies: (1) food-web structure; (2) climate variability affecting the quantity and seasonality of primary productivity; (3) bottom-up vs. top-down forcing. These proposed mechanisms provide a framework for comparisons of ecosystem function among oceanic regions (or regimes) and are essential in modeling ecosystem response to climate change, as well as for creating dynamic ecosystem

  8. Institutional Autonomy and Academic Freedom in the Nordic Context--Similarities and Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nokkala, Terhi; Bladh, Agneta

    2014-01-01

    Owing to their common history, similarities in language and culture, long traditions in political collaboration and the shared Nordic societal model, an assumption is often made that the operational and regulatory context of universities is similar in the five Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. In this article, we…

  9. The Current State and Developments in Higher Education in Gerontology in the Nordic Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hietanen, Heidi; Lyyra, Tiina-Mari; Parkatti, Terttu; Heikkinen, Eino

    2012-01-01

    The growing size of the older population challenges not only researchers but also higher education in gerontology. On the basis of an online survey the authors describe the situation of Nordic higher education in gerontology in 2008 and 2009 and also give some good examples of Nordic- and European-level collaboration. The survey results showed…

  10. Social Change and Adult Education Research--Adult Education Research in Nordic Countries 1990/91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linkoping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Education and Psychology.

    This yearbook contains papers that provide the reader with a general idea of the aspects and issues that interest Nordic researchers today and how they approach these problems. To provide a more uniform picture of the status of adult education in the different Nordic countries, four brief general surveys begin the book: "Adult Education…

  11. Education for Internationalism at the Nordic School for Adult Education in Geneva 1931-1939

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppanen, Katarina

    2011-01-01

    Internationalism in the interwar era carried different meaning for different groups. A Nordic school for adult education, with the aim of raising the "international citizenship proficiency" of the Nordic peoples, was established in Geneva in 1931, through cooperation between representatives of international organisations and adult…

  12. Interpreting Values in the Daily Practices of Nordic Preschools: A Cross-Cultural Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puroila, Anna-Maija; Johansson, Eva; Estola, Eila; Emilson, Anette; Einarsdóttir, Johanna; Broström, Stig

    2016-01-01

    This study explored how practitioners interpreted educational practices from the perspective of values in Nordic preschools. Drawing data from group interviews in five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden), practitioners reflected on an observational episode about children dressing for outdoor play in a Swedish preschool.…

  13. Library Cooperation at the NOVA University--the Nordic University in Agriculture, Forestry and Veterinary Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myllys, Heli

    The Nordic University in Agriculture, Forestry and Veterinary Medicine--the NOVA University-was established in 1995 to increase the cooperation between the Nordic agricultural universities. The NOVA libraries of the seven institutions and facilities involved wanted to show that they are a very useful partner in launching new ideas. They have the…

  14. Breastfeeding, introduction of other foods and effects on health: a systematic literature review for the 5th Nordic Nutrition Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Hörnell, Agneta; Lagström, Hanna; Lande, Britt; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2013-01-01

    The present systematic literature review is part of the 5th revision of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. The overall aim was to review recent scientific data valid in a Nordic setting on the short- and long-term health effects of breastfeeding (duration of both any and exclusive breastfeeding) and introduction of foods other than breast milk. The initial literature search resulted in 2,011 abstracts; 416 identified as potentially relevant. Full paper review resulted in 60 quality assessed papers (6A, 48B, and 6C). A complementary search found some additional papers. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, limited-suggestive, and limited-no conclusion. The evidence was convincing of a protective dose/duration effect of breastfeeding against overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence, overall infections, acute otitis media, and gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infections. The evidence was probable that exclusive breastfeeding for longer than 4 months is associated with slower weight gain during the second half of the first year which could be part of the reason behind the reduced risk of later overweight or obesity. There was also probable evidence that breastfeeding is a protective factor against inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and diabetes (type 1 and 2), provides beneficial effects on IQ and developmental scores of children as well as a small reductive effect on blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels in adulthood. Other associations explored were limited-suggestive or inconclusive. In conclusion, convincing and probable evidence was found for benefits of breastfeeding on several outcomes. The recommendation in NNR2004 about exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months and continued partial breastfeeding thereafter can stand unchanged. The relatively low proportion of infants in the Nordic countries following this recommendation indicates that strategies that protect, support and promote breastfeeding should be

  15. Breastfeeding, introduction of other foods and effects on health: a systematic literature review for the 5th Nordic Nutrition Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Hörnell, Agneta; Lagström, Hanna; Lande, Britt; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2013-01-01

    The present systematic literature review is part of the 5th revision of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. The overall aim was to review recent scientific data valid in a Nordic setting on the short- and long-term health effects of breastfeeding (duration of both any and exclusive breastfeeding) and introduction of foods other than breast milk. The initial literature search resulted in 2,011 abstracts; 416 identified as potentially relevant. Full paper review resulted in 60 quality assessed papers (6A, 48B, and 6C). A complementary search found some additional papers. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, limited-suggestive, and limited-no conclusion. The evidence was convincing of a protective dose/duration effect of breastfeeding against overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence, overall infections, acute otitis media, and gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infections. The evidence was probable that exclusive breastfeeding for longer than 4 months is associated with slower weight gain during the second half of the first year which could be part of the reason behind the reduced risk of later overweight or obesity. There was also probable evidence that breastfeeding is a protective factor against inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and diabetes (type 1 and 2), provides beneficial effects on IQ and developmental scores of children as well as a small reductive effect on blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels in adulthood. Other associations explored were limited-suggestive or inconclusive. In conclusion, convincing and probable evidence was found for benefits of breastfeeding on several outcomes. The recommendation in NNR2004 about exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months and continued partial breastfeeding thereafter can stand unchanged. The relatively low proportion of infants in the Nordic countries following this recommendation indicates that strategies that protect, support and promote breastfeeding should be

  16. The unique effects of environmental strategies in health promotion campaigns: a review.

    PubMed

    Randolph, Karen A; Whitaker, Pippin; Arellano, Adriana

    2012-08-01

    Various strategies are used as tools in health promotion campaigns to increase health-related outcomes among target populations. Evaluations of these campaigns examine effects on changing people's knowledge, attitudes, and/or behaviors. Most evaluations examine the combined impact of multiple strategies. Less is known about the unique effects of particular strategies. To address this gap, we used highly systematic methods to identify and review scientifically rigorous evaluations of 18 campaigns that examined the unique effects of three sets of intervention strategies (entertainment education, law enforcement, and mass media) on changes in knowledge, attitudes, and practice with regard to various health behaviors. Results showed differences in evaluation processes based on the type of strategy used to promote campaign messages. For instance, evaluations of mass-media based campaigns were more likely to examine changes in knowledge, relative to evaluations of campaigns that used law enforcement strategies. In addition, campaign effects varied by particular strategies. Mass media-based campaigns were more likely to affect knowledge, relative to behaviors. Law enforcement and entertainment education-based campaigns showed positive effects on behaviors. The implications for planning and evaluating health promotion campaigns are described.

  17. Preliminary strategic environmental assessment of the Great Western Development Strategy: safeguarding ecological security for a new western China.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Liu, Yan-ju; Yang, Zhifeng

    2012-02-01

    The Great Western Development Strategy (GWDS) is a long term national campaign aimed at boosting development of the western area of China and narrowing the economic gap between the western and the eastern parts of China. The Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) procedure was employed to assess the environmental challenges brought about by the western development plans. These plans include five key developmental domains (KDDs): water resource exploitation and use, land utilization, energy generation, tourism development, and ecological restoration and conservation. A combination of methods involving matrix assessment, incorporation of expert judgment and trend analysis was employed to analyze and predict the environmental impacts upon eight selected environmental indicators: water resource availability, soil erosion, soil salinization, forest destruction, land desertification, biological diversity, water quality and air quality. Based on the overall results of the assessment, countermeasures for environmental challenges that emerged were raised as key recommendations to ensure ecological security during the implementation of the GWDS. This paper is intended to introduce a consensus-based process for evaluating the complex, long term pressures on the ecological security of large areas, such as western China, that focuses on the use of combined methods applied at the strategic level.

  18. Preliminary Strategic Environmental Assessment of the Great Western Development Strategy: Safeguarding Ecological Security for a New Western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Liu, Yan-Ju; Yang, Zhifeng

    2012-02-01

    The Great Western Development Strategy (GWDS) is a long term national campaign aimed at boosting development of the western area of China and narrowing the economic gap between the western and the eastern parts of China. The Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) procedure was employed to assess the environmental challenges brought about by the western development plans. These plans include five key developmental domains (KDDs): water resource exploitation and use, land utilization, energy generation, tourism development, and ecological restoration and conservation. A combination of methods involving matrix assessment, incorporation of expert judgment and trend analysis was employed to analyze and predict the environmental impacts upon eight selected environmental indicators: water resource availability, soil erosion, soil salinization, forest destruction, land desertification, biological diversity, water quality and air quality. Based on the overall results of the assessment, countermeasures for environmental challenges that emerged were raised as key recommendations to ensure ecological security during the implementation of the GWDS. This paper is intended to introduce a consensus-based process for evaluating the complex, long term pressures on the ecological security of large areas, such as western China, that focuses on the use of combined methods applied at the strategic level.

  19. NASA's Agency-Wide Strategy for Environmental Regulatory Risk Analysis and Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scroggins, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Agency-wide.resource for identifying and managing risks associated with changing environmental regulations Goals of the RRAC PC: 1) Proactively. detect, analyze and communicate environmental regulatory risks to NASA Programs and facilities; 2) Communicate with regulators and participate in the mitigation of such risks; and 3) Provide centralized support on emerging regulations to NASA HQ Environmental Management Division. When significant regulatory changes are identified, timely communication is essential. Communication of changing requirements to the regulatory stakeholders - NASA Programs and Facilities. Communication of potential issues to management and, when appropriate, back to the regulating agency.

  20. Integrated environmental mapping and monitoring, a methodological approach to optimise knowledge gathering and sampling strategy.

    PubMed

    Nilssen, Ingunn; Ødegård, Øyvind; Sørensen, Asgeir J; Johnsen, Geir; Moline, Mark A; Berge, Jørgen

    2015-07-15

    New technology has led to new opportunities for a holistic environmental monitoring approach adjusted to purpose and object of interest. The proposed integrated environmental mapping and monitoring (IEMM) concept, presented in this paper, describes the different steps in such a system from mission of survey to selection of parameters, sensors, sensor platforms, data collection, data storage, analysis and to data interpretation for reliable decision making. The system is generic; it can be used by authorities, industry and academia and is useful for planning- and operational phases. In the planning process the systematic approach is also ideal to identify areas with gap of knowledge. The critical stages of the concept is discussed and exemplified by two case studies, one environmental mapping and one monitoring case. As an operational system, the IEMM concept can contribute to an optimised integrated environmental mapping and monitoring for knowledge generation as basis for decision making.

  1. Environmental education evaluation: reinterpreting education as a strategy for meeting mission.

    PubMed

    Heimlich, Joe E

    2010-05-01

    Critical consideration of the role of environmental education in meeting conservation outcomes is increasingly necessary for environmental agencies and organizations. Evaluation can help move organizations to alignment between educational goals and organizational mission. Moving theory-driven evaluation into mission-based program theory, this chapter examines the ways in which educational goals can and should be linked to conservation outcomes for an agency or organization.

  2. Mapping the future of environmental health and nursing: strategies for integrating national competencies into nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Laura S; Butterfield, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    :Nurses are increasingly the primary contact for clients concerned about health problems related to their environment. In response to the need for nursing expertise in the field of environmental health, the Institute of Medicine (IOM), Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) have designed core competencies for the nursing profession. The IOM competencies focus on four areas: (1) knowledge and concepts; (2) assessment and referral; advocacy, ethics, and risk communication; and (4) legislation and regulation. The competencies establish a baseline of knowledge and awareness in order for nurses to prevent and minimize health problems associated with exposure to environmental agents. To address the known difficulties of incorporating new priorities into established practice, nurses attending an environmental health short course participated in a nominal group process focusing on the question, "What specific actions can we take to bring environmental health into the mainstream of nursing practice?" This exercise was designed to bring the concepts of the national initiatives (IOM, NINR, ATSDR) to the awareness of individual nurses involved in the direct delivery of care. Results include 38 action items nurses identified as improving awareness and utilization of environmental health principles. The top five ideas were: (1) get environmental health listed as a requirement or competency in undergraduate nursing education; (2) improve working relationships with interdepartmental persons-a team approach; (3) strategically place students in essential organizations such as NIOSH, ATSDR, or CDC; (4) educate nurse educators; and (5) create environmental health awards in nursing. The 38 original ideas were also reorganized into a five-tiered conceptual model. The concepts of this model include: (1) developing partnerships; (2) strengthening publications; (3) enhancing continuing education; (4) updating nursing

  3. Generation of Strategies for Environmental Deception in Two-Player Normal-Form Games

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-18

    two-player, strategic-form games. Environmental deception is defined as deception where one player has the ability to change the other’s perception ...of the state of the game through modification of their perception of the game’s payoff matrix, similar to the use of camouflage. The main...environmental deception as the deceiver changes the mark’s perception regarding the state of the world rather than his perception of the deceiver’s

  4. Environmental Hazard Identification Technique Developing of Territorial Administrations Strategy as Exemplified in Siberian Federal District

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeeva, S. S.; Garmishev, V. V.; Lugovtsova, N. Yu

    2016-04-01

    This work, on the example of the Siberian Federal District of the Russian Federation, presents a method for determining mass airbursts of combustion gaseous eco-toxicants, as a technique for assessing the contributory environmental load on the atmosphere. Potential environmental hazards are analyzed by mass of contaminated airbursts. A comparison of specific gross toxicants’ emissions in territorial entities of the Russian Federation is made.

  5. Nanomaterials for environmental studies: classification, reference material issues, and strategies for physico-chemical characterisation.

    PubMed

    Stone, Vicki; Nowack, Bernd; Baun, Anders; van den Brink, Nico; Kammer, Frank von der; Dusinska, Maria; Handy, Richard; Hankin, Steven; Hassellöv, Martin; Joner, Erik; Fernandes, Teresa F

    2010-03-01

    NanoImpactNet is a European Commission Framework Programme 7 (FP7) funded project that provides a forum for the discussion of current opinions on nanomaterials in relation to human and environmental issues. In September 2008, in Zurich, a NanoImpactNet environmental workshop focused on three key questions: 1. What properties should be characterised for nanomaterials used in environmental and ecotoxicology studies? 2. What reference materials should be developed for use in environmental and ecotoxicological studies? 3. Is it possible to group different nanomaterials into categories for consideration in environmental studies? Such questions have been, at least partially, addressed by other projects/workshops especially in relation to human health effects. Such projects provide a useful basis on which this workshop was based, but in this particular case these questions were reformulated in order to focus specifically on environmental studies. The workshop participants, through a series of discussion and reflection sessions, generated the conclusions listed below. The physicochemical characterisation information identified as important for environmental studies included measures of aggregation/agglomeration/dispersability, size, dissolution (solubility), surface area, surface charge, surface chemistry/composition, with the assumption that chemical composition would already be known. There is a need to have test materials for ecotoxicology, and several substances are potentially useful, including TiO(2) nanoparticles, polystyrene beads labelled with fluorescent dyes, and silver nanoparticles. Some of these test materials could then be developed into certified reference materials over time. No clear consensus was reached regarding the classification of nanomaterials into categories to aid environmental studies, except that a chemistry-based classification system was a reasonable starting point, with some modifications. It was suggested, that additional work may be

  6. Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan 1990-1999 : Environmental Strategy. Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-09-01

    In operating and maintaining its regional power transmission system, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) must address environmental concerns. Pollution sources and pathways for pollution migration, including potential contamination from hazardous or toxic materials, are present. BPA must develop and follow precautionary measures, respond to emergencies, minimize wastes, redress past problems, alert and train employees to problems and safety needs, constantly evaluate this effort and update the program for improvements and changes in regulations and technology. Part of BPA's mission is to conduct its operation, maintenance, and replacement programs in an environmentally sound manner. BPA recognizes its responsibility to be good stewards of the environment. BPA will meet its environmental obligations as set forth in environmental laws and regulations. BPA intends to make consistent and measurable progress toward meeting these responsibilities. The target for the 10-Year Plan is to achieve environmental compliance and meet the following goals: (1) protect human health and the environment; (2) avoid or limit liability (3) set up an effective internal management structure to maintain compliance; and (4) achieve cost-effective compliance. 6 figs.

  7. Accelerating evidence reviews and broadening evidence standards to identify effective, promising, and emerging policy and environmental strategies for prevention of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Laura; Castro, Sarah; Brownson, Ross C; Claus, Julie; Orleans, C Tracy

    2011-01-01

    The childhood obesity epidemic has stimulated the emergence of many policy and environmental strategies to increase healthy eating and active living, with relatively few research recommendations identifying the most effective and generalizable strategies. Yet, local, state, and national decision makers have an urgent need to take action, particularly with respect to lower-income and racial and ethnic populations at greatest risk. With the surge of promising and emerging policy and environmental strategies, this review provides a framework, criteria, and process modeled from existing expert classification systems to assess the strength of evidence for these strategies. Likewise, this review highlights evidence gaps and ways to increase the types and amount of evidence available to inform policy and environmental strategies. These priorities include documenting independent and interdependent effects, determining applicability to different populations and settings, assessing implementation fidelity and feasibility, identifying cumulative benefits and costs, ascertaining impacts on health equity, and tracking sustainability.

  8. The avoidance strategy of environmental constraints by an aquatic plant Potamogeton alpinus in running waters

    PubMed Central

    Robionek, Alicja; Banaś, Krzysztof; Chmara, Rafał; Szmeja, Józef

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic plants anchored in streams are under pressure from various constraints linked to the water flow and display strategies to prevent their damage or destruction. We assume that the responses of aquatic plants to fast-water flow are a manifestation of a trade-off consisting in either maximizing the resistance to damage (tolerance strategy) in minimizing the hydrodynamic forces (avoidance strategy), or both. Our main hypothesis was that Potamogeton alpinus demonstrate the avoidance strategy. We analyzed architecture traits of the modules of this clonal plant from slow- and fast-flowing streams. In fast-flowing waters, the avoidance strategy of P. alpinus is reflected by the following: (1) the presence of floating leaves that stabilize the vertical position of the stem and protect the inflorescence against immersion; (2) elongation of submerged leaves (weakens the pressure of water); and (3) shoot diameter reduction and increase in shoot density (weakens the pressure of water, increases shoot elasticity), and by contrast in slow-water flow include the following: (4) the absence of floating leaves in high intensity of light (avoiding unnecessary outlays on a redundant organ); (5) the presence of floating leaves in low intensity of light (avoidance of stress caused by an insufficient assimilation area of submerged leaves). PMID:26380667

  9. The avoidance strategy of environmental constraints by an aquatic plant Potamogeton alpinus in running waters.

    PubMed

    Robionek, Alicja; Banaś, Krzysztof; Chmara, Rafał; Szmeja, Józef

    2015-08-01

    Aquatic plants anchored in streams are under pressure from various constraints linked to the water flow and display strategies to prevent their damage or destruction. We assume that the responses of aquatic plants to fast-water flow are a manifestation of a trade-off consisting in either maximizing the resistance to damage (tolerance strategy) in minimizing the hydrodynamic forces (avoidance strategy), or both. Our main hypothesis was that Potamogeton alpinus demonstrate the avoidance strategy. We analyzed architecture traits of the modules of this clonal plant from slow- and fast-flowing streams. In fast-flowing waters, the avoidance strategy of P. alpinus is reflected by the following: (1) the presence of floating leaves that stabilize the vertical position of the stem and protect the inflorescence against immersion; (2) elongation of submerged leaves (weakens the pressure of water); and (3) shoot diameter reduction and increase in shoot density (weakens the pressure of water, increases shoot elasticity), and by contrast in slow-water flow include the following: (4) the absence of floating leaves in high intensity of light (avoiding unnecessary outlays on a redundant organ); (5) the presence of floating leaves in low intensity of light (avoidance of stress caused by an insufficient assimilation area of submerged leaves).

  10. The role of metadata and strategies to detect and control temporal data bias in environmental monitoring of soil contamination.

    PubMed

    Desaules, André

    2012-11-01

    It is crucial for environmental monitoring to fully control temporal bias, which is the distortion of real data evolution by varying bias through time. Temporal bias cannot be fully controlled by statistics alone but requires appropriate and sufficient metadata, which should be under rigorous and continuous quality assurance and control (QA/QC) to reliably document the degree of consistency of the monitoring system. All presented strategies to detect and control temporal data bias (QA/QC, harmonisation/homogenisation/standardisation, mass balance approach, use of tracers and analogues and control of changing boundary conditions) rely on metadata. The Will Rogers phenomenon, due to subsequent reclassification, is a particular source of temporal data bias introduced to environmental monitoring here. Sources and effects of temporal data bias are illustrated by examples from the Swiss soil monitoring network. The attempt to make a comprehensive compilation and assessment of required metadata for soil contamination monitoring reveals that most metadata are still far from being reliable. This leads to the conclusion that progress in environmental monitoring means further development of the concept of environmental metadata for the sake of temporal data bias control as a prerequisite for reliable interpretations and decisions.

  11. An Implementing Strategy for Promoting Environmental Literacy as an OFCM Crosscutting Priority

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCalla, M. R.

    2005-12-01

    The National Environmental Education Advisory Council of the Environmental Protection Agency defines environmental education as "the interdisciplinary process of developing a citizenry that is knowledgeable about the total environment in its natural and built aspects and has the capacity and commitment to insure environmental quality by engaging in inquiry, problem solving, decision making and action." This definition calls for providing citizens (whether child or adult) with a basic understanding of the concepts within science in order to manage their lives. Literacy defined in this manner is the foundation of national security, economic growth, health, and prosperity. Promoting science literacy, therefore, is absolutely critical to every citizen. It is not just about ensuring that people become scientists or have a career that is engaged in the sciences. Promoting environmental literacy means providing people with a means of confronting the science as it confronts them in their personal and/or professional lives. The Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorological Services and Supporting Research (OFCM) is an interdepartmental office established in response to Public Law 87-843 with the mission to ensure the effective use of federal meteorological resources by leading the systematic coordination of operational weather and climate requirements, services, products, and supporting research among the federal agencies. Through interdepartmental collaboration, the OFCM and the agencies within its coordinating infrastructure have a direct environmental literacy impact on the public, private, and academic sectors. For example, governmental departments and agencies within the OFCM infrastructure have provided a number of education, outreach, and training opportunities to end users, helping them understand and apply weather and climate information in their endeavors. Thus promoting environmental literacy is not new to the OFCM. What is new, however, is that for the

  12. The integration of gender in medical research and education-obstacles and possibilities from a Nordic perspective.

    PubMed

    Hammarström, Anne

    2003-01-01

    Research on women's issues in medicine was developed in the Nordic countries from the beginning of the 1980s. The theoretical developments led to a change of concepts from women's health to gender research, within which the structurally organised relations between men and women are analysed. Over the last decades, gender research has slowly been established in medical faculties, as a result of a strong political commitment for increased research and integration of gender issues in the university curriculum in Sweden. The government has made substantial investments in order to stimulate gender research and education in different disciplines, with special focus on medicine. Academic medicine has responded to this development with different strategies, including resistance and redefining concepts. Gender research has slowly become integrated into both research and teaching within Nordic academic medicine, although the pathway has not been easy. Gender research has had political support but there is a risk of backlash. Medical students' reactions to gender education can be compared with academic medicine's reactions towards gender research. Obstacles and possibilities are described in relation to teaching gender in schools of medicine. Most important is to recognise the risks for increased gender stereotypes and increased essentialism among the students, unless gender is taught from a theoretical perspective.

  13. Environmental Education, A Teacher's Guide with Inquiry and Value Seeking Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamann, Julianna M.

    This guide is written to focus attention on both the cognitive and affective aspects of environmental education. Its format provides four levels of development: primary, intermediate, junior high, and senior high school grades, with the first two subdivided into three categories each. Performance objectives, teaching-learning inquiries, and…

  14. In Search of Excellence: Practical Strategies for Managing Change in Environmental Health Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veninga, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    Describes three methods intended to assist in assessing the attitudes of environmental health organization employees with regard to change. Focuses on ways to bring about orderly organizational change, how to evaluate whether the changes are effective, and how to diminish resistance to new ideas. (Author/TW)

  15. Integrated crop–livestock systems: Strategies to achieve synergy between agricultural production and environmental quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A need to increase agricultural production across the world for food security appears to be at odds with the urgency to reduce agriculture’s negative environmental impacts. We suggest that a cause of this dichotomy is loss of diversity within agricultural systems at field, farm and landscape scales....

  16. NASA's Agency-Wide Strategy for Environmental Regulatory Risk Analysis and Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scroggins, Sharon; Duda, Kristen

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of NASA's risk analysis communication programs associated with changing environmental policies. The topics include: 1) NASA Program Transition; 2) Principal Center for Regulatory Risk Analysis and Communication (RRAC PC); and 3) Regulatory Tracking and Communication Process.

  17. INTERIM REPORT, DEVELOP A SAMPLING STRATEGY: PREPARE TO IMPLEMENT A COHORT STUDY OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Overview

    The goal of the National Children's Study (NCS) is to collect information on environmental and

    social factors in the lives of children, starting before birth and continuing until age 21, to inform

    researchers about their effects on the health and dev...

  18. Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua

    1992-09-01

    The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions.

  19. Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions.

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION AND PROTECTION STRATEGIES AT MULTIPLE SCALES IN RHODE ISLAND WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public concerns for the environment are often the basis for environmental regulations. The Clean Water Act seeks to ensure that water quality and quantity fully support aquatic life and human health. The legislative requirements help focus limited resources on areas where problem...

  1. Learning Environmental Science from Text Aided by a Diagnostic and Prescriptive Instructional Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farragher, Pierce; Szabo, Michael

    Reported is a study of two instructional strategies: (1) the placement of key questions in text materials, and (2) the use of prescriptive feedback to direct students who missed text questions to appropriate remedial work. Learning that resulted from these two techniques was examined relative to achievement, time-on-task, and efficiency.…

  2. Environmental print as strategy for developmental literacy of young atypical children.

    PubMed

    Letchman, H; Finn, D M; Aldridge, J

    1991-10-01

    12 children with handicapping problems were taught various strategies during a two-year period. These programs, designed to enrich their appreciation and awareness of the sounds of letters and how they are used, increased the children's attention span, parental participation with children and teacher, and promoted active involvement in reading.

  3. Zinc deficiency in children with environmental enteropathy - development of new strategies: Report from an expert workshop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinc deficiency is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. The WHO/UNICEF strategy for zinc supplementation as adjunctive therapy for diarrhea is poorly implemented. A conference of experts in zinc nutrition and gastrointestinal disorders was convened to consider approaches that might co...

  4. Evaluating Community Readiness to Implement Environmental and Policy-Based Alcohol Abuse Prevention Strategies in Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paltzer, Jason; Black, Penny; Moberg, D. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Matching evidence-based alcohol prevention strat- egies with a community's readiness to support those strategies is the basis for the Tri-Ethnic Community Readiness Model (CRM). The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the association of a community's readiness to address alcohol abuse in their community with the implementation of…

  5. Nutrition-Related Policy and Environmental Strategies to Prevent Obesity in Rural Communities: A Systematic Review of the Literature, 2002–2013

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Jennifer; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B.; Khan, Laura Kettel; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Evenson, Kelly R.; Schreiner, Michelle; Byker, Carmen; Owens, Clint; McGuirt, Jared; Barnidge, Ellen; Dean, Wesley; Johnson, Donna; Kolodinsky, Jane; Piltch, Emily; Pinard, Courtney; Quinn, Emilee; Whetstone, Lauren; Ammerman, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Residents of rural communities in the United States are at higher risk for obesity than their urban and suburban counterparts. Policy and environmental-change strategies supporting healthier dietary intake can prevent obesity and promote health equity. Evidence in support of these strategies is based largely on urban and suburban studies; little is known about use of these strategies in rural communities. The purpose of this review was to synthesize available evidence on the adaptation, implementation, and effectiveness of policy and environmental obesity-prevention strategies in rural settings. Methods The review was guided by a list of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Recommended Community Strategies and Measurements to Prevent Obesity in the United States, commonly known as the “COCOMO” strategies. We searched PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Public Affairs Information Service, and Cochrane databases for articles published from 2002 through 2013 that reported findings from research on nutrition-related policy and environmental strategies in rural communities in the United States and Canada. Two researchers independently abstracted data from each article, and resolved discrepancies by consensus. Results Of the 663 articles retrieved, 33 met inclusion criteria. The interventions most commonly focused on increasing access to more nutritious foods and beverages or decreasing access to less nutritious options. Rural adaptations included accommodating distance to food sources, tailoring to local food cultures, and building community partnerships. Conclusions Findings from this literature review provide guidance on adapting and implementing policy and environmental strategies in rural communities. PMID:25927605

  6. Krafting an agreement: Negotiations to reduce pollution from the Nordic pulp industry, 1985--1989

    SciTech Connect

    Auer, M. R.

    1996-05-01

    International environmental accords frequently contain obligations that may be easily satisfied by their signatories. Observers have speculated why it is in a state`s interests to sign agreements that lack strict conditions, but policy analysts lack a coherent model explaining how such agreements are formalized. Knowledge, values, and authority are key forces that elucidate how environmental accords are developed with provisions that are easily executable. This dissertation examines the formulation of Helsinki Commission recommendations to reduce emissions of organochlorines from Nordic kraft pulp mills. The kraft pulp industry, the largest industrial pollution emitter to the Baltic Sea, is also a crucial foreign exchange earner for both Sweden and Finland. Hence, Swedes and Finns were the most active participants in regional negotiations to reduce organochlorine emissions. Key variable analysis explains how obstacles in various regional negotiations were overcome, and how parties constructed a recommendation with obligations that could be easily accommodated. The two sides never agreed about the level of risk posed by organochlorines in the marine environment. This problem influenced the strictness of pollution limits specified in the final agreement. But, the parties overcame formidable obstacles in the negotiations, including: (1) concerns about costs to industry and competitive disadvantages in the pulp and paper sector; (2) disagreement about technologies to combat the problem; and (3) domestic rule-making schedules that were out of sync.

  7. Measuring currents between North Atlantic and Nordic seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-06-01

    The fluxes of water from the North Atlantic to the Nordic seas provide a measure of the water that flows into and out of the global ocean as part of the meridional overturning circulation. The meridional overturning circulation, which carries warm water in the Atlantic from the tropics northward and brings cold dense water back southward, is a key part of global ocean circulation and a strong influence on climate; some research has suggested that the meridional overturning circulation could slow down as the global climate warms. Using an acoustic Doppler current profiler mounted in the high seas ferry Norröna to repeatedly measure the currents in the Faroe-Shetland Channel and over the Iceland-Faroe Ridge, Rossby and Flagg report on 3 years of weekly measurements that provide a new, accurate measure of the exchange of water between the North Atlantic and Nordic seas. The observations will be useful in understanding the meridional overturning circulation. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2012GL051269, 2012)

  8. Bet-hedging as a complex interaction among developmental instability, environmental heterogeneity, dispersal, and life-history strategy.

    PubMed

    Scheiner, Samuel M

    2014-02-01

    One potential evolutionary response to environmental heterogeneity is the production of randomly variable offspring through developmental instability, a type of bet-hedging. I used an individual-based, genetically explicit model to examine the evolution of developmental instability. The model considered both temporal and spatial heterogeneity alone and in combination, the effect of migration pattern (stepping stone vs. island), and life-history strategy. I confirmed that temporal heterogeneity alone requires a threshold amount of variation to select for a substantial amount of developmental instability. For spatial heterogeneity only, the response to selection on developmental instability depended on the life-history strategy and the form and pattern of dispersal with the greatest response for island migration when selection occurred before dispersal. Both spatial and temporal variation alone select for similar amounts of instability, but in combination resulted in substantially more instability than either alone. Local adaptation traded off against bet-hedging, but not in a simple linear fashion. I found higher-order interactions between life-history patterns, dispersal rates, dispersal patterns, and environmental heterogeneity that are not explainable by simple intuition. We need additional modeling efforts to understand these interactions and empirical tests that explicitly account for all of these factors.

  9. U.S. Department of Energy/Environmental Management's Office of Groundwater and Soil Remediation Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Magnuson, C.

    2007-07-01

    The vision for the Office of Groundwater and Soil Remediation is to focus and place high visibility on program achievements and broad-based remediation challenges and uncertainties facing the Office of Environmental Management. These include, but are not limited to, the development of contract performance measures; monitoring and controlling the cleanup investments for remediating groundwater and soil; finding and implementing interim and permanent cleanup remedies for technetium-99, strontium-90, chromium, uranium, and trichloroethylene; the development and use of sophisticated groundwater and fate and transport models; presenting the best science and engineering principles and practices for remediating groundwater and soil to environmental regulators and other key stakeholders; and ensuring that all source terms of contamination are fully identified and all sites are appropriately characterized. (authors)

  10. Assessing environmental prevention strategies for reducing the prevalence and associated harms of methamphetamine use.

    PubMed

    Yacoubian, George S

    2007-01-01

    Developed primarily in clandestine laboratories, methamphetamine is a highly addictive synthetic drug whose physical effects include hyperactivity, euphoria, tremors, and a sense of increased energy. While the accuracy of recent accounts suggesting a methamphetamine epidemic in the United States is unclear, these reports have nevertheless translated into significant funding allowances by the federal government. This increased funding suggests that the opportunity is ripe for the development of a scientific, environmentally-based model for methamphetamine prevention.

  11. Environmental assessment of alternative municipal solid waste management strategies. A Spanish case study.

    PubMed

    Bovea, M D; Ibáñez-Forés, V; Gallardo, A; Colomer-Mendoza, F J

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study is to compare, from an environmental point of view, different alternatives for the management of municipal solid waste generated in the town of Castellón de la Plana (Spain). This town currently produces 207 ton of waste per day and the waste management system employed today involves the collection of paper/cardboard, glass and light packaging from materials banks and of rest waste at street-side containers. The proposed alternative scenarios were based on a combination of the following elements: selective collection targets to be accomplished by the year 2015 as specified in the Spanish National Waste Plan (assuming they are reached to an extent of 50% and 100%), different collection models implemented nationally, and diverse treatments of both the separated biodegradable fraction and the rest waste to be disposed of on landfills. This resulted in 24 scenarios, whose environmental behaviour was studied by applying the life cycle assessment methodology. In accordance with the ISO 14040-44 (2006) standard, an inventory model was developed for the following stages of the waste management life cycle: pre-collection (bags and containers), collection, transport, pre-treatment (waste separation) and treatment/disposal (recycling, composting, biogasification+composting, landfill with/without energy recovery). Environmental indicators were obtained for different impact categories, which made it possible to identify the key variables in the waste management system and the scenario that offers the best environmental behaviour. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was used to test some of the assumptions made in the initial life cycle inventory model.

  12. Can environmental insurance succeed where other strategies fail? The case of underground storage tanks.

    PubMed

    Yin, Haitao; Pfaff, Alex; Kunreuther, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Private risk reduction will be socially efficient only when firms are liable for all the damage that they cause. We find that environmental insurance can achieve social efficiency even when two traditional policy instruments--ex post fines and risk management mandates with ex ante fines--do not. Inefficiency occurs with ex post fines, when small firms declare bankruptcy and escape their liabilities, limiting the incentives from this policy tool. Firms ignore mandates to implement efficient risk management because regulatory agencies do not have sufficient resources to monitor every firm. The evolution of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's and states' underground storage tank programs suggests that mandating environmental insurance can address inefficiency due to small firms declaring bankruptcy. Comparing insurance mandates to risk management mandates, the burden on a regulator is lower if all it has to do is to confirm that the firm has insurance rather than that the firm has actually, and effectively, implemented required management practices. For underground storage tanks, we show that insurance lowered toxic releases.

  13. Proposal for common Nordic epidemiological terms and definitions for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    PubMed

    Skov, Robert; Gudlaugsson, Olafur; Hardardottir, Hjordis; Harthug, Stig; Jakobsen, Trond; Kolmos, Hans Jørn; Olsson-Liljequist, Barbro; Peltonen, Reijo; Tveten, Yngvar; Vuopio-Varkila, Jaana; Ahrén, Christina

    2008-01-01

    The recent increase in the incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in all the Nordic countries prompted the Scandinavian Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (SSAC) to create the 'SSAC Working Party on MRSA' with the objective to identify methods to keep the invasive MRSA infections in the Nordic countries below 1%. The lack of common definitions was recognized as a major obstacle for a joint Nordic effort to combat MRSA. The aim of this publication is to present proposals for epidemiological definitions of individual cases, for how to report MRSA frequency per country, and for communication of MRSA strain characteristics between the countries.

  14. Smoke knows no boundaries: legal strategies for environmental tobacco smoke incursions into the home within multi-unit residential dwellings

    PubMed Central

    Kline, R.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To describe legal theories that non-smoking residents of multiple occupancy buildings may employ when affected by environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) from neighbouring units.
DESIGN—Legal research was conducted in several US states. Research was performed among statutes and regulations. State health regulations were examined as well as common law claims of nuisance, warranties of habitability, and the right of quiet enjoyment.
RESULTS—Through the use of state regulations, such as a sanitary code, several states provide general language for protecting the health of residents in multi-unit buildings. State law also supports more traditional claims of nuisance, warranties of habitability, and the right of quiet enjoyment.
CONCLUSIONS—The use of state regulations has the potential to provide an effective, existing vehicle for resolution of ETS incursion problems. The general health protection language of the regulations, in conjunction with the latest evidence of the harmful effects of ETS, gives state agencies authority to regulate environmental tobacco smoke incursions among apartments in multi-unit dwellings. Where state regulations are not available, other common law legal remedies may be available.


Keywords: environmental tobacco smoke; legal strategies; multiple occupancy dwellings PMID:10841857

  15. Biodiversity losses and carbon emissions in Amazon region - the situation of contemporary period and strategies for reduce these environmental changes

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, M.A.V. de; Aquino, L.C.; Rosa, L.P.

    1997-12-31

    The forest removal is a major contributor to local, regional and global environmental changes. Many of the tropical`s species are gravely threatened Numerous studies suggest that from 1970 to 1990 between 5 and 20 percent of the tropical`s species were committed to extinction. In 1995, the deforested lands in Brazilian Amazon account an amount Superior to 470,000 Km{sup 2}, old deforestation included, for a total surface of tropical`s rain forest of 3.4 and 3.8 million square kilometres. In 1990`s, the amount of carbon released to the atmosphere (as CO{sub 2}) from Brazilian Amazon deforestation was 3.5 % to 4.9 % and 250 % to 360 % of the World and Brazilian annual emission from fossil fuels, respectively. On the other hand, if deforestation is stopped and replaced with a rational forest management, a reuse of degraded lands for agro-forestry and biomass production for energy and industrial purposes, we can reduce the pressure on forests lands and the net carbon flux will be reversed. In this paper, we discuss the relations with biodiversity losses and carbon emissions in Brazilian Amazon region in the last thirty years and find suggest the principal`s strategies to reduce this environmental`s destruction.

  16. Convergent transcriptomics and proteomics of environmental enrichment and cocaine identifies novel therapeutic strategies for addiction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yafang; Crofton, Elizabeth J; Fan, Xiuzhen; Li, Dingge; Kong, Fanping; Sinha, Mala; Luxon, Bruce A; Spratt, Heidi M; Lichti, Cheryl F; Green, Thomas A

    2016-12-17

    Transcriptomic and proteomic approaches have separately proven effective at identifying novel mechanisms affecting addiction-related behavior; however, it is difficult to prioritize the many promising leads from each approach. A convergent secondary analysis of proteomic and transcriptomic results can glean additional information to help prioritize promising leads. The current study is a secondary analysis of the convergence of recently published separate transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of nucleus accumbens (NAc) tissue from rats subjected to environmental enrichment vs. isolation and cocaine self-administration vs. saline. Multiple bioinformatics approaches (e.g. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA)) were used to interrogate these rich data sets. Although there was little correspondence between mRNA vs. protein at the individual target level, good correspondence was found at the level of gene/protein sets, particularly for the environmental enrichment manipulation. These data identify gene sets where there is a positive relationship between changes in mRNA and protein (e.g. glycolysis, ATP synthesis, translation elongation factor activity, etc.) and gene sets where there is an inverse relationship (e.g. ribosomes, Rho GTPase signaling, protein ubiquitination, etc.). Overall environmental enrichment produced better correspondence than cocaine self-administration. The individual targets contributing to mRNA and protein effects were largely not overlapping. As a whole, these results confirm that robust transcriptomic and proteomic data sets can provide similar results at the gene/protein set level even when there is little correspondence at the individual target level and little overlap in the targets contributing to the effects.

