Science.gov

Sample records for environmental water account

  1. Optimizing water purchases for an Environmental Water Account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, J. R.; Hollinshead, S. P.

    2005-12-01

    State and federal agencies in California have established an Environmental Water Account (EWA) to buy water to protect endangered fish in the San Francisco Bay/ Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Estuary. This paper presents a three-stage probabilistic optimization model that identifies least-cost strategies for purchasing water for the EWA given hydrologic, operational, and biological uncertainties. This approach minimizes the expected cost of long-term, spot, and option water purchases to meet uncertain flow dedications for fish. The model prescribes the location, timing, and type of optimal water purchases and can illustrate how least-cost strategies change with hydrologic, operational, biological, and cost inputs. Details of the optimization model's application to California's EWA are provided with a discussion of its utility for strategic planning and policy purposes. Limitations in and sensitivity analysis of the model's representation of EWA operations are discussed, as are operational and research recommendations.

  2. Uncertainty-accounting environmental policy and management of water systems.

    PubMed

    Baresel, Christian; Destouni, Georgia

    2007-05-15

    Environmental policies for water quality and ecosystem management do not commonly require explicit stochastic accounts of uncertainty and risk associated with the quantification and prediction of waterborne pollutant loads and abatement effects. In this study, we formulate and investigate a possible environmental policy that does require an explicit stochastic uncertainty account. We compare both the environmental and economic resource allocation performance of such an uncertainty-accounting environmental policy with that of deterministic, risk-prone and risk-averse environmental policies under a range of different hypothetical, yet still possible, scenarios. The comparison indicates that a stochastic uncertainty-accounting policy may perform better than deterministic policies over a range of different scenarios. Even in the absence of reliable site-specific data, reported literature values appear to be useful for such a stochastic account of uncertainty.

  3. An Integrated Environmental and Water Accounting and Analytical Framework for Accountable water Governance: a Case Study for Haihe Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, C.

    2009-04-01

    Water is a critical issue in China for a variety of reasons. This is especially urgent in Haihe basin with poor water availability of 305 m3 per capita basis. With the rapid economic development and associated increases in water demand, the river basin has been enduring increasing water stress. Water for the ecosystem use has been compromised and the environment has been deteriorating. Water shortage and environmental degradation have become a bottleneck to the further development of the economy and society. On one side, previous water resource managers have emphasized the amount of water withdrawn but rarely take water quality into consideration. On the other side, environmental managers have usually ignored the importance of pollutant assimilating capacity of water flows for the wastewater control. It is especially important to measure the impacts of both water withdrawn and wastewater discharge on the hydro-ecosystem. Thus, water consumption should not only account for the amount of water inputs but also the amount of water contaminated in the hydro-ecosystem by the discharged wastewater. Water quantity and quality of return flows should also become the important components of such an environmental and water account. Because return flow from upstream sites represents an externality to downstream uses, which can be positive as an additional source and negative as a pollutant source. In this paper we present an integrated environmental and water accounting and analytical approach based on a distributed hydrological model WEP-L (Water and Energy transfer Process in Large river basins) combined with a simple water quality model. Our environmental and water accounting framework and analysis tool allows tracking water consumption on the input side, water pollution from the human system and water flows passing the hydrological system thus enabling us to deal with water resources of different qualities. Keywords: Environmental accounting; Water accounting; Water

  4. Managing water to protect fish: a review of California's Environmental Water Account, 2001-2005.

    PubMed

    Brown, Larry R; Kimmerer, Wim; Brown, Randall

    2009-02-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, the landward reach of the San Francisco Estuary, provides habitat for threatened delta smelt, endangered winter-run Chinook salmon, and other species of concern. It is also the location of huge freshwater diversion facilities that entrain large numbers of fish. Reducing the entrainment of listed fishes into these facilities has required curtailment of pumping, reducing the reliability of water deliveries. We reviewed the first 5 years (2001-2005) of the Environmental Water Account (EWA), a program instituted to resolve conflicts between protecting listed fishes and providing a reliable water supply. The EWA provided fishery agencies with control over 0.2-0.4 km(3) of water to be used for fish protection at no cost to users of exported water, and fish agencies guaranteed no disruption of water supply for fish protection. The EWA was successful in reducing uncertainty in water supply; however, its contribution to the recovery of listed fishes was unclear. We estimated the effectiveness of the EWA to be modest, increasing the survival of winter-run Chinook salmon by 0-6% (dependent on prescreen mortality), adult delta smelt by 0-1%, and juvenile delta smelt by 2-4%. Allocating EWA water for a single life stage of one species could provide larger gains in survival. An optimally allocated EWA of equal size to the median of the first 5 years could increase abundance of juvenile delta smelt up to 7% in the springs of dry years. If the EWA is to become a long-term program, estimates of efficacy should be refined. If the program is to be held accountable for quantitative increases in fish populations, it will be necessary to integrate scientific, possibly experimental, approaches. PMID:18830738

  5. Managing Water to Protect Fish: A Review of California's Environmental Water Account, 2001-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Larry R.; Kimmerer, Wim; Brown, Randall

    2009-02-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, the landward reach of the San Francisco Estuary, provides habitat for threatened delta smelt, endangered winter-run Chinook salmon, and other species of concern. It is also the location of huge freshwater diversion facilities that entrain large numbers of fish. Reducing the entrainment of listed fishes into these facilities has required curtailment of pumping, reducing the reliability of water deliveries. We reviewed the first 5 years (2001-2005) of the Environmental Water Account (EWA), a program instituted to resolve conflicts between protecting listed fishes and providing a reliable water supply. The EWA provided fishery agencies with control over 0.2-0.4 km3 of water to be used for fish protection at no cost to users of exported water, and fish agencies guaranteed no disruption of water supply for fish protection. The EWA was successful in reducing uncertainty in water supply; however, its contribution to the recovery of listed fishes was unclear. We estimated the effectiveness of the EWA to be modest, increasing the survival of winter-run Chinook salmon by 0-6% (dependent on prescreen mortality), adult delta smelt by 0-1%, and juvenile delta smelt by 2-4%. Allocating EWA water for a single life stage of one species could provide larger gains in survival. An optimally allocated EWA of equal size to the median of the first 5 years could increase abundance of juvenile delta smelt up to 7% in the springs of dry years. If the EWA is to become a long-term program, estimates of efficacy should be refined. If the program is to be held accountable for quantitative increases in fish populations, it will be necessary to integrate scientific, possibly experimental, approaches.

  6. Managing water to protect fish: A review of California's environmental water account, 2001-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, L.R.; Kimmerer, W.; Brown, R.

    2009-01-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, the landward reach of the San Francisco Estuary, provides habitat for threatened delta smelt, endangered winter-run Chinook salmon, and other species of concern. It is also the location of huge freshwater diversion facilities that entrain large numbers of fish. Reducing the entrainment of listed fishes into these facilities has required curtailment of pumping, reducing the reliability of water deliveries. We reviewed the first 5 years (2001-2005) of the Environmental Water Account (EWA), a program instituted to resolve conflicts between protecting listed fishes and providing a reliable water supply. The EWA provided fishery agencies with control over 0.2-0.4 km3 of water to be used for fish protection at no cost to users of exported water, and fish agencies guaranteed no disruption of water supply for fish protection. The EWA was successful in reducing uncertainty in water supply; however, its contribution to the recovery of listed fishes was unclear. We estimated the effectiveness of the EWA to be modest, increasing the survival of winter-run Chinook salmon by 0-6% (dependent on prescreen mortality), adult delta smelt by 0-1%, and juvenile delta smelt by 2-4%. Allocating EWA water for a single life stage of one species could provide larger gains in survival. An optimally allocated EWA of equal size to the median of the first 5 years could increase abundance of juvenile delta smelt up to 7% in the springs of dry years. If the EWA is to become a long-term program, estimates of efficacy should be refined. If the program is to be held accountable for quantitative increases in fish populations, it will be necessary to integrate scientific, possibly experimental, approaches. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  7. An operative environmental accounting framework for forest land blue water production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beguería, Santiago; Leandri, Marc; Campos, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    We present a conceptual framework for the economic valuation of the water flows occurring in the forest lands. This framework is an extension of the criteria developed in the System of Environmental Economic Accounting-Experimental Ecosystem Accounting (SEEA-EEA) and provides a practical tool for the assessment of national or regional environmental assets. In terms of environmental policy, our accounting framework aims at valuing the contribution of forest lands to fresh water supply, contributing to a more complete valuation of the environmental asset value of forest land. Thanks to a combination of hydrological and economic models, our approach allows organizing hydrological and economic information in a coherent manner, constituting an informed tool to support the design of efficient incentives for forest-owners to manage their land cover towards more water-friendly options. As an example, we apply our hydro-economic model to a real life case study of two reservoirs in Andalusia, Spain, that differ significantly in their use of water. We use available hydrologic and economic data for evaluating the water environmental income at each site. We discuss on the differences found between the two sites and between vegetation types, and we present a sensitivity analysis regarding the main assumptions made in our calculations.

  8. The use of AQUATOOL DSS applied to the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting for Water (SEEAW)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedro-Monzonís, María; Jiménez-Fernández, Pedro; Solera, Abel; Jiménez-Gavilán, Pablo

    2016-02-01

    Currently, water accounts are one of the next steps to be implemented in European River Basin Management Plans. Building water accounts is a complex task, mainly due to the lack of common European definitions and procedures. For their development, when data is not systematically measured, simulation models and estimations are necessary. The main idea of this paper is to present a new approach which enables the combined use of hydrological models and water resources models developed with AQUATOOL Decision Support System (DSS) to fill in the physical water supply and use tables and the asset accounts presented in the System of Economic and Environmental Accounts for Water (SEEAW). The case study is the Vélez River Basin, located in the southern part of the Iberian Peninsula in Spain. In addition to obtaining the physical water supply and use tables and the asset accounts in this river basin, we present here the indicators as a result thereof. These indicators cover many critical aspects of water management, showing a general description of the river basin and allowing decision-makers to characterise the pressures on water resources. As a general conclusion, the union of AQUATOOL DSS and SEEAW will provide more complete information to decision-makers and it enables to introduce these methodological decisions in order to guarantee consistency and comparability of the results between different river basins.

  9. Application of the system of environmental economic accounting for water SEEAW to the Spanish part of the Duero basin: Lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Vicente, D J; Rodríguez-Sinobas, L; Garrote, L; Sánchez, R

    2016-09-01

    The System of Environmental-Economic Accounting for Water (SEEA-W) consists of an agreed international framework for organizing hydrological and economic information in a coherent and consistent manner. The methodology yields to the SEEA-W physical tables focusing on the quantitative assessment of the stocks and their changes in a river basin during the accounting period. For that purpose, the information on the abstraction and water discharge is linked with the environment water stocks, which assesses how current levels of abstraction and discharge affect such water stocks. This study presents the methodology and results to fill out the SEEAW tables for asset accounts on the Spanish Duero basin. Duero is a transboundary river between Spain and Portugal where 80% of its basin area (78,860km(2)) runs into the Spanish territory. The Spanish part is divided in five zones and 13 management systems. The methodology applied the three models used by the Spanish Water Authorities for the planning and allocation of water resources in Spain: 'SIMPA' model (rainfall-runoff model), 'ASTER' model (hydro-meteorological model related to snow processes) and 'SIMGES' model (water management simulation model). The required information was collected with the support from the Duero River basin Authority and the Spanish Ministry of Agriculture. Special care was paid to issues such as: inter-annual variability, the selection of spatial and temporal scale, seasonality, disaggregation of human abstractions into use's type, and transboundary agreements. The results highlighted some drawbacks in the SEEAW methodology for the Duero basin. However, the developed balances are a valuable tool to support the decisions of the Spanish Duero basin Authority on the management and allocation of water in the basin and in the transboundary area with Portugal. Finally, the paper outlines some recommendations for future work. PMID:27203366

  10. Application of the system of environmental economic accounting for water SEEAW to the Spanish part of the Duero basin: Lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Vicente, D J; Rodríguez-Sinobas, L; Garrote, L; Sánchez, R

    2016-09-01

    The System of Environmental-Economic Accounting for Water (SEEA-W) consists of an agreed international framework for organizing hydrological and economic information in a coherent and consistent manner. The methodology yields to the SEEA-W physical tables focusing on the quantitative assessment of the stocks and their changes in a river basin during the accounting period. For that purpose, the information on the abstraction and water discharge is linked with the environment water stocks, which assesses how current levels of abstraction and discharge affect such water stocks. This study presents the methodology and results to fill out the SEEAW tables for asset accounts on the Spanish Duero basin. Duero is a transboundary river between Spain and Portugal where 80% of its basin area (78,860km(2)) runs into the Spanish territory. The Spanish part is divided in five zones and 13 management systems. The methodology applied the three models used by the Spanish Water Authorities for the planning and allocation of water resources in Spain: 'SIMPA' model (rainfall-runoff model), 'ASTER' model (hydro-meteorological model related to snow processes) and 'SIMGES' model (water management simulation model). The required information was collected with the support from the Duero River basin Authority and the Spanish Ministry of Agriculture. Special care was paid to issues such as: inter-annual variability, the selection of spatial and temporal scale, seasonality, disaggregation of human abstractions into use's type, and transboundary agreements. The results highlighted some drawbacks in the SEEAW methodology for the Duero basin. However, the developed balances are a valuable tool to support the decisions of the Spanish Duero basin Authority on the management and allocation of water in the basin and in the transboundary area with Portugal. Finally, the paper outlines some recommendations for future work.

  11. Water Accounting from Ungauged Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastiaanssen, W. G.; Savenije, H.

    2014-12-01

    Water scarcity is increasing globally. This requires a more accurate management of the water resources at river basin scale and understanding of withdrawals and return flows; both naturally and man-induced. Many basins and their tributaries are, however, ungauged or poorly gauged. This hampers sound planning and monitoring processes. While certain countries have developed clear guidelines and policies on data observatories and data sharing, other countries and their basin organization still have to start on developing data democracies. Water accounting quantifies flows, fluxes, stocks and consumptive use pertaining to every land use class in a river basin. The objective is to derive a knowledge base with certain minimum information that facilitates decision making. Water Accounting Plus (WA+) is a new method for water resources assessment reporting (www.wateraccounting.org). While the PUB framework has yielded several deterministic models for flow prediction, WA+ utilizes remote sensing data of rainfall, evaporation (including soil, water, vegetation and interception evaporation), soil moisture, water levels, land use and biomass production. Examples will be demonstrated that show how remote sensing and hydrological models can be smartly integrated for generating all the required input data into WA+. A standard water accounting system for all basins in the world - with a special emphasis on data scarce regions - is under development. First results of using remote sensing measurements and hydrological modeling as an alternative to expensive field data sets, will be presented and discussed.

  12. Application of environmental accounting to pollution prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Del Mar, R.A.

    1997-08-19

    Environmental accounting represents a major paradigm shift in the way most companies account for costs and benefits. However, it is a change that must be made if pollution prevention is to become institutionalized into the corporate and government mainstream. Pollution prevention investments must be justified on an economic basis; without environmental accounting tools, pollution prevention investments cannot show their true profitability. This is because traditional accounting methods only track billable costs, thus ignoring some of the major benefits of pollution prevention investments, which are indirect savings resulting from a lessening of a company`s regulatory compliance burden and present and future liabilities. This paper discusses how to apply environmental accounting principles to pollution prevention assessments to improve the outcome of profitability analyses.

  13. Optimization of environmental water purchases with uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollinshead, Sarah P.; Lund, Jay R.

    2006-08-01

    Water managers are turning increasingly to market solutions to meet new environmental demands for water in fully allocated systems. This paper presents a three-stage probabilistic optimization model that identifies least cost strategies for staged seasonal water purchases for an environmental water acquisition program given hydrologic, operational, and biological uncertainties. Multistage linear programming is used to minimize the expected cost of long-term, spot, and option water purchases used to meet uncertain environmental demands. Results prescribe the location, timing, and type of optimal water purchases and illustrate how least cost strategies change as information becomes available during the year. Results also provide sensitivity analysis, including shadow values that estimate the expected cost of additional dedicated environmental water. The model's application to California's Environmental Water Account is presented with a discussion of its utility for planning and policy purposes. Model limitations and sensitivity analysis are discussed, as are operational and research recommendations.

  14. USING FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING METHODS TO FURTHER DEVELOP AND COMMUNICATE ENVIRONMENTAL ACCOUNTING USING EMERGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The idea that the methods and models of accounting and bookkeeping might be useful in describing, understanding, and managing environmental systems is implicit in the title of H.T. Odum's book, Environmental Accounting: Emergy and Environmental Decision Making. In this paper, I ...

  15. Environmental Accounting Using Emergy: Evaluation of Minnesota

    EPA Science Inventory

    Often questions related to environmental policy are difficult to resolve successfully, because robust solutions depend on accurately balancing the needs of both human and natural systems. To accomplish this end the socioeconomic and environmental effects of policies must be expre...

  16. Environmental Accounting Coverage in the Accounting Curriculum: A Survey of U.S. Universities and Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakhou, Mehenna; Dorweiler, Vernon P.

    2002-01-01

    In a survey of accounting department chairs (122 of 660 responded), only 11% thought that environmental issues should be a standalone course; only four schools had such a course. Environmental topics rated highest were managerial and cost accounting and external reporting and auditing. Respondents believed that integrating topics into courses…

  17. CHAPTER 14: FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING METHODS TO FURTHER DEVELOP AND COMMUNICATE ENVIRONMENTAL ACCOUNTING USING EMERGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development of the concepts of emergy and transformity established a medium (emergy) for accounting that made it possible to express economic and environmental work of all kinds on a common basis as solar emjoules. Environmental accounting using emdollars, a combined emergy-monet...

  18. Accounting for Water Insecurity in Modeling Domestic Water Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galaitsis, S. E.; Huber-lee, A. T.; Vogel, R. M.; Naumova, E.

    2013-12-01

    Water demand management uses price elasticity estimates to predict consumer demand in relation to water pricing changes, but studies have shown that many additional factors effect water consumption. Development scholars document the need for water security, however, much of the water security literature focuses on broad policies which can influence water demand. Previous domestic water demand studies have not considered how water security can affect a population's consumption behavior. This study is the first to model the influence of water insecurity on water demand. A subjective indicator scale measuring water insecurity among consumers in the Palestinian West Bank is developed and included as a variable to explore how perceptions of control, or lack thereof, impact consumption behavior and resulting estimates of price elasticity. A multivariate regression model demonstrates the significance of a water insecurity variable for data sets encompassing disparate water access. When accounting for insecurity, the R-squaed value improves and the marginal price a household is willing to pay becomes a significant predictor for the household quantity consumption. The model denotes that, with all other variables held equal, a household will buy more water when the users are more water insecure. Though the reasons behind this trend require further study, the findings suggest broad policy implications by demonstrating that water distribution practices in scarcity conditions can promote consumer welfare and efficient water use.

  19. Water Accounting Plus (WA+) - a water accounting procedure for complex river basins based on satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, P.; Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.; Molden, D.

    2012-11-01

    Coping with the issue of water scarcity and growing competition for water among different sectors requires proper water management strategies and decision processes. A pre-requisite is a clear understanding of the basin hydrological processes, manageable and unmanageable water flows, the interaction with land use and opportunities to mitigate the negative effects and increase the benefits of water depletion on society. Currently, water professionals do not have a common framework that links hydrological flows to user groups of water and their benefits. The absence of a standard hydrological and water management summary is causing confusion and wrong decisions. The non-availability of water flow data is one of the underpinning reasons for not having operational water accounting systems for river basins in place. In this paper we introduce Water Accounting Plus (WA+), which is a new framework designed to provide explicit spatial information on water depletion and net withdrawal processes in complex river basins. The influence of land use on the water cycle is described explicitly by defining land use groups with common characteristics. Analogous to financial accounting, WA+ presents four sheets including (i) a resource base sheet, (ii) a consumption sheet, (iii) a productivity sheet, and (iv) a withdrawal sheet. Every sheet encompasses a set of indicators that summarize the overall water resources situation. The impact of external (e.g. climate change) and internal influences (e.g. infrastructure building) can be estimated by studying the changes in these WA+ indicators. Satellite measurements can be used for 3 out of the 4 sheets, but is not a precondition for implementing WA+ framework. Data from hydrological models and water allocation models can also be used as inputs to WA+.

  20. Environmental accounting as a communication and management tool

    SciTech Connect

    Molinari, M.; Ratti, S.; Sammarco, G.

    1996-11-01

    International organizations such as United Nations and European Union are developing methodologies that should be the starting point for company environmental balance sheet to draw up national environmental accounts. Fondazione ENI Enrico Mattei is working with ISTAT (Italian national statistical office) on a scheme of accounts for physical and monetary environmental data, finalized to integrate them with national economic accounts, gathering information about the flows of inputs. products, waste streams and monetary values related to environmental issues. This methodology has been applied to hydrocarbons exploration and production activities and a software has been implemented in order to organize quantitative environmental data and current and capital environmental expenditures. The degree of data disaggregation is such as to fulfil complete balance sheets for each drilling site and for each gas and oil gathering center data can be also consolidated at a corporate level and used for environmental performance indicators. This detail increases the effectiveness of the company environmental accounting especially for planning and goal setting, as well as for external communication.

  1. Water Accounting Plus (WA+) - a water accounting procedure for complex river basins based on satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, P.; Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.; Molden, D.

    2013-07-01

    Coping with water scarcity and growing competition for water among different sectors requires proper water management strategies and decision processes. A pre-requisite is a clear understanding of the basin hydrological processes, manageable and unmanageable water flows, the interaction with land use and opportunities to mitigate the negative effects and increase the benefits of water depletion on society. Currently, water professionals do not have a common framework that links depletion to user groups of water and their benefits. The absence of a standard hydrological and water management summary is causing confusion and wrong decisions. The non-availability of water flow data is one of the underpinning reasons for not having operational water accounting systems for river basins in place. In this paper, we introduce Water Accounting Plus (WA+), which is a new framework designed to provide explicit spatial information on water depletion and net withdrawal processes in complex river basins. The influence of land use and landscape evapotranspiration on the water cycle is described explicitly by defining land use groups with common characteristics. WA+ presents four sheets including (i) a resource base sheet, (ii) an evapotranspiration sheet, (iii) a productivity sheet, and (iv) a withdrawal sheet. Every sheet encompasses a set of indicators that summarise the overall water resources situation. The impact of external (e.g., climate change) and internal influences (e.g., infrastructure building) can be estimated by studying the changes in these WA+ indicators. Satellite measurements can be used to acquire a vast amount of required data but is not a precondition for implementing WA+ framework. Data from hydrological models and water allocation models can also be used as inputs to WA+.

  2. Integrating Ecological and Water Footprint Accounting in a Multi-Regional Input-Output Framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbon, ecological, and water footprints (CF, EF, and WF) are accounting tools that can be used to understand the connection between consumption activities and environmental pressures on the Earth?s atmosphere, bioproductive areas, and freshwater resources. These indicators have ...

  3. Challenges to professionalism: Social accountability and global environmental change.

    PubMed

    Pearson, David; Walpole, Sarah; Barna, Stefi

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the concept of professionalism as it relates to social change and social accountability, and expands on them in the light of global environmental changes. Professionalism in medicine includes concepts of altruism, service, professional knowledge, self-regulation and autonomy. Current dialogues around social accountability suggest that medical schools should re-orientate their strategy and desired education, research and service outcomes to the health needs of the communities they serve.This article addresses the following questions: • How do we reconcile ideas of medical professionalism with the demands of creating a more equal, just, sustainable and socially inclusive society? • What new challenges do or will we face in relation to environmental degradation, biodiversity loss, ecosystem health and climate change? • How can medical schools best teach social and environmental responsiveness within a framework of professionalism? • How do medical schools ensure that tomorrow's doctors possess the knowledge, skills and attitude to adapt to the challenges they will face in future roles?We offer ideas about why and how medical educators can change, recommendations to strengthen the teaching of professionalism and social accountability and suggestions about the contribution of an emerging concept, that of "environmental accountability".

  4. Challenges to professionalism: Social accountability and global environmental change.

    PubMed

    Pearson, David; Walpole, Sarah; Barna, Stefi

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the concept of professionalism as it relates to social change and social accountability, and expands on them in the light of global environmental changes. Professionalism in medicine includes concepts of altruism, service, professional knowledge, self-regulation and autonomy. Current dialogues around social accountability suggest that medical schools should re-orientate their strategy and desired education, research and service outcomes to the health needs of the communities they serve.This article addresses the following questions: • How do we reconcile ideas of medical professionalism with the demands of creating a more equal, just, sustainable and socially inclusive society? • What new challenges do or will we face in relation to environmental degradation, biodiversity loss, ecosystem health and climate change? • How can medical schools best teach social and environmental responsiveness within a framework of professionalism? • How do medical schools ensure that tomorrow's doctors possess the knowledge, skills and attitude to adapt to the challenges they will face in future roles?We offer ideas about why and how medical educators can change, recommendations to strengthen the teaching of professionalism and social accountability and suggestions about the contribution of an emerging concept, that of "environmental accountability". PMID:26030377

  5. Environmental Management Accounting in the Taiwanese Higher Education Sector: Issues and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Huei-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to address the issue of managing the major environmental costs from an accounting perspective. The current state of practices for managing the costs associated with the consumption of electricity, water and paper, as well as the generation of wastes within three universities in Taiwan, was investigated. The…

  6. Assessing population viability while accounting for demographic and environmental uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Oppel, Steffen; Hilton, Geoff; Ratcliffe, Norman; Fenton, Calvin; Daley, James; Gray, Gerard; Vickery, Juliet; Gibbons, David

    2014-07-01

    Predicting the future trend and viability of populations is an essential task in ecology. Because many populations respond to changing environments, uncertainty surrounding environmental responses must be incorporated into population assessments. However, understanding the effects of environmental variation on population dynamics requires information on several important demographic parameters that are often difficult to estimate. Integrated population models facilitate the integration of time series data on population size and all existing demographic information from a species, allowing the estimation of demographic parameters for which limited or no empirical data exist. Although these models are ideal for assessments of population viability, they have so far not included environmental uncertainty. We incorporated environmental variation in an integrated population model to account for both demographic and environmental uncertainty in an assessment of population viability. In addition, we used this model to estimate true juvenile survival, an important demographic parameter for population dynamics that is difficult to estimate empirically. We applied this model to assess the past and future population trend of a rare island endemic songbird, the Montserrat Oriole Icterus oberi, which is threatened by volcanic activity. Montserrat Orioles experienced lower survival in years with volcanic ashfall, causing periodic population declines that were compensated by higher seasonal fecundity in years with high pre-breeding season rainfall. Due to the inclusion of both demographic and environmental uncertainty in the model, the estimated population growth rate in the immediate future was highly imprecise (95% credible interval 0.844-1.105), and the probability of extinction after three generations (in the year 2028) was low (2.1%). This projection demonstrates that accounting for both demographic and environmental sources of uncertainty provides a more realistic assessment

  7. A Blue/Green Water-based Accounting Framework for Assessment of Water Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, D. B.; Gupta, H. V.; Mendiondo, E. M.

    2013-12-01

    A comprehensive assessment of water security can incorporate several water-related concepts, including provisioning and support for freshwater ecosystem services, water footprint, water scarcity, and water vulnerability, while accounting for Blue and Green Water (BW and GW) flows defined in accordance with the hydrological processes involved. Here, we demonstrate how a quantitative analysis of provisioning and demand (in terms of water footprint) for BW and GW ecosystem services can be conducted, so as to provide indicators of water scarcity and vulnerability at the basin level. To illustrate the approach, we use the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to model the hydrology of an agricultural basin (291 sq.km) within the Cantareira water supply system in Brazil. To provide a more comprehensive basis for decision-making, we compute the BW provision using three different hydrological-based methods for specifying monthly Environmental Flow Requirements (EFRs) for 23 year-period. The current BW-Footprint was defined using surface water rights for reference year 2012. Then we analyzed the BW- and GW-Footprints against long-term series of monthly values of freshwater availability. Our results reveal clear spatial and temporal patterns of water scarcity and vulnerability levels within the basin, and help to distinguish between human and natural reasons (drought) for conditions of insecurity. The Blue/Green water-based accounting framework developed here can be benchmarked at a range of spatial scales, thereby improving our understanding of how and where water-related threats to human and aquatic ecosystem security can arise. Future investigation will be necessary to better understand the intra-annual variability of blue water demand and to evaluate the impacts of uncertainties associated with a) the water rights database, b) the effects of climate change projections on blue and green freshwater provision.

  8. A transdisciplinary account of water research

    PubMed Central

    Maynard, Carly; Carr, Gemma; Bruns, Antje; Mueller, Eva Nora; Lane, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Water research is introduced from the combined perspectives of natural and social science and cases of citizen and stakeholder coproduction of knowledge. Using the overarching notion of transdisciplinarity, we examine how interdisciplinary and participatory water research has taken place and could be developed further. It becomes apparent that water knowledge is produced widely within society, across certified disciplinary experts and noncertified expert stakeholders and citizens. However, understanding and management interventions may remain partial, or even conflicting, as much research across and between traditional disciplines has failed to integrate disciplinary paradigms due to philosophical, methodological, and communication barriers. We argue for more agonistic relationships that challenge both certified and noncertified knowledge productively. These should include examination of how water research itself embeds and is embedded in social context and performs political work. While case studies of the cultural and political economy of water knowledge exist, we need more empirical evidence on how exactly culture, politics, and economics have shaped this knowledge and how and at what junctures this could have turned out differently. We may thus channel the coproductionist critique productively to bring perspectives, alternative knowledges, and implications into water politics where they were not previously considered; in an attempt to counter potential lock‐in to particular water policies and technologies that may be inequitable, unsustainable, or unacceptable. While engaging explicitly with politics, transdisciplinary water research should remain attentive to closing down moments in the research process, such as framings, path‐dependencies, vested interests, researchers’ positionalities, power, and scale. WIREs Water 2016, 3:369–389. doi: 10.1002/wat2.1132 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  9. A transdisciplinary account of water research

    PubMed Central

    Maynard, Carly; Carr, Gemma; Bruns, Antje; Mueller, Eva Nora; Lane, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Water research is introduced from the combined perspectives of natural and social science and cases of citizen and stakeholder coproduction of knowledge. Using the overarching notion of transdisciplinarity, we examine how interdisciplinary and participatory water research has taken place and could be developed further. It becomes apparent that water knowledge is produced widely within society, across certified disciplinary experts and noncertified expert stakeholders and citizens. However, understanding and management interventions may remain partial, or even conflicting, as much research across and between traditional disciplines has failed to integrate disciplinary paradigms due to philosophical, methodological, and communication barriers. We argue for more agonistic relationships that challenge both certified and noncertified knowledge productively. These should include examination of how water research itself embeds and is embedded in social context and performs political work. While case studies of the cultural and political economy of water knowledge exist, we need more empirical evidence on how exactly culture, politics, and economics have shaped this knowledge and how and at what junctures this could have turned out differently. We may thus channel the coproductionist critique productively to bring perspectives, alternative knowledges, and implications into water politics where they were not previously considered; in an attempt to counter potential lock‐in to particular water policies and technologies that may be inequitable, unsustainable, or unacceptable. While engaging explicitly with politics, transdisciplinary water research should remain attentive to closing down moments in the research process, such as framings, path‐dependencies, vested interests, researchers’ positionalities, power, and scale. WIREs Water 2016, 3:369–389. doi: 10.1002/wat2.1132 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27656284

  10. Water accounting for stressed river basins based on water resources management models.

    PubMed

    Pedro-Monzonís, María; Solera, Abel; Ferrer, Javier; Andreu, Joaquín; Estrela, Teodoro

    2016-09-15

    Water planning and the Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) represent the best way to help decision makers to identify and choose the most adequate alternatives among other possible ones. The System of Environmental-Economic Accounting for Water (SEEA-W) is displayed as a tool for the building of water balances in a river basin, providing a standard approach to achieve comparability of the results between different territories. The target of this paper is to present the building up of a tool that enables the combined use of hydrological models and water resources models to fill in the SEEA-W tables. At every step of the modelling chain, we are capable to build the asset accounts and the physical water supply and use tables according to SEEA-W approach along with an estimation of the water services costs. The case study is the Jucar River Basin District (RBD), located in the eastern part of the Iberian Peninsula in Spain which as in other many Mediterranean basins is currently water-stressed. To guide this work we have used PATRICAL model in combination with AQUATOOL Decision Support System (DSS). The results indicate that for the average year the total use of water in the district amounts to 15,143hm(3)/year, being the Total Water Renewable Water Resources 3909hm(3)/year. On the other hand, the water service costs in Jucar RBD amounts to 1634 million € per year at constant 2012 prices. It is noteworthy that 9% of these costs correspond to non-conventional resources, such as desalinated water, reused water and water transferred from other regions.

  11. Water accounting for stressed river basins based on water resources management models.

    PubMed

    Pedro-Monzonís, María; Solera, Abel; Ferrer, Javier; Andreu, Joaquín; Estrela, Teodoro

    2016-09-15

    Water planning and the Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) represent the best way to help decision makers to identify and choose the most adequate alternatives among other possible ones. The System of Environmental-Economic Accounting for Water (SEEA-W) is displayed as a tool for the building of water balances in a river basin, providing a standard approach to achieve comparability of the results between different territories. The target of this paper is to present the building up of a tool that enables the combined use of hydrological models and water resources models to fill in the SEEA-W tables. At every step of the modelling chain, we are capable to build the asset accounts and the physical water supply and use tables according to SEEA-W approach along with an estimation of the water services costs. The case study is the Jucar River Basin District (RBD), located in the eastern part of the Iberian Peninsula in Spain which as in other many Mediterranean basins is currently water-stressed. To guide this work we have used PATRICAL model in combination with AQUATOOL Decision Support System (DSS). The results indicate that for the average year the total use of water in the district amounts to 15,143hm(3)/year, being the Total Water Renewable Water Resources 3909hm(3)/year. On the other hand, the water service costs in Jucar RBD amounts to 1634 million € per year at constant 2012 prices. It is noteworthy that 9% of these costs correspond to non-conventional resources, such as desalinated water, reused water and water transferred from other regions. PMID:27161139

  12. The environmental account of obesity: a case for feminist skepticism.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, Anna

    2011-01-01

    There is an emerging consensus among public health advocates that combating obesity is best done by restructuring the environment rather than by stigmatizing individuals. Although feminist scholars have not been major participants in debates over antiobesity policy, recently there has been a move toward adopting the environmental account of obesity as a feminist solution because of its potential to respond to health inequalities along race, class, and gender lines. This article aims to trouble the embrace of the environmental approach by feminist scholars, however, and to resurrect and redirect feminist criticism toward attendant problems of moralism, backlash, and the surveillance and rehabilitation of poor women of color. Despite its overwhelming popularity among policy elites and health researchers, I argue that the environmental account of obesity is not likely to promote structural change and broad redistributions. Rather it makes problematic assumptions about the relationship between health and fat and about the efficacy of intervention strategies, masks moralism with health discourse, and legitimizes punitive, ineffective, and patronizing interventions.

  13. Accommodating environmental variation in population models: metaphysiological biomass loss accounting.

    PubMed

    Owen-Smith, Norman

    2011-07-01

    1. There is a pressing need for population models that can reliably predict responses to changing environmental conditions and diagnose the causes of variation in abundance in space as well as through time. In this 'how to' article, it is outlined how standard population models can be modified to accommodate environmental variation in a heuristically conducive way. This approach is based on metaphysiological modelling concepts linking populations within food web contexts and underlying behaviour governing resource selection. Using population biomass as the currency, population changes can be considered at fine temporal scales taking into account seasonal variation. Density feedbacks are generated through the seasonal depression of resources even in the absence of interference competition. 2. Examples described include (i) metaphysiological modifications of Lotka-Volterra equations for coupled consumer-resource dynamics, accommodating seasonal variation in resource quality as well as availability, resource-dependent mortality and additive predation, (ii) spatial variation in habitat suitability evident from the population abundance attained, taking into account resource heterogeneity and consumer choice using empirical data, (iii) accommodating population structure through the variable sensitivity of life-history stages to resource deficiencies, affecting susceptibility to oscillatory dynamics and (iv) expansion of density-dependent equations to accommodate various biomass losses reducing population growth rate below its potential, including reductions in reproductive outputs. Supporting computational code and parameter values are provided. 3. The essential features of metaphysiological population models include (i) the biomass currency enabling within-year dynamics to be represented appropriately, (ii) distinguishing various processes reducing population growth below its potential, (iii) structural consistency in the representation of interacting populations and

  14. Accommodating environmental variation in population models: metaphysiological biomass loss accounting.

    PubMed

    Owen-Smith, Norman

    2011-07-01

    1. There is a pressing need for population models that can reliably predict responses to changing environmental conditions and diagnose the causes of variation in abundance in space as well as through time. In this 'how to' article, it is outlined how standard population models can be modified to accommodate environmental variation in a heuristically conducive way. This approach is based on metaphysiological modelling concepts linking populations within food web contexts and underlying behaviour governing resource selection. Using population biomass as the currency, population changes can be considered at fine temporal scales taking into account seasonal variation. Density feedbacks are generated through the seasonal depression of resources even in the absence of interference competition. 2. Examples described include (i) metaphysiological modifications of Lotka-Volterra equations for coupled consumer-resource dynamics, accommodating seasonal variation in resource quality as well as availability, resource-dependent mortality and additive predation, (ii) spatial variation in habitat suitability evident from the population abundance attained, taking into account resource heterogeneity and consumer choice using empirical data, (iii) accommodating population structure through the variable sensitivity of life-history stages to resource deficiencies, affecting susceptibility to oscillatory dynamics and (iv) expansion of density-dependent equations to accommodate various biomass losses reducing population growth rate below its potential, including reductions in reproductive outputs. Supporting computational code and parameter values are provided. 3. The essential features of metaphysiological population models include (i) the biomass currency enabling within-year dynamics to be represented appropriately, (ii) distinguishing various processes reducing population growth below its potential, (iii) structural consistency in the representation of interacting populations and

  15. A blue/green water-based accounting framework for assessment of water security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Dulce B. B.; Gupta, Hoshin V.; Mendiondo, Eduardo M.

    2014-09-01

    A comprehensive assessment of water security can incorporate several water-related concepts, while accounting for Blue and Green Water (BW and GW) types defined in accordance with the hydrological processes involved. Here we demonstrate how a quantitative analysis of provision probability and use of BW and GW can be conducted, so as to provide indicators of water scarcity and vulnerability at the basin level. To illustrate the approach, we use the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to model the hydrology of an agricultural basin (291 km2) within the Cantareira Water Supply System in Brazil. To provide a more comprehensive basis for decision making, we analyze the BW and GW-Footprint components against probabilistic levels (50th and 30th percentile) of freshwater availability for human activities, during a 23 year period. Several contrasting situations of BW provision are distinguished, using different hydrological-based methodologies for specifying monthly Environmental Flow Requirements (EFRs), and the risk of natural EFR violation is evaluated by use of a freshwater provision index. Our results reveal clear spatial and temporal patterns of water scarcity and vulnerability levels within the basin. Taking into account conservation targets for the basin, it appears that the more restrictive EFR methods are more appropriate than the method currently employed at the study basin. The blue/green water-based accounting framework developed here provides a useful integration of hydrologic, ecosystem and human needs information on a monthly basis, thereby improving our understanding of how and where water-related threats to human and aquatic ecosystem security can arise.

  16. Regional material flow accounting and environmental pressures: the Spanish case.

    PubMed

    Sastre, Sergio; Carpintero, Óscar; Lomas, Pedro L

    2015-02-17

    This paper explores potential contributions of regional material flow accounting to the characterization of environmental pressures. With this aim, patterns of material extraction, trade, consumption, and productivity for the Spanish regions were studied within the 1996-2010 period. The main methodological variation as compared to whole-country based approaches is the inclusion of interregional trade, which can be separately assessed from the international exchanges. Each region was additionally profiled regarding its commercial exchanges with the rest of the regions and the rest of the world and the related environmental pressures. Given its magnitude, interregional trade is a significant source of environmental pressure. Most of the exchanges occur across regions and different extractive and trading patterns also arise at this scale. These differences are particularly great for construction minerals, which in Spain represent the largest share of extracted and consumed materials but do not cover long distances, so their impact is visible mainly at the regional level. During the housing bubble, economic growth did not improve material productivity.

  17. Dynamic water accounting in heavily committed river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmant, Amaury; Marques, Guilherme

    2014-05-01

    Many river basins throughout the world are increasingly under pressure as water demands keep rising due to population growth, industrialization, urbanization and rising living standards. In the past, the typical answer to meet those demands focused on the supply-side and involved the construction of hydraulic infrastructures to capture more water from surface water bodies and from aquifers. As river basins were being more and more developed, downstream water users and ecosystems have become increasingly dependant on the management actions taken by upstream users. The increased interconnectedness between water users, aquatic ecosystems and the built environment is further compounded by climate change and its impact on the water cycle. Those pressures mean that it has become increasingly important to measure and account for changes in water fluxes and their corresponding economic value as they progress throughout the river system. Such basin water accounting should provide policy makers with important information regarding the relative contribution of each water user, infrastructure and management decision to the overall economic value of the river basin. This paper presents a dynamic water accounting approach whereby the entire river basin is considered as a value chain with multiple services including production and storage. Water users and reservoirs operators are considered as economic agents who can exchange water with their hydraulic neighbors at a price corresponding to the marginal value of water. Effective water accounting is made possible by keeping track of all water fluxes and their corresponding transactions using the results of a hydro-economic model. The proposed approach is illustrated with the Eastern Nile River basin in Africa.

  18. Space Station Freedom Water Recovery test total organic carbon accountability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Michael W.; Slivon, Laurence; Sheldon, Linda; Traweek, Mary

    1991-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Water Recovery Test (WRT) addresses the concept of integrated hygiene and potable reuse water recovery systems baselined for Space Station Freedom (SSF). To assess the adequacy of water recovery system designs and the conformance of reclaimed water quality to established specifications, MSFC has initiated an extensive water characterization program. MSFC's goal is to quantitatively account for a large percentage of organic compounds present in waste and reclaimed hygiene and potable waters from the WRT and in humidity condensate from Spacelab missions. The program is coordinated into Phase A and B. Phase A's focus is qualitative and semi-quantitative. Precise quantitative analyses are not emphasized. Phase B's focus centers on a near complete quantitative characterization of all water types. Technical approaches along with Phase A and partial Phase B investigations on the compositional analysis of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Accountability are presented.

  19. Biosolids impact soil phosphorus accountability, fractionation, and potential environmental risk.

    PubMed

    Ippolito, J A; Barbarick, K A; Norvell, K L

    2007-01-01

    Biosolids land application rates are typically based on crop N requirements but can lead to soil P accumulation. The Littleton/Englewood, Colorado, wastewater treatment facility has supported biosolids beneficial-use on a dryland wheat-fallow agroecosystem site since 1982, with observable soil P concentration increases as biyearly repeated biosolids applications increased from 0, 6.7, 13, 27, to 40 Mg ha(-1). The final study year was 2003, after which P accountability, fractionation, and potential environmental risk were assessed. Between 93 and 128% of biosolids-P added was accounted for when considering conventional tillage soil displacement, grain removal, and soil adsorption. The Fe-P fraction dominated all soil surface P fractions, likely due to an increase in amorphous Fe-oxide because Fe2(SO4)3 was added at the wastewater treatment facility inflow for digester H2S reduction. The Ca-P phase dominated all soil subsurface P fractions due to calcareous soil conditions. A combination of conventional tillage, drought from 1999 to 2003, and repeated and increasing biosolids application rates may have forced soil surface microorganism dormancy, reduction, or mortality; thus, biomass P reduction was evident. Subsurface biomass P was greater than surface biomass, possibly due to protection against environmental and anthropogenic variables or to increased dissolved organic carbon inputs. Even given years of biosolids application, the soil surface had the ability to sorb additional P as determined by shaking the soil in an excessive P solution. Biosolids-application regulations based on the Colorado Phosphorus Index would not impede current site practices. Proper monitoring, management, and addition of other best management practices are needed for continued assurance that P movement off-site does not become a major issue. PMID:17412911

  20. Environmental management of water projects

    SciTech Connect

    Gangstad, E.O.; Stanley, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    This book is divided in three parts and contains the following: PART I: ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTS. Environmental conditions for water resource projects. Characteristics of some large scale reservoirs. Biological parameters of the TVA Eurasian watermilfoil management program. Ecological parameters influencing aquatic plant growth. Biological parameters influencing growth and reproduction of hydrilla. PART II: EVALUATION OF SELECTED AQUATIC HERBICIDES. Technical review of the factors affecting 2,4-D for aquatic use. Technical review of the factors affecting endothall for aquatic use. Technical review of factors affecting diquat for aquatic use. Technical review of the factors affecting use of dicamba. Technical review of the factors affecting aquatic use of dichlobenil. PART III: EVALUATION OF VEGETATION MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS. Strategies for aquatic vegetation management. (A) conversion of factors for U.S. and metric units. (B) Glossary of terms. Index.

  1. Natural resources accounting: A tool for water resources management in Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambira, Wame L.

    Natural Resource Accounting (NRA) has become an important environmental/natural resources management tool in recent years. It provides information on stocks of a resource available at a particular point in time and what activities the resource is being used for. The conventional System of National Income Accounts (SNA) normally does not capture the cost of depletion, degradation or pollution of natural resources. This encourages unsustainable use of natural resources since the costs are not reflected when assessing the country’s economic performance or development progress. NRA is thus an attempt to integrate environmental issues into the conventional national accounts. The water sector is one sector that could greatly benefit from this natural resource management tool. Botswana has adopted NRA as a natural resource management tool and has so far developed accounts for minerals, livestock and water. The focus of this paper is on Water Accounting (WA) in relation to Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). IWRM is concerned with coordinated development and management of water in order to maximise economic and social welfare without compromising the sustainability of ecosystems. WA helps fill data gaps since it provides the required information for IWRM to be achieved. The aim of this paper therefore is to evaluate the Water Accounts of Botswana Report of 2006 to determine the extent to which it can contribute to integrated water resources management. The paper is based on literature review and the results show that: the available water stocks vary depending on rainfall patterns, well fields are over utilised, there has been growth in consumption, and more than 80% of the waste water produced is not being put to use. These results calls for changes in policies, role of institutions and practices pertaining to water resources management which is what IWRM is all about hence the paper concludes that indeed WA can contribute to the realisation of IWRM.

  2. Global Access to Safe Water: Accounting for Water Quality and the Resulting Impact on MDG Progress

    PubMed Central

    Onda, Kyle; LoBuglio, Joe; Bartram, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring of progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) drinking water target relies on classification of water sources as “improved” or “unimproved” as an indicator for water safety. We adjust the current Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) estimate by accounting for microbial water quality and sanitary risk using the only-nationally representative water quality data currently available, that from the WHO and UNICEF “Rapid Assessment of Drinking Water Quality”. A principal components analysis (PCA) of national environmental and development indicators was used to create models that predicted, for most countries, the proportions of piped and of other-improved water supplies that are faecally contaminated; and of these sources, the proportions that lack basic sanitary protection against contamination. We estimate that 1.8 billion people (28% of the global population) used unsafe water in 2010. The 2010 JMP estimate is that 783 million people (11%) use unimproved sources. Our estimates revise the 1990 baseline from 23% to 37%, and the target from 12% to 18%, resulting in a shortfall of 10% of the global population towards the MDG target in 2010. In contrast, using the indicator “use of an improved source” suggests that the MDG target for drinking-water has already been achieved. We estimate that an additional 1.2 billion (18%) use water from sources or systems with significant sanitary risks. While our estimate is imprecise, the magnitude of the estimate and the health and development implications suggest that greater attention is needed to better understand and manage drinking water safety. PMID:22690170

  3. Environmental accounting--a decision support tool in WWTP operation and management.

    PubMed

    Clauson-Kaas, J; Poulsen, T S; Jacobsen, B N; Guildal, T; Wenzel, H

    2001-01-01

    The various emissions to water, air and soil from the municipal wastewater treatment plant of Avedore Wastewater Service Company are accounted for and quantified in terms of the environmental impacts to which they contribute: global warming, acidification, eutrophication, space demand for controlled deposition of residues, as well as persistent toxicity, human toxicity and eco-toxicity. The impacts are expressed on the same scale, namely as fraction of the total per capita loads in a national scenario 1990, also called the person equivalent or PE1990. This provides a compact and informative overview of the environmental impacts and allows for a holistic prioritisation in the operation and management of the plant. The accounting shows that the resulting emissions per person in the catchment area of the plant correspond to 0.5-5.0% of the average Danish PE1990 for the impacts in question.

  4. Water Awareness Through Environmental Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis-Caldwell, K.

    2012-04-01

    This poster will highlight a series of project based activities carried out at Hammond Elementary School in Laurel, Maryland, USA. All of the featured projects revolve around the school's Green School Initiative or an integral part of the science curricula. The Maryland Green School program was developed by a diverse team of educators representing the Maryland Association for Environmental and Outdoor Education (MAEOE), Office of the Governor, the Maryland Association of Student Councils, Maryland Department of Education, Department of Natural Resources and Maryland Department of the Environment. The program is administered through the Maryland Association for Environmental and Outdoor Education. The Maryland Green Schools Award Program recognizes Maryland schools that include environmental education in the curricula, model best management practices at the school and address community environmental issues. Among these numerous projects water is a common thread. Hammond Elementary School lies within the Chesapeake Bay watershed which stretches across 64,000 square miles and encompasses the entire District of Columbia. Educational components address habitats, tributaries and, the estuary system. The projects being highlighted in the poster will include: Trout to Streams Project: This 4th grade project focuses on the natural filtration system that area trout provide to the local and global waterways. As students learn about the importance of various fish to the watershed, they come to understand the effect of changes in the population of fish species due to consumption and pollution. The service learning project highlighted teaches students about water quality as they raise trout eggs and monitor their development into hatching and later stream release. Buffer Streams Tree Planting Projects: This 5th grade science service learning project allows students to investigate the water quality and conditions of local area streams. This project teaches students the positive

  5. Environmental reporting and accounting in Australia: progress, prospects and research priorities.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Albert; Mount, Richard; Gibbons, Philip; Vardon, Michael; Canadell, Pep

    2014-03-01

    Despite strong demand for information to support the sustainable use of Australia's natural resources and conserve environmental values and despite considerable effort and investment, nation-wide environmental data collection and analysis remains a substantially unmet challenge. We review progress in producing national environmental reports and accounts, identify challenges and opportunities, and analyse the potential role of research in addressing these. Australia's low and concentrated population density and the short history since European settlement contribute to the lack of environmental data. There are additional factors: highly diverse data requirements and standards, disagreement on information priorities, poorly measurable management objectives, lack of coordination, over-reliance on researchers and businesses for data collection, lack of business engagement, and short-term, project-based activities. New opportunities have arisen to overcome some of these challenges: enhanced monitoring networks, standardisation, data management and modelling, greater commitment to share and integrate data, community monitoring, increasing acceptance of environmental and sustainability indicators, and progress in environmental accounting practices. Successes in generating climate, water and greenhouse gas information appear to be attributable to an unambiguous data requirement, considerable investment, and legislative instruments that enhance data sharing and create a clearly defined role for operational agencies. Based on the analysis presented, we suggest six priorities for research: (1) common definitions and standards for information that address management objectives, (2) ecological measures that are scalable from local to national level, (3) promotion of long-term data collection and reporting by researchers, (4) efficient satellite and sensor network technologies and data analysis methods, (5) environmental modelling approaches that can reconcile multiple data

  6. Valuing the Environmental Benefits of Urban WaterConservation

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, Katie M.; Bolduc, Chris A.; Chan, Peter T.; Dunham-Whitehead, C.; Van Buskirk, R.D.

    2007-05-01

    This report documents a project undertaken for theCalifornia Urban Water Conservation Council (the Council) to create a newmethod of accounting for the diverse environmental benefits of raw watersavings. The environmental benefits (EB) model was designed to providewater utilities with a practical tool that they can use to assign amonetary value to the benefits that may accrue from implementing any ofthe Council-recommended Best Management Practices. The model treats onlyenvironmental services associated directly with water, and is intended tocover miscellaneous impacts that are not currently accounted for in anyother cost-benefit analysis.

  7. Generation of SEEAW asset accounts based on water resources management models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedro-Monzonís, María; Solera, Abel; Andreu, Joaquín

    2015-04-01

    One of the main challenges in the XXI century is related with the sustainable use of water. This is due to the fact that water is an essential element for the life of all who inhabit our planet. In many cases, the lack of economic valuation of water resources causes an inefficient water use. In this regard, society expects of policymakers and stakeholders maximise the profit produced per unit of natural resources. Water planning and the Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) represent the best way to achieve this goal. The System of Environmental-Economic Accounting for Water (SEEAW) is displayed as a tool for water allocation which enables the building of water balances in a river basin. The main concern of the SEEAW is to provide a standard approach which allows the policymakers to compare results between different territories. But building water accounts is a complex task due to the difficulty of the collection of the required data. Due to the difficulty of gauging the components of the hydrological cycle, the use of simulation models has become an essential tool extensively employed in last decades. The target of this paper is to present the building up of a database that enables the combined use of hydrological models and water resources models developed with AQUATOOL DSSS to fill in the SEEAW tables. This research is framed within the Water Accounting in a Multi-Catchment District (WAMCD) project, financed by the European Union. Its main goal is the development of water accounts in the Mediterranean Andalusian River Basin District, in Spain. This research pretends to contribute to the objectives of the "Blueprint to safeguard Europe's water resources". It is noteworthy that, in Spain, a large part of these methodological decisions are included in the Spanish Guideline of Water Planning with normative status guaranteeing consistency and comparability of the results.

  8. Integrating a distributed hydrological model and SEEA-Water for improving water account and water allocation management under a climate change context.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jauch, Eduardo; Almeida, Carina; Simionesei, Lucian; Ramos, Tiago; Neves, Ramiro

    2015-04-01

    The crescent demand and situations of water scarcity and droughts are a difficult problem to solve by water managers, with big repercussions in the entire society. The complexity of this question is increased by trans-boundary river issues and the environmental impacts of the usual adopted solutions to store water, like reservoirs. To be able to answer to the society requirements regarding water allocation in a sustainable way, the managers must have a complete and clear picture of the present situation, as well as being able to understand the changes in the water dynamics both in the short and long time period. One of the available tools for the managers is the System of Environmental-Economic Accounts for Water (SEEA-Water), a subsystem of SEEA with focus on water accounts, developed by the United Nations Statistical Division (UNSD) in collaboration with the London Group on Environmental Accounting, This system provides, between other things, with a set of tables and accounts for water and water related emissions, organizing statistical data making possible the derivation of indicators that can be used to assess the relations between economy and environment. One of the main issues with the SEEA-Water framework seems to be the requirement of large amounts of data, including field measurements of water availability in rivers/lakes/reservoirs, soil and groundwater, as also precipitation, irrigation and other water sources and uses. While this is an incentive to collecting and using data, it diminishes the usefulness of the system on countries where this data is not yet available or is incomplete, as it can lead to a poor understanding of the water availability and uses. Distributed hydrological models can be used to fill missing data required by the SEEA-Water framework. They also make it easier to assess different scenarios (usually soil use, water demand and climate changes) for a better planning of water allocation. In the context of the DURERO project (www

  9. Accounting for metal bioavailability in assessing water quality: A step change?

    PubMed

    Merrington, Graham; Peters, Adam; Schlekat, Christian E

    2016-02-01

    Bioavailability of metals to aquatic organisms can be considered to be a combination of the physicochemical factors governing metal behavior and the specific pathophysiological characteristics of the organism's biological receptor. Effectively this means that a measure of bioavailability will reflect the exposures that organisms in the water column actually "experience". This is important because it has long been established that measures of total metal in waters have limited relevance to potential environmental risk. The concept of accounting for bioavailability in regard to deriving and implementing environmental water quality standards is not new, but the regulatory reality has lagged behind the development of scientific evidence supporting the concept. Practical and technical reasons help to explain this situation. For example, concerns remain from regulators and the regulated that the efforts required to change existing systems of metal environmental protection that have been in place for over 35 yr are so great as not to be commensurate with likely benefits. However, more regulatory jurisdictions are now considering accounting for metal bioavailability in assessments of water quality as a means to support evidence-based decision-making. In the past decade, both the US Environmental Protection Agency and the European Commission have established bioavailability-based standards for metals, including Cu and Ni. These actions have shifted the debate toward identifying harmonized approaches for determining when knowledge is adequate to establish bioavailability-based approaches and how to implement them.

  10. A New Global Metric of Water Scarcity Accounting for the Role of Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, J. W.; Gaupp, F.; Dadson, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Societies and economies are challenged by variable water supplies. Water storage infrastructure, on a range of scales, can help to mitigate hydrological variability. This study uses a water balance model to investigate how storage capacity can improve water security in the world's 403 most important river basins, by substituting water from wet months to dry months. We construct a new water balance model for 680 'basin-country units' (BCUs), which simulates runoff, water use (from surface and groundwater), evaporation and trans-boundary discharges. We find that, so far, storage capacity in most basins is able to buffer inter- and intra-annual water variability . However, when hydrological variability and net withdrawals are taken into account, along with existing storage capacity, we find risks of water shortages in the Indian subcontinent, Northern China, Spain, the West of the US, Australia and several basins in Africa. Dividing basins into basin-country units enabled assessment of upstream dependency in trans-boundary rivers. Including Environmental Water Requirements into the model, we find that in many basins in India, Northern China, South Africa, the US West Coast, the East of Brazil, Spain and in the Murray basin in Australia human water demand leads to over-abstraction of water resources important to the ecosystem. Then, a Sequent Peak Analysis is conducted to estimate how much storage would be needed to satisfy human water demand whilst not jeopardising environmental flows. The results are consistent with the water balance model in that basins in India, Northern China, Western Australia, Spain, the US West Coast and several basins in Africa would need more storage to mitigate water supply variability and to meet water demand.

  11. WATER: Water Activities Teaching Environmental Responsibility: Teacher Resource, Environmental Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Ed, Ed.; And Others

    This activity book was developed as part of an effort to protect water quality of the Stillwater River, Ohio, through a Watershed Protection Project. It is designed to raise teachers' and students' awareness and trigger a sense of stewardship towards the preservation of water resources. The activities are generally appropriate for elementary age…

  12. Protecting environmental flows through enhanced water licensing and water markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erfani, T.; Binions, O.; Harou, J. J.

