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Sample records for environmental stress cracking

  1. Environmental stress cracking of polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahan, K. I.

    1980-01-01

    A two point bending method for use in studying the environmental stress cracking and crazing phenomena is described and demonstrated for a variety of polymer/solvent systems. Critical strain values obtained from these curves are reported for various polymer/solvent systems including a considerable number of systems for which critical strain values have not been previously reported. Polymers studied using this technique include polycarbonate (PC), ABS, high impact styrene (HIS), polyphenylene oxide (PPO), and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Critical strain values obtained using this method compared favorably with available existing data. The major advantage of the technique is the ability to obtain time vs. strain curves over a short period of time. The data obtained suggests that over a short period of time the transition in most of the polymer solvent systems is more gradual than previously believed.

  2. Applied Stress Affecting the Environmentally Assisted Cracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudevan, A. K.

    2013-03-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is affected by the mode of applied stress, i.e., tension, compression, or torsion. The cracking is measured in terms of initiation time to nucleate a crack or time to failure. In a simple uniaxial loading under tension or compression, it is observed that the initiation time can vary in orders of magnitude depending on the alloy and the environment. Fracture can be intergranular or transgranular or mixed mode. Factors that affect SCC are solubility of the metal into surrounding chemical solution, and diffusion rate (like hydrogen into a tensile region) of an aggressive element into the metal and liquid metallic elements in the grain boundaries. Strain hardening exponent that affects the local internal stresses and their gradients can affect the diffusion kinetics. We examine two environments (Ga and 3.5 pct NaCl) for the same alloy 7075-T651, under constant uniaxial tension and compression load. These two cases provide us application to two different governing mechanisms namely liquid metal embrittlement (7075-Ga) and hydrogen-assisted cracking (7075-NaCl). We note that, in spite of the differences in their mechanisms, both systems show similar behavior in the applied K vs crack initiation time plots. One common theme among them is the transport mechanism of a solute element to a tensile-stress region to initiate fracture.

  3. Determining resistance to environmental stress cracking in luer fittings.

    PubMed

    Schlarb, Alois K

    2002-11-01

    Environmental stress cracking (ESC) is a phenomenon associated with disposable plastic products. This article describes new methods to determine ESC in luer fittings. The findings of two experimental studies are reported.

  4. Failure processes in polymers: Environmental stress crack growth and adhesion of elastomeric copolymers to polypropylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayyer, Ravishankar

    In CHAPTER 1 slow crack propagation in MDPE pipe was studied in air and Igepals at 50°C to determine the possibility for fatigue to creep correlation in environmental liquids. The stepwise fatigue crack growth in air was preserved in Igepal solutions. Lifetime in Igepal was affected to a much smaller extent as compared to air. The correlation in air was previously established primarily for tests at 21°C. The stepwise mechanism was verified in air at 50°C. The crack growth rate under various loading conditions was related to the maximum stress and R-ratio by a power law relationship. Alternatively a strain rate approach reliably correlated fatigue and creep in air at 50°C except at R=0.1 and frequency less than 1 Hz. In CHAPTER 2 the effect of concentration of Igepal CO 630 on slow crack propagation in MDPE pipe was investigated to determine whether the mechanism was conserved in creep and fatigue as required for the fatigue-to-creep correlation. The mechanism of crack propagation and lifetimes in creep and fatigue at R=0.1 at 50°C were compared to those in air and water. The fatigue and creep behavior followed the same stepwise crack growth mechanism as in air at all the concentrations used. As the concentration increased to 0.01 vol. %, the creep lifetime decreased significantly whereas the lifetime in fatigue gradually increased. At higher concentrations the lifetime was similar in creep and fatigue. In CHAPTER 3 effect of R-ratio on kinetics and mechanism of environmental fatigue and creep crack growth was analyzed in an attempt to predict the environmental stress crack resistance at 50°C. Same methodology was used as previously established for fatigue to creep formulation in air at 50°C. The stepwise mechanism of crack growth in air was conserved in Igepal solutions as R-ratio approached to unity (creep) with few exceptions. At higher R-ratio, the lifetime decreased systematically in Igepal solutions relative to air and was defined as 'Igepal transition

  5. Clarifiction of Environmental Effects in Stress Corrosion Cracking.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    NUME~ O@vr *CCEsSio" NO: 2. RECIPIENITS CATALOG MUM111R / TITLE (and SWIaite) TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Clarification of Environmental Effects in...ORN01-5C09 PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENrT. PROJECT. TASK The American UniversityARAAWK .NUBS SWashington, D . C...1199 Cl- 5..9-6.1 n =, Al (99.53%) Cl- neutral n = N -4- Table II Activation energies for pitting initiation reaction ofaluminum alloy Type 7075 with

  6. An Investigation of Mechanisms Effecting Environmental Stress Cracking in Titanium Alloy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-06

    of titanium alloy ( Ti6Al4V ) has been under an environmental stress cracking investigation. The acoustic emission (AE) techniques were used to monitor...in a closed loop metharol environment. The acoustic signals were received at a gain of 85 dB in a high bAndpass filter range of 100- 300 KHz and... temperature and annealing for a select time im- proved the fracture toughness in the alloy, and (2) in a plane strain load mode at a constant c rack

  7. Environmental degradation and life time prediction of generator retaining rings subject to stress corrosion cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Speidel, M.O.; Magdowski, R.

    1995-12-31

    Retaining rings are among the most highly stressed components of generator rotors. There is a history of service failures of such retaining rings in both fossil fired and in nuclear power systems. The predominant failure mode is intergranular stress corrosion cracking. For a complete life time prediction it is necessary to know the effect of materials, stresses, and environments on nucleation, re-initiation, and growth of stress corrosion cracks. The present paper contributes information on the above topics. This includes time to failure measurements of stressed cylindrical tensile specimens in water and re-initiation measurements on components containing stress corrosion cracks which had been stopped by a more benign environment. Also included are fracture mechanics stress corrosion crack growth rate measurements in two different commercial retaining ring materials as a function of stress intensity. Conclusions are drawn with respect to materials choice, operating conditions, and inspection intervals.

  8. Environmental stress cracking in gamma-irradiated polycarbonate - A diffusion approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Pietro Paolo J. C. de O.; Araújo, Patricia L. B.; da Silveira, Leopoldo B. B.; Araújo, Elmo S.

    2017-01-01

    Polycarbonate (PC) is an engineering polymer which presents interesting properties. This material has been also used in medical devices, which is frequently exposed to gamma radiosterilization and to chemical agents. This may produce significant changes in polymer structure, leading to failure in service. The present work brings about a new approach on environmental stress cracking (ESC) processes elucidation in 100 kGy gamma-irradiated PC, by evaluating the diffusion process of methanol or 2-propanol in test specimens and determining the diffusion parameters on solvent-irradiated polymer systems. A comparison of diffusion parameters for both solvents indicated that methanol has a considerable ESC action on PC, with diffusion parameter of 7.5×10-14±1% m2 s-1 for non-irradiated PC and 7.8×10-14±2.8% m2 s-1 for PC irradiated at 100 kGy. In contrast, 2-propanol did not act as an ESC agent, as it did promote neither swelling nor cracks in the test specimens. These results were confirmed by visual analysis and optical microscopy. Unexpectedly, structural damages evidenced in tensile strength tests suggested that 2-propanol is as aggressive as methanol chemical for PC. Moreover, although some manufacturers indicate the use of 2-propanol as a cleaning product for PC artifacts, such use should be avoided in parts under mechanical stress.

  9. Chemical contamination of soft drinks in sealed plastic bottles by environmental stress cracking.

    PubMed

    Muller, Dan; Israelsohn-Azulay, Osnat

    2009-01-01

    A contamination of soft drinks in sealed bottles by organic solvents is reported: closed bottles full of soft drinks were accidentally placed on a cardboard soaked with thinner and the organic fluid subsequently fissured the bottom of the bottles and penetrated into the soft drinks without any apparent leakage of the soft drinks. Experiments were carried out to simulate the process: the penetration of different organic solvents into soft drinks through the bottom of closed bottles was tested. The penetration occurred only when the closed bottles contained carbonated soft drinks (CSD), indicating that inner pressure is a necessary condition for the fissuring of the bottles. This paper discusses environmental stress cracking of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles by organic solvents and migration of chemicals to CSD. Experiments were conducted to determine the conditions in which PET can be permeable to poisoning organic products.

  10. Environment-induced embrittlement: Stress corrosion cracking and metal-induced embrittlement; Environmental embrittlement of iron aluminide alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Heldt, L.A.; Milligan, W.W.; White, C.L.

    1991-01-01

    This research program has included two thrusts. The first addressed environment-induced embrittlement in a parallel study of stress corrosion cracking and metal-induced embrittlement. This work has examined (1) mechanical properties as influenced by embrittling environments, (2) fractography and crystallography or transgranular cracking, (3) the mechanics of cracking, (4) the extent and role of local plastic flow, and (5) local chemistry within stress corrosion and metal-induced cracks. The embrittlement of iron aluminide alloys by air was addressed by determining the effect of water and hydrogen upon the mechanical properties. Slow strain rate testing in aqueous environments was carried out at controlled anodic and cathodic potentials. The effect of cathodically charged hydrogen and the effect of subsequent baking were measured. Environmental susceptibility was measured as affected by alloy composition, microstructure and degree of ordering.

  11. Review of Environmentally Assisted Cracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadananda, K.; Vasudevan, A. K.

    2011-02-01

    Many efforts have been made in the past by several researchers to arrive at some unifying principles governing the embrittlement phenomena. An inescapable conclusion reached by all these efforts was that the behavior is very complex. Hence, recognizing the complexity of material/environment behavior, we focus our attention here only in extracting some similarities in the experimental trends to arrive at some generic principles of behavior. Crack nucleation and growth are examined under static load in the presence of internal and external environments. Stress concentration, either pre-existing or in-situ generated, appears to be a requirement for embrittlement. A chemical stress concentration factor is defined for a given material/environment system as the ratio of failure stress with and without the damaging chemical environment. All factors that affect the buildup of the required stress concentration, such as planarity of slip, stacking fault energy, etc., also affect the stress-corrosion behavior. The chemical stress concentration factor is coupled with the mechanical stress concentration factor. In addition, generic features for all systems appear to be (a) an existence of a threshold stress as a function of concentration of the damaging environment and flow properties of the material, and (b) an existence of a limiting threshold as a function of concentration, indicative of a damage saturation for that environment. Kinetics of crack growth also depends on concentration and the mode of crack growth. In general, environment appears to enhance crack tip ductility on one side by the reduction of energy for dislocation nucleation and glide, and to reduce cohesive energy for cleavage, on the other. These two opposing factors are coupled to provide environmentally induced crack nucleation and growth. The relative ratio of these two opposing factors depends on concentration and flow properties, thereby affecting limiting thresholds. The limiting concentration or

  12. Environmental stress-corrosion cracking of fiberglass: lessons learned from failures in the chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Myers, T J; Kytömaa, H K; Smith, T R

    2007-04-11

    Fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) composite materials are often used to construct tanks, piping, scrubbers, beams, grating, and other components for use in corrosive environments. While FRP typically offers superior and cost effective corrosion resistance relative to other construction materials, the glass fibers traditionally used to provide the structural strength of the FRP can be susceptible to attack by the corrosive environment. The structural integrity of traditional FRP components in corrosive environments is usually dependent on the integrity of a corrosion-resistant barrier, such as a resin-rich layer containing corrosion resistant glass fibers. Without adequate protection, FRP components can fail under loads well below their design by an environmental stress-corrosion cracking (ESCC) mechanism when simultaneously exposed to mechanical stress and a corrosive chemical environment. Failure of these components can result in significant releases of hazardous substances into plants and the environment. In this paper, we present two case studies where fiberglass components failed due to ESCC at small chemical manufacturing facilities. As is often typical, the small chemical manufacturing facilities relied largely on FRP component suppliers to determine materials appropriate for the specific process environment and to repair damaged in-service components. We discuss the lessons learned from these incidents and precautions companies should take when interfacing with suppliers and other parties during the specification, design, construction, and repair of FRP components in order to prevent similar failures and chemical releases from occurring in the future.

  13. Aqueous chloride stress corrosion cracking of titanium - A comparison with environmental hydrogen embrittlement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, H. G.

    1974-01-01

    The physical characteristics of stress corrosion cracking of titanium in an aqueous chloride environment are compared with those of embrittlement of titanium by a gaseous hydrogen environment in an effort to help contribute to the understanding of the possible role of hydrogen in the complex stress corrosion cracking process. Based on previous studies, the two forms of embrittlement are shown to be similar at low hydrogen pressures (100 N/sq m) but dissimilar at higher hydrogen pressures. In an effort to quantify this comparison, tests were conducted in an aqueous chloride solution using the same material and test techniques as had previously been employed in a gaseous hydrogen environment. The results of these tests strongly support models based on hydrogen as the embrittling species in an aqueous chloride environment.

  14. Aqueous chloride stress corrosion cracking of titanium: A comparison with environmental hydrogen embrittlement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, H. G.

    1973-01-01

    The physical characteristics of stress corrosion cracking of titanium in an aqueous chloride environment are compared with those of embrittlement of titanium by a gaseous hydrogen environment in an effort to help contribute to the understanding of the possible role of hydrogen in the complex stress corrosion cracking process. Based on previous studies, the two forms of embrittlement are shown to be similar at low hydrogen pressures (100 N/sqm) but dissimilar at higher hydrogen pressures. In an effort to quantify this comparison, tests were conducted in an aqueous chloride solution using the same material and test techniques as had previously been employed in a gaseous hydrogen environment. The results of these tests strongly support models based on hydrogen as the embrittling species in an aqueous chloride environment. Further, it is shown that if hydrogen is the causal species, the effective hydrogen fugacity at the surface of titanium exposed to an aqueous chloride environment is equivalent to a molecular hydrogen pressure of approximately 10 N/sqm.

  15. Environmental Degradation of Materials: Surface Chemistry Related to Stress Corrosion Cracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Parallel experiments have been performed in order to develop a comprehensive model for stress cracking (SCC) in structural materials. The central objective is to determine the relationship between the activity and selectivity of the microstructure of structural materials to their dissolution kinetics and experimentally measured SCC kinetics. Zinc was chosen as a prototype metal system. The SCC behavior of two oriented single-crystal disks of zinc in a chromic oxide/sodium sulfate solution (Palmerton solution) were determined. It was found that: (1) the dissolution rate is strongly (hkil)-dependent and proportional to the exposure time in the aggressive environment; and (2) a specific slip system is selectively active to dissolution under applied stress and this slip line controls crack initiation and propagation. As a precursor to potential microgrvity experiments, electrophoretic mobility measurements of zinc particles were obtained in solutions of sodium sulfate (0.0033 M) with concentrations of dissolved oxygen from 2 to 8 ppm. The equilibrium distribution of exposed oriented planes as well as their correlation will determine the particle mobility.

  16. Environmental Degradation of Materials: Surface Chemistry Related to Stress Corrosion Cracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Parallel experiments have been performed in order to develop a comprehensive model for stress cracking (SCC) in structural materials. The central objective is to determine the relationship between the activity and selectivity of the microstructure of structural materials to their dissolution kinetics and experimentally measured SCC kinetics. Zinc was chosen as a prototype metal system. The SCC behavior of two oriented single-crystal disks of zinc in a chromic oxide/sodium sulfate solution (Palmerton solution) were determined. It was found that: (1) the dissolution rate is strongly (hkil)-dependent and proportional to the exposure time in the aggressive environment; and (2) a specific slip system is selectively active to dissolution under applied stress and this slip line controls crack initiation and propagation. As a precursor to potential microgrvity experiments, electrophoretic mobility measurements of zinc particles were obtained in solutions of sodium sulfate (0.0033 M) with concentrations of dissolved oxygen from 2 to 8 ppm. The equilibrium distribution of exposed oriented planes as well as their correlation will determine the particle mobility.

  17. Environment-induced embrittlement: Stress corrosion cracking and metal-induced embrittlement; Environmental embrittlement of iron aluminide alloys. Final report, September 1, 1986--August 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Heldt, L.A.; Milligan, W.W.; White, C.L.

    1991-12-31

    This research program has included two thrusts. The first addressed environment-induced embrittlement in a parallel study of stress corrosion cracking and metal-induced embrittlement. This work has examined (1) mechanical properties as influenced by embrittling environments, (2) fractography and crystallography or transgranular cracking, (3) the mechanics of cracking, (4) the extent and role of local plastic flow, and (5) local chemistry within stress corrosion and metal-induced cracks. The embrittlement of iron aluminide alloys by air was addressed by determining the effect of water and hydrogen upon the mechanical properties. Slow strain rate testing in aqueous environments was carried out at controlled anodic and cathodic potentials. The effect of cathodically charged hydrogen and the effect of subsequent baking were measured. Environmental susceptibility was measured as affected by alloy composition, microstructure and degree of ordering.

  18. Theoretical prediction of energy release rate for interface crack initiation by thermal stress in environmental barrier coatings for ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, E.; Umeno, Y.

    2017-05-01

    As weight reduction of turbines for aircraft engines is demanded to improve fuel consumption and curb emission of carbon dioxide, silicon carbide (SiC) fiber reinforced SiC matrix composites (SiC/SiC) are drawing enormous attention as high-pressure turbine materials. For preventing degradation of SiC/SiC, environmental barrier coatings (EBC) for ceramics are deposited on the composites. The purpose of this study is to establish theoretical guidelines for structural design which ensures the mechanical reliability of EBC. We conducted finite element method (FEM) analysis to calculate energy release rates (ERRs) for interface crack initiation due to thermal stress in EBC consisting of Si-based bond coat, Mullite and Ytterbium (Yb)-silicate layers on a SiC/SiC substrate. In the FEM analysis, the thickness of one EBC layer was changed from 25 μm to 200 μm while the thicknesses of the other layers were fixed at 25 μm, 50 μm and 100 μm. We compared ERRs obtained by the FEM analysis and a simple theory for interface crack in a single-layered structure where ERR is estimated as nominal strain energy in the coating layers multiplied by a constant factor (independent of layer thicknesses). We found that, unlike the case of single-layered structures, the multiplication factor is no longer a constant but is determined by the combination of consisting coating layer thicknesses.

  19. Environmental stress cracking performance of polyether and PDMS-based polyurethanes in an in vitro oxidation model.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Genevieve; Padsalgikar, Ajay; Tkatchouk, Ekaterina; Jenney, Chris; Iacob, Ciprian; Runt, James

    2017-08-01

    Environmental stress cracking (ESC) was replicated in vitro on Optim™ (OPT) insulation, a polydimethylsiloxane-based polyurethane utilized clinically in cardiac leads, using a Zhao-type oxidation model. OPT performance was compared to that of two industry standard polyether urethanes: Pellethane(®) 80A (P80A), and Pellethane(®) 55D (P55D). Clinically relevant specimen configurations and strain states were utilized: low-voltage cardiac lead segments were held in a U-shape by placing them inside of vials. To study whether aging conditions impacted ESC formation, half of the samples were subjected to a pretreatment in human plasma for 7 days at 37°C; all samples were then aged in oxidative solutions containing 0.9% NaCl, 20% H2 O2 , and either 0 or 0.1M CoCl2 , with or without glass wool for 72 days at 37°C. Visual and SEM inspection revealed significant surface cracking consistent with ESC on all P80A and P55D samples. Sixteen of twenty P80A and 10/20 P55D samples also exhibited breaches. Seven of 20 OPT samples exhibited shallow surface cracking consistent with ESC. ATR-FTIR confirmed surface changes consistent with oxidation for all materials. The number average molecular weight decreased an average of 31% for OPT, 86% for P80A, and 56% for P55D samples. OPT outperformed P80A and P55D in this Zhao-type in vitro ESC model. An aging solution of 0.9% NaCl, 20% H2 O2 , and 0.1M CoCl2 , with glass wool provided the best combination of ESC replication and ease of use. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1544-1558, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Current understanding of stress-corrosion cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Parkins, R.N. )

    1992-12-01

    The mechanisms that cause stress corrosion cracking and the conditions in which they apply are reviewed. Attention is given to hydrogen-assisted cracking, film-induced cleavage, dissolution mechanisms, surface-mobility mechanism, cracking environments, deformation and cracking, and stochastic aspects of cracking. 70 refs.

  1. Environmental Effects on the Incubation Time Characteristics in Stress-Corrosion Cracking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    solution using compact tension specimens with a thickness of 3.8mm under permanent immersion conditions. The effects of loading magnitude, overload...Stress-strain curves obtained from experiments for (a) monotonic tension and (b) monotonic torsion 4 Fig. 2 Compact tension specimen used in the...T651 aluminum alloy 37 Fig. 24 Monotonic tensile curves of 7075-T651 aluminum alloy 38 Fig. 25 Compact specimen used in the SCC experiments (all

  2. Environmentally assisted cracking in light water reactors.

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O. K.; Chung, H. M.; Clark, R. W.; Gruber, E. E.; Shack, W. J.; Soppet, W. K.; Strain, R. V.

    2007-11-06

    This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in light water reactors (LWRs) from January to December 2002. Topics that have been investigated include: (a) environmental effects on fatigue crack initiation in carbon and low-alloy steels and austenitic stainless steels (SSs), (b) irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of austenitic SSs in BWRs, (c) evaluation of causes and mechanisms of irradiation-assisted cracking of austenitic SS in PWRs, and (d) cracking in Ni-alloys and welds. A critical review of the ASME Code fatigue design margins and an assessment of the conservation in the current choice of design margins are presented. The existing fatigue {var_epsilon}-N data have been evaluated to define the effects of key material, loading, and environmental parameters on the fatigue lives of carbon and low-alloy steels and austenitic SSs. Experimental data are presented on the effects of surface roughness on fatigue crack initiation in these materials in air and LWR environments. Crack growth tests were performed in BWR environments on SSs irradiated to 0.9 and 2.0 x 10{sup 21} n x cm{sup -2}. The crack growth rates (CGRs) of the irradiated steels are a factor of {approx}5 higher than the disposition curve proposed in NUREG-0313 for thermally sensitized materials. The CGRs decreased by an order of magnitude in low-dissolved oxygen (DO) environments. Slow-strain-rate tensile (SSRT) tests were conducted in high-purity 289 C water on steels irradiated to {approx}3 dpa. The bulk S content correlated well with the susceptibility to intergranular SCC in 289 C water. The IASCC susceptibility of SSs that contain >0.003 wt. % S increased drastically. bend tests in inert environments at 23 C were conducted on broken pieces of SSRT specimens and on unirradiated specimens of the same materials after hydrogen charging. The results of the tests and a review of other data in the literature

  3. Probabilistic methodology to estimate environmental conditions for localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 22 in a high-level radioactive waste repository setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pensado, Osvaldo; Pabalan, Roberto

    2008-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has indicated that it may use Alloy 22 (Ni-22Cr-13Mo-4Fe-3W) as the waste package outer container material for the potential high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This alloy could be susceptible to localized corrosion, in the form of crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking if environmental conditions and material requirements (e.g., existence of crevices or high enough tensile stresses) are met. An approach is proposed to assess the likelihood of environmental conditions capable of inducing crevice corrosion or stress corrosion cracking in Alloy 22. The approach is based on thermodynamic simulations of evaporation of porewaters and published equations to compute corrosion potential and critical potentials for crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking as functions of pH, ionic concentration, temperature, and metallurgical states from fabrication processes. Examples are presented to show how the approach can be used in system-level assessment of repository performance.

  4. Hydrogen embrittlement and stress corrosion cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Gibala, R.; Hehemann, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents proceedings which give an account of knowledge and understanding of hydrogen embrittlement and stress corrosion cracking from the viewpoints of the authors. The book is divided into two sections: (1) hydrogen embrittlement and (2) stress corrosion cracking, with papers by experts in the field contained in each section. Contents include: Hydrogen Embrittlement: Overview on hydrogen degradation phenomena; theories of hydrogen induced cracking of steels; hydrogen embrittlement of steels; hydrogen trapping and hydrogen embrittlement; some recent results on the direct observation of hydrogen trapping in metals and its consequence on embrittlement mechanisms; fracture mechanisms and surface chemistry; investigations of environment-assisted crack growth; the role of microstructure in hydrogen embrittlement; hydrogen related second phase embrittlement of solids. Stress corrosion cracking: Recent observations on the propagation of stress corrosion cracks and their relevance to proposed mechanisms of stress corrosion cracking; films and their importance in the nucleation of stress corrosion cracking stainless steel; stress corrosion cracking of ferritic and austenitic stainless steels; fundamentals of corrosion fatigue behavior of metals and alloys; hydrogen embrittlement and stress corrosion cracking of aluminum alloys; hydrogen permeation and embrittlement studies on metallic glasses; and industrial occurrence of stress corrosion cracking and means for prediction.

  5. Characterization of the roles of electrochemistry, convection and crack chemistry in stress corrosion cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, P.L.; Young, L.M.

    1995-12-31

    Understanding the role of ionic current flow within a crack and near the crack tip is fundamental to modeling of environmentally assisted crack advance. Critical conceptual issues and models related to ionic current flow within cracks, and the associated ``crevice`` chemistry and metal oxidation that results, are presented and examined in the light of experimental evidence. Various advanced techniques have been developed to evaluate the roles of electrochemistry, transport, and crack chemistry in stress corrosion cracking, with emphasis on high temperature ``pure`` water. These include high resolution crack length measurement by dc potential drop performed simultaneously with microsampling, electrochemical microprobe mapping, microinjection of species, and micropolarization of the crack. Conceptual issues addressed include the importance of the corrosion potential vs. oxidant concentration, the absence of oxidants and associated low corrosion potential within cracks, the location and role of macrocell currents associated with potential gradients from differential aeration cells, the localized nature of the microcell currents associated with dissolution at the crack tip, the importance of pH and adsorbed species on repassivation and crack advance, and the role of convection in crack chemistry and crack advance. Correct concepts are shown to be an essential pre-cursor to quantitative modeling.

  6. Hydrogen embrittlement and stress corrosion cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Gibala, R.; Hehemann, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    Topics related to hydrogen embrittlement are discussed, taking into account an overview on hydrogen degradation phenomena, theories of hydrogen induced cracking of steels, the hydrogen embrittlement of steels, hydrogen trapping in iron and steels, some recent results on the direct observation of hydrogen trapping in metals and its consequences on embrittlement mechanisms, fracture mechanics and surface chemistry investigations of environment-assisted crack growth, the role of microstructure in hydrogen embrittlement, and hydrogen related second phase embrittlement of solids. Subjects in the area of stress corrosion cracking are also explored, giving attention to recent observations on the propagation of stress corrosion cracks and their relevance to proposed mechanisms of stress corrosion cracking, films and their importance in the nucleation of stress corrosion cracking in stainless steel, and fundamentals of corrosion fatigue behavior of metals and alloys. Stress corrosion cracking of ferritic and austenitic stainless steels is also considered along with embrittlement studies on metallic glasses.

  7. Ultrasound imaging of stress corrosion cracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hörchens, Lars; Wassink, Casper; Haines, Harvey

    2015-03-01

    The formation of cracks in a corrosive environment in combination with tensile stresses is known as stress corrosion cracking. This type of degradation mechanism can lead to sudden and rapid failure of a structure. In a colony of cracks, it is desired to determine the position and depth of individual cracks in order to assess the remaining strength of the structure. In the present paper, acoustical imaging using inverse wave field extrapolation is applied to a pipe coupon exhibiting stress corrosion cracking. It is shown that individual cracks in the colony can be identified and sized. Aside from the direct path into the pipe wall, reflections from the inner and outer surface of the sample are used to determine accurately the extent of the surface-breaking cracks within the material. The images obtained during a scan can be stacked together to provide a three-dimensional visualization of the colony of cracks.

  8. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Carbon Steel Weldments

    SciTech Connect

    POH-SANG, LAM

    2005-01-13

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the role of weld residual stress on stress corrosion cracking in welded carbon steel plates prototypic to those used for nuclear waste storage tanks. Carbon steel specimen plates were butt-joined with Gas Metal Arc Welding technique. Initial cracks (seed cracks) were machined across the weld and in the heat affected zone. These specimen plates were then submerged in a simulated high level radioactive waste chemistry environment. Stress corrosion cracking occurred in the as-welded plate but not in the stress-relieved duplicate. A detailed finite element analysis to simulate exactly the welding process was carried out, and the resulting temperature history was used to calculate the residual stress distribution in the plate for characterizing the observed stress corrosion cracking. It was shown that the cracking can be predicted for the through-thickness cracks perpendicular to the weld by comparing the experimental KISCC to the calculated stress intensity factors due to the welding residual stress. The predicted crack lengths agree reasonably well with the test data. The final crack lengths appear to be dependent on the details of welding and the sequence of machining the seed cracks, consistent with the prediction.

  9. Stress intensity and crack displacement for small edge cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orange, Thomas W.

    1988-01-01

    The weight function method was used to derive stress intensity factors and crack mouth displacement coefficients for small edge cracks (less than 20 percent of the specimen width) in common fracture specimen configurations. Contact stresses due to point application of loads were found to be small but significant for three-point bending and insignificant for four-point bending. The results are compared with available equations and numerical solutions from the literature and with unpublished boundary collocation results.

  10. Stress-corrosion cracking in metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Criteria and recommended practices for preventing stress-corrosion cracking from impairing the structural integrity and flightworthiness of space vehicles are presented. The important variables affecting stress-corrosion cracking are considered to be the environment, including time and temperature; metal composition, and structure; and sustained tensile stress. For designing spacecraft structures that are free of stress-corrosion cracking for the service life of the vehicle the following rules apply: (1) identification and control of the environments to which the structure will be exposed during construction, storage, transportation, and use; (2) selection of alloy compositions and tempers which are resistant to stress-corrosion cracking in the identified environment; (3) control of fabrication and other processes which may introduce residual tensile stresses or damage the material; (4) limitation of the combined residual and applied tensile stresses to below the threshold stress level for the onset of cracking throughout the service life of the vehicle; and (5) establishment of a thorough inspection program.

  11. Environmentally assisted cracking in light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O.K.; Chung, H.M.; Gruber, E.E.

    1996-07-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in light water reactors (LWRs) from April 1995 to December 1995. Topics that have been investigated include fatigue of carbon and low-alloy steel used in reactor piping and pressure vessels, EAC of Alloy 600 and 690, and irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of Type 304 SS. Fatigue tests were conducted on ferritic steels in water that contained various concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO) to determine whether a slow strain rate applied during different portions of a tensile-loading cycle are equally effective in decreasing fatigue life. Crack-growth-rate tests were conducted on compact-tension specimens from several heats of Alloys 600 and 690 in simulated LWR environments. Effects of fluoride-ion contamination on susceptibility to intergranular cracking of high- and commercial- purity Type 304 SS specimens from control-tensile tests at 288 degrees Centigrade. Microchemical changes in the specimens were studied by Auger electron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy to determine whether trace impurity elements may contribute to IASCC of these materials.

  12. Environmentally Assisted Cracking of Nickel Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Rebak, R B

    2004-02-06

    Environmentally Assisted Cracking (EAC) is a general term that includes phenomena such as stress corrosion cracking (SCC), hydrogen embrittlement (HE), sulfide stress cracking (SSC), liquid metal embrittlement (LME), etc. EAC refers to a phenomenon by which a normally ductile metal looses its toughness (e.g. elongation to rupture) when it is subjected to mechanical stresses in presence of a specific corroding environment. For EAC to occur, three affecting factors must be present simultaneously. These include: (1) Mechanical tensile stresses, (2) A susceptible metal microstructure and (3) A specific aggressive environment. If any of these three factors is removed, EAC will not occur. That is, to mitigate the occurrence of EAC, engineers may for example eliminate residual stresses in a component or limit its application to certain chemicals (environment). The term environment not only includes chemical composition of the solution in contact with the component but also other variables such as temperature and applied potential. Nickel alloys are in general more resistant than stainless steels to EAC. For example, austenitic stainless steels (such as S30400) suffer SCC in presence of hot aqueous solutions containing chloride ions. Since chloride ions are ubiquitous in most industrial applications, the use of stressed stainless steels parts is seriously limited. On the other hand, nickel alloys (such as N10276) are practically immune to SCC in presence of hot chloride solutions and therefore an excellent alternative to replace the troubled stainless steels. Nonetheless, nickel alloys are not immune to other types of EAC. There are several environments (such as hot caustic and hot hydrofluoric acid) that may produce embrittlement in nickel alloys (Crum et al, 2000) (Table 1). The conditions where nickel alloys suffer EAC are highly specific and therefore avoidable by the proper design of the industrial components.

  13. Interacting Cracks in an Environmentally Assisted Fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levandovsky, Artem; Balazs, Anna

    2006-03-01

    We perform the study of environmentally assisted fracture within the framework of a lattice model. Formation of an ensemble of environmentally assisted microcracks, their coalescence and formation of crack ``avalanches'' lead to a very rich dynamical picture. Under specific condition crack healing can occur due to cohesive forces, which hold material together and tend to pull atoms together even if they are separated by a crack over several lattice units. We investigate the dynamical interplay between crack formation, arrest, healing and re-cracking. The goal here is to provide an understanding of the conditions leading to the phenomena of crack healing that happens along with the crack formation. We study the morphology of crack patterns with the intentions to establish a way to enhance the healing property of a material sample.

  14. Thermomechanical Manipulation of Crack-Tip Stress Field for Resistance to Stress Corrosion Crack Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh Raman, R. K.; Ibrahim, R. N.; Wu, F.; Rihan, R.

    2008-12-01

    Corrosion-assisted propagation of an existing crack is profoundly influenced by the stress intensity at the crack tip. This article presents the first results of thermomechanical conditioning (TMC) for local manipulation of material at and ahead of the crack tip, in an attempt to retard/stop crack propagation. Prenotched round tensile specimens of mild steel were subjected to rotating bending to generate a fatigue precrack, and then to apply localized thermomechanical conditioning. The threshold stress intensity factor ( K ISCC ) for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of precracked specimens with and without TMC was determined in a caustic environment. Results suggest that TMC can increase K ISCC . Finite element analysis of the specimens suggests development of compressive stresses at and around the crack tip, which is expected to improve the resistance to stress corrosion crack propagation (since stress corrosion cracks can propagate only under tensile loading).

  15. Stress analysis for structures with surface cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    Two basic forms of analysis, one treating stresses around arbitrarily loaded circular cracks, the other treating stresses due to loads arbitrarily distributed on the surface of a half space, are united by a boundary-point least squares method to obtain analyses for stresses from surface cracks in places or bars. Calculations were for enough cases to show how effects from the crack vary with the depth-to-length ratio, the fractional penetration ratio, the obliquity of the load, and to some extent the fractional span ratio. The results include plots showing stress intensity factors, stress component distributions near the crack, and crack opening displacement patterns. Favorable comparisons are shown with two kinds of independent experiments, but the main method for confirming the results is by wide checking of overall satisfaction of boundary conditions, so that external confirmation is not essential. Principles involved in designing analyses which promote dependability of the results are proposed and illustrated.

  16. Strain rate effects in stress corrosion cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Parkins, R.N. . Dept. of Metallurgy and Engineering Materials)

    1990-03-01

    Slow strain rate testing (SSRT) was initially developed as a rapid, ad hoc laboratory method for assessing the propensity for metals an environments to promote stress corrosion cracking. It is now clear, however, that there are good theoretical reasons why strain rate, as opposed to stress per se, will often be the controlling parameter in determining whether or not cracks are nucleated and, if so, are propagated. The synergistic effects of the time dependence of corrosion-related reactions and microplastic strain provide the basis for mechanistic understanding of stress corrosion cracking in high-pressure pipelines and other structures. However, while this may be readily comprehended in the context of laboratory slow strain tests, its extension to service situations may be less apparent. Laboratory work involving realistic stressing conditions, including low-frequency cyclic loading, shows that strain or creep rates give good correlation with thresholds for cracking and with crack growth kinetics.

  17. Thermographic characterization of stress during crack growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, K. E.; Dawicke, David S.; Welch, Christopher S.

    1992-01-01

    A full-field-thermographic technique for imaging stress patterns in dynamically loaded structures using general purpose IR imaging and image processing hardware is described. The inspection technique is based on the thermoelastic effect. A simple geometry is examined, and the experimentally determined values for the stress invariant are shown to be consistent with theoretical and numerical calculations. The application of full-field-thermographic measurement would ensure that the observed stress field has a common sampling period, thus allowing the observation of rapidly occurring stress anomalies such as the propagation of a fatigue crack. Fatigue crack propagation in two consecutive thermoelastic stress images from an aluminum sample is shown.

  18. Thermographic characterization of stress during crack growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, K. E.; Dawicke, David S.; Welch, Christopher S.

    1992-01-01

    A full-field-thermographic technique for imaging stress patterns in dynamically loaded structures using general purpose IR imaging and image processing hardware is described. The inspection technique is based on the thermoelastic effect. A simple geometry is examined, and the experimentally determined values for the stress invariant are shown to be consistent with theoretical and numerical calculations. The application of full-field-thermographic measurement would ensure that the observed stress field has a common sampling period, thus allowing the observation of rapidly occurring stress anomalies such as the propagation of a fatigue crack. Fatigue crack propagation in two consecutive thermoelastic stress images from an aluminum sample is shown.

  19. The Resistance of HY130 Steel to Environmental Cracking in Sea Water.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-01

    rate for such a high yield strength, and it has been reported to have excellent toughness and environmental cracking resistance . 2,𔃽 9oS The HY130... resistant to environmental crack propagation as the welds themselves. Effect of Stress -Relief Annealing Neither of the two stress relief annealing...weldments, AX140 MIG and E12018 and E14018 stick, have been evaluated for their resistance to environmental cracking under static loading in

  20. Environmentally Assisted Cracking: Concerns for Cadmium Replacement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    Environmentally Assisted Cracking Concerns for Cadmium Replacement by Scott M. Grendahl ARL-TR-3099 December 2003...5069 ARL-TR-3099 December 2003 Environmentally Assisted Cracking: Concerns for Cadmium Replacement Scott M. Grendahl Weapons and...Concerns for Cadmium Replacement 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 181E31 5e. TASK NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Grendahl, S.M. (ARL) 5f

  1. STRESS CORROSION CRACKING IN TEAR DROP SPECIMENS

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, P; Philip Zapp, P; Jonathan Duffey, J; Kerry Dunn, K

    2009-05-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted to investigate the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of 304L stainless steel used to construct the containment vessels for the storage of plutonium-bearing materials. The tear drop corrosion specimens each with an autogenous weld in the center were placed in contact with moist plutonium oxide and chloride salt mixtures. Cracking was found in two of the specimens in the heat affected zone (HAZ) at the apex area. Finite element analysis was performed to simulate the specimen fabrication for determining the internal stress which caused SCC to occur. It was found that the tensile stress at the crack initiation site was about 30% lower than the highest stress which had been shifted to the shoulders of the specimen due to the specimen fabrication process. This finding appears to indicate that the SCC initiation took place in favor of the possibly weaker weld/base metal interface at a sufficiently high level of background stress. The base material, even subject to a higher tensile stress, was not cracked. The relieving of tensile stress due to SCC initiation and growth in the HAZ and the weld might have foreclosed the potential for cracking at the specimen shoulders where higher stress was found.

  2. Separating the Influence of Environment from Stress Relaxation Effects on Dwell Fatigue Crack Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telesman, Jack; Gabb, Tim; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2016-01-01

    Seven different microstructural variations of LSHR were produced by controlling the cooling rate and the subsequent aging and thermal exposure heat treatments. Through cyclic fatigue crack growth testing performed both in air and vacuum, it was established that four out of the seven LSHR heat treatments evaluated, possessed similar intrinsic environmental resistance to cyclic crack growth. For these four heat treatments, it was further shown that the large differences in dwell crack growth behavior which still persisted, were related to their measured stress relaxation behavior. The apparent differences in their dwell crack growth resistance were attributed to the inability of the standard linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) stress intensity parameter to account for visco-plastic behavior. Crack tip stress relaxation controls the magnitude of the remaining local tensile stresses which are directly related to the measured dwell crack growth rates. It was hypothesized that the environmentally weakened grain boundary crack tip regions fail during the dwells when their strength is exceeded by the remaining local crack tip tensile stresses. It was shown that the classical creep crack growth mechanisms such as grain boundary sliding did not contribute to crack growth, but the local visco-plastic behavior still plays a very significant role by determining the crack tip tensile stress field which controls the dwell crack growth behavior. To account for the influence of the visco-plastic behavior on the crack tip stress field, an empirical modification to the LEFM stress intensity parameter, Kmax, was developed by incorporating into the formulation the remaining stress level concept as measured by simple stress relaxation tests. The newly proposed parameter, Ksrf, did an excellent job in correlating the dwell crack growth rates for the four heat treatments which were shown to have similar intrinsic environmental cyclic fatigue crack growth resistance.

  3. Survey updates amine stress corrosion cracking data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-13

    The final report by National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) task group T-8-14 has been published, revising and expanding the information on stress information on stress corrosion cracking of carbon steel in diethanolamine and diisopropanolamine service. A major conclusion of the survey was that cracking frequency was more prevalent in monoethanolamine (MEA) than in other amines. This paper reports that further examination of the DEA data indicated that some units were previously in MEA service and the reported cracks were actually associated with that period. A detailed follow-up review of the DEA data also revealed that some cases were caused by processes other than amine cracking. In many cases, further inspection or testing had been done after the original survey was submitted.

  4. Stress corrosion cracking of stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hehemann, R. F.

    1985-11-01

    The similarities and differences in the stress corrosion cracking response of ferritic and austenitic stainless steels in chloride solutions will be examined. Both classes of materials exhibit a cracking potential: similar transient response (to loading) of the potential in open circuit tests or the current in potentiostatic tests and similar enrichment of chromium and depletion of iron in the film associated with localized corrosion processes. The ferritic steels are more resistant to localized corrosion than are the austenitic steels, which is responsible for the difference in the influence of prior thermal and mechanical history on cracking susceptibility of the two types of steel. Similarities in the fractography of stress corrosion cracks and those produced by brittle delayed failure during cathodic charging of the ferritic steels indicate that hydrogen embrittlement is involved in the failure process.

  5. Seacoast stress corrosion cracking of aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, T. S.; Nelson, E. E.

    1981-01-01

    The stress corrosion cracking resistance of high strength, wrought aluminum alloys in a seacoast atmosphere was investigated and the results were compared with those obtained in laboratory tests. Round tensile specimens taken from the short transverse grain direction of aluminum plate and stressed up to 100 percent of their yield strengths were exposed to the seacoast and to alternate immersion in salt water and synthetic seawater. Maximum exposure periods of one year at the seacoast, 0.3 or 0.7 of a month for alternate immersion in salt water, and three months for synthetic seawater were indicated for aluminum alloys to avoid false indications of stress corrosion cracking failure resulting from pitting. Correlation of the results was very good among the three test media using the selected exposure periods. It is concluded that either of the laboratory test media is suitable for evaluating the stress corrosion cracking performance of aluminum alloys in seacoast atmosphere.

  6. Stress crack testing of polyethylene geomembranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halse, Y. H.; Koerner, R. M.; Lord, A. E., Jr.

    The sensitivity of high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembranes to stress cracking is evaluated under accelerated conditions at a constant stress. The test specimens are in accordance with ASTM D-1822, and are of the dumbbell shape with a constant length in the central section. The accelerated testing conditions consist of a 10 percent Igepal wetting solution in tap water, at a constant temperature of 50 C. The applied stresses are from 30 to 50 percent of the yield stress. It was found that most commercially available HDPE sheet material performs quite well in this type of test. Only one specimen in 80 showed any evidence of cracking and this may have been caused by other reasons. Testing of field fabricated seams, however, resulted in relatively large numbers of cracked specimens. Many of these test specimens showed signs of overgrinding and/or overheating. The results indicate that great care and excellent workmanship are required in the field fabrication of HDPE seams.

  7. Cause of stress-corrosion cracking in pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Christman, T.K.; Beavers, J.A.

    1987-01-05

    Carbonate-bicarbonate has been identified as the environmental species responsible for stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) in the majority of studied field failures of natural-gas pipelines. Battelle Columbus Division, Columbus, Ohio, studied approximately 30 SCC field failures of natural-gas pipelines form a 20-year period beginning in 1965. The results of the study also reject hydroxide (caustic) as a significant factor in these failures. Stress-corrosion cracking in natural-gas transmission pipelines has been recognized as a serious problem for a number of years. But there remains considerable controversy concerning the environmental species responsible for the cracking. One opinion has held that carbonate-bicarbonate promotes cracking, while another attributes the cracking to hydroxide (caustic). This issue is important because the feasibility of mitigation procedures based on potential control depend upon the chemical species responsible for the cracking. Moreover, it is important for the laboratory studies aimed at SCC mitigation to simulate closely the field failures. Both carbonate/bicarbonate and caustic environments can result from application of cathodic protection to a pipeline. The cathodic current applied to the pipeline accelerates the rate of the reduction reactions occurring on the pipe surface, promoting generation of hydroxide.

  8. Environmentally assisted cracking in light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Shack, W.J.; Kassner, T.F.; Maiya, P.S.; Park, J.Y.; Ruther, W.E.

    1988-10-01

    Research during the past year focused on (1) stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of austentitic stainless steels (SS), (2) fatigue of Type 316NG SS, and (3) SCC of ferritic steels used in reactor piping, pressure vessels, and steam generators. Stress corrosion cracking studies on austentitic SS explored the critical strains required for crack initiation, the effects of crevice conditions on SCC susceptibility, heat-to-heat variations in SCC susceptibility of Type 316NG and modified Type 347 SS, the effect of heat treatment on the susceptibility of Type 347 SS, threshold stress intensity values for crack growth in Type 316NG SS, and the effects of cuprous ion and several organic salts on the SCC of sensitized Type 304 SS. Crevice conditions were observed to strongly promote SCC. Significant heat-to-heat variations were observed in SCC susceptibility of Types 316NG and 347 SS. No correlation was found between SCC behavior and minor variations in chemical composition. A significant effect of heat treatment was observed in Type 347 SS. A heat that was extremely resistant to SCC after heat treatment at 650/degree/C for 24 h was susceptible to transgranular stress corrosion cracking (TGSCC) in the solution-annealed condition. Although there was no sensitization in either condition, the presence or absence of precipitates and differences in precipitate morphology appear to influence the SCC behavior. 20 refs., 20 figs., 11 tabs.

  9. Environmentally assisted cracking in LWR materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O.K.; Chung, H.M.; Kassner, T.F.; Park, J.H.; Shack, W.J.; Zhang, J.; Brust, F.W.; Dong, P.

    1998-03-01

    The effect of dissolved oxygen level on fatigue life of austenitic stainless steels is discussed and the results of a detailed study of the effect of the environment on the growth of cracks during fatigue initiation are presented. Initial test results are given for specimens irradiated in the Halden reactor. Impurities introduced by shielded metal arc welding that may affect susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking are described. Results of calculations of residual stresses in core shroud weldments are summarized. Crack growth rates of high-nickel alloys under cyclic loading with R ratios from 0.2--0.95 in water that contains a wide range of dissolved oxygen and hydrogen concentrations at 289 and 320 C are summarized.

  10. Environmentally assisted cracking of LWR materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O. K.; Chung, H. M.; Kassner, T. F.; Park, J. H.; Shack, W. J.; Zhang, J.; Brust, F. W.; Dong, P.

    1997-12-05

    The effect of dissolved oxygen level on fatigue life of austenitic stainless steels is discussed and the results of a detailed study of the effect of the environment on the growth of cracks during fatigue initiation are presented. Initial test results are given for specimens irradiated in the Halden reactor. Impurities introduced by shielded metal arc welding that may affect susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking are described. Results of calculations of residual stresses in core shroud weldments are summarized. Crack growth rates of high-nickel alloys under cyclic loading with R ratios from 0.2-0.95 in water that contains a wide range of dissolved oxygen and hydrogen concentrations at 289 and 320 C are summarized.

  11. Stress corrosion cracking of candidate waste container materials

    SciTech Connect

    Maiya, P.S.; Soppet, W.K.; Park, J.Y.; Kassner, T.F.; Shack, W.J.; Diercks, D.R.

    1990-11-01

    Six alloys have been selected as candidate container materials for the storage of high-level nuclear waste at the proposed Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. These materials are Type 304L stainless steel (SS), Type 316L SS, Incology 825, P-deoxidized Cu, Cu-30%Ni, and Cu-7% Al. The present program has been initiated to determine whether any of these materials can survive for 300 years in the site environment without developing through-wall stress corrosion cracks, and to assess the relative resistance of these materials to stress corrosion cracking (SCC). A series of slow-strain-rate tests (SSRTs) in simulated Well J-13 water which is representative of the groundwater present at the Yucca Mountain site has been completed, and crack-growth-rate (CGR) tests are also being conducted under the same environmental conditions. 13 refs., 60 figs., 22 tabs.

  12. Stress corrosion cracking of duplex stainless steels in caustic solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Ananya

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS) with roughly equal amount of austenite and ferrite phases are being used in industries such as petrochemical, nuclear, pulp and paper mills, de-salination plants, marine environments, and others. However, many DSS grades have been reported to undergo corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in some aggressive environments such as chlorides and sulfide-containing caustic solutions. Although stress corrosion cracking of duplex stainless steels in chloride solution has been investigated and well documented in the literature but the SCC mechanisms for DSS in caustic solutions were not known. Microstructural changes during fabrication processes affect the overall SCC susceptibility of these steels in caustic solutions. Other environmental factors, like pH of the solution, temperature, and resulting electrochemical potential also influence the SCC susceptibility of duplex stainless steels. In this study, the role of material and environmental parameters on corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of duplex stainless steels in caustic solutions were investigated. Changes in the DSS microstructure by different annealing and aging treatments were characterized in terms of changes in the ratio of austenite and ferrite phases, phase morphology and intermetallic precipitation using optical micrography, SEM, EDS, XRD, nano-indentation and microhardness methods. These samples were then tested for general and localized corrosion susceptibility and SCC to understand the underlying mechanisms of crack initiation and propagation in DSS in the above-mentioned environments. Results showed that the austenite phase in the DSS is more susceptible to crack initiation and propagation in caustic solutions, which is different from that in the low pH chloride environment where the ferrite phase is the more susceptible phase. This study also showed that microstructural changes in duplex stainless steels due to different heat treatments could affect their SCC

  13. Kinetic studies of stress-corrosion cracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noronha, P. J.

    1977-01-01

    Use of time-to-failure curves for stress-corrosion cracking processes may lead to incorrect estimates of structural life, if material is strongly dependent upon prestress levels. Technique characterizes kinetics of crackgrowth rates and intermediate arrest times by load-level changes.

  14. Stress-corrosion cracking in equiaxed 7075

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Anthony W.; Mueller, Matthias P.; Bernstein, I. M.

    1993-11-01

    The environmental response of commercially produced high-strength Al alloys, such as 7075, depends strongly on the anisotropy of the grain structure. Minimum resistance to both stresscorrosion cracking (SCC) and hydrogen embrittlement is observed in the short transverse direction of the “pancake” grain structure in commercially produced alloys. It has not been established, however, exactly how the morphology of the grain structure mediates the SCC response or the SCC mechanism. Therefore, stress-corrosion testing of a high-purity 7075 Al alloy (low in Fe, Si, and Cr), having equiaxed grains, under tension (mode I) and torsion (mode III) loading in a solution of IN A1C13 has been performed. The SCC results in the two loading modes, including fractography, appeared to suggest that the predominant processes of SCC were hydrogen embrittlement in mode I and anodic dissolution in mode III, in agreement with prior work on a commercially produced 7075 alloy, but that severe corrosion during longer tests renders those results unsuitable for threshold determination in this very aggressive testing environment.

  15. Residual stress effects in stress-corrosion cracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toribio, J.

    1998-04-01

    This paper describes a wide variety of residual stress effects in stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) of metallic materials on the basis of previous research of the author on high-strength steel in the form of hot-rolled bars and cold-drawn wires for prestressed concrete. It is seen that internal residual stress fields in the material play a very important—if not decisive—role in the SCC behavior of any engineering material, especially residual stresses generated near the free surface or in the vicinity of a crack tip.

  16. Residual stress effects in stress-corrosion cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Toribio, J.

    1998-04-01

    This paper describes a wide variety of residual stress effects in stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) of metallic materials on the basis of previous research of the author on high-strength steel in the form of hot-rolled bars and cold-drawn wires for prestressed concrete. It is seen that internal residual stress fields in the material play a very important -- if not decisive -- role in the SCC behavior of any engineering material, especially residual stresses generated near the free surface or in the vicinity of a crack tip.

  17. Stress corrosion cracking of titanium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, R. C.; Beck, F. H.; Fontana, M. G.

    1971-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to study (1) the basic electrochemical behavior of titanium in acid chloride solutions and (2) the response of the metal to dynamic straining in the same evironment. The aim of this group of experiments was to simulate, as nearly as possible, the actual conditions which exist at the tip of a crack. One of the foremost theories proposed to explain the propagation of stress corrosion cracks is a hydrogen embrittlement theory involving the precipitation of embrittling titanium hydrides inside the metal near the crack tip. An initial survey of the basic electrochemical literature indicated that surface hydrides play a critical role in the electrochemistry of titanium in acid solutions. A comprehensive analysis of the effect of surface films, particularly hydrides, on the electrochemical behavior of titanium in these solution is presented.

  18. Fundamental investigation of stress corrosion cracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, T. R.; Blackburn, M. J.; Smyrl, W. H.

    1972-01-01

    Two principle areas studied were stress corrosion crack growth rates of a titanium alloy in liquid environments containing halide ions and pitting corrosion of titanium in bromide solutions. Two initial assumptions were made, that the rate of propagation was controlled by a macroscopic solution parameter and that this parameter was viscosity. A series of solutions were prepared using lithium chloride as the solute and water, methanol, glycerin, formic acid, acetone, dimethyl sulphoxide, etc. As solvents, these solutions were prepared with a 5:1 solvent-solute ratio. Viscosity was varied by changing the temperature and it was found: (1) In all solvents the velocity of cracking was proportional to the reciprocal of the viscosity. (2) Each solvent gave a separate relationship, (3) The temperature dependence and numerical values for the apparent activation energy of cracking and viscosity were the same.

  19. Apollo experience report: The problem of stress-corrosion cracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    Stress-corrosion cracking has been the most common cause of structural-material failures in the Apollo Program. The frequency of stress-corrosion cracking has been high and the magnitude of the problem, in terms of hardware lost and time and money expended, has been significant. In this report, the significant Apollo Program experiences with stress-corrosion cracking are discussed. The causes of stress-corrosion cracking and the corrective actions are discussed, in terminology familiar to design engineers and management personnel, to show how stress-corrosion cracking can be prevented.

  20. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Aluminum Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-10

    boundaries into the specimen, attributed to hydrogen embrittlement and anodic dissolution. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC...along grain boundaries into the specimen, attributed to hydrogen embrittlement and anodic dissolution. NAWCADPAX/TR-2012/206 iii Contents...limited to, anodic dissolution[26-31] and hydrogen embrittlement [32-37] of grain boundary. Precipitates are observable on the grain boundaries in

  1. Measurement of fatigue crack closure for negative stress ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Romeiro, F.F.J.; Domingos, C.A.; Freitas, M.J.M. de

    1999-07-01

    The concept of fatigue crack closure, introduced in the 60's by Elber, has been used to explain a wide range of positive stress ratio crack propagation results (R {ge} 0). Less attention has been given to fatigue loading for negative stress ratios (R {lt} 0). In this work the results of crack propagation tests of middle-crack tension M(T) specimens of a normalized medium carbon steel DIN Ck 45 for a wide range of stress ratios from 0.7 {ge} R {ge} {minus}3 are presented. Crack closure loads were measured with the compliance technique at test frequency, using a data acquisition system. Negative crack closure loads were found for negative stress ratios R {le} {minus}1, which can explain higher crack propagation rates and accelerations in crack growth during variable-amplitude tests where compressive loads of different stress ratios are present.

  2. Corrosion Product Film-Induced Stress Facilitates Stress Corrosion Cracking

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenwen; Zhang, Zhiliang; Ren, Xuechong; Guan, Yongjun; Su, Yanjing

    2015-01-01

    Finite element analyses were conducted to clarify the role of corrosion product films (CPFs) in stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Flat and U-shaped edge-notched specimens were investigated in terms of the CPF-induced stress in the metallic substrate and the stress in the CPF. For a U-shaped edge-notched specimen, the stress field in front of the notch tip is affected by the Young’s modulus of the CPF and the CPF thickness and notch geometry. The CPF-induced tensile stress in the metallic substrate is superimposed on the applied load to increase the crack tip strain and facilitate localized plasticity deformation. In addition, the stress in the CPF surface contributes to the rupture of the CPFs. The results provide physical insights into the role of CPFs in SCC. PMID:26066367

  3. Stress corrosion cracking evaluation of martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, T. S.; Nelson, E. E.

    1980-01-01

    The resistance of the martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steels PH13-8Mo, 15-5PH, and 17-4PH to stress corrosion cracking was investigated. Round tensile and c-ring type specimens taken from several heats of the three alloys were stressed up to 100 percent of their yield strengths and exposed to alternate immersion in salt water, to salt spray, and to a seacoast environment. The results indicate that 15-5PH is highly resistant to stress corrosion cracking in conditions H1000 and H1050 and is moderately resistant in condition H900. The stress corrosion cracking resistance of PH13-8Mo and 17-4PH stainless steels in conditions H1000 and H1050 was sensitive to mill heats and ranged from low to high among the several heats included in the tests. Based on a comparison with data from seacoast environmental tests, it is apparent that alternate immersion in 3.5 percent salt water is not a suitable medium for accelerated stress corrosion testing of these pH stainless steels.

  4. An investigation of environmental effects on fatigue crack growth in Q1N (HY80) steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soboyejo, W. O.; Knott, J. F.

    1990-11-01

    Fatigue threshold tests have been conducted on through-thickness and semielliptic cracks in laboratory air, vacuum, and salt water at stress ratios (R = Kmin/Kmax @#@) of 0.2 and 0.7. The effects of stress ratio are rationalized by crack closure concepts. Environmental effects are explained by considerations of the irreversibility of slip at the crack tip and the role of debris on the fracture surfaces. Differences in the fatigue crack growth rates in the three environments are attributed largely to the extent of the irreversibility of slip due to the chemisorption of water/ water vapor at the crack tip. Debris in saltwater solutions is also shown to significantly affect the near-threshold growth through its influence on crack closure and the transportation of environment to the crack tip.

  5. Environmentally assisted crack growth rates of high-strength aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, Brain J.; Deffenbaugh, Kristen L.; Moran, Angela L.; Koul, Michelle G.

    2003-01-01

    The scope of this project is to evaluate the environmentally assisted long crack growth behavior of candidate high-strength aluminum alloys/tempers, specifically AA7150-T7751 and AA7040-T7651, for consideration as viable replacements/refurbishment for stress-corrosion cracking in susceptible AA7075-T6 aircraft components found in aging aircraft systems.

  6. Computational modeling of the mechanism of hydrogen embrittlement (HE) and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cendales, E. D.; Orjuela, F. A.; Chamarraví, O.