  17. Human Coronaviruses: Insights into Environmental Resistance and Its Influence on the Development of New Antiseptic Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Geller, Chloé; Varbanov, Mihayl; Duval, Raphaël E.

    2012-01-01

    The Coronaviridae family, an enveloped RNA virus family, and, more particularly, human coronaviruses (HCoV), were historically known to be responsible for a large portion of common colds and other upper respiratory tract infections. HCoV are now known to be involved in more serious respiratory diseases, i.e. bronchitis, bronchiolitis or pneumonia, especially in young children and neonates, elderly people and immunosuppressed patients. They have also been involved in nosocomial viral infections. In 2002–2003, the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), due to a newly discovered coronavirus, the SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV); led to a new awareness of the medical importance of the Coronaviridae family. This pathogen, responsible for an emerging disease in humans, with high risk of fatal outcome; underline the pressing need for new approaches to the management of the infection, and primarily to its prevention. Another interesting feature of coronaviruses is their potential environmental resistance, despite the accepted fragility of enveloped viruses. Indeed, several studies have described the ability of HCoVs (i.e. HCoV 229E, HCoV OC43 (also known as betacoronavirus 1), NL63, HKU1 or SARS-CoV) to survive in different environmental conditions (e.g. temperature and humidity), on different supports found in hospital settings such as aluminum, sterile sponges or latex surgical gloves or in biological fluids. Finally, taking into account the persisting lack of specific antiviral treatments (there is, in fact, no specific treatment available to fight coronaviruses infections), the Coronaviridae specificities (i.e. pathogenicity, potential environmental resistance) make them a challenging model for the development of efficient means of prevention, as an adapted antisepsis-disinfection, to prevent the environmental spread of such infective agents. This review will summarize current knowledge on the capacity of human coronaviruses to survive in the

  18. Human coronaviruses: insights into environmental resistance and its influence on the development of new antiseptic strategies.

    PubMed

    Geller, Chloé; Varbanov, Mihayl; Duval, Raphaël E

    2012-11-12

    The Coronaviridae family, an enveloped RNA virus family, and, more particularly, human coronaviruses (HCoV), were historically known to be responsible for a large portion of common colds and other upper respiratory tract infections. HCoV are now known to be involved in more serious respiratory diseases, i.e. bronchitis, bronchiolitis or pneumonia, especially in young children and neonates, elderly people and immunosuppressed patients. They have also been involved in nosocomial viral infections. In 2002-2003, the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), due to a newly discovered coronavirus, the SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV); led to a new awareness of the medical importance of the Coronaviridae family. This pathogen, responsible for an emerging disease in humans, with high risk of fatal outcome; underline the pressing need for new approaches to the management of the infection, and primarily to its prevention. Another interesting feature of coronaviruses is their potential environmental resistance, despite the accepted fragility of enveloped viruses. Indeed, several studies have described the ability of HCoVs (i.e. HCoV 229E, HCoV OC43 (also known as betacoronavirus 1), NL63, HKU1 or SARS-CoV) to survive in different environmental conditions (e.g. temperature and humidity), on different supports found in hospital settings such as aluminum, sterile sponges or latex surgical gloves or in biological fluids. Finally, taking into account the persisting lack of specific antiviral treatments (there is, in fact, no specific treatment available to fight coronaviruses infections), the Coronaviridae specificities (i.e. pathogenicity, potential environmental resistance) make them a challenging model for the development of efficient means of prevention, as an adapted antisepsis-disinfection, to prevent the environmental spread of such infective agents. This review will summarize current knowledge on the capacity of human coronaviruses to survive in the

  19. Environmental Education as a social mobilization strategy to face water scarcity.

    PubMed

    Piccoli, Andrezza de Souza; Kligerman, Débora Cynamon; Cohen, Simone Cynamon; Assumpção, Rafaela Facchetti

    2016-03-01

    Article 225 of the Brazilian Constitution establishes that all citizens have the right to an ecologically balanced environment, as a common good that is essential for a healthy life, and that the government and society have the duty to protect and preserve the environment for present and future generations. This article outlines a methodology for promoting social mobilization to address water scarcity developed under the National Environmental Education and Social Mobilization for Sanitation Program (PEAMSS, acronym in Portuguese). The main aim of this article is to show the importance of education as a driving force for empowerment for water resources management. It outlines the main concepts of emancipatory environmental education and then goes on to describe the elaboration of a PEAMMS action plan. It concludes that the universalization of the right to safe and clean drinking water and access to sanitation is only possible through democratic and participatory water resources management. Actions are necessary to evaluate the reach of the PEAMSS and define the way ahead for the program.

  20. Physical Activity–Related Policy and Environmental Strategies to Prevent Obesity in Rural Communities: A Systematic Review of the Literature, 2002–2013

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Cynthia K.; Sumrall, Jasmin C.; Patterson, Megan S.; Walsh, Shana M.; Clendennen, Stephanie C.; Hooker, Steven P.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Goins, Karin V.; Heinrich, Katie M.; O’Hara Tompkins, Nancy; Eyler, Amy A.; Jones, Sydney; Tabak, Rachel; Valko, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Health disparities exist between rural and urban residents; in particular, rural residents have higher rates of chronic diseases and obesity. Evidence supports the effectiveness of policy and environmental strategies to prevent obesity and promote health equity. In 2009, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended 24 policy and environmental strategies for use by local communities: the Common Community Measures for Obesity Prevention (COCOMO); 12 strategies focus on physical activity. This review was conducted to synthesize evidence on the implementation, relevance, and effectiveness of physical activity–related policy and environmental strategies for obesity prevention in rural communities. Methods A literature search was conducted in PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, CINHAL, and PAIS databases for articles published from 2002 through May 2013 that reported findings from physical activity–related policy or environmental interventions conducted in the United States or Canada. Each article was extracted independently by 2 researchers. Results Of 2,002 articles, 30 articles representing 26 distinct studies met inclusion criteria. Schools were the most common setting (n = 18 studies). COCOMO strategies were applied in rural communities in 22 studies; the 2 most common COCOMO strategies were “enhance infrastructure supporting walking” (n = 11) and “increase opportunities for extracurricular physical activity” (n = 9). Most studies (n = 21) applied at least one of 8 non-COCOMO strategies; the most common was increasing physical activity opportunities at school outside of physical education (n = 8). Only 14 studies measured or reported physical activity outcomes (10 studies solely used self-report); 10 reported positive changes. Conclusion Seven of the 12 COCOMO physical activity–related strategies were successfully implemented in 2 or more studies, suggesting that these 7 strategies are relevant in rural communities and the

  1. Response of the Denmark Strait overflow to Nordic Seas heat loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grist, Jeremy P.; Josey, Simon A.; Sinha, Bablu; Blaker, Adam T.

    2008-09-01

    The impact of extreme Nordic Seas heat loss on Denmark Strait (DS) dense water transport is examined in (1) control runs of the Hadley Centre HadCM3 and HadGEM1 coupled climate models and (2) perturbation experiments with the fast coupled model FORTE that allow heat flux effects to be isolated from wind stress. All three models show an approximately linear increase in southward DS transport of cold dense water with increasing Nordic Seas winter heat loss in the range -80 to -250 Wm-2. The propagation of the cold anomaly from the Nordic Seas source along a trajectory through the DS and into the Irminger Basin is also examined. A common response time is found with the strongest decrease in DS temperature occurring within 8-12 months of the heat loss signal. Our results show that Nordic Seas heat loss must be considered in addition to other processes in understanding DS variability.

  2. The current state and developments in higher education in gerontology in the nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Hietanen, Heidi; Lyyra, Tiina-Mari; Parkatti, Terttu; Heikkinen, Eino

    2012-01-01

    The growing size of the older population challenges not only researchers but also higher education in gerontology. On the basis of an online survey the authors describe the situation of Nordic higher education in gerontology in 2008 and 2009 and also give some good examples of Nordic- and European-level collaboration. The survey results showed that gerontological education was given in every Nordic country, in 31 universities and 60 other higher education institutions. Although separate aging-related courses and modules were relatively numerous, programs for majors were relatively few. Networking in the Nordic region offers a good example on how to further develop higher education in gerontology. Emphasis should be put on strengthening networking on the European and trans-Atlantic levels.

  3. Measurement Properties of the Nordic Questionnaire for Psychological and Social Factors at Work: A Rasch Analysis.

    PubMed

    Roe, C; Myhre, K; Marchand, G H; Lau, B; Leivseth, G; Bautz-Holter, E

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the measurement properties of the Nordic Questionnaire for Psychological and Social Factors at Work (QPS Nordic) and the domains of demand, control and support. The Rasch analysis (RUMM 2030) was based on responses from 226 subjects with back pain who completed the QPS Nordic dimensions of demand, control, and social support (30 items) at one year follow up. The Rasch analysis revealed disordered thresholds in a total of 25 of the 30 items. The domains of demand, control and support fit the Rasch model when analyzed separately. The demand domain was well targeted, whereas patients with current neck and back pain had lower control and higher support than reflected by the questions. Two items revealed DIF by gender, otherwise invariance to age, gender, occupation and sick-leave was documented. The demand, control support domains of QPS Nordic comprised unidimensional constructs with adequate measurement properties.

  4. Environmental prediction, risk assessment and extreme events: adaptation strategies for the developing world.

    PubMed

    Webster, Peter J; Jian, Jun

    2011-12-13

    The uncertainty associated with predicting extreme weather events has serious implications for the developing world, owing to the greater societal vulnerability to such events. Continual exposure to unanticipated extreme events is a contributing factor for the descent into perpetual and structural rural poverty. We provide two examples of how probabilistic environmental prediction of extreme weather events can support dynamic adaptation. In the current climate era, we describe how short-term flood forecasts have been developed and implemented in Bangladesh. Forecasts of impending floods with horizons of 10 days are used to change agricultural practices and planning, store food and household items and evacuate those in peril. For the first time in Bangladesh, floods were anticipated in 2007 and 2008, with broad actions taking place in advance of the floods, grossing agricultural and household savings measured in units of annual income. We argue that probabilistic environmental forecasts disseminated to an informed user community can reduce poverty caused by exposure to unanticipated extreme events. Second, it is also realized that not all decisions in the future can be made at the village level and that grand plans for water resource management require extensive planning and funding. Based on imperfect models and scenarios of economic and population growth, we further suggest that flood frequency and intensity will increase in the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Yangtze catchments as greenhouse-gas concentrations increase. However, irrespective of the climate-change scenario chosen, the availability of fresh water in the latter half of the twenty-first century seems to be dominated by population increases that far outweigh climate-change effects. Paradoxically, fresh water availability may become more critical if there is no climate change.

  5. Environmental prediction, risk assessment and extreme events: adaptation strategies for the developing world

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Peter J.; Jian, Jun

    2011-01-01

    The uncertainty associated with predicting extreme weather events has serious implications for the developing world, owing to the greater societal vulnerability to such events. Continual exposure to unanticipated extreme events is a contributing factor for the descent into perpetual and structural rural poverty. We provide two examples of how probabilistic environmental prediction of extreme weather events can support dynamic adaptation. In the current climate era, we describe how short-term flood forecasts have been developed and implemented in Bangladesh. Forecasts of impending floods with horizons of 10 days are used to change agricultural practices and planning, store food and household items and evacuate those in peril. For the first time in Bangladesh, floods were anticipated in 2007 and 2008, with broad actions taking place in advance of the floods, grossing agricultural and household savings measured in units of annual income. We argue that probabilistic environmental forecasts disseminated to an informed user community can reduce poverty caused by exposure to unanticipated extreme events. Second, it is also realized that not all decisions in the future can be made at the village level and that grand plans for water resource management require extensive planning and funding. Based on imperfect models and scenarios of economic and population growth, we further suggest that flood frequency and intensity will increase in the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Yangtze catchments as greenhouse-gas concentrations increase. However, irrespective of the climate-change scenario chosen, the availability of fresh water in the latter half of the twenty-first century seems to be dominated by population increases that far outweigh climate-change effects. Paradoxically, fresh water availability may become more critical if there is no climate change. PMID:22042897

  6. Nordic Walking and chronic low back pain: design of a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Morsø, Lars; Hartvigsen, Jan; Puggaard, Lis; Manniche, Claus

    2006-01-01

    Background Low Back Pain is a major public health problem all over the western world. Active approaches including exercise in the treatment of low back pain results in better outcomes for patients, but it is not known exactly which types of back exercises are most beneficial or whether general physical activity provide similar benefits. Nordic Walking is a popular and fast growing type of exercise in Northern Europe. Initial studies have demonstrated that persons performing Nordic Walking are able to exercise longer and harder compared to normal walking thereby increasing their cardiovascular metabolism. Until now no studies have been performed to investigate whether Nordic Walking has beneficial effects in relation to low back pain. The primary aim of this study is to investigate whether supervised Nordic Walking can reduce pain and improve function in a population of chronic low back pain patients when compared to unsupervised Nordic Walking and advice to stay active. In addition we investigate whether there is an increase in the cardiovascular metabolism in persons performing supervised Nordic Walking compared to persons who are advised to stay active. Finally, we investigate whether there is a difference in compliance between persons receiving supervised Nordic Walking and persons doing unsupervised Nordic Walking. Methods One hundred and fifty patients with low back pain for at least eight weeks and referred to a specialized secondary sector outpatient back pain clinic are included in the study. After completion of the standard back centre treatment patients are randomized into one of three groups: A) Nordic Walking twice a week for eight weeks under supervision of a specially trained instructor; B) Unsupervised Nordic Walking for eight weeks after one training session with an instructor; C) A one hour motivational talk including advice to stay active. Outcome measures are pain, function, overall health, cardiovascular ability and activity level. Results No

  7. Multidisciplinary Management of Mastocytosis: Nordic Expert Group Consensus.

    PubMed

    Broesby-Olsen, Sigurd; Dybedal, Ingunn; Gülen, Theo; Kristensen, Thomas K; Møller, Michael B; Ackermann, Leena; Sääf, Maria; Karlsson, Maria A; Agertoft, Lone; Brixen, Kim; Hermann, Pernille; Stylianou, Eva; Mortz, Charlotte G; Torfing, Trine; Havelund, Troels; Sander, Birgitta; Bergström, Anna; Bendix, Marie; Garvey, Lene H; Bjerrum, Ole Weis; Valent, Peter; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Nilsson, Gunnar; Vestergaard, Hanne; Hägglund, Hans

    2016-06-15

    Mastocytosis is a heterogeneous group of diseases defined by an increased number and accumulation of mast cells, and often also by signs and symptoms of mast cell activation. Disease subtypes range from indolent to rare aggressive forms. Mastocytosis affects people of all ages and has been considered rare; however, it is probably underdiagnosed with potential severe implications. Diagnosis can be challenging and symptoms may be complex and involve multiple organ-systems. In general it is advised that patients should be referred to centres with experience in the disease offering an individualized, multidisciplinary approach. We present here consensus recommendations from a Nordic expert group for the diagnosis and general management of patients with mastocytosis.

  8. PREFACE: The 6th Nordic Meeting on Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Løvhøiden, G.; Thorsteinsen, T. F.; Vaagen, J. S.

    1990-01-01

    After an unintended time gap of five years, the series of regular Nordic meetings on nuclear physics was continued with the 6th Nordic Meeting, August 10-15, 1989. The site was Utgarden in the outskirts of Kopervik, the administration center for the Saga island of Karmøy on the west-coast of Norway. Utgarden, a "peoples high-school'' with a kitchen, housing facility and a neighboring modern gymnasium with fine lecture halls, proved to be an inexpensive and adequate site for the meeting. From the time of the Vikings, the sound between Karmøyy and the mainland has been a vital part of the way to the north. Mobility and international orientation is still a signature of an area where today essential parts of Norway's oil- and metal industry are located. The conference program included a session on nuclear physics in industry and society, with contributed talks from a number of companies and technology/research institutions, which also sponsored the meeting. Lunch visits to Hydro's aluminium plant on Karmøy or alternatively to Statoil's gas terminal on the mainland, were included in the program. The scientific program gives a cross section of nuclear physics activities in which researchers from the Nordic countries are involved nowadays. The spectrum is rich, and the emphasis has shifted to higher energies than was the case five years ago. We appreciate the possibility to present this overview in a separate volume of Physica Scripta. The present issue covers nearly all the talks given at the meeting. The order deviates, however, somewhat from that of the conference program. The organizing committee tried to encourage in various ways the participation of young physicists; this effort was truely rewarded. The young participants put their imprint on the activities in the lecture halls and even more on the soccer arena. The meeting was sponsored by The University of Bergen, The Nordic Accelerator Committee, NORDITA, The Norwegian Research Council for Science and the

  9. Different incidences of knee arthroplasty in the Nordic countries

    PubMed Central

    NiemeläInen, Mika J; MäKelä, Keijo T; Robertsson, Otto; W-Dahl, Annette; Furnes, Ove; Fenstad, Anne M; Pedersen, Alma B; Schrøder, Henrik M; Huhtala, Heini; Eskelinen, Antti

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose The annual number of total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) has increased worldwide in recent years. To make projections regarding future needs for primaries and revisions, additional knowledge is important. We analyzed and compared the incidences among 4 Nordic countries Patients and methods Using Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association (NARA) data from 4 countries, we analyzed differences between age and sex groups. We included patients over 30 years of age who were operated with TKA or unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) during the period 1997–2012. The negative binomial regression model was used to analyze changes in general trends and in sex and age groups. Results The average annual increase in the incidence of TKA was statistically significant in all countries. The incidence of TKA was higher in women than in men in all 4 countries. It was highest in Finland in patients aged 65 years or more. At the end of the study period in 2012, Finland’s total incidence was double that of Norway, 1.3 times that of Sweden and 1.4 times that of Denmark. The incidence was lowest in the youngest age groups (< 65 years) in all 4 countries. The proportional increase in incidence was highest in patients who were younger than 65 years. Interpretation The incidence of knee arthroplasty steadily increased in the 4 countries over the study period. The differences between the countries were considerable, with the highest incidence in Finland. Patients aged 65 years or more contributed to most of the total incidence of knee arthroplasty. PMID:28056570

  10. Overview of the Nordic Seas CARINA data and salinity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Are; Key, Robert; Jeansson, Emil; Falck, E.; Olafsson, J.; Van Heuven, S.; Skjelvan, I.; Omar, A.M.; Olsson, K.A.; Anderson, L.G.; Jutterström, S.; Rey, F.; Johannessen, T.; Bellerby, R.G.J.; Bullister, J.L.; Pfeil, B.; Lin, X.; Kozyr, Alexander; Schirnick, C.; Tanhua, T.; Wallace, D.W.R.

    2009-01-01

    Water column data of carbon and carbon relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from 188 previously non-publicly available cruises in the Arctic, Atlantic, and Southern Ocean have been retrieved and merged into a new database: CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic). The data have been subject to rigorous quality control (QC) in order to ensure highest possible quality and consistency. The data for most of the parameters included were examined in order to quantify systematic biases in the reported values, i.e. secondary quality control. Significant biases have been corrected for in the data products, i.e. the three merged files with measured, calculated and interpolated values for each of the three CARINA regions; the Arctic Mediterranean Seas (AMS), the Atlantic (ATL) and the Southern Ocean (SO).With the adjustments the CARINA database is consistent both internally as well as with GLODAP (Key et al., 2004) and is suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, oceanic carbon inventories and uptake rates and for model validation. The Arctic Mediterranean Seas include the Arctic Ocean and the Nordic Seas, and the quality control was carried out separately in these two areas. This contribution provides an overview of the CARINA data from the Nordic Seas and summaries the findings of the QC of the salinity data. One cruise had salinity data that were of questionable quality, and these have been removed from the data product. An evaluation of the consistency of the quality controlled salinity data suggests that they are consistent to at least 0.005.

  11. Completeness of metabolic disease recordings in Nordic national databases for dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Espetvedt, M N; Wolff, C; Rintakoski, S; Lind, A; Østerås, O

    2012-06-01

    The four Nordic countries Denmark (DK), Finland (FI), Norway (NO) and Sweden (SE) all have national databases where diagnostic events in dairy cows are recorded. Comparing and looking at differences in disease occurrence between countries may give information on factors that influence disease occurrence, optimal diseases control and treatment strategies. For such comparisons to be valid, the data in these databases should be standardised and of good quality. The objective of the study presented here was to assess the quality of metabolic disease recordings, primarily milk fever and ketosis, in four Nordic national databases. Completeness of recording figures of database registrations at two different levels was chosen as a measure of data quality. Firstly, completeness of recording of all disease events on a farm regardless of veterinary involvement, called 'Farmer observed completeness', was determined. Secondly, completeness of recording of veterinary treated disease events only, called 'Veterinary treated completeness', was determined. To collect data for calculating these completeness levels a simple random sample of herds was obtained in each country. Farmers who were willing to participate, recorded for 4 months in 2008, on a purpose made registration form, any observed illness in cows, regardless of veterinary involvement. The number of participating herds was 105, 167, 179 and 129 in DK, FI, NO and SE respectively. In total these herds registered 247, 248, 177 and 218 metabolic events for analysis in DK, FI, NO and SE, respectively. Data from national databases were subsequently extracted, and the two sources of data were matched to find the proportion, or completeness, of diagnostic events registered by farmers that also existed in national databases. Matching was done using a common diagnostic code system and allowed for a discrepancy of 7 days for registered date of the event. For milk fever, the Farmer observed completeness was 77%, 67%, 79% and 79

  12. Organic farming in the Nordic countries--animal health and production.

    PubMed

    Thamsborg, S M

    2001-01-01

    Organic farming (or ecological agriculture) is of growing importance in the agricultural sector worldwide. In the Nordic countries, 1-10% of the arable land was in organic production in 1999. Organic farming can be seen as an approach to agriculture where the aim is to create integrated, humane, environmentally and economically sustainable agricultural production systems. Principles like nutrient recycling, prevention rather than treatment and the precautionary principle are included in aims and standards. Animal welfare is another hallmark of organic livestock production but despite this, several studies have indicated severe health problems e.g. in organic poultry production in Denmark. Also the quality of animal food products in relation to human health, particularly the risk of zoonotic infections, has been debated. For these reasons there is a need for improvement of production methods and animal health status. Vets play an important role in this development through work in clinical practice and in research. On-farm consultancy should be tailored to the individual farmers needs, and the practitioner should be willing to take up new ideas and when needed, to enter a critical dialogue in relation to animal welfare. Better base line data on animal health and food safety in organic food systems are needed.

  13. Environmental variability drives rapid and dramatic changes in nutrient limitation of tropical macroalgae with different ecological strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausing, Rachel J.; Fong, Peggy

    2016-06-01

    Nitrogen (N) or phosphorus (P) limits primary productivity in nearly every ecosystem worldwide, yet how limitation changes over time, particularly in connection to variation in environmental drivers, remains understudied. We evaluated temporal and species-specific variability in the relative importance of N and P limitation among tropical macroalgae in two-factor experiments conducted twice after rains and twice after dry conditions to explore potential linkages to environmental drivers. We studied three common macroalgal species with varying ecological strategies: a fast-growing opportunist, Dictyota bartayresiana; and two calcifying species likely to be slower growing, Galaxaura fasciculata and Padina boryana. On the scale of days to weeks, nutrient responses ranged among and within species from no limitation to increases in growth by 20 and 40 % over controls in 3 d with N and P addition, respectively. After light rain or dry conditions, Dictyota grew rapidly (up to ~60 % in 3 d) with little indication of nutrient limitation, while Padina and Galaxaura shifted between N, P, or no limitation. All species grew slowly or lost mass after a large storm, presumably due to unfavorable conditions on the reef prior to the experiment that limited nutrient uptake. Padina and Galaxaura both became nutrient limited 3 d post-storm, while Dictyota did not. These results suggest that differing capabilities for nutrient uptake and storage dictate the influence of nutrient history and thus drive nutrient responses and, in doing so, may allow species with differing ecological strategies to coexist in a fluctuating environment. Moreover, the great variability in species' responses indicates that patterns of nutrient limitation are more complex than previously recognized, and generalizations about N versus P limitation of a given system may not convey the inherent complexity in governing conditions and processes.

  14. Early Pliocene onset of modern Nordic Seas circulation related to ocean gateway changes.

    PubMed

    De Schepper, Stijn; Schreck, Michael; Beck, Kristina Marie; Matthiessen, Jens; Fahl, Kirsten; Mangerud, Gunn

    2015-10-28

    The globally warm climate of the early Pliocene gradually cooled from 4 million years ago, synchronous with decreasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In contrast, palaeoceanographic records indicate that the Nordic Seas cooled during the earliest Pliocene, before global cooling. However, a lack of knowledge regarding the precise timing of Nordic Seas cooling has limited our understanding of the governing mechanisms. Here, using marine palynology, we show that cooling in the Nordic Seas was coincident with the first trans-Arctic migration of cool-water Pacific mollusks around 4.5 million years ago, and followed by the development of a modern-like Nordic Seas surface circulation. Nordic Seas cooling precedes global cooling by 500,000 years; as such, we propose that reconfiguration of the Bering Strait and Central American Seaway triggered the development of a modern circulation in the Nordic Seas, which is essential for North Atlantic Deep Water formation and a precursor for more widespread Greenland glaciation in the late Pliocene.

  15. Early Pliocene onset of modern Nordic Seas circulation related to ocean gateway changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Schepper, Stijn; Schreck, Michael; Beck, Kristina Marie; Matthiessen, Jens; Fahl, Kirsten; Mangerud, Gunn

    2015-10-01

    The globally warm climate of the early Pliocene gradually cooled from 4 million years ago, synchronous with decreasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In contrast, palaeoceanographic records indicate that the Nordic Seas cooled during the earliest Pliocene, before global cooling. However, a lack of knowledge regarding the precise timing of Nordic Seas cooling has limited our understanding of the governing mechanisms. Here, using marine palynology, we show that cooling in the Nordic Seas was coincident with the first trans-Arctic migration of cool-water Pacific mollusks around 4.5 million years ago, and followed by the development of a modern-like Nordic Seas surface circulation. Nordic Seas cooling precedes global cooling by 500,000 years; as such, we propose that reconfiguration of the Bering Strait and Central American Seaway triggered the development of a modern circulation in the Nordic Seas, which is essential for North Atlantic Deep Water formation and a precursor for more widespread Greenland glaciation in the late Pliocene.

  16. Early Pliocene onset of modern Nordic Seas circulation related to ocean gateway changes

    PubMed Central

    De Schepper, Stijn; Schreck, Michael; Beck, Kristina Marie; Matthiessen, Jens; Fahl, Kirsten; Mangerud, Gunn

    2015-01-01

    The globally warm climate of the early Pliocene gradually cooled from 4 million years ago, synchronous with decreasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In contrast, palaeoceanographic records indicate that the Nordic Seas cooled during the earliest Pliocene, before global cooling. However, a lack of knowledge regarding the precise timing of Nordic Seas cooling has limited our understanding of the governing mechanisms. Here, using marine palynology, we show that cooling in the Nordic Seas was coincident with the first trans-Arctic migration of cool-water Pacific mollusks around 4.5 million years ago, and followed by the development of a modern-like Nordic Seas surface circulation. Nordic Seas cooling precedes global cooling by 500,000 years; as such, we propose that reconfiguration of the Bering Strait and Central American Seaway triggered the development of a modern circulation in the Nordic Seas, which is essential for North Atlantic Deep Water formation and a precursor for more widespread Greenland glaciation in the late Pliocene. PMID:26507275

  17. Environmental and Economic Strategies for Primary Prevention of Cancer in Early Life.

    PubMed

    Kriebel, David; Hoppin, Polly J; Jacobs, Molly M; Clapp, Richard W

    2016-11-01

    This article summarizes the evidence for environmental toxic exposures contributing to cancers in early life, focusing on the most common cancer sites in this age group. It provides examples of widespread avoidable exposures to human carcinogens through air, water, and food and then describes recent examples of successful initiatives to reduce exposure to chemicals linked to these cancer sites, through government policy, industry initiatives, and consumer activism. State government initiatives to reduce toxic chemical exposures have made important gains; the Toxics Use Reduction Act of Massachusetts is now 25 years old and has been a major success story. There are a growing number of corporate initiatives to eliminate toxics, especially carcinogens, from the products they manufacture and sell. Another important opportunity for cancer prevention is provided by online databases that list chemicals, their toxicity, and lower-toxicity alternatives; these can be used by businesses, health care institutions, consumers, and workers to reduce exposures to chemicals of concern. The article concludes by inviting pediatricians and public health professionals to include elimination of carcinogen exposures in their work to promote primary prevention of cancer in early life.

  18. Eco-environmentally friendly operational regulation: an effective strategy to diminish the TDG supersaturation of reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, J.; Li, R.; Liang, R.; Shen, X.

    2014-03-01

    The presence of elevated total dissolved gas (TDG) downstream of a spillway may result in an increased incidence of gas bubble disease in fish. Supersaturated TDG is transported and dissipated more slowly in reservoirs than in natural rivers because of a higher water depth and lower turbulence and thus endangers fish. This paper presents the operational regulations concerning the mitigation of the TDG supersaturation impact on fish in the Bala Reservoir on the Zumuzu River. The paper includes the joint operations of the upstream and downstream power stations. A laterally averaged two-dimensional model is employed to simulate the TDG transportation and dissipation in the Bala Reservoir in addition to the hydrodynamics and water temperature. According to a comparison of the simulation results of different operational scenarios, this paper suggests a regulation scheme. With respect to the upstream power station, the adoption of an interval-discharge pattern instead of a continuous-discharge pattern is recommended to minimize the negative effect on the reservoir caused by supersaturated TDG. With respect to the downstream power station, the adoption of a surface tunnel rather than a bottom tunnel is recommended as a release structure. This paper is a reference for the eco-environmentally friendly operation of large and deep reservoirs.

  19. Environmental issues and management strategies for waste electronic and electrical equipment.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Timothy G

    2011-06-01

    Issues surrounding the impact and management of discarded or waste electronic and electrical equipment (WEEE) have received increasing attention in recent years. This attention stems from the growing quantity and diversity of electronic and electrical equipment (EEE) used by modern society, the increasingly rapid turnover of EEE with the accompanying burden on the waste stream, and the occurrence of toxic chemicals in many EEE components that can pose a risk to human and environmental health if improperly managed. In addition, public awareness of the WEEE or "e-waste" dilemma has grown in light of popular press features on events such as the transition to digital television and the exportation of WEEE from the United States and other developed countries to Africa, China, and India, where WEEE has often not been managed in a safe manner (e.g., processed with proper safety precautions, disposed of in a sanitary landfill, combusted with proper air quality procedures). This paper critically reviews current published information on the subject of WEEE. The definition, magnitude, and characteristics of this waste stream are summarized, including a detailed review of the chemicals of concern associated with different components and how this has changed and continues to evolve over time. Current and evolving management practices are described (e.g., reuse, recycling, incineration, landfilling). This review discusses the role of regulation and policies developed by governments, institutions, and product manufacturers and how these initiatives are shaping current and future management practices.

  20. Molecular-based strategies to exploit Pseudomonas biocontrol strains for environmental biotechnology applications.

    PubMed

    Mark, Genevievel; Morrissey, John P; Higgins, P; O'gara, Fergal

    2006-05-01

    Exploitation of beneficial plant-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere can result in the promotion of plant health and have significant implications for low input sustainable agriculture applications such as biocontrol. Bacteria such as Bacillus and Pseudomonas, and fungi such as Trichoderma, have been developed as commercial biocontrol products. Registration of microbial inocualants as biocontrol agents in either the European Union or the United States requires production of extensive dossiers covering efficacy, safety and risk assessment. Despite the fact that a number of Pseudomonas biocontrol products have been marketed there are still some limitations hampering the development of this technology for widespread use in agriculture. Although many strains show good performance in specific trials, this is often not translated into consistent, effective biocontrol in diverse field situations. Advances in 'Omics' technology and the publication of complete genome sequences of a number of plant-associative bacterial strains, has facilitated investigations into the molecular basis underpinning the establishment of beneficial plant-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere. The understanding of these molecular signalling processes and the functions they regulate is fundamental to promoting beneficial microbe-plant interactions, to overcome existing limitations and to designing improved strategies for the development of novel Pseudmonas biocontrol inoculant consortia.

  1. A novel strategy for the isolation and identification of environmental Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria.

    PubMed

    Vanlaere, Elke; Coenye, Tom; Samyn, Emly; Van den Plas, Caroline; Govan, John; De Baets, Frans; De Boeck, Kris; Knoop, Christiane; Vandamme, Peter

    2005-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to develop a novel strategy for the isolation and identification of Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria from the home environment of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Water and soil samples were enriched in a broth containing 0.1% l-arabinose, 0.1% l-threonine, and a mixture of selective agents including 1 microgml(-1) C-390, 600U ml(-1) polymyxin B sulfate, 10 microgml(-1) gentamycin, 2 microgml(-1) vancomycin and 10 microgml(-1) cycloheximide. On selective media (consisting of the same components as above plus 1.8% agar), several dilutions of the enrichment broth were inoculated and incubated for 5 days at 28 degrees C. Isolates with different randomly amplified polymorphic DNA patterns were inoculated in Stewart's medium. Putative B. cepacia complex bacteria were confirmed by means of recA PCR and further identified by HaeIII-recA restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Our results suggest that these organisms may be more widespread in the home environment than previously assumed and that plant associated soil and pond water may be reservoirs of B. cepacia complex infection in CF patients.

  2. A Rapid Strategy for the Isolation of New Faustoviruses from Environmental Samples Using Vermamoeba vermiformis.

    PubMed

    Bou Khalil, Jacques Yaacoub; Andreani, Julien; Raoult, Didier; La Scola, Bernard

    2016-06-04

    The isolation of giant viruses is of great interest in this new era of virology, especially since these giant viruses are related to protists. Giant viruses may be potentially pathogenic for many species of protists. They belong to the recently described order of Megavirales. The new lineage Faustovirus that has been isolated from sewage samples is distantly related to the mammalian pathogen African swine fever virus. This virus is also specific to its amoebal host, Vermamoeba vermiformis, a protist common in health care water systems. It is crucial to continue isolating new Faustovirus genotypes in order to enlarge its genotype collection and study its pan-genome. We developed new strategies for the isolation of additional strains by improving the use of antibiotic and antifungal combinations in order to avoid bacterial and fungal contaminations of the amoeba co-culture and favoring the virus multiplication. We also implemented a new starvation medium to maintain V. vermiformis in optimal conditions for viruses co-culture. Finally, we used flow cytometry rather than microscopic observation, which is time-consuming, to detect the cytopathogenic effect. We obtained two isolates from sewage samples, proving the efficiency of this method and thus widening the collection of Faustoviruses, to better understand their environment, host specificity and genetic content.

  3. Examining a home environmental strategy to reduce availability of legal products that can be misused by youth.

    PubMed

    Collins, David A; Johnson, Knowlton W; Shamblen, Stephen R

    2012-10-01

    This article presents results from a study of a home environmental strategy (HES) designed to reduce availability of harmful legal products (HLPs) in the home that can be used by youth to get high. HLPs include inhalants, prescription and nonprescription drugs, and household products that can be ingested to get high. Availability is one of the most consistent predictors of substance use among youth. Parents of 5th- to 7th-grade students in four Alaskan communities participated in telephone interviews as part of a larger study of a multicomponent community prevention model (CPM) that included a HES. The strategy was designed to encourage parents to reduce availability of HLPs by removing them from the home, and by locking up and monitoring the supplies of HLPs in the home. Data from 402 parents at Wave 1 and 371 parents at Wave 2 were analyzed using hierarchical non-Linear modeling (HNLM). Results show there was a significant decrease in HLPs in the home from Wave 1 to Wave 2, mostly inhalants and prescription and nonprescription drugs. Parents also reported a significant increase in locking up prescription and nonprescription drugs in the home. Parents' direct exposure to the HES was marginally associated with the change over time in HLP availability in the home. Indirect exposure through others and media was not associated with this change. Study lessons learned and conclusions are highlighted.

  4. Small pelagic fish reproductive strategies in upwelling systems: A natal homing evolutionary model to study environmental constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brochier, T.; Colas, F.; Lett, C.; Echevin, V.; Cubillos, L. A.; Tam, J.; Chlaida, M.; Mullon, C.; Fréon, P.

    2009-12-01

    Although little is known about the individual-level mechanisms that influence small pelagic fish species’ reproductive strategy, Mullon et al. [Mullon, C., Cury, P., Penven, P., 2002. Evolutionary individual-based model for the recruitment of anchovy ( Engraulis capensis) in the southern Benguela. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 59, 910-922] showed that the observed anchovy spawning patterns in the southern Benguela Current system off South Africa could be accurately reproduced by simulating a natal homing reproductive strategy, i.e. individuals spawning at their natal date and place. Here we used a similar method, i.e., an individual-based model of the natal homing reproductive strategy, and applied it to other upwelling systems: the northern Humboldt Current system off Peru, the southern Humboldt Current system off Chile and the central Canary Current system off Morocco. We investigated the spatial (horizontal and vertical) and seasonal spawning patterns that emerged after applying different environmental constraints in the model, and compared these to observed spawning patterns of sardine and anchovy in their respective systems. The selective environmental constraints tested were: (1) lethal temperature; (2) retention over the continental shelf; and (3) avoidance of dispersive structures. Simulated horizontal spatial patterns and seasonal patterns compared reasonably well with field data, but vertical patterns in most cases did not. Similarly to what was found for the southern Benguela, temperature was a determinant constraint in the southern Humboldt. The shelf retention constraint led to selection of a particular spawning season during the period of minimum upwelling in all three of the upwelling regions considered, and to spatial patterns that matched observed anchovy spawning off Chile and sardine spawning off Morocco. The third constraint, avoidance of dispersive structures, led to the emergence of a spawning season during the period of

  5. A whole-farm strategy to reduce environmental impacts of nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Sonneveld, M P W; Schröder, J J; de Vos, J A; Monteny, G J; Mosquera, J; Hol, J M G; Lantinga, E A; Verhoeven, F P M; Bouma, J

    2008-01-01

    Dutch regulations for ammonia emission require farmers to inject slurry into the soil (shallow) or to apply it in narrow bands at the surface. For one commercial dairy farm in the Netherlands it was hypothesized that its alternative farming strategy, including low-protein feeding and surface spreading, could be an equally effective tool for ammonia emission abatement. The overall objective of the research was to investigate how management at this farm is related to nitrogen (N) losses to the environment, including groundwater and surface water. Gaseous emission of ammonia and greenhouse gasses from the naturally ventilated stables were 8.1 and 3.1 kg yr(-1) AU(-1) on average using the internal tracer (SF(6))-ratio method. Measurements on volatilization of ammonia from slurry application to the field using an integrated horizontal flux method and the micrometeorological mass balance method yielded relatively low values of ammonia emissions per ha (3.5-10.9 kg NH(3)-N ha(-1)). The mean nitrate concentration in the upper ground water was 6.7 mg L(-1) for 2004 and 3.0 mg L(-1) for 2005, and the half-year summer means of N in surface water were 2.3 mg N L(-1) and 3.4 mg N L(-1) for 2004 and 2005, respectively. Using a nutrient budget model for this farm, partly based on these findings, it was found that the calculated ammonia loss per ton milk (range 5.3-7.5 kg N Mg(-1)) is comparable with the estimated ammonia loss of a conventional farm that applies animal slurry using prescribed technologies.