    2015-02-01

    To enable economically efficient future adaptation to water scarcity some countries are revising water management institutions such as water rights or licensing systems to more effectively protect ecosystems and their services. However, allocating more flow to the environment can mean less abstraction for economic production, or the inability to accommodate new entrants (diverters). Modern licensing arrangements should simultaneously enhance environmental flows and protect water abstractors who depend on water. Making new licensing regimes compatible with tradable water rights is an important component of water allocation reform. Regulated water markets can help decrease the societal cost of water scarcity whilst enforcing environmental and/or social protections. In this article we simulate water markets under a regime of fixed volumetric water abstraction licenses with fixed minimum flows or under a scalable water license regime (using water "shares") with dynamic environmental minimum flows. Shares allow adapting allocations to available water and dynamic environmental minimum flows vary as a function of ecological requirements. We investigate how a short-term spot market manifests within each licensing regime. We use a river-basin-scale hydroeconomic agent model that represents individual abstractors and can simulate a spot market under both licensing regimes. We apply this model to the Great Ouse River basin in eastern England with public water supply, agricultural, energy and industrial water-using agents. Results show the proposed shares with dynamic environmental flow licensing system protects river flows more effectively than the current static minimum flow requirements during a dry historical year, but that the total opportunity cost to water abstractors of the environmental gains is a 10-15% loss in economic benefits.

  13. Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, David J., Ed.

    This monograph, prepared to assist Georgia elementary principals to better understand accountability and its implications for educational improvement, sets forth many of the theoretical and philosophical bases from which accountability is being considered. Leon M. Lessinger begins this 5-paper presentation by describing the need for accountability…

  14. Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    1999-01-01

    This issue reviews publications that provide a starting point for principals looking for a way through the accountability maze. Each publication views accountability differently, but collectively these readings argue that even in an era of state-mandated assessment, principals can pursue proactive strategies that serve students' needs. James A.…

  15. Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Newsletter of the Comprehensive Center-Region VI, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Controversy surrounding the accountability movement is related to how the movement began in response to dissatisfaction with public schools. Opponents see it as one-sided, somewhat mean-spirited, and a threat to the professional status of teachers. Supporters argue that all other spheres of the workplace have accountability systems and that the…

  16. Trading water to improve environmental flow outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, Jeffery D.; Franklin, Brad; Loch, Adam; Kirby, Mac; Wheeler, Sarah Ann

    2013-07-01

    As consumptive extractions and water scarcity pressures brought about by climate change increase in many world river basins, so do the risks to water-dependent ecological assets. In response, public or not for profit environmental water holders (EWHs) have been established in many areas and bestowed with endowments of water and mandates to manage water for ecological outcomes. Water scarcity has also increasingly spawned water trade arrangements in many river basins, and in many instances, EWHs are now operating in water markets. A number of EWHs, especially in Australia, begin with an endowment of permanent water entitlements purchased from irrigators. Such water entitlements typically have relatively constant interannual supply profiles that often do not match ecological water demand involving flood pulses and periods of drying. This article develops a hydrologic-economic simulation model of the Murrumbidgee catchment within the Murray-Darling Basin to assess the scope of possibilities to improve environmental outcomes through EWH trading on an annual water lease market. We find that there are some modest opportunities for EWHs to improve environmental outcomes through water trade. The best opportunities occur in periods of drought and for ecological outcomes that benefit from moderately large floods. We also assess the extent to which EWH trading in annual water leases may create pecuniary externalities via bidding up or down the water lease prices faced by irrigators. Environmental water trading is found to have relatively small impacts on water market price outcomes. Overall our results suggest that the benefits of developing EWH trading may well justify the costs.

  17. Revisiting heritability accounting for shared environmental effects and maternal inheritance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunyu; Dupuis, Josée; Larson, Martin G; Cupples, L Adrienne; Ordovas, Jose M; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Meigs, James B; Jacques, Paul F; Levy, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    Heritability measures the proportion of phenotypic variation attributable to genetic factors. In addition to a shared nuclear genetic component, a number of additional variance components, such as spousal correlation, sibship, household and maternal effects, may have strong contributions to inter-individual phenotype variation. In humans, the confounding effects of these components on heritability have not been studied thoroughly. We sought to obtain unbiased heritability estimates for complex traits in the presence of multiple variance components and also to estimate the contributions of these variance components to complex traits. We compared regression and variance component methods to estimate heritability in simulations when additional variance components existed. We then revisited heritability for several traits in Framingham Heart Study (FHS) participants. Using simulations, we found that failure to account for or misclassification of necessary variance components yielded biased heritability estimates. The direction and magnitude of the bias varied depending on a variance structure and an estimation method. Using the best fitted models to account for necessary variance components, we found that heritability estimates for most FHS traits were overestimated, ranging from 4 to 47 %, when we compared models that considered necessary variance components to models that only considered familial relationships. Spousal correlation explained 14-36 % of phenotypic variation in several anthropometric and lifestyle traits. Maternal and sibling effects also contributed to phenotypic variation, ranging from 3 to 5 % and 4 to 7 %, respectively, in several anthropometric and metabolic traits. Our findings may explain, in part, the missing heritability for some traits.

  18. Statistical Accounting for Uncertainty in Modeling Transport in Environmental Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Models frequently are used to predict the future extent of ground-water contamination, given estimates of their input parameters and forcing functions. Although models have a well established scientific basis for understanding the interactions between complex phenomena and for g...

  19. Water Pollution, Environmental Science Curriculum Guide Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Harold J.

    This curriculum guide is a 40-day unit plan on water pollution developed, in part, from the National Science Foundation Environmental Science Institutes' Ninth Grade Environmental Science Curriculum Guide. This unit contains teacher lesson plans, suggested teacher and student modules, case studies, and activities to be developed by teachers…

  20. Environmental Education Compendium for Water Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    Interdisciplinary by nature, environmental education is appropriate in any subject area and many educators often integrate environmental concepts into their lesson plans. This compendium of 109 collections of curriculum materials has been developed to assist educators in their selection of materials focusing on water resources. Curricula cover…

  1. Water resource accounting for a mining area in India.

    PubMed

    Chaulya, S K

    2004-01-01

    A water resource accounting study has been carried out for a limestone mining area located in Thondamuthur block of Coimbatore district under Tamilnadu state in India. The major source of surface water in the region is south-west and north-west monsoons during July-August and October-November, respectively. During the winter season, groundwater levels range from 13 to 25 m below the surface whereas during the summer season it varies from 20 to 30 m. The thickness of the weathered zone ranges from 10 to 40 m and the depth to bedrock ranges from 50 to 55 m. The groundwater is generally potable. The average annual rainfall during the twelve-year period (1988-1999) is 590 mm. Out of the total rainfall, around 11% is lost as surface runoff, 10% is lost through evaporation and transpiration, 30% is utilized for consumptive used, 16% is absorbed as subsoil loss and remaining only 33% is stored as groundwater recharge. Again out of total groundwater recharge only 85% is utilizable groundwater. The annual utilizable groundwater resource available in the area is 79.220 million cubic metre (MCM). Whereas, total groundwater demand for the region is 68.922 MCM, and breakup of industrial, domestic and agricultural demands are 0.020, 5.956 and 62.946 MCM, respectively. Therefore, at present the stage of groundwater development or utilization for the area is around 87%, and falls under 'Dark' category. The 'Dark' category indicates that the utilization of groundwater is more than 85% of available groundwater resource. This situation has to be controlled by immediate initiation of suitable measures for groundwater recharge. The identified recharge zones in the block along with the recommended recharging methodology are summarized in this paper. The paper includes a comprehensive site description, status of the water resource and demand, identification of recharge zones and recharging techniques, and recommends a water supply augmentation strategy for enhancement of water resources

  2. [Medical and environmental aspects of the drinking water supply crisis].

    PubMed

    Él'piner, L I

    2013-01-01

    Modern data determining drinking water supply crisis in Russia have been considered. The probability of influence of drinking water quality used by population on current negative demographic indices was shown. The necessity of taking into account interests of public health care in the process of formation of water management decisions was grounded. To achieve this goal the application of medical ecological interdisciplinary approach was proposed Its use is mostly effective in construction of goal-directed medical ecological sections for territorial schemes of the rational use and protection of water resources. Stages of the elaboration of these sections, providing the basing of evaluation and prognostic medical and environmental constructions on similar engineering studies of related disciplinary areas (hydrological, hydrogeological, hydrobiological, hydrochemical, environmental, socio-economic, technical and technological) were determined. PMID:24624819

  3. [Medical and environmental aspects of the drinking water supply crisis].

    PubMed

    Él'piner, L I

    2013-01-01

    Modern data determining drinking water supply crisis in Russia have been considered. The probability of influence of drinking water quality used by population on current negative demographic indices was shown. The necessity of taking into account interests of public health care in the process of formation of water management decisions was grounded. To achieve this goal the application of medical ecological interdisciplinary approach was proposed Its use is mostly effective in construction of goal-directed medical ecological sections for territorial schemes of the rational use and protection of water resources. Stages of the elaboration of these sections, providing the basing of evaluation and prognostic medical and environmental constructions on similar engineering studies of related disciplinary areas (hydrological, hydrogeological, hydrobiological, hydrochemical, environmental, socio-economic, technical and technological) were determined.

  4. Towards a methodology to formulate sustainable diets for livestock: accounting for environmental impact in diet formulation.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, S G; Leinonen, I; Ferguson, N; Kyriazakis, I

    2016-05-28

    The objective of this study was to develop a novel methodology that enables pig diets to be formulated explicitly for environmental impact objectives using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. To achieve this, the following methodological issues had to be addressed: (1) account for environmental impacts caused by both ingredient choice and nutrient excretion, (2) formulate diets for multiple environmental impact objectives and (3) allow flexibility to identify the optimal nutritional composition for each environmental impact objective. An LCA model based on Canadian pig farms was integrated into a diet formulation tool to compare the use of different ingredients in Eastern and Western Canada. By allowing the feed energy content to vary, it was possible to identify the optimum energy density for different environmental impact objectives, while accounting for the expected effect of energy density on feed intake. A least-cost diet was compared with diets formulated to minimise the following objectives: non-renewable resource use, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, global warming potential and a combined environmental impact score (using these four categories). The resulting environmental impacts were compared using parallel Monte Carlo simulations to account for shared uncertainty. When optimising diets to minimise a single environmental impact category, reductions in the said category were observed in all cases. However, this was at the expense of increasing the impact in other categories and higher dietary costs. The methodology can identify nutritional strategies to minimise environmental impacts, such as increasing the nutritional density of the diets, compared with the least-cost formulation. PMID:26987378

  5. Towards a methodology to formulate sustainable diets for livestock: accounting for environmental impact in diet formulation.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, S G; Leinonen, I; Ferguson, N; Kyriazakis, I

    2016-05-28

    The objective of this study was to develop a novel methodology that enables pig diets to be formulated explicitly for environmental impact objectives using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. To achieve this, the following methodological issues had to be addressed: (1) account for environmental impacts caused by both ingredient choice and nutrient excretion, (2) formulate diets for multiple environmental impact objectives and (3) allow flexibility to identify the optimal nutritional composition for each environmental impact objective. An LCA model based on Canadian pig farms was integrated into a diet formulation tool to compare the use of different ingredients in Eastern and Western Canada. By allowing the feed energy content to vary, it was possible to identify the optimum energy density for different environmental impact objectives, while accounting for the expected effect of energy density on feed intake. A least-cost diet was compared with diets formulated to minimise the following objectives: non-renewable resource use, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, global warming potential and a combined environmental impact score (using these four categories). The resulting environmental impacts were compared using parallel Monte Carlo simulations to account for shared uncertainty. When optimising diets to minimise a single environmental impact category, reductions in the said category were observed in all cases. However, this was at the expense of increasing the impact in other categories and higher dietary costs. The methodology can identify nutritional strategies to minimise environmental impacts, such as increasing the nutritional density of the diets, compared with the least-cost formulation.

  6. Water Quality and Sustainable Environmental Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setegn, S. G.

    2014-12-01

    Lack of adequate safe water, the pollution of the aquatic environment and the mismanagement of resources are major causes of ill-health and mortality, particularly in the developing countries. In order to accommodate more growth, sustainable fresh water resource management will need to be included in future development plans. One of the major environmental issues of concern to policy-makers is the increased vulnerability of ground water quality. The main challenge for the sustainability of water resources is the control of water pollution. To understand the sustainability of the water resources, one needs to understand the impact of future land use and climate changes on the natural resources. Providing safe water and basic sanitation to meet the Millennium Development Goals will require substantial economic resources, sustainable technological solutions and courageous political will. A balanced approach to water resources exploitation for development, on the one hand, and controls for the protection of health, on the other, is required if the benefits of both are to be realized without avoidable detrimental effects manifesting themselves. Meeting the millennium development goals for water and sanitation in the next decade will require substantial economic resources, sustainable technological solutions and courageous political will. In addition to providing "improved" water and "basic" sanitation services, we must ensure that these services provide: safe drinking water, adequate quantities of water for health, hygiene, agriculture and development and sustainable sanitation approaches to protect health and the environment.

  7. Environmental water incentive policy and return flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qureshi, M. E.; Schwabe, K.; Connor, J.; Kirby, M.

    2010-04-01

    With increasing urban, industrial, and agricultural water demand and projected reduced supply under climate change, allocations to the environment are critically low in many arid and semiarid basins. Consequently, many governments are striving to augment environmental flows, often through market-oriented mechanisms that involve compensating irrigated agriculture, the largest water user in most basins, for reducing diversions. A widely documented challenge with policies to recover water for the environment arises because part of the water diversion reduction can form the basis for downstream consumptive water rights or environmental flows. This article gives an empirical comparison of two incentive policies to acquire water for environmental flows for a part of the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB), Australia. One policy consists of paying irrigators and water delivery firms to make capital and management investments that improve on-farm irrigation and water-conveyance; the other policy consists of having the government buy water from irrigators on the active MDB water market. The results show that the first option results in relatively larger return flow reduction, while the second option tends to induce significant irrigated land retirement with relatively large reductions in consumptive use and small reductions in return flow. In cases where irrigation losses result in little useful return flow (e.g., evaporative loss reduction or during drought in some instances), efficiency-improving investments may provide some cost-effective opportunities. Where a large portion of loss forms valuable return flow, it is difficult to make a case for the cost-effectiveness of policies involving payments for investments in irrigation and conveyance system upgrades.

  8. Environmental auditing and the role of the accountancy profession: a literature review.

    PubMed

    de Moor, Philippe; de Beelde, Ignace

    2005-08-01

    This review of the literature on environmental auditing and the potential role of accountants distinguishes between compliance audits and audits of the environmental management system. After an extensive introduction to the concept, this review focuses on the similarities and differences between an environmental audit and a financial statement audit. The general approach to both types of audits is similar, except that environmental audits are largely unregulated. Both audits place an emphasis on the evaluation of control systems, which is an argument in favor of external auditors playing a role in environmental audits. Another argument for including external accountants is their code of ethics. However, these professionals seem to be reluctant to enter the field of environmental auditing. It is argued that this reluctance is because of a lack of generally accepted principles for conducting environmental audits. If external accountants are engaged in environmental auditing, they should be part of multidisciplinary teams that also include scientists and engineers to avoid a too strong focus on procedures. Rather than treating these audits as totally different, it is proposed that there be a move towards integrated, or even universal, audits. PMID:15995890

  9. Environmental auditing and the role of the accountancy profession: a literature review.

    PubMed

    de Moor, Philippe; de Beelde, Ignace

    2005-08-01

    This review of the literature on environmental auditing and the potential role of accountants distinguishes between compliance audits and audits of the environmental management system. After an extensive introduction to the concept, this review focuses on the similarities and differences between an environmental audit and a financial statement audit. The general approach to both types of audits is similar, except that environmental audits are largely unregulated. Both audits place an emphasis on the evaluation of control systems, which is an argument in favor of external auditors playing a role in environmental audits. Another argument for including external accountants is their code of ethics. However, these professionals seem to be reluctant to enter the field of environmental auditing. It is argued that this reluctance is because of a lack of generally accepted principles for conducting environmental audits. If external accountants are engaged in environmental auditing, they should be part of multidisciplinary teams that also include scientists and engineers to avoid a too strong focus on procedures. Rather than treating these audits as totally different, it is proposed that there be a move towards integrated, or even universal, audits.

  10. River of Life. Water: The Environmental Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preudhomme, Leroy L.

    This is the sixth in a series of Conservation Yearbooks prepared by the U.S. Department of the Interior as environmental reports to the public concerning problems of water resources in the United States. Information presented includes descriptive information, statistical data, and extensive color photographs. The methods of presenting information…

  11. Accountability in Higher Education: Bridge over Troubled Water?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huisman, Jeroen; Currie, Jan

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the impact of accountabiity on higher education policies in Europe and the United States. We describe how the accountability movement relates to other policy trends in higher education, providing empirical data on how accountability was implemented and how academics and managers in four universities perceived these policies.…

  12. An evaluation of water-quality data from Hydrologic Accounting Unit 051100, Green River Basin, Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leist, David W.

    1986-01-01

    Streamflow and water quality data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet from 37 sites in the Green River basin were compared to data from the USGS National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) Station, Green River near Beech Grove, Kentucky. This comparison was used to determine variability of water quality data throughout the basin, and to determine if water quality data from the NASQAN station were representative of water quality data upstream. Water quality concentrations, yields, and trends were studied. Water quality data from the NASQAN station were fairly representative conditions throughout the basin for specific conductance, pH, phosphorus and nitrogen, but were not representative for chloride, sulfate, iron, and water temperature. Water quality characteristics which were not representative can generally be attributed to impacts of specific land uses such as coal mining or oil production. Mean concentrations of suspended sediment were similar, but extreme concentrations varied throughout the basin. There were no temporal trends detected in instantaneous streamflow, sulfate, or total iron concentrations. Specific conductance was increasing at three stations and decreasing at one, chloride was increasing at two stations and decreasing at one, phosphorus was increasing at two stations, dissolved iron was increasing at one station and decreasing at one, pH was increasing at three stations and decreasing at two, suspended sediment was increasing at one station and decreasing at one, and water temperature was decreasing at two stations. The NASQAN station had increasing trends in chloride, phosphorus, pH, and suspended sediment, and a decreasing trend in water temperature with time. (Author 's abstract)

  13. 21st Century Water Asset Accounting: Implications Report (WERF Report INFR6R12b)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project is an important first step towards developing water industry standards and accounting protocols for green infrastructure that could be adopted by the Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB) to promote green infrastructure investment. Green infrastructure, the ...

  14. Purposes, paradigms and pressure groups: Accountability and sustainability in EU environmental assessment, 1985-2010

    SciTech Connect

    Sheate, William R.

    2012-02-15

    Twenty five years since the introduction of the European Union (EU) environmental impact assessment (EIA) Directive in 1985 this paper reflects on the extent to which environmental assessment (EA) processes, over the course of their evolution over the last 25 years in the EU, have provided a platform for enhancing accountability and sustainability. Surprisingly-in the context of legal mandates for EA-there is little reference in the EA literature explicitly to the literature on accountability and the role EA may play in this increasingly important aspect of governance. The paper explores EA implementation principally from an environmentalist perspective and particularly the way in which NGOs and other advocates for the environment in the UK and EU have used the EA legislation as a lever for increasing democratic, corporate and professional accountability of proponents and decision-makers alike. From an a historical analysis, including two historical EIA case studies and two contemporary SEA case studies, it becomes clear that EA has had an important role to play-at the legislative level in providing the requirements for accountability, and at the implementation level as the lever that can be used to hold individuals, organisations and authorities to account for their actions. The relationship with the shift to sustainability is a close one, since sustainable development demands greater public involvement in decision-making and greater accountability of executive decisions to the public. The lessons from this analysis allow the development of a nascent policy-oriented theory regarding EA's role in accountability, which provides a framework for a distinctive new area of EA research and policy analysis. Moreover, an accountability perspective on EA could help re-frame EA for policy makers from being purely an informational and procedural instrument to one which promotes better accountability and sustainability simultaneously. - Highlights: Black

  15. INTEGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

  16. INTERGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

  17. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Source Water Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sehlke, G.

    2003-03-17

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) covers approximately 890 square miles and includes 12 public water systems that must be evaluated for Source water protection purposes under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of its size and location, six watersheds and five aquifers could potentially affect the INEEL's drinking water sources. Based on a preliminary evaluation of the available information, it was determined that the Big Lost River, Birch Creek, and Little Lost River Watersheds and the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer needed to be assessed. These watersheds were delineated using the United States Geologic Survey's Hydrological Unit scheme. Well capture zones were originally estimated using the RESSQC module of the Environmental Protection Agency's Well Head Protection Area model, and the initial modeling assumptions and results were checked by running several scenarios using Modflow modeling. After a technical review, the resulting capture zones were expanded to account for the uncertainties associated with changing groundwater flow directions, a this vadose zone, and other data uncertainties. Finally, all well capture zones at a given facility were merged to a single wellhead protection area at each facility. A contaminant source inventory was conducted, and the results were integrated with the well capture zones, watershed and aquifer information, and facility information using geographic information system technology to complete the INEEL's Source Water Assessment. Of the INEEL's 12 public water systems, three systems rated as low susceptibility (EBR-1, Main Gate, and Gun Range), and the remainder rated as moderate susceptibility. No INEEL public water system rated as high susceptibility. We are using this information to develop a source water management plan from which we will subsequently implement an INEEL-wide source water management program. The results are a very robust set of wellhead protection areas that will protect

  18. Accounting for natural resources and environmental sustainability: linking ecosystem services to human well-being.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Stephen J; Hayes, Sharon E; Yoskowitz, David; Smith, Lisa M; Summers, J Kevin; Russell, Marc; Benson, William H

    2010-03-01

    One of society's greatest challenges is to sustain natural resources while promoting economic growth and quality of life. In the face of this challenge, society must measure the effectiveness of programs established to safeguard the environment. The impetus for demonstrating positive results from government-sponsored research and regulation in the United States comes from Congress (General Accountability Office; GAO) and the Executive Branch (Office of Management and Budget; OMB). The message is: regulatory and research programs must demonstrate outcomes that justify their costs. Although the concept is simple, it is a complex problem to demonstrate that environmental research, policies, and regulations cause measurable changes in environmental quality. Even where changes in environmental quality can be tracked reliably, the connections between government actions and environmental outcomes seldom are direct or straightforward. In this article, we describe emerging efforts (with emphasis on the role of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; EPA) to frame and measure environmental outcomes in terms of ecosystem services and values-societally and ecologically meaningful metrics for gauging how well we manage environmental resources. As examples of accounting for outcomes and values, we present a novel, low-cost method for determining relative values of multiple ecosystem services, and describe emerging research on indicators of human well-being.

  19. Approach for environmental baseline water sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, K.S.

    2011-01-01

    Samples collected during the exploration phase of mining represent baseline conditions at the site. As such, they can be very important in forecasting potential environmental impacts should mining proceed, and can become measurements against which future changes are compared. Constituents in stream water draining mined and mineralized areas tend to be geochemically, spatially, and temporally variable, which presents challenges in collecting both exploration and baseline water-quality samples. Because short-term (daily) variations can complicate long-term trends, it is important to consider recent findings concerning geochemical variability of stream-water constituents at short-term timescales in designing sampling plans. Also, adequate water-quality information is key to forecasting potential ecological impacts from mining. Therefore, it is useful to collect baseline water samples adequate tor geochemical and toxicological modeling. This requires complete chemical analyses of dissolved constituents that include major and minor chemical elements as well as physicochemical properties (including pH, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen) and dissolved organic carbon. Applying chemical-equilibrium and appropriate toxicological models to water-quality information leads to an understanding of the speciation, transport, sequestration, bioavailability, and aquatic toxicity of potential contaminants. Insights gained from geochemical and toxicological modeling of water-quality data can be used to design appropriate mitigation and for economic planning for future mining activities.

  20. 7 CFR 1700.30 - Water and Environmental Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... policies for the effective, efficient, and orderly management of Water and Environmental Programs responsibilities; provides leadership to ensure execution of policies and procedures by the Water and...

  1. Environmental mycobacteriosis and drinking water: what are the connections?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: During the last 20 years, incidence rates of pulmonary environmental mycobacteriosis appear to be increasing in the US and other developed countries. Environmental mycobacteria have been detected in multiple media: soil, ground and surface waters, water aerosols and t...

  2. ASUD2- decision support system on Dnieper reservoirs operations taking into account environmental priorities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iritz, L.; Zheleznyak, M.; Dvorzhak, A.; Nesterov, A.; Zaslavsky, A.

    2003-04-01

    basis of the different optimisation criteria minimum of the distance to the trajectory of the water level given by decision of the Joint River Commission, minimum value of the water contamination parameters (DO, nutrients, phosphorus), maximum energy production, taking into account limitations from fishery, water intakes of irrigation and transport channels etc; -water releases from the reservoirs to maintain the recommended dynamics in the whole Dnieper Cascade; -integrated water quality parameters for all reservoirs and distributed water quality parameters for the two largest reservoirs (Kremenchug and Kachovka). The analyses based on economical criteria provides the cost-benefit evaluation for different reservoir management alternatives. The assessment takes into account energy production, industry, agriculture as well as the costs associated with ecological damages.

  3. Environmentally assisted cracking in light water reactors.

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O. K.; Chung, H. M.; Clark, R. W.; Gruber, E. E.; Shack, W. J.; Soppet, W. K.; Strain, R. V.

    2007-11-06

    This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in light water reactors (LWRs) from January to December 2002. Topics that have been investigated include: (a) environmental effects on fatigue crack initiation in carbon and low-alloy steels and austenitic stainless steels (SSs), (b) irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of austenitic SSs in BWRs, (c) evaluation of causes and mechanisms of irradiation-assisted cracking of austenitic SS in PWRs, and (d) cracking in Ni-alloys and welds. A critical review of the ASME Code fatigue design margins and an assessment of the conservation in the current choice of design margins are presented. The existing fatigue {var_epsilon}-N data have been evaluated to define the effects of key material, loading, and environmental parameters on the fatigue lives of carbon and low-alloy steels and austenitic SSs. Experimental data are presented on the effects of surface roughness on fatigue crack initiation in these materials in air and LWR environments. Crack growth tests were performed in BWR environments on SSs irradiated to 0.9 and 2.0 x 10{sup 21} n x cm{sup -2}. The crack growth rates (CGRs) of the irradiated steels are a factor of {approx}5 higher than the disposition curve proposed in NUREG-0313 for thermally sensitized materials. The CGRs decreased by an order of magnitude in low-dissolved oxygen (DO) environments. Slow-strain-rate tensile (SSRT) tests were conducted in high-purity 289 C water on steels irradiated to {approx}3 dpa. The bulk S content correlated well with the susceptibility to intergranular SCC in 289 C water. The IASCC susceptibility of SSs that contain >0.003 wt. % S increased drastically. bend tests in inert environments at 23 C were conducted on broken pieces of SSRT specimens and on unirradiated specimens of the same materials after hydrogen charging. The results of the tests and a review of other data in the literature

  4. Carbon, land, and water footprint accounts for the European Union: consumption, production, and displacements through international trade.

    PubMed

    Steen-Olsen, Kjartan; Weinzettel, Jan; Cranston, Gemma; Ercin, A Ertug; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2012-10-16

    A nation's consumption of goods and services causes various environmental pressures all over the world due to international trade. We use a multiregional input-output model to assess three kinds of environmental footprints for the member states of the European Union. Footprints are indicators that take the consumer responsibility approach to account for the total direct and indirect effects of a product or consumption activity. We quantify the total environmental pressures (greenhouse gas emissions: carbon footprint; appropriation of biologically productive land and water area: land footprint; and freshwater consumption: water footprint) caused by consumption in the EU. We find that the consumption activities by an average EU citizen in 2004 led to 13.3 tCO(2)e of induced greenhouse gas emissions, appropriation of 2.53 gha (hectares of land with global-average biological productivity), and consumption of 179 m(3) of blue water (ground and surface water). By comparison, the global averages were 5.7 tCO(2)e, 1.23 gha, and 163 m(3) blue water, respectively. Overall, the EU displaced all three types of environmental pressures to the rest of the world, through imports of products with embodied pressures. Looking at intra-EU displacements only, the UK was the most important displacer overall, while the largest net exporters of embodied environmental pressures were Poland (greenhouse gases), France (land), and Spain (freshwater).

  5. 7 CFR 1700.30 - Water and Environmental Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water and Environmental Programs. 1700.30 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION Agency Organization and Functions § 1700.30 Water and Environmental Programs. RUS, through the Water and Environmental Programs, provides loan and grant funds...

  6. 7 CFR 1700.30 - Water and Environmental Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Water and Environmental Programs. 1700.30 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION Agency Organization and Functions § 1700.30 Water and Environmental Programs. RUS, through the Water and Environmental Programs, provides loan and grant funds...

  7. 7 CFR 1700.30 - Water and Environmental Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Water and Environmental Programs. 1700.30 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION Agency Organization and Functions § 1700.30 Water and Environmental Programs. RUS, through the Water and Environmental Programs, provides loan and grant funds...

  8. 7 CFR 1700.30 - Water and Environmental Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water and Environmental Programs. 1700.30 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION Agency Organization and Functions § 1700.30 Water and Environmental Programs. RUS, through the Water and Environmental Programs, provides loan and grant funds...

  9. Accounting for uncertainty in evaluating water quality impacts of urban development plan

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Jiquan; Liu Yi; Chen Jining

    2010-07-15

    The implementation of urban development plans causes land use change, which can have significant environmental impacts. In light of this, environmental concerns should be considered sufficiently at an early stage of the planning process. However, uncertainties existing in urban development plans hamper the application of strategic environmental assessment, which is applied to evaluate the environmental impacts of policies, plans and programs. This study develops an integrated assessment method based on accounting uncertainty of environmental impacts. And the proposed method consists of four main steps: (1) designing scenarios of economic scale and industrial structure, (2) sampling for possible land use layouts, (3) evaluating each sample's environmental impact, and (4) identifying environmentally sensitive industries. In doing so, uncertainties of environmental impacts can be accounted. Then environmental risk, overall environmental pressure and potential extreme environmental impact of urban development plans can be analyzed, and environmentally sensitive factors can be identified, especially under considerations of uncertainties. It can help decision-makers enhance environmental consideration and take measures in the early stage of decision-making.

  10. Environmental accounting for Arctic shipping - a framework building on ship tracking data from satellites.

    PubMed

    Mjelde, A; Martinsen, K; Eide, M; Endresen, O

    2014-10-15

    Arctic shipping is on the rise, leading to increased concern over the potential environmental impacts. To better understand the magnitude of influence to the Arctic environment, detailed modelling of emissions and environmental risks are essential. This paper describes a framework for environmental accounting. A cornerstone in the framework is the use of Automatic Identification System (AIS) ship tracking data from satellites. When merged with ship registers and other data sources, it enables unprecedented accuracy in modelling and geographical allocation of emissions and discharges. This paper presents results using two of the models in the framework; emissions of black carbon (BC) in the Arctic, which is of particular concern for climate change, and; bunker fuels and wet bulk carriage in the Arctic, of particular concern for oil spill to the environment. Using the framework, a detailed footprint from Arctic shipping with regards to operational emissions and potential discharges is established. PMID:25168183

  11. Environmental accounting for Arctic shipping - a framework building on ship tracking data from satellites.

    PubMed

    Mjelde, A; Martinsen, K; Eide, M; Endresen, O

    2014-10-15

    Arctic shipping is on the rise, leading to increased concern over the potential environmental impacts. To better understand the magnitude of influence to the Arctic environment, detailed modelling of emissions and environmental risks are essential. This paper describes a framework for environmental accounting. A cornerstone in the framework is the use of Automatic Identification System (AIS) ship tracking data from satellites. When merged with ship registers and other data sources, it enables unprecedented accuracy in modelling and geographical allocation of emissions and discharges. This paper presents results using two of the models in the framework; emissions of black carbon (BC) in the Arctic, which is of particular concern for climate change, and; bunker fuels and wet bulk carriage in the Arctic, of particular concern for oil spill to the environment. Using the framework, a detailed footprint from Arctic shipping with regards to operational emissions and potential discharges is established.

  12. Pesticide Environmental Accounting: a method for assessing the external costs of individual pesticide applications.

    PubMed

    Leach, A W; Mumford, J D

    2008-01-01

    The Pesticide Environmental Accounting (PEA) tool provides a monetary estimate of environmental and health impacts per hectare-application for any pesticide. The model combines the Environmental Impact Quotient method and a methodology for absolute estimates of external pesticide costs in UK, USA and Germany. For many countries resources are not available for intensive assessments of external pesticide costs. The model converts external costs of a pesticide in the UK, USA and Germany to Mediterranean countries. Economic and policy applications include estimating impacts of pesticide reduction policies or benefits from technologies replacing pesticides, such as sterile insect technique. The system integrates disparate data and approaches into a single logical method. The assumptions in the system provide transparency and consistency but at the cost of some specificity and precision, a reasonable trade-off for a method that provides both comparative estimates of pesticide impacts and area-based assessments of absolute impacts. PMID:17604888

  13. Pesticide Environmental Accounting: a method for assessing the external costs of individual pesticide applications.

    PubMed

    Leach, A W; Mumford, J D

    2008-01-01

    The Pesticide Environmental Accounting (PEA) tool provides a monetary estimate of environmental and health impacts per hectare-application for any pesticide. The model combines the Environmental Impact Quotient method and a methodology for absolute estimates of external pesticide costs in UK, USA and Germany. For many countries resources are not available for intensive assessments of external pesticide costs. The model converts external costs of a pesticide in the UK, USA and Germany to Mediterranean countries. Economic and policy applications include estimating impacts of pesticide reduction policies or benefits from technologies replacing pesticides, such as sterile insect technique. The system integrates disparate data and approaches into a single logical method. The assumptions in the system provide transparency and consistency but at the cost of some specificity and precision, a reasonable trade-off for a method that provides both comparative estimates of pesticide impacts and area-based assessments of absolute impacts.

  14. Environmental control on aerobic methane oxidation in coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinle, Lea; Maltby, Johanna; Engbersen, Nadine; Zopfi, Jakob; Bange, Hermann; Elvert, Marcus; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Kock, Annette; Lehmann, Moritz; Treude, Tina; Niemann, Helge

    2016-04-01

    Large quantities of methane are produced in anoxic sediments of continental margins and may be liberated to the overlying water column, where some of it is consumed by aerobic methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB). Aerobic methane oxidation (MOx) in the water column is consequently the final sink for methane before its release to the atmosphere, where it acts as a potent greenhouse gas. In the context of the ocean's contribution to atmospheric methane, coastal seas are particularly important accounting >75% of global methane emission from marine systems. Coastal oceans are highly dynamic, in particular with regard to the variability of methane and oxygen concentrations as well as temperature and salinity, all of which are potential key environmental factors controlling MOx. To determine important environmental controls on the activity of MOBs in coastal seas, we conducted a two-year time-series study with measurements of physicochemical water column parameters, MOx activity and the composition of the MOB community in a coastal inlet in the Baltic Sea (Boknis Eck Time Series Station, Eckernförde Bay - E-Bay). In addition, we investigated the influence of temperature and oxygen on MOx during controlled laboratory experiments. In E-Bay, hypoxia developed in bottom waters towards the end of the stratification period. Constant methane liberation from sediments resulted in bottom water methane accumulations and supersaturation (with respect to the atmospheric equilibrium) in surface waters. Here, we will discuss the factors impacting MOx the most, which were (i) perturbations of the water column (ii) temperature and (iii) oxygen concentration. (i) Perturbations of the water column caused by storm events or seasonal mixing led to a decrease in MOx, probably caused by replacement of stagnant water with a high standing stock of MOB by 'new' waters with a lower abundance of methanotrophs. b) An increase in temperature generally led to higher MOx rates. c) Even though methane was

  15. Environmentally assisted cracking in light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O.K.; Chung, H.M.; Gruber, E.E.

    1996-07-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in light water reactors (LWRs) from April 1995 to December 1995. Topics that have been investigated include fatigue of carbon and low-alloy steel used in reactor piping and pressure vessels, EAC of Alloy 600 and 690, and irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of Type 304 SS. Fatigue tests were conducted on ferritic steels in water that contained various concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO) to determine whether a slow strain rate applied during different portions of a tensile-loading cycle are equally effective in decreasing fatigue life. Crack-growth-rate tests were conducted on compact-tension specimens from several heats of Alloys 600 and 690 in simulated LWR environments. Effects of fluoride-ion contamination on susceptibility to intergranular cracking of high- and commercial- purity Type 304 SS specimens from control-tensile tests at 288 degrees Centigrade. Microchemical changes in the specimens were studied by Auger electron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy to determine whether trace impurity elements may contribute to IASCC of these materials.

  16. Water accounting and vulnerability evaluation (WAVE): considering atmospheric evaporation recycling and the risk of freshwater depletion in water footprinting.

    PubMed

    Berger, Markus; van der Ent, Ruud; Eisner, Stephanie; Bach, Vanessa; Finkbeiner, Matthias

    2014-04-15

    Aiming to enhance the analysis of water consumption and resulting consequences along the supply chain of products, the water accounting and vulnerability evaluation (WAVE) model is introduced. On the accounting level, atmospheric evaporation recycling within drainage basins is considered for the first time, which can reduce water consumption volumes by up to 32%. Rather than predicting impacts, WAVE analyzes the vulnerability of basins to freshwater depletion. Based on local blue water scarcity, the water depletion index (WDI) denotes the risk that water consumption can lead to depletion of freshwater resources. Water scarcity is determined by relating annual water consumption to availability in more than 11,000 basins. Additionally, WDI accounts for the presence of lakes and aquifers which have been neglected in water scarcity assessments so far. By setting WDI to the highest value in (semi)arid basins, absolute freshwater shortage is taken into account in addition to relative scarcity. This avoids mathematical artifacts of previous indicators which turn zero in deserts if consumption is zero. As illustrated in a case study of biofuels, WAVE can help to interpret volumetric water footprint figures and, thus, promotes a sustainable use of global freshwater resources. PMID:24660893

  17. Water accounting and vulnerability evaluation (WAVE): considering atmospheric evaporation recycling and the risk of freshwater depletion in water footprinting.

    PubMed

    Berger, Markus; van der Ent, Ruud; Eisner, Stephanie; Bach, Vanessa; Finkbeiner, Matthias

    2014-04-15

    Aiming to enhance the analysis of water consumption and resulting consequences along the supply chain of products, the water accounting and vulnerability evaluation (WAVE) model is introduced. On the accounting level, atmospheric evaporation recycling within drainage basins is considered for the first time, which can reduce water consumption volumes by up to 32%. Rather than predicting impacts, WAVE analyzes the vulnerability of basins to freshwater depletion. Based on local blue water scarcity, the water depletion index (WDI) denotes the risk that water consumption can lead to depletion of freshwater resources. Water scarcity is determined by relating annual water consumption to availability in more than 11,000 basins. Additionally, WDI accounts for the presence of lakes and aquifers which have been neglected in water scarcity assessments so far. By setting WDI to the highest value in (semi)arid basins, absolute freshwater shortage is taken into account in addition to relative scarcity. This avoids mathematical artifacts of previous indicators which turn zero in deserts if consumption is zero. As illustrated in a case study of biofuels, WAVE can help to interpret volumetric water footprint figures and, thus, promotes a sustainable use of global freshwater resources.

  18. A dynamic water accounting framework based on marginal resource opportunity cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmant, A.; Marques, G.; Mohamed, Y.

    2014-10-01

    Many river basins throughout the world are increasingly under pressure as water demands keep rising due to population growth, industrialization, urbanization and rising living standards. In the past, the typical answer to meet those demands focused on the supply-side and involved the construction of hydraulic infrastructures to capture more water from surface water bodies and from aquifers. As river basins were being more and more developed, downstream water users and ecosystems have become increasingly dependent on the management actions taken by upstream users. The increased interconnectedness between water users, aquatic ecosystems and the built environment is further compounded by climate change and its impact on the water cycle. Those pressures mean that it has become increasingly important to measure and account for changes in water fluxes and their corresponding economic value as they progress throughout the river system. Such basin water accounting should provide policy makers with important information regarding the relative contribution of each water user, infrastructure and management decision to the overall economic value of the river basin. This paper presents a dynamic water accounting approach whereby the entire river basin is considered as a value chain with multiple services including production and storage. Water users and reservoirs operators are considered as economic agents who can exchange water with their hydraulic neighbours at a price corresponding to the marginal value of water. Effective water accounting is made possible by keeping track of all water fluxes and their corresponding hypothetical transactions using the results of a hydro-economic model. The proposed approach is illustrated with the Eastern Nile River basin in Africa.

  19. A dynamic water accounting framework based on marginal resource opportunity cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmant, A.; Marques, G.; Mohamed, Y.

    2015-03-01

    Many river basins throughout the world are increasingly under pressure as water demands keep rising due to population growth, industrialization, urbanization and rising living standards. In the past, the typical answer to meet those demands focused on the supply side and involved the construction of hydraulic infrastructures to capture more water from surface water bodies and from aquifers. As river basins have become more and more developed, downstream water users and ecosystems have become increasingly dependent on the management actions taken by upstream users. The increased interconnectedness between water users, aquatic ecosystems and the built environment is further compounded by climate change and its impact on the water cycle. Those pressures mean that it has become increasingly important to measure and account for changes in water fluxes and their corresponding economic value as they progress throughout the river system. Such basin water accounting should provide policy makers with important information regarding the relative contribution of each water user, infrastructure and management decision to the overall economic value of the river basin. This paper presents a dynamic water accounting approach whereby the entire river basin is considered as a value chain with multiple services including production and storage. Water users and reservoir operators are considered as economic agents who can exchange water with their hydraulic neighbors at a price corresponding to the marginal value of water. Effective water accounting is made possible by keeping track of all water fluxes and their corresponding hypothetical transactions using the results of a hydro-economic model. The proposed approach is illustrated with the Eastern Nile River basin in Africa.

  20. Environmental Controls on Aerobic Methane Oxidation in Coastal Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinle, L.; Maltby, J.; Engbersen, N.; Zopfi, J.; Bange, H. W.; Elvert, M.; Hinrichs, K. U.; Kock, A.; Lehmann, M. F.; Treude, T.; Niemann, H.

    2015-12-01

    Large quantities of the greenhouse gas CH4 are produced in anoxic sediments of continental margins and may be liberated to the overlying water column, and later into the atmosphere. Indeed, coastal seas account for more than 75% of global oceanic CH4 emissions. Yet, aerobic CH4 oxidizing bacteria (MOB) consume an important part of CH4 in the water column, thus mitigating CH4 release to the atmosphere. Coastal oceans are highly dynamic systems, in particular with regard to the variability of temperature, salinity and oxygen concentrations, all of which are potential key environmental factors controlling MOx. To determine the most important controlling factors, we conducted a two-year time-series study with measurements of CH4, MOx, the composition of the MOB community, and physicochemical water column parameters in a coastal inlet in the Baltic Sea (Eckernförde(E-) Bay, Boknis Eck Time Series Station). In addition, we investigated the influence of temperature and oxygen on MOx during controlled laboratory experiments. In E-Bay, seasonal stratification leads to hypoxia in bottom waters towards the end of the stratification period. Methane is produced year-round in the sediments, resulting in accumulation of methane in bottom waters, and supersaturation (with respect to the atmospheric equilibrium) in surface waters. Here, we will discuss the factors impacting MOx the most, which were a) perturbations of the water column caused by storm events, currents or seasonal mixing, b) temperature and c) oxygen concentration. a) Perturbations of the water column led to a sharp decrease in MOx within hours, probably caused by replacement of 'old' water with a high standing stock of MOB by 'new' waters with a lower abundance of MOB. b) An increase in temperature generally led to higher MOx rates. c) Even though CH4 was abundant at all depths, MOx was highest in bottom waters (1-5 nM/d), which usually contain the lowest O2 concentrations. Lab-based experiments with adjusted O2

  1. Environmental and ground-water surveillance at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Dirkes, R.L.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-06-01

    Environmental and ground-water surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding region is conducted to demonstrate compliance with environmental regulations, confirm adherence to DOE environmental protection policies, support DOE environmental management decisions, and provide information to the public. Environmental surveillance encompasses sampling and analyzing for potential radiological and nonradiological chemical contaminants on and off the Hanford Site. Emphasis is placed on surveillance of exposure pathways and chemical constituents that pose the greatest risk to human health and the environment.

  2. An Environmental Assessment of United States Drinking Water Watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an emerging recognition that natural lands and their conservation are important elements of a sustainable drinking water infrastructure. We conducted a national, watershed-level environmental assessment of drinking water watersheds using data on land cover, hydrography a...

  3. Accounting for environmental variability, modeling errors, and parameter estimation uncertainties in structural identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behmanesh, Iman; Moaveni, Babak

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a Hierarchical Bayesian model updating framework to account for the effects of ambient temperature and excitation amplitude. The proposed approach is applied for model calibration, response prediction and damage identification of a footbridge under changing environmental/ambient conditions. The concrete Young's modulus of the footbridge deck is the considered updating structural parameter with its mean and variance modeled as functions of temperature and excitation amplitude. The identified modal parameters over 27 months of continuous monitoring of the footbridge are used to calibrate the updating parameters. One of the objectives of this study is to show that by increasing the levels of information in the updating process, the posterior variation of the updating structural parameter (concrete Young's modulus) is reduced. To this end, the calibration is performed at three information levels using (1) the identified modal parameters, (2) modal parameters and ambient temperatures, and (3) modal parameters, ambient temperatures, and excitation amplitudes. The calibrated model is then validated by comparing the model-predicted natural frequencies and those identified from measured data after deliberate change to the structural mass. It is shown that accounting for modeling error uncertainties is crucial for reliable response prediction, and accounting only the estimated variability of the updating structural parameter is not sufficient for accurate response predictions. Finally, the calibrated model is used for damage identification of the footbridge.

  4. Sustainability Education and Accounting Experience. What Motivates Higher Valuation of Environmental Performance?: A Commentary on "Rhetoric or Reality? Do Accounting Education and Experience Increase Weighting on Environmental Performance in a Balanced Scorecard?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaltegger, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Accounting has been accused of being a cause of unsustainable management, but is also seen as being a means to support corporate sustainability and improvement. In both views the introduction of environmental and sustainability topics in accounting education is widely supported. The main finding from the study by Wynder, Wellner, and Reinhard…

  5. The environmental comparison of landfilling vs. incineration of MSW accounting for waste diversion.

    PubMed

    Assamoi, Bernadette; Lawryshyn, Yuri

    2012-05-01

    This study evaluates the environmental performance and discounted costs of the incineration and landfilling of municipal solid waste that is ready for the final disposal while accounting for existing waste diversion initiatives, using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Parameters such as changing waste generation quantities, diversion rates and waste composition were also considered. Two scenarios were assessed in this study on how to treat the waste that remains after diversion. The first scenario is the status quo, where the entire residual waste was landfilled whereas in the second scenario approximately 50% of the residual waste was incinerated while the remainder is landfilled. Electricity was produced in each scenario. Data from the City of Toronto was used to undertake this study. Results showed that the waste diversion initiatives were more effective in reducing the organic portion of the waste, in turn, reducing the net electricity production of the landfill while increasing the net electricity production of the incinerator. Therefore, the scenario that incorporated incineration performed better environmentally and contributed overall to a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions because of the displacement of power plant emissions; however, at a noticeably higher cost. Although landfilling proves to be the better financial option, it is for the shorter term. The landfill option would require the need of a replacement landfill much sooner. The financial and environmental effects of this expenditure have yet to be considered. PMID:22099926

  6. The environmental comparison of landfilling vs. incineration of MSW accounting for waste diversion.

    PubMed

    Assamoi, Bernadette; Lawryshyn, Yuri

    2012-05-01

    This study evaluates the environmental performance and discounted costs of the incineration and landfilling of municipal solid waste that is ready for the final disposal while accounting for existing waste diversion initiatives, using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Parameters such as changing waste generation quantities, diversion rates and waste composition were also considered. Two scenarios were assessed in this study on how to treat the waste that remains after diversion. The first scenario is the status quo, where the entire residual waste was landfilled whereas in the second scenario approximately 50% of the residual waste was incinerated while the remainder is landfilled. Electricity was produced in each scenario. Data from the City of Toronto was used to undertake this study. Results showed that the waste diversion initiatives were more effective in reducing the organic portion of the waste, in turn, reducing the net electricity production of the landfill while increasing the net electricity production of the incinerator. Therefore, the scenario that incorporated incineration performed better environmentally and contributed overall to a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions because of the displacement of power plant emissions; however, at a noticeably higher cost. Although landfilling proves to be the better financial option, it is for the shorter term. The landfill option would require the need of a replacement landfill much sooner. The financial and environmental effects of this expenditure have yet to be considered.

  7. Drinking Water (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... water. A Guide to Drinking Water Treatment and Sanitation for Backcountry & Travel Use (Centers for Disease Control ... runoff is and its hazardous effects on the environment. Commercially Bottled Water (Centers for Disease Control and ...

  8. An accounting system for water and consumptive use along the Colorado River, Hoover Dam to Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.; Raymond, Lee H.

    1996-01-01

    An accounting system for estimating and distributing consumptive use of water by vegetation to water users was developed for the Colorado River to meet the requirements of a U.S. Supreme Court decree and used with data from calendar year 1984. The system is based on a water-budget method to estimate total consumptive use by vegetation which is apportioned to agricultural users by using percentages of total evapotranspiration by vegetation estimated from digital-image analysis of satellite data.

  9. Linking Air, Land, and Water Pollution for Effective Environmental Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the passage of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1970, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, other federal agencies, and the states have made substantial progress in improving the Nation’s air and water quality. Traditionally, the air, land, and water pollution ...

  10. DETECTION OF VIRUSES IN ENVIRONMENTAL WATERS, SEWAGE AND SEWAGE SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are many different groups of viruses that will be found in environmental waters. These include the many types of viruses whose hosts are natural aquatic organisms. There are also groups of viruses present in environmental waters which represent exogenous contaminants, whose...

  11. 7 CFR 1700.56 - Water and Environmental Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water and Environmental Programs. 1700.56 Section 1700.56 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION Loan and Grant Approval Authorities § 1700.56 Water and Environmental Programs. The State...

  12. The environmental comparison of landfilling vs. incineration of MSW accounting for waste diversion

    SciTech Connect

    Assamoi, Bernadette; Lawryshyn, Yuri

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Residential waste diversion initiatives are more successful with organic waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using a incineration to manage part of the waste is better environmentally. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incineration leads to more power plant emission offsets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Landfilling all of the waste would be preferred financially. - Abstract: This study evaluates the environmental performance and discounted costs of the incineration and landfilling of municipal solid waste that is ready for the final disposal while accounting for existing waste diversion initiatives, using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Parameters such as changing waste generation quantities, diversion rates and waste composition were also considered. Two scenarios were assessed in this study on how to treat the waste that remains after diversion. The first scenario is the status quo, where the entire residual waste was landfilled whereas in the second scenario approximately 50% of the residual waste was incinerated while the remainder is landfilled. Electricity was produced in each scenario. Data from the City of Toronto was used to undertake this study. Results showed that the waste diversion initiatives were more effective in reducing the organic portion of the waste, in turn, reducing the net electricity production of the landfill while increasing the net electricity production of the incinerator. Therefore, the scenario that incorporated incineration performed better environmentally and contributed overall to a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions because of the displacement of power plant emissions; however, at a noticeably higher cost. Although landfilling proves to be the better financial option, it is for the shorter term. The landfill option would require the need of a replacement landfill much sooner. The financial and environmental effects of this expenditure have yet to be considered.

  13. Optimization Model for cooperative water allocation and valuation in large river basins regarding environmental constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pournazeri, S.

    2011-12-01

    A comprehensive optimization model named Cooperative Water Allocation Model (CWAM) is developed for equitable and efficient water allocation and valuation of Zab river basin in order to solve the draught problems of Orumieh Lake in North West of Iran. The model's methodology consists of three phases. The first represents an initial water rights allocation among competing users. The second comprises the water reallocation process for complete usage by consumers. The third phase performs an allocation of the net benefit of the stakeholders participating in a coalition by applying cooperative game theory. The environmental constraints are accounted for in the water allocation model by entering probable environmental damage in a target function, and inputting the minimum water requirement of users. The potential of underground water usage is evaluated in order to compensate for the variation in the amount of surface water. This is conducted by applying an integrated economic- hydrologic river basin model. A node-link river basin network is utilized in CWAM which consists of two major blocks. The first indicates the internal water rights allocation and the second is associated to water and net benefit reallocation. System control, loss in links by evaporation or seepage, modification of inflow into the node, loss in nodes and loss in outflow are considered in this model. Water valuation is calculated for environmental, industrial, municipal and agricultural usage by net benefit function. It can be seen that the water rights are allocated efficiently and incomes are distributed appropriately based on quality and quantity limitations.

  14. Statistical approaches to account for false-positive errors in environmental DNA samples.

    PubMed

    Lahoz-Monfort, José J; Guillera-Arroita, Gurutzeta; Tingley, Reid

    2016-05-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling is prone to both false-positive and false-negative errors. We review statistical methods to account for such errors in the analysis of eDNA data and use simulations to compare the performance of different modelling approaches. Our simulations illustrate that even low false-positive rates can produce biased estimates of occupancy and detectability. We further show that removing or classifying single PCR detections in an ad hoc manner under the suspicion that such records represent false positives, as sometimes advocated in the eDNA literature, also results in biased estimation of occupancy, detectability and false-positive rates. We advocate alternative approaches to account for false-positive errors that rely on prior information, or the collection of ancillary detection data at a subset of sites using a sampling method that is not prone to false-positive errors. We illustrate the advantages of these approaches over ad hoc classifications of detections and provide practical advice and code for fitting these models in maximum likelihood and Bayesian frameworks. Given the severe bias induced by false-negative and false-positive errors, the methods presented here should be more routinely adopted in eDNA studies.

  15. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for crop water footprint accounting at a basin level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, L.; Mekonnen, M. M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2013-12-01

    Water footprint has been recognized as a comprehensive indicator in water management to evaluate the human pressure on water resources from either production or consumption perspectives. The agricultural sector in particular crop production takes the largest share of the global water footprint. Water footprint of producing unit mass of a crop (m3/ ton) is normally expressed by single volumetric numbers referring to an average value for certain areas and periods. However, the divergence in crop water footprint accounts from different studies, primarily due to the input data quality, may confuse water users and managers. The study investigates the output sensitivity and uncertainty of the green (rainfall) and blue (irrigation water) crop water footprint to key input variables (reference evapotranspiration (ETo), precipitation (PR), crop coefficient (Kc) and crop calendar (D)) at a basin level. A grid-based daily water balance model was applied to compute water footprints of four major crops - maize, rice, soybean and wheat - in the Yellow River basin for 1996-2005 at a 5 by 5 arc minute resolution. Sensitivities of the yearly crop water footprints to individual input variability were assessed by the one-at-a-time (';sensitivity curve') method. Uncertainty in crop water footprint to input uncertainties were quantified through Monte Carlo simulations for selected years 1996 (wet), 2000 (dry) and 2005 (average). Results show that the crop water footprint is most sensitive to ETo and Kc, followed by D and PR. Blue water footprints were more sensitive than green water footprints to input variability. Interestingly, the smaller the annual blue water footprint, the higher its sensitivity to PR, ETo and Kc variability. The uncertainties in total crop water footprints to combined uncertainties in four key input variables was less than × 30% for total water footprints at 95% confidence level. The sensitivity and uncertainty level of crop water footprints also differs with

  16. Improved but unsustainable: accounting for sachet water in post-2015 goals for global safe water.

    PubMed

    Stoler, Justin

    2012-12-01

    The advent and rapid spread of sachet drinking water in West Africa presents a new challenge for providing sustainable access to global safe water. Sachet water has expanded drinking water access and is often of sufficient quality to serve as an improved water source for Millennium Development Goals (MDG) monitoring purposes, yet sachets are an unsustainable water delivery vehicle due to their overwhelming plastic waste burden. Monitoring of primary drinking water sources in West Africa generally ignores sachet water, despite its growing ubiquity. Sub-Saharan Africa as a region is unlikely to meet the MDG Target for drinking water provision, and post-2015 monitoring activities may depend upon rapid adaptability to local drinking water trends. PMID:23051893

  17. Improved but unsustainable: accounting for sachet water in post-2015 goals for global safe water.

    PubMed

    Stoler, Justin

    2012-12-01

    The advent and rapid spread of sachet drinking water in West Africa presents a new challenge for providing sustainable access to global safe water. Sachet water has expanded drinking water access and is often of sufficient quality to serve as an improved water source for Millennium Development Goals (MDG) monitoring purposes, yet sachets are an unsustainable water delivery vehicle due to their overwhelming plastic waste burden. Monitoring of primary drinking water sources in West Africa generally ignores sachet water, despite its growing ubiquity. Sub-Saharan Africa as a region is unlikely to meet the MDG Target for drinking water provision, and post-2015 monitoring activities may depend upon rapid adaptability to local drinking water trends.

  18. Water Pollution. Environmental Education Curriculum. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    Water is one of the most polluted resources in our environment. Since everyone has the same basic need for pure water, it follows that all people should have a basic knowledge of the causes, results and solutions to the water pollution problem. This unit is designed for use with Level II and III educable mentally retarded students to present…

  19. 7 CFR 1700.56 - Water and Environmental Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water and Environmental Programs. 1700.56 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION Loan and Grant Approval Authorities § 1700.56 Water and... water and waste loans and grants....

  20. 7 CFR 1700.56 - Water and Environmental Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water and Environmental Programs. 1700.56 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION Loan and Grant Approval Authorities § 1700.56 Water and... water and waste loans and grants....

  1. 7 CFR 1700.56 - Water and Environmental Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Water and Environmental Programs. 1700.56 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION Loan and Grant Approval Authorities § 1700.56 Water and... water and waste loans and grants....

  2. 7 CFR 1700.56 - Water and Environmental Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Water and Environmental Programs. 1700.56 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION Loan and Grant Approval Authorities § 1700.56 Water and... water and waste loans and grants....

  3. Environmental Sustainability - Including Land and Water Use

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessments of environmental sustainability can be conducted in many ways with one of the most quantitative methods including Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA). While historically LCIA has included a comprehensive list of impact categories including: ozone depletion, global c...