    2016-02-01

    In this article theoretical models and some existing data sets were examined in order to model the two main causes (hydrogen embrittlement and corrosion-cracking under stress) of the called environmentally assisted cracking phenomenon (EAC). Additionally, a computer simulation of flat metal plate subject to mechanical stress and cracking due both to hydrogen embrittlement and corrosion was developed. The computational simulation was oriented to evaluate the effect on the stress-strain behavior, elongation percent and the crack growth rate of AISI SAE 1040 steel due to three corrosive enviroments (H2 @ 0.06MPa; HCl, pH=1.0; HCl, pH=2.5). From the computer simulation we conclude that cracking due to internal corrosion of the material near to the crack tip limits affects more the residual strength of the flat plate than hydrogen embrittlement and generates a failure condition almost imminent of the mechanical structural element.

  7. Role of environmental variables on the stress corrosion cracking of sensitized AISI type 304 stainless steel (SS304) in thiosulfate solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roychowdhury, S.; Ghosal, S. K.; de, P. K.

    2004-10-01

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of sensitized AISI type 304 stainless steel (SS304) has been studied in dilute thiosulfate solutions as a function of thiosulfate concentrations and applied potentials. The susceptibility to SCC was observed to increase with thiosulfate concentrations and applied potentials. The addition of boric acid produced the reverse effect. A critical potential was found to exist, below which no SCC took place. Potential fluctuations, as recorded in the tests under open circuit conditions, appeared to be correlated with crack initiation and propagation during SCC. Current fluctuations observed in the controlled potential tests also gave indications of crack nucleation; however, at higher applied potentials such fluctuations were absent. The formation and presence of martensite in the specimens seemed to have a minor role in the overall SCC process. The aggressiveness of the thiosulfate concentration was also an important factor in determining the degree of susceptibility to SCC. The results obtained in the slow strain rate tests under open circuit as well as under potential-controlled conditions suggested a film ruptureanodic dissolution type of mechanism operative during SCC of sensitized SS304 in thiosulfate solutions.

  8. The effects of crack surface friction and roughness on crack tip stress fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballarini, Roberto; Plesha, Michael E.

    1987-01-01

    A model is presented which can be used to incorporate the effects of friction and tortuosity along crack surfaces through a constitutive law applied to the interface between opposing crack surfaces. The problem of a crack with a saw-tooth surface in an infinite medium subjected to a far-field shear stress is solved and the ratios of Mode-I stress intensity to Mode-II stress intensity are calculated for various coefficients of friction and material properties. The results show that tortuosity and friction lead to an increase in fracture loads and alter the direction of crack propagation.

  9. The effects of crack surface friction and roughness on crack tip stress fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballarini, Roberto; Plesha, Michael E.

    1987-01-01

    A model is presented which can be used to incorporate the effects of friction and tortuosity along crack surfaces through a constitutive law applied to the interface between opposing crack surfaces. The problem of a crack with a saw-tooth surface in an infinite medium subjected to a far-field shear stress is solved and the ratios of mode I stress intensity to mode II stress intensity are calculated for various coefficients of friction and material properties. The results show that tortuosity and friction lead to an increase in fracture loads and alter the direction of crack propagation.

  10. Fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking in light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Kassner, T.F.; Ruther, W.E.; Chung, H.M.; Hicks, P.D.; Hins, A.G.; Park, J.Y.; Shack, W.J.

    1991-12-01

    Fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking of piping, pressure vessels, and core components in light water reactors (LWRs) are important concerns as extended reactor lifetimes are envisaged. The degradation processes include intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of austenitic stainless steel (SS) piping in boiling water reactors (BWRs), and propagation of fatigue or SCC cracks (which initiate in sensitized SS cladding) into low-alloy ferritic steels in BWR pressure vessels. Similar cracking has also occurred in upper shell-to-transition cone girth welds in pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator vessels. Another concern is failure of reactor-core internal components after accumulation of relatively high fluence, which has occurred in both BWRs and PWRs. Research during the past year focused on (1) fatigue and SCC of ferritic steels used in piping and in steam generator and reactor pressure vessels, (2) role of chromate and sulfate in simulated BWR water in SCC of sensitized Type 304 SS, and (3) irradiation-assisted SCC in high- and commercial-purity Type 304 SS specimens from control-blade absorber tubes used in two operating BWRs. Failure after accumulation of relatively high fluence has been attributed to radiation-induced segregation (RIS) of elements such as Si, P, Ni, and Cr. This document provides a summary of research progress in these areas.

  11. Environmental Effects on Fatigue Crack Growth in 7075 Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonakdar, A.; Wang, F.; Williams, J. J.; Chawla, N.

    2012-08-01

    The fatigue behavior of aluminum alloys is greatly influenced by the environmental conditions. In this article, fatigue crack growth rates were measured for 7075-T651 Al alloy under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV, ~10-10 Torr), dry air, and water vapor. Standard compact tension (CT) specimens were tested along the L-T orientation under various load ratios of 0.1, 0.5, and 0.8. Fracture surfaces and crack morphologies were studied using scanning electron microscopy and crack deflection analysis. The crack growth behavior under vacuum was affected by friction and possible rewelding of crack surfaces, causing an asymmetry in the crack growth behavior, from load shedding to constant load. The enhancement of crack growth at higher moisture levels was observed and is discussed in terms of moisture decreasing friction between the crack faces. The effect of crack deflection as a function of R ratio and environment is also presented.

  12. Mixed mode stress intensity factors for semielliptical surface cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, F. W.; Sorensen, D. R.

    1974-01-01

    The three-dimensional equations of elasticity are solved for a flat elliptical crack which has nonuniform shear stresses applied to its surfaces. An alternating method is used to determine the mode two and mode three stress intensity factors for a semielliptical surface crack in the surface of a finite thickness solid. These stress intensity factors are presented as a function of position along the crack border for a number of crack shapes and crack depths. This same technique is followed to determine the mode one stress intensity factors for the semielliptical surface crack which has normal loading applied to its surface. Mode one stress intensity factors are presented and compared with the results obtained from previous work.

  13. Influence of load interactions on crack growth as related to state of stress and crack closure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telesman, J.

    1985-01-01

    Fatigue crack propagation (FCP) after an application of a low-high loading sequence was investigated as a function of specimen thickness and crack closure. No load interaction effects were detected for specimens in a predominant plane strain state. However, for the plane stress specimens, initially high FCP rates after transition to a higher stress intensity range were observed. The difference in observed behavior was explained by examining the effect of the resulting closure stress intensity values on the effective stress intensity range.

  14. Surface aspects of pitting and stress corrosion cracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truhan, J. S., Jr.; Hehemann, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    The pitting and stress corrosion cracking of a stable austenitic stainless steel in aqueous chloride environments were investigated using a secondary ion mass spectrometer as the primary experimental technique. The surface concentration of hydrogen, oxygen, the hydroxide, and chloride ion, magnesium or sodium, chromium and nickel were measured as a function of potential in both aqueous sodium chloride and magnesium chloride environments at room temperature and boiling temperatures. It was found that, under anodic conditions, a sharp increase in the chloride concentration was observed to occur for all environmental conditions. The increase may be associated with the formation of an iron chloride complex. Higher localized chloride concentrations at pits and cracks were also detected with an electron microprobe.

  15. Residual stresses and stress corrosion cracking in pipe fittings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrington, Ronald J.; Scott, James J.; Torres, Freddie

    1994-06-01

    Residual stresses can play a key role in the SCC performance of susceptible materials in PWR primary water applications. Residual stresses are stresses stored within the metal that develop during deformation and persist in the absence of external forces or temperature gradients. Sources of residual stresses in pipe fittings include fabrication processes, installation and welding. There are a number of methods to characterize the magnitude and orientation of residual stresses. These include numerical analysis, chemical cracking tests, and measurement (e.g., X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction, strain gage/hole drilling, strain gage/trepanning, strain gage/section and layer removal, and acoustics). This paper presents 400 C steam SCC test results demonstrating that residual stresses in as-fabricated Alloy 600 pipe fittings are sufficient to induce SCC. Residual stresses present in as-fabricated pipe fittings are characterized by chemical cracking tests (stainless steel fittings tested in boiling magnesium chloride solution) and by the sectioning and layer removal (SLR) technique.

  16. Stress intensity factors for bonded orthotropic strips with cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delale, F.; Erdogan, F.

    1978-01-01

    The elastostatic problem for a nonhomogeneous plane which consists of two sets of periodically arranged dissimilar orthotropic strips is considered. It is assumed that the plane contains a series of collinear cracks perpendicular to the interfaces and is loaded in tension away from and perpendicular to the cracks. Cracks fully imbedded into the homogenous strips were analyzed as well as the singular behavior of the stresses for two special crack geometries. The analysis of cracks crossing interfaces indicates that, for certain orthotropic material combinations, the stress state at the point of intersection of a crack and an interface may be bounded. A number of numerical examples are worked out in order to separate the primary material parameters influencing the stress intensity factors and the powers of stress singularity, and to determine the trends regarding the influence of the secondary parameters.

  17. Aircraft crash caused by stress corrosion cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Kolkman, H.J.; Kool, G.A.; Wanhill, R.J.H.

    1996-01-01

    An aircraft crash in the Netherlands was caused by disintegration of a jet engine. Fractography showed that the chain of events started with stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of a pin attached to a lever arm of the compressor variable vane system. Such a lever arm-pin assembly costs only a few dollars. Investigation of hundreds of pins from the accident and a number of identical engines revealed that this was not an isolated case. Many pins exhibited various amounts of SCC. The failed pin in the accident engine happened to be the first fractured one. SCC requires the simultaneous presence of tensile stress, a corrosive environment, and a susceptible material. In this case the stress was a residual stress arising from the production method. There was a clear correlation between the presence of salt deposits on the levers and SCC of the pins. It was shown that these deposits were able to reach the internal space between the pin and lever arm, thereby initiating SCC in this space. The corrosive environment in Western Europe explains why the problem manifested itself in the Netherlands at a relatively early stage in engine life. The main point is, however, that the manufacturer selected an SCC-prone material in the design stage. The solution has been to change the pin material.

  18. Psychological and environmental determinants of relapse in crack cocaine smokers.

    PubMed

    Wallace, B C

    1989-01-01

    The paper reviews approaches to relapse in the treatment of cocaine abusers. Approaches reveal a common mechanism underlying relapse that involves drug craving, recall of euphoria, environmental cues, denial, myths of being able to sell or use drugs, and painful affect states necessitating use of a multifaceted clinical technique. Empirical validation of a common mechanism underlying relapse establishes a typology of psychological and environmental determinants of relapse for crack cocaine smokers (N = 35) who relapse after hospital detoxification and return a second time. Major findings are that relapse follows a painful emotional state (40%), failure to enter arranged aftercare treatment (37%), or encounters with conditioned environmental stimuli (34%), and involves narcissistic psychopathology and denial (28.5%) and interpersonal stress (24%); 85.7% involve multideterminants. Case examples illustrate the role of multideterminants in relapse. The paper educates clinicians to the integrated theory and multifaceted clinical technique necessary for efficacious treatment of cocaine patients, while the typology predicts probable relapse situations.

  19. Propagation of stress corrosion cracks in alpha-brasses

    SciTech Connect

    Beggs, Dennis Vinton

    1981-01-01

    Transgranular and intergranular stress corrosion cracks were investigated in alpha-brasses in a tarnishing ammoniacal solution. Surface observation indicated that the transgranular cracks propagated discontinuously by the sudden appearance of a fine crack extending several microns ahead of the previous crack tip, often associated with the detection of a discrete acoustic emission (AE). By periodically increasing the deflection, crack front markings were produced on the resulting fracture surfaces, showing that the discontinuous propagation of the crack trace was representative of the subsurface cracking. The intergranular crack trace appeared to propagate continuously at a relatively blunt crack tip and was not associated with discrete AE. Under load pulsing tests with a time between pulses, ..delta..t greater than or equal to 3 s, the transgranular fracture surfaces always exhibited crack front markings which corresponded with the applied pulses. The spacing between crack front markings, ..delta..x, decreased linearly with ..delta..t. With ..delta..t less than or equal to 1.5 s, the crack front markings were in a one-to-one correspondence with applied pulses only at relatively long crack lengths. In this case, ..delta..x = ..delta..x* which approached a limiting value of 1 ..mu..m. No crack front markings were observed on intergranular fracture surfaces produced during these tests. It is concluded that transgranular cracking occurs by discontinuous mechanical fracture of an embrittled region around the crack tip, while intergranular cracking results from a different mechanism with cracking occurring via the film-rupture mechanism.

  20. Stress corrosion cracking evaluation of precipitation-hardening stainless steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, T. S.; Nelson, E. E.

    1970-01-01

    Accelerated test program results show which precipitation hardening stainless steels are resistant to stress corrosion cracking. In certain cases stress corrosion susceptibility was found to be associated with the process procedure.

  1. Corrosion pitting and environmentally assisted small crack growth.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Alan

    2014-09-08

    In many applications, corrosion pits act as precursors to cracking, but qualitative and quantitative prediction of damage evolution has been hampered by lack of insights into the process by which a crack develops from a pit. An overview is given of recent breakthroughs in characterization and understanding of the pit-to-crack transition using advanced three-dimensional imaging techniques such as X-ray computed tomography and focused ion beam machining with scanning electron microscopy. These techniques provided novel insights with respect to the location of crack development from a pit, supported by finite-element analysis. This inspired a new concept for the role of pitting in stress corrosion cracking based on the growing pit inducing local dynamic plastic strain, a critical factor in the development of stress corrosion cracks. Challenges in quantifying the subsequent growth rate of the emerging small cracks are then outlined with the potential drop technique being the most viable. A comparison is made with the growth rate for short cracks (through-thickness crack in fracture mechanics specimen) and long cracks and an electrochemical crack size effect invoked to rationalize the data.

  2. Corrosion pitting and environmentally assisted small crack growth

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, Alan

    2014-01-01

    In many applications, corrosion pits act as precursors to cracking, but qualitative and quantitative prediction of damage evolution has been hampered by lack of insights into the process by which a crack develops from a pit. An overview is given of recent breakthroughs in characterization and understanding of the pit-to-crack transition using advanced three-dimensional imaging techniques such as X-ray computed tomography and focused ion beam machining with scanning electron microscopy. These techniques provided novel insights with respect to the location of crack development from a pit, supported by finite-element analysis. This inspired a new concept for the role of pitting in stress corrosion cracking based on the growing pit inducing local dynamic plastic strain, a critical factor in the development of stress corrosion cracks. Challenges in quantifying the subsequent growth rate of the emerging small cracks are then outlined with the potential drop technique being the most viable. A comparison is made with the growth rate for short cracks (through-thickness crack in fracture mechanics specimen) and long cracks and an electrochemical crack size effect invoked to rationalize the data. PMID:25197249

  3. Cyclic stress effect on stress corrosion cracking of duplex stainless steel in chloride and caustic solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Di

    Duplex stainless steel (DSS) is a dual-phase material with approximately equal volume amount of austenite and ferrite. It has both great mechanical properties (good ductility and high tensile/fatigue strength) and excellent corrosion resistance due to the mixture of the two phases. Cyclic loadings with high stress level and low frequency are experienced by many structures. However, the existing study on corrosion fatigue (CF) study of various metallic materials has mainly concentrated on relatively high frequency range. No systematic study has been done to understand the ultra-low frequency (˜10-5 Hz) cyclic loading effect on stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of DSSs. In this study, the ultra-low frequency cyclic loading effect on SCC of DSS 2205 was studied in acidified sodium chloride and caustic white liquor (WL) solutions. The research work focused on the environmental effect on SCC of DSS 2205, the cyclic stress effect on strain accumulation behavior of DSS 2205, and the combined environmental and cyclic stress effect on the stress corrosion crack initiation of DSS 2205 in the above environments. Potentiodynamic polarization tests were performed to investigate the electrochemical behavior of DSS 2205 in acidic NaCl solution. Series of slow strain rate tests (SSRTs) at different applied potential values were conducted to reveal the optimum applied potential value for SCC to happen. Room temperature static and cyclic creep tests were performed in air to illustrate the strain accumulation effect of cyclic stresses. Test results showed that cyclic loading could enhance strain accumulation in DSS 2205 compared to static loading. Moreover, the strain accumulation behavior of DSS 2205 was found to be controlled by the two phases of DSS 2205 with different crystal structures. The B.C.C. ferrite phase enhanced strain accumulation due to extensive cross-slips of the dislocations, whereas the F.C.C. austenite phase resisted strain accumulation due to cyclic strain

  4. Transient thermal stress problem for a circumferentially cracked hollow cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nied, H. F.; Erdogan, F.

    1982-01-01

    The transient thermal stress problem for a hollow elasticity cylinder containing an internal circumferential edge crack is considered. It is assumed that the problem is axisymmetric with regard to the crack geometry and the loading, and that the inertia effects are negligible. The problem is solved for a cylinder which is suddenly cooled from inside. First the transient temperature and stress distributions in an uncracked cylinder are calculated. By using the equal and opposite of this thermal stress as the crack surface traction in the isothermal cylinder the crack problem is then solved and the stress intensity factor is calculated. The numerical results are obtained as a function of the Fourier number tD/b(2) representing the time for various inner-to-outer radius ratios and relative crack depths, where D and b are respectively the coefficient of diffusivity and the outer radius of the cylinder.

  5. Cracking of coated materials under transient thermal stresses

    SciTech Connect

    Rizk, A.A.; Erdogan, F. )

    1989-01-01

    The crack problem for a relatively thin layer bonded to a very thick substrate under thermal shock conditions is considered. The effect of surface cooling rate is studied by assuming the temperature boundary condition to be a ramp function. Among the crack geometries considered are the edge crack in the coating layer, the broken layer, the edge crack going through the interface, the undercoat crack in the substrate and the embedded crack crossing the interface. The primary calculated quantity is the stress intensity factor at various singular points and the main variables are the relative sizes and locations of cracks, the time, and the duration of the cooling ramp. The problem is solved and rather extensive results are given for two material pairs, namely a stainless steel layer welded on a ferritic medium and a ceramic coating on a steel substrate. 12 refs.

  6. Cracking of coated materials under transient thermal stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizk, A. A.; Erdogan, F.

    1989-01-01

    The crack problem for a relatively thin layer bonded to a very thick substrate under thermal shock conditions is considered. The effect of surface cooling rate is studied by assuming the temperature boundary condition to be a ramp function. Among the crack geometries considered are the edge crack in the coating layer, the broken layer, the edge crack going through the interface, the undercoat crack in the substrate and the embedded crack crossing the interface. The primary calculated quantity is the stress intensity factor at various singular points and the main variables are the relative sizes and locations of cracks, the time, and the duration of the cooling ramp. The problem is solved and rather extensive results are given for two material pairs, namely a stainless steel layer welded on a ferritic medium and a ceramic coating on a steel substrate.

  7. Cracking of coated materials under transient thermal stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizk, A. A.; Erdogan, Fazil

    1988-01-01

    The crack problem for a relatively thin layer bonded to a very thick substrate under thermal shock conditions is considered. The effect of surface cooling rate is studied by assuming the temperature boundary condition to be a ramp function. Among the crack geometries considered are the edge crack in the coating layer, the broken layer, the edge crack going through the interface, the undercoat crack in the substrate and the embedded crack crossing the interface. The primary calculated quantity is the stress intensity factor at various singular points and the main variables are the relative sizes and locations of cracks, the time, and the duration of the cooling ramp. The problem is solved and rather extensive results are given for two material pairs, namely a stainless steel layer welded on a ferritic medium and a ceramic coating on a steel substrate.

  8. Fundamental understanding and life prediction of stress corrosion cracking in BWRs and energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, P.L.; Ford, F.P.

    1998-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to present an approach for design and lifetime evaluation of environmental cracking based on experimental and fundamental modeling of the underlying processes operative in crack advance. In detailed this approach and its development and quantification for energy (hot water) systems, the requirements for a life prediction methodology will be highlighted and the shortcomings of the existing design and lifetime evaluation codes reviewed. Examples are identified of its use in a variety of cracking systems, such as stainless steels, low alloy steels, nickel base alloys, and irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking in boiling water reactor (BWR) water, as well as preliminary use for low alloy steel and Alloy 600 in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and turbine steels in steam turbines. Identification of the common aspects with environmental cracking in other hot water systems provides a secure basis for its extension to related energy systems. 166 refs., 49 figs.

  9. Evaluation of Stress Corrosion Cracking Susceptibility Using Fracture Mechanics Techniques, Part 1. [environmental tests of aluminum alloys, stainless steels, and titanium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprowls, D. O.; Shumaker, M. B.; Walsh, J. D.; Coursen, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SSC) tests were performed on 13 aluminum alloys, 13 precipitation hardening stainless steels, and two titanium 6Al-4V alloy forgings to compare fracture mechanics techniques with the conventional smooth specimen procedures. Commercially fabricated plate and rolled or forged bars 2 to 2.5-in. thick were tested. Exposures were conducted outdoors in a seacoast atmosphere and in an inland industrial atmosphere to relate the accelerated tests with service type environments. With the fracture mechanics technique tests were made chiefly on bolt loaded fatigue precracked compact tension specimens of the type used for plane-strain fracture toughness tests. Additional tests of the aluminum alloy were performed on ring loaded compact tension specimens and on bolt loaded double cantilever beams. For the smooth specimen procedure 0.125-in. dia. tensile specimens were loaded axially in constant deformation type frames. For both aluminum and steel alloys comparative SCC growth rates obtained from tests of precracked specimens provide an additional useful characterization of the SCC behavior of an alloy.

  10. Stress Ratio Effects on Crack Opening Loads and Crack Growth Rates in Aluminum Alloy 2024

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riddell, William T.; Piascik, Robert S.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of stress ratio (R) and crack opening behavior on fatigue crack growth rates (da/dN) for aluminum alloy (AA) 2024-T3 were investigated using constant-delta K testing, closure measurements, and fractography. Fatigue crack growth rates were obtained for a range of delta K and stress ratios. Results show that constant delta K fatigue crack growth for R ranging from near 0 to 1 is divided into three regions. In Region 1, at low R, da/dN increases with increasing R. In Region 2, at intermediate R, fatigue crack growth rates are relatively independent of R. In Region 3, at high R, further increases in da/dN are observed with increasing R.

  11. Influence of fatigue crack wake length and state of stress on crack closure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telesman, J.; Fisher, D. M.

    1986-01-01

    The location of crack closure with respect to crack wake and specimen thickness under different loading conditions was determined. The rate of increase of K sub CL in the crack wake was found to be significantly higher for plasticity induced closure in comparison to roughness induced closure. Roughness induced closure was uniform throughout the thickness of the specimen while plasticity induced closure levels were 50 percent higher in the near surface region than in the midthickness. The influence of state of stress on low-high load interaction effects was also examined. Load interaction effects differed depending upon the state of stress and were explained in terms of delta K sub eff.

  12. Fatigue crack closure behavior at high stress ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, C. Christopher; Carman, C. Davis; Hillberry, Ben M.

    1988-01-01

    Fatigue crack delay behavior at high stress ratio caused by single peak overloads was investigated in two thicknesses of 7475-T731 aluminum alloy. Closure measurements indicated no closure occurred before or throughout the overload plastic zones following the overload. This was further substantiated by comparing the specimen compliance following the overload with the compliance of a low R ratio test when the crack was fully open. Scanning electron microscope studies revealed that crack tunneling and possibly reinitiation of the crack occurred, most likely a result of crack-tip blunting. The number of delay cycles was greater for the thinner mixed mode stress state specimen than for the thicker plane strain stress state specimen, which is similar to low R ratio test results and may be due to a larger plastic zone for the mixed mode cased.

  13. Slow Crack Growth of Brittle Materials With Exponential Crack-Velocity Formulation. Part 3; Constant Stress and Cyclic Stress Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Nemeth, Noel N.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2002-01-01

    The previously determined life prediction analysis based on an exponential crack-velocity formulation was examined using a variety of experimental data on advanced structural ceramics tested under constant stress and cyclic stress loading at ambient and elevated temperatures. The data fit to the relation between the time to failure and applied stress (or maximum applied stress in cyclic loading) was very reasonable for most of the materials studied. It was also found that life prediction for cyclic stress loading from data of constant stress loading in the exponential formulation was in good agreement with the experimental data, resulting in a similar degree of accuracy as compared with the power-law formulation. The major limitation in the exponential crack-velocity formulation, however, was that the inert strength of a material must be known a priori to evaluate the important slow-crack-growth (SCG) parameter n, a significant drawback as compared with the conventional power-law crack-velocity formulation.

  14. Crack propagation and fracture in engineered stress profile glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrams, Matthew B.

    Ion exchange procedures have been developed for soda lime silicate and soda alumina silicate glasses that produce a maximum compressive stress below the surface of the material. These glasses can form stable surface cracks under applied tensile stress, resulting in rising apparent R-curve behavior and reduced strength variability as a function of flaw size in the material. Glass exhibiting this behavior has been termed engineered stress profile (ESP) glass. In this work, eight ion exchange procedures and three surface preparation methods were used to produce a range of ESP glasses. An experimental stress measurement method utilizing iterated optical retardation and progressive etching was developed to determine the stress profile in the glass surfaces. Based on the measured stress profiles, a weight function approach was used to predict stress intensity factors as a function of crack geometry, and thus determine crack propagation paths as a function of initial flaw size, residual and applied stresses, and material fracture toughness. These calculations were used to predict fracture strength distribution, crack stability, and the potential for multiple surface cracking. Predicted values were compared to experimental observations of crack growth and fracture behavior, and with measured fracture strength distributions.

  15. Environmentally Assisted Cracking in Silicon Nitride Barrier Films on Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Substrates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyungjin; Luo, Hao; Singh, Ankit K; Zhu, Ting; Graham, Samuel; Pierron, Olivier N

    2016-10-03

    A singular critical onset strain value has been used to characterize the strain limits of barrier films used in flexible electronics. However, such metrics do not account for time-dependent or environmentally assisted cracking, which can be critical in determining the overall reliability of these thin-film coatings. In this work, the time-dependent channel crack growth behavior of silicon nitride barrier films on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates is investigated in dry and humid environments by tensile tests with in situ optical microscopy and numerical models. The results reveal the occurrence of environmentally assisted crack growth at strains well below the critical onset crack strain and in the absence of polymer-relaxation-assisted, time-dependent crack growth. The crack growth rates in laboratory air are about 1 order of magnitude larger than those tested in dry environments (dry air or dry nitrogen). In laboratory air, crack growth rates increase from ∼200 nm/s to 60 μm/s for applied stress intensity factors, K, ranging from 1.0 to 1.4 MPa·m(1/2), below the measured fracture toughness Kc of 1.8 MPa·m(1/2). The crack growth rates in dry environments were also strongly dependent on the prior storage of the specimens, with larger rates for specimens exposed to laboratory air (and therefore moisture) prior to testing compared to specimens stored in a dry environment. This behavior is attributed to moisture-assisted cracking, with a measured power law exponent of ∼22 in laboratory air. This study also reveals that much larger densities of channel cracks develop in the humid environment, suggesting an easier initiation of channel cracks in the presence of water vapor. The results obtained in this work are critical to address the time-dependent and environmental reliability issues of thin brittle barriers on PET substrates for flexible electronics applications.

  16. Stress intensity factor solutions for cracks in threaded fasteners

    SciTech Connect

    Oster, D.M.; Mills, W.J.

    1999-02-01

    Nondimensional stress intensity factor (K) solutions for continuous circumferential cracks in threaded fasteners were calculated using finite element methods that determined the energy release rate during virtual crack extension. Assumed loading conditions included both remote tension and nut loading, whereby the effects of applying the load to the thread flank were considered. In addition, K solutions were developed for axisymmetric surface cracks in notched and smooth round bars. Results showed that the stress concentration of a thread causes a considerable increase in K for shallow cracks, but has much less effect for longer cracks. In the latter case, values of K can be accurately estimated from K solutions for axisymmetric cracks in smooth round bars. Nut loading increased K by about 50% for shallow cracks, but this effect became negligible at crack depth-to-minor diameter ratios (a/d) greater than 0.2. An evaluation of thread root acuity effects showed that root radius has no effect on K when the crack depth exceeds 2% of the minor diameter. Closed-form K solutions were developed for both remote-loading and nut-loading conditions and for a wide range of thread root radii. The K solutions obtained in this study were compared with available literature solutions for threaded fasteners as well as notched and smooth round bars.

  17. Transient thermal stress problem for a circumferentially cracked hollow cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nied, H. F.; Erdogan, F.

    1983-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the transient thermal stress problem for a long hollow circular cylinder containing an internal axisymmetric circumferential edge crack that is suddenly cooled from inside. It is assumed that the transient thermal stress problem is quasi-static, i.e., the inertial effects are negligible. Also, all thermoelastic coupling effects and the possible temperature dependence of the thermoelastic constants are neglected. The problem is considered in two parts. The first part is the evaluation of transient thermal stresses in an uncracked cylinder; the second part is the isothermal perturbation problem for the cracked cylinder in which the crack surface tractions, equal and opposite to the thermal stresses obtained from the first problem, are the only external loads. The superposition of the two solutions gives results for the cracked cylinder.

  18. Stress-Corrosion Cracking in Martensitic PH Stainless Steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, T.; Nelson, E.

    1984-01-01

    Precipitation-hardening alloys evaluated in marine environment tests. Report describes marine-environment stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) tests of three martensitic precipitation hardening (PH) stainless-steel alloys.

  19. Titanium alloy stress corrosion cracking in presence of dinitrogen tetroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, A. Z.; Clarke, J. F. G., Jr.; Gailey, J. A.; Orr, A. A.

    1972-01-01

    Study resulting in a satisfactory stress corrosion cracking test with extremely consistent results produced six new analytical methods. Methods detect and determine differences in the minor constituent composition of different types of dinitrogen tetroxide.

  20. Modeling of Stress Corrosion Cracking for High Level Radioactive-Waste Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, S C; Gordon, G M; Andresen, P L; Herrera, M L

    2003-06-20

    A stress corrosion cracking (SCC) model has been adapted for performance prediction of high level radioactive-waste packages to be emplaced in the proposed Yucca Mountain radioactive-waste repository. SCC is one form of environmentally assisted cracking due to three factors, which must be present simultaneously: metallurgical susceptibility, critical environment, and static (or sustained) tensile stresses. For waste packages of the proposed Yucca Mountain repository, the outer barrier material is Alloy 22, a highly corrosion resistant alloy, the environment is represented by the water film present on the surface of the waste package from dripping or deliquescence of soluble salts present in any surface deposits, and the stress is principally the weld induced residual stress. SCC has historically been separated into ''initiation'' and ''propagation'' phases. Initiation of SCC will not occur on a smooth surface if the surface stress is below a threshold value defined as the threshold stress. Cracks can also initiate at and propagate from flaws (or defects) resulting from manufacturing processes (such as welding). To account for crack propagation, the slip dissolution/film rupture (SDFR) model is adopted to provide mathematical formulas for prediction of the crack growth rate. Once the crack growth rate at an initiated SCC is determined, the time to through-wall penetration for the waste package can be calculated. The SDFR model relates the advance (or propagation) of cracks, subsequent to the crack initiation from bare metal surface, to the metal oxidation transients that occur when the protective film at the crack tip is continually ruptured and repassivated. A crack, however, may reach the ''arrest'' state before it enters the ''propagation'' phase. There exists a threshold stress intensity factor, which provides a criterion for determining if an initiated crack or pre-existing manufacturing flaw will reach the ''arrest'' state. This paper presents the research

  1. Mode I stress intensity factors of slanted cracks in plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Al Emran; Ghazali, Mohd Zubir Mohd; Nor, Nik Hisyamudin Muhd

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the roles of slanted cracks on the stress intensity factors (SIF) under mode I tension and bending loading. Based on the literature survey, lack of solution of SIFs of slanted cracks in plain strain plates are available. In this work, the cracks are modelled numerically using ANSYS finite element program. There are two important parameters such as slanted angles and relative crack length. SIFs at the crack tips are calculated according to domain integral method. Before the model is further used, it is validated with the existing model. It is found that the present model is well agreed with the previous model. According to finite element analysis, there are not only mode I SIFs produced but also mode II. As expected the SIFs increased as the relative crack length increased. However, when slanted angles are introduced (slightly higher than normal crack), the SIFs increased. Once the angles are further increased, the SIFs decreased gradually however they are still higher than the SIFs of normal cracks. For mode II SIFs, higher the slanted angels higher the SIFs. This is due to the fact that when the cracks are slanted, the cracked plates are not only failed due to mode I but a combination between both modes I and II.

  2. Stress Corrosion Cracking and Non-Destructive Examination of Dissimilar Metal Welds and Alloy 600

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Deborah A.

    2002-07-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) has conducted research since 1977 in the areas of environmentally assisted cracking and assessment and reliability of non-destructive examination (NDE). Recent occurrences of cracking in Alloy 82/182 welds and Alloy 600 base metal at several domestic and overseas plants have raised several issues relating to both of these areas of NRC research. The occurrences of cracking were identified by the discovery of boric acid deposits resulting from through-wall cracking in the primary system pressure boundary. Analyses indicate that the cracking has occurred due to primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in Alloy 82/182 welds. This cracking has occurred in two different locations: in hot leg nozzle-to-safe end welds and in control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) nozzle welds. The cracking associated with safe-end welds is important due to the potential for a large loss of reactor coolant inventory, and the cracking of CRDM nozzle base metal and welds, particularly circumferential cracking of CRDM nozzle base metal, is important due to the potential for a control rod to eject resulting in a loss of coolant accident. The industry response in the U.S. to this cracking is being coordinated through the Electric Power Research Institute's Materials Reliability Project (EPRI-MRP) in a comprehensive, multifaceted effort. Although the industry program is addressing many of the issues raised by these cracking occurrences, confirmatory research is necessary for the staff to evaluate the work conducted by industry groups. Several issues requiring additional consideration regarding the generic implications of these isolated events have been identified. This paper will discuss the recent events of significant cracking in domestic and foreign plants, discuss the limitations of NDE in detecting SCC, identify deficiencies in information available in this area, discuss the USNRC approach to address these issues, and discuss the

  3. Near tip stress and strain fields for short elastic cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soediono, A. H.; Kardomateas, G. A.; Carlson, R. L.

    1994-01-01

    Recent experimental fatigue crack growth studies have concluded an apparent anomalous behavior of short cracks. To investigate the reasons for this unexpected behavior, the present paper focuses on identifying the crack length circumstances under which the requirements for a single parameter (K(sub I) or delta K(sub I) if cyclic loading is considered) characterization are violated. Furthermore, an additional quantity, the T stress, as introduced by Rice, and the related biaxiality ratio, B, are calculated for several crack lengths and two configurations, the single-edge-cracked and the centrally-cracked specimen. It is postulated that a two-parameter characterization by K and T (or B) is needed for the adequate description of the stress and strain field around a short crack. To further verify the validity of this postulate, the influence of the third term of the Williams series on the stress, strain and displacement fields around the crack tip and in particular on the B parameter is also examined. It is found that the biaxiality ratio would be more negative if the third term effects are included in both geometries. The study is conducted using the finite element method with linearly elastic material and isoparametric elements and axial (mode I) loading. Moreover, it is clearly shown that it is not proper to postulate the crack size limits for 'short crack' behavior as a normalized ratio with the specimen width, a/w; it should instead be stated as an absolute, or normalized with respect to a small characteristic dimension such as the grain size. Finally, implications regarding the prediction of cyclic (fatigue) growth of short cracks are discussed.

  4. Crack-tip chemistry modeling of stage I stress corrosion cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.H.; Simonen, E.P.

    1991-10-01

    Stage I stress corrosion cracking usually exhibits a very strong K dependence with Paris law exponents of up to 30. 2 Model calculations indicate that the crack velocity in this regime is controlled by transport through a salt film and that the K dependence results from crack opening controlled salt film dissolution. An ionic transport model that accounts for both electromigration through the resistive salt film and Fickian diffusion through the aqueous solution was used for these predictions. Predicted crack growth rates are in excellent agreement with measured values for Ni with P segregated to the grain boundaries and tested in IN H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at +900 mV. This salt film dissolution may be applicable to stage I cracking of other materials.

  5. Effect of Measured Welding Residual Stresses on Crack Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, Roy W.; Nelson, Drew; Doty, Laura W. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Welding residual stresses in thin plate A516-70 steel and 2219-T87 aluminum butt weldments were measured by the strain-gage hole drilling and X-ray diffraction methods. The residual stress data were used to construct 3D strain fields which were modeled as thermally induced strains. These 3D strain fields were then analyzed with the WARP31) FEM fracture analysis code in order to predict their effect on fatigue and on fracture. For analyses of fatigue crack advance and subsequent verification testing, fatigue crack growth increments were simulated by successive saw-cuts and incremental loading to generate, as a function of crack length, effects on crack growth of the interaction between residual stresses and load induced stresses. The specimen experimental response was characterized and compared to the WARM linear elastic and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis predictions. To perform the fracture analysis, the plate material's crack tearing resistance was determined by tests of thin plate M(T) specimens. Fracture analyses of these specimen were performed using WARP31D to determine the critical Crack Tip Opening Angle [CTOA] of each material. These critical CTOA values were used to predict crack tearing and fracture in the weldments. To verify the fracture predictions, weldment M(T) specimen were tested in monotonic loading to fracture while characterizing the fracture process.

  6. Effect of Measured Welding Residual Stresses on Crack Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, Roy W.; Nelson, Drew; Doty, Laura W. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Welding residual stresses in thin plate A516-70 steel and 2219-T87 aluminum butt weldments were measured by the strain-gage hole drilling and X-ray diffraction methods. The residual stress data were used to construct 3D strain fields which were modeled as thermally induced strains. These 3D strain fields were then analyzed with the WARP31) FEM fracture analysis code in order to predict their effect on fatigue and on fracture. For analyses of fatigue crack advance and subsequent verification testing, fatigue crack growth increments were simulated by successive saw-cuts and incremental loading to generate, as a function of crack length, effects on crack growth of the interaction between residual stresses and load induced stresses. The specimen experimental response was characterized and compared to the WARM linear elastic and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis predictions. To perform the fracture analysis, the plate material's crack tearing resistance was determined by tests of thin plate M(T) specimens. Fracture analyses of these specimen were performed using WARP31D to determine the critical Crack Tip Opening Angle [CTOA] of each material. These critical CTOA values were used to predict crack tearing and fracture in the weldments. To verify the fracture predictions, weldment M(T) specimen were tested in monotonic loading to fracture while characterizing the fracture process.

  7. Stress-induced crack path in Aji granite under tensile stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Yozo; Sano, Osam; Murashige, Naokuni; Mizuta, Yoshiaki; Nakagawa, Koji

    1992-12-01

    The double-torsion test using Aji granite was carried out to investigate the interaction between stress-induced crack path and mineral grains. Crack velocities were controlled at range 10-7 m/s to 10-1 m/s. After the stressed specimens were dyed, we checked the crack path by thin section analysis, using an optical microscope. The stress-induced crack path was divided into two types, transgranular and intergranular cracks, and each path was subdivided with respect to mineral grains. In spite of the extensive range of crack velocities, the ratios between the transgranular and intergranular crack lengths did not change. The crack paths were all jagged, and often showed detour around the grain boundary when faced with obstacles like hard grains or preexisting cracks. That is to say, quartz grain played an important role as an obstacle. Feldspar grain could change the crack path because of its cleavage plane. Biolite grain had a serious effect on the path even if its constitution ratio is very small. Fractal dimensions of the crack paths were calculated by three methods, as indicators of surface roughness. The fractal dimensions were shown in a slight trend with the change of crack velocity. This trend can be explained from the point of limited cracking rate in stress corrosion.

  8. Mechanisms and Kinetics of Environmentally Assisted Cracking: Current Status, Issues, and Suggestions for Further Work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, S. P.

    2013-03-01

    Mechanisms and kinetics of metal-induced embrittlement, hydrogen-embrittlement, and stress-corrosion cracking are discussed, and long-standing controversies are addressed by reviewing critical observations. Recommendations are also made regarding further work (including repetition of previous work using more advanced measurement and characterisation techniques) that should be carried out in order to resolve some of the contentious issues. The evidence to date suggests that adsorption-based mechanisms, involving weakening of substrate interatomic bonds so that dislocation emission or decohesion is facilitated, accounts for embrittlement in many systems. Embrittling adsorbed species include some metal atoms, hydrogen, and complex ions produced by de-alloying. Other viable mechanisms of embrittlement include those based on (1) dissolution of anodic grain-boundary regions, and (2) decohesion at grain boundaries owing to segregated hydrogen and impurities. The hydrogen-enhanced localised-plasticity mechanism, based on solute hydrogen facilitating dislocation activity in the plastic zone ahead of cracks, makes a contribution in some cases, but is relatively unimportant compared with these other mechanisms for most fracture modes. The film-induced cleavage mechanism, proposed especially for stress-corrosion cracking in systems involving de-alloying at crack tips, is questionable on numerous grounds, and is probably not viable. Rate-controlling processes for environmentally assisted cracking are not well established, except for solid-metal induced embrittlement where surface self-diffusion of embrittling atoms to crack tips controls cracking kinetics. In some systems, adsorption kinetics are probably rate-controlling for liquid-metal embrittlement, hydrogen-environment embrittlement, and stress-corrosion cracking. In other cases, rate-controlling processes could include the rate of anodic or cathodic reactions at and behind crack tips (responsible for producing embrittling

  9. Validation of Stress Corrosion Cracking Model for High Level Radioactive-Waste Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, S; Gordon, G; Andresen, P

    2004-04-22

    A stress corrosion cracking (SCC) model has been adapted for performance prediction of high level radioactive-waste packages to be emplaced in the proposed Yucca Mountain radioactive-waste repository. SCC is one form of environmentally assisted cracking resulting from the presence of three factors: metallurgical susceptibility, critical environment, and tensile stresses. For waste packages of the proposed Yucca Mountain repository, the outer barrier material is the highly corrosion-resistant Alloy UNS-N06022, the environment is represented by the water film present on the surface of the waste package from dripping or deliquescence of soluble salts present in any surface deposits, and the stress is principally the weld induced residual stress. SCC has historically been separated into 'initiation' and 'propagation' phases. Initiation of SCC will not occur on a smooth surface if the surface stress is below a threshold value defined as the threshold stress. Cracks can also initiate at and propagate from flaws (or defects) resulting from manufacturing processes (such as welding). To account for crack propagation, the slip dissolution/film rupture (SDFR) model is adopted to provide mathematical formulae for prediction of the crack growth rate. Once the crack growth rate at an initiated SCC is determined, it can be used by the performance assessment (not in the scope of this paper) to determine the time to through-wall penetration for the waste package. This paper presents the development and validation of the SDFR crack growth rate model based on technical information in the literature as well as experimentally determined crack growth rates developed specifically for Alloy UNS- N06022 in environments relevant to high level radioactive-waste packages of the proposed Yucca Mountain radioactive-waste repository.

  10. Residual stress in glass: indentation crack and fractography approaches.

    PubMed

    Anunmana, Chuchai; Anusavice, Kenneth J; Mecholsky, John J

    2009-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that the indentation crack technique can determine surface residual stresses that are not statistically significantly different from those determined from the analytical procedure using surface cracks, the four-point flexure test, and fracture surface analysis. Soda-lime-silica glass bar specimens (4 mm x 2.3 mm x 28 mm) were prepared and annealed at 650 degrees C for 30 min before testing. The fracture toughness values of the glass bars were determined from 12 specimens based on induced surface cracks, four-point flexure, and fractographic analysis. To determine the residual stress from the indentation technique, 18 specimens were indented under 19.6N load using a Vickers microhardness indenter. Crack lengths were measured within 1 min and 24h after indentation, and the measured crack lengths were compared with the mean crack lengths of annealed specimens. Residual stress was calculated from an equation developed for the indentation technique. All specimens were fractured in a four-point flexure fixture and the residual stress was calculated from the strength and measured crack sizes on the fracture surfaces. The results show that there was no significant difference between the residual stresses calculated from the two techniques. However, the differences in mean residual stresses calculated within 1 min compared with those calculated after 24h were statistically significant (p=0.003). This study compared the indentation technique with the fractographic analysis method for determining the residual stress in the surface of soda-lime-silica glass. The indentation method may be useful for estimating residual stress in glass.

  11. Residual stress in glass: indentation crack and fractography approaches

    PubMed Central

    Anunmana, Chuchai; Anusavice, Kenneth J.; Mecholsky, John J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that the indentation crack technique can determine surface residual stresses that are not statistically significantly different from those determined from the analytical procedure using surface cracks, the four-point flexure test, and fracture surface analysis. Methods Soda-lime-silica glass bar specimens (4 mm × 2.3 mm × 28 mm) were prepared and annealed at 650 °C for 30 min before testing. The fracture toughness values of the glass bars were determined from 12 specimens based on induced surface cracks, four-point flexure, and fractographic analysis. To determine the residual stress from the indentation technique, 18 specimens were indented under 19.6 N load using a Vickers microhardness indenter. Crack lengths were measured within 1 min and 24 h after indentation, and the measured crack lengths were compared with the mean crack lengths of annealed specimens. Residual stress was calculated from an equation developed for the indentation technique. All specimens were fractured in a four-point flexure fixture and the residual stress was calculated from the strength and measured crack sizes on the fracture surfaces. Results The results show that there was no significant difference between the residual stresses calculated from the two techniques. However, the differences in mean residual stresses calculated within 1 min compared with those calculated after 24 h were statistically significant (p=0.003). Significance This study compared the indentation technique with the fractographic analysis method for determining the residual stress in the surface of soda-lime silica glass. The indentation method may be useful for estimating residual stress in glass. PMID:19671475

  12. Evaluation of Environmentally Assisted Cracking of Armour Wires in Flexible Pipes, Power Cables and Umbilicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiying

    Environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) of armour wires in flexible pipes, power cables and umbilicals is a major concern with the development of oil and gas fields and wind farms in harsh environments. Hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) or hydrogen embrittlement (HE) of steel armour wires used in deep-water and ultra-deep-water has been evaluated. Simulated tests have been carried out in simulated sea water, under conditions where the susceptibility is the highest, i.e. at room temperature, at the maximum negative cathodic potential and at the maximum stress level expected in service for 150 hours. Examinations of the tested specimens have not revealed cracking or blistering, and measurement of hydrogen content has confirmed hydrogen charging. In addition, sulphide stress cracking (SSC) and chloride stress cracking (CSC) of nickel-based alloy armour wires used in harsh down-hole environments has been evaluated. Simulated tests have been carried out in simulated solution containing high concentration of chloride, with high hydrogen sulphide partial pressure, at high stress level and at 120 °C for 720 hours. Examinations of the tested specimens have not revealed cracking or blistering. Subsequent tensile tests of the tested specimens at ambient pressure and temperature have revealed properties similar to the as-received specimens.

  13. Combined mode I stress intensity factors of slanted cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, A. E.; Rahman, M. Q. Abdul; Ghazali, M. Z. Mohd; Zulafif Rahim, M.; Rasidi Ibrahim, M.; Fahrul Hassan, Mohd; Nor, Nik Hisyamudin Muhd; Ariffin, A. M. T.; Zaini Yunos, Muhamad

    2017-08-01

    The solutions of stress intensity factors (SIFs) for slanted cracks in plain strain plate are hard to find in open literature. There are some previous solutions of SIFs available, however the studies are not completed except for the case of plain stress. The slanted cracks are modelled numerically using ANSYS finite element program. There are ten slanted angles and seven relative crack depths are used and the plate contains cracks which is assumed to fulfil the plain strain condition. The plate is then stressed under tension and bending loading and the SIFs are determined according to the displacement extrapolation method. Based on the numerical analysis, both slanted angles and relative crack length, a/L played an important role in determining the modes I and II SIFs. As expected the SIFs increased when a/L is increased. Under tension force, the introduction of slanted angles increased the SIFs. Further increment of angles reduced the SIFs however they are still higher than the SIFs obtained using normal cracks. Under bending moment, the present of slanted angles are significantly reduced the SIFs compared with the normal cracks. Under similar loading, mode II SIFs increased as function of a/L and slanted angles where increasing such parameters increasing the mode II SIFs.

  14. Influence of precracked specimen configuration and starting stress intensity on the stress corrosion cracking of 4340 steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisagor, W. B.

    1984-01-01

    Since the pioneer work of Brown (1966), precracked specimens and related fracture mechanics analyses have been extensively used to study stress corrosion cracking. Certain questions arose in connection with initial attempts to prepare standardized recommended practices by ASTM Committee G-1 on Corrosion of Metals. These questions were related to adequacy of test control as it pertains to acceptable limits of variability, and to validity of expressions for stress intensity and crack-surface displacements for both specimen configurations. An interlaboratory test program, was, therefore, planned with the objective to examine the validity of KIscc testing for selected specimen configurations, materials,and environmental systems. The results reported in the present paper include details of a single laboratory test program. The program was conducted to determine if the threshold value of stress intensity for onset and arrest of stress corrosion cracking was independent for the two specimen configurations examined.

  15. Stress-corrosion fatigue-crack growth in a Zr-based bulk amorphousmetal

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, V.; Ritchie, R.O.

    2005-09-21

    Electrochemical and mechanical experiments were conducted to analyze the environmentally-influenced cracking behavior of a bulk amorphous metal, Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5. This study was motivated by a scientific interest in mechanisms of fatigue-crack propagation in an amorphous metal, and by a practical interest in the use of this amorphous metal in applications that take advantage of its unique properties, including high specific strength, large elastic strains and low damping. The objective of the work was to determine the rate and mechanisms of subcritical crack growth in this metallic glass in an aggressive environment. Specifically, fatigue-crack propagation behavior was investigated at a range of stress intensities in air and aqueous salt solutions by examining the effects of loading cycle, stress-intensity range, solution concentration, anion identity, solution de-aeration, and bulk electrochemical potential. Results indicate that crack growth in aqueous solution in this alloy is driven by a stress-assisted anodic reaction at the crack tip. Rate-determining steps for such behavior are reasoned to be electrochemical, stress-dependent reaction at near-threshold levels, and mass transport at higher (steady-state) growth rates.

  16. Environmental cracking of Alloy 600 in BWR environments

    SciTech Connect

    Ljungberg, L.G.

    1991-03-01

    Alloy 600 may be sensitized to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in both BWR normal water chemistry (NWC) and in hydrogen water chemistry (HWC). Carbide precipitation causes chromium depleted grain boundaries, which are susceptible to IGSCC in NWC but not in HWC. The mechanism for chromium depletion is complex due to the existence of two chromium carbides. Segregated phosphorous enhances IGSCC of Alloy 600 with chromium depleted grain boundaries in NWC. Under all other conditions phosphorous seems harmless. Grain boundary segregated sulfur is suspect of enhancing IGSCC in both NWC and HWC, but no verifying tests have been performed. Boron and nitrogen have a strong tendency to segregate to grain boundaries in Alloy 600, but seem to be harmless. Only few crack propagation data relevant to BWR conditions exist for Alloy 600. The paper describes mechanisms for sensitization, stress corrosion cracking, and crack propagation rates. 94 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Crack Analysis in Residual Stress Field by X-FEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagashima, Toshio; Miura, Naoki

    The extended finite element method (X-FEM), which can model the domain without explicitly meshing the crack surface, can be used to perform stress analyses for solving fracture mechanics problems efficiently. In the present study, the principle of superposition is used to solve crack problems in conjunction with the X-FEM. In the proposed method, the surface load distributed on the crack surface, which is modeled implicitly by the interpolation functions with enrichment terms, is introduced to X-FEM analysis. Moreover, the energy release rate at the crack front is evaluated by the domain integral method with boundary integral terms for the surface load. The proposed method is verified through numerical analyses of two- and three-dimensional crack problems in linear fracture mechanics.

  18. Weibull crack density coefficient for polydimensional stress states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Bernard; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    1989-01-01

    A structural ceramic analysis and reliability evaluation code has recently been developed encompassing volume and surface flaw induced fracture, modeled by the two-parameter Weibull probability density function. A segment of the software involves computing the Weibull polydimensional stress state crack density coefficient from uniaxial stress experimental fracture data. The relationship of the polydimensional stress coefficient to the uniaxial stress coefficient is derived for a shear-insensitive material with a random surface flaw population.

  19. An investigation of crack-tip stress field criteria of predicting cleavage-crack initiation

    SciTech Connect

    Keeney-Walker, J.; Bass, B.R.; Landes, J.D. )

    1991-09-01

    Cleavage-crack initiation in large-scale wide-plate (WP) specimens could not be accurately predicted from small, compact (CT) specimens by using a linear-elastic fracture-mechanics, K{sub Ic}, methodology. In the wide-plate tests conducted by the Heavy-Section Steel Technology Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, crack initiation has consistently occurred at stress-intensity (K{sub I}) values ranging from two to four times those predicted by the CT specimens. Studies were initiated to develop crack-tip stress field criteria incorporating effects of geometry, size, and constraint that will lead to improved predictions of cleavage initiation in WP specimens from CT specimens. The work centers around nonlinear two-and three-dimensional finite-element analyses of the crack-tip stress fields in these geometries. Analyses were conducted on CT and WP specimens for which cleavage initiation fracture had been measured in laboratory tests. The local crack-tip field generated for these specimens were then used in the evaluation of fracture correlation parameters to augment the K{sub I} parameter for predicting cleavage initiation. Parameters of hydrostatic constraint and of maximum principal stress, measured volumetrically, are included in these evaluations. The results suggest that the cleavage initiation process can be correlated with the local crack-tip fields via a maximum principal stress criterion based on achieving a critical area within a critical stress contour. This criterion has been successfully applied to correlate cleavage initiation in 2T-CT and WP specimen geometries. 23 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Elastostatic stress analysis of orthotropic rectangular center-cracked plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, G. S.; Mendelson, A.

    1972-01-01

    A mapping-collocation method was developed for the elastostatic stress analysis of finite, anisotropic plates with centrally located traction-free cracks. The method essentially consists of mapping the crack into the unit circle and satisfying the crack boundary conditions exactly with the help of Muskhelishvili's function extension concept. The conditions on the outer boundary are satisfied approximately by applying the method of least-squares boundary collocation. A parametric study of finite-plate stress intensity factors, employing this mapping-collocation method, is presented. It shows the effects of varying material properties, orientation angle, and crack-length-to-plate-width and plate-height-to-plate-width ratios for rectangular orthotropic plates under constant tensile and shear loads.

  1. Experimental Determination of Stress Intensity in a Cracked Cylindrical Specimen,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    ADA098 336 MATERIALS RESEARCH LABS ASCOT VALE (AUSTRALIA) F/O 20/11 A9 7 EPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF STRESS INTENSITY IN A CRACKED CYL-ETC(fl...DETERMINATION OF STRESS INTENSITY IN A CRACKED CYLINDRICAL SPECIMEN Graham Clark Approved for Public Release L9 R’ROD.CE A~j SELL ?H!S nEPOR I ©COMMONWEALTH...OF AUSTRALIA 1980 MAY, 1980 DEPARTMENT OF DEFENCE MATERIALS RESEARCH LABORATORIES REPORT LIMRL-R-77k _EXERMENALDETERMINATION OF STRESS INTENSITY: ON A

  2. A demonstration of mitigation of environmentally-assisted cracking by the application of a tensile overload

    SciTech Connect

    James, L.A.

    1997-02-01

    Environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC) of low-alloy steels in high-temperature aqueous environments typical of those employed in light-water reactor (LWR) systems has been a subject of considerable interest since the pioneering work of Kondo et al demonstrated significantly higher fatigue crack propagation (FCP) rates in water than would be expected in an air environment under similar conditions. Here, environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC) of low-alloy steels in elevated temperature aqueous environments is readily observed in many laboratory experiments conducted in autoclaves, yet the observation of EAC in actual components operating in the same environments is quite rare. Mass transport of sulfides from the crack enclave by diffusion and convection occurring in operating components provides one plausible explanation to this apparent paradox. Another contribution to EAC mitigation may also arise from the non-constant stress amplitudes typical for many operating components. This paper provides a demonstration of how a single tensile overload to 40% above a steady-state maximum fatigue stress can retard subsequent crack growth at the steady-state level for a sufficient period of time that diffusion mass transport can reduce the crack-tip sulfide concentration to a level below that necessary to sustain EAC.

  3. Analysis of Alloy 600 and X-750 stress corrosion cracks

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.D.; Lewis, N.; Krasodomski, H.

    1993-06-01

    A few months ago, KAPL evidence supported the view that Primary or Pure Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 600 results from a hydrogen mechanism. Figure 1 shows an Analytical Electron Microscope (AEM) analysis of a stress corrosion crack (SCC) crack in an A600 split tube U-bend specimen exposed to primary water at 338{degree}C (640{degrees}F) for 462 days. The features which appear to confirm a hydrogen mechanism are: (1) A very narrow (< 200 {angstrom}) crack with a sharp tip, nearly free of deposits. (2) No evidence of severe plastic deformation in the region immediately ahead of the crack tip. (3) A line of small voids preceding the main crack tip, of which the largest is about 5 x 10{sup {minus}6} cm in length. Shen and Shewmon proposed that PWSCC of Alloy 600 occurs due to small microvoids ahead of a main crack tip. The hypothesis is that such voids result from pockets of methane gas formed by the reaction of atomic hydrogen with carbon in the base metal. The voids are about 10 x 10{sup {minus}6} cm diameter, approximately a factor of 2 larger than the largest voids.

  4. Preventative Measures to Limit Stress Corrosion Cracking in Prestressed Concrete.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    inferior to cold-drawing for stress-corrosion resistane . tm_ 9. Another method of inhibiting crack formation by changing the prop- surface of the...properties changed by heat treating to relieve internal stress are the ultimate strength and the elongation properties. The temperature that produces

  5. Plastic Stress Intensity Factors in Steady Crack Growth,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    in the limit as a approaches zero, since it can be shown (Rice, 1982) that the stress field of the perfectly- plastic problem in plane stress is...from the solution of the perfectly- plastic problem with a centered-fan sector centered about the crack line (see Rice, 1982 and Dean, 1983) ic - 2/43

  6. Stress corrosion crack inhibiting method for titanium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, T. R.

    1970-01-01

    Addition of oxyanions to liquid solvents in excess of the number of chloride, bromide, or iodide ions present prevents cracking of titanium-aluminum alloys under exposure to aqueous and other solvent environments. The molar concentration of oxyanion is set from 10 to 100 times higher than concentration of halide ions.

  7. The Stress-Wave Radiation from Growing Cracks.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    transducer effects in acoustic emission studies of fatigue cracking, or stress-corrosion cracking. POSTAL ADDRESS: Chief Superintendent, Aeronautical... measure of the effective width of the P-pulse of the primary radiation (except for a= r/2, where there is a caustic). In the far field, i.e. for R...Corporate Author: 8. Reference Numbers Aeronautical Research Laboratories (a) Task: DST 76/92 9. Cost Code : (b) Sponsoring Agency: 32-6720 10. Imprint: 11

  8. Corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in supercritical water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Was, G. S.; Ampornrat, P.; Gupta, G.; Teysseyre, S.; West, E. A.; Allen, T. R.; Sridharan, K.; Tan, L.; Chen, Y.; Ren, X.; Pister, C.