  6. Local Nordic tobacco interests collaborated with multinational companies to maintain a united front and undermine tobacco control policies

    PubMed Central

    Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton A

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyse how local tobacco companies in the Nordic countries, individually and through National Manufacturers’ Associations, cooperated with British American Tobacco and Philip Morris in denying the health hazards of smoking and undermining tobacco control. Methods Analysis of tobacco control policies in the Nordic countries and tobacco industry documents. Results Nordic countries were early adopters of tobacco control policies. The multinational tobacco companies recognised this fact and mobilised to oppose these policies, in part because of fear that they would set unfavourable precedents. Since at least 1972, the Nordic tobacco companies were well informed about and willing to participate in the multinational companies activities to obscure the health dangers of smoking and secondhand smoke and to oppose tobacco control policies. Cooperation between multinational companies, Nordic national manufacturer associations and local companies ensured a united front on smoking and health issues in the Nordic area that was consistent with the positions that the multinational companies were taking. This cooperation delayed smoke-free laws and undermined other tobacco control measures. Conclusions Local tobacco companies worked with multinational companies to undermine tobacco control in distant and small Nordic markets because of concern that pioneering policies initiated in Nordic countries would spread to bigger market areas. Claims by the local Nordic companies that they were not actively involved with the multinationals are not supported by the facts. These results also demonstrate that the industry appreciates the global importance of both positive and negative public health precedents in tobacco control. PMID:22199013

  7. Overview of eutrophication indicators to assess environmental status within the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, João G.; Andersen, Jesper H.; Borja, Angel; Bricker, Suzanne B.; Camp, Jordi; Cardoso da Silva, Margarida; Garcés, Esther; Heiskanen, Anna-Stiina; Humborg, Christoph; Ignatiades, Lydia; Lancelot, Christiane; Menesguen, Alain; Tett, Paul; Hoepffner, Nicolas; Claussen, Ulrich

    2011-06-01

    In 2009, following approval of the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC), the European Commission (EC) created task groups to develop guidance for eleven quality descriptors that form the basis for evaluating ecosystem function. The objective was to provide European countries with practical guidelines for implementing the MSFD, and to produce a Commission Decision that encapsulated key points of the work in a legal framework. This paper presents a review of work carried out by the eutrophication task group, and reports our main findings to the scientific community. On the basis of an operational, management-oriented definition, we discuss the main methodologies that could be used for coastal and marine eutrophication assessment. Emphasis is placed on integrated approaches that account for physico-chemical and biological components, and combine both pelagic and benthic symptoms of eutrophication, in keeping with the holistic nature of the MSFD. We highlight general features that any marine eutrophication model should possess, rather than making specific recommendations. European seas range from highly eutrophic systems such as the Baltic to nutrient-poor environments such as the Aegean Sea. From a physical perspective, marine waters range from high energy environments of the north east Atlantic to the permanent vertical stratification of the Black Sea. This review aimed to encapsulate that variability, recognizing that meaningful guidance should be flexible enough to accommodate the widely differing characteristics of European seas, and that this information is potentially relevant in marine ecosystems worldwide. Given the spatial extent of the MSFD, innovative approaches are required to allow meaningful monitoring and assessment. Consequently, substantial logistic and financial challenges will drive research in areas such as remote sensing of harmful algal blooms, in situ sensor development, and mathematical models. Our review takes into

  8. Nutritional and management strategies on nitrogen and phosphorus use efficiency of lactating dairy cattle on commercial farms: an environmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Arriaga, H; Pinto, M; Calsamiglia, S; Merino, P

    2009-01-01

    Dairy farm activities contribute to environmental pollution through the surplus N and P that they produce. Optimization of animal feeding and management has been described as a key strategy for decreasing N and P excretion in manure. Sixty-four commercial dairy farms were studied to assess the efficiency of N and P use in lactating herds and to identify dietary and management factors that may contribute to improving the efficiency of nutrient use for milk production, and decrease N and P excretion. The average ration was formulated to 50:50 forage:concentrate ratio with grass silage and corn silage as the main forage sources. Mean N and P intakes were 562 g/d [16.4% crude protein (CP)] and 84.8 g/d (0.40% P), respectively. Milk yield averaged 29.7 kg/d and contributed to 25.8% (standard deviation +/- 2.9) of N utilization efficiency (NUE) and 31.9% (standard deviation +/- 4.5) of P utilization efficiency (PUE). Dietary N manipulation through fitting the intake of CP to animal requirements showed a better response in terms of decreasing N excretion (R(2) = 0.70) than that estimated for P nutrition and excretion (R(2) = 0.30). Improvement in NUE helped increase PUE, despite the widespread use of feedstuffs with a high P content. Management strategies for lactating herds, such as the use of different feeding groups, periodical ration reformulation, and selection of feeding system did not show any consistent response in terms of improved NUE and PUE. The optimization of NUE and PUE contributed to decreasing the N and P excretion per unit of milk produced, and therefore, reductions in N and P excretion of between 17 and 35%, respectively, were estimated. Nevertheless, nutritional and herd management strategies were limited when N and P excretion were considered in relation to the whole lactating herd and farmland availability. Dietary CP manipulation was estimated to decrease herd N excretion by 11% per hectare, whereas dietary P manipulation would be decreased by no

  9. Approach and strategy for performing ecological risk assessments for the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Office Environmental Restoration Program. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Suter, G.W. II; Redfearn, A.; White, R.K.; Shaw, R.A.

    1992-07-01

    This document is intended to supplement exiting US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance for ecological risk assessment at hazardous waste sites by providing guidance that is more specific and more tailored to US Department of Energy sites than the guidance available from the EPA. However, it is a conceptual strategy document and does not include specific guidance on data, assumptions, and models. That detailed guidance is under development and will be presented in subsequent documents. Ecological risk assessments are equal to human health risk assessments in regulatory importance and can use many of the same data and some of the same estimation methods. However, they also have peculiar data needs and methods. Ecological risk assessments begin with an initial scoping phase, termed hazard definition, that characterizes the sources, the potentially environment, and the assessment endpoints. In the subsequent measurement and estimation phase, in which data are obtained concerning source of the endpoint biota to the contaminants and the effects of those exposures, and assumptions and models are used to relate the data to the desired exposure and effects parameters. Finally, in an integration phase, termed risk characterization, the various exposure and effects estimates are combined to infer the existence, cause, magnitude, and extent of effects of contaminants on the ecological endpoints. This phase is much more complicated for ecological risk assessments than for human health assessments because more types of data are available. Ecological risk assessments estimate effects using laboratory toxicity test results, like human health assessments, but also use results of ambient toxicity tests and biological surveys.

  10. Using evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental strategies to increase access to healthy food and opportunities for physical activity among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shilpa; Kwon, Simona; Arista, Pedro; Tepporn, Ed; Chung, Marianne; Ko Chin, Kathy; Rideout, Catlin; Islam, Nadia; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2015-07-01

    Recent initiatives have focused on the dissemination of evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental (EBPSE) strategies to reduce health disparities. Targeted, community-level efforts are needed to supplement these approaches for comparable results among Asian Americans and Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPIs).The STRIVE Project funded 15 Asian American and NHPI community-based organizations (CBOs) to implement culturally adapted strategies. Partners reached more than 1.4 million people at a cost of $2.04 per person. CBOs are well positioned to implement EBPSE strategies to reduce health disparities.

  11. Using Evidence-Based Policy, Systems, and Environmental Strategies to Increase Access to Healthy Food and Opportunities for Physical Activity Among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Simona; Arista, Pedro; Tepporn, Ed; Chung, Marianne; Ko Chin, Kathy; Rideout, Catlin; Islam, Nadia; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2015-01-01

    Recent initiatives have focused on the dissemination of evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental (EBPSE) strategies to reduce health disparities. Targeted, community-level efforts are needed to supplement these approaches for comparable results among Asian Americans and Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPIs).The STRIVE Project funded 15 Asian American and NHPI community-based organizations (CBOs) to implement culturally adapted strategies. Partners reached more than 1.4 million people at a cost of $2.04 per person. CBOs are well positioned to implement EBPSE strategies to reduce health disparities. PMID:25905839

  12. Changes in the vigour of the Nordic Overflows over the last 3000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffa Sanchez, P.; Hall, I. R.; Thornalley, D. J.; Barker, S.

    2014-12-01

    In today's North Atlantic, warm tropical surface waters flow northwards into the Nordic Seas where they cool and sink to form deep south-flowing currents. This deepwater formation process is a major contributor to the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and is of great importance to the climate system as it distributes nutrients, heat and gasses throughout the world's oceans. The Nordic Overflows are the deep waters that flow southwards over the submarine Greenland-Scotland Ridge and are the densest waters of the deep limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Changes in the vigour of these overflows may have had important climatic effects in the past and possibly in the future. Yet, evidence for multidecadal to millennial changes in the deep limb of the AMOC and their potential relationship to North Atlantic climate variability during our current interglacial is still scarce. Here we present grain size data (a current speed proxy) from sub to decadally resolved sediment cores located in the direct pathway of the two Nordic Overflows east and west of Iceland, the Iceland Scotland Overflow Water (ISOW) and the Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW), respectively. The results do not show a clear relationship between changes in the vigour of the Nordic Overflows and the well-known periods of centennial-scale climate variability recorded in the North Atlantic region. However, clear millennial-scale trends are found in both of the overflow strength records over the last 3000 years, possibly related to hydrographic reorganisations in the Nordic Seas driven by Northern Hemisphere insolation changes over the Neoglacial. A comparison between the near-bottom flow speed reconstructions from ISOW and DSOW suggest an antiphased relationship between the Nordic Overflows east and west of Iceland over the last 3000 years, a feature that has been observed in climate models as a result of shifts in atmospheric patterns over the Nordic Seas.

  13. Development of innovative tools for understanding marine biodiversity and assessing good environmental status, within the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borja, Angel; Uyarra, María C.

    2014-05-01

    Marine natural resources and ecosystem services constitute the natural capital that supports economies, societies and individual well-being. Good governance requires a quantification of the interactions and trade-offs among ecosystem services and understanding of how biodiversity underpins ecosystem functions and services across time, scales and sectors. Marine biodiversity is a key descriptor for the assessment within the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), approved in 2008, which comprises a total of 11 descriptors. However, the relationships between pressures from human activities and climatic influences and their effects on marine biological diversity are still only partially understood. Hence, these relationships need to be better understood in order to fully achieve a good environmental status (GEnS), as required by the MSFD. This contribution is based upon the FP7 EU project DEVOTES (DEVelopment Of innovative Tools for understanding marine biodiversity and assessing good Environmental Status), which focus on developing innovative conceptual frameworks, methods and coherent, shared protocols to provide consistent datasets and knowledge at different scales, within four regional seas (Black Sea, Mediterranean, Atlantic and Baltic Sea). This project is developing innovative approaches to valuate biodiversity and ecosystem services and to develop public goods and sustainable economic activities from them. The research will benefit sea users and stakeholders, and will contribute to assess and monitor the environmental status of marine waters. The main objectives are: (i) to improve our understanding of the impact of human activities and variations associated to climate on marine biodiversity, (ii) to test indicators (referred in the Commission Decision on GEnS) and develop new ones for assessment at several ecological levels (species, habitat, ecosystems) and for the characterization and status classification of the marine waters, (iii) to develop, test

  14. Integrating pro-environmental behavior with transportation network modeling: User and system level strategies, implementation, and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, H. M. Abdul

    Personal transport is a leading contributor to fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse (GHG) emissions in the U.S. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) reports that light-duty vehicles (LDV) are responsible for 61% of all transportation related energy consumption in 2012, which is equivalent to 8.4 million barrels of oil (fossil fuel) per day. The carbon content in fossil fuels is the primary source of GHG emissions that links to the challenge associated with climate change. Evidently, it is high time to develop actionable and innovative strategies to reduce fuel consumption and GHG emissions from the road transportation networks. This dissertation integrates the broader goal of minimizing energy and emissions into the transportation planning process using novel systems modeling approaches. This research aims to find, investigate, and evaluate strategies that minimize carbon-based fuel consumption and emissions for a transportation network. We propose user and system level strategies that can influence travel decisions and can reinforce pro-environmental attitudes of road users. Further, we develop strategies that system operators can implement to optimize traffic operations with emissions minimization goal. To complete the framework we develop an integrated traffic-emissions (EPA-MOVES) simulation framework that can assess the effectiveness of the strategies with computational efficiency and reasonable accuracy. The dissertation begins with exploring the trade-off between emissions and travel time in context of daily travel decisions and its heterogeneous nature. Data are collected from a web-based survey and the trade-off values indicating the average additional travel minutes a person is willing to consider for reducing a lb. of GHG emissions are estimated from random parameter models. Results indicate that different trade-off values for male and female groups. Further, participants from high-income households are found to have higher trade-off values

  15. Improved detection of multiple environmental antibiotics through an optimized sample extraction strategy in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xinzhu; Bayen, Stéphane; Kelly, Barry C; Li, Xu; Zhou, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    A solid-phase extraction/liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/multi-stage mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-ESI-MS/MS) method was optimized in this study for sensitive and simultaneous detection of multiple antibiotics in urban surface waters and soils. Among the seven classes of tested antibiotics, extraction efficiencies of macrolides, lincosamide, chloramphenicol, and polyether antibiotics were significantly improved under optimized sample extraction pH. Instead of only using acidic extraction in many existing studies, the results indicated that antibiotics with low pK a values (<7) were extracted more efficiently under acidic conditions and antibiotics with high pK a values (>7) were extracted more efficiently under neutral conditions. The effects of pH were more obvious on polar compounds than those on non-polar compounds. Optimization of extraction pH resulted in significantly improved sample recovery and better detection limits. Compared with reported values in the literature, the average reduction of minimal detection limits obtained in this study was 87.6% in surface waters (0.06-2.28 ng/L) and 67.1% in soils (0.01-18.16 ng/g dry wt). This method was subsequently applied to detect antibiotics in environmental samples in a heavily populated urban city, and macrolides, sulfonamides, and lincomycin were frequently detected. Antibiotics with highest detected concentrations were sulfamethazine (82.5 ng/L) in surface waters and erythromycin (6.6 ng/g dry wt) in soils. The optimized sample extraction strategy can be used to improve the detection of a variety of antibiotics in environmental surface waters and soils.

  16. PREFACE: Proceedings of the 20th Nordic Semiconductor Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessa, Markus

    2004-01-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the 20th Nordic Semiconductor Meeting (NSM20). The Meeting was held in Tampere on August 25 through August 27, 2003, hosted by the Optoelectronics Research Centre (ORC) of the Tampere University of Technology (TUT). NSM20 provided a truly international forum for the discussion of the state-of-the-art semiconductor physics, technology, and industry in Scandinavia, and highlighted selected results achieved elsewhere in the world. While the earlier meetings the first held in the 1960's and since then every other year on rotating basis in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden focused on silicon technologies, the Tampere Meeting was concerned more than ever with optoelectronics, which has become an unexpectedly strong field of research and industry in Northern Europe. An excellent array of keynote speakers provided the audience with the latest developments in all the main fields of the Meeting and together with other speakers fostered new ideas that have the potential for further advancement of these strategic sciences and technologies. There were over 100 registered participants, presenting a total of 100 scientific contributions. From these contributions 62 manuscripts were accepted for publication in the Proceedings, representing all the key areas of the Meeting. There was the largest number of industrial sponsors of any Nordic Semiconductor Meeting, which was a remarkable thing in the current world economic cycle. In fact, the organization of NSM20 would not have been possible without the support from ORC, IEEE Finland Section, Institute of Physics of TUT, Chroma Technology Corp. (USA), Coherent Tutcore Oy (Finland), Europractice c/o YOLE Development (France), EV Group GmbH (Austria), Instrumentti Mattila Oy (Finland), FAB Support Ab (Sweden), Keithley Instruments Inc. (UK), Modulight Inc. (Finland), Nokia Oyj (Finland), Oxford Instruments GmbH (Germany), Oy SV Vacuumservice Ab (Finland), Scandinavian Airlines Systems

  17. Sticks and Stones Will Break My Bones but Failure Feedback May Not Hurt Me: Gender Differences in the Relationship between Achievement Motive, Coping Strategies and Environmental Mastery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Ser Hong; Pang, Joyce S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the processes through which achievement motivation guides the selection of coping strategies which in turn affects environmental mastery post-failure feedback. Seventy-six college students received failure feedback after completing a professional aptitude test. Findings showed that gender moderated the relationship between…

  18. Tree foliar chemistry in an African savanna and its relation to life history strategies and environmental filters.

    PubMed

    Colgan, Matthew S; Martin, Roberta E; Baldeck, Claire A; Asner, Gregory P

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the relative importance of environment and life history strategies in determining leaf chemical traits remains a key objective of plant ecology. We assessed 20 foliar chemical properties among 12 African savanna woody plant species and their relation to environmental variables (hillslope position, precipitation, geology) and two functional traits (thorn type and seed dispersal mechanism). We found that combinations of six leaf chemical traits (lignin, hemi-cellulose, zinc, boron, magnesium, and manganese) predicted the species with 91% accuracy. Hillslope position, precipitation, and geology accounted for only 12% of the total variance in these six chemical traits. However, thorn type and seed dispersal mechanism accounted for 46% of variance in these chemical traits. The physically defended species had the highest concentrations of hemi-cellulose and boron. Species without physical defense had the highest lignin content if dispersed by vertebrates, but threefold lower lignin content if dispersed by wind. One of the most abundant woody species in southern Africa, Colophospermum mopane, was found to have the highest foliar concentrations of zinc, phosphorus, and δ(13)C, suggesting that zinc chelation may be used by this species to bind metallic toxins and increase uptake of soil phosphorus. Across all studied species, taxonomy and physical traits accounted for the majority of variability in leaf chemistry.

  19. Tree Foliar Chemistry in an African Savanna and Its Relation to Life History Strategies and Environmental Filters

    PubMed Central

    Colgan, Matthew S.; Martin, Roberta E.; Baldeck, Claire A.; Asner, Gregory P.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the relative importance of environment and life history strategies in determining leaf chemical traits remains a key objective of plant ecology. We assessed 20 foliar chemical properties among 12 African savanna woody plant species and their relation to environmental variables (hillslope position, precipitation, geology) and two functional traits (thorn type and seed dispersal mechanism). We found that combinations of six leaf chemical traits (lignin, hemi-cellulose, zinc, boron, magnesium, and manganese) predicted the species with 91% accuracy. Hillslope position, precipitation, and geology accounted for only 12% of the total variance in these six chemical traits. However, thorn type and seed dispersal mechanism accounted for 46% of variance in these chemical traits. The physically defended species had the highest concentrations of hemi-cellulose and boron. Species without physical defense had the highest lignin content if dispersed by vertebrates, but threefold lower lignin content if dispersed by wind. One of the most abundant woody species in southern Africa, Colophospermum mopane, was found to have the highest foliar concentrations of zinc, phosphorus, and δ13C, suggesting that zinc chelation may be used by this species to bind metallic toxins and increase uptake of soil phosphorus. Across all studied species, taxonomy and physical traits accounted for the majority of variability in leaf chemistry. PMID:25993539

  20. Renewable and sustainable bioenergies production from palm oil mill effluent (POME): win-win strategies toward better environmental protection.

    PubMed

    Lam, Man Kee; Lee, Keat Teong

    2011-01-01

    Palm oil industry is one of the leading agricultural industries in Malaysia with average crude palm oil production of more than 13 million tonne per year. However, production of such huge amount of crude palm oil has consequently resulted to even larger amount of palm oil mill effluent (POME). POME is a highly polluting wastewater with high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in which can caused severe pollution to the environment, typically pollution to water resources. On the other hand, POME was identified as a potential source to generate renewable bioenergies such as biomethane and biohydrogen through anaerobic digestion. In other words, a combination of wastewater treatment and renewable bioenergies production would be an added advantage to the palm oil industry. In line with the world's focus on sustainability concept, such strategy should be implemented immediately to ensure palm oil is produced in an environmental friendly and sustainable manner. This review aims to discuss various technologies to convert POME to biomethane and biohydrogen in a commercial scale. Furthermore, discussion on using POME to culture microalgae for biodiesel and bioethanol production was included in the present paper as a new remedy to utilize POME with a greater beneficial return.

  1. Towards a new era in fetal medicine in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Sitras, Vasilis

    2016-08-01

    Fetal medicine is a subspecialty of obstetrics investigating the development, growth and disease of the human fetus. The advances in fetal imaging (ultrasonography, MRI) and molecular diagnostic techniques, together with the possibility of intervention in utero, make fetal medicine an important, rapidly developing field within women's healthcare. Therefore, a variety of specialists, such as neonatologists, pediatric cardiologists, medical geneticists, radiologists and pediatric surgeons, are necessary to adjunct in the diagnosis and treatment of the fetus as a patient. In this commentary, we provide a description of some organizational and educational aspects of fetal medicine in the Nordic countries, using examples of the management of specific conditions such as aneuploidy screening, red cell allo-immunization and fetal interventions. Clearly, there are several cultural, legal, organizational and practical differences between the Nordic countries; these are not necessarily negative, given the high standards of care in all Nordic countries. The scope of the newly founded Nordic Network of Fetal Medicine is to enhance cooperation in clinical practice, education and research between the participant countries. Hopefully, this initiative will find the necessary political and economic support from the national authorities and bring a new era in the field of fetal medicine in the Nordic region.

  2. Ethical aspects of registry-based research in the Nordic countries

    PubMed Central

    Ludvigsson, Jonas F; Håberg, Siri E; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Lafolie, Pierre; Zoega, Helga; Sarkkola, Catharina; von Kraemer, Stephanie; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Nørgaard, Mette

    2015-01-01

    National health care registries in the Nordic countries share many attributes, but different legal and ethical frameworks represent a challenge to promoting effective joint research. Internationally, there is a lack of knowledge about how ethical matters are considered in Nordic registry-based research, and a lack of knowledge about how Nordic ethics committees operate and what is needed to obtain an approval. In this paper, we review ethical aspects of registry-based research, the legal framework, the role of ethics review boards in the Nordic countries, and the structure of the ethics application. We discuss the role of informed consent in registry-based research and how to safeguard the integrity of study participants, including vulnerable subjects and children. Our review also provides information on the different government agencies that contribute registry-based data, and a list of the major health registries in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Both ethical values and conditions for registry-based research are similar in the Nordic countries. While Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden have chosen different legal frameworks, these differences can be resolved through mutual recognition of ethical applications and by harmonizing the different systems, likely leading to increased collaboration and enlarged studies. PMID:26648756

  3. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy--time for Nordic cooperation!

    PubMed

    Gjesdal, Knut

    2008-12-01

    This editorial discusses arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) with respect to diagnosis and organisation of patient care. Two papers in the current issue are commented upon. Aneq and coworkers present a long-term echocardiographic study on ARVC patients. Baseline changes were seldom diagnostic, but over years, changes in right ventricular structure and function occurred; the most consistent being increasing diameter of the right ventricular outflow tract. Haapalaita and coworkers used body surface ECG, comparing right and left ventricular types of ECG. The duration of electrical systole (QT-end) and the dispersion of the action potentials (QT peak-end) was longer in the right-sided compared to the left-sided leads in ARVC, at variance from in healthy controls, and the shortening effect of autonomic manoeuvres that activate sympathetic tone, was much more marked on the right side, compatible with the tendency of arrhythmias to occur under stress. An initiative to create a Nordic registry on ARVC has come from Denmark. This is highly welcomed; our individual institutions are too small to gain the experience needed for optimal patient care.

  4. 14C Concentrations in the Northern Atlantic and Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, M.-J.; Grootes, P. M.; Erlenkeuser, H.

    2003-04-01

    We report here more than 450 new Δ14C results from water samples from the North Atlantic and the Nordic Seas measured at the Leibniz-Labor, Christian-Albrechts Universität, Kiel, using accelerator mass spectrometry. The water samples were collected during three cruises of the RV Meteor: M36 in 1996 (65 measurements, 6 stations), M39 in 1997 (217 measurements, 11 stations) and M50 in 2001 (189 measurements, 10 stations). These results are compared to those of previous sampling campaigns: GEOSECS (1972) and TTO (1981) and of samples obtained from previous cruises of the RV Meteor (M18 in 1991 and M30 in 1994) measured by decay counting at the Institut für Umweltphysik in Heidelberg. Several stations from the cruise M50 are located along the WOCE A02 line from the western entrance of the English Channel to the tip of Newfoundland/Grand Banks. This transect also analysed during the M30 (1994) campaign provides the evolution of the penetration of atmospheric bomb 14C into these waters over a seven year period. Other samples were taken in the Labrador Sea, and North and South of Iceland. Comparison with CFC measurements, for some of the stations, also provides an insight in the penetration of both tracers into the ocean.

  5. The Nordic WOCE trawl-resistant ADCP system

    SciTech Connect

    Osterhus, S.; Hansen, B.

    1995-09-01

    In the Nordic WOCE programme 10 Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP`s) will be deployed between Greenland and Scotland. Three of these deployments will be in very heavily fished areas, and a special system has been developed to reduce the risk of interaction between the rig and fishing gear. The system consists of a buoyant instrument package and a protecting platform which will remain on the bottom. The instrument package is a stainless steel frame containing a 150 kHz RDI ADCP with a 90{degree} adapter, an acoustic release, an ARGOS transmitter and sufficient flotation to give the instrument pacakge a net buoyancy of 180 kg. The protecting platform has the form of a truncated pyramid with sides sloping 45{degree} made of steel. During operation the instrument package is attached to the protecting frame by rods in the two ends around which the instrument package may rotate freely. If the system is turned upside down, the instrument package is designed to turn to an operational orientation and it can be released in this condition. To ensure acceptable tilt and stable bottom conditions a deployment frame has been developed with tiltmeter and video camera attached. A prototype of the system was deployed in October 1994.

  6. FOREWORD: Third Nordic Symposium on Computer Simulation in Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaski, K.; Salomaa, M.

    1990-01-01

    Prizes were some of the newest books on the beauty of fractals. The First Prize was won by Hanna Viertio, the Second Prize by Miguel Zendejas and the Third Prize was shared by Leo Kärkkäinen and Kari Rummukainen. As for the future of Computational Science, we identify two principal avenues: (a) big science - large centers with ultrafast supercomputers, and (b) small science - active groups utilizing personal minisupercomputers or supenvorkstations. At present, it appears that the latter already compete extremely favourably in their performance with the massive supercomputers - at least in their throughput and, especially, in tasks where a broad range of diverse software support is not absolutely necessary. In view of this important emergence of "personal supercomputing", we envisage that the role and the development of large computer centers will have to be reviewed critically and modified accordingly. Furthermore, a promise for some radically new approaches to Computational Science could be provided by massively parallel computers; among them, maybe solutions based on ideas of neural computing could be utilized, especially for restricted applications. Therefore, in order not to overlook any important advances within such a forefront field, one should rather choose the strategy of actively following each and every one of these routes. In perspective of the large variety of simultaneous developments, we want to emphasize the importance of Nordic collaboration in sharing expertise and experience in the rapidly progressing research - it ought to be cultivated and could be expanded. Therefore, we think that it is vitally important to continue with and to further promote the kind of Nordic Symposia that have been held at Lund, Kolle-Kolle, and Lahti. We want to thank most cordially the plenary and invited speakers, contributors, students, and in particular the Conference Secretary, Ms Ulla Ahlfors and Dr Milja Mäkelä, who was responsible for the local arrangements. The

  7. Cross-Border Collaboration in History among Nordic Students: A Case Study about Creating Innovative ICT Didactic Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spante, Maria; Karlsen, Asgjerd Vea; Nortvig, Anne-Mette; Christiansen, Rene B.

    2014-01-01

    Gränsöverskridande Nordisk Undervisning/Utdanelse (GNU, meaning Cross-Border Nordic Education), the larger Nordic project, under which this case study was carried out, aims at developing innovative, cross-border teaching models in different subject domains in elementary school, including mathematics, language, science, social studies and history.…

  8. The First Sourcebook on Nordic Research in Mathematics Education: Norway, Sweden, Iceland, Denmark and Contributions from Finland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sriraman, Bharath, Ed.; Bergsten, Christer, Ed.; Goodchild, Simon, Ed.; Palsdottir, Gudbjorg, Ed.; Sondergaard, Bettina Dahl, Ed.; Haapasalo, Lenni, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The First Sourcebook on Nordic Research in Mathematics Education: Norway, Sweden, Iceland, Denmark and contributions from Finland provides the first comprehensive and unified treatment of historical and contemporary research trends in mathematics education in the Nordic world. The book is organized in sections co-ordinated by active researchers in…

  9. Adaptation strategies to seasonal changes in environmental conditions of a domesticated horse breed, the Shetland pony (Equus ferus caballus).

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Lea; Gerken, Martina; Riek, Alexander

    2012-04-01

    Recent results suggest that the wild ancestor of the horse, the Przewalski horse, exhibits signs of a hypometabolism. However, there are speculations that domestic animals lost the ability to reduce energy expenditure during food shortage and adverse environmental conditions. Therefore, we investigated physiological and behavioural strategies employed by a robust domesticated horse breed, the Shetland pony, over the course of a year under temperate conditions by measuring ambient temperature (T(a)), subcutaneous temperature (T(s)), locomotor activity (LA), lying time, resting heart rate, body mass and body condition score. Ten animals were kept on pasture in summer and in open stables in winter; further, in winter the animals were allocated into one control and one feed-restricted group of five animals each to simulate natural seasonal food shortage. The annual course of the mean daily T(s) of all horses showed distinct fluctuations from a mean of 35.6±0.5°C, with higher variations in summer than in winter. Diurnal amplitudes in T(s) were highest (P<0.001) in April (12.6°C) and lowest in January (4.0°C), with a nadir around dawn and a peak around mid-day. The feed-restricted group had a significantly lower daily T(s) compared with the control group on cold winter days, with T(a) values below 0°C. Mean annual heart rate and LA followed T(a) closely. Heart rate of the feed-restricted animals significantly decreased from a mean of 52.8±8.1 beats min(-1) in summer to 29±3.9 beats min(-1) in winter and differed from the control group (P<0.001). Mean daily LA was lowest at the end of winter (7000 activity impulses day(-1)) and highest in summer (25,000 activity impulses day(-1)). Our results show that Shetland ponies exhibit signs of a winter hypometabolism indicated by reduced heart rate and T(s). Thus, domesticated horses seem to have maintained the capacity for seasonal adaptation to environmental conditions by seasonal fluctuations in their metabolic rate.

  10. The impact of Nordic adult education ideas on the development of a democratic society in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teresevičienė, Margarita; Trepulė, Elena; Trečiokienė, Edita

    2017-02-01

    This article analyses the role of the cooperation with and the influence of the Nordic countries on the development of a democratic society in Lithuania through adult education since the reinstatement of its independence from Soviet regime in March 1990 to the present. The authors focus on three main areas: (1) the training of Lithuanian adult educators; (2) the establishment and development of NGOs; and (3) the implications for a Lithuanian policy of adult education. Within the framework of Nordic-Baltic cooperation established among five Nordic and three Baltic countries (NB8) in 1992, Lithuanian adult educators seized the opportunity to visit Scandinavian institutions and projects. Experiencing Nordic adult education ideas has resulted in a marked shift in Lithuanian adult educators' values, methodology and careers; and in the establishment of a series of very influential umbrella associations as well as hundreds of NGOs in Lithuania which work with adults and support functioning democratic values in society. This shift is related to the civic responsibility and active participation growing out of the bottom-up approaches of group work, cooperation, discussions and learning circles which are so inherent in the Nordic tradition of adult education. The internalisation of new democratic values was more complicated than expected for many Lithuanian politicians, adult educators and NGO leaders in terms of how political decisions were perceived and implemented. Furthermore, the influence of the Nordic-Baltic cooperation in adult education may also be traced in adult education policy implications in Lithuania. Some changes in the policies of contemporary Lithuania have not been successful and even failed to promote a democratic society.

  11. Establishing Reliability and Construct Validity for an Instrument to Measure Environmental Connectedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beery, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study is to establish a reliable and valid measure of environmental connectedness (EC) to allow for further exploration of the Swedish Outdoor Recreation in Change national survey data. The Nordic concept of friluftsliv (nature-based outdoor recreation) and the environmental psychology concept of EC are explored to…

  12. Approach and strategy for performing ecological risk assessments for the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Office Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Suter, G.W. II; Redfearn, A.; White, R.K.; Shaw, R.A.

    1992-07-01

    This document is intended to supplement exiting US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance for ecological risk assessment at hazardous waste sites by providing guidance that is more specific and more tailored to US Department of Energy sites than the guidance available from the EPA. However, it is a conceptual strategy document and does not include specific guidance on data, assumptions, and models. That detailed guidance is under development and will be presented in subsequent documents. Ecological risk assessments are equal to human health risk assessments in regulatory importance and can use many of the same data and some of the same estimation methods. However, they also have peculiar data needs and methods. Ecological risk assessments begin with an initial scoping phase, termed hazard definition, that characterizes the sources, the potentially environment, and the assessment endpoints. In the subsequent measurement and estimation phase, in which data are obtained concerning source of the endpoint biota to the contaminants and the effects of those exposures, and assumptions and models are used to relate the data to the desired exposure and effects parameters. Finally, in an integration phase, termed risk characterization, the various exposure and effects estimates are combined to infer the existence, cause, magnitude, and extent of effects of contaminants on the ecological endpoints. This phase is much more complicated for ecological risk assessments than for human health assessments because more types of data are available. Ecological risk assessments estimate effects using laboratory toxicity test results, like human health assessments, but also use results of ambient toxicity tests and biological surveys.

  13. Medical coverage of winter Nordic sports: an overview from the field.

    PubMed

    Gaul, Lawrence W

    2010-01-01

    Traveling with sports teams requires flexibility and a wide range of knowledge, as well as problem-solving abilities. Dominating the medical types of problems in the Nordic sports are the respiratory illnesses, especially asthma and upper respiratory infections (URI). Additionally, the team physician must have an awareness of antidoping issues. This overview highlights many of the issues encountered traveling domestically as well as internationally with high-level Nordic teams. Helpful links are included to facilitate the care of all levels of athletes. Additionally, a few side issues such as altitude illness and minor trauma are mentioned.

  14. Provisioning of Safe Train Control in Nordic Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Harold ‘Bud'

    The safety of train traffic is a vital societal function. During the mid-1970s, the availability of inexpensive microprocessors and electronic components led to the first computer-based systems solution to this critical function. Sweden was the first country in the world to develop and deploy a computer-based solution for Automatic Train Control (ATC). The major suppliers Ericsson Signal Systems and ITT Standard Radio developed solutions for both of the functions required; namely the track to train transmission system as well as the onboard system. Both system functions have been further developed by companies that have taken over ownership of these system products; namely, Bombardier, respectively Ansaldo. In the original delivery to the Swedish Railways (SJ), Ericsson Signal delivered the track-to-train transmission system; whereas, Standard Radio the onboard system for SJ trains and Ericsson Signal delivered the onboard system for the Stockholm Local Traffic (SL) trains. We describe the functions provided by both systems; however, we place focus upon the unique properties of the Standard Radio onboard system that has had a stable architecture for over twenty-eight years. The two track-to-train transmission systems delivered by Bombardier and Ansaldo are compatible; in Norway, both suppliers have delivered their products for both of the functions. Further, the X2000 and Öresund bridge trains that travel between Sweden and Denmark utilize the Ansaldo onboard and track to train transmission products in combination with a Siemens system. In addition to the details of the Swedish ATC solution, a brief historical perspective of train control as well as the implementation of train control in the other Nordic countries is provided. The need for a holistic view of train control is cited in examining two actual train accidents in Sweden and Norway. Finally, we discuss the movements toward a European Rail Traffic Management System standard in respect to interoperability

  15. Nordic Seas and Arctic Ocean CFC data in CARINA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeansson, E.; Olsson, K. A.; Tanhua, T.; Bullister, J. L.

    2010-02-01

    Water column data of carbon and carbon relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters have been retrieved from a large number of cruises and collected into a new database called CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic). These data have been merged into three sets of files, one for each of the three CARINA regions; the Arctic Mediterranean Seas (AMS), the Atlantic (ATL) and the Southern Ocean (SO). The first part of the CARINA database consists of three files, one for each CARINA region, containing the original, non-adjusted cruise data sets, including data quality flags for each measurement. These data have then been subject to rigorous quality control (QC) in order to ensure highest possible quality and consistency. The data for most of the parameters included were examined in order to quantify systematic biases in the reported values, i.e. secondary quality control. Significant biases have been corrected for in the second part of the CARINA data product. This consists of three files, one for each CARINA region, which contain adjustments to the original data values based on recommendations from the CARINA QC procedures, along with calculated and interpolated values for some missing parameters. Here we present an overview of the QC of the CFC data for the AMS region, including the chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11, CFC-12 and CFC-113, as well as carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). The Arctic Mediterranean Seas is comprised of the Arctic Ocean and the Nordic Seas, and the quality control was carried out separately in these two areas. For the secondary QC of the CFCs we used a combination of tools, including the evaluation of depth profiles and CFC ratios, surface saturations and a crossover analysis. This resulted in a multiplicative adjustment of data from some cruises, while other data were flagged to be of questionable quality, which excluded them from the final data product.

  16. Implementation of the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive: a methodological approach for the assessment of environmental status, from the Basque Country (Bay of Biscay).

    PubMed

    Borja, Angel; Galparsoro, Ibon; Irigoien, Xabier; Iriondo, Ane; Menchaca, Iratxe; Muxika, Iñigo; Pascual, Marta; Quincoces, Iñaki; Revilla, Marta; Germán Rodríguez, J; Santurtún, Marina; Solaun, Oihana; Uriarte, Ainhize; Valencia, Victoriano; Zorita, Izaskun

    2011-05-01

    The implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) is directing European marine research towards the coordinated and integrated assessment of sea environmental status, following the ecosystem-based approach. The MSFD uses a set of 11 descriptors which, together, summarise the way in which the whole system functions. As such, the European Commission has proposed an extensive set of indicators, to assess environmental status. Hence, taking account of the large amount of data available for the Basque coast (southern Bay of Biscay), together with a recent proposal for assessment within the MSFD, an integrated environmental status assessment approach is developed (for the first time) in this contribution. The strengths and weaknesses of the method, combined with proposals from the MSFD, are discussed.

  17. Younger Children in ECEC: Focus on the National Steering Documents in the Nordic Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hännikäinen, Maritta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the national steering documents on early childhood education and care (ECEC) in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, with the focus on children up to the age of three, posing the question: What do these documents tell us about ECEC for younger children in the Nordic early childhood settings?…

  18. Re-evaluating high-latitude warming in the Pliocene Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Daniel; Smith, Yvonne; Dolan, Aisling

    2016-04-01

    The Pliocene warm period was generally been seen as stable warm climate with global temperatures of 2-3K above pre-industrial and significant polar amplification. Northern Hemisphere ice has been reconstructed to be restricted to the high altitude areas of Greenland and global reconstructions of sea surface temperatures show an especially strong warming in the Nordic Seas, most often attributed to increased ocean heat transport in the North Atlantic Ocean. Here we present climate model results that show that the strongest warming recorded in the Nordic Seas and Arctic is forced by changes in orbital forcing and palaeogeographic changes. Of particular importance is the presence of a sub-aerial landmass in the Barents Sea region, which has subsequently been eroded by Pleistocene glaciation. While climate models can produce strong warming signals in the Nordic Seas, a new iceberg modelling study showing that through much of the Pliocene the conditions in the Nordic Seas were suitable for the presence of significant quantities of icebergs. The locations of IRD records also raises the possibility of significant glaciations in places previously considered to be ice free in the Pliocene.

  19. Low-frequency Pliocene climate variability in the eastern Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risebrobakken, Bjørg; Andersson, Carin; De Schepper, Stijn; McClymont, Erin L.

    2016-09-01

    The Pliocene (5.3-2.6 Ma) is often described as a relatively stable climatic period, with warm temperatures characterizing high latitudes. New suborbital resolved stable isotope records from Ocean Drilling Program Hole 642B in the eastern Nordic Seas document that the Pliocene was not a stable period characterized by one climate. Rather, seven distinct climate phases, each lasting between 150,000 and 400,000 years, are identified and characterized in the time interval 5.1-3.1 Ma. Four of the transitions between the defined climate phases occurred close to an eccentricity minimum and a minimum in amplitude of change for Northern Hemisphere summer insolation, while two occurred around an eccentricity maximum and a maximum in amplitude in insolation change. Hence, a low-frequency response of the Nordic Seas to insolation forcing is indicated. In addition, paleogeographic and related paleoceanographic changes, expansion of the Arctic sea ice cover, and onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation were important factors behind the evolving Pliocene low-frequency variability in the eastern Nordic Seas. It is likely that the identified climate phases and transitions are important beyond the Nordic Seas, due to their association with changes to both insolation and paleogeography. However, a strong and variable degree of diagenetic calcite overgrowth is documented for the planktic foraminifera, especially influencing the planktic δ18O results; the absolute values and amplitude of change cannot be taken at face value.