  4. Accounting for uncertainty in the quantification of the environmental impacts of Canadian pig farming systems.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, S G; Leinonen, I; Ferguson, N; Kyriazakis, I

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study was to develop a life cycle assessment (LCA) for pig farming systems that would account for uncertainty and variability in input data and allow systematic environmental impact comparisons between production systems. The environmental impacts of commercial pig production for 2 regions in Canada (Eastern and Western) were compared using a cradle-to-farm gate LCA. These systems had important contrasting characteristics such as typical feed ingredients used, herd performance, and expected emission factors from manure management. The study used detailed production data supplied by the industry and incorporated uncertainty/variation in all major aspects of the system including life cycle inventory data for feed ingredients, animal performance, energy inputs, and emission factors. The impacts were defined using 5 metrics-global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential (EP), abiotic resource use, and nonrenewable energy use-and were expressed per kilogram carcass weight at farm gate. Eutrophication potential was further separated into marine EP (MEP) and freshwater EP (FEP). Uncertainties in the model inputs were separated into 2 types: uncertainty in the data used to describe the system (α uncertainties) and uncertainty in impact calculations or background data that affects all systems equally (β uncertainties). The impacts of pig production in the 2 regions were systematically compared based on the differences in the systems (α uncertainties). The method of ascribing uncertainty influenced the outcomes. In eastern systems, EP, MEP, and FEP were lower (P < 0.05) when assuming that all uncertainty in the emission factors for leaching from manure application was β. This was mainly due to increased EP resulting from field emissions for typical ingredients in western diets. When uncertainty in these emission factors was assumed to be α, only FEP was lower in eastern systems (P < 0.05). The environmental impacts for

  5. Accounting for uncertainty in the quantification of the environmental impacts of Canadian pig farming systems.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, S G; Leinonen, I; Ferguson, N; Kyriazakis, I

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study was to develop a life cycle assessment (LCA) for pig farming systems that would account for uncertainty and variability in input data and allow systematic environmental impact comparisons between production systems. The environmental impacts of commercial pig production for 2 regions in Canada (Eastern and Western) were compared using a cradle-to-farm gate LCA. These systems had important contrasting characteristics such as typical feed ingredients used, herd performance, and expected emission factors from manure management. The study used detailed production data supplied by the industry and incorporated uncertainty/variation in all major aspects of the system including life cycle inventory data for feed ingredients, animal performance, energy inputs, and emission factors. The impacts were defined using 5 metrics-global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential (EP), abiotic resource use, and nonrenewable energy use-and were expressed per kilogram carcass weight at farm gate. Eutrophication potential was further separated into marine EP (MEP) and freshwater EP (FEP). Uncertainties in the model inputs were separated into 2 types: uncertainty in the data used to describe the system (α uncertainties) and uncertainty in impact calculations or background data that affects all systems equally (β uncertainties). The impacts of pig production in the 2 regions were systematically compared based on the differences in the systems (α uncertainties). The method of ascribing uncertainty influenced the outcomes. In eastern systems, EP, MEP, and FEP were lower (P < 0.05) when assuming that all uncertainty in the emission factors for leaching from manure application was β. This was mainly due to increased EP resulting from field emissions for typical ingredients in western diets. When uncertainty in these emission factors was assumed to be α, only FEP was lower in eastern systems (P < 0.05). The environmental impacts for

  6. Environmental Chemistry: Air and Water Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoker, H. Stephen; Seager, Spencer L.

    This is a book about air and water pollution whose chapters cover the topics of air pollution--general considerations, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons and photochemical oxidants, sulfur oxides, particulates, temperature inversions and the greenhouse effect; and water pollution--general considerations, mercury, lead, detergents,…

  7. Water. Ag Ed Environmental Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulloch, Rodney W.

    The document is a student resource unit to be used in teaching high school vocational agriculture students about water. The hydrologic cycle and natural processes are described, with particular attention to evaporation, precipitation, and runoff. Sources of water pollution are found in industries, municipalities, individual action, and…

  8. Environmental Immunoassays: Alternative Techniques for Soil and Water Analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aga, D.S.; Thurman, E.M.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of soil and water samples for environmental studies and compliance testing can be formidable, time consuming, and costly. As a consequence, immunochemical techniques have become popular for environmental analysis because they are reliable, rapid, and cost effective. During the past 5 years, the use of immunoassays for environmental monitoring has increased substantially, and their use as an integral analytical tool in many environmental laboratories is now commonplace. This chapter will present the basic concept of immunoassays, recent advances in the development of immunochemical methods, and examples of successful applications of immunoassays in environmental analysis.

  9. Measuring environmental efficiency of agricultural water use: a Luenberger environmental indicator.

    PubMed

    Azad, Md A S; Ancev, Tihomir

    2014-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture creates substantial environmental pressures by withdrawing large quantities of water, leaving rivers and wetlands empty and unable to support the valuable ecosystems that depend on the water resource. The key challenge facing society is that of balancing water extractions for agricultural production and other uses with provision of appropriate environmental flow to maintain healthy rivers and wetlands. Measuring tradeoffs between economic gain of water use in agriculture and its environmental pressures can contribute to constructing policy instruments for improved water resource management. The aim of this paper is to develop a modelling framework to measure these tradeoffs. Using a new approach - Luenberger environmental indicator - the study derives environmental efficiency scores for various types of irrigation enterprises across seventeen natural resource management regions within the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. Findings show that there is a substantial variation in environmental performance of irrigation enterprises across the regions. Some enterprises were found to be relatively environmentally efficient in some regions, but they were not efficient in others. The environmental efficiency scores could be used as a guideline for formulating regional policy and strategy to achieve sustainable water use in the agricultural sector. PMID:25103337

  10. Hanford Site environmental data for calendar year 1991 -- Ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P.E.; Bates, D.J.; Merz, J.K.

    1993-03-01

    This report tabulates ground-water radiological and chemical data reported for calendar year 1991 by the Ground-Water Surveillance Project, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Monitoring, and Operational Monitoring. The Ground-Water Surveillance Project is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and the RCRA and Operational Monitoring Projects are conducted by the Westinghouse Hanford Company. This document supplements the reports Hanford Site Ground-Water Monitoring for 1991 (Evans et al. 1992) and Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1991 (Woodruff and Hanf 1992). The data listings provided here were generated from the Hanford Environmental Information System database.

  11. Review of Campylobacter spp. in drinking and environmental waters.

    PubMed

    Pitkänen, Tarja

    2013-10-01

    Consumption of contaminated drinking water is a significant cause of Campylobacter infections. Drinking water contamination is known to result from septic seepage and wastewater intrusion into non-disinfected sources of groundwater and occasionally from cross-connection into drinking water distribution systems. Wastewater effluents, farm animals and wild birds are the primary sources contributing human-infectious Campylobacters in environmental waters, impacting on recreational activities and drinking water sources. Culturing of Campylobacter entails time-consuming steps that often provide qualitative or semi-quantitative results. Viable but non-culturable forms due to environmental stress are not detected, and thus may result in false-negative assessments of Campylobacter risks from drinking and environmental waters. Molecular methods, especially quantitative PCR applications, are therefore important to use in the detection of environmental Campylobacter spp. Processing large volumes of water may be required to reach the desired sensitivity for either culture or molecular detection methods. In the future, applications of novel molecular techniques such as isothermal amplification and high-throughput sequencing applications are awaited to develop and become more affordable and practical in environmental Campylobacter research. The new technologies may change the knowledge on the prevalence and pathogenicity of the different Campylobacter species in the water environment.

  12. Fish and Water Temperature, An Environmental Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    This environmental unit is one of a series designed for integration within an existing curriculum. The unit is self-contained and requires minimal teacher preparation. The philosophy of this series is based on an experience-oriented process that encourages self-paced independent student work. This particular unit illustrates the interrelationship…

  13. Instrumentation for Environmental Monitoring: Water, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley. Lawrence Berkeley Lab.

    This volume is one of a series discussing instrumentation for environmental monitoring. Each volume contains an overview of the basic problems, comparisons among the basic methods of sensing and detection, and notes that summarize the characteristics of presently available instruments and techniques. The text of this survey discusses the…

  14. LABORATORY ANALYSES: WATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To be presented at the Workshop for Improving the Recognition, Investigation, and Reporting of Waterborne Disease Outbreaks Associated with Drinking, Recreational and Other Waters in Nashville, TN, May 29 - June 1, 2007

  15. GROUND WATER AND WATERSHEDS AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective watershed management has the potential to achieve both drinking water and ecological protection goals. However, it is important that the watershed perspective be three- dimensional and include the hidden subsurface. The subsurface catchment, or groundwatershed, is geohy...

  16. Environmental equity as a criterion for water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grande, M.; Galvão, C.; Miranda, L.; Rufino, I.

    2014-09-01

    Environmental equity is a concept derived from the (un)equal exposure to environmental degradation by different social groups, usually minorities and low-income people exposed to major environmental risks, also known as environmental justice. It is assumed that no group of people, independent of race, ethnicity or socio-economic class, should support, either in concentrated or unevenly distributed form, the negative environmental impacts resulting from industrial, agricultural, commercial and infrastructure activities or government programs and policies. In this paper the concept of environmental equity is explored as a criterion for water management through the analysis of a typical coupled human-natural system: the Epitácio Pessoa Reservoir, located in the semi-arid region of Brazil. Inefficient water resource management has caused unequal access to water by the population, particularly during drought periods. However, census data indicate that population have practically the same access to water, which actually is not able to reflect the actual picture. This study argues that environmental equity can be an additional criterion to improve water management.

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF VIRAL RNA EXTRACTION EFFICIENCY FROM ENVIRONMENTAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhibition of PCR by environmental factors is a common problem affecting the sensitive detection of pathogenic microorganisms in environmental waters. This inhibition is caused by one of three mechanisms: 1) failure to lyse the microorganism, 2) degradation or sequestering of the...

  18. Monitoring of trifluoroacetic acid concentration in environmental waters in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianbo; Zhang, Ying; Li, Jinlong; Hu, Jianxin; Ye, Peng; Zeng, Zheng

    2005-04-01

    It is critically important and extremely meaningful to determine the concentration of TFA in the environmental water in China. This will create background reference for the effects of analyzing the extensive employment of the substitutes to CFCs in China. In this paper a set of analytical methods was described for use in monitoring of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) concentration of environmental waters including collecting, pre-treatment measures, preserving, concentrating and derivatization of samples from different kinds of environmental waters. The GC with electrical capture detector (ECD) and headspace auto sampler were used in the analysis. The lowest detection limit of the instrument is 0.0004 ng methyl trifluoroacetic acid (MTFA), and the lowest detected concentration with the method is 3.0 ng/ml TFA. TFA collected in various environmental water samples (including rainfall, inland surface water, ground water, and waste water) from nine provinces and autonomous regions in China have been determined by applying the analytical methods created and defined in this work. The results indicate that the concentrations of TFA in nine rainfalls and three snowfalls through the period from 2000 to 2001 ranged from 25 to 220 ng/l, the TFA concentration in the inland surface water samples ranged from 4.7 to 221 ng/l, the concentration of TFA in groundwater samples collected in Beijing was 10 ng/l, and the TFA concentration in coastal water samples ranged from 4.2 to 190.1 ng/l.

  19. Simulation of Water Environmental Capacity and Pollution Load Reduction Using QUAL2K for Water Environmental Management

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruibin; Qian, Xin; Yuan, Xingcheng; Ye, Rui; Xia, Bisheng; Wang, Yulei

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, water quality degradation associated with rapid socio-economic development in the Taihu Lake Basin, China, has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Chinese government. The primary sources of pollution in Taihu Lake are its inflow rivers and their tributaries. Effective water environmental management strategies need to be implemented in these rivers to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake, and to ensure sustainable development in the region. The aim of this study was to provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. In this study, the QUAL2K model for river and stream water quality was applied to predict the water quality and environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, which is a polluted tributary in the Taihu Lake Basin. The model parameters were calibrated by trial and error until the simulated results agreed well with the observed data. The calibrated QUAL2K model was used to calculate the water environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, and the water environmental capacities of CODCr NH3-N, TN, and TP were 17.51 t, 1.52 t, 2.74 t and 0.37 t, respectively. The results showed that the NH3-N, TN, and TP pollution loads of the studied river need to be reduced by 50.96%, 44.11%, and 22.92%, respectively to satisfy the water quality objectives. Thus, additional water pollution control measures are needed to control and reduce the pollution loads in the Hongqi River watershed. The method applied in this study should provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. PMID:23222206

  20. Urban water infrastructure optimization to reduce environmental impacts and costs.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Suh, Sangwon; Kim, Jung-Hoon; Park, Hung Suck

    2010-01-01

    Urban water planning and policy have been focusing on environmentally benign and economically viable water management. The objective of this study is to develop a mathematical model to integrate and optimize urban water infrastructures for supply-side planning and policy: freshwater resources and treated wastewater are allocated to various water demand categories in order to reduce contaminants in the influents supplied for drinking water, and to reduce consumption of the water resources imported from the regions beyond a city boundary. A case study is performed to validate the proposed model. An optimal urban water system of a metropolitan city is calculated on the basis of the model and compared to the existing water system. The integration and optimization decrease (i) average concentrations of the influents supplied for drinking water, which can improve human health and hygiene; (ii) total consumption of water resources, as well as electricity, reducing overall environmental impacts; (iii) life cycle cost; and (iv) water resource dependency on other regions, improving regional water security. This model contributes to sustainable urban water planning and policy.

  1. Students' Developing Understanding of Water in Environmental Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covitt, Beth A.; Gunckel, Kristin L.; Anderson, Charles W.

    2009-01-01

    The authors developed a framework of empirically grounded curricular goals for water-science literacy and documented the challenges that students face in achieving these goals. Water-related environmental science literacy requires an understanding of connected natural and human-engineered systems at multiple scales ranging from atomic-molecular…

  2. ARSENIC IN WATER USED FOR DRINKING - AN ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In October 2001, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced a new federal standard for concentrations of arsenic found in drinking water. The new standard was to be 10 parts-per-million (ppm). This new standard will be required by the Safe Drinking Water Act in...

  3. Basin-wide water accounting using remote sensing data: the case of transboundary Indus Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, P.; Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.; Molden, D.; Cheema, M. J. M.

    2012-11-01

    The paper describes the application of a new Water Accounting Plus (WA+) framework to produce spatial information on water flows, sinks, uses, storages and assets, in the Indus Basin, South Asia. It demonstrates how satellite-derived estimates of land use, land cover, rainfall, evaporation (E), transpiration (T), interception (I) and biomass production can be used in the context of WA+. The results for one selected year showed that total annual water depletion in the basin (502 km3) plus outflows (21 km3) exceeded total precipitation (482 km3). The deficit in supply was augmented through abstractions beyond actual capacity, mainly from groundwater storage (30 km3). The "landscape ET" (depletion directly from rainfall) was 344 km3 (69% of total consumption). "Blue water" depletion ("utilized flow") was 158 km3 (31%). Agriculture was the biggest water consumer and accounted for 59% of the total depletion (297 km3), of which 85% (254 km3) was through irrigated agriculture and the remaining 15% (44 km3) through rainfed systems. While the estimated basin irrigation efficiency was 0.84, due to excessive evaporative losses in agricultural areas, half of all water consumption in the basin was non-beneficial. Average rainfed crop yields were 0.9 t ha-1 and 7.8 t ha-1 for two irrigated crop growing seasons combined. Water productivity was low due to a lack of proper agronomical practices and poor farm water management. The paper concludes that the opportunity for a food-secured and sustainable future for the Indus Basin lies in focusing on reducing soil evaporation. Results of future scenario analyses suggest that by implementing techniques to convert soil evaporation to crop transpiration will not only increase production but can also result in significant water savings that would ease the pressure on the fast declining storage.

  4. Environmental implications of water efficient microcomponents in residential buildings.

    PubMed

    Fidar, A; Memon, F A; Butler, D

    2010-11-01

    The Code for Sustainable Homes (CSH) in England sets out various water efficiency targets/levels, which form part of environmental performance criteria against which the sustainability of a building is measured. The code is performance based and requires reduction in per capita water consumption in households. The water efficiency related targets can be met using a range of water efficient microcomponents (WC, showers, kitchen taps, basin taps, dishwashers, washing machines, and baths). However, while the CSH aims at reducing the adverse environmental implications associated with the dwellings by promoting reduction in water consumption, little is known about the energy consumption and the environmental impacts (e. g. carbon emissions) resulting from water efficient end uses. This paper describes a methodology to evaluate the energy consumption and carbon emissions associated with the CSH's water efficiency levels. Key findings are that some 96% and 87% of energy use and carbon emissions, respectively associated with urban water provision are attributable to in-house consumption (principally related to hot water), and that achieving a defined water efficiency target does not automatically save energy or reduce carbon emissions.

  5. Bifidobacteria in Feces and Environmental Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bifidobacteria have been recommended as potential indicators of human fecal pollution in surface waters even though very little is known about their presence in nonhuman fecal sources. The objective of this research was to shed light on the occurrence and molecular diversity of t...

  6. Modeling Water Resource Systems Accounting for Water-Related Energy Use, GHG Emissions and Water-Dependent Energy Generation in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escriva-Bou, A.; Lund, J. R.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Medellin-Azuara, J.

    2015-12-01

    Most individual processes relating water and energy interdependence have been assessed in many different ways over the last decade. It is time to step up and include the results of these studies in management by proportionating a tool for integrating these processes in decision-making to effectively understand the tradeoffs between water and energy from management options and scenarios. A simple but powerful decision support system (DSS) for water management is described that includes water-related energy use and GHG emissions not solely from the water operations, but also from final water end uses, including demands from cities, agriculture, environment and the energy sector. Because one of the main drivers of energy use and GHG emissions is water pumping from aquifers, the DSS combines a surface water management model with a simple groundwater model, accounting for their interrelationships. The model also explicitly includes economic data to optimize water use across sectors during shortages and calculate return flows from different uses. Capabilities of the DSS are demonstrated on a case study over California's intertied water system. Results show that urban end uses account for most GHG emissions of the entire water cycle, but large water conveyance produces significant peaks over the summer season. Also the development of more efficient water application on the agricultural sector has increased the total energy consumption and the net water use in the basins.

  7. Mapping malaria incidence distribution that accounts for environmental factors in Maputo Province - Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The objective was to study if an association exists between the incidence of malaria and some weather parameters in tropical Maputo province, Mozambique. Methods A Bayesian hierarchical model to malaria count data aggregated at district level over a two years period is formulated. This model made it possible to account for spatial area variations. The model was extended to include environmental covariates temperature and rainfall. Study period was then divided into two climate conditions: rainy and dry seasons. The incidences of malaria between the two seasons were compared. Parameter estimation and inference were carried out using MCMC simulation techniques based on Poisson variation. Model comparisons are made using DIC. Results For winter season, in 2001 the temperature covariate with estimated value of -8.88 shows no association to malaria incidence. In year 2002, the parameter estimation of the same covariate resulted in 5.498 of positive level of association. In both years rainfall covariate determines no dependency to malaria incidence. Malaria transmission is higher in wet season with both covariates positively related to malaria with posterior means 1.99 and 2.83 in year 2001. For 2002 only temperature is associated to malaria incidence with estimated value 2.23. Conclusions The incidence of malaria in year 2001, presents an independent spatial pattern for temperature in summer and for rainfall in winter seasons respectively. In year 2002 temperature determines the spatial pattern of malaria incidence in the region. Temperature influences the model in cases where both covariates are introduced in winter and summer season. Its influence is extended to the summer model with temperature covariate only. It is reasonable to state that with the occurrence of high temperatures, malaria incidence had certainly escalated in this year. PMID:20302674

  8. A Commentary on "Rhetoric or Reality? Do Accounting Education and Experience Increase Weighting on Environmental Performance in a Balanced Scorecard?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrinaga, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    In the paper, "Rhetoric or Reality? Do Accounting Education and Experience Increase Weighting on Environmental Performance in a Balanced Scorecard?" (Wynder, Wellner, and Reinhard 2013), researchers test whether business education and (controller) experience influence decision-makers to consider a longer-term perspective and,…

  9. Multi-scale environmental accounting: methodological lessons from the application of NAMEA at sub-national levels.

    PubMed

    Dalmazzone, Silvana; La Notte, Alessandra

    2013-11-30

    Extending the application of integrated environmental and economic accounts from the national to the local level of government serves several purposes. They can be used not only as an instrument for communicating on the state of the environment and reporting the results of policies, but also as an operational tool - for setting the objectives and designing policies - if made available to the local authorities who have responsibility over the administration of natural resources, land use and conservation policies. The aim of the paper is to test the feasibility of applying hybrid flow accounts at the intermediate and local government levels. As an illustration, NAMEA for air emissions and wastes is applied to a Region, a Province and a Municipality, thus covering the three nested levels of local government in Italy. The study identifies the main issues raised by multi-scale environmental accounting and provides an applied discussion of feasible solutions.

  10. Multi-scale environmental accounting: methodological lessons from the application of NAMEA at sub-national levels.

    PubMed

    Dalmazzone, Silvana; La Notte, Alessandra

    2013-11-30

    Extending the application of integrated environmental and economic accounts from the national to the local level of government serves several purposes. They can be used not only as an instrument for communicating on the state of the environment and reporting the results of policies, but also as an operational tool - for setting the objectives and designing policies - if made available to the local authorities who have responsibility over the administration of natural resources, land use and conservation policies. The aim of the paper is to test the feasibility of applying hybrid flow accounts at the intermediate and local government levels. As an illustration, NAMEA for air emissions and wastes is applied to a Region, a Province and a Municipality, thus covering the three nested levels of local government in Italy. The study identifies the main issues raised by multi-scale environmental accounting and provides an applied discussion of feasible solutions. PMID:24141065

  11. Quantifying the influence of environmental and water conservation attitudes on household end use water consumption.

    PubMed

    Willis, Rachelle M; Stewart, Rodney A; Panuwatwanich, Kriengsak; Williams, Philip R; Hollingsworth, Anna L

    2011-08-01

    Within the research field of urban water demand management, understanding the link between environmental and water conservation attitudes and observed end use water consumption has been limited. Through a mixed method research design incorporating field-based smart metering technology and questionnaire surveys, this paper reveals the relationship between environmental and water conservation attitudes and a domestic water end use break down for 132 detached households located in Gold Coast city, Australia. Using confirmatory factor analysis, attitudinal factors were developed and refined; households were then categorised based on these factors through cluster analysis technique. Results indicated that residents with very positive environmental and water conservation attitudes consumed significantly less water in total and across the behaviourally influenced end uses of shower, clothes washer, irrigation and tap, than those with moderately positive attitudinal concern. The paper concluded with implications for urban water demand management planning, policy and practice.

  12. Stable isotope composition of land snail body water and its relation to environmental waters and shell carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Goodfriend, G.A.; Magaritz, M.; Gat, J.R. )

    1989-12-01

    Day-to-day and within-day (diel) variations in {delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O of the body water of the land snail, Theba pisana, were studied at a site in the southern coastal plain of Israel. Three phases of variation, which relate to isotopic changes in atmospheric water vapor, were distinguished. The isotopic variations can be explained by isotopic equilibration with atmospheric water vapor and/or uptake of dew derived therefrom. During the winter, when the snails are active, there is only very minor enrichment in {sup 18}O relative to equilibrium with water vapor or dew, apparently as a result of metabolic activity. But this enrichment becomes pronounced after long periods of inactivity. Within-day variation in body water isotopic composition is minor on non-rain days. Shell carbonate is enriched in {sup 18}O by ca. 1-2% relative to equilibrium with body water. In most regions, the isotopic composition of atmospheric water vapor (or dew) is a direct function of that of rain. Because the isotopic composition of snail body water is related to that of atmospheric water vapor and the isotopic composition of shell carbonate in turn is related to that of body water, land snail shell carbonate {sup 18}O should provide a reliable indication of rainfall {sup 18}O. However, local environmental conditions and the ecological properties of the snail species must be taken into account.

  13. The Significance of Accounting Order for Evapotranspiration and Recharge in Monthly and Daily Threshold-Type Water Budgets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oki, Delwyn S.

    2008-01-01

    Most threshold-type water-budget models account for the loss of water by evapotranspiration before accounting for recharge. Recharge estimates can differ substantially, depending on whether recharge is counted before or after evapotranspiration in the water budget. This disparity is the source of uncertainty and is most pronounced for areas where soil-moisture storage capacity is small or for water budgets computed using a large time interval (such as monthly). Water budgets that account for recharge before evapotranspiration provide higher estimates of recharge and lower estimates of evapotranspiration relative to water budgets that account for evapotranspiration before recharge. The choice of accounting method is less significant for a daily computation interval than for a monthly computation interval. In general, uncertainty in recharge estimates is least for water budgets computed using the shortest computation interval that the data allow and that is consistent with the physical processes being represented. If the data only allow for long (weekly or monthly) computation intervals, then selecting the appropriate accounting order for the study area may be critical. For monthly water budgets, accounting for recharge before evapotranspiration is most appropriate in areas where rainfall occurs infrequently, whereas accounting for evapotranspiration before recharge is most appropriate where rainfall occurs relatively uniformly throughout the month.

  14. Embedded resource accounting for coupled natural-human systems: An application to water resource impacts of the western U.S. electrical energy trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruddell, Benjamin L.; Adams, Elizabeth A.; Rushforth, Richard; Tidwell, Vincent C.

    2014-10-01

    In complex coupled natural-human systems (CNH), multitype networks link social, environmental, and economic systems with flows of matter, energy, information, and value. Embedded Resource Accounting (ERA) is a systems analysis framework that includes the indirect connections of a multitype CNH network. ERA is conditioned on perceived system boundaries, which may vary according to the accountant's point of view. Both direct and indirect impacts are implicit whenever two subnetworks interact in such a system; the ratio of two subnetworks' impacts is the embedded intensity. For trade in the services of water, this is understood as the indirect component of a water footprint, and as "virtual water" trade. ERA is a generalization of input-output, footprint, and substance flow methods, and is a type of life cycle analysis. This paper presents results for the water and electrical energy system in the western U.S. This system is dominated by California, which outsources the majority of its water footprint of electrical energy. Electricity trade increases total water consumption for electricity production in the western U.S. by 15% and shifts water use to water-stressed Colorado River Basin States. A systemic underaccounting for water footprints occurs because state-level processes discount a portion of the water footprint occurring outside of the state boundary.

  15. Challenging Hydrological Panaceas: Water poverty governance accounting for spatial scale in the Niger River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, John; Kaczan, David

    2014-11-01

    Water poverty in the Niger River Basin is a function of physical constraints affecting access and supply, and institutional arrangements affecting the ability to utilise the water resource. This distinction reflects the complexity of water poverty and points to the need to look beyond technical and financial means alone to reduce its prevalence and severity. Policy decisions affecting water resources are generally made at a state or national level. Hydrological and socio-economic evaluations at these levels, or at the basin level, cannot be presumed to be concordant with the differentiation of poverty or livelihood vulnerability at more local levels. We focus on three objectives: first, the initial mapping of observed poverty, using two health metrics and a household assets metric; second, the estimation of factors which potentially influence the observed poverty patterns; and third, a consideration of spatial non-stationarity, which identifies spatial correlates of poverty in the places where their effects appear most severe. We quantify the extent to which different levels of analysis influence these results. Comparative analysis of correlates of poverty at basin, national and local levels shows limited congruence. Variation in water quantity, and the presence of irrigation and dams had either limited or no significant correlation with observed variation in poverty measures across levels. Education and access to improved water quality were the only variables consistently significant and spatially stable across the entire basin. At all levels, education is the most consistent non-water correlate of poverty while access to protected water sources is the strongest water related correlate. The analysis indicates that landscape and scale matter for understanding water-poverty linkages and for devising policy concerned with alleviating water poverty. Interactions between environmental, social and institutional factors are complex and consequently a comprehensive

  16. Improving the assessment of ICESat water altimetry accuracy accounting for autocorrelation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, Hani; Bailly, Jean-Stéphane; Baghdadi, Nicolas; Lemarquand, Nicolas

    2011-11-01

    Given that water resources are scarce and are strained by competing demands, it has become crucial to develop and improve techniques to observe the temporal and spatial variations in the inland water volume. Due to the lack of data and the heterogeneity of water level stations, remote sensing, and especially altimetry from space, appear as complementary techniques for water level monitoring. In addition to spatial resolution and sampling rates in space or time, one of the most relevant criteria for satellite altimetry on inland water is the accuracy of the elevation data. Here, the accuracy of ICESat LIDAR altimetry product is assessed over the Great Lakes in North America. The accuracy assessment method used in this paper emphasizes on autocorrelation in high temporal frequency ICESat measurements. It also considers uncertainties resulting from both in situ lake level reference data. A probabilistic upscaling process was developed. This process is based on several successive ICESat shots averaged in a spatial transect accounting for autocorrelation between successive shots. The method also applies pre-processing of the ICESat data with saturation correction of ICESat waveforms, spatial filtering to avoid measurement disturbance from the land-water transition effects on waveform saturation and data selection to avoid trends in water elevations across space. Initially this paper analyzes 237 collected ICESat transects, consistent with the available hydrometric ground stations for four of the Great Lakes. By adapting a geostatistical framework, a high frequency autocorrelation between successive shot elevation values was observed and then modeled for 45% of the 237 transects. The modeled autocorrelation was therefore used to estimate water elevations at the transect scale and the resulting uncertainty for the 117 transects without trend. This uncertainty was 8 times greater than the usual computed uncertainty, when no temporal correlation is taken into account. This

  17. Management and Accounting in English Higher Education Influenced by Environmental and Academia-Specific Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Alberti-Alhtaybat, Larissa; Al-Htaybat, Khaldoon; Hutaibat, Khaled

    2012-01-01

    This article originates from a longitudinal study of management and accounting practices in the English higher education sector. The processes of strategic management and strategic management accounting in several English higher education institutions were investigated, from planning to assessment, and their meaning to members of staff. The study…

  18. Hanford Site environmental data for calendar year 1990 -- Ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P.E.; Bates, D.J.; Merz, J.K.

    1993-03-01

    This report tabulates ground-water radiological and chemical data for calendar year 1990 by the Ground-Water Surveillance Project, reported Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Monitoring, and Operational Monitoring. The Ground-Water Surveillance Project is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and the RCRA and Operational Monitoring Projects are conducted by the Westinghouse Hanford Company. This document supplements the reports Hanford Site Ground-Water Monitoring for 1990 (Evans et al. 1992) and mental Report for Calendar Year 1990 (Woodruff and Hanf 1991). The data listings provided here were generated from the Hanford Environmental Information System database.

  19. Water, water quality and health (Chapter 3 in Book entitled: Environmental Tracking for Public Health Surveillance).

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter identifies the role environmental tracking plays in identifying public health water hazard and water quality issues. It outlines public health issues to be examined and provides an integrated overview of water and diseases by combining knowledge of the hydrological ...

  20. Environmental management plan (EMP) for Melamchi water supply project, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Khadka, Ram B; Khanal, Anil B

    2008-11-01

    More than 1.5 million people live in the Kathmandu valley. The valley is facing an extreme shortage of water supply. At the same time the demand is escalating rapidly. To address this issue of scarcity of water, the government of Nepal has proposed a project of inter-basin transfer of water from Melamchi River located 40 km north-east of the Kathmandu valley. The project will cover two districts and three municipalities and will potentially have significant impacts on the environment. In accordance with the Environmental Protection Regulation of Nepal (1997), the Melamchi Water Supply Project (MWSP) has undergone an EIA during the feasibility study stage of the proposed project. The recommendations contained in the EIA were integrated into the project design for implementation in 2006. This paper summarizes the background of MWSP, the environmental concerns described in the EIA and the status of Environmental Management Plan (EMP) developed to address environmental compliance and other issues involving participation and support of the local people. This paper also provides some lessons to learn on the modalities of addressing the demands and grievances of the local people concerning environmental management.

  1. Environmental services coupled to food products and brands: food companies interests and on-farm accounting.

    PubMed

    Kempa, Daniela

    2013-09-01

    Much research has been carried out on governmental support of agri environmental measures (AEM). However, little is known about demands on and incentives from the commercial market for environmental contributions of the farmers. The factors farm structures, level of remuneration and legal framework have been thoroughly investigated. However, demands of the food industry for environmentally friendly goods(1) and their effects on farmers' decisions have not yet been analyzed. Leading companies in the food industry have observed an increasing consumer awareness and, due to higher competition, see an additional need to communicate environmental benefits which result from either organic production methods or agri-environmental measures. To address this research deficit, two case studies were carried out. The first case study is a survey aimed at the industrial food producers' demands with regards to the environmental performance of supplying farms. Concurrently, within a second survey farmers were questioned to find out what conditions are required to implement agri-environmental measures beyond cross compliance and document their environmental performance. This article presents the outcomes of the first case study. The results show that food companies have an interest in the documentation of environmental benefits of supplying farms for their marketing strategies. Provision of support by finance or contract-design is also seen as appropriate tool to promote an environmentally friendly production. In turn the food producers' demand and support for documented environmental services can have a positive influence on farmers' decisions for implementation and documentation of these services. Thus, the surveys provide essential findings for further development of documentation strategies for environmental benefits within the supply chain. PMID:22795621

  2. Environmental services coupled to food products and brands: food companies interests and on-farm accounting.

    PubMed

    Kempa, Daniela

    2013-09-01

    Much research has been carried out on governmental support of agri environmental measures (AEM). However, little is known about demands on and incentives from the commercial market for environmental contributions of the farmers. The factors farm structures, level of remuneration and legal framework have been thoroughly investigated. However, demands of the food industry for environmentally friendly goods(1) and their effects on farmers' decisions have not yet been analyzed. Leading companies in the food industry have observed an increasing consumer awareness and, due to higher competition, see an additional need to communicate environmental benefits which result from either organic production methods or agri-environmental measures. To address this research deficit, two case studies were carried out. The first case study is a survey aimed at the industrial food producers' demands with regards to the environmental performance of supplying farms. Concurrently, within a second survey farmers were questioned to find out what conditions are required to implement agri-environmental measures beyond cross compliance and document their environmental performance. This article presents the outcomes of the first case study. The results show that food companies have an interest in the documentation of environmental benefits of supplying farms for their marketing strategies. Provision of support by finance or contract-design is also seen as appropriate tool to promote an environmentally friendly production. In turn the food producers' demand and support for documented environmental services can have a positive influence on farmers' decisions for implementation and documentation of these services. Thus, the surveys provide essential findings for further development of documentation strategies for environmental benefits within the supply chain.

  3. Water chlorination: An enigma for modern-day environmental chemists

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.D.; Jolley, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The challenge of modern-day water chlorination is to reap the benefits of chlorine's excellent disinfection efficacy while minimizing its environmental impacts and byproduct toxicity. Chemists, biologists, and engineers need to work together to identify, quantify, and use most effectively the disinfectant forms of chlorine to maximize disinfection, while at the same time they also need to identify, quantify, and minimize the toxic forms of by-products produced by chlorine's reactions with the organic compounds found in water. To the extent that this is possible, we can enjoy the benefits of chlorine disinfection and minimize the human and environmental impacts of chlorination by-products. 22 refs.

  4. Improving Estimates of Subsurface Water Content by Accounting for Saturation-Related Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irving, J.; Knight, R.

    2003-12-01

    Ground-penetrating radar tomographic methods are commonly used to obtain EM wave velocities in the subsurface, which are then transformed into estimates of soil water content using rock physics relationships. In most cases, velocity anisotropy is not accounted for in this process. That is, the earth is usually represented as a collection of isotropic, constant-velocity cells during the tomographic inversion of radar travel time data, and anisotropy information is not used when transforming velocities to water content. In cases where velocity anisotropy in the subsurface is significant, however, the inversion of travel time data under an isotropic assumption can result in serious artifacts; false heterogeneity can be produced because we attempt to fit an anisotropic medium with a series of isotropic cells. Further, not providing anisotropy information in the transformation from velocity to water content results in greater uncertainty in the water content values obtained. By accounting for velocity anisotropy in both the tomographic inversion and rock physics steps, we can improve estimates of subsurface water content obtained from radar tomographic data. A material consisting of thin isotropic layers is equivalent, in the long wavelength limit, to a homogeneous but anisotropic medium. Numerical modeling of 1-D coarse/fine layered systems under the assumptions of effective medium theory and capillary equilibrium indicates that, in the saturated zone, velocity anisotropy is likely unimportant because changes in velocity between layers result largely from porosity differences, which are minor. In the vadose zone, however, significant velocity anisotropy can result in layered systems due to the strong dependence of dielectric properties on saturation, and the pronounced saturation heterogeneity that can exist. As the overall saturation in the vadose zone decreases, fine-grained layers preferentially retain water while coarse-grained layers preferentially drain; this

  5. Application of an environmental decision support system to a water quality trading program affected by surface water diversions.

    PubMed

    Obropta, Christopher C; Niazi, Mehran; Kardos, Josef S

    2008-12-01

    Environmental decision support systems (EDSSs) are an emerging tool used to integrate the evaluation of highly complex and interrelated physicochemical, biological, hydrological, social, and economic aspects of environmental problems. An EDSS approach is developed to address hot-spot concerns for a water quality trading program intended to implement the total maximum daily load (TMDL) for phosphorus in the Non-Tidal Passaic River Basin of New Jersey. Twenty-two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) spread throughout the watershed are considered the major sources of phosphorus loading to the river system. Periodic surface water diversions to a major reservoir from the confluence of two key tributaries alter the natural hydrology of the watershed and must be considered in the development of a trading framework that ensures protection of water quality. An EDSS is applied that enables the selection of a water quality trading framework that protects the watershed from phosphorus-induced hot spots. The EDSS employs Simon's (1960) three stages of the decision-making process: intelligence, design, and choice. The identification of two potential hot spots and three diversion scenarios enables the delineation of three management areas for buying and selling of phosphorus credits among WWTPs. The result shows that the most conservative option entails consideration of two possible diversion scenarios, and trading between management areas is restricted accordingly. The method described here is believed to be the first application of an EDSS to a water quality trading program that explicitly accounts for surface water diversions. PMID:18592303

  6. Environmental impacts and sustainability of degraded water reuse

    SciTech Connect

    Corwin, D.L.; Bradford, S.A.

    2008-09-15

    Greater urban demand for finite water resources to meet domestic, agricultural, industrial, and recreational needs; increased frequency of drought resulting from erratic weather; and continued degradation of available water resources from point and nonpoint sources of pollution have focused attention on the reuse of degraded waters as a potential water source. However, short- and long-term detrimental environmental impacts and sustainability of degraded water reuse are not well known or understood. These concerns led to the organization of the 2007 ASA-CSSA-SSSA Symposium entitled Environmental Impacts and Sustainability of Degraded Water Reuse. Out of this symposium came a special collection of 4 review papers and 12 technical research papers focusing on various issues associated with the reuse of agricultural drainage water, well water generated in the production of natural gas from coalbeds, municipal wastewater and biosolids, wastewater from confined animal operations, urban runoff, and food-processing wastewater. Overviews of the papers, gaps in knowledge, and future research directions are presented. The future prognosis of degraded water reuse is promising, provided close attention is paid to managing constituents that pose short- and long-term threats to the environment and the health of humankind.

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL ACCOUNTING USING EMERGY: EVALUATION OF THE STATE OF WEST VIRGINIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Historically, questions related to environmental policy have been difficult to solve, because solutions depend on accurately balancing the needs of both human and natural systems. In addition, there has been no good way to express the socioeconomic and environmental effects of p...

  8. "Why Are We Here?" Taking "Place" into Account in UK Outdoor Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Sam

    2010-01-01

    "Place" is an under-researched and poorly documented element of UK outdoor environmental education. In the international literature, North American and Australian researchers and practitioners show considerable attention to "place". Yet UK outdoor environmental educators and researchers seem to have neglected this area despite calls for increased…

  9. Water governance, resilience and global environmental change - a reassessment of integrated water resources management (IWRM).

    PubMed

    Galaz, V

    2007-01-01

    Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) is gaining increased acceptance among water policy makers and researchers as a way to create more effective governance institutions, leading towards integrated water development solutions for poverty alleviation, while addressing social, economic and environmental aspects of water challenges. However, global environmental change poses fundamental challenges to water policy makers as it implies vast scientific, and hence, policy uncertainty; its implications for international water governance initiatives remain unspecified, effectively hindering dialogue on how current IWRM initiatives should be modified. This paper addresses the lag between our growing understanding of resilient interconnected freshwater resources (and their governance) and the reforms being promoted by policy makers. In particular, there is a need to rethink some of IWRM's key components to better tackle the challenges posed by the complex behaviour of interconnected social-ecological systems and global environmental change.

  10. Space Station Environmental Health System water quality monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincze, Johanna E.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    One of the unique aspects of the Space Station is that it will be a totally encapsulated environment and the air and water supplies will be reclaimed for reuse. The Environmental Health System, a subsystem of CHeCS (Crew Health Care System), must monitor the air and water on board the Space Station Freedom to verify that the quality is adequate for crew safety. Specifically, the Water Quality Subsystem will analyze the potable and hygiene water supplies regularly for organic, inorganic, particulate, and microbial contamination. The equipment selected to perform these analyses will be commercially available instruments which will be converted for use on board the Space Station Freedom. Therefore, the commercial hardware will be analyzed to identify the gravity dependent functions and modified to eliminate them. The selection, analysis, and conversion of the off-the-shelf equipment for monitoring the Space Station reclaimed water creates a challenging project for the Water Quality engineers and scientists.

  11. Occurrence of perfluoroalkyl acids in environmental waters in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Duong, Hanh Thi; Kadokami, Kiwao; Shirasaka, Hanako; Hidaka, Rento; Chau, Hong Thi Cam; Kong, Lingxiao; Nguyen, Trung Quang; Nguyen, Thao Thanh

    2015-03-01

    This is the first nationwide study of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in environmental waters in Vietnam. Twenty-eight river water and 22 groundwater samples collected in four major cities and 14 river water samples from the Red River were screened to investigate the occurrence and sources of 16 PFAAs. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were the most prevalent of 11 detected PFAAs with maximum concentrations in urban river water of 5.3, 18 and 0.93ngL(-1), respectively, and in groundwater of 8.2, 4.5 and 0.45ngL(-1), respectively. PFAAs in the Red River water were detected at low levels. PFAA concentrations in river water were higher in the rainy season than in the dry season, possibly due to storm water runoff, a common phenomenon in Southeast Asian countries. The highest concentrations of PFAAs in river water were observed in samples from highly populated and industrialized areas, perhaps sourced from sewage. The PFAA concentrations observed were similar to those in other Southeast Asian countries, but lower than in developed nations. From the composition profiles of PFAAs, industrial products containing PFAAs imported from China and Japan might be one of the major sources of PFAAs in the Vietnamese aquatic environment. According to the health-based values and advisory issued by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the concentrations of detected PFAAs in this study do not pose an immediate health risk to humans and aquatic organisms.

  12. Assessing the environmental performance of English arable and livestock holdings using data from the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN).

    PubMed

    Westbury, D B; Park, J R; Mauchline, A L; Crane, R T; Mortimer, S R

    2011-03-01

    Agri-environment schemes (AESs) have been implemented across EU member states in an attempt to reconcile agricultural production methods with protection of the environment and maintenance of the countryside. To determine the extent to which such policy objectives are being fulfilled, participating countries are obliged to monitor and evaluate the environmental, agricultural and socio-economic impacts of their AESs. However, few evaluations measure precise environmental outcomes and critically, there are no agreed methodologies to evaluate the benefits of particular agri-environmental measures, or to track the environmental consequences of changing agricultural practices. In response to these issues, the Agri-Environmental Footprint project developed a common methodology for assessing the environmental impact of European AES. The Agri-Environmental Footprint Index (AFI) is a farm-level, adaptable methodology that aggregates measurements of agri-environmental indicators based on Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) techniques. The method was developed specifically to allow assessment of differences in the environmental performance of farms according to participation in agri-environment schemes. The AFI methodology is constructed so that high values represent good environmental performance. This paper explores the use of the AFI methodology in combination with Farm Business Survey data collected in England for the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN), to test whether its use could be extended for the routine surveillance of environmental performance of farming systems using established data sources. Overall, the aim was to measure the environmental impact of three different types of agriculture (arable, lowland livestock and upland livestock) in England and to identify differences in AFI due to participation in agri-environment schemes. However, because farm size, farmer age, level of education and region are also likely to influence the environmental performance of a

  13. Assessing the environmental performance of English arable and livestock holdings using data from the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN).

    PubMed

    Westbury, D B; Park, J R; Mauchline, A L; Crane, R T; Mortimer, S R

    2011-03-01

    Agri-environment schemes (AESs) have been implemented across EU member states in an attempt to reconcile agricultural production methods with protection of the environment and maintenance of the countryside. To determine the extent to which such policy objectives are being fulfilled, participating countries are obliged to monitor and evaluate the environmental, agricultural and socio-economic impacts of their AESs. However, few evaluations measure precise environmental outcomes and critically, there are no agreed methodologies to evaluate the benefits of particular agri-environmental measures, or to track the environmental consequences of changing agricultural practices. In response to these issues, the Agri-Environmental Footprint project developed a common methodology for assessing the environmental impact of European AES. The Agri-Environmental Footprint Index (AFI) is a farm-level, adaptable methodology that aggregates measurements of agri-environmental indicators based on Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) techniques. The method was developed specifically to allow assessment of differences in the environmental performance of farms according to participation in agri-environment schemes. The AFI methodology is constructed so that high values represent good environmental performance. This paper explores the use of the AFI methodology in combination with Farm Business Survey data collected in England for the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN), to test whether its use could be extended for the routine surveillance of environmental performance of farming systems using established data sources. Overall, the aim was to measure the environmental impact of three different types of agriculture (arable, lowland livestock and upland livestock) in England and to identify differences in AFI due to participation in agri-environment schemes. However, because farm size, farmer age, level of education and region are also likely to influence the environmental performance of a

  14. Environmental Control and Life Support System, Water Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. This is a close-up view of ECLSS Water Recovery System (WRS) racks. The MSFC's ECLSS Group overseas much of the development of the hardware that will allow a constant supply of clean water for four to six crewmembers aboard the ISS. The WRS provides clean water through the reclamation of wastewaters, including water obtained from the Space Shuttle's fuel cells, crewmember urine, used shower, handwash and oral hygiene water cabin humidity condensate, and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) wastes. The WRS is comprised of a Urine Processor Assembly (UPA), and a Water Processor Assembly (WPA). The UPA accepts and processes pretreated crewmember urine to allow it to be processed along with other wastewaters in the WPA, which removes free gas, organic, and nonorganic constituents before the water goes through a series of multifiltration beds for further purification. Product water quality is monitored primarily through conductivity measurements. Unacceptable water is sent back through the WPA for reprocessing. Clean water is sent to a storage tank. The water must meet stringent purity standards before consumption by the crew. The UPA provided by the MSFC and the WRA is provided by the prime contractor, Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems, International (HSSSI) from Cornecticut.

  15. Catalytic nanomotors for environmental monitoring and water remediation

    PubMed Central

    Soler, Lluís

    2014-01-01

    Self-propelled nanomotors hold considerable promise for developing innovative environmental applications. This review highlights the recent progress in the use of self-propelled nanomotors for water remediation and environmental monitoring applications, as well as the effect of the environmental conditions on the dynamics of nanomotors. Artificial nanomotors can sense different analytes—and therefore pollutants, or “chemical threats”—can be used for testing the quality of water, selective removal of oil, and alteration of their speeds, depending on the presence of some substances in the solution in which they swim. Newly introduced micromotors with double functionality to mix liquids at the microscale and enhance chemical reactions for the degradation of organic pollutants greatly broadens the range of applications to that of environmental. These “self-powered remediation systems” could be seen as a new generation of “smart devices” for cleaning water in small pipes or cavities difficult to reach with traditional methods. With constant improvement and considering the key challenges, we expect that artificial nanomachines could play an important role in environmental applications in the near future. PMID:24752489

  16. Catalytic nanomotors for environmental monitoring and water remediation.

    PubMed

    Soler, Lluís; Sánchez, Samuel

    2014-07-01

    Self-propelled nanomotors hold considerable promise for developing innovative environmental applications. This review highlights the recent progress in the use of self-propelled nanomotors for water remediation and environmental monitoring applications, as well as the effect of the environmental conditions on the dynamics of nanomotors. Artificial nanomotors can sense different analytes-and therefore pollutants, or "chemical threats"-can be used for testing the quality of water, selective removal of oil, and alteration of their speeds, depending on the presence of some substances in the solution in which they swim. Newly introduced micromotors with double functionality to mix liquids at the microscale and enhance chemical reactions for the degradation of organic pollutants greatly broadens the range of applications to that of environmental. These "self-powered remediation systems" could be seen as a new generation of "smart devices" for cleaning water in small pipes or cavities difficult to reach with traditional methods. With constant improvement and considering the key challenges, we expect that artificial nanomachines could play an important role in environmental applications in the near future.

  17. Catalytic nanomotors for environmental monitoring and water remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soler, Lluís; Sánchez, Samuel

    2014-06-01

    Self-propelled nanomotors hold considerable promise for developing innovative environmental applications. This review highlights the recent progress in the use of self-propelled nanomotors for water remediation and environmental monitoring applications, as well as the effect of the environmental conditions on the dynamics of nanomotors. Artificial nanomotors can sense different analytes--and therefore pollutants, or ``chemical threats''--can be used for testing the quality of water, selective removal of oil, and alteration of their speeds, depending on the presence of some substances in the solution in which they swim. Newly introduced micromotors with double functionality to mix liquids at the microscale and enhance chemical reactions for the degradation of organic pollutants greatly broadens the range of applications to that of environmental. These ``self-powered remediation systems'' could be seen as a new generation of ``smart devices'' for cleaning water in small pipes or cavities difficult to reach with traditional methods. With constant improvement and considering the key challenges, we expect that artificial nanomachines could play an important role in environmental applications in the near future.

  18. Monitoring Environmental Recovery at Terminated Produced Water Discharge Sites in Coastal Louisiana Waters

    SciTech Connect

    Continental Shelf Associates, Inc.

    1999-08-16

    This report presents the results of a study of terminated produced water discharge sites in the coastal waters of Louisiana. Environmental recovery at the sites is documented by comparing pre-termination and post-termination (six months and one year) data. Produced water, sediments, and sediment interstitial water samples were analyzed for radionuclides, metals, and hydrocarbons. Benthic infauna were identified from samples collected in the vicinity of the discharge and reference sites. Radium isotope activities were determined in fish and crustacean samples. In addition, an environmental risk assessment is made on the basis of the concentrations of metals and hydrocarbons determined in the samples.

  19. A Primer on Fresh Water: The Environmental Citizenship Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environment Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Water is the lifeblood of the environment as no organisms can survive without it. This reference booklet is designed to help people make environmentally responsible decisions. The primer is targeted at the general public (grade 8 to post-secondary) to be used by educators, communities and organizations as well as individuals, as part of a learning…

  20. Environmental Research In Practice: Restoration And Protection Of Water Resources

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is tasked to protect human health and the environment. To carry out this task, the EPA makes use of technical expertise within its Office of Research and Development. Restoration and protection of water resources is one area of tec...

  1. Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Water Projects. Guidelines for Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Gus

    This manual is the second volume in a series of publications on community development programs. Guidelines are suggested for small-scale water projects that would benefit segments of the world's urban or rural poor. Strategies in project planning, implementation and evaluation are presented that emphasize environmental conservation and promote…

  2. TECHNIQUES USED IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF COASTAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A variety of laboratory and field assessment techniques are used to evaluate the environmental condition of estuaries. Acute and chronic toxicity tests have been conducted with as many as 25 species to evaluate the effects of surface water and sediment on algae, invertebrates and...

  3. IDENTIFICATION OF SOURCES OF FECAL POLLUTION IN ENVIRONMENTAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of Microbial Source Tracking (MST) methods are currently used to determine the origin of fecal pollution impacting environmental waters. MST is based on the assumption that given the appropriate method and indicator organism, the source of fecal microbial pollution can ...

  4. Water Efficiency Improvements At Various Environmental Protection Agency Sites

    SciTech Connect

    2011-03-24

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) built a successful water conservation program and reduced potable water use through a series of initiatives at EPA laboratories. The projects highlighted in this case study demonstrate EPA’s ability to reduce water use in laboratory and medical equipment by implementing vacuum pump and steam sterilizer replacements and retrofits. Due to the success of the initial vacuum pump and steam sterilizer projects described here, EPA is implementing similar projects at several laboratories throughout the nation.

  5. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in environmental water in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Haque, Anwarul; Yoshizumi, Ayumi; Saga, Tomoo; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Tateda, Kazuhiro

    2014-11-01

    Pathogens encoding extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes represent a threat for failure of empirical antibiotic therapy and are associated with high mortality, morbidity and expenses. We examined surface water in Dhaka, capital of Bangladesh and isolated ESBL-producing Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae, suggesting the potential role of water for the dissemination and transmission of resistant genes among microorganisms. E. coli found most prevalent among isolated Enterobacteriaceae from environmental water. Molecular and genetic analysis revealed CTX-M-type and SHV-type ESBL genes in isolates that may influence the spread of multidrug resistant pathogenic bacteria causing human and animal infections in Bangladesh. PMID:25103169

  6. Keeping management effects separate from environmental effects in terrestrial carbon accounting.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Richard A

    2013-09-01

    This study proposes that carbon fluxes identified as being from land use and land-cover change (LULCC) include only that component of a flux that can be attributed to LULCC, exclusive of the effects of environmental change (CO2 , climate, N, etc.). This proposal seems too obvious to need saying, but published estimates of the LULCC flux are widely variable for reasons that have more to do with modeling environmental effects than with LULCC.

  7. 78 FR 18562 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... QUALITY Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources... Quality. ACTION: Draft guidelines with request for comments. SUMMARY: Section 2031 of the Water Resources... Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources Implementation...

  8. 76 FR 27344 - Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National Preserve, San...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... will evaluate different approaches for water resources management to determine the potential impacts on... National Park Service Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National... Prepare a Water Resources Management Plan/ Environmental Impact Statement for Mojave National...

  9. Accounting strategy of tritium inventory in the heavy water detritiation pilot plant from ICIT Rm. Valcea

    SciTech Connect

    Bidica, N.; Stefanescu, I.; Cristescu, I.; Bornea, A.; Zamfirache, M.; Lazar, A.; Vasut, F.; Pearsica, C.; Stefan, I.; Prisecaru, I.; Sindilar, G.

    2008-07-15

    In this paper we present a methodology for determination of tritium inventory in a tritium removal facility. The method proposed is based on the developing of computing models for accountancy of the mobile tritium inventory in the separation processes, of the stored tritium and of the trapped tritium inventory in the structure of the process system components. The configuration of the detritiation process is a combination of isotope catalytic exchange between water and hydrogen (LPCE) and the cryogenic distillation of hydrogen isotopes (CD). The computing model for tritium inventory in the LPCE process and the CD process will be developed basing on mass transfer coefficients in catalytic isotope exchange reactions and in dual-phase system (liquid-vapour) of hydrogen isotopes distillation process. Accounting of tritium inventory stored in metallic hydride will be based on in-bed calorimetry. Estimation of the trapped tritium inventory can be made by subtraction of the mobile and stored tritium inventories from the global tritium inventory of the plant area. Determinations of the global tritium inventory of the plant area will be made on a regular basis by measuring any tritium quantity entering or leaving the plant area. This methodology is intended to be applied to the Heavy Water Detritiation Pilot Plant from ICIT Rm. Valcea (Romania) and to the Cernavoda Tritium Removal Facility (which will be built in the next 5-7 years). (authors)

  10. An Environmental Management Model of Thermal Waters in Entre Ríos Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pablo, Mársico Daniel; Luís, Díaz Eduardo; Ivana, Zecca; Oscar, Dallacosta; Antonio, Paz-González

    2015-04-01

    Deep exploratory drillings, i.e. those with more than 500 meters depth, have been performed in the Entre Ríos province, Argentina, in order to ascertain the presence of thermal water. Drilling began in 1994, and until now there have been 18 polls with very variable results in terms of mineralization, resource flow, and temperature. The aim of this study was to present a management model, which should allow operators of thermal complexes to further develop procedures for safeguarding the biodiversity of the ecosystems involved, both during exploration and exploitation activities. The environmental management Plan proposed is constituted by a set of technical procedures that are formulated and should be performed during the stages of exploration and exploitation of the resource, and consists of: environmental monitoring, environmental audit, public information and contingency programs. This Plan describes the measures and proposals aimed at protecting environmental quality in the area of influence of a thermal complex project, ensuring that its execution remains environmentally responsibly, and allowing implementation of specific actions to prevent or correct environmental impacts, as predicted in the evaluation of the Environmental Program. The audit of environmental impact includes and takes into account natural factors, such as water, soil, atmosphere, flora and fauna, and also cultural factors. The technical audit Plan was prepared in order to get a systematic structure and organization of the verification process, and also with regard to document the degree of implementation of the proposed mitigation measures. Finally, an environmental contingency program was implemented, and its objective was to consider the safeguarding of life and its natural environment. Thus, a guide has been developed with the main actions to be taken on a contingency, since forecast increases the efficiency of the response. The methodology developed here was adopted as the procedure

  11. Environmental safety factors estimation in selection of water treatment technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutenyev, V. V.; Azhgirevich, A. I.; Kiryanova, L. F.; Gutenyeva, Ye. N.

    2003-04-01

    A number of southern regions of Russia are traditionally short of drinking water of good quality, especially in summer period or in the places of counter-terror operations. The multifactor analysis covered not only the quality of environmental waters, consumption structure, but the ability of technology to withstand eco terrorism as well. The research works resulted in prioritization of nonchemical combined technologies based on microfiltration and ultraviolet radiation with the use of various bacteriostatics built on ionic complexes of a number of metals, both fixed and mobile. In special operations held on the territory of Chechen Republic to ensure supply of water of guaranteed quality the efforts are focused on organizational activities on provision of traceability of water delivery process at all transportation stages, as well as on application of bacteriostatics in case of long-term water storage.

  12. Meeting Indigenous peoples' objectives in environmental flow assessments: Case studies from an Australian multi-jurisdictional water sharing initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Sue; Pollino, Carmel; Maclean, Kirsten; Bark, Rosalind; Moggridge, Bradley

    2015-03-01

    The multi-dimensional relationships that Indigenous peoples have with water are only recently gaining recognition in water policy and management activities. Although Australian water policy stipulates that the native title interests of Indigenous peoples and their social, cultural and spiritual objectives be included in water plans, improved rates of Indigenous access to water have been slow to eventuate, particularly in those regions where the water resource is fully developed or allocated. Experimentation in techniques and approaches to both identify and determine Indigenous water requirements will be needed if environmental assessment processes and water sharing plans are to explicitly account for Indigenous water values. Drawing on two multidisciplinary case studies conducted in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin, we engage Indigenous communities to (i) understand their values and explore the application of methods to derive water requirements to meet those values; (ii) assess the impact of alternative water planning scenarios designed to address over-allocation to irrigation; and (iii) define additional volumes of water and potential works needed to meet identified Indigenous requirements. We provide a framework where Indigenous values can be identified and certain water needs quantified and advance a methodology to integrate Indigenous social, cultural and environmental objectives into environmental flow assessments.