    2007-09-01

    Supercritical water (SCW) has attracted increasing attention since SCW boiler power plants were implemented to increase the efficiency of fossil-based power plants. The SCW reactor (SCWR) design has been selected as one of the Generation IV reactor concepts because of its higher thermal efficiency and plant simplification as compared to current light water reactors (LWRs). Reactor operating conditions call for a core coolant temperature between 280 °C and 620 °C at a pressure of 25 MPa and maximum expected neutron damage levels to any replaceable or permanent core component of 15 dpa (thermal reactor design) and 100 dpa (fast reactor design). Irradiation-induced changes in microstructure (swelling, radiation-induced segregation (RIS), hardening, phase stability) and mechanical properties (strength, thermal and irradiation-induced creep, fatigue) are also major concerns. Throughout the core, corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and the effect of irradiation on these degradation modes are critical issues. This paper reviews the current understanding of the response of candidate materials for SCWR systems, focusing on the corrosion and stress corrosion cracking response, and highlights the design trade-offs associated with certain alloy systems. Ferritic-martensitic steels generally have the best resistance to stress corrosion cracking, but suffer from the worst oxidation. Austenitic stainless steels and Ni-base alloys have better oxidation resistance but are more susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. The promise of grain boundary engineering and surface modification in addressing corrosion and stress corrosion cracking performance is discussed.

  9. Environmental Stress Screening 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbel, Mark

    1997-01-01

    The following identifies the authors of this report and the organizations that sponsored the effort conducted under the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) Environmental Stress Screening (ESS) 2000 Project.

  10. Stress analysis and stress intensity factors for finite geometry solids containing rectangular surface cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, J. P.; Mendelson, A.

    1975-01-01

    The line method of analysis is applied to the Navier-Cauchy equations of elastic equilibrium to calculate the displacement field in a finite geometry bar containing a variable depth rectangular surface crack under extensionally applied uniform loading. The application of this method to these equations leads to coupled sets of simultaneous ordinary differential equations whose solutions are obtained along sets of lines in a discretized region. Using the obtained displacement field, normal stresses and the stress intensity factor variation along the crack periphery are calculated for different crack depth to bar thickness ratios. Crack opening displacements and stress intensity factors are also obtained for a through-thickness, center cracked bar with variable thickness. The reported results show a considerable potential for using this method in calculating stress intensity factors for commonly encountered surface crack geometries in finite solids.

  11. Stress analysis and stress-intensity factors for finite geometry solids containing rectangular surface cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, J. P.; Mendelson, A.

    1977-01-01

    The line method of analysis is applied to the Navier-Cauchy equations of elastic equilibrium to calculate the displacement field in a finite geometry bar containing a variable depth rectangular surface crack under extensionally applied uniform loading. The application of this method to these equations leads to coupled sets of simultaneous ordinary differential equations whose solutions are obtained along sets of lines in a discretized region. Using the obtained displacement field, normal stresses, and the stress-intensity factor variation along the crack periphery are calculated for different crack depth to bar thickness ratios. Crack opening displacements and stress-intensity factors are also obtained for a through-thickness, center-cracked bar with variable thickness. The reported results show a considerable potential for using this method in calculating stress-intensity factors for commonly encountered surface crack geometries in finite solids

  12. Minimum shear stress range: a criterion for crack path determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, K.; Abdel Wahab, M.

    2017-05-01

    For problems under proportional mixed-mode conditions, various criteria are used to predict fatigue crack growth directions, most achieving reasonable accuracy. The crack propagation angle is often obtained by maximizing a quantity (for instance, energy or stresses) as function of the stress intensity factors KI and KII. This maximization is generally performed at the instant of maximum fatigue loading and a stress analysis at this instant is sufficient to predict the crack propagation angle and thus the fatigue crack growth direction. However, under non-proportional loading, the maximum values of KI and KII may occur at different instants of the fatigue cycle and so a simple analysis at the maximum loading instant is not appropriate; it is necessary to consider the entire loading cycle history. One possible criterion to treat problems under these circumstances is the minimum shear stress range criterion (MSSR). This paper presents a brief discussion of the most common criteria used for determination of crack propagation direction, focusing on an implementation of MSSR. Its performance is assessed in different conditions and the results are compared to literature data.

  13. Influence of Residual Stress Field on the Fatigue Crack Propagation in Prestressing Steel Wires

    PubMed Central

    Toribio, Jesús; Matos, Juan-Carlos; González, Beatriz; Escuadra, José

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the effect of several residual stress profiles on the fatigue crack propagation in prestressing steel wires subjected to tension loading or bending moment. To this end, a computer program was developed to evaluate the crack front evolution on the basis of the Walker law. Results demonstrate that the absence of residual stresses makes the crack propagate towards a preferential crack path. When surface residual stresses are tensile and, correspondingly, core residual stresses are compressive, the fatigue crack fronts rapidly converge towards a quasi-straight shape. When surface residual stresses are compressive, with their corresponding tensile stresses in the core area, a preferential crack path also appears. PMID:28793661

  14. Environmentally assisted cracking in light water reactors. Semiannual report, July 1998-December 1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O. K.; Chung, H. M.; Gruber, E. E.; Kassner, T. F.; Ruther, W. E.; Shack, W. J.; Smith, J. L.; Soppet, W. K.; Strain; R. V.

    1999-10-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in light water reactors from July 1998 to December 1998. Topics that have been investigated include (a) environmental effects on fatigue S-N behavior of primary pressure boundary materials, (b) irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels (SSs), and (c) EAC of Alloys 600 and 690. Fatigue tests have been conducted to determine the crack initiation and crack growth characteristics of austenitic SSs in LWR environments. Procedures are presented for incorporating the effects of reactor coolant environments on the fatigue life of pressure vessel and piping steels. Slow-strain-rate tensile tests and posttest fractographic analyses were conducted on several model SS alloys irradiated to {approx}0.3 and 0.9 x 10{sup 21} n {center_dot} cm{sup -2} (E > 1 MeV) in helium at 289 C in the Halden reactor. The results have been used to determine the influence of alloying and impurity elements on the susceptibility of these steels to irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking. Fracture toughness J-R curve tests were also conducted on two heats of Type 304 SS that were irradiated to {approx}0.3 x 10{sup 21} n {center_dot} cm{sup -2} in the Halden reactor. Crack-growth-rate tests have been conducted on compact-tension specimens of Alloys 600 and 690 under constant load to evaluate the resistance of these alloys to stress corrosion cracking in LWR environments.

  15. Stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steel core internal welds.

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H. M.; Park, J.-H.; Ruther, W. E.; Sanecki, J. E.; Strain, R. V.; Zaluzec, N. J.

    1999-04-14

    Microstructural analyses by several advanced metallographic techniques were conducted on austenitic stainless steel mockup and core shroud welds that had cracked in boiling water reactors. Contrary to previous beliefs, heat-affected zones of the cracked Type 304L, as well as 304 SS core shroud welds and mockup shielded-metal-arc welds, were free of grain-boundary carbides, which shows that core shroud failure cannot be explained by classical intergranular stress corrosion cracking. Neither martensite nor delta-ferrite films were present on the grain boundaries. However, as a result of exposure to welding fumes, the heat-affected zones of the core shroud welds were significantly contaminated by oxygen and fluorine, which migrate to grain boundaries. Significant oxygen contamination seems to promote fluorine contamination and suppress thermal sensitization. Results of slow-strain-rate tensile tests also indicate that fluorine exacerbates the susceptibility of irradiated steels to intergranular stress corrosion cracking. These observations, combined with previous reports on the strong influence of weld flux, indicate that oxygen and fluorine contamination and fluorine-catalyzed stress corrosion play a major role in cracking of core shroud welds.

  16. Crack nucleation near stress concentrators in quasi-brittle materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demeshkin, A. G.; Kornev, V. M.; Kurguzov, V. D.

    2012-02-01

    The results of combined tension (compression) and shear experiments with plexiglass specimens are used to construct a Coulomb-Mohr-type strength curve. Fracture experiments were performed with plexiglass square plates with internal through cuts. The specimens were subjected to compression on a Zwick/Roell testing machine until cracks appeared. In the process of testing, nucleation of symmetric cracks was observed, which propagated as the load was further increased. The fracture character (tensile or shear) could not be decided until a subsequent numerical analysis of the plate stress-strain state was performed by the finite elementmethod. The stress concentration loci were found to coincide with the crack nucleation loci. In the plane ( σ, τ ), Mohr's circles were constructed for the stress states at the stress concentration points. If the point at which Mohr's curve touches the limit curve is known, then one can determine the plane on which the normal and tangential stresses attain critical values, and hence one can determine the crack propagation direction. The experimental results and numerical solutions were found to be in good agreement.

  17. Some remarks on elastic crack-tip stress fields.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    It is shown that if the displacement field and stress intensity factor are known as functions of crack length for any symmetrical load system acting on a linear elastic body in plane strain, then the stress intensity factor for any other symmetrical load system whatsoever on the same body may be directly determined. The result is closely related to Bueckner's (1970) weight function, through which the stress intensity factor is expressed as a sum of work-like products between applied forces and values of the weight function at their points of application. An example of the method is given wherein the solution for a crack in a remotely uniform stress field is used to generate the expression for the stress intensity factor due to an arbitrary traction distribution on the faces of a crack. A corresponding theory is developed in an appendix for three-dimensional crack problems, although this appears to be directly useful chiefly for problems in which there is axial symmetry.

  18. Accelerated crack growth, residual stress, and a cracked zinc coated pressure shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittman, Daniel L.; Hampton, Roy W.; Nelson, Howard G.

    1987-01-01

    During a partial inspection of a 42 year old, operating, pressurized wind tunnel at NASA-Ames Research Center, a surface connected defect 114 in. long having an indicated depth of a 0.7 in. was detected. The pressure shell, constructed of a medium carbon steel, contains approximately 10 miles of welds and is cooled by flowing water over its zinc coated external surface. Metallurgical and fractographic analysis showed that the actual detect was 1.7 in. deep, and originated from an area of lack of weld penetration. Crack growth studies were performed on the shell material in the laboratory under various loading rates, hold times, and R-ratios with a simulated shell environment. The combination of zinc, water with electrolyte, and steel formed an electrolytic cell which resulted in an increase in cyclic crack growth rate by as much as 500 times over that observed in air. It was concluded that slow crack growth occurred in the pressure shell by a combination of stress corrosion cracking due to the welding residual stress and corrosion fatigue due to the cyclic operating stress.

  19. Dissolution Condensation Mechanism of Stress Corrosion Cracking in Liquid Metals: Driving Force and Crack Kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glickman, Evgeny E.

    2011-02-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in aqueous solution is driven by exothermic reactions of metal oxidation. This stimulus, as well as classical mechanisms of SCC, does not apply to SCC in liquid metals (LMs). In the framework of the dissolution-condensation mechanism (DCM), we analyzed the driving force and crack kinetics for this nonelectrochemical mode of SCC that is loosely called "liquid metal embrittlement" (LME). According to DCM, a stress-induced increase in chemical potential at the crack tip acts as the driving force for out-of-the-tip diffusion mass transfer that is fast because diffusion in LMs is very fast and surface energy at the solid-liquid interface is small. In this article, we review two versions of DCM mechanism, discuss the major physics behind them, and develop DCM further. The refined mechanism is applied then to the experimental data on crack velocity V vs stress intensity factor, the activation energy of LME, and alloying effects. It is concluded that DCM provides a good conceptual framework for analysis of a unified kinetic mechanism of LME and may also contribute to SCC in aqueous solutions.

  20. Frequency-dependent environmental fatigue crack propagation in the 7XXX alloy/aqueous chloride system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasem, Zuhair Mattoug

    The need to predict the fatigue performance of aging aerospace structures has focused interest on environmentally assisted cracking in thick-section damage-tolerant aluminum alloys (AA). The objective of this research is to characterize and understand the time-dependent processes that govern environmental fatigue crack propagation (EFCP) in 7XXX series aluminum alloys exposed to an aggressive environment. Results are utilized to identify the rate-controlling step in growth enhancement in order to develop a mechanistic model describing the time dependency of EFCP. Aluminum alloy 7075, tested in the sensitive (SL) orientation and exposed to aqueous chloride solution, is studied. Da/dNcrit for different D K levels depends on 1/√fcrit, as predicted by process zone hydrogen-diffusion-limited crack growth modeling. A model based on hydrogen diffusion controlled growth is modified to include a stress-dependent critical hydrogen concentration normalized with the crack tip hydrogen concentration (Ccrit/CS). It is proposed that da/dNcrit for a given D K and R corresponds to the distance ahead of the crack tip where the local tensile stress associated with Kmax is maximum. The reversed plasticity estimate of this location equals da/dNcrit for two aging conditions of 7075 (SL)/NaCl at R = 0.1. The EFCP dependencies on alloy microstructure (T6 vs. T7), crack orientation (SL vs. LT), and stress ratio are measured and interpreted based on their effect on da/dN crit and fcrit as well as environmental closure. Chromate addition to the chloride solution eliminates the environmental acceleration of crack growth and reduces corrosion-product induced closure. In chromate-inhibited solution, the frequency dependence of EFCP in 7075 (SL) is unique. Da/dN is reduced at moderate and low frequencies to a value similar to crack growth rate in moist air, probably due to formation of a passive film which inhibits hydrogen uptake. Inhibition is mitigated by increasing frequency or increasing

  1. Stress-corrosion cracking in BWR and PWR piping

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, R.W.

    1983-07-01

    Intergranular stress-corrosion cracking of weld-sensitized wrought stainless steel piping has been an increasingly ubiquitous and expensive problem in boiling-water reactors over the last decade. In recent months, numerous cracks have been found, even in large-diameter lines. A number of potential remedies have been developed. These are directed at providing more resistant materials, reducing weld-induced stresses, or improving the water chemistry. The potential remedies are discussed, along with the capabilities of ultrasonic testing to find and size the cracks and related safety issues. The problem has been much less severe to date in pressurized-water reactors, reflecting the use of different materials and much lower coolant oxygen levels.

  2. Stress intensity factors in bonded half planes containing inclined cracks and subjected to antiplane shear loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bassani, J. L.; Erdogan, F.

    1979-01-01

    The antiplane shear problem for two bonded dissimilar half planes containing a semi-infinite crack or two arbitrarily located collinear cracks is considered. For the semi-infinite crack the problem is solved for a concentrated wedge load and the stress intensity factor and the angular distribution of stresses are calculated. For finite cracks the problem is reduced to a pair of integral equations. Numerical results are obtained for cracks fully imbedded in a homogeneous medium, one crack tip touching the interface, and a crack crossing the interface for various crack angles.

  3. Stress intensity factors in bonded half planes containing inclined cracks and subjected to antiplane shear loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bassani, J. L.; Erdogan, F.

    1978-01-01

    The antiplane shear problem for two bonded dissimilar half planes containing a semi-infinite crack or two arbitrarily located collinear cracks was considered. For the semi-infinite crack the problem was solved for a concentrated wedge load and the stress intensity factor and the angular distribution of stresses were calculated. For finite cracks the problem was reduced to a pair of integral equations. Numerical results were obtained for cracks fully imbedded in a homogeneous medium, one crack tip touching the interface, and a crack crossing the interface for various crack angles.

  4. Stress Corrosion Cracking in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Aluminum Alloys in Saline Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holroyd, N. J. Henry; Scamans, G. M.

    2013-03-01

    Stress corrosion cracking of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu (AA7xxx) aluminum alloys exposed to saline environments at temperatures ranging from 293 K to 353 K (20 °C to 80 °C) has been reviewed with particular attention to the influences of alloy composition and temper, and bulk and local environmental conditions. Stress corrosion crack (SCC) growth rates at room temperature for peak- and over-aged tempers in saline environments are minimized for Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys containing less than ~8 wt pct Zn when Zn/Mg ratios are ranging from 2 to 3, excess magnesium levels are less than 1 wt pct, and copper content is either less than ~0.2 wt pct or ranging from 1.3 to 2 wt pct. A minimum chloride ion concentration of ~0.01 M is required for crack growth rates to exceed those in distilled water, which insures that the local solution pH in crack-tip regions can be maintained at less than 4. Crack growth rates in saline solution without other additions gradually increase with bulk chloride ion concentrations up to around 0.6 M NaCl, whereas in solutions with sufficiently low dichromate (or chromate), inhibitor additions are insensitive to the bulk chloride concentration and are typically at least double those observed without the additions. DCB specimens, fatigue pre-cracked in air before immersion in a saline environment, show an initial period with no detectible crack growth, followed by crack growth at the distilled water rate, and then transition to a higher crack growth rate typical of region 2 crack growth in the saline environment. Time spent in each stage depends on the type of pre-crack ("pop-in" vs fatigue), applied stress intensity factor, alloy chemistry, bulk environment, and, if applied, the external polarization. Apparent activation energies ( E a) for SCC growth in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys exposed to 0.6 M NaCl over the temperatures ranging from 293 K to 353 K (20 °C to 80 °C) for under-, peak-, and over-aged low-copper-containing alloys (<0.2 wt pct) are typically ranging from

  5. Multiple Cracks Detection in Pipeline Using Damage Index Matrix Based on Piezoceramic Transducer-Enabled Stress Wave Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Du, Guofeng; Zhou, Hua; Gu, Haichang

    2017-01-01

    Cracks in oil and gas pipelines cause leakage which results in property damage, environmental pollution, and even personal injury or loss of lives. In this paper, an active-sensing approach was conducted to identify the crack damage in pipeline structure using a stress wave propagation approach with piezoceramic transducers. A pipeline segment instrumented with five distributed piezoceramic transducers was used as the testing specimen in this research. Four cracks were artificially cut on the specimen, and each crack had six damage cases corresponding to different crack depths. In this way, cracks at different locations with different damage degrees were simulated. In each damage case, one piezoceramic transducer was used as an actuator to generate a stress wave to propagate along the pipeline specimen, and the other piezoceramic transducers were used as sensors to detect the wave responses. To quantitatively evaluate the crack damage status, a wavelet packet-based damage index matrix was developed. Experimental results show that the proposed method can evaluate the crack severity and estimate the crack location in the pipeline structure based on the proposed damage index matrix. The sensitivity of the proposed method decreases with increasing distance between the crack and the mounted piezoceramic transducers. PMID:28805666

  6. Multiple Cracks Detection in Pipeline Using Damage Index Matrix Based on Piezoceramic Transducer-Enabled Stress Wave Propagation.

    PubMed

    Du, Guofeng; Kong, Qingzhao; Zhou, Hua; Gu, Haichang

    2017-08-12

    Cracks in oil and gas pipelines cause leakage which results in property damage, environmental pollution, and even personal injury or loss of lives. In this paper, an active-sensing approach was conducted to identify the crack damage in pipeline structure using a stress wave propagation approach with piezoceramic transducers. A pipeline segment instrumented with five distributed piezoceramic transducers was used as the testing specimen in this research. Four cracks were artificially cut on the specimen, and each crack had six damage cases corresponding to different crack depths. In this way, cracks at different locations with different damage degrees were simulated. In each damage case, one piezoceramic transducer was used as an actuator to generate a stress wave to propagate along the pipeline specimen, and the other piezoceramic transducers were used as sensors to detect the wave responses. To quantitatively evaluate the crack damage status, a wavelet packet-based damage index matrix was developed. Experimental results show that the proposed method can evaluate the crack severity and estimate the crack location in the pipeline structure based on the proposed damage index matrix. The sensitivity of the proposed method decreases with increasing distance between the crack and the mounted piezoceramic transducers.

  7. Strengthening, Crack Arrest And Multiple Cracking In Brittle Materials Using Residual Stresses.

    DOEpatents

    Green, David J.; Sglavo, Vincenzo M.; Tandon, Rajan

    2003-02-11

    Embodiments include a method for forming a glass which displays visible cracking prior to failure when subjected to predetermined stress level that is greater than a predetermined minimum stress level and less than a failure stress level. The method includes determining a critical flaw size in the glass and introducing a residual stress profile to the glass so that a plurality of visible cracks are formed prior to failure when the glass is subjected to a stress that is greater than the minimum stress level and lower than the critical stress. One method for forming the residual stress profile includes performing a first ion exchange so that a first plurality of ions of a first element in the glass are exchanged with a second plurality of ions of a second element that have a larger volume than the first ions. A second ion exchange is also performed so that a plurality of the second ions in the glass are exchanged back to ions of the first element.

  8. Grease Inhibits Stress-Corrosion Cracking In Bearing Race

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beatty, Robert F.; Mcvey, Scott E.

    1991-01-01

    Coating with suitable grease found to inhibit stress-corrosion cracking in bore of inner race of ball-bearing assembly operating in liquid oxygen. Protects bore and its corner radii from corrosion-initiating and -accelerating substances like moisture and contaminants, which enter during assembly. Operating life extended at low cost, and involves very little extra assembly time.

  9. Chemical milling solution reveals stress corrosion cracks in titanium alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braski, D. N.

    1967-01-01

    Solution of hydrogen flouride, hydrogen peroxide, and water reveals hot salt stress corrosion cracks in various titanium alloys. After the surface is rinsed in water, dried, and swabbed with the solution, it can be observed by the naked eye or at low magnification.

  10. Chemical Degradation and Stress Cracking of Polycarbonate in DS2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    DEGRADATION AND . STRESS CRACKING OF : POLYCARBONATE IN DS2 LIDIA H. LEE and JANICE J. VANSELOW POLYMER RESEARCH DIVISION September 1987 Approved for public...CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) Lidia A. Lee and Janice J. Vanselow PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK AREA & WORK

  11. STRESS CRACKING BEHAVIOR OF HDPE GEOMEMBRANES AND ITS PREVENTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geomembranes made from high density polyethylene (HOPE) have a high percent crystallinity and are therefore of concern with regard to stress cracking. A review of the literature plus our field exhuming of various sites-of-opportunity gave rise to twenty-five (25) situations wh...

  12. STRESS CRACKING BEHAVIOR OF HDPE GEOMEMBRANES AND ITS PREVENTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geomembranes made from high density polyethylene (HOPE) have a high percent crystallinity and are therefore of concern with regard to stress cracking. A review of the literature plus our field exhuming of various sites-of-opportunity gave rise to twenty-five (25) situations wh...

  13. Factors affecting stress assisted corrosion cracking of carbon steel under industrial boiler conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dong

    Failure of carbon steel boiler tubes from waterside has been reported in the utility boilers and industrial boilers for a long time. In industrial boilers, most waterside tube cracks are found near heavy attachment welds on the outer surface and are typically blunt, with multiple bulbous features indicating a discontinuous growth. These types of tube failures are typically referred to as stress assisted corrosion (SAC). For recovery boilers in the pulp and paper industry, these failures are particularly important as any water leak inside the furnace can potentially lead to smelt-water explosion. Metal properties, environmental variables, and stress conditions are the major factors influencing SAC crack initation and propagation in carbon steel boiler tubes. Slow strain rate tests (SSRT) were conducted under boiler water conditions to study the effect of temperature, oxygen level, and stress conditions on crack initation and propagation on SA-210 carbon steel samples machined out of boiler tubes. Heat treatments were also performed to develop various grain size and carbon content on carbon steel samples, and SSRTs were conducted on these samples to examine the effect of microstructure features on SAC cracking. Mechanisms of SAC crack initation and propagation were proposed and validated based on interrupted slow strain tests (ISSRT). Water chemistry guidelines are provided to prevent SAC and fracture mechanics model is developed to predict SAC failure on industrial boiler tubes.

  14. Stress-intensity factor solutions for cracks at countersunk rivet holes under uniaxial tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, P. W.; Bigelow, C. A.; Odonoghue, P. E.; Atluri, S. N.

    1994-02-01

    To predict crack growth and fracture strengths of riveted joints subjected to widespread fatigue damage, accurate stress and fracture analyses of corner and surface cracks at a rivet hole are needed. The results presented in this report focus on the computation of stress-intensity factor solutions for rivet holes with cracks. The stress-intensity factor solutions for surface and corner cracks at countersunk rivet holes in a plate were obtained using the finite-element-alternating technique. A range of crack shapes, crack sizes, and crack locations under remote tension were considered.

  15. External stress corrosion cracking (ESCC) of austenitic stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Takemoto, M.; Shinogaya, T.; Shirai, M.; Shonohara, T.

    1985-06-01

    Failure case studies, field inspections, and simulation tests were carried out to elucidate the following key parameters associated with widespread external stress corrosion cracking (ESCC): (1) effect of insulating material on ESCC frequency, (2) temperature range of ESCC susceptibility, (3) detrimental ions and their sources, (4) critical allowable ion concentration in insulation, and (5) effect of residual and thermal stresses on ESCC susceptibility. Countermeasures to ESCC, which are applicable to plants in service or planning, have been proposed.

  16. Stress Corrosion Crack Detection on HU-25 Guardian Aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Blackmon, R.; Huffman, J.; Mello, C.W.; Moore, D.G.; Walkington, P.D.

    1999-02-17

    Several ultrasonic inspection methods were developed at the Federal Aviation Administration's Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) to easily and rapidly detect hidden stress corrosion cracks in all vertical windshield posts on the US Coast Guard (USCG) HU-25 Guardian aircraft. The inspection procedure locates cracks as small as 2.0 millimeters emanating from internal fastener holes and determines their length. A test procedure was developed and a baseline assessment of the USCG fleet was conducted. Inspection results on twenty-five aircraft revealed a good correlation with results made during subsequent structural disassembly and visual inspection.

  17. Stress corrosion cracking of welded Alloy 600 penetration mockups

    SciTech Connect

    Sarver, J.M.; Pathania, R.S.; Stuckey, K.; Fyfitch, S.; Gelpi, A.; Foucault, M.; Hunt, E.S.

    1995-12-31

    The primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 600 in components other than steam generators is a problem of increasing concern for nuclear power plants. Of greatest concern at the present time is the PWSCC of Alloy 600 vessel head penetrations. The common elements of these components are threefold: (1) the Alloy 600 material has a susceptible microstructure, (2) the Alloy 600 material is either a thick-walled tube or a bar which has been machined into a thick-walled tube, and (3) the Alloy 600 material has been welded into a structure such that high residual welding stresses exist in the postwelded Alloy 600 material. The objectives of the present program were to evaluate the PWSCC behavior of various configurations of welded Alloy 600 penetrations, and possible remedial measures which would prevent or retard PWSCC in these components. Mockups were instrumented to permit instantaneous remote sensing of through-wall cracking and were autoclave tested along with control C-rings in a doped steam environment. Following the test exposures, the mockups were split and examined to characterize the cracking morphology and the material microstructure. A Weibull distribution was used to analyze the time-to-failure results, and the observed cracking locations were compared to residual stress levels predicted by an elastic-plastic finite element analysis of the mockups.

  18. The Measurement of Crack Tip Stresses by X-Ray Diffraction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-01

    steel using a semi-automatic x-ray diffraction technique. Crack tip residual stresses were measured in the unloaded condition and crack tip "applied...36 10 X-Ray Diffraction Peak for 1020 Steel ....... .. 38 11 Constant Amplitude Crack Growth Rate Behavior . . . 39 12 X-Ray...investigation, crack tip stresses were measured in specimens of 1020 and 1045 steel using a semi- automatic x-ray diffraction technique. Crack tip residual

  19. Frequency domain stress intensity calibration of damped cracked panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, James F.; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses two schemes for doing finite element K calibration in the frequency domain. The baseline scheme uses the definition of K as a limit toward the crack tip. The limiting process requires using a very fine mesh around the crack tip making the scheme computationally very expensive. It is shown that the behavior of K as a function of frequency is very similar to a modal response. Taking advantage of this, a more efficient scheme involves a modal analysis of the cracked sheet and scaling the response to that of the static stress intensity. In this way, only a static K calibration need be performed. All the examples shown are for a frequency range spanning multiple resonances and with two levels of damping.

  20. Separating the Influence of Environment from Stress Relaxation Effects on Dwell Fatigue Crack Growth in a Nickel-Base Disk Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telesman, J.; Gabb, T. P.; Ghosn, L. J.

    2016-01-01

    Both environmental embrittlement and crack tip visco-plastic stress relaxation play a significant role in determining the dwell fatigue crack growth (DFCG) resistance of nickel-based disk superalloys. In the current study performed on the Low Solvus High Refractory (LSHR) disk alloy, the influence of these two mechanisms were separated so that the effects of each could be quantified and modeled. Seven different microstructural variations of LSHR were produced by controlling the cooling rate and the subsequent aging and thermal exposure heat treatments. Through cyclic fatigue crack growth testing performed both in air and vacuum, it was established that four out of the seven LSHR heat treatments evaluated, possessed similar intrinsic environmental resistance to cyclic crack growth. For these four heat treatments, it was further shown that the large differences in dwell crack growth behavior which still persisted, were related to their measured stress relaxation behavior. The apparent differences in their dwell crack growth resistance were attributed to the inability of the standard linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) stress intensity parameter to account for visco-plastic behavior. Crack tip stress relaxation controls the magnitude of the remaining local tensile stresses which are directly related to the measured dwell crack growth rates. It was hypothesized that the environmentally weakened grain boundary crack tip regions fail during the dwells when their strength is exceeded by the remaining local crack tip tensile stresses. It was shown that the classical creep crack growth mechanisms such as grain boundary sliding did not contribute to crack growth, but the local visco-plastic behavior still plays a very significant role by determining the crack tip tensile stress field which controls the dwell crack growth behavior. To account for the influence of the visco-plastic behavior on the crack tip stress field, an empirical modification to the LEFM stress

  1. Environmental fatigue of an Al-Li-Cu alloy. Part 3: Modeling of crack tip hydrogen damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Gangloff, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental fatigue crack propagation rates and microscopic damage modes in Al-Li-Cu alloy 2090 (Parts 1 and 2) are described by a crack tip process zone model based on hydrogen embrittlement. Da/dN sub ENV equates to discontinuous crack advance over a distance, delta a, determined by dislocation transport of dissolved hydrogen at plastic strains above a critical value; and to the number of load cycles, delta N, required to hydrogenate process zone trap sites that fracture according to a local hydrogen concentration-tensile stress criterion. Transgranular (100) cracking occurs for process zones smaller than the subgrain size, and due to lattice decohesion or hydride formation. Intersubgranular cracking dominates when the process zone encompasses one or more subgrains so that dislocation transport provides hydrogen to strong boundary trapping sites. Multi-sloped log da/dN-log delta K behavior is produced by process zone plastic strain-hydrogen-microstructure interactions, and is determined by the DK dependent rates and proportions of each parallel cracking mode. Absolute values of the exponents and the preexponential coefficients are not predictable; however, fractographic measurements theta sub i coupled with fatigue crack propagation data for alloy 2090 established that the process zone model correctly describes fatigue crack propagation kinetics. Crack surface films hinder hydrogen uptake and reduce da/dN and alter the proportions of each fatigue crack propagation mode.

  2. Environmentally Assisted Crack Growth in Structural Alloys: Perspectives and New Directions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    the fundamental issues, and has served as a basis for the utilization of data in design. Chemical and microstruc - tural modeling of stress corrosion...aspects of environmentally assisted crack growth. More recently, this ef- fort has been extended to include the influence of microstruc - ture. Sustained...of more ft than one reaction step. For example, for the case of 7075 -T651 f.% aluminum alloy (Fig. 10), the additional enhancement at the higher

  3. Surface Cracking and Interface Reaction Associated Delamination Failure of Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Choi, Sung R.; Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Lee, Kang N.; Miller, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, surface cracking and interface reactions of a BSAS coating and a multi-layer ZrO2-8wt%Y2O3 and mullite/BSAS/Si thermal and environmental barrier coating system on SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites were characterized after long-term combined laser thermal gradient and furnace cyclic tests in a water vapor containing environment. The surface cracking was analyzed based on the coating thermal gradient sintering behavior and thermal expansion mismatch stress characteristics under the thermal cyclic conditions. The interface reactions, which were largely enhanced by the coating surface cracking in the water vapor environment, were investigated in detail, and the reaction phases were identified for the coating system after the long-term exposure. The accelerated coating delamination failure was attributed to the increased delamination driving force under the thermal gradient cyclic loading and the reduced interface adhesion due to the detrimental interface reactions.

  4. Surface Cracking and Interface Reaction Associated Delamination Failure of Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Choi, Sung R.; Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Lee, Kang N.; Miller, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, surface cracking and interface reactions of a BSAS coating and a multi-layer ZTO2-8wt%Y2O3 and mullite/BSAS/Si thermal and environmental barrier coating system on SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites were characterized after long-term combined laser thermal gradient and furnace cyclic tests in a water vapor containing environment. The surface cracking was analyzed based on the coating thermal gradient sintering behavior and thermal expansion mismatch stress characteristics under the thermal cyclic conditions. The interface reactions, which were largely enhanced by the coating surface cracking in the water vapor environment, were investigated in detail, and the reaction phases were identified for the coating system after the long- term exposure. The accelerated coating delamination failure was attributed to the increased delamination driving force under the thermal gradient cyclic loading and the reduced interface adhesion due to the detrimental interface reactions.

  5. Environmentally assisted cracking of low pressure steam turbine disk-rim material

    SciTech Connect

    Inagaki, H.; Sugita, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Bodai, M.; Takel, M.

    1996-12-31

    At the last stage disk-rim blade attachments of low pressure steam turbines for fossil power units which are subjected to increasing number of start-stop operations, the frequent start-stop operations can be a potential problem in the integrity of the rotor. Environmentally assisted cracking of 3.5 NiCrMoV low alloy steel under cyclic straining was investigated in both the water environment at 60 C in the laboratory and the actual steam environment of a low pressure steam turbine. Effects of strain rate, strain holding time, superposed vibratory stress, impurities and dissolved oxygen in the water environment, on crack initiation life and crack propagation rate were investigated using trapezoidal strain wave form.

  6. Creep, Fatigue and Environmental Interactions and Their Effect on Crack Growth in Superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telesman, J.; Gabb, T. P.; Ghosn, L. J.; Smith, T.

    2017-01-01

    Complex interactions of creep/fatigue/environment control dwell fatigue crack growth (DFCG) in superalloys. Crack tip stress relaxation during dwells significantly changes the crack driving force and influence DFCG. Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics, Kmax, parameter unsuitable for correlating DFCG behavior due to extensive visco-plastic deformation. Magnitude of remaining crack tip axial stresses controls DFCG resistance due to the brittle-intergranular nature of the crack growth process. Proposed a new empirical parameter, Ksrf, which incorporates visco-plastic evolution of the magnitude of remaining crack tip stresses. Previous work performed at 704C, extend the work to 760C.

  7. Design Criteria for Controlling Stress Corrosion Cracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, D. B.

    1987-01-01

    This document sets forth the criteria to be used in the selection of materials for space vehicles and associated equipment and facilities so that failure resulting from stress corrosion will be prevented. The requirements established herein apply to all metallic components proposed for use in space vehicles and other flight hardware, ground support equipment, and facilities for testing. These requirements are applicable not only to items designed and fabricated by MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) and its prime contractors, but also to items supplied to the prime contractor by subcontractors and vendors.

  8. Stress corrosion cracking of titanium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, G. R.; Spretnak, J. W.; Beck, F. H.; Fontana, M. G.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of hydrogen on the properties of metals, including titanium and its alloys, was investigated. The basic theories of stress corrosion of titanium alloys are reviewed along with the literature concerned with the effect of absorbed hydrogen on the mechanical properties of metals. Finally, the basic modes of metal fracture and their importance to this study is considered. The experimental work was designed to determine the effects of hydrogen concentration on the critical strain at which plastic instability along pure shear directions occurs. The materials used were titanium alloys Ti-8Al-lMo-lV and Ti-5Al-2.5Sn.

  9. Comparison of Stress Corrosion Cracking Susceptibility of Laser Machined and Milled 304 L Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, R. K.; Kumar, Aniruddha; Nagpure, D. C.; Rai, S. K.; Singh, M. K.; Khooha, Ajay; Singh, A. K.; Singh, Amrendra; Tiwari, M. K.; Ganesh, P.; Kaul, R.; Singh, B.

    2016-12-01

    Machining of austenitic stainless steel components is known to introduce significant enhancement in their susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking. The paper compares stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of laser machined 304 L stainless steel specimens with conventionally milled counterpart in chloride environment. With respect to conventionally milled specimens, laser machined specimens displayed more than 12 times longer crack initiation time in accelerated stress corrosion cracking test in boiling magnesium chloride as per ASTM G36. Reduced stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of laser machined surface is attributed to its predominantly ferritic duplex microstructure in which anodic ferrite phase was under compressive stress with respect to cathodic austenite.

  10. Modeling and prediction of irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, P.L.; Ford, F.P.

    1995-12-31

    Following an introduction to the phenomenology and consequences of irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC), the many common aspects of SCC response in unirradiated and irradiated environments is reviewed. From a secure basis of understanding and predictive modeling under unirradiated conditions, the effects of individual irradiation phenomena are identified and modeled. The individual effects of radiation on segregation, creep/stress relaxation, hardening, and radiolytic water chemistry are modeled based on the best available data, some from proprietary sources. Critical issues are addressed, such as the possibility that radiation produces very high corrosion potentials in crevices/cracks under irradiated conditions. A wide variety of irradiated laboratory data and field observations provides a basis for comparison with prediction and an optimism that, despite an imperfect understanding of irradiation phenomena, it is possible to develop predictive algorithms that characterize IASCC with reasonable accuracy and, from that, to develop an effective approach for life prediction.

  11. A Study on Stress-Corrosion Cracking Using Single Fiber Model Specimen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawada, Hiroyuki; Kobiki, Akira

    Recently the crack propagation properties of GFRP on the stress corrosion cracking (S. C.C) are investigated, and the threshold stress intensity factor KICC is verified in some environmental solution. From the investigation, it was found that GFRP reinforced by C-glass fiber has a superior acid resistance. However the microscopic crack propagation mechanisms caused by the material corrosion are not verified, and the microscopic mechanisms are necessary to assure the durability. Therefore the degradation mechanisms of the inner fiber and the matrix and the fiber/matrix interface should be quantified. In this study, the degradation of the fiber strength and the fiber/matrix interfacial shear strength are investigated using a single fiber composite previously immersed into environmental solutions, distilled water and acid solution. The effects of solution diffusion into the matrix resin on the fiber strength and the interfacial shear strength have been evaluated as a function of immersion time by fragmentation test in the room air. It is found that the diffusion of distilled water influences the degradation earlier than the acid solution. And the diffusion behavior is confirmed by Fickian diffusion analysis. The calculated concentration distribution showed that the water concentration around the fiber is saturated much earlier than the saturation of the acid ion due to the lower diffusion coefficient. Furthermore the crack propagation mechanisms are discussed based on the degradation estimated by the fragmentation test.

  12. Uncertainty quantification methodologies development for stress corrosion cracking of canister welds

    SciTech Connect

    Dingreville, Remi Philippe Michel; Bryan, Charles R.

    2016-09-30

    This letter report presents a probabilistic performance assessment model to evaluate the probability of canister failure (through-wall penetration) by SCC. The model first assesses whether environmental conditions for SCC – the presence of an aqueous film – are present at canister weld locations (where tensile stresses are likely to occur) on the canister surface. Geometry-specific storage system thermal models and weather data sets representative of U.S. spent nuclear fuel (SNF) storage sites are implemented to evaluate location-specific canister surface temperature and relative humidity (RH). As the canister cools and aqueous conditions become possible, the occurrence of corrosion is evaluated. Corrosion is modeled as a two-step process: first, pitting is initiated, and the extent and depth of pitting is a function of the chloride surface load and the environmental conditions (temperature and RH). Second, as corrosion penetration increases, the pit eventually transitions to a SCC crack, with crack initiation becoming more likely with increasing pit depth. Once pits convert to cracks, a crack growth model is implemented. The SCC growth model includes rate dependencies on both temperature and crack tip stress intensity factor, and crack growth only occurs in time steps when aqueous conditions are predicted. The model suggests that SCC is likely to occur over potential SNF interim storage intervals; however, this result is based on many modeling assumptions. Sensitivity analyses provide information on the model assumptions and parameter values that have the greatest impact on predicted storage canister performance, and provide guidance for further research to reduce uncertainties.

  13. The role of crack tip strain rate in the stress corrosion cracking of high strength steels in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieck, R. M.; Atrens, A.; Smith, I. O.

    1989-05-01

    Creep tests have been performed on fracture mechanics specimens of as-quenched 4340 and 3.5NiCrMoV rotor steel to confirm the importance of crack tip strain rate in causing stress corrosion cracking. By allowing creep in a noncracking environment, dry air for the high strength steels tested, cracking did not occur when water, the corrosive solution, was later added to the system. Thus, it is possible to inhibit stress corrosion in spite of conditions otherwise conducive to crack growth. Conditions necessary to restart cracking were also tested. The importance of this result in terms of the mechanism of stress corrosion and difficulties in measuring KISCC is discussed.

  14. Grain-by-grain study of the mechanisms of crack propagation during iodine stress corrosion cracking of Zircaloy-4

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, R.E.; Dorado, A.O.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes the tests conducted to determine the conditions leading to cracking of a specified grain of metal, during the iodine stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of zirconium alloys, focusing on the crystallographic orientation of crack paths, the critical stress conditions, and the significance of the fractographic features encountered. In order to perform crystalline orientation of fracture surfaces, a specially heat-treated Zircaloy-4 having very large grains, grown up to the wall thickness, was used. Careful orientation work has proved that intracrystalline pseudo-cleavage occurs only along basal planes. the effects of anisotropy, plasticity, triaxiality, and residual stresses originated in thermal contraction have to be considered to account for the influence of the stress state. A grain-by-grain calculation led to the conclusion that transgranular cracking always takes place on those bearing the maximum resolved tensile stress perpendicular to basal planes. Propagation along twin boundaries has been identified among the different fracture modes encountered.

  15. Controlling stress corrosion cracking in mechanism components of ground support equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majid, W. A.

    1988-01-01

    The selection of materials for mechanism components used in ground support equipment so that failures resulting from stress corrosion cracking will be prevented is described. A general criteria to be used in designing for resistance to stress corrosion cracking is also provided. Stress corrosion can be defined as combined action of sustained tensile stress and corrosion to cause premature failure of materials. Various aluminum, steels, nickel, titanium and copper alloys, and tempers and corrosive environment are evaluated for stress corrosion cracking.

  16. Stress corrosion cracking of candidate waste container materials; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.Y.; Maiya, P.S.; Soppet, W.K.; Diercks, D.R.; Shack, W.J.; Kassner, T.F.

    1992-06-01

    Six alloys have been selected as candidate container materials for the storage of high-level nuclear waste at the proposed Yucca mountain site in Nevada. These materials are Type 304L stainless steel (SS). Type 316L SS, Incoloy 825, phosphorus-deoxidized Cu, Cu-30%Ni, and Cu-7%Al. The present program has been initiated to determine whether any of these materials can survive for 300 years in the site environment without developing through-wall stress corrosion cracks. and to assess the relative resistance of these materials to stress corrosion cracking (SCC)- A series of slow-strain-rate tests (SSRTs) and fracture-mechanics crack-growth-rate (CGR) tests was performed at 93{degree}C and 1 atm of pressure in simulated J-13 well water. This water is representative, prior to the widespread availability of unsaturated-zone water, of the groundwater present at the Yucca Mountain site. Slow-strain-rate tests were conducted on 6.35-mm-diameter cylindrical specimens at strain rates of 10-{sup {minus}7} and 10{sup {minus}8} s{sup {minus}1} under crevice and noncrevice conditions. All tests were interrupted after nominal elongation strain of 1--4%. Scanning electron microscopy revealed some crack initiation in virtually all the materials, as well as weldments made from these materials. A stress- or strain-ratio cracking index ranks these materials, in order of increasing resistance to SCC, as follows: Type 304 SS < Type 316L SS < Incoloy 825 < Cu-30%Ni < Cu and Cu-7%Al. Fracture-mechanics CGR tests were conducted on 25.4-mm-thick compact tension specimens of Types 304L and 316L stainless steel (SS) and Incoloy 825. Crack-growth rates were measured under various load conditions: load ratios M of 0.5--1.0, frequencies of 10{sup {minus}3}-1 Hz, rise nines of 1--1000s, and peak stress intensities of 25--40 MPa{center_dot}m {sup l/2}.

  17. Stress corrosion cracking tests using double-cantilever-beam specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, A

    1996-10-25

    Although a wide variety of degradation modes can occur in aqueous environments for corrosion-resistant metallic materials, localized corrosion such as pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion, SCC, and hydrogen embrinlement (HE) is considered to be the primary mode. The evaluation of the susceptibility of candidate corrosion-resistant container materials to pitting and crevice corrosion is well underway using electrochemical polarization techniques described in the Activity Plan E-20-43144. The proposed activity (E-20-56) is aimed at evaluating the SCC behavior of these materials in susceptible environments using the linearelastic-fracture-mechanics (LEFM) concept. The mechanical driving force for crack growth, or the stress distribution at the crack tip is quantified by the stress intensity factor, K, for the specific crack and loading geometry. The critical stress intensity factor for SCC, KISCC for candidate materials will be evaluated in environments of interest, and their comparisons will be made to select the waste package inner container material having an optimum SCC resistance.

  18. Fatigue failure in polysilicon not due to simple stress corrosion cracking.

    PubMed

    Kahn, H; Ballarini, R; Bellante, J J; Heuer, A H

    2002-11-08

    In the absence of a corrosive environment, brittle materials such as silicon should be immune to cyclic fatigue. However, fatigue effects are well known in micrometer-sized polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon) samples tested in air. To investigate the origins of this phenomenon in polysilicon, we developed a fixed-grip fracture mechanics microspecimen but could find no evidence of static stress corrosion cracking. The environmental sensitivity of the fatigue resistance was also investigated under cyclic loading. For low-cycle fatigue, the behavior is independent of the ambient conditions, whether air or vacuum, but is strongly influenced by the ratio of compressive to tensile stresses experienced during each cycle. The fatigue damage most likely originates from contact stresses at processing-related surface asperities; subcritical crack growth then ensues during further cyclic loading. The lower far-field stresses involved in high-cycle fatigue induce reduced levels of fatigue damage. Under these conditions, a corrosive ambient such as laboratory air exacerbates the fatigue process. Without cyclic loading, polysilicon does not undergo stress corrosion cracking.

  19. Stress corrosion cracking properties of 15-5PH steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosa, Ferdinand

    1993-01-01

    Unexpected occurrence of failures, due to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of structural components, indicate a need for improved characterization of materials and more advanced analytical procedures for reliably predicting structures performance. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to determine the stress corrosion susceptibility of 15-5PH steel over a wide range of applied strain rates in a highly corrosive environment. The selected environment for this investigation was a highly acidified sodium chloride (NaCl) aqueous solution. The selected alloy for the study was a 15-5PH steel in the H900 condition. The slow strain rate technique was selected to test the metals specimens.

  20. An Industrial Perspective on Environmentally Assisted Cracking of Some Commercially Used Carbon Steels and Corrosion-Resistant Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashida, Yugo; Daigo, Yuzo; Sugahara, Katsuo

    2017-08-01

    Commercial metals and alloys like carbon steels, stainless steels, and nickel-based super alloys frequently encounter the problem of environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) and resulting failure in engineering components. This article aims to provide a perspective on three critical industrial applications having EAC issues: (1) corrosion and cracking of carbon steels in automotive applications, (2) EAC of iron- and nickel-based alloys in salt production and processing, and (3) EAC of iron- and nickel-based alloys in supercritical water. The review focuses on current industrial-level understanding with respect to corrosion fatigue, hydrogen-assisted cracking, or stress corrosion cracking, as well as the dominant factors affecting crack initiation and propagation. Furthermore, some ongoing industrial studies and directions of future research are also discussed.

  1. Ultrasonic inspection reliability for intergranular stress corrosion cracks

    SciTech Connect

    Heasler, P G; Taylor, T T; Spanner, J C; Doctor, S R; Deffenbaugh, J D

    1990-07-01

    A pipe inspection round robin entitled Mini-Round Robin'' was conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory from May 1985 through October 1985. The research was sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research under a program entitled Evaluation and Improvement of NDE Reliability for Inservice Inspection of Light Water Reactors.'' The Mini-Round Robin (MRR) measured the intergranular stress corrosion (GSC) crack detection and sizing capabilities of inservice inspection (ISI) inspectors that had passed the requirements of IEB 83-02 and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) sizing training course. The MRR data base was compared with an earlier Pipe Inspection Round Robin (PIRR) that had measured the performance of inservice inspection prior to 1982. Comparison of the MRR and PIRR data bases indicates no significant change in the inspection capability for detecting IGSCC. Also, when comparing detection of long and short cracks, no difference in detection capability was measured. An improvement in the ability to differentiate between shallow and deeper IGSCC was found when the MRR sizing capability was compared with an earlier sizing round robin conducted by the EPRI. In addition to the pipe inspection round robin, a human factors study was conducted in conjunction with the Mini-Round Robin. The most important result of the human factors study is that the Relative Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves provide a better methodology for describing inspector performance than only probability of detection (POD) or single-point crack/no crack data. 6 refs., 55 figs., 18 tabs.

  2. Assessment of NDE methods for detecting cracks and damage in environmental barrier coated CMC tested under tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Wroblewski, Adam C.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Jaskowiak, Martha H.; Gorican, Daniel; Rauser, Richard W.

    2015-03-01

    For validating physics based analytical models predicting spallation life of environmental barrier coating (EBC) on fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites, the fracture strength of EBC and kinetics of crack growth in EBC layers need to be experimentally determined under engine operating conditions. In this study, a multi layered barium strontium aluminum silicate (BSAS) based EBC-coated, melt infiltrated silicon carbide fiber reinforced silicon carbide matrix composite (MI SiC/SiC) specimen was tensile tested at room temperature. Multiple tests were performed on a single specimen with increasing predetermined stress levels until final failure. During loading, the damage occurring in the EBC was monitored by digital image correlation (DIC). After unloading from the predetermined stress levels, the specimen was examined by optical microscopy and computed tomography (CT). Results indicate both optical microscopy and CT could not resolve the primary or secondary cracks developed during tensile loading until failure. On the other hand, DIC did show formation of a primary crack at ~ 50% of the ultimate tensile strength and this crack grew with increasing stress and eventually led to final failure of the specimen. Although some secondary cracks were seen in the DIC strain plots prior to final failure, the existence of these cracks were not confirmed by other methods. By using a higher resolution camera, it is possible to improve the capability of DIC in resolving secondary cracks and damage in coated specimen tested at room temperature, but use of DIC at high temperature requires significant development. Based on the current data, it appears that both optical microscopy and CT do not offer any hope for detecting crack initiation or determining crack growth in EBC coated CMC tested at room or high temperatures after the specimen has been unloaded. Other methods such as, thermography and optical/SEM of the polished cross section of EBC coated CMC specimens stressed to

  3. Role of Slip Mode on Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudevan, A. K.; Sadananda, K.

    2011-02-01

    In this article, we examine the effect of aging treatment and the role of planarity of slip on stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior in precipitation-hardened alloys. With aging, the slip mode can change from a planar slip in the underage (UA) to a wavy slip in the overage (OA) region. This, in turn, results in sharpening the crack tip in the UA compared to blunting in the OA condition. We propose that the planar slip enhances the stress concentration effects by making the alloys more susceptible to SCC. In addition, the planarity of slip enhances plateau velocities, reduces thresholds for SCC, and reduces component life. We show that the effect of slip planarity is somewhat similar to the effects of mechanically induced stress concentrations such as due to the presence of sharp notches. Aging treatment also causes variations in the matrix and grain boundary (GB) microstructures, along with typical mechanical and SCC properties. These properties include yield stress, work hardening rate, fracture toughness K IC , thresholds K Iscc, and steady-state plateau velocity ( da/ dt). The SCC data for a wide range of ductile alloys including 7050, 7075, 5083, 5456 Al, MAR M steels, and solid solution copper-base alloys are collected from the literature. Our assertion is that slip mode and the resulting stress concentration are important factors in SCC behavior. This is further supported by similar observations in many other systems including some steels, Al alloys, and Cu alloys.

  4. Near-neutral pH Stress Corrosion Crack Initiation under Simulated Coating Disbondment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eslami, Abdoulmajid

    This research is aimed at understanding near-neutral pH SCC initiation under disbonded coatings of pipeline steels, and the effect of different environmental and operational factors on crack initiation. Understanding near-neutral pH stress corrosion cracking (SCC) could answer many of the primary questions on crack initiation of SCC which have not yet been answered. It could also assist the development of effective mitigative measures dealing with thousands of kilometer of pipelines containing this form of cracking, in addition to preventive action for future pipeline installations. Near-neutral pH SCC usually occurs under polyethylene tape (PE tape) coated pipelines, at locations where the coating becomes disbonded and/or damaged. Ground water can then penetrate under the damaged/disbonded coating, become trapped and form a suitable environment for corrosion and cracking. Despite extensive studies on this topic the details of crack initiation mechanisms in addition to the exact role of environmental and operational factors on crack initiation are not thoroughly understood. Most previous laboratory tests have been done in aggressive loading conditions and ignored the effect of coatings and cathodic protections (CP). In order to simulate the conditions responsible for crack initiation, a novel testing setup capable of simulating the synergistic effects of coating disbondment, cathodic protection and cyclic loading was implemented. Using this setup and long term laboratory tests near-neutral pH SCC initiation mechanisms and the effect of some environmental and operational factors on crack initiation were investigated. It was found that near-neutral pH SCC initiation does not necessarily occur in near-neutral pH environments as commonly believed. Depending on the level of CP and CO2 in the underground environment, different localized environments with varying pH values from near-neutral to high values above 10 can form under the disbonded coatings. This significantly

  5. Thermally activated dislocation creep model for primary water stress corrosion cracking of NiCrFe alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, M.M., Jr

    1995-12-31

    There is a growing awareness that awareness that environmentally assisted creep plays an important role in integranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of NiCrFe alloys in the primary coolant water environment of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). The expected creep mechanism is the thermally activated glide of dislocations. This mode of deformation is favored by the relatively low temperature of PWR operation combined with the large residual stresses that are most often identified as responsible for the SCC failure of plant components. Stress corrosion crack growth rate (CGR) equations that properly reflect the influence of this mechanism of crack tip deformation are required for accurate component life predictions. A phenomenological IGSCC-CGR model, which is based on an apriori assumption that the IGSCC-CGR is controlled by a low temperature dislocation creep mechanism, is developed in this report. Obstacles to dislocation creep include solute atoms such as carbon, which increase the lattice friction force, and forest dislocations, which can be introduced by cold prestrain. Dislocation creep also may be environmentally assisted due to hydrogen absorption at the crack tip. The IGSCC-CGR model developed here is based on an assumption that crack growth occurs by repeated fracture events occurring within an advancing crack-tip creep-fracture zone. Thermal activation parameters for stress corrosion cracking are obtained by fitting the CGR model to IGSCC-CGR data obtained on NiCrFe alloys, Alloy X-750 and Alloy 600. These IGSCC-CGR activation parameters are compared to activation parameters obtained from creep and stress relaxation tests. Recently reported CGR data, which exhibit an activation energy that depends on yield stress and the applied stress intensity factor, are used to benchmark the model. Finally, the effects of matrix carbon concentration, grain boundary carbides and absorbed hydrogen concentration are discussed within context of the model.

  6. Variation of crack-opening stresses in three-dimensions - Finite thickness plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chermahini, R. G.; Blom, A. F.

    1991-01-01

    A 3D elastic-plastic finite-element analysis is conducted to study crack-growth behavior of thin and thick center-cracked specimens under constant-amplitude loading conditions. The numerical analysis and the specimen configuration and loading are described for both the thin and thick conditions. Stabilized crack-opening stresses of interior and exterior regions are given as are the closure and opening profiles of the crack-surface plane after the tenth cycle. The effect of thickness is discussed with respect to the crack-opening stress levels and the plastic zones of the interior and exterior regions. A load-reduced-displacement technique allows the calculation of the crack-opening stresses at three locations on the crack surface plane. The constraint effect related to thickness gives a lower stabilized crack-opening stress level for the thick specimens.

  7. Variation of crack-opening stresses in three-dimensions - Finite thickness plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chermahini, R. G.; Blom, A. F.

    1991-01-01

    A 3D elastic-plastic finite-element analysis is conducted to study crack-growth behavior of thin and thick center-cracked specimens under constant-amplitude loading conditions. The numerical analysis and the specimen configuration and loading are described for both the thin and thick conditions. Stabilized crack-opening stresses of interior and exterior regions are given as are the closure and opening profiles of the crack-surface plane after the tenth cycle. The effect of thickness is discussed with respect to the crack-opening stress levels and the plastic zones of the interior and exterior regions. A load-reduced-displacement technique allows the calculation of the crack-opening stresses at three locations on the crack surface plane. The constraint effect related to thickness gives a lower stabilized crack-opening stress level for the thick specimens.

  8. Environmental fatigue of an Al-Li-Cu alloy. Part 2: Microscopic hydrogen cracking processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Gangloff, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    Based on a fractographic analysis of fatigue crack propagation (FCP) in Al-Li-Cu alloy 2090 stressed in a variety of inert and embrittling environments, microscopic crack paths are identified and correlated with intrinsic da/dN-delta K kinetics. FCP rates in 2090 are accelerated by hydrogen producing environments (pure water vapor, moist air, and aqueous NaCl), as defined in Part 1. For these cases, subgrain boundary fatigue cracking (SGC) dominates for delta K values where the crack tip process zone, a significant fraction of the cyclic plastic zone, is sufficiently large to envelop 5 micron subgrains in the unrecrystallized microstructure. SGC may be due to strong hydrogen trapping at T1 precipitates concentrated at sub-boundaries. At low delta K, the plastic zone diameter is smaller than the subgrain size and FCP progresses along (100) planes due to either local lattice decohesion or aluminum-lithium hydride cracking. For inert environments (vacuum, helium, and oxygen), or at high delta K where the hydrogen effect on da/dN is small, FCP is along (111) slip planes; this mode does not transition with increasing delta K and plastic zone size. The SGC and (100) crystallographic cracking modes, and the governing influence of the crack tip process zone volume (delta K), support hydrogen embrittlement rather than a surface film rupture and anodic dissolution mechanism for environmental FCP. Multi-sloped log da/dN-log delta K behavior is produced by changes in process zone hydrogen-microstructure interactions, and not by purely micromechanical-microstructure interactions, in contradiction to microstructural distance-based fatigue models.

  9. Computer Simulation of Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking via Hydrogen Embrittlement

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.W.

    2000-04-01

    Computer simulation has been applied to the investigation of intergranular stress corrosion cracking in Ni-based alloys based on a hydrogen embrittlement mechanism. The simulation employs computational modules that address (a) transport and reactions of aqueous species giving rise to hydrogen generation at the liquid-metal interface, (b) solid state transport of hydrogen via intergranular and transgranular diffusion pathways, and (c) fracture due to the embrittlement of metallic bonds by hydrogen. A key focus of the computational model development has been the role of materials microstructure (precipitate particles and grain boundaries) on hydrogen transport and embrittlement. Simulation results reveal that intergranular fracture is enhanced as grain boundaries are weakened and that microstructures with grains elongated perpendicular to the stress axis are more susceptible to cracking. The presence of intergranular precipitates may be expected to either enhance or impede cracking depending on the relative distribution of hydrogen between the grain boundaries and the precipitate-matrix interfaces. Calculations of hydrogen outgassing and in gassing demonstrate a strong effect of charging method on the fracture behavior.