  20. Nordic Children's Conceptualizations of Healthy Eating in Relation to School Lunch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berggren, Linda; Talvia, Sanna; Fossgard, Eldbjørg; Arnfjörð, Unnur Björk; Hörnell, Agneta; Ólafsdóttir, Anna Sigríður; Gunnarsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Wergedahl, Hege; Lagström, Hanna; Waling, Maria; Olsson, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Pupils' perspective should be better taken into account when developing nutrition education at school. The purpose of this paper is to explore Nordic children's perspectives on the healthiness of meals in the context of school lunches. Design/methodology/approach: In total, 78 focus group discussions were conducted with 10-11-year-old…

  1. Second Chance Education Matters! Income Trajectories of Poorly Educated Non-Nordics in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordlund, Madelene; Bonfanti, Sara; Strandh, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examine the long-term impact of second chance education (SCE) on incomes of poorly educated individuals who live in Sweden but were not born in a Nordic country, using data on income changes from 1992 to 2003 compiled by Statistics Sweden. Ordinary Least Squares regression analyses show that participation in SCE increased the work…

  2. Source Apportionment of the Summer Time Carbonaceous Aerosol at Nordic Rural Background Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the present study, natural and anthropogenic sources of particulate organic carbon (OCp) and elemental carbon (EC) have been quantified based on weekly filter samples of PM10 (particles with aerodynamic diameter <10µ collected at four Nordic rural backgro...

  3. Troubling Gender Equality: Revisiting Gender Equality Work in the Famous Nordic Model Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edström, Charlotta; Brunila, Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    This article concerns gender equality work, that is, those educational and workplace activities that involve the promotion of gender equality. It is based on research conducted in Sweden and Finland, and focuses on the period during which the public sector has become more market-oriented and project-based all over the Nordic countries. The…

  4. Innovative Pedagogical Practice with ICT in Three Nordic Countries--Differences and Similarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottestad, G.

    2010-01-01

    Three Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland and Norway, participated in the IEA SITES 2006 study. All the three countries have launched huge policy and investment programmes to promote digital literacy and readiness for the information age. In relation to the remarkable Finnish Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) results, it is…

  5. Social Science Data Bases and Data Banks in the Nordic Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Mogens

    The author's comments and questions about an earlier study by NORDINFO (Nordic Council for Scientific Information) of databases and data banks in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden are organized into four sections: (1) surveying databases and data banks, (2) approaches to computerized information services, (3) the present state of development in…

  6. Participation in Job-Related Lifelong Learning among Well-Educated Employees in the Nordic Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikkanen, Tarja; Nissinen, Kari

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore participation in job-related lifelong learning (LLL) among well-educated mature workers and compare it across four Nordic countries. Although this group generally is very active in LLL, the centrality of knowledge work in society, rapid pace of skills-renewal and rising learning demands for all…

  7. Exploring Democracy: Nordic Music Teachers' Approaches to the Development of Immigrant Students' Musical Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsen, Sidsel

    2014-01-01

    In this article, a multi-sited ethnographic study was taken as a point of departure for exploring how Nordic music teachers, who work in multicultural environments, understand the development of their students' musical agency. The study was based on theories developed within general sociology and the sociology of music, as well as in previous…

  8. Nordic Research on Text and Discourse. NORDTEXT Symposium (Espoo, Finland, May 10-13, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindeberg, Ann-Charlotte, Ed.; And Others

    Papers presented at the 1990 Symposium of the Nordic Research Group for Theoretical and Applied Text Linguistics include the following: "Success Concepts" (Enkvist); "Reconciling the Psychological with the Linguistic in Accounts of Text Comprehension" (Garrod); "Particles as Fundaments of Discourse Structuring"…

  9. Social Change and Adult Education Research. Adult Education Research in Nordic Countries 1992/93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tampere Univ., Hameelinna (Finland). Dept. of Education.

    This yearbook contains 18 papers reflecting the major trends in adult education research in the Nordic countries in 1992-93. The following papers are included: "Popular Adult Education and Social Mobilization: Reflections in Connection with the Swedish Committee on Power" (Rubenson); "Direction of Finnish Adult Education Policies…

  10. Physical Activity of Depressed Patients and Their Motivation to Exercise: Nordic Walking in Family Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suija, Kadri; Pechter, Ulle; Kalda, Ruth; Tahepold, Heli; Maaroos, Jaak; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to find out how motivated depressed patients are to exercise regularly, to measure the physical activity of depressed patients and to find out how regular Nordic Walking affects the mood and physical fitness of depressed patients. A cross-sectional study was carried out. Three years after the Prediction of Primary…

  11. Assessment Theory and Practice of Students' Outcomes in the Nordic Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysne, Anders

    2006-01-01

    In the latest decades assessment in education has become a very controversial issue in many western countries, and especially so in the Nordic countries, where the controversy became most passionate in Norway. It was really not a debate about whether or not formal marks should be used in communication of educational outcomes for the individual…

  12. Genotypic diversity and migration patterns of Phytophthora infestans in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Sjöholm, Lina; Andersson, Björn; Högberg, Nils; Widmark, Anna-Karin; Yuen, Jonathan

    2013-10-01

    In this study we investigated the genotypic diversity and the migration patterns of Phytophthora infestans in the Nordic countries. Isolates of P. infestans from outbreaks in 43 fields sampled in 2008 were collected using stratified sampling with country, field, and disease foci as the different strata. Microsatellites were used as markers to determine the genotypic variation in the sampled material. The results show a high genotypic variation of P. infestans in the Nordic countries with most of the genotypes found only once among the collected isolates. The major part of the genotypic variation was observed within the fields, with low differentiation between the fields. The observed low association of alleles among loci is consistent with frequent sexual reproduction of P. infestans in the Nordic countries. Coalescence analyses did not support a single common population for the four countries, thus indicating some degree of geographic differentiation. The analyses of migration patterns showed differing levels of gene flow among the Nordic countries. No correlation between migration rates and geographical distance could be seen. This could be explained by different degrees of genetic similarity between the pathogen populations in the different countries.

  13. Individual and Collective Rights Expressed in Educator and Child Interactions in Nordic Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, E.; Emilson, A.; Röthle, M.; Puroila, A.-M.; Broström, S.; Einarsdóttir, J.

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on rights and gender in educator and child interactions in Nordic preschools. The research questions are as follows: What kinds of rights are communicated in the interactions and how? What kind of gender patterns can be identified? Rights refer to entitlements related to the early childhood education context, given or claimed by…

  14. Proceedings of the Nordic Conference on Mathematics Teaching (NORMA-94) Lahti 1994. Research Report 141.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pehkonen, Erkki, Ed.

    This report contains papers from the Nordic Conference on Mathematics Teaching (NORMA-94). The first three papers are plenary talks aimed at giving the participants an opportunity to form a coherent view of the new theories of learning. The themes of the paper sessions addressed a variety of topics on different levels from elementary school to…

  15. Plate waste and intake of school lunch based on the new Nordic diet and on packed lunches: a randomised controlled trial in 8- to 11-year-old Danish children.

    PubMed

    Thorsen, Anne V; Lassen, Anne D; Andersen, Elisabeth W; Christensen, Lene M; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Andersen, Rikke; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Michaelsen, Kim F; Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare total food intake, total and relative edible plate waste and self-reported food likings between school lunch based on the new Nordic diet (NND) and packed lunch from home. In two 3-month periods in a cluster-randomised controlled unblinded cross-over study 3rd- and 4th-grade children (n 187) from two municipal schools received lunch meals based on NND principles and their usual packed lunch (control). Food intake and plate waste (n 1558) were calculated after weighing lunch plates before and after the meal for five consecutive days and self-reported likings (n 905) assessed by a web-based questionnaire. Average food intake was 6 % higher for the NND period compared with the packed lunch period. The quantity of NND intake varied with the menu (P < 0·0001) and was positively associated with self-reported likings. The edible plate waste was 88 (sd 80) g for the NND period and 43 (sd 60) g for the packed lunch period whereas the relative edible plate waste was no different between periods for meals having waste (n 1050). Edible plate waste differed between menus (P < 0·0001), with more waste on soup days (36 %) and vegetarian days (23 %) compared with the packed lunch period. Self-reported likings were negatively associated with percentage plate waste (P < 0·0001). The study suggests that portion sizes need to be considered in new school meal programmes. New strategies with focus on reduction of plate waste, children's likings and nutritious school meals are crucial from both a nutritional, economic and environmental point of view.

  16. WILDLIFE RESEARCH STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document describes a strategy for conducting wildlife effects research within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agencys (EPA) National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL). The NHEEL wildlife research strategy is designed to address critical researc...

  17. Environmental Health: High-level Strategy and Leadership Needed to Continue Progress toward Protecting Children from Environmental Threats. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-10-205

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, John B.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to toxic chemicals or environmental pollutants may harm the health of the nation's 74 million children and contribute to increases in asthma and developmental impairments. In 2007, 66 percent of children lived in counties exceeding allowable levels for at least one of the six principal air pollutants that cause or aggravate asthma,…

  18. The Culture of Denial. Why the Environmental Movement Needs a Strategy for Reforming Universities and Public Schools. SUNY Series in Environmental Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, C. A.

    This book posits that public schools and universities currently reinforce a culture of denial regarding global environmental trends, and that education, from the primary grades to universities, must be totally revamped to support new, ecologically sustainable paths for society. In Chapter 1, it is argued that few public school teachers and…

  19. [Health care systems in the Nordic countries--more similarities than differences?].

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, I S; Pedersen, K M

    2000-06-30

    The aim of this paper is to explore similarities and differences of the Nordic health care systems. The analysis is based on a three-part model involving patients, providers and the financing third party. In all Nordic countries, about 80% of the funding come from public sources. In Iceland, central government is providing most of the health care services, while the county councils are central in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. In Finland, the municipalities are providing most of the health care. Salary is the only payment system for general practitioners in Iceland, while it is used for some GPs in Finland, Norway and Sweden. Capitation in combination with service fees is used for all Danish GPs and the majority of the Finnish, while various fee-for-service systems are used for the others. All Nordic countries had global hospital budgeting in the 1980s; since then, Finland, Norway and Sweden have implemented others systems, predominantly combinations of diagnosis-related group financing and global budgets. The amounts of resources devoted to health care are about the same in all five countries whether measured by the proportion of GDP devoted to health care, or by hospital beds or doctor/patient ratios. In monetary terms, Denmark, Iceland and Norway spend more than Finland and Sweden. Despite similar amounts of resources, they are quite differently used across the countries. Differences of a factor of two or more are observed for hip operations, gal bladder operations and pharmaceuticals. Danes and Finns are very satisfied with their health care system; the Swedes are not. All the Nordic countries have increased patient co-payments during the 1990s. Finnish patients may pay an extra free to get a one-bed room. Finland also has the greatest number of private hospitals. Despite all these differences, the Nordic health care systems are quite similar when seen in a global perspective.

  20. A Strategy for Combining the Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment with the Environmental Compliance Assessment and Management Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    Allied-Signal is another company with a well established environmental auditing program. As a result of a pesticide leak in 1975, Allied Chemical, the...maneuvers that produce environmental noise (i.e., target ranges, skeet range, helicopter pad)? ඖ YES NO NIA VII. Pesticide Management 1. Does the...installation use petcides in rguJe4 quantitie? -2. Are pesticide wastes disposed of at the installation? 3. Arm pesticides stored on the installation? Please

  1. Identifying determinants of Oncomelania hupensis habitats and assessing the effects of environmental control strategies in the plain regions with the waterway network of China at the microscale.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Juan; Li, Rendong; Xu, Xingjian; Yu, Chuanhua; Xia, Xin; Hong, Xicheng; Chang, Bianrong; Yi, Fengjia; Shi, Yuanyuan

    2014-06-01

    This study aims to identify the landscape ecological determinants related to Oncomelania hupensis distribution, map the potential high risk of O. hupensis habitats at the microscale, and assess the effects of two environmental control strategies. Sampling was performed on 242 snail sites and 726 non-snail sites throughout Qianjiang City, Hubei Province, China. An integrated approach of landscape pattern analysis coupled with multiple logistic regression modeling was applied to investigate the effects of environmental factors on snail habitats. The risk probability of snail habitats positively correlated with patch fractal dimension (FD), paddy farm land proportion, and wetness index but inversely correlated with categorized normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and elevation. These findings indicate that FD can identify irregular features (e.g., irrigation ditches) in plain regions and that a moderate NDVI increases the microscale risk probability. Basing on the observed determinants, we predicted a map showing high-risk areas of snail habitats and simulated the effects of conduit hardening and paddy farming land rotation to dry farming land. The two approaches were confirmed effective for snail control. These findings provide an empirical basis for health professionals in local schistosomiasis control stations to identify priority areas and promising environmental control strategies for snail control and prevention.

  2. Identifying Determinants of Oncomelania hupensis Habitats and Assessing the Effects of Environmental Control Strategies in the Plain Regions with the Waterway Network of China at the Microscale

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Juan; Li, Rendong; Xu, Xingjian; Yu, Chuanhua; Xia, Xin; Hong, Xicheng; Chang, Bianrong; Yi, Fengjia; Shi, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to identify the landscape ecological determinants related to Oncomelania hupensis distribution, map the potential high risk of O. hupensis habitats at the microscale, and assess the effects of two environmental control strategies. Sampling was performed on 242 snail sites and 726 non-snail sites throughout Qianjiang City, Hubei Province, China. An integrated approach of landscape pattern analysis coupled with multiple logistic regression modeling was applied to investigate the effects of environmental factors on snail habitats. The risk probability of snail habitats positively correlated with patch fractal dimension (FD), paddy farm land proportion, and wetness index but inversely correlated with categorized normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and elevation. These findings indicate that FD can identify irregular features (e.g., irrigation ditches) in plain regions and that a moderate NDVI increases the microscale risk probability. Basing on the observed determinants, we predicted a map showing high-risk areas of snail habitats and simulated the effects of conduit hardening and paddy farming land rotation to dry farming land. The two approaches were confirmed effective for snail control. These findings provide an empirical basis for health professionals in local schistosomiasis control stations to identify priority areas and promising environmental control strategies for snail control and prevention. PMID:25003174

  3. Effects of nordic walking compared to conventional walking and band-based resistance exercise on fitness in older adults.

    PubMed

    Takeshima, Nobuo; Islam, Mohammod M; Rogers, Michael E; Rogers, Nicole L; Sengoku, Naoko; Koizumi, Daisuke; Kitabayashi, Yukiko; Imai, Aiko; Naruse, Aiko

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Nordic walking with conventional walking and band-based resistance exercise on functional fitness, static balance and dynamic balance in older adults. Volunteers (n = 65) were divided into four groups: Nordic walking (NW), conventional walking (CW), resistance (RES), and control. Each group performed activity 50-70 min·day(-1) (warm-up 10-15 min, main exercise 30-40, and cool down 10-15 min), 3 days·week(-1) (NW and CW) or 2 day·week(-1) (RES) for 12 wks. Upper-body strength improved (p < 0. 05) in the RES (22.3%) and the NW (11.6%) groups compared to the CW and control groups. Cardio- respiratory fitness improved more in the NW (10.9%) and CW (10.6%) groups compared to the RES and control groups. Upper- and lower-body flexibility also improved in all exercise groups compared to the control group. There were no improvements in balance measures in any group. While all modes of exercise improved various components of fitness, Nordic walking provided the best well-rounded benefits by improving upper-body strength, cardiovascular endurance, and flexibility. Therefore, Nordic walking is recommended as an effective and efficient mode of concurrent exercise to improve overall functional fitness in older adults. Key PointsNordic walking, conventional walking, and resistance training are beneficial for older adults.Nordic walking and conventional walking both improve cardio-respiratory fitness while resistance training does not.Nordic walking provides additional benefits in upper-body muscular strength compared to conventional walking.Nordic walking is an effective and efficient mode of exercise to improve overall fitness in older adults.

  4. eSACP - a new Nordic initiative towards developing statistical climate services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorarinsdottir, Thordis; Thejll, Peter; Drews, Martin; Guttorp, Peter; Venälainen, Ari; Uotila, Petteri; Benestad, Rasmus; Mesquita, Michel d. S.; Madsen, Henrik; Fox Maule, Cathrine

    2015-04-01

    The Nordic research council NordForsk has recently announced its support for a new 3-year research initiative on "statistical analysis of climate projections" (eSACP). eSACP will focus on developing e-science tools and services based on statistical analysis of climate projections for the purpose of helping decision-makers and planners in the face of expected future challenges in regional climate change. The motivation behind the project is the growing recognition in our society that forecasts of future climate change is associated with various sources of uncertainty, and that any long-term planning and decision-making dependent on a changing climate must account for this. At the same time there is an obvious gap between scientists from different fields and between practitioners in terms of understanding how climate information relates to different parts of the "uncertainty cascade". In eSACP we will develop generic e-science tools and statistical climate services to facilitate the use of climate projections by decision-makers and scientists from all fields for climate impact analyses and for the development of robust adaptation strategies, which properly (in a statistical sense) account for the inherent uncertainty. The new tool will be publically available and include functionality to utilize the extensive and dynamically growing repositories of data and use state-of-the-art statistical techniques to quantify the uncertainty and innovative approaches to visualize the results. Such a tool will not only be valuable for future assessments and underpin the development of dedicated climate services, but will also assist the scientific community in making more clearly its case on the consequences of our changing climate to policy makers and the general public. The eSACP project is led by Thordis Thorarinsdottir, Norwegian Computing Center, and also includes the Finnish Meteorological Institute, the Norwegian Meteorological Institute, the Technical University of Denmark

  5. The new nordic diet – consumer expenditures and economic incentives estimated from a controlled intervention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies suggest that a healthy diet with high emphasis on nutritious, low-energy components such as fruits, vegetables, and seafood tends to be more costly for consumers. Derived from the ideas from the New Nordic Cuisine – and inspired by the Mediterranean diet, the New Nordic Diet (NND) has been developed as a palatable, healthy and sustainable diet based on products from the Nordic region. The objective of the study is to investigate economic consequences for the consumers of the NND, compared with an Average Danish Diet (ADD). Methods Combine quantity data from a randomized controlled ad libitum dietary 6 month intervention for central obese adults (18–65 years) and market retail price data of the products consumed in the intervention. Adjust consumed quantities to market price incentives using econometrically estimated price elasticities. Results Average daily food expenditure of the ADD as represented in the unadjusted intervention (ADD-i) amounted to 36.02 DKK for the participants. The daily food expenditure in the unadjusted New Nordic Diet (NND-i) costs 44.80 DKK per day per head, and is hence about 25% more expensive than the Average Danish Diet (or about 17% when adjusting for energy content of the diet). Adjusting for price incentives in a real market setting, the estimated cost of the Average Danish Diet is reduced by 2.50 DKK (ADD-m), compared to the unadjusted ADD-i diet, whereas the adjusted cost of the New Nordic Diet (NND-m) is reduced by about 3.50 DKK, compared to the unadjusted NND-i. The distribution of food cost is however much more heterogeneous among consumers within the NND than within the ADD. Conclusion On average, the New Nordic Diet is 24–25 per cent more expensive than an Average Danish Diet at the current market prices in Denmark (and 16–17 per cent, when adjusting for energy content). The relatively large heterogeneity in food costs in the NND suggests that it is possible to compose an NND where the cost

  6. "You have to hunt for the fruits, the vegetables": environmental barriers and adaptive strategies to acquire food in a low-income African American neighborhood.

    PubMed

    Zenk, Shannon N; Odoms-Young, Angela M; Dallas, Constance; Hardy, Elaine; Watkins, April; Hoskins-Wroten, Jacqueline; Holland, Loys

    2011-06-01

    This qualitative study sought to understand food acquisition behaviors and environmental factors that influence those behaviors among women in a low-income African American community with limited food resources. We drew on in-depth interviews with 30 women ages 21 to 45 years recruited from a community health center in Chicago, Illinois. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Emergent themes revealed that women identified multiple environmental barriers--material, economic, and social-interactional--to acquiring food in an acceptable setting. In response, they engaged in several adaptive strategies to manage or alter these challenges, including optimizing, settling, being proactive, and advocating. These findings indicate that efforts to improve neighborhood food environments should address not only food availability and prices but also the physical and social environments of stores.

  7. Environmental assessment of the entire pork value chain in Catalonia - A strategy to work towards Circular Economy.

    PubMed

    Noya, Isabel; Aldea, Xavier; González-García, Sara; M Gasol, Carles; Moreira, María Teresa; Amores, Maria José; Marín, Desirée; Boschmonart-Rives, Jesús

    2017-07-01

    Pork industry in Catalonia plays a foremost and representative role in the Spanish pork sector. Beyond the economic benefits, conventional practices in the pork industry also imply a number of environmental impacts that need to be dealt with. In this context, the environmental performance of traditional linear pork chain in Catalonia was evaluated through a LCA approach. The outcomes of the analysis showed that both fodder production and transport activities were identified as the critical stages of the system. Accordingly, alternative schemes based on circular economy principles were proposed and potential environmental credits were estimated. Within this framework, comparative results highlighted the advantages of moving towards a closing loop production system, where resource efficiency and waste valorisation were prioritised over final disposal options.

  8. School meal provision, health, and cognitive function in a Nordic setting – the ProMeal-study: description of methodology and the Nordic context

    PubMed Central

    Waling, Maria; Olafsdottir, Anna S.; Lagström, Hanna; Wergedahl, Hege; Jonsson, Bert; Olsson, Cecilia; Fossgard, Eldbjørg; Holthe, Asle; Talvia, Sanna; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Hörnell, Agneta

    2016-01-01

    Background School meals, if both nutritious and attractive, provide a unique opportunity to improve health equality and public health. Objective To describe the study rationale, data collection, and background of participants in the study ‘Prospects for promoting health and performance by school meals in Nordic countries’ (ProMeal). The general aim was to determine whether overall healthiness of the diet and learning conditions in children can be improved by school lunches, and to capture the main concerns regarding school lunches among children in a Nordic context. Design A cross-sectional, multidisciplinary study was performed in Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden on pupils (n=837) born in 2003. Results In total 3,928 pictures of school lunches were taken to capture pupils’ school lunch intake. A mean of 85% of all parents responded to a questionnaire about socioeconomic background, dietary intake, and habitual physical activity at home. Cognitive function was measured on one occasion on 93% of the pupils during optimal conditions with a Stroop and a Child Operation Span test. A mean of 169 pupils also did an Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test after lunch over 3 days. In total, 37,413 10-sec observations of classroom learning behavior were performed. In addition, 753 empathy-based stories were written and 78 focus groups were conducted. The pupils had high socioeconomic status. Conclusions This study will give new insights into which future interventions are needed to improve pupils’ school lunch intake and learning. The study will provide valuable information for policy making, not least in countries where the history of school meals is shorter than in some of the Nordic countries. PMID:27514723

  9. Liver transplantation in the Nordic countries – An intention to treat and post-transplant analysis from The Nordic Liver Transplant Registry 1982–2013

    PubMed Central

    Fosby, Bjarte; Melum, Espen; Bjøro, Kristian; Bennet, William; Rasmussen, Allan; Andersen, Ina Marie; Castedal, Maria; Olausson, Michael; Wibeck, Christina; Gotlieb, Mette; Gjertsen, Henrik; Toivonen, Leena; Foss, Stein; Makisalo, Heikki; Nordin, Arno; Sanengen, Truls; Bergquist, Annika; Larsson, Marie E.; Soderdahl, Gunnar; Nowak, Greg; Boberg, Kirsten Muri; Isoniemi, Helena; Keiding, Susanne; Foss, Aksel; Line, Pål-Dag; Friman, Styrbjörn; Schrumpf, Erik; Ericzon, Bo-Göran; Höckerstedt, Krister; Karlsen, Tom H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aim and background. The Nordic Liver Transplant Registry (NLTR) accounts for all liver transplants performed in the Nordic countries since the start of the transplant program in 1982. Due to short waiting times, donor liver allocation has been made without considerations of the model of end-stage liver disease (MELD) score. We aimed to summarize key outcome measures and developments for the activity up to December 2013. Materials and methods. The registry is integrated with the operational waiting-list and liver allocation system of Scandiatransplant (www.scandiatransplant.org) and accounted at the end of 2013 for 6019 patients out of whom 5198 were transplanted. Data for recipient and donor characteristics and relevant end-points retransplantation and death are manually curated on an annual basis to allow for statistical analysis and the annual report. Results. Primary sclerosing cholangitis, acute hepatic failure, alcoholic liver disease, primary biliary cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma are the five most frequent diagnoses (accounting for 15.3%, 10.8%, 10.6%, 9.3% and 9.0% of all transplants, respectively). Median waiting time for non-urgent liver transplantation during the last 10-year period was 39 days. Outcome has improved over time, and for patients transplanted during 2004–2013, overall one-, five- and 10-year survival rates were 91%, 80% and 71%, respectively. In an intention-to-treat analysis, corresponding numbers during the same time period were 87%, 75% and 66%, respectively. Conclusion. The liver transplant program in the Nordic countries provides comparable outcomes to programs with a MELD-based donor liver allocation system. Unique features comprise the diagnostic spectrum, waiting times and the availability of an integrated waiting list and transplant registry (NLTR). PMID:25959101

  10. A Strategy and Case Study Example for Designing and Implementing Environmental Long-Term Monitoring at Legacy Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Earl D. Mattson; Roelof J. Versteeg; Mark Ankeny; Gail Heath; Alex Richardson

    2004-04-01

    Environmental monitoring objectives of site owners, regulators, consultants, and scientists typically share the common elements of (1) cost management, (2) risk management, and (3) information management (Figure 1). Many site owners focus on minimizing monitoring costs while regulators typically focus on risk and regulatory compliance. Scientists and consultants typically provide information management in the form of spreadsheets with extracted information provided in reports to other users. This common piecemeal approach upon individual focus on elements of the monitoring objectives, rather than the common objective of minimizing cost and risk using site information, results in missed opportunities for cost savings, environmental protection, and improved understanding of site performance.

  11. Environmental Stratification Framework and Water-Quality Monitoring Design Strategy for the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedel, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Mauritania anticipates an increase in mining activities throughout the country and into the foreseeable future. Because mining-induced changes in the landscape are likely to affect their limited ground-water resources and sensitive aquatic ecosystems, a water-quality assessment program was designed for Mauritania that is based on a nationally consistent environmental stratification framework. The primary objectives of this program are to ensure that the environmental monitoring systems can quantify near real-time changes in surface-water chemistry at a local scale, and quantify intermediate- to long-term changes in groundwater and aquatic ecosystems over multiple scales.

  12. INTERIM REPORT, DEVELOP A COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT STRATEGY: PREPARE TO IMPLEMENT A COHORT STUDY OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction

    The National Children's Study (NCS) is an ambitious undertaking: a 20-year prospective cohort

    study that will investigate the relationships between a broad range of environmental factors and the health

    and well-being of children. Approximately 10...

  13. Strategies for Public Engagement on Environmental Matters: You Can Lead a Horse to Water, but Can You Make It Drink?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mmojieje, Josephine

    2015-01-01

    With no tangible evidence of widespread public engagement in the UK on matters relating to the environment, this article assesses the benefits of adopting the principles of key theoretical models on learning (e.g., Kolb's Experiential Model) in environmental campaigns. In addition, in order to facilitate the transition from environmental…

  14. CHEMICAL HAZARD EVALUATION FOR MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES: A METHOD FOR RANKING AND SCORING CHEMICALS BY POTENTIAL HUMAN HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Between 60,000 and 100,000 of the over than 8,000,000 chemicals listed by the Chemical Abstracts Services Registry are commercially produced and are potential environmental pollutants. Risk-based evaluation for these chemicals is often required to evaluate the potential impacts...

  15. Recruitment and Retention Strategies for Environmental Exposure Studies: Lessons from the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency’s Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) was a complex 3-year personal exposure study. The six geographically defined areas in the Detroit (Wayne County), Michigan, area used as study locations are ethnically diverse; the majority ...

  16. 77 FR 33230 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Proposed Strategies for Lake...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... Strategies for Lake Trout Population Reductions To Benefit Native Fish Species, Flathead Lake, MT AGENCY... Lake to benefit native fish populations in Flathead Basin. Direction to manage non-native fish... seq.), and is in the exercise of authority delegated to the Assistant Secretary--Indian Affairs,...

  17. An environmental assessment strategy for the identification of pollution prevention opportunities in the southern Urals Region of Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, M.A.; Ott, R.L.

    1993-08-23

    The serious environmental problems of the South Urals Region of Russia have been broadly described in a report coauthored by Russian weapons scientists. The importance of taking the first steps to prevent further environmental damage and adverse public health effects has been recognized by the international scientific community. Scientists at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have initiated a project to assist the Russians in their pollution prevention efforts. The specific objectives of this project are to: (1) conduct a pragmatic survey of the industrial and governmental pollution sources in a limited geographic region of the South Urals and (2) identify the priorities for pollution prevention and for food and water supply improvements at distribution points. The emphasis is on preventing adverse impacts to human health and improving industrial productivity. This project focuses on immediate pollution problems resulting from current operations and their solutions, not on long-term research related to the large-scale cleanup of legacy wastes. The project emphasizes near-term cost effective solutions to prevent pollution while longer term research aimed at contamination from past practices is pursued by other scientists. The project is being conducted in collaboration with environmental and physical scientists from institutes associated with the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences; government officials at the national, regional, and local levels; and non-governmental Russian environmental groups. A broad cross section of Russian technical, political, and environmental abilities and interests is mandatory. This cross section will ensure the technical quality, the political acceptability, and the popular credibility of the project results to the affected Russians in the South Urals. Progress on this project is presented in this paper.

  18. The Nordic Tradition of Caring Science: The Works of Three Theorists.

    PubMed

    Arman, Maria; Ranheim, Albertine; Rydenlund, Kenneth; Rytterström, Patrik; Rehnsfeldt, Arne

    2015-10-01

    The Nordic tradition of caring science has had a significant influence on healthcare research, healthcare education and clinical development in the Nordic countries from 1990 to the present. Theoretical contributions from the professors and scientists Katie Eriksson, Kari Martinsen and Karin Dahlberg form the basis for this paper. The tradition has established a paradigm of ethics, ontology and epistemology for the caring science domain. Short introductions present the scientific background of Eriksson, Martinsen, and Dahlberg, and show how interpretive teamwork has led to the formation of an intertwining of the essential qualities of the theories. The synthesis emphasizes caring science as a human science, and views caring as a natural phenomenon where the patient's world, vulnerability, health, and suffering are primary. In the art and act of caring, relationships and dialogue are essential; they provide parameters where caring becomes visible in its absence.

  19. Nordic eHealth indicators: organisation of research, first results and plan for the future.

    PubMed

    Hyppönen, Hannele; Faxvaag, Arild; Gilstad, Heidi; Hardardottir, Gudrun Audur; Jerlvall, Lars; Kangas, Maarit; Koch, Sabine; Nøhr, Christian; Pehrsson, Thomas; Reponen, Jarmo; Walldius, Åke; Vimarlund, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    eHealth indicator and benchmarking activities are rapidly increasing nationally and internationally. The work is rarely based on a transparent methodology for indicator definition. This article describes first results of testing an indicator methodology for defining eHealth indicators, which was reported at the Medical Informatics Europe conference in 2012. The core elements of the methodology are illustrated, demonstrating validation of each of them in the context of Nordic eHealth Indicator work. Validation proved the importance of conducting each of the steps of the methodology, with several scientific as well as practical outcomes. The article is based on a report to be published by the Nordic Council of Ministers [4].

  20. The environmental monitoring of Cultural Heritage through Low Cost strategies: The frescoes of the crypt of St. Francesco d'Assisi's, Irsina (Basilicata, Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sileo, Maria; Gizzi, Fabrizio; Masini, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    One of the main tools of assessment and diagnosis used to define appropriate strategies for the preservation of cultural heritage is the environmental monitoring. To achieve an environmental monitoring are needed high costs of purchase and maintenance, high costs of instrumental and for the management of the plants and processing of results. These costs imply that the technologies for environmental monitoring are not as common but their use is limited to the study very famous monuments or sites. To extend the use and dissemination of such technologies to a greater number of monuments, through the project Pro_Cult (Advanced methodological approaches and technologies for Protection and Security of Cultural Heritage) a research aimed at testing low cost technologies has been performed. The aim of the research is to develop low cost monitoring systems, assessing their effectiveness in a comparative way with commercial high cost ones. To this aim an environmental monitoring system using the Arduino system was designed and developed. It is an electronics prototyping platform based on open-source hardware and software flexible and user friendly. This system is connected to sensors for the detection of environmental parameters of non high purchase cost but with respect to the medium potential detection sensors accurately. This low cost system was tested in the framework of a microclimate monitoring project of the crypt of St. Francis of Assisi in Irsina (Southern Italy) enriched by a precious cycle of medieval frescoes. The aim of this research was to compare two monitoring systems, the first, at low cost, using Arduino system, and the second, a standard commercial product for a full yearly cycle and assess the reliability and the results obtained by the two systems. This paper shows the results of the comparative analysis of an entire monitoring yearly cycle in relation to the problems of degradation affecting the paintings of medieval crypt [1]. The obtained results

  1. Bringing Environmentalism Home: Children's Influence on Family Consumption in the Nordic Countries and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Bengt; Andersson, Magnus; Osbeck, Christina

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses children as contributors to sustainable ecological development. The aim of the article is to develop a framework for researching two questions: What are the prerequisites for children to become responsible environmentalists? What actual and potential influence do children have on their family's consumption? Three theoretical…

  2. Nordic School of Public Health NHV and its legacy in global health.

    PubMed

    Krettek, Alexandra; Karlsson, Leena Eklund; Toan, Tran Khanh; Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim

    2015-08-01

    This article describes the legacy of the Nordic School of Public Health NHV (NHV) in global health. We delineate how this field developed at NHV and describe selected research and research training endeavours with examples from Vietnam and Nepal as well as long-term teaching collaborations such as BRIMHEALTH (Baltic RIM Partnership for Public HEALTH) in the Baltic countries and Arkhangelsk International School of Public Health in Russia.

  3. Dietary fiber and the glycemic index: a background paper for the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012

    PubMed Central

    Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Sonestedt, Emily; Laaksonen, David E.; Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to review recent data on dietary fiber (DF) and the glycemic index (GI), with special focus on studies from the Nordic countries regarding cardiometabolic risk factors, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and total mortality. In this study, recent guidelines and scientific background papers or updates on older reports on DF and GI published between 2000 and 2011 from the US, EU, WHO, and the World Cancer Research Fund were reviewed, as well as prospective cohort and intervention studies carried out in the Nordic countries. All of the reports support the role for fiber-rich foods and DF as an important part of a healthy diet. All of the five identified Nordic papers found protective associations between high intake of DF and health outcomes; lower risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, colorectal and breast cancer. None of the reports and few of the Nordic papers found clear evidence for the GI in prevention of risk factors or diseases in healthy populations, although association was found in sub-groups, e.g. overweight and obese individuals and suggestive for prevention of type 2 diabetes. It was concluded that DF is associated with decreased risk of different chronic diseases and metabolic conditions. There is not enough evidence that choosing foods with low GI will decrease the risk of chronic diseases in the population overall. However, there is suggestive evidence that ranking food based on their GI might be of use for overweight and obese individuals. Issues regarding methodology, validity and practicality of the GI remain to be clarified. PMID:23538683

  4. Stick Together: A Nordic Walking Group Intervention for Breast Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Maarten J; Krol-Warmerdam, Elly M M; Ranke, Gemma M C; Vermeulen, Henricus M; Van der Heijden, Joke; Nortier, Johan W R; Kaptein, Adrian A

    2015-01-01

    Axillary lymph node dissection and axillary radiation as part of breast cancer treatment often result in arm and shoulder morbidity and limitations in daily functioning. Over and above the general benefits for cardiorespiratory fitness, Nordic Walking particularly targets at the muscles of the upper extremities and shoulder. This may increase shoulder range of motion and lead to a reduction in functional limitations. The aim of this study was to offer a Nordic Walking intervention to women after treatment for breast cancer and to investigate changes in subjective well-being and shoulder function. Three supervised Nordic Walking courses were organized (2009-2011). The intervention consisted of ten weekly 1-hour sessions focusing on upper body strength and condition. In total, 28 women participated in one of the cohorts. Results showed that after 10 weeks, patients' vitality had improved, whereas perceived shoulder symptom severity and limitations in daily activities had decreased. Goniometric data indicated that range of motion (forward flexion, abduction, and external rotation) of the affected shoulder improved significantly within 10 weeks of training. Group interviews at 6 months follow-up confirmed that patients had appreciated the physical and psychosocial benefits of the intervention. These benefits outweighed the practical disadvantages. Patient selection, assessment and training should take place under (para-)medical supervision and group instructors should have the knowledge and skills to work with a group of recent cancer survivors. Results from this explorative study suggest that Nordic Walking is a feasible and potentially valuable tool in the rehabilitation of patients with breast cancer.

  5. On model differences and skill in predicting sea surface temperature in the Nordic and Barents Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langehaug, H. R.; Matei, D.; Eldevik, T.; Lohmann, K.; Gao, Y.

    2017-02-01

    The Nordic Seas and the Barents Sea is the Atlantic Ocean's gateway to the Arctic Ocean, and the Gulf Stream's northern extension brings large amounts of heat into this region and modulates climate in northwestern Europe. We have investigated the predictive skill of initialized hindcast simulations performed with three state-of-the-art climate prediction models within the CMIP5-framework, focusing on sea surface temperature (SST) in the Nordic Seas and Barents Sea, but also on sea ice extent, and the subpolar North Atlantic upstream. The hindcasts are compared with observation-based SST for the period 1961-2010. All models have significant predictive skill in specific regions at certain lead times. However, among the three models there is little consistency concerning which regions that display predictive skill and at what lead times. For instance, in the eastern Nordic Seas, only one model has significant skill in predicting observed SST variability at longer lead times (7-10 years). This region is of particular promise in terms of predictability, as observed thermohaline anomalies progress from the subpolar North Atlantic to the Fram Strait within the time frame of a couple of years. In the same model, predictive skill appears to move northward along a similar route as forecast time progresses. We attribute this to the northward advection of SST anomalies, contributing to skill at longer lead times in the eastern Nordic Seas. The skill at these lead times in particular beats that of persistence forecast, again indicating the potential role of ocean circulation as a source for skill. Furthermore, we discuss possible explanations for the difference in skill among models, such as different model resolutions, initialization techniques, and model climatologies and variance.

  6. Evolution of the central Nordic Seas over the last 20 thousand years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telesiński, M. M.; Bauch, H. A.; Spielhagen, R. F.; Kandiano, E. S.

    2015-08-01

    The deep and surface water paleoceanographic evolution of the central Nordic Seas over the last 20 thousand years was reconstructed using various micropaleontological, isotopic and lithological proxy data. These show a high spatial and temporal complexity of the oceanic circulation when compared with other records from the region. During early deglaciation a collapse of ice sheets surrounding the Nordic Seas released large amounts of freshwater that affected both the surface and bottom water circulation and significantly contributed to Heinrich stadial 1. During the Younger Dryas, the central Nordic Seas were affected by a last major freshwater plume which probably originated from the Arctic Ocean. When major ice rafting had ceased around 11 ka subsurface temperatures started to rise. However, Atlantic Water advection and subsurface temperatures reached their maximum in the central Nordic Seas later than along the eastern continental margin. That spatio-temporal offset is explained by a gradual re-routing and westward expansion of the Atlantic Water flow during times when the Greenland Sea gyre system became more steadily established. In the Greenland Basin, the Holocene thermal maximum ended c. 5.5 ka, and time-coeveal with an increase in sea-ice export from the Arctic. In the Lofoten Basin the cooling occurred later, after 4 ka, and together with a weakening of the overturning processes. The Neoglacial cooling was reached c. 3 ka, together with low solar irradiance, expanding sea ice and a slight decrease in deep convection. At c. 2 ka subsurface temperatures began to rise again due to an increasing influence of Atlantic Waters.