  13. Hydrogen and Water: An Engineering, Economic and Environmental Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, A J; Daily, W; White, R G

    2010-01-06

    The multi-year program plan for the Department of Energy's Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Technology Program (USDOE, 2007a) calls for the development of system models to determine economic, environmental and cross-cutting impacts of the transition to a hydrogen economy. One component of the hydrogen production and delivery chain is water; water's use and disposal can incur costs and environmental consequences for almost any industrial product. It has become increasingly clear that due to factors such as competing water demands and climate change, the potential for a water-constrained world is real. Thus, any future hydrogen economy will need to be constructed so that any associated water impacts are minimized. This, in turn, requires the analysis and comparison of specific hydrogen production schemes in terms of their water use. Broadly speaking, two types of water are used in hydrogen production: process water and cooling water. In the production plant, process water is used as a direct input for the conversion processes (e.g. steam for Steam Methane Reforming {l_brace}SMR{r_brace}, water for electrolysis). Cooling water, by distinction, is used indirectly to cool related fluids or equipment, and is an important factor in making plant processes efficient and reliable. Hydrogen production further relies on water used indirectly to generate other feedstocks required by a hydrogen plant. This second order indirect water is referred to here as 'embedded' water. For example, electricity production uses significant quantities of water; this 'thermoelectric cooling' contributes significantly to the total water footprint of the hydrogen production chain. A comprehensive systems analysis of the hydrogen economy includes the aggregate of the water intensities from every step in the production chain including direct, indirect, and embedded water. Process and cooling waters have distinct technical quality requirements. Process water, which is typically high purity (limited dissolved

  14. Parking infrastructure: energy, emissions, and automobile life-cycle environmental accounting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chester, Mikhail; Horvath, Arpad; Madanat, Samer

    2010-07-01

    The US parking infrastructure is vast and little is known about its scale and environmental impacts. The few parking space inventories that exist are typically regionalized and no known environmental assessment has been performed to determine the energy and emissions from providing this infrastructure. A better understanding of the scale of US parking is necessary to properly value the total costs of automobile travel. Energy and emissions from constructing and maintaining the parking infrastructure should be considered when assessing the total human health and environmental impacts of vehicle travel. We develop five parking space inventory scenarios and from these estimate the range of infrastructure provided in the US to be between 105 million and 2 billion spaces. Using these estimates, a life-cycle environmental inventory is performed to capture the energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases, CO, SO2, NOX, VOC (volatile organic compounds), and PM10 (PM: particulate matter) from raw material extraction, transport, asphalt and concrete production, and placement (including direct, indirect, and supply chain processes) of space construction and maintenance. The environmental assessment is then evaluated within the life-cycle performance of sedans, SUVs (sports utility vehicles), and pickups. Depending on the scenario and vehicle type, the inclusion of parking within the overall life-cycle inventory increases energy consumption from 3.1 to 4.8 MJ by 0.1-0.3 MJ and greenhouse gas emissions from 230 to 380 g CO2e by 6-23 g CO2e per passenger kilometer traveled. Life-cycle automobile SO2 and PM10 emissions show some of the largest increases, by as much as 24% and 89% from the baseline inventory. The environmental consequences of providing the parking spaces are discussed as well as the uncertainty in allocating paved area between parking and roadways.

  15. Coalbed methane produced water in China: status and environmental issues.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yanjun; Tang, Dazhen; Xu, Hao; Li, Yong; Gao, Lijun

    2014-01-01

    As one of the unconventional natural gas family members, coalbed methane (CBM) receives great attention throughout the world. The major associated problem of CBM production is the management of produced water. In the USA, Canada, and Australia, much research has been done on the effects and management of coalbed methane produced water (CMPW). However, in China, the environmental effects of CMPW were overlooked. The quantity and the quality of CMPW both vary enormously between coal basins or stratigraphic units in China. The unit produced water volume of CBM wells in China ranges from 10 to 271,280 L/well/day, and the concentration of total dissolved solids (TDS) ranges from 691 to 93,898 mg/L. Most pH values of CMPW are more than 7.0, showing the alkaline feature, and the Na-HCO3 and Na-HCO3-Cl are typical types of CMPW in China. Treatment and utilization of CMPW in China lag far behind the USA and Australia, and CMPW is mainly managed by surface impoundments and evaporation. Currently, the core environmental issues associated with CMPW in China are that the potential environmental problems of CMPW have not been given enough attention, and relevant regulations as well as environmental impact assessment (EIA) guidelines for CMPW are still lacking. Other potential issues in China includes (1) water quality monitoring issues for CMPW with special components in special areas, (2) groundwater level decline issues associated with the dewatering process, and (3) potential environmental issues of groundwater pollution associated with hydraulic fracturing.

  16. Coalbed methane produced water in China: status and environmental issues.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yanjun; Tang, Dazhen; Xu, Hao; Li, Yong; Gao, Lijun

    2014-01-01

    As one of the unconventional natural gas family members, coalbed methane (CBM) receives great attention throughout the world. The major associated problem of CBM production is the management of produced water. In the USA, Canada, and Australia, much research has been done on the effects and management of coalbed methane produced water (CMPW). However, in China, the environmental effects of CMPW were overlooked. The quantity and the quality of CMPW both vary enormously between coal basins or stratigraphic units in China. The unit produced water volume of CBM wells in China ranges from 10 to 271,280 L/well/day, and the concentration of total dissolved solids (TDS) ranges from 691 to 93,898 mg/L. Most pH values of CMPW are more than 7.0, showing the alkaline feature, and the Na-HCO3 and Na-HCO3-Cl are typical types of CMPW in China. Treatment and utilization of CMPW in China lag far behind the USA and Australia, and CMPW is mainly managed by surface impoundments and evaporation. Currently, the core environmental issues associated with CMPW in China are that the potential environmental problems of CMPW have not been given enough attention, and relevant regulations as well as environmental impact assessment (EIA) guidelines for CMPW are still lacking. Other potential issues in China includes (1) water quality monitoring issues for CMPW with special components in special areas, (2) groundwater level decline issues associated with the dewatering process, and (3) potential environmental issues of groundwater pollution associated with hydraulic fracturing. PMID:24599657

  17. Towards setting environmental water temperature guidelines: a South African example.

    PubMed

    Rivers-Moore, Nicholas A; Dallas, Helen F; Morris, Craig

    2013-10-15

    Water temperature is a primary factor affecting the number and kinds of species in a stream. A key step towards including water temperatures in environmental flow assessments is to develop metrics which describe natural variability in a river's thermal regime. This is best achieved using time series analyses, where metrics are defined based either on time series disaggregation, or shapes of regimes defined using agglomerative techniques. The aim of this paper was to refine approaches in setting environmental water temperature guidelines for inclusion in defining environmental flows assessments. Annual water temperature series from 82 sites sampled across 48 rivers (mainstems and tributaries) in ten catchments in the southern Cape region of South Africa were described using 39 metrics based on the magnitude, frequency, duration and timing of thermal events. Sites were classified into thermal groups using their similarity in multivariate temperature regime and variation amongst groups along important temperature gradients examined. Deviation from a natural range of variability using a thermal confidence envelope is a suitable approach for broad evaluation of thermal guidelines. The approach presented can be applied at multiple levels of complexity to assess which elements of a thermal time series fall outside of reference conditions. Further steps in this approach are to link thermal patterns to biotic metrics, and gain a clearer understanding of interactions between flows, temperatures and biota, particularly below impoundments. Research on improving approaches in defining thermal regions is recommended.

  18. Striped bass: environmental risks in fresh and salt water

    SciTech Connect

    Coutant, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    At the 112th Annual meeting of the American Fisheries Society (AFS) at Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, the society held a 1-day symposium Striped Bass: Environmental Risks in Fresh and Salt Water. This issue of the Transactions contains some of the papers from that symposium. This symposium explored several hypotheses about sources of environmental risks that could cause problems for striped bass populations: (1) habitat squeeze on adults stemming from their thermal and dissolved oxygen requirements; (2) stress from toxic materials; and (3) meteorological controls of living space and food. A nonenvironmental factor, fishing pressure, also was raised as an alternative hypothesis.

  19. Environmental and human impacts on Bangalore's regional water scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penny, G.; Srinivasan, V.; Thompson, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Arkavathy River Basin adjacent to Bangalore, India, faces a multitude of challenges driven by water demands from urbanization and intensification of agriculture. In the Arkavathy Basin, the two major reservoirs that historically supplied water to Bangalore now receive little to no inflow. Recent research has resulted in multiple plausible hypotheses attributing streamflow reductions in the Arkavathy to (1) increased evapotranspiration due to a boom in eucalyptus plantations and irrigated agriculture, and (2) increased deep drainage from surface soils due to long-term, excessive groundwater extraction. Current knowledge of Bangalore's water scarcity is largely based on anecdotal evidence and the sparse environmental data for this region is insufficient to definitively test these hypotheses. To bridge the gap between provincial and academic knowledge and better understand the nature of regional water resource depletion, we utilize a range of methods to integrate information across spatial and temporal scales. We use the full history of Landsat satellite imagery to approximate post-monsoon water storage in tanks and construct a spatially-explicit, historical record of surface water. We combine stable isotope mixing models, traditional field methods, and kite photography to build a deeper understanding of rainfall-runoff processes. Remote-sensing results confirm reductions of surface water in many of the tanks in the upper reaches of the watershed. We also observe an increase in surface water availability downstream of Bangalore, where imported water results in large waste flows. Field methods reveal considerable contributions of Hortonian overland flow due to soils with low hydraulic conductivity, mitigating changes in the subsurface water balance. We conclude that surface water availability is strongly related to spatial patterns of urban and agricultural water demand overlaid on a template defined by topography, soil, and climate.

  20. Grid-cell-based crop water accounting for the famine early warning system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verdin, J.; Klaver, R.

    2002-01-01

    Rainfall monitoring is a regular activity of food security analysts for sub-Saharan Africa due to the potentially disastrous impact of drought. Crop water accounting schemes are used to track rainfall timing and amounts relative to phenological requirements, to infer water limitation impacts on yield. Unfortunately, many rain gauge reports are available only after significant delays, and the gauge locations leave large gaps in coverage. As an alternative, a grid-cell-based formulation for the water requirement satisfaction index (WRSI) was tested for maize in Southern Africa. Grids of input variables were obtained from remote sensing estimates of rainfall, meteorological models, and digital soil maps. The spatial WRSI was computed for the 1996-97 and 1997-98 growing seasons. Maize yields were estimated by regression and compared with a limited number of reports from the field for the 1996-97 season in Zimbabwe. Agreement at a useful level (r = 0.80) was observed. This is comparable to results from traditional analysis with station data. The findings demonstrate the complementary role that remote sensing, modelling, and geospatial analysis can play in an era when field data collection in sub-Saharan Africa is suffering an unfortunate decline. Published in 2002 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Prioritization of pesticide environmental transformation products in drinking water supplies.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Chris J; Boxall, Alistair B A; Parsons, Simon A; Thomas, Miles R

    2006-12-01

    Receiving waters within catchments may be exposed to many different transformation products following the application of pesticides. As environmental waters are abstracted for drinking water treatment these compounds may pose a risk to human health. This paper describes a prioritization approach for identifying the most important transformation products in drinking water sources. The approach can be applied to different geographical areas that have suitable pesticide usage data. The risk based approach incorporates data on pesticide usage and toxicity as well as transformation product formation, mobility, and persistence. The application of the approach is illustrated for two geographical areas that have good quality pesticide usage data: Great Britain and California. The transformation products with the highest risk index and a complete experimentally derived data set for Great Britain were 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, thifensulfuron acid, and kresoxim-methyl acid and for California were carbendazim, aldicarb sulfoxide, and RP30228.

  2. Occurrence of perfluoroalkyl acids in environmental waters in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Duong, Hanh Thi; Kadokami, Kiwao; Shirasaka, Hanako; Hidaka, Rento; Chau, Hong Thi Cam; Kong, Lingxiao; Nguyen, Trung Quang; Nguyen, Thao Thanh

    2015-03-01

    This is the first nationwide study of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in environmental waters in Vietnam. Twenty-eight river water and 22 groundwater samples collected in four major cities and 14 river water samples from the Red River were screened to investigate the occurrence and sources of 16 PFAAs. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were the most prevalent of 11 detected PFAAs with maximum concentrations in urban river water of 5.3, 18 and 0.93ngL(-1), respectively, and in groundwater of 8.2, 4.5 and 0.45ngL(-1), respectively. PFAAs in the Red River water were detected at low levels. PFAA concentrations in river water were higher in the rainy season than in the dry season, possibly due to storm water runoff, a common phenomenon in Southeast Asian countries. The highest concentrations of PFAAs in river water were observed in samples from highly populated and industrialized areas, perhaps sourced from sewage. The PFAA concentrations observed were similar to those in other Southeast Asian countries, but lower than in developed nations. From the composition profiles of PFAAs, industrial products containing PFAAs imported from China and Japan might be one of the major sources of PFAAs in the Vietnamese aquatic environment. According to the health-based values and advisory issued by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the concentrations of detected PFAAs in this study do not pose an immediate health risk to humans and aquatic organisms. PMID:25496738

  3. Using FRAMES to Manage Environmental and Water Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, Gene; Millard, W. David; Gelston, Gariann M.; Khangaonkar, Tarang P.; Pelton, Mitch A.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Yang, Zhaoqing; Lee, Cheegwan; Sivaraman, Chitra; Stephan, Alex J.; Hoopes, Bonnie L.; Castleton, Karl J.

    2007-05-16

    The Framework for Risk Analysis in Multimedia Environmental Systems FRAMES) is decision-support middleware that provides users the ability to design software solutions for complex problems. It is a software platform that provides seamless and transparent communication between modeling components by using a multi-thematic approach to provide a flexible and holistic understanding of how environmental factors potentially affect humans and the environment. It incorporates disparate components (e.g., models, databases, and other frameworks) that integrate across scientific disciplines, allowing for tailored solutions to specific activities. This paper discusses one example application of FRAMES, where several commercialoff-the-shelf (COTS) software products are seamlessly linked into a planning and decision-support tool that helps manage water-based emergency situations and sustainable response. Multiple COTS models, including three surface water models, and a number of databases are linked through FRAMES to assess the impact of three asymmetric and simultaneous events, two of which impact water resources. The asymmetric events include 1) an unconventional radioactive release into a large potable water body, 2) a conventional contaminant (oil) release into navigable waters, and 3) an instantaneous atmospheric radioactive release.

  4. Water contamination and environmental ecosystem in the Harlem River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.

    2013-12-01

    Nutrients, bacteria, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other contaminates have degraded water quality of the Harlem River. The Harlem River is a natural straight connected to the Hudson River and the East River, and it has been used for navigation and boating. Water samples have been collected and analyzed from 2011 to 2013. Phosphorus, ammonia, turbidity, fecal coliform, E.Coli., and enterococcus all exceed regulated levels for New York City waters. There is only one wastewater treatment plant (Wards Island WWTP) that serves this river. Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) discharge raw sewage into the river during storms in spring and summer. Commercial fishing is banned, .however, individuals still fish. While some fishermen catch and release, it is likely some fish are consumed, creating concern for the environmental health of the community along the river. Storm water runoff, CSOs, and wastewater effluents are major pollutant sources of PCB 11 (3,3' dichlorobiphenyl), nutrient and bacteria. Nutrients, bacteria levels and their spatial/temporal variations were analyzed, and PCB analysis is underway. This data is a critical first step towards improving the water quality and environmental ecosystem in the Harlem River.

  5. Hydrocomplexity: Addressing water security and emergent environmental risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Praveen

    2015-07-01

    Water security and emergent environmental risks are among the most significant societal concerns. They are highly interlinked to other global risks such as those related to climate, human health, food, human migration, biodiversity loss, urban sustainability, etc. Emergent risks result from the confluence of unanticipated interactions from evolving interdependencies between complex systems, such as those embedded in the water cycle. They are associated with the novelty of dynamical possibilities that have significant potential consequences to human and ecological systems, and not with probabilities based on historical precedence. To ensure water security we need to be able to anticipate the likelihood of risk possibilities as they present the prospect of the most impact through cascade of vulnerabilities. They arise due to a confluence of nonstationary drivers that include growing population, climate change, demographic shifts, urban growth, and economic expansion, among others, which create novel interdependencies leading to a potential of cascading network effects. Hydrocomplexity aims to address water security and emergent risks through the development of science, methods, and practices with the potential to foster a "Blue Revolution" akin to the Green revolution for food security. It blends both hard infrastructure based solution with soft knowledge driven solutions to increase the range of planning and design, management, mitigation and adaptation strategies. It provides a conceptual and synthetic framework to enable us to integrate discovery science and engineering, observational and information science, computational and communication systems, and social and institutional approaches to address consequential water and environmental challenges.

  6. Design of a leaching test framework for coal fly ash accounting for environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Zandi, Mohammad; Russell, Nigel V

    2007-08-01

    Fly ash from coal combustion contains trace elements which, on disposal or utilisation, may leach out, and therefore be a potential environmental hazard. Environmental conditions have a great impact on the mobility of fly ash constituents as well as the physical and chemical properties of the fly ash. Existing standard leaching methods have been shown to be inadequate by not representing possible disposal or utilisation scenarios. These tests are often criticised on the grounds that the results estimated are not reliable as they are not able to be extrapolated to the application scenario. In order to simulate leaching behaviour of fly ash in different environmental conditions and to reduce deviation between measurements in the fields and the laboratories, it is vital to study sensitivity of the fly ash constituents of interest to major factors controlling leachability. pH, liquid-to-solid ratio, leaching time, leachant type and redox potential are parameters affecting stability of elements in the fly ash. Sensitivity of trace elements to pH and liquid to solid ratio (as two major overriding factors) has been examined. Elements have been classified on the basis of their leaching behaviour under different conditions. Results from this study have been used to identify leaching mechanisms. Also the fly ash has been examined under different standard batch leaching tests in order to evaluate and to compare these tests. A Leaching Test Framework has been devised for assessing the stability of trace elements from fly ashes in different environments. This Framework assists in designing more realistic batch leaching tests appropriate to field conditions and can support the development of regulations and protocols for the management and disposal of coal combustion by-products or other solid wastes of environmental concern.

  7. Conceptualization and measurement of environmental exposure in epidemiology: accounting for activity space related to daily mobility.

    PubMed

    Perchoux, Camille; Chaix, Basile; Cummins, Steven; Kestens, Yan

    2013-05-01

    A considerable body of literature has investigated how environmental exposures affect health through various pathways. These studies have generally adopted a common approach to define environmental exposures, focusing on the local residential environment, using census tracts or postcodes to delimit exposures. However, use of such administrative units may not be appropriate to evaluate contextual effets on health because they are generally not a 'true' representation of the environments to which individuals are exposed. Recent work has suggested that advances may be made if an activity-space approach is adopted. The present paper investigates how various disciplines may contribute to the refinement of the concept of activity space for use in health research. In particular we draw on seminal work in time geography, which provides a framework to describe individual behavior in space and time, and can help the conceptualization of activity space. In addition we review work in environmental psychology and social networks research, which provides insights on how people and places interact and offers new theories for improving the spatial definition of contextual exposures.

  8. Electron beam heating effects during environmental scanning electron microscopy imaging of water condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rykaczewski, K.; Scott, J. H. J.; Fedorov, A. G.

    2011-02-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces (SHSs) show promise as promoters of dropwise condensation. Droplets with diameters below ˜10 μm account for the majority of the heat transferred during dropwise condensation but their growth dynamics on SHS have not been systematically studied. Due to the complex topography of the surface environmental scanning electron microscopy is the preferred method for observing the growth dynamics of droplets in this size regime. By studying electron beam heating effects on condensed water droplets we establish a magnification limit below which the heating effects are negligible and use this insight to study the mechanism of individual drop growth.

  9. Smoking at the workplace: Effects of genetic and environmental causal accounts on attitudes towards smoking employees and restrictive policies

    PubMed Central

    Dar-Nimrod, Ilan; Zuckerman, Miron; Duberstein, Paul

    2014-01-01

    People hold diverse beliefs regarding the etiologies of individual and group differences in behaviors which, in turn, might affect their attitudes and behaviors. It is important to establish how perceived etiologies for smoking might affect the effectiveness of policy initiatives and prevention efforts. The present study assessed whether exposure to genetic vs. environmental accounts for smoking affects attitudes towards a) workplace-related smoking policies and b) smokers at the workplace. Results indicate that exposure to a genetic explanation led to stronger objections to a smoking restrictive policy compared with a non-genetic explanation. Additionally, participants in the genetic condition were more accepting of a smoker in the workplace than in the environmental condition. Evidently, beliefs about the etiology of smoking influence a range of attitudes related to smokers and smoking related policies. PMID:25530710

  10. Water Budgets: Foundations for Effective Water-Resources and Environmental Management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, Richard W.; Winter, Thomas C.; LaBaugh, James W.; Franke, O. Lehn

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Water budgets provide a means for evaluating availability and sustainability of a water supply. A water budget simply states that the rate of change in water stored in an area, such as a watershed, is balanced by the rate at which water flows into and out of the area. An understanding of water budgets and underlying hydrologic processes provides a foundation for effective water-resource and environmental planning and management. Observed changes in water budgets of an area over time can be used to assess the effects of climate variability and human activities on water resources. Comparison of water budgets from different areas allows the effects of factors such as geology, soils, vegetation, and land use on the hydrologic cycle to be quantified. Human activities affect the natural hydrologic cycle in many ways. Modifications of the land to accommodate agriculture, such as installation of drainage and irrigation systems, alter infiltration, runoff, evaporation, and plant transpiration rates. Buildings, roads, and parking lots in urban areas tend to increase runoff and decrease infiltration. Dams reduce flooding in many areas. Water budgets provide a basis for assessing how a natural or human-induced change in one part of the hydrologic cycle may affect other aspects of the cycle. This report provides an overview and qualitative description of water budgets as foundations for effective water-resources and environmental management of freshwater hydrologic systems. Perhaps of most interest to the hydrologic community, the concepts presented are also relevant to the fields of agriculture, atmospheric studies, meteorology, climatology, ecology, limnology, mining, water supply, flood control, reservoir management, wetland studies, pollution control, and other areas of science, society, and industry. The first part of the report describes water storage and movement in the atmosphere, on land surface, and in the subsurface, as well as water exchange among these

  11. Environmental monitoring of chromium in air, soil, and water.

    PubMed

    Vitale, R J; Mussoline, G R; Rinehimer, K A

    1997-08-01

    Historical uses of chromium have resulted in its widespread release into the environment. In recent years, a significant amount of research has evaluated the impact of chromium on human health and the environment. Additionally, numerous analytical methods have been developed to identify and quantitate chromium in environmental media in response to various state and federal mandates such as CERCLA, RCRA, CWA, CAA, and SWDA. Due to the significant toxicity differences between trivalent [Cr(III)] and hexavalent [Cr(VI)] chromium, it is essential that chromium be quantified in these two distinct valence states to assess the potential risks to exposure to each in environmental media. Speciation is equally important because of their marked differences in environmental behavior. As the knowledge of risks associated with each valence state has grown and regulatory requirements have evolved, methods to accurately quantitate these species at ever-decreasing concentrations within environmental media have also evolved. This paper addresses the challenges of chromium species quantitation and some of the most relevant current methods used for environmental monitoring, including ASTM Method D5281 for air, SW-846 Methods 3060A, 7196A and 7199 for soils, sediments, and waste, and U.S. EPA Method 218.6 for water.

  12. Environmental monitoring of chromium in air, soil, and water.

    PubMed

    Vitale, R J; Mussoline, G R; Rinehimer, K A

    1997-08-01

    Historical uses of chromium have resulted in its widespread release into the environment. In recent years, a significant amount of research has evaluated the impact of chromium on human health and the environment. Additionally, numerous analytical methods have been developed to identify and quantitate chromium in environmental media in response to various state and federal mandates such as CERCLA, RCRA, CWA, CAA, and SWDA. Due to the significant toxicity differences between trivalent [Cr(III)] and hexavalent [Cr(VI)] chromium, it is essential that chromium be quantified in these two distinct valence states to assess the potential risks to exposure to each in environmental media. Speciation is equally important because of their marked differences in environmental behavior. As the knowledge of risks associated with each valence state has grown and regulatory requirements have evolved, methods to accurately quantitate these species at ever-decreasing concentrations within environmental media have also evolved. This paper addresses the challenges of chromium species quantitation and some of the most relevant current methods used for environmental monitoring, including ASTM Method D5281 for air, SW-846 Methods 3060A, 7196A and 7199 for soils, sediments, and waste, and U.S. EPA Method 218.6 for water. PMID:9380841

  13. Optimized MPPT algorithm for boost converters taking into account the environmental variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, Pierre; Sawicki, Jean-Paul; Saint-Eve, Frédéric; Maufay, Fabrice; Aillerie, Michel

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a study on the specific behavior of the Boost DC-DC converters generally used for powering conversion of PV panels connected to a HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current) Bus. It follows some works pointing out that converter MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracker) is severely perturbed by output voltage variations due to physical dependency of parameters as the input voltage, the output voltage and the duty cycle of the PWM switching control of the MPPT. As a direct consequence many converters connected together on a same load perturb each other because of the output voltage variations induced by fluctuations on the HVDC bus essentially due to a not insignificant bus impedance. In this paper we show that it is possible to include an internal computed variable in charge to compensate local and external variations to take into account the environment variables.

  14. Extraction and analysis of trifluoroacetic Acid in environmental waters.

    PubMed

    Wujcik, C E; Cahill, T M; Seiber, J N

    1998-10-01

    Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), a mildly phytotoxic compound, is a stable atmospheric breakdown product of HFC-134a, HCFC-123, and HCFC-124. An extraction and analytical method has been developed for the routine analysis of low ppt levels of TFA in aqueous samples. TFA can be quantitatively recovered from most environmental waters by an extraction procedure using a commercial anion-exchange disk. In saline samples (conductivity >620 μS), where the presence of competing anions interfered with recovery, a liquid-liquid extraction cleanup was necessary. After extraction of TFA from water, the dried disk was placed in a headspace vial containing 10% sulfuric acid in methanol and the vial sealed and then vortexed for 30 s. The sulfuric acid-methanol solution extracts trifluoroacetate anion (TFA) from the anion-exchange matrix and, when heated, quantitatively converts it to the methyl ester, which is then analyzed by automated headspace gas chromatography using electron capture or mass spectrometry detection. Several environmental samples in addition to laboratory spike solutions were successfully extracted and analyzed with this technique. Recoveries averaged 108.2% for reagent water spiked at levels from 53 to 2110 ng/L with relative standard deviations ranging from 0.3 to 8.4%. The instrument's limit of detection for TFA standard was 3.3 ng. The limit of quantitation for the extraction and analytical technique was 36 ng/L. Three water samples can be prepared for automated analysis in 20 min using this technique. PMID:21651243

  15. Overview of the Environmental and Water Resources Institute's "Guidelines For Integrated Water Resources Management" Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald Sehlke

    2005-03-01

    Integrated Water Resources Management is a systematic approach to optimizing our understanding, control and management of water resources within a basin to meet multiple objectives. Recognition of the need for integrating water resources within basins is not unique to the Environmental and Water Resources Institute’s Integrated Water Resources Management Task Committee. Many individuals, governments and other organizations have attempted to develop holistic water resources management programs. In some cases, the results have been very effective and in other cases, valiant attempts have fallen far short of their initial goals. The intent of this Task Committee is to provide a set of guidelines that discusses the concepts, methods and tools necessary for integrating and optimizing the management of the physical resources and to optimize and integrate programs, organizations, infrastructure, and socioeconomic institutions into comprehensive water resources management programs.

  16. Simultaneous extraction and determination of various pesticides in environmental waters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zulin; Lefebvre, Thibault; Kerr, Christine; Osprey, Mark

    2014-12-01

    A simple and rapid method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of nine different pesticides in water samples by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. A number of parameters that may affect the recovery of pesticides, such as the type of solid-phase extraction cartridge, eluting solvent in single or combination and their volumes, and water pH value were investigated. It showed that three solid-phase extraction cartridges (Strata-X, Oasis HLB, and ENVI-18) produced the greatest recovery while ethyl acetate/dichloromethane/acetone (45:10:45, 12 mL) followed by dichloromethane (6 mL) was efficient in eluting target pesticides from solid-phase extraction cartridges. Different water pH values (4-9) did not show a significant effect on the pesticides recovery. The optimized method was verified by performing spiking experiments with a series of concentrations (0.002-10 μg/L) in waters, with good linearity, recovery, and reproducibility for most compounds. The limit of detection and limit of quantification of this optimized method were 0.01-2.01 and 0.02-6.71 ng/L, respectively, much lower than the European Union environmental quality standard for the pesticides (0.1 μg/L) in waters. The proposed method was further validated by participation in an interlaboratory trial. It was then subsequently applied to river waters from north-east Scotland, UK, for the determination of the target pesticides.

  17. Spatial assessment of water use in an environmentally sensitive wetland.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shahbaz; Hafeez, Mohsin; Abbas, Akhtar; Ahmad, Aftab

    2009-05-01

    system, there is a need to upgrade measuring and reporting infrastructure by strengthening the institutional and management arrangements to better gauge the efficiency of environmental and consumptive water use. The state-of-the-art technology of remote sensing-based SEBAL modeling proved to have potential for measuring actual water use with reliable accuracy and can be used for assessing the environmental and productive use of water from wetlands in other regions of Australia. PMID:19580033

  18. Environmental characteristics associated with campylobacteriosis: accounting for the effect of age and season.

    PubMed

    Arsenault, J; Michel, P; Berke, O; Ravel, A; Gosselin, P

    2012-02-01

    Campylobacteriosis is a leading cause of acute bacterial gastroenteritis. An ecological study was undertaken to explore the association between environmental characteristics and incidence of campylobacteriosis in relation to four age groups and two seasonal periods. A multi-level Poisson regression model was used for modelling at the municipal level. High ruminant density was positively associated with incidence of campylobacteriosis, with a reduced effect as people become older. High poultry density and presence of a large poultry slaughterhouse were also associated with higher incidence, but only for people aged 16-34 years. The effect of ruminant density, poultry density, and slaughterhouses were constant across seasonal periods. Other associations were detected with population density and average daily precipitation. Close contacts with farm animals are probably involved in the associations observed. The specificity of age and season on this important disease must be considered in further studies and in the design of preventive measures.

  19. Development of Environmentally Benign Heat Pump Water Heaters for the US Market

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Wang, Kai; Vineyard, Edward Allan; Roetker, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Improving energy efficiency in water heating applications is important to the nation's energy strategies. Water heating in residential and commercial buildings accounts for about 10% of U.S. buildings energy consumption. Heat pump water heating (HPWH) technology is a significant breakthrough in energy efficiency, as an alternative to electric resistance water heating. Heat pump technology has shown acceptable payback period with proper incentives and successful market penetration is emerging. However, current HPWH require the use of refrigerants with high Global Warming Potential (GWP). Furthermore, current system designs depend greatly on the backup resistance heaters when the ambient temperature is below freezing or when hot water demand increases. Finally, the performance of current HPWH technology degrades greatly as the water set point temperature exceeds 330 K. This paper presents the potential for carbon dioxide, CO2, as a natural, environmentally benign alternative refrigerant for HPWH technology. In this paper, we first describe the system design, implications and opportunities of operating a transcritical cycle. Next, a prototype CO2 HPWH design featuring flexible component evaluation capability is described. The experimental setup and results are then illustrated followed by a brief discussion on the measured system performance. The paper ends with conclusions and recommendations for the development of CO2 heat pump water heating technology suitable for the U.S. market.

  20. Sustainable Urban Waters: Opportunities to Integrate Environmental Protection in Multi-objective Projects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Nonpoint source pollution is an ongoing challenge for environmental agencies who seek to protect waters of the U.S. Urban stream and waterfront redevelopment projects present opportunities to achieve integrated environmental, economic, and social benefits in urban water...

  1. Accounting for water management issues within hydrological simulation: Alternative modelling options and a network optimization approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efstratiadis, Andreas; Nalbantis, Ioannis; Rozos, Evangelos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2010-05-01

    In mixed natural and artificialized river basins, many complexities arise due to anthropogenic interventions in the hydrological cycle, including abstractions from surface water bodies, groundwater pumping or recharge and water returns through drainage systems. Typical engineering approaches adopt a multi-stage modelling procedure, with the aim to handle the complexity of process interactions and the lack of measured abstractions. In such context, the entire hydrosystem is separated into natural and artificial sub-systems or components; the natural ones are modelled individually, and their predictions (i.e. hydrological fluxes) are transferred to the artificial components as inputs to a water management scheme. To account for the interactions between the various components, an iterative procedure is essential, whereby the outputs of the artificial sub-systems (i.e. abstractions) become inputs to the natural ones. However, this strategy suffers from multiple shortcomings, since it presupposes that pure natural sub-systems can be located and that sufficient information is available for each sub-system modelled, including suitable, i.e. "unmodified", data for calibrating the hydrological component. In addition, implementing such strategy is ineffective when the entire scheme runs in stochastic simulation mode. To cope with the above drawbacks, we developed a generalized modelling framework, following a network optimization approach. This originates from the graph theory, which has been successfully implemented within some advanced computer packages for water resource systems analysis. The user formulates a unified system which is comprised of the hydrographical network and the typical components of a water management network (aqueducts, pumps, junctions, demand nodes etc.). Input data for the later include hydraulic properties, constraints, targets, priorities and operation costs. The real-world system is described through a conceptual graph, whose dummy properties

  2. Trends in surface-water quality at selected National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) stations, in Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Syed, Atiq U.; Fogarty, Lisa R.

    2005-01-01

    To demonstrate the value of long-term, water-quality monitoring, the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), initiated a study to evaluate potential trends in water-quality constituents for selected National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) stations in Michigan. The goal of this study is to assist the MDEQ in evaluating the effectiveness of water-pollution control efforts and the identification of water-quality concerns. The study included a total of nine NASQAN stations in Michigan. Approximately 28 constituents were analyzed for trend tests. Station selection was based on data availability, land-use characteristics, and station priority for the MDEQ Water Chemistry Monitoring Project. Trend analyses were completed using the uncensored Seasonal Kendall Test in the computer program Estimate Trend (ESTREND), a software program for the detection of trends in water-quality data. The parameters chosen for the trend test had (1) at least a 5-year period of record (2) about 5 percent of the observations censored at a single reporting limit, and (3) 40 percent of the values within the beginning one-fifth and ending one-fifth of the selected period. In this study, a negative trend indicates a decrease in concentration of a particular constituent, which generally means an improvement in water quality; whereas a positive trend means an increase in concentration and possible degradation of water quality. The results of the study show an overall improvement in water quality at the Clinton River at Mount Clemens, Manistee River at Manistee, and Pigeon River near Caseville. The detected trend for these stations show decreases in concentrations of various constituents such as nitrogen compounds, conductance, sulfate, fecal coliform bacteria, and fecal streptococci bacteria. The negative trend may indicate an overall improvement in agricultural practices, municipal and industrial wastewater

  3. Social.Water - A crowdsourcing tool for environmental data acquisition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fienen, Michael N.; Lowry, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Remote telemetry has a long history of use for collection of environmental measurements. With the rise of mobile phones and SMS text-messaging capacity, many members of the general pubic carry communications equipment in their pockets at all times. Enabling the general public to provide environmental data through text messages has the potential both to provide additional data to scientific projects and also to raise awareness of the projects through participation. Hydrologic measurements – some of which can be made without training, involve a single measurement, and are often made in rural areas – are well-suited to text-message conveyance. Many other environmental measurements are similarly well-suited for this technology. Social.Water is a software package, written in Python, that collects, parses, and categorizes text messages sent to a dedicated phone number, updates a simple database, and posts both graphical results and the database on the Web. Social.Water was designed as the backend to the Crowdhydrology project and is written in an object-oriented design that makes customization and modification straightforward.

  4. Water loss in insects: an environmental change perspective.

    PubMed

    Chown, Steven L; Sørensen, Jesper G; Terblanche, John S

    2011-08-01

    In the context of global environmental change much of the focus has been on changing temperatures. However, patterns of rainfall and water availability have also been changing and are expected to continue doing so. In consequence, understanding the responses of insects to water availability is important, especially because it has a pronounced influence on insect activity, distribution patterns, and species richness. Here we therefore provide a critical review of key questions that either are being or need to be addressed in this field. First, an overview of insect behavioural responses to changing humidity conditions and the mechanisms underlying sensing of humidity variation is provided. The primary sensors in insects belong to the temperature receptor protein superfamily of cation channels. Temperature-activated transient receptor potential ion channels, or thermoTRPs, respond to a diverse range of stimuli and may be a primary integrator of sensory information, such as environmental temperature and moisture. Next we touch briefly on the components of water loss, drawing attention to a new, universal model of the water costs of gas exchange and its implications for responses to a warming, and in places drying, world. We also provide an overview of new understanding of the role of the sub-elytral chamber for water conservation, and developments in understanding of the role of cuticular hydrocarbons in preventing water loss. Because of an increasing focus on the molecular basis of responses to dehydration stress we touch briefly on this area, drawing attention to the role of sugars, heat shock proteins, aquaporins, and LEA proteins. Next we consider phenotypic plasticity or acclimation responses in insect water balance after initial exposures to altered humidity, temperature or nutrition. Although beneficial acclimation has been demonstrated in several instances, this is not always the case. Laboratory studies show that responses to selection for enhanced ability to

  5. Accounting for "hot spots" and "hot moments" in soil carbon models for water-limited ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, Frances; Caylor, Kelly

    2010-05-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics in water-limited ecosystems are complicated by the stochastic nature of rainfall and patchy structure of vegetation, which can lead to "hot spots" and "hot moments" of high biological activity. Non-linear models that use spatial and temporal averages of forcing variables are unable to account for these phenomena and are likely to produce biased results. In this study we present a model of SOC abundance that accounts for spatial heterogeneity at the plant scale and temporal variability in soil moisture content at the daily scale. We approximated an existing simulation-based model of SOC dynamics as a stochastic differential equation driven by multiplicative noise that can be solved numerically for steady-state sizes of three SOC pools. We coupled this to a model of water balance and SOC input rate at a point for a given cover type, defined by the number of shrub and perennial grass root systems and canopies overlapping the point. Using a probabilistic description of vegetation structure based on a two dimensional Poisson process, we derived analytical expressions for the distribution of cover types across a landscape and produced weighted averages of SOC stocks. An application of the model to a shortgrass steppe ecosystem in Colorado, USA, replicated empirical data on spatial patterns and average abundance of SOC, whereas a version of the model using spatially averaged forcing variables overestimated SOC stocks by 12%. The model also successfully replicated data from paired desert grassland sites in New Mexico, USA, that had and had not been affected by woody plant encroachment, indicating that the model could be a useful tool for understanding and predicting the effect of woody plant encroachment on regional carbon budgets. We performed a theoretical analysis of a simplified version of the model to estimate the bias introduced by using spatial averages of forcing variables to model SOC stocks across a range of climatic conditions

  6. Analysis of CL-20 in environmental matrices: water and soil.

    PubMed

    Larson, Steven L; Felt, Deborah R; Davis, Jeffrey L; Escalon, Lynn

    2002-04-01

    Analytical techniques for the detection of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazatetracyclo(5.5.0.05,9.03,11)dodecane (CL-20) in water and soil are developed by adapting methods traditionally used for the analysis of nitroaromatics. CL-20 (a new explosives compound) is thermally labile, exhibits high polarity, and has low solubility in water. These constraints make the use of specialized sample handling, preparation, extraction, and analysis necessary. The ability to determine the concentrations of this new explosive compound in environmental matrices is helpful in understanding the environmental fate and effects of CL-20; understanding the physical, chemical, and biological fate of CL-20; and can be used in developing remediation technologies and determining their efficiency. The toxicity and mobility of new explosives in soil and groundwater are also of interest, and analytical techniques for quantitating CL-20 and its degradation products in soil and natural waters make these investigations possible. PMID:12004939

  7. Analysis of CL-20 in environmental matrices: water and soil.

    PubMed

    Larson, Steven L; Felt, Deborah R; Davis, Jeffrey L; Escalon, Lynn

    2002-04-01

    Analytical techniques for the detection of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazatetracyclo(5.5.0.05,9.03,11)dodecane (CL-20) in water and soil are developed by adapting methods traditionally used for the analysis of nitroaromatics. CL-20 (a new explosives compound) is thermally labile, exhibits high polarity, and has low solubility in water. These constraints make the use of specialized sample handling, preparation, extraction, and analysis necessary. The ability to determine the concentrations of this new explosive compound in environmental matrices is helpful in understanding the environmental fate and effects of CL-20; understanding the physical, chemical, and biological fate of CL-20; and can be used in developing remediation technologies and determining their efficiency. The toxicity and mobility of new explosives in soil and groundwater are also of interest, and analytical techniques for quantitating CL-20 and its degradation products in soil and natural waters make these investigations possible.

  8. 76 FR 50494 - Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National Preserve, San...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... National Park Service Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National... Scoping Period for Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement for Mojave National... National Park Service is preparing a Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement...

  9. Re-evaluation of the 1976 Guatemala earthquake taking into account the environmental effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porfido, Sabina; Esposito, Eliana; Spiga, Efisio; Sacchi, Marco; Molisso, Flavia; Mazzola, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    Guatemala is one of the most seismically active countries in Central America.The largest earthquakes are produced by along the subduction zone of the Cocos and Caribbean plates in the Middle America Trench in the Pacific Ocean. Large earthquakes are also triggered along the boundary between the North American and the Caribbean plates, defined by a zone of large left lateral strike-slip faults that run through Guatemala from the Swan Fracture Zone in the Caribbean Sea. The earthquakes generated along these transcurrent faults, although less frequent, have a great importance to seismic hazard in Central America, more than the subduction-related earthquakes, because of their shallow ipocenters and the proximity of many cities and villages to these active structures. The most destructive event in this region was the earthquake occurred on 4, February 1976 in Guatemala, associated with the Motagua fault, causing 23 000 deaths, and 77 200 injuries. This study attempts at reconstructing the coseismic effects on the environment, to better assess the intensities according to the ESI scale 2007. For the Guatemala 1976 earthquake (M=7,5), the original scientific seismic, geological and macroseismic reports have been reviewed in order to highlight effects on natural environment. The maximum estimated intensity was IX MM in Gualan, in the Mixco area and in the centre of Guatemala City. Intensities value were underestimated despite there was a high level of damages, in fact several towns and villages were totally destroyed and although the earthquake triggered very large and spectacular primary and secondary ground effects. On the basis of all the gathered information has been possible to detect and to localize coseismic environmental effects, and classify them into six main types: surface faulting, slope movements, ground cracks, ground settlements, hydrological changes and tsunami. Primary effects was identified in the Motagua Valley and the mountainous area W of the valley, a

  10. Heterozygosity-fitness correlations in a wild mammal population: accounting for parental and environmental effects.

    PubMed

    Annavi, Geetha; Newman, Christopher; Buesching, Christina D; Macdonald, David W; Burke, Terry; Dugdale, Hannah L

    2014-06-01

    HFCs (heterozygosity-fitness correlations) measure the direct relationship between an individual's genetic diversity and fitness. The effects of parental heterozygosity and the environment on HFCs are currently under-researched. We investigated these in a high-density U.K. population of European badgers (Meles meles), using a multimodel capture-mark-recapture framework and 35 microsatellite loci. We detected interannual variation in first-year, but not adult, survival probability. Adult females had higher annual survival probabilities than adult males. Cubs with more heterozygous fathers had higher first-year survival, but only in wetter summers; there was no relationship with individual or maternal heterozygosity. Moist soil conditions enhance badger food supply (earthworms), improving survival. In dryer years, higher indiscriminate mortality rates appear to mask differential heterozygosity-related survival effects. This paternal interaction was significant in the most supported model; however, the model-averaged estimate had a relative importance of 0.50 and overlapped zero slightly. First-year survival probabilities were not correlated with the inbreeding coefficient (f); however, small sample sizes limited the power to detect inbreeding depression. Correlations between individual heterozygosity and inbreeding were weak, in line with published meta-analyses showing that HFCs tend to be weak. We found support for general rather than local heterozygosity effects on first-year survival probability, and g2 indicated that our markers had power to detect inbreeding. We emphasize the importance of assessing how environmental stressors can influence the magnitude and direction of HFCs and of considering how parental genetic diversity can affect fitness-related traits, which could play an important role in the evolution of mate choice. PMID:25360289

  11. Heterozygosity–fitness correlations in a wild mammal population: accounting for parental and environmental effects

    PubMed Central

    Annavi, Geetha; Newman, Christopher; Buesching, Christina D; Macdonald, David W; Burke, Terry; Dugdale, Hannah L

    2014-01-01

    HFCs (heterozygosity–fitness correlations) measure the direct relationship between an individual's genetic diversity and fitness. The effects of parental heterozygosity and the environment on HFCs are currently under-researched. We investigated these in a high-density U.K. population of European badgers (Meles meles), using a multimodel capture–mark–recapture framework and 35 microsatellite loci. We detected interannual variation in first-year, but not adult, survival probability. Adult females had higher annual survival probabilities than adult males. Cubs with more heterozygous fathers had higher first-year survival, but only in wetter summers; there was no relationship with individual or maternal heterozygosity. Moist soil conditions enhance badger food supply (earthworms), improving survival. In dryer years, higher indiscriminate mortality rates appear to mask differential heterozygosity-related survival effects. This paternal interaction was significant in the most supported model; however, the model-averaged estimate had a relative importance of 0.50 and overlapped zero slightly. First-year survival probabilities were not correlated with the inbreeding coefficient (f); however, small sample sizes limited the power to detect inbreeding depression. Correlations between individual heterozygosity and inbreeding were weak, in line with published meta-analyses showing that HFCs tend to be weak. We found support for general rather than local heterozygosity effects on first-year survival probability, and g2 indicated that our markers had power to detect inbreeding. We emphasize the importance of assessing how environmental stressors can influence the magnitude and direction of HFCs and of considering how parental genetic diversity can affect fitness-related traits, which could play an important role in the evolution of mate choice. PMID:25360289

  12. Heterozygosity-fitness correlations in a wild mammal population: accounting for parental and environmental effects.

    PubMed

    Annavi, Geetha; Newman, Christopher; Buesching, Christina D; Macdonald, David W; Burke, Terry; Dugdale, Hannah L

    2014-06-01

    HFCs (heterozygosity-fitness correlations) measure the direct relationship between an individual's genetic diversity and fitness. The effects of parental heterozygosity and the environment on HFCs are currently under-researched. We investigated these in a high-density U.K. population of European badgers (Meles meles), using a multimodel capture-mark-recapture framework and 35 microsatellite loci. We detected interannual variation in first-year, but not adult, survival probability. Adult females had higher annual survival probabilities than adult males. Cubs with more heterozygous fathers had higher first-year survival, but only in wetter summers; there was no relationship with individual or maternal heterozygosity. Moist soil conditions enhance badger food supply (earthworms), improving survival. In dryer years, higher indiscriminate mortality rates appear to mask differential heterozygosity-related survival effects. This paternal interaction was significant in the most supported model; however, the model-averaged estimate had a relative importance of 0.50 and overlapped zero slightly. First-year survival probabilities were not correlated with the inbreeding coefficient (f); however, small sample sizes limited the power to detect inbreeding depression. Correlations between individual heterozygosity and inbreeding were weak, in line with published meta-analyses showing that HFCs tend to be weak. We found support for general rather than local heterozygosity effects on first-year survival probability, and g2 indicated that our markers had power to detect inbreeding. We emphasize the importance of assessing how environmental stressors can influence the magnitude and direction of HFCs and of considering how parental genetic diversity can affect fitness-related traits, which could play an important role in the evolution of mate choice.

  13. Effects of holding time and measurement error on culturing Legionella in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Flanders, W Dana; Kirkland, Kimberly H; Shelton, Brian G

    2014-10-01

    Outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease require environmental testing of water samples from potentially implicated building water systems to identify the source of exposure. A previous study reports a large impact on Legionella sample results due to shipping and delays in sample processing. Specifically, this same study, without accounting for measurement error, reports more than half of shipped samples tested had Legionella levels that arbitrarily changed up or down by one or more logs, and the authors attribute this result to shipping time. Accordingly, we conducted a study to determine the effects of sample holding/shipping time on Legionella sample results while taking into account measurement error, which has previously not been addressed. We analyzed 159 samples, each split into 16 aliquots, of which one-half (8) were processed promptly after collection. The remaining half (8) were processed the following day to assess impact of holding/shipping time. A total of 2544 samples were analyzed including replicates. After accounting for inherent measurement error, we found that the effect of holding time on observed Legionella counts was small and should have no practical impact on interpretation of results. Holding samples increased the root mean squared error by only about 3-8%. Notably, for only one of 159 samples, did the average of the 8 replicate counts change by 1 log. Thus, our findings do not support the hypothesis of frequent, significant (≥= 1 log10 unit) Legionella colony count changes due to holding.

  14. Balancing the budget of environmental estrogen exposure: the contribution of recycled water.

    PubMed

    Leusch, Frederic D L; Moore, Michael R; Chapman, Heather F

    2009-01-01

    Estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds (e-EDCs) are present in treated sewage and there is concern about estrogenicity of potable recycled water. However e-EDCs are also present in other environmental media and intake from water needs to be considered in relation to these other sources. The concentrations of 13 e-EDCs in foodstuffs and drinking water are reviewed, their predicted concentrations in recycled water are estimated, and the daily estrogenic intake as 17beta-estradiol equivalent (EEq) based on both in vitro and in vivo potencies is calculated as 1.39 and 9.65 microg EEq/d, respectively. Dietary intake accounts for more than 99.8% of that total, and more than 84.2% is due to phytosterols. Drinking 2 L of recycled water per day is expected to add 0.001 to 0.016 microg EEq/d based on in vitro and in vivo potencies, respectively. Exposure to e-EDCs in recycled water is therefore likely to be insignificant compared to current dietary intakes.

  15. Applying the input-output method to account for water footprint and virtual water trade in the Haihe River basin in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xu; Yang, Hong; Yang, Zhifeng; Chen, Bin; Qin, Yan

    2010-12-01

    The virtual water strategy which advocates importing water intensive products and exporting products with low water intensity is gradually accepted as one of the options for solving water crisis in severely water scarce regions. However, if we count the virtual water embodied in imported products as the water saved for a region, we might overestimate the saving by including the virtual water that is later re-exported in association with the proceeded products made from the originally imported products. This problem can be avoided by accounting for the saved water through calculating water footprint (WF) in domestic final consumptive products. In this paper, an input-output analysis (IOA) based on the water footprint accounting framework is built to account for WF and virtual water trade of final consumptive products in the water stressed Haihe River basin in China for the year 1997, 2000, and 2002. The input-output transaction tables of the three years are constructed. The results show WF of 46.57, 44.52, and 42.71 billion m(3) for the three years, respectively. These volumes are higher than the water used directly in the corresponding years in the basin. A WF intensity (WFI) indicator is then used to assess if the economic activities in the basin are consistent with the virtual water strategy. The temporal change of the WFI is also decomposed by the index number analysis method. The results showed that the basin was silently importing virtual water through the trade of raw and processed food commodities under the background of the whole economic circulation.

  16. Environmental Tracers for Determining Water Resource Vulnerability to Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, M

    2009-07-08

    Predicted changes in the climate will have profound impacts on water availability in the Western US, but large uncertainties exist in our ability to predict how natural and engineered hydrological systems will respond. Most predictions suggest that the impacts of climate change on California water resources are likely to include a decrease in the percentage of precipitation that falls as snow, earlier onset of snow-pack melting, and an increase in the number of rain on snow events. These processes will require changes in infrastructure for water storage and flood control, since much of our current water supply system is built around the storage of winter precipitation as mountain snow pack. Alpine aquifers play a critical role by storing and releasing snowmelt as baseflow to streams long after seasonal precipitation and the disappearance of the snow pack, and in this manner significantly impact the stream flow that drives our water distribution systems. Mountain groundwater recharge and, in particular, the contribution of snowmelt to recharge and baseflow, has been identified as a potentially significant effect missing from current climate change impact studies. The goal of this work is to understand the behavior of critical hydrologic systems, with an emphasis on providing ground truth for next generation models of climate-water system interactions by implementing LLNL capabilities in environmental tracer and isotopic science. We are using noble gas concentrations and multiple isotopic tracers ({sup 3}H/{sup 3}He, {sup 35}S, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 2}H/{sup 1}H, {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O, and {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C) in groundwater and stream water in a small alpine catchment to (1) provide a snapshot of temperature, altitude, and physical processes at the time of recharge, (2) determine subsurface residence times (over time scales ranging from months to decades) of different groundwater age components, and (3) deconvolve the contribution of these different groundwater components

  17. Fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking in light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Kassner, T.F.; Ruther, W.E.; Chung, H.M.; Hicks, P.D.; Hins, A.G.; Park, J.Y.; Shack, W.J.

    1991-12-01

    Fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking of piping, pressure vessels, and core components in light water reactors (LWRs) are important concerns as extended reactor lifetimes are envisaged. The degradation processes include intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of austenitic stainless steel (SS) piping in boiling water reactors (BWRs), and propagation of fatigue or SCC cracks (which initiate in sensitized SS cladding) into low-alloy ferritic steels in BWR pressure vessels. Similar cracking has also occurred in upper shell-to-transition cone girth welds in pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator vessels. Another concern is failure of reactor-core internal components after accumulation of relatively high fluence, which has occurred in both BWRs and PWRs. Research during the past year focused on (1) fatigue and SCC of ferritic steels used in piping and in steam generator and reactor pressure vessels, (2) role of chromate and sulfate in simulated BWR water in SCC of sensitized Type 304 SS, and (3) irradiation-assisted SCC in high- and commercial-purity Type 304 SS specimens from control-blade absorber tubes used in two operating BWRs. Failure after accumulation of relatively high fluence has been attributed to radiation-induced segregation (RIS) of elements such as Si, P, Ni, and Cr. This document provides a summary of research progress in these areas.

  18. When private water rights become a public asset: Stakeholder perspectives on the fairness of environmental water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukasiewicz, Anna; Dare, Melanie (Lain)

    2016-05-01

    This paper explores environmental water management as a social process of navigating conflicting interests through a distributive justice lens. Environmental water management can achieve substantial ecological outcomes and address ongoing river degradation caused by past management and climate change; however it also causes specific and substantial burdens and benefits to different groups of stakeholders. Given that in most developed countries the majority of land is under private tenure, environmental watering must have active cooperation of private landholders to achieve its ecological outcomes and thus it must effectively deal with an array of vested interests. Australia's reforms aimed at reallocating water from production to the environment have resulted in significant considerable volumes of environmental water. In the state of New South Wales, this water is managed by the state and national governments with the help of five Environmental Water Advisory Groups made up of a wide representation of interests. In this paper, we explore the perceptions of environmental, government, irrigator and grazing representatives, which demonstrate conflicting principles over how environmental water should be distributed. We detail how government water managers reconcile competing distributive principles of equity (ensuring that no one is disproportionally affected or benefits unduly), need (achieving environmental outcomes) and efficiency (prioritizing operational feasibility) in order to maintain the social acceptability of environmental water.

  19. Systemic solutions for multi-benefit water and environmental management.

    PubMed

    Everard, Mark; McInnes, Robert

    2013-09-01

    The environmental and financial costs of inputs to, and unintended consequences arising from narrow consideration of outputs from, water and environmental management technologies highlight the need for low-input solutions that optimise outcomes across multiple ecosystem services. Case studies examining the inputs and outputs associated with several ecosystem-based water and environmental management technologies reveal a range from those that differ little from conventional electro-mechanical engineering techniques through methods, such as integrated constructed wetlands (ICWs), designed explicitly as low-input systems optimising ecosystem service outcomes. All techniques present opportunities for further optimisation of outputs, and hence for greater cumulative public value. We define 'systemic solutions' as "…low-input technologies using natural processes to optimise benefits across the spectrum of ecosystem services and their beneficiaries". They contribute to sustainable development by averting unintended negative impacts and optimising benefits to all ecosystem service beneficiaries, increasing net economic value. Legacy legislation addressing issues in a fragmented way, associated 'ring-fenced' budgets and established management assumptions represent obstacles to implementing 'systemic solutions'. However, flexible implementation of legacy regulations recognising their primary purpose, rather than slavish adherence to detailed sub-clauses, may achieve greater overall public benefit through optimisation of outcomes across ecosystem services. Systemic solutions are not a panacea if applied merely as 'downstream' fixes, but are part of, and a means to accelerate, broader culture change towards more sustainable practice. This necessarily entails connecting a wider network of interests in the formulation and design of mutually-beneficial systemic solutions, including for example spatial planners, engineers, regulators, managers, farming and other businesses, and

  20. [Classification of Priority Area for Soil Environmental Protection Around Water Sources: Method Proposed and Case Demonstration].

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Wang, Tie-yu; Wang, Xiaojun; Xiao, Rong-bo; Li, Qi-feng; Peng, Chi; Han, Cun-liang

    2016-04-15

    Based on comprehensive consideration of soil environmental quality, pollution status of river, environmental vulnerability and the stress of pollution sources, a technical method was established for classification of priority area of soil environmental protection around the river-style water sources. Shunde channel as an important drinking water sources of Foshan City, Guangdong province, was studied as a case, of which the classification evaluation system was set up. In detail, several evaluation factors were selected according to the local conditions of nature, society and economy, including the pollution degree of heavy metals in soil and sediment, soil characteristics, groundwater sensitivity, vegetation coverage, the type and location of pollution sources. Data information was mainly obtained by means of field survey, sampling analysis, and remote sensing interpretation. Afterwards, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was adopted to decide the weight of each factor. The basic spatial data layers were set up respectively and overlaid based on the weighted summation assessment model in Geographical Information System (GIS), resulting in a classification map of soil environmental protection level in priority area of Shunde channel. Accordingly, the area was classified to three levels named as polluted zone, risky zone and safe zone, which respectively accounted for 6.37%, 60.90% and 32.73% of the whole study area. Polluted zone and risky zone were mainly distributed in Lecong, Longjiang and Leliu towns, with pollutants mainly resulted from the long-term development of aquaculture and the industries containing furniture, plastic constructional materials and textile and clothing. In accordance with the main pollution sources of soil, targeted and differentiated strategies were put forward. The newly established evaluation method could be referenced for the protection and sustainable utilization of soil environment around the water sources.

  1. [Classification of Priority Area for Soil Environmental Protection Around Water Sources: Method Proposed and Case Demonstration].

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Wang, Tie-yu; Wang, Xiaojun; Xiao, Rong-bo; Li, Qi-feng; Peng, Chi; Han, Cun-liang

    2016-04-15

    Based on comprehensive consideration of soil environmental quality, pollution status of river, environmental vulnerability and the stress of pollution sources, a technical method was established for classification of priority area of soil environmental protection around the river-style water sources. Shunde channel as an important drinking water sources of Foshan City, Guangdong province, was studied as a case, of which the classification evaluation system was set up. In detail, several evaluation factors were selected according to the local conditions of nature, society and economy, including the pollution degree of heavy metals in soil and sediment, soil characteristics, groundwater sensitivity, vegetation coverage, the type and location of pollution sources. Data information was mainly obtained by means of field survey, sampling analysis, and remote sensing interpretation. Afterwards, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was adopted to decide the weight of each factor. The basic spatial data layers were set up respectively and overlaid based on the weighted summation assessment model in Geographical Information System (GIS), resulting in a classification map of soil environmental protection level in priority area of Shunde channel. Accordingly, the area was classified to three levels named as polluted zone, risky zone and safe zone, which respectively accounted for 6.37%, 60.90% and 32.73% of the whole study area. Polluted zone and risky zone were mainly distributed in Lecong, Longjiang and Leliu towns, with pollutants mainly resulted from the long-term development of aquaculture and the industries containing furniture, plastic constructional materials and textile and clothing. In accordance with the main pollution sources of soil, targeted and differentiated strategies were put forward. The newly established evaluation method could be referenced for the protection and sustainable utilization of soil environment around the water sources. PMID:27548986

  2. 21st Century Water Asset Accounting - Case Studies Report (WERF Report INFR6R12a)

    EPA Science Inventory

    America’s decaying water infrastructure presents significant financial and logistical challenges for water utilities. Green infrastructure has been gaining traction as a viable alternative and complement to traditional “grey” infrastructure for water management. Current accounti...