  10. Review of environmental effects on fatigue crack growth of austenitic stainless steels.

    SciTech Connect

    Shack, W. J.; Kassner, T. F.; Energy Technology

    1994-07-11

    Fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking of piping, pressure vessel cladding, and core components in light water reactors are potential concerns to the nuclear industry and regulatory agencies. The degradation processes include intergranular stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steel (SS) piping in boiling water reactors (BWRs), and propagation of fatigue or stress corrosion cracks (which initiate in sensitized SS cladding) into low-alloy ferritic steels in BWR pressure vessels. Crack growth data for wrought and cast austenitic SSs in simulated BWR water, developed at Argonne National Laboratory under US Nuclear Regulatory Commission sponsorship over the past 10 years, have been compiled into a data base along with similar data obtained from the open literature. The data were analyzed to develop corrosion-fatigue curves for austenitic SSs in aqueous environments corresponding to normal BWR water chemistries, for BWRs that add hydrogen to the feedwater, and for pressurized water reactor primary-system-coolant chemistry. The corrosion-fatigue data and curves in water were compared with the air line in Section XI of the ASME Code.

  11. Environmentally Assisted Cracking of Drill Pipes in Deep Drilling Oil and Natural Gas Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziomek-Moroz, M.

    2012-06-01

    Corrosion fatigue (CF), hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) and sulfide stress cracking (SSC), or environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) have been identified as the most challenging causes of catastrophic brittle fracture of drill pipes during drilling operations of deep oil and natural gas wells. Although corrosion rates can be low and tensile stresses during service can be below the material yield stress, a simultaneous action between the stress and corrosive environment can cause a sudden brittle failure of a drill component. Overall, EAC failure consists of two stages: incubation and propagation. Defects, such as pits, second-phase inclusions, etc., serve as preferential sites for the EAC failure during the incubation stage. Deep oil and gas well environments are rich in chlorides and dissolved hydrogen sulfide, which are extremely detrimental to steels used in drilling operations. This article discusses catastrophic brittle fracture mechanisms due to EAC of drill pipe materials, and the corrosion challenges that need to be overcome for drilling ultra-deep oil and natural gas wells.

  12. Environmentally assisted cracking in light water reactors. Semiannual report July 1996--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O.K.; Chung, H.M.; Gavenda, D.J.

    1997-10-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in light water reactors from July 1996 to December 1996. Topics that have been investigated include (a) fatigue of carbon, low-alloy, and austenitic stainless steels (SSs) used in reactor piping and pressure vessels, (b) irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking of Type 304 SS, (c) EAC of Alloy 600, and (d) characterization of residual stresses in welds of boiling water reactor (BWR) core shrouds by numerical models. Fatigue tests were conducted on ferritic and austenitic SSs in water that contained various concentrations of dissolved oxygen to determine whether a slow strain rate applied during various portions of a tensile-loading cycle are equally effective in decreasing fatigue life. Slow-strain-rate-tensile tests were conducted in simulated BWR water at 288 C on SS specimens irradiated to a low fluence in the Halden reactor and the results were compared with similar data from a control-blade sheath and neutron-absorber tubes irradiated in BWRs to the same fluence level. Crack-growth-rate tests were conducted on compact-tension specimens from a low-carbon content heat of Alloy 600 in high-purity oxygenated water at 289 C. Residual stresses and stress intensity factors were calculated for BWR core shroud welds.

  13. Environmentally Assisted Cracking of Nickel Alloys - A Review

    SciTech Connect

    Rebak, R

    2004-07-12

    Nickel can dissolve a large amount of alloying elements while still maintaining its austenitic structure. That is, nickel based alloys can be tailored for specific applications. The family of nickel alloys is large, from high temperature alloys (HTA) to corrosion resistant alloys (CRA). In general, CRA are less susceptible to environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) than stainless steels. The environments where nickel alloys suffer EAC are limited and generally avoidable by design. These environments include wet hydrofluoric acid and hot concentrated alkalis. Not all nickel alloys are equally susceptible to cracking in these environments. For example, commercially pure nickel is less susceptible to EAC in hot concentrated alkalis than nickel alloyed with chromium (Cr) and molybdenum (Mo). The susceptibility of nickel alloys to EAC is discussed by family of alloys.

  14. Catalogue of maximum crack opening stress for CC(T) specimen assuming large strain condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graba, Marcin

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, values for the maximum opening crack stress and its distance from crack tip are determined for various elastic-plastic materials for centre cracked plate in tension (CC(T) specimen) are presented. Influences of yield strength, the work-hardening exponent and the crack length on the maximum opening stress were tested. The author has provided some comments and suggestions about modelling FEM assuming large strain formulation.

  15. Liquid environmental stress screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, J. L.

    1992-05-01

    This report describes a method of performing Environmental Stress Screening in an inert fluid. Because the liquid has a high dielectric strength, the items being screened can be energized and operational while submerged. Transmitting vibrations through the liquid to the item being screened permits screening without the use of fixtures, and the liquid's high heat capacity allows very rapid temperature changes, either by pumping hot or cold liquid from remote reservoirs or by moving the device from a hot tank to a cold tank. A prototype screening system has been built at NRaD, and faults induced in a small (47 pieces) lot of printed wiring boards have been detected.

  16. Environmentally assisted cracking in light water reactors. Semiannual report, October 1993--March 1994. Volume 18

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H.M.; Chopra, O.K.; Erck, R.A.; Kassner, T.F.; Michaud, W.F.; Ruther, W.E.; Sanecki, J.E.; Shack, W.J.; Soppet, W.K.

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) on fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in light water reactors (LWRs) during the six months from October 1993 to March 1994. EAC and fatigue of piping, pressure vessels, and core components in LWRs are important concerns in operating plants and as extended reactor lifetimes are envisaged. Topics that have been investigated include (a) fatigue of low-alloy steel used in piping, steam generators, and reactor pressure vessels, (b) EAC of wrought and cast austenitic stainless steels (SSs), and (c) radiation-induced segregation and irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of Type 304 SS after accumulation of relatively high fluence. Fatigue tests have been conducted on A302-Gr B low-alloy steel to verify whether the current predictions of modest decreases of fatigue life in simulated pressurized water reactor water are valid for high-sulfur heats that show environmentally enhanced fatigue crack growth rates. Additional crack growth data were obtained on fracture-mechanics specimens of austenitic SSs to investigate threshold stress intensity factors for EAC in high-purity oxygenated water at 289{degrees}C. The data were compared with predictions based on crack growth correlations for wrought austenitic SS in oxygenated water developed at ANL and rates in air from Section XI of the ASME Code. Microchemical and microstructural changes in high- and commercial-purity Type 304 SS specimens from control-blade absorber tubes and a control-blade sheath from operating boiling water reactors were studied by Auger electron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy to determine whether trace impurity elements, which are not specified in the ASTM specifications, may contribute to IASCC of solution-annealed materials.

  17. Low-pH stress corrosion crack propagation in API X-65 line pipe steel

    SciTech Connect

    Harle, B.A.; Beavers, J.A. )

    1993-10-01

    Preliminary results of ongoing crack growth studies being performed on an API X-65 line pipe steel in a low-pH cracking environment were reported. Objectives were to reproduce low-pH crack propagation in the laboratory, to identify a crack driving force parameter, and to evaluate the influence of environmental and mechanical parameters on crack growth. A J-integral test technique was used in the study. Significant crack growth was observed. The parameter J appeared to be a good driving force parameter to describe crack growth.

  18. Stress corrosion cracking of neutron irradiated type 304 stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Tsukada, Takashi; Miwa, Yukio; Nakajima, Hajime

    1995-12-31

    To study the effect of minor elements on the irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC), a high purity type 304L stainless steel and its heats doped minor elements, Si, P, S, C and Ti were irradiated at 513 K to 6.7 {times} 10{sup 24} n/m{sup 2} (E>1 MeV). After irradiation, susceptibility to the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) was evaluated by the slow strain rate tensile (SSRT) test in an oxygenated high purity water at 573 K, and the fracture surface of the specimens was examined by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The specimens showed high susceptibilities to SCC. Specimens without addition of C showed the intergranular type SCC (IGSCC), while C doped specimens generally failed by the transgranular type SCC (TGSCC). Addition of C into the hi purity alloy caused an enhancement of radiation hardening and a remarkable increase in maximum stress during SSRT test. Enrichment of Si changed specifically tensile properties after irradiation and decreased maximum stress and improved total elongation. Addition of S greatly enhanced the IASCC susceptibility and addition of P seemed to be beneficial for suppressing it. An effect of Ti was not prominent in the alloy with a high C concentration.

  19. Effect of corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking on pipe integrity and remaining life

    SciTech Connect

    Jaske, C.E.; Beavers, J.A.

    1996-07-01

    Process piping is often exposed to corrosive fluids. During service, such exposure may cause localized corrosion or stress-corrosion cracking that affects structural integrity. This paper presents a model that quantifies the effect of localized corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking on pipe failure stress. The model is an extension of those that have been developed for oil and gas pipelines. It accounts for both axial and hoop stress. Cracks are modeled using inelastic fracture mechanics. Both flow-stress and fracture-toughness dependent failure modes are addressed. Corrosion and crack-growth rates are used to predict remaining service life.

  20. FITNESS-FOR-SERVICE ASSESSMENT FOR A RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK THAT CONTAINS STRESS CORROSION CRACKS

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B; James Elder, J; Rodney Vandekamp, R; Charles Mckeel, C

    2009-04-23

    Radioactive wastes are confined in 49 underground storage tanks at the Savannah River Site. The tanks are examined by ultrasonic (UT) methods for thinning, pitting, and stress corrosion cracking in order to assess fitness-for-service. During an inspection in 2002, ten cracks were identified on one of the tanks. Given the location of the cracks (i.e., adjacent to welds, weld attachments, and weld repairs), fabrication details (e.g., this tank was not stress-relieved), and the service history the degradation mechanism was stress corrosion cracking. Crack instability calculations utilizing API-579 guidance were performed to show that the combination of expected future service condition hydrostatic and weld residual stresses do not drive any of the identified cracks to instability. The cracks were re-inspected in 2007 to determine if crack growth had occurred. During this re-examination, one indication that was initially reported as a 'possible perpendicular crack <25% through wall' in 2002, was clearly shown not to be a crack. Additionally, examination of a new area immediately adjacent to other cracks along a vertical weld revealed three new cracks. It is not known when these new cracks formed as they could very well have been present in 2002 as well. Therefore, a total of twelve cracks were evaluated during the re-examination. Comparison of the crack lengths measured in 2002 and 2007 revealed that crack growth had occurred in four of the nine previously measured cracks. The crack length extension ranged from 0.25 to 1.8 inches. However, in all cases the cracks still remained within the residual stress zone (i.e., within two to three inches of the weld). The impact of the cracks that grew on the future service of Tank 15 was re-assessed. API-579 crack instability calculations were again performed, based on expected future service conditions and trended crack growth rates for the future tank service cycle. The analysis showed that the combined hydrostatic and weld

  1. Temperature and environmentally assisted cracking in low alloy steel

    SciTech Connect

    Auten, T.A.; Monter, J.V.

    1995-12-31

    Environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) can be defined as the propagation of fatigue cracks in water at rates that are anywhere from 3 to over 40 times the growth rates expected in air. In the present work, five ASTM A 508 Class 2 forgings with ladle and check analyses that ranged from 0.010 to 0.019 wt% S were tested in high purity deaerated water in the temperature range of 93 to 260 C. At 260 C these forgings did not undergo EAC, reinforcing earlier results for two similar forgings. This broad sampling indicates a strong resistance to EAC for this class of forging at 260 C. On the other hand, EAC occurred consistently in the three of these forgings that were tested below 204 C, provided the test conditions were high enough to produce a high baseline fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR), where the baseline FCGR is that expected in air. At 149 C, EAC occurred at test conditions that combined to yield a baseline FCGR greater than {approx}2E-6 mm/s. At 204, 121, and 93 C, this ``critical crack growth rate`` appeared to shift to lower baseline values. The EAC that occurred at lower temperatures was a factor of 3 to 12 times higher than baseline air rates, which was not as strong as the effect for higher sulfur steels at 240 to 290 C. Also, no plateau in the growth rates occurred as it does with the higher sulfur steels. In another approach, EAC was induced at 93 and at 260 C by raising the dissolved oxygen content of the water from <10 to >15 ppb. In this case, the EAC growth rates decreased to non-EAC levels when the oxygen supply was shut off. The oxygen-related EAC occurred over a broader range of baseline growth rates than found for the EAC driven by the baseline crack tip speed. Again, this can be rationalized by the buildup of sulfur in the crack tip water, which can be associated with the higher corrosion potential of the bulk water.

  2. Fatigue Crack Growth Rate and Stress-Intensity Factor Corrections for Out-of-Plane Crack Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forth, Scott C.; Herman, Dave J.; James, Mark A.

    2003-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth rate testing is performed by automated data collection systems that assume straight crack growth in the plane of symmetry and use standard polynomial solutions to compute crack length and stress-intensity factors from compliance or potential drop measurements. Visual measurements used to correct the collected data typically include only the horizontal crack length, which for cracks that propagate out-of-plane, under-estimates the crack growth rates and over-estimates the stress-intensity factors. The authors have devised an approach for correcting both the crack growth rates and stress-intensity factors based on two-dimensional mixed mode-I/II finite element analysis (FEA). The approach is used to correct out-of-plane data for 7050-T7451 and 2025-T6 aluminum alloys. Results indicate the correction process works well for high DeltaK levels but fails to capture the mixed-mode effects at DeltaK levels approaching threshold (da/dN approximately 10(exp -10) meter/cycle).

  3. Stress Corrosion Cracking in Polymer Matrix Glass Fiber Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosak, Jonathan

    With the use of Polymer Matrix Glass Fiber Composites ever expanding, understanding conditions that lead to failure before expected service life is of increasing importance. Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) has proven to be one such example of conditions found in use in high voltage transmission line applications that leads to brittle fracture of polymer matrix composites. SCC has been proven to be the result of acid buildup on the lines due to corona discharges and water buildup. This acid leaches minerals from the fibers, leading to fracture at low loads and service life. In order to combat this problem, efforts are being made to determine which composites have greater resistance to SCC. This study was used to create a methodology to monitor for damage during SCC and classify damage by mechanism type (matrix cracking and fiber breaking) by using 4-point SCC bend testing, 3-point bend testing, a forward predictive model, unique post processing techniques, and microscopy. This would allow a classification in composite resistance to SCC as well as create a methodology for future research in this field. Concluding this study, only matrix cracking was able to be fully classified, however, a methodology was developed for future experimentation.

  4. Effects of loading on the growth rates of deep stress-corrosion cracks

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, J.A.; Christman, T.K.

    1990-08-01

    The goal of this research program was to determine the effects of loading on growth of stress-corrosion cracks (SCC) in line pipe steel and whether special loading procedures could actually inhibit crack growth. Of particular interest was the effect of hydrostatic retesting on the subsequent growth of existing cracks. The growth rate experiments showed that the slow-strain rate loading could successfully nucleate a group of fine cracks with depths up to 0.025 inches (0.64 mm). However, the subsequent cyclic loading at typical operating stress levels (lower than experienced during the slow- strain rate loading) produced minimal crack growth and stopped soon after the test was started. The limited growth is believed to be a real phenomenon which means this is not a suitable procedure for the measurement of average crack growth rates. These experiments indicate that cracks grown at high stress (as in the slow-strain rate phase) do not readily propagate at lower stress levels. This may be because of crack closure (compressive crack tip residual stress) induced by the initial higher stress level. If that is true, then hydrostatic retests could inhibit the growth of existing stress-corrosion cracks, especially if the hydrostatic tests are conducted at high stress levels. 15 figures, 3 tabs.

  5. OBSERVATIONS AND IMPLICATIONS OF INTERGRANULAR STRESS CORROSION CRACK GROWTH OF ALLOY 152 WELD METALS IN SIMULATED PWR PRIMARY WATER

    SciTech Connect

    Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Overman, Nicole R.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    2013-08-15

    Significant intergranular (IG) crack growth during stress corrosion cracking (SCC) tests has been documented during tests in simulated PWR primary water on two alloy 152 specimens cut from a weldment produced by ANL. The cracking morphology was observed to change from transgranular (TG) to mixed mode (up to ~60% IG) during gentle cycling and cycle + hold loading conditions. Measured crack growth rates under these conditions often suggested a moderate degree of environmental enhancement consistent with faster growth on grain boundaries. However, overall SCC propagation rates at constant stress intensity (K) or constant load were very low in all cases. Initial SCC rates up to 6x10-9 mm/s were occasionally measured, but constant K/load growth rates dropped below ~1x10-9 mm/s with time even when significant IG engagement existed. Direct comparisons were made among loading conditions, measured crack growth response and cracking morphology during each test to assess IGSCC susceptibility of the alloy 152 specimens. These results were analyzed with respect to our previous SCC crack growth rate measurements on alloy 152/52 welds.

  6. Effect of Crack Tip Stress Concentration Factor on Fracture Resistance in Vacuum Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-20

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6355--15-9583 Effect of Crack Tip Stress Concentration Factor on Fracture Resistance in...LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Effect of Crack Tip Stress Concentration Factor on Fracture Resistance in Vacuum Environment P.S. Pao and R.L. Holtz Naval Research...0224 An investigation was carried out to characterize the effect of crack tip stress concentration factor (Kt) on fracture resistance of various

  7. Transient stress intensity factors for edge and corner cracks in quench-test specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emery, A. F.; Kobayashi, A. S.

    1980-01-01

    The transient temperature and stress fields in a quenched rectangular bar were computed and used to determine the stress intensity factors for midside and corner-edge cracks. The stress intensity factors, KI, are presented as a function of time, flaw size, and aspect ratio. The variations of KI along the crack edge are given and the self-limiting growth of the crack depth is discussed in relation to the nonlimited surface growth.

  8. Three-dimensional elastic stress and displacement analysis of tensile fracture specimens containing cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, J. P.; Mendelson, A.; Kring, J.

    1973-01-01

    A seminumerical method is presented for three-dimensional elastic analysis of finite geometry solids with traction-free cracks. Stress and displacement distributions are calculated for two rectangular bars which are loaded by a uniform surface stress distribution. The first bar contains a through-thickness central crack while the second bar has double-edge cracks. Stress intensity factors K sub I for both configurations are presented.

  9. Stress cracking potential of HDPE geogrids. Final report, April 1993--July 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Elias, V.; Carlson, D.; Bachus, R.; Giroud, J.P.

    1998-08-01

    The report presents the development of a testing protocol to measure the potential for stress cracking of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) geogrids used for soil reinforcement. The developed data demonstrate that local stress cracking in the unoriented transverse node of HDPE geogrids can occur as a result of construction-induced damage. Undamaged geogrids are not prone to stress cracking at load levels below their 100-year limiting creep load.

  10. Transient stress intensity factors for edge and corner cracks in quench-test specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emery, A. F.; Kobayashi, A. S.

    1980-01-01

    The transient temperature and stress fields in a quenched rectangular bar were computed and used to determine the stress intensity factors for midside and corner-edge cracks. The stress intensity factors, KI, are presented as a function of time, flaw size, and aspect ratio. The variations of KI along the crack edge are given and the self-limiting growth of the crack depth is discussed in relation to the nonlimited surface growth.

  11. Stress corrosion cracking of several high strength ferrous and nickel alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, E. E.

    1971-01-01

    The stress corrosion cracking resistance of several high strength ferrous and nickel base alloys has been determined in a sodium chloride solution. Results indicate that under these test conditions Multiphase MP35N, Unitemp L605, Inconel 718, Carpenter 20Cb and 20Cb-3 are highly resistant to stress corrosion cracking. AISI 410 and 431 stainless steels, 18 Ni maraging steel (250 grade) and AISI 4130 steel are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking under some conditions.

  12. A new approach for the influence of residual stress on fatigue crack propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lin; Jia, Min-Ping

    Many manufacturing processes can induce residual stresses in produced components. These residual stresses influence the mean stress during cyclic loading. The initial residual stresses induced during manufacturing change during fatigue damage. This paper presents a research on the change of residual stress distribution during fatigue crack propagation; the research predicts crack propagation by considering residual stress. An analysis approach for the change in residual stress distribution is established according to the diffusion theory of cavity, which is also used to investigate cracks with different orientations. Experiments are conducted to verify the prediction results of residual stress. A probability density function based on Weibull distribution is established to evaluate the accuracy of predicted residual stress. The influence of residual stress on fatigue crack propagation is considered the effective stress intensity factor range, which is calculated under the combined stress field of applied stress and residual stress. An analysis model of crack propagation is established. Furthermore, the model of crack propagation is used to estimate the velocity of crack propagation for the cases, same as the cases of residual stress prediction. The case studies show that the results are basically identical with the experimental results, indicating that the proposed approach is acceptable.

  13. Improved Stress Intensity Solutions Developed for the Multiple Site Damage Scenario: Two Unequal Through Cracks on Either Side of an Open Hole, Multiple Through Cracks, and Through Cracks Approaching an Open Hole

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    so the stress intensity factor at each crack tip is a function of the length of both cracks. The handbook solution by Murakami [3], was reported to...G.R., "The Stress Analysis of Cracks Handbook," Second Edition, Paris Productions, Inc., St. Louis, MO, 1985 3. Murakami , Y., et al., "Stress

  14. Resolved shear stress intensity coefficient and fatigue crack growth in large crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, QI; Liu, Hao-Wen

    1988-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth in large grain Al alloy was studied. Fatigue crack growth is caused primarily by shear decohesion due to dislocation motion in the crack tip region. The crack paths in the large crystals are very irregular and zigzag. The crack planes are often inclined to the loading axis both in the inplane direction and the thickness direction. The stress intensity factors of such inclined cracks are approximated from the two dimensional finite element calculations. The plastic deformation in a large crystal is highly anisotropic, and dislocation motion in such crystals are driven by the resolved shear stress. The resolved shear stress intensity coefficient in a crack solid, RSSIC, is defined, and the coefficients for the slip systems at a crack tip are evaluated from the calculated stress intensity factors. The orientations of the crack planes are closely related to the slip planes with the high RSSIC values. If a single slip system has a much higher RSSIC than all the others, the crack will follow the slip plane, and the slip plane becomes the crack plane. If two or more slip systems have a high RSSIC, the crack plane is the result of the decohesion processes on these active slip planes.

  15. Ambient temperature stress-corrosion cracking of sensitized stainless steels. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Sieradzki, K.; Isaacs, H.S.; Newman, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    Stress-corrosion cracking of sensitized Type 304 steel in low temperature borated water has been observed. The probable role of low levels of chloride ions or sulfur-containing ions is described, including the relationship of the phenomenon to polythionic acid cracking. The mechanism of the sulfur-induced cracking and its usefulness as a test for sensitization are outlined.

  16. Stress intensity factor for small edge crack in interfacial singularity region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Kazuhiro; Kawakita, Masato; Noriko, Tsutsumi

    2017-05-01

    Fracture of the bonded dissimilar materials generally initiates near the interface, or just from the interface edge due to the edge stress singularity. In this study, the stress intensity factor of an edge crack close to the interface between the dissimilar materials is considered. The small edge crack is strongly dominated by the singular stress field near the interface edge. The analysis of stress intensity factor of small edge crack near the interface in bi-material and butt joint plates is carried out by changing the length and the location of the crack and the region dominated by the interface edge is examined. It is found that the dimensionless stress intensity factor of small crack, normalized by the singular stress at the crack tip point in the bonded plate without the crack, is equal to 1.12, independent of the material combination and adhesive thickness, when the relative crack length with respect to the crack location is less than 0.01. Therefore, the stress intensity factor of the small edge crack can be simply evaluated not only in the bi-material plate but also in the butt joint plate.

  17. Effects of weld residual stresses on crack-opening area analysis of pipes for LBB applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, P.; Rahman, S.; Wilkowski, G.

    1997-04-01

    This paper summarizes four different studies undertaken to evaluate the effects of weld residual stresses on the crack-opening behavior of a circumferential through-wall crack in the center of a girth weld. The effect of weld residual stress on the crack-opening-area and leak-rate analyses of a pipe is not well understood. There are no simple analyses to account for these effects, and, therefore, they are frequently neglected. The four studies involved the following efforts: (1) Full-field thermoplastic finite element residual stress analyses of a crack in the center of a girth weld, (2) A comparison of the crack-opening displacements from a full-field thermoplastic residual stress analysis with a crack-face pressure elastic stress analysis to determine the residual stress effects on the crack-opening displacement, (3) The effects of hydrostatic testing on the residual stresses and the resulting crack-opening displacement, and (4) The effect of residual stresses on crack-opening displacement with different normal operating stresses.

  18. Effects of weld residual stresses on crack-opening area analysis of pipes for LBB applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, P.; Rahman, S.; Wilkowski, G.; Bouchard, J.; Chivers, T.; Brickstad, B.; Bergman, M.

    1996-12-01

    This paper summarizes four different studies undertaken to evaluate the effects of weld residual stresses on the crack-opening behavior of a circumferential through-wall crack in the center of a girth weld. The effect of weld residual stress on the crack-opening-area and leak-rate analyses of a pipe is not well understood. There are no simple analyses to account for these effects, and therefore, they are frequently neglected. The four studies involved the following efforts: (1) full-field thermoplastic finite element residual stress analyses of a crack in the center of a girth weld; (2) a comparison of the crack-opening displacements from a full-field thermoplastic residual stress analysis with a crack-face pressure elastic stress analysis to determine the residual stress effects on the crack-opening displacements; (3) the effects of hydrostatic testing on the residual stresses and the resulting crack-opening displacement; and (4) the effect of residual stresses on crack-opening displacement with different normal operating stresses.

  19. Environmentally assisted cracking in Light Water Reactors: Semiannual report, April 1993--September 1993. Volume 17

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O.K.; Chung, H.M.; Karlsen, T.; Kassner, T.F.; Michaud, W.F.; Ruther, W.E.; Sanecki, J.E.; Shack, W.J.; Soppet, W.K.

    1994-06-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in light water reactors (LWRS) during the six months from April 1993 to September 1993. EAC and fatigue of piping, pressure vessels, and core components in LWRs are important concerns as extended reactor lifetimes are envisaged. Topics that have been investigated include (a) fatigue of low-alloy steel used in piping, steam generators, and reactor pressure vessels; (b) EAC of cast stainless steels (SSs); and (c) radiation-induced segregation and irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking of Type 304 SS after accumulation of relatively high fluence. Fatigue tests were conducted on medium-sulfur-content A106-Gr B piping and A533-Gr B pressure vessel steels in simulated PWR water and in air. Additional crack growth data were obtained on fracture-mechanics specimens of cast austenitic SSs in the as-received and thermally aged conditions in simulated boiling-water reactor (BWR) water at 289{degree}C. The data were compared with predictions based on crack growth correlations for wrought austenitic SS in oxygenated water developed at ANL and rates in air from Section 11 of the ASME Code. Microchemical and microstructural changes in high- and commercial-purity Type 304 SS specimens from control-blade absorber tubes and a control-blade sheath from operating BWRs were studied by Auger electron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

  20. Environmentally assisted cracking in light water reactors. Semiannual report, April 1994--September 1994, Volume 19

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O.K.; Chung, H.M.; Gavenda, D.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) on fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in light water reactors from April to September 1994. Topics that have been investigated include (a) fatigue of carbon and low-alloy steel used in piping and reactor pressure vessels, (b) EAC of austenitic stainless steels (SSs) and Alloy 600, and (c) irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of Type 304 SS. Fatigue tests have been conducted on A106-Gr B and A533-Gr B steels in oxygenated water to determine whether a slow strain rate applied during different portions of a tensile-loading cycle are equally effective in decreasing fatigue life. Crack growth data were obtained on fracture-mechanics specimens of SSs and Alloy 600 to investigate EAC in simulated boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor environments at 289{degrees}C. The data were compared with predictions from crack growth correlations developed at ANL for SSs in water and from rates in air from Section XI of the ASME Code. Microchemical changes in high- and commercial-purity Type 304 SS specimens from control-blade absorber tubes and a control-blade sheath from operating BWRs were studied by Auger electron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy to determine whether trace impurity elements may contribute to IASCC of these materials.

  1. Slow Crack Growth of Brittle Materials With Exponential Crack-Velocity Formulation. Part 2; Constant Stress Rate Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Nemeth, Noel N.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2002-01-01

    The previously determined life prediction analysis based on an exponential crack-velocity formulation was examined using a variety of experimental data on glass and advanced structural ceramics in constant stress rate and preload testing at ambient and elevated temperatures. The data fit to the relation of strength versus the log of the stress rate was very reasonable for most of the materials. Also, the preloading technique was determined equally applicable to the case of slow-crack-growth (SCG) parameter n greater than 30 for both the power-law and exponential formulations. The major limitation in the exponential crack-velocity formulation, however, was that the inert strength of a material must be known a priori to evaluate the important SCG parameter n, a significant drawback as compared with the conventional power-law crack-velocity formulation.

  2. Prediction of pure water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in nickel base alloys using crack growth rate models

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.D.; Krasodomski, H.T.; Lewis, N.; Makar, G.L.

    1995-02-22

    The Ford/Andresen slip dissolution SCC model, originally developed for stainless steel components in BWR environments, has been applied to Alloy 600 and Alloy X-750 tested in deaerated pure water chemistry. A method is described whereby the crack growth rates measured in compact tension specimens can be used to estimate crack growth in a component. Good agreement was found between model prediction and measured SCC in X-750 threaded fasteners over a wide range of temperatures, stresses, and material condition. Most data support the basic assumption of this model that cracks initiate early in life. The evidence supporting a particular SCC mechanism is mixed. Electrochemical repassivation data and estimates of oxide fracture strain indicate that the slip dissolution model can account for the observed crack growth rates, provided primary rather than secondary creep rates are used. However, approximately 100 cross-sectional TEM foils of SCC cracks including crack tips reveal no evidence of enhanced plasticity or unique dislocation patterns at the crack tip or along the crack to support a classic slip dissolution mechanism. No voids, hydrides, or microcracks are found in the vicinity of the crack tips creating doubt about classic hydrogen related mechanisms. The bulk oxide films exhibit a surface oxide which is often different than the oxides found within a crack. Although bulk chromium concentration affects the rate of SCC, analytical data indicates the mechanism does not result from chromium depletion at the grain boundaries. The overall findings support a corrosion/dissolution mechanism but not one necessarily related to slip at the crack tip.

  3. Environmentally assisted cracking in light water reactors : semiannual report, July 2000 - December 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O. K.; Chung, H. M.; Gruber, E. E.; Shack, W. J.; Soppet, W. K.; Strain, R. V.; Energy Technology

    2002-04-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in light water reactors (LWRs) from July 2000 to December 2000. Topics that have been investigated include (a) environmental effects on fatigue S-N behavior of primary pressure boundary materials, (b) irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of austenitic stainless steels (SSs), and (c) EAC of Alloys 600 and 690. The fatigue strain-vs.-life data are summarized for the effects of various material, loading, and environmental parameters on the fatigue lives of carbon and low-alloy steels and austenitic SSs. Effects of the reactor coolant environment on the mechanism of fatigue crack initiation are discussed. Two methods for incorporating the effects of LWR coolant environments into the ASME Code fatigue evaluations are presented. Slow-strain-rate tensile tests and posttest fractographic analyses were conducted on several model SS alloys irradiated to {approx}0.9 x 10{sup 21} n {center_dot} cm{sup -2} (E > 1 MeV) in He at 289 C in the Halden reactor. The results were used to determine the influence of alloying and impurity elements on the susceptibility of these steels to IASCC. A fracture toughness J-R curve test was conducted on a commercial heat of Type 304 SS that was irradiated to {approx}2.0 x 10{sup 21} n {center_dot} cm{sup -2} in the Halden reactor. The results were compared with the data obtained earlier on steels irradiated to 0.3 and 0.9 x 10{sup 21} n {center_dot} cm{sup -2} (E > 1 MeV) (0.45 and 1.35 dpa). Neutron irradiation at 288 C was found to decrease the fracture toughness of austenitic SSs. Tests were conducted on compact-tension specimens of Alloy 600 under cyclic loading to evaluate the enhancement of crack growth rates in LWR environments. Then, the existing fatigue crack growth data on Alloys 600 and 690 were analyzed to establish the effects of temperature, load ratio, frequency, and stress intensity range

  4. Stress-intensity factor equations for cracks in three-dimensional finite bodies subjected to tension and bending loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C., Jr.; Raju, I. S.

    1984-01-01

    Stress intensity factor equations are presented for an embedded elliptical crack, a semielliptical surface crack, a quarter elliptical corner crack, a semielliptical surface crack along the bore of a circular hole, and a quarter elliptical corner crack at the edge of a circular hole in finite plates. The plates were subjected to either remote tension or bending loads. The stress intensity factors used to develop these equations were obtained from previous three dimensional finite element analyses of these crack configurations. The equations give stress intensity factors as a function of parametric angle, crack depth, crack length, plate thickness, and, where applicable, hole radius. The ratio of crack depth to plate thickness ranged from 0 to 1, the ratio of crack depth to crack length ranged from 0.2 to 2, and the ratio of hole radius to plate thickness ranged from 0.5 to 2. The effects of plate width on stress intensity variation along the crack front were also included.

  5. Local delamination in laminates with angle ply matrix cracks. Part 1: Tension tests and stress analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, T. Kevin; Hooper, S. J.

    1991-01-01

    Quasi-static tension tests were conducted on AS4/3501-6 graphite epoxy laminates. Dye penetrant enhanced x-radiography was used to document the onset of matrix cracking and the onset of local delaminations at the intersection of the matrix cracks and the free edge. Edge micrographs taken after the onset of damage were used to verify the location of the matrix cracks and local delamination through the laminate thickness. A quasi-3D finite element analysis was conducted to calculate the stresses responsible for matrix cracking in the off-axis plies. Laminated plate theory indicated that the transverse normal stresses were compressive. However, the finite element analysis yielded tensile transverse normal stresses near the free edge. Matrix cracks formed in the off-axis plies near the free edge where in-plane transverse stresses were tensile and had their greatest magnitude. The influence of the matrix crack on interlaminar stresses is also discussed.

  6. Micromechanistic origin of irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Bai; McMurtrey, Michael D.; Was, Gary S.; Robertson, Ian M.

    2014-12-01

    A multi-scale study of the micromechanics of dislocation-grain boundary interactions in proton and ion-irradiated stainless steels is presented. Interactions of dislocation channels with grain boundaries result in slip transfer, discontinuous slip without or with slip along the grain boundary. The presence of the irradiation damage enhances the importance of the magnitude of the resolved shear stress on the slip system activated by the grain boundary to transfer slip across it. However, the selected slip system is still determined by the minimization of the grain boundary strain energy density condition. These findings have implications for modelling the mechanical properties of irradiated metals as well as in establishing the mechanism for disrupting the grain boundary oxide, which is a necessary prerequisite for irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking.

  7. Revisiting Stress Corrosion Cracking of Steel in Caustic Solutions for Developing Cracking Susceptibility Diagrams for Improved Applicability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Sarvesh; Raman, R. K. Singh; Ibrahim, R. N.

    2012-06-01

    Stress corrosion cracking tests were conducted using Bayer solutions of different chemistry at different temperatures for extraction of alumina from bauxite ores. The validity of the commonly used caustic cracking susceptibility (CS) diagram for steels exposed to plain caustic solutions was assessed by testing the notched and precracked specimens. This study presents first results toward the development of a model susceptibility diagram for actual Bayer solutions, and for improved applicability of the traditional plain caustic diagram. For mechanistic understanding of caustic cracking, tests were also carried out under imposed electrochemical conditions.

  8. STUDY OF GRAIN BOUNDARY CHARACTER ALONG INTERGRANULAR STRESS CORROSION CRACK PATHS IN AUSTENITIC ALLOYS

    SciTech Connect

    Guertsman, Valery Y.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    2001-05-25

    Samples of austenitic stainless alloys were examined by means of scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Misorientations were measured by electron backscattered diffraction. Grain boundary distributions were analyzed with special emphasis on the grain boundary character along intergranular stress-corrosion cracks and at crack arrest points. It was established that only coherent twin S3 boundaries could be considered as "special" ones with regard to crack resistance. However, it is possible that twin interactions with random grain boundaries may inhibit crack propagation. The results suggest that other factors besides geometrical ones play an important role in the intergranular stress-corrosion cracking of commercial alloys.

  9. Stress Corrosion Cracking and Fatigue Crack Growth Studies Pertinent to Spacecraft and Booster Pressure Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, L. R.; Finger, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    This experimental program was divided into two parts. The first part evaluated stress corrosion cracking in 2219-T87 aluminum and 5Al-2.5Sn (ELI) titanium alloy plate and weld metal. Both uniform height double cantilever beam and surface flawed specimens were tested in environments normally encountered during the fabrication and operation of pressure vessels in spacecraft and booster systems. The second part studied compatibility of material-environment combinations suitable for high energy upper stage propulsion systems. Surface flawed specimens having thicknesses representative of minimum gage fuel and oxidizer tanks were tested. Titanium alloys 5Al-2.5Sn (ELI), 6Al-4V annealed, and 6Al-4V STA were tested in both liquid and gaseous methane. Aluminum alloy 2219 in the T87 and T6E46 condition was tested in fluorine, a fluorine-oxygen mixture, and methane. Results were evaluated using modified linear elastic fracture mechanics parameters.

  10. Stress intensity factors of double edge cracks in large groove plates under mode I tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, A. E.; Azlan, M. A.; Tobi, M. L. M.; Ahmad, M. H.

    2016-10-01

    The solutions of stress intensity factors (SIFs) of double edge cracks in large groove plates are investigated. The plate is assumed to fulfil the plain strain condition and it is axially stressed. According to the literature, the SIFs of the cracks in circular notches are available. However, the roles of cracks in large groove are difficult to obtain. Therefore, different grooves and crack geometries are modelled numerically using the ANSYS finite element software. The present model is first validated using an existing model of double edge cracks without notches and it is found that both models are in close agreement. The large grooves are then introduced and the cracks are positioned in the mid-point. It is found numerically that the SIFs are strongly affected by the relative crack depth and the groove geometries. It is also found that the large groove is capable of reducing the SIFs in comparison with the circular notched due to lower stress concentration factors.

  11. Fatigue crack growth in 2024-T3 aluminum under tensile and transverse shear stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viz, Mark J.; Zehnder, Alan T.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of transverse shear stresses on the fatigue crack growth rate in thin 2024-T3 aluminum alloy sheets is investigated experimentally. The tests are performed on double-edge cracked sheets in cyclic tensile and torsional loading. This loading generates crack tip stress intensity factors in the same ratio as the values computed for a crack lying along a lap joint in a pressurized aircraft fuselage. The relevant fracture mechanics of cracks in thin plates along with the details of the geometrically nonlinear finite element analyses used for the test specimen calibration are developed and discussed. Preliminary fatigue crack growth data correlated using the fully coupled stress intensity factor calibration are presented and compared with fatigue crack growth data from pure delta K(sub I)fatigue tests.

  12. Effect of Variable Stress Intensity Factor on Hydrogen Environment Assisted Cracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, M. M.

    2011-02-01

    Fitness-for-service evaluations of engineered components that are subject to environment assisted cracking (EAC) often require analyses of potentially large crack extensions through regions of variable stress intensity. However, there are few EAC data and models that directly address the effects of variable stress intensity factor on EAC crack growth. The model developed here is used to evaluate stress corrosion cracking (SCC) data that were obtained on a high-strength beta-titanium alloy under conditions of variable crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD) rate. SCC of this Ti alloy in ambient temperature, near-neutral NaCl aqueous solution is thought to be due to hydrogen environment assisted cracking (HEAC). As the model equations developed here do not admit to a closed form solution for crack velocity as a function of applied stress intensity factor, K, a semiquantitative graphical solution is used to rationalize the crack growth data. The analyses support a previous suggestion that the observed crack growth rate behavior can be attributed to the effect of crack tip strain rate on rates of mechanical disruption and repair of an otherwise protective crack tip oxide film. Model elements introduced here to HEAC modeling include (1) an expression relating corrosion-active surface area to crack tip strain rate and repassivation rate, (2) an expression relating the critical grain boundary hydrogen to the applied stress intensity factor, and (3) an expression relating CTSR to both applied and crack advance strain rate components. Intergranular crack advance is modeled assuming diffusive segregation of corrosion-generated hydrogen to grain boundary trap sites causing embrittlement of the fracture process zone (FPZ). The model equations developed here provide a quantitative basis for understanding the physical significance of K-variation effects and, with additional development, will provide an engineering tool for analysis of crack growth in a variable K field.

  13. Environmentally assisted cracking in light water reactors annual report January - December 2005.

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandreanu, B.; Chen, Y.; Chopra, O. K.; Chung, H. M.; Gruber, E. E.; Shack, W. J.; Soppet, W. K.

    2007-08-31

    This report summarizes work performed from January to December 2005 by Argonne National Laboratory on fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking in light water reactors (LWRs). Existing statistical models for estimating the fatigue life of carbon and low-alloy steels and austenitic stainless steels (SSs) as a function of material, loading, and environmental conditions were updated. Also, the ASME Code fatigue adjustment factors of 2 on stress and 20 on life were critically reviewed to assess the possible conservatism in the current choice of the margins. An approach, based on an environmental fatigue correction factor, for incorporating the effects of LWR environments into ASME Section III fatigue evaluations is discussed. The susceptibility of austenitic stainless steels and their welds to irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) is being evaluated as a function of the fluence level, water chemistry, material chemistry, and fabrication history. For this task, crack growth rate (CGR) tests and slow strain rate tensile (SSRT) tests are being conducted on various austenitic SSs irradiated in the Halden boiling water reactor. The SSRT tests are currently focused on investigating the effects of the grain boundary engineering process on the IASCC of the austenitic SSs. The CGR tests were conducted on Type 316 SSs irradiated to 0.45-3.0 dpa, and on sensitized Type 304 SS and SS weld heat-affected-zone material irradiated to 2.16 dpa. The CGR tests on materials irradiated to 2.16 dpa were followed by a fracture toughness test in a water environment. The effects of material composition, irradiation, and water chemistry on growth rates are discussed. The susceptibility of austenitic SS core internals to IASCC and void swelling is also being evaluated for pressurized water reactors. Both SSRT tests and microstructural examinations are being conducted on specimens irradiated in the BOR-60 reactor in Russia to doses up to 20 dpa. Crack growth rate data

  14. Fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking in light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Kassner, T.F.; Ruther, W.E.; Chung, H.M.; Hicks, P.D.; Hins, A.G.; Park, J.Y.; Shack, W.J.

    1992-03-01

    Fatigue and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) for low-alloy steel used in piping and in steam generator and reactor pressure vessels have been investigated. Fatigue data were obtained on medium-sulfur-content A533-Gr B and A106-Gr B steels in high-purity (HP) deoxygenated water, in simulated pressurized water reactor water, and in air. Analytical studies focused on the behavior of carbon steels in boiling water reactor (BWR) environments. Crack-growth rates of composite fracture-mechanics specimens of A533-Gr B/Inconel-182/Inconel-600 (plated with nickel) and homogeneous specimens of A533-Gr B steel were determined under small-amplitude cyclic loading in HP water with {approx}300 pbb dissolved oxygen. Radiation-induced segregation and irradiation-assisted SCC of Type 304 SS after accumulation of relatively high fluence also have been investigated. Microchemical and microstructural changes in HP and commercial-purity Type 304 SS specimens from control-blade absorber tubes used in two operating BWRs were studied by Auger electron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, and slow-strain-rate tensile tests were conducted on tubular specimens in air and in simulated BWR water at 289{degrees}C.

  15. Pitting and stress cracking of 12Cr-Ni-Mo martensitic stainless steels in chloride and sulfide environments

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshino, Y.; Ikegaya, A.

    1985-02-01

    Laboratory melted 12Cr-Ni-Mo steels were tested in chloride/sulfide solutions at 60/sup 0/C and at room temperature to evaluate their resistance to pitting and stress cracking in connection with environmental and metallurgical factors. H/sub 2/S had adverse effects on pitting resistance. Stress cracking at 60/sup 0/C associated with the formation of pits. In a sulfide solution at room temperature, cracking occurs by hydrogen embrittlement and in chlorideatsulfide solutions, by active path corrosion. These steels were tempered at 600/sup 0/C for the single temper treatment and 700/sup 0/C followed by 600/sup 0/C for double tempering. The double temper treatment intensified pitting and stress cracking at 60/sup 0/C while improving stress cracking resistance at room temperature, as reported elsewhere. Fracture was mixed mode in the single temper condition and transgranular quasi-cleavage with double tempering regardless of solution temperature. The metallurgical changes associated with the temper treatments were studied and discussed.

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    MedlinePlus

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  18. Role of Internal Stresses on the Incubation Times during Stress Corrosion Cracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudevan, A. K.; Sadananda, K.

    2011-02-01

    We have examined the incubation times in two alloys, 7075-T651 aluminum alloy and 4140 steel, as a function of applied K, using the published data in aqueous environment. The role of overloads was compared with the results from those without overloads, for a given environment. Effect of environment (NaCl vs deionized water) was also examined. The results show that in a constant K test, the incubation time increases with decreasing K. When a single overload cycle was applied, the time increased with percent overload for a constant background K, indicating that overload cycle affected the crack tip driving forces. These effects varied with the environment. The changes in the incubation times are analyzed considering one-to-one correspondence between the crack tip driving force and the times. Overloads contributed to compressive residual or internal stresses, thereby affecting the crack tip driving force. The stresses are related to changes in the plastic zone (PZ) sizes formed before and after the overloads. The effective stress intensity due to internal stress, K int, is defined and is shown to be a function of PZ size. Similarly, condition for crack initiation is expressed as K total = K app ± K int ≥ K Iscc. A detailed methodology for the determination of K int is outlined.

  19. Stress intensity factors for low aspect ratio longitudinal surface cracks in thin pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Lambert, S.B.

    1996-12-31

    Finite element calculations of stress intensity factors for longitudinal external and internal semi-elliptical surface cracks in thin pipes (R/t of 10) and external edge cracks in thin pipes (R/t of 10, 20, 40) are presented. Constant, linear, parabolic and cubic stress distributions were applied to the crack face. Comparisons of flat plate and thin pipe stress intensity factor results are made for the deepest and surface points of the surface cracks, and for edge cracks. Recommendations are given regarding the limits of applicability of flat plate solutions. For a pipe with R/t of 10, the stress intensity factors for shallow semi-elliptical cracks and edge cracks (a/t less than 0.4) can be approximated to within 6% using the corresponding solutions for cracks in flat plates. For pipes with R/t larger than 40, the stress intensity factors for a wide range of crack depths, 0 {le} a/t {le} 0.8, can be approximated with good accuracy using the corresponding solutions for cracks in flat plates.

  20. Fatigue crack initiation potential from defects in terms of local stress analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Mingliang; Xuan, Fuzhen

    2014-05-01

    The competition of surface and subsurface crack initiation induced failure is critical to understand very high cycle fatigue(VHCF) behavior, which necessitates the elucidation of the underlying mechanisms for the transition of crack initiation from surface to interior defects. Crack initiation potential in materials containing defects is investigated numerically by focusing on defect types, size, shape, location, and residual stress influences. Results show that the crack initiation potency is higher in case of serious property mismatching between matrix and defects, and higher strength materials are more sensitive to soft inclusions(elastic modulus lower than the matrix). The stress localization around inclusions are correlated to interior crack initiation mechanisms in the VHCF regime such as inclusion-matrix debonding at soft inclusions and inclusion-cracking for hard inclusions(elastic modulus higher than the matrix). It is easier to emanate cracks from the subsurface pores with the depth 0.7 times as large as their diameter. There exists an inclusion size independent region for crack incubation, outside which crack initiation will transfer from the subsurface soft inclusion to the interior larger one. As for elliptical inclusions, reducing the short-axis length can decrease the crack nucleation potential and promote the interior crack formation, whereas the long-axis length controls the site of peak stress concentration. The compressive residual stress at surface is helpful to shift crack initiation from surface to interior inclusions. Some relaxation of residual stress can not change the inherent crack initiation from interior inclusions in the VHCF regime. The work reveals the crack initiation potential and the transition among various defects under the influences of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors in the VHCF regime, and is helpful to understand the failure mechanism of materials containing defects under long-term cyclic loadings.

  1. 49 CFR 192.929 - What are the requirements for using Direct Assessment for Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCCDA)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Assessment for Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCCDA)? 192.929 Section 192.929 Transportation Other Regulations... requirements for using Direct Assessment for Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCCDA)? (a) Definition. Stress... operator using direct assessment as an integrity assessment method to address stress corrosion cracking...

  2. 49 CFR 192.929 - What are the requirements for using Direct Assessment for Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCCDA)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Assessment for Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCCDA)? 192.929 Section 192.929 Transportation Other Regulations... requirements for using Direct Assessment for Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCCDA)? (a) Definition. Stress... operator using direct assessment as an integrity assessment method to address stress corrosion cracking...

  3. 49 CFR 192.929 - What are the requirements for using Direct Assessment for Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCCDA)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Assessment for Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCCDA)? 192.929 Section 192.929 Transportation Other Regulations... requirements for using Direct Assessment for Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCCDA)? (a) Definition. Stress... operator using direct assessment as an integrity assessment method to address stress corrosion cracking...

  4. Cessation of environmentally-assisted cracking in a low-alloy steel: Theoretical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wire, G.L.

    1997-02-01

    Environmentally Assisted Cracking (EAC) can cause increases in fatigue crack growth rates of 40 to 100 times the rate in air for low alloy steels. The increased rates can lead to very large predicted crack growth. EAC is activated by a critical level of dissolved sulfides at the crack tip. Sulfide inclusions (MnS) in the steel produce corrosive sulfides in solution following exposure by a growing crack. In stagnant, low oxygen water conditions considered here, diffusion is the dominant mass transport mechanism acting to change the sulfide concentration within the crack. The average crack tip velocity is below the level required to produce the critical crack tip sulfide ion concentration required for EAC. Crack extension analyses also consider the breakthrough of large, hypothetical embedded defects with the attendant large freshly exposed sulfide inventory. Combrade et al. noted that a large inventory of undissolved metallurgical sulfides on crack flanks could trigger EAC, but did not quantify the effects. Diffusion analysis is extended herein to cover breakthrough of embedded defects with large sulfide inventories. The mass transport via diffusion is limited by the sulfide solubility. As a result, deep cracks in high sulfur steels are predicted to retain undissolved sulfides for extended but finite periods of time t{sub diss} which increase with the crack length and the metallurgical sulfide content in the steel. The analysis shows that the duration of EAC is limited to t{sub diss} providing V{sub eac}, the crack tip velocity associated with EAC is less than V{sub In}, the crack tip velocity below which EAC will not occur in an initially sulfide free crack. This condition on V{sub eac} need only be met for a short time following crack cleanup to turn off EAC. The predicted crack extension due to limited duration of EAC is a small fraction of the initial embedded defect size and would not greatly change calculated crack depths.

  5. Subcritical crack growth of Ti-6Al-4V at room temperature under high stress-ratio loading

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.P.

    1998-11-13

    Ti-6Al-4V is a two phase {alpha}-{beta} titanium alloy commonly used for turbine fan and compressor components. The crack growth behavior of Ti-6Al-4V and the role played by various material, mechanical, and environmental factors has been thoroughly investigated. This alloy is also susceptible to crack growth under sustained loading in air (SLC), and both hydrogen assisted cracking and low temperature creep mechanisms have been used to explain this susceptibility. Very little information is available on high R-ratio fatigue crack growth of Ti-6Al-4V and the role played by SLC on the fatigue process. In order to gain better understanding of the cracking behavior of this alloy under ripple loading conditions, room temperature, high stress-ratio (R {ge} 0.9) fatigue and SLC experiments have been conducted on a Ti-6Al-4V plate forging material in the duplex-annealed (DA) condition. The results of this investigation,namely, fatigue crack growth rates (CGR) as a function of stress intensity; SLC data; and scanning electron microscopy of the fatigue and SLC fracture surfaces are reported below.

  6. Multiple-cracking phenomenon of the galvannealed coating layer on steels under thermal and tensile stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochiai, S.; Okuda, H.; Iwamoto, S.; Tomida, T.; Nakamura, T.; Tanaka, M.; Hojo, M.

    2005-07-01

    The multiple-cracking phenomenon of the Fe-Zn intermetallic coating layer on the hot-dip galvannealed (GA) steels under thermal and tensile stresses was studied experimentally by tensile tests and analytically by means of the finite-element analysis. The multiple cracking of the coating layer had occurred in the as-supplied samples, and it progressed with increasing applied strain. Based on the calculated dependence of the stress of the coating layer on the crack spacing and applied strain, the multiple cracking in the as-supplied samples was accounted for by the thermally induced residual stress, and the further multiple cracking with increasing applied strain was accounted for by the increased stress of the coating layer. The experimentally observed decrease of the average crack spacing with increasing applied strain was described well, and the tensile strength of the coating layer was estimated to be 260 MPa, by application of the calculated relation between the increased stress of the coating layer and applied strain. The influences of the thickness of the coating layer and the substrate material on the multiple cracking were discussed based the stress analysis. It was revealed that the thinner the coating layer and the higher the flow stress of the substrate, the higher the stress of the coating layer becomes and, therefore, the smaller the crack spacing becomes.

  7. Laser Peening of Alloy 600 to Improve Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking Resistance in Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H; Rankin, J; Hackel, L; Frederick, G; Hickling, J; Findlan, S

    2004-04-20

    Laser peening is an emerging modern process that impresses a compressive stress into the surface of metals or alloys. This treatment can reduce the rate of intergranular stress corrosion cracking and fatigue cracking in structural metals or Alloy 600 needed for nuclear power plants.

  8. Low-pH stress corrosion cracking of natural gas pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Harle, B.A.; Beavers, J.A.; Jaske, C.E.

    1994-12-31

    Stress corrosion cracking of natural gas pipelines in low-pH environments is a serious problem for the gas transmission industry. To date, researchers have experienced significant difficulties in reproducing cracking in the laboratory. This paper describes results of an ongoing program investigating crack growth of an API X-65 line pipe steel in a low-pH cracking environment using a J-integral technique. The primary objectives of this research are to reproduce the cracking observed in the field and identify an appropriate crack driving force parameter. Significant crack growth has been observed in the testing and the J-integral appears to be a good parameter for characterizing crack growth behavior.

  9. Stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of irradiated Type 304 stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H.M.; Ruther, W.E.; Sanecki, J.E.; Kassner, T.F.

    1992-08-01

    Slow-strain-rate tensile tests and microstructural analysis by Auger electron spectroscopy were conducted on specimens of high- and commercial-purity (HP and CP) heats of Type 304 stainless steel obtained from neutron absorber tubes and a control blade sheath after irradiation up to 2.5 [times] 10[sup 2l] n[center dot]cm[sup [minus]2] (E > l MeV) in boiling water reactors (BWRs). The susceptibility of the HP absorber tubes to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) was higher than that of the CP absorber tubes or the CP control blade sheath. IGSCC susceptibilities of the BWR components could not be correlated to segregation impurities on grain boundaries. However for comparable fluence levels, Cr on grain-boundaries.

  10. Stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of irradiated Type 304 stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H.M.; Ruther, W.E.; Sanecki, J.E.; Kassner, T.F.

    1992-08-01

    Slow-strain-rate tensile tests and microstructural analysis by Auger electron spectroscopy were conducted on specimens of high- and commercial-purity (HP and CP) heats of Type 304 stainless steel obtained from neutron absorber tubes and a control blade sheath after irradiation up to 2.5 {times} 10{sup 2l} n{center_dot}cm{sup {minus}2} (E > l MeV) in boiling water reactors (BWRs). The susceptibility of the HP absorber tubes to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) was higher than that of the CP absorber tubes or the CP control blade sheath. IGSCC susceptibilities of the BWR components could not be correlated to segregation impurities on grain boundaries. However for comparable fluence levels, Cr on grain-boundaries.

  11. Stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of 18 Ni maraging steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, T. S.; Nelson, E. E.

    1974-01-01

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance of 18Ni maraging steel (grades 200, 250, 300, and 350) was determined in 3.5 percent salt (NaCl) solution, synthetic sea water, high humidity, and outside MSFC atmosphere. All grades of the maraging steel were found to be susceptible to SCC in varying degrees according to their strengths, with the lowest strength steel (grade 200) being the least susceptible and the highest strength steel (grade 350), the most susceptible to SCC. The SCC resistance of 250 grade maraging steel was also evaluated in salt and salt-chromate solutions using fracture mechanics techniques. The threshold value, K sub SCC, was found to be approximately 44 MN/sq m square root m, (40 ksi square root in.) or 40 percent of the K sub Q value.

  12. Solutions of Stress Intensity Factors of Multiple Internal Axial Cracks in Hollow Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Al Emran

    2017-01-01

    This paper solved numerically the stress intensity factors of multiple internal axial cracks in hollow cylinders under internal pressure. Semi-elliptical shaped cracks are modelled using ANSYS finite element program and the stress intensity factors are calculated using interaction domain integral which is based on the J-integral. There are two important parameters are considered such as crack aspect ratio, a/t is 0.2, 0.4 and 0.75 and crack spacing distance, d/c is 0.4, 0.7 and 1.1. For multiple internal axial cracks under internal pressure, stress intensity factors along the crack front decreased when crack aspect ratio, a/t is increased. It is also revealed that the role of crack spacing on the stress intensity factor is insignificant especially for the shallow cracks (a/t < 0.4). However, for the crack having a/t = 0.75, increasing the distance of d/c capable to increase the SIFs due to interaction effect.

  13. On the shape of stress corrosion cracks in sensitized Type 304 SS in Boiling Water Reactor primary coolant piping at 288 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Kwon; Kramer, Daniel; Macdonald, Digby D.

    2014-11-01

    Evolution of the shape of surface cracks in sensitized Type 304 SS in Boiling Water Reactor primary coolant circuit piping at the reactor operating temperature of 288 °C is explored as a function of various environmental variables, such as electrochemical potential (ECP), solution conductivity, flow velocity, and multiplier for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) standard exchange current density (SECD), using the coupled environment fracture model (CEFM). For this work, the CEFM was upgraded by incorporating Shoji's model for calculating the crack tip strain rate and more advanced expressions were used for estimating the stress intensity factor for semi-elliptical surface cracks. This revised CEFM accurately predicts the dependence of the crack growth rate on stress intensity factor and offers an alternative explanation for the development of semi-elliptical cracks than that provided by fracture mechanics alone. The evolution of surface crack semi-elliptical shape depends strongly upon various environmental variables identified above, and the CEFM predicts that the minor axis of the ellipse should be oriented perpendicular to the surface, in agreement with observation. The development of the observed semi-elliptical cracks with the minor axis perpendicular to the surface is therefore attributed to the dependence of the crack growth rate on the electrochemical crack length.

  14. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Investigation of the Stress Corrosion Cracking in Nickel-Base Alloys, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Bruemmer, Stephen M.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Olszta, Matthew J.