  7. What is a healthy Nordic diet? Foods and nutrients in the NORDIET study

    PubMed Central

    Adamsson, Viola; Reumark, Anna; Cederholm, Tommy; Vessby, Bengt; Risérus, Ulf; Johansson, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    Background A healthy Nordic diet (ND), a diet based on foods originating from the Nordic countries, improves blood lipid profile and insulin sensitivity and lowers blood pressure and body weight in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Objective To describe and compare food and nutrient composition of the ND in relation to the intake of a Swedish reference population (SRP) and the recommended intake (RI) and average requirement (AR), as described by the Nordic nutrition recommendations (NNR). Design The analyses were based on an estimate of actual food and nutrient intake of 44 men and women (mean age 53±8 years, BMI 26±3), representing an intervention arm receiving ND for 6 weeks. Results The main difference between ND and SRP was the higher intake of plant foods, fish, egg and vegetable fat and a lower intake of meat products, dairy products, sweets and desserts and alcoholic beverages during ND (p<0.001 for all food groups). Intake of cereals and seeds was similar between ND and SRP (p>0.3). The relative intake of protein, fat and carbohydrates during ND was in accordance with RI. Intake of all vitamins and minerals was above AR, whereas sodium intake was below RI. Conclusions When compared with the food intake of an SRP, ND is primarily a plant-based diet. ND represents a balanced food intake that meets the current RI and AR of NNR 2004 and has a dietary pattern that is associated with decreased morbidity and mortality. PMID:22761599

  8. Nordic-Baltic cooperation in adult education: A collective story of Estonian adult educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jõgi, Larissa; Karu, Katrin

    2017-03-01

    Adult Education has many values, including experiences and co-operation among people, and the fact that adult education is full of stories from adult educators, which can help to understand trends in the past and developments in the present. Established in 1991 as part of a more general regional cooperation among five Nordic and three Baltic countries (NB8), Nordic-Baltic cooperation in adult education has been mutually enriching and has resulted in the growth of a professional network. The cooperation has led participants through a time of new sources of values, knowledge and contacts, socialisation and transformation, inspiration and challenges, which has influenced their experiences and professional identities. This paper is based on the results of a study entitled "Nordic-Baltic cooperation in adult education: Experience and stories" and focuses on the experiences and professional identities of two generations of Estonian adult educators. The empirical data for the study were collected using narrative-biographical interviews. The paper discusses two research questions: (1) What is the perception and influence of experiences for adult educators? and (2) How have their experiences influenced the professional identity of adult educators?

  9. Wind-driven Variability of the Atlantic Water Transport to the Nordic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jiayan

    2016-04-01

    The Greenland-Iceland-Scotland Ridge (GISR) is a major barrier for oceanic heat transport from the Atlantic to the Arctic Ocean. The mean transport is believed to be driven by the buoyancy forcing, i.e., the northward transport of the Atlantic Ocean water is drawn into the Nordic Seas to compensate the southward overflow transport across the GISR. Seasonal to decadal variability, however, is strongly affected by the wind stress in both the Atlantic Ocean and the Nordic Seas. In this study, analyses of both in situ and satellite observations, data-assimilated model products and numerical modeling experiments are used to elucidate the key forcing mechanisms and processes. It is found that transport is enhanced when the wind-stress curl is anomalously positive over the GISR area and in the subpolar North Atlantic Basin. The wind-stress curl inside the Nordic Sea also exerts a strong influence on the transport over the GISR through its impacts on the East Greenland Current and on the overflow transport. Our analyses indicate that the wind-stress forcing is a main mechanism for season-to-decadal variability of the transport cross the GISR.

  10. Identification and association of relationships between selected personal and environmental factors and formal components of temperament and strategies of coping with stress in asthmatic patients.

    PubMed

    Panek, Michał; Pietras, Tadeusz; Witusik, Andrzej; Wieteska, Łukasz; Małachowska, Beata; Mokros, Łukasz; Fendler, Wojciech; Szemraj, Janusz; Kuna, Piotr

    2015-10-01

    Background: Personal and environmental factors might have an impact on strategies of coping with stress and temperamental traits according to the Regulative Theory of Temperament in asthmatic patients. They can modify the clinical picture, the course of a disease and effectiveness of treatment. Personal variables are key factors in determining formal characteristic of behavior and effective management method in asthmatic patients. Aim of study: The aim of the study was to identify selected personal and environmental factors, as well as factors inducing attacks and asthma exacerbations or maintaining them in a complex of personal traits of patients. Methods: Two hundred and eighty one participants were included in the study. Of this number 122 subjects were healthy volunteers and 159 were asthmatic patients. In all the subjects the authors applied the Formal Characteristic of Behaviour – FCZ-KT – Temperament Inventory, Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) Scale. Genotyping of polymorphic forms of NR3C1 gene was conducted with PCR-RFLP and PCR-HRM methods. Expression of TGFβ1 gene was measured with the use of qRT-PCR. Results: The authors confirmed a significant influence of personal and environmental factors, such as: age, height, body weight, sex, asthma exacerbations, drugs administered by patients, allergy and psychopathological variables on strategies of coping with stress by asthmatic patients (Task-Oriented Coping, Emotion-Oriented Coping, Avoidance-Oriented Coping, distraction seeking, social diversion). Temperamental traits (Briskness, Perseverance, Sensory Sensitivity, Emotional Reactivity, Endurance, Activity) depend on age, sex, body weight, genetic predispositions and they are modified by asthma exacerbations, allergy, drugs administered by patients, depression and anxiety (state and trait). The authors confirmed a correlation between

  11. Are health inequalities really not the smallest in the Nordic welfare states? A comparison of mortality inequality in 37 countries

    PubMed Central

    Popham, Frank; Dibben, Chris; Bambra, Clare

    2013-01-01

    Background Research comparing mortality by socioeconomic status has found that inequalities are not the smallest in the Nordic countries. This is in contrast to expectations given these countries’ policy focus on equity. An alternative way of studying inequality has been little used to compare inequalities across welfare states and may yield a different conclusion. Methods We used average life expectancy lost per death as a measure of total inequality in mortality derived from death rates from the Human Mortality Database for 37 countries in 2006 that we grouped by welfare state type. We constructed a theoretical ‘lowest mortality comparator country’ to study, by age, why countries were not achieving the smallest inequality and the highest life expectancy. We also studied life expectancy as there is an important correlation between it and inequality. Results On average, Nordic countries had the highest life expectancy and smallest inequalities for men but not women. For both men and women, Nordic countries had particularly low younger age mortality contributing to smaller inequality and higher life expectancy. Although older age mortality in the Nordic countries is not the smallest. There was variation within Nordic countries with Sweden, Iceland and Norway having higher life expectancy and smaller inequalities than Denmark and Finland (for men). Conclusions Our analysis suggests that the Nordic countries do have the smallest inequalities in mortality for men and for younger age groups. However, this is not the case for women. Reducing premature mortality among older age groups would increase life expectancy and reduce inequality further in Nordic countries. PMID:23386671

  12. Herbicide-related signaling in plants reveals novel insights for herbicide use strategies, environmental risk assessment and global change assessment challenges.

    PubMed

    Alberto, Diana; Serra, Anne-Antonella; Sulmon, Cécile; Gouesbet, Gwenola; Couée, Ivan

    2016-11-01

    Herbicide impact is usually assessed as the result of a unilinear mode of action on a specific biochemical target with a typical dose-response dynamics. Recent developments in plant molecular signaling and crosstalk between nutritional, hormonal and environmental stress cues are however revealing a more complex picture of inclusive toxicity. Herbicides induce large-scale metabolic and gene-expression effects that go far beyond the expected consequences of unilinear herbicide-target-damage mechanisms. Moreover, groundbreaking studies have revealed that herbicide action and responses strongly interact with hormone signaling pathways, with numerous regulatory protein-kinases and -phosphatases, with metabolic and circadian clock regulators and with oxidative stress signaling pathways. These interactions are likely to result in mechanisms of adjustment that can determine the level of sensitivity or tolerance to a given herbicide or to a mixture of herbicides depending on the environmental and developmental status of the plant. Such regulations can be described as rheostatic and their importance is discussed in relation with herbicide use strategies, environmental risk assessment and global change assessment challenges.

  13. Environmental impact assessment in Estonia and Norway

    SciTech Connect

    Holm-Hansen, J.

    1997-11-01

    Authorities in Eastern European countries are looking for best available policy tools from the West, and policy instruments tailored for a Western context are being introduced massively in the former state socialist countries of Europe. This study examines some of the contextual factors that hamper the introduction of modern, Western tools of environmental management within previously state socialist countries. These are highlighted through a comparison of how environmental impact assessment (EIA) is put into practice in Estonia and Norway. Estonia and Norway belong to the same European Baltic-Nordic region, but the two countries have a dramatically different history for most of this century.

  14. Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine among People with Multiple Sclerosis in the Nordic Countries

    PubMed Central

    Skovgaard, L.; Nicolajsen, P. H.; Pedersen, E.; Kant, M.; Fredrikson, S.; Verhoef, M.; Meyrowitsch, D. W.

    2012-01-01

    Aims. The aim of the study was to describe and compare (1) the types and prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments used among individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) in the Nordic countries; (2) the types of conventional treatments besides disease-modifying medicine for MS that were used in combination with CAM treatments; (3) the types of symptoms/health issues addressed by use of CAM treatments. Methods. An internet-based questionnaire was used to collect data from 6455 members of the five Nordic MS societies. The response rates varied from 50.9% in Norway to 61.5% in Iceland. Results. A large range of CAM treatments were reported to be in use in all five Nordic countries. Supplements of vitamins and minerals, supplements of oils, special diet, acupuncture, and herbal medicine were among the CAM treatment modalities most commonly used. The prevalence of the overall use of CAM treatments within the last twelve months varied from 46.0% in Sweden to 58.9% in Iceland. CAM treatments were most often used in combination with conventional treatments. The conventional treatments that were most often combined with CAM treatment were prescription medication, physical therapy, and over-the-counter (OTC) medications. The proportion of CAM users who reported exclusive use of CAM (defined as use of no conventional treatments besides disease-modifying medicine for MS) varied from 9.5% in Finland to 18.4% in Norway. In all five Nordic countries, CAM treatments were most commonly used for nonspecific/preventative purposes such as strengthening the body in general, improving the body's muscle strength, and improving well-being. CAM treatments were less often used for the purpose of improving specific symptoms such as body pain, problems with balance, and fatigue/lack of energy. Conclusions. A large range of CAM treatments were used by individuals with MS in all Nordic countries. The most commonly reported rationale for CAM treatment use focused on

  15. Global Proteomics Reveal An Atypical Strategy for Carbon/Nitrogen Assimilation by a Cyanobacterium Under Diverse Environmental Perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Wegener, Kimberly M.; Singh, Abhay K.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Elvitigala, Thanura R.; Welsh, Eric A.; Keren, Nir S.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Ghosh, Bijoy K.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

    2010-12-01

    Cyanobacteria, the only prokaryotes capable of oxygenic photosynthesis, are present in diverse ecological niches and play crucial roles in global carbon and nitrogen cycles. To proliferate in nature, cyanobacteria utilize a host of stress responses to accommodate periodic changes in environmental conditions. A detailed knowledge of the composition of, as well as the dynamic changes in, the proteome is necessary to gain fundamental insights into such stress responses. Toward this goal, we have performed a largescale proteomic analysis of the widely studied model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 under 33 different environmental conditions. The resulting high-quality dataset consists of 22,318 unique peptides corresponding to 1,955 proteins, a coverage of 53% of the predicted proteome. Quantitative determination of protein abundances has led to the identification of 1,198 differentially regulated proteins. Notably, our analysis revealed that a common stress response under various environmental perturbations, irrespective of amplitude and duration, is the activation of atypical pathways for the acquisition of carbon and nitrogen from urea and arginine. In particular, arginine is catabolized via putrescine to produce succinate and glutamate, sources of carbon and nitrogen, respectively. This study provides the most comprehensive functional and quantitative analysis of the Synechocystis proteome to date, and shows that a significant stress response of cyanobacteria involves an uncommon mode of acquisition of carbon and nitrogen. Oxygenic phototrophic prokaryotes, the progenitors of the chloroplast, are crucial to global oxygen production and worldwide carbon and nitrogen cycles. These microalgae are robust organisms capable carbon neutral biofuel production. Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 has historically been a model cyanobacterium for photosynthetic research and is emerging as a promising biofuel platform. Cellular responses are severely modified by environmental

  16. Environmental potential of the use of CO2 from alcoholic fermentation processes. The CO2-AFP strategy.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Moreno, Carlos; García-Yuste, Santiago

    2016-10-15

    A novel Carbon Dioxide Utilization (CDU) approach from a relatively minor CO2 emission source, i.e., alcoholic fermentation processes (AFP), is presented. The CO2 produced as a by-product from the AFP is estimated by examining the EtOH consumed per year reported by the World Health Organization in 2014. It is proposed that the extremely pure CO2 from the AFP is captured in NaOH solutions to produce one of the Top 10 commodities in the chemical industry, Na2CO3, as a good example of an atomic economy process. The novel CDU strategy could yield over 30.6Mt of Na2CO3 in oversaturated aqueous solution on using ca. 12.7Mt of captured CO2 and this process would consume less energy than the synthetic methodology (Solvay ammonia soda process) and would not produce low-value by-products. The quantity of Na2CO3 obtained by this strategy could represent ca. 50% of the world Na2CO3 production in one year. In terms of the green economy, the viability of the strategy is discussed according to the recommendations of the CO2Chem network, and an estimation of the CO2negative emission achieved suggests a capture of around 280.0Mt of CO2 from now to 2020 or ca. 1.9Gt from now to 2050. Finally, the results obtained for this new CDU proposal are discussed by considering different scenarios; the CO2 production in a typical winemaking corporation, the CO2 released in the most relevant wine-producing countries, and the use of CO2 from AFP as an alternative for the top Na2CO3-producing countries.

  17. High-resolution satellite-derived ocean surface winds in the Nordic-Barents seas region: Implications for ocean modeling (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dukhovskoy, D. S.; Bourassa, M. A.; Hughes, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    High-resolution (0.25°) ocean surface wind velocity data derived from satellite observations are used to analyze winds in the Nordic-Barents seas during 2007-2008. For the analysis, a Cross-Calibrated, Multi-Platform (CCMP), multi-instrument ocean surface wind velocity data set is utilized. The product has been developed by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) within Making Earth Science data records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) Program. A variational method was used to combine wind measurements derived from satellite-born active and passive remote sensing instruments. In the objective procedure, winds from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Operational Analysis (DS111.1) were used as the background fields. The ocean surface wind fields are compared with those derived from the National Centers for Environmental Protection/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis. The NCEP/NCAR fields are commonly used to provide atmospheric forcing for Arctic Ocean models. The utility of using high-resolution winds in the ocean modeling is discussed. In particular, air-sea heat fluxes estimated from the two wind data sets are compared. It is anticipated that wind fields with higher spatial and temporal resolution will better resolve small-scale, short-lived atmospheric systems. As an example, the ice free region in the Nordic and Barents seas is frequently impacted by very intense cyclones known as “polar lows” with wind speeds near to or above gale force. A polar low forms over the sea and predominantly during the winter months. The size of these cyclones varies greatly from 100 to 1000 km. Presumably small-scale cyclones are misrepresented or not resolved in the NCAR fields leading to biases in the air-sea flux calculations in the ocean models. Inaccurate estimates of the air-sea fluxes eventually lead to biases in the Arctic Ocean model solutions.

  18. Identifying/Quantifying Environmental Trade-offs Inherent in GHG Reduction Strategies for Coal-Fired Power.

    PubMed

    Schivley, Greg; Ingwersen, Wesley W; Marriott, Joe; Hawkins, Troy R; Skone, Timothy J

    2015-07-07

    Improvements to coal power plant technology and the cofired combustion of biomass promise direct greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions for existing coal-fired power plants. Questions remain as to what the reduction potentials are from a life cycle perspective and if it will result in unintended increases in impacts to air and water quality and human health. This study provides a unique analysis of the potential environmental impact reductions from upgrading existing subcritical pulverized coal power plants to increase their efficiency, improving environmental controls, cofiring biomass, and exporting steam for industrial use. The climate impacts are examined in both a traditional-100 year GWP-method and a time series analysis that accounts for emission and uptake timing over the life of the power plant. Compared to fleet average pulverized bed boilers (33% efficiency), we find that circulating fluidized bed boilers (39% efficiency) may provide GHG reductions of about 13% when using 100% coal and reductions of about 20-37% when cofiring with 30% biomass. Additional greenhouse gas reductions from combined heat and power are minimal if the steam coproduct displaces steam from an efficient natural gas boiler. These upgrades and cofiring biomass can also reduce other life cycle impacts, although there may be increased impacts to water quality (eutrophication) when using biomass from an intensely cultivated source. Climate change impacts are sensitive to the timing of emissions and carbon sequestration as well as the time horizon over which impacts are considered, particularly for long growth woody biomass.

  19. Magnitude and origin of the anthropogenic CO2 increase and 13C Suess effect in the Nordic seas since 1981

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Are; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Bellerby, Richard G. J.; Johannessen, Truls; Ninnemann, Ulysses; Brown, Kelly R.; Olsson, K. Anders; Olafsson, Jon; Nondal, Gisle; KivimäE, Caroline; Kringstad, Solveig; Neill, Craig; Olafsdottir, Solveig

    2006-09-01

    This study evaluates the anthropogenic changes of CO2 (ΔCant) and δ13C (Δδ13Cant) in the Nordic seas, the northern limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, that took place between 1981 and 2002/2003. The changes have been determined by comparing data obtained during the Transient Tracers in the Ocean, North Atlantic Study (TTO-NAS) with data obtained during the Nordic seas surveys of R/V Knorr in 2002 and R/V G.O. Sars in 2003 using an extended multilinear regression approach. The estimated Δδ13Cant and ΔCant and their relationship to each other and to water mass distribution suggest that the Polar Water entering the Nordic seas from the north is undersaturated with respect to the present atmospheric anthropogenic CO2 levels and promotes a local uptake of Cant within the Nordic seas. In contrast, the Atlantic Water entering from the south appears equilibrated. It carries with it anthropogenic carbon which will be sequestered at depth as the water overturns. This preequilibration leaves no room for further uptake of Cant in the parts of the Nordic seas dominated by Atlantic Water. The upper ocean pCO2 in these regions appears to have increased at a greater rate than the atmospheric pCO2 over the last 2 decades; this is reconcilable with a large lateral advective supply of Cant.

  20. A healthy Nordic diet and physical performance in old age: findings from the longitudinal Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Perälä, Mia-Maria; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela; Männistö, Satu; Salonen, Minna K; Simonen, Mika; Kanerva, Noora; Pohjolainen, Pertti; Kajantie, Eero; Rantanen, Taina; Eriksson, Johan G

    2016-03-14

    Epidemiological studies have shown that a number of nutrients are associated with better physical performance. However, little is still known about the role of the whole diet, particularly a healthy Nordic diet, in relation to physical performance. Therefore, we examined whether a healthy Nordic diet was associated with measures of physical performance 10 years later. We studied 1072 participants from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Participants' diet was assessed using a validated 128-item FFQ at the mean age of 61 years, and a priori-defined Nordic diet score (NDS) was calculated. The score included Nordic fruits and berries, vegetables, cereals, PUFA:SFA and trans-fatty acids ratio, low-fat milk, fish, red and processed meat, total fat and alcohol. At the mean age of 71 years, participants' physical performance was measured using the Senior Fitness Test (SFT), and an overall SFT score was calculated. Women in the highest fourth of the NDS had on average 5 points higher SFT score compared with those in the lowest fourth (P for trend 0·005). No such association was observed in men. Women with the highest score had 17% better result in the 6-min walk test, 16% better arm curl and 20% better chair stand results compared with those with the lowest score (all P values<0·01). In conclusion, a healthy Nordic diet was associated with better overall physical performance among women and might help decrease the risk of disability in old age.

  1. Turning a Student into a Researcher: Challenges and Strategies of Teaching Research Methods to Environmental Studies and Earth Science Juniors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmochowski, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    Most agree that research is an important aspect of a geoscience undergraduate program, but simply making research opportunities available to undergraduates sometimes is not enough. Teaching research and making research mandatory are often necessary, as these steps can play a vital role in turning a student into a researcher and preparing them for the work force or graduate school. As part of our revised Environmental Studies curriculum in 2008, the Earth and Environmental Science Department at the University of Pennsylvania now teaches a junior seminar on research methods that is mandatory for all Environmental Studies majors, and for all Earth Science majors who wish to do a senior thesis. Since this course has been mandatory, the course has been taught twice, with 11 students the first time and 28 students the second time, and we have seen improvements in the quality of senior theses in our department. The course is broken into three parts: introduction to the importance of research, reading the primary scientific literature and finding a project, and data analysis. There is a corresponding assignment for each section, and the course culminates in the students writing a senior thesis proposal and giving a presentation on their proposal. Assignments 1 and 2 are papers, but in assignment 3 (data analysis) students are given an Excel file with 7 different small datasets, and they use Excel and SPSS to answer several questions about the datasets, employing tools discussed in class (t-test, chi-square test, histogram, standard deviation, linear regression, ANOVA, etc.). From student reviews and questionnaires, we have found that students feel the most helpful aspects of the course are discussions with current seniors about their theses, reading past senior theses and discussing them as a class, guest talks from professors about their research, assignment 2 (writing a literature review), assignment 3 (data analysis), and working in small groups to brainstorm thesis

  2. The environmental, health, and safety issues of acoustical materials: A strategy for finding, using, and evaluating information effectively

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischel, Marsha S.

    2005-09-01

    Concern over the safety of our indoor environments has increased in recent years. The definition of safety has also evolved to include not just life safety issues such as fire, but issues such as mold growth, toxins, the emission of volatile organic compounds, seismic concerns, and ergonomic issues. Consequently, the understanding of product safety has become increasingly more complex. Simultaneously, there has been an explosion in the number of products available to specifiers, due largely to access to the World Wide Web by international manufacturers of all sizes. Some of these manufacturers may be unable to test all aspects of product safety, or simply may be unaware of safety regulations. Specifiers can no longer assume a product is inherently safe and must do their own evaluations of product safety attributes. This paper will lay out a basic methodology for finding, using, and evaluating environmental, health, and safety information on acoustical products in an effective manner.

  3. Plan for supporting natural resources management in sub-Saharan Africa: Regional environmental strategy for the Africa bureau

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    USAID's plan for combatting environmental degradation in sub-Saharan Africa through natural resource management (NRM) is presented. USAID will focus its efforts on two problem areas: soil degradation due to unsustainable agricultural practices, and loss of tropical forests and other critical habitats. The subregions targeted are: arid and semi-arid tropics, tropical highlands, the country of Madagascar, and the humid tropical forest of the Congo Basin. The plan divides African countries into three categories. In Category I countries, USAID would implement comprehensive programs. Programs in Category II countries would focus more limited resources on a single technical priority. Category III countries generally have only small humanitarian and or political programs, and will not undertake bilateral NRM programs. Annexes include a detailed framework for organizing country NRM programs.

  4. Flash flooding: Toward an Interdisciplinary and Integrated Strategy for Disaster Reduction in a Global Environmental Change Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruin, Isabelle

    2014-05-01

    How do people answer to heavy precipitation and flood warnings? How do they adapt their daily schedule and activity to the fast evolution of the environmental circumstances? More generally, how do social processes interact with physical ones? Such questions address the dynamical interactions between hydro-meteorological variables, human perception and representation of the environment, and actual individual and social behavioral responses. It also poses the question of scales and hierarchy issues through seamless interactions between smaller and larger scales. These questions are relevant for both social and physical scientists. They are more and more pertinently addressed in the Global Environmental Change perspective through the concepts of Coupled Human And Natural Systems (CHANS), resilience or panarchy developped in the context of interdisciplinary collaborations. Nevertheless those concepts are complex and not easy to handle, specially when facing with operational goals. One of the main difficulty to advance these integrated approaches is the access to empirical data informing the processes at various scales. In fact, if physical and social processes are well studied by distinct disciplines, they are rarely jointly explored within similar spatial and temporal resolutions. Such coupled observation and analysis poses methodological challenges, specially when dealing with responses to short-fuse and extreme weather events. In fact, if such coupled approach is quite common to study large scale phenomenon like global change (for instance using historical data on green house gaz emissions and the evolution of temperatures worldwide), it is rarer for studing smaller nested sets of scales of human-nature systems where finer resolution data are sparse. Another problem arise from the need to produce comparable analysis on different case studies where social, physical and even cultural contexts may be diverse. Generic and robust framework for data collection, modeling

  5. Drama and Theatre in a Nordic Curriculum Perspective--A Challenged Arts Subject Used as a Learning Medium in Compulsory Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Österlind, Eva; Østern, Anna-Lena; Thorkelsdóttir, Rannveig Björk

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present a Nordic curriculum perspective on drama and theatre in education ranging from preschool to upper secondary education and cultural schools. Underlined in the Nordic welfare model is an equity, inclusive and democracy perspective, which guarantees free access to compulsory education and to upper secondary…

  6. A cold and fresh ocean surface in the Nordic Seas during MIS 11: Significance for the future ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandiano, Evgenia S.; Meer, Marcel T. J.; Bauch, Henning A.; Helmke, Jan; Damsté, Jaap S. Sinninghe; Schouten, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    Paleoceanographical studies of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 have revealed higher-than-present sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the North Atlantic and in parts of the Arctic but lower-than-present SSTs in the Nordic Seas, the main throughflow area of warm water into the Arctic Ocean. We resolve this contradiction by complementing SST data based on planktic foraminiferal abundances with surface salinity changes using hydrogen isotopic compositions of alkenones in a core from the central Nordic Seas. The data indicate the prevalence of a relatively cold, low-salinity, surface water layer in the Nordic Seas during most of MIS 11. In spite of the low-density surface layer, which was kept buoyant by continuous melting of surrounding glaciers, warmer Atlantic water was still propagating northward at the subsurface thus maintaining meridional overturning circulation. This study can help to better constrain the impact of continuous melting of Greenland and Arctic ice on high-latitude ocean circulation and climate.

  7. Measuring cost efficiency in the Nordic Hospitals—a cross-sectional comparison of public hospitals in 2002

    PubMed Central

    Häkkinen, Unto; Peltola, Mikko; Magnussen, Jon; Anthun, Kjartan S.; Kittelsen, Sverre; Roed, Annette; Olsen, Kim; Medin, Emma; Rehnberg, Clas

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of hospital care in four Nordic countries: Norway, Finland, Sweden and Denmark. Using national discharge registries and cost data from hospitals, cost efficiency in the production of somatic hospital care was calculated for public hospitals. Data were collected using harmonised definitions of inputs and outputs for 184 hospitals and data envelopment analysis was used to calculate Farrell efficiency estimates for the year 2002. Results suggest that there were marked differences in the average hospital efficiency between Nordic countries. In 2002, average efficiency was markedly higher in Finland compared to Norway and Sweden. This study found differences in cost efficiency that cannot be explained by input prices or differences in coding practices. More analysis is needed to reveal the causes of large efficiency disparities between Nordic hospitals. PMID:20680466

  8. Economic-energy-industrial-environmental optimization (EEIEO) model for identification of optimal strategies - a case study of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Long, H. L.; Wan, J.; Jia, JL; Li, X.; Chu, CJ

    2016-08-01

    An economic-energy-industrial-environmental optimization (EEIEO) model is proposed for identification of optimal economic, industry, energy and environment strategies. The EEIEO model is applied to a real case of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, which is the important economic growth pole of northern China. The EEIEO model could fully consider the interaction between industrial, energy, urbanization and environment sector, and generate the optimized economic development, industrial restructuring, energy consumption and environment management schemes. This is first attempt to introduce economic, energy, industrial, urbanization and environmental sectors into an optimization framework, while sustainable energy and environment development pathways are explored through EEIEO model. The results suggest that: (i) the GDP of BTH region would increase about 73.80% over the planning horizon; (ii) the contribution of tertiary industry for BTH region's economic development would gradually increase from 54.00% in 2015 to 65.00% in 2030; (iii) the consumption of coal would decrease by 36%, and the natural gas would obviously increase by 97.70% over the planning horizon; and (iv) the SO2, smoke and dust emissions and CO2 would reduce by 30.20%, 35.30% and 4.50% from 2015 to 2030, respectively.

  9. 2012 NEHA/UL sabbatical report: vulnerability to potential impacts of climate change: adaptation and risk communication strategies for environmental health practitioners in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut

    2014-04-01

    Climate change risk assessment, adaptation, and mitigation planning have become increasingly important to environmental health practitioners (EHPs). The NEHA/UL Sabbatical Exchange Award allowed me to investigate how EHPs in the UK are incorporating climate change planning and communication strategies into their work. Projected climate change risks in the UK include flooding, extreme heat, water shortages, severe weather, decreased air quality, and changes in vectors. Despite public perception and funding challenges, all the local government representatives with whom I met incorporated climate change risk assessment, adaptation, and mitigation planning into their work. The mandated Community Risk Register serves as a key planning document developed by each local government authority and is a meaningful way to look at potential climate change health risks. Adaptation and sustainability were common threads in my meetings. These often took the form of "going green" with transportation, energy efficiency, conserving resources, and building design because the efforts made sense monetarily as future cost savings. Communication strategies targeted a variety of audiences (EHPs, non-EHP government employees, politicians, and the general public) using a broad range of communication channels (professional training, lobbying, conferences and fairs, publications, print materials, Internet resources, social media, billboards, etc).

  10. Second malignant neoplasms after cancer in childhood or adolescence. Nordic Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology Association of the Nordic Cancer Registries.

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, J H; Garwicz, S; Hertz, H; Jonmundsson, G; Langmark, F; Lanning, M; Lie, S O; Moe, P J; Møller, T; Sankila, R

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the relative risk of developing a second malignant neoplasm in people with a diagnosis of cancer in childhood and adolescence. DESIGN--Register based follow up study. SETTING--Populations of Nordic countries. SUBJECTS--30,880 people under the age of 20 with a first malignant neoplasm diagnosed during the period 1943-87. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Relative and attributable risks of second malignant neoplasms by type of first cancer, age at first diagnosis, calendar period, sex, and country. Expected figures were based on the appropriate national incidence rates for cancer. RESULTS--247 cases of second malignant neoplasms were observed in 238 patients, yielding a relative risk for cancer of 3.6 (95% confidence interval 3.1 to 4.1). The risk changed significantly from 2.6 in people first diagnosed during the 1940s and 1950s to 6.9 among cohort members included in the late 1970s and 1980s. Increases were observed for most types of cancer. Highest levels of the relative risk were seen during the 10 years immediately after first malignant diagnosis. The incidence of second malignant neoplasms attributable to the first cancer and associated treatments, however, showed a consistent rise throughout the 45 years of follow up. CONCLUSION--The estimated risks for a second malignant neoplasm were significantly lower than those found in most large hospital based studies but compatible with the results from a similar population based study in the United Kingdom. Extent of risk and cancer pattern were similar among the Nordic countries and are believed to be representative for a large part of the European population. PMID:8251777

  11. The effects of higher-order questioning strategies on nonscience majors' achievement in an introductory environmental science course and their attitudes toward the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eason, Grace Teresa

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to determine the effect a higher-order questioning strategy (Bloom, 1956) had on undergraduate non-science majors' attitudes toward the environment and their achievement in an introductory environmental science course, EDS 1032, "Survey of Science 2: Life Science," which was offered during the Spring 2000 term. Students from both treatment and control groups (N = 63), which were determined using intact classes, participated in eight cooperative group activities based on the Biological Sciences Curriculum Studies (BSCS) 5E model (Bybee, 1993). The treatment group received a higher-order questioning method combined with the BSCS 5E model. The control group received a lower-order questioning method, combined with the BSCS 5E model. Two instruments were used to measure students' attitude and achievement changes. The Ecology Issue Attitude (EIA) survey (Schindler, 1995) and a comprehensive environmental science final exam. Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (KLSI, 1985) was used to measure students' learning style type. After a 15-week treatment period, results were analyzed using MANCOVA. The overall MANCOVA model used to test the statistical difference between the collective influences of the independent variables on the three dependent variables simultaneously was found to be not significant at alpha = .05. This differs from findings of previous studies in which higher-order questioning techniques had a significant effect on student achievement (King 1989 & 1992; Blosser, 1991; Redfield and Rousseau, 1981; Gall 1970). At the risk of inflated Type I and Type II error rates, separate univariate analyses were performed. However, none of the research factors, when examined collectively or separately, made any significant contribution to explaining the variability in EIA attitude, EIA achievement, and comprehensive environmental science final examination scores. Nevertheless, anecdotal evidence from student's self

  12. Strategy making and power in environmental assessments. Lessons from the establishment of an out-of-town shopping centre in Vaesteras, Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Isaksson, Karolina; Storbjoerk, Sofie

    2012-04-15

    This paper seeks to provide deeper insights into how EA ineffectiveness is produced in land use planning practice. This is explored in a study of local development planning in the city of Vaesteras, Sweden. The case in question is the development of a large out-of-town shopping centre, propelled by the establishment of a new IKEA furniture store. The Healey (2007) framework of planning as strategy making is applied as an analytical framework, together with a focus on power-knowledge relations. In the analysis, we identify a range of mechanisms that produced ineffectiveness by limiting the role of environmental knowledge throughout the planning process. The specific mechanisms we identified were related to the overall consensus perspective in local development strategies and plans, a lack of concretisation and integration of various policies and strategies, a range of exclusion mechanisms and an overall focus on mitigation and benefits of the process in question. In practice, these mechanisms were closely intertwined. Our main conclusion is, consequently, that increased effectiveness of EA would require fundamental transformation of the norms, frameworks and routines that implicitly and explicitly guide land use planning in practice. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyse how EA-ineffectiveness is produced in land use planning practice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Several mechanisms produce EA-ineffectiveness throughout the whole planning process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These mechanisms are often closely intertwined and mutually reinforcing each other. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhancing EA-effectiveness requires a fundamental shift of the norms, frameworks and routines shaping planning practice.

  13. Predictors of public support for nutrition-focused policy, systems and environmental change strategies in Los Angeles County, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Robles, Brenda; Kuo, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Background Since 2010, federal and local agencies have invested broadly in a variety of nutrition-focused policy, systems and environmental change (PSE) initiatives in Los Angeles County (LAC). To date, little is known about whether the public supports such efforts. We address this gap in the literature by examining predictors of support for a variety of PSEs. Methods Voters residing in LAC (n=1007) were randomly selected to participate in a cross-sectional telephone survey commissioned by the LAC Department of Public Health. The survey asked questions about attitudes towards the obesity epidemic, nutrition knowledge and behaviours, public opinions about changing business practices/government policies related to nutrition, and sociodemographics. A factor analysis informed outcome variable selection (ie, type of PSEs). Multivariable regression analyses were performed to examine predictors of public support. Predictors in the regression models included (primary regressor) community economic hardship; (control variables) political affiliation, sex, age, race and income; and (independent variables) perceptions about obesity, perceived health and weight status, frequency reading nutrition labels, ease of finding healthy and unhealthy foods, and food consumption behaviours (ie, fruit and vegetables, non-diet soda, fast-food and sit-down restaurant meals). Results 3 types of PSE outcome variables were identified: promotional/incentivising, limiting/restrictive and business practices. Community economic hardship was not found to be a significant predictor of public support for any of the 3 PSE types. However, Republican party affiliation, being female and perceiving obesity as a serious health problem were. Conclusions These findings have implications for public health practice and community planning in local health jurisdictions. PMID:28087545

  14. Clean Water Act assessment processes in relation to changing U.S. Environmental Protection Agency management strategies.

    PubMed

    Cooter, William S

    2004-10-15

    During the 1970s the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) devised a multiscale system of basin planning and regional implementation that encouraged a balanced mixture of monitoring and modeling-based assessments. By the 1980s, this goal had not been achieved. Modeling and monitoring assessment approaches became largely decoupled. To a significant degree, modeling was viewed as too inaccurate to handle issues such as setting permit limits involving toxics. During the 1980s, EPA also encouraged the idea that monitoring approaches were adequate to document water quality problems, guide the development of management plans, and demonstrate the achievement of management goals. By the late 1990s, large numbers of waters listed under the Clean Water Act's Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) provisions showed the widespread nature of pollutant concerns, but the uneven nature of the listing information also revealed fundamental problems in the ability of state monitoring programs to achieve credible and comprehensive assessments. Statistics are presented from the 1998 and the most current publicly available 2000 baseline periods showing the limitations in the scope of state assessments. There are significant opportunities for the increased use of relatively simple modeling systems that can be flexibly implemented over a variety of spatial scales. In addition to conventional modeling frameworks, the value of bioassessment monitoring techniques is stressed. Bioassessment indicators can often be combined with landscape modeling methods, as well as analyses from conventional modeling outputs, to help target small area monitoring by use of tiered approaches. These findings underscore the value of integrated monitoring and modeling approaches to build properly balanced assessment systems.

  15. Identifying the dominant metabolic strategies used by microorganisms within basalt-hosted, anoxic deep subsurface basement fluids via environmental genomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappe, M. S.; Jungbluth, S.; Carr, S. A.; Lin, H. T.; Hsieh, C. C.; Nigro, O. D.; Steward, G. F.; Orcutt, B.

    2014-12-01

    A microbial ecosystem distinct from both overlying sediments and bottom seawater lies within the basaltic crust of the Juan de Fuca Ridge flank. The metabolic potential and genomic characteristics of microbes residing in fluids of this remote, anoxic region of the subsurface ocean were investigated using environmental DNA extracted from large-volume fluid samples obtained from advanced borehole observatories installed at two recently drilled IODP Boreholes, U1362A and U1362B. Fluids were collected from the deep (204 meters sub-basement) horizon of Borehole U1362A and shallow (40 meters sub-basement) horizon of Borehole U1362B and used to generate 503 and 705 million base-pairs of genomic DNA sequence data, respectively. Phylogenetically informative genes revealed that the community structure recovered via metagenomics was generally consistent with that obtained previously by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and was dominated by uncultivated bacterial lineages of Proteobacteria, Nitrospirae, Candidate Division OP8 (Aminicenantes), Thermotoga and archaeal groups THSCG, MCG (Bathyarchaeota), MBGE, and Archaeoglobus. Genes involved in phage integration, chemotaxis, nitrate reduction, methanogenesis, and amino acid degradation were all detected, revealing potentially dynamic microbial communities. Putative sulfate reduction genes were discovered within previously identified Firmicutes lineage Candidatus Desulforudis, along with other groups (e.g. Archaeoglobus). Significant metagenome assembly resulted in 72 and 105 contigs of >100 Kbp from U1362B and U1362A, respectively, including 1137, 977 and 356 Kbp-long contigs from Candidate Division OP8 residing in U1362B. These assemblies have revealed novel metabolic potential within abundant members of the deep subsurface microbial community, which can be directly related to their survival in the deep oceanic crust.