  3. Detection of Vibrio cholerae in environmental waters including drinking water reservoirs of Azerbaijan.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Ahmadov; Haley, Bradd J; Rajabov, Mukhtar; Ahmadova, Sevinj; Gurbanov, Shair; Colwell, Rita R; Huq, Anwar

    2013-02-01

    Cholera, a globally prevalent gastrointestinal disease, remains a persistent problem in many countries including the former Soviet republics of the Caucasus region where sporadic outbreaks occurred recently. Historically, this region has experienced cholera during every pandemic since 1816; however, no known comprehensive evaluation of the presence of Vibrio cholerae in surface waters using molecular methods has been done. Here we present the first report of the presence of V. cholerae in surface waters of Azerbaijan and its seasonality, using a combination of bacteriological and molecular methods. Findings from the present study indicate a peak in the presence of V. cholerae in warmer summer months relative to colder winter months. In the Caspian Sea, water temperature when optimal for growth of V. cholerae was significantly associated with detection of V. cholerae. Vibrio cholerae was simultaneously detected at freshwater sites including two water reservoirs. Most importantly, detection of V. cholerae in these water reservoirs, the source of municipal drinking water, poses a potential health risk to the population due to the limited and insufficient treatment of water in Azerbaijan. Routine monitoring of environmental waters used for recreational purposes, and especially drinking water reservoirs, is highly recommended as a measure for public health safety.

  4. Balancing the Budget: Accounting for Glucocorticoid Bioactivity and Fate during Water Treatment.

    PubMed

    Jia, Ai; Wu, Shimin; Daniels, Kevin D; Snyder, Shane A

    2016-03-15

    Numerous studies have identified the presence and bioactivity of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) active substances in water; however, the identification and activity-balance of GR compounds remained elusive. This study determined the occurrence and attenuation of GR bioactivity and closed the balance by determining those substances responsible. The observed in vitro GR activity ranged from 39 to 155 ng dexamethasone-equivalent/L (ng Dex-EQ/L) in the secondary effluents of four wastewater treatment plants. Monochromatic ultraviolet light of 80 mJ/cm(2) disinfection dose was efficient for GR activity photolysis, whereas chlorination could not appreciably attenuate the observed GR activity. Ozonation was effective only at relatively high dose (ozone/TOC 1:1). Microfiltration membranes were not efficient for GR activity attenuation; however, reverse osmosis removed GR activity to levels below the limits of detection. A high-sensitivity liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was then developed to screen 27 GR agonists. Twelve were identified and quantified in effluents at summed concentrations of 9.6-21.2 ng/L. The summed Dex-EQ of individual compounds based on their measured concentrations was in excellent agreement with the Dex-EQ obtained from bioassay, which demonstrated that the detected glucocorticoids can entirely explain the observed GR bioactivity. Four synthetic glucocorticoids (triamcinolone acetonide, fluocinolone acetonide, clobetasol propionate, and fluticasone propionate) predominantly accounted for GR activity. These data represent the first known publication where a complete activity balance has been determined for GR agonists in an aquatic environment. PMID:26840181

  5. Cost-benefit evaluation of a decentralized water system for wastewater reuse and environmental protection.

    PubMed

    Chen, R; Wang, X C

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposed a net benefit value (NBV) model for cost-benefit evaluation of wastewater treatment and reuse projects, and attention was mainly paid to decentralized systems which are drawing wide interests all over the world especially in the water-deficient countries and regions. In the NBV model, all the factors related to project costs are monetary ones which can be calculated by using traditional methods, while many of the factors related to project benefits are non-monetary ones which need sophisticated methods for monetization. In this regard, the authors elaborated several methods for monetization of the benefits from wastewater discharge reduction, local environment improvement, and human health protection. The proposed model and methods were applied for the cost-benefit evaluation of a decentralized water reclamation and reuse project in a newly developed residential area in Xi'an, China. The system with dual-pipe collection and grey water treatment and reuse was found to be economically ineligible (NBV > 0) when all the treated water is reused for artificial pond replenishment, gardening and other non-potable purposes by taking into account the benefit of water saving. As environmental benefits are further considered, the economic advantage of the project is more significant.

  6. [Uncertainty analysis of water environmental capacity in the nonpoint source polluted river].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ding-jiang; Lü, Jun; Jin, Pei-jian; Shen, Ye-na; Shi, Yi-ming; Gong, Dong-qin

    2010-05-01

    Based on the one-dimension model for river water environmental capacity (WEC) and the statistical analysis of the measured hydrological and water quality variables, a uncertainty analysis method for the WEC in nonpoint source polluted river was developed, which included the sensitivity analysis for input parameters of the model and the probability distributions analysis for the WEC using Monte Carlo simulation approach. The method, which described the uncertainty derived from the adopted information of the river system and the randomicity from the occurrence of nonpoint source pollution, could provide different WEC combined with reliabilities for different hydrological seasons. As a case study, the total nitrogen (TN) WEC in the Changle River located in southeast China was calculated using the method. Results indicated that the TN WEC with 90% of reliability were 487.9, 949.8 and 1392.8 kg x d(-1) in dry season, average season and flood season, respectively, and the dilution effect of river water flow accounted for the main content of WEC. In order to satisfy water quality target of the river, about 1258.3-3591.2 kg x d(-1) of current TN quantity that entered into the river should be reduced in watershed, and the largest reducing quantity of TN was occurred during flood season. The uncertainty method, which reflected hydrology and water quality variations in the nonpoint source polluted river, provided a more reliable and efficient method for the WEC calculation.

  7. Assessment of PDMS-water partition coefficients: implications for passive environmental sampling of hydrophobic organic compounds.

    PubMed

    DiFilippo, Erica L; Eganhouse, Robert P

    2010-09-15

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) has shown potential as an in situ passive-sampling technique in aquatic environments. The reliability of this method depends upon accurate determination of the partition coefficient between the fiber coating and water (K(f)). For some hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs), K(f) values spanning 4 orders of magnitude have been reported for polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and water. However, 24% of the published data examined in this review did not pass the criterion for negligible depletion, resulting in questionable K(f) values. The range in reported K(f) is reduced to just over 2 orders of magnitude for some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) when these questionable values are removed. Other factors that could account for the range in reported K(f), such as fiber-coating thickness and fiber manufacturer, were evaluated and found to be insignificant. In addition to accurate measurement of K(f), an understanding of the impact of environmental variables, such as temperature and ionic strength, on partitioning is essential for application of laboratory-measured K(f) values to field samples. To date, few studies have measured K(f) for HOCs at conditions other than at 20° or 25 °C in distilled water. The available data indicate measurable variations in K(f) at different temperatures and different ionic strengths. Therefore, if the appropriate environmental variables are not taken into account, significant error will be introduced into calculated aqueous concentrations using this passive sampling technique. A multiparameter linear solvation energy relationship (LSER) was developed to estimate log K(f) in distilled water at 25 °C based on published physicochemical parameters. This method provided a good correlation (R(2) = 0.94) between measured and predicted log K(f) values for several compound classes. Thus, an LSER approach may offer a reliable means of predicting log K(f) for HOCs whose experimental log K(f) values are presently

  8. Assessment of PDMS-water partition coefficients: implications for passive environmental sampling of hydrophobic organic compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DiFilippo, Erica L.; Eganhouse, Robert P.

    2010-01-01

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) has shown potential as an in situ passive-sampling technique in aquatic environments. The reliability of this method depends upon accurate determination of the partition coefficient between the fiber coating and water (Kf). For some hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs), Kf values spanning 4 orders of magnitude have been reported for polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and water. However, 24% of the published data examined in this review did not pass the criterion for negligible depletion, resulting in questionable Kf values. The range in reported Kf is reduced to just over 2 orders of magnitude for some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) when these questionable values are removed. Other factors that could account for the range in reported Kf, such as fiber-coating thickness and fiber manufacturer, were evaluated and found to be insignificant. In addition to accurate measurement of Kf, an understanding of the impact of environmental variables, such as temperature and ionic strength, on partitioning is essential for application of laboratory-measured Kf values to field samples. To date, few studies have measured Kf for HOCs at conditions other than at 20 degrees or 25 degrees C in distilled water. The available data indicate measurable variations in Kf at different temperatures and different ionic strengths. Therefore, if the appropriate environmental variables are not taken into account, significant error will be introduced into calculated aqueous concentrations using this passive sampling technique. A multiparameter linear solvation energy relationship (LSER) was developed to estimate log Kf in distilled water at 25 degrees C based on published physicochemical parameters. This method provided a good correlation (R2 = 0.94) between measured and predicted log Kf values for several compound classes. Thus, an LSER approach may offer a reliable means of predicting log Kf for HOCs whose experimental log Kf values are presently unavailable. Future

  9. Harmonization of environmental quality objectives for air, water and soil

    SciTech Connect

    Plassche, E.J. van de

    1994-12-31

    Environmental quality objectives (EQO) are often derived for single compartments only. However, concentrations at or below EQO level for one compartment may lead to exceeding of the EQO in another compartment due to intermedia transport of the chemical. Hence, achieving concentrations lower than the EQO in e.g. air does not necessarily mean that a ``safe`` concentration in soil can be maintained because of deposition from air to soil. This means that EQOs for air, water and soil must be harmonized in such a way that they meet a coherence criterion. This criterion implies that a EQO for one compartment has to be set at a level that full protection to organisms living in other compartments is ensured. In The Netherlands a project has been started to derive harmonized EQOs for a large number of chemicals. First, EQ0s are derived for all compartments based on ecotoxicological data for single species applying extrapolation methods. Secondly, these independently derived EQOs are harmonized. For harmonization of EQOs for water, sediment and soil the equilibrium partitioning method is used. For harmonization of EQOs for water and soil with the E00s for air a procedure is used applying computed steady state concentration ratios rather than equilibrium partitioning. The model SimpleBox is used for these computations. Some results of the project mentioned above will be presented. Attention will be paid to the derivation of independent EQ0s as well as the harmonization procedures applied.

  10. Environmental application of nanotechnology: air, soil, and water.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Rusul Khaleel; Hayyan, Maan; AlSaadi, Mohammed Abdulhakim; Hayyan, Adeeb; Ibrahim, Shaliza

    2016-07-01

    Global deterioration of water, soil, and atmosphere by the release of toxic chemicals from the ongoing anthropogenic activities is becoming a serious problem throughout the world. This poses numerous issues relevant to ecosystem and human health that intensify the application challenges of conventional treatment technologies. Therefore, this review sheds the light on the recent progresses in nanotechnology and its vital role to encompass the imperative demand to monitor and treat the emerging hazardous wastes with lower cost, less energy, as well as higher efficiency. Essentially, the key aspects of this account are to briefly outline the advantages of nanotechnology over conventional treatment technologies and to relevantly highlight the treatment applications of some nanomaterials (e.g., carbon-based nanoparticles, antibacterial nanoparticles, and metal oxide nanoparticles) in the following environments: (1) air (treatment of greenhouse gases, volatile organic compounds, and bioaerosols via adsorption, photocatalytic degradation, thermal decomposition, and air filtration processes), (2) soil (application of nanomaterials as amendment agents for phytoremediation processes and utilization of stabilizers to enhance their performance), and (3) water (removal of organic pollutants, heavy metals, pathogens through adsorption, membrane processes, photocatalysis, and disinfection processes).

  11. Technologies for environmental cleanup: Soil and ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Ragaini, R.C.

    1992-07-01

    This is the first of a series of four EUROCOURSES that will be conducted under the title of ``Technologies for Envirommental Cleanup.`` This first course will address the needs of today`s environmental protection managers who must deal with the cleanup of soil and ground water contamination. It focuses on recent developments in the areas of policies and regulations, characterization. of.contaminants, subsurface transport and fate of contaminants, cleanup technologies, contaminant risk analysis, and cleanup strategies. Until the goal of acceptable cleanup is achieved, dissemination of information about available cleanup techniques is essential - through courses such as these developed by experts in the US and Europe especially for governmental and industrial managers throughout the world.

  12. Technologies for environmental cleanup: Soil and ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Ragaini, R.C.

    1992-07-01

    This is the first of a series of four EUROCOURSES that will be conducted under the title of Technologies for Envirommental Cleanup.'' This first course will address the needs of today's environmental protection managers who must deal with the cleanup of soil and ground water contamination. It focuses on recent developments in the areas of policies and regulations, characterization. of.contaminants, subsurface transport and fate of contaminants, cleanup technologies, contaminant risk analysis, and cleanup strategies. Until the goal of acceptable cleanup is achieved, dissemination of information about available cleanup techniques is essential - through courses such as these developed by experts in the US and Europe especially for governmental and industrial managers throughout the world.

  13. Identifying sources of groundwater recharge in the Merguellil basin (Tunisia) using isotopic methods: implication of dam reservoir water accounting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dassi, Lassaad; Zouari, Kamel; Faye, Serigne

    2005-11-01

    Thirty-two groundwater samples collected from the Merguellil Wadi basin (central Tunisia) complemented by the Haouareb dam reservoir water samples have been isotopically analysed in order to investigate the implication of the reservoir water to recharging the aquifer, and also to infer the sources, relative ages and mixing processes in the aquifer system. Plots of the stable isotopes data against the local meteoric lines of Tunis-Carthage and Sfax indicate a strong implication of the dam water noticeable up to a distance of 6-7 km. A contribution as much as 80% of the pumped water has been evidenced using isotopic mass balance. In addition, poorly distinguished water clusters in the stable isotope plots, but clearly identified in the diagrams δ18O versus 3H and 3H versus 14C, indicate various water types related to sources and timing of recharge. The isotopic signatures of the dam accounting water, the “old” and “native” recharged waters, have been evidenced in relation to their geographical distribution and also to their radiogenic isotopes (3H and 14C) contents. In the south-western part of the aquifer, mixing process occurs between the dam reservoir water and both the “old” and “native” water components.

  14. Determination of organic carbon and ionic accountability of various waste and product waters derived from ECLSS water recovery tests and Spacelab humidity condensate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Donald L.; Cole, Harold; Habercom, Mark; Griffith, Guy

    1992-01-01

    The development of a closed-loop water recovery system for Space Station Freedom involves many technical challenges associated with contaminant removal. Attention is presently given to the characterization of contaminants constituting total organic carbon (TOC), and to the Hubaux and Vos (1970) statistical model for low level TOC that has been employed. A tabulation is given for TOC accountability in the case of both potable and hygiene waters.

  15. Regression study of environmental quality objectives for soil, fresh water, and marine water, derived independently.

    PubMed

    Vega, M M; Urzelai, A; Angulo, E

    1997-12-01

    A regression study among environmental quality objectives on soil, marine and fresh water is studied, considering toxicity data on ecological representative species of invertebrates. The study was carried out by comparing VIE-C values, as defined by E. Angulo and A. Urzelai (1994, in Plan Director para la Protección del Suelo. Calidad del Suelo. Valores Indicativos de Evaluacion, pp. 121-184. IHOBE, Bilbao). To derive these VIE-C values, no-observed-effect concentrations from chronic single-species assays that consider relevant parameters in population dynamics are used. The calculations follow the method of N. M. van Straalen and C.A.J. Denneman (1989, Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 18, 241-251). Equations relating long-term toxicity data of fresh/marine waters, soil/marine water, and soil/fresh water for five metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn) are calculated, indicating good correlation between environments: 0.85, 0.78, and 0.89, respectively. On the basis of these results this approach may be useful to obtain soil quality criteria values from other environmental compartments, when soil data are not available.

  16. OVERALL MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENT FOR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM SMALL WATER POOLS UNDER SIMULATED INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Small chamber tests were conducted to experimentally determine the overall mass transfer coefficient for pollutant emissions from still water under simulated indoor-residential or occupational-environmental conditions. Fourteen tests were conducted in small environmental chambers...

  17. Environmental fractionation of PCBs and PBDEs during particle transport as recorded by sediments in coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Grant, Paul B C; Johannessen, Sophia C; Macdonald, Robie W; Yunker, Mark B; Sanborn, Michael; Dangerfield, Neil; Wright, Cynthia; Ross, Peter S

    2011-07-01

    The Strait of Georgia (British Columbia, Canada) is a hydrologically complex inland sea with a rich abundance and diversity of species of aquatic life. Marine sediments, as both a sink for hydrophobic contaminants and a potential source for aquatic food webs, were collected from 41 sites throughout the 6,900-km(2) Strait of Georgia. The congener-specific concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), including BDE-209, were measured. Urban harbors represented hotspots for both PCBs and PBDEs, whereas PBDEs were also found at high concentrations near municipal outfalls. Patterns of PCB distribution were consistent with historical point source emissions in urban areas and environmental distillation toward lighter profiles in remote sites over time. The single congener BDE-209 dominated the PBDEs, accounting for 52% of the average total concentration. However, nonurban deep-water sediment PBDE profiles were both heavier and had higher concentration-weighted average log K(OW) (octanol-water partition coefficient) values compared to shallow samples (percent BDE-209 of total PBDE, 66 versus 32%; log K(OW) , 9.5 versus 8.2, respectively). Collectively, our results suggest that although source signals largely explain PCB and PBDE hotspots in the Strait of Georgia, the combination of physicochemical properties and environmental processes drive divergent compositional fates for the PCBs and the heavier PBDEs in the sediments of the Strait of Georgia. PMID:21465540

  18. [Water environmental capacity calculation model for the rivers in drinking water source conservation area].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ding-jiang; Lü, Jun; Shen, Ye-na; Jin, Shu-quan; Shi, Yi-ming

    2008-09-01

    Based on the one-dimension model for water environmental capacity (WEC) in river, a new model for the WEC estimation in river-reservoir system was developed in drinking water source conservation area (DWSCA). In the new model, the concept was introduced that the water quality target of the rivers in DWSCA was determined by the water quality demand of reservoir for drinking water source. It implied that the WEC of the reservoir could be used as the water quality control target at the reach-end of the upstream rivers in DWSCA so that the problems for WEC estimation might be avoided that the differences of the standards for a water quality control target between in river and in reservoir, such as the criterions differences for total phosphorus (TP)/total nitrogen (TN) between in reservoir and in river according to the National Surface Water Quality Standard of China (GB 3838-2002), and the difference of designed hydrology conditions for WEC estimation between in reservoir and in river. The new model described the quantitative relationship between the WEC of drinking water source and of the river, and it factually expressed the continuity and interplay of these low water areas. As a case study, WEC for the rivers in DWSCA of Laohutan reservoir located in southeast China was estimated using the new model. Results indicated that the WEC for TN and TP was 65.05 t x a(-1) and 5.05 t x a(-1) in the rivers of the DWSCA, respectively. According to the WEC of Laohutan reservoir and current TN and TP quantity that entered into the rivers, about 33.86 t x a(-1) of current TN quantity should be reduced in the DWSCA, while there was 2.23 t x a(-1) of residual WEC of TP in the rivers. The modeling method was also widely applicable for the continuous water bodies with different water quality targets, especially for the situation of higher water quality control target in downstream water body than that in upstream.

  19. Quality of rivers of the United States, 1975 water year; based on the National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Briggs, John C.; Ficke, John F.

    1977-01-01

    The National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) was established by the U.S. Geological Survey to provide a nationally uniform basis for continuously assessing the quality of U.S. rivers. Stations generally are at the downstream end of hydrologic accounting units in order to measure the quantity and quality of water flowing from the units. Data are available on a large number of water-quality constituents measured at 345 stations during the 1975 water year. Temperature data (usually continuous or daily measurements) from NASQAN stations were fitted to a first order harmonic equation and the parameters for the harmonic function are reported for each station. Considering chemical and biological characteristics of U.S. streams as described by NASQAN data, water quality is best (by many standards) in the Northeast, Southeast, and Northwest. Many of these waters show the effects of pollution and carry moderate or high levels of major nutrients. High counts of indicator bacteria also show signs of local pollution. In the Northeast, some heavy metals are at moderate levels, but not above most water-quality criteria. Rivers of most of the Mid-Continent and Southwest reflect the arid or semi-arid climate, erodible soils, and agricultural activities. A special analysis was made to study the patterns of dissolved solids, major nutrients, phytoplankton, and zinc in the Mississippi River above Memphis, Tennessee. (Kosco-USGS)

  20. Water-Use Efficiency and Stable Carbon Isotopes: Accounting for Photosynthetic Refixation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubierna Lopez, N.; Marshall, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    for Light plants decreased to 10% and the observed enrichment on δ13CLR was 1‰. Correspondingly, Shade plants showed a 37% level of refixation and 3.6‰ enrichment at PAR=20. Our findings support the hypothesis that leaves re-fix carbon under low-light intensity environments. The degree of refixation is proportional to light intensity, with higher refixation rates associated with higher light intensities and more depleted leaf biomass. The continuous refixation of the internal leaf carbon pool during leaf expansion together with diurnal refixation periods in mature leaves adds depleted biomass into the leaf that is likely to account for the patterns described in the literature (i.e. 2‰ depletion of leaf versus stem biomass). This can influence the interpretation of δ13C leaf biomass data of previous studies and can compromise the utility of δ13C from leaf tissue as a precise meter of water-use efficiency.

  1. Adaptive Regulation of the Northern California Reservoir System for Water, Energy, and Environmental Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgakakos, A. P.; Kistenmacher, M.; Yao, H.; Georgakakos, K. P.

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 National Climate Assessment of the US Global Change Research Program emphasizes that water resources managers and planners in most US regions will have to cope with new risks, vulnerabilities, and opportunities, and recommends the development of adaptive capacity to effectively respond to the new water resources planning and management challenges. In the face of these challenges, adaptive reservoir regulation is becoming all the more ncessary. Water resources management in Northern California relies on the coordinated operation of several multi-objective reservoirs on the Trinity, Sacramento, American, Feather, and San Joaquin Rivers. To be effective, reservoir regulation must be able to (a) account for forecast uncertainty; (b) assess changing tradeoffs among water uses and regions; and (c) adjust management policies as conditions change; and (d) evaluate the socio-economic and environmental benefits and risks of forecasts and policies for each region and for the system as a whole. The Integrated Forecast and Reservoir Management (INFORM) prototype demonstration project operated in Northern California through the collaboration of several forecast and management agencies has shown that decision support systems (DSS) with these attributes add value to stakeholder decision processes compared to current, less flexible management practices. Key features of the INFORM DSS include: (a) dynamically downscaled operational forecasts and climate projections that maintain the spatio-temporal coherence of the downscaled land surface forcing fields within synoptic scales; (b) use of ensemble forecast methodologies for reservoir inflows; (c) assessment of relevant tradeoffs among water uses on regional and local scales; (d) development and evaluation of dynamic reservoir policies with explicit consideration of hydro-climatic forecast uncertainties; and (e) focus on stakeholder information needs.This article discusses the INFORM integrated design concept, underlying

  2. Integrated water resources management of the Ichkeul basin taking into account the durability of its wetland ecosystem using WEAP model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabou, M.; Lili-Chabaane, Z.; Gastli, W.; Chakroun, H.; Ben Abdallah, S.; Oueslati, I.; Lasram, F.; Laajimi, R.; Shaiek, M.; Romdhane, M. S.; Mnajja, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Conservation of coastal wetlands in the Mediterranean area is generally faced with development issues. It is the case of Tunisia where the precipitation is irregular in time and space. For the equity of water use (drinking, irrigation), there is a planning at the national level allowing the possibility of water transfer from regions rich in water resources to poor ones. This plan was initially done in Tunisia without taking into account the wetlands ecosystems and their specificities. The main purpose of this study is to find a model able to integrate simultaneously available resources and various water demands within a watershed by taking into account the durability of related wetland ecosystems. It is the case of the Ichkeul basin. This later is situated in northern of Tunisia, having an area of 2080 km2 and rainfall of about 600 mm/year. Downstream this basin, the Ichkeul Lake is characterized by a double alternation of seasonal high water and low salinity in winter and spring and low water levels and high salinity in summer and autumn that makes the Ichkeul an exceptional ecosystem. The originality of this hydrological system of Lake-marsh conditions is related to the presence of aquatic vegetation in the lake and special rich and varied hygrophilic in the marshes that constitutes the main source of food for large migrating water birds. After the construction of three dams on the principle rivers that are feeding the Ichkeul Lake, aiming particularly to supply the local irrigation and the drinking water demand of cities in the north and the east of Tunisia, freshwater inflow to the lake is greatly reduced causing a hydrological disequilibrium that influences the ecological conditions of the different species. Therefore, to ensure the sustainability of the water resources management, it's important to find a trade off between the existing hydrological and ecological systems taking into account water demands of various users (drinking, irrigation fishing, and

  3. Accounting for intracell flow in models with emphasis on water table recharge and stream-aquifer interaction. 2. A procedure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, D.G.; Signor, D.C.; Imes, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    Intercepted intracell flow, especially if cell includes water table recharge and a stream (sink), can result in significant model error if not accounted for. A procedure utilizing net flow per cell (Fn) that accounts for intercepted intracell flow can be used for both steady state and transient simulations. Germane to the procedure is the determination of the ratio of area of influence of the interior sink to the area of the cell (Ai/Ac). Ai is the area in which water table recharge has the potential to be intercepted by the sink. Determining Ai/Ac requires either a detailed water table map or observation of stream conditions within the cell. A proportioning parameter M, which is equal to 1 or slightly less and is a function of cell geometry, is used to determine how much of the water that has potential for interception is intercepted by the sink within the cell. Also germane to the procedure is the determination of the flow across the streambed (Fs) which is not directly a function of cell size, due to difference in head between the water level in the stream and the potentiometric surface of the aquifer underlying the streambed. -from Authors

  4. Accounting System for Water Use by Vegetation in the Lower Colorado River Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.

    1992-01-01

    The Colorado River is the principal source of water in the valley of the Colorado River between Hoover Dam and the international boundary with Mexico (fig. 1). Agricultural, domestic, municipal, industrial, hydroelectric-power genera-tion, and recreation are the primary uses of river water in the valley. Most of the consumptive use of water from the river occurs downstream from Davis Dam, where water is diverted to irrigate crops along the river or is exported to interior regions of California and Arizona. Most of the agricultural areas are on the alluvium of the flood plain; in a few areas, land on the alluvial terraces has been cultivated. River water is consumed mainly by vegetation (crops and phreatophytes) on the flood plain. Crops were grown on 70.3 percent of the vegetated area classified by using 1984 digital image satellite data. Phreatophytes, natural vege-tation that obtain water from the alluvial aquifer, covered the remaining vegetated areas on the uncultivated flood plain. Most of the water used for irrigation is diverted or pumped from the river. In some areas, water is pumped from wells completed in the alluvial aquifer, which is hydraulically connected to the river.

  5. Water-quality assessment of the Central Arizona Basins, Arizona and northern Mexico; environmental setting and overview of water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cordy, Gail E.; Rees, Julie A.; Edmonds, Robert J.; Gebler, Joseph B.; Wirt, Laurie; Gellenbeck, Dorinda J.; Anning, David W.

    1998-01-01

    The Central Arizona Basins study area in central and southern Arizona and northern Mexico is one of 60 study units that are part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program. The purpose of this report is to describe the physical, chemical, and environmental characteristics that may affect water quality in the Central Arizona Basins study area and present an overview of water quality. Covering 34,700 square miles, the study area is characterized by generally north to northwestward-trending mountain ranges separated by broad, gently sloping alluvial valleys. Most of the perennial rivers and streams are in the northern part of the study area. Rivers and streams in the south are predominantly intermittent or ephemeral and flow in response to precipitation such as summer thunderstorms. Effluent-dependent streams do provide perennial flow in some reaches. The major aquifers in the study area are in the basin-fill deposits that may be as much as 12,000 feet thick. The 1990 population in the study area was about 3.45 million, and about 61 percent of the total was in Maricopa County (Phoenix and surrounding cities). Extensive population growth over the past decade has resulted in a twofold increase in urban land areas and increased municipal water use; however, agriculture remains the major water use. Seventy-three percent of all water with drawn in the study area during 1990 was used for agricultural purposes. The largest rivers in the study area-the Gila, Salt, and Verde-are perennial near their headwaters but become intermittent downstream because of impoundments and artificial diversions. As a result, the Central Arizona Basins study area is unique compared to less arid basins because the mean surface-water outflow is only 528 cubic feet per second from a total drainage area of 49,650 square miles. Peak flows in the northern part of the study area are the result of snowmelt runoff; whereas, summer thunderstorms account for the peak flows in

  6. Towards environmental management of water turbidity within open coastal waters of the Great Barrier Reef.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Rachael K; Ridd, Peter V; Whinney, James C; Larcombe, Piers; Neil, David T

    2013-09-15

    Water turbidity and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) are commonly used as part of marine monitoring and water quality plans. Current management plans utilise threshold SSC values derived from mean-annual turbidity concentrations. Little published work documents typical ranges of turbidity for reefs within open coastal waters. Here, time-series turbidity measurements from 61 sites in the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) and Moreton Bay, Australia, are presented as turbidity exceedance curves and derivatives. This contributes to the understanding of turbidity and SSC in the context of environmental management in open-coastal reef environments. Exceedance results indicate strong spatial and temporal variability in water turbidity across inter/intraregional scales. The highest turbidity across 61 sites, at 50% exceedance (T50) is 15.3 NTU and at 90% exceedance (T90) 4.1 NTU. Mean/median turbidity comparisons show strong differences between the two, consistent with a strongly skewed turbidity regime. Results may contribute towards promoting refinement of water quality management protocols.

  7. *Environmental mycobacteriosis and drinking water: an emerging problem for developed countries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background and Objective: Rates ofpulmonary environmental mycobacteriosis (EM) appear to be increasing among developed countries during the past 20 years. EM is caused by multiple species of pathogenic mycobacteria that have been recovered from soil, water, water aerosols, biofil...

  8. Water Quality Pollution, Treatment and Control in Contemporary and Future Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoller, Uri

    1988-01-01

    Deals with the issue of water education, including problems, what should be done, what can be done, and what to do. Presents two curricular units on water and two interdisciplinary, environmentally oriented courses for use in Israel. (YP)

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING FOR PUBLIC ACCESS AND COMMUNITY TRACKING (EMPACT) PROGRAM MICROBIOLOGICAL MONITORING OF RECREATIONAL WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommended microbiological monitoring practices for bathing beach water quality were suggested in 1968, as a part of the fecal coliform guideline developed by the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration. The guideline stated ...

  10. PREDICTIVE UNCERTAINTY IN HYDROLOGIC AND WATER QUALITY MODELING: APPROACHES, APPLICATION TO ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, AND FUTURE CHALLENGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extant process-based hydrologic and water quality models are indispensable to water resources planning and environmental management. However, models are only approximations of real systems and often calibrated with incomplete and uncertain data. Reliable estimates, or perhaps f...

  11. Communicating Environmental Information to the Public: A New Water Quality Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaeffer, David J.; Janardan, Konanur G.

    1977-01-01

    A water quality index developed by the authors and used by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency is described. It compares biological and chemical assessments of water quality. Sampling procedures and use of the index are described. (BT)

  12. Environmentally assisted cracking of light-water reactor materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O.K.; Chung, H.M.; Kassner, T.F.; Shack, W.J.

    1996-02-01

    Environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) of lightwater reactor (LWR) materials has affected nuclear reactors from the very introduction of the technology. Corrosion problems have afflicted steam generators from the very introduction of pressurized water reactor (PWR) technology. Shippingport, the first commercial PWR operated in the United States, developed leaking cracks in two Type 304 stainless steel (SS) steam generator tubes as early as 1957, after only 150 h of operation. Stress corrosion cracks were observed in the heat-affected zones of welds in austenitic SS piping and associated components in boiling-water reactors (BRWs) as early as 1965. The degradation of steam generator tubing in PWRs and the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of austenitic SS piping in BWRs have been the most visible and most expensive examples of EAC in LWRs, and the repair and replacement of steam generators and recirculation piping has cost hundreds of millions of dollars. However, other problems associated with the effects of the environment on reactor structures and components am important concerns in operating plants and for extended reactor lifetimes. Cast duplex austenitic-ferritic SSs are used extensively in the nuclear industry to fabricate pump casings and valve bodies for LWRs and primary coolant piping in many PWRs. Embrittlement of the ferrite phase in cast duplex SS may occur after 10 to 20 years at reactor operating temperatures, which could influence the mechanical response and integrity of pressure boundary components during high strain-rate loading (e.g., seismic events). The problem is of most concern in PWRs where slightly higher temperatures are typical and cast SS piping is widely used.

  13. Steroidal aromatic 'naphthenic acids' in oil sands process-affected water: structural comparisons with environmental estrogens.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Steven J; West, Charles E; Jones, David; Scarlett, Alan G; Frank, Richard A; Hewitt, L Mark

    2011-11-15

    The large volumes, acute toxicity, estrogenicity, and antiandrogenicity of process-affected waters accruing in tailings ponds from the operations of the Alberta oil sands industries pose a significant task for environmental reclamation. Synchronous fluorescence spectra (SFS) suggest that oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) may contain aromatic carboxylic acids, which are among the potentially environmentally important toxicants, but no such acids have yet been identified, limiting interpretations of the results of estrogenicity and other assays. Here we show that multidimensional comprehensive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS) of methyl esters of acids in an OSPW sample produces mass spectra consistent with their assignment as C(19) and C(20) C-ring monoaromatic hydroxy steroid acids, D-ring opened hydroxy and nonhydroxy polyhydrophenanthroic acids with one aromatic and two alicyclic rings and A-ring opened steroidal keto acids. High resolution MS data support the assignment of several of the so-called 'O3' species. When fractions of distilled, esterified, OSPW acid-extractable organics were examined, the putative aromatics were mainly present in a high boiling fraction; when examined by argentation thin layer chromatography, some were present in a fraction with a retardation factor between that of the methyl esters of synthetic monoalicyclic and monoaromatic acids. Ultraviolet absorption spectra of these fractions indicated the presence of benzenoid moieties. SFS of model octahydro- and tetrahydrophenanthroic acids produced emissions at the characteristic excitation wavelengths observed in some OSPW extracts, consistent with the postulations from ultraviolet spectroscopy and mass spectrometry data. We suggest the acids originate from extensive biodegradation of C-ring monoaromatic steroid hydrocarbons and offer a means of differentiating residues at different biodegradation stages in tailings ponds. Structural similarities with estrone and

  14. Characterization of atmospheric trace elements in the Puruogangri ice core: a preliminary account of Tibetan Plateau environmental and contamination histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudon, E.; Gabrielli, P.; Sierra Hernandez, R.; Wegner, A.; Thompson, L. G.

    2014-12-01

    Asia is facing enormous challenges including large-scale environmental changes, rapid population growth and industrialization. The inherent generated pollution contributes to half of all Earth's anthropogenic trace metals emissions that, when deposited to glaciers of the surrounding mountains of the Third Pole region, leave a characteristic chemical fingerprint. Records of past atmospheric deposition preserved in snow and ice from Third Pole glaciers provide unique insights into changes of the chemical composition of the atmosphere and into the nature and intensity of the regional atmospheric circulation systems. The determination of the elemental composition of aeolian dust stored in Himalayan and Tibetan Plateau glaciers can help to qualify the potential contamination of glacial meltwater as a part of the greater fresh Asian water source. The 215 m long Puruogangri ice core retrieved in 2000 at 6500 m a.s.l. in central Tibetan Plateau (Western Tanggula Shan, China) provides one of the first multi-millennium-long environmental archives (spanning the last 7000 years and annually resolved for the last 400 years) obtained from the Tibetan Plateau region. The Puruogangri's area is climatologically of particular interest because of its location at the boundary between the monsoon (wet) and the westerly (dry) dominated atmospheric circulation. The major objective of this study is to determine the concentration of trace and ultra-trace elements in the Puruogangri ice core between 1600 and 2000 AD in order to characterize the atmospheric aerosols entrapped in the ice. Particular attention is given to assess the amount of trace elements originating from anthropogenic sources during both the pre-industrial and industrial periods. The distinction between the anthropogenic contribution and the crustal background may rely on the precise decoupling of the dry and wet seasons signals, the former being largely influenced by dust contribution.

  15. Accounting for Consumptive Use of Lower Colorado River Water in Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.; Wilson, Richard P.

    1994-01-01

    In the Colorado River valley between the east end of Lake Mead and the international boundary with Mexico (see figure), the river is the principal source of water for agricultural, domestic, municipal, industrial, hydroelectric-power generation, and recreational purposes. Water is stored in surface reservoirs and in the river aquifer---permeable sediments and sedimentary rocks that fill the lower Colorado River valley and adjacent tributary valleys. The hydraulic connection between the river and the river aquifer, overbank flow prior to building of the dams, and infiltration as the reservoirs filled allowed the sediments and sedimentary rocks to become saturated with water from the river. Ratios of isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water from wells indicate that most of the water in the river aquifer beneath the flood plain and in many places beneath the adjacent alluvial slopes originated from the river. The water table in the river aquifer extends from the river, beneath the flood plain, and under the alluvial slopes until it intersects bedrock. Precipitation in the surrounding mountains and inflow from tributary valleys also contribute small quantities of water to the river aquifer. Consumptive use of river water in the valley results from evapotranspiration by vegetation (crops and phreatophytes) on the flood plain, pumpage from wells to meet domestic and municipal needs, and pumpage from the river for export to areas in California, Arizona, and Nevada outside of the river valley. Most crops are grown on the flood plain; in a few areas, land on the adjacent terraces has been cultivated. Crops were grown on about 70 percent of the total vegetated area in 1984. Phreatophytes---natural vegetation that obtains water from the river aquifer---covered the remaining vegetated areas on the uncultivated flood plain. Most of the water used for irrigation is diverted or pumped directly from the river and reservoirs. Most of the water used for domestic and municipal

  16. Environmental health sciences center task force review on halogenated organics in drinking water

    PubMed Central

    Deinzer, M.; Schaumburg, F.; Klein, E.

    1978-01-01

    The disinfection of drinking water by chlorination has in recent years come under closer scrutiny because of the potential hazards associated with the production of stable chlorinated organic chemicals. Organic chemical contaminants are common to all water supplies and it is now well-established that chlorinated by-products are obtained under conditions of disinfection, or during tertiary treatment of sewage whose products can ultimately find their way into drinking water supplies. Naturally occurring humic substances which are invariably present in drinking waters are probably the source of chloroform and other halogenated methanes, and chloroform has shown up in every water supply investigated thus far. The Environmental Protection Agency is charged with the responsibility of assessing the public health effects resulting from the consumption of contaminated drinking water. It has specifically undertaken the task of determining whether organic contaminants or their chlorinated derivatives have a special impact, and if so, what alternatives there are to protect the consumer against bacterial and viral diseases that are transmitted through infected drinking waters. The impetus to look at these chemicals is not entirely without some prima facie evidence of potential trouble. Epidemiological studies suggested a higher incidence of cancer along the lower Mississippi River where the contamination from organic chemicals is particularly high. The conclusions from these studies have, to be sure, not gone unchallenged. The task of assessing the effects of chemicals in the drinking water is a difficult one. It includes many variables, including differences in water supplies and the temporal relationship between contamination and consumption of the finished product. It must also take into account the relative importance of the effects from these chemicals in comparison to those from occupational exposure, ingestion of contaminated foods, inhalation of polluted air, and many

  17. Accounting for hydro-climatic and water use variability in the assessment of past and future water balance at the basin scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabre, J.; Ruelland, D.; Dezetter, A.; Grouillet, B.

    2015-06-01

    This study assesses water stress by 2050 in river basins facing increasing human and climatic pressures, by comparing the impacts of various combinations of possible future socio-economic and climate trends. A modelling framework integrating human and hydro-climatic dynamics and accounting for interactions between resource and demand at a 10-day time step was developed and applied in two basins of different sizes and with contrasted water uses: the Herault (2500 km2, France) and the Ebro (85 000 km2, Spain) basins. Natural streamflow was evaluated using a conceptual hydrological model (GR4j). A demand-driven reservoir management model was designed to account for streamflow regulations from the main dams. Urban water demand was estimated from time series of population and monthly unit water consumption data. Agricultural water demand was computed from time series of irrigated area, crop and soil data, and climate forcing. Indicators comparing water supply to demand at strategic resource and demand nodes were computed. This framework was successfully calibrated and validated under non-stationary human and hydro-climatic conditions over the last 40 years before being applied under four combinations of climatic and water use scenarios to differentiate the impacts of climate- and human-induced changes on streamflow and water balance. Climate simulations from the CMIP5 exercise were used to generate 18 climate scenarios at the 2050 horizon. A baseline water use scenario for 2050 was designed based on demographic and local socio-economic trends. Results showed that projected water uses are not sustainable under climate change scenarios.

  18. Analysis of point source pollution and water environmental quality variation trends in the Nansi Lake basin from 2002 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiliang; Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Yufan; Guo, Xiaochun; Lu, Shaoyong

    2016-03-01

    Based on the data analysis of the water environmental quality and economic development from 2002 to 2012 in the Nansi Lake basin, the correlation and change between the water environmental quality and economic development were studied. Results showed that the GDP and wastewater emissions of point source in the Nansi Lake basin had an average annual growth of 7.30 and 7.68 %, respectively, from 2002 to 2012. The emissions of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) had the average annual decrease of 7.69 and 6.79 % in 2012, respectively, compared to 2002. Basin water quality overall improved, reaching the Class III of the "Environmental quality standards for surface water (GB3838-2002)," in which the main reason was that sewage treatment rate increased gradually and was above 90 % in 2012 (an increase of 10 % compared to 2002) with the progress of pollution abatement technology and the implementation of relevant policies and regulations. The contribution of water environmental pollution was analyzed from related cities (Ji'ning, Zaozhuang, Heze). Results indicated that Ji'ning had the largest contribution to water pollution of the Nansi Lake basin, and the pollutant from domestic sources accounted for a higher percentage compared to industrial sources. The wastewater, COD, and NH3-N mainly came from mining and washing of coal, manufacture of raw chemical materials and chemical products, papermaking industry, and food processing industry. According to the water pollution characteristics of the Nansi Lake basin, the basin pollution treatment strategy and prevention and treatment system were dissected to provide a scientific basis for prevention and control of lakeside point source pollution along the Nansi Lake. PMID:26545892

  19. Analysis of point source pollution and water environmental quality variation trends in the Nansi Lake basin from 2002 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiliang; Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Yufan; Guo, Xiaochun; Lu, Shaoyong

    2016-03-01

    Based on the data analysis of the water environmental quality and economic development from 2002 to 2012 in the Nansi Lake basin, the correlation and change between the water environmental quality and economic development were studied. Results showed that the GDP and wastewater emissions of point source in the Nansi Lake basin had an average annual growth of 7.30 and 7.68 %, respectively, from 2002 to 2012. The emissions of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) had the average annual decrease of 7.69 and 6.79 % in 2012, respectively, compared to 2002. Basin water quality overall improved, reaching the Class III of the "Environmental quality standards for surface water (GB3838-2002)," in which the main reason was that sewage treatment rate increased gradually and was above 90 % in 2012 (an increase of 10 % compared to 2002) with the progress of pollution abatement technology and the implementation of relevant policies and regulations. The contribution of water environmental pollution was analyzed from related cities (Ji'ning, Zaozhuang, Heze). Results indicated that Ji'ning had the largest contribution to water pollution of the Nansi Lake basin, and the pollutant from domestic sources accounted for a higher percentage compared to industrial sources. The wastewater, COD, and NH3-N mainly came from mining and washing of coal, manufacture of raw chemical materials and chemical products, papermaking industry, and food processing industry. According to the water pollution characteristics of the Nansi Lake basin, the basin pollution treatment strategy and prevention and treatment system were dissected to provide a scientific basis for prevention and control of lakeside point source pollution along the Nansi Lake.

  20. DO CHILDREN BENEFIT FROM INCREASING CIGARETTE TAXES? ACCOUNTING FOR THE ENDOGENEITY OF LUNG HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    My research investigates the relationship between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and lung function in children. I use detailed individual health data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III) to measure the effect of environmental tobacco smoke ...

  1. Environmental Assessment. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buskirk, E. Drannon, Jr.

    Described is an hour-long learning session on environmental assessment that is designed to help citizen advisory groups improve decision making in water quality planning. The instructor's guide addresses: (1) environmental considerations in water quality planning, and (2) the identification of primary and secondary impacts of wastewater projects.…

  2. Improving image quality by accounting for changes in water temperature during a photoacoustic tomography scan.

    PubMed

    Van de Sompel, Dominique; Sasportas, Laura Sarah; Dragulescu-Andrasi, Anca; Bohndiek, Sarah; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam

    2012-01-01

    The emerging field of photoacoustic tomography is rapidly evolving with many new system designs and reconstruction algorithms being published. Many systems use water as a coupling medium between the scanned object and the ultrasound transducers. Prior to a scan, the water is heated to body temperature to enable small animal imaging. During the scan, the water heating system of some systems is switched off to minimize the risk of bubble formation, which leads to a gradual decrease in water temperature and hence the speed of sound. In this work, we use a commercially available scanner that follows this procedure, and show that a failure to model intra-scan temperature decreases as small as 1.5°C leads to image artifacts that may be difficult to distinguish from true structures, particularly in complex scenes. We then improve image quality by continuously monitoring the water temperature during the scan and applying variable speed of sound corrections in the image reconstruction algorithm. While upgrading to an air bubble-free heating pump and keeping it running during the scan could also solve the changing temperature problem, we show that a software correction for the temperature changes provides a cost-effective alternative to a hardware upgrade. The efficacy of the software corrections was shown to be consistent across objects of widely varying appearances, namely physical phantoms, ex vivo tissue, and in vivo mouse imaging. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the efficacy of modeling temporal variations in the speed of sound during photoacoustic scans, as opposed to spatial variations as focused on by previous studies. Since air bubbles pose a common problem in ultrasonic and photoacoustic imaging systems, our results will be useful to future small animal imaging studies that use scanners with similarly limited heating units. PMID:23071512

  3. LAI Calculated from High-Resolution Imagery: Accounting for Water Tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trochim, E.; Mumm, J. P.; Prakash, A.; Kane, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) is fundamental for calculations of primary productivity, energy balance, evapotranspiration and biogeochemical cycling. Remote estimations in the Arctic are critical to cover large areas efficiently to understand current processes and predict the effects of climate change. LAI is defined as the total one-sided area of leaves per unit ground area. In the Arctic, previous efforts have concentrated on correlating direct methods of calculating LAI with indices that can be derived through remotely sensed imagery, including the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI). In this study we use LAI measurements to explore the significant relationship between soil moisture and LAI values in and around water tracks. Water tracks are saturated linear-curvilinear features which make up the majority of the drainage network in the Imnavait, Toolik and Upper Kuparuk basins. In early July 2010 ground based transects consisting of 2 m2 plots in and around water tracks documented vegetation percent cover, soil morphology, and visible and near IR imagery. A threshold was applied to each plot to calculate fractional cover and converted to LAI based on Beer-Lambert's law. This was compared to multispectral WorldView 2 data with a 2.3 m spatial resolution collected on July 2, 4 and 10 in 2010. The imagery was converted to reflectance using ATCOR, and NDVI and EVI were calculated. LAI was computed using known relationships developed in the area between these indices. Fractional cover based on NDVI, EVI and the red edge band (705 to 745 nm) were also used to estimate LAI. The variation between these values was compared against the ground based imagery and analyzed using a two-way repeated measures statistical test. This technique illustrated the significant difference in LAI values between water track and non-water track areas which has not been explicitly documented before. It also was able to shed light on the confounding

  4. Can Hydrous Minerals Account for the Observed Mid-Latitude Water on Mars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bish, D. L.; Vaniman, D. T.; Fialips, C.; Carey, J. W.; Feldman, W. C.

    2003-01-01

    Clays, zeolites, and Mg-sulfates are all phases that could potentially retain H2O in martian regolith. The nature of the hydrogen-containing material observed in the equatorial martian regolith is of particular importance to the question of whether hydrous minerals have formed in the past on Mars. Also, whether these minerals exist in a hydrated (i.e., containing H2O molecules in their structures) or dehydrated state is a crucial question. The purpose of this communication is to estimate the possible magnitude of the H2O reservoir constituted by these H2O-bearing minerals. In other words, can minerals containing H2O and/or OH such clays, zeolites, or Mg-sulfates, reasonably be expected to account for the amounts of near-equatorial H2O-equivalent hydrogen recently documented by Mars Odyssey?

  5. Rhetoric or Reality? Do Accounting Education and Experience Increase Weighting on Environmental Performance in a Balanced Scorecard?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynder, Monte; Wellner, Kai-Uwe; Reinhard, Karin

    2013-01-01

    We are nearing the end of the United Nations' Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005-2014). There has been substantial rhetoric in education and business forums, and many universities have integrated sustainability into their accounting curricula, but what effect is accounting education having? This study considers whether the…

  6. Accountability Overboard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chieppo, Charles D.; Gass, James T.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that special interest groups opposed to charter schools and high-stakes testing have hijacked Massachusetts's once-independent board of education and stand poised to water down the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) tests and the accountability system they support. President Barack Obama and Massachusetts…

  7. Environmental water in a regulated river system: the Murrumbidgee River planning approach to the determination of environmental needs.

    PubMed

    Shields, J; Good, R

    2002-01-01

    The major platform of the Council of Australian Governments (COAG) water reform program is the equitable and sustainable sharing of surface and groundwater resources between the environment and consumptive water users. In the regulated section of the Murrumbidgee River below Burrinjuck Dam, approximately 2,800 GL of the available surface water (4,300 GL) is diverted or extracted for irrigation uses in the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area and Districts, and in the Coleambally Irrigation Area. Environmental flow rules have been developed for the Murrumbidgee which provide for an allocation of water to the environment but on the basis of no more than a 10% impact on farm-gate income of irrigation farmers. This provision limits the volume of water that can be used for environmental purposes, so the most effective use must be made of it. To identify and quantify the benefits to the environment of this limited additional volume of water and to determine the most effective use of the water, an "environmental spreadsheet matrix" has been developed. This paper outlines the development and use of the matrix in the planned implementation of flow regimes appropriate to the protection and enhancement of riparian and aquatic ecosystems and ecological processes. PMID:12171359

  8. Quality of rivers of the United States, 1974 water year: based on the National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hawkinson, Richard O.; Ficke, John F.; Saindon, L.G.

    1977-01-01

    The National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) was established by the U.S Geological Survey to determine and compare the quality at key locations on the Nation 's major rivers. There are 345 stations in the network--data from the first 101 of these (those operating during the 1974 water year) are summarized in this report. Temperature data from NASQAN stations have been summarized for each station. At most stations the harmonic provides an estimate of daily temperatures with a standard error of estimate of 2.5 degrees C or less. According to 1974 water-year data summarized from NASQAN operations, water quality of the rivers of the United States is best (by most standards) in the Northeast, Southeast, and Northwest. Waters there generally are low in dissolved solids and major and minor chemical constitutents, generally are soft (except in Florida), and carry relatively small amounts of sediment. However, many of these waters carry moderate or high levels of major nutrients and have correspondingly high populations of attached and floating plants. High counts of indicator bacteria also show signs of local pollution at some sites. Rivers of most of the Midcontinent and Southwest are characterized by moderate to high levels of dissolved major and minor constituents, sediment, major nutrients, and biota (floating and attached aquatic plants and indicator bacteria. (Woodard-USGS)

  9. Innovative Water Management Technology to Reduce Environmental Impacts of Produced Water

    SciTech Connect

    Castle, James; Rodgers, John; Alley, Bethany; Beebe, Alex; Coffey, Ruthanne; Jurinko, Kristen; Pardue, Michael; Ritter, Tina; Spacil, Michael

    2013-05-15

    Clemson University with Chevron as an industry partner developed and applied treatment technology using constructed wetland systems to decrease targeted constituents in simulated and actual produced waters to achieve reuse criteria and discharge limits. Pilot-scale and demonstration constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) experiments led to design strategies for treating a variety of constituents of concern (COCs) in produced waters including divalent metals, metalloids, oil and grease, and ammonia. Targeted biogeochemical pathways for treatment of COCs in pilot-scale CWTS experiments included divalent metal sulfide precipitation through dissimilatory sulfate reduction, metal precipitation through oxidation, reduction of selenite to insoluble elemental selenium, aerobic biodegradation of oil, nitrification of ammonia to nitrate, denitrification of nitrate to nitrogen gas, separation of oil using an oilwater separator, and sorption of ammonia to zeolite. Treatment performance results indicated that CWTSs can be designed and built to promote specific environmental and geochemical conditions in order for targeted biogeochemical pathways to operate. The demonstration system successfully achieved consistent removal extents even while inflow concentrations of COCs in the produced water differed by orders of magnitude. Design strategies used in the pilot-scale and demonstration CWTSs to promote specific conditions that can be applied to designing full-scale CWTSs include plant and soil selection, water-depth selection, addition of amendments, and hydraulic retention time (HRT). These strategies allow conditions within a CWTS to be modified to achieve ranges necessary for the preferred biogeochemical treatment pathways. In the case of renovating a produced water containing COCs that require different biogeochemical pathways for treatment, a CWTS can be designed with sequential cells that promote different conditions. For example, the pilot-scale CWTS for post

  10. Arsenic in Drinking Water-A Global Environmental Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Joanna Shaofen; Wai, Chien M.

    2004-01-01

    Information on the worldwide occurrence of groundwater pollution by arsenic, the ensuing health hazards, and the debatable government regulations of arsenic in drinking water, is presented. Diagnostic identification of arsenic, and methods to eliminate it from water are also discussed.

  11. Drinking water infrastructure and environmental disparities: evidence and methodological considerations.

    PubMed

    VanDerslice, James

    2011-12-01

    Potable drinking water is essential to public health; however, few studies have investigated income or racial disparities in water infrastructure or drinking water quality. There were many case reports documenting a lack of piped water or serious water quality problems in low income and minority communities, including tribal lands, Alaskan Native villages, colonias along the United States-Mexico border, and small communities in agricultural areas. Only 3 studies compared the demographic characteristics of communities by the quality of their drinking water, and the results were mixed in these studies. Further assessments were hampered by difficulties linking specific water systems to the sociodemographic characteristics of communities, as well as little information about how well water systems operated and the effectiveness of governmental oversight.

  12. Computer-program documentation of an interactive-accounting model to simulate streamflow, water quality, and water-supply operations in a river basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes an interactive-accounting model used to simulate streamflow, chemical-constituent concentrations and loads, and water-supply operations in a river basin. The model uses regression equations to compute flow from incremental (internode) drainage areas. Conservative chemical constituents (typically dissolved solids) also are computed from regression equations. Both flow and water quality loads are accumulated downstream. Optionally, the model simulates the water use and the simplified groundwater systems of a basin. Water users include agricultural, municipal, industrial, and in-stream users , and reservoir operators. Water users list their potential water sources, including direct diversions, groundwater pumpage, interbasin imports, or reservoir releases, in the order in which they will be used. Direct diversions conform to basinwide water law priorities. The model is interactive, and although the input data exist in files, the user can modify them interactively. A major feature of the model is its color-graphic-output options. This report includes a description of the model, organizational charts of subroutines, and examples of the graphics. Detailed format instructions for the input data, example files of input data, definitions of program variables, and listing of the FORTRAN source code are Attachments to the report. (USGS)

  13. On the treatment of evapotranspiration, soil moisture accounting, and aquifer recharge in monthly water balance models.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alley, W.M.

    1984-01-01

    Several two- to six-parameter regional water balance models are examined by using 50-year records of monthly streamflow at 10 sites in New Jersey. These models include variants of the Thornthwaite-Mather model, the Palmer model, and the more recent Thomas abcd model. Prediction errors are relatively similar among the models. However, simulated values of state variables such as soil moisture storage differ substantially among the models, and fitted parameter values for different models sometimes indicated an entirely different type of basin response to precipitation.-from Author

  14. Bridging Water Resources Policy and Environmental Engineering in the Classroom at Cornell University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, M. T.; Shaw, S. B.; Seifert, S.; Schwarz, T.

    2006-12-01

    Current university undergraduate students in environmental sciences and engineering are the next generation of environmental protection practitioners. Recognizing this, Cornell's Biological and Environmental Engineering department has developed a popular class, Watershed Engineering (BEE 473), specifically designed to bridge the too-common gap between water resources policy and state-of-art science and technology. Weekly homework assignments are to design real-life solutions to actual water resources problems, often with the objective of applying storm water policies to local situations. Where appropriate, usually in conjunction with recent amendments to the Federal Clean Water Act, this course introduces water resource protection tools and concepts developed in the Cornell Soil and Water Lab. Here we present several examples of how we build bridges between university classrooms and the complex world of water resources policy.

  15. Incorporation of a River Distance Metric to Account for the Spatial Correlation of Monitoring Data in the Geostatistical Estimation of Water Quality Along River Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Money, E.; Serre, M. L.; Carter, G.

    2006-05-01

    Water quality along rivers is an important environmental issue that can lead to harmful ecological and human health effects. States have been mandated by the Clean Water Act to identify all impaired rivers that do not meet federal water quality standards under the TMDL (Total Maximum Daily Load) rule. Less than 25% of water bodies have been assessed since the 1985 implementation, and over 40% of those waters still do not meet the water quality standards set for them. These impaired waters include approximately 300,000 miles of rivers and shorelines polluted mostly by sediments, excess nutrients, and harmful microorganisms. Additionally, nearly 220 million people live within 10 miles of an impaired water body. Because of this lack of progress and mounting problems, both the Environmental Protection Agency and National Research Council have recognized the need for efficient, accurate, and cost effective methods to assess the remaining water bodies. In order to address this need, we introduce the Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) method for spatio-temporal estimation of water quality along rivers. Unlike more traditional methods (i.e. extrapolation, simple kriging), the BME method can integrate a variety of knowledge bases to more accurately estimate water quality where data does not exist, in both space and time. Our previous research has already shown that the BME space/time method can reduce the error associated with estimation of phosphorus in New Jersey's Raritan River Basin at un-monitored river locations by as much as 25% over purely spatial methods. In this research, we further improve upon the BME method with the introduction of a 'river' metric to associate data points along a contiguous river network. By associating points in this way, the correlation between points across land versus along a river become more apparent and can significantly affect the overall estimation error and is an important step towards accounting for the underlying physical processes

  16. Tough environmental rules spur water/wastewater market changes

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    Driven by complex and technical laws, plus anticipated new rules and legislation when the Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act are ultimately reauthorized, the $3.5 billion water and wastewater industry is going through dramatic changes. While capital spending will increase by only 16.6 percent between 1993 and 1997, equipment and instrument spending will increase by 21.1 percent. The move away from end-of-pipe to in-process treatment, and ultimately to pollution prevention, means a new logic is involved in this market. Recycling, reuse, and recovery of water is an important focus in many industrial facilities - and the line between water treatment and wastewater treatment has blurred with this new approach. Water treatment capital spending in the US was more than $7.3 billion in 1993, and may total more than $8.6 billion in 1997. As water and wastewater treatment processes and products becomes more sophisticated, and industry becomes more concerned with human exposure to toxics and trace contaminants, the demand for better measurement and analysis will continue. Water impurities vary with the source of water supply. Surface waters, characteristically high in dissolved oxygen (DO) and organic and inorganic sediment, are low on total solids and hardness. Groundwater is usually high in carbon dioxide, total solids and hardness, but low in sediment. Certain chemical characteristics significant in water plant operation are subject to measurement automatically with electrodes placed in the line of flow, or by intermittent sampling. 5 tabs.