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this program is to evaluate the primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) susceptibility of high chromium alloy 690 and its weld metals, establish quantitative measurements of crack-growth rates and determine relationships among cracking susceptibility, environmental conditions and metallurgical characteristics. Stress-corrosion, crack-growth rates have been determined for 12 alloy 690 specimens, 11 alloy 152/52/52M weld metal specimens, 4 alloy 52M/182 overlay specimens and 2 alloy 52M/82 inlay specimens in simulated PWR primary water environments. The alloy 690 test materials included three different heats of extruded control-rod-drive mechanism (CRDM) tubing with variations in the initial material condition and degree of cold work for one heat. Two cold-rolled (CR) alloy 690 plate heats were also obtained and evaluated enabling comparisons to the CR CRDM materials. Weld metal, overlay and inlay specimens were machined from industry mock ups to provide plant-representative materials for testing. Specimens have been tested for one alloy 152 weld, two alloy 52 welds and three alloy 52M welds. The overlay and inlay specimens were prepared to propagate stress-corrosion cracks from the alloy 182 or 82 material into the more resistant alloy 52M. In all cases, crack extension was monitored in situ by direct current potential drop (DCPD) with length resolution of about +1 µm making it possible to measure extremely low growth rates approaching 5x10-10 mm/s. Most SCC tests were performed at 325-360°C with hydrogen concentrations from 11-29 cc/kg; however, environmental conditions were modified during a few experiments to evaluate the influence of temperature, water chemistry or electrochemical potential on propagation rates. In addition, low-temperature (~50°C) cracking behavior was examined for selected alloy 690 and weld metal specimens. Extensive characterizations have been performed on material microstructures and stress-corrosion cracks by

  15. Weibull Effective Area for Hertzian Ring Crack Initiation Stress

    SciTech Connect

    Jadaan, Osama M.; Wereszczak, Andrew A; Johanns, Kurt E

    2011-01-01

    Spherical or Hertzian indentation is used to characterize and guide the development of engineered ceramics under consideration for diverse applications involving contact, wear, rolling fatigue, and impact. Ring crack initiation can be one important damage mechanism of Hertzian indentation. It is caused by sufficiently-high, surface-located, radial tensile stresses in an annular ring located adjacent to and outside of the Hertzian contact circle. While the maximum radial tensile stress is known to be dependent on the elastic properties of the sphere and target, the diameter of the sphere, the applied compressive force, and the coefficient of friction, the Weibull effective area too will be affected by those parameters. However, the estimations of a maximum radial tensile stress and Weibull effective area are difficult to obtain because the coefficient of friction during Hertzian indentation is complex, likely intractable, and not known a priori. Circumventing this, the Weibull effective area expressions are derived here for the two extremes that bracket all coefficients of friction; namely, (1) the classical, frictionless, Hertzian case where only complete slip occurs, and (2) the case where no slip occurs or where the coefficient of friction is infinite.

  16. A photoelastic determination of stress intensity factors for corner cracks in a bolted joint

    SciTech Connect

    Guengoer, S.; Patterson, E.A.

    1997-11-01

    Three-dimensional photoelasticity was used to measure mode I stress intensity factors of corner cracks in a double-shear bolted joint. A model of the joint assembly was manufactured from a photoelastic material and three different corner cracks were introduced using a cutting wheel. After the stress freezing process, slices along the crack fronts were cut and analyzed using three different photoelastic procedures. There was good correlation between the methods of analysis. Stress intensity factors of these cracks were found to vary along the crack front with a maximum at the bore of the hole and a minimum on the surface of the plate. This implies that the cracks are likely to grow more rapidly along the bore.

  17. Stress Intensity Factors for Part-Through Surface Cracks in Hollow Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mettu, Sambi R.; Raju, Ivatury S.; Forman, Royce G.

    1992-01-01

    Flaws resulting from improper welding and forging are usually modeled as cracks in flat plates, hollow cylinders or spheres. The stress intensity factor solutions for these crack cases are of great practical interest. This report describes some recent efforts at improving the stress intensity factor solutions for cracks in such geometries with emphasis on hollow cylinders. Specifically, two crack configurations for cylinders are documented. One is that of a surface crack in an axial plane and the other is a part-through thumb-nail crack in a circumferential plane. The case of a part-through surface crack in flat plates is used as a limiting case for very thin cylinders. A combination of the two cases for cylinders is used to derive a relation for the case of a surface crack in a sphere. Solutions were sought which cover the entire range of the geometrical parameters such as cylinder thickness, crack aspect ratio and crack depth. Both the internal and external position of the cracks are considered for cylinders and spheres. The finite element method was employed to obtain the basic solutions. Power-law form of loading was applied in the case of flat plates and axial cracks in cylinders and uniform tension and bending loads were applied in the case of circumferential (thumb-nail) cracks in cylinders. In the case of axial cracks, the results for tensile and bending loads were used as reference solutions in a weight function scheme so that the stress intensity factors could be computed for arbitrary stress gradients in the thickness direction. For circumferential cracks, since the crack front is not straight, the above technique could not be used. Hence for this case, only the tension and bending solutions are available at this time. The stress intensity factors from the finite element method were tabulated so that results for various geometric parameters such as crack depth-to-thickness ratio (a/t), crack aspect ratio (a/c) and internal radius-to-thickness ratio (R

  18. Three-Orthogonal-Direction Stress Mapping around a Fatigue-Crack Tip Using Neutron Diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, E.-Wen; Lee, Soo Yeol; Woo, Wanchuck; Lee, Kuan-Wei

    2012-08-01

    Quantitative determination of the stress fields around the crack tip is a challenging and important subject to understand the fatigue crack-growth mechanism. In the current study, we measured the distribution of residual stresses and the evolution of the stress fields around a fatigue crack tip subjected to the constant-amplitude cyclic loading in a 304L stainless steel compact-tension (CT) specimen. The three orthogonal stress components ( i.e., crack growth, crack opening, and through thickness) of the CT specimen were determined as a function of distance from the crack tip with 1-mm spatial resolution along the crack-propagation direction. In-situ neutron-diffraction results show that the enlarged tensile stresses were developed during loading along the through-thickness direction at a localized volume close to the crack tip, resulting in the lattice expansion in all three orthogonal directions during P max. The current study suggests that the atypical plane strainlike behavior observed at the midthickness position might be the reason for the mechanism of the faster crack-growth rate inside the interior than that near the surface.

  19. The Probabilistic Nature of Environmental Cracking in Candidate Waste Package Materials

    SciTech Connect

    G.M. Gordon; P.L. Andresen; L.M. Young

    2001-07-10

    The objective of this research is to determine the effects of material condition and applied stress on environmental cracking in candidate waste package materials for the Yucca Mountain Project. Time-to-failure experiments were performed on smooth bar tensile specimens in a hot, concentrated, mixed-salt solution chosen to simulate concentrated Yucca Mountain water. Smooth tensile specimens were individually loaded by the internal pressure of a 55-liter autoclave, where the applied stress varied with the individual specimen gauge cross section. The effects of material, applied stress, welding, surface finish, shot peening, cold work, crevicing, and aging treatment were investigated for Alloy 22, Titanium Grade 7, and 316NG stainless steel. Testing of multiple specimens allowed statistical differences among material conditions to be determined. Sensitized 304SS specimens were included in the test matrix to provide benchmark data. Microstructural effects on time-to-failure were studied for Alloy 22, where heat treatments designed to produce topologically close-packed phases (TCP) and long-range ordering (LRO) were investigated. This research complements high-resolution crack-growth-rate experiments performed in a parallel research project.

  20. Avalanche structural rearrangement through cracking-healing in weakly stressed cold dusty plasma liquids.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chi; Wang, Wen; I, Lin

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally investigate the spatiotemporal dynamical behaviors of the avalanche structural rearrangement through micro-cracking-healing in weakly stressed cold dusty plasma liquids, and the kinetic origins for their different spatial and temporal classifications. The crystalline ordered domains can be cracked or temporarily sustain and transfer the weak stress to remote regions for cracking-healing. It is found that cracking sites form a fractal network with cluster size following power law distribution in the xyt space. The histograms of the persistent times for sustaining regional ordered and disordered structure, the temporal cracking burst width, and quiescent time between two bursts all follow power law decays with fast descending tails. Cracking can be classified into a single temporal burst with simple line like spatial patterns and the successive cracking fluctuation with densely packed cracking clusters. For an ordered region, whether the Burgers vectors of the incoming dislocations from the boundary allow direct dislocation reduction is the key for the above two classifications through cracking a large ordered domain into medium scale corotating ordered domains or small patches. The low regional structural order at the end of a cracking burst can be regarded as an alarm for predicting the short quiescent period before the next cracking burst.

  1. EFFECT OF UNBROKEN LIGAMENTS ON STRESS CORROSION CRACKING BEHAVIOR OF ALLOY 82H WELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, W.J. and Brown, C.M.

    2003-02-20

    Previously reported stress corrosion cracking (SCC) rates for Alloy 82H gas-tungsten-arc welds tested in 360 C water showed tremendous variability. The excessive data scatter was attributed to the variations in microstructure, mechanical properties and residual stresses that are common in welds. In the current study, however, re-evaluation of the SCC data revealed that the large data scatter was an anomaly due to erroneous crack growth rates inferred from crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD) measurements. Apparently, CMOD measurements provided reasonably accurate SCC rates for some specimens, but grossly overestimated rates in others. The overprediction was associated with large unbroken ligaments that often form in welds in the wake of advancing crack fronts. When ligaments were particularly large, they prevented crack mouth deflection, so apparent crack incubation times (i.e. period of time before crack advance commences) based on CMOD measurements were unrealistically long. During the final states of testing, ligaments began to separate allowing the crack mouth to open rather quickly. This behavior was interpreted as a rapid crack advance, but it actually reflects the ligament separation rate, not the SCC rate. Revised crack growth rates obtained in this study exhibit substantially less scatter than that previously reported. The effects of crack orientation and fatigue flutter loading on SCC rates in 82H welds are also discussed.

  2. Effect of stress corrosion cracking on integrity and remaining life of natural gas pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Jaske, C.E.; Beavers, J.A.; Harle, B.A.

    1996-08-01

    External stress-corrosion cracking of pipelines is a serious problem for the gas transmission industry. Longitudinal cracks initiate on the outside surface of the pipe and link up to form flaws that, in some cases, can lead to pipe rupture. This paper presents a model that quantifies the effect of stress-corrosion cracking on pipe failure stress. The model is an extension of those that have been developed for oil and gas pipelines and considers both flow-stress and fracture-toughness dependent failure modes. A methodology also is presented to calculate the remaining life of a pipeline containing flaws of known size.

  3. Environmentally assisted cracking in light water reactors. Semiannual progress report, January 1996--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O.K.; Chung, H.M.; Gruber, E.E.

    1997-05-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in light water reactors from January 1996 to June 1996. Topics that have been investigated include (a) fatigue of carbon, low-alloy, and austenitic stainless steels (SSs) used in reactor piping and pressure vessels, (b) irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking of Type 304 SS, and (c) EAC of Alloys 600 and 690. Fatigue tests were conducted on ferritic and austenitic SSs in water that contained various concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO) to determine whether a slow strain rate applied during various portions of a tensile-loading cycle are equally effective in decreasing fatigue life. Slow-strain-rate-tensile tests were conducted in simulated boiling water reactor (BWR) water at 288{degrees}C on SS specimens irradiated to a low fluence in the Halden reactor and the results were compared with similar data from a control-blade sheath and neutron-absorber tubes irradiated in BWRs to the same fluence level. Crack-growth-rate tests were conducted on compact-tension specimens from several heats of Alloys 600 and 690 in air and high-purity, low-DO water. 83 refs., 60 figs., 14 tabs.

  4. Environmentally assisted cracking in Light Water Reactors: Semiannual report, October 1994--March 1995. Volume 20

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H.M.; Chopra, O.K.; Gavenda, D.J.; Hins, A.G.; Kassner, T.F.; Ruther, W.E.; Shack, W.J.; Soppet, W.K.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in light water reactors (LWRS) from October 1994 to March 1995. Topics that have been investigated include (a) fatigue of carbon and low-alloy steel used in reactor piping and pressure vessels, (b) EAC of Alloy 600 and 690, and (c) irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of Type 304 SS. Fatigue tests were conducted on ferritic steels in water with several dissolvedoxygen (DO) concentrations to determine whether a slow strain rate applied during different portions of a tensile-loading cycle are equally effective in decreasing fatigue life. Tensile properties and microstructures of several heats of Alloy 600 and 690 were characterized for correlation with EAC of the alloys in simulated LWR environments. Effects of DO and electrochemical potential on susceptibility to intergranular cracking of high- and commercial-purity Type 304 SS specimens from control-blade absorber tubes and a control-blade sheath irradiated in boiling water reactors were determined in slow-strain-rate-tensile tests at 289{degrees}C. Microchemical changes in the specimens were studied by Auger electron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy to determine whether trace impurity elements may contribute to IASCC of these materials.

  5. The stress intensity factors for a periodic array of interacting coplanar penny-shaped cracks

    PubMed Central

    Lekesiz, Huseyin; Katsube, Noriko; Rokhlin, Stanislav I.; Seghi, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of crack interactions on stress intensity factors is examined for a periodic array of coplanar penny-shaped cracks. Kachanov’s approximate method for crack interactions (Int. J. Solid. Struct. 1987; 23(1):23–43) is employed to analyze both hexagonal and square crack configurations. In approximating crack interactions, the solution converges when the total truncation number of the cracks is 109. As expected, due to high density packing crack interaction in the hexagonal configuration is stronger than that in the square configuration. Based on the numerical results, convenient fitting equations for quick evaluation of the mode I stress intensity factors are obtained as a function of crack density and angle around the crack edge for both crack configurations. Numerical results for the mode II and III stress intensity factors are presented in the form of contour lines for the case of Poisson’s ratio ν =0.3. Possible errors for these problems due to Kachanov’s approximate method are estimated. Good agreement is observed with the limited number of results available in the literature and obtained by different methods. PMID:27175035

  6. Cracks in Martian boulders exhibit preferred orientations that point to solar-induced thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Eppes, Martha-Cary; Willis, Andrew; Molaro, Jamie; Abernathy, Stephen; Zhou, Beibei

    2015-03-27

    The origins of fractures in Martian boulders are unknown. Here, using Mars Exploration Rover 3D data products, we obtain orientation measurements for 1,857 cracks visible in 1,573 rocks along the Spirit traverse and find that Mars rock cracks are oriented in statistically preferred directions similar to those compiled herein for Earth rock cracks found in mid-latitude deserts. We suggest that Martian directional cracking occurs due to the preferential propagation of microfractures favourably oriented with respect to repeating geometries of diurnal peaks in sun-induced thermal stresses. A numerical model modified here with Mars parameters supports this hypothesis both with respect to the overall magnitude of stresses as well as to the times of day at which the stresses peak. These data provide the first direct field and numerical evidence that insolation-related thermal stress potentially plays a principle role in cracking rocks on portions of the Martian surface.

  7. The Sulfide Stress Corrosion Cracking Characteristics of the Pipe Weld in the Petrochemical Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gyu Young; Bae, Dong Ho

    Sulfide stress corrosion cracking (SSCC) in crude oil field environment including hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been recognized as a materials failure mechanism. Welding residual stress generation and metallurgical change by fusion welding process increase the cracking driving force and reduce the resistance of brittle fracture as well as environmental fracture. On the base of this understanding, firstly, we analyzed welding residual stresses of welded ASTM A106 Gr B steel pipe using in the petrochemical plant. And next, SSCC tests were conducted to assess SSCC resistance of the weld with smooth specimens. From the result, influence of temperature on corrosion rate was sensitive in order of HAZ, base metal and weld metal. Therefore, the most sensitive region in the weld is HAZ, and its corrosion rate increases with the temperature of corrosion environment increase. And failure positions of the most cases among failed specimens were at HAZ of the weld. Low limit (σSSCC) of A106 Gr B steel pipe was assessed as 0.6 σy (7271.6N)

  8. Environmental effects on crack healing and static fatigue behavior of glass and polycrystalline ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Brett Allen

    An Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) was used for in-situ studies of static fatigue growth of Vickers indent cracks in polycrystalline alumina. Clarks advanced via static fatigue along a tortuous path with grain bridging and crack deflections on the order of a single grain diameter. In-situ ESEM studies of healing of Vickers indent cracks in soda-lime silicate glass found healing to occur at 8% r.h. and at 400sp°C. Increased levels of initial humidity decreased the temperature at which healing initiated. The crack morphology included slow crack regression from the crack tip towards the indent impression and multiple crack pinch-off (above 550sp°C). Debris in a crack hindered complete healing. Conventional heating was used in healing of soda-lime silica glass where Vickers crack lengths were measured via optical microscopy. Microscopy showed crack tip blunting, pinch-off, and sub-surface spheroidization. The more complete healing observed for cracks aged in 45% r.h. than in 0% r.h. was attributed to water vapor entering the glass structure and decreasing the local glass transition temperature and viscosity along the crack faces. Crack healing experiments on polycrystalline alumina were performed using both conventional and microwave heating, No effect of aging environment was found for conventional healing of alumina. The relative crack healing ((2csbinitial-2csbheal) /2csbinitial) behavior for 49 and 98 N indent cracks was nearly identical. Crack healing was modeled by a diffusive transport model originally developed by Dutton and Stevens showing significantly lower activation energies for conventional compared to microwave heating. Microwave heating at 10sp°C/minute had much greater healing than at 75sp°C/minute.

  9. Development of a novel technique to assess the vulnerability of micro-mechanical system components to environmentally assisted cracking.

    SciTech Connect

    Enos, David George; Goods, Steven Howard

    2006-11-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) will play an important functional role in future DOE weapon and Homeland Security applications. If these emerging technologies are to be applied successfully, it is imperative that the long-term degradation of the materials of construction be understood. Unlike electrical devices, MEMS devices have a mechanical aspect to their function. Some components (e.g., springs) will be subjected to stresses beyond whatever residual stresses exist from fabrication. These stresses, combined with possible abnormal exposure environments (e.g., humidity, contamination), introduce a vulnerability to environmentally assisted cracking (EAC). EAC is manifested as the nucleation and propagation of a stable crack at mechanical loads/stresses far below what would be expected based solely upon the materials mechanical properties. If not addressed, EAC can lead to sudden, catastrophic failure. Considering the materials of construction and the very small feature size, EAC represents a high-risk environmentally induced degradation mode for MEMS devices. Currently, the lack of applicable characterization techniques is preventing the needed vulnerability assessment. The objective of this work is to address this deficiency by developing techniques to detect and quantify EAC in MEMS materials and structures. Such techniques will allow real-time detection of crack initiation and propagation. The information gained will establish the appropriate combinations of environment (defining packaging requirements), local stress levels, and metallurgical factors (composition, grain size and orientation) that must be achieved to prevent EAC.

  10. Microstructural and Stress Corrosion Cracking Characteristics of Austenitic Stainless Steels Containing Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andresen, Peter L.; Chou, Peter H.; Morra, Martin M.; Lawrence Nelson, J.; Rebak, Raul B.

    2009-12-01

    Austenitic stainless steels (SSs) core internal components in nuclear light water reactors (LWRs) are susceptible to irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC). One of the effects of irradiation is the hardening of the SS and a change in the dislocation distribution in the alloy. Irradiation may also alter the local chemistry of the austenitic alloys; for example, silicon may segregate and chromium may deplete at the grain boundaries. The segregation or depletion phenomena at near-grain boundaries may enhance the susceptibility of these alloys to environmentally assisted cracking (EAC). The objective of the present work was to perform laboratory tests in order to better understand the role of Si in the microstructure, properties, electrochemical behavior, and susceptibility to EAC of austenitic SSs. Type 304 SS can dissolve up to 2 pct Si in the bulk while maintaining a single austenite microstructure. Stainless steels containing 12 pct Cr can dissolve up to 5 pct bulk Si while maintaining an austenite structure. The crack growth rate (CGR) results are not conclusive about the effect of the bulk concentration of Si on the EAC behavior of SSs.

  11. 49 CFR 192.929 - What are the requirements for using Direct Assessment for Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCCDA)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Assessment for Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCCDA)? 192.929 Section 192.929 Transportation Other Regulations... requirements for using Direct Assessment for Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCCDA)? (a) Definition. Stress Corrosion Cracking Direct Assessment (SCCDA) is a process to assess a covered pipe segment for the...

  12. 49 CFR 192.929 - What are the requirements for using Direct Assessment for Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCCDA)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Assessment for Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCCDA)? 192.929 Section 192.929 Transportation Other Regulations... requirements for using Direct Assessment for Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCCDA)? (a) Definition. Stress Corrosion Cracking Direct Assessment (SCCDA) is a process to assess a covered pipe segment for the...

  13. Environmentally assisted cracking in light water reactors - annual report, January-December 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O. K.; Chung, H. M.; Clark, R. W.; Gruber, E. E; Hiller, R. W.; Shack, W. J.; Soppet, W. K.; Strain, R. V.; Energy Technology

    2003-06-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in light water reactors (LWRs) from January to December 2001. Topics that have been investigated include (a) environmental effects on fatigue S-N behavior of austenitic stainless steels (SSs), (b) irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of austenitic SSs, and (c) EAC of Alloy 600. The effects of key material and loading variables, such as strain amplitude, strain rate, temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO) level in water, and material heat treatment, on the fatigue lives of wrought and cast austenitic SSs in air and LWR environments have been evaluated. The mechanism of fatigue crack initiation in austenitic SSs in LWR environments has also been examined. The results indicate that the presence of a surface oxide film or difference in the characteristics of the oxide film has no effect on fatigue crack initiation in austenitic SSs in LWR environments. Slow-strain-rate tensile tests and post-test fractographic analyses were conducted on several model SS alloys irradiated to {approx}2 x 10{sup 21} n {center_dot} cm{sup -2} (E > 1 MeV) ({approx}3 dpa) in He at 289 C in the Halden reactor. The results were used to determine the influence of alloying and impurity elements on the susceptibility of these steels to IASCC. Corrosion fatigue tests were conducted on nonirradiated austenitic SSs in high-purity water at 289 C to establish the test procedure and conditions that will be used for the tests on irradiated materials. A comprehensive irradiation experiment was initiated to obtain many tensile and disk specimens irradiated under simulated pressurized water reactor conditions at {approx}325 C to 5, 10, 20, and 40 dpa. Crack growth tests were completed on 30% cold-worked Alloy 600 in high-purity water under various environmental and loading conditions. The results are compared with data obtained earlier on several heats of Alloy 600

  14. Measuring Environmental Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, John E.; Dahm, Douglas B.

    1975-01-01

    Infrared remote sensors, plus photometric interpretation and digital data analysis are being used to record the stresses on air, water, vegetation and soil. Directly recorded photographic information has been the most effective recording media for remote sensing. (BT)

  15. Measuring Environmental Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, John E.; Dahm, Douglas B.

    1975-01-01

    Infrared remote sensors, plus photometric interpretation and digital data analysis are being used to record the stresses on air, water, vegetation and soil. Directly recorded photographic information has been the most effective recording media for remote sensing. (BT)

  16. A metallurgical evaluation of stress corrosion cracking in large diameter stainless steel piping

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, D.A.; Rawl, D.E. Jr.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Ultrasonic testing (UT) of the stainless steel piping in the primary coolant water system of SRS reactors indicates the presence of short, partly-through-wall stress corrosion cracks in the heat-affected zone of approximately 7% of the circumferential pipe welds. These cracks are thought to develop by intergranular nucleation and mixed mode propagation. Metallographic evaluations have confirmed the UT indications of crack size and provided evidence that crack growth involved the accumulation of chloride inside the growing crack. It is postulated that the development of an oxygen depletion cell inside the crack results in the migration of chloride ions to the crack tip to balance the accumulation of positively charged metallic ions. The results of this metallurgicial evaluation, combined with structural assessments of system integrity, support the existence of leak-before-break conditions in the SRS reactor piping system. 13 refs., 9 figs.

  17. Stress intensity factors of eccentric cracks in bi-materials plate under mode I loading

    SciTech Connect

    Ismail, A. E.

    2015-05-15

    Bi-material plates were generally used to joint electronic devices or mechanical components requiring dissimilar materials to be attached. During services, mechanical failure can be occurred due to the formation of cracks at the interfacial joint or away from the centre. Generally, linear elastic fracture mechanics approach is used to characterize these cracks based on stress intensity factors (SIF). Based on the literature survey, the SIFs for the central cracks were easily available. However, the SIFs for eccentric cracks were difficult to obtain. Therefore, this paper presented the SIFs for eccentric cracks subjected to mode I tension loading. Three important parameters were used such as relative crack depth, a/L, relative offset distance, b/L and elastic mismatch, E{sub 1}/E{sub 2} or α. It was found that such parameters significantly affected the characteristic of SIFs and it was depend on the location of cracks.

  18. POTENTIAL FOR STRESS CORROSION CRACKING OF A537 CARBON STEEL NUCLEAR WASTE TANKS CONTAINING HIGHLY CAUSTIC SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, P.; Stripling, C.; Fisher, D.; Elder, J.

    2010-04-26

    The evaporator recycle streams of nuclear waste tanks may contain waste in a chemistry and temperature regime that exceeds the current corrosion control program, which imposes temperature limits to mitigate caustic stress corrosion cracking (CSCC). A review of the recent service history found that two of these A537 carbon steel tanks were operated in highly concentrated hydroxide solution at high temperature. Visual inspections, experimental testing, and a review of the tank service history have shown that CSCC has occurred in uncooled/un-stress relieved tanks of similar construction. Therefore, it appears that the efficacy of stress relief of welding residual stress is the primary corrosion-limiting mechanism. The objective of this experimental program is to test A537 carbon steel small scale welded U-bend specimens and large welded plates (30.48 x 30.38 x 2.54 cm) in a caustic solution with upper bound chemistry (12 M hydroxide and 1 M each of nitrate, nitrite, and aluminate) and temperature (125 C). These conditions simulate worst-case situations in these nuclear waste tanks. Both as-welded and stress-relieved specimens have been tested. No evidence of stress corrosion cracking was found in the U-bend specimens after 21 days of testing. The large plate test was completed after 12 weeks of immersion in a similar solution at 125 C except that the aluminate concentration was reduced to 0.3 M. Visual inspection of the plate revealed that stress corrosion cracking had not initiated from the machined crack tips in the weld or in the heat affected zone. NDE ultrasonic testing also confirmed subsurface cracking did not occur. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the environmental condition of these tests was unable to develop stress corrosion cracking within the test periods for the small welded U-bends and for the large plates, which were welded with an identical procedure as used in the construction of the actual nuclear waste tanks in the 1960s. The

  19. Environmentally assisted cracking in Light Water Reactors. Volume 16: Semiannual report, October 1992--March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H.M.; Chopra, O.K.; Ruther, W.E.; Kassner, T.F.; Michaud, W.F.; Park, J.Y.; Sanecki, J.E.; Shack, W.J.

    1993-09-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in light water reactors (LWRs) during the six months from October 1992 to March 1993. Fatigue and EAC of piping, pressure vessels, and core components in LWRs are important concerns as extended reactor lifetimes are envisaged. Topics that have been investigated include (1) fatigue of low-alloy steel used in piping, steam generators, and reactor pressure vessels. (2) EAC of cast stainless steels (SSs), (3) radiation-induced segregation and irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking of Type 304 SS after accumulation of relatively high fluence, and (4) EAC of low-alloy steels. Fatigue tests were conducted on medium-sulfur-content A106-Gr B piping and A533-Gr B pressure vessel steels in simulated PWR water and in air. Additional crack growth data were obtained on fracture-mechanics specimens of cast austenitic SSs in the as-received and thermally aged conditions and chromium-nickel-plated A533-Gr B steel in simulated boiling-water reactor (BWR) water at 289{degrees}C. The data were compared with predictions based on crack growth correlations for ferritic steels in oxygenated water and correlations for wrought austenitic SS in oxygenated water developed at ANL and rates in air from Section XI of the ASME Code. Microchemical and microstructural changes in high- and commercial-purity Type 304 SS specimens from control-blade absorber tubes and a control-blade sheath from operating BWRs were studied by Auger electron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

  20. Use of Slow Strain Rate Tensile Testing to Assess the Ability of Several Superalloys to Resist Environmentally-Assisted Intergranular Cracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabb, Timothy P.; Telesman, Jack; Banik, Anthony; McDevitt, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Intergranular fatigue crack initiation and growth due to environmental degradation, especially at notched features, can often limit the fatigue life of disk superalloys at high temperatures. For clear comparisons, the effects of alloy composition on cracking in air needs to be understood and compared separately from variables associated with notches and cracks such as effective stress concentration, plastic flow, stress relaxation, and stress redistribution. The objective of this study was to attempt using simple tensile tests of specimens with uniform gage sections to compare the effects of varied alloy composition on environment-assisted cracking of several powder metal and cast and wrought superalloys including ME3, LSHR, Udimet 720(TradeMark) ATI 718Plus(Registered TradeMark) alloy, Haynes 282(Trademark), and Inconel 740(TradeMark) Slow and fast strain-rate tensile tests were found to be a useful tool to compare propensities for intergranular surface crack initiation and growth. The effects of composition and heat treatment on tensile fracture strain and associated failure modes were compared. Environment interactions were determined to often limit ductility, by promoting intergranular surface cracking. The response of various superalloys and heat treatments to slow strain rate tensile testing varied substantially, showing that composition and microstructure can significantly influence environmental resistance to cracking.

  1. Accelerated Stress Corrosion Crack Initiation of Alloys 600 and 690 in Hydrogenated Supercritical Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Tyler; Was, Gary S.

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study is to determine whether stress corrosion crack initiation of Alloys 600 and 690 occurs by the same mechanism in subcritical and supercritical water. Tensile bars of Alloys 690 and 600 were strained in constant extension rate tensile experiments in hydrogenated subcritical and supercritical water from 593 K to 723 K (320 °C to 450 °C), and the crack initiation behavior was characterized by high-resolution electron microscopy. Intergranular cracking was observed across the entire temperature range, and the morphology, structure, composition, and temperature dependence of initiated cracks in Alloy 690 were consistent between hydrogenated subcritical and supercritical water. Crack initiation of Alloy 600 followed an Arrhenius relationship and did not exhibit a discontinuity or change in slope after crossing the critical temperature. The measured activation energy was 121 ± 13 kJ/mol. Stress corrosion crack initiation in Alloy 690 was fit with a single activation energy of 92 ± 12 kJ/mol across the entire temperature range. Cracks were observed to propagate along grain boundaries adjacent to chromium-depleted metal, with Cr2O3 observed ahead of crack tips. All measures of the SCC behavior indicate that the mechanism for stress corrosion crack initiation of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 is consistent between hydrogenated subcritical and supercritical water.

  2. Accelerated Stress Corrosion Crack Initiation of Alloys 600 and 690 in Hydrogenated Supercritical Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Tyler; Was, Gary S.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine whether stress corrosion crack initiation of Alloys 600 and 690 occurs by the same mechanism in subcritical and supercritical water. Tensile bars of Alloys 690 and 600 were strained in constant extension rate tensile experiments in hydrogenated subcritical and supercritical water from 593 K to 723 K (320 °C to 450 °C), and the crack initiation behavior was characterized by high-resolution electron microscopy. Intergranular cracking was observed across the entire temperature range, and the morphology, structure, composition, and temperature dependence of initiated cracks in Alloy 690 were consistent between hydrogenated subcritical and supercritical water. Crack initiation of Alloy 600 followed an Arrhenius relationship and did not exhibit a discontinuity or change in slope after crossing the critical temperature. The measured activation energy was 121 ± 13 kJ/mol. Stress corrosion crack initiation in Alloy 690 was fit with a single activation energy of 92 ± 12 kJ/mol across the entire temperature range. Cracks were observed to propagate along grain boundaries adjacent to chromium-depleted metal, with Cr2O3 observed ahead of crack tips. All measures of the SCC behavior indicate that the mechanism for stress corrosion crack initiation of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 is consistent between hydrogenated subcritical and supercritical water.

  3. Role of sulphur atoms on stress relaxation and crack propagation in monolayer MoS2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baoming; Islam, Zahabul; Zhang, Kehao; Wang, Ke; Robinson, Joshua; Haque, Aman

    2017-09-08

    We present in-situ transmission electron microscopy of crack propagation in a freestanding monolayer MoS2 and molecular dynamic analysis of the underlying mechanisms. Chemical vapor deposited monolayer MoS2 was transferred from sapphire substrate using interfacial etching for defect and contamination minimization. Atomic resolution imaging shows crack tip atoms sustaining 14.5% strain before bond breaking, while the stress field decays at unprecedented rate of 2.15 GPa Å(-1). Crack propagation is seen mostly in the zig-zag direction in both model and experiment, suggesting that the mechanics of fracture is not brittle. Our computational model captures the mechanics of the experimental observations on crack propagation in MoS2. While molybdenum atoms carry most of the mechanical load, we show that the sliding motion of weakly bonded sulphur atoms mediate crack tip stress relaxation, which helps the tip sustain very high, localized stress levels.

  4. Role of sulphur atoms on stress relaxation and crack propagation in monolayer MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Baoming; Islam, Zahabul; Zhang, Kehao; Wang, Ke; Robinson, Joshua; Haque, Aman

    2017-09-01

    We present in-situ transmission electron microscopy of crack propagation in a freestanding monolayer MoS2 and molecular dynamic analysis of the underlying mechanisms. Chemical vapor deposited monolayer MoS2 was transferred from sapphire substrate using interfacial etching for defect and contamination minimization. Atomic resolution imaging shows crack tip atoms sustaining 14.5% strain before bond breaking, while the stress field decays at unprecedented rate of 2.15 GPa Å-1. Crack propagation is seen mostly in the zig-zag direction in both model and experiment, suggesting that the mechanics of fracture is not brittle. Our computational model captures the mechanics of the experimental observations on crack propagation in MoS2. While molybdenum atoms carry most of the mechanical load, we show that the sliding motion of weakly bonded sulphur atoms mediate crack tip stress relaxation, which helps the tip sustain very high, localized stress levels.

  5. Transient thermal stresses in a reinforced hollow disk or cylinder containing a radial crack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, R.; Erdogan, F.

    1984-01-01

    The transient thermal stress problem in a hollow cylinder or a disk containing a radial crack is considered. It is assumed that the cylinder is reinforced on its inner boundary by a membrane which has thermoelastic constants different than those of the base material. The transient temperature, thermal stresses and the crack tip stress intensity factors are calculated in a cylinder which is subjected to a sudden change of temperature on the inside surface. The results are obtained for various dimensionless parameters and material constants. The special cases of the crack terminating at the cylinder-membrane interface and of the broken membrane are separately considered and some examples are given.

  6. Transient thermal stresses in a reinforced hollow disk or cylinder containing a radial crack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, R.; Erdogan, F.

    1983-01-01

    The transient thermal stress problem in a hollow cylinder or a disk containing a radial crack is considered. It is assumed that the cylinder is reinforced on its inner boundary by a membrane which has thermoelastic constants different than those of the base material. The transient temperature, thermal stresses and the crack tip stress intensity factors are calculated in a cylinder which is subjected to a sudden change of temperature on the inside surface. The results are obtained for various dimensionless parameters and material constants. The special cases of the crack terminating at the cylinder-membrane interface and of the broken membrane are separately considered and some examples are given.

  7. Three-dimensional elastic stress and displacement analysis of finite geometry solids containing cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kring, J.; Gyekenyesi, J.; Mendelson, A.

    1977-01-01

    The line method of analysis is applied to the Navier-Cauchy equations of elastic equilibrium to calculate the displacement fields in finite geometry bars containing central, surface, and double-edge cracks under extensionally applied uniform loading. The application of this method to these equations leads to coupled sets of simultaneous ordinary differential equations whose solutions are obtained along sets of lines in a discretized region. Normal stresses and the stress intensity factor variation along the crack periphery are calculated using the obtained displacement field. The reported results demonstrate the usefulness of this method in calculating stress intensity factors for commonly encountered crack geometries in finite solids.

  8. Three-dimensional elastic stress and displacement analysis of finite geometry solids containing cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kring, J.; Gyekenyesi, J.; Mendelson, A.

    1977-01-01

    The line method of analysis is applied to the Navier-Cauchy equations of elastic equilibrium to calculate the displacement fields in finite geometry bars containing central, surface, and double-edge cracks under extensionally applied uniform loading. The application of this method to these equations leads to coupled sets of simultaneous ordinary differential equations whose solutions are obtained along sets of lines in a discretized region. Normal stresses and the stress intensity factor variation along the crack periphery are calculated using the obtained displacement field. The reported results demonstrate the usefulness of this method in calculating stress intensity factors for commonly encountered crack geometries in finite solids.

  9. Analysis to predict the shapes of growing stress corrosion cracks in BWR piping welds

    SciTech Connect

    McNaughton, W.P.; Egan, G.R.; Beaupre, G.S.; Aboim, C.A.

    1982-05-01

    A model has been developed to predict the shape during growth and lifetime to failure for stress corrosion cracks in boiling water reactor (BWR) piping. The primary emphasis for this project was on large diameter recirculation piping. The results of sensitivity studies performed with the model are presented in this report. It was found, for the ranges of variables examined, that the primary influence on crack shape is stress distribution. Somewhat smaller effects on crack shape growth result from the absolute stress magnitude, changes in growth kinetics and changes in initial flaw geometry. The manner in which each of the variables affects lifetime to failure is also examined.

  10. The Evolution of Stress Intensity Factors and the Propagation of Cracks in Elastic Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Avner; Hu, Bei; Velazquez, Juan J. L.

    When a crack Γs propagates in an elastic medium the stress intensity factors evolve with the tip x(s) of Γs. In this paper we derive formulae which describe the evolution of these stress intensity factors for a homogeneous isotropic elastic medium under plane strain conditions. Denoting by ψ=ψ(x,s) the stress potential (ψ is biharmonic and has zero traction along the crack Γs) and by κ(s) the curvature of the crack at the tip x(s), we prove that the stress intensity factors A1(s), A2(s), as functions of s, satisfy: where , are stress intensity factors of the tangential derivative of in the polar coordinate system at x(s) with θ=0 in the direction of the crack at x(s). The case of antiplane shearing is also briefly considered; in this case ψ is harmonic.

  11. Recent progress to understand stress corrosion cracking in sodium borosilicate glasses: linking the chemical composition to structural, physical and fracture properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rountree, Cindy L.

    2017-08-01

    This topical review is dedicated to understanding stress corrosion cracking in oxide glasses and specifically the SiO_2{\\text-B_2O_3{\\text-}Na_2O} (SBN) ternary glass systems. Many review papers already exist on the topic of stress corrosion cracking in complex oxide glasses or overly simplified glasses (pure silica). These papers look at how systematically controlling environmental factors (pH, temperature...) alter stress corrosion cracking, while maintaining the same type of glass sample. Many questions still exist, including: What sets the environmental limit? What sets the velocity versus stress intensity factor in the slow stress corrosion regime (Region I)? Can researchers optimize these two effects to enhance a glass’ resistance to failure? To help answer these questions, this review takes a different approach. It looks at how systemically controlling the glass’ chemical composition alters the structure and physical properties. These changes are then compared and contrasted to the fracture toughness and the stress corrosion cracking properties. By taking this holistic approach, researchers can begin to understand the controlling factors in stress corrosion cracking and how to optimize glasses via the initial chemical composition.

  12. Effect of surface stress on stress intensity factors of a nanoscale crack via double cantilever beam model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Li, Xianfang; Tang, Guojin; Shen, Zhibin

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the influence of surface elasticity on crack growth for a nanoscale crack advance. A crack is modeled as a double cantilever beam with consideration of surface stress. Using the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory incorporating with surface effects, a governing equation of static bending is derived and bending solution of a cantilever nanowire is obtained for a concentrated force at the free end. Based on the viewpoint of energy balance, the elastic strain energy is given and energy release rate is determined. The influences of the Surface stress and the surface elasticity on crack growth are discussed. Obtained results indicate that consideration of the surface effects decreases stress intensity factors or energy release rates. The residual surface tension impedes propagation of a nanoscale crack and apparent fracture toughness of nanoscale materials is effectively enhanced.

  13. Influence of precracked specimen configuration and starting stress intensity on the stress corrosion cracking of 4340 steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisagor, W. B.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental results are presented from a study of the effects of precracked specimen configuration and initial starting stress intensity on crack growth rate and threshold stress intensity, for both onset of cracking and crack arrest. Attention is given to AISI 4340 steel in a 3.5-percent NaCl solution, for configurations of a single edge-cracked specimen tested in cantilever bending under constant load, and a modified compact specimen bolt loaded to a constant deflection. The threshold stress intensity value determined was independent of specimen configuration, if the stress intensity value associated with the compact specimen is taken where the discontinuous break occurs in the velocity-stress intensity curve.

  14. Relaxation of crack tip stresses by diffusive growth of grain boundary cavities at a steadily growing creep crack

    SciTech Connect

    Jeon, J.Y. . Dept. of Electronic Materials Engineering)

    1994-02-15

    In this study, the analytic solution of the stress field for the steadily growing crack with Gb cavitation is to be found. The effect of Gb cavitation is simultaneously incorporated in the stress analysis. The macroscopic material behavior is assumed to be elastic, thus, the original stress distribution is determined by the K field of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM). Also, the non-elastic deformation by Gb cavitation relaxes the stress singularity at the crack tip. The stress relaxation by local cavitation is calculated using the dislocation model. For modeling of the cavitation as distributed dislocations, several assumptions can be made: (1) the Gb cavities are nucleated instantaneously at uniformly distributed precipitates when the applied stress reaches the nucleation stress; (2) the quasi-equilibrium type cavity shape is maintained throughout cavity growth because of a sufficiently large surface diffusivity compared to that of Gb diffusivity; (3) the matter flux by diffusion is deposited uniformly at Gb and thus causes rigid body motion which relaxes the elastic stress field.

  15. Numerical simulation of stress amplification induced by crack interaction in human femur bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alia, Noor; Daud, Ruslizam; Ramli, Mohammad Fadzli; Azman, Wan Zuki; Faizal, Ahmad; Aisyah, Siti

    2015-05-01

    This research is about numerical simulation using a computational method which study on stress amplification induced by crack interaction in human femur bone. Cracks in human femur bone usually occur because of large load or stress applied on it. Usually, the fracture takes longer time to heal itself. At present, the crack interaction is still not well understood due to bone complexity. Thus, brittle fracture behavior of bone may be underestimated and inaccurate. This study aims to investigate the geometrical effect of double co-planar edge cracks on stress intensity factor (K) in femur bone. This research focuses to analyze the amplification effect on the fracture behavior of double co-planar edge cracks, where numerical model is developed using computational method. The concept of fracture mechanics and finite element method (FEM) are used to solve the interacting cracks problems using linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) theory. As a result, this study has shown the identification of the crack interaction limit (CIL) and crack unification limit (CUL) exist in the human femur bone model developed. In future research, several improvements will be made such as varying the load, applying thickness on the model and also use different theory or method in calculating the stress intensity factor (K).

  16. Hydrogen Cracking and Stress Corrosion of Pressure Vessel Steel ASTM A543

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlShawaf, Ali Hamad

    The purpose of conducting this research is to develop fundamental understanding of the weldability of the modern Quenched and Tempered High Strength Low Alloy (Q&T HSLA) steel, regarding the cracking behavior and susceptibility to environmental cracking in the base metal and in the heat affected zone (HAZ) when welded. A number of leaking cracks developed in the girth welds of the pressure vessel after a short time of upgrading the material from plain carbon steel to Q&T HSLA steel. The new vessels were constructed to increase the production of the plant and also to save weight for the larger pressure vessel. The results of this research study will be used to identify safe welding procedure and design more weldable material. A standardized weldability test known as implant test was constructed and used to study the susceptibility of the Q&T HSLA steel to hydrogen cracking. The charged hydrogen content for each weld was recorded against the applied load during weldability testing. The lack of understanding in detail of the interaction between hydrogen and each HAZ subzone in implant testing led to the need of developing the test to obtain more data about the weldability. The HAZ subzones were produced using two techniques: standard furnace and GleebleRTM machine. These produced subzones were pre-charged with hydrogen to different levels of concentration. The hydrogen charging on the samples simulates prior exposure of the material to high humidity environment during welding process. Fractographical and microstructural characterization of the HAZ subzones were conducted using techniques such as SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy). A modified implant test using the mechanical tensile machine was also used to observe the effects of the hydrogen on the cracking behavior of each HAZ subzone. All the experimental weldability works were simulated and validated using a commercial computational software, SYSWELD. The computational simulation of implant testing of Q&T HSLA

  17. Stress corrosion cracking of superplastically formed 7475 aluminum alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, T.C.; Chang, J.C.; Chuang, T.H.

    1997-10-01

    The effects of biaxial superplastic deformation and postforming heat treatment upon the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of a fine-grained 7475Al alloy plate have been investigated. For all postforming tempered conditions, increasing the extent of superplastic deformation, which created more cavitations, would decrease the mechanical properties, the SCC resistance, and the corrosion resistance. The influence of cavitation on the decay of elongation of the superplastically formed workpieces is larger than that on the decay of its strength. Post-forming tempered by retrogression and reaging (RRA) treatment could effectively improve the SCC resistance of workpieces in postforming T6 temper while not sacrificing the strength. However, the benefit of improving the SCC resistance by means of the postforming RRA temper was decreased with increasing the extent of superplastic deformation, because the SCC susceptibility increased as the extent of superplastic deformation increased for each postforming tempered condition. The cavitation led to more anodic corrosion potential and pitting potential and to an increase in both corrosion current density and passive current density, which would increase the SCC susceptibility.

  18. Atmospheric stress corrosion cracking of a superplastic 7475 aluminum alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, T.C.; Chuang, T.H.

    1996-09-01

    The influence of different heat treatments upon the atmospheric stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of fine-grained 7475 Al-alloy plates has been investigated. The small size of the matrix precipitates and grain-boundary precipitates (GBPs) was found to be the main cause of atmospheric SCC susceptibility. Increasing the size of the matrix precipitates and GBPs by increasing the degree of aging could improve the atmospheric SCC resistance. The size of the matrix precipitates was the major factor affecting the atmospheric SCC resistance when GBPs were larger than a critical size that could nucleate hydrogen bubbles. However, if the size of the GBPs was smaller than this critical size, the improvement of atmospheric SCC resistance due to grain refinement, resulting from a more homogeneous slip mode, could not be obtained because hydrogen embrittlement became serious. By measuring the electrical conductivity, the influence of matrix precipitates, but not that of GBPs, on SCC susceptibility could be obtained. Retrogression and reaging (RRA) treatment could effectively improve the atmospheric SCC resistance of T6 temper because RRA temper could produce larger sizes of both the matrix precipitates and GBPs than could T6 tempered condition.

  19. Stress corrosion crack initiation of alloy 600 in PWR primary water

    DOE PAGES

    Zhai, Ziqing; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Olszta, Matthew J.; ...

    2017-04-27

    Stress corrosion crack (SCC) initiation of three mill-annealed alloy 600 heats in simulated pressurized water reactor primary water has been investigated using constant load tests equipped with in-situ direct current potential drop (DCPD) measurement capabilities. SCC initiation times were greatly reduced by a small amount of cold work. Shallow intergranular attack and/or cracks were found on most high-energy grain boundaries intersecting the surface with only a small fraction evolving into larger cracks and intergranular SCC growth. Crack depth profiles were measured and related to DCPD-detected initiation response. Lastly, we discuss processes controlling the SCC initiation in mill-annealed alloy 600.

  20. The Mode 1 mechanical crack tip stress field in hyperelastic and incompressible materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quigley, Claudia J.

    1995-01-01

    The finite deformation field of a plane strain Mode 1 crack in a hyperelastic and incompressible material was examined under the assumptions of small scale nonlinearity. Finite element analyses were performed for two different material laws, a Neo-Hookean material and a third order invariant of a Rivlin material. The numerical results for both materials were compared to the appropriate theoretical asymptotic solution. A local cavitation locus surrounding the crack tip was identified for the Neo-Hookean material. For the third order invariant Rivlin material, maximum values of the dominant stress component were found close to the surface of the crack, above and below the deformed crack tip.

  1. The Mode 1 mechanical crack tip stress field in hyperelastic and incompressible materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quigley, Claudia J.

    1995-01-01

    The finite deformation field of a plane strain Mode 1 crack in a hyperelastic and incompressible material was examined under the assumptions of small scale nonlinearity. Finite element analyses were performed for two different material laws, a Neo-Hookean material and a third order invariant of a Rivlin material. The numerical results for both materials were compared to the appropriate theoretical asymptotic solution. A local cavitation locus surrounding the crack tip was identified for the Neo-Hookean material. For the third order invariant Rivlin material, maximum values of the dominant stress component were found close to the surface of the crack, above and below the deformed crack tip.

  2. Estimation of crack closure stresses for in situ toughened silicon nitride with 8 wt pct scandia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Salem, Jonathan A.; Sanders, William A.

    1992-01-01

    An 8-wt pct-scandia silicon nitride with an elongated grain structure was fabricated. The material exhibited high fracture toughness and a rising R-curve as measured by the indentation strength technique. The 'toughening' exponent m was found to be m about 0.1. The high fracture toughness and R-curve behavior was attributed mainly to bridging of the crack faces by the elongated grains. The crack closure (bridging) stress distribution in the wake region of the crack tip was estimated as a function of crack size from the R-curve data, with an arbitrarily assumed distribution function.

  3. The effect of non-singular stresses on crack-tip constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Z.-Z.; Hancock, J. W.

    T HE EFFECT of the T-stress on the small-scale yielding field of a crack in plane strain conditions has been examined using modified boundary layer formulations. The numerically calculated stresses at the crack tip are represented by slip line fields for small-strain theory. Positive T-stresses cause plasticity to envelop the crack tip and exhibit a Prandtl field, corresponding to the limiting solution of the HRR field for a nonhardening material. Moderate compressive T-stresses reduce the direct stresses within the plastic zone by decreasing the hydrostatic stress by T. This causes a loss of J-dominance, and a stress distribution represented by an incomplete Prandtl field.

  4. The Effect of Sensitization on the Stress Corrosion Cracking of Aluminum Alloy 5456

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    environmental crack propagation by mechanism involving hydrogen embrittlement , and (3) IGSCC propagation via corrosion tunneling. When modeling IGSCC in 5 ...anodic dissolution of the β-phase is of key importance. For the film rupture model and model involving hydrogen embrittlement the passivation... embrittlement provides an alternative theory for crack propagation and is illustrated in Figure 15. Menzemer et al. describe hydrogen embrittlement as

  5. Microstructural investigation of vintage pipeline steels highly susceptible to stress corrosion cracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Monica

    The use of pipelines for the transmission of gas offers not only efficiency, but a number of economic advantages. Nevertheless, pipelines are subject to aggressive operating conditions and environments which can lead to in-service degradation [1] and thus to failures. These failures can have catastrophic consequences, such as environmental damage and loss of life [2]. One of the most dangerous threats to pipeline integrity is stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Despite the substantial progress that has been achieved in the field, due to the complex nature of this phenomenon there is still not a complete understanding of this form of external corrosion. This makes its detection and prevention a challenge and therefore a risk to pipeline integrity, and most importantly, to the safety of the population. SCC cracks are the result of the interaction between a corrosive environment, applied stresses, and a susceptible microstructure. To date, what defines a susceptible microstructure remains ambiguous, as SCC has been observed in a range of steel grades, microstructures, chemical composition, and grain sizes. Therefore, in order to be able to accurately predict and prevent this hazardous form of corrosion, it is imperative to advance our knowledge on the subject and gain a better understanding on the microstructural features of highly susceptible pipeline materials, especially in the subsurface zone where crack nucleation must take place. Therefore, a microstructural characterization of the region near the surface layer was carried-out utilizing TEM. TEM analysis revealed the dislocation character, ferrite morphology, and apparent carbide precipitation in some grain boundaries. Furthermore, light microscopy, SEM, and hardness testing were performed to expand our knowledge on the microscopical features of highly SCC susceptible service components. This investigation presents a new approach to SCC characterization, which exposed the sub-surface region microscopical

  6. Development of a Fatigue Crack Growth Coupon for Highly Plastic Stress Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Phillip A.; Aggarwal, Pravin K.; Swanson, Gregory R.

    2003-01-01

    The analytical approach used to develop a novel fatigue crack growth coupon for highly plastic stress field condition is presented in this paper. The flight hardware investigated is a large separation bolt that has a deep notch, which produces a large plastic zone at the notch root when highly loaded. Four test specimen configurations are analyzed in an attempt to match the elastic-plastic stress field and crack constraint conditions present in the separation bolt. Elastic-plastic finite element analysis is used to compare the stress fields and critical fracture parameters. Of the four test specimens analyzed, the modified double-edge notch tension - 3 (MDENT-3) most closely approximates the stress field, J values, and crack constraint conditions found in the flight hardware. The MDENT-3 is also most insensitive to load misalignment and/or load redistribution during crack growth.

  7. Investigation of the stress distribution around a mode 1 crack with a novel strain gradient theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederer, M.; Khatibi, G.

    2017-01-01

    Stress concentrations at the tip of a sharp crack have extensively been investigated in the past century. According to the calculations of Inglis, the stress ahead of a mode 1 crack shows the characteristics of a singularity. This solution is exact in the framework of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM). From the viewpoint of multiscale modelling, however, it is evident that the stress at the tip of a stable crack cannot be infinite, because the strengths of atomic bonds are finite. In order to prevent the problem of this singularity, a new version of strain gradient elasticity is employed here. This theory is implemented in the commercial FEM code ABAQUS through user subroutine UEL. Convergence of the model is proved through consecutive mesh refinement. In consequence, the stresses ahead of a mode 1 crack become finite. Furthermore, the model predicts a size effect in the sense “smaller is stronger”.

  8. The mechanism of stress-corrosion cracking in 7075 aluminum alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, A. J.

    1970-01-01

    Various aspects of stress-corrosion cracking in 7075 aluminum alloy are discussed. A model is proposed in which the continuous anodic path along which the metal is preferentially attacked consists of two phases which alternate as anodes.

  9. Stress corrosion cracking of X-60 line pipe steel in a carbonate-bicarbonate solution

    SciTech Connect

    Pilkey, A.K.; Lambert, S.B.; Plumtree, A. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1995-02-01

    An experimental system was developed to reproduce stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of API X-60 line pipe steels in highly alkaline (pH = 10) carbonate-bicarbonate (1 N sodium carbonate [Na[sub 2]CO[sub 3

  10. A test procedure for determining the influence of stress ratio on fatigue crack growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, J. H.; Wei, R. P.

    1974-01-01

    A test procedure is outlined by which the rate of fatigue crack growth over a range of stress ratios and stress intensities can be determined expeditiously using a small number of specimens. This procedure was developed to avoid or circumvent the effects of load interactions on fatigue crack growth, and was used to develop data on a mill annealed Ti-6Al-4V alloy plate. Experimental data suggest that the rates of fatigue crack growth among the various stress ratios may be correlated in terms of an effective stress intensity range at given values of K max. This procedure is not to be used, however, for determining the corrosion fatigue crack growth characteristics of alloys when nonsteady-state effects are significant.

  11. Calculation of Stress Intensity Factors for Interfacial Cracks in Fiber Metal Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Stress intensity factors for interfacial cracks in Fiber Metal Laminates (FML) are computed by using the displacement ratio method recently developed by Sun and Qian (1997, Int. J. Solids. Struct. 34, 2595-2609). Various FML configurations with single and multiple delaminations subjected to different loading conditions are investigated. The displacement ratio method requires the total energy release rate, bimaterial parameters, and relative crack surface displacements as input. Details of generating the energy release rates, defining bimaterial parameters with anisotropic elasticity, and selecting proper crack surface locations for obtaining relative crack surface displacements are discussed in the paper. Even though the individual energy release rates are nonconvergent, mesh-size-independent stress intensity factors can be obtained. This study also finds that the selection of reference length can affect the magnitudes and the mode mixity angles of the stress intensity factors; thus, it is important to report the reference length used with the calculated stress intensity factors.

  12. A test procedure for determining the influence of stress ratio on fatigue crack growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, J. H.; Wei, R. P.

    1974-01-01

    A test procedure is outlined by which the rate of fatigue crack growth over a range of stress ratios and stress intensities can be determined expeditiously using a small number of specimens. This procedure was developed to avoid or circumvent the effects of load interactions on fatigue crack growth, and was used to develop data on a mill annealed Ti-6Al-4V alloy plate. Experimental data suggest that the rates of fatigue crack growth among the various stress ratios may be correlated in terms of an effective stress intensity range at given values of K max. This procedure is not to be used, however, for determining the corrosion fatigue crack growth characteristics of alloys when nonsteady-state effects are significant.

  13. Stress intensity factors for an inclined crack in an orthotropic strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delale, F.; Bakirtas, I.; Erdogan, F.

    1978-01-01

    The elastostatic problem for an infinite orthotropic strip containing a crack is considered. It is assumed that the orthogonal axes of material orthotropy may have an arbitrary angular orientation with respect to the orthogonal axes of geometric symmetry of the uncracked strip. The crack is located along an axis of orthotropy, hence at an arbitrary angle with respect to the sides of the strip. The general problem is formulated in terms of a system of singular integral equations for arbitrary crack surface tractions. As examples Modes I and II stress intensity factors are calculated for the strip having an internal or an edge crack with various lengths and angular orientations. In most calculations uniform tension or uniform bending away from the crack region is used as the external load. Limited results are also given for uniform normal or shear tractions on the crack surface.

  14. High-Temperature Slow Crack Growth of Silicon Carbide Determined by Constant-Stress-Rate and Constant-Stress Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung H.; Salem, J. A.; Nemeth, N. N.

    1998-01-01

    High-temperature slow-crack-growth behaviour of hot-pressed silicon carbide was determined using both constant-stress-rate ("dynamic fatigue") and constant-stress ("static fatigue") testing in flexure at 1300 C in air. Slow crack growth was found to be a governing mechanism associated with failure of the material. Four estimation methods such as the individual data, the Weibull median, the arithmetic mean and the median deviation methods were used to determine the slow crack growth parameters. The four estimation methods were in good agreement for the constant-stress-rate testing with a small variation in the slow-crack-growth parameter, n, ranging from 28 to 36. By contrast, the variation in n between the four estimation methods was significant in the constant-stress testing with a somewhat wide range of n= 16 to 32.

  15. INVESTIGATION OF THE POTENTIAL FOR CAUSTIC STRESS CORROSION CRACKING OF A537 CARBON STEEL NUCLEAR WASTE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, P.

    2009-10-15

    The evaporator recycle streams contain waste in a chemistry and temperature regime that may be outside of the current waste tank corrosion control program, which imposes temperature limits to mitigate caustic stress corrosion cracking (CSCC). A review of the recent service history (1998-2008) of Tanks 30 and 32 showed that these tanks were operated in highly concentrated hydroxide solution at high temperature. Visual inspections, experimental testing, and a review of the tank service history have shown that CSCC has occurred in uncooled/un-stress relieved F-Area tanks. Therefore, for the Type III/IIIA waste tanks the efficacy of the stress relief of welding residual stress is the only corrosion-limiting mechanism. The objective of this experimental program is to test carbon steel small scale welded U-bend specimens and large welded plates (12 x 12 x 1 in.) in a caustic solution with upper bound chemistry (12 M hydroxide and 1 M each of nitrate, nitrite, and aluminate) and temperature (125 C). These conditions simulate worst-case situations in Tanks 30 and 32. Both as-welded and stress-relieved specimens have been tested. No evidence of stress corrosion cracking was found in the U-bend specimens after 21 days of testing. The large plate test is currently in progress, but no cracking has been observed after 9 weeks of immersion. Based on the preliminary results, it appears that the environmental conditions of the tests are unable to develop stress corrosion cracking within the duration of these tests.