  16. The association between adherence to the New Nordic Diet and diet quality

    PubMed Central

    Bjørnarå, Helga Birgit; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Stea, Tonje Holte; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Hillesund, Elisabet Rudjord; Andersen, Lene Frost; Berntsen, Sveinung; Bere, Elling

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have reported a positive association between scoring on healthy Nordic diet scales and the intake of healthy foods and nutrients, and also with higher intake of meat, sweets, cakes, and energy in general. These studies have used the same food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) responses for constructing the diet score as for calculating intakes of foods and nutrients. Thus, it is not clear whether the coexistence of healthy and less healthy dietary aspects among adherers to Nordic diets would occur even though separate methods were applied for exploring these relations. Objective To assess the association between adherence to the New Nordic Diet (NND), derived from an FFQ, and diet quality, determined from two 24-h dietary recall interviews. Design In total, 65 parents of toddlers in Southern Norway answered the NND FFQ and two 24-h dietary recall interviews. NND adherence was determined from the FFQ and categorized into low, medium, and high adherence. The two 24-h recalls provided data for the intake of specific foods and nutrients, selected on the basis of the Norwegian food-based guidelines as an indicator of a healthy diet. The Kruskal–Wallis test was used for assessing differences in food and nutrient intake across NND groups. Results High NND adherence derived from FFQ was associated with a high intake of fruits (p=0.004) and fiber (p=0.02), and a low intake of meat (p=0.004) and margarines (p=0.05), derived from recalls. A larger proportion of high NND adherers (68%) complied with the national dietary recommendation targeting meat intake compared with low NND adherers (29%) (p=0.04). Conclusion The present study showed that higher NND adherence measured with FFQ was associated with a higher intake of selected healthy foods and nutrients, measured with recalls. However, a higher intake of meat, sweets, and energy, as earlier reported, was not observed. PMID:27257844

  17. Drastic changes in the Nordic Seas oceanic circulation and deepwater formation in a Pliocene context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contoux, Camille; Zhang, Zhongshi; De Schepper, Stijn; Li, Camille; Nisancioglu, Kerim; Risebrobakken, Bjorg

    2016-04-01

    The Nordic Seas are a major area of deepwater formation, thus playing a crucial role in the global oceanic circulation. In the recent years a cooling and freshening of the Norwegian Sea has been observed (Blindheim et al., 2000), highlighting potential changes in this area linked to climate change. Here, we use climate simulations of the mid-Pliocene warm period with the NorESM-L model. This period is considered to be the last interval when Earth experienced temperatures higher than today for a sustained period of time, in equilibrium with CO2 concentrations similar to present-day and a reduced Greenland Ice Sheet. We find that oceanic circulation in the Nordic Seas is drastically modified. The strength of the East Greenland Current is reduced, which implies less Arctic water going to the North Atlantic from the west of the Fram strait, which creates a compensating outflow current from the east of the Fram Strait to the North Atlantic along the Voring plateau (coast of Norway). The Norwegian Atlantic current is shifted westward, meaning that there is increased Atlantic water influence in the Greenland Sea, which becomes much warmer, and increased Arctic influence along Norway, which becomes colder than present. Circulation becomes anticyclonic instead of cyclonic. Circulation in the subpolar gyre is strongly reduced, together with deepwater formation on average both in the Irminger Sea and the Nordic Seas. Convection sites in the Nordic Seas shift from the eastern part to the western part. Sensitivity experiments show that these changes are not reproduced in other Pliocene contexts, such as when CO2 is low (280 ppm) or when Barents Sea is turned to land, suggesting that the ultimate driver of these changes is higher CO2. When Barents Sea is land, which was the reality of the Pliocene, circulation and sea-surface temperature show a good agreement with reconstructions from marine proxies (De Schepper et al., 2015). This means that NorESM-L is able to properly

  18. Fatal poisoning in drug addicts in the Nordic countries in 2012.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, K Wiese; Edvardsen, H M E; Thelander, G; Ojanperä, I; Thordardottir, S; Andersen, L V; Kriikku, P; Vindenes, V; Christoffersen, D; Delaveris, G J M; Frost, J

    2015-03-01

    This report is a follow-up to a study on fatal poisoning in drug addicts conducted in 2012 by a Nordic working group. Here we analyse data from the five Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. Data on sex, number of deaths, places of death, age, main intoxicants and other drugs detected in the blood were recorded. National data are presented and compared between the Nordic countries and with data from similar studies conducted in 1991, 1997, 2002 and 2007. The death rates (number of deaths per 100,000 inhabitants) increased in drug addicts in Finland, Iceland and Sweden but decreased in Norway compared to the rates in earlier studies. The death rate was stable in Denmark from 1991 to 2012. The death rate remained highest in Norway (5.79) followed by Denmark (5.19) and Iceland (5.16). The differences between the countries diminished compared to earlier studies, with death rates in Finland (4.61) and Sweden (4.17) approaching the levels in the other countries. Women accounted for 15-27% of the fatal poisonings. The median age of the deceased drug addicts was still highest in Denmark, and deaths of addicts >45 years old increased in all countries. Opioids remained the main cause of death, but medicinal opioids like methadone, buprenorphine, fentanyl and tramadol mainly replaced heroin. Methadone was the main intoxicant in Denmark and Sweden, whereas heroin/morphine caused the most deaths in Norway. Finland differed from the other Nordic countries in that buprenorphine was the main intoxicant with only a few heroin/morphine and methadone deaths. Deaths from methadone, buprenorphine and fentanyl increased immensely in Sweden compared to 2007. Poly-drug use was widespread in all countries. The median number of drugs per case varied from 4 to 5. Heroin/morphine, medicinal opioids, cocaine, amphetamines, benzodiazepines and alcohol were the main abused drugs. However, less widely used drugs, like gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), methylphenidate

  19. Determinants of dental health behaviors in Nordic schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Rise, J; Wold, B; Aarö, L E

    1991-02-01

    As part of the comprehensive study "Health Behavior in Schoolchildren. A WHO Cross National Survey", this paper set out to identify determinants of four dental health behavioral dimensions in Finnish, Norwegian, and Swedish schoolchildren aged 11, 13, and 15. The data were collected by means of self-administered questionnaires, and the results are considered to be representative of each country. The total sample size approximated 3000 pupils in each country. The four dependent variables, fluoride, interdental cleaning, sugar, and brushing behavior, were all based upon sum-scores of several questions, and were subsequently regressed upon five predictors: school achievement, sex, time spent with friends, educational plans, and family meal pattern. This model provided a far better fit to the data on sugar and brushing behavior than to fluoride and interdental cleaning behavior. However, brushing seems to be different from sugar behavior, being influenced by different factors. While brushing is closely linked to the prevailing sex-role pattern, sugar behavior is stronger related to peer group norms. Thus, the symbolic function of sweet consumption of the youth culture should have implications for the design of intervention strategies. For example, the provision of alternative behaviors will only be successful if the behaviors serve the same function as sugar consumption.

  20. INFORMATION: Management Alert on Environmental Management's Select Strategy for Disposition of Savannah River Site Depleted Uranium Oxides

    SciTech Connect

    2010-04-01

    existing licensing criteria. As a consequence, the Governor of Utah met with Department officials to voice concerns regarding further shipments of the material and to seek return of the initial shipment of DU oxides to SRS. Utah's objections and the Department's agreement to accede to the State's demands effectively prohibit the transfer of the remaining material from South Carolina to Utah. In response, the Department evaluated its options and issued a draft decision paper on March 1, 2010, which outlined an alternative for temporary storage until the final disposition issue could be resolved. Under the terms of the proposed option, the remaining shipments from SRS are to be sent on an interim basis to a facility owned by Waste Control Specialists (WCS) in Andrews, Texas. Clearly, this choice carries with it a number of significant logistical burdens, including substantial additional costs for, among several items, repackaging at SRS, transportation to Texas, storage at the interim site, and, repackaging and transportation to the yet-to-be-determined final disposition point. The Department source expressed the concern that the proposal to store the material on an interim basis in Texas was inefficient and unnecessary, asserting: (1) that the materials could remain at SRS until a final disposition path is identified, and that this could be done safely, securely and cost effectively; and, (2) that the nature of the material was not subject to existing compliance agreements with the State of South Carolina, suggesting the viability of keeping the material in storage at SRS until a permanent disposal site is definitively established. We noted that, while the Department's decision paper referred to 'numerous project and programmatic factors that make it impractical to retain the remaining inventory at Savannah River,' it did not outline the specific issues involved nor did it provide any substantive economic or environmental analysis supporting the need for the planned interim

  1. [Recreational or professional participants in Nordic skiing. Differences in injury patterns and severity of injuries].

    PubMed

    Ketterl, R

    2014-01-01

    A total of 441 Nordic skiing injuries were observed and analysed for a period of two winter seasons. The data showed that athletes in squads (0.02/1000 days) or professional clubs (0.09/1000 days) have lower injury risks compared to those doing Nordic skiing in their leisure time (0.51/1000 days). Amongst recreational athletes, women (0.65/1000 days) sustain trauma more frequently than men (0.40/1000 days). In professional athletes, the upper limb is commonly injured, whereas there are fewer head and trunk injuries. Furthermore the injured in this group are younger and have less severe injuries. Recreational athletes more often injure their lower limb and 20 % have injuries to the head and trunk. Those injured in this group are older and have a higher percentage of overweight people, are not well trained and have more severe or complex injuries compared to professionals.

  2. Heat and freshwater budgets of the Nordic seas computed from atmospheric reanalysis and ocean observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segtnan, O. H.; Furevik, T.; Jenkins, A. D.

    2011-11-01

    The heat and freshwater budgets of the Nordic seas are computed from atmospheric reanalysis data and ocean observations, mainly taken during the period 1990-1999. The total heat loss is 198 TW and the freshwater gain 52 mSv (1 Sv = 106 m3 s-1), with residuals equal to 1 TW and 3 mSv, respectively. Budgets are also computed for three subregions within the Nordic seas: the Norwegian Sea, the Barents Sea and the Greenland/Iceland Sea. Without accounting for transfer of heat and freshwater across the Arctic Front, which separates the Greenland/Iceland Sea from the Norwegian Sea, the residuals of the heat and freshwater budgets range from -36 TW to 34 TW and from -16 mSv to 19 mSv, respectively. To close the budgets of all subregions cross-frontal fluxes of -35 TW and 17 mSv, caused either by eddy shedding along the Arctic Front or ocean currents not accounted for, must be included. Combined with observations of the average temperature and salinity on both sides of the Arctic Front these values indicate a rate of cross-frontal water exchange of approximately 4 Sv. The most intense water mass modifications occur in the Norwegian Sea, where ocean heat loss and freshwater input are equal to 119 TW and 41 mSv, respectively.

  3. Relationship between literacy skills and self-reported health in the Nordic countries

    PubMed Central

    Lundetræ, Kjersti; Gabrielsen, Egil

    2016-01-01

    Aims: This study investigated the association between literacy skills and self-reported health among Danish (n = 7284), Finnish (n = 5454), Norwegian (n = 4942) and Swedish (n = 4555) participants aged 16–65 years. Methods: Logistic regression models were used to assess the association between literacy skills and self-reported health after adjusting for sex, age and educational level. Results: Nordic participants aged 16–65 years with literacy skills at the lowest level reported sub-optimal health more often (28–37%) than those with literacy skills at the highest level (7–9%). After adjusting for sex, age and educational level, the likelihood of reporting sub-optimal health was 1.99–3.24 times as high for those with literacy skills at the lowest level as for those with literacy skills at the highest level. Conclusions: These results suggest that poor literacy skills increase the likelihood of experiencing poor health in the Nordic countries, even after controlling for educational level. PMID:27670908

  4. Effect of Nordic Walking training on iron metabolism in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Kortas, Jakub; Prusik, Katarzyna; Flis, Damian; Prusik, Krzysztof; Ziemann, Ewa; Leaver, Neil; Antosiewicz, Jedrzej

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite several, well-documented pro-healthy effects of regular physical training, its influence on body iron stores in elderly people remains unknown. At the same time, body iron accumulation is associated with high risk of different morbidities. Purpose We hypothesized that Nordic Walking training would result in pro-healthy changes in an elderly group of subjects by reducing body iron stores via shifts in iron metabolism-regulating proteins. Methods Thirty-seven women aged 67.7±5.3 years participated in this study. They underwent 32 weeks of training, 1-hour sessions three times a week, between October 2012 and May 2013. Fitness level, blood morphology, CRP, vitamin D, ferritin, hepcidin, and soluble Hjv were assessed before and after the training. Results The training program caused a significant decrease in ferritin, which serves as a good marker of body iron stores. Simultaneously, the physical cardiorespiratory fitness had improved. Furthermore, blood hepcidin was positively correlated with the ferritin concentration after the training. The concentration of blood CRP dropped, but the change was nonsignificant. The applied training resulted in a blood Hjv increase, which was inversely correlated with the vitamin D concentration. Conclusion Overall the Nordic Walking training applied in elderly people significantly reduced blood ferritin concentration, which explains the observed decrease in body iron stores. PMID:26664101

  5. Reproductive strategies and seasonal changes in the somatic indices of seven small-bodied fishes in Atlantic Canada in relation to study design for environmental effects monitoring.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Timothy J; Brasfield, Sandra M; Carroll, Leslie C; Doyle, Meghan A; van den Heuvel, Michael R; Munkittrick, Kelly R

    2015-05-01

    Small-bodied fishes are more commonly being used in environmental effects monitoring (EEM) studies. There is a lack of understanding of the biological characteristics of many small-bodied species, which hinders study designs for monitoring studies. For example, 72% of fish population surveys in Canada's EEM program for pulp and paper mills that used small-bodied fishes were conducted outside of the reproductive period of the species. This resulted in an inadequate assessment of the EEM program's primary effect endpoint (reproduction) for these studies. The present study examined seasonal changes in liver size, gonad size, and condition in seven freshwater and estuarine small-bodied fishes in Atlantic Canada. These data were used to examine differences in reproductive strategies and patterns of energy storage among species. Female gonadal recrudescence in all seven species began primarily in the 2-month period in the spring before spawning. Male gonadal development was concurrent with females in five species; however, gonadal recrudescence began in the fall in male three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus). The spawning period for each species was estimated from the decline in relative ovary size after its seasonal maximum value in spring. The duration of the spawning period reflected the reproductive strategy (single vs multiple spawning) of the species. Optimal sampling periods to assess reproductive impacts in each species were determined based on seasonal changes in ovary size and were identified to be during the prespawning period when gonads are developing and variability in relative gonad size is at a minimum.

  6. An open data repository and a data processing software toolset of an equivalent Nordic grid model matched to historical electricity market data.

    PubMed

    Vanfretti, Luigi; Olsen, Svein H; Arava, V S Narasimham; Laera, Giuseppe; Bidadfar, Ali; Rabuzin, Tin; Jakobsen, Sigurd H; Lavenius, Jan; Baudette, Maxime; Gómez-López, Francisco J

    2017-04-01

    This article presents an open data repository, the methodology to generate it and the associated data processing software developed to consolidate an hourly snapshot historical data set for the year 2015 to an equivalent Nordic power grid model (aka Nordic 44), the consolidation was achieved by matching the model׳s physical response w.r.t historical power flow records in the bidding regions of the Nordic grid that are available from the Nordic electricity market agent, Nord Pool. The model is made available in the form of CIM v14, Modelica and PSS/E (Siemens PTI) files. The Nordic 44 model in Modelica and PSS/E were first presented in the paper titled "iTesla Power Systems Library (iPSL): A Modelica library for phasor time-domain simulations" (Vanfretti et al., 2016) [1] for a single snapshot. In the digital repository being made available with the submission of this paper (SmarTSLab_Nordic44 Repository at Github, 2016) [2], a total of 8760 snapshots (for the year 2015) that can be used to initialize and execute dynamic simulations using tools compatible with CIM v14, the Modelica language and the proprietary PSS/E tool are provided. The Python scripts to generate the snapshots (processed data) are also available with all the data in the GitHub repository (SmarTSLab_Nordic44 Repository at Github, 2016) [2]. This Nordic 44 equivalent model was also used in iTesla project (iTesla) [3] to carry out simulations within a dynamic security assessment toolset (iTesla, 2016) [4], and has been further enhanced during the ITEA3 OpenCPS project (iTEA3) [5]. The raw, processed data and output models utilized within the iTesla platform (iTesla, 2016) [4] are also available in the repository. The CIM and Modelica snapshots of the "Nordic 44" model for the year 2015 are available in a Zenodo repository.

  7. Libraries and National Development (Final Report of the Third Afro-Nordic Library Conference, Finland, September 3-7 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    Contained in this collection of presentations from the third Afro-Nordic Library Conference are a foreword describing the objectives of the meeting and 14 papers: "From Oral Tradition to Literary Writing: The Awakening of National Awareness," by Heikki Kirkinen; "African Library Systems," by L. E. Samarasinghe; "Planning…

  8. Large-scale atmospheric circulation variability and its impacts on the Nordic seas ocean climate: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furevik, Tore; Nilsen, J. Even Ø.

    The large-scale atmospheric circulation and its impacts on the Nordic Seas ocean climate are reviewed. The dominant factors for the atmospheric variability are the Icelandic low and the Azores high, determining the strength of the westerlies. From the '60s to the '90s, the atmospheric circulation shifted from record weak to record strong westerlies, and the storm tracks moved further northeast into the Nordic Seas. The reasons for this shift have most likely been forcing from the tropical ocean in combination with internal processes in the atmosphere. Associated with this low-frequency shift are changes in the atmospheric momentum, heat, and freshwater forcing of the ocean. Both local processes and advective anomalies have played active roles in the substantial changes observed in the Nordic Seas' circulation and hydrography over the same period. These include a reduction in the deep-water formation, a warming of the water going into the Arctic, and a freshening and probable reduction of the overflow water. The strengthening of the westerlies is concurrent in time with a strong increase in global mean temperatures, and we speculate that the changes in the atmospheric circulation are tied to the increased greenhouse gas forcing through a variety of forcing mechanisms. If so, the observed changes in the Nordic Seas ocean climate are likely to be amplified, and our perceptions of what constitutes normal oceanic conditions will be further challenged in the years to come.

  9. Persistent Intermediate Water Warming during Cold Stadials in the SE Nordic Seas during the Last 65 Kyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, T. L.; Ezat, M.; Groeneveld, J.

    2014-12-01

    In the Nordic seas, conversion of inflowing warm Atlantic surface water to deep cold water through convection is closely linked with climate. During the last glacial period climate underwent rapid millennial-scale variability known as Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events, consisting of warm interstadials and cold stadials. Here we present the first benthic foraminiferal Mg/Ca-d18O record from the Nordic seas in order to reconstruct the ocean circulation on DO timescales. The record confirms that modern-like convection took place in the Nordic seas during interstadials with cold bottom water temperatures (BWT) close to modern temperatures. The results show gradual and pronounced BWT increases by 2-5 °C during stadials indicating a stop or near-stop in convection. The BWT peaks are followed by an abrupt drop in temperature at the onset of interstadials indicating the abrupt start of convection and renewed generation of cold deep water. The rise in BWT during stadials confirms earlier interpretations of subsurface inflow of warm Atlantic water below a halocline reaching >1.2 km water depth. The results suggest that warm Atlantic Water never ceased to flow into the Nordic seas during the glacial period with inflow at the surface during the Holocene and warm interstadials switching to subsurface and intermediate inflow during cold stadials. Our results suggest that it is the vertical shifts in the position of the warm Atlantic Water that cause the abrupt surface warmings.

  10. The Nordic Model in Education: Education as Part of the Political System in the Last 50 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telhaug, Alfred Oftedal; Medias, Odd Asbjorn; Aasen, Petter

    2006-01-01

    This article describes, analyses and discusses the development of the Nordic school model in three phases of the post-war period, viewed in the light of the development of the political system throughout the period and in comparison with the development of the school system in the western world in this period. The "classical period" from…

  11. Bringing Ideals into Dialogue with Practices: On the Principles and Practices of the Nordic Network for Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rönnerman, Karin; Salo, Petri; Furu, Eli Moksnes; Lund, Torbjørn; Olin, Anette; Jakhelln, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    In this article we present the Nordic Network for Action Research, established in 2004. We describe how the network has explored, bridged and nurtured the inherent action research dynamics of ideology and methodology. This has been done through an understanding anchored in educational traditions, and by focus on three important ideal-shaping…

  12. Information Resources Management. Nordic Conference on Information and Documentation (6th, Helsinki, Finland, August 19-22, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samfundet for Informationstjanst i Finland, Helsinki.

    The 54 conference papers compiled in this proceedings include plenary addresses; reviews of Nordic databases; and discussions of documents, systems, services, and products as they relate to information resources management (IRM). Almost half of the presentations are in English: (1) "What Is Information Resources Management?" (Forest…

  13. Decreasing overflow from the Nordic seas into the Atlantic Ocean through the Faroe Bank channel since 1950.

    PubMed

    Hansen, B; Turrell, W R; Østerhus, S

    2001-06-21

    The overflow of cold, dense water from the Nordic seas, across the Greenland-Scotland ridge and into the Atlantic Ocean is the main source for the deep water of the North Atlantic Ocean. This flow also helps drive the inflow of warm, saline surface water into the Nordic seas. The Faroe Bank channel is the deepest path across the ridge, and the deep flow through this channel accounts for about one-third of the total overflow. Previous work has demonstrated that the overflow has become warmer and less saline over time. Here we show, using direct measurements and historical hydrographic data, that the volume flux of the Faroe Bank channel overflow has also decreased. Estimating the volume flux conservatively, we find a decrease by at least 20 per cent relative to 1950. If this reduction in deep flow from the Nordic seas is not compensated by increased flow from other sources, it implies a weakened global thermohaline circulation and reduced inflow of Atlantic water to the Nordic seas.

  14. Bone Histology Reveals a High Environmental and Metabolic Plasticity as a Successful Evolutionary Strategy in a Long-Lived Homeostatic Triassic Temnospondyl.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, S; Schoch, R R

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary stasis (long-term stability of morphology in an evolving lineage) is a pattern for which explanations are usually elusive. The Triassic tetrapod Gerrothorax pulcherrimus, a gill-bearing temnospondyl, survived for 35 million years in the Germanic Basin of Central Europe persisting throughout the dinosaur-dominated Late Triassic period. This evolutionary stasis coincides with the occurrence of this species in a wide range of habitats and environmental conditions. By the combination of palaeoecological and palaeohistological analyses, we found great ecological flexibility in G. pulcherrimus and present substantial evidence of developmental and metabolic plasticity despite the morphological stasis. We conclude that G. pulcherrimus could show the capacity to settle in water bodies too harsh or unpredictable for most other tetrapods. This would have been made possible by a unique life history strategy that involved a wide reaction norm, permitting adjustment to fluctuating conditions such as salinity and level of nutrients. Growth rate, duration of juvenile period, age at maturity, and life span were all subject to broad variation within specimens of G. pulcherrimus in one single lake and in between different lakes. In addition to providing a better understanding of fossil ecosystems, this study shows the potential of such a methodology to encourage palaeobiologists and evolutionary biologists to consider the mechanisms of variation in extant and fossil organisms by using a similar time-scope reference.

  15. Millennial-scale variability in Atlantic water advection to the Nordic Seas derived from Holocene coccolith concentration records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraudeau, J.; Grelaud, M.; Solignac, S.; Andrews, J. T.; Moros, M.; Jansen, E.

    2010-05-01

    Abundance patterns of coccolith species in two Holocene marine cores retrieved off Norway and northern Iceland are indicative of millennial-scale modulations in the flow of the main (Norwegian Atlantic Current) and secondary (North Iceland Irminger Current) branches of the North Atlantic Drift to the Nordic Seas. Long-term trends in coccolith abundance changes reflect major Holocene steps in Atlantic Water transfer to the Nordic Seas at orbital scale with important constraints on the convective activity of the Nordic Seas that leads to the formation of the precursor water mass of North Atlantic Deep Water. Millennial-scale Holocene episodes of increased advection of Atlantic waters off Norway are associated with enhanced winter precipitation over Scandinavia, increased sea-salt fluxes over Greenland, and strengthened wind over Iceland, thereby suggesting a common atmospheric forcing: the location and intensity of the westerlies and the associated changes in mid- to high-latitude pressure gradients. Our biotic data indicate an opposite pattern of Atlantic water inflow at suborbital scale between the western (Denmark) and eastern (Iceland-Scotland) straits of the northern Atlantic throughout the Holocene. This, as supported by present observational and simulated data, further highlights the role of atmospheric oscillations in the recent history of the North Atlantic-Nordic Seas water mass exchanges across the Greenland-Scotland Ridge. Such atmospheric processes are thought to explain the observed coupling between periods of excess export of arctic sea-ice to the Nordic Seas and intervals of maximum inflow of Atlantic water to the Norwegian Sea throughout the last 11 000 years.

  16. Results From The Nordic Intercomparison of Ultraviolet Spectroradiometers In Sweden 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morten Thorseth, Trond; Kjeldstad, Berit; Johnsen, Bjørn; Blumthaler, Mario; Lakkala, Kaisa; Slaper, Harry

    Fourteen spectroradiometers measuring ultraviolet radiation participated in a Nordic intercomparison in Halmstad, Sweden, 10-15 June, 2000. Measurements were performed at both clear and cloudy conditions. Protocols and tools for analysing measurements were much the same as in previous large campaigns (Bais et al. 2001, Kjeldstad et al. 1997), for instance two days were blind day measurements, establishment of a common reference, homogenisation of the instruments to a common slit width, wavelength corrections. Results showed that most of the instruments were stable in UVB during clear sky with standard deviations of the mean less than +/-1% (3 of the instruments). A small diurnal variation could be observed at low solar elevations (after 1600 UTC, below s.z.a 60°) for the single monochromator instruments, but these instruments were not corrected for a deviation from an ideal cosine response prior to submission. To sum up at clear sky conditions at maximum s.z.a of 36°, all instruments except one agreed within 10% within the wavelength range 300- 325 nm, which is a great improvement from the previous Nordic campaign (Kjeldstad et al. 1997) were many of the same instruments also participated. Most of the instruments agreed now within 5%. The same result could be found for stable cloud cover. At scattered cloud conditions synchronisation of the instruments became a critical factor and comparison were more difficult. Diurnal variation between different instruments will be presented for the whole measuring period. Bais, A.F., B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, C. Brogniez, W. Josefsson, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas. 2001 The SUSPEN intercomparis on of ultraviolet spectroradiometers. J. Geophysical Research 106, d12. 12509-12525 Kjeldstad, B., B. Johnsson, and

  17. Characteristics of Glucose Metabolism in Nordic and South Asian Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Eriksen, Erik Fink; Birkeland, Kåre Inge

    2013-01-01

    Background Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are more prevalent in people of South Asian ethnicity than in people of Western European origin. To investigate the source of these differences, we compared insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, glucose and lipid metabolism in South Asian and Nordic subjects with type 2 diabetes. Methods Forty-three Nordic and 19 South Asian subjects with type 2 diabetes were examined with intra-venous glucose tolerance test, euglycemic clamp including measurement of endogenous glucose production, indirect calorimetry measuring glucose and lipid oxidation, and dual x-ray absorptiometry measuring body composition. Results Despite younger mean ± SD age (49.7±9.4 vs 58.3±8.3 years, p = 0.001), subjects of South Asian ethnicity had the same diabetes duration (9.3±5.5 vs 9.6±7.0 years, p = 0.86), significantly higher median [inter-quartile range] HbA1c (8.5 [1.6] vs 7.3 [1.6] %, p = 0.024) and lower BMI (28.7±4.0 vs 33.2±4.7 kg/m2, p<0.001). The South Asian group exhibited significantly higher basal endogenous glucose production (19.1 [9.1] vs 14.4 [6.8] µmol/kgFFM⋅min, p = 0.003). There were no significant differences between the groups in total glucose disposal (39.1±20.4 vs 39.2±17.6 µmol/kgFFM⋅min, p = 0.99) or first phase insulin secretion (AUC0–8 min: 220 [302] vs 124 [275] pM, p = 0.35). In South Asian subjects there was a tendency towards positive correlations between endogenous glucose production and resting and clamp energy expenditure. Conclusions Subjects of South Asian ethnicity with type 2 diabetes, despite being younger and leaner, had higher basal endogenous glucose production, indicating higher hepatic insulin resistance, and a trend towards higher use of carbohydrates as fasting energy substrate compared to Nordic subjects. These findings may contribute to the understanding of the observed differences in prevalence of type 2 diabetes between the ethnic groups. PMID:24391858

  18. Nordisk ophthalmologisk tidsskrift 1889-1892: the Nordic Journal of Ophthalmology - a forerunner of Acta Ophthalmologica.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Niels

    2012-06-01

    In the second half of the nineteenth century several ophthalmological journals appeared (Germany, England, France, United States). In the northern countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden) an initiative lead to 'Nordisk ophthalmologisk Tidsskrift' published in the scandinavian languages in the years 1889-92. The 'driving force' behind the journal was the first professor in Ophthalmology in Copenhagen, Dr. Edmund Hansen Grut. The purpose with this presentation is to give the background for the rise and fall of the journal which was an attempt to promote Nordic Ophthalmology. The authors turned out, however, to be mainly those involved as editors. The journal never gained broad acceptance and it simply stopped in 1892, without any closing remarks. In spite of its short life the journal should be remembered for the very first publication on the arcuate scotoma, the Bjerrum scotoma from 1889. Although shortlived the initiative was not in vain, as can be read in the preface to the very first volume of Acta ophthalmologica.

  19. Distribution of Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria in the Nordic Uranium Tailings Deposit, Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Silver, M.

    1987-01-01

    Iron-oxidizing bacteria are present within the top 2 m (but not always at the surface) and near the water table-capillary fringe of the vegetated Nordic uranium deposit, Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada. They are distributed uniformly in the top 0.5 m of unvegetated tailings. The locations of these bacteria correlate with zones of pyrite oxidation as delineated in previous studies by the formation of soluble iron and sulfate. Heterotrophic bacteria are also present in the tailings, with greatest concentrations at the surface and near the water table-capillary fringe. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were detected in the soil and peat at the base of the tailings. The results of this study suggest that the establishment of vegetation directly upon the tailings surface does not arrest bacterial pyrite oxidation. PMID:16347328

  20. Modelling the circulation and deep water formation in the Labrador Sea: sensitivity to Nordic Sea exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czeschel, L.; Böning, C. W.

    2003-04-01

    Using an eddy-permitting model of the North Atlantic Ocean (part of the FLAME hierarchy) we investigate the impact of variable freshwater fluxes on the circulation, deep convection and the mixing between the boundary currents and the interior of the Labrador Sea. In this study, we use different forcing functions at the northern boundary (70N) to simulate variable freshwater (heat) exchanges with the Nordic Seas. In contrast to restoring to a climatology in a sponge layer, model versions with a prescribed streamfunction in an open boundary formulation give a better agreement with observational estimates of the circulation in this area. Varying the strength of the streamfunction at the northern boundary leads to fluctuations in the transport of the western boundary currents (East/West Greenland Current and Labrador Current) and thus to different freshwater budgets in the Labrador Sea.

  1. Deconstruction of Nordic hardwood in switchable ionic liquids and acylation of the dissolved cellulose.

    PubMed

    Eta, Valerie; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka

    2016-01-20

    Nordic hardwood (Betula pendula) was fractionated in a batch autoclave equipped with a custom-made SpinChem(®) rotating bed reactor, at 120 °C using CO2 and CS2-based switchable ionic liquids systems. Analyses of the non-dissolved wood after treatment showed that 64 wt% of hemicelluloses and 70 wt% of lignin were removed from the native wood. Long processing periods or successive short-time treatments using fresh SILs further decreased the amount of hemicelluloses and lignin in the non-dissolved fraction to 12 and 15 wt%, respectively. The cellulose-rich fraction was partially dissolved in an organic superbase and an ionic liquid system for further derivatization. Homogeneous acylation of the dissolved cellulose in the presence or absence of catalyst resulted in cellulose acetates with variable degree of substitution (DS), depending on the treatment conditions. By varying the reaction conditions, the cellulose acetate with the desired DS could be obtained under mild conditions.

  2. Temporal and regional trends in the secondary sex ratio: The Nordic experience.

    PubMed

    Fellman, Johan

    2015-12-01

    The sex ratio (SR) at birth, also known as the secondary sex ratio, is defined as the number of males per 100 females and approximates 106. According to the literature, the SR shows notable heterogeneity and attempts have been made to identify factors influencing it, but comparisons demand large data sets. Attempts to identify associations between SRs and stillbirth rates (SBRs) have yielded inconsistent results. A common pattern observed in different countries is that during the first half of the twentieth century, the SR showed increasing trends, but during the second half, the trend decreased. Secular increases are thought to be caused by improved socio-economic conditions. The recent downward trends have been attributed to new reproductive hazards. Similar findings have been made in the Nordic countries. Factors affecting the SR within families remain poorly understood. Although these factors have an effect on family data, they have not been identified in large.

  3. Uncritical and unbalanced coverage of synthetic biology in the Nordic press.

    PubMed

    Ancillotti, Mirko; Holmberg, Niklas; Lindfelt, Mikael; Eriksson, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    Synthetic biology will probably have a high impact on a variety of fields, such as healthcare, environment, biofuels, agriculture, and so on. A driving theme in European research policy is the importance of maintaining public legitimacy and support. Media can influence public attitudes and are therefore an important object of study. Through qualitative content analysis, this study investigates the press coverage of synthetic biology in the major Nordic countries between 2009 and 2014. The press coverage was found to be event-driven and there were striking similarities between countries when it comes to framing, language use, and treated themes. Reporters showed a marked dependence on their sources, mainly scientists and stakeholders, who thus drives the media agenda. The media portrayal was very positive, with an optimistic look at future benefits and very little discussion of possible risks.

  4. Statistical characteristics of polar lows over the Nordic Seas based on satellite passive microwave data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, J. E.; Zabolotskikh, E. V.; Bobylev, L. P.; Chapron, B.

    2016-12-01

    In this study polar lows over the Nordic Seas for the period of 1995-2008 have been detected and studied using the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) data. A new methodology for polar low detection and monitoring based on the analysis of the total atmospheric water vapor content (WVC) fields retrieved from SSM/I was used. Lifetimes, diameters, translation speeds, distances traveled, and intensities were estimated for the detected polar lows using SSM/I WVC, sea surface wind speed fields and infrared imagery. Over the Norwegian and Barents Seas, the polar low activity was found to be almost equal. A positive tendency in the total number of polar lows for the time period of 1995-2008 was detected.

  5. Health effects associated with foods characteristic of the Nordic diet: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Åkesson, Agneta; Andersen, Lene F.; Kristjánsdóttir, Ása G.; Roos, Eva; Trolle, Ellen; Voutilainen, Eeva; Wirfält, Elisabet

    2013-01-01

    Background In preparing the fifth edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR), the scientific basis of specific food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) was evaluated. Objective A systematic review (SR) was conducted to update the NNR evidence based on the association between the consumption of potatoes, berries, whole grains, milk and milk products, and red and processed meat, and the risk of major diet-related chronic diseases. Design The SR was based on predefined research questions and eligibility criteria for independent duplicate study selection, data extraction, and assessment of methodological quality and applicability. We considered scientific data from prospective observational studies and intervention studies, published since year 2000, targeting the general adult population. Studies of meat and iron status included children, adolescents, and women of childbearing age. Results Based on 7,282 abstracts, 57 studies met the quality criteria and were evidence graded. The data were too limited to draw any conclusions regarding: red and processed meat intake in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and iron status; potatoes and berries regarding any study outcomes; and dairy consumption in relation to risk of breast cancer and CVD. However, dairy consumption seemed unlikely to increase CVD risk (moderate-grade evidence). There was probable evidence (moderate-grade) for whole grains protecting against type 2 diabetes and CVD, and suggestive evidence (low-grade) for colorectal cancer and for dairy consumption being associated with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes and increased risk of prostate cancer. The WCRF/AICR concludes that red and processed meat is a convincing cause of colorectal cancer. Conclusions Probable (moderate) evidence was only observed for whole grains protecting against type 2 diabetes and CVD. We identified a clear need for high-quality nutritional epidemiological and intervention studies and for studies of foods of the Nordic diet

  6. Occupation and cancer - follow-up of 15 million people in five Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Pukkala, Eero; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Lynge, Elsebeth; Gunnarsdottir, Holmfridur Kolbrun; Sparén, Pär; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Kjaerheim, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    We present up to 45 years of cancer incidence data by occupational category for the Nordic populations. The study covers the 15 million people aged 30-64 years in the 1960, 1970, 1980/1981 and/or 1990 censuses in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, and the 2.8 million incident cancer cases diagnosed in these people in a follow-up until about 2005. The study was undertaken as a cohort study with linkage of individual records based on the personal identity codes used in all the Nordic countries. In the censuses, information on occupation for each person was provided through free text in self-administered questionnaires. The data were centrally coded and computerised in the statistical offices. For the present study, the original occupational codes were reclassified into 53 occupational categories and one group of economically inactive persons. All Nordic countries have a nation-wide registration of incident cancer cases during the entire study period. For the present study the incident cancer cases were classified into 49 primary diagnostic categories. Some categories have been further divided according to sub-site or morphological type. The observed number of cancer cases in each group of persons defined by country, sex, age, period and occupation was compared with the expected number calculated from the stratum specific person years and the incidence rates for the national population. The result was presented as a standardised incidence ratio, SIR, defined as the observed number of cases divided by the expected number. For all cancers combined (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer), the study showed a wide variation among men from an SIR of 0.79 (95% confidence interval 0.66-0.95) in domestic assistants to 1.48 (1.43-1.54) in waiters. The occupations with the highest SIRs also included workers producing beverage and tobacco, seamen and chimney sweeps. Among women, the SIRs varied from 0.58 (0.37-0.87) in seafarers to 1.27 (1.19-1.35) in tobacco workers. Low

  7. Assessment of the spatial and temporal distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Nordic atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anttila, Pia; Brorström-Lundén, Eva; Hansson, Katarina; Hakola, Hannele; Vestenius, Mika

    2016-09-01

    Long-term atmospheric monitoring data (1994-2011) of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were assembled from a rural site in southern Sweden, Råö, and a remote, sub-Arctic site in Finland, Pallas. The concentration levels, congener profiles, seasonal and temporal trends, and projections were evaluated in order to assess the status of POPs in the Scandinavian atmosphere. Our data include atmospheric concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), altogether comprising a selection of 27 different compounds. The atmospheric POP levels were generally higher in the south, closer to the sources (primary emissions) of the pollutants. The levels of low-chlorinated PCBs and chlordanes were equal at the two sites, and one of the studied POPs, α-HCH, showed higher levels in the north than in the south. Declining temporal trends in the atmospheric concentrations for the legacy POPs - PCBs (2-4% per year), HCHs (6-7% per year), chlordanes (3-4% per year) and DTTs (2-5% per year) - were identified both along Sweden's west coast and in the sub-Arctic area of northern Finland. Most of PAHs did not show any significant long-term trends. The future projections for POP concentrations suggest that in Scandinavia, low-chlorinated PCBs and p,p‧-DDE will remain in the atmospheric compartment the longest (beyond 2030). HCH's and PCB180 will be depleted from the Nordic atmosphere first, before 2020, whereas chlordanes and rest of the PCBs will be depleted between the years 2020 and 2025. PCBs tend to deplete sooner and chlordanes later from the sub-Arctic compared to the south of Sweden. This study demonstrates that the international bans on legacy POPs have successfully reduced the concentrations of these particular substances in the Nordic atmosphere. However, the most long-lived compounds may continue in the atmospheric cycle for another couple of decades.

  8. Interannual to Decadal Variability of Atlantic Water in the Nordic and Adjacent Seas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carton, James A.; Chepurin, Gennady A.; Reagan, James; Haekkinen, Sirpa

    2011-01-01

    Warm salty Atlantic Water is the main source water for the Arctic Ocean and thus plays an important role in the mass and heat budget of the Arctic. This study explores interannual to decadal variability of Atlantic Water properties in the Nordic Seas area where Atlantic Water enters the Arctic, based on a reexamination of the historical hydrographic record for the years 1950-2009, obtained by combining multiple data sets. The analysis shows a succession of four multi-year warm events where temperature anomalies at 100m depth exceed 0.4oC, and three cold events. Three of the four warm events lasted 3-4 years, while the fourth began in 1999 and persists at least through 2009. This most recent warm event is anomalous in other ways as well, being the strongest, having the broadest geographic extent, being surface-intensified, and occurring under exceptional meteorological conditions. Three of the four warm events were accompanied by elevated salinities consistent with enhanced ocean transport into the Nordic Seas, with the exception of the event spanning July 1989-July 1993. Of the three cold events, two lasted for four years, while the third lasted for nearly 14 years. Two of the three cold events are associated with reduced salinities, but the cold event of the 1960s had elevated salinities. The relationship of these events to meteorological conditions is examined. The results show that local surface heat flux variations act in some cases to reinforce the anomalies, but are too weak to be the sole cause.

  9. Exploring Muscle Activation during Nordic Walking: A Comparison between Conventional and Uphill Walking

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrini, Barbara; Peyré-Tartaruga, Leonardo Alexandre; Zoppirolli, Chiara; Bortolan, Lorenzo; Bacchi, Elisabetta; Figard-Fabre, Hélène; Schena, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Nordic Walking (NW) owes much of its popularity to the benefits of greater energy expenditure and upper body engagement than found in conventional walking (W). Muscle activation during NW is still understudied, however. The aim of the present study was to assess differences in muscle activation and physiological responses between NW and W in level and uphill walking conditions. Nine expert Nordic Walkers (mean age 36.8±11.9 years; BMI 24.2±1.8 kg/m2) performed 5-minute treadmill trials of W and NW at 4 km/h on inclines of 0% and 15%. The electromyographic activity of seven upper body and five leg muscles and oxygen consumption (VO2) were recorded and pole force during NW was measured. VO2 during NW was 22.3% higher at 0% and only 6.9% higher at 15% than during W, while upper body muscle activation was 2- to 15-fold higher under both conditions. Lower body muscle activation was similarly increased during NW and W in the uphill condition, whereas the increase in erector spinae muscle activity was lower during NW than W. The lack of a significant increase in pole force during uphill walking may explain the lower extra energy expenditure of NW, indicating less upper body muscle activation to lift the body against gravity. NW seemed to reduce lower back muscle contraction in the uphill condition, suggesting that walking with poles may reduce effort to control trunk oscillations and could contribute to work production during NW. Although the difference in extra energy expenditure between NW and W was smaller in the uphill walking condition, the increased upper body muscle involvement during exercising with NW may confer additional benefit compared to conventional walking also on uphill terrains. Furthermore, people with low back pain may gain benefit from pole use when walking uphill. PMID:26418339

  10. The Iceland-Faroe inflow of Atlantic water to the Nordic Seas [review article

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, B.; Østerhus, S.; Hátún, H.; Kristiansen, R.; Larsen, K. M. H.