  17. The Water Footprint as an indicator of environmental sustainability in water use at the river basin level.

    PubMed

    Pellicer-Martínez, Francisco; Martínez-Paz, José Miguel

    2016-11-15

    One of the main challenges in water management is to determine how the current water use can condition its availability to future generations and hence its sustainability. This study proposes the use of the Water Footprint (WF) indicator to assess the environmental sustainability in water resources management at the river basin level. The current study presents the methodology developed and applies it to a case study. The WF is a relatively new indicator that measures the total volume of freshwater that is used as a production factor. Its application is ever growing in the evaluation of water use in production processes. The calculation of the WF involves water resources (blue), precipitation stored in the soil (green) and pollution (grey). It provides a comprehensive assessment of the environmental sustainability of water use in a river basin. The methodology is based upon the simulation of the anthropised water cycle, which is conducted by combining a hydrological model and a decision support system. The methodology allows the assessment of the environmental sustainability of water management at different levels, and/or ex-ante analysis of how the decisions made in water planning process affect sustainability. The sustainability study was carried out in the Segura River Basin (SRB) in South-eastern Spain. The SRB is among the most complex basins in Europe, given its special peculiarities: competition for the use, overexploitation of aquifers, pollution, alternative sources, among others. The results indicate that blue water use is not sustainable due to the generalised overexploitation of aquifers. They also reveal that surface water pollution, which is not sustainable, is mainly caused by phosphate concentrations. The assessment of future scenarios reveals that these problems will worsen if no additional measures are implemented, and therefore the water management in the SRB is environmentally unsustainable in both the short- and medium-term. PMID:27405519

  18. The Water Footprint as an indicator of environmental sustainability in water use at the river basin level.

    PubMed

    Pellicer-Martínez, Francisco; Martínez-Paz, José Miguel

    2016-11-15

    One of the main challenges in water management is to determine how the current water use can condition its availability to future generations and hence its sustainability. This study proposes the use of the Water Footprint (WF) indicator to assess the environmental sustainability in water resources management at the river basin level. The current study presents the methodology developed and applies it to a case study. The WF is a relatively new indicator that measures the total volume of freshwater that is used as a production factor. Its application is ever growing in the evaluation of water use in production processes. The calculation of the WF involves water resources (blue), precipitation stored in the soil (green) and pollution (grey). It provides a comprehensive assessment of the environmental sustainability of water use in a river basin. The methodology is based upon the simulation of the anthropised water cycle, which is conducted by combining a hydrological model and a decision support system. The methodology allows the assessment of the environmental sustainability of water management at different levels, and/or ex-ante analysis of how the decisions made in water planning process affect sustainability. The sustainability study was carried out in the Segura River Basin (SRB) in South-eastern Spain. The SRB is among the most complex basins in Europe, given its special peculiarities: competition for the use, overexploitation of aquifers, pollution, alternative sources, among others. The results indicate that blue water use is not sustainable due to the generalised overexploitation of aquifers. They also reveal that surface water pollution, which is not sustainable, is mainly caused by phosphate concentrations. The assessment of future scenarios reveals that these problems will worsen if no additional measures are implemented, and therefore the water management in the SRB is environmentally unsustainable in both the short- and medium-term.

  19. 76 FR 8674 - Notice of a Public Meeting: Environmental Justice Considerations for Drinking Water Regulatory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 1 Notice of a Public Meeting: Environmental Justice Considerations for Drinking Water... the drinking water Contaminant Candidate List 3. EPA recently announced its intentions to develop drinking water regulatory actions for perchlorate and carcinogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs)....

  20. "Where Do You Think the Water Comes from?" Teacher-Pupil Dialogues about Water as an Environmental Phenomenon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strang, Monica H.; Aberg-Bengtsson, Lisbeth

    2010-01-01

    This article presents results from a study of 36 pupils (8-10 years of age) in face-to-face conversations with their teachers about water as an environmental phenomenon based on a photograph of a rainforest. The teachers' rather vague goal was to have the pupils talk about the water cycle. The sessions were audio-recorded and analyzed with respect…

  1. Environmentally sound irrigated agriculture in the arid west: New challenges for water resources planners and environmental scientists

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    1991-04-01

    This is an exciting time for water resources planners and environmental scientists in the State and Federal Agencies in California. The growing environmental awareness of the public has raised their interest in the manner by which water is managed and allocated. Current and future impending water shortages are challenging engineers and planners to make sound policy and system operations decisions to maximize the utility of scarce water resources while ensuring that the environment within which we live is adequately protected to the satisfaction of an informed public. New and innovative decision support systems are needed to meet these challenges that are flexible, comprehensible and accurate and which allow the public a more visible role in the planning process. These changes may help to bring the agricultural and environmental communities closer together in finding solutions to water resources problems and wrest policy making for water resources management out of the hands of lawyers and the courts and restore it to those whose livelihoods are affected by the intentions of these policies. 4 refs.

  2. Combining U.S.-based prioritization tools to improve screening level accountability for environmental impact: the case of the chemical manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoying; Schoenung, Julie M

    2009-12-15

    There are two quantitative indicators that are most widely used to assess the extent of compliance of industrial facilities with environmental regulations: the quantity of hazardous waste generated and the amount of toxics released. These indicators, albeit useful in terms of some environmental monitoring, fail to account for direct or indirect effects on human and environmental health, especially when aggregating total quantity of releases for a facility or industry sector. Thus, there is a need for a more comprehensive approach that can prioritize a particular chemical (or industry sector) on the basis of its relevant environmental performance and impact on human health. Accordingly, the objective of the present study is to formulate an aggregation of tools that can simultaneously capture multiple effects and several environmental impact categories. This approach allows us to compare and combine results generated with the aid of select U.S.-based quantitative impact assessment tools, thereby supplementing compliance-based metrics such as data from the U.S. Toxic Release Inventory. A case study, which presents findings for the U.S. chemical manufacturing industry, is presented to illustrate the aggregation of these tools. Environmental impacts due to both upstream and manufacturing activities are also evaluated for each industry sector. The proposed combinatorial analysis allows for a more robust evaluation for rating and prioritizing the environmental impacts of industrial waste.

  3. Environment and health: environmental sanitation and community water supply.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    This article identifies important features of two 5-Year Plans in India. Currently, only about 200 cities have even a partial sewage system. Elementary sewage systems are nonexistent in rural villages. In 1990, under 5% of rural population had access to sanitary facilities. The result is widespread soil and water pollution and its accompanying disease. The Rural Water Supply Program was proposed in the 5th Plan, but was implemented in the 7th Plan (1985-90). Construction of latrines is still too low. Resources were insufficiently mobilized for latrine construction. An alternative would be to institute cost recovery and user pays principles. Low cost technology could be substituted. Low cost latrine systems should conform with users' social habits, local culture, and the customs of the community. The system should be affordable to users. The technology should be user-friendly and rely on use of local materials and workers. Over 90% of the population rely on community water supply facilities. Health has not benefited from the access to water supplies. The reasons are low hygienic standards, lack of water quality surveillance, and poor maintenance of equipment. The community does not participate. By 1996, people's access to water was reduced to 1 km in the plains, and 50 m in hilly areas. Surface waters are contaminated by fecal matter, fluoride, nitrate, and arsenic. The Water Quality Surveillance Program lacks an institutional framework and human resource development. There is a need for education about hygiene, unsafe drinking water, and poor sanitation for people and agency staff.

  4. Environmental factors influencing isolation of enteroviruses from polluted surface waters.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, T G; Wallis, C; Melnick, J L

    1974-05-01

    The influence of water quality upon the concentration of virus on location was assessed in field studies conducted in the Houston ship channel, Galveston Bay, and Houston waste treatment plants. Clarification of polluted surface waters was accomplished with minimal loss of virus. Virus from clarified sewage effluents and saline waters was then adsorbed and concentrated on textile and membrane filter surfaces. Direct measurements of virus from large volumes of polluted surface waters under existing field conditions were then made using the virus concentrator equipment.

  5. Interaction between heterogeneous environmental quality domains (air, water, land, socio-demographic and built environment) on preterm birth.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental exposures are often measured individually, though many occur in tandem. To address aggregate exposures, a county-level Environmental Quality Index (EQI) representing five environmental domains (air, water, land, built and sociodemographic) was constructed. Recent st...

  6. Can hydrous minerals account for the observed mid-latitude water on Mars?

    SciTech Connect

    Bish, D. L.; Vaniman, D. T.; Fialips, C. I.; Carey, J. W.; Feldman, W. C.

    2003-01-01

    Great interest was generated with the discovery by the Odyssey spacecraft OC heterogeneously distributed hydrogcn at martian mid-latitudes, suggesting that large areas of the near-equatorial highlands contain near-surface deposits of 'chemically and/or physically bound 1120 and/or OH' in amounts up to 3.8% equivalent H20. More recent interpretations of the Odyssey data using new calibrations suggest that some near-equatorial areas, such as Arabia Terra, contain up to 8.5f I .3% water-equivalent hydrogen. Such shallow occurrences (

  7. WATER QUALITY MONITORING FOR PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The applicability of using microbial population measures as indicators of aquatic condition has a rich history based primarily to study factors that affect the sanitary and ecological condition of fresh water streams. These studies are generally conducted by collecting water site...

  8. Environmental assessment of ground-water compliance activities at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Spook, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    This report assesses the environmental impacts of the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Spook, Wyoming on ground water. DOE previously characterized the site and monitoring data were collected during the surface remediation. The ground water compliance strategy is to perform no further remediation at the site since the ground water in the aquifer is neither a current nor potential source of drinking water. Under the no-action alternative, certain regulatory requirements would not be met.

  9. The national stream quality accounting network: A flux-basedapproach to monitoring the water quality of large rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooper, R.P.; Aulenbach, Brent T.; Kelly, V.J.

    2001-01-01

    Estimating the annual mass flux at a network of fixed stations is one approach to characterizing water quality of large rivers. The interpretive context provided by annual flux includes identifying source and sink areas for constituents and estimating the loadings to receiving waters, such as reservoirs or the ocean. Since 1995, the US Geological Survey's National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) has employed this approach at a network of 39 stations in four of the largest river basins of the USA: The Mississippi, the Columbia, the Colorado and the Rio Grande. In this paper, the design of NASQAN is described and its effectiveness at characterizing the water quality of these rivers is evaluated using data from the first 3 years of operation. A broad range of constituents was measured by NASQAN, including trace organic and inorganic chemicals, major ions, sediment and nutrients. Where possible, a regression model relating concentration to discharge and season was used to interpolate between chemical observations for flux estimation. For water-quality network design, the most important finding from NASQAN was the importance of having a specific objective (that is, estimating annual mass flux) and, from that, an explicitly stated data analysis strategy, namely the use of regression models to interpolate between observations. The use of such models aided in the design of sampling strategy and provided a context for data review. The regression models essentially form null hypotheses for concentration variation that can be evaluated by the observed data. The feedback between network operation and data collection established by the hypothesis tests places the water-quality network on a firm scientific footing.

  10. Water Retention of Extremophiles and Martian Soil Simulants Under Close to Martian Environmental Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jänchen, J.; Bauermeister, A.; Feyh, N.; deVera, J.-P.

    2012-05-01

    We report data about interaction of moisture with soil simulants and extremophiles under Martian environmental conditions contributing on atmosphere/surface modelling and on effects determining the water inventory of the upper soil layer of Mars.

  11. A SYSTEMATIC COMPARISON OF THE ELECTROKINETIC PROPERTIES OF ENVIRONMENTALLY IMPORTANT MICROORGANISMS IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The surface charge of microorganisms is an important factor controlling their stability in aqueous environments and removal during water tretment practices. The electrophoretic mobility (EPM) of a number of environmentally important microorganisms in phosphate buffers was measur...

  12. Environment and health: environmental sanitation and community water supply.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    This article identifies important features of two 5-Year Plans in India. Currently, only about 200 cities have even a partial sewage system. Elementary sewage systems are nonexistent in rural villages. In 1990, under 5% of rural population had access to sanitary facilities. The result is widespread soil and water pollution and its accompanying disease. The Rural Water Supply Program was proposed in the 5th Plan, but was implemented in the 7th Plan (1985-90). Construction of latrines is still too low. Resources were insufficiently mobilized for latrine construction. An alternative would be to institute cost recovery and user pays principles. Low cost technology could be substituted. Low cost latrine systems should conform with users' social habits, local culture, and the customs of the community. The system should be affordable to users. The technology should be user-friendly and rely on use of local materials and workers. Over 90% of the population rely on community water supply facilities. Health has not benefited from the access to water supplies. The reasons are low hygienic standards, lack of water quality surveillance, and poor maintenance of equipment. The community does not participate. By 1996, people's access to water was reduced to 1 km in the plains, and 50 m in hilly areas. Surface waters are contaminated by fecal matter, fluoride, nitrate, and arsenic. The Water Quality Surveillance Program lacks an institutional framework and human resource development. There is a need for education about hygiene, unsafe drinking water, and poor sanitation for people and agency staff. PMID:12293893

  13. [Community structure of phytoplankton in Haizhou bay and adjacent waters and its relationships with environmental factors].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Gai; Xue, Ying; Zan, Xiao-Xiao; Ren, Yi-Ping

    2014-07-01

    Based on the data collected from four seasonal surveys in 2011 in Haizhou Bay and adjacent waters, community structure of phytoplankton was studied and their relationships with environmental factors were evaluated by canonical correlation analysis (CCA). A total of 113 phytoplankton species belonging to 3 phyla and 44 genera were collected, among which Bacillariophyta species were the most abundant species, which included 39 genera and 99 species, accounting for 87.6% of total taxa, followed by Pyrrophyta, which included 4 genera and 13 species, accounting for 11.5 percent of total taxa. And the least abundant species were Chrysophyta species, which had only 1 species belonging to 1 genus. Among these dominant species, Coscinodiscus and Chaetoceros were the dominant groups in Bacillariophyta, while Ceratium was the dominant group in Dinophyta, and the dominant species were Meuniera membranacea, Coscinodiscus subtilis var. subtilis, Eucampia zodiacus and Bacillaria paxillifera. There were obvious seasonal variations in the species composition and predominant species. The abundances of phytoplankton in all the stations ranged from 0.08 x 10(5) cells m(-3) to 108.48 x 10(5) cells x m(-3) in Haizhou Bay. The average annual density of phytoplankton was 10.71 x 10(5) cells x m(-3), being the highest in autumn (29.08 x 10(5) cells x m(-3)) and the lowest in summer (1.69 x 10(5) cells x m(-3)). The Shannon index, Pielou index and Margalef index of the phytoplankton community were higher in summer and autumn than in winter and spring. CCA suggested that the main factors affecting the phytoplankton community were sea surface temperature (SST), followed by nutrients (NO(3-)-N, PO4(3-)-P, SiO3(2-)-Si) and dissolved oxygen (DO). The abundances and distribution of some dominant species were closely related with these main factors.

  14. Environmental and economic analysis of application of water hyacinth for eutrophic water treatment coupled with biogas production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zanxin; Calderon, Margaret M

    2012-11-15

    The proliferation of water hyacinth is currently controlled by removing it from a water body and disposing it by landfill in China. Using water hyacinth to remove nutrients from water bodies and to produce biogas is another technically feasible option for the control of water hyacinth, but its environmental and economic performances are not well understood. This study collected data from an experimental biogas plant to develop a lifecycle analysis and a cost benefit analysis for the control of water hyacinth proliferation in a eutrophic lake in China. Comparison was made between the alternative option of using water hyacinth for biogas production and the current practice of disposing it in landfills. The results reveal that the biogas option is economically feasible with a positive energy balance. The removal of water hyacinth to produce biogas can contribute to water quality improvement and GHG emission reduction whose values, however, depend on the processing scale of the biogas plant. Since both the current approach and the biogas option can remove nutrients from water bodies, the additional value of water quality improvement resulting from the biogas option is only possible when the processing scale of the biogas plant is greater than the amount of water hyacinth disposed by landfill. The emission of methane deserves attention when water hyacinth is disposed by landfill. The biogas option can respond to China's policies on water pollution control, renewable energy development, and energy saving and emission reduction.

  15. Environmental and economic analysis of application of water hyacinth for eutrophic water treatment coupled with biogas production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zanxin; Calderon, Margaret M

    2012-11-15

    The proliferation of water hyacinth is currently controlled by removing it from a water body and disposing it by landfill in China. Using water hyacinth to remove nutrients from water bodies and to produce biogas is another technically feasible option for the control of water hyacinth, but its environmental and economic performances are not well understood. This study collected data from an experimental biogas plant to develop a lifecycle analysis and a cost benefit analysis for the control of water hyacinth proliferation in a eutrophic lake in China. Comparison was made between the alternative option of using water hyacinth for biogas production and the current practice of disposing it in landfills. The results reveal that the biogas option is economically feasible with a positive energy balance. The removal of water hyacinth to produce biogas can contribute to water quality improvement and GHG emission reduction whose values, however, depend on the processing scale of the biogas plant. Since both the current approach and the biogas option can remove nutrients from water bodies, the additional value of water quality improvement resulting from the biogas option is only possible when the processing scale of the biogas plant is greater than the amount of water hyacinth disposed by landfill. The emission of methane deserves attention when water hyacinth is disposed by landfill. The biogas option can respond to China's policies on water pollution control, renewable energy development, and energy saving and emission reduction. PMID:22813757

  16. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution and Environmental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, John T.; And Others

    This activity oriented environmental guide is the result of cooperative efforts of high school teachers, students, scientists, and technicians. The activities are divided into four chapters: Hydrologic Cycle; Human Activities; Ecological Perspectives; and Social and Political Factors. Each activity contains seven parts: an introduction; questions…

  17. Financial and environmental modelling of water hardness--implications for utilising harvested rainwater in washing machines.

    PubMed

    Morales-Pinzón, Tito; Lurueña, Rodrigo; Gabarrell, Xavier; Gasol, Carles M; Rieradevall, Joan

    2014-02-01

    A study was conducted to determine the financial and environmental effects of water quality on rainwater harvesting systems. The potential for replacing tap water used in washing machines with rainwater was studied, and then analysis presented in this paper is valid for applications that include washing machines where tap water hardness may be important. A wide range of weather conditions, such as rainfall (284-1,794 mm/year); water hardness (14-315 mg/L CaCO3); tap water prices (0.85-2.65 Euros/m(3)) in different Spanish urban areas (from individual buildings to whole neighbourhoods); and other scenarios (including materials and water storage capacity) were analysed. Rainfall was essential for rainwater harvesting, but the tap water prices and the water hardness were the main factors for consideration in the financial and the environmental analyses, respectively. The local tap water hardness and prices can cause greater financial and environmental impacts than the type of material used for the water storage tank or the volume of the tank. The use of rainwater as a substitute for hard water in washing machines favours financial analysis. Although tap water hardness significantly affects the financial analysis, the greatest effect was found in the environmental analysis. When hard tap water needed to be replaced, it was found that a water price of 1 Euro/m(3) could render the use of rainwater financially feasible when using large-scale rainwater harvesting systems. When the water hardness was greater than 300 mg/L CaCO3, a financial analysis revealed that an net present value greater than 270 Euros/dwelling could be obtained at the neighbourhood scale, and there could be a reduction in the Global Warming Potential (100 years) ranging between 35 and 101 kg CO2 eq./dwelling/year.

  18. THE INCREASING NEED FOR SURVEILLANCE: WATER SOURCES AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The outbreaks of giardiosis in the 1980's and the outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Milwaukee, have demonstrated the susceptibility of public water supplies to contamination with protozoan parasites. Many protozoan parasites are resistant to the levels of residual disinfectant re...

  19. ANALYSIS OF SWINE LAGOONS AND GROUND WATER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method was developed for analysis of low levels of natural (estradiol, estrone, estriol) and synthetic (ethynylestradiol) estrogens in ground water and swine waste lagoon effluent. The method includes solid phase extraction of the estrogens, preparation of pentafluorobenzyl der...

  20. ANALYSIS OF SWINE LAGOONS AND GROUND WATER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method was developed for analysis of low levels of natural (estradiol, estrone, estriol) and synthetic (ethinyl estradiol) estrogens in ground water and swine waste lagoon effluent. The method includes solid phase extraction of the estrogens, preparation of pentafluorobenzyl de...

  1. Environmental and socioeconomic benefits and limitations of water harvesting techniques in semiarid regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Pereira, Elvira; Asunción Romero-Díaz, María; de Vente, Joris

    2016-04-01

    Under climate change, sustainable management of soil and water resources is increasingly important, especially in rainfed agroecosystems of semiarid environments. Water harvesting refers to a range of techniques for the collection and management of flood or rainwater for domestic and agricultural use and for water retention in natural ecosystems. Water harvesting represents a good example of sustainable management of water resources that contribute to water and food security. However, there are often environmental and socioeconomic constraints for implementation of water harvesting techniques, so each condition asks for a specific solution. Here we aim to highlight the environmental and socioeconomic benefits, requirements and limitations of different water harvesting techniques and to characterize their implications for provisioning, regulating, supporting, and cultural ecosystem services. We reviewed 62 water harvesting techniques for semiarid regions extracted from the WOCAT (World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies) database. We discuss aspects related to: i) human and environmental characteristics, ii) cost-benefit ratio during implementation and maintenance phases, iii) socioeconomic and environmental impacts at local and regional scales, and, iv) impacts on ecosystem services. Our review reveals that water harvesting represents very diverse methods of collecting and managing floodwaters and surface runoff. We grouped techniques as 'floodwater harvesting', 'macro-catchment water harvesting', 'micro-catchment water harvesting', and 'rooftop and courtyard' water harvesting. Almost half of all technologies originates from traditional knowledge. The implementation of water harvesting is generally positive on the short-term, to very positive on the long-term, while its maintenance is very positive at short and long-term. However, perception depends on the type of water harvesting and local conditions. Most relevant socioeconomic benefits from

  2. Studying the Water Cycle in an Environmental Context: The "Blue Planet" Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-zvi-assaraf, Orit; Orion, Nir

    The Blue Planet program aims to develop an understanding of and insight into the environment among students by introducing environmental problems such as pollution. This paper presents a study investigating junior high school students' previous knowledge and understanding of environmental issues and perceptions on the nature of the water cycle.…

  3. Action for Environmental Quality. Standards and Enforcement for Air and Water Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for setting and enforcing environmental quality standards for the nation. With the Clean Air Act of 1970 (P.L. 91-604) and the Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 (P.L. 92-500), the first truly nationwide control programs were established. This booklet is designed to inform the public…

  4. Physical and biological factors influencing environmental sources of fecal indicator bacteria in surface water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith B.; Przybyla-Kelly, Katarzyna; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the environmental populations of faecal indicator bacteria, and the processes by which these populations become nonpoint sources and influence nearshore water quality. The different possible sources of these indicator bacteria are presented. These include groundwater, springs and seeps, aquatic sediments, beach sand, birds, Cladophora and plant wrack. Also discussed are the environmental factors (moisture, sunlight, temperature and salinity) influencing their survival.

  5. 76 FR 15999 - Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act, the Comprehensive Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act Notice is hereby...' claims on behalf of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (``EPA'') for violations of the Clean...

  6. Unregulated drinking water initiative for environmental surveillance and public health.

    PubMed

    Backer, Lorraine C; Tosta, Nancy

    2011-03-01

    The critical public health need to assess and protect the drinking water used by 37 million Americans requires attention and resources. NCEH, in partnership with states, has begun the process to identify information available on unregulated drinking water sources to improve the availability of data to support decisive public health actions and resource allocation. Far more attention and resources are needed to complete this process.

  7. Environmental Transmission of Human Noroviruses in Shellfish Waters

    PubMed Central

    Lees, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Human noroviruses (NoV) are the most common cause of epidemic gastroenteritis following consumption of bivalve shellfish contaminated with fecal matter. NoV levels can be effectively reduced by some sewage treatment processes such as activated sludge and membrane bioreactors. However, tertiary sewage treatment and substantial sewage dilution are usually required to achieve low concentrations of virus in shellfish. Most outbreaks have been associated with shellfish harvested from waters affected by untreated sewage from, for example, storm overflows or overboard disposal of feces from boats. In coastal waters, NoV can remain in suspension or associate with organic and inorganic matter and be accumulated by shellfish. Shellfish take considerably longer to purge NoV than fecal indicator bacteria when transferred from sewage-polluted estuarine waters to uncontaminated waters. The abundance and distribution of NoV in shellfish waters are influenced by the levels of sewage treatment, proximity of shellfish beds to sewage sources, rainfall, river flows, salinity, and water temperature. Detailed site-specific information on these factors is required to design measures to control the viral risk. PMID:24705321

  8. Efficacy and environmental acceptability of two ballast water treatment chemicals and an alkylamine based-biocide.

    PubMed

    La Carbona, Stéphanie; Viitasalo-Frösen, Satu; Masson, Daniel; Sassi, Jukka; Pineau, Samuel; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Corroler, David

    2010-12-15

    Ship's ballast waters transport large numbers of organisms which may become invasive in coastal regions. One option to address this problem is the use of biocides as ballast water treatment (BWT). Efficacy and environmental acceptability of three commercial active substances (the BWT biocides Peraclean(®) Ocean and Seakleen(®), and alkylamine-based biocide Mexel(®) 432/336) were tested against three bacteria species, two vegetative microalgae and one zooplanktonic larva, in 10 and 30 Practical Salinity Unit (PSU) waters. In both salinities, PeraClean(®) Ocean was the most effective biocide against bacteria causing >90% mortality at 20mg/l, compared with 50mg/l for Mexel(®) 432/336 and >500 mg/l for Seakleen(®). Regarding zooplankton, Seakleen(®) was the most effective chemical causing 90% mortality in 24h at concentrations <6 mg/l (LC90(24h)) in both salinities, compared with 23 and 26 mg/l for Mexel(®) 432/336 and 370 and 480 mg/l for PeraClean(®) Ocean in 10 and 30 PSU, respectively. Similar pattern of efficacy was obtained for microalgae in 30 PSU: effective concentrations inducing 50% growth inhibition in 4 days were ≤ 1.6 mg/l for Seakleen(®), ≤ 10.1mg/l for Mexel(®) 432/336 and ≤ 30.9 mg/l for PeraClean(®) Ocean. Our work highlighted that treated waters displayed residual toxicity after 24h still inducing mortality depending on the organism and biocide. However Mexel(®) 432/336 is the only biocide which had no impact on oyster larvae development at effective concentration. Altogether our data showed that Mexel(®) 432/336 was the only biocide displaying a broad spectrum efficacy in concentrations <50mg/l and not toxic for oyster larvae development at this concentration. However residual toxicity of treated waters for any organism should be taken into account in BWT systems utilising biocides. PMID:21056457

  9. Environmental risk management and preparations for the first deep water well in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, F.

    1996-12-31

    Statoil is among the leaders in protecting health, environment and safety in all aspects of the business. The evaluations of business opportunities and development of blocks opened by authorities for petroleum exploration, are assessed in accordance with the goals for environmental protection. Progressive improvement of environmental performance is secured through proper environmental risk management. In 1995, Statoil, the technical operator on Block 210 off the Nigerian coast, was the first company to drill in deep waters in this area. An exploration well was drilled in a water depth of about 320 meters. The drilling preparations included environmental assessment, drillers Hazop, oil spill drift calculations, oil spill response plans and environmental risk analysis. In the environmental preparations for the well, Statoil adhered to local and national government legislation, as well as to international guidelines and company standards. Special attention was paid to the environmental sensitivity of potentially affected areas. Statoil co-operated with experienced local companies, with the authorities and other international and national oil companies. This being the first deep water well offshore Nigeria, it was a challenge to co-operate with other operators in the area. The preparations that were carried out, will set the standard for future environmental work in the area. Co-operation difficulties in the beginning were turned positively into a attitude to the environmental challenge.

  10. [CCA of water beetles' distribution and environmental factors in lentic samples of north Changbai Mountain].

    PubMed

    We, Yulian; Ji, Lanzhu; Wang, Miao; Zhao, Min

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between 28 species water beetles in 12 lentic samples and environmental factors of North Chang-bai Mountain was studied by Cononical Correspondence Analysis (CCA). The results showed that degree of underwater humus and altitude are the major factors correlated with beetles distribution, and the correlation coefficients of environmental factors and axes of CCA were 0.8371 and 0.7206 respectively, while water temperature and plant density also had certain effects. Under the influence of environmental factors, the water beetles' populations were different in different habitat. Coelambus impressopunctatus, Colymbetes magnus, Helophorus browni, Haliplus spp. distributed in deep water pool. Water temperature was not important for those beetles. Ilybius sp. and Limnebius glabriventris correlated with altitude and humus.

  11. Global water resources modeling with an integrated model of the social-economic-environmental system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Evan G. R.; Simonovic, Slobodan P.

    2011-06-01

    Awareness of increasing water scarcity has driven efforts to model global water resources for improved insight into water resources infrastructure and management strategies. Most water resources models focus explicitly on water systems and represent socio-economic and environmental change as external drivers. In contrast, the system dynamics-based integrated assessment model employed here, ANEMI, incorporates dynamic representations of these systems, so that their broader changes affect and are affected by water resources systems through feedbacks. Sectors in ANEMI therefore include the global climate system, carbon cycle, economy, population, land use and agriculture, and novel versions of the hydrological cycle, global water use and water quality. Since the model focus is on their interconnections through explicit nonlinear feedbacks, simulations with ANEMI provide insight into the nature and structure of connections between water resources and socio-economic and environmental change. Of particular interest to water resources researchers and modelers will be the simulated effects of a new water stress definition that incorporates both water quality and water quantity effects into the measurement of water scarcity. Five simulation runs demonstrate the value of wastewater treatment and reuse programs and the feedback-effects of irrigated agriculture and greater consumption of animal products.

  12. An adaptive ant colony optimization framework for scheduling environmental flow management alternatives under varied environmental water availability conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szemis, J. M.; Maier, H. R.; Dandy, G. C.

    2014-10-01

    Human water use is increasing and, as such, water for the environment is limited and needs to be managed efficiently. One method for achieving this is the scheduling of environmental flow management alternatives (EFMAs) (e.g., releases, wetland regulators), with these schedules generally developed over a number of years. However, the availability of environmental water changes annually as a result of natural variability (e.g., drought, wet years). To incorporate this variation and schedule EFMAs in a operational setting, a previously formulated multiobjective optimization approach for EFMA schedule development used for long-term planning has been modified and incorporated into an adaptive framework. As part of this approach, optimal schedules are updated at regular intervals during the planning horizon based on environmental water allocation forecasts, which are obtained using artificial neural networks. In addition, the changes between current and updated schedules can be minimized to reduce any disruptions to long-term planning. The utility of the approach is assessed by applying it to an 89km section of the River Murray in South Australia. Results indicate that the approach is beneficial under a range of hydrological conditions and an improved ecological response is obtained in a operational setting compared with previous long-term approaches. Also, it successfully produces trade-offs between the number of disruptions to schedules and the ecological response, with results suggesting that ecological response increases with minimal alterations required to existing schedules. Overall, the results indicate that the information obtained using the proposed approach potentially aides managers in the efficient management of environmental water.

  13. Water Management for Competing Uses: Environmental Flows in the Transboundary Rio Grande/Rio Bravo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandoval Solis, S.; McKinney, D. C.

    2011-12-01

    Introduction Due to high water demand, the scarcity of water, and the complexity of water allocation, environmental flows have not been considered as an integral part of the water management in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo transboundary basin. The Big Bend reach is located between the cities of Presidio/Ojinaga to Amistad international reservoir, along the main stream (Fig. 1). Important environmental habitats such as the Big Bend National and State Park in the U.S., the Maderas del Carmen, Cañon de Santa Elena and Ocampo natural reserved areas in Mexico are ecologically threatened because of the lack of environmental water management policies. Several efforts have been undertaken by scientists, government agencies and NGOs to determine the environmental flows for this reach and water management policies that can provide these flows. Objective The objective of this research is to describe a water management policy that can conciliate environmental and human water uses in the Big Bend region. In other words, define a policy that can provide environmental flows without harming water supply for stakeholders or increasing flood risk, within legal and physical constraints of the system. Methodology First, the system was characterized identifying water users, hydraulic infrastructure, and water allocation according to state, federal and international regulations. Second, a hydrograph for environmental flows was proposed that mimics the hydrologic characteristics of the prior dam alteration. Third, a water planning model was constructed to evaluate alternative policies. Fourth, the water management is proposed to provide environmental restoration flows from Luis L. Leon reservoir. This policy considers mechanisms that reduce flooding and drought risks, while meting national and international water regulations. Results Three types of natural flow regimes are considered: (1) median flows aimed to provide the base flow in the region, (2) high flows to provide transversal

  14. Environmental chemistry of ethylene dibromide in soil and ground water.

    PubMed

    Pignatello, J J; Cohen, S Z

    1990-01-01

    Ethylene dibromide is a ground water pollutant principally as a result of its use as a soil pesticide and secondarily from spills or leaks of leaded gasoline in which it is an additive. The compound has been found in over 1900 wells in 4 countries: Japan, Israel, Australia, and the United States (10 states), typically at concentrations of 0.04-4 micrograms/L. The overall rate of detections in suspected areas is about 13%. Its use as a soil fumigant was banned in the US in 1983 because of its carcinogenicity. Concern over gasoline as a source should diminish as leaded fuels all but disappear from the market in many countries. The voluminous research and regulatory attention devoted to EDB has generated a picture, if not an entirely clear one, of how EDB behaves in the environment and what we can expect for the future. EDB is volatile, moderately water soluble, and has only weak equilibrium sorptive affinity for soil. Transport to ground water occurs by both vapor-phase diffusion and by advection with infiltrating water, depending on soil properties and precipitation and irrigation patterns. Models describing these processes have been developed and validated in part by laboratory experiments, but the complexity and heterogeneity of the field makes predictions difficult there. As with other pesticides, experience indicates that areas with permeable soils and shallow water tables are most vulnerable. However, EDB seems to have penetrated many tens of meters of unsaturated zone in some cases to reach the water table. Transport in ground water occurs with bulk water flow, subject to hydrodynamic dispersion effects common to all solutes, and subject to sorptive retardation. From equilibrium sorption partition coefficients, plume migration is likely to be a factor of 2-4 slower than bulk water flow. Hydrolysis is the most important abiotic reaction. The reaction is independent of pH in the range 4-9 and is probably uncatalyzed by particle surfaces. Both SN1 and SN2

  15. ROLE OF GRASSROOTS ENVIRONMENTAL LITERACY: The case of water security at Bwaila Secondary School in Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chasukwa Mwalwenje, Yvonne; Chasukwa, Steria

    2015-04-01

    water. The main challenge is the degradation of water resources which result into siltation that blocks the water sources due to rain while in the dry season the water level in reservoirs goes down. Other challenges include inadequate service coverage, insufficient literacy on climate change, inadequate mitigation measures for water related disasters and inadequate promotion of hygiene and sanitation. Bwaila Secondary School in Malawi is no exception in experiencing inadequate water service coverage amidst opportunities such as availability of relatively abundant water resources, political will, active women and youth. The formal education curriculum in secondary schools has enriched students' knowledge of environmental management in subjects such as Geography, Agriculture and Biology to improve their understanding of natural resource management. However, the primary gap is that students do not use the skills in environmental management acquired from the formal school setting in their day to day life henceforth rendering it to be a mere academic exercise confined within classroom walls. It is against such background that Grassroots Environmental Literacy (GEL), an environmental management social marketing franchise in non-formal education was established to fill in the gap. GEL's mission is to inspire students to become change agents in environmental management in their own lives in both formal and non-formal settings in Malawi. GEL believes that the cultivation of broad-based private and public support is the key to bringing about positive and lasting environmental change hence contributing to water security. The education sector in general and school attendance in particular is largely affected by water security. Furthermore, technological limitations have also affected the accessibility of water resources. UNICEF (2008) asserts that water resources may be scarce as it is capital intensive to sink a bore hole in Malawi. Bwaila secondary school is one of the examples

  16. ACCOUNTING FOR THE ENDOGENEITY OF HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE EXPOSURE IN CHILDREN: AN APPLICATION TO CONTINUOUS LUNG FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this study is to estimate an unbiased exposure effect of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure on children's continuous lung function. A majority of the evidence from health studies suggests that ETS exposure in early life contributes significantly to childhood ...

  17. Water resources management: In search of an environmental ethic

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    This book has two purposes. First, the author wishes to connect normative political theory with the practical matter of making and implementing water policy. Second, he wishes to argue that regional water management jurisdictions will help achieve a more just and effective allocation of the resource. The idea for the book seems to have been to use case studies of the Garrison Diversion Project and Blue Ridge Pump Storage Project, along with an essay on the fallacy of relying on technical elites for good management, as hooks on which to hang a more complex argument. Feldman believes that the only way to achieve appropriate water management is to overthrow the utilitarian and capitalist ethic in favor of a theory of justice. His argument is that both people and nature have rights.

  18. Environmental Setting and Implications on Water Quality, Upper Colorado River Basin, Colorado and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apodaca, Lori E.; Driver, Nancy E.; Stephens, Verlin C.; Spahr, Norman E.

    1995-01-01

    The Upper Colorado River Basin in Colorado and Utah is 1 of 60 study units selected for water-quality assessment as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program, which began full implementation in 1991. Understanding the environmental setting of the Upper Colorado River Basin study unit is important in evaluating water-quality issues in the basin. Natural and human factors that affect water quality in the basin are presented, including an overview of the physiography, climatic conditions, general geology and soils, ecoregions, population, land use, water management and use, hydrologic characteristics, and to the extent possible aquatic biology. These factors have substantial implications on water-quality conditions in the basin. For example, high concentrations of dissolved solids and selenium are present in the natural background water conditions of surface and ground water in parts ofthe basin. In addition, mining, urban, and agricultural land and water uses result in the presence of certain constituents in the surface and ground water of the basin that can detrimentally affect water quality. The environmental setting of the study unit provides a framework of the basin characteristics, which is important in the design of integrated studies of surface water, ground water, and biology.

  19. Environmental and economic aspects of water kiosks: Case study of a medium-sized Italian town

    SciTech Connect

    Torretta, Vincenzo

    2013-05-15

    The consumption of bottled water in Italy began in the 1970s. Since then, this usage has grown considerably, also as a result of changes in habits. The environmental impact as a result of the water production chain is very significant; it would be considered, for example, the use of plastic bottles, the consumption of oil in the production of the bottles, the emission of air from the vehicles that transport the bottles, non-recycled plastic packaging, etc. In this study, considering the comparison between two situations, use of bottled water and use of water kiosk (WK), an environmental and economic impact evaluation has been done. The study considered the production of a WK in a town with 9000 inhabitants, which supplies controlled, still and sparkling water, with an organoleptic quality higher than tap water coming from the aqueduct. In particular, taking into consideration the environmental aspects, specific attention was paid both to CO{sub 2} emissions and PET bottle waste reduction. The economic impact evaluation was carried out from the consumer’s point of view. In order to provide a supply service that was economically sustainable, a calculation was done with the aim of determining a specific fee for the supplied water. Moreover, a comparison has been made between quality parameters achieved with the analysis of water from aqueducts with the limits established in the Italian legislation and the parameters of several Italian water brands. The study has the aim at considering the opportunity to follow a different people’s habits, closer to the concept of sustainability, reducing the environmental charge related to the realization, transport and consumption of plastic water bottles without significant reduction of the quality of the service and with convenient and interesting economic implications. In fact the results of the study show that the alternative of WKs is more efficient in economic and environmental terms respect to the use of bottled water.

  20. Environmental and economic aspects of water kiosks: case study of a medium-sized Italian town.

    PubMed

    Torretta, Vincenzo

    2013-05-01

    The consumption of bottled water in Italy began in the 1970s. Since then, this usage has grown considerably, also as a result of changes in habits. The environmental impact as a result of the water production chain is very significant; it would be considered, for example, the use of plastic bottles, the consumption of oil in the production of the bottles, the emission of air from the vehicles that transport the bottles, non-recycled plastic packaging, etc. In this study, considering the comparison between two situations, use of bottled water and use of water kiosk (WK), an environmental and economic impact evaluation has been done. The study considered the production of a WK in a town with 9000 inhabitants, which supplies controlled, still and sparkling water, with an organoleptic quality higher than tap water coming from the aqueduct. In particular, taking into consideration the environmental aspects, specific attention was paid both to CO2 emissions and PET bottle waste reduction. The economic impact evaluation was carried out from the consumer's point of view. In order to provide a supply service that was economically sustainable, a calculation was done with the aim of determining a specific fee for the supplied water. Moreover, a comparison has been made between quality parameters achieved with the analysis of water from aqueducts with the limits established in the Italian legislation and the parameters of several Italian water brands. The study has the aim at considering the opportunity to follow a different people's habits, closer to the concept of sustainability, reducing the environmental charge related to the realization, transport and consumption of plastic water bottles without significant reduction of the quality of the service and with convenient and interesting economic implications. In fact the results of the study show that the alternative of WKs is more efficient in economic and environmental terms respect to the use of bottled water.

  1. Environmental and economic aspects of water kiosks: case study of a medium-sized Italian town.

    PubMed

    Torretta, Vincenzo

    2013-05-01

    The consumption of bottled water in Italy began in the 1970s. Since then, this usage has grown considerably, also as a result of changes in habits. The environmental impact as a result of the water production chain is very significant; it would be considered, for example, the use of plastic bottles, the consumption of oil in the production of the bottles, the emission of air from the vehicles that transport the bottles, non-recycled plastic packaging, etc. In this study, considering the comparison between two situations, use of bottled water and use of water kiosk (WK), an environmental and economic impact evaluation has been done. The study considered the production of a WK in a town with 9000 inhabitants, which supplies controlled, still and sparkling water, with an organoleptic quality higher than tap water coming from the aqueduct. In particular, taking into consideration the environmental aspects, specific attention was paid both to CO2 emissions and PET bottle waste reduction. The economic impact evaluation was carried out from the consumer's point of view. In order to provide a supply service that was economically sustainable, a calculation was done with the aim of determining a specific fee for the supplied water. Moreover, a comparison has been made between quality parameters achieved with the analysis of water from aqueducts with the limits established in the Italian legislation and the parameters of several Italian water brands. The study has the aim at considering the opportunity to follow a different people's habits, closer to the concept of sustainability, reducing the environmental charge related to the realization, transport and consumption of plastic water bottles without significant reduction of the quality of the service and with convenient and interesting economic implications. In fact the results of the study show that the alternative of WKs is more efficient in economic and environmental terms respect to the use of bottled water. PMID:23465314

  2. 76 FR 70444 - Environmental Economics Advisory Committee Augmented for the Consideration of the Value of Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... to the U.S. Economy AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... value of water to the United States (U.S.) Economy. The SAB Staff Office also announces the availability... Water to the U.S. Economy will hold a public teleconference to provide early advice to assist EPA...

  3. Water: A Vital Resource. Environmental Education Supplementary Instructional Guide. Sixth Grade Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Donald B.; And Others

    Water related activities for sixth-grade students are presented as one possible way to incorporate environmental education into the existing curriculum of Hawaii schools. Designed as an interdisciplinary approach, the activities integrate numerous thematic and subject areas to teach that fresh water is a limited but vital natural resource. Topics…

  4. Water Pollution Control Training: The Educational Role of the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Frederick D.

    Presented are the results of a study to determine the perceived needs of environmental control education programs as seen by students, instructors, deans or program directors, and field-related employers in the field of water pollution control. Data were collected utilizing three approaches: survey instruments, information from Water Quality…

  5. An Environmental Chemistry Experiment: The Determination of Radon Levels in Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Lawrence E.; Mossman, Daniel M.

    1994-01-01

    Describes a radiation experiment developed to complement a new environmental chemistry laboratory curriculum. A scintillation counter is used to measure radon in water. The procedure relies on the fact that toluene will preferentially extract radon from water. Sample preparation is complete in less than 90 minutes. Because the level of…

  6. RNA-Based Methods Increase the Detection of Fecal Bacteria and Fecal Identifiers in Environmental Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated the use of qPCR RNA-based methods in the detection of fecal bacteria in environmental waters. We showed that RNA methods can increase the detection of fecal bacteria in multiple water matrices. The data suggest that this is a viable alternative for the detection of a...

  7. Environmental Preference and Risk Recreation: The Case of White Water Kayakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuett, Michael A.

    1994-01-01

    Examined environmental preferences in one-risk recreation activity among participants in the white water kayaking program. Results of a mail survey found that the kayakers prefered a natural environment, scenery, and clean river water but were indifferent to humanmade manipulations such as comfort facilities and paved access roads. (Contains 30…

  8. 75 FR 30013 - South Feather Water and Power Agency; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission South Feather Water and Power Agency; Notice of Availability of...), Commission staff has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) regarding South Feather Water and Power Agency... Creek development of the South Feather Power Project (FERC No. 2088). Sly Creek is located on Sly...

  9. Environmental health perspectives. Volume 46. Drinking water disinfectants - December 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Lucier, G.W.; Hook, G.E.R.

    1982-01-01

    Among subjects considered are chlorine dioxide, N-chloramines, mutagenic activity by disinfectant reaction products, trihalomethane and behavioral toxicity, and carcinogenic risk estimation. There are 27 papers on these and related topics. The volume stems from a symposium on drinking water disinfectants and disinfectant by-products.

  10. Water Pollution in Environmental Education Curricula: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Abraham

    This report compares similarities and differences in water pollution as it is presented in selected curriculum materials. The materials selected for analysis included materials from five projects in the United States, England, Israel, and West Germany. Each set of instructional materials is analyzed including the framework of the units, selection…

  11. The use of satellites in environmental monitoring of coastal waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpot, W.; Klemas, V.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of using satellites in an operational system for monitoring the type, concentration, location, drift, and dispersion of pollutants in coastal waters is evaluated. Visible, microwave, and thermal infrared sensing are considered. Targets to be detected include photosynthetic pigments, iron acid waste, and sewage sludge.

  12. Filtration recovery of extracellular DNA from environmental water samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    qPCR methods are able to analyze DNA from microbes within hours of collecting water samples, providing the promptest notification and public awareness possible when unsafe pathogenic levels are reached. Health risk, however, may be overestimated by the presence of extracellular ...

  13. NATIONAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF RECREATIONAL WATER STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evidence from various sources around the world indicate that there is a relationship between gastroenteritis in swimmers and the quality of the bathing water as measured with bacterial indicators of fecal contamination. Current EPA guidelines recommend the use of cultural method...

  14. COSMOS Sensors in Agricultural Ecosystems: Accounting for Rapid Changes in Biomass in Order to Monitor Root Zone Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornbuckle, B. K.; Irvin, S.; Franz, T. E.

    2013-12-01

    the transient and quasi-static hydrogen pools vary significantly over the course of a growing season. We expect that in order to use neutron detectors as soil moisture sensors we must certainly account for the growth of crops. However, we do not know whether all crops can be treated as simply a uniform layer of hydrogen or if it necessary to model specific crop geometries. Furthermore, we do not know if current allometric relationships are adequate to estimate root mass within the sensing depth of a neutron detector from above-ground measurements of vegetation. We will attempt to answer these questions by using periodic measurements of soil water in the top 30 cm and above-ground biomass within the footprint of a COSMOS probe for two crops with distinctive geometries: corn (stem-dominated) and soybean (leaf-dominated).

  15. Chicago Clean Air, Clean Water Project: Environmental Monitoring for a Healthy, Sustainable Urban Future

    SciTech Connect

    none, none; Tuchman, Nancy

    2015-11-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy awarded Loyola University Chicago and the Institute of Environmental Sustainability (IES) $486,000.00 for the proposal entitled “Chicago clean air, clean water project: Environmental monitoring for a healthy, sustainable urban future.” The project supported the purchase of analytical instruments for the development of an environmental analytical laboratory. The analytical laboratory is designed to support the testing of field water and soil samples for nutrients, industrial pollutants, heavy metals, and agricultural toxins, with special emphasis on testing Chicago regional soils and water affected by coal-based industry. Since the award was made in 2010, the IES has been launched (fall 2013), and the IES acquired a new state-of-the-art research and education facility on Loyola University Chicago’s Lakeshore campus. Two labs were included in the research and education facility. The second floor lab is the Ecology Laboratory where lab experiments and analyses are conducted on soil, plant, and water samples. The third floor lab is the Environmental Toxicology Lab where lab experiments on environmental toxins are conducted, as well as analytical tests conducted on water, soil, and plants. On the south end of the Environmental Toxicology Lab is the analytical instrumentation collection purchased from the present DOE grant, which is overseen by a full time Analytical Chemist (hired January 2016), who maintains the instruments, conducts analyses on samples, and helps to train faculty and undergraduate and graduate student researchers.

  16. Gas seep induced interstitial water circulation: observations and environmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hara, S. C. M.; Dando, P. R.; Schuster, U.; Bennis, A.; Boyle, J. D.; Chui, F. T. W.; Hatherell, T. V. J.; Niven, S. J.; Taylor, L. J.

    1995-07-01

    An interstitial water circulation, generated by gas flow through a permeable sediment, was observed at an intertidal site on the Kattegat coast of Denmark. Concentrations of methane dissolved in the interstitial water of the near-surface sediment decreased sharply only centimetres away from gas seeps venting almost pure methane (≈99% methane). Water was driven out of the sediment by the rising bubbles of gas at the seep and was replaced by an equivalent draw-down of overlying, oxygenated water into the surrounding sediment. This process steepened the chemical gradients close to the gas flow channel, with the effects progressively diminishing with increasing distance from the seep. The position of the redox potential discontinuity (RPD) moved by as much as 7 cm deeper into the sediment close to the seep: this effect was less marked, but still detectable, 50 cm away. The degree of displacement from the "normal" sediment profiles depended on the magnitude of the interstitial flow rate. The distribution of pore water pH and sulphate: sodium ratios were also dependent on the flow rate of the circulating water. The concentrations of sulphide, thiosulphate and sulphite in the interstitial water from the top 10 cm of sediment, were high at a seep, decreased to a minimum at 20-30 cm distance, then increased again at 40-50 cm distance. Laboratory experiments confirmed that gas bubbling through a fluid filled permeable matrix generated a flow, out of the sediment at the gas exit and into the sediment over the peripheral surfaces surrounding the outlet. Experimentally determined rates of dispersion, for gas flow rates of 3-20 ml min -1, for a 40 g l -1 sodium chloride solution, were 62.5 × 10 -9 to 540 × 10 -9 m 2 s -1, 40-400 times the molecular diffusion coefficient. Linear interstitial fluid velocities of 3-12 mm min -1, were recorded at 14-3 cm from the seep axis respectively, with a gas flow rate of 5 ml min -1. Two-dimensional modelling of the experimental system

  17. Review on water leakage control in distribution networks and the associated environmental benefits.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiang; Liu, Ruiping; Chen, Qiuwen; Li, Ruonan

    2014-05-01

    Water supply is the primary element of an urban system. Due to rapid urbanization and water scarcity, maintaining a stable and safe water supply has become a challenge to many cities, whereas a large amount of water is lost from the pipes of distribution systems. Water leakage is not only a waste of water resources, but also incurs great socio-economic costs. This article presents a comprehensive review on the potential water leakage control approaches and specifically discusses the benefits of each to environmental conservation. It is concluded that water leakage could be further reduced by improving leakage detection capability through a combination of predictive modeling and monitoring instruments, optimizing pipe maintenance strategy, and developing an instant pressure regulation system. The environment could benefit from these actions because of water savings and the reduction of energy consumption as well as greenhouse gas emissions.

  18. Defining the components of fairness in the allocation of water to environmental and human uses

    SciTech Connect

    Syme, G.J.; Nancarrow, B.E.; McCreddin, J.A.

    1999-09-01

    In many countries, water allocation has become increasingly controversial as competition has increased. This paper summarizes a research program of seven studies over 10 years that has developed social psychological theories of justice, equity and fairness for application to the implementation and evaluation of water allocation decisions. Much of the research has been conducted in the context of the development of government sponsored water reform in Australia. this reform has emphasized the need for integrated approaches to water management which encourage efficiency of use through markets, and environmental sustainability through the introduction of environmental (in-stream) flows. The initial study tested the adequacy of equity and procedural justice theories to provide explanations about people's evaluation of decision making in the context of water allocation. They were found to provide insufficient scope for the evaluations. Therefore, the second and third studies developed alternative universal fairness principles and adopted the fairness heuristic as a concept for judging the justice of individual water allocation decisions.

  19. An integrated water-energy-food-livelihoods approach for assessing environmental livelihood security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggs, E. M.; Duncan, J.; Boruff, B.; Bruce, E.; Neef, A.; McNeill, K.; van Ogtrop, F. F.; Haworth, B.; Duce, S.; Horsley, J.; Pauli, N.; Curnow, J.; Imanari, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental livelihood security refers to the challenges of maintaining global food security and universal access to freshwater and energy to sustain livelihoods and promote inclusive economic growth, whilst sustaining key environmental systems' functionality, particularly under variable climatic regimes. Environmental security is a concept complementary to sustainable development, and considers the increased vulnerability people have to certain environmental stresses, such as climatic change. Bridging links between the core component concepts of environmental security is integral to future human security, and in an attempt to create this bridge, the nexus approach to human protection has been created, where water resource availability underpins food, water and energy security. The water-energy-food nexus has an influential role in attaining human security, yet little research has made the link between the nexus and livelihoods. In this research we provide a critical appraisal of the synergies between water-energy-food nexus framings and sustainable livelihoods approaches, both of which aim to promote sustainable development. In regions where livelihoods are dependent on environmental conditions, the concept of sustainable development is critical for ensuring future environmental and human security. Given our appraisal we go on to develop an integrated framework for assessing environmental livelihood security of multiscale and multi-level systems. This framework provides a tangible approach for assessing changes in the water-energy-food-livelihood indicators of a system. Examples of where system applications may occur are discussed for the Southeast Asia and Oceania region. Our approach will be particularly useful for policy-makers to inform evidence-based decision-making, especially in localities where climate change increases the vulnerability of impoverished communities and extenuates environmental livelihood insecurity.

  20. Annotated bibliography of the Northwest Territories action on water component of the Arctic environmental strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, R.

    1998-01-01

    Water-related research conducted under the 1991--97 Arctic Environmental Strategy resulted in the production of 215 publications listed in this bibliography. The main section sorts citations by author and then by title. All citations are annotated and are keyed to the database of the Arctic Science and Technology Information System (ASTIS). The bibliography has three indexes that refer back to the main section: Subject, geographic area, and title. Topics covered include Northwest Territories hydrology, environmental fate of contaminants, water quality, snow, the water cycle, modelling, and limnology.

  1. Annotated bibliography of the Northwest Territories action on water component of the Arctic environmental strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, R.

    1998-12-31

    Water-related research conducted under the 1991--97 Arctic Environmental Strategy resulted in the production of 215 publications listed in this bibliography. The main section sorts citations by author and then by title. All citations are annotated and are keyed to the database of the Arctic Science and Technology Information System (ASTIS). The bibliography has three indexes that refer back to the main section: Subject, geographic area, and title. Topics covered include Northwest Territories hydrology, environmental fate of contaminants, water quality, snow, the water cycle, modelling, and limnology.

  2. Environmental setting of the upper Illinois River basin and implications for water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnold, Terri L.; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Harris, Mitchell A.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Scudder, Barbara C.; Ruhl, Peter M.; Hanchar, Dorothea W.; Stewart, Jana S.

    1999-01-01

    The upper Illinois River Basin (UIRB) is the 10,949 square mile drainage area upstream from Ottawa, Illinois, on the Illinois River. The UIRB is one of 13 studies that began in 1996 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water- Quality Assessment program. A compilation of environmental data from Federal, State, and local agencies provides a description of the environmental setting of the UIRB. Environmental data include natural factors such as bedrock geology, physiography and surficial geology, soils, vegetation, climate, and ecoregions; and human factors such as land use, urbanization trends, and population change. Characterization of the environmental setting is useful for understanding the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of surface and ground water in the UIRB and the possible implications of that environmental setting for water quality. Some of the possible implications identified include depletion of dissolved oxygen because of high concentrations of organic matter in wastewater, increased flooding because of suburbanization, elevated arsenic concentrations in ground water because of weathering of shale bedrock, and decreasing ground-water levels because of heavy pumping of water from the bedrock aquifers.

  3. SeqSIMLA2: simulating correlated quantitative traits accounting for shared environmental effects in user-specified pedigree structure.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ren-Hua; Tsai, Wei-Yun; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Hung, Kuan-Yi; Hsiung, Chao A; Hauser, Elizabeth R

    2015-01-01

    Simulation tools that simulate sequence data in unrelated cases and controls or in families with quantitative traits or disease status are important for genetic studies. The simulation tools can be used to evaluate the statistical power for detecting the causal variants when planning a genetic epidemiology study, or to evaluate the statistical properties for new methods. We previously developed SeqSIMLA version 1 (SeqSIMLA1), which simulates family or case-control data with a disease or quantitative trait model. SeqSIMLA1, and several other tools that simulate quantitative traits, do not specifically model the shared environmental effects among relatives on a trait. However, shared environmental effects are commonly observed for some traits in families, such as body mass index. SeqSIMLA1 simulates a fixed three-generation family structure. However, it would be ideal to simulate prespecified pedigree structures for studies involving large pedigrees. Thus, we extended SeqSIMLA1 to create SeqSIMLA2, which can simulate correlated traits and considers the shared environmental effects. SeqSIMLA2 can also simulate prespecified large pedigree structures. There are no restrictions on the number of individuals that can be simulated in a pedigree. We used a blood pressure example to demonstrate that SeqSIMLA2 can simulate realistic correlation structures between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure among relatives. We also showed that SeqSIMLA2 can simulate large pedigrees with large chromosomal regions in a reasonable time frame.