  16. Role of Localized Deformation in Irradiation-Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking Initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Elaine A.; McMurtrey, Michael D.; Jiao, Zhijie; Was, Gary S.

    2012-01-01

    Intergranular cracking of irradiated austenitic alloys depended on localized grain boundary stress and deformation in both high-temperature aqueous and argon environments. Tensile specimens were irradiated with protons to doses of 1 to 7 dpa and then strained in high-temperature argon, simulated boiling water reactor normal water chemistry, and supercritical water environments. Quantitative measurements confirmed that the initiation of intergranular cracks was promoted by (1) the formation of coarse dislocation channels, (2) discontinuous slip across grain boundaries, (3) a high inclination of the grain boundary to the tensile axis, and (4) low-deformation propensity of grains as characterized by their Schmid and Taylor factors. The first two correlations, as well as the formation of intergranular cracks at the precise locations of dislocation channel-grain boundary intersections are evidence that localized deformation drives crack initiation. The latter two correlations are evidence that intergranular cracking is promoted at grain boundaries experiencing elevated levels of normal stress.

  17. Stress-Intensity Factors for Corner Cracks at the Edge of a Hole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, I. S.; Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Stress-intensity factors, calculated by a three-dimensional finite-element analysis, for shallow or deep quarter-elliptical corner cracks at the edge of a hole in a finite-thickness plate are presented. The plate was subjected to remote uniform tension, remote bending, or simulated pin loading in the hole. The crack depth-to-plate thickness ranged from 0.2 to 0.8, while the ratio of crack depth-to-plate crack length ranged from 0.2 to 2. The ratio of hole radius-to-plate thickness was held at 0.5. To verify the accuracy of the three-dimensional finite-element models empolyed, convergence studies were conducted (number of degrees of freedom ranged from 4400 to 9300). The stress-intensity factor variations along the crack front are presented and compared with other solutions from the literature.

  18. Effect of crack curvature on stress intensity factors for ASTM standard compact tension specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alam, J.; Mendelson, A.

    1983-01-01

    The stress intensity factors (SIF) are calculated using the method of lines for the compact tension specimen in tensile and shear loading for curved crack fronts. For the purely elastic case, it was found that as the crack front curvature increases, the SIF value at the center of the specimen decreases while increasing at the surface. For the higher values of crack front curvatures, the maximum value of the SIF occurs at an interior point located adjacent to the surface. A thickness average SIF was computed for parabolically applied shear loading. These results were used to assess the requirements of ASTM standards E399-71 and E399-81 on the shape of crack fronts. The SIF is assumed to reflect the average stress environment near the crack edge.

  19. Assessment of chances for external stress corrosion cracking in submarine pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Mollan, R.; Eliassen, S.; Holt, T.; Ratkje, S.K.

    1982-11-08

    The possibility for stress corrosion cracking due to external environments to occur in submarine pipelines can not be excluded. The probability for stress corrosion to occur in submarine pipelines, however, considered to be for onshore pipelines mainly because calcareous deposits are expected to prevent buildup of the corrosive environment. Also the fact that the quality of surface preparation prior to coating for submarine pipelines normally is of a relatively high standard, contributes to reduce the probability for stresscorrosion cracking to occur.

  20. The Crack-contact and the Free End Problem for a Strip Under Residual Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakioglu, M.; Erdogan, F.

    1976-01-01

    The plane problem for an infinite strip with two edge cracks under a given state of residual stress is considered. The residual stress is compressive near and at the surfaces and tensile in the interior of the strip. If the crack is deep enough to penetrate into the tensile zone, then the problem is one of crack-contact problem in which the depth of the contact area is an unknown which depends on the crack depth and the residual stress profile. The problem has applications to the static fatigue of glass plates and is solved for three typical residual stress profiles. In the limiting case of the crack crossing the entire plate thickness, the problem becomes a stress-free end problem for a semi-infinite strip under a given residual stress state away from the end. This is a typical stress diffusion problem in which decay behavior of the residual stress near and the nature of the normal displacement at the end of the semi-infinite strip are of special interest. For two typical residual stress states the solution is obtained, and some numerical results are given.

  1. Characterization of Residual Stress Effects on Fatigue Crack Growth of a Friction Stir Welded Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, John A.; Smith, Stephen W.; Seshadri, Banavara R.; James, Mark A.; Brazill, Richard L.; Schultz, Robert W.; Donald, J. Keith; Blair, Amy

    2015-01-01

    An on-line compliance-based method to account for residual stress effects in stress-intensity factor and fatigue crack growth property determinations has been evaluated. Residual stress intensity factor results determined from specimens containing friction stir weld induced residual stresses are presented, and the on-line method results were found to be in excellent agreement with residual stress-intensity factor data obtained using the cut compliance method. Variable stress-intensity factor tests were designed to demonstrate that a simple superposition model, summing the applied stress-intensity factor with the residual stress-intensity factor, can be used to determine the total crack-tip stress-intensity factor. Finite element, VCCT (virtual crack closure technique), and J-integral analysis methods have been used to characterize weld-induced residual stress using thermal expansion/contraction in the form of an equivalent delta T (change in local temperature during welding) to simulate the welding process. This equivalent delta T was established and applied to analyze different specimen configurations to predict residual stress distributions and associated residual stress-intensity factor values. The predictions were found to agree well with experimental results obtained using the crack- and cut-compliance methods.

  2. The shear-stress intensity factor for a centrally cracked stiff-flanged shear web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichter, W. B.

    1976-01-01

    By use of the principle of superposition the stiff-flanged shear web is modeled mathematically by an infinite elastic strip with fixed longitudinal edges. The shear-stress intensity factor for a central longitudinal crack is calculated for various values of the ratio of strip width to crack length, h/a, in the range 0.1-10. The interaction of the crack with the boundaries is illustrated by boundary shear-stress distributions for three values of h/a. Some implications of the results for the design of damage-tolerant shear webs are discussed briefly.

  3. Analysis of Interface Properties of Hybrid Pre-stressed Strengthening RC Beams with Crack

    SciTech Connect

    Xie Zhihong; Huang Peiyan; Guo Yongchang; Deng Jun; Zhong Genquan

    2010-05-21

    A finite element (FE) analysis model of interface layer is established for the pre-stressed CFS-GFS hybrid strengthened beams. An elastic solution for the interfacial stress in the adhesive layer of the retrofitted beams is developed as well. The analytical results were compared with the FE results of interfacial stresses in the beams with different thickness of the adhesive and the fibre sheet. Different heights of Cracks in the interfacial layer of the concrete beam are considered in FE Model. Analysis results show the strengthening pattern is of excellent interface performance and the strength of the fiber sheet can be effectively utilized. The results also indicate the shear and normal stresses in the interfacial layer of the concrete beam release at the locations of the cracks and reach the maximal value before the concrete cracked. The shear and normal stresses in the adhesive layer increase abruptly, and the cracks in the adhesive layer then appear. The axial stresses of hybrid fiber sheet near the cracks decrease locally at the sites of the concrete cracks.

  4. Nonlinear Rayleigh waves to detect initial damage leading to stress corrosion cracking in carbon steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matlack, K. H.; Kim, J.-Y..; Jacobs, L. J.; Qu, J.; Singh, P. M.

    2012-05-01

    This research experimentally investigates second harmonic generation of Rayleigh waves propagating through carbon steel samples damaged in a stress corrosion environment. Damage from stress corrosion cracking is of major concern in nuclear reactor tubes and in gas and fuel transport pipelines. For example, certain types of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) account for more failures in steam generator tubes than most other damage mechanisms, yet these cracks do not initiate until late in the structure's life. Thus, there is a need to be able to measure the damage state prior to crack initiation, and it has been shown that the acoustic nonlinearity parameter - the parameter associated with second harmonic generation - is sensitive to microstructural evolution. In this work, samples are immersed in a sodium carbonate-bicarbonate solution, which typically forms in the soil surrounding buried pipelines affected by SCC, and held at yield stress for 5-15 days to the onset of stress corrosion cracking. Measurements of second harmonic generation with Rayleigh waves are taken intermittently to relate cumulative damage prior to macroscopic cracking to nonlinear wave propagation. Experimental results showing changes in second harmonic generation due to stress corrosion damage are presented.

  5. On the measurement of the crack tip stress field as a means of determining Delta K(sub eff) under conditions of fatigue crack closure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallhead, Ian R.; Edwards, Lyndon; Poole, Peter

    1994-01-01

    The optical method of caustics has been successfully extended to enable stress intensity factors as low as 1MPa square root of m to be determined accurately for central fatigue cracks in 2024-T3 aluminium alloy test panels. The feasibility of using this technique to study crack closure, and to determine the effective stress intensity factor range, Delta K(sub eff), has been investigated. Comparisons have been made between the measured values of stress intensity factor, K(sub caus), and corresponding theoretical values, K(sub theo), for a range of fatigue cracks grown under different loading conditions. The values of K(sub caus) and K(sub theo) were in good agreement at maximum stress, where the cracks are fully open, while K(sub caus) exceeded K(sub theo) at minimum stress, due to crack closure. However, the levels of crack closure and values of Delta K(sub eff) obtained could not account for the variations of crack growth rate with loading conditions. It is concluded that the values of Delta K(sub eff), based on caustic measurements in a 1/square root of r stress field well outside the plastic zone, do not fully reflect local conditions which control crack tip behavior.

  6. Separating plasticity-induced closure and residual stress contributions to fatigue crack retardation following an overload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvati, Enrico; Zhang, Hongjia; Fong, Kai Soon; Song, Xu; Korsunsky, Alexander M.

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of an overload or underload within a constant amplitude loading fatigue test leads to a retardation or acceleration of the Fatigue Crack Growth Rate (FCGR). The understanding of the causes of these effects is essential in the context of variable amplitude fatigue loading, since in principle any loading history can be represented as a sequence of overloads and underloads. In the case of overload, along with some other minor causes, the residual stress changes at the crack tip and crack closure behind the tip can be thought of as the main factors that affect the fatigue crack growth rate. Whilst this has been recognised and accepted for many decades, controversy persists regarding the relative significance and presence of these two effects, and consensus is yet to emerge. The effect of crack closure, when the baseline loading ratio is high enough, can be inhibited so that the main cause of retardation becomes doubtless the residual stress present ahead the crack tip. In the present paper we report our attempt to deconvolve the contributions of crack closure and residual stress on crack retardation following an overload. To accomplish this task we analyse the results of fatigue tests run at two baseline load ratios, namely R=0.1 and R=0.7. At the load ratio of R=0.7 the crack closure effect is not operative, as confirmed by Digital Image Correlation analysis of the crack flanks close to the tip, and post mortem fractographic analysis of crack surfaces. Therefore, for R=0.7 the compressive residual stress region created by the overload ahead of the crack tip is the sole mechanism causing crack retardation. Therefore, for R=0.7 the focus must be placed entirely on the strain field around the crack tip. To this end, line profiles along the crack bisector of elastic strain in the crack opening direction were collected at several stages of crack propagation past the overload using in situ Synchrotron X-ray Powder Diffraction (SXRPD) technique. By

  7. Stress-corrosion crack initiation and propagation behavior of Zircaloy-4 cladding under an iodine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang Yoon; Kim, Jun Hwan; Lee, Myoung Ho; Jeong, Yong Hwan

    2008-01-01

    Iodine-induced stress-corrosion cracking (ISCC) properties and the associated ISCC process of Zircaloy-4 fuel cladding were evaluated. Cladding was heat-treated to have either stress-relieved (SR) or recrystallized (RX) microstructures, and then an internal pressurization with a smooth and pre-cracked specimen was performed at 350 °C, in an iodine environment. The results showed that the threshold stress-intensity factor ( KISCC) of the SR and RX Zircaloy-4 claddings were 3.3 and 4.8 MPa m 0.5, respectively. The crack propagation rate of the RX Zircaloy-4 was 10 times lower than that of the SR one. Crack initiation and propagation mechanisms of Zircaloy-4 claddings, which had different microstructures, were proposed by a grain-boundary pitting model and a pitting-assisted slip cleavage model; they showed reasonable results.

  8. EPRI-NASA Cooperative Project on Stress Corrosion Cracking of Zircaloys. [nuclear fuel failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cubicciotti, D.; Jones, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Examinations of the inside surface of irradiated fuel cladding from two reactors show the Zircaloy cladding is exposed to a number of aggressive substances, among them iodine, cadmium, and iron-contaminated cesium. Iodine-induced stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of well characterized samples of Zircaloy sheet and tubing was studied. Results indicate that a threshold stress must be exceeded for iodine SCC to occur. The existence of a threshold stress indicates that crack formation probably is the key step in iodine SCC. Investigation of the crack formation process showed that the cracks responsible for SCC failure nucleated at locations in the metal surface that contained higher than average concentrations of alloying elements and impurities. A four-stage model of iodine SCC is proposed based on the experimental results and the relevance of the observations to pellet cladding interaction failures is discussed.

  9. Stress-strain state in the vicinity of a crack tip under mixed loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanova, L. V.; Adylina, E. M.

    2014-09-01

    A method is proposed to calculate the eigenvalues of the class of nonlinear eigenvalue problems resulting from the problem of determining the stress-strain state in the vicinity of a crack tip in power-law materials over the entire range of mixed modes of deformation, from the opening mode to pure shear. The proposed approach was used to found eigenvalues of the problem that differ from the well-known eigenvalue corresponding to the Hutchinson-Rice-Rosengren solution. The resulting asymptotic form of the stress field is a self-similar intermediate asymptotic solution of the problem of a crack in a damaged medium under mixed loading. Using the new asymptotic form of the stress field and introducing a self-similar variable, we obtained an asymptotic solution of the problem of a crack in a damaged medium and constructed the regions of dispersed material near the crack.

  10. Extreme stress gradient effects on microstructural fatigue crack propagation rates in Ni microbeams

    SciTech Connect

    Sadeghi-Tohidi, F.; Pierron, O. N.

    2015-05-18

    The fatigue crack propagation behavior of microstructurally small cracks growing under extreme stress gradients was investigated in Ni microbeams under fully reversed cyclic loading. A technique to calculate the crack growth rates in microbeams with two different normalized stress gradients (17% and 50% μm{sup −1}) is developed and validated. Decreasing crack propagation rates are observed over the first 2 μm, and the rates are more than 1 order of magnitude slower for the devices with 50% μm{sup −1} stress gradients. This fundamental knowledge is critical to predict the fatigue reliability of advanced metallic microcomponents under bending such as in microelectromechanical systems or flexible/stretchable electronics.

  11. Intergranular stress corrosion cracking: A rationalization of apparent differences among stress corrosion cracking tendencies for sensitized regions in the process water piping and in the tanks of SRS reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Louthan, M.R.

    1990-09-28

    The frequency of stress corrosion cracking in the near weld regions of the SRS reactor tank walls is apparently lower than the cracking frequency near the pipe-to-pipe welds in the primary cooling water system. The difference in cracking tendency can be attributed to differences in the welding processes, fabrication schedules, near weld residual stresses, exposure conditions and other system variables. This memorandum discusses the technical issues that may account the differences in cracking tendencies based on a review of the fabrication and operating histories of the reactor systems and the accepted understanding of factors that control stress corrosion cracking in austenitic stainless steels.

  12. Development of an expert system for fractography of environmentally assisted cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Minoshima, Kohji; Komai, Kenjiro; Yamasaki, Norimasa

    1997-12-31

    An expert system that diagnoses the causes of failure of environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) based upon fractography has been developed. The system uses the OPS83 programming language, expressing rules in the manner of production rules, and is composed of three independent subsystems, which respectively deal with EACs of high-strength or high-tensile-strength steel, aluminum alloy, and stainless steel in dry and humidified air, water, and aqueous solutions containing Cl, Br, or I ions. The concerned EAC issues cover stress corrosion cracking (SCC), hydrogen embrittlement, cyclic SCC, dynamic SCC, and corrosion fatigue as well as fatigue and overload fracture. The knowledge base covers the rules relating to not only environments, materials, and loading conditions, but also macroscopic and microscopic fracture surface morphology. In order to deal with vague expressions of fracture surface morphology, fuzzy set theory is used in the system, and the description of rules about vague fracture surface appearance is thereby possible. Applying the developed expert system to case histories, accurate diagnoses were made. The authors discuss the related diagnosis results and usefulness of the developed system.

  13. Chemical and metallurgical aspects of environmentally assisted fatigue crack growth in 7075-T651 aluminum alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ming; Wei, R. P.; Pao, P. S.

    1988-07-01

    A comprehensive study has been carried out on a 7075-T651 alloy to examine the influence of water vapor on fatigue crack growth. The kinetics of fatigue crack growth were determined as a function of water vapor pressure at room temperature and at 353 K. Detailed fractographic analyses and surface chemistry studies were carried out to identify the micromechanisms and to quantify the chemical interactions for corrosion fatigue crack growth in this alloy. Experiments were also carried out in ultra-high vacuum and in oxygen to provide for comparisons. Two regions of fatigue crack growth response were identified. In the low pressure region (below 67 Pa at 5 Hz), crack growth is controlled by the rate of transport of water vapor to the crack tip, and the response can be described by a model for transport controlled crack growth. At pressures above 67 Pa, additional increases in crack growth rate occurred, which are attributed to the further reactions of water vapor with segregated magnesium in this alloy. Different micromechanisms for crack growth have been identified for vacuum, oxygen, and water vapor. These micromechanisms are considered in relation to the environmental parameters through a modified superposition model for corrosion fatigue.

  14. Corrosion cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Goel, V.S.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on alloy corrosion cracking. Topics considered at the conference included the effect of niobium addition on intergranular stress corrosion cracking, corrosion-fatigue cracking in fossil-fueled-boilers, fracture toughness, fracture modes, hydrogen-induced thresholds, electrochemical and hydrogen permeation studies, the effect of seawater on fatigue crack propagation of wells for offshore structures, the corrosion fatigue of carbon steels in seawater, and stress corrosion cracking and the mechanical strength of alloy 600.

  15. Environmentally assisted cracking in light water reactors. Semiannual report, April--September 1991: Volume 13

    SciTech Connect

    Kassner, T F; Ruther, W E; Chung, H M; Hicks, P D; Hins, A G; Park, J Y; Soppet, W K; Shack, W J

    1992-03-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking in high water reactors during the six months from April 1991 through September 1991. Topics that have been investigated during this period include (1) fatigue and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of low-alloy steel used in piping and in steam generator and reactor pressure vessels; (2) role of chromate and sulfate in simulated boiling water reactor (BWR) water on SCC of sensitized Type 304 SS; and (3) radiation-induced segregation (RIS) and irradiation-assisted SCC of Type 304 SS after accumulation of relatively high fluence. Fatigue data were obtained on medium-S-content A533-Gr B and A106-Gr B steels in high-purity (HP) deoxygenated water, in simulated pressurized water reactor (PWR) water, and in air. Crack-growth-rates (CGRs) of composite specimens of A533-Gr B/Inconel-182/Inconel-600 (plated with nickel) and homogeneous specimens of A533-Gr B were determined under small- amplitude cyclic loading in HP water with {approx} 300 ppb dissolved oxygen. CGR tests on sensitized Type 304 SS indicate that low chromate concentrations in BWR water (25--35 ppb) may actually have a beneficial effect on SCC if the sulfate concentration is below a critical level. Microchemical and microstructural changes in HP and commercial-purity Type 304 SS specimens from control-blade absorber tubes used in two operating BWRs were studied by Auger electron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, and slow-strain,rate- tensile tests were conducts on tubular specimens in air and in simulated BWR water at 289{degrees}C.

  16. Kinetic studies of the stress corrosion cracking of D6AC steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noronha, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of load interactions on the crack growth velocity of D6AC steel under stress corrosion cracking conditions was determined. The environment was a 3.5 percent salt solution. The modified-wedge opening load specimens were fatigue precracked and subjected to a deadweight loading in creep machines. The effects of load shedding on incubation times and crack growth rates were measured using high-sensitivity compliance measurement techniques. Load shedding results in an incubation time, the length of which depends on the amount of load shed and the baseline stress intensity. The sequence of unloading the specimen also controls the subsequent incubation period. The incubation period is shorter when load shedding passes through zero load than when it does not if the specimen initially had the same baseline stress intensity. The crack growth rates following the incubation period are also different from the steady-state crack growth rate at the operating stress intensity. These data show that the susceptibility of this alloy system to stress corrosion cracking depends on the plane-strain fracture toughness and on the yield strength of the material.

  17. Three-dimensional analysis of surface crack-Hertzian stress field interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballarini, R.; Hsu, Y.

    1989-01-01

    The results are presented of a stress intensity factor analysis of semicircular surface cracks in the inner raceway of an engine bearing. The loading consists of a moving spherical Hertzian contact load and an axial stress due to rotation and shrink fit. A 3-D linear elastic Boundary Element Method code was developed to perform the stress analysis. The element library includes linear and quadratic isoparametric surface elements. Singular quarter point elements were employed to capture the square root displacement variation and the inverse square root stress singularity along the crack front. The program also possesses the capability to separate the whole domain into two subregions. This procedure enables one to solve nonsymmetric fracture mechanics problems without having to separate the crack surfaces a priori. A wide range of configuration parameters was investigated. The ratio of crack depth to bearing thickness was varied from one-sixtieth to one-fifth for several different locations of the Hertzian load. The stress intensity factors for several crack inclinations were also investigated. The results demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the Boundary Element Method. Moreover, the results can provide the basis for crack growth calculations and fatigue life prediction.

  18. Hydrogen Assisted Cracking in Pearlitic Steel Rods: The Role of Residual Stresses Generated by Fatigue Precracking

    PubMed Central

    Toribio, Jesús; Aguado, Leticia; Lorenzo, Miguel; Kharin, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of metals is an issue of major concern in engineering since this phenomenon causes many catastrophic failures of structural components in aggressive environments. SCC is even more harmful under cathodic conditions promoting the phenomenon known as hydrogen assisted cracking (HAC), hydrogen assisted fracture (HAF) or hydrogen embrittlement (HE). A common way to assess the susceptibility of a given material to HAC, HAF or HE is to subject a cracked rod to a constant extension rate tension (CERT) test until it fractures in this harsh environment. This paper analyzes the influence of a residual stress field generated by fatigue precracking on the sample’s posterior susceptibility to HAC. To achieve this goal, numerical simulations were carried out of hydrogen diffusion assisted by the stress field. Firstly, a mechanical simulation of the fatigue precracking was developed for revealing the residual stress field after diverse cyclic loading scenarios and posterior stress field evolution during CERT loading. Afterwards, a simulation of hydrogen diffusion assisted by stress was carried out considering the residual stresses after fatigue and the superposed rising stresses caused by CERT loading. Results reveal the key role of the residual stress field after fatigue precracking in the HAC phenomena in cracked steel rods as well as the beneficial effect of compressive residual stress. PMID:28772845

  19. Residual stress near cracks of K and fused silica under 1064 nm nanosecond laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen; Liu, Hongjie; Huang, Jin; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Ren, Dahua; Cheng, Xinlu; Jiang, Xiaodong; Wu, Weidong; Zheng, Wanguo

    2012-11-01

    Measurements of birefringence induced in K9 and fused silica specimens by cracks produced by 1064 nm Nd∶YAG laser have been presented. The Birefringence data is converted into the units of stress, thus permitting the estimation of residual stress near crack. The intensity of residual stress in K9 glass is larger than that in fused silica under the same condition. The similarity of residual stress distribution along the y-axis reveals that the nature of shock wave transmission in optical materials under 1064 nm laser irradiation is the same with each other. The value of residual stress can be influenced by laser parameters and characterization of optical material. Simulation based on a theoretical model giving the residual stress field around a crack is developed for comparison with experiment results. The probability of initial damage and the direction of the energy dissipation in cracks determine the residual stress distribution. The thermal stress coupling enlarges the asymmetry of residual stress distribution. Residual stress in optical material has a strong effect on fracture and should be taken into account in any formulation that involves the enhanced damage resistance of optical components used in laser induced damage experiments.

  20. Analysis of stress corrosion cracking in alloy 718 following commercial reactor exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, Keith J.; Gussev, Maxim N.; Stevens, Jacqueline N.; Busby, Jeremy T.

    2015-08-24

    Alloy 718 is generally considered a highly corrosion-resistant material but can still be susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The combination of factors leading to SCC susceptibility in the alloy is not always clear enough. In this paper, alloy 718 leaf spring (LS) materials that suffered stress corrosion damage during two 24-month cycles in pressurized water reactor service, operated to >45 MWd/mtU burn-up, was investigated. Compared to archival samples fabricated through the same processing conditions, little microstructural and property changes occurred in the material with in-service irradiation, contrary to high dose rate laboratory-based experiments reported in literature. Though the lack of delta phase formation along grain boundaries would suggest a more SCC resistant microstructure, grain boundary cracking in the material was extensive. Crack propagation routes were explored through focused ion beam milling of specimens near the crack tip for transmission electron microscopy as well as in polished plan view and cross-sectional samples for electron backscatter diffraction analysis. It has been shown in this study that cracks propagated mainly along random high-angle grain boundaries, with the material around cracks displaying a high local density of dislocations. The slip lines were produced through the local deformation of the leaf spring material above their yield strength. Also, the cause for local SCC appears to be related to oxidation of both slip lines and grain boundaries, which under the high in-service stresses resulted in crack development in the material.

  1. Peak Stress Intensity Factor Governs Crack Propagation Velocity In Crosslinked UHMWPE

    PubMed Central

    Sirimamilla, P. Abhiram; Furmanski, Jevan; Rimnac, Clare

    2013-01-01

    Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has been successfully used as a bearing material in total joint replacement components. However, these bearing materials can fail as a result of in vivo static and cyclic loads. Crack propagation behavior in this material has been considered using the Paris relationship which relates fatigue crack growth rate, da/dN (mm/cycle) versus the stress intensity factor range, ΔK (Kmax-Kmin, MPa√m). However, recent work suggests that the crack propagation velocity of conventional UHMWPE is driven by the peak stress intensity (Kmax), not ΔK. The hypothesis of this study is that the crack propagation velocity of highly crosslinked and remelted UHMWPE is also driven by the peak stress intensity, Kmax, during cyclic loading, rather than by ΔK. To test this hypothesis, two highly crosslinked (65 kGy and 100 kGy) and remelted UHMWPE materials were examined. Frequency, waveform and R-ratio were varied between test conditions to determine the governing factor for fatigue crack propagation. It was found that the crack propagation velocity in crosslinked UHMWPE is also driven by Kmax and not ΔK, and is dependent on loading waveform and frequency in a predictable quasi-static manner. The current study supports that crack growth in crosslinked UHMWPE materials, even under cyclic loading conditions, can be described by a relationship between the velocity of crack growth, da/dt and the peak stress intensity, Kmax. The findings suggest that stable crack propagation can occur as a result of static loading only and this should be taken into consideration in design of UHMWPE total joint replacement components. PMID:23165898

  2. Peak stress intensity factor governs crack propagation velocity in crosslinked ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Sirimamilla, Abhiram; Furmanski, Jevan; Rimnac, Clare

    2013-04-01

    Ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has been successfully used as a bearing material in total joint replacement components. However, these bearing materials can fail as a result of in vivo static and cyclic loads. Crack propagation behavior in this material has been considered using the Paris relationship which relates fatigue crack growth rate, da/dN (mm/cycle) versus the stress intensity factor range, ΔK (Kmax - Kmin , MPa√m). However, recent work suggests that the crack propagation velocity of conventional UHMWPE is driven by the peak stress intensity (Kmax ), not ΔK. The hypothesis of this study is that the crack propagation velocity of highly crosslinked and remelted UHMWPE is also driven by the peak stress intensity, Kmax , during cyclic loading. To test this hypothesis, two highly crosslinked (65 kGy and 100 kGy) and remelted UHMWPE materials were examined. Frequency, waveform, and R-ratio were varied between test conditions to determine the governing factor for fatigue crack propagation. It was found that the crack propagation velocity in crosslinked UHMWPE is also driven by Kmax and not ΔK, and is dependent on loading waveform and frequency in a predictable quasistatic manner. This study supports that crack growth in crosslinked UHMWPE materials, even under cyclic loading conditions, can be described by a relationship between the velocity of crack growth, da/dt and the peak stress intensity, Kmax . The findings suggest that stable crack propagation can occur as a result of static loading only and this should be taken into consideration in design of UHMWPE total joint replacement components.

  3. Assessment of rock mechanical behavior considering stress dependent stiffness of the cracked domain within crack tensor-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemura, T.; Panaghi, K.; Golshani, A.; Takahashi, M.; Sato, M.

    2015-12-01

    The analyses dedicated to media with prevalent discontinuities such as rocks has mostly been limited to inevitable simplifications to make engineering judgments on the material behavior feasible. Such assumptions, though favorable in numerical simulations, usually lead to overestimations in aseismic design of earthen structures. One of the forbidding tasks in modeling rock behavior is taking the stress dependency of stiffness into consideration which implies more complicated formulations. Although the theoretical relationship for such computations has already been proposed by scholars, there still remains some gaps in the real-world application of the aforementioned. The crack tensor-based formulation in describing stress-strain behavior of cracked rock is a case in point in which the fourth-rank crack tensor effect is usually ignored due to adopting equal normal and shear stiffnesses for the medium. Once the stiffnesses were distinguished in different values, the accompanying condition imposed by the formulation requires computation of fourth rank tensor which has not been obtained in a practical manner so far. In the present study, we aim to acquire the values via experimental measurements and implement the results to further improve the accuracy of the formulation used in characterizing mechanical behavior of rock samples.

  4. Thermally activated low temperature creep and primary water stress corrosion cracking of NiCrFe alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, M.M. Jr.

    1993-10-01

    A phenomenological SCC-CGR model is developed based on an apriori assumption that the SCC-CGR is controlled by low temperature creep (LTC). This mode of low temperature time dependent deformation occurs at stress levels above the athermal flow stress by a dislocation glide mechanism that is thermally activated and may be environmentally assisted. The SCC-CGR model equations developed contain thermal activation parameters descriptive of the dislocation creep mechanism. Thermal activation parameters are obtained by fitting the CGR model to SCC-CGR data obtained on Alloy 600 and Alloy X-750. These SCC-CGR activation parameters are compared to LTC activation parameters obtained from stress relaxation tests. When the high concentration of hydrogen at the tip of an SCC crack is considered, the SCC-CGR activation energies and rate sensitivities are shown to be quantitatively consistent with hydrogen reducing the activation energy and increasing the strain rate sensitivity in LTC stress relaxation tests. Stress dependence of SCC-CGR activation energy consistent with that found for the LTC activation energy. Comparisons between temperature dependence of the SCC-CGR stress sensitivity and LTC stress sensitivity provide a basis for speculation on effects of hydrogen and solute carbon on SCC crack growth rates.

  5. Real-time Observations of Rock Cracking and Weather Provide Insights into Thermal Stress-Related Processes of Mechanical Weathering.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppes, M. C.; Magi, B. I.; Keanini, R.

    2015-12-01

    The environmental conditions (weather and/or climate) that limit or drive mechanical weathering via thermal stress are poorly understood. Here we examine acoustic emission (AE) records of rock cracking in boulders sitting on the ground in humid-temperate (~1 year of data) and semi-arid (~3 years) locations. We compare on-site average ambient daily temperature for days in which cracking occurs to the average temperatures for those dates derived from local climate records. The temperatures characterizing days on which cracking occurs is similar for both stations (range = -10 C to +30 C); where 21% and 73% of cracking occurs on hot days (> 20C) in the humid and semi-arid climates respectively while 17% and 0.1% occurs on very cold days (-8C to -3C). When days during which cracking occurs are compared to climate averages, 81% (NC) and 51% (NM) of all cracking occurs on days with absolute temperature anomalies >1, regardless of the temperature. The proportion of cracking that occurs on anomalously hot or cold days rises to 92% and 77% when the data is normalized to account for uneven sampling of the days with extreme temperatures. In order to determine to what extent this trend holds true in a more complex setting, we examined an existing 100+ year record of rock falls from Yosemite Valley. Preliminary results, although more equivocal, are consistent with the boulder cracking AE data. We examine the AE datasets in the context of our previous numerical modeling of insolation-driven thermal stress in rock and hypothesize that there is an increased potential for fracture on days with extreme temperatures because 1) thermal-stress is dependent on temperature variance from far-field and/or average rock temperatures and 2) that days with climatologically extreme air temperatures result in maximums in such variance. An implication of our results is that environments with extreme weather variability may have higher thermal breakdown rates, including certain locations today and

  6. On the variation in crack-opening stresses at different locations in a three-dimensional body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chermahini, R. G.; Blom, Anders F.

    1990-01-01

    Crack propagation and closure behavior of thin, and thick middle crack tension specimens under constant amplitude loading were investigated using a three dimensional elastic plastic finite element analysis of fatigue crack propagation and closure. In the thin specimens the crack front closed first on the exterior (free) surface and closed last in the interior during the unloading portion of cyclic loading; a load reduced displacement technique was used to determine crack opening stresses at specified locations in the plate from the displacements calculated after the seven cycle. All the locations were on the plate external surface and were located near the crack tip, behind the crack tip, at the centerline of the crack. With this technique, the opening stresses at the specified points were found to be 0.52, 0.42, and 0.39 times the maximum applied stress.

  7. Plane Stress Crack-Line Fields for Crack Growth in an Elastic Perfectly-Plastic Material.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    system of simple ordinary differential equations for the coefficients of the expansions. This system is solvable if it is assumed that the cleavage...plane of the crack), to obtain ordinary differential equations with respect to x for the co- efficients in the expansions. Functions of time that...yields a system of simple ordinary differential equations for the coefficients of the expansions. This system is solvable if it is assumed that the

  8. About the mechanism of stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 in high temperature water

    SciTech Connect

    Rebak, R.B.; Szklarska-Smialowska, Z.

    1995-12-31

    Alloy 600 is a material commonly used to construct the tubing in the steam generators (SG) of pressurized light water reactors (PWR) and of CANDU heavy water reactors. It is well established which variables and to which extent they influence the crack growth rate (CGR) in Alloy 600 exposed to high temperature (deaerated) water (HTW), especially in very aggressive conditions. There is evidence that the same variables that influence CGR also control the crack induction time. However, there are only a few data on crack induction time and no detailed explanation of the events that lead to the nucleation of a crack on an apparent smooth tube surface. In this paper, a critical review of the mechanisms of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is given and, an interpretation of the events occurring during the long ({approx} 15 y) induction times observed in plant is postulated.

  9. Some important considerations in the development of stress corrosion cracking test methods.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, R. P.; Novak, S. R.; Williams, D. P.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of some of the precaution needs the development of fracture-mechanics based test methods for studying stress corrosion cracking involves. Following a review of pertinent analytical fracture mechanics considerations and of basic test methods, the implications for test corrosion cracking studies of the time-to-failure determining kinetics of crack growth and life are examined. It is shown that the basic assumption of the linear-elastic fracture mechanics analyses must be clearly recognized and satisfied in experimentation and that the effects of incubation and nonsteady-state crack growth must also be properly taken into account in determining the crack growth kinetics, if valid data are to be obtained from fracture-mechanics based test methods.

  10. Critical analysis of alloy 600 stress corrosion cracking mechanisms in primary water

    SciTech Connect

    Rios, R. |; Noel, D.; Bouvier, O. de; Magnin, T.

    1995-04-01

    In order to study the mechanisms involved in the stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) of Alloy 600 in primary water, the influence of the relevance of physicochemical and metallurgical parameters was assessed: hydrogen and oxygen overpressures, microstructure, and local chemical composition. The obtained results show that, even if the dissolution/oxidation seems to be the first and necessary step responsible for crack initiation and if hydrogen effects can also be involved in cracking, neither a dissolution/oxidation model nor a hydrogen model appears sufficient to account for cracking. Moreover, fractographic examinations performed on specimens` fracture surfaces lead to the fact that attention should be paid to a cleavage like microcracking mechanism involving interactions between corrosion and plasticity at the vicinity of grain boundaries. A corrosion-enhanced plasticity model is proposed to describe the intergranular and transgranular cracking in Alloy 600.

  11. Some important considerations in the development of stress corrosion cracking test methods.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, R. P.; Novak, S. R.; Williams, D. P.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of some of the precaution needs the development of fracture-mechanics based test methods for studying stress corrosion cracking involves. Following a review of pertinent analytical fracture mechanics considerations and of basic test methods, the implications for test corrosion cracking studies of the time-to-failure determining kinetics of crack growth and life are examined. It is shown that the basic assumption of the linear-elastic fracture mechanics analyses must be clearly recognized and satisfied in experimentation and that the effects of incubation and nonsteady-state crack growth must also be properly taken into account in determining the crack growth kinetics, if valid data are to be obtained from fracture-mechanics based test methods.

  12. Evolution of Residual Stresses with Fatigue Crack Growth in a Variable Polarity Plasma Arc Welded Aluminum Alloy Compact Tension Specimen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liljedahl, C. D. M.; Zanellato, O.; Edwards, L.; Fitzpatrick, M. E.

    2008-10-01

    The evolution of the residual stresses during fatigue crack growth in a welded compact tension C(T) specimen was measured using neutron diffraction. The measurements were performed by growing a fatigue crack in a sample in situ on a neutron diffractometer. The stresses were found to be unaffected by crack growth through the compressive part of the initial residual stress field. The residual stresses at the crack tip increased when the crack entered the tensile residual stress field to maintain residual stress equilibrium. Finite element (FE) modeling of the evolution of the residual stresses showed good correlation with the experimental results. The residual stress evolution was found to be governed by redistribution of the initial stress field and only slightly affected by fatigue-induced effects at the measured spatial resolution (2 mm × 2 mm × 7 mm).

  13. Mitigation of Stress Corrosion Cracking Susceptibility of Machined 304L Stainless Steel Through Laser Peening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundar, R.; Ganesh, P.; Kumar, B. Sunil; Gupta, R. K.; Nagpure, D. C.; Kaul, R.; Ranganathan, K.; Bindra, K. S.; Kain, V.; Oak, S. M.; Singh, Bijendra

    2016-09-01

    The paper describes an experimental study aimed at suppressing stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of machined 304L stainless steel specimens through laser shock peening. The study also evaluates a new approach of oblique laser shock peening to suppress stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of internal surface of type 304L stainless steel tube. The results of the study, performed with an indigenously developed 2.5 J/7 ns Nd:YAG laser, demonstrated that laser shock peening effectively suppresses chloride stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of machined surface of type 304L stainless steel. In the investigated range of incident laser power density (3.2-6.4 GW/cm2), machined specimens peened with power density of 4.5 and 6.4 GW/cm2 displayed lower stress corrosion cracking susceptibility considerably than those treated with 3.2 and 3.6 GW/cm2 in boiling magnesium chloride test. Oblique laser shock peening, performed on machined internal surface of a type 304L stainless steel tube (OD = 111 mm; ID = 101 mm), was successful in introducing residual compressive surface stresses which brought about significant suppression of its stress corrosion cracking susceptibility. The technique of oblique laser shock peening, in spite of its inherent limitations on the length of peened region being limited by tube internal diameter and the need for access from both the sides, presents a simplified approach for peening internal surface of small tubular components.

  14. Evaluation of finite-element models and stress-intensity factors for surface cracks emanating from stress concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, P. W.; Raju, I. S.; Shivakumar, K. N.; Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    A re-evaluation of the 3-D finite-element models and methods used to analyze surface crack at stress concentrations is presented. Previous finite-element models used by Raju and Newman for surface and corner cracks at holes were shown to have ill-shaped elements at the intersection of the hole and crack boundaries. Improved models, without these ill-shaped elements, were developed for a surface crack at a circular hole and at a semi-circular edge notch. Stress-intensity factors were calculated by both the nodal-force and virtual-crack-closure methods. Comparisons made between the previously developed stress-intensity factor equations and the results from the improved models agreed well except for configurations with large notch-radii-to-plate-thickness ratios. Stress-intensity factors for a semi-elliptical surface crack located at the center of a semi-circular edge notch in a plate subjected to remote tensile loadings were calculated using the improved models.

  15. Influence of Environmental Variables on the Susceptibility of Alloy 22 to Environmentally Assisted Cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, D V; Estill, J C; King, K J; Day, S D; Rebak, R B

    2002-09-26

    In its current design, the high-level nuclear waste containers include an external layer of Alloy 22 (NO6022). This material was selected to provide long-term corrosion resistance since if water enters in contact with the containers, they may undergo corrosion. The model for the degradation of the containers includes three modes of corrosion, namely general corrosion, localized corrosion and environmentally assisted cracking (EAC). The objective of the current research was to quantify the susceptibility of Alloy 22 to EAC in several environmental conditions with varying solution composition, temperature and electrochemical potential. The susceptibility to EAC was evaluated using constant deformation (deflection) U-bend specimens in both the wrought and welded conditions. Results show that after more than five years exposure in the vapor and liquid phases of alkaline (PH {approx} 10) and acidic (pH {approx} 3) multi-ionic environments at 60 C and 90 C, Alloy 22 was free from EAC.

  16. Influence of oxide films on primary water stress corrosion cracking initiation of alloy 600

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panter, J.; Viguier, B.; Cloué, J.-M.; Foucault, M.; Combrade, P.; Andrieu, E.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study alloy 600 was tested in simulated pressurised water reactor (PWR) primary water, at 360 °C, under an hydrogen partial pressure of 30 kPa. These testing conditions correspond to the maximum sensitivity of alloy 600 to crack initiation. The resulting oxidised structures (corrosion scale and underlying metal) were characterised. A chromium rich oxide layer was revealed, the underlying metal being chromium depleted. In addition, analysis of the chemical composition of the metal close to the oxide scale had allowed to detect oxygen under the oxide scale and particularly in a triple grain boundary. Implication of such a finding on the crack initiation of alloy 600 is discussed. Significant diminution of the crack initiation time was observed for sample oxidised before stress corrosion tests. In view of these results, a mechanism for stress corrosion crack initiation of alloy 600 in PWR primary water was proposed.

  17. Stress crack resistance of some pigmented and unpigmented tablet film coating systems.

    PubMed

    Okhamafe, A O; York, P

    1985-07-01

    Stress crack resistance parameters--tensile strength: Young's modulus ratio, relative surface energy, and toughness index--have been examined for unpigmented free films of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose containing polyvinyl alcohol, and polyethylene glycols 400 and 1000, as well as similar film systems pigmented with either talc or titanium dioxide. Incorporation of either polyvinyl alcohol or polyethylene glycols 400 and 1000 in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose film coatings eliminated the incidence of edge splitting in the coated tablets. Increase in pigment concentration generally led to a decrease in the crack resistance of pigmented films. There was a relation between the stress crack resistance of pigmented free films and the incidence of edge splitting of corresponding film coatings applied to aspirin tablets--generally, the higher the crack resistance the lower the incidence of edge splitting. A similar relationship applied to the unpigmented films only when the tensile strength: Young's modulus ratio was considered.

  18. Stress intensity and displacement coefficients for radially cracked ring segments subject to three-point bending

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, B.; Srawley, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    The boudary collocation method was used to generate Mode 1 stress intensity and crack mouth displacement coefficients for internally and externally radially cracked ring segments (arc bend specimens) subjected to three point radial loading. Numerical results were obtained for ring segment outer to inner radius ratios (R sub o/ R sub i) ranging from 1.10 to 2.50 and crack length to width ratios (a/W) ranging from 0.1 to 0.8. Stress intensity and crack mouth displacement coefficients were found to depend on the ratios R sub o/R sub i and a/W as well as the included angle between the directions of the reaction forces.

  19. Stress intensity magnification factors for fully circumferential cracks in valve bodies (thick cylinders)

    SciTech Connect

    Toor, P.M.

    1998-11-01

    The stress intensity solutions presented herein were obtained using an energy method in conjunction with a two-dimensional finite element program in order to explicitly account for curvature effect for fully circumferential cracks. The magnification factors for a specific crack depth were calculated by successively loading the crack surface by a uniform, linear, quadratic, and a cubic loading distribution. The magnification factors can be used to calculate the stress intensity factors by superposition method. The functions for each load condition in terms of radius to thickness ratio (R/t) and a fractional distance in terms of crack depth to thickness ratio (a/t) were developed. The validity of these functions is R/t = 1.5 to 10.0 and for 0.0125 {le} a/t {le} 0.8125. The functions agree to within 1% of the finite elements solutions for most magnification factors.

  20. Comparison of methods for predicting fiber stresses in a cracked Kevlar/epoxy monolayer

    SciTech Connect

    Reedy, E.D. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Shear-lag and 3-D finite element predictions for the fiber stresses in a cracked Kevlar 49/epoxy monolayer are compared. Results are given for a 5-fiber wide monolayer containing a single broken fiber. Both methods of analysis are found to predict nearly the same fiber stress distribution along the crack-tip fiber when the monolayer is fully elastic. Results for highly loaded monolayers with extensive matrix yielding are not in quite as good agreement, but even then the predicted stress distributions are within 5%. These calculations show that a shear-lag analysis is accurate even though the Kevlar 49 fiber is highly anisotropic.

  1. Effects of surface condition on the stress corrosion cracking of line pipe steel

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, J.A.; Christman, T.K.; Parkins, R.N.

    1988-04-01

    The relationship between surface properties of line pipe steels and external stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is reviewed. Surface factors discussed include mill scale, surface pitting, decarburization, surface residual stresses, and near-surface stress state. Recent research results have demonstrated that the susceptibility of a line pipe steel to SCC initiation is dependent on complicated interaction among these properties. However, these studies also show that relatively simple surface preparation procedures such as grit blasting can be effective in reducing the susceptibility of pipelines to crack initiation.

  2. Corrosion fatigue crack propagation in metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangloff, Richard P.

    1990-01-01

    This review assesses fracture mechanics data and mechanistic models for corrosion fatigue crack propagation in structural alloys exposed to ambient temperature gases and electrolytes. Extensive stress intensity-crack growth rate data exist for ferrous, aluminum and nickel based alloys in a variety of environments. Interactive variables (viz., stress intensity range, mean stress, alloy composition and microstructure, loading frequency, temperature, gas pressure and electrode potential) strongly affect crack growth kinetics and complicate fatigue control. Mechanistic models to predict crack growth rates were formulated by coupling crack tip mechanics with occluded crack chemistry, and from both the hydrogen embrittlement and anodic dissolution/film rupture perspectives. Research is required to better define: (1) environmental effects near threshold and on crack closure; (2) damage tolerant life prediction codes and the validity of similitude; (3) the behavior of microcrack; (4) probes and improved models of crack tip damage; and (5) the cracking performance of advanced alloys and composites.

  3. Stress corrosion cracking of α-brass in waters with and without additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkins, R. N.; Rangel, C. M.; Yu, J.

    1985-09-01

    Slow strain rate stress corrosion tests on a 0.032 pct As brass in SO2 solutions of increasing dilution eventually resulted in tests being carried out in various waters which were also found to promote cracking. A 0.002 pet As brass was also found to be susceptible to cracking in deionized water, but in brackish water or an acidified sulfate solution this brass did not display the stress corrosion cracking observed in these more aggressive solutions by the higher As brass. The addition of arsenite to distilled water or arsenate to deionized water in sufficient amounts effectively inhibited the cracking observed at controlled potentials or open circuit in these waters without the As additions. The results are interpreted as indicative of dezincification being involved in these various environments that promoted cracking, but the extent of the dezincification plays an important role in determining whether or not cracking occurs, those additions leading to rapid and massive dezincification involving redeposition of dissolved Cu not being conducive to cracking.

  4. Mechanical and metallurgical effects on low-pH stress corrosion cracking of natural gas pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Harle, B.A.; Beavers, J.A.; Jaske, C.E.

    1995-12-01

    Stress corrosion cracking of natural gas pipelines in low-pH environments is a serious problem for the gas transmission industry. This paper describes results of an ongoing research program investigating crack growth of API X-65 and X-52 line pipe steels in a low-pH cracking environment using a J-integral technique. The overall objective of the work is to estimate crack growth rates on operating pipelines. In previous work, it was demonstrated that the technique could be utilized to reproduce the cracking observed in the field and that the J integral is a good parameter for characterizing crack growth behavior. Recent work has focused on the evaluation of the influence of loading parameters, such as displacement rate, and metallurgy, on crack growth. Testing has also been performed in which loading sequences involved: (a) a constant displacement rate, until cracking was detected, followed by maintaining a constant displacement; and, (b) slowly loading a specimen to fifty percent of its tensile strength in an inert, non-aqueous environment followed by loading in the low-pH environment.

  5. Contact and crack problems for an elastic wedge. [stress concentration in elastic half spaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdogan, F.; Gupta, G. D.

    1974-01-01

    The contact and the crack problems for an elastic wedge of arbitrary angle are considered. The problem is reduced to a singular integral equation which, in the general case, may have a generalized Cauchy kernel. The singularities under the stamp as well as at the wedge apex were studied, and the relevant stress intensity factors are defined. The problem was solved for various wedge geometries and loading conditions. The results may be applicable to certain foundation problems and to crack problems in symmetrically loaded wedges in which cracks initiate from the apex.

  6. Stress corrosion cracking of Ti-8Al-1 Mo-1V in molten salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyrl, W. H.; Blackburn, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of Ti-8Al-1 Mo-1V has been studied in several molten salt environments. Extensive data are reported for the alloy in highly pure LiCl-KCl. The influence of the metallurgical heat treatment and texture, and the mechanical microstructure show similarities with aqueous solutions at lower temperature. The fracture path and cracking modes are also similar to that found in other environments. The influence of H2O and H(-) in molten LiCl-KCl lead to the conclusion that hydrogen does not play a major role in crack extension in this environment.

  7. Study of the Effect of Swelling on Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Teysseyre, Sebastien Paul

    2016-09-01

    This report describes the methodology used to study the effect of swelling on the crack growth rate of an irradiation-assisted stress corrosion crack that is propagating in highly irradiated stainless steel 304 material irradiated to 33 dpa in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II. The material selection, specimens design, experimental apparatus and processes are described. The results of the current test are presented.

  8. Stress Intensity Factors for Radial Cracks in a Partially Autofrettaged Thick-Wall Cylinder

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    P., "Simulation of Partial Autofrettage by Thermal Loads," Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, Vol. 102, No. 3, 1980, pp. 314-318. ^ Baratta , F...OF LOAD RELIEF FACTOR Baratta ^ extended the coefficient of load relief of Neuber^^ to estimate SIF arising from multiple cracking in a thick-wall...Array Radial Cracks Using Isoparametric Singular Elements," ASTM STP-677, 1979, pp. 685-699. ■^ Baratta , F. I., "Stress Intensity Factors For

  9. Time dependent stress fields ahead of the interface cracks in creep regime

    SciTech Connect

    Biner, S.B.

    1996-12-31

    In this study the behavior of stationary interface cracks in layered materials at creep regime in plane-strain condition and pure opening dominated mode-I load state was studied numerically. The results indicate that the introduction of a transitional layer to the interface of the elastic-creeping bimaterials significantly elevates the stress values ahead of the interface cracks under identically applied load levels at creep regime.

  10. Three-dimensional elastic stress and displacement analysis of finite circular geometry solids containing cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, J. P.; Mendelson, A.; Kring, J.

    1973-01-01

    A seminumerical method is presented for solving a set of coupled partial differential equations subject to mixed and coupled boundary conditions. The use of this method is illustrated by obtaining solutions for two circular geometry and mixed boundary value problems in three-dimensional elasticity. Stress and displacement distributions are calculated in an axisymmetric, circular bar of finite dimensions containing a penny-shaped crack. Approximate results for an annular plate containing internal surface cracks are also presented.

  11. Effects of phosphorus and molybdenum on the caustic stress corrosion cracking of NiCrMoV steels

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, N.; Briant, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the effects of phosphorus and molybdenum on caustic stress corrosion cracking of 3.5NiCrMoV rotor steels. The results show that phosphorus segregation to the grain boundaries substantially lowers the resistance of the steel to caustic cracking. Removal of molybdenum provides some improvement in the resistance to caustic cracking.

  12. Mechanisms of stress relief cracking in titanium stabilised austenitic stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabaud-Reytier, M.; Allais, L.; Caes, C.; Dubuisson, P.; Pineau, A.

    2003-11-01

    The heat affected zone (HAZ) of AISI 321 welds may exhibit a serious form of cracking during service at high temperature. This form of damage, called 'stress relief cracking', is known to be due to work hardening but also to aging due to Ti(C,N) precipitation on dislocations which modifies the mechanical behaviour of the HAZ. The present study aims to analyse the latter embrittlement mechanism in one specific heat of 321 stainless steel. To this end, different HAZs are simulated using an annealing heat-treatment, followed by various cold rolling and aging conditions. Then, we study the effects of work hardening and aging on Ti(C,N) precipitation, on the mechanical (hardness, tensile and creep) behaviour of the simulated HAZs and on their sensitivity to intergranular crack propagation through stress relaxation tests performed on pre-cracked CT type specimens tested at 600 °C. It is shown that work hardening is the main parameter of the involved mechanism but that aging does not promote crack initiation although it leads to titanium carbide precipitation. Therefore, the role of Ti(C,N) precipitation on stress relief cracking mechanisms is discussed. An attempt is made to show that solute drag effects are mainly responsible for this form of intergranular damage, rather than Ti(C,N) precipitation.

  13. The role of the chemical environment in frictional deformation: Stress corrosion cracking and comminution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunning, J.; Douglas, B.; Miller, M.; McDonald, S.

    1994-03-01

    The roles of chemically assisted crack and fracture propagation and chemically assisted comminution in frictional deformation are evaluated in this study. Double cantilever beam (DCB) crack propagation data are presented which show that the role of pH in chemically assisted fracture, and to a lesser extent the role of ionic concentration are important in stress corrosion cracking. Data on very slow crack growth and the stress corrosion limit are also presented. These data suggest that stress corrosion cracking may play an important role in compound earthquakes and in asperity breakdown in faults. The comminution literature is also reviewed in order to assess the role of chemically assisted comminution in frictional deformation. It appears that chemically assisted comminution may be important at low and high ionic strength because it may reduce the effective viscosity and the shear strength of fault gouge. At intermediate ionic concentration the role of pH, as an agent which enhances crack and fracture propagation, appears to be more important in reducing the coefficient of sliding friction.

  14. Note: detection of micro-cracks in the interlayer dielectric film by the stress based light scattering method.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kazufumi; Nonaka, Kazuhiro

    2011-11-01

    A phenomenon was discovered wherein light scattering strength from cracks increases when tensile stress is applied to micro-cracks produced in the interlayer dielectric film by chemical mechanical polishing treatment. It is likely that the change in light scattering intensity occurs because a region of high stress concentration (region with high variation in index of refraction) is produced near the crack tip due to stress, thus forming a type of scatterer. With this method, it is possible to detect only scatterers which respond to stress, and thus, it is possible to classify and separately detect cracks and particles. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  15. Crack initiation observation and local stress analysis in shear fracture tests of ultra-high strength steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ninshu; Takada, Kenji; Sugimoto, Nao

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the local strain and stress at the crack initiation position in shear fracture test pieces of ultra-high strength steels, a butterfly shear fracture specimen was employed. The crack initiation position and propagation direction were observed during shear fracture tests by high speed cameras and investigated through analysing the fracture surface by scanning electron microscope. Further, the finite element method was employed and the stress-triaxiality at the crack initiation position was investigated. It can be obtained that the crack initiated at the position where the stress state is close to uniaxial tensile state or plane strain state more than pure shear stress state.

  16. Stress corrosion cracking susceptibilities of Fe3Al-based iron aluminides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jung-Gu

    1995-04-01

    The susceptibilities to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) were investigated using the constant-potential U-bend SCC test. U-bend SCC evaluations were conducted on two iron aluminide compositions based on Fe3Al and containing 2 and 5 at.% Cr in acid-chloride (pH = 4200 ppm Cl), thiosulfate, and tetrathionate solutions at the freely-corroding conditions. Cracking failures occurred in the thiosulfate and tetrathionate solutions, but not in the acid-chloride solution. The iron aluminides were very susceptible to the sulfur-bearing environments in terms of SCC and aqueous corrosion characteristics. To investigate the effect of applied potential on the cracking behavior, U-bend tests were conducted in the acid-chloride solution at an anodic pitting potential and at cathodic hydrogen-evolution potentials. Cracking occurred within 200 h only at the highly negative cathodic potentials and only for the lower Cr composition. These results indicated that two iron aluminides investigated are susceptible to SCC in acid-chloride solution if the corrosion potential is sufficiently active to generate hydrogen, that the cracking mechanism was related to hydrogen embrittlement. The resistance to hydrogen embrittlement cracking increased with increasing Cr content, i.e., higher Cr levels were beneficial in minimizing this form of cracking. Increased resistance to cracking for the U-bend specimens is influenced by the chemical composition of the passive film. Metallographic examinations by scanning electron microscopy revealed that increasing Cr content decreased the proportion of transgranular cleavage cracking and increased the proportion of intergranular cracking.

  17. The effects of shot-peening residual stresses on the fracture and crack growth properties of D6AC steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elber, W.

    1973-01-01

    The fracture strength and cyclic crack-growth properties of surface-flawed, shot-peened D6AC steel plate were investigated. For short crack lengths (up to 1.5mm) simple linear elastic fracture mechanics - based only on applied loading - did not predict the fracture strengths. Also, Paris' Law for cyclic crack growth did not correlate the crack-growth behavior. To investigate the effect of shot-peening, additional fracture and crack-growth tests were performed on material which was precompressed to remove the residual stresses left by the shot-peening. Both tests and analysis show that the shot-peening residual stresses influence the fracture and crack-growth properties of the material. The analytical method of compensating for residual stresses and the fracture and cyclic crack-growth test results and predictions are presented.

  18. Effects of shot-peening residual stresses on the fracture and crack-growth properties of D6AC steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elber, W.

    1974-01-01

    The fracture strength and cyclic crack-growth properties of surface-flawed, shot-peened D6AC steel plate were investigated. For short crack lengths (up to 1.5 mm) simple linear elastic fracture mechanics - based only on applied loading - did not predict the fracture strengths. Also, Paris' Law for cyclic crack growth did not correlate the crack-growth behavior. To investigate the effect of shot-peening, additional fracture and crack-growth tests were performed on material which was precompressed to remove the residual stresses left by the shot-peening. Both tests and analysis show that shot-peening residual stresses influence the fracture and crack-growth properties of the material. This report presents the analytical method of compensating for residual stresses and the fracture and cyclic crack-growth test results and predictions.