    2003-12-01

    The flow of Atlantic water between Iceland and the Faroe Islands is one of three current branches flowing from the Atlantic Ocean into the Nordic Seas across the Greenland-Scotland Ridge. By the heat that it carries along, it keeps the subarctic regions abnormally warm and by its import of salt, it helps maintain a high salinity and hence density in the surface waters as a precondition for thermohaline ventilation. From 1997 to 2001, a number of ADCPs have been moored on a section going north from the Faroes, crossing the inflow. Combining these measurements with decade-long CTD observations from research vessel cruises along this section, we compute the fluxes of water (volume), heat, and salt. For the period June 1997-June 2001, we found the average volume flux of Atlantic water to be 3.5±0.5 Sv (1 Sv=10 6 m 3·s -1). When compared to recent estimates of the other branches, this implies that the Iceland-Faroe inflow is the strongest branch in terms of volume flux, transporting 47% of the total Atlantic inflow to the Arctic Mediterranean (Nordic Seas and Arctic Ocean with shelf areas). If all of the Atlantic inflow were assumed to be cooled to 0 °C, before returning to the Atlantic, the Iceland-Faroe inflow carries a heat flux of 124±15 TW (1 TW=10 12 W), which is about the same as the heat carried by the inflow through the Faroe-Shetland Channel. The Iceland-Faroe Atlantic water volume flux was found to have a negligible seasonal variation and to be remarkably stable with no reversals, even on daily time scales. Out of a total of 1348 daily flux estimates, not one was directed westwards towards the Atlantic.

  11. The Iceland-Faroe inflow of Atlantic water to the Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, B.; Osterhus, S.; Hatun, H.

    2003-04-01

    The flow of Atlantic water between Iceland and the Faroe Islands is one of three current branches flowing from the Atlantic into the Nordic Seas across the Greenland-Scotland Ridge. By the heat that it carries along, it keeps the subarctic regions abnormally warm and by its import of salt, it helps maintain a high salinity and hence density in the surface waters as a precondition for thermohaline ventilation. From 1997 to 2001, a number of ADCPs have been moored on a section going north from the Faroes, crossing the inflow. Combining these measurements with decade-long CTD observations from research vessel cruises along this section, we compute the fluxes of water (volume), heat, and salt. For the period June 1997 to June 2001, we found the average volume flux of Atlantic water to be 3.5 ± 0.5 Sv (1 Sv = 10^6 m^3 x s-1), which makes this the branch with the largest volume flux according to recent estimates. This water was found to carry a heat flux of 125 ± 15 TW (1 TW = 1012 W), referenced to 0oC and a salt flux of 125 ± 15 kilotonnes per second. The Iceland-Faroe Atlantic water volume flux was found to have a negligible seasonal variation. Budget estimates and simple models indicate that thermohaline ventilation in the Arctic Mediterranean can drive most of the Atlantic inflow to the Nordic Seas and for the Iceland-Faroe branch, at least, the stability of the observed flux verifies that this is indeed the dominant forcing mechanism.

  12. Distribution, structure and function of Nordic eelgrass (Zostera marina) ecosystems: implications for coastal management and conservation

    PubMed Central

    Boström, Christoffer; Baden, Susanne; Bockelmann, Anna-Christina; Dromph, Karsten; Fredriksen, Stein; Gustafsson, Camilla; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Möller, Tiia; Nielsen, Søren Laurentius; Olesen, Birgit; Olsen, Jeanine; Pihl, Leif; Rinde, Eli

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the marine foundation eelgrass species, Zostera marina, along a gradient from the northern Baltic Sea to the north-east Atlantic. This vast region supports a minimum of 1480 km2 eelgrass (maximum >2100 km2), which corresponds to more than four times the previously quantified area of eelgrass in Western Europe.Eelgrass meadows in the low salinity Baltic Sea support the highest diversity (4–6 spp.) of angiosperms overall, but eelgrass productivity is low (<2 g dw m-2 d-1) and meadows are isolated and genetically impoverished. Higher salinity areas support monospecific meadows, with higher productivity (3–10 g dw m-2 d-1) and greater genetic connectivity. The salinity gradient further imposes functional differences in biodiversity and food webs, in particular a decline in number, but increase in biomass of mesograzers in the Baltic.Significant declines in eelgrass depth limits and areal cover are documented, particularly in regions experiencing high human pressure. The failure of eelgrass to re-establish itself in affected areas, despite nutrient reductions and improved water quality, signals complex recovery trajectories and calls for much greater conservation effort to protect existing meadows.The knowledge base for Nordic eelgrass meadows is broad and sufficient to establish monitoring objectives across nine national borders. Nevertheless, ensuring awareness of their vulnerability remains challenging. Given the areal extent of Nordic eelgrass systems and the ecosystem services they provide, it is crucial to further develop incentives for protecting them. © 2014 The Authors. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26167100

  13. Multilocus Sequence Typing Identifies Epidemic Clones of Flavobacterium psychrophilum in Nordic Countries

    PubMed Central

    Duchaud, Eric; Nicolas, Pierre; Dalsgaard, Inger; Madsen, Lone; Aspán, Anna; Jansson, Eva; Colquhoun, Duncan J.; Wiklund, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the causative agent of bacterial cold water disease (BCWD), which affects a variety of freshwater-reared salmonid species. A large-scale study was performed to investigate the genetic diversity of F. psychrophilum in the four Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Multilocus sequence typing of 560 geographically and temporally disparate F. psychrophilum isolates collected from various sources between 1983 and 2012 revealed 81 different sequence types (STs) belonging to 12 clonal complexes (CCs) and 30 singleton STs. The largest CC, CC-ST10, which represented almost exclusively isolates from rainbow trout and included the most predominant genotype, ST2, comprised 65% of all isolates examined. In Norway, with a shorter history (<10 years) of BCWD in rainbow trout, ST2 was the only isolated CC-ST10 genotype, suggesting a recent introduction of an epidemic clone. The study identified five additional CCs shared between countries and five country-specific CCs, some with apparent host specificity. Almost 80% of the singleton STs were isolated from non-rainbow trout species or the environment. The present study reveals a simultaneous presence of genetically distinct CCs in the Nordic countries and points out specific F. psychrophilum STs posing a threat to the salmonid production. The study provides a significant contribution toward mapping the genetic diversity of F. psychrophilum globally and support for the existence of an epidemic population structure where recombination is a significant driver in F. psychrophilum evolution. Evidence indicating dissemination of a putatively virulent clonal complex (CC-ST10) with commercial movement of fish or fish products is strengthened. PMID:24561585

  14. Distribution, structure and function of Nordic eelgrass (Zostera marina) ecosystems: implications for coastal management and conservation.

    PubMed

    Boström, Christoffer; Baden, Susanne; Bockelmann, Anna-Christina; Dromph, Karsten; Fredriksen, Stein; Gustafsson, Camilla; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Möller, Tiia; Nielsen, Søren Laurentius; Olesen, Birgit; Olsen, Jeanine; Pihl, Leif; Rinde, Eli

    2014-06-01

    This paper focuses on the marine foundation eelgrass species, Zostera marina, along a gradient from the northern Baltic Sea to the north-east Atlantic. This vast region supports a minimum of 1480 km(2) eelgrass (maximum >2100 km(2)), which corresponds to more than four times the previously quantified area of eelgrass in Western Europe.Eelgrass meadows in the low salinity Baltic Sea support the highest diversity (4-6 spp.) of angiosperms overall, but eelgrass productivity is low (<2 g dw m(-2) d(-1)) and meadows are isolated and genetically impoverished. Higher salinity areas support monospecific meadows, with higher productivity (3-10 g dw m(-2) d(-1)) and greater genetic connectivity. The salinity gradient further imposes functional differences in biodiversity and food webs, in particular a decline in number, but increase in biomass of mesograzers in the Baltic.Significant declines in eelgrass depth limits and areal cover are documented, particularly in regions experiencing high human pressure. The failure of eelgrass to re-establish itself in affected areas, despite nutrient reductions and improved water quality, signals complex recovery trajectories and calls for much greater conservation effort to protect existing meadows.The knowledge base for Nordic eelgrass meadows is broad and sufficient to establish monitoring objectives across nine national borders. Nevertheless, ensuring awareness of their vulnerability remains challenging. Given the areal extent of Nordic eelgrass systems and the ecosystem services they provide, it is crucial to further develop incentives for protecting them. © 2014 The Authors. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Characteristics of the Nordic Seas overflows in a set of Norwegian Earth System Model experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Chuncheng; Ilicak, Mehmet; Bentsen, Mats; Fer, Ilker

    2016-08-01

    Global ocean models with an isopycnic vertical coordinate are advantageous in representing overflows, as they do not suffer from topography-induced spurious numerical mixing commonly seen in geopotential coordinate models. In this paper, we present a quantitative diagnosis of the Nordic Seas overflows in four configurations of the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM) family that features an isopycnic ocean model. For intercomparison, two coupled ocean-sea ice and two fully coupled (atmosphere-land-ocean-sea ice) experiments are considered. Each pair consists of a (non-eddying) 1° and a (eddy-permitting) 1/4° horizontal resolution ocean model. In all experiments, overflow waters remain dense and descend to the deep basins, entraining ambient water en route. Results from the 1/4° pair show similar behavior in the overflows, whereas the 1° pair show distinct differences, including temperature/salinity properties, volume transport (Q), and large scale features such as the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). The volume transport of the overflows and degree of entrainment are underestimated in the 1° experiments, whereas in the 1/4° experiments, there is a two-fold downstream increase in Q, which matches observations well. In contrast to the 1/4° experiments, the coarse 1° experiments do not capture the inclined isopycnals of the overflows or the western boundary current off the Flemish Cap. In all experiments, the pathway of the Iceland-Scotland Overflow Water is misrepresented: a major fraction of the overflow proceeds southward into the West European Basin, instead of turning westward into the Irminger Sea. This discrepancy is attributed to excessive production of Labrador Sea Water in the model. The mean state and variability of the Nordic Seas overflows have significant consequences on the response of the AMOC, hence their correct representations are of vital importance in global ocean and climate modelling.

  16. Benthic foraminiferal δ18O-Mg/Ca from the SE Nordic seas during the last 65 kyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezat, M.; Rasmussen, T. L.; Groeneveld, J.

    2013-12-01

    Benthic foraminiferal δ18O-Mg/Ca from the SE Nordic seas during the last 65 kyr Mohamed M. Ezat1,2*, Tine L. Rasmussen1, Jeroen Groeneveld3 1 CAGE - Centre for Arctic Gas Hydrate, Environment and Climate, and Department of Geology, University of Tromsø, NO-9037 Tromsø, Norway. 2 Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt. 3 Department of Geosciences, University of Bremen, Klagenfurter Strasse, 28359, Bremen, Germany. * e-mail: mohamed.ezat@uit.no The climate during the last glacial period underwent rapid millennial-scale variability known as Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events of warm interstadials and cold stadials. DO events are manifested in marine and continental records in the circum-North Atlantic region and throughout the globe. Several studies suggest a crucial role of the Nordic seas in regulating the climate during the last glacial period. Previous studies from the Nordic seas revealed low benthic δ18O values during stadials and high values during interstadials. The causes of the depletions in benthic 18O during stadials are highly debated. Sinking of isotope depleted-brines formed due to sea ice production has previously been proposed. Another explanation has indicated warming of the intermediate water in the Nordic seas based on the finding of warm water benthic foraminiferal species during stadials. Here we present the first benthic foraminiferal Mg/Ca-based bottom water temperature (BWT) record from the Nordic seas that, along with other proxies, aims to resolve the hydrographic changes at intermediate water depth on DO timescale during the last 65 kyr. The results show pronounced and gradual BWT increases during all cold stadials followed by an abrupt drop to modern-like BWT at interstadials onsets. The increase in BWT, caused by the subsurface inflow of warm Atlantic intermediate water, substantially contributed to the halocline collapse and onset of interstadial conditions throughout complex ocean-sea ice

  17. The National Resource Library for Science and Technology in Sweden: A Nordic model of cooperating technology libraries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagar, Gunnar

    1994-01-01

    The scope of this presentation is to give a state-of-the-art report on the present situation of Nordic technology libraries, to elaborate on a plan for national resource libraries in Sweden, and to share how the Royal Institute of Technology Library in Stockholm (KTHB) has fostered a network of cooperating libraries in order to optimize government funding for the system of resource libraries.

  18. Adherence to the Baltic Sea diet consumed in the Nordic countries is associated with lower abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Kanerva, Noora; Kaartinen, Niina E; Schwab, Ursula; Lahti-Koski, Marjaana; Männistö, Satu

    2013-02-14

    Due to differences in food cultures, dietary quality measures, such as the Mediterranean Diet Score, may not be easily adopted by other countries. Recently, the Baltic Sea Diet Pyramid was developed to illustrate healthy choices for the diet consumed in the Nordic countries. We assessed whether the Baltic Sea Diet Score (BSDS) based on the Pyramid is associated with a decreased risk of obesity and abdominal obesity. The population-based cross-sectional study included 4720 Finns (25-74 years) from the National FINRISK 2007 study. Diet was assessed using a validated FFQ. The score included Nordic fruits and berries, vegetables, cereals, ratio of PUFA:SFA and trans-fatty acids, low-fat milk, fish, red and processed meat, total fat (percentage of energy), and alcohol. Height, weight and waist circumference (WC) were measured and BMI values were calculated. In a multivariable model, men in the highest v. lowest BSDS quintile were more likely to have normal WC (OR 0·48, 95 % CI 0·29, 0·80). In women, this association was similar but not significant (OR 0·65, 95 % CI 0·39, 1·09). The association appeared to be stronger in younger age groups (men: OR 0·23, 95 % CI 0·08, 0·62; women: OR 0·17, 95 % CI 0·05, 0·58) compared with older age groups. Nordic cereals and alcohol were found to be the most important BSDS components related to WC. No association was observed between the BSDS and BMI. The present study suggests that combination of Nordic foods, especially cereals and moderate alcohol consumption, is likely to be inversely associated with abdominal obesity.

  19. Proceedings of 16th Nordic Semiconductor Meeting Held in Laugarvatn, Iceland on 12-15 June 1994

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-10

    46 Multichamber processor for small semiconductor laboratories - the first results. R. Punkkinen, H. Ihantola, K...meetings in the field. First , it has the purpose of promoting Nordic cooperation in the international field of semiconductor physics. Research in the fields...Meeting is often the first conference of international character that graduate stu- dents attend in order to present a paper of poster. Third, there is

  20. Acute effects of walking with Nordic poles in persons with mild to moderate low-back pain

    PubMed Central

    REVORD, LANDON P; LOMOND, KAREN V; LOUBERT, PETER V; HAMMER, ROGER L

    2016-01-01

    Regular walking with or without Nordic poles is effective over time at reducing discomfort in individuals with chronic low back pain (LBP). Nordic pole use increases balance and stability, distributes weight through the arms and torso, and decreases loading of the spine and lower limbs. The purpose of this study was to determine if Nordic poles would reduce perceived acute discomfort while self-paced walking in individuals with LBP. We also examined whether walking with or without poles increased heart rate (HR) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) or speed of movement. Subjects included 20 adults (12 males, 8 females; mean age of 45.1±16.3) who were experiencing LBP of at least six months’ duration (Oswestry Disability Index (ODI): mean 17 ± 8%, range 6–36% indicating minimal to moderate disability) with no current active flare-up. Participants walked a predetermined dirt-path course (805 m or 0.5 mi) with and without poles in randomized order. Data were analyzed using a 2 X 2 repeated measures ANOVA (Condition X Time), where Condition was poles vs no poles and Time was pre- and post-walk. HR and RPE increased significantly from walking the course, whereas pain did not change. There were also no differences between walking with or without poles for pain (ODI Sec #1: 0.2 points, p=0.324), HR (4 bpm, p=0.522) and RPE (0 points, p=0.759). The mean course time (sec) was slower with poles: 617±87 vs 566±65 (p<0.001). Unexpectedly, there was a noticeable drop in pain following the warm up which was done using poles (0.9 points, p<0.001). Nordic pole use is well tolerated in those with current back pain and can be encouraged, however it cannot be recommended as a superior method of addressing acute symptoms when walking. PMID:27990219

  1. Regulation of amino acid metabolism as a defensive strategy in the brain of three freshwater teleosts in response to high environmental ammonia exposure.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Amit Kumar; Giblen, Terri; AbdElgawad, Hamada; De Rop, Michelle; Asard, Han; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2013-04-15

    Many teleosts have evolved mechanisms to cope with ammonia toxicity in the brain when confronted with high environmental ammonia (HEA). In the present study, the possible role of conversion of accumulated ammonia to glutamine and other free amino acids in the brain of three freshwater teleosts differing in their sensitivities to ammonia was investigated. The detoxification mode of ammonia in brain is suggested to be through amination of glutamate to glutamine by the coupled activities of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), transaminase (aspartate aminotransaminase 'AST' and alanine aminotransaminase 'ALT') and glutamine synthetase (GSase). We investigated the metabolic response of amino acids in the brain of highly sensitive salmonid Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout), the less sensitive cyprinid Cyprinus carpio (common carp) and the highly resistant cyprinid Carassius auratus (goldfish) when exposed to 1mM ammonia (as NH4HCO3; pH 7.9) for 0 h (control), 3 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 84 h and 180 h. Results show that HEA exposure increased ammonia accumulation significantly in the brain of all the three species from 12h onwards. Unlike in trout, ammonia accumulation in carp and goldfish was restored to control levels (48-84h); which was accompanied with a significant increase in glutamine content as well as GSase activity. In trout, glutamine levels also increased (84-180 h) but GSase was not activated. The elevated glutamine level in trout was accompanied by a significant depletion of the glutamate pool in contrast to the stable glutamate levels seen in carp and goldfish. This suggests a simultaneous increase in the rate of glutamate formation to match with the demand of glutamine formation in cyprinids. The activity of GDH was elevated significantly in carp and goldfish but remained unaltered in trout. Also, the transaminase enzymes (AST and ALT) were elevated significantly in exposed carp and goldfish while only ALT was up-regulated in trout. Consequently, in carp and

  2. Deglacial subsurface injections of Atlantic water into the Nordic Seas and its effect on interglacial climate development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauch, H. A.

    2012-04-01

    Using multi-proxy sediment records from two distant sites in the North Atlantic and the Nordic Seas, surface and bottom water changes were investigated over the past 135 ka with special emphasis on the last and present interglacial (Eemian and Holocene). The two interglacials exhibit a very similar developing structure during each preceding deglaciation (TI and TII) in the Nordic Seas by showing a pronounced cold-warm-cold variability. Like TI, also TII experienced a Younger-Dryas-like cold reversal (YDII), a preceding Bølling/Allerød-like (B/AII) and a H-event (H11). But unlike TI, the cold events during TII were associated with intermittent invasions of an Atlantic faunal component (Beella megastoma) which underscores a northward penetration of mid-latitude waters at the subsurface leaving a vertical water mass structure in the North which differed from that of TI. Very likely, this difference also affected the subsequent oceanic development because the main interglacials that followed not only reveal a regional antiphase, intra-interglacial behavior of peak ocean warmth between each other, they also verify strong contrasts in surface ocean hydrography. Moreover, colder Eemian than Holocene temperatures are noted in the Nordic Seas, and vice versa in the North Atlantic. A reduced intensity of Atlantic ocean heat transfer to the Arctic is therefore inferred for the Eemian, thus arguing for a reassessment of current Arctic paleoclimate models and a better reconciliation with empirical field data.

  3. Effects of Nordic walking on pelvis motion and muscle activities around the hip joints of adults with hip osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Homma, Daisuke; Jigami, Hirofumi; Sato, Naritoshi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Increased compensatory pelvic movement is remarkable in limping patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA). However, a method of improving limping has not been established. The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of two types of Nordic walking by analyzing the pelvic movement and muscle activities of adults with hip OA. [Subjects and Methods] Ten patients with OA of the hip performed Japanese-style Nordic walking (JS NW), European-style Nordic walking (ES NW), and Ordinary walking (OW), and the muscle activities around the hip joint and pelvic movements were analyzed. [Results] The pelvic rotation angle was significantly larger in ES NW than in JS NW. In the stance phase, hip abductor muscle activity was significantly decreased in JS NW compared to both OW and ES NW. In the swing phase, rectus abdominis muscle activity was significantly increased in both JS NW and ES NW compared to OW and lumbar erector spinae activity was significantly lower in JS NW than in OW. [Conclusion] JS NW style may reduce the compensatory pelvic rotation in patients with hip OA. JS NW might be better for joint protection and prevention of secondary disorders of the hip in OA patients. PMID:27190455

  4. Restrictions in Mg/Ca-Paleotemperature Estimations in High-Latitude Bottom Waters: Evidence from the Fram Strait and the Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, K.; Marchitto, T. M., Jr.; Not, C.; Spielhagen, R. F.; Husum, K.

    2014-12-01

    Mg to Ca ratios of the benthic foraminifer species Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi provide a great potential for reconstructing bottom water temperatures, especially from the lower end of the temperature range between 0 and 6°C (Tisserand et al., 2013). A set of core top samples from the Fram Strait and the Norwegian margin have been studied for Mg/Ca ratios in C. wuellerstorfi in order to establish a calibration relationship to the environmental conditions. In this part of the northern North Atlantic the bottom water temperature range between -0.5 and -1°C. For the calibration to modern water mass conditions, modern oceanographic data from both existing conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) casts and the World Ocean Data Base 2013 (Boyer et al., 2013) have been used. Benthic Mg/Ca ratios are relatively high suggesting a preference of C. wuellerstorfi to incorporate Mg below 0°C. Although no correlation has been found to existing temperature calibrations, the data are in line with earlier Mg/Ca data from C. wuellerstorfi in the area (Martin et al., 2002; Elderfield et al., 2006). The carbonate ion effect is most likely a main cause for the relatively high Mg/Ca ratios found in core top samples from the Fram Strait and the Nordic Seas, however, other factors may influence the values as well. Holocene records of benthic trace metal/Ca ratios from the eastern Fram Strait display trends similar to those found in other proxy indicators, despite the difficulties to constrain a temperature calibration for this low temperature range. In particular, the benthic B/Ca and Li/Ca records resemble trends in Holocene planktic foraminifer assemblages, suggesting to be influenced by environmental factors such as the carbonate ion effect consistent for the entire water column.

  5. National Environmental Research Parks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The National Environmental Research Parks are outdoor laboratories that provide opportunities for environmental studies on protected lands that act as buffers around Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The research parks are used to evaluate the environmental consequences of energy use and development as well as the strategies to mitigate these effects. They are also used to demonstrate possible environmental and land-use options. The seven parks are: Fermilab National Environmental Research Park; Hanford National Environmental Research Park; Idaho National Environmental Research Park; Los Alamos National Environmental Research Park; Nevada National Environmental Research Park; Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park; and Savannah River National Environmental Research Park. This document gives an overview of the events that led to the creation of the research parks. Its main purpose is to summarize key points about each park, including ecological research, geological characteristics, facilities, and available databases.

  6. Contribution of the Nordic School of Public Health to the public mental health research field: a selection of research initiatives, 2007-2014.

    PubMed

    Forsman, Anna K; Fredén, Lars; Lindqvist, Rafael; Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2015-08-01

    The field of public mental health has been defined by an expert group convened by the Nordic School of Public Health (NHV) as encompassing the experience, occurrence, distribution and trajectories of positive mental health and mental health problems and their determinants; mental health promotion and prevention of mental disorders; as well as mental health system policies, governance and organization. The mental health priorities of the Nordic Council of Ministers in 2010 signalled a mutual Nordic exchange of knowledge in the following thematic areas: child and adolescent mental health; working life and mental health; mental health in older people; strengthening the role of primary care in mental health service provision; stronger involvement of users and carers; and reduction of use of coercion in psychiatric care. Efforts to realize these priorities included commissioning the Nordic Research Academy for Mental Health, an NHV-based network of research institutions with a common interest in mental health research across the Nordic countries, to develop, organize and follow-up projects on public mental health. The research initiatives included mental health policy analysis, register-based research and research focused on the users' perspective in a Nordic context, as well as EU-level research policy analysis. The public mental health research conducted at the NHV highlighted the complexity of mental health and emphasized that the broad determinants of mental health need to be increasingly addressed in both public health research and practice. For example, health promotion actions, improved access to health care, a healthy alcohol policy and prevention of suicides and violence are all needed to reduce the life expectancy gap - a red flag indicator of public health inequalities. By exchanging knowledge and best practice, the collaboration between the Nordic countries contributes to the welfare of the region. The expertise and traditions developed at the NHV are of

  7. Vinflunine treatment in patients with metastatic urothelial cancer: A Nordic retrospective multicenter analysis

    PubMed Central

    Holmsten, Karin; Dohn, Line; Jensen, Niels Viggo; Shah, Carl-Henrik; Jäderling, Fredrik; Pappot, Helle; Ullén, Anders

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, vinflunine was introduced as a second-line treatment to be used after the failure of platinum therapy in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC). The present study investigated the administered vinflunine to patients with mUC in standard clinical practice with the aim of evaluating treatment patterns, response, survival parameters and side-effects. Data were collected retrospectively from the first 100 mUC patients treated with vinflunine at three Nordic cancer centers associated with the Nordic Urothelial Cancer Oncology Group. The overall response rate was 23% and complete response was observed in one patient. The median progression-free survival (mPFS) and median overall survival (mOS) were 2.8 (range, 0.5–34.3) and 6.3 (range, 0.3–39.7) months, respectively. An Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) of 2 was present in 20% of the patients, and those patients exhibited significantly shorter mOS (4.1 vs. 7.0 months, P=0.001) and a significantly higher degree of grade 3/4 toxicity (P=0.026) compared with ECOG PS 0–1 patients. Furthermore, patients without visceral metastases had significantly longer mOS than patients with visceral metastases (10.6 vs. 6.0 months, P=0.008). The median number of cycles of vinflunine was 3 (range, 1–28). The current data confirms that vinflunine is an active agent for second-line treatment in an unselected clinical cohort of patients with mUC. ECOG PS and presence of visceral metastases were significant prognostic parameters. In particular, patients with ECOG PS 2 receiving vinflunine had a shorter mOS and a higher frequency of severe toxicity, and, thus, should be treated with caution. Furthermore, the present study observed large inter-individual differences in radiological response and OS, indicating the need for further development of improved patient selection tools to optimize vinflunine treatment in platinum-refractory mUC patients. PMID:27446429

  8. Full journal publication of abstracts presented at the Nordic Congress of General Practice in 2009 and 2011

    PubMed Central

    Waldorff, Frans Boch; Petersen, Kristine; Vinther, Siri; Sandholdt, Håkon; Siersma, Volkert; Andersen, John Sahl

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine the overall publication rates for abstracts presented at two consecutive Nordic Congresses of General Practice and to evaluate determinants for these publication rates. Design Prospective study. Setting MEDLINE (PubMed) and Google Scholar were searched for relevant publications from 1 January 2009 up until 31 August 2014. Methods Abstracts accepted for oral or poster presentation were identified from the original congress booklets from the Nordic Congresses of General Practice in 2009 and 2011. Based on PubMed and Google Scholar searches, we subsequently identified full journal publications within a 36-month follow-up from both congresses. In cases of doubt, the first author was contacted directly. Main outcome measures Full journal publication within 36 months after the congress. Results A total of 200 abstracts were analyzed. Of these, 85 (42.5%) were identified with a full publication within 36 months after the congress. More abstracts from the 2011 congress were published compared to the 2009 congress odds ratio (OR) 1.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.10; 3.50). Abstracts accepted for oral presentation were more often published OR 1.94, 95% CI (1.08; 3.50) than accepted poster abstracts. In the multivariate analysis, a university affiliation for both first and last author increased the probability for publication OR 4.23, 95% CI (1.71; 10.42), as well as more than two authors. An optimal number, based on the highest OR, seems to be 3–4 authors with OR 2.43, 95% CI (1.07; 5.54). Qualitative studies were published at the same frequency as quantitative studies OR 1.36, 95% CI (0.57; 3.24). Conclusion Less than half of the abstracts accepted for oral or poster presentation at two consecutive Nordic Congresses of General Practice were published as full text articles within 36 months. Key points Congress abstracts accepted for Nordic Congress of General Practice are not indexed in international search databases. Less than half of the

  9. WASTE RESEARCH STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Waste Research Strategy covers research necessary to support both the proper management of solid and hazardous wastes and the effective remediation of contaminated waste sites. This research includes improving the assessment of existing environmental risks, as well as develop...

  10. Adherence to a healthy Nordic food index is associated with a lower incidence of colorectal cancer in women: the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kyrø, Cecilie; Skeie, Guri; Loft, Steffen; Overvad, Kim; Christensen, Jane; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja

    2013-03-14

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a multi-factorial disease in which diet is believed to play a role. Little is known about the health effects of specific regional diets. The Nordic diet is high in fat and sugar but also includes a range of traditional products with anticipated health-promoting effects. The aim of this cohort study was to determine whether a healthy Nordic food index consisting of fish, cabbage, rye bread, oatmeal, apples, pears and root vegetables was related to CRC incidence. Data were obtained from a prospective cohort study of 57,053 Danish men and women aged 50-64 years, of whom 1025 developed CRC (13 years' follow-up). Incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95 % CI were calculated from Cox proportional hazard models. Women who strongly adhered to a healthy Nordic food index had a 35 % lower incidence of CRC than women with poor adherence (adjusted IRR, 0·65; 95 % CI 0·46, 0·94); a similar tendency was found for men. Women had a 9 % lower incidence of CRC per point adherence to the healthy Nordic food index, but no significant effect was found for men. A regional diet based on healthy Nordic food items was therefore associated with a lower incidence of CRC in women. The protective effect was of the same magnitude as previously found for the Mediterranean diet, suggesting that healthy regional diets should be promoted in order to ensure health; this will also preserve cultural heredity and the environment.

  11. Time-resolved Polarimetry of the Superluminous SN 2015bn with the Nordic Optical Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leloudas, Giorgos; Maund, Justyn R.; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Pursimo, Tapio; Hsiao, Eric; Malesani, Daniele; Patat, Ferdinando; de Ugarte Postigo, Antonio; Sollerman, Jesper; Stritzinger, Maximilian D.; Wheeler, J. Craig

    2017-03-01

    We present imaging polarimetry of the superluminous supernova SN 2015bn, obtained over nine epochs between ‑20 and +46 days with the Nordic Optical Telescope. This was a nearby, slowly evolving Type I superluminous supernova that has been studied extensively and for which two epochs of spectropolarimetry are also available. Based on field stars, we determine the interstellar polarization in the Galaxy to be negligible. The polarization of SN 2015bn shows a statistically significant increase during the last epochs, confirming previous findings. Our well-sampled imaging polarimetry series allows us to determine that this increase (from ∼0.54% to ≳1.10%) coincides in time with rapid changes that took place in the optical spectrum. We conclude that the supernova underwent a “phase transition” at around +20 days, when the photospheric emission shifted from an outer layer, dominated by natal C and O, to a more aspherical inner core, dominated by freshly nucleosynthesized material. This two-layered model might account for the characteristic appearance and properties of Type I superluminous supernovae.

  12. Active Commuting Behaviors in a Nordic Metropolitan Setting in Relation to Modality, Gender, and Health Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Stigell, Erik; Schantz, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Active commuting between home and place of work or study is often cited as an interesting source of physical activity in a public health perspective. However, knowledge about these behaviors is meager. This was therefore studied in adult active commuters (n = 1872) in Greater Stockholm, Sweden, a Nordic metropolitan setting. They received questionnaires and individually adjusted maps to draw their normal commuting route. Three different modality groups were identified in men and women: single-mode cyclists and pedestrians (those who only cycle or walk, respectively) and dual-mode commuters (those who alternately walk or cycle). Some gender differences were observed in trip distances, frequencies, and velocities. A large majority of the commuting trip durations met the minimum health recommendation of at least 10-minute-long activity bouts. The median single-mode pedestrians and dual-mode commuters met or were close to the recommended weekly physical activity levels of at least 150 minutes most of the year, whereas the single-mode cyclists did so only during spring–mid-fall. A high total number of trips per year (range of medians: 231–389) adds to the value in a health perspective. To fully grasp active commuting behaviors in future studies, both walking and cycling should be assessed over different seasons and ideally over the whole year. PMID:26690193

  13. Characterization of Light Non-Methane Hydrocarbons, Surface Water DOC, and Aerosols over the Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, E. D.; Ariya, P. A.

    2006-12-01

    Whole air, size-fractionated marine aerosols, and surface ocean water DOC were sampled together during June-July 2004 on the Nordic seas, in order to explore factors leading to the formation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at the sea surface and their transfer to the atmosphere. High site-to-site variability in 19 non-methane hydrocarbon concentrations suggests highly variable, local sources for these compounds. Acetone, C5 and C6 hydrocarbons, and dimethylsulfide were identified in the seawater samples using solid-phase microextraction/GC-MS. The aerosols were analysed by SEM-EDX and contained primarily inorganic material (sea salt, marine sulfates, and carbonates) and little organic matter. However, a culturable bacterium was isolated from the large (9.9 - 18 μ m) fraction at one site, and identified as Micrococcus luteus. We will discuss the implication of these results on potential exchange processes at the ocean-atmosphere interface and the impact of bioaerosols in transferring marine organic carbon to atmospheric organic carbon.

  14. What Do IT-People Know about the Nordic History of Computers and User Interfaces?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    This paper reports a preliminary, empirical exploration of what IT-people know about the history of computers and user interfaces. The principal motivation for the study is that the younger generations such as students in IT seem to know very little about these topics. The study employed a free association method administered as email. Eight students and four researchers participated, between 26-34 and 48-64 years of age, respectively. Responses totaled 222 and we analyzed and categorized them. First, the Nordic touch was extremely limited. Secondly, the knowledge of both students and researchers seems heavily based on personal experience so that the researchers know much more about the earlier days of computing and interfaces. Thirdly, there is a tendency amongst the students to conceptualize the history of computers in interface features and concepts. Hence, the interface seems to become the designation or even the icon for the computer. In other words, one of the key focal points in the area of human-computer interaction: to makethe computer as suchinvisible seems to have been successful.

  15. Cancer prevalence in United States, Nordic Countries, Italy, Australia, and France: an analysis of geographic variability

    PubMed Central

    Crocetti, E; De Angelis, R; Buzzoni, C; Mariotto, A; Storm, H; Colonna, M; Zanetti, R; Serraino, D; Michiara, M; Cirilli, C; Iannelli, A; Mazzoleni, G; Sechi, O; Sanoja Gonzalez, M E; Guzzinati, S; Capocaccia, R; Dal Maso, L

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objectives of this study were to quantitatively assess the geographic heterogeneity of cancer prevalence in selected Western Countries and to explore the associations between its determinants. Methods: For 20 cancer sites, 5-year cancer prevalence, incidence, and survival were observed and age standardised for the mid 2000s in the United States, Nordic European Countries, Italy, Australia, and France. Results: In Italy, 5-year crude prevalence for all cancers was 1.9% in men and 1.7% in women, while it was ∼1.5% in all other countries and sexes. After adjustment for the different age distribution of the populations, cancer prevalence in the United States was higher (20% in men and 10% in women) than elsewhere. For all cancers combined, the geographic heterogeneities were limited, though relevant for specific cancers (e.g., prostate, showing >30% higher prevalence in the United States, or lung, showing >50% higher prevalence in USA women than in other countries). For all countries, the correlations between differences of prevalence and differences of incidence were >0.9, while prevalence and survival were less consistently correlated. Conclusion: Geographic differences and magnitude of crude cancer prevalence were more strongly associated with incidence rates, influenced by population ageing, than with survival rates. These estimates will be helpful in allocating appropriate resources. PMID:23799856

  16. Effects of Nordic walking training on functional parameters in Parkinson's disease: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, E P; Franzoni, L T; Cubillos, D M; de Oliveira Fagundes, A; Carvalho, A R; Oliveira, H B; Pantoja, P D; Schuch, F B; Rieder, C R; Martinez, F G; Peyré-Tartaruga, L A

    2017-03-01

    We compare the effects of Nordic walking training (NW) and Free walk (FW) on functional parameters (motor symptoms, balance) and functional mobility (Timed Up and Go at Self-selected Speed - TUGSS, and at forced speed, TUGFS; Self-selected Walking Speed, SSW; locomotor rehabilitation index, LRI) of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. The study included 33 patients with clinical diagnosis of idiopathic PD, and staging between 1 and 4 in the Hoehn and Yahr scale (H&Y) randomized into two groups: NW (N = 16) and FW (N = 17) for 6 weeks. Baseline characteristics were compared trough a one-way ANOVA. Outcomes were analyzed using the Generalized Estimation Equations (GEE) with a Bonferroni post-hoc. Data were analyzed using SPSS v.20.0. Improvements in UPDRS III (P < 0.001), balance scores (P < 0.035), TUGSS distance (P < 0.001), TUGFS distance (P < 0.001), SSW (P < 0.001), and LRI (P < 0.001) were found for both groups. However, the NW group showed significant differences (P < 0.001) when compared to the FW group for the functional mobility. We conclude the NW improves functional parameters and walking mobility demonstrating that NW is as effective as the FW, including benefits for FW on the functional mobility of people with PD.

  17. Approaches for integrated assessment of ecological and eutrophication status of surface waters in Nordic Countries.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Jesper H; Aroviita, Jukka; Carstensen, Jacob; Friberg, Nikolai; Johnson, Richard K; Kauppila, Pirkko; Lindegarth, Mats; Murray, Ciarán; Norling, Karl

    2016-10-01

    We review approaches and tools currently used in Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden) for integrated assessment of 'ecological status' sensu the EU Water Framework Directive as well as assessment of 'eutrophication status' in coastal and marine waters. Integration principles for combining indicators within biological quality elements (BQEs) and combining BQEs into a final-integrated assessment are discussed. Specific focus has been put on combining different types of information into indices, since several methods are currently employed. As a consequence of the variety of methods used, comparisons across both BQEs and water categories (river, lakes and coastal waters) can be difficult. Based on our analyses, we conclude that some principles and methods for integration can be critical and that a harmonised approach should be developed. Further, we conclude that the integration principles applied within BQEs are critical and in need of harmonisation if we want a better understanding of potential transition in ecological status between surface water types, e.g. when riverine water enters a downstream lake or coastal water body.

  18. A Bayesian analysis of trends in ozone sounding data series from 9 Nordic stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Bo; Jepsen, Nis; Larsen, Niels; Korsholm, Ulrik S.

    2016-04-01

    Ozone soundings from 9 Nordic stations have been homogenized and interpolated to standard pressure levels. The different stations have very different data coverage; the longest period with data is from the end of the 1980ies to 2013. We apply a model which includes both low-frequency variability in form of a polynomial, an annual cycle with harmonics, the possibility for low-frequency variability in the annual amplitude and phasing, and either white noise or AR1 noise. The fitting of the parameters is performed with a Bayesian approach not only giving the posterior mean values but also credible intervals. We find that all stations agree on an well-defined annual cycle in the free troposphere with a relatively confined maximum in the early summer. Regarding the low-frequency variability we find that Scoresbysund, Ny Aalesund, and Sodankyla show similar structures with a maximum near 2005 followed by a decrease. However, these results are only weakly significant. A significant change in the amplitude of the annual cycle was only found for Ny Aalesund. Here the peak-to-peak amplitude changes from 0.9 to 0.8 mhPa between 1995-2000 and 2007-2012. The results are shown to be robust to the different settings of the model parameters (order of the polynomial, number of harmonics in the annual cycle, type of noise, etc). The results are also shown to be characteristic for all pressure levels in the free troposphere.

  19. Growing seasons of Nordic mountain birch in northernmost Europe as indicated by long-term field studies and analyses of satellite images.