  4. Simultaneous estimation of genotype by environment interaction accounting for discrete and continuous environmental descriptors in Irish dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Windig, J J; Mulder, H A; Bohthe-Wilhelmus, D I; Veerkamp, R F

    2011-06-01

    Genotype by environment interaction can be analyzed by using a multi-trait model in which a trait measured in different environments is considered as separate traits. Alternatively, it can be analyzed by using a reaction norm model, in which the trait is considered a function of an environmental descriptor. Here, a model is developed where the 2 approaches are combined such that the effect of a continuous environmental descriptor can be analyzed in 2 or more discrete environments. The model is applied to somatic cell score (SCS) in relation to average herd milk production in 2 production environments: spring calving and year-round calving in Ireland. Heritabilities and additive genetic variances for SCS increased somewhat with increasing milk production and were higher in year-round calving. Under the combined model, the genetic correlation between spring and year-round calving was estimated at 0.82 to 0.84, clearly lower than obtained in a bivariate analysis ignoring effects of herd milk production. Thus, when estimating the genetic correlation between environments, effects of one environmental descriptor may be obscured by another, but can be disentangled in an analysis combining the reaction norm and the multi-trait approach. Such models will be especially useful for analyzing questions such as whether the effect of increasing production or temperature is more severe in different production systems or geographic regions.

  5. Environmental accounting as a management tool in the Mediterranean context: the Spanish economy during the last 20 years.

    PubMed

    Lomas, Pedro L; Alvarez, Sergio; Rodríguez, Marta; Montes, Carlos

    2008-07-01

    Although human presence is one of the main characteristics of the Mediterranean identity since ancient times, a false dialectic between conservation and social-economic development has emerged in recent decades. On the one hand, an economic growth policy is taken as the paradigm of social-economic development; on the other hand, there is a multi-scale conservation policy, in which natural protected areas, as patches of preserved nature, are used as one of the main tools to deal with the challenge of sustainability. The Mediterranean Basin is the habitat of many unique species and one of the 25 main biodiversity hotspots in the world, and as a consequence a strong conservation policy has been used to protect environmental values. At the same time, Mediterranean countries are deeply involved in promoting strong economic growth policies, which are not always compatible with environmental ones. In this paper, Spain has been studied as one model of this situation. Due to political reasons, Spanish economic growth and conservationist policies were pursued together during the last 20 years. As a result, Spain owns one of the largest networks of natural protected areas in Western Europe, and at the same time it has experienced one of the strongest periods of economic growths in the European and Mediterranean context during the 1980s and 1990s. An historical series of resource use in five annual periods in the last 20 years of conservation policy, and the effects on the preservation of natural capital have been investigated by means of the eMergy (spelled with an 'm') synthesis approach, which was used to characterize the flow of environmental services supplied by ecosystems, but not in monetary terms. This study shows that Spain is becoming less self-sufficient and more inefficient in resource use, comprehensively measured in eMergy terms. A large part of Spain's economy depends on imported goods and services, and most economic activities are based on tourist services and

  6. Environmental accounting as a management tool in the Mediterranean context: the Spanish economy during the last 20 years.

    PubMed

    Lomas, Pedro L; Alvarez, Sergio; Rodríguez, Marta; Montes, Carlos

    2008-07-01

    Although human presence is one of the main characteristics of the Mediterranean identity since ancient times, a false dialectic between conservation and social-economic development has emerged in recent decades. On the one hand, an economic growth policy is taken as the paradigm of social-economic development; on the other hand, there is a multi-scale conservation policy, in which natural protected areas, as patches of preserved nature, are used as one of the main tools to deal with the challenge of sustainability. The Mediterranean Basin is the habitat of many unique species and one of the 25 main biodiversity hotspots in the world, and as a consequence a strong conservation policy has been used to protect environmental values. At the same time, Mediterranean countries are deeply involved in promoting strong economic growth policies, which are not always compatible with environmental ones. In this paper, Spain has been studied as one model of this situation. Due to political reasons, Spanish economic growth and conservationist policies were pursued together during the last 20 years. As a result, Spain owns one of the largest networks of natural protected areas in Western Europe, and at the same time it has experienced one of the strongest periods of economic growths in the European and Mediterranean context during the 1980s and 1990s. An historical series of resource use in five annual periods in the last 20 years of conservation policy, and the effects on the preservation of natural capital have been investigated by means of the eMergy (spelled with an 'm') synthesis approach, which was used to characterize the flow of environmental services supplied by ecosystems, but not in monetary terms. This study shows that Spain is becoming less self-sufficient and more inefficient in resource use, comprehensively measured in eMergy terms. A large part of Spain's economy depends on imported goods and services, and most economic activities are based on tourist services and

  7. Water resources and environmental input-output analysis and its key study issues: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YANG, Z.; Xu, X.

    2013-12-01

    Used to study the material and energy flow in socioeconomic system, Input-Output Analysis(IOA) had been an effective analysis tool since its appearance. The research fields of Input-Output Analysis were increasingly expanded and studied in depth with the development of fundamental theory. In this paper, starting with introduction of theory development, the water resources input-output analysis and environmental input-output analysis had been specifically reviewed, and two key study issues mentioned as well. Input-Occupancy-Output Analysis and Grey Input-Output Analysis whose proposal and development were introduced firstly could be regard as the effective complements of traditional IOA theory. Because of the hypotheses of homogeneity, stability and proportionality, Input-Occupancy-Output Analysis and Grey Input-Output Analysis always had been restricted in practical application inevitably. In the applied study aspect, with investigation of abundant literatures, research of water resources input-output analysis and environmental input-output analysis had been comprehensively reviewed and analyzed. The regional water resources flow between different economic sectors had been systematically analyzed and stated, and several types of environmental input-output analysis models combined with other effective analysis tools concluded. In two perspectives in terms of external and inland aspect, the development of water resources and environmental input-output analysis model had been explained, and several typical study cases in recent years listed respectively. By the aid of sufficient literature analysis, the internal development tendency and study hotspot had also been summarized. In recent years, Chinese literatures reporting water resources consumption analysis and virtue water study had occupied a large share. Water resources consumption analysis had always been the emphasis of inland water resources IOA. Virtue water study had been considered as the new hotspot of

  8. Using zebra mussels to monitor Escherichia coli in environmental waters.

    PubMed

    Selegean, J P; Kusserow, R; Patel, R; Heidtke, T M; Ram, J L

    2001-01-01

    Use of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) as an indicator of previously elevated bacteria concentrations in a watershed was examined. The ability of the zebra mussel to accumulate and purge Escherichia coli over several days was investigated in both laboratory and field experiments. In laboratory experiments, periodic enumeration of E. coli in mussels that had been exposed to a dilute solution of raw sewage demonstrated that (i) maximum concentrations of E. coli are reached within a few hours of exposure to sewage, (ii) the tissue concentration attained is higher than the concentration in the ambient water, and (iii) the E. coli concentrations take several days to return to preexposure concentrations when mussels are subsequently placed in sterile water. In field experiments conducted in southeast Michigan in the Clinton River watershed, brief increases in E. coli concentrations in the water were accompanied by increases in mussel concentrations of E. coli that lasted 2 or 3 d. The ability of mussels to retain and to concentrate E. coli made it possible to detect E. coli in the environment under conditions that conventional monitoring may often miss. Sampling caged mussels in a river and its tributaries may enable watershed managers to reduce the sampling frequency normally required to identify critical E. coli sources, thereby providing a more cost-effective river monitoring strategy for bacterial contamination.

  9. Shallow water imaging sonar system for environmental surveying. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The scope of this research is to develop a shallow water sonar system designed to detect and map the location of objects such as hazardous wastes or discarded ordnance in coastal waters. The system will use high frequency wide-bandwidth imaging sonar, mounted on a moving platform towed behind a boat, to detect and identify objects on the sea bottom. Resolved images can be obtained even if the targets are buried in an overlayer of silt. The specific technical objective of this research was to develop and test a prototype system that is capable of (1) scan at high speeds (up to 10m/s), even in shallow water (depth to ten meters), without motion blurring or loss of resolution; (2) produce images of the bottom structure that are detailed enough for unambiguous detection of objects as small as 15cm, even if they are buried up to 30cm deep in silt or sand. The critical technology involved uses an linear FM (LFM) or similar complex waveform, which has a high bandwidth for good range resolution, with a long pulse length for similar Dopper resolution. The lone duration signal deposits more energy on target than a narrower pulse, which increases the signal-to-noise ratio and signal-to-clutter ratio. This in turn allows the use of cheap, lightweight, low power, piezoelectric transducers at the 30--500 kHz range.

  10. Phase 1 summaries of radionuclide concentration data for vegetation, river water, drinking water, and fish. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Denham, D.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Hanf, R.W.; Poston, T.M.; Thiede, M.E.; Woodruff, R.K.

    1993-06-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. As part of the HEDR Project, the Environmental Monitoring Data Task (Task 05) staff assemble, evaluate, and summarize key historical measurements of radionuclide concentrations in the environment as a result of Hanford operations. The scope of work performed during Phase I included initiating the search, recovery, and inventory of environmental reports. Summaries of the environmental monitoring data that were recovered and evaluated are presented for specific periods of interest. These periods include vegetation monitoring data (primarily sagebrush) for the years 1945 through 1947, Columbia River water and drinking water monitoring data for the years 1963 through 1966, and fish monitoring data for the years 1964 through 1966. Concern was limited to those radionuclides identified as the most likely major contributors to the dose potentially received by the public during the times of interest: phosphorous-32, copper-64, zinc-65, arsenic-76, and neptunium-239 in Columbia River fish and drinking water taken from the river, and iodine-131 in vegetation. This report documents the achievement of the Phase I objectives of the Environmental Monitoring Data Task.

  11. Evaluating sustainable water quality management in the U.S.: Urban, Agricultural, and Environmental Protection Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oel, P. R.; Alfredo, K. A.; Russo, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Sustainable water management typically emphasizes water resource quantity, with focus directed at availability and use practices. When attention is placed on sustainable water quality management, the holistic, cross-sector perspective inherent to sustainability is often lost. Proper water quality management is a critical component of sustainable development practices. However, sustainable development definitions and metrics related to water quality resilience and management are often not well defined; water quality is often buried in large indicator sets used for analysis, and the policy regulating management practices create sector specific burdens for ensuring adequate water quality. In this research, we investigated the methods by which water quality is evaluated through internationally applied indicators and incorporated into the larger idea of "sustainability." We also dissect policy's role in the distribution of responsibility with regard to water quality management in the United States through evaluation of three broad sectors: urban, agriculture, and environmental water quality. Our research concludes that despite a growing intention to use a single system approach for urban, agricultural, and environmental water quality management, one does not yet exist and is even hindered by our current policies and regulations. As policy continues to lead in determining water quality and defining contamination limits, new regulation must reconcile the disparity in requirements for the contaminators and those performing end-of-pipe treatment. Just as the sustainable development indicators we researched tried to integrate environmental, economic, and social aspects without skewing focus to one of these three categories, policy cannot continue to regulate a single sector of society without considering impacts to the entire watershed and/or region. Unequal distribution of the water pollution burden creates disjointed economic growth, infrastructure development, and policy

  12. Optimal dynamic water allocation: Irrigation extractions and environmental tradeoffs in the Murray River, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grafton, R. Quentin; Chu, Hoang Long; Stewardson, Michael; Kompas, Tom

    2011-12-01

    A key challenge in managing semiarid basins, such as in the Murray-Darling in Australia, is to balance the trade-offs between the net benefits of allocating water for irrigated agriculture, and other uses, versus the costs of reduced surface flows for the environment. Typically, water planners do not have the tools to optimally and dynamically allocate water among competing uses. We address this problem by developing a general stochastic, dynamic programming model with four state variables (the drought status, the current weather, weather correlation, and current storage) and two controls (environmental release and irrigation allocation) to optimally allocate water between extractions and in situ uses. The model is calibrated to Australia's Murray River that generates: (1) a robust qualitative result that "pulse" or artificial flood events are an optimal way to deliver environmental flows over and above conveyance of base flows; (2) from 2001 to 2009 a water reallocation that would have given less to irrigated agriculture and more to environmental flows would have generated between half a billion and over 3 billion U.S. dollars in overall economic benefits; and (3) water markets increase optimal environmental releases by reducing the losses associated with reduced water diversions.

  13. Virtual water trade patterns in relation to environmental and socioeconomic factors: a case study for Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouchane, Hatem; Krol, Maarten; Hoekstra, Arjen

    2016-04-01

    Water scarcity is among the main problems faced by many societies. Growing water demands put increasing pressure on local water resources, especially in water-short countries. Virtual water trade can play a key role in filling the gap between local demands and supply. This study aims to analyze the changes in virtual water trade of Tunisia in relation to environmental and socio-economic factors such as GDP, irrigated land, precipitation, population and water scarcity. The water footprint is estimated using Aquacrop for six crops over the period 1981-2010 at daily basis and a spatial resolution of 5 by 5 arc minutes. Virtual water trade is quantified at yearly basis. Regression models are used to investigate changes in virtual water trade in relation to various environmental and socio-economic factors. The explaining variables are selected in order to help understanding the trend and the inter-annual variability of the net virtual water import; GDP, population and irrigated land are hypothesized to explain the trend, and precipitation and water scarcity to explain variability. The selected crops are divided into three baskets. The first basket includes the two most imported crops, which are mainly rain-fed (wheat and barley). The second basket contains the two most exported crops, which are both irrigated and rain-fed (olives and dates). In the last basket we find the two highest economic blue water productive crops, which are mainly irrigated (tomatoes and potatoes). The results show the impact of each factor on net virtual water import of the selected crops during the period 1981-2010. Keywords: Virtual water, trade patterns, Aquacrop, Tunisia, water scarcity, water footprint.

  14. Detection of Microbial Water Quality Indicators and Fecal Waterborne Pathogens in Environmental Waters: A Review of Methods, Applications, and Limitations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental waters are important reservoirs of pathogenic microorganisms, many of which are of fecal origin. In most cases, the presence of pathogens is determined using surrogate bacterial indicators. In other cases, direct detection of the pathogen in question is required. M...

  15. Eco-environmental impact of inter-basin water transfer projects: a review.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Wen

    2016-07-01

    The objective reality of uneven water resource distribution and imbalanced water demand of the human society makes it inevitable to transfer water. It has been an age-old method to adopt the inter-basin water transfers (IBTs) for alleviating and even resolving the urgent demand of the water-deficient areas. A number of countries have made attempts and have achieved enormous benefits. However, IBTs inevitably involve the redistribution of water resources in relevant basins and may cause changes of the ecological environment in different basins. Such changes are two-sided, namely, the positive impacts, including adding new basins for water-deficient areas, facilitating water cycle, improving meteorological conditions in the recipient basins, mitigating ecological water shortage, repairing the damaged ecological system, and preserving the endangered wild fauna and flora, as well as the negative impacts, including salinization and aridification of the donor basins, damage to the ecological environment of the donor basins and the both sides of the conveying channel system, increase of water consumption in the recipient basins, and spread of diseases, etc. Because IBTs have enormous ecological risk, it is necessary to comprehensively analyze the inter-basin water balance relationship, coordinate the possible conflicts and environmental quality problems between regions, and strengthen the argumentation of the ecological risk of water transfer and eco-compensation measures. In addition, there are some effective alternative measures for IBTs, such as attaching importance to water cycle, improving water use efficiency, developing sea water desalination, and rainwater harvesting technology, etc.

  16. Eco-environmental impact of inter-basin water transfer projects: a review.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Wen

    2016-07-01

    The objective reality of uneven water resource distribution and imbalanced water demand of the human society makes it inevitable to transfer water. It has been an age-old method to adopt the inter-basin water transfers (IBTs) for alleviating and even resolving the urgent demand of the water-deficient areas. A number of countries have made attempts and have achieved enormous benefits. However, IBTs inevitably involve the redistribution of water resources in relevant basins and may cause changes of the ecological environment in different basins. Such changes are two-sided, namely, the positive impacts, including adding new basins for water-deficient areas, facilitating water cycle, improving meteorological conditions in the recipient basins, mitigating ecological water shortage, repairing the damaged ecological system, and preserving the endangered wild fauna and flora, as well as the negative impacts, including salinization and aridification of the donor basins, damage to the ecological environment of the donor basins and the both sides of the conveying channel system, increase of water consumption in the recipient basins, and spread of diseases, etc. Because IBTs have enormous ecological risk, it is necessary to comprehensively analyze the inter-basin water balance relationship, coordinate the possible conflicts and environmental quality problems between regions, and strengthen the argumentation of the ecological risk of water transfer and eco-compensation measures. In addition, there are some effective alternative measures for IBTs, such as attaching importance to water cycle, improving water use efficiency, developing sea water desalination, and rainwater harvesting technology, etc. PMID:27178293

  17. The urgent need for environmental sanitation and a safe drinking water supply in Mbandjock, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Tchounwou, P B; Lantum, D M; Monkiedje, A; Takougang, I; Barbazan, P

    1997-07-01

    Studies were conducted to assess the physical, chemical, and bacteriological qualities of drinking water in Mbandjock, Cameroon. Study results indicated that the vast majority of drinking water sources possessed acceptable physical and chemical qualities, according to the World Health Organization standards. However, microbiological analyses revealed that only the waters treated by the Cameroon National Water Company (SNEC) and the Sugar Processing Company (SOSUCAM) were acceptable for human consumption. All spring and well waters presented evidences of fecal contamination from human and/or animal origin. Water from these sources should, therefore, be treated before use for drinking. Since the majority of the population gets its water from wells and springs, there is an urgent need to develop a health education program, within the framework of primary health care, with respect to environmental sanitation and safe drinking water supply in this community. PMID:9216865

  18. Hydrogen and oxygen in brine shrimp chitin reflect environmental water and dietary isotopic composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielson, Kristine E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.

    2010-03-01

    Hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of the common structural biopolymer chitin are a potential recorder of ecological and environmental information, but our understanding of the mechanisms of incorporation of H and O from environmental substrates into chitin is limited. We report the results of a set of experiments in which the isotopic compositions of environmental water and diet were varied independently in order to assess the contribution of these variables to the H and O isotopic composition of Artemia franciscana chitin. Hydrogen isotope ratios of chitin were strongly linearly correlated with both food and water, with approximately 26% of the hydrogen signal reflecting food and approximately 38% reflecting water. Oxygen isotopes were also strongly correlated with the isotopic composition of water and food, but whereas 69% of oxygen in chitin exchanged with environmental water, only 10% was derived from food. We propose that these observations reflect the position-specific, partial exchange of H and O atoms with brine shrimp body water during the processes of digestion and chitin biosynthesis. Comparison of culture experiments with a set of natural samples collected from the Great Salt Lake, UT in 2006 shows that, with some exceptions, oxygen isotope compositions of chitin track those of water, whereas hydrogen isotopes vary inversely with those of lake water. The different behavior of the two isotopic systems can be explained in terms of a dietary shift from allochthonous particulate matter with relatively higher δ 2H values in the early spring to autochthonous particulate matter with significantly lower δ 2H values in the late summer to autumn. These results suggest oxygen in chitin may be a valuable proxy for the oxygen isotopic composition of environmental water, whereas hydrogen isotope values from the same molecule may reveal ecological and biogeochemical changes within lakes.

  19. HANFORD SITE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA FOR CALENDAR YEAR 1989 - GROUND WATER

    SciTech Connect

    Bryce, R. W.; Gorst, W. R.

    1990-12-01

    In a continuing effort for the U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington. This document contains the data listing of monitoring results obtained by PNL and Westinghouse Hanford Company during the period January through December 1989. Samples taken during 1989 were analyzed and reported by United States Testing Company, Inc., Richland, Washington. The data listing contains all chemical results (above contractual reporting limits) and radiochemical results (for which the result is larger than two times the total error).

  20. Meeting multiple demands: Water transaction opportunities for environmental benefits promoting adaptation to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Amy

    2015-04-01

    In arid regions, the challenge of balancing water use among a diversity of sectors expands in lock step with conditions of water stress that are exacerbated by climate variability, prolonged drought, and growing water-use demands. The elusiveness of achieving a sustainable balance under conditions of environmental change in the southwestern United States is evidenced by reductions in both overall water availability and freshwater ecosystem health, as well as by recent projections of shortages on the Colorado River within the next five years. The water sustainability challenge in this region, as well as drylands throughout the world, can therefore be viewed through the lens of water stress, a condition wherein demands on land and water -- including the needs of freshwater ecosystems -- exceed reliable supplies, and the full range of water needs cannot be met without tradeoffs across multiple uses. Water stress influences not only ecosystems, but a region's economy, land management, quality of life, and cultural heritage -- each of which requires water to thrive. With respect to promoting successful adaptation to climate change, achieving full water sustainability would allow for water to be successfully divided among water users -- including municipalities, agriculture, and freshwater ecosystems -- at a level that meets the goals of water users and the governing body. Over the last ten to fifteen years, the use of transactional approaches in the western U.S., Mexico, and Australia has proven to be a viable management tool for achieving stream flow and shallow aquifer restoration. By broad definition, environmental water transactions are an equitable and adaptable tool that brings diverse stakeholders to the table to facilitate a fair-market exchange of rights to use water in a manner that benefits both water users and the environment. This talk will present a basic framework of necessary stakeholder engagement, hydrologic conditions, enabling laws and policies

  1. Drinking water toxicity study of the environmental contaminant--Bromate.

    PubMed

    Dongmei, Liu; Zhiwei, Wang; Qi, Zhu; Fuyi, Cui; Yujuan, Shan; Xiaodong, Liu

    2015-12-01

    Bromate is a byproduct of water disinfection that is produced when waters contain bromide treated with ozone. To investigate the level of the toxicity of bromate and find the most sensitive indicators in a short time, a series of toxicological assessments were conducted including the acute toxicity, cumulative toxicity, genetic toxicity and subacute toxicity of bromate (using Potassium Bromate to represent bromate). The LD50 of orally administered Potassium Bromate was 215 mg/kg in Wistar rats and 464 mg/kg in ICR mice. The cumulative toxicity of Potassium Bromate was not obvious. The Ames test, mouse bone marrow cell micronucleus test and mouse sperm abnormality test did not indicate mutagenicity. The results of the subacute study did not exhibit significant differences in most of the parameters, except the white blood cell count, which was significantly decreased in male rats. In addition, Potassium Bromate influenced the albumin, creatinine, total cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose levels in male rats to various extents. A thorough analysis of the above tests clearly demonstrates that bromate has toxicity, not obvious cumulative toxicity and the white blood cell count can be used as an indicator to reflect the toxicity of bromate and investigate bromate's toxic mechanism.

  2. Water-sediment controversy in setting environmental standards for selenium.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, S J; Lemly, A D

    1999-11-01

    A substantial amount of laboratory and field research on selenium effects to biota has been accomplished since the national water quality criterion was published for selenium in 1987. Many articles have documented adverse effects on biota at concentrations below the current chronic criterion of 5 microg/L. This commentary will present information to support a national water quality criterion for selenium of 2 microg/L, based on a wide array of support from federal, state, university, and international sources. Recently, two articles have argued for a sediment-based criterion and presented a model for deriving site-specific criteria. In one example, they calculate a criterion of 31 microg/L for a stream with a low sediment selenium toxicity threshold and low site-specific sediment total organic carbon content, which is substantially higher than the national criterion of 5 microg/L. Their basic premise for proposing a sediment-based method has been critically reviewed and problems in their approach are discussed.

  3. Enhancing resilience to water flow uncertainty by integrating environmental flows into water management in the Amudarya River, Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlüter, Maja; Khasankhanova, Gulchekhra; Talskikh, Vladislav; Taryannikova, Raisa; Agaltseva, Natalya; Joldasova, Ilya; Ibragimov, Rustam; Abdullaev, Umid

    2013-11-01

    The wetlands of the Amudarya River delta in Uzbekistan provide valuable ecosystem services to the local human population which has suffered severely from the loss of the Aral Sea, desertification and the post-soviet socio-economic transition. The region is also particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change as a recent severe drought has shown. In this contribution, we assess the potential and implications of incorporating environmental flows into management of the Amudarya River for improving the provision of wetland ecosystem services and enhancing resilience of the social-ecological system to river runoff uncertainty. Our assessment is based on analyses of 1) the current vulnerability of deltaic wetlands to years of low water availability, 2) expected regional climate change and its impact on water flows to the wetlands, and 3) alternative water use options to enhance environmental flows under a changing climate. The results provide a ranking of these options with respect to their benefits for the provision of environmental flows and implications for agriculture. Their realization, however, poses challenges that cannot be tackled by technical interventions of redistribution and efficiency increase alone but call for institutional changes and moves towards multi-purpose water use. The diversification of impacts and livelihood options would allow enhancing the resilience of the social-ecological system to climate or socio-politically induced changes in water flow.

  4. Evaluation of activated carbon fiber filter for sampling of organochlorine pesticides in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Hitoshi; Moriyama, Noboru; Mitobe, Hideko; Mukai, Hiroyuki; Takase, Yuuya; Shimizu, Ken ichi; Kitayama, Yoshie

    2003-08-01

    A simple method for quantitative analyses of organic chlorine pesticides (OCPs) in environmental water samples such as rainwater, river water and seawater using activated carbon fiber filters (ACFF) is described. ACFF was used as adsorbent to collect the chemicals in water samples. The collection of OCPs was completed almost for one day by stirring the mixture of the sample and the ACFF chips at room temperature. The adsorbed OCPs on the ACFF could be extracted easily with toluene-ethanol (4:1) mixed solvent. The purified extract by a florisil column chromatograph was followed by the analysis using high-resolution gas chromatograph/high-resolution mass spectrometer. Recoveries of OCPs spiked to actual samples such as rainwater, river water and seawater samples were approximately more than 80%, and the coefficients of variations were within 10%. This method was applied to the actual samples and was confirmed to be applicable for monitoring sub-ng/l level OCPs in environmental water samples.

  5. The Water Framework Directive and the Strategic Environmental Assessment Directive: Exploring the linkages

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Jeremy . E-mail: jeremy.carter@manchester.ac.uk; Howe, Joe

    2006-04-15

    This paper highlights, explores and reflects on the linkages between the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) Directive. The assessment of river basin management plans (RBMPs), the key procedural linkage between the two Directives, is addressed. The assessment of other actions affecting the water environment, particularly land use plans, could also aid the achievement of the aims of the Water Framework Directive. As water quality is related intimately to the development and use of land, this significant issue is considered. There are numerous potential benefits that could arise from exploring the linkages between these two pieces of EU environmental legislation. These are highlighted, and include encouraging resource savings, generating a holistic approach to water resource management and ultimately the promotion of more sustainable forms of development.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE NPDES STORM WATER COMPLIANCE ALTERNATIVES AT THE SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Shedrow, C

    2006-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with proposed and alternative actions to achieve water quality permit compliance at 38 storm water outfalls located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) (Figure 1-1). Effluent monitoring data indicates that some of these outfalls may not presently comply with new National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Storm Water General Permit effluent standards that became effective July 1, 2005 (SCR000000). The NPDES permit requires that best management practices (BMPs) be implemented and maintained, as necessary, to ensure that storm water discharges at SRS do not cause or contribute to the contravention of applicable state water quality standards (WQS).

  7. Environmental water-quality zones for streams: A regional classification scheme

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, D.M.; Saad, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    Various approaches have been used to classify large geographical areas into smaller regions of similar water quality or extrapolate water-quality data from a few streams to other unmonitored streams. A combination of some of the strengths of existing techniques is used to develop a new approach for these purposes. In this new approach, referred to here as SPARTA (SPAtial Regression-Tree Analysis), environmental characteristics for each monitored stream are first quantified using a Geographic Information System (GIS) and then regression-tree analysis is used to determine which characteristics are most statistically important in describing the distribution of a specific water-quality constituent. GIS coverages of only the most statistically significant environmental characteristics are then used to subdivide the area of interest into relatively homogeneous environmental water-quality zones. Results from the regression-tree analysis not only define the most important environmental characteristics, but also describe how to subdivide the coverage of the specific characteristic (for example, areas with <26% or ???26% soil clay content). The resulting regionalization scheme is customized for each water-quality constituent based on the environmental characteristics most statistically related to that constituent. SPARTA was used to delineate areas of similar phosphorus, nitrogen, and sediment concentrations (by including land-use characteristics) and areas of similar potential water quality (by excluding land-use characteristics). The SPARTA approach reduced the variability in water-quality concentrations (phosphorus, total nitrogen, Kjeldahl nitrogen, and suspended sediment) within similarly classified zones from that obtained using the US Environmental Protection Agency's nutrient ecoregions.

  8. Wastewater irrigation and environmental health: implications for water governance and public policy.

    PubMed

    Hanjra, Munir A; Blackwell, John; Carr, Gemma; Zhang, Fenghua; Jackson, Tamara M

    2012-04-01

    Climate change is a large-scale and emerging environmental risk. It challenges environmental health and the sustainability of global development. Wastewater irrigation can make a sterling contribution to reducing water demand, recycling nutrients, improving soil health and cutting the amount of pollutants discharged into the waterways. However, the resource must be carefully managed to protect the environment and public health. Actions promoting wastewater reuse are every where, yet the frameworks for the protection of human health and the environment are lacking in most developing countries. Global change drivers including climate change, population growth, urbanization, income growth, improvements in living standard, industrialization, and energy intensive lifestyle will all heighten water management challenges. Slowing productivity growth, falling investment in irrigation, loss of biodiversity, risks to public health, environmental health issues such as soil salinity, land degradation, land cover change and water quality issues add an additional layer of complexity. Against this backdrop, the potential for wastewater irrigation and its benefits and risks are examined. These include crop productivity, aquaculture, soil health, groundwater quality, environmental health, public health, infrastructure constraints, social concerns and risks, property values, social equity, and poverty reduction. It is argued that, wastewater reuse and nutrient capture can contribute towards climate change adaptation and mitigation. Benefits such as avoided freshwater pumping and energy savings, fertilizer savings, phosphorous capture and prevention of mineral fertilizer extraction from mines can reduce carbon footprint and earn carbon credits. Wastewater reuse in agriculture reduces the water footprint of food production on the environment; it also entails activities such as higher crop yields and changes in cropping patterns, which also reduce carbon footprint. However, there is a

  9. Water Quality and Environmental Flow Management in Rapidly Urbanizing Shenzhen Estuary Area, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, H.; Su, Q.

    2011-12-01

    Shenzhen estuary is located in a rapidly urbanizing coastal region of Southeast China, and forms the administrative border between mainland China and Hong Kong. It receives the waters of the Shenzhen River, where it enters the Deep Bay. The estuary has great ecological importance with the internationally recognized mangrove wetlands, which provides a habitat for some rare and endangered waterfowl and migratory birds.Water quality in the esturay has deteriorated not only due to increasing wastewater discharges from domestic and industrial sources, but also as a consequence of decreasing base environmental flow during rapid urbanization in the Shenzhen River catchment since 1980s. Measures to improve water quality of the estuary include not only reducing pollutant inputs by intercepting wastewater, but also increasing environmental flow by reusing reclaimed wastewater or withdrawing nearshore seawater into the river. However, salinity alternation due to flow increase is deemed to have impacts on the mangrove wetland ecosystem. In this paper, Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) is used to simulate hydrodynamics, salinity, and water quality condition in the Shenzhen estuary. After calibration and validation, the model is used to evaluate effects of various control measures on water quality improvement and salinity alteration in the estuary. The results indicate that implementing different measures independently does not reach the goals of water quality improvement; furthermore, increasing environmental flow by importing nearshore seawater may greatly increase the salinity in the Shenzhen River, destroy the fresh ecosystem of the river and have non-negligible impacts on the mangrove wetland ecosystem. Based on the effectiveness and impacts of the measures, an integrated measure, which combine pollutant loads reduction and environmental flow increase by reusing reclaimed wastewater, is proposed to achieve water environmental sustainability in the study area.

  10. Wastewater irrigation and environmental health: implications for water governance and public policy.

    PubMed

    Hanjra, Munir A; Blackwell, John; Carr, Gemma; Zhang, Fenghua; Jackson, Tamara M

    2012-04-01

    Climate change is a large-scale and emerging environmental risk. It challenges environmental health and the sustainability of global development. Wastewater irrigation can make a sterling contribution to reducing water demand, recycling nutrients, improving soil health and cutting the amount of pollutants discharged into the waterways. However, the resource must be carefully managed to protect the environment and public health. Actions promoting wastewater reuse are every where, yet the frameworks for the protection of human health and the environment are lacking in most developing countries. Global change drivers including climate change, population growth, urbanization, income growth, improvements in living standard, industrialization, and energy intensive lifestyle will all heighten water management challenges. Slowing productivity growth, falling investment in irrigation, loss of biodiversity, risks to public health, environmental health issues such as soil salinity, land degradation, land cover change and water quality issues add an additional layer of complexity. Against this backdrop, the potential for wastewater irrigation and its benefits and risks are examined. These include crop productivity, aquaculture, soil health, groundwater quality, environmental health, public health, infrastructure constraints, social concerns and risks, property values, social equity, and poverty reduction. It is argued that, wastewater reuse and nutrient capture can contribute towards climate change adaptation and mitigation. Benefits such as avoided freshwater pumping and energy savings, fertilizer savings, phosphorous capture and prevention of mineral fertilizer extraction from mines can reduce carbon footprint and earn carbon credits. Wastewater reuse in agriculture reduces the water footprint of food production on the environment; it also entails activities such as higher crop yields and changes in cropping patterns, which also reduce carbon footprint. However, there is a

  11. Competitive removal of pharmaceuticals from environmental waters by adsorption and photocatalytic degradation.

    PubMed

    Rioja, N; Benguria, P; Peñas, F J; Zorita, S

    2014-10-01

    This work explores the competitive removal of pharmaceuticals from synthetic and environmental waters by combined adsorption-photolysis treatment. Five drugs usually present in waterways have been used as target compounds, some are pseudo-persistent pollutants (carbamazepine, clofibric acid, and sulfamethoxazole) and others are largely consumed (diclofenac and ibuprofen). The effect of the light source on adsorption of drugs onto activated carbons followed by photolysis with TiO2 was assessed, being UV-C light the most effective for drug removal in both deionized water and river water. Different composites prepared from titania nanoparticles and powdered activated carbons were tested in several combined adsorption-photocatalysis assays. The composites prepared by calcination at 400 °C exhibited much better performance than those synthesized at 500 °C, being the C400 composite the most effective one. Furthermore, some synthetic waters containing dissolved species and environmental waters were used to investigate the effect of the aqueous matrix on each drug removal. In general, photocatalyst deactivation was found in synthetic and environmental waters. This was particularly evident in the experiments performed with bicarbonate ions as well as with wastewater effluent. In contrast, tests conducted in seawater showed adsorption and photocatalytic degradation yields comparable to those obtained in deionized water. Considering the peculiarities of substrate competition in each aqueous matrix, the combined adsorption-photolysis treatment generally increased the overall elimination of drugs in water. PMID:24532206

  12. Competitive removal of pharmaceuticals from environmental waters by adsorption and photocatalytic degradation.

    PubMed

    Rioja, N; Benguria, P; Peñas, F J; Zorita, S

    2014-10-01

    This work explores the competitive removal of pharmaceuticals from synthetic and environmental waters by combined adsorption-photolysis treatment. Five drugs usually present in waterways have been used as target compounds, some are pseudo-persistent pollutants (carbamazepine, clofibric acid, and sulfamethoxazole) and others are largely consumed (diclofenac and ibuprofen). The effect of the light source on adsorption of drugs onto activated carbons followed by photolysis with TiO2 was assessed, being UV-C light the most effective for drug removal in both deionized water and river water. Different composites prepared from titania nanoparticles and powdered activated carbons were tested in several combined adsorption-photocatalysis assays. The composites prepared by calcination at 400 °C exhibited much better performance than those synthesized at 500 °C, being the C400 composite the most effective one. Furthermore, some synthetic waters containing dissolved species and environmental waters were used to investigate the effect of the aqueous matrix on each drug removal. In general, photocatalyst deactivation was found in synthetic and environmental waters. This was particularly evident in the experiments performed with bicarbonate ions as well as with wastewater effluent. In contrast, tests conducted in seawater showed adsorption and photocatalytic degradation yields comparable to those obtained in deionized water. Considering the peculiarities of substrate competition in each aqueous matrix, the combined adsorption-photolysis treatment generally increased the overall elimination of drugs in water.

  13. Porous Silicon's Photoactivity in Water: Insights into Environmental Fate.

    PubMed

    Moor, Kyle J; Cates, Ezra L; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2016-01-19

    Interest in porous silicon (pSi) (and, more broadly, silicon nanoparticles (NPs)) has increased along with their concomitant use in various commercial and consumer products, yet little is known about their behavior in the natural environment. In this study, we have investigated the photosensitization, optical, and surface properties of pSi as a function of time in aqueous systems. Samples were prepared via an anodic electrochemical etching procedure, resulting in pSi particles with diameters of ca. 500 nm, composed of a porous network of Si nanocrystallites of 2-4 nm. Initially, pSi particles generated significant amounts of (1)O2, yet they rapidly lost much of this ability due to the formation of an oxide layer on the surface, as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which likely prevented further photosensitization events. Addition of natural organic matter (NOM) did not significantly impact pSi's photosensitization abilities. The pSi lacked any intrinsic bactericidal properties on Escherichia coli and did not produce enough (1)O2 to considerably affect populations of a model virus, PR772, highlighting its relatively benign nature toward microbial communities. Results from this study suggest that the photoactivity of pSi is unlikely to persist in aqueous systems and that it may instead behave more similarly to silica particles from an environmental perspective. PMID:26741883

  14. Porous Silicon's Photoactivity in Water: Insights into Environmental Fate.

    PubMed

    Moor, Kyle J; Cates, Ezra L; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2016-01-19

    Interest in porous silicon (pSi) (and, more broadly, silicon nanoparticles (NPs)) has increased along with their concomitant use in various commercial and consumer products, yet little is known about their behavior in the natural environment. In this study, we have investigated the photosensitization, optical, and surface properties of pSi as a function of time in aqueous systems. Samples were prepared via an anodic electrochemical etching procedure, resulting in pSi particles with diameters of ca. 500 nm, composed of a porous network of Si nanocrystallites of 2-4 nm. Initially, pSi particles generated significant amounts of (1)O2, yet they rapidly lost much of this ability due to the formation of an oxide layer on the surface, as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which likely prevented further photosensitization events. Addition of natural organic matter (NOM) did not significantly impact pSi's photosensitization abilities. The pSi lacked any intrinsic bactericidal properties on Escherichia coli and did not produce enough (1)O2 to considerably affect populations of a model virus, PR772, highlighting its relatively benign nature toward microbial communities. Results from this study suggest that the photoactivity of pSi is unlikely to persist in aqueous systems and that it may instead behave more similarly to silica particles from an environmental perspective.

  15. Innovative reuse of drinking water sludge in geo-environmental applications.

    PubMed

    Caniani, D; Masi, S; Mancini, I M; Trulli, E

    2013-06-01

    In recent years, the replacement of natural raw materials with new alternative materials, which acquire an economic, energetic and environmental value, has gained increasing importance. The considerable consumption of water has favoured the increase in the number of drinking water treatment plants and, consequently, the production of drinking water sludge. This paper proposes a protocol of analyses capable of evaluating chemical characteristics of drinking water sludge from surface water treatment plants. Thereby we are able to assess their possible beneficial use for geo-environmental applications, such as the construction of barrier layers for landfill and for the formation of "bio-soils", when mixed with the stabilized organic fraction of municipal solid waste. This paper reports the results of a study aimed at evaluating the quality and environmental aspects of reconstructed soils ("bio-soil"), which are used in much greater quantities than the usual standard, for "massive" applications in environmental actions such as the final cover of landfills. The granulometric, chemical and physical analyses of the sludge and the leaching test on the stabilized organic fraction showed the suitability of the proposed materials for reuse. The study proved that the reuse of drinking water sludge for the construction of barrier layers and the formation of "bio-soils" reduces the consumption of natural materials, the demand for landfill volumes, and offers numerous technological advantages.

  16. Deep-water antipatharians: Proxies of environmental change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.; Risk, Michael J.; Ross, S.W.; Sulak, K.J.

    2006-01-01

    Deep-water (307-697 m) antipatharian (black coral) specimens were collected from the southeastern continental slope of the United States and the north-central Gulf of Mexico. The sclerochronology of the specimens indicates that skeletal growth takes place by formation of concentric coeval layers. We used 210Pb to estimate radial growth rate of two specimens, and to establish that they were several centuries old. Bands were delaminated in KOH and analyzed for carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes. Carbon values ranged from -16.4??? to -15.7???; oldest specimen displayed the largest range in values. Nitrogen values ranged from 7.7??? to 8.6???. Two specimens from the same location and depth had similar 15N signatures, indicating good reproducibility between specimens. ?? 2006 Geological Society of America.

  17. An analytical method for 14C in environmental water based on a wet-oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan-Jun; Guo, Gui-Yin; Wu, Lian-Sheng; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Chao-Feng; Zhang, Hai-Ying; Qin, Hong-Juan; Shang-Guan, Zhi-Hong

    2015-04-01

    An analytical method for (14)C in environmental water based on a wet-oxidation process was developed. The method can be used to determine the activity concentrations of organic and inorganic (14)C in environmental water, or total (14)C, including in drinking water, surface water, rainwater and seawater. The wet-oxidation of the organic component allows the conversion of organic carbon to an inorganic form, and the extraction of the inorganic (14)C can be achieved by acidification and nitrogen purging. Environmental water with a volume of 20 L can be used for the wet-oxidation and extraction, and a detection limit of about 0.02 Bq/g(C) can be achieved for water with carbon content above 15 mg(C)/L, obviously lower than the natural level of (14)C in the environment. The collected carbon is sufficient for measurement with a low level liquid scintillation counter (LSC) for typical samples. Extraction or recovery experiments for inorganic carbon and organic carbon from typical materials, including analytical reagents of organic benzoquinone, sucrose, glutamic acid, nicotinic acid, humic acid, ethane diol, et cetera., were conducted with excellent results based on measurement on a total organic carbon analyzer and LSC. The recovery rate for inorganic carbon ranged tween 98.7%-99.0% with a mean of 98.9(± 0.1)%, for organic carbon recovery ranged between 93.8% and 100.0% with a mean of 97.1(± 2.6)%. Verification and an uncertainty budget of the method are also presented for a representative environmental water. The method is appropriate for (14)C analysis in environmental water, and can be applied also to the analysis of liquid effluent from nuclear facilities. PMID:25590997

  18. An analytical method for 14C in environmental water based on a wet-oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan-Jun; Guo, Gui-Yin; Wu, Lian-Sheng; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Chao-Feng; Zhang, Hai-Ying; Qin, Hong-Juan; Shang-Guan, Zhi-Hong

    2015-04-01

    An analytical method for (14)C in environmental water based on a wet-oxidation process was developed. The method can be used to determine the activity concentrations of organic and inorganic (14)C in environmental water, or total (14)C, including in drinking water, surface water, rainwater and seawater. The wet-oxidation of the organic component allows the conversion of organic carbon to an inorganic form, and the extraction of the inorganic (14)C can be achieved by acidification and nitrogen purging. Environmental water with a volume of 20 L can be used for the wet-oxidation and extraction, and a detection limit of about 0.02 Bq/g(C) can be achieved for water with carbon content above 15 mg(C)/L, obviously lower than the natural level of (14)C in the environment. The collected carbon is sufficient for measurement with a low level liquid scintillation counter (LSC) for typical samples. Extraction or recovery experiments for inorganic carbon and organic carbon from typical materials, including analytical reagents of organic benzoquinone, sucrose, glutamic acid, nicotinic acid, humic acid, ethane diol, et cetera., were conducted with excellent results based on measurement on a total organic carbon analyzer and LSC. The recovery rate for inorganic carbon ranged tween 98.7%-99.0% with a mean of 98.9(± 0.1)%, for organic carbon recovery ranged between 93.8% and 100.0% with a mean of 97.1(± 2.6)%. Verification and an uncertainty budget of the method are also presented for a representative environmental water. The method is appropriate for (14)C analysis in environmental water, and can be applied also to the analysis of liquid effluent from nuclear facilities.

  19. Highly treated mine waters may require major ion addition before environmental release.

    PubMed

    Harford, Andrew J; Jones, David R; van Dam, Rick A

    2013-01-15

    Mining operations often use passive and/or active water treatments to improve water quality prior to environmental release. Key considerations in choosing a treatment process include the extent to which the water quality is actually improved, and the potential residual environmental risks of the release of such water. However, there are few published studies concerning the environmental impacts of treated waste waters. This study used toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) methods to quantify and identify the "toxic" constituents of a highly-treated water (distillate) produced by brine concentration of a mining process water. Exposure of five freshwater species (Chlorella sp., Lemna aequinoctialis, Hydra viridissima, Moinodaphnia macleayi and Mogurnda mogurnda) to a concentration range of the distillate (0, 25, 50 and 100%) found that it was toxic to H. viridissima (50-100% effect when exposed to 100% distillate). TIE tests demonstrated that the effect wasn't due to residual ammonia (~1 mg L(-1)N) or trace organics, and unlikely to be due to manganese (Mn; 130-230 μg L(-1)). Conversely, addition of 0.2 and 0.5 mg L(-1) calcium improved the growth rate of H. viridissima by 61 and 66%, respectively, while addition of calcium, sodium and potassium (0.5, 1.0 and 0.4 mg L(-1), respectively) to levels comparable to that in the local aquatic environment resulted in 100% recovery. Further assessment on the likelihood of residual metal toxicity indicated that Mn concentrations in the distillate were at levels that could inhibit the growth of H. viridissima. Ultimately, the results demonstrated that ion deficiency should be considered as a potential stressor in risk/impact assessments of the discharge of treated wastewaters, and these may need to be supplemented with the deficient ions to reduce environmental impacts. The findings have highlighted the need for water managers to consider the possibility of unintended environmental risks from the discharge of highly

  20. Highly treated mine waters may require major ion addition before environmental release.

    PubMed

    Harford, Andrew J; Jones, David R; van Dam, Rick A

    2013-01-15

    Mining operations often use passive and/or active water treatments to improve water quality prior to environmental release. Key considerations in choosing a treatment process include the extent to which the water quality is actually improved, and the potential residual environmental risks of the release of such water. However, there are few published studies concerning the environmental impacts of treated waste waters. This study used toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) methods to quantify and identify the "toxic" constituents of a highly-treated water (distillate) produced by brine concentration of a mining process water. Exposure of five freshwater species (Chlorella sp., Lemna aequinoctialis, Hydra viridissima, Moinodaphnia macleayi and Mogurnda mogurnda) to a concentration range of the distillate (0, 25, 50 and 100%) found that it was toxic to H. viridissima (50-100% effect when exposed to 100% distillate). TIE tests demonstrated that the effect wasn't due to residual ammonia (~1 mg L(-1)N) or trace organics, and unlikely to be due to manganese (Mn; 130-230 μg L(-1)). Conversely, addition of 0.2 and 0.5 mg L(-1) calcium improved the growth rate of H. viridissima by 61 and 66%, respectively, while addition of calcium, sodium and potassium (0.5, 1.0 and 0.4 mg L(-1), respectively) to levels comparable to that in the local aquatic environment resulted in 100% recovery. Further assessment on the likelihood of residual metal toxicity indicated that Mn concentrations in the distillate were at levels that could inhibit the growth of H. viridissima. Ultimately, the results demonstrated that ion deficiency should be considered as a potential stressor in risk/impact assessments of the discharge of treated wastewaters, and these may need to be supplemented with the deficient ions to reduce environmental impacts. The findings have highlighted the need for water managers to consider the possibility of unintended environmental risks from the discharge of highly

  1. Panel 2.8: water, sanitation, food safety, and environmental health.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Shafiqul; Heijnen, Han Antonius; Sumanasekera, Deepthi; Walden, Vivien; Roulet, Michel; Yoosuf, Abdul Sattar

    2005-01-01

    This is a summary of the presentations and discussion by the panel that addressed issues with Water, Sanitation, Food Safety, and Environmental Health during the Conference, Health Aspects of the Tsunami Disaster in Asia, convened by the World Health Organization (WHO) in Phuket, Thailand, 04-06 May 2005. The topics discussed included issues related to water, sanitation, food safety, and environmental health as pertain to the responses to the damage created by the Tsunami. It is presented in the following major sections: (1) needs assessments; (2) institutional capacity and coordination; (3) what was done well, and what could have been done better?; and (4) capacity building and preparedness. Topics discussed in the needs assessment section included: (1) water supply; (2) hygiene; and (3) lessons learned. Topics discussed realated to capacity building and preparedness included: (1) waste and vector-borne diseases; (2) food safety; (3) nutrition; and (4) environmental health. PMID:16496628

  2. Systems analysis for environmental assessment of urban water and wastewater systems.

    PubMed

    Jeppsson, U; Hellström, D

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, two fundamentally different urban wastewater systems are assessed from an environmental impact perspective. One system represents a centralised, high-tech, end-of-pipe structure whereas the second system is primarily based on source-separation strategies. Using material flow analysis in combination with evaluation methods based on life-cycle assessment the systems are evaluated by means of simulation and the results are discussed. A set of priority indicators for environmental assessments of urban water systems is suggested and applied in the analysis. Energy issues are also commented upon. The main intent of the paper is to present the principles of this type of assessment rather than detailed numbers for all possible environmental effects and hazardous substances emitted to air, water and soil. It represents one of several building blocks for a future multi-criteria decision-support system to evaluate urban water management from a sustainability perspective.

  3. A Stochastic Framework For Sediment Concentration Estimation By Accounting Random Arrival Processes Of Incoming Particles Into Receiving Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, C.; Hung, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    This study attempts to apply queueing theory to develop a stochastic framework that could account for the random-sized batch arrivals of incoming sediment particles into receiving waters. Sediment particles, control volume, mechanics of sediment transport (such as mechanics of suspension, deposition and resuspension) are treated as the customers, service facility and the server respectively in queueing theory. In the framework, the stochastic diffusion particle tracking model (SD-PTM) and resuspension of particles are included to simulate the random transport trajectories of suspended particles. The most distinguished characteristic of queueing theory is that customers come to the service facility in a random manner. In analogy to sediment transport, this characteristic is adopted to model the random-sized batch arrival process of sediment particles including the random occurrences and random magnitude of incoming sediment particles. The random occurrences of arrivals are simulated by Poisson process while the number of sediment particles in each arrival can be simulated by a binominal distribution. Simulations of random arrivals and random magnitude are proposed individually to compare with the random-sized batch arrival simulations. Simulation results are a probabilistic description for discrete sediment transport through ensemble statistics (i.e. ensemble means and ensemble variances) of sediment concentrations and transport rates. Results reveal the different mechanisms of incoming particles will result in differences in the ensemble variances of concentrations and transport rates under the same mean incoming rate of sediment particles.

  4. Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support Systems: An Update on Waste Water Reclamation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferner, Kathleen M.

    1994-01-01

    Since the mid-1980's, work has been ongoing In the development of the various environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) for the space station. Part of this effort has been focused on the development of a new subsystem to reclaim waste water that had not been previously required for shuttle missions. Because of the extended manned missions proposed, reclamation of waste water becomes imperative to avoid the weight penalties associated with resupplying a crew's entire water needs for consumption and daily hygiene. Hamilton Standard, under contract to Boeing Aerospace and Electronics, has been designing the water reclamation system for space station use. Since June of 1991, Hamilton Standard has developed a combined water processor capable of reclaiming potable quality water from waste hygiene water, used laundry water, processed urine, Shuttle fuel cell water, humidity condensate and other minor waste water sources. The system was assembled and then tested with over 27,700 pounds of 'real' waste water. During the 1700 hours of system operation required to process this waste water, potable quality water meeting NASA and Boeing specifications was produced. This paper gives a schematic overview of the system, describes the test conditions and test results and outlines the next steps for system development.

  5. Environmental loads from water-sprinkled softwood timber. 2: Influence of tree species and water characteristics on wastewater discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Borga, P.; Elowson, T.; Liukko, K.

    1996-09-01

    The concentration patterns of a number of compounds in the inlet water and wastewater from sprinkling of timber from Scotch pine and Norway spruce have been studied. The timber was separated with respect to species and sprinkled with water from a eutrophic or an oligotrophic receiving water for 18 weeks. Organic and inorganic compounds including dissolved organic carbon (DOC), distillable phenols, resin acids, bacterial phospholipid fatty acids, organic and inorganic phosphorus, nitrogen and sulfur, and a number of metal ions were monitored in the inlet water and wastewater. The toxicity of the wastewater was estimated during the first 2 weeks using a Microtox{reg_sign} test and appeared to decline in parallel with DOC. Most compounds showed both an environmental net load and an absorption by the timber, the loads being smaller and the absorption larger when using eutrophic water. At both sites the loads were generally largest during the first 2 weeks and larger in magnitude at the oligotrophic site and in the spruce wastewater. The initial growth of the bacterial biomass in the pile system was slower at the oligotrophic site, and the results indicated that a rapid growth of the bacterial biomass reduces the initial environmental loads and that this process is associated with the nutrient status of the receiving water.

  6. Platform and Environmental Effects on Above- and In-Water Determinations of Water-Leaving Radiances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B.; Morel, Andre; McClain, Charles R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A comparison of above- and in-water spectral measurements in Case-1 conditions showed the uncertainty in above-water determinations of water-leaving radiances depended on the pointing angle of the above-water instruments with respect to the side of the ship. Two above-water methods were used to create a diagnostic variable to quantify the presence of superstructure reflections which degraded the above-water intracomparisons of water-leaving radiances by 10.9-33.4% (for far-to-near viewing distances, respectively). The primary conclusions of the above- and in-water intercomparison of water-leaving radiances were as follows: a) the SeaWiFS 5% radiometric objective was achieved with the above-water approach, but reliably with only one method and only for about half the data; b) a decrease in water-leaving radiance values was seen in the presence of swell, although, wave crests were radiometrically brighter than the troughs; and c) standard band ratios used in ocean color algorithms remained severely affected, because of the relatively low signal and, thus, proportionally significant contamination at the 555nm wavelength.

  7. An Optimized Method for Quantification of Pathogenic Leptospira in Environmental Water Samples.

    PubMed

    Riediger, Irina N; Hoffmaster, Alex R; Casanovas-Massana, Arnau; Biondo, Alexander W; Ko, Albert I; Stoddard, Robyn A

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease usually acquired by contact with water contaminated with urine of infected animals. However, few molecular methods have been used to monitor or quantify pathogenic Leptospira in environmental water samples. Here we optimized a DNA extraction method for the quantification of leptospires using a previously described Taqman-based qPCR method targeting lipL32, a gene unique to and highly conserved in pathogenic Leptospira. QIAamp DNA mini, MO BIO PowerWater DNA and PowerSoil DNA Isolation kits were evaluated to extract DNA from sewage, pond, river and ultrapure water samples spiked with leptospires. Performance of each kit varied with sample type. Sample processing methods were further evaluated and optimized using the PowerSoil DNA kit due to its performance on turbid water samples and reproducibility. Centrifugation speeds, water volumes and use of Escherichia coli as a carrier were compared to improve DNA recovery. All matrices showed a strong linearity in a range of concentrations from 106 to 10° leptospires/mL and lower limits of detection ranging from <1 cell /ml for river water to 36 cells/mL for ultrapure water with E. coli as a carrier. In conclusion, we optimized a method to quantify pathogenic Leptospira in environmental waters (river, pond and sewage) which consists of the concentration of 40 mL samples by centrifugation at 15,000×g for 20 minutes at 4°C, followed by DNA extraction with the PowerSoil DNA Isolation kit. Although the method described herein needs to be validated in environmental studies, it potentially provides the opportunity for effective, timely and sensitive assessment of environmental leptospiral burden. PMID:27487084

  8. An Optimized Method for Quantification of Pathogenic Leptospira in Environmental Water Samples

    PubMed Central

    Riediger, Irina N.; Hoffmaster, Alex R.; Biondo, Alexander W.; Ko, Albert I.; Stoddard, Robyn A.

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease usually acquired by contact with water contaminated with urine of infected animals. However, few molecular methods have been used to monitor or quantify pathogenic Leptospira in environmental water samples. Here we optimized a DNA extraction method for the quantification of leptospires using a previously described Taqman-based qPCR method targeting lipL32, a gene unique to and highly conserved in pathogenic Leptospira. QIAamp DNA mini, MO BIO PowerWater DNA and PowerSoil DNA Isolation kits were evaluated to extract DNA from sewage, pond, river and ultrapure water samples spiked with leptospires. Performance of each kit varied with sample type. Sample processing methods were further evaluated and optimized using the PowerSoil DNA kit due to its performance on turbid water samples and reproducibility. Centrifugation speeds, water volumes and use of Escherichia coli as a carrier were compared to improve DNA recovery. All matrices showed a strong linearity in a range of concentrations from 106 to 10° leptospires/mL and lower limits of detection ranging from <1 cell /ml for river water to 36 cells/mL for ultrapure water with E. coli as a carrier. In conclusion, we optimized a method to quantify pathogenic Leptospira in environmental waters (river, pond and sewage) which consists of the concentration of 40 mL samples by centrifugation at 15,000×g for 20 minutes at 4°C, followed by DNA extraction with the PowerSoil DNA Isolation kit. Although the method described herein needs to be validated in environmental studies, it potentially provides the opportunity for effective, timely and sensitive assessment of environmental leptospiral burden. PMID:27487084

  9. Environmental health in China: challenges to achieving clean air and safe water

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Mauzerall, Denise L.; Zhu, Tong; Liang, Song; Ezzati, Majid; Remais, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The health effects of environmental risks, especially those of air and water pollution, remain a major source of morbidity and mortality in China. Biomass fuel and coal are routinely burned for cooking and heating in almost all rural and many urban households resulting in severe indoor air pollution that contributes greatly to the burden of disease. Many communities lack access to safe drinking water and santiation, and thus the risk of waterborne disease in many regions remains high. At the same time, China is rapidly industrializing with associated increases in energy use and industrial waste. While economic growth resulting from industrialization has improved health and quality of life indicators in China, it has also increased the incidence of environmental disasters and the release of chemical toxins into the environment, with severe impacts on health. Air quality in China's cities is among the worst in the world and industrial water pollution has become a widespread health hazard. Moreover, emissions of climate-warming greenhouse gases from energy use are rapidly increasing. Global climate change will inevitably intensify China's environmental health problems, with potentially catastrophic outcomes from major shifts in temperature and precipitation. Facing the overlap of traditional, modern, and emerging environmental problems, China has committed substantial resources to environmental improvement. China has the opportunity to both address its national environmental health challenges and to assume a central role in the international effort to improve the global environment. PMID:20346817

  10. Environmental health in China: progress towards clean air and safe water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junfeng; Mauzerall, Denise L; Zhu, Tong; Liang, Song; Ezzati, Majid; Remais, Justin V

    2010-03-27

    Environmental risk factors, especially air and water pollution, are a major source of morbidity and mortality in China. Biomass fuel and coal are burned for cooking and heating in almost all rural and many urban households, resulting in severe indoor air pollution that contributes greatly to the burden of disease. Many communities lack access to safe drinking water and sanitation, and thus the risk of waterborne disease in many regions is high. At the same time, China is rapidly industrialising with associated increases in energy use and industrial waste. Although economic growth from industrialisation has improved health and quality of life indicators, it has also increased the release of chemical toxins into the environment and the rate of environmental disasters, with severe effects on health. Air quality in China's cities is among the worst in the world, and industrial water pollution has become a widespread health hazard. Moreover, emissions of climate-warming greenhouse gases from energy use are rapidly increasing. Global climate change will inevitably intensify China's environmental health troubles, with potentially catastrophic outcomes from major shifts in temperature and precipitation. Facing the overlap of traditional, modern, and emerging environmental dilemmas, China has committed substantial resources to environmental improvement. The country has the opportunity to address its national environmental health challenges and to assume a central role in the international effort to improve the global environment.

  11. Environmental health in China: progress towards clean air and safe water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junfeng; Mauzerall, Denise L; Zhu, Tong; Liang, Song; Ezzati, Majid; Remais, Justin V

    2010-03-27

    Environmental risk factors, especially air and water pollution, are a major source of morbidity and mortality in China. Biomass fuel and coal are burned for cooking and heating in almost all rural and many urban households, resulting in severe indoor air pollution that contributes greatly to the burden of disease. Many communities lack access to safe drinking water and sanitation, and thus the risk of waterborne disease in many regions is high. At the same time, China is rapidly industrialising with associated increases in energy use and industrial waste. Although economic growth from industrialisation has improved health and quality of life indicators, it has also increased the release of chemical toxins into the environment and the rate of environmental disasters, with severe effects on health. Air quality in China's cities is among the worst in the world, and industrial water pollution has become a widespread health hazard. Moreover, emissions of climate-warming greenhouse gases from energy use are rapidly increasing. Global climate change will inevitably intensify China's environmental health troubles, with potentially catastrophic outcomes from major shifts in temperature and precipitation. Facing the overlap of traditional, modern, and emerging environmental dilemmas, China has committed substantial resources to environmental improvement. The country has the opportunity to address its national environmental health challenges and to assume a central role in the international effort to improve the global environment. PMID:20346817

  12. Paraho environmental data. Part I. Process characterization. Par II. Air quality. Part III. Water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Heistand, R.N.; Atwood, R.A.; Richardson, K.L.

    1980-06-01

    From 1973 to 1978, Development Engineering, Inc. (DEI), a subsidiary of Paraho Development Corporation, demostrated the Paraho technology for surface oil shale retorting at Anvil Points, Colorado. A considerable amount of environmentally-related research was also conducted. This body of data represents the most comprehensive environmental data base relating to surface retorting that is currently available. In order to make this information available, the DOE Office of Environment has undertaken to compile, assemble, and publish this environmental data. The compilation has been prepared by DEI. This report includes the process characterization, air quality, and water quality categories.

  13. Environmental planning and management in an age of uncertainty: the case of the Water Framework Directive.

    PubMed

    Carter, Jeremy G; White, Iain

    2012-12-30

    Scenario planning is one of the most prominent methods applied by organisations to assist long-term decision making. This paper uses a case study method to demonstrate how scenarios can be operationalised to inform future strategies and to challenge rigid silo-based decision making approaches. The WaterProof Northwest scenarios developed by the authors in collaboration with a range of stakeholders, and described within this paper, offer a platform for considering the future of the water environment. The scenarios were developed in the context of meeting the goals of the European Water Framework Directive. This Directive has the core aim of improving the chemical and ecological status of Europe's water bodies. The scenarios highlight that water bodies in the case study area (the region of Northwest England) are impacted directly by a wide array of driving forces which will affect the state of the water environment over the coming decades. This analysis demonstrates that organisations responsible for creating and implementing long-term plans and policies to manage water are often far removed from the forces that will influence the effectiveness of the exercises that they are engaged in. The WaterProof Northwest scenarios highlight that organisations need different decision making approaches in order to adapt to modern environmental challenges. They also raise questions over whether environmental legislation such as the Water Framework Directive should incorporate a futures perspective in recognition of the wide ranging forces influencing their implementation.

  14. ROLE OF GRASSROOTS ENVIRONMENTAL LITERACY: The case of water security at Bwaila Secondary School in Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chasukwa Mwalwenje, Yvonne; Chasukwa, Steria

    2015-04-01

    water. The main challenge is the degradation of water resources which result into siltation that blocks the water sources due to rain while in the dry season the water level in reservoirs goes down. Other challenges include inadequate service coverage, insufficient literacy on climate change, inadequate mitigation measures for water related disasters and inadequate promotion of hygiene and sanitation. Bwaila Secondary School in Malawi is no exception in experiencing inadequate water service coverage amidst opportunities such as availability of relatively abundant water resources, political will, active women and youth. The formal education curriculum in secondary schools has enriched students' knowledge of environmental management in subjects such as Geography, Agriculture and Biology to improve their understanding of natural resource management. However, the primary gap is that students do not use the skills in environmental management acquired from the formal school setting in their day to day life henceforth rendering it to be a mere academic exercise confined within classroom walls. It is against such background that Grassroots Environmental Literacy (GEL), an environmental management social marketing franchise in non-formal education was established to fill in the gap. GEL's mission is to inspire students to become change agents in environmental management in their own lives in both formal and non-formal settings in Malawi. GEL believes that the cultivation of broad-based private and public support is the key to bringing about positive and lasting environmental change hence contributing to water security. The education sector in general and school attendance in particular is largely affected by water security. Furthermore, technological limitations have also affected the accessibility of water resources. UNICEF (2008) asserts that water resources may be scarce as it is capital intensive to sink a bore hole in Malawi. Bwaila secondary school is one of the examples

  15. [Water and the population-environment relation in Mexico: an evaluation using environmental statistics].

    PubMed

    Chumpitaz, C C

    1997-01-01

    This work uses the example of water to evaluate the degree to which environmental statistics can be used to study the relation between population and the environment in Mexico. The theoretical viewpoint adopted is that demographic dynamics do not have direct effects on the environment, such effects instead being mediated by technical, economic, and cultural factors. The work begins by describing and comparing three frameworks for collection of statistical data on the environment: the Framework for the Development of Environmental Statistics, the Framework for Indicators of Sustainable Development, and the Pressure-Response model. The importance of water in sustaining life, in agriculture, in spread of disease, and as an element articulating the population-environment relationship is then discussed. The availability, levels of disaggregation, and compatibility of environmental data from various sources are then examined. The author concludes that although Mexico has an enormous institutional capacity to produce statistics concerning the environment, data are independently collected by different agencies using different methodologies and are not compatible. The environmental statistics regarding water organized according to the prevailing frameworks make it impossible for example to determine how health or mortality patterns are modified by the quality or scarcity of water, or to what extent population is exerting pressure on the water supply. Additional data are needed if the relationship is to be fully understood.

  16. Rapid and specific SPRi detection of L. pneumophila in complex environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Foudeh, Amir M; Trigui, Hana; Mendis, Nilmini; Faucher, Sebastien P; Veres, Teodor; Tabrizian, Maryam

    2015-07-01

    Legionellosis is a very devastating disease worldwide mainly due to unpredictable outbreaks in man-made water systems. Developing a highly specific and sensitive rapid detection system that detects only metabolically active bacteria is a main priority for water quality assessment. We previously developed a versatile technique for sensitive and specific detection of synthetic RNA. In the present work, we further investigated the performance of the developed biosensor for detection of Legionella pneumophila in complex environmental samples, particularly those containing protozoa. The specificity and sensitivity of the detection system were verified using total RNA extracted from L. pneumophila in spiked water co-cultured with amoebae. We demonstrated that the expression level of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is extremely dependent on the environmental conditions. The presence of amoebae with L. pneumophila, especially in nutrition-deprived samples, increased the amount of L. pneumophila 15-fold after 1 week as measured through the expression of 16s rRNA. Using the developed surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) detection method, we were also able to successfully detect L. pneumophila within 3 h, both in the presence and absence of amoebae in the complex environmental samples obtained from a cooling water tower. These findings suggest that the developed biosensing system is a viable method for rapid, real-time and effective detection not only for L. pneumophila in environmental samples but also to assess the risk associated with the use of water contaminated with other pathogens. PMID:25935681

  17. Environmental setting and water-quality issues of the Mobile River Basin, Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, and Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Gregory C.; Kidd, Robert E.; Journey, Celeste A.; Zappia, Humbert; Atkins, J. Brian

    2002-01-01

    The Mobile River Basin is one of over 50 river basins and aquifer systems being investigated as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. This basin is the sixth largest river basin in the United States, and fourth largest in terms of streamflow, encompassing parts of Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, and Tennessee. Almost two-thirds of the 44,000-square-mile basin is located in Alabama. Extensive water resources of the Mobile River Basin are influenced by an array of natural and cultural factors. These factors impart unique and variable qualities to the streams, rivers, and aquifers providing abundant habitat to sustain the diverse aquatic life in the basin. Data from Federal, State, and local agencies provide a description of the environmental setting of the Mobile River Basin. Environmental data include natural factors such as physiography, geology, soils, climate, hydrology, ecoregions, and aquatic ecology, and human factors such as reservoirs, land use and population change, water use, and water-quality issues. Characterization of the environmental setting is useful for understanding the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of surface and ground water in the Mobile River Basin and the possible implications of that environmental setting for water quality. The Mobile River Basin encompasses parts of five physiographic provinces. Fifty-six percent of the basin lies within the East Gulf section of the Coastal Plain Physiographic Province. The remaining northeastern part of the basin lies, from west to east, within the Cumberland Plateau section of the Appalachian Plateaus Physiographic Province, the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province, the Piedmont Physiographic Province, and the Blue Ridge Physiographic Province. Based on the 1991 land-use data, about 70 percent of the basin is forested, while agriculture, including livestock (poultry, cattle, and swine), row crops (cotton, corn, soybeans, sorghum, and

  18. Hydrochemical diversity of semi-natural water system on the background of environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Cudowski, Adam; Górniak, Andrzej Stefan; Więcko, Adam

    2015-06-01

    Research carried out from 2007 to 2011 showed that a tested semi-natural water system with a diverse catchment (peat, peat-mineral and mineral) has a very varied quality of water, as evidenced by a the large range of conductivity (174-828 μS/cm) and pH (6.34-9.92). Natural lake parts of the semi-natural water system were similar to the artificial parts in terms of physico-chemical parameters, as evidenced by the lack of statistically significant differences between the water quality in both of these ecosystems. Taking into account the quality of various types of water in this semi-natural system, it can be seen that the river waters differed significantly (p < 0.001) in concentrations of biogenic elements (nitrogen, phosphorus) from another type of ecosystems. In addition, rivers poor in organic matter (TOC < 10.0 mg/L) which directly supplied the water system contributed to higher values of many tested parameters (EC, pH, TC, TN, SO4 (2-) or Cl(-)) in waters of the canal. In contrast, rivers with high values of concentrations of organic matter (TOC > 10.0 mg/L) contributed to a decline in values of those parameters. Moreover, lake waters within the tested semi-natural water system showed a "cleansing" function, because they caused a decrease in conductivity, pH or the concentration of carbon, total nitrogen, sulphate(VI) and chloride in waters of the canal.

  19. The role of direct photolysis and indirect photochemistry in the environmental fate of ethylhexyl methoxy cinnamate (EHMC) in surface waters.

    PubMed

    Vione, D; Calza, P; Galli, F; Fabbri, D; Santoro, V; Medana, C

    2015-12-15

    The aquatic environmental fate of ethylhexyl methoxy cinnamate (EHMC), one of the most used UVB filters worldwide, was studied by assessing its environmental persistence and photoinduced transformations. The role of direct and indirect photolysis was evaluated. Direct photolysis was shown to play a key role, and this process is expected to be the main attenuation route of EHMC in sunlit surface waters. In contrast, the reaction with OH radicals would be negligible and that with (3)CDOM* would at most be a secondary process. The measurement of the quantum yield of direct photolysis and of the rate constants of reaction with photogenerated transient species (or, sometimes, the use of reasonable values for the latter) allowed the prediction of the EHMC half-life time in surface waters, by means of a validated photochemical model. The predicted EHMC lifetime is of the order of hours to a few days in fair-weather summertime, and the main factors controlling the EHMC phototransformation in sunlit surface waters would be the water depth and the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content. The formation of transformation products (TPs) was followed as well via HPLC/HRMS. Three TPs were detected in the samples exposed to UVA radiation, while one additional TP was detected in the samples exposed to UVB radiation. The detected TPs comprised 4-methoxybenzaldehyde, a hydroxylated derivative and dimeric species. Through the use of heterogeneous photocatalysis with TiO2, seven additional TPs were identified, most of them resulting from the further degradation of primary TPs formed through direct photolysis and that might be detected in aquatic systems as well. The photodegradation of EHMC in the presence of TiO2 yielded more toxic TPs than the parent compound (as determined with the Vibrio fischeri Microtox assay). The increased toxicity is partially accounted for by the formation of 4-methoxybenzaldehyde.

  20. Water-compatible magnetic imprinted microspheres for rapid separation and determination of triazine herbicides in environmental water.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Fengxia; Row, Kyung Ho; Wang, Mengge

    2014-04-15

    A novel kind of water-compatible magnetic imprinted cyromazine microsphere (WCMM) was synthesized by water/oil/water suspension polymerization. The obtained WCMM was homogenously spherical with porous morphology and strong magnetic properties. The microspheres were successfully used as adsorbent in dispersive solid-phase extraction (WCMM-dSPE) to selectively extract cyanazine and atrazine from environmental water. Good linearity of the two analytes was observed in the range from 2.5 to 200.0ngmL(-1). The average recoveries at three spiking levels ranged from 84.8% to 104.3% with relative standard deviations (RSD) less than 6.9%. Compared with magnetic non-imprinted particles (WCMN), the proposed WCMM adsorbent of dSPE efficiently improved the efficiency of extracting cyanazine and atrazine from environmental water samples and eliminated the effect of cyromazine leakage on the quantitative analysis of cyanazine and atrazine. The proposed WCMM-dSPE method combined the advantages of magnetic separation, molecular imprinted microspheres and dSPE.

  1. Water Mites (Acari: Hydrachnida) of Ozark Streams - Abundance, Species Richness, and Potential as Environmental Indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radwell, A. J.; Brown, A. V.

    2005-05-01

    Because water mites are tightly linked to other stream metazoans through parasitism and predation, they are potentially effective indicators of environmental quality. Meiofauna (80 μm to 1 mm) were sampled from headwater riffles of 11 Ozark streams to determine relative abundance and densities of major meiofauna taxa. Water mites comprised 15.3% of the organisms collected exceeded only by chironomids (50.2%) and oligochaetes (17.8%), and mean water mite density among the 11 streams was 265 organisms per liter. The two streams that differed the most in environmental quality were sampled using techniques suitable for identification of species. An estimated 32 species from 20 genera and 13 families were found in the least disturbed stream; an estimated 19 species from 13 genera and 8 families were found in the most disturbed stream. This preliminary finding supports the notion that water mite species richness declines in response to environmental disturbance. Many species could only be identified as morphospecies of particular genera, but the ongoing taxonomic revision of Hydrachnida is expected to provide needed information. A collaborative effort between those interested in taxonomy/systematics of water mites and ecologists interested in the significance of water mites in aquatic communities could prove mutually beneficial.

  2. Estimating the environmental and resource costs of leakage in water distribution systems: A shadow price approach.

    PubMed

    Molinos-Senante, María; Mocholí-Arce, Manuel; Sala-Garrido, Ramon

    2016-10-15

    Water scarcity is one of the main problems faced by many regions in the XXIst century. In this context, the need to reduce leakages from water distribution systems has gained almost universal acceptance. The concept of sustainable economic level of leakage (SELL) has been proposed to internalize the environmental and resource costs within economic level of leakage calculations. However, because these costs are not set by the market, they have not often been calculated. In this paper, the directional-distance function was used to estimate the shadow price of leakages as a proxy of their environmental and resource costs. This is a pioneering approach to the economic valuation of leakage externalities. An empirical application was carried out for the main Chilean water companies. The estimated results indicated that for 2014, the average shadow price of leakages was approximately 32% of the price of the water delivered. Moreover, as a sensitivity analysis, the shadow prices of the leakages were calculated from the perspective of the water companies' managers and the regulator. The methodology and findings of this study are essential for supporting the decision process of reducing leakage, contributing to the improvement of economic, social and environmental efficiency and sustainability of urban water supplies.

  3. Estimating the environmental and resource costs of leakage in water distribution systems: A shadow price approach.

    PubMed

    Molinos-Senante, María; Mocholí-Arce, Manuel; Sala-Garrido, Ramon

    2016-10-15

    Water scarcity is one of the main problems faced by many regions in the XXIst century. In this context, the need to reduce leakages from water distribution systems has gained almost universal acceptance. The concept of sustainable economic level of leakage (SELL) has been proposed to internalize the environmental and resource costs within economic level of leakage calculations. However, because these costs are not set by the market, they have not often been calculated. In this paper, the directional-distance function was used to estimate the shadow price of leakages as a proxy of their environmental and resource costs. This is a pioneering approach to the economic valuation of leakage externalities. An empirical application was carried out for the main Chilean water companies. The estimated results indicated that for 2014, the average shadow price of leakages was approximately 32% of the price of the water delivered. Moreover, as a sensitivity analysis, the shadow prices of the leakages were calculated from the perspective of the water companies' managers and the regulator. The methodology and findings of this study are essential for supporting the decision process of reducing leakage, contributing to the improvement of economic, social and environmental efficiency and sustainability of urban water supplies. PMID:27289397

  4. Environmental assessment for the domestic water supply upgrades and consolidation on the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The domestic water systems on the Savannah River Site (SRS) are currently in need of upgrading to ensure compliance with the Safe Drinking Water Act and South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Drinking Water Regulations. The SRS has 28 separate goundwater-based drinking water systems in use across the site. These aging systems were designed and constructed in the 1950s and are now facing increasing difficulties in meeting cur-rent regulations. Audits of the systems conducted by SCDHEC in 1986, 1988, 1991, and 1993 identified shortfalls in meeting the requirements for secondary maximum containment levels (MCLS) and SCDHEC design standards. Secondary MCLs are those items, such as odor or appearance, that do not pose a direct health impact. SRS has committed to SCDHEC to correct the drinking water discrepancies and construct two new consolidated inter-area drinking water systems. Upgrading the SRS drinking water systems would be necessary to support site activities regardless of the makeup or the mission at SRS. As such, the proposed upgrade and consolidation of SRS domestic water systems is treated as part of the ``No Action`` alternative for the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Reconfiguration of the Nuclear Weapons Complex .

  5. Hydraulic fracturing water use variability in the United States and potential environmental implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallegos, Tanya J.; Varela, Brian A.; Haines, Seth S.; Engle, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Until now, up-to-date, comprehensive, spatial, national-scale data on hydraulic fracturing water volumes have been lacking. Water volumes used (injected) to hydraulically fracture over 263,859 oil and gas wells drilled between 2000 and 2014 were compiled and used to create the first U.S. map of hydraulic fracturing water use. Although median annual volumes of 15,275 m3 and 19,425 m3 of water per well was used to hydraulically fracture individual horizontal oil and gas wells, respectively, in 2014, about 42% of wells were actually either vertical or directional, which required less than 2600 m3 water per well. The highest average hydraulic fracturing water usage (10,000−36,620 m3 per well) in watersheds across the United States generally correlated with shale-gas areas (versus coalbed methane, tight oil, or tight gas) where the greatest proportion of hydraulically fractured wells were horizontally drilled, reflecting that the natural reservoir properties influence water use. This analysis also demonstrates that many oil and gas resources within a given basin are developed using a mix of horizontal, vertical, and some directional wells, explaining why large volume hydraulic fracturing water usage is not widespread. This spatial variability in hydraulic fracturing water use relates to the potential for environmental impacts such as water availability, water quality, wastewater disposal, and possible wastewater injection-induced earthquakes.

  6. Hydraulic fracturing water use variability in the United States and potential environmental implications

    PubMed Central

    Varela, Brian A.; Haines, Seth S.; Engle, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Until now, up‐to‐date, comprehensive, spatial, national‐scale data on hydraulic fracturing water volumes have been lacking. Water volumes used (injected) to hydraulically fracture over 263,859 oil and gas wells drilled between 2000 and 2014 were compiled and used to create the first U.S. map of hydraulic fracturing water use. Although median annual volumes of 15,275 m3 and 19,425 m3 of water per well was used to hydraulically fracture individual horizontal oil and gas wells, respectively, in 2014, about 42% of wells were actually either vertical or directional, which required less than 2600 m3 water per well. The highest average hydraulic fracturing water usage (10,000−36,620 m3 per well) in watersheds across the United States generally correlated with shale‐gas areas (versus coalbed methane, tight oil, or tight gas) where the greatest proportion of hydraulically fractured wells were horizontally drilled, reflecting that the natural reservoir properties influence water use. This analysis also demonstrates that many oil and gas resources within a given basin are developed using a mix of horizontal, vertical, and some directional wells, explaining why large volume hydraulic fracturing water usage is not widespread. This spatial variability in hydraulic fracturing water use relates to the potential for environmental impacts such as water availability, water quality, wastewater disposal, and possible wastewater injection‐induced earthquakes. PMID:26937056

  7. Hydraulic fracturing water use variability in the United States and potential environmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallegos, Tanya J.; Varela, Brian A.; Haines, Seth S.; Engle, Mark A.

    2015-07-01

    Until now, up-to-date, comprehensive, spatial, national-scale data on hydraulic fracturing water volumes have been lacking. Water volumes used (injected) to hydraulically fracture over 263,859 oil and gas wells drilled between 2000 and 2014 were compiled and used to create the first U.S. map of hydraulic fracturing water use. Although median annual volumes of 15,275 m3 and 19,425 m3 of water per well was used to hydraulically fracture individual horizontal oil and gas wells, respectively, in 2014, about 42% of wells were actually either vertical or directional, which required less than 2600 m3 water per well. The highest average hydraulic fracturing water usage (10,000-36,620 m3 per well) in watersheds across the United States generally correlated with shale-gas areas (versus coalbed methane, tight oil, or tight gas) where the greatest proportion of hydraulically fractured wells were horizontally drilled, reflecting that the natural reservoir properties influence water use. This analysis also demonstrates that many oil and gas resources within a given basin are developed using a mix of horizontal, vertical, and some directional wells, explaining why large volume hydraulic fracturing water usage is not widespread. This spatial variability in hydraulic fracturing water use relates to the potential for environmental impacts such as water availability, water quality, wastewater disposal, and possible wastewater injection-induced earthquakes.

  8. Framework for Integrated Water, Energy, and Environmental Resources Assessment, Planning, and Management: Lake Victoria Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgakakos, A.; Yao, H.; Tidwell, A.

    2006-12-01

    This article describes a recent assessment study for Lake Victoria in East Africa. The study includes three interlinked components. The first pertains to Lake Victoria regulation and includes climate and hydrologic forecasting (seasonal, inter-annual, and centennial), and outflow regulation (water resources planning). The second pertains to energy system planning, and the third to environmental and socio-economic impact assessments. These components converge at the operational level where water, energy, and environmental management are harmonized through the use of a decision support system, the Lake Victoria Decision Support Tool. Some of the broad study findings are summarized below: (1)Lake Victoria is entering a new era in which sustainable water resources management is tightly linked to and can only be achieved by proactive energy planning. To meet this new challenge, and maximize the benefit of the decision support system, water and energy sector decisions must be institutionally coordinated. (2)Climate and hydrologic forecasts of sufficient skill are critical for effective water resources and energy planning and management. More specifically, extensive assessments with several GCMs and climate scenarios indicate that Lake Victoria will most likely be adversely impacted by climate change with potentially serious local and regional consequences. Furthermore, seasonal and inter-annual forecasts are very important in meeting medium term water and energy demands and minimizing the costs of thermal energy generation. (3)Wetland ecological and socio-economic benefits are comparable to power sector benefits, underscoring the need for more comprehensive evaluations of non-power water uses and integrative water, energy, and environmental planning and management. (4)Integrated forecast-decision systems are excellent means to bring to bear and make practically available advances in various water-related disciplines for the benefit of managers and policy makers.

  9. Year-round Application of Water Curtain for Environmental Control in Greenhouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibuki, R.; Sugita, E.

    2011-12-01

    In large area of Japan needs forced environmental control to cultivate yields in hard temperature condition. Water Curtain is applied in Japan for night time air temperature control of small greenhouse, making strawberry and covered by plastic film. Water is splayed on extended plastic film, located above strawberry and below roof film. Underground water is utilized for cooling in summer, and warming in winter. Heat exchange between water and ground, and also water and air in the greenhouse is occurring in this system. Furthermore, heat transfer by radiation effect is also controlled by water membrane. In winter night, infrared radiation through plastic film is reduced by water membrane because of its high absorption coefficient on wave length of infrared. Besides water has a high transparency on wave length of visible light. These features are useful on the daytime radiation control of greenhouse to maintain visible light level for photosynthesis and to reduce excess infrared, damages yields in summer. Also in daytime of sunny day in winter season, temperature is too high to cultivate yields in closed greenhouse. Under this situation, water curtain is useful to storage from broad area in greenhouse excess heat from air in the circulation water. Warm water is useful to maintain temperature in greenhouse. On the contrary, in summer season, water can storage heat in daytime and release in night time. Water curtain system will contribute to be a sustainable and low energy consumption system to maintain comfortable environment for yields growth. For this reason we are considering to use water curtain in year-round. At the first step of the year-round application, day time use in summer is experimentally investigated. General water curtain splays water on plastic film extended on metal pipe. In this situation water is gathered at valley part of the film. Then water membrane is partially made and radiation control is not effective at large area. Therefore we applied new

  10. The method of multispectral image processing of phytoplankton processing for environmental control of water pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petruk, Vasil; Kvaternyuk, Sergii; Yasynska, Victoria; Kozachuk, Anastasia; Kotyra, Andrzej; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Askarova, Nursanat

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents improvement of the method of environmental monitoring of water bodies based on bioindication by phytoplankton, which identify phytoplankton particles carried out on the basis of comparison array multispectral images using Bayesian classifier of solving function based on Mahalanobis distance. It allows to evaluate objectively complex anthropogenic and technological impacts on aquatic ecosystems.

  11. 76 FR 71967 - Marseilles Land & Water Company, IL; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Marseilles Land & Water Company, IL; Notice of Availability of Environmental... Commission (Commission) regulations, 18 CFR Part 380 (Order No. 486, 52 FR 47879), the Office of...

  12. Electroanalytical techniques in the environmental monitoring of fresh-water ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Smolyakov, B.S.; Nemirovskii, A.M.; Kokovkin, V.V.

    1995-10-01

    In this work, in order to develop the analytical support of the environmental monitoring of freshwater ecosystems, the authors used a set of electrochemical techniques for assessing the composition and some integral characteristics of water. Basic attention was paid to adapting these techniques to field measurements and instruments.

  13. Performing Titration Analyses for Water Quality. Module 17. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on performing titration analysis for water quality. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) naming each part of…

  14. 78 FR 29124 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Implementation of Energy, Water, and Solid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Implementation of Energy, Water, and Solid Waste Sustainability Initiatives at Fort Bliss, Texas and New Mexico AGENCY: Department...

  15. Water Quality and Pollution. Environmental Studies. 4 Color Transparencies, Reproducibles & Teaching Guide. Grade 3, 4, 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortleb, Edward P.; And Others

    The world is faced with a variety of environmental problems. No country has escaped pollution and resource depletion. Basic ecological principles are often ignored and sometimes this contributes to ecological disasters. This volume is designed to provide basic information about the quality of the earth's water resources. The visual aids,…

  16. Water Quality Monitoring: An Environmental Studies Unit for Biology 20/30. Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Environment, Edmonton. Environmental Education Resources Branch.

    The objective of this environmental studies unit is to establish a water quality monitoring project for high school students in Alberta while simultaneously providing a unit which meets the objectives of the Biology 20 program (and which may also be used in Biology 10 and 30). Through this project, students assist in the collection,…

  17. Water Quality Monitoring: An Environmental Studies Unit for Biology 20/30. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Environment, Edmonton. Environmental Education Resources Branch.

    The objective of this environmental studies unit is to establish a water quality monitoring project for high school students in Alberta while simultaneously providing a unit which meets the objectives of the Biology 20 program (and which may also be used in Biology 10 and 30). Through this project, students assist in the collection,…

  18. DETECTION OF GIARDIA IN ENVIRONMENTAL WATERS BY IMMUNO-PCR AMPLIFICATION METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genomic DNA was extracted either directly from Giardia muris cysts seeded into environmental surface waters or from cysts isolated by immunomagnetic beads (IMB).A 0.171-kbp segment of the giardin gene was PCR-amplified following "direct extraction" of Giardia DNA from seeded Caha...

  19. DETECTION OF GIARDIA IN ENVIRONMENTAL WATERS BY IMMUNO-PCR AMPLIFICATION METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genomic DNA was extracted either directly from Giardia muris cysts seeded into environmental surface waters or from cysts isolated by immunomagnetic beads (IMB}. A 0.171-kbp segment of the giardin gene was PCR-amplified following "direct extraction" of Giardia DNA from seeded Cah...

  20. Collecting Stream Samples for Water Quality. Module 16. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on collecting stream samples for water quality. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) using a job aid to…

  1. Monoclonal antibody-based broad-specificity immunoassay for monitoring organophosphorus pesticides in environmental water samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The extensive use of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) in agriculture and domestic settings can result in widespread water contamination. The development of easy-to-use and rapid-screening immunoassay methods in a class-selective manner is a topic of considerable environmental interest. In this wo...

  2. Plant Water Use and Environmental Stress on Two Opposite Slopes: from Water and Carbon Stable Isotopic Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, H.; Xu, X.; Skrzypek, G.; Simmons, C. T.

    2014-12-01

    Climate-soil-vegetation dynamics are among key research focuses in the emerging ecohydrology discipline. Topographic relieves on landscapes provide various hydroclimatic conditions to examine vegetation functions and its responses to climate variation and changes in a short distance. In this study, we investigate ecohydrologic processes on two slopes of contrasting orientation and soil conditions in a native vegetation catchment with mean annual precipitation of 716 mm in South Australia, using water and carbon stable isotopes. Throughfall, soil water, twig water, and groundwater stable isotopes were measured and integrated into an isotope incorporated soil-plant-atmosphere model to examine different plant water use patterns on two slopes with different environmental conditions. The focuses are on how ecosystems on the two slopes receive, store, and use soil moisture in different manners. On these two slopes, trees are under different water stresses. Both leaf and soil 13C/12C ratio were measured for the two slopes to examine if δ13C can be used as an water stress indicator in this small catchment, and if the potential difference in δ13C can be observed in the soil organic matter. We monitored one-year leaf δ13C of two tree species, Eucalyptus leucoxylon and Acacia pycnantha. Our results indicate that leaf δ13C reflects different water stress conditions between slopes, seasons, and different locations on the slopes.

  3. Environmental Assessment of Ground Water Compliance at the Naturita, Colorado, UMTRA Project Site

    SciTech Connect

    2003-04-23

    This Environmental Assessment addresses the environmental effects of a proposed action and the no action alternative to comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards at the Naturita, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site. In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) completed surface cleanup at the site and encapsulated the tailings in a disposal cell 15 miles northwest near the former town of Uravan, Colorado. Ground water contaminants of potential concern at the Naturita site are uranium and vanadium. Uranium concentrations exceed the maximum concentration limit (MCL) of 0.044 milligram per liter (mg/L). Vanadium has no MCL; however, vanadium concentrations exceed the EPA Region III residential risk-based concentration of 0.33 mg/L (EPA 2002). The proposed compliance strategy for uranium and vanadium at the Naturita site is no further remediation in conjunction with the application of alternate concentration limits. Institutional controls with ground water and surface water monitoring will be implemented for these constituents as part of the compliance strategy. This compliance strategy will be protective of human health and the environment. The proposed monitoring program will begin upon regulatory concurrence with the Ground Water Compliance Action Plan (DOE 2002a). Monitoring will consist of verifying that institutional controls remain in place, collecting ground water samples to verify that concentrations of uranium and vanadium are decreasing, and collecting surface water samples to verify that contaminant concentrations do not exceed a regulatory limit or risk-based concentration. If these criteria are not met, DOE would reevaluate the proposed action and determine the need for further National Environmental Policy Act documentation. No comments were received from the public during the public comment period. Two public meetings were held during this period. Minutes of these meetings are included as

  4. PREDICTIVE UNCERTAINTY IN HYDROLOGIC AND WATER QUALITY MODELING: APPROACHES, APPLICATION TO ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, AND FUTURE CHALLENGES (PRESENTATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extant process-based hydrologic and water quality models are indispensable to water resources planning and environmental management. However, models are only approximations of real systems and often calibrated with incomplete and uncertain data. Reliable estimates, or perhaps f...

  5. Towards integrated water resources management in Colombia: challenges and opportunities for spatial environmental planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, Sergio; Hernández, Sebastián

    2015-04-01

    Only until 2010 was enacted the first national policy related to the integrated management of water resources in Colombia. In 2011 was established the Directorate for Integrated Water Resources Management within the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development. Between 2010 to 2013 were adopted the regulatory instruments to be developed within the hierarchical structure for spatial environmental planning around the water resources, considering both a transdisciplinary framework and a multi-ethnic and multi-participatory approach. In this context, there is a breakthrough in the development of strategic and tactic actions summarized as follows: i) technical guidelines or projects were developed for the spatial environmental planning at the macroscale river basins (i.e. Magdalena-Cauca river basin with 2.3 million hectares), meso-scale (river basins from 50.000 to 2 million hectares and aquifers) and local scale (catchments areas less than 50.000 hectares); ii) there is an advance in the knowledge of key hydrological processes in the basins of the country as well as actions to restore and preserve ecosystems essential for the regulation of water supply and ecosystem services; iii) demand characterization introducing regional talks with socio-economic stakeholders and promoting water efficiency actions; iv) water use regulation as a way for decontamination and achieving quality standards for prospective uses; v) introduction of risks analysis associated with water resources in the spatial environmental planning and establishment of mitigation and adaptation measures; vi) strengthening the monitoring network of water quality and hydrometeorological variables; vii) strengthening interactions with national and international research as well as the implementation of a national information system of water resources; viii) steps towards water governance with the introduction of socio-economic stakeholder in the spatial environmental planning and implementation of

  6. Monitoring water sources for environmental reservoirs of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1, Haiti.

    PubMed

    Alam, Meer T; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Weber, Chad D; Johnson, Judith A; Rashid, Mohammad H; Birch, Catherine S; Brumback, Babette A; Beau de Rochars, Valery E Madsen; Morris, J Glenn; Ali, Afsar

    2014-03-01

    An epidemic of cholera infections was documented in Haiti for the first time in more than 100 years during October 2010. Cases have continued to occur, raising the question of whether the microorganism has established environmental reservoirs in Haiti. We monitored 14 environmental sites near the towns of Gressier and Leogane during April 2012-March 2013. Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor biotype strains were isolated from 3 (1.7%) of 179 water samples; nontoxigenic O1 V. cholerae was isolated from an additional 3 samples. All samples containing V. cholerae O1 also contained non-O1 V. cholerae. V. cholerae O1 was isolated only when water temperatures were ≥31°C. Our data substantiate the presence of toxigenic V. cholerae O1 in the aquatic environment in Haiti. These isolations may reflect establishment of long-term environmental reservoirs in Haiti, which may complicate eradication of cholera from this coastal country.

  7. Construction of estimated flow- and load-duration curves for Kentucky using the Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Unthank, Michael D.; Newson, Jeremy K.; Williamson, Tanja N.; Nelson, Hugh L.

    2012-01-01

    Flow- and load-duration curves were constructed from the model outputs of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER) application for streams in Kentucky. The WATER application was designed to access multiple geospatial datasets to generate more than 60 years of statistically based streamflow data for Kentucky. The WATER application enables a user to graphically select a site on a stream and generate an estimated hydrograph and flow-duration curve for the watershed upstream of that point. The flow-duration curves are constructed by calculating the exceedance probability of the modeled daily streamflows. User-defined water-quality criteria and (or) sampling results can be loaded into the WATER application to construct load-duration curves that are based on the modeled streamflow results. Estimates of flow and streamflow statistics were derived from TOPographically Based Hydrological MODEL (TOPMODEL) simulations in the WATER application. A modified TOPMODEL code, SDP-TOPMODEL (Sinkhole Drainage Process-TOPMODEL) was used to simulate daily mean discharges over the period of record for 5 karst and 5 non-karst watersheds in Kentucky in order to verify the calibrated model. A statistical evaluation of the model's verification simulations show that calibration criteria, established by previous WATER application reports, were met thus insuring the model's ability to provide acceptably accurate estimates of discharge at gaged and ungaged sites throughout Kentucky. Flow-duration curves are constructed in the WATER application by calculating the exceedence probability of the modeled daily flow values. The flow-duration intervals are expressed as a percentage, with zero corresponding to the highest stream discharge in the streamflow record. Load-duration curves are constructed by applying the loading equation (Load = Flow*Water-quality criterion) at each flow interval.

  8. Radioactivity Measurement Method for Environmental Monitoring Gross Alpha/beta Activities in Drinking Water in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kahraman, Gülten; Aslan, Nazife; Şahin, Mihriban; Yüksek, Simay

    2015-01-01

    The determination of gross alpha/beta activity concentrations of drinking water is the first step of the environmental monitoring studies and can provide a rapid evaluation of the radioactive content of a sample. In this study, a procedure using liquid scintillation spectrometry (LSS) for the simultaneously monitoring of gross alpha/beta activity concentration in drinking water was determined, verificated with proficiency test sample and applied to the real drinking water samples in Turkey. The results indicate that the method provides good accuracy and precision. LSS can be employed as a screening technique in high activity concentrations. PMID:26454594

  9. Environmental isotopes as indicators for ground water recharge to fractured granite.

    PubMed

    Ofterdinger, U S; Balderer, W; Loew, S; Renard, P

    2004-01-01

    To assess the contribution of accumulated winter precipitation and glacial meltwater to the recharge of deep ground water flow systems in fracture crystalline rocks, measurements of environmental isotope ratios, hydrochemical composition, and in situ parameters of ground water were performed in a deep tunnel. The measurements demonstrate the significance of these ground water recharge components for deep ground water flow systems in fractured granites of a high alpine catchment in the Central Alps, Switzerland. Hydrochemical and in situ parameters, as well as delta(18)O in ground water samples collected in the tunnel, show only small temporal variations. The precipitation record of delta(18)O shows seasonal variations of approximately 14% and a decrease of 0.23% +/- 0.03% per 100 m elevation gain. delta(2)H and delta(18)O in precipitation are well correlated and plot close to the meteoric water line, as well as delta(2)H and delta(18)O in ground water samples, reflecting the meteoric origin of the latter. The depletion of 18O in ground water compared to 18O content in precipitation during the ground water recharge period indicates significant contributions from accumulated depleted winter precipitation to ground water recharge. The hydrochemical composition of the encountered ground water, Na-Ca-HCO3-SO4(-F), reflects an evolution of the ground water along the flowpath through the granite body. Observed tritium concentrations in ground water range from 2.6 to 16.6 TU, with the lowest values associated with a local negative temperature anomaly and anomalous depleted 18O in ground water. This demonstrates the effect of local ground water recharge from meltwater of submodern glacial ice. Such localized recharge from glaciated areas occurs along preferential flowpaths within the granite body that are mainly controlled by observed hydraulic active shear fractures and cataclastic faults.

  10. [Characteristics of net phytoplankton community and their relationships to environmental factors in the waters around Nansha Islands].

    PubMed

    Dai, Ming; Liu, Hua-Xue; Liao, Xiu-Li; Li, Kai-Zhi; Yan, Jia-Guo; Qi, Zhan-Hui; Huang, Hong-Hui

    2013-12-01

    Based on samples collected in the waters around Nansha Islands from August 25 to September 28, 2011, the characteristics of net phytoplankton community and their relationships to environmental factors were investigated. A total of 113 species, belonging to 34 genera of 3 phyla were identified, among which 57.5% belonged to Pyrrophyta and 40.7% belonged to Bacillariophyta. Ceratium in Pyrrophyta had the most species accounting for 30.1% of the 113 species. The average abundance of net phytoplankton was 2.12 x 10(4) cell x m(-3) and high abundances were encountered in the complex gyre adjacent to Reed Tablemount and in the Cyclonic Gyre adjacent to Wan'an Tan. Trichodesmium in Cyanophyta was the dominant functional group, taking up 77.0% of the total net phytoplankton abundance. Trichodesmium thiebautii, T. erythraeum and Pyrocystis noctiluca were the major dominant species. The dominant species varied with locations. Cyanophyta widely dominated at stations 3, 5, 6 and 10-14, Pyrrophyta were the dominant phytoplankton in the central locations at stations 4 and 7-9, while Bacillariophyta dominated only at the southernmost stations 1 and 2. The values of Shannon index and Pielou evenness index of net phytoplankton community were 3.10 and 0.62, respectively. The salinity, water temperature, contents of ammonium, nitrite, phosphate and silicate, as well as mesoscale gyres and the west Nansha coastal current were the important environmental factors affecting the characteristics of net phytoplankton community. The ordination plots by canonical correspondence analysis could well display the characteristics of net phytoplankton community and their relationships to environmental factors.

  11. Developing a cost effective environmental solution for produced water and creating a ''new'' water resource

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, Glenn; Leong, Lawrence Y.C.

    2000-05-01

    The project goal is to convert a currently usable by-product of oil production, produced water, into a valuable drinking water resource. The project was located at the Placate Oil Field in Santa Clarita, California, approximately 25 miles north of Los Angeles. The project included a literature review of treatment technologies; preliminary bench-scale studies to refine a planning level cost estimate; and a 10-100 gpm pilot study to develop the conceptual design and cost estimate for a 44,000 bpd treatment facility. A reverse osmosis system was constructed, pilot tested, and the data used to develop a conceptual design and operation of four operational scenarios, two industrial waters levels and two irrigation/potable water.

  12. Using magnetically responsive tea waste to remove lead in waters under environmentally relevant conditions.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Siang Yee; Choi, Siwon; Dien, Vivian; Sow-Peh, Yoke Keow; Qi, Genggeng; Hatton, T Alan; Doyle, Patrick S; Thio, Beng Joo Reginald

    2013-01-01

    We report the use of a simple yet highly effective magnetite-waste tea composite to remove lead(II) (Pb(2+)) ions from water. Magnetite-waste tea composites were dispersed in four different types of water-deionized (DI), artificial rainwater, artificial groundwater and artificial freshwater-that mimic actual environmental conditions. The water samples had varying initial concentrations (0.16-5.55 ppm) of Pb(2+) ions and were mixed with the magnetite-waste tea composite for at least 24 hours to allow adsorption of the Pb(2+) ions to reach equilibrium. The magnetite-waste tea composites were stable in all the water samples for at least 3 months and could be easily removed from the aqueous media via the use of permanent magnets. We detected no significant leaching of iron (Fe) ions into the water from the magnetite-waste tea composites. The percentage of Pb adsorbed onto the magnetite-waste tea composite ranged from ∼70% to 100%; the composites were as effective as activated carbon (AC) in removing the Pb(2+) ions from water, depending on the initial Pb concentration. Our prepared magnetite-waste tea composites show promise as a green, inexpensive and highly effective sorbent for removal of Pb in water under environmentally realistic conditions.

  13. Summary of hydrologic modeling for the Delaware River Basin using the Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williamson, Tanja N.; Lant, Jeremiah G.; Claggett, Peter; Nystrom, Elizabeth A.; Milly, Paul C.D.; Nelson, Hugh L.; Hoffman, Scott A.; Colarullo, Susan J.; Fischer, Jeffrey M.

    2015-11-18

    The Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER) is a decision support system for the nontidal part of the Delaware River Basin that provides a consistent and objective method of simulating streamflow under historical, forecasted, and managed conditions. In order to quantify the uncertainty associated with these simulations, however, streamflow and the associated hydroclimatic variables of potential evapotranspiration, actual evapotranspiration, and snow accumulation and snowmelt must be simulated and compared to long-term, daily observations from sites. This report details model development and optimization, statistical evaluation of simulations for 57 basins ranging from 2 to 930 km2 and 11.0 to 99.5 percent forested cover, and how this statistical evaluation of daily streamflow relates to simulating environmental changes and management decisions that are best examined at monthly time steps normalized over multiple decades. The decision support system provides a database of historical spatial and climatic data for simulating streamflow for 2001–11, in addition to land-cover and general circulation model forecasts that focus on 2030 and 2060. WATER integrates geospatial sampling of landscape characteristics, including topographic and soil properties, with a regionally calibrated hillslope-hydrology model, an impervious-surface model, and hydroclimatic models that were parameterized by using three hydrologic response units: forested, agricultural, and developed land cover. This integration enables the regional hydrologic modeling approach used in WATER without requiring site-specific optimization or those stationary conditions inferred when using a statistical model.

  14. A High-Resolution Dataset of Water Fluxes and States for Germany accounting for Uncertainties in the Parameter Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zink, Matthias; Kumar, Rohini; Cuntz, Matthias; Samaniego, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Long term, high-resolution data of hydrologic fluxes and states are needed for many hydrological applications such as i) impact assessment studies (e.g. drought, flood or climate change analyses), ii) studies that need the state or variability of hydrometeorological or hydrologic variables (e.g. downscaling of climate model outputs), iii) modeling studies that need hydrologic variables as input or boundary conditions (e.g. recharge for groundwater modeling). Since long-term, large-scale observations of such fluxes and states are not feasible, hydrological or land surface models are applied to derive them. Usually such datasets are provided as single model realization without accounting for input, model structural or uncertainty caused by equifinal model parameter sets. This study aims to analyze and provide a high resolution dataset of hydrological fluxes and states accounting for uncertainties caused by the estimation of model parameters. Furthermore, the spatiotemporal distribution of uncertainties in various hydrological variables as well as the superposition of uncertainties through different model compartments is investigated. The hydrological variables of interest are evapotranspiration, soil moisture, recharge, and generated discharge. They are estimated for entire Germany in the period 1950 - 2010 employing the mesoscale hydrological model mHM (www.ufz.de/mhm). The spatial resolution is 4 km and the temporal resolution is 1 day. The ensemble of 100 model realization is based on 700 parameter sets which are derived from 100 calibration runs in the seven, major German river basins. These 700 parameter sets are filtered for those exceeding a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) of 0.65 in each of the seven catchments, which leads to the final 100 parameter sets. The model is evaluated against observed runoff in 222 additional catchments. In this catchments the mean and the standard deviation are for daily discharge 0.68 and 0.09 and for monthly discharge 0.81 and 0

  15. Comparative assessment of the environmental sustainability of existing and emerging perchlorate treatment technologies for drinking water.

    PubMed

    Choe, Jong Kwon; Mehnert, Michelle H; Guest, Jeremy S; Strathmann, Timothy J; Werth, Charles J

    2013-05-01

    Environmental impacts of conventional and emerging perchlorate drinking water treatment technologies were assessed using life cycle assessment (LCA). Comparison of two ion exchange (IX) technologies (i.e., nonselective IX with periodic regeneration using brines and perchlorate-selective IX without regeneration) at an existing plant shows that brine is the dominant contributor for nonselective IX, which shows higher impact than perchlorate-selective IX. Resource consumption during the operational phase comprises >80% of the total impacts. Having identified consumables as the driving force behind environmental impacts, the relative environmental sustainability of IX, biological treatment, and catalytic reduction technologies are compared more generally using consumable inputs. The analysis indicates that the environmental impacts of heterotrophic biological treatment are 2-5 times more sensitive to influent conditions (i.e., nitrate/oxygen concentration) and are 3-14 times higher compared to IX. However, autotrophic biological treatment is most environmentally beneficial among all. Catalytic treatment using carbon-supported Re-Pd has a higher (ca. 4600 times) impact than others, but is within 0.9-30 times the impact of IX with a newly developed ligand-complexed Re-Pd catalyst formulation. This suggests catalytic reduction can be competitive with increased activity. Our assessment shows that while IX is an environmentally competitive, emerging technologies also show great promise from an environmental sustainability perspective.

  16. 18 CFR 367.2320 - Account 232, Accounts payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Account 232, Accounts... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED SERVICE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities § 367.2320 Account 232,...

  17. 18 CFR 367.2320 - Account 232, Accounts payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 232, Accounts... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED SERVICE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities § 367.2320 Account 232,...

  18. 18 CFR 367.2320 - Account 232, Accounts payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Account 232, Accounts... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED SERVICE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities § 367.2320 Account 232,...

  19. 18 CFR 367.2320 - Account 232, Accounts payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Account 232, Accounts... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED SERVICE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities § 367.2320 Account 232,...

  20. 18 CFR 367.2320 - Account 232, Accounts payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Account 232, Accounts... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED SERVICE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities § 367.2320 Account 232,...

  1. Water-related environmental control requirements at municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J C; Johnson, L D

    1980-09-01

    Water use and waste water production, water pollution control technology requirements, and water-related limitations to their design and commercialization are identified at municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion systems. In Part I, a summary of conclusions and recommendations provides concise statements of findings relative to water management and waste water treatment of each of four municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion categories investigated. These include: mass burning, with direct production of steam for use as a supplemental energy source; mechanical processing to produce a refuse-derived fuel (RDF) for co-firing in gas, coal or oil-fired power plants; pyrolysis for production of a burnable oil or gas; and biological conversion of organic wastes to methane. Part II contains a brief description of each waste-to-energy facility visited during the subject survey showing points of water use and wastewater production. One or more facilities of each type were selected for sampling of waste waters and follow-up tests to determine requirements for water-related environmental controls. A comprehensive summary of the results are presented. (MCW)

  2. Environmental forcing of the Campeche cold-water coral province, southern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebbeln, D.; Wienberg, C.; Wintersteller, P.; Freiwald, A.; Becker, M.; Beuck, L.; Dullo, C.; Eberli, G. P.; Glogowski, S.; Matos, L.; Forster, N.; Reyes-Bonilla, H.; Taviani, M.; MSM 20-4 shipboard scientific party, the

    2013-11-01

    With an extension of >40 km2 the recently discovered Campeche cold-water coral province located at the northeastern rim of the Campeche Bank in the southern Gulf of Mexico belongs to the largest coherent cold-water coral areas discovered so far. The Campeche province consists of numerous 20 to 40 m high coral ridges that are developed in intermediate water depths of 500 to 600 m. The ridges are colonized by a vivid cold-water coral ecosystem that covers the upper flanks and summits. The rich coral community is dominated by the framework-building scleractinia Enallopsammia profunda and Lophelia pertusa while the associated benthic megafauna shows a rather scarce occurrence. The recent environmental setting is characterized by a high surface water production caused by a local upwelling center and a dynamic bottom water regime comprising vigorous bottom currents, internal waves and strong density contrasts, which all together provide optimal conditions for the growth of cold-water corals. The strong hydrodynamics - potentially supported by the diel vertical migration of zooplankton in the Campeche area - drive the delivering of food particles to the corals. The Campeche cold-water coral province is, thus, an excellent example highlighting the importance of the hydrographic setting in securing the food supply for the development of large and vivid cold-water coral ecosystems.

  3. Environmental forcing of the Campeche cold-water coral province, southern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebbeln, D.; Wienberg, C.; Wintersteller, P.; Freiwald, A.; Becker, M.; Beuck, L.; Dullo, C.; Eberli, G. P.; Glogowski, S.; Matos, L.; Forster, N.; Reyes-Bonilla, H.; Taviani, M.

    2014-04-01

    With an extension of > 40 km2 the recently discovered Campeche cold-water coral province located at the northeastern rim of the Campeche Bank in the southern Gulf of Mexico belongs to the largest coherent cold-water coral areas discovered so far. The Campeche province consists of numerous 20-40 m-high elongated coral mounds that are developed in intermediate water depths of 500 to 600 m. The mounds are colonized by a vivid cold-water coral ecosystem that covers the upper flanks and summits. The rich coral community is dominated by the framework-building Scleractinia Enallopsammia profunda and Lophelia pertusa, while the associated benthic megafauna shows a rather scarce occurrence. The recent environmental setting is characterized by a high surface water production caused by a local upwelling center and a dynamic bottom-water regime comprising vigorous bottom currents, obvious temporal variability, and strong density contrasts, which all together provide optimal conditions for the growth of cold-water corals. This setting - potentially supported by the diel vertical migration of zooplankton in the Campeche area - controls the delivering of food particles to the corals. The Campeche cold-water coral province is, thus, an excellent example highlighting the importance of the oceanographic setting in securing the food supply for the development of large and vivid cold-water coral ecosystems.

  4. Environmental geochemistry for surface and subsurface waters in the Pajarito Plateau and outlying areas, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, W.D.; Goff, F.; Adams, A.I.; Counce, D.

    1995-05-01

    This report provides background information on waters in the Los Alamos and Santa Fe regions of northern New Mexico. Specifically, the presented data include major element, trace element, and isotope analyses of 130 water samples from 94 different springs, wells, and water bodies in the area. The region considered in this study extends from the western edge of the Valles Caldera to as far east as Santa Fe Lake. For each sample, the presented analysis includes fourteen different major elements, twenty-six trace elements, up to five stable isotopes, and tritium. In addition, this data base contains certain characteristics of the water that are calculated from the aforementioned raw data, including the water`s maximum and minimum residence times, as found from tritium levels assuming no contamination, the water`s recharge elevation, as found from stable isotopes, and the charge balance of the water. The data in this report are meant to provide background information for investigations in groundwater hydrology and geochemistry, and for environmental projects. For the latter projects, the presented information would be useful for determining the presence of contamination it any one location by enabling one to compare potential contaminant levels to the background levels presented here. Likely locations of interest are those possibly effected by anthropogenic activities, including locations in and around Los Alamos National Laboratory, White Rock Canyon, and developed areas in the Rio Grande Valley.

  5. Magnetic bead hybridization to detect enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains associated with cattle in environmental water sources.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yu-Li; Le, Joanne Y; Olson, Betty H

    2003-06-01

    A magnetic capture hybridization - polymerase chain reaction (MCH-PCR) method was used to increase the detection sensitivity of the enterotoxin gene LTIIa, used as a biomarker for waste in environmental samples. The samples were collected from cow lagoons of different farms and from environmental waters. Total DNA was extracted from colonies grown on mTEC medium or directly from environmental samples. The cow-specific Escherichia coli LTIIa gene was used as a DNA marker. A LTIIa-specific oligonucleotide probe was designed to capture the LTIIa marker during the MCH, followed by PCR. Varying levels of humic acid were added to the DNA extracts to evaluate the sensitivity and effectiveness of MCH-PCR. The minimal detection limit of MCH-PCR for the LTIIa gene was 2.5 ag/muL DNA. In the presence of humic acid, MCH-PCR was able to increase the detection sensitivity 10 000-fold over that of conventional PCR. The MCH-PCR could also detect one cell with the LTIIa DNA marker in a 1-L seeded environmental water sample. Results in this study indicate that MCH-PCR is more sensitive than nested PCR in testing environmental samples. PMID:14569293

  6. Water management in the framework of environmental management systems in Bulgarian seaports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quynh, Le Xuan; Hens, Luc; Stoyanov, Stoyan

    Seaports or harbours are major hub of economic activities, connecting sea routes with the hinterland via rail, road and inland waterway. At the same time, they are hubs of environmental issues, resulting from its diversified operations involving vessels, machines, vehicles and industries. The Black Sea Commission in 2007 pointed out that water pollution at the ports around Black Sea, including the ports of Bourgas and Varna, poses a great threat to the overall water quality of the Black Sea and the quality of the Mediterranean Sea. The two ports, and their facilities, are the black spots of pollution that need immediate intervention to safeguard the Black Sea. The first steps of an environmental management system were implemented at both ports. Environmental protection objectives are identified and initial actions are being implemented. However, assessment of the environmental performance of both ports based on concrete indicators was not done. Further efforts are needed to advance the environmental management system to contribute more to the protection of the Mediterranean and Black Sea region.

  7. Environmental proteomics what proteins from soil and surface water can tell us: a perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, W.

    2004-07-01

    Mass spectrometry based proteomics is widely used to study cellular processes in model organisms. However, it has not much been applied in environmental research because it was thought that free proteins would not be sufficiently stable in the environments. Based on recent observations that protein can readily be detected as a component of dissolve organic carbon, this article gives an overview about the possible use of proteomic methods in ecology and environmental sciences. At this stage, there are two areas of interest: (1) the identification of phylogenetic groups contributing to the DOC pool, and (2) identification of the origin of specific enzymes that are important for ecosystem processes. In this paper methods of mass spectrometry based proteomics were applied to identify proteins from DOC and water samples from different environments. It is demonstrated, that environmental proteomics is capable to distinguish the active set of organisms of different horizons of soils, and from various sources of surface water. Currently the limitation is given by the present knowledge of the genome of soil organisms. In addition, environmental proteomics allows to relate protein presence to biogeochemical processes, and to identify the source organisms for specific enzymes. Taking laccases as an example, it is shown that this enzyme is excreted into soils by a whole range of organisms from different phylogenetic groups. Further applications, such as in pollution reseach are conceivable. In summary, environmental proteomcis opens a new area of research between the fields of microbiology and biogeochemistry.

  8. Interpretation of environmental tracers in groundwater systems with stagnant water zones.

    PubMed

    Maloszewski, Piotr; Stichler, Willibald; Zuber, Andrzej

    2004-03-01

    Lumped-parameter models are commonly applied for determining the age of water from time records of transient environmental tracers. The simplest models (e.g. piston flow or exponential) are also applicable for dating based on the decay or accumulation of tracers in groundwater systems. The models are based on the assumption that the transit time distribution function (exit age distribution function) of the tracer particles in the investigated system adequately represents the distribution of flow lines and is described by a simple function. A chosen or fitted function (called the response function) describes the transit time distribution of a tracer which would be observed at the output (discharge area, spring, stream, or pumping wells) in the case of an instantaneous injection at the entrance (recharge area). Due to large space and time scales, response functions are not measurable in groundwater systems, therefore, functions known from other fields of science, mainly from chemical engineering, are usually used. The type of response function and the values of its parameters define the lumped-parameter model of a system. The main parameter is the mean transit time of tracer through the system, which under favourable conditions may represent the mean age of mobile water. The parameters of the model are found by fitting calculated concentrations to the experimental records of concentrations measured at the outlet. The mean transit time of tracer (often called the tracer age), whether equal to the mean age of water or not, serves in adequate combinations with other data for determining other useful parameters, e.g. the recharge rate or the content of water in the system. The transit time distribution and its mean value serve for confirmation or determination of the conceptual model of the system and/or estimation of its potential vulnerability to anthropogenic pollution. In the interpretation of environmental tracer data with the aid of