  19. Effect of Stress on Corrosion at Crack Tip on Pipeline Steel in a Near-Neutral pH Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yao; Cheng, Y. Frank

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the local corrosion at crack tip on an API 5L X46 pipeline steel specimens was investigated under various applied loads in a near-neutral pH solution. Electrochemical measurements, including potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, combined with micro-electrochemical technique and surface characterization, were conducted to investigate the effect of stress on local anodic solution of the steel at the crack tip. The stress corrosion cracking of the steel was dominated by an anodic dissolution mechanism, while the effect of hydrogen was negligible. The applied load (stress) increased the corrosion rate at the crack tip, contributing to crack propagation. The deposit of corrosion products at the crack tip could protect somewhat from further corrosion. At sufficiently large applied loads such as 740 N in the work, it was possible to generate separated cathode and anode, further accelerating the crack growth.

  20. Grain Boundary Segregation and Stress Corrosion Cracking of Aluminum Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-01

    consider the following: i) Generation of byd- ogen ii) Entry of hydrogen through the protective surface filmi and iii) Concentration of hydrogen in a...Mechanisms of cracking Hydrogen einbrittlernent Grain boundary segregation Oxide filris Alumrinum’n Alloys 20. A STT ACT (Cori(Itue on revors• side It ,rece...grain boundary segregation profiles of various alunminum ll oys. Samnples of both cornommercial ( 7075 , 7050, and 749) and high purity alloys based on the

  1. Stresses and Crack Extension in Multi-Layered Ceramic Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-10

    had its genesis in an observation made by a co-worker (Sdnchez- Herencia ) when a crack was observed to initiate and arrest between two compressive...Hbaieb, Michael Pontin, Hak-Sung Moon, Geoff Fair and Mark Snyder that took part in this work and Javi Sdnchez- Herencia for his initial observations...significant contributions to what they called ’baby’ fracture mechanics, and to Zhigang Suo, now at Harvard. References [1] M. P. Rao, A. J. Sdinchez- Herencia

  2. Fatigue crack closure under triaxial stress constraint. 1: Experimental investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Wanlin, G.

    1994-09-01

    Experimental investigation has been done for fatigue crack closure in 7050-T7451 aluminum alloy and 30CrMnSiNi2A high strength steel. CT specimens with thicknesses of 2, 3, 4, and 8 mm are used and four techniques of closure measurement are adopted in the test, namely the COD-load compliance technique, back face strain-load compliance technique, near tip strain gauge technique, and the indirect technique based on fatigue crack propagation rate (FCPR) measurement. The uncertainties associated with different techniques of closure measurement as well as the thickness effects are analyzed. It is shown that the global-compliance based methods cannot reflect the shielding effect of closure upon the crack tip strain intensification sufficiently. The near tip strain gauge method is more sensitive and can give a better result if the gauge lies in an optimum position. For materials in which the striation mechanism is dominant the indirect methods based on FCPR or fatigue striation measurement can predict the closure level very well. 12 refs.

  3. Fatigue crack closure under triaxial stress constraint. 1: Experimental investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanlin, Guo

    1994-09-01

    Experimental investigation has been done for fatigue crack closure in 7050-T7451 aluminum alloy and 30CrMnSiNi2A high strength steel. CT specimens with thicknesses of 2, 3, 4, and 8 mm are used and four techniques of closure measurement are adopted in the test, namely the COD-load compliance technique, back face strain-load compliance technique, near tip strain gauge technique, and the indirect technique based on fatigue crack propagation rate (FCPR) measurement. The uncertainties associated with different techniques of closure measurement as well as the thickness effects are analyzed. It is shown that the global-compliance based methods cannot reflect the shielding effect of closure upon the crack tip strain intensification sufficiently. The near tip strain gauge method is more sensitive and can give a better result if the gauge lies in an optimum position. For materials in which the striation mechanism is dominant the indirect methods based on FCPR or fatigue striation measurement can predict the closure level very well.

  4. The contribution of activated processes to Q. [stress corrosion cracking in seismic wave attenuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spetzler, H. A.; Getting, I. C.; Swanson, P. L.

    1980-01-01

    The possible role of activated processes in seismic attenuation is investigated. In this study, a solid is modeled by a parallel and series configuration of dashpots and springs. The contribution of stress and temperature activated processes to the long term dissipative behavior of this system is analyzed. Data from brittle rock deformation experiments suggest that one such process, stress corrosion cracking, may make a significant contribution to the attenuation factor, Q, especially for long period oscillations under significant tectonic stress.

  5. The contribution of activated processes to Q. [stress corrosion cracking in seismic wave attenuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spetzler, H. A.; Getting, I. C.; Swanson, P. L.

    1980-01-01

    The possible role of activated processes in seismic attenuation is investigated. In this study, a solid is modeled by a parallel and series configuration of dashpots and springs. The contribution of stress and temperature activated processes to the long term dissipative behavior of this system is analyzed. Data from brittle rock deformation experiments suggest that one such process, stress corrosion cracking, may make a significant contribution to the attenuation factor, Q, especially for long period oscillations under significant tectonic stress.

  6. Lead induced stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 690 in high temperature water

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, K.K.; Lim, J.K.; Moriya, Shinichi; Watanabe, Yutaka; Shoji, Tetsuo

    1995-12-31

    Recent investigations of cracked steam generator tubes at nuclear power plants concluded that lead significantly contributed to cracking the Alloy 600 materials. In order to investigate the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of Alloy 690, slow strain rate tests (SSRT) and anodic polarization measurements were performed. The SSRTs were conducted in a lead-chloride solution (PbCl{sub 2}) and in a chloride but lead free solution (NaCl) at pH of 3 and 4.5 at 288 C. The anodic polarization measurements were carried out at 30 C using the same solutions as in SSRT. The SSRT results showed that Alloy 690 was susceptible to SCC in both solutions. In the lead chloride solution, cracking had slight dependence on lead concentration and pH. Cracking tend to increase with a higher lead concentration and a lower pH and was mainly intergranular and was to be a few tens to hundreds micrometers in length. In the chloride only solution, cracking was similar to the lead induced SCC. The results of anodic polarization measurement and electron probe micro analysis (EPMA) helped to understand lead induced SCC. Lead was a stronger active corrosive element but had a minor affect on cracking susceptibility of the alloy. While, chloride was quite different from lead effect to SCC. A possible mechanism of lead induced SCC of Alloy 690 was also discussed based on the test results.

  7. Microstructural characterization on intergranular stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 in PWR primary water environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Yun Soo; Kim, Hong Pyo; Hwang, Seong Sik

    2013-09-01

    Stress corrosion cracks in Alloy 600 compact tension specimens tested at 325 °C in a simulated primary water environment of a pressurized water reactor were analyzed using microscopic equipment. Oxygen diffused into the grain boundaries just ahead of the crack tips from the external primary water. As a result of oxygen penetration, Cr oxides were precipitated on the crack tips and the attacked grain boundaries. The oxide layer in the crack interior was revealed to consist of double (inner and outer) layers. Cr oxides were found in the inner layer, with NiO and (Ni,Cr) spinels in the outer layer. Cr depletion (or Ni enrichment) zones were created in the attacked grain boundary, the crack tip, and the interface between the crack and matrix, which means that the formation of Cr oxides was due to the Cr diffusion from the surrounding matrix. The oxygen penetration and resultant metallurgical changes around the crack tip are believed to be significant factors affecting the PWSCC initiation and growth behaviors of Alloy 600. For interpretation of color in Fig. 4, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.

  8. Stress-corrosion cracking issues related to a water-cooled ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R. H.; Bruemmer, S. M.; Henager, C. H.

    1991-03-01

    A review of water impurity and temperature effects on stress-corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steel is presented. These results demonstrate that stress-corrosion crack growth can occur at ITER relevant temperatures for certain water chemistries and material conditions. A model developed at PNL to calculate the degree of sensitization was used to estimate the potential for sensitization of Type 316 SS and US PCA. This analysis shows that both materials can be severely sensitized but, with proper processing and fabrication, sensitization should be avoidable.

  9. Determination of the residual stress-crack opening relationship of SFRC flexural members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaklauskas, Gintaris; Gribniak, Viktor; Meskenas, Adas; Rimkus, Arvydas; Kaklauskas, Arturas; Kupliauskas, Rimantas

    2013-10-01

    Steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC) has become widespread material in building areas such as underground shotcrete structures or industrial floors. However, due to the absence of universally accepted guidelines for SFRC, application fields of this material are still limited. This paper deals with assessment of the residual stresses of tensile SFRC. An adequate method for determination of residual stress-crack opening relation, based on test data of three-point bending beams is proposed. To verify the analysis results a numerical modelling is utilized employing a nonlinear finite element analysis program. Simulated load-crack width curves were compared with the experimental data validating adequacy of the proposed model.

  10. Chemical aspects of environmentally enhanced crack growth in nickel-based superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Christopher Francis

    The research presented in this dissertation is a surface chemistry study of the chemical aspects of environmentally enhanced crack growth (EECG) in commercial, Ni-based superalloys. Previous studies have shown that oxygen increases the crack growth rates in superalloys at high temperatures, compared to those observed in an inert environment. Proposed mechanisms have attributed this enhancement to (a) the preferential oxidation of Ni and Fe at the crack tip to form an oxide "wedge" and (b) the oxidation of carbon and metallic carbides at grain boundaries to form high, internal pressures of CO and CO2. These mechanisms, however, cannot explain the observed differences in fracture surface morphology and crack growth kinetics for several superalloys. An alternative mechanism, therefore, was proposed which attributes EECG to oxygen penetration ahead of the crack tip during crack growth and the subsequent oxidation of NbC (and possibly Ni3Nb) on grain boundary surfaces. To assess these mechanisms, a surface chemistry study was undertaken to determine the relative reactivity of several superalloys and grain boundary phases (such as NbC, Ni3Nb, Ni3Ti and Ni3Al) with oxygen at elevated temperatures, using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XPS analyses were also made of fracture surfaces that were produced during crack growth studies in oxygen. The results showed the first direct confirmation of oxygen penetration ahead of the crack tip, leading to the oxidation of Cr, NbC, Ni3Nb, Ni3Ti and Ni 3Al on grain boundary surfaces. These observations are consistent with the high temperature oxidation studies for each alloy and pure phase, and support crack growth enhancement mechanisms that involve the oxidation of alloying phases ahead of the crack tip. Qualitative models were then developed, based on the results of this dissertation research, that considered the role of internal oxidation in oxygen enhanced crack growth. From these models, it was concluded that oxygen atoms

  11. Stress-corrosion cracking of sensitized stainless steel by sulfur-containing compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, H.S.; Vyas, B.; Kendig, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of sensitized Type 304 stainless steel in thiosulfate solutions has been studied using constant extension rate tests. Very low concentrations of about 6.10/sup -7/M Na/sub 2/S/sub 2/O/sub 3/ (0.1ppm) gave cracking. With boric acid added, higher concentrations (1ppm) were required. The SCC was shown to be electrochemically controlled. Below -0.5v/sub SCE/ (-0.75/sub SHE/) no SCC took place; above this potential the rate of SCC increased with potential. An induction period was required before SCC continued above -0.5v if the potential was held at or below this value for extended times. This period was associated with the build up of an aggressive solution of thiosulfate decomposition products within the crack. The cracking process has been considered to be controlled by rupture of a salt layer and not a passivating oxide.

  12. Effect of film thickness and particle size on cracking stresses in drying latex films.

    PubMed

    Yow, Huai Nyin; Goikoetxea, Monika; Goehring, Lucas; Routh, Alexander F

    2010-12-15

    The stress at which latex films crack during drying was investigated using beam bending. Two systems were investigated: (i) poly(methyl methacrylate/butyl acrylate) particles cast as thin films to examine the effect of film thickness on cracking film stress and (ii) polystyrene particles dried as drops to investigate the effect of particle size. Results indicated an inverse relationship between film thickness and film stress, whilst film stress was shown to be independent of the original particle size. These outcomes were in good agreement with Tirumkudulu and Russel's theoretical analysis [M.S. Tirumkudulu and W.B. Russel, Langmuir 21 (2005) 4938], albeit the measured stress values were almost twice the theoretical estimation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of damage due to stress corrosion cracking in carbon steel using nonlinear surface acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeitvogel, D. T.; Matlack, K. H.; Kim, J.-Y.; Jacobs, L. J.; Singh, P. M.; Qu, J.

    2013-01-01

    Cold rolled carbon steel 1018C is widely used in pressurized fuel pipelines. In these structures, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) can pose a significant problem because cracks initiate late in the lifetime and often unexpectedly, but grow fast once they get started. To ensure a safe operation it is crucial that any damage can be detected before the structural stability is reduced by large cracks. In the early stages of SCC, microstructural changes occur which in many cases increase the acoustic nonlinearity of the material. Therefore, an initially monochromatic Rayleigh wave is distorted and measurable higher harmonics are generated. Different levels of stress corrosion cracking is induced in five specimens. For each specimen, nonlinear ultrasonic measurements are performed before and after inducing the damage. For the measurements, oil coupled wedge transducers are used to generate and detect tone burst Rayleigh wave signals. The amplitudes of the received fundamental and second harmonic waves are measured at varying propagation distances to obtain a measure for the acoustic nonlinearity of the specimens. The results show a damage-dependent increase in nonlinearity for early stages of damage, indicating the feasibility of this nonlinear ultrasonic method to detect the initiation of stress corrosion cracking.

  14. Analysis of stress corrosion cracking in alloy 718 following commercial reactor exposure

    DOE PAGES

    Leonard, Keith J.; Gussev, Maxim N.; Stevens, Jacqueline N.; ...

    2015-08-24

    Alloy 718 is generally considered a highly corrosion-resistant material but can still be susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The combination of factors leading to SCC susceptibility in the alloy is not always clear enough. In this paper, alloy 718 leaf spring (LS) materials that suffered stress corrosion damage during two 24-month cycles in pressurized water reactor service, operated to >45 MWd/mtU burn-up, was investigated. Compared to archival samples fabricated through the same processing conditions, little microstructural and property changes occurred in the material with in-service irradiation, contrary to high dose rate laboratory-based experiments reported in literature. Though the lackmore » of delta phase formation along grain boundaries would suggest a more SCC resistant microstructure, grain boundary cracking in the material was extensive. Crack propagation routes were explored through focused ion beam milling of specimens near the crack tip for transmission electron microscopy as well as in polished plan view and cross-sectional samples for electron backscatter diffraction analysis. It has been shown in this study that cracks propagated mainly along random high-angle grain boundaries, with the material around cracks displaying a high local density of dislocations. The slip lines were produced through the local deformation of the leaf spring material above their yield strength. Also, the cause for local SCC appears to be related to oxidation of both slip lines and grain boundaries, which under the high in-service stresses resulted in crack development in the material.« less

  15. Irradiation-Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking of Austenitic Stainless Steels in BWR Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.; Chopra, O. K.; Gruber, Eugene E.; Shack, William J.

    2010-06-01

    The internal components of light water reactors are exposed to high-energy neutron irradiation and high-temperature reactor coolant. The exposure to neutron irradiation increases the susceptibility of austenitic stainless steels (SSs) to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) because of the elevated corrosion potential of the reactor coolant and the introduction of new embrittlement mechanisms through radiation damage. Various nonsensitized SSs and nickel alloys have been found to be prone to intergranular cracking after extended neutron exposure. Such cracks have been seen in a number of internal components in boiling water reactors (BWRs). The elevated susceptibility to SCC in irradiated materials, commonly referred to as irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC), is a complex phenomenon that involves simultaneous actions of irradiation, stress, and corrosion. In recent years, as nuclear power plants have aged and irradiation dose increased, IASCC has become an increasingly important issue. Post-irradiation crack growth rate and fracture toughness tests have been performed to provide data and technical support for the NRC to address various issues related to aging degradation of reactor-core internal structures and components. This report summarizes the results of the last group of tests on compact tension specimens from the Halden-II irradiation. The IASCC susceptibility of austenitic SSs and heat-affected-zone (HAZ) materials sectioned from submerged arc and shielded metal arc welds was evaluated by conducting crack growth rate and fracture toughness tests in a simulated BWR environment. The fracture and cracking behavior of HAZ materials, thermally sensitized SSs and grain-boundary engineered SSs was investigated at several doses (≤3 dpa). These latest results were combined with previous results from Halden-I and II irradiations to analyze the effects of neutron dose, water chemistry, alloy compositions, and welding and processing conditions on IASCC

  16. An experimental study on the effects of compressive stress on the fatigue crack growth of low-alloy steel

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.P.; Hoppe, R.G.; Hechmer, J.L.; James, B.A.

    1993-12-01

    A series of fatigue crack growth rate tests was conducted in order to study effects of negative stress ratio on fatigue crack growth rate of low-alloy steel in air. Four-point bend specimens were used to simulate linear stress distributions typical of pressure vessel applications. This type of testing adds to knowledge on negative stress ratio effects for low-alloy steels obtained in the past from uniform tension-compression tests. Applied bending stress range was varied over twice the yield strength. Load control was used for tests for which the stress range was less than twice the yield strength and deflection control was used for the higher stress range tests. Crack geometries were both short and long fatigue cracks started at notches and tight fatigue cracks for which crack closure could occur over the full crack face. Results are presented in terms of the stress intensity factor ratio R = K{sub MIN}/K{sub MAX}. The negative R-ratio test results were correlated to an equation of the form da/dN = C[{Delta}K/(A-R)]{sup n}, where A, C, and n are curve fitting parameters. It was found that effects of negative R-ratio on fatigue crack growth rates for even the high stress range tests could be bounded by correlating the above equation to only positive R-ratio test results and extending the resulting equation into the negative R-ratio regime.

  17. Characterizing the effect of creep on stress corrosion cracking of cold worked Alloy 690 in supercritical water environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lefu; Chen, Kai; Du, Donghai; Gao, Wenhua; Andresen, Peter L.; Guo, Xianglong

    2017-08-01

    The effect of creep on stress corrosion cracking (SCC) was studied by measuring crack growth rates (CGRs) of 30% cold worked (CW) Alloy 690 in supercritical water (SCW) and inert gas environments at temperatures ranging from 450 °C to 550 °C. The SCC crack growth rate under SCW environments can be regarded as the cracking induced by the combined effect of corrosion and creep, while the CGR in inert gas environment can be taken as the portion of creep induced cracking. Results showed that the CW Alloy 690 sustained high susceptibility to intergranular (IG) cracking, and creep played a dominant role in the SCC crack growth behavior, contributing more than 80% of the total crack growth rate at each testing temperature. The temperature dependence of creep induced CGRs follows an Arrhenius dependency, with an apparent activation energy (QE) of about 225 kJ/mol.

  18. On ripple-load, stress-corrosion, and sustained-load cracking behavior in a high strength beta titanium alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Pao, P.S.; Meyn, D.A.; Bayles, R.A.; Feng, C.R.; Yoder, G.R.

    1997-06-01

    Both overaged and peakaged TIMETAL 21S beta titanium alloys exhibit significant ripple-load cracking susceptibility in salt water and in ambient air environments. At R = 0.90, the ripple-load cracking thresholds of the overaged alloy are 67% and 72% lower than the stress-corrosion cracking and sustained-load cracking thresholds. For the peakaged alloy, the reductions are 55% and 61%. The stress-corrosion cracking threshold in salt water and the sustained-load cracking threshold in air of peakaged TIMETAL 21S are significantly lower while the ripple-load cracking threshold is slightly lower than those of the overaged alloy. The stress-corrosion cracking, sustained-load cracking, and ripple-load cracking resistance of peakaged TIMETAL 21S are significantly inferior to those of both beta-annealed Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn. The ripple-load cracking resistance of overaged TIMETAL 21S, though better than Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn, is still inferior than that of beta-annealed Ti-6Al-4V.

  19. Internal stresses at the crystalline scale in textured ZrO2 films before lateral cracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdin, Clotilde; Pascal, Serge; Tang, Yan

    2015-05-01

    Zirconium oxide layers are submitted to internal stresses that play a role in damage of the layer. Lateral cracking is often observed during Zr alloys oxidation. In this paper, we investigated the influence of the microstresses at the crystalline scale on the lateral cracking within a growing oxide on a plane substrate. A parametric study was carried out taking into account the crystallographic texture of the oxide and the presence of a tetragonal zirconia at the metal-oxide interface. Macroscopic computations and polycrystalline aggregate computations were performed. The result indicating the (1 0 6 bar) fiber texture as the most favorable was recovered. It was found that under macroscopic compressive stresses parallel to the plane metal-oxide interface, positive microstresses perpendicular to the interface develops. They can trigger the lateral cracking and the phenomenon is promoted by the presence of tetragonal zirconia at the metal-oxide interface.

  20. A STUDY OF CORROSION AND STRESS CORROSION CRACKING OF CARBON STEEL NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    BOOMER, K.D.

    2007-08-21

    The Hanford reservation Tank Farms in Washington State has 177 underground storage tanks that contain approximately 50 million gallons of liquid legacy radioactive waste from cold war plutonium production. These tanks will continue to store waste until it is treated and disposed. These nuclear wastes were converted to highly alkaline pH wastes to protect the carbon steel storage tanks from corrosion. However, the carbon steel is still susceptible to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. The waste chemistry varies from tank to tank, and contains various combinations of hydroxide, nitrate, nitrite, chloride, carbonate, aluminate and other species. The effect of each of these species and any synergistic effects on localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of carbon steel have been investigated with electrochemical polarization, slow strain rate, and crack growth rate testing. The effect of solution chemistry, pH, temperature and applied potential are all considered and their role in the corrosion behavior will be discussed.

  1. Stress corrosion cracking of type 304L stainless steel core shroud welds.

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H. M.; Park, J.-H.; Sanecki, J. E.; Zaluzec, N. J.; Yu, M. S.; Yang, T. T.

    1999-10-26

    Microstructural analyses by advanced metallographic techniques were conducted on mockup welds and a cracked BWR core shroud weld fabricated from Type 304L stainless steel. heat-affected zones of the shroud weld and mockup shielded-metal-arc welds were free of grain-boundary carbide, martensite, delta ferrite, or Cr depletion near grain boundaries. However, as a result of exposure to welding fumes, the heat-affected zones of the welds were significantly contaminated by fluorine and oxygen which migrate to grain boundaries. Significant oxygen contamination promotes fluorine contamination and suppresses classical thermal sensitization, even in Type 304 steels. Results of slow-strain-rate tensile tests indicate that fluorine exacerbates the susceptibility of irradiated steels to intergranular stress corrosion cracking. These observations, combined with previous reports on the strong influence of weld flux, indicate that oxygen and fluorine contamination and fluorine-catalyzed stress corrosion play a major role in cracking of Type 304L stainless steel core shroud welds.

  2. Stress-corrosion crack growth of Si-Na-K-Mg-Ca-P-O bioactive glasses in simulated human physiological environment

    PubMed Central

    Bloyer, D. R.; McNaney, J. M.; Cannon, R. M.; Saiz, E.; Tomsia, A. P.; Ritchie, R. O.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes research on the stress-corrosion crack growth (SCCG) behavior of a new series of bioactive glasses designed to fabricate coatings on Ti and Co-Cr-based implant alloys. These glasses should provide improved implant fixation between implant and exhibit good mechanical stability in vivo. It is then important to develop an understanding of the mechanisms that control environmentally-assisted crack growth in this new family of glasses and its effect on their reliability. Several compositions have been tested in both static and cyclic loading in simulated body fluid. These show only small dependences of stress-corrosion crack growth behavior on the composition. Traditional SCCG mechanisms for silicate glasses appear to be operative for the new bioactive glasses studied here. At higher velocities, hydrodynamic effects reduce growth rates under conditions that would rarely pertain for small natural flaws in devices. PMID:17714778

  3. Residual stress and crack propagation in laminated composites

    SciTech Connect

    Yttergren, R.M.F.; Zeng, K.; Rowcliffe, D.J.

    1994-12-31

    Residual stress distributions in several laminated ceramic composites were measured by an indentation technique. The material included alumina-zirconia laminated composites, containing strong interfaces, and alumina-porcelain laminated composites with both weak and strong interfaces. The residual stress in these material originates from the mismatch of the thermal properties, differences in elastic properties, and different shrinkage of the laminates during sintering. An experimental technique is presented which gives a direct view of the residual stress state in the materials. Values of residual tensile stress are presented as a function of position relative to the interface in each material.

  4. Stress intensity factors for large aspect ratio surface and corner cracks at a semi-circular notch in a tension specimen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivakumar, K. N.; Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Stress intensity factor solutions for semielliptic surface and quarter-elliptic corner cracks emanating from a semicircular notch in a tension specimen are presented. A three-dimensional finite-element analysis in conjunction with the equivalent domain integral was used to calculate stress intensity factors (SIF). SIF solutions for surface or corner crack (crack length to depth ratio of 2) at a notch are presented for a wide range of crack sizes and notch radii. Results showed that the SIF are larger for larger crack lengths and for larger notch radii. The SIF are nearly constant all along the crack front for deep surface cracks and for all corner cracks analysed.

  5. Ultrasonic Impact Treatment to Improve Stress Corrosion Cracking Resistance of Welded Joints of Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, J.; Gou, G.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W.; Chen, H.; Yang, Y. P.

    2016-07-01

    Stress corrosion cracking is one of the major issues for welded joints of 6005A-T6 aluminum alloy in high-speed trains. High residual stress in the welded joints under corrosion results in stress corrosion cracking. Ultrasonic impact treatment was used to control the residual stress of the welded joints of 6005A-T6 aluminum alloy. Experimental tests show that ultrasonic impact treatment can induce compressive longitudinal and transverse residual stress in the welded joint, harden the surface, and increase the tensile strength of welded joints. Salt-fog corrosion tests were conducted for both an as-welded sample and an ultrasonic impact-treated sample. The surface of the treated sample had far fewer corrosion pits than that of the untreated sample. The treated sample has higher strength and lower tensile residual stress than the untreated sample during corrosion. Therefore, ultrasonic impact treatment is an effective technique to improve the stress corrosion cracking resistance of the welded joints of 6005A-T6 aluminum alloy.

  6. Determination of Stress Intensity Factor Distributions for "Interface" Cracks in Incompressible, Dissimilar Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. W.

    1997-01-01

    The present study was undertaken in order to develop test methods and procedures for measuring the variation of the stress intensity factor through the thickness in bimaterial specimens containing cracks within and parallel to the bond line using the frozen stress photoelastic method. Since stress freezing materials are incompressible above critical temperature, and since thick plates are to be employed which tend to produce a state of plane strain near the crack tip, the interface near tip fracture equations reduce to the classic form for homogeneous materials. Moreover, zero thickness interfaces do not exist when materials are bonded together. It was decided early on that it would be important to insure a uniform straight and accurate crack tip region through the thickness of the body to reduce scatter in the SIF distribution through the thickness. It was also observed that rubberlike materials which were desired to be modeled exhibited significant tip blunting prior to crack extension and that some blunting of the tip would provide a more realistic model. It should be noted that, in normal stress freezing photoelastic work, it is considered good practice to avoid utilizing data near bond lines in photoelastic models due to the bond line stresses which inevitably develop when two parts are bonded together. Thus, the present study involves certain exploratory aspects in deviating from standard practice in stress freezing work. With the above ideas in mind, several different test methods were investigated and are described in the following sections and appendices. The geometry selected for the program was a thick, edge cracked specimen containing a bond line.

  7. In-vitro characterization of stress corrosion cracking of aluminium-free magnesium alloys for temporary bio-implant applications.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Lokesh; Singh Raman, R K; Hofstetter, Joelle; Uggowitzer, Peter J

    2014-09-01

    The complex interaction between physiological stresses and corrosive human body fluid may cause premature failure of metallic biomaterials due to the phenomenon of stress corrosion cracking. In this study, the susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking of biodegradable and aluminium-free magnesium alloys ZX50, WZ21 and WE43 was investigated by slow strain rate tensile testing in a simulated human body fluid. Slow strain rate tensile testing results indicated that each alloy was susceptible to stress corrosion cracking, and this was confirmed by fractographic features of transgranular and/or intergranular cracking. However, the variation in alloy susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking is explained on the basis of their electrochemical and microstructural characteristics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The role of hydrogen in carbonate stress corrosion cracking of low-carbon steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirnyj, Sviatoslav

    Hydrogen generation and ingress into low carbon steel has been discovered at high anodic potentials of high-pH stress corrosion cracking in the so-called "standard" carbonate-bicarbonate solution. The experimental study showed that hydrogen absorption occurs over the whole range of anodic potentials which cause transgranular stress corrosion cracking and coincides with formation of iron (II) carbonate. Also, hydrogen ingress into steel was measured at the lowest part of the range of potentials where most severe intergranular stress corrosion cracking takes place and where the passive film is a composite of siderite and magnetite. Hydrogen absorption occurs at least 170 mV above the so-called line (a) on the Pourbaix diagram and thus it is not governed by known cathodic reactions but by another process. An adsorption based model for anodic hydrogenation in bicarbonate solution has been proposed. Other experimental findings and theoretical calculations in relation to high pH stress corrosion cracking of low carbon steel are presented.

  9. Overview of corrosion, corrosion protection, and stress-corrosion cracking of uranium and uranium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Koger, J.W.

    1981-12-14

    This paper covers some basic definitions and provides some data. The 51 slides illustrates these definitions, crack initiation and propagation, sources of stress, types of specimens used for SCC, potentiostatic polarization, data for Mulberry and U-Nb alloys, effects of environment, and data for U-0.75 Ti and U-Mo alloys. (DLC)

  10. A review and assessment of the stress-intensity factors for surface cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The stress-intensity factor solutions proposed for a surface crack in a finite plate subjected to uniform tension are reviewed. Fourteen different solutions for the stress-intensity factors are compared. These solutions were obtained over the past 16 years using approximate analytical methods, experimental methods, and engineering estimates. The accuracy is assessed of the various solutions by correlating fracture data on surface-cracked tension specimens made of a brittle epoxy material. Fracture of the epoxy material was characterized by a constant value of stress-intensity factor at failure. Thus, the correctness of the various solutions is judged by the variations in the stress-intensity factors at failure. The solutions were ranked in order of minimum standard deviation. The highest ranking solutions correlated 95 percent of data analyzed within + or - 10 percent, whereas the lowest ranking solutions correlated 95 percent of data analyzed within + or - 20 percent. However, some solutions could be applied to all data considered, whereas others are limited with respect to crack shapes and crack sizes that could be analyzed.

  11. Overlapping double etch technique for evaluation of metallic alloys to stress corrosion cracking

    DOEpatents

    Steeves, Arthur F.; Stewart, James C.

    1981-01-01

    A double overlapping etch zone technique for evaluation of the resistance of metallic alloys to stress corrosion cracking. The technique involves evaluating the metallic alloy along the line of demarcation between an overlapping double etch zone and single etch zone formed on the metallic alloy surface.

  12. Overlapping double etch technique for evaluation of metallic alloys to stress corrosion cracking

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1980-05-28

    A double overlapping etch zone technique for evaluation of the resistance of metallic alloys to stress corrosion cracking is described. The technique involves evaluating the metallic alloy along the line of demarcation between an overlapping double etch zone and single etch zone formed on the metallic alloy surface.

  13. Thermomechanical processing of 5083 aluminum to increase strength without increasing susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Edstrom, C. M.; Blakeslee, J. J.

    1980-09-30

    5083 aluminium with 25% cold work must be processed above 215/sup 0/C or below 70/sup 0/C to avoid forming continuous precipitate in the grain boundaries which makes the material susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. Time at temperature above 215/sup 0/C should be held to minimum (less than 30 min) to retain some strength from the 25% cold work.

  14. Development of Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics Analysis Code for Pipes with Stress Corrosion Cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machida, Hideo; Arakawa, Manabu; Yamashita, Norimichi; Yoshimura, Shinobu

    Risk-Informed integrity management methodologies have been developed for Japanese nuclear power plants. One of the issues of concern is the reliability assessment of piping with flaws due to stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Therefore, the probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis code has been developed, which can perform the reliability assessment for austenitic stainless steel piping with flaws due to SCC. This paper describes technical basis of this code. This method is based on Monte-Carlo technique considering many sample cases in a piping section, where the initiation and growth of cracks are calculated and piping failures, including leaks and rapture, are evaluated. A notable feature is that multiple cracks can be treated, consequently, assessment of coalescence of cracks and intricate break evaluation of piping section have been included. Moreover, the in-service inspection (ISI) and integrity evaluation by Fitness-for-Service (FFS) code are integrated into the analysis, and the contribution to failure probability decrease can be assessed. Key parameters are determined on a probability basis with the designated probability type throughout the procedure. Size, location and time of crack initiation, coefficients of crack growth due to SCC and factors for piping failure are included in those parameters. With this method the reliability level of the piping through the operation periods can be estimated and the contribution of various parameters including ISI can be quantitatively evaluated.

  15. Stress corrosion crack growth rates in Type 304 stainless steel in simulated BWR environments

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.Y.; Ruther, W.E.; Kassner, T.F.; Shack, W.J.

    1984-11-01

    Stress corrosion cracking of Type 304 stainless steel has been studied with fracture-mechanics-type standard 25.4-mm-thick compact tension specimens in simulated boiling-water reactor environments at 289/sup 0/C and 8.3 MPa. Tests were performed with either constant or cyclic loading. The latter tests used a positive sawtooth waveform with an unloading time of 1 or 5 s, a load ratio R (minimum load to maximum load) of 0.2 to 0.95, and a frequency f of 8 x 10/sup -4/ to 1 x 10/sup -1/ Hz. Crack lengths and crack growth rates were determined by the compliance method; crack mouth opening displacement was measured with in-situ clip gauges. Fractography was used to examine the mode of cracking and to confirm the compliance method for crack length determination. The test environments were high-purity deionized water with 0.2- to 8-ppM dissolved oxygen, and water with 0.2-ppM dissolved oxygen and 0.1-ppM sulfate (as H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/). Two heats with a carbon content of 0.06 wt % were investigated in solution-heat-treated and furnace-sensitized conditions. Degree of sensitization varied from approx. 0 to 20 C/cm/sup 2/ as measured by the electrochemical potentiokinetic polarization method. 8 references, 7 figures, 5 tables.

  16. Stress-Corrosion Cracking of AISI 4340 Steel in Aqueous Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalnaus, Sergiy; Zhang, Jixi; Jiang, Yanyao

    2011-02-01

    Stress corrosion cracking of the high-strength martensitic steel AISI 4340 (yield stress = 1503 MPa) in NaCl aqueous solutions of different concentrations was studied experimentally using compact tension specimens in free corroding conditions. The experiments were conducted under the controls of constant load, constant crack opening displacement (COD), constant loading rate, and constant COD rate. Despite the differences in controlling conditions, the experiments yielded similar results for the threshold stress intensity factor and the plateau velocity in the 3.5 wt pct NaCl solution. Dependence of the plateau velocity on the NaCl concentration was observed, whereas the values of the threshold stress intensity factors seem to be independent of the NaCl concentration in distilled water.

  17. An influence of normal stress and pore pressure on the conditions and dynamics of shear crack propagation in brittle solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shilko, Evgeny V.; Psakhie, Sergey G.; Popov, Valentin L.

    2016-11-01

    The paper is devoted to the study of the influence of crack-normal stress on the shear strength of the brittle material with initial crack and the geometrical condition of acceleration of dynamically growing crack towards the longitudinal wave speed. We considered elastic-brittle permeable materials with nanoscale pore size. We have shown that pore fluid in nanoporous brittle materials influences mainly the condition of shear crack propagation transition from conventional sub-Rayleigh regime to supershear one. The results of the study make it possible to assess the ability of initial cracks in brittle materials to develop in supershear regime under the condition of confined longitudinal shear.

  18. Near-threshold fatigue crack growth behavior of 2195 aluminum-lithium-alloy—prediction of crack propagation direction and influence of stress ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, D. L.; Chaturvedi, M. C.

    2000-06-01

    Tensile properties and fatigue crack propagation behavior of a 2195-T8 Al-Li alloy were investigated at different stress ratios, with particular emphasis on their dependence on specimen orientation. Specimens with orientations of 0, 15, 30, 45, and 90 deg to the rolling direction were tested. The alloy contained a strong brass-type texture and a profuse distribution of platelike precipitates of T 1 (Al2CuLi) phase on {111} matrix planes. Both tensile strength and fatigue thresholds were found to be strongly dependent on the specimen orientation, with the lowest values observed along the direction at 45 deg to the rolling direction. The effect of stress ratio on fatigue threshold could generally be explained by a modified crack closure concept. The growth of fatigue crack in this alloy was found to exhibit a significant crystallographic cracking and especially macroscopic crack deflection. The specimens oriented in the L-T + 45 deg had the smallest deflection angle, while the specimens in the L-T and T-L orientations exhibited a large deflection angle. The dependence of the fatigue threshold on the specimen orientation could be rationalized by considering an equivalent fatigue threshold calculated from both mode I and mode II values due to the crack deflection. A four-step approach on the basis of Schmid’s law combined with specific crystallographic textures is proposed to predict the fatigue crack deflection angle. Good agreement between the theoretical prediction and experimental results was observed.

  19. Isolated Mesoporous Microstructures Prepared by Stress Localization-Induced Crack Manipulation.

    PubMed

    Wooh, Sanghyuk; Lee, Soojin; Lee, Yunchan; Ryu, Ji Ho; Lee, Won Bo; Yoon, Hyunsik; Char, Kookheon

    2016-09-22

    Cracks observed in brittle materials are mostly regarded as defects or failures. However, they can be a valuable tool when implemented in a controlled way. Here, we introduce a strategy to control the crack propagation of mesoporous micropatterns (prisms and pyramids), which leads to the isolation of well-defined microstructures. Mesoporous micropatterns were fabricated by the soft imprinting technique with wet TiO2 nanoparticle (NP) pastes, followed by sintering to remove organic components. Since the volume of the paste significantly shrinks during the sintering step, stress is localized at the edge of micropatterns, in good agreement with finite element method simulations, creating well-defined cracks and their propagation. It was demonstrated that the degree of stress localization is determined by the thickness of residual layers, NP size, and heating rate. After controlled crack propagation and delamination of microparticles from the substrates, mesoporous microwires and microparticles were successfully produced and functionalized from the isolated mesoporous prisms and pyramids. The method proposed in this study for controlled crack manipulation and delamination opens a door for straightforward and economical fabrication of well-defined mesoporous microparticles.

  20. Thermal Stress Cracking of Slide-Gate Plates in Steel Continuous Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyoung-Jun; Thomas, Brian G.; Kim, Seon-Hyo

    2016-04-01

    The slide-gate plates in a cassette assembly control the steel flow through the tundish nozzle, and may experience through-thickness cracks, caused by thermal expansion and/or mechanical constraint, leading to air aspiration and safety concerns. Different mechanisms for common and rare crack formation are investigated with the aid of a three-dimensional finite-element model of thermal mechanical behavior of the slide-gate plate assembly during bolt pretensioning, preheating, tundish filling, casting, and cooling stages. The model was validated with previous plant temperature measurements of a ladle plate during preheating and casting, and then applied to a typical tundish-nozzle slide-gate assembly. The formation mechanisms of different types of cracks in the slide-gate plates are investigated using the model and evaluated with actual slide-gate plates at POSCO. Common through-thickness radial cracks, found in every plate, are caused during casting by high tensile stress on the outside surfaces of the plates, due to internal thermal expansion. In the upper plate, these cracks may also arise during preheating or tundish filling. Excessive bolt tightening, combined with thermal expansion during casting may cause rare radial cracks in the upper and lower plates. Rare radial and transverse cracks in middle plate appear to be caused during tundish filling by impingement of molten steel on the middle of the middle plate that generates tensile stress in the surrounding refractory. The mechanical properties of the refractory, the bolt tightening conditions, and the cassette/plate design are all important to service life.

  1. Laser Peening for Mitigation of Stress Corrosion Cracking at Welds in Marine Aluminum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    therefore leaving the welded area and the HAZ in tension and the surround base metal in compression [ 6 ]. Figure 4 shows the residual stress of a MIG...either by electropolishing or vibratory polishing. The samples were electropolished in a Buehler Electromet 4 Electropolisher using a solution of...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE Laser Peening for Mitigation of Stress Corrosion Cracking at Welds in Marine

  2. The Role of Hydrogen in the Stress Corrosion Cracking of High Strength Aluminum Alloys.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    effect. 2.5 Stress Corrosion Cracking of 7075 - Mode I/Mode III Testing Having obtained an understanding of the hydrogen embrittlement behavior of 7075 ...J. Albrecht, A. W. Thompson and I. M. Bernstein: "The Role of Microstruc - ture in Hydrogen-Assisted Fracture of 7075 Aluminum": Met. Trans. A, 1979...Thompson and I. M. Bernstein: "Effect of Microstruc - ture and Loading Mode on Stress Corrosion of 7075 Aluminum", in preparation. 12. R. E. Swanson, A. W

  3. Elastic moduli evolution and accompanying stress changes with increasing crack damage during the cyclic stressing of rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulkner, Dan; Heap, Michael; Meredith, Philip

    2010-05-01

    The elastic moduli of rock present in areas susceptible to crack damage, such as within fault zones or volcanic edifices, can be subject to large modifications. Knowledge of how elastic moduli may vary in such situations is important for both the reliable modelling of volcano deformation and stability, and for linear and non-linear elastic crack models for earthquake rupture. It has previously been shown that changes in elastic moduli can induce changes in the stress field surrounding faults (Faulkner et al., 2006). Here therefore we report both uniaxial experimental measurements of changes in elastic moduli during increasing-amplitude cyclic stressing experiments on a range of different rock types (basalts, sandstones and granite), and the results of modelled stress modifications. The trend in elastic moduli evolution with increasing damage was remarkably similar for each rock type, with the exception of an essentially crack-free intrusive basalt that exhibited negligible changes. In general, Young's modulus decreased by between 11 and 32% and Poisson's ratio increased by between 72 and 600% over the total sequence of loading cycles. Our results also demonstrate that acoustic emission (AE) output during any loading cycle only commenced when new crack damage was generated. This corresponded to the level of stress where AE ceased during the unloading portion of the previous cycle. Using the multi-layer elastic model of Faulkner et al. (2006) we demonstrate that the damage-induced changes in elastic moduli also result in significant decreases in differential stress, increases in mean stress and rotation of the applied greatest principal stress relative to the orientation of the mechanical layering. The similar trend in the evolution of the elastic moduli of all the rocks tested suggests that stress modification in the damage zone of faults might take the same form, regardless of the lithology through which the fault runs. These observations are discussed in terms of

  4. Evolution of residual stress and crack morphologies during 3D FIB tomographic analysis of alumina.

    PubMed

    Elfallagh, F; Inkson, B J

    2008-05-01

    Three-dimensional focused ion beam (FIB) tomography is increasingly being used for 3D characterization of microstructures in the 50 nm-20 microm range. FIB tomography is a destructive, invasive process, and microstructural changes may potentially occur during the analysis process. Here residual stress and crack morphologies in single-crystal sapphire samples have been concurrently analyzed using Cr3+ fluorescence spectroscopy and FIB tomography. Specifically, maps of surface residual stress have been obtained from optically polished single-crystal alumina [surface orientation (1 ī 0 2)], from FIB milled surface trenches, from Vickers micro-indentation sites (loads 50 g-300 g), and from Vickers micro-indentation sites during FIB serial sectioning. The residual stress maps clearly show that FIB sputtering generates residual stress changes. For the case of the Vickers micro-indentations, FIB sputtering causes significant changes in residual stress during the FIB tomographic serial sectioning. 3D reconstruction of the crack distribution around micro-indentation sites shows that the cracks observed are influenced by the location of the FIB milled surface trenches due to localized stress changes.

  5. Stress Corrosion Crack Growth Rate Testing and Analytical Electron Microscopy of Alloy 600 as a Function of Pourbaix Space and Microstructure

    SciTech Connect

    N. Lewis; S.A. Attanasio; D.S. Morton; G.A. Young

    2000-10-04

    Stress corrosion crack (SCC) growth rate tests and analytical electron microscopy (AEM) studies were performed over a broad range of environments and heat treatments of Alloy 600. This effort was conducted to correlate bulk environmental conditions such as pH and electrochemical potential (EcP) with the morphology of the SCC crack. Development of a library of AEM morphologies formed by SCC in different environments is an important step in identifying the conditions that lead to SCC in components. Additionally, AEM examination of stress corrosion cracks formed in different environments and microstructures lends insight into the mechanism(s) of stress corrosion cracking. Testing was conducted on compact tension specimens in three environments: a mildly acidic oxidizing environment containing sulfate ions, a caustic environment containing 10% NaOH, and hydrogenated near-neutral buffered water. Additionally, stress corrosion cracking testing of a smooth specimen was conducted in hydrogenated steam. The following heat treatments of Alloy 600 were examined: mill annealed at 980 C (near-neutral water), mill annealed at 1010 C (steam), sensitized (acid and caustic), and mill annealed + healed to homogenize the grain boundary Cr concentration (caustic). Crack growth rate (CGR) testing showed that sensitized Alloy 600 tested in the mildly acidic, oxidizing environment containing sulfate ions produced the fastest cracking ({approx} 8.8 {micro}m/hr at 260 C), and AEM examination revealed evidence of sulfur segregation to the crack tip. The caustic environment produced slower cracking ({approx} 0.4 {micro}m/hr at 307 C) in the mill annealed + healed heat treatment but no observed cracking in the sensitized condition. In the caustic environment, fully oxidized carbides were present in the crack wake but not ahead of the crack tip. In near-neutral buffered water at 338 C, the CGR was a function of dissolved hydrogen in the water and exhibited a maximum (0.17 {micro}m/hr) near the

  6. The effects of heat treatment and composition on the stress corrosion cracking resistance of inconel alloy X-750

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floreen, S.; Nelson, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    The stress corrosion cracking resistance of 24 heats of INCONEL* alloy X-750 was measured in high purity pH 10 water at 360 °C. An overaging heat treatment of 96 hours at 760 °C produced an improved combination of strength and cracking resistance because of the homogenization of slip in the matrix. Examination of residual elements showed that Zr additions further improved the cracking resistance by stabilizing theγ' precipitate in the grain boundary region. Combining the new heat treatment with the Zr addition produced approximately a 50 pct improvement in stress corrosion cracking resistance at a 10 pct lower yield strength.

  7. An Experimental Study of Fatigue Crack Growth in Aluminum Sheet Subjected to Combined Bending and Membrane Stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Edward P.

    1997-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to determine the effects of combined bending and membrane cyclic stresses on the fatigue crack growth behavior of aluminum sheet material. The materials used in the tests were 0.040-in.- thick 2024-T3 alclad and 0.090-in.-thick 2024-T3 bare sheet. In the tests, the membrane stresses were applied as a constant amplitude loading at a stress ratio (minimum to maximum stress) of 0.02, and the bending stresses were applied as a constant amplitude deflection in phase with the membrane stresses. Tests were conducted at ratios of bending to membrane stresses (B/M) of 0, 0.75, and 1.50. The general trends of the results were for larger effects of bending for the higher B/M ratios, the lower membrane stresses, and the thicker material. The addition of cyclic bending stresses to a test with cyclic membrane stresses had only a small effect on the growth rates of through-thickness cracks in the thin material, but had a significant effect on the crack growth rates of through-thickness cracks in the thick material. Adding bending stresses to a test had the most effect on the initiation and early growth of cracks and had less effect on the growth of long through-thickness cracks.

  8. Stress-intensity factors for circumferential surface cracks in pipes and rods under tension and bending loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, I. S.; Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present stress-intensity factors for a wide range of nearly semi-elliptical surface cracks in pipes and rods. The configurations were subjected to either remote tension or bending loads. For pipes, the ratio of crack depth to crack length (a/c) ranged from 0.6 to 1; the ratio of crack depth to wall thickness (a/t) ranged from 0.2 to 0.8; and the ratio of internal radius to wall thickness (R/t) ranged from 1 to 10. For rods, the ratio of crack depth to crack length also ranged from 0.6 to 1; and the ratio of crack depth to rod diameter (a/D) ranged from 0.05 to 0.35. These particular crack configurations were chosen to cover the range of crack shapes (a/c) that have been observed in experiments conducted on pipes and rods under tension and bending fatigue loads. The stress-intensity factors were calculated by a three-dimensional finite-element method. The finite-element models employed singularity elements along the crack front and linear-strain elements elsewhere. The models had about 6500 degrees of freedom. The stress-intensity factors were evaluated using a nodal-force method.

  9. Three-term Asymptotic Stress Field Expansion for Analysis of Surface Cracked Elbows in Nuclear Pressure Vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labbe, Fernando

    2007-04-01

    Elbows with a shallow surface cracks in nuclear pressure pipes have been recognized as a major origin of potential catastrophic failures. Crack assessment is normally performed by using the J-integral approach. Although this one-parameter-based approach is useful to predict the ductile crack onset, it depends strongly on specimen geometry or constraint level. When a shallow crack exists (depth crack-to-thickness wall ratio less than 0.2) and/or a fully plastic condition develops around the crack, the J-integral alone does not describe completely the crack-tip stress field. In this paper, we report on the use of a three-term asymptotic expansion, referred to as the J- A 2 methodology, for modeling the elastic-plastic stress field around a three-dimensional shallow surface crack in an elbow subjected to internal pressure and out-of-plane bending. The material, an A 516 Gr. 70 steel, used in the nuclear industry, was modeled with a Ramberg-Osgood power law and flow theory of plasticity. A finite deformation theory was included to account for the highly nonlinear behavior around the crack tip. Numerical finite element results were used to calculate a second fracture parameter A 2 for the J- A 2 methodology. We found that the used three-term asymptotic expansion accurately describes the stress field around the considered three-dimensional shallow surface crack.

  10. Environmentally assisted cracking in light-water reactors: Semi-annual report, January--June 1997. Volume 24

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O.K.; Chung, H.M.; Gruber, E.E.

    1998-04-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in light water reactors from January 1997 to June 1997. Topics that have been investigated include (a) fatigue of carbon, low-alloy, and austenitic stainless steels (SSs) used in reactor piping and pressure vessels, (b) irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking of Types 304 and 304L SS, and (c) EAC of Alloys 600 and 690. Fatigue tests were conducted on ferritic and austenitic SSs in water that contained various concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO) to determine whether a slow strain rate applied during various portions of a tensile-loading cycle is equally effective in decreasing fatigue life. Slow-strain-rate-tensile tests were conducted in simulated boiling water reactor (BWR) water at 288 C on SS specimens irradiated to a low fluence in the Halden reactor and the results were compared with similar data from a control-blade sheath and neutron-absorber tubes irradiated in BWRs to the same fluence level. Crack-growth-rate tests were conducted on compact-tension specimens from several heats of Alloys 600 and 690 in low-DO, simulated pressurized water reactor environments.

  11. A Review of Fatigue Crack Growth in Metallics at Low Stress Intensities.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    irregularities. Elber (44) studied fatigue crack growth in aluminium alloy sheet specimens. Visible deformation associated with closure lead to an investigation...a function of the mean stress R, for the aluminium alloy studied U = 0.5 + 0.4 R (18) 7.1 Measurement of Crack Closure Various techniques have been...Apm - AEpth) c ... (56) 2c’ f The application of the model to an aluminium - zinc -magnesium alloy is shown in Fig. 40. The model predicts faster growth

  12. Recent developments in analysis of crack propagation and fracture of practical materials. [stress analysis in aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardrath, H. F.; Newman, J. C., Jr.; Elber, W.; Poe, C. C., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The limitations of linear elastic fracture mechanics in aircraft design and in the study of fatigue crack propagation in aircraft structures are discussed. NASA-Langley research to extend the capabilities of fracture mechanics to predict the maximum load that can be carried by a cracked part and to deal with aircraft design problems are reported. Achievements include: (1) improved stress intensity solutions for laboratory specimens; (2) fracture criterion for practical materials; (3) crack propagation predictions that account for mean stress and high maximum stress effects; (4) crack propagation predictions for variable amplitude loading; and (5) the prediction of crack growth and residual stress in built-up structural assemblies. These capabilities are incorporated into a first generation computerized analysis that allows for damage tolerance and tradeoffs with other disciplines to produce efficient designs that meet current airworthiness requirements.

  13. Stress-intensity factors and crack-opening displacements for round compact specimens. [fracture toughness of metallic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A two dimensional, boundary collocation stress analysis was used to analyze various round compact specimens. The influence of the round external boundary and of pin-loaded holes on stress intensity factors and crack opening displacements was determined as a function of crack-length-to-specimen-width ratios. A wide-range equation for the stress intensity factors was developed. Equations for crack-surface displacements and load-point displacements were also developed. In addition, stress intensity factors were calculated from compliance methods to demonstrate that load-displacement records must be made at the loading points and not along the crack line for crack-length-to-specimen-width ratios less than about 0.4.

  14. Effects of Processing Residual Stresses on Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of Structural Materials: Experimental Approaches and Microstructural Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammi, Christopher J.; Lados, Diana A.

    2012-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth mechanisms of long cracks through fields with low and high residual stresses were investigated for a common structural aluminum alloy, 6061-T61. Bulk processing residual stresses were introduced in the material by quenching during heat treatment. Compact tension (CT) specimens were fatigue crack growth (FCG) tested at varying stress ratios to capture the closure and K max effects. The changes in fatigue crack growth mechanisms at the microstructural scale are correlated to closure, stress ratio, and plasticity, which are all dependent on residual stress. A dual-parameter Δ K- K max approach, which includes corrections for crack closure and residual stresses, is used uniquely to connect fatigue crack growth mechanisms at the microstructural scale with changes in crack growth rates at various stress ratios for low- and high-residual-stress conditions. The methods and tools proposed in this study can be used to optimize existing materials and processes as well as to develop new materials and processes for FCG limited structural applications.

  15. Stress-Induced Martensite in Front of Crack Tips in NiTi Shape Memory Alloys: Modeling Versus Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maletta, C.; Young, M. L.

    2011-07-01

    NiTi-based shape memory alloys (SMAs) exhibit an unusual stress distribution at the crack tip as compared to common engineering materials, due to a stress-induced martensitic transformation resulting from highly localized stresses. Understanding the fracture mechanics of NiTi-based SMAs is critical to many of their applications. Here, we develop an analytical model, which predicts the boundaries of the transformation region in the crack tip vicinity of NiTi-based SMAs. The proposed model is based on a recent analytical approach which uses modified linear elastic fracture mechanics concepts to predict the crack tip stress distribution and transformation region in SMAs but, unfortunately, it applies only to the plane stress condition. To overcome this limitation, the proposed model accounts for stress triaxiality, which plays an important role in restricting crack tip plastic deformations in common ductile metals as well as the stress-induced martensite in NiTi SMAs. The effects of triaxial stress at the crack tip are taken into account by including a new parameter, the transformation constraint factor, which is based on the plastic constraint factor of elasto-plastic materials. The predictions of the model are compared with synchrotron x-ray micro-diffraction observations and satisfactory agreement is observed between the two results. Finally, the evolution of crack tip transformation boundaries during fracture tests of miniature compact tension specimens is predicted and the effects of applied load and crack length are discussed.

  16. Three-dimensional hybrid-stress finite element analysis of composite laminates with cracks and cutouts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, S. S.

    1985-01-01

    A three-dimensional hybrid-stress finite element analysis of composite laminates containing cutouts and cracks is presented. Fully three-dimensional, hexahedral isoparametric elements of the hybrid-stress model are formulated on the basis of the Hellinger-Reissner variational principle. Traction-free edges, cutouts, and crack surfaces are modeled by imposition of exact traction boundary conditions along element surfaces. Special boundary and surface elements are constructed by introducing proper constraints on assumed stress functions. The Lagrangian multiplier technique is used to enforce ply-interface continuity conditions in hybrid bimaterial composite elements for modeling the interface region in a composite laminate. Two examples are given to illustrate the capability of the present method of approach: (1) the well-known delamination problem in an angle-ply laminate, and (2) the important problem of a composite laminate containing a circular hole. Results are presented in detail for each case. Implications of interlaminar and intralaminar crack initiation, growth and fracture in composites containing cracks and cutouts are discussed.

  17. Stress Corrosion Cracking of HY-180 Steel in Aqueous 3.5 Pct NaCI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tromans, Desmond

    1981-08-01

    Stress corrosion cracking of HY-180 steel (Fe-10 Ni-2 Cr-1 Mo-8 Co-0.12 C) was studied in aqueous 3.5 pct NaCI (pH = 6.5) at 22 °C. The alloy was austenitized, water quenched and aged at 510 °C for 5 h. Specimens were of the precracked, double cantilever beam (DCB) variety and exposure times extended up to 1000 h. The crack propagation rates (v) were studied as a function of stress intensity (K,) under both freely corroding potentials (E ≈-0.36 VSHE) and potentials produced by coupling to Zn (E ≈ -0.82 VSHE. Crack fractography was studied by scanning electron microscopy and corrosion products were identified by electron diffraction analysis. The stress intensity, KISCC, below which SCC could not be detected was ~45 MPa m1/2 for both freely corroding and Zn-coupled conditions. Analysis of the results showed that cracking was consistent with a hydrogen embrittlement mechanism, irrespective of potential. Furthermore, comparison of the data with previous studies on a similarly heat treated and closely related alloy (HY-180 M), containing 14 Co-0.16 C, showed no significant difference in SCC behavior, provided comparison was made at similar electrochemical potentials.

  18. Stress-Corrosion Cracking of Silicon Carbide Fiber/Silicon Carbide Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Russell H.; Henager, Charles H.; Lewinsohn, Charles A.; Windisch, Charles F.

    2000-08-01

    Ceramic matrix composites are being developed to operate at elevated temperatures and in oxidizing environments. Considerable improvements are being made in the creep resistance of SiC fibers and hence in the high-temperature properties of SiCf/SiC composites; however, more needs to be known about the stability of these materials in oxidizing environments before they will be widely accepted. Experimental weight change (1,2) and crack growth data (3,4) supports the conclusion that O2 enhanced crack growth of SiCf/SiC occurs by more than one mechanism depending on the experimental conditions. This data suggests an oxidation embrittlement mechanism (OEM) at temperatures below 1373?K and high O2 pressures and an interphase removal mechanism (IRM) at temperatures of about 700?K and above and low O2 pressures. The OEM, as proposed by Evans et al. (3), results from the reaction of O2 with SiC to form a glass layer on the fiber or within the fiber-matrix interphase region. The fracture stress of the fiber is reduced if this layer is thicker than a critical value (d>dc) and the temperature is below a critical value (Tcrack can be sustained in the layer. The IRM , as proposed by Henager et al. (4), results from the oxidation of the interfacial layer and the resulting decrease of the stress that is carried by the bridging fibers. Interphase removal contributes to subcritical crack growth by decreasing the fiber bridging stresses and, hence, increasing the crack tip stress. IRM occurs over a wide range of temperatures for dTg for d>dc. This paper summarizes the evidence for the existence of these two mechanisms and attempts to define the conditions for their operation.

  19. Determination of Stress-Corrosion Cracking in Aluminum-Lithium Alloy ML377

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valek, Bryan C.

    1995-01-01

    The use of aluminum-lithium alloys for aerospace applications is currently being studied at NASA Langley Research Center's Metallic Materials Branch. The alloys in question will operate under stress in a corrosive environment. These conditions are ideal for the phenomena of Stress-Corrosion Cracking (SCC) to occur. The test procedure for SCC calls for alternate immersion and breaking load tests. These tests were optimized for the lab equipment and materials available in the Light Alloy lab. Al-Li alloy ML377 specimens were then subjected to alternate immersion and breaking load tests to determine residual strength and resistance to SCC. Corrosion morphology and microstructure were examined under magnification. Data shows that ML377 is highly resistant to stress-corrosion cracking.

  20. The relative stress-corrosion-cracking susceptibility of candidate aluminum-lithium alloys for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizzo, P. P.

    1982-01-01

    Stress corrosion tests of Al-Li-Cu powder metallurgy alloys are described. Alloys investigated were Al-2.6% Li-1.4% and Al-2.6% Li-1.4% Cu-1.6% Mg. The base properties of the alloys were characterized. Process, heat treatment, and size/orientational effects on the tensile and fracture behavior were investigated. Metallurgical and electrochemical conditions are identified which provide reproducible and controlled parameters for stress corrosion evaluation. Preliminary stress corrosion test results are reported. Both Al-Li-Cu alloys appear more susceptible to stress corrosion crack initiation than 7075-T6 aluminum, with the magnesium bearing alloy being the most susceptible. Tests to determine the threshold stress intensity for the base and magnesium bearing alloys are underway. Twelve each, bolt loaded DCB type specimens are under test (120 days) and limited crack growth in these precracked specimens has been observed. General corrosion in the aqueous sodium chloride environment is thought to be obscuring results through crack tip blunting.

  1. Evaluation of the stress corrosion cracking resistance of several high strength low alloy steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, T. S.; Nelson, E. E.

    1980-01-01

    The stress corrosion cracking resistance was studied for high strength alloy steels 4130, 4340, for H-11 at selected strength levels, and for D6AC and HY140 at a single strength. Round tensile and C-ring type specimens were stressed up to 100 percent of their yield strengths and exposed to alternate immersion in salt water, salt spray, the atmosphere at Marshall Space Flight Center, and the seacoast at Kennedy Space Center. Under the test conditions, 4130 and 4340 steels heat treated to a tensile strength of 1240 MPa (180 ksi), H-11 and D6AC heat treated to a tensile strength of 1450 MPa (210 ksi), and HY140 (1020 MPa, 148 ksi) are resistant to stress corrosion cracking because failures were not encountered at stress levels up to 75 percent of their yield strengths. A maximum exposure period of one month for alternate immersion in salt water or salt spray and three months for seacoast is indicated for alloy steel to avoid false indications of stress corrosion cracking because of failure resulting from severe pitting.

  2. Stress-assisted hydrogen attack cracking in 2.25Cr-1Mo steels at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.C.; Shewmon, P.

    1995-09-01

    Crack growth in 2.25Cr-1Mo steels exposed to 3,000 psi hydrogen has been investigated in the temperature range 440 C to 500 C, using modified wedge-opening loaded specimens to vary stress intensity. Under conditions of temperature and hydrogen pressure, where general hydrogen attack does not occur, the crack propagated by the growth and coalescence of a high density of methane bubbles on grain boundaries, driven by the synergistic influence of internal methane pressure and applied stress. Crack growth rates were measured in base metal, and the heat-affected zones (HAZs) of welds were tempered to different strength levels. The crack growth rate increased with material strength. Above a threshold of about K{sub l} = 20 MPa{radical}m (at 480 C), the crack growth rate increased rapidly with stress intensity, increasing as roughly K{sub l}{sup 6.5}. Because of better creep resistance, stronger materials can sustain higher levels of stress intensity to drive crack growth and nucleate the high density of voids necessary for crack growth. Stress relaxation by creep reduces the stress intensity, and thus the growth rate, especially in weaker materials. The crack growth rate in the heat-affected zone was found to be substantially faster than in the base metal of the welds. Analysis indicates that K{sub l} rather than C* is the appropriate crack-tip loading parameter in the specimen used here and in a thick-walled pressure vessel. The DC potential drop technique met with limited success in this application due to the spatially discontinuous manner of crack growth and limited crack-tip opening displacement.

  3. Ultrasonic inspection of austenitic stainless steel welds with artificially produced stress corrosion cracks

    SciTech Connect

    Dugan, Sandra; Wagner, Sabine

    2014-02-18

    Austenitic stainless steel welds and nickel alloy welds, which are widely used in nuclear power plants, present major challenges for ultrasonic inspection due to the grain structure in the weld. Large grains in combination with the elastic anisotropy of the material lead to increased scattering and affect sound wave propagation in the weld. This results in a reduced signal-to-noise ratio, and complicates the interpretation of signals and the localization of defects. Mechanized ultrasonic inspection was applied to study austenitic stainless steel test blocks with different types of flaws, including inter-granular stress corrosion cracks (IGSCC). The results show that cracks located in the heat affected zone of the weld are easily detected when inspection from both sides of the weld is possible. In cases of limited accessibility, when ultrasonic inspection can be carried out only from one side of a weld, it may be difficult to distinguish between signals from scattering in the weld and signals from cracks.

  4. Effect of Loading History on Stress Corrosion Cracking of 7075-T651 Aluminum Alloy in Saline Aqueous Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jixi; Kalnaus, Sergiy; Behrooz, Majid; Jiang, Yanyao

    2011-02-01

    An experimental study of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) was conducted on 7075-T651 aluminum alloy in a chromate-inhibited, acidic 3.5 pct sodium chloride aqueous solution using compact tension specimens with a thickness of 3.8 mm under permanent immersion conditions. The effects of loading magnitude, overload, underload, and two-step high-low sequence loading on incubation time and crack growth behavior were investigated. The results show that the SCC process consists of three stages: incubation, transient crack growth, and stable crack growth. The incubation time is highly dependent on the load level. Tensile overload or compressive underload applied prior to SCC significantly altered the initiation time of corrosion cracking. Transition from a high to a low loading magnitude resulted in a second incubation but much shorter or disappearing transient stage. The stable crack growth rate is independent of stress intensity factor in the range of 10 to 22 MPa sqrt {{m}}.

  5. Stress intensity factors for deep cracks emanating from the corner formed by a hole intersecting a plate surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgowan, J. J.; Smith, C. W.

    1974-01-01

    A technique consisting of freezing photo-elasticity and a numerical method was used to obtain stress intensity factors for natural cracks emanating from the corner at which a hole intersects a plate surface. Geometries studied were: (1) crack depth to thickness ratios of approximately 0.2, (2) 0.5 and 0.75; (3) crack depth to crack length ratios of approximately 1.0 to 2.0; and (4) crack length to hole radius ratios of about 0.5 to 2.0. All final crack geometries were grown under monotonic loading and growth was not self similar, with most of the growth occuring through the thickness under remote extension. Stress intensity factors were determined at the intersection of the flaw border.

  6. The stress distribution in tempered glass due to a crack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arin, K.

    1976-01-01

    A model describing the failure in tempered glass is proposed and a method of solution is presented. An infinite elastic strip is assumed to represent the glass and the loads vanish everywhere on the boundary as well as at infinity. The problem is solved using the integral equations technique where the input is the residual stresses in the glass.

  7. Effect of heat treatment on caustic stress corrosion cracking behavior of alloy 600

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, J.K.

    1999-12-01

    Constant elongation rate tests (CERT) were conducted to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) susceptibility of alloy 600 (UNS NO6600) in 140 C and 50% caustic solution at {minus}900 mV vs saturated calomel electrode (SCE). Results showed: (1) Heat treatment at low temperature for a long time (600 C for 260 h) led to a material that was not susceptible to caustic intergranular (IG) cracking. Increase in heat treatment temperature enhanced IG cracking susceptibility. Caustic IGSCC susceptibility was at maximum near the carbon solubility limit. However, when the heat treatment temperature was higher than the carbon solubility limit, a significant decrease in crack growth rate was observed. (2) Grain boundaries acted as a preferential crack path when grain boundary carbon segregation was likely. Thermodynamic considerations suggested that severe caustic IGSCC susceptibility near the carbon solubility limit could be explained in terms of carbon segregation at the grain boundaries. (3) IGSCC in caustic solution did not seem to be caused by chromium depletion. (4) Although formation of semi-continuous IG carbides and IGSCC resistance seemed to exhibit a similar chronological response with heat treatment, it was unlikely that grain boundary IG carbides played a role in caustic IGSCC susceptibility.

  8. Irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking of controlled purity 304L stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cookson, J. M.; Carter, R. D.; Damcott, D. L.; Atzmon, M.; Was, G. S.

    1993-06-01

    The effect of chromium, phosphorus, silicon and sulfur on the stress corrosion cracking of 304L stainless steel in CERT tests in high purity water or argon at 288°C following irradiation with 3.4 MeV protons at 400°C to 1 dpa, has been investigated using ultrahigh purity alloys (UHP) with controlled impurity additions. Grain boundary segregation of phosphorus or silicon due to proton irradiation was quantified using both Auger electron spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy, and the alloys with impurity element additions were observed to have greater grain boundary chromium depletion and nickel enrichment than the UHP alloy. The UHP alloy suffered severe cracking in CERT tests in water. Less cracking was found after CERT test of irradiated UHP+Por UHP+Si alloys, despite greater chromium depletion. This suggests a mitigating effect of phosphorus and silicon at grain boundaries. No cracking was found in argon tests, eliminating a purely mechanical embrittlement mechanism, but not eliminating a contribution from radiation hardening. Implanted hydrogen was not a factor in the intergranular cracking found.

  9. High-Performance Laser Peening for Effective Mitigation of Stress Corrosion Cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Hackel, L; Hao-Lin, C; Wong, F; Hill, M

    2002-10-02

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in the Yucca Mountain waste package closure welds is believed to be the greatest threat to long-term containment. Use of stress mitigation to eliminate tensile stresses resulting from welding can prevent SCC. A laser technology with sufficient average power to achieve high throughput has been developed and commercially deployed with high peak power and sufficiently high average power to be an effective laser peening system. An appropriately applied version of this process could be applied to eliminate SCC in the waste package closure welds.

  10. Imaging in-plane and normal stresses near an interface crack using traction force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ye; Engl, Wilfried C.; Jerison, Elizabeth R.; Wallenstein, Kevin J.; Hyland, Callen; Wilen, Larry A.; Dufresne, Eric R.

    2010-01-01

    Colloidal coatings, such as paint, are all around us. However, we know little about the mechanics of the film-forming process because the composition and properties of drying coatings vary dramatically in space and time. To surmount this challenge, we extend traction force microscopy to quantify the spatial distribution of all three components of the stress at the interface of two materials. We apply this approach to image stress near the tip of a propagating interface crack in a drying colloidal coating and extract the stress intensity factor. PMID:20696929

  11. Imaging in-plane and normal stresses near an interface crack using traction force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ye; Engl, Wilfried C; Jerison, Elizabeth R; Wallenstein, Kevin J; Hyland, Callen; Wilen, Larry A; Dufresne, Eric R

    2010-08-24

    Colloidal coatings, such as paint, are all around us. However, we know little about the mechanics of the film-forming process because the composition and properties of drying coatings vary dramatically in space and time. To surmount this challenge, we extend traction force microscopy to quantify the spatial distribution of all three components of the stress at the interface of two materials. We apply this approach to image stress near the tip of a propagating interface crack in a drying colloidal coating and extract the stress intensity factor.

  12. The effect of water flow rate upon the environmentally-assisted cracking response of a low-alloy steel

    SciTech Connect

    James, L.A.; Wire, G.L.; Cullen, W.H.

    1994-09-01

    Effect of water flow rate on the environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC) response of a high-sulfur ferritic steel was studied at 243C. In contrast to earlier studies with compact-type specimens, this study employed relatively large tight semi-elliptical surface cracks tested under generally linear-elastic conditions. Flow velocities parallel to the crack as low as 1.68 {minus} 1.84 m/s were effective in mitigating EAC.

  13. Exploring How Weathering Related Stresses and Subcritical Crack Growth May Influence the Size of Sediment Produced From Different Rock Types.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppes, M. C.; Hallet, B.; Hancock, G. S.; Mackenzie-Helnwein, P.; Keanini, R.

    2016-12-01

    The formation and diminution of rock debris, sediment and soil at and near Earth's surface is driven in large part by in situ, non-transport related, rock cracking. Given the relatively low magnitude stresses that arise in surface and near-surface settings, this production and diminution of granular material is likely strongly influenced and/or driven by subcritical crack growth (Eppes et al., 2016), cracking that occurs under stress loading conditions much lower than a rock's strength as typically measured in the laboratory under rapid loading. Despite a relatively sound understanding of subcritical crack growth through engineering and geophysical studies, its geomorphic and sedimentologic implications have only been minimally explored. Here, based on existing studies, we formulate several hypotheses to predict how weathering-induced stresses combined with the subcritical crack growth properties of rock may influence sediment size distribution. For example, subcritical crack growth velocity (v) can be described by v = CKIn where KI is the mode I (simple opening mode) stress intensity factor, a function of tensile stress at the crack tip and crack length; C is a rock- and environment-dependent constant; and n is material constant, the subcritical crack growth index. Fracture length and spacing in rock is strongly dependent on n, where higher n values result in fewer, more distally spaced cracks (e.g. Olsen, 1993). Thus, coarser sediment might be expected from rocks with higher n values. Weathering-related stresses such as thermal stresses and mineral hydration, however, can disproportionally stress boundaries between minerals with contrasting thermal or chemical properties and orientation, resulting in granular disintegration. Thus, rocks with properties favorable to inducing these stresses might produce sediment whose size is reflective of its constituent grains. We begin to test these hypotheses through a detailed examination of crack and rock characteristics in

  14. Experimental study on propagation of liquid-filled crack in gelatin: Shape and velocity in hydrostatic stress condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, Akira

    1990-06-01

    The three-dimensional shape and velocity of propagating cracks in the hydrostatic stress condition were studied by using gelatin, the physical properties of which were controlled to be constant. Various liquids (with various densities, viscosities, and volumes as the governed parameters) were injected in gelatin to form liquid-filled cracks. The directions of the crack growth and the propagation of an isolated crack are governed by the density difference between injected liquid and gelatin (Δρ), that is, a buoyancy. The propagation of a crack has two critical values: the first is the transition value to brittle fracture; the second is the value where segmentation begins to occur. The condition of a stable isolated crack formation is discussed. The crack shape of an isolated crack in the direction perpendicular to the crack plane is different from that of a growing crack with a fat tear drop form: the former has an elliptical top and a nearly flat bottom. The upper termination of an isolated crack in the vertical cross section has an elliptical shape, and the lower termination has a cusped shape. The lower part of the crack occupies the preexiting fracture which has formed by fracturing at the crack top. The crack thickness (w)/crack height (h) ratio is proportional to Δρ A, if the elastic moduli are constant. The crack length l/h ratio increase with h in the primary fracture, while the l/h ratio decreases with h in the preexisting fracture except for air-filled cracks. The ascending velocity of an isolated crack is proportional to Δρ3 h4, that is, Δρ w2, if the other physical properties are constant. The height and length of a growing penny-shaped crack are approximately proportional to A 3d1/3t4/9, so that the growth rate of height is in proportion to A3d3t-5/9 (A3d is constant injection rale). Some comparisons with the two-dimensional crack theory and applications for magma-filled cracks are discussed on the basis of these results.

  15. Crack initiation and propagation behavior of zirconium cladding under an environment of iodine-induced stress corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang Yoon; Kim, Jun Hwan; Choi, Byung Kwon; Jeong, Yong Hwan

    2007-04-01

    Tests of iodine-induced stress corrosion cracking (ISCC) were carried out to elucidate the initiation and propagation of cracks in the claddings of zirconium alloys. Zircaloy-4 cladding and Nb-contained zirconium cladding were pressurized with and without a pre-cracked state at 350°C in an iodine environment. The results show that pitting nucleation and growth play an important role in initiating ISCC. Pits preferentially grow and agglomerate around the grain boundary, where the number of pits increases with the iodine concentration and the hoop stress of the claddings. A model of grain-boundary pitting coalescence and a model of pitting-assisted slip cleavage, which were proposed to clearly elucidate the crack initiation and propagation process under ISCC, produce reasonable results. The Nb-contained zirconium cladding exhibits higher ISCC resistance than Zircaloy-4 from the standpoint of a higher threshold stress-intensity factor and a lower crack propagation rate.

  16. Stress modulation in desiccating crack networks for producing effective templates for patterning metal network based transparent conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ankush; Pujar, Rajashekhar; Gupta, Nikita; Tarafdar, Sujata; Kulkarni, Giridhar U.

    2017-07-01

    A drying layer of a colloidal dispersion tends to produce cracks, often in a network, due to internal stress arising from the rearrangement of particles while the substrate adhesion resists such movements. The stress can be modulated using experimental agents such as electric field, humidity, and surface structuring. In this work, repeated wet-drying cycles of the cracking layer have been used as stress modulating agents taking an aqueous dispersion of acrylic resin nanoparticles as the colloidal layer, offering cracks with widths in the sub-ten micrometer range. With increasing wet-drying cycles, the colloidal layer is seen to develop higher crack density and connectivity, as well as a well-defined hierarchy of formation. Thus developed crack layers have been used as templates for depositing metals (Cu and Au) to realize fine metal wire meshes. The latter serve as transparent conductors with excellent optoelectronic properties.

  17. Prediction of fatigue crack growth kinetics in the plane structural elements of aircraft in the biaxial stress state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanyavskij, A. A.; Karaev, K. Z.; Grigor'ev, V. M.; Koronov, M. Z.; Orlov, E. F.

    1991-07-01

    The kinetics of fatigue crack growth in the case of a complex stress state is investigated with particular reference to D16T aluminum alloy. By using simulation models in the form of plane cruciform specimens, the characteristics of fatigue crack growth are investigated under conditions of uniaxial and biaxial tension-compression, with the ratio of the main stresses varying from -1 to 1.5. An algorithm is developed which makes it possible to predict the kinetics of fatigue crack growth and the equivalent stress level under conditions of multiparametric loading.

  18. The effect of heat treatment and test parameters on the aqueous stress corrosion cracking of D6AC steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbreath, W. P.; Adamson, M. J.

    1974-01-01

    The crack growth behavior of D6AC steel as a function of stress intensity, stress and corrosion history and test technique, under sustained load in natural seawater, 3.3 percent NaCl solution, distilled water, and high humidity air was investigated. Reported investigations of D6AC were considered with emphasis on thermal treatment, specimen configuration, fracture toughness, crack-growth rates, initiation period, threshold, and the extension of corrosion fatigue data to sustained load conditions. Stress history effects were found to be most important in that they controlled incubation period, initial crack growth rates, and apparent threshold.

  19. A study of the mechanism of primary water stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600

    SciTech Connect

    Gourgues, A.F.; Andrieu, E.; Scott, P.M.

    1995-12-31

    Two aspects of the mechanism of stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 in pressurized water reactors (PWR) primary water have been studied in detail. Results are presented showing that grain boundaries of Alloy 600 are embrittled to a depth of several microns by exposure to primary water in an unstressed condition. It has been established that this embrittlement is not reversible by high temperature degassing and cannot be directly due to hydrogen. The results seem to support the hypothesis that oxygen atom penetration of grain boundaries is possible. However, no evidence of formation of grain boundary gas bubbles or oxides has been found. It is envisaged that this embrittlement process could sequentially act at the tip of a growing stress corrosion crack. The second phenomenon under study has been the plastic deformation behavior of Alloy 600 since it is known that cold work and stress have an important effect on stress corrosion cracking sensitivity. Results of plastic deformation during cyclic straining at various controlled strain rates are presented showing that Alloy 600 is not very sensitive to loading history and that cold work is of an essentially kinematic nature.

  20. Determination of stress intensity factors for interface cracks under mixed-mode loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naik, Rajiv A.; Crews, John H., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A simple technique was developed using conventional finite element analysis to determine stress intensity factors, K1 and K2, for interface cracks under mixed-mode loading. This technique involves the calculation of crack tip stresses using non-singular finite elements. These stresses are then combined and used in a linear regression procedure to calculate K1 and K2. The technique was demonstrated by calculating three different bimaterial combinations. For the normal loading case, the K's were within 2.6 percent of an exact solution. The normalized K's under shear loading were shown to be related to the normalized K's under normal loading. Based on these relations, a simple equation was derived for calculating K1 and K2 for mixed-mode loading from knowledge of the K's under normal loading. The equation was verified by computing the K's for a mixed-mode case with equal and normal shear loading. The correlation between exact and finite element solutions is within 3.7 percent. This study provides a simple procedure to compute K2/K1 ratio which has been used to characterize the stress state at the crack tip for various combinations of materials and loadings. Tests conducted over a range of K2/K1 ratios could be used to fully characterize interface fracture toughness.

  1. STRESS CORROSION CRACK GROWTH RESPONSE FOR ALLOY 152/52 DISSIMILAR METAL WELDS IN PWR PRIMARY WATER

    SciTech Connect

    Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Overman, Nicole R.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    2015-08-15

    As part of ongoing research into primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) susceptibility of alloy 690 and its welds, SCC tests have been conducted on alloy 152/52 dissimilar metal (DM) welds with cracks positioned with the goal to assess weld dilution and fusion line effects on SCC susceptibility. No increased crack growth rate was found when evaluating a 20% Cr dilution zone in alloy 152M joined to carbon steel (CS) that had not undergone a post-weld heat treatment (PWHT). However, high SCC crack growth rates were observed when the crack reached the fusion line of that material where it propagated both on the fusion line and in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of the carbon steel. Crack surface and crack profile examinations of the specimen revealed that cracking in the weld region was transgranular (TG) with weld grain boundaries not aligned with the geometric crack growth plane of the specimen. The application of a typical pressure vessel PWHT on a second set of alloy 152/52 – carbon steel DM weld specimens was found to eliminate the high SCC susceptibility in the fusion line and carbon steel HAZ regions. PWSCC tests were also performed on alloy 152-304SS DM weld specimens. Constant K crack growth rates did not exceed 5x10-9 mm/s in this material with post-test examinations revealing cracking primarily on the fusion line and slightly into the 304SS HAZ.

  2. The role of local strains from prior cold work on stress corrosion cracking of α-brass in Mattsson's solution

    SciTech Connect

    Ulaganathan, Jaganathan Newman, Roger C.

    2014-06-01

    The dynamic strain rate ahead of a crack tip formed during stress corrosion cracking (SCC) under a static load is assumed to arise from the crack propagation. The strain surrounding the crack tip would be redistributed as the crack grows, thereby having the effect of dynamic strain. Recently, several studies have shown cold work to cause accelerated crack growth rates during SCC, and the slip-dissolution mechanism has been widely applied to account for this via a supposedly increased crack-tip strain rate in cold worked material. While these interpretations consider cold work as a homogeneous effect, dislocations are generated inhomogeneously within the microstructure during cold work. The presence of grain boundaries results in dislocation pile-ups that cause local strain concentrations. The local strains generated from cold working α-brass by tensile elongation were characterized using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The role of these local strains in SCC was studied by measuring the strain distributions from the same regions of the sample before cold work, after cold work, and after SCC. Though, the cracks did not always initiate or propagate along boundaries with pre-existing local strains from the applied cold work, the local strains surrounding the cracked boundaries had contributions from both the crack propagation and the prior cold work. - Highlights: • Plastic strain localization has a complex relationship with SCC susceptibility. • Surface relief created by cold work creates its own granular strain localization. • Cold work promotes crack growth but several other factors are involved.

  3. Analysis of corner cracks at hole by a 3-D weight function method with stresses from finite element method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, W.; Newman, J. C., Jr.; Sutton, M. A.; Wu, X. R.; Shivakumar, K. N.

    1995-01-01

    Stress intensity factors for quarter-elliptical corner cracks emanating from a circular hole are determined using a 3-D weight function method combined with a 3-D finite element method. The 3-D finite element method is used to analyze uncracked configuration and provide stress distribution in the region where crack is to occur. Using this stress distribution as input, the 3-D weight function method is used to determine stress intensity factors. Three different loading conditions, i.e. remote tension, remote bending and wedge loading, are considered for a wide range in geometrical parameters. The significance in using 3-D uncracked stress distribution and the difference between single and double corner cracks are studied. Typical crack opening displacements are also provided. Comparisons are made with solutions available in the literature.

  4. Stress-intensity factors for a thick-walled cylinder containing an annular imbedded or external or internal surface crack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdol, R.; Erdogan, F.

    1976-01-01

    The elastostatic axisymmetric problem for a long thick-walled cylinder containing a ring-shaped internal or edge crack is considered. Using the standard transform technique the problem is formulated in terms of an integral equation which has a simple Cauchy kernel for the internal crack and a generalized Cauchy kernel for the edge crack as the dominant part. As examples the uniform axial load and the steady-state thermal stress problems have been solved and the related stress intensity factors have been calculated. Among other findings the results show that in the cylinder under uniform axial stress containing an internal crack the stress intensity factor at the inner tip is always greater than that at the outer tip for equal net ligament thicknesses and in the cylinder with an edge crack which is under a state of thermal stress the stress intensity factor is a decreasing function of the crack depth, tending to zero as the crack depth approaches the wall thickness.

  5. On stress analysis of a crack-layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chudnovsky, A.; Dolgopolsky, A.; Kachanov, M.

    1984-01-01

    This work considers the problem of elastic interaction of a macrocrack with an array of microcracks in the vicinity of the macrocrack tip. Using the double layer potential techniques, the solution to the problem within the framework of the plane problem of elastostatics has been obtained. Three particular problems of interest to fracture mechanics have been analyzed. It follows from analysis that microcrack array can either amplify or reduce the resulting stress field of the macrocrack-microcrack array system depending on the array's configuration. Using the obtained elastic solution the energy release rate associated with the translational motion of the macrocrack-microcrack array system has been evaluated.

  6. Hydrogen-enhanced cracking revealed by in situ micro-cantilever bending test inside environmental scanning electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yun; Hajilou, Tarlan; Barnoush, Afrooz

    2017-07-28

    To evaluate the hydrogen (H)-induced embrittlement in iron aluminium intermetallics, especially the one with stoichiometric composition of 50 at.% Al, a novel in situ micro-cantilever bending test was applied within an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), which provides both a full process monitoring and a clean, in situ H-charging condition. Two sets of cantilevers were analysed in this work: one set of un-notched cantilevers, and the other set with focused ion beam-milled notch laying on two crystallographic planes: (010) and (110). The cantilevers were tested under two environmental conditions: vacuum (approximately 5 × 10(-4) Pa) and ESEM (450 Pa water vapour). Crack initiation at stress-concentrated locations and propagation to cause catastrophic failure were observed when cantilevers were tested in the presence of H; while no cracking occurred when tested in vacuum. Both the bending strength for un-notched beams and the fracture toughness for notched beams were reduced under H exposure. The hydrogen embrittlement (HE) susceptibility was found to be orientation dependent: the (010) crystallographic plane was more fragile to HE than the (110) plane.This article is part of the themed issue 'The challenges of hydrogen and metals'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. Hydrogen-enhanced cracking revealed by in situ micro-cantilever bending test inside environmental scanning electron microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yun; Hajilou, Tarlan; Barnoush, Afrooz

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the hydrogen (H)-induced embrittlement in iron aluminium intermetallics, especially the one with stoichiometric composition of 50 at.% Al, a novel in situ micro-cantilever bending test was applied within an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), which provides both a full process monitoring and a clean, in situ H-charging condition. Two sets of cantilevers were analysed in this work: one set of un-notched cantilevers, and the other set with focused ion beam-milled notch laying on two crystallographic planes: (010) and (110). The cantilevers were tested under two environmental conditions: vacuum (approximately 5 × 10-4 Pa) and ESEM (450 Pa water vapour). Crack initiation at stress-concentrated locations and propagation to cause catastrophic failure were observed when cantilevers were tested in the presence of H; while no cracking occurred when tested in vacuum. Both the bending strength for un-notched beams and the fracture toughness for notched beams were reduced under H exposure. The hydrogen embrittlement (HE) susceptibility was found to be orientation dependent: the (010) crystallographic plane was more fragile to HE than the (110) plane. This article is part of the themed issue 'The challenges of hydrogen and metals'.

  8. Environmentally Assisted Cracking of Alloy 7050-T7451 Exposed to Aqueous Chloride Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Reinhold

    2016-03-01

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of 7050-T7451 plate material was investigated in short-transverse direction performing constant load and constant extension rate tests. Smooth and notched tensile specimens were permanently immersed in substitute ocean water and in an aqueous solution of 0.6 M NaCl + 0.06 M (NH4)2SO4. Alloy 7050-T7451 exhibited high SCC resistance in both synthetic environments. However, conducting cyclic loading tests, environment-induced cracking was observed. Applying a sawtooth waveform, notched tensile specimens were strained under constant load amplitude conditions at constant displacement rates ranging from 2 × 10-6 to 2 × 10-4 mms-1. The stress ratio R = σ min/ σ max was 0.1 with maximum stresses of 300 and 400 MPa. When cyclically loaded in substitute ocean water, notched specimens failed predominantly by transgranular environment-induced cracking. Striations were observed on the cleavage-like facets. The number of cycles-to-failure decreased with decreasing displacement rate. A slope of 0.5 was obtained by fitting the logarithmic plot of number of cycles-to-failure vs nominal loading frequency, indicating a hydrogen embrittlement mechanism controlled by diffusion.

  9. The role of hydrogen in hot-salt stress corrosion cracking of titanium-aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ondrejcin, R. S.

    1971-01-01

    Additional support is presented for the previously proposed role of hydrogen as an embrittling agent in hot-salt stress corrosion cracking of titanium-aluminum alloys. The main source of hydrogen formed during the reactions of titanium alloys with hot salt was identified as water associated with the salt. Hydrogen is produced by the reaction of an intermediate (hydrogen halide) with the alloy rather than from metal-water reactions. The fracture mode of precracked tensile specimens was ductile when the specimens were tested in air, and brittle when tests were made in high-pressure hydrogen. Stressed titanium-aluminum alloys also were cracked by bombardment with hydrogen ions produced in a proton accelerator. The approximate concentrations of the hydrogen ions in the alloys were calculated.

  10. Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior of Peened Friction Stir Welded 2195 Aluminum Alloy Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatamleh, Omar; Singh, Preet M.; Garmestani, Hamid

    2009-06-01

    The surface treatment techniques of laser and shot peening were used to investigate their effect on stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in friction stir welded (FSW) 2195 aluminum alloy joints. The investigation consisted of two parts: the first part explored the peening effects on slow strain rate testing (SSRT) in a 3.5% NaCl solution, while the second part investigated the effects of peening on corrosion while submerged in a 3.5% NaCl solution with no external loads applied. For the SSRT, the laser-peened samples demonstrated superior properties to the other samples, but no signs of corrosion pitting or SCC were evident on any of the samples. For the second part of the study, the FSW plates were inspected periodically for signs of corrosion. After 60 days there were signs of corrosion pitting, but no stress corrosion cracking was noticed in any of the peened and unpeened samples.

  11. Scanning electron acoustic microscopy of indentation-induced cracks and residual stresses in ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, John H.; Qian, Menglu; Ravichandran, M. V.; Knowles, K. M.

    1990-01-01

    The ability of scanning electron acoustic microscopy (SEAM) to characterize ceramic materials is assessed. SEAM images of Vickers indentations in SiC whisker-reinforced alumina clearly reveal not only the radial cracks, the length of which can be used to estimate the fracture toughness of the material, but also reveal strong contrast, interpreted as arising from the combined effects of lateral cracks and the residual stress field left in the SiC whisker-reinforced alumina by the indenter. The strong contrast is removed after the material is heat treated at 1000 C to relieve the residual stresses around the indentations. A comparison of these observations with SEAM and reflected polarized light observations of Vickers indentations in soda-lime glass both before and after heat treatment confirms the interpretation of the strong contrast.

  12. Scanning electron acoustic microscopy of indentation-induced cracks and residual stresses in ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, John H.; Qian, Menglu; Ravichandran, M. V.; Knowles, K. M.

    1990-01-01

    The ability of scanning electron acoustic microscopy (SEAM) to characterize ceramic materials is assessed. SEAM images of Vickers indentations in SiC whisker-reinforced alumina clearly reveal not only the radial cracks, the length of which can be used to estimate the fracture toughness of the material, but also reveal strong contrast, interpreted as arising from the combined effects of lateral cracks and the residual stress field left in the SiC whisker-reinforced alumina by the indenter. The strong contrast is removed after the material is heat treated at 1000 C to relieve the residual stresses around the indentations. A comparison of these observations with SEAM and reflected polarized light observations of Vickers indentations in soda-lime glass both before and after heat treatment confirms the interpretation of the strong contrast.

  13. Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior of X80 Pipeline Steel in Acid Soil Environment with SRB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dan; Xie, Fei; Wu, Ming; Liu, Guangxin; Zong, Yue; Li, Xue

    2017-06-01

    Self-designed experimental device was adopted to ensure the normal growth of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in sterile simulated Yingtan soil solution. Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of X80 pipeline steel in simulated acid soil environment was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, slow strain rate test, and scanning electron microscope. Results show that the presence of SRB could promote stress corrosion cracking susceptibility. In a growth cycle, polarization resistance first presents a decrease and subsequently an increase, which is inversely proportional to the quantities of SRB. At 8 days of growth, SRB reach their largest quantity of 1.42 × 103 cells/g. The corrosion behavior is most serious at this time point, and the SCC mechanism is hydrogen embrittlement. In other SRB growth stages, the SCC mechanism of X80 steel is anodic dissolution. With the increasing SRB quantities, X80 steel is largely prone to SCC behavior, and the effect of hydrogen is considerably obvious.

  14. Stress corrosion cracking tests on high-level-waste container materials in simulated tuff repository environments

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, T.; Jain, H.; Soo, P.

    1986-06-01

    Types 304L, 316L, and 321 austenitic stainless steel and Incoloy 825 are being considered as candidate container materials for emplacing high-level waste in a tuff repository. The stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of these materials under simulated tuff repository conditions was evaluated by using the notched C-ring method. The tests were conducted in boiling synthetic groundwater as well as in the steam/air phase above the boiling solutions. All specimens were in contact with crushed Topopah Spring tuff. The investigation showed that microcracks are frequently observed after testing as a result of stress corrosion cracking or intergranular attack. Results showing changes in water chemistry during test are also presented.

  15. Polymerization stresses in low-shrinkage dental resin composites measured by crack analysis.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takatsugu; Kubota, Yu; Momoi, Yasuko; Ferracane, Jack L

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to compare several dental restoratives currently advertised as low-shrinkage composites (Clearfil Majesty Posterior, Kalore, Reflexions XLS Dentin and Venus Diamond) with a microfill composite (Heliomolar) in terms of polymerization stress, polymerization shrinkage and elastic modulus. Cracks were made at several distances from the edge of a precision cavity in a soda-lime glass disk. The composites were placed into the cavity and lengths of the cracks were measured before and after light curing. Polymerization stresses generated in the glass at 2 and 10 min after the irradiation were calculated from the crack lengths and K(c) of the glass. Polymerization shrinkage and elastic modulus of the composites also were measured at 2 and 10 min after irradiation using a video-imaging device and a nanoindenter, respectively. The data were statistically analyzed by ANOVAs and Tukey's test (p<0.05). The stress was significantly affected by composite brand, distance and time. The stress was directly proportional to time and inversely proportional to distance from the edge of the cavity. Clearfil Majesty Posterior demonstrated the highest stress and it resulted in the fracture of the glass at 2 min. Venus Diamond and Heliomolar exhibited the greatest shrinkage at both times. The elastic moduli of Clearfil Majesty Posterior and Reflexions XLS Dentin were greatest at 2 and 10 min, respectively. Among the four low-shrinkage composites, two demonstrated significantly reduced polymerization stress compared to Heliomolar, which has previously been shown in in vitro tests to generate low curing stress. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Wrought and P/M High Strength Aluminum Alloys.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    M 1 Jan. 1982 - 31 Dec. 1982 High Strength Aluminum Alloys 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER ,". A4THOR( s ) 0. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(&) F, W...program are presented, C-3 with emphasis on the stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen embrittlement of S the P/M X-7090 AValloy. More complete results...specimens. The value obtained, about 󈧋 cm / s -is one of the first successful measurements of this type. We remain confident that we have established

  17. TRAC-BF1 thermal-hydraulic, ANSYS stress analysis for core shroud cracking phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Shoop, U.; Feltus, M.A.; Baratta, A.J.

    1996-12-31

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission sent Generic Letter 94-03 informing all licensees about the intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of core shrouds found in both Dresden unit I and Quad Cities unit 1. The letter directed all licensees to perform safety analysis of their boiling water reactor (BWR) units. Two transients of special concern for the core shroud safety analysis include the main steam line break (MSLB) and recirculation line break transient.

  18. Inhibition of stress corrosion cracking of Alloy X-750 by prestrain

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, W.J.; Lebo, M.R.; Kearns, J.J.

    1997-03-01

    Tests of precracked and as-notched compact tension specimens were conducted in 3600C hydrogenated water to determine the effect of prestrain on the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance of Alloy X-750 in the HTH, AH and HOA heat treated conditions. Prestraining is defined as the intentional application of an initial load (or strain) that is higher than the final test load. Prestrain was varied from 10% to 40% (i.e., the initial to final load ratios ranged from 1.1 to 1.4). Other variables included notch root radius, stress level and irradiation. Specimens were bolt-loaded to maintain essentially constant displacement conditions during the course of the test. The frequent heat up and cooldown cycles that were necessary for periodic inspections provided an opportunity to evaluate the effect of test variables on rapid low temperature crack propagation to which this alloy is subject. For Condition HTH, application of 20% to 40% prestrain either eliminates or significantly retards SCC initiation in as-notched specimens and the onset of crack growth in precracked specimens. In addition, this procedure reduces the propensity for low temperature crack growth during cooldown. Similar results were observed for precracked HOA specimens. Application of 20% prestrain also retards SCC in as-notched and precracked AH specimens, but the effects are not as great as in Condition HTH. Prestraining at the 10% level was found to produce an inconsistent benefit. In-reactor SCC testing shows that prestrain greatly improves the in-flux and out-of-flux SCC resistance of Condition HTH material. No SCC was observed in precracked specimens prestrained 30%, whereas extensive cracking was observed in their nonprestrain counterparts.

  19. Combined effect of matrix cracking and stress-free edge on delamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salpekar, S. A.; Obrien, T. K.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of the stress-free edge on the growth of local delaminations initiating from a matrix crack in (0 sub 2/90 sub 4) sub s and (+ or - 45.90 sub 4) sub s glass epoxy laminates is investigated using 3-D finite element analysis. The presence of high interlaminar normal stresses at the intersection (corner) of the matrix crack with the stress-free edge, suggests that a mode I delamination may initiate at the corners. The strain energy release rates (G) were calculated by modeling a uniform through-width delamination and two inclined delaminations at 10.6 deg and 45 deg to the matrix crack. All components of G have high values near the free edges. The mode I component of G is high at small delamination length and becomes zero for a delamination length of one-ply thickness. The total G values near the free edge agreed well with previously derived closed form solution. The quasi-3D solutions agreed well with the 3-D interior solutions.

  20. Combined effect of matrix cracking and stress-free edge on delamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salpekar, Satish A.; O'Brien, T. K.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of the stress-free edge on the growth of local delaminations initiating from a matrix crack in (O sub 2/90 sub 4) sub s and (+/- 45.90 sub 4) sub s glass epoxy laminates is investigated using 3D finite element analysis. The presence of high interlaminar normal stresses at the intersection (corner) of the matrix crack with the stress-free edge, suggests that a mode I delamination may initiate at the corners. The strain energy release rates (G) were calculated by modeling a uniform through-width delamination and two inclined delaminations at 10.6 deg and 45 deg to the matrix crack. All components of G have high values near the free edges. The mode I component of G is high at small delamination length and becomes zero for a delamination length of one-ply thickness. The total G values near the free edge agreed well with previously derived closed form solution. The quasi-3D solutions agreed well with the 3D interior solutions.

  1. Crack prediction in EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings based on the simulation of residual stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. W.; Zhao, Y.; Liu, S.; Zhang, Z. Z.; Ma, J.

    2016-07-01

    Thermal barrier coatings systems (TBCs) are widely used in the field of aerospace. The durability and insulating ability of TBCs are highly dependent on the residual stresses of top coatings, thus the investigation of the residual stresses is helpful to understand the failure mechanisms of TBCs. The simulation of residual stresses evolution in electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) TBCs is described in this work. The interface morphology of TBCs subjected to cyclic heating and cooling is observed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). An interface model of TBCs is established based on thermal elastic-plastic finite method. Residual stress distributions in TBCs are obtained to reflect the influence of interfacial roughness. Both experimental and simulation results show that it is feasible to predict the crack location by stress analysis, which is crucial to failure prediction.

  2. Environmental stress and epigenetic transgenerational inheritance.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Michael K

    2014-09-05

    Previous studies have shown a wide variety of environmental toxicants and abnormal nutrition can promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease. More recently a number of studies have indicated environmental stress can also promote epigenetic alterations that are transmitted to subsequent generations to induce pathologies. A recent study by Yao and colleagues demonstrated gestational exposure to restraint stress and forced swimming promoted preterm birth risk and adverse newborn outcomes generationally. This ancestral stress promoted the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of abnormalities in the great-grand offspring of the exposed gestating female. Several studies now support the role of environmental stress in promoting the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease. Observations suggest ancestral environmental stress may be a component of disease etiology in the current population.

  3. Experimental study on stress corrosion crack propagation rate of FV520B in carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Ming; Li, Jianfeng; Chen, Songying; Qu, Yanpeng

    FV520B steel is a kind of precipitation hardening Martensitic stainless steel, it has high-strength, good plasticity and good corrosion resistance. Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is one of the main corrosion failure mode for FV520B in industrial transportation of natural gas operation. For a better understanding the effect on SCC of FV520B, the improved wedge opening loading (WOL) specimens and constant displacement loading methods were employed in experimental research in carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide solution. The test results showed that the crack propagation rate is 1.941 × 10-7-5.748 × 10-7 mm/s, the stress intensity factor KISCC is not more than 36.83 MPa √{ m } . The rate increases with the increasing of the crack opening displacement. Under the condition of different initial loading, KISCC generally shows a decreasing tendency with the increase in H2S concentration, and the crack propagation rate showed an increasing trend substantially. For the enrichment of sulfur ion in the crack tip induced the generation of pitting corrosion, promoting the surrounding metal formed the corrosion micro batteries, the pit defects gradually extended and connected with the adjacent pit to form a small crack, leading to further propagation till cracking happened. Fracture microscopic morphology displayed typical brittle fracture phenomena, accompanying with trans-granular cracking, river shape and sector, many second cracks on the fracture surface.

  4. Strain energy density-distance criterion for the initiation of stress corrosion cracking of alloy X-750

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, M.M. Jr.; Symons, D.M.

    1996-05-01

    A strain energy density-distance criterion was previously developed and used to correlate rising-load K{sub c} initiation data for notched and fatigue precracked specimens of hydrogen precharged Alloy X-750. This criterion, which was developed for hydrogen embrittlement (HE) cracking, is used here to correlate static-load stress corrosion cracking (SCC) initiation times obtained for smooth geometry, notched and fatigue precracked specimens. The onset of SCC crack growth is hypothesized to occur when a critical strain, which is due to environment-enhanced creep, is attained within the specimen interior. For notched and precracked specimens, initiation is shown by analysis to occur at a variable distance from notch and crack tips. The initiation site varies from very near the crack tip, for highly loaded sharp cracks, to a site that is one grain diameter from the notch, for lower loaded, blunt notches. The existence of hydrogen gradients, which are due to strain-induced hydrogen trapping in the strain fields of notch and crack tips, is argued to be controlling the site for initiation of cracking. By considering the sources of the hydrogen, these observations are shown to be consistent with those from the previous HE study, in which the characteristic distance for crack initiation was found to be one grain diameter from the notch tip, independent of notch radius, applied stress intensity factor and hydrogen level.

  5. Experimental measurements and influence of overload-induced residual stress field on constant amplitude fatigue crack growth in aluminum alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahab, M. A.; Rohrsheim, G. R.; Brown, I. H.

    1997-03-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate current methods in Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics for their suitability to predict crack growth in Aluminum alloy 7050 - T7451, when a compressive residual stress field is introduced by an overload. A comparative study has been made on the effect of various levels of tensile overload on the crack growth rate in Aluminum alloy. Experiments were performed on center-cracked tension specimens at various values of range of stress- intensity-factor ((Delta) K). Crack growth measurements are performed using crack propagation gauges and a travelling microscope. The average crack growth rate is used to determine an effective (Delta) K value for each interval using the fatigue crack propagation curve. After the application of overloads, the propagation gauges revealed a period of significant retardation before the crack growth rates returned to their baseline levels. The results from the numerical predictions are compared with the experimental results. The prediction model produces conservative results for both constant amplitude crack growth and overload induced retarded growth.

  6. Hierarchical Petascale Simulation Framework For Stress Corrosion Cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Grama, Ananth

    2013-12-18

    A number of major accomplishments resulted from the project. These include: • Data Structures, Algorithms, and Numerical Methods for Reactive Molecular Dynamics. We have developed a range of novel data structures, algorithms, and solvers (amortized ILU, Spike) for use with ReaxFF and charge equilibration. • Parallel Formulations of ReactiveMD (Purdue ReactiveMolecular Dynamics Package, PuReMD, PuReMD-GPU, and PG-PuReMD) for Messaging, GPU, and GPU Cluster Platforms. We have developed efficient serial, parallel (MPI), GPU (Cuda), and GPU Cluster (MPI/Cuda) implementations. Our implementations have been demonstrated to be significantly better than the state of the art, both in terms of performance and scalability. • Comprehensive Validation in the Context of Diverse Applications. We have demonstrated the use of our software in diverse systems, including silica-water, silicon-germanium nanorods, and as part of other projects, extended it to applications ranging from explosives (RDX) to lipid bilayers (biomembranes under oxidative stress). • Open Source Software Packages for Reactive Molecular Dynamics. All versions of our soft- ware have been released over the public domain. There are over 100 major research groups worldwide using our software. • Implementation into the Department of Energy LAMMPS Software Package. We have also integrated our software into the Department of Energy LAMMPS software package.

  7. Transverse shear effects on the stress-intensity factor for a circumferentially cracked, specially orthotropic cylindrical shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delale, F.; Erdogan, F.

    1977-01-01

    The problem of a cylindrical shell containing a circumferential through crack is considered by taking into account the effect of transverse shear deformations. The formulation is given for a specially orthotropic material within the confines of a linearized shallow shell theory. The particular theory used permits the consideration of all five boundary conditions regarding moment and stress resultants on the crack surface. Consequently, aside from multiplicative constants representing the stress intensity factors, the membrane and bending components of the asymptotic stress fields near the crack tip are found to be identical. The stress intensity factors are calculated separately for a cylinder under a uniform membrane load, and that under a uniform bending moment. Sample results showing the nature of the out-of-plane crack surface displacement and the effect of the Poisson's ratio are presented.

  8. Ablation of work hardening layers against stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel by repetitive femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Akihiko; Minehara, Eisuke J.; Tsukada, Takashi; Kikuchi, Masahiko; Nakano, Junichi

    2004-10-01

    Femtosecond laser pulses successfully ablated the work hardening layers on SUS316L used in boiling water reactors. The measurement of hardness inside the material clarified this new technique to reduce the risk of Stress Corrosion Cracking.

  9. Slow Crack Growth Analysis of Brittle Materials with Finite Thickness Subjected to Constant Stress-Rate Flexural Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chio, S. R.; Gyekenyesi, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    A two-dimensional, numerical analysis of slow crack growth (SCG) was performed for brittle materials with finite thickness subjected to constant stress-rate ("dynamic fatigue") loading in flexure. The numerical solution showed that the conventional, simple, one-dimensional analytical solution can be used with a maximum error of about 5% in determining the SCG parameters of a brittle material with the conditions of a normalized thickness (a ratio of specimen thickness to initial crack size) T > 3.3 and of a SCG parameter n > 10. The change in crack shape from semicircular to elliptical configurations was significant particularly at both low stress rate and low T, attributed to predominant difference in stress intensity factor along the crack front. The numerical solution of SCG parameters was supported within the experimental range by the data obtained from constant stress-rate flexural testing for soda-lime glass microslides at ambient temperature.

  10. Slow Crack Growth Analysis of Brittle Materials with Finite Thickness Subjected to Constant Stress-Rate Flexural Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chio, S. R.; Gyekenyesi, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    A two-dimensional, numerical analysis of slow crack growth (SCG) was performed for brittle materials with finite thickness subjected to constant stress-rate ("dynamic fatigue") loading in flexure. The numerical solution showed that the conventional, simple, one-dimensional analytical solution can be used with a maximum error of about 5% in determining the SCG parameters of a brittle material with the conditions of a normalized thickness (a ratio of specimen thickness to initial crack size) T > 3.3 and of a SCG parameter n > 10. The change in crack shape from semicircular to elliptical configurations was significant particularly at both low stress rate and low T, attributed to predominant difference in stress intensity factor along the crack front. The numerical solution of SCG parameters was supported within the experimental range by the data obtained from constant stress-rate flexural testing for soda-lime glass microslides at ambient temperature.

  11. Evaluation of crack-tip stress fields on microstructural-scale fracture in Al-Al2O3 interpenetrating network composites

    Treesearch

    Robert J. Moon; Mark Hoffman; Jurgen Rödel; Shigemi Tochino; Giuseppe Pezzotti

    2009-01-01

    The influence of local microstructure on the fracture process at the crack tip in a ceramic–metal composite was assessed by comparing the measured stress at a microstructural level and analogous finite element modelling (FEM). Fluorescence microprobe spectroscopy was used to investigate the influence of near-crack-tip stress fields on the resulting crack propagation at...

  12. Effect of dissolved oxygen content on stress corrosion cracking of a cold worked 316L stainless steel in simulated pressurized water reactor primary water environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Litao; Wang, Jianqiu

    2014-03-01

    Stress corrosion crack growth tests of a cold worked nuclear grade 316L stainless steel were conducted in simulated pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary water environment containing various dissolved oxygen (DO) contents but no dissolved hydrogen. The crack growth rate (CGR) increased with increasing DO content in the simulated PWR primary water. The fracture surface exhibited typical intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) characteristics.

  13. Microscopic study of stress effects around micro-crack tips using a non-contact stress-induced light scattering method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, Y.; Terasaki, N.; Nonaka, K.

    2016-09-01

    Fine-polishing techniques may cause micro-cracks under glass substrate surfaces. According to highly requirement from production field, a thermal stress-induced light scattering method (T-SILSM) was successfully developed for a non-contact inspection to detect the micro-cracks through changing in the intensity of light scattering accompanied by applying thermal stress at the responding position of the micro-cracks. In this study, in order to investigate that the origin of the measuring principle in microscopic order, a newly developed microscopic T-SILSM system with a rotation stage and a numerical simulation analysis were used to investigate the following; (1) the scattering points and surface in the micro-crack, (2) the stress concentration points in the micro-crack, and (3) the relationship between these information and the point in which intensity of the light scattering changes in the micro-crack through T-SILSM. Light scattering was observed at the responding position of the micro-crack with selectivity in the direction of laser irradiation even in the microscopic order. In addition, the position of the changes in the light scattering in was at both tips in the micro-crack, and it was consistent with the stress concentration point in the micro-crack. Therefore, it can be concluded that the intentional change in light scattering though T-SILSM is originated from light scattering at micro-crack and also from stress concentration and consecutive change in refractive index at both tips in micro-crack.

  14. Stress diagnostics and crack detection in full-size silicon wafers using resonance ultrasonic vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byelyayev, Anton

    Non-destructive monitoring of residual elastic stress in silicon wafers is a matter of strong concern for modern photovoltaic industry. The excess stress can generate cracks within the crystalline structure, which further may lead to wafer breakage. Cracks diagnostics and reduction in multicrystalline silicon, for example, are ones of the most important issues in photovoltaics now. The industry is intent to improve the yield of solar cells fabrication. There is a number of techniques to measure residual stress in semiconductor materials today. They include Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and infrared polariscopy. None of these methods are applicable for in-line diagnostics of residual elastic stress in silicon wafers for solar cells. Moreover, the method has to be fast enough to fit in solar cell sequential production line. In photovoltaics, fast in-line quality control has to be performed within two seconds per wafer to match the throughput of the production lines. During this Ph.D. research we developed the resonance ultrasonic vibration (RUV) approach to diagnose residual stress non-destructively in full-size multicrystalline silicon wafers used in solar cell manufacturing. This method is based on excitation of longitudinal resonance ultrasonic vibrations in the material using an external piezoelectric transducer combined with high sensitive ultrasonic probe and data acquisition of the frequency response to make the method suitable for in-line diagnostics during wafer and cell manufacturing. Theoretical and experimental analyses of the vibration mode in single crystal and multicrystalline silicon wafers were used to provide a benchmark reference analysis and validation of the approach. Importantly, we observed a clear trend of increasing resonance frequency of the longitudinal vibration mode with higher average in-plane stress obtained with scanning infrared polariscopy. Using the same experimental approach we assessed a fast crack detection and length

  15. External stress-corrosion cracking of a 1.22-m-diameter type 316 stainless steel air valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas J.; Telesman, Jack; Moore, Allan S.; Johnson, Dereck F.; Kuivinen, David E.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the cause of the failure of a massive AISI Type 316 stainless steel valve which controlled combustion air to a jet engine test facility. Several through-the-wall cracks were present near welded joints in the valve skirt. The valve had been in outdoor service for 18 years. Samples were taken in the cracked regions for metallographic and chemical analyses. Insulating material and sources of water mist in the vicinity of the failed valve were analyzed for chlorides. A scanning electron microscope was used to determine whether foreign elements were present in a crack. On the basis of the information generated, the failure was characterized as external stress-corrosion cracking. The cracking resulted from a combination of residual tensile stress from welding and the presence of aqueous chlorides. Recommended countermeasures are included.

  16. Residual stress and crack initiation in laser clad composite layer with Co-based alloy and WC + NiCr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Changmin; Park, Hyungkwon; Yoo, Jaehong; Lee, Changhee; Woo, WanChuck; Park, Sunhong

    2015-08-01

    Although laser cladding process has been widely used to improve the wear and corrosion resistance, there are unwanted cracking issues during and/or after laser cladding. This study investigates the tendency of Co-based WC + NiCr composite layers to cracking during the laser cladding process. Residual stress distributions of the specimen are measured using neutron diffraction and elucidate the correlation between the residual stress and the cracking in three types of cylindrical specimens; (i) no cladding substrate only, (ii) cladding with 100% stellite#6, and (iii) cladding with 55% stellite#6 and 45% technolase40s. The microstructure of the clad layer was composed of Co-based dendrite and brittle eutectic phases at the dendritic boundaries. And WC particles were distributed on the matrix forming intermediate composition region by partial melting of the surface of particles. The overlaid specimen exhibited tensile residual stress, which was accumulated through the beads due to contraction of the coating layer generated by rapid solidification, while the non-clad specimen showed compressive. Also, the specimen overlaid with 55 wt% stellite#6 and 45 wt% technolase40s showed a tensile stress higher than the specimen overlaid with 100% stellite#6 possibly, due to the difference between thermal expansion coefficients of the matrix and WC particles. Such tensile stresses can be potential driving force to provide an easy crack path ways for large brittle fractures combined with the crack initiation sites such as the fractured WC particles, pores and solidification cracks. WC particles directly caused clad cracks by particle fracture under the tensile stress. The pores and solidification cracks also affected as initiation sites and provided an easy crack path ways for large brittle fractures.

  17. A linear least squares approach for evaluation of crack tip stress field parameters using DIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harilal, R.; Vyasarayani, C. P.; Ramji, M.

    2015-12-01

    In the present work, an experimental study is carried out to estimate the mixed-mode stress intensity factors (SIF) for different cracked specimen configurations using digital image correlation (DIC) technique. For the estimation of mixed-mode SIF's using DIC, a new algorithm is proposed for the extraction of crack tip location and coefficients in the multi-parameter displacement field equations. From those estimated coefficients, SIF could be extracted. The required displacement data surrounding the crack tip has been obtained using 2D-DIC technique. An open source 2D DIC software Ncorr is used for the displacement field extraction. The presented methodology has been used to extract mixed-mode SIF's for specimen configurations like single edge notch (SEN) specimen and centre slant crack (CSC) specimens made out of Al 2014-T6 alloy. The experimental results have been compared with the analytical values and they are found to be in good agreement, thereby confirming the accuracy of the algorithm being proposed.

  18. Role of Viscosity on Capillary Flow and Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kujawski, Daniel; Yerramilli, Sindhoora; Vasudevan, A. K.

    2011-02-01

    It is documented that the viscosity has a significant effect on stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior in terms of the K- da/ dt relation. In order to better understand the role of viscosity and its effect on transport of aqueous solution to the crack tip due to capillary action at the crack tip, experiments were conducted using a glass-metal setup. The confined space between the crack-mouth faces was simulated using wedge-type geometry between a glass slide and 7475 aluminum plate. The space between the glass and aluminum crevice was carefully controlled using spacers. The effect of viscosity was modeled using water, glycerin, and its mixture. According to our best knowledge, this article presents the first simple model of experimental simulation of the capillary flow phenomenon with a goal of arriving at a better understanding of how the viscosity affects the SCC behavior. Experimental results of several materials taken from the literature support the role of viscosity on SCC behavior.

  19. Stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen embrittlement of ferritic stainless steels: effects of thermomechanical treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Iyer, R.N.

    1986-01-01

    The influence of thermomechanical treatments on the stress corrosion crack initiation and hydrogen assisted crack growth of 26 Cr-1Mo alloys in boiling 42% LiCl solutions and 5% H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ solutions was investigated using a uniaxial constant load fixture. Annealing at temperatures where only recovery processes operate, reduces the susceptibility of prestrained low interstitial 26 Cr-1Mo alloy (E-Brite) to SCC in boiling chloride solutions. Both slip-step height and density, which are the major parameters controlling the breakdown of protective films in these alloys, are reduced substantially by annealing near 300/sup 0/C for 1 hour. Continuous exposure of unfilmed metal to the progressive environment is provided during SCC due to creep; this causes reduction in overall repassivation rate. Grain coarsening and prestraining operations result in larger slip step height and density due to increase in dislocation density. Crack propagation potential for as-received (mill-annealed) E-Brite during SCC in boiling chloride solution is the protection potential for the localized corrosion. Crack growth in SCC of these ferritic stainless steels is by the hydrogen embrittlement mechanism.

  20. Assessing Primary Water Stress Corrosion Crack Morphology and Nondestructive Evaluation Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, Steven R.; Schuster, George J.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2005-12-01

    A research program on primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) is being conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). In this program, the material degradation problem in Alloys 600, 182 and 82 is being investigated, with objectives that include compiling a knowledge base on all cracking in nickel-base materials at all degradation sites in nuclear power plants, assessing nondestructive evaluation methods using mockups to quantify the detection, sizing, and characterization of tight cracks, determining the role of material parameters, such as welding processes, in the degradation. This work is being conducted as a part of an international cooperative research project that has been set up to leverage efforts in several countries to address a significant and common problem. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is leading this cooperative project to address this generic problem in a systematic manner over the next four years. In this paper, published information on the failure history of Alloys 600, 182, and 82 is compiled and presented. The configurations of the welded assemblies that contain these alloys are shown to be important considerations for NDE reliability measurements. The product forms and the welding processes represented in the degraded components are described. The relevant data on crack morphology parameters such as shape and orientation are presented, and their impact on nondestructive evaluation (NDE) reliability is discussed.