    PubMed

    Shutova, E; Wielgolaski, F E; Karlsen, S R; Makarova, O; Berlina, N; Filimonova, T; Haraldsson, E; Aspholm, P E; Flø, L; Høgda, K A

    2006-11-01

    The phenophases first greening (bud burst) and yellowing of Nordic mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp.tortuosa, also called B. p. ssp. czerepanovii) were observed at three sites on the Kola Peninsula in northernmost Europe during the period 1964-2003, and at two sites in the trans-boundary Pasvik-Enare region during 1994-2003. The field observations were compared with satellite images based on the GIMMS-NDVI dataset covering 1982-2002 at the start and end of the growing season. A trend for a delay of first greening was observed at only one of the sites (Kandalaksha) over the 40 year period. This fits well with the delayed onset of the growing season for that site based on satellite images. No significant changes in time of greening at the other sites were found with either field observations or satellite analyses throughout the study period. These results differ from the earlier spring generally observed in other parts of Europe in recent decades. In the coldest regions of Europe, e.g. in northern high mountains and the northernmost continental areas, increased precipitation associated with the generally positive North Atlantic Oscillation in the last few decades has often fallen as snow. Increased snow may delay the time of onset of the growing season, although increased temperature generally causes earlier spring phenophases. Autumn yellowing of birch leaves tends towards an earlier date at all sites. Due to both later birch greening and earlier yellowing at the Kandalaksha site, the growing season there has also become significantly shorter during the years observed. The sites showing the most advanced yellowing in the field throughout the study period fit well with areas showing an earlier end of the growing season from satellite images covering 1982-2002. The earlier yellowing is highly correlated with a trend at the sites in autumn for earlier decreasing air temperature over the study period, indicating that this environmental factor is important also for

  20. Radioactive Waste in the Nordic and Far East Seas; a Soviet Legacy with International Environmental and National Security Repercussions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    content of caesium-137 radionucleides did not exceed their natural levels. 69 14 However, researchers were not allowed to get closer than 30 miles to...was dependent on the specific radionucleides . Plutonium adheres to the ocean sediment, and is only accessible to benthic marine organisms; strontium...90 is highly mobile, and would be available to plankton and salmon. Radionucleides are subject to the ocean dilution factor and natural decay over

  1. Trends in Food Habits and Their Relation to Socioeconomic Status among Nordic Adolescents 2001/2002-2009/2010

    PubMed Central

    Fismen, Anne-Siri; Smith, Otto Robert Frans; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Rasmussen, Mette; Pedersen Pagh, Trine; Augustine, Lilly; Ojala, Kristiina; Samdal, Oddrun

    2016-01-01

    Background In the Nordic countries, substantial policy and intervention efforts have been made to increase adolescents' consumption of fruit and vegetables and to reduce their intake of sweets and soft drinks. Some initiatives have been formulated in a Nordic collaboration and implemented at national level. In recent years, social inequalities in food habits have been attracted particular governmental interest and several initiatives addressing the socioeconomic gradient in food habits have been highlighted. However, few internationally published studies have evaluated how trends in adolescents' food habits develop in the context of Nordic nutrition policy, or have compared differences between the Nordic countries. Methods The study was based on Danish, Finnish, Norwegian and Swedish cross-sectional data from the international Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study, collected via three nationally representative and comparable questionnaire surveys in 2001/2002, 2005/2006 and 2009/2010. Food habits were identified by students' consumption of fruit, vegetables, sweets and sugar sweetened soft drink. Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured with the Family Affluence Scale (FAS). Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the data. Results Trends in fruit consumption developed differently across countries, characterized by an increase in Denmark and Norway and more stable trends in Sweden and Finland. Vegetable consumption increased particularly in Denmark and to a lesser extent in Norway, whereas Sweden and Finland displayed stable trends. Decreased trends were observed for sweet and soft drink consumption and were similar in Norway, Sweden and Finland. Sweet consumption decreased across all survey years, whereas soft drink consumption decreased between 2001/2002–2005/2006 and was stable thereafter. Denmark displayed an increase between 2001/2002–2005/2006 followed by a similar decrease between 2005/2006–2009/2010 for both sweet and soft

  2. Regional Sustainable Environmental Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regional sustainable environmental management is an interdisciplinary effort to develop a sufficient understanding of the interactions between ecosystems, the economy, law, and technology to formulate effective long-term management strategies on a regional scale. Regional sustai...

  3. Changes in the social context and conduct of eating in four Nordic countries between 1997 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Holm, Lotte; Lauridsen, Drude; Lund, Thomas Bøker; Gronow, Jukka; Niva, Mari; Mäkelä, Johanna

    2016-08-01

    How have eating patterns changed in modern life? In public and academic debate concern has been expressed that the social function of eating may be challenged by de-structuration and the dissolution of traditions. We analyzed changes in the social context and conduct of eating in four Nordic countries over the period 1997-2012. We focused on three interlinked processes often claimed to be distinctive of modern eating: delocalization of eating from private households to commercial settings, individualization in the form of more eating alone, and informalization, implying more casual codes of conduct. We based the analysis on data from two surveys conducted in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden in 1997 and 2012. The surveys reported in detail one day of eating in representative samples of adult populations in the four countries (N = 4823 and N = 8242). We compared data regarding where, with whom, and for how long people ate, and whether parallel activities took place while eating. While Nordic people's primary location for eating remained the home and the workplace, the practices of eating in haste, and while watching television increased and using tablets, computers and smartphones while eating was frequent in 2012. Propensity to eat alone increased slightly in Denmark and Norway, and decreased slightly in Sweden. While such practices vary with socio-economic background, regression analysis showed several changes were common across the Nordic populations. However, the new practice of using tablets, computers, and smartphones while eating was strongly associated with young age. Further, each of the practices appeared to be related to different types of meal. We conclude that while the changes in the social organization of eating were not dramatic, signs of individualization and informalization could be detected.

  4. The Effect of Team Training Strategies on Team Mental Model Formation and Team Performance under Routine and Non-Routine Environmental Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Katherine L.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined how the type of training a team receives (team coordination training vs. cross-training) influences the type of team mental model structures that form and how those mental models in turn impact team performance under different environmental condition (routine vs. non-routine). Three-hundred and fifty-two undergraduate…

  5. Environmental distribution and genetic diversity of vegetative compatibility groups determine biocontrol strategies to mitigate aflatoxin contamination of maize by Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize infected by aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus may become contaminated with aflatoxins and as a result, threaten human health, food security, and farmers’ income in developing countries where maize is a staple. Environmental distribution and genetic diversity of A. flavus can influence the...

  6. "You Have to Hunt for the Fruits, the Vegetables": Environmental Barriers and Adaptive Strategies to Acquire Food in a Low-Income African American Neighborhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Odoms-Young, Angela M.; Dallas, Constance; Hardy, Elaine; Watkins, April; Hoskins-Wroten, Jacqueline; Holland, Loys

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study sought to understand food acquisition behaviors and environmental factors that influence those behaviors among women in a low-income African American community with limited food resources. We drew on in-depth interviews with 30 women ages 21 to 45 years recruited from a community health center in Chicago, Illinois. Data were…

  7. Decline of physiologic training effects during the competitive season in members of the U.S. Nordic ski team.

    PubMed

    Hanson, J S

    1975-01-01

    Various physiologic parameters were examined during submaximal and maximal treadmill exercise in nine members of the U.S. Nordic Ski Team prior to and following three months of on-snow ski training. In addition, four of this group were re-tested at the conclusion of the competitive skiing season. Results indicate a perceptible increase in training effect during the fall and early winter before starting on the European race circuit with subsequent decline in this effect as measured in the spring. It is suggested that this latter phenomenon occurs at least in part due to lack of adequate training time during the period of long-distance travel and racing.

  8. Sensitivity of lake ice regimes to climate change in the Nordic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebre, S.; Boissy, T.; Alfredsen, K.

    2014-08-01

    A one-dimensional process-based multi-year lake ice model, MyLake, was used to simulate lake ice phenology and annual maximum lake ice thickness for the Nordic region comprising Fennoscandia and the Baltic countries. The model was first tested and validated using observational meteorological forcing on a candidate lake (Lake Atnsjøen) and using downscaled ERA-40 reanalysis data set. To simulate ice conditions for the contemporary period of 1961-2000, the model was driven by gridded meteorological forcings from ERA-40 global reanalysis data downscaled to a 25 km resolution using the Rossby Centre Regional Climate Model (RCA). The model was then forced with two future climate scenarios from the RCA driven by two different general circulation models (GCMs) based on the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B. The two climate scenarios correspond to two future time periods namely the 2050s (2041-2070) and the 2080s (2071-2100). To take into account the influence of lake morphometry, simulations were carried out for four different hypothetical lake depths (5 m, 10 m, 20 m, 40 m) placed at each of the 3708 grid cells. Based on a comparison of the mean predictions in the future 30-year periods with the control (1961-1990) period, ice cover durations in the region will be shortened by 1 to 11 weeks in 2041-2070, and 3 to 14 weeks in 2071-2100. Annual maximum lake ice thickness, on the other hand, will be reduced by a margin of up to 60 cm by 2041-2070 and up to 70 cm by 2071-2100. The simulated changes in lake ice characteristics revealed that the changes are less dependent on lake depths though there are slight differences. The results of this study provide a regional perspective of anticipated changes in lake ice regimes due to climate warming across the study area by the middle and end of this century.

  9. Nordic Myeloma Study Group, the first 15 years: scientific collaboration and improvement of patient care.

    PubMed

    Hippe, Erik; Westin, Jan; Wislöff, Finn

    2005-03-01

    The accomplishments of the Nordic Myeloma Study Group (NMSG) during its first 15 yr are briefly surveyed, together with a discussion of principles guiding the group's clinical trials and of problems that need to be addressed in coming years. The group has so far carried out 12 clinical trials, comprising more than 2500 patients, spanning from minor phase II to large randomised phase III trials. At the time of writing, two randomised trials are running (comparing two doses of i.v. pamidronate, and melphalan-prednisone (MP) vs. MP-thalidomide to elderly patients). The group has strived for a simple organisation with much responsibility delegated to regional coordinators (Denmark 3, Norway 5, Sweden 5). With regard to trial design, the group has considered it important that studies are based on sound scientific questions, are simple to handle for the participants, population based, investigator initiated, include quality of life and health resources assessment as end-points, and can be used as basis for diverse scientific spin-off projects. Like other clinical trial groups, NMSG faces a number of challenges in coming years. The financial situation for independent investigator-initiated trials is far from satisfactory, especially with regard to the resource-consuming implementation of more stringent good clinical practice rules and ethical committee demands. NMSG has also encountered increasing difficulties in recruiting patients to recent trials, partly because of problems related to participating physicians (lack of support, laborious paper work, insufficient credit for participation). Solutions to these problems have to be found if industry-independent clinical trial groups are to survive.

  10. Fractional condensation of pyrolysis vapors produced from Nordic feedstocks in cyclone pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, Ann-Christine; Iisa, Kristiina; Sandström, Linda; Ben, Haoxi; Pilath, Heidi; Deutch, Steve; Wiinikka, Henrik; Öhrman, Olov G. W.

    2017-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil is a complex mixture of different chemical compounds with a wide range of molecular weights and boiling points. Due to its complexity, an efficient fractionation of the oil may be a more promising approach of producing liquid fuels and chemicals than treating the whole oil. In this work a sampling system based on fractional condensation was attached to a cyclone pyrolysis pilot plant to enable separation of the produced pyrolysis vapors into five oil fractions. The sampling system was composed of cyclonic condensers and coalescing filters arranged in series. The objective was to characterize the oil fractions produced from three different Nordic feedstocks and suggest possible applications. The oil fractions were thoroughly characterized using several analytical techniques including water content; elemental composition; heating value, and chemical compound group analysis using solvent fractionation, quantitative 13C NMR and 1H NMR and GC x GC - TOFMS. The results show that the oil fractions significantly differ from each other both in chemical and physical properties. The first fractions and the fraction composed of aerosols were highly viscous and contained larger energy-rich compounds of mainly lignin-derived material. The middle fraction contained medium-size compounds with relatively high concentration of water, sugars, alcohols, hydrocarbonyls and acids and finally the last fraction contained smaller molecules such as water, aldehydes, ketones and acids. However, the properties of the respective fractions seem independent on the studied feedstock types, i.e. the respective fractions produced from different feedstock are rather similar. This promotes the possibility to vary the feedstock depending on availability while retaining the oil properties. Possible applications of the five fractions vary from oil for combustion and extraction of the pyrolytic lignin in the early fractions to extraction of sugars from the early and middle fractions, and

  11. Environmental Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane; James, John; Russo, Dane; Limero, Thomas; Beck, Steve; Groves, Theron

    1999-01-01

    The Environmental Health activity for the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was formed to develop an overall strategy for safeguarding crew members from potential airborne hazards anticipated on missions of extended duration. These efforts were necessary because of major modifications to the air revitalization system of the U.S. Space Shuttle and an increased potential for environmental health risks associated with longer space flights. Degradation of air quality in the Shuttle during a space flight mission has the potential to affect the performance of the crew not only during piloting, landing, or egress, but also during space flight. It was anticipated that the risk of significant deterioration in air quality would increase with extended mission lengths and could result from: (1) a major chemical contamination incident, such as a thermodegradation event or toxic leak, (2) continual accumulation of volatile organic compounds to unacceptable levels, (3) excessive levels of airborne particles, (4) excessive levels of microorganisms, or (5) accumulation of airborne pathogens.

  12. Supervised and non-supervised Nordic walking in the treatment of chronic low back pain: a single blind randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Active approaches including both specific and unspecific exercise are probably the most widely recommended treatment for patients with chronic low back pain but it is not known exactly which types of exercise provide the most benefit. Nordic Walking - power walking using ski poles - is a popular and fast growing type of exercise in Northern Europe that has been shown to improve cardiovascular metabolism. Until now, no studies have been performed to investigate whether Nordic Walking has beneficial effects in relation to back pain. Methods A total of 151 patients with low back and/or leg pain of greater than eight weeks duration were recruited from a hospital based outpatient back pain clinic. Patients continuing to have pain greater than three on the 11-point numeric rating scale after a multidisciplinary intervention were included. Fifteen patients were unable to complete the baseline evaluation and 136 patients were randomized to receive A) Nordic walking supervised by a specially trained instructor twice a week for eight weeks B) One-hour instruction in Nordic walking by a specially trained instructor followed by advice to perform Nordic walking at home as much as they liked for eight weeks or C) Individual oral information consisting of advice to remain active and about maintaining the daily function level that they had achieved during their stay at the backcenter. Primary outcome measures were pain and disability using the Low Back Pain Rating Scale, and functional limitation further assessed using the Patient Specific Function Scale. Furthermore, information on time off work, use of medication, and concurrent treatment for their low back pain was collected. Objective measurements of physical activity levels for the supervised and unsupervised Nordic walking groups were performed using accelerometers. Data were analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis. Results No mean differences were found between the three groups in relation to any of the outcomes

  13. Fluorescence-based sensing of glucose using engineered glucose/galactose-binding protein: A comparison of fluorescence resonance energy transfer and environmentally sensitive dye labelling strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Faaizah; Gnudi, Luigi; Pickup, John C.

    2008-01-04

    Fluorescence-based glucose sensors using glucose-binding protein (GBP) as the receptor have employed fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and environmentally sensitive dyes, but with widely varying sensitivity. We therefore compared signal changes in (a) a FRET system constructed by transglutaminase-mediated N-terminal attachment of Alexa Fluor 488/555 as donor and QSY 7 as acceptor at Cys 152 or 182 mutations with (b) GBP labelled with the environmentally sensitive dye badan at C152 or 182. Both FRET systems had a small maximal fluorescence change at saturating glucose (7% and 16%), badan attached at C152 was associated with a 300% maximal fluorescence increase with glucose, though with badan at C182 there was no change. We conclude that glucose sensing based on GBP and FRET does not produce a larger enough signal change for clinical use; both the nature of the environmentally sensitive dye and its site of conjugation seem important for maximum signal change; badan-GBP152C has a large glucose-induced fluorescence change, suitable for development as a glucose sensor.

  14. Xeml Lab: a tool that supports the design of experiments at a graphical interface and generates computer-readable metadata files, which capture information about genotypes, growth conditions, environmental perturbations and sampling strategy.

    PubMed

    Hannemann, Jan; Poorter, Hendrik; Usadel, Björn; Bläsing, Oliver E; Finck, Alex; Tardieu, Francois; Atkin, Owen K; Pons, Thijs; Stitt, Mark; Gibon, Yves

    2009-09-01

    Data mining depends on the ability to access machine-readable metadata that describe genotypes, environmental conditions, and sampling times and strategy. This article presents Xeml Lab. The Xeml Interactive Designer provides an interactive graphical interface at which complex experiments can be designed, and concomitantly generates machine-readable metadata files. It uses a new eXtensible Mark-up Language (XML)-derived dialect termed XEML. Xeml Lab includes a new ontology for environmental conditions, called Xeml Environment Ontology. However, to provide versatility, it is designed to be generic and also accepts other commonly used ontology formats, including OBO and OWL. A review summarizing important environmental conditions that need to be controlled, monitored and captured as metadata is posted in a Wiki (http://www.codeplex.com/XeO) to promote community discussion. The usefulness of Xeml Lab is illustrated by two meta-analyses of a large set of experiments that were performed with Arabidopsis thaliana during 5 years. The first reveals sources of noise that affect measurements of metabolite levels and enzyme activities. The second shows that Arabidopsis maintains remarkably stable levels of sugars and amino acids across a wide range of photoperiod treatments, and that adjustment of starch turnover and the leaf protein content contribute to this metabolic homeostasis.

  15. Plasma levels of beta-endorphin, prolactin and gonadotropins in male athletes after an international nordic ski race.

    PubMed

    Mougin, C; Henriet, M T; Baulay, A; Haton, D; Berthelay, S; Gaillard, R C

    1988-01-01

    Plasma beta-endorphin, prolactin (PRL), FSH and LH were measured in 17 volunteer male subjects at rest and under the stress caused by a long-distance nordic ski race. The race induced increased levels of beta-endorphin and PRL in all skiers. The changes in PRL with exercise were significantly related to the changes in beta-endorphin (r = 0.69, p less than 0.001). Furthermore, the highly trained skiers training over 150 km.week-1 of nordic ski showed consistently higher post-exercise beta-endorphin and PRL levels than the moderately trained skiers who trained for 20 km.week-1. In addition the race induced slight falls in FSH and LH; however plasma gonadotropin levels did not show any correlation with plasma beta-endorphin concentrations and did not differ between the two groups of skiers. These results suggest that endogenous opioid peptides may modulate PRL secretion in heavy exercise, since they are of minor importance in the release of FSH and LH in such a situation. The observations also suggest that the degree of previous training and the exercise intensity do seem to be responsible for the hormonal changes.

  16. A modified Nordic prediction model of road traffic noise in a Taiwanese city with significant motorcycle traffic.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ta-Yuan; Lin, Hsiao-Ching; Yang, Wei-Ting; Bao, Bo-Ying; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2012-08-15

    A prediction model was developed to map road traffic noise in an area with significant motorcycle traffic in Taichung City, Taiwan. This model was modified from the Nordic prediction method by adding three types of traffic flow rates, including heavy vehicles, light vehicles, and motorcycles, as well as local traffic speeds and road characteristics to the calculating equations. The parameters that were input into the equations include traffic flow, vehicle speed, distance from the center of the road, height of the road surface, position and height of the barriers, thickness of the barriers, location of the receiver relative to the surrounding road surface or barriers, reflecting vertical surfaces, type of ground, and height of the buildings. The model was validated by comparing the measured noise levels at 42 sampling sites close to main roads with the predicted values. A significant correlation was found between the predicted and measured noise levels (Pearson correlation coefficient=0.75, p<0.001). The deviation between the predicted and measured noise levels within the range of ±3.5 A-weighted decibel (dB(A)) was 90.5%. The mean difference between the predicted and measured noise levels was 0.9±2.1 dB(A). The modified Nordic prediction model is therefore applicable to estimate the noise exposure in this urban environment in Taiwan.

  17. Along-shelf hydrographic anomalies in the Nordic Seas (1960-2011): locally generated or advective signals?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lien, Vidar S.; Gusdal, Yvonne; Vikebø, Frode B.

    2014-07-01

    The northward flow of warm and saline Atlantic Water through the eastern Nordic Seas sustains a spring-bloom ecosystem that hosts some of the world's largest commercial fish stocks. Abrupt climatic changes, or changes beyond species-specific thresholds, may have severe effects on species abundance and distribution. Here, we utilize a numerical ocean model hindcast to explore the similarities and differences between large-scale anomalies, such as great salinity anomalies, and along-shelf hydrographic anomalies of regional origin, which represent abrupt changes at subannual time scales. The large-scale anomalies enter the Nordic Seas to the south and propagate northward at a speed one order of magnitude less than the Atlantic Water current speed. On the contrary, wind-generated along-shelf anomalies appear simultaneously along the Norwegian continental shelf and propagate northward at speeds associated with topographically trapped Kelvin waves. This process involves changes in the vertical extent of the Atlantic Water along the continental slope. Such a dynamic oceanic response both affects thermal habitats and has the potential to ventilate shelf waters by modifying the cross-shelf transport of nutrients and key prey items for early stages of fish.

  18. Systematic Literature Review on ICF From 2001 to 2013 in the Nordic Countries Focusing on Clinical and Rehabilitation Context

    PubMed Central

    Maribo, Thomas; Petersen, Kirsten S.; Handberg, Charlotte; Melchiorsen, Hanne; Momsen, Anne-Mette H.; Nielsen, Claus V.; Leonardi, Matilde; Labriola, Merete

    2016-01-01

    We present a systematic review on International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) used in the Nordic countries from 2001 through 2013, describing and quantifying the development in utilization of ICF, and describe the extent to which the different components of the ICF have been used. A search was conducted in EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycInfo. Papers from Nordic countries were included if ICF was mentioned in title or abstract. Papers were assigned to one of eight categories covering the wide rehabilitation area; furthermore, area of focus was assigned. Use of ICF components and intervention were coded in papers categorized as “clinical and/or rehabilitation contexts” or “non-clinical contexts”. One hundred seventy papers were included, of these 99 papers were from the categories “clinical and/or rehabilitation contexts” or “non-clinical contexts”. Forty-two percent of the 170 included papers were published in the period 2011 - 2013. There was an increase in ICF-relevant papers from 2001 to 2013, especially in the categories “clinical and/or rehabilitation contexts” and “non-clinical contexts”. The most represented focus areas were neurology, musculoskeletal, and work-related areas. All five or at least four ICF components were mentioned in the results or discussions in most papers, and activity was most frequently mentioned. PMID:26668676

  19. An assessment of the added value from data assimilation on modelled Nordic Seas hydrography and ocean transports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lien, Vidar S.; Hjøllo, Solfrid S.; Skogen, Morten D.; Svendsen, Einar; Wehde, Henning; Bertino, Laurent; Counillon, Francois; Chevallier, Matthieu; Garric, Gilles

    2016-03-01

    The Nordic Seas is a hotspot both in terms of climate related processes, such as Atlantic-Arctic heat exchange, and natural marine resources. A sustainable management of the marine resources within the Nordic Seas, including the co-existence between fisheries and petroleum industries, requires detailed information on the state of the ocean within an operational framework and beyond what is obtainable from observations only. Numerical ocean models applying data assimilation techniques are utilized to address this need. Subsequently, comprehensive comparisons between model results and observations are required in order to assess the model performance. Here, we apply a set of objective statistics to quantitatively assess the added value of data assimilation in numerical ocean models that are currently used operationally. The results indicate that the inclusion of data assimilation improves the model performance both in terms of hydrographic properties and volume and heat transports. Furthermore, we find that increasing the resolution towards eddy resolving resolution performs similarly to coarser resolution models applying data assimilation in shelf areas.

  20. Ambiguity of the embryo protection in the Human Rights and Biomedicine Convention: experiences from the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Walin, Laura

    2007-07-01

    Until 1998 research on in vitro human embryos concentrated on the issues related to assisted reproduction. The situation changed dramatically when the first scientific report on the laboratory culture of human embryonic stem cells was published. This scientific breakthrough with new therapeutic promises put human embryo into a new, more vulnerable position. Combined with creation of embryos via somatic cell nuclear transfer, it inveigles into mass production of embryos, first for scientific purposes, but later perhaps for the healing of people. This article examines the efficacy of the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine in protecting embryos in this new era of embryo research. The interpretative latitude of Article 18 of the Convention is demonstrated, and legislation in three Nordic countries with highly variable approach to embryo research regulation is analysed. I examine how this divergence is possible in the light of the Convention text. In the end, potential reasons for variation in regulation in the otherwise similar Nordic countries are discussed, as well as under what conditions harmonisation of regulation on embryo research, a highly value-charged matter, could be possible at the European level.

  1. Non-communicable diseases and the social determinants of health in the Nordic countries: Findings from the European Social Survey (2014) special module on the social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Balaj, Mirza; Huijts, Tim; McNamara, Courtney L; Stornes, Per; Bambra, Clare; Eikemo, Terje A

    2017-03-01

    Comparative studies examining non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and determinants of health in the Nordic countries are scarce, outdated and focus only on a limited range of NCDs and health determinants. This study is the first to present a comprehensive overview of the distribution of social and behavioural determinants of health and of physical and mental NCDs in the Nordic population. We examined regional, country and gender differences for 17 health outcomes and 20 determinants of health. We use data from the 7th wave of the European Social Survey. All results were age-standardised by weighting up or down the unstandardized (crude) prevalence rates for five year age groups in each country to a common standard. We present pooled estimates for the combined regional samples as well as country-specific results for the Nordic region. Overall, the population of the Nordic region reported among the highest prevalence for one or both genders in 10 out of 17 health outcomes. Despite being the region with the highest prevalence for most health outcomes, overall self-rated health levels tend to be better in the Nordic region. Similarly, we found that the Nordic countries adhere to a healthier lifestyle and have better access to health care. Future studies should consider investigating further the association between health outcomes and determinants of health and how they are distributed in the Nordic societies.

  2. Use of an integrated biomarker-based strategy to evaluate physiological stress responses induced by environmental concentrations of caffeine in the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Capolupo, Marco; Valbonesi, Paola; Kiwan, Alisar; Buratti, Sara; Franzellitti, Silvia; Fabbri, Elena

    2016-09-01

    The occurrence of caffeine (CF), a biologically active drug, has widely been documented in coastal waters, and whether its environmental concentrations do represent a threat for marine organisms is unclear. The present study aimed at assessing sub-lethal effects induced by a 7-day exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of CF (5, 50 and 500ng/L) in the Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis. CF in water and mussel tissues, and a battery of biomarkers, including lysosomal parameters of general stress, oxidative stress responses and endpoints of neurological and genetic damages, were evaluated and tested for significance vs controls (p<0.05). CF exposure triggered a significant decrease of lysosomal membrane stability in both haemocytes and digestive gland (at 50 and 500ng/L CF) and a significant increase of lysosomal content of neutral lipids (at 500ng/L CF), indicating the onset of a stress syndrome. No effects were noted on lipid peroxidation parameters, such as malondialdehyde and lipofuscin content. The activity of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase was unmodified in gills, while a significant increase of GST activity was observed in digestive gland (at 5 and 500ng/L CF), suggesting the occurrence of GST-mediated phase II detoxifying processes. CF did not induce geno/neurotoxicity, as shown by the lack of effects on primary DNA damages and acetylcholinesterase activity. In line with its high hydrophilicity, CF did not bioaccumulate in mussel tissues. Data were integrated using the Mussel Expert System, which assigned a low stress level to mussels exposed to 500ng/L CF, whereas no alterations of animal health status were highlighted at lower dosages. This study revealed a low profile of toxicity for environmental concentrations of CF, and confirmed the suitability of an integrated biomarker-based approach to provide a comprehensive picture of the degree of stress induced by emerging contaminants in marine

  3. New Design Strategy for Development of Specific Primer Sets for PCR-Based Detection of Chlorophyceae and Bacillariophyceae in Environmental Samples▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Valiente Moro, Claire; Crouzet, Olivier; Rasconi, Séréna; Thouvenot, Antoine; Coffe, Gérard; Batisson, Isabelle; Bohatier, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Studying aquatic microalgae is essential for monitoring biodiversity and water quality. We designed new sets of 18S rRNA PCR primers for Chlorophyceae and Bacillariophyceae by using the ARB software and implementing a virtual PCR program. The results of specificity analysis showed that most of the targeted algal families were identified and nontargeted organisms, such as fungi or ciliates, were excluded. These newly developed PCR primer sets were also able to amplify microalgal rRNA genes from environmental samples with accurate specificity. These tools could be of great interest for studying freshwater microalgal ecology and for developing bioindicators of the health status of aquatic environments. PMID:19592531

  4. New design strategy for development of specific primer sets for PCR-based detection of Chlorophyceae and Bacillariophyceae in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Moro, Claire Valiente; Crouzet, Olivier; Rasconi, Séréna; Thouvenot, Antoine; Coffe, Gérard; Batisson, Isabelle; Bohatier, Jacques

    2009-09-01

    Studying aquatic microalgae is essential for monitoring biodiversity and water quality. We designed new sets of 18S rRNA PCR primers for Chlorophyceae and Bacillariophyceae by using the ARB software and implementing a virtual PCR program. The results of specificity analysis showed that most of the targeted algal families were identified and nontargeted organisms, such as fungi or ciliates, were excluded. These newly developed PCR primer sets were also able to amplify microalgal rRNA genes from environmental samples with accurate specificity. These tools could be of great interest for studying freshwater microalgal ecology and for developing bioindicators of the health status of aquatic environments.

  5. Proceedings of the Nordic Conference on Science and Technology Education: The Challenge of the Future (Karlslunde Strand, Denmark, May 8-12, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thulstrup, Erik W., Ed.

    The Nordic Conference of 1985 was convened for the purpose of fostering cooperation between science and technology educators within different fields and at different levels, with approximately 40 science and technology educators from Finland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, India, the United States, and Yugoslavia participating. This report contains 27…

  6. Why might regional vaccinology networks fail? The case of the Dutch-Nordic Consortium.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Jan; Blume, Stuart

    2016-07-07

    We analyzed an attempt to develop and clinically test a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for the developing world, undertaken by public health institutions from the Netherlands, Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland: the Dutch Nordic Consortium (DNC), between 1990 and 2000. Our review shows that the premature termination of the project was due less to technological and scientific challenges and more to managerial challenges and institutional policies. Various impeding events, financial and managerial challenges gradually soured the initially enthusiastic collaborative spirit until near the end the consortium struggled to complete the minimum objectives of the project. By the end of 1998, a tetravalent prototype vaccine had been made that proved safe and immunogenic in Phase 1 trials in adults and toddlers in Finland. The planned next step, to test the vaccine in Asia in infants, did not meet approval by the local authorities in Vietnam nor later in the Philippines and the project eventually stopped.The Dutch DNC member, the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) learned important lessons, which subsequently were applied in a following vaccine technology transfer project, resulting in the availability at affordable prices for the developing world of a conjugate vaccine against Haemophilus influenzae type b. We conclude that vaccine development in the public domain with technology transfer as its ultimate aim requires major front-end funding, committed leadership at the highest institutional level sustained for many years and a competent recipient-manufacturer, which needs to be involved at a very early stage of the development.At the national level, RIVM's policy to consolidate its national manufacturing task through securing a key global health position in support of a network of public vaccine manufacturers proved insufficiently supported by the relevant ministries of the Dutch government. Difficulties to keep up with high costs, high

  7. Modeling of daily body weights and body weight changes of Nordic Red cows.

    PubMed

    Mäntysaari, P; Mäntysaari, E A

    2015-10-01

    Increased availability of automated weighing systems have made it possible to record massive amounts of body weight (BW) data in a short time. If the BW measurement is unbiased, the changes in BW reflect the energy status of the cow and can be used for management or breeding purposes. The usefulness of the BW data depends on the reliability of the measures. The noise in BW measurements can be smoothed by fitting a parametric or time series model into the BW measurements. This study examined the accuracy of different models to predict BW of the cows based on daily BW measurements and investigated the usefulness of modeling in increasing the value of BW measurements as management and breeding tools. Data included daily BW measurements, production, and intake from 230 Nordic Red dairy cows. The BW of the cows was recorded twice a day on their return from milking. In total, the data included 50,594 daily observations with 98,418 BW measurements. A clear diurnal change was present in the BW of the cows even if they had feed available 24 h. The daily average BW were used in the modeling. Five different models were tested: (1) a cow-wise fixed second-order polynomial regression model (FiX) including the exponential Wilmink term, (2) a random regression model with fixed and random animal lactation stage functions (MiX), (3) MiX with 13 periods of weighing added (PER), (4) natural cubic smoothing splines with 8 equally spaced knots (SPk8), and (5) spline model with no restriction on knots but a smoothing parameter corresponding to a fit of 5 degrees of freedom (SPdf5). In the original measured BW data, the within-animal variation was 6.4% of the total variance. Modeling decreased the within animal variation to levels of 2.9 to 5.1%. The smallest day-to-day variation and thereafter highest day-to-day repeatabilities were with PER and MiX models. The usability of modeled BW as energy balance (EB) indicator were evaluated by estimating relationships between EB, or EB

  8. A Nordic survey of management practices and owners' attitudes towards keeping horses in groups.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, E; Bøe, K E; Christensen, J W; Hyyppä, S; Jansson, H; Jørgensen, G H M; Ladewig, J; Mejdell, C M; Norling, Y; Rundgren, M; Särkijärvi, S; Søndergaard, E; Keeling, L J

    2015-09-01

    Keeping horses in groups is widely recommended but limited information is available about how this is implemented in practice. The aim of this survey was to describe how horses are kept in the Nordic countries in relation to sex, age, breed, and equestrian discipline and to assess owners' attitudes toward keeping horses in groups. Horse owners in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden were approached using a web-based questionnaire, which was translated into 4 languages and distributed online via equestrian forums, organizations, and social media. The number of respondents was 3,229, taking care of 17,248 horses. Only 8% of horses were never kept in groups, 47% were permanently grouped for 24 h/d, and 45% were stabled singly but grouped during turnout. Yearlings were most often permanently kept in groups (75%), mares and geldings more commonly during parts of the day (50 and 51%, respectively), and stallions were often kept alone (38%). Icelandic horses were more likely to be permanently kept in groups (36%) than warmbloods (16%) and ponies (15%). Twice as many competition horses (51%) were never grouped compared with horses used for breeding (20%) or leisure purposes (15%). The majority of respondents (86%) strongly agreed that group housing benefits horse welfare and that it is important for horses to have the company of conspecifics (92%). Nevertheless, not all horses were kept in groups, showing that attitudes toward group housing may not necessarily reflect current management. The risk of injury was a concern of many respondents (45%), as was introducing unfamiliar horses into already established groups (40%) and challenges in relation to feeding in groups (44%). Safety of people (23%) and difficulties handling group-kept horses (19%) were regarded as less problematic. Results suggest that the majority of horses have the possibility to freely interact with other horses, either as fulltime members of a group during 24 h/d or during turnout. Future research should

  9. Incidence of cancer among Nordic airline pilots over five decades: occupational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Pukkala, Eero; Aspholm, Rafael; Auvinen, Anssi; Eliasch, Harald; Gundestrup, Maryanne; Haldorsen, Tor; Hammar, Niklas; Hrafnkelsson, Jón; Kyyrönen, Pentti; Linnersjö, Anette; Rafnsson, Vilhjálmur; Storm, Hans; Tveten, Ulf

    2002-01-01

    Objective To assess the incidence of cancer among male airline pilots in the Nordic countries, with special reference to risk related to cosmic radiation. Design Retrospective cohort study, with follow up of cancer incidence through the national cancer registries. Setting Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Participants 10 032 male airline pilots, with an average follow up of 17 years. Main outcome measures Standardised incidence ratios, with expected numbers based on national cancer incidence rates; dose-response analysis using Poisson regression. Results 466 cases of cancer were diagnosed compared with 456 expected. The only significantly increased standardised incidence ratios were for skin cancer: melanoma 2.3 (95% confidence interval 1.7 to 3.0), non-melanoma 2.1 (1.7 to 2.8), basal cell carcinoma 2.5 (1.9 to 3.2). The relative risk of skin cancers increased with the estimated radiation dose. The relative risk of prostate cancer increased with increasing number of flight hours in long distance aircraft. Conclusions This study does not indicate a marked increase in cancer risk attributable to cosmic radiation, although some influence of cosmic radiation on skin cancer cannot be entirely excluded. The suggestion of an association between number of long distance flights (possibly related to circadian hormonal disturbances) and prostate cancer needs to be confirmed. What is already known on this topicAirline pilots are occupationally exposed to cosmic radiation and other potentially carcinogenic elementsIn the studies published so far, dose-response patterns have not been characterisedWhat this study addsNo marked risk of cancer attributable to cosmic radiation is observed in airline pilotsA threefold excess of skin cancers is seen among pilots with longer careers, but the influence of recreational exposure to ultraviolet light cannot be quantifiedA slight increase in risk of prostate cancer with increasing number of long haul flights suggests a need

  10. Strategies for automated sample preparation, nucleic acid purification, and concentration of low-target-number nucleic acids in environmental and food processing samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J.; Holman, David A.; Schuck, Beatrice L.; Brockman, Fred J.; Chandler, Darrell P.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a rapid, automated system for nucleic acid purification and concentration from environmental and food processing samples. Our current approach involves off-line filtration and cell lysis (ballistic disintegration) functions in appropriate buffers followed by automated nucleic acid capture and purification on renewable affinity matrix microcolumns. Physical cell lysis and renewable affinity microcolumns eliminate the need for toxic organic solvents, enzyme digestions or other time- consuming sample manipulations. Within the renewable affinity microcolumn, we have examined nucleic acid capture and purification efficiency with various microbead matrices (glass, polymer, paramagnetic), surface derivitization (sequence-specific capture oligonucleotides or peptide nucleic acids), and DNA target size and concentration under variable solution conditions and temperatures. Results will be presented comparing automated system performance relative to benchtop procedures for both clean (pure DNA from a laboratory culture) and environmental (soil extract) samples, including results which demonstrate 8 minute purification and elution of low-copy nucleic acid targets from a crude soil extract in a form suitable for PCR or microarray-based detectors. Future research will involve the development of improved affinity reagents and complete system integration, including upstream cell concentration and cell lysis functions and downstream, gene-based detectors. Results of this research will ultimately lead to improved processes and instrumentation for on-line, automated monitors for pathogenic micro-organisms in food, water, air, and soil samples.

  11. Consolidated Online Data Management Strategy in Support of Environmental Remediation Activities at the Dupont Chambers Works Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (Fusrap) Site

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, K.A.; Desai, N.B.; Samus, J.E.; Bock, G.O.

    2007-07-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) has developed and implemented an innovative online data management application in support of site characterization and remediation activities at the DuPont Chambers Works Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Site. The password-protected, web-based application was implemented to centralize project data, facilitate project communications, and provide a large and diverse group of project team members with access to the data and analytical tools they need to efficiently and effectively manage the ongoing characterization and remediation efforts. Centralizing resources using the online application and web-based strategy streamlines data access and communications, allowing the team to effectively keep the project on track while reducing the costs associated with data requests, data duplication, document review and retrieval, software requirements, and lapses in communication or data transfer. (authors)

  12. Dynamical downscaling of warming scenarios with NEMO-Nordic setup for the North Sea and Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gröger, Matthias; Almroth Rosell, Elin; Anderson, Helén; Axell, Lars; Dieterich, Christain; Edman, Moa; Eilola, Kari; Höglund, Anders; Hordoir, Robinson; Hieronymus, Jenny; Karlsson, Bengt; Liu, Ye; Meier, Markus; Pemberton, Per; Saraiva, Sofia

    2016-04-01

    The North Sea and Baltic Sea constitute one of the most complex and challenging areas in the world. The oceanographic setting ranges from quasi open ocean conditions in the northern North Sea to more brackish conditions in the Baltic Sea which is also affected by sea ice in winter. The two seas are connected by narrow straits which sporadically allow the important inflow of salt and oxygen rich bottom waters into the Baltic Sea. For this, the high resolution regional model NEMO-Nordic has recently been developed. Here, the model is applied on hindcast simulations and used to downscale several climate warming scenarios. The model can be interactively coupled to the regional atmosphere model RCA4 by exchanging air sea fluxes of mass and energy (Wang et al., 2015). Comparison with well established models and newly compiled observational data sets (Bersch et al., 2013) indicates NEMO-Nordic performs well on climate relevant time scales. Emphasis is laid on thermal dynamics. Hindcast simulations demonstrate that simulated winter temperatures in the Baltic Sea can benefit from interactive air sea coupling by allowing interactive feedback loops to take place between the ocean and the atmosphere (Gröger et al. 2015). Likewise, a more realistic dynamical behaviour makes the interactive coupled model suitable for dynamic downscaling of climate warming scenarios. Depending on the driving global climate model and IPCC representative concentration pathway scenario NEMO-Nordic shows an average warming of the North Sea between 2 and 4 K at the end of the 21st century. However the warming pattern is spatially inhomogeneous showing strong east west gradients. Involved processes such as circulation changes and changes in radiative forcing will be discussed. Bersch, M., Gouretski, V., Sadikni, R., Hinrichs, I., 2013. Hydrographic climatology of the North Sea and surrounding regions. Centre for Earth System Research and Sustainability, University of Hamburg, www

  13. The U.S. Geological Survey's Sediment-bound Contaminant Resiliency and Response Strategy: A Tiered Multi-metric Approach to Environmental Health and Hazards in the Northeastern USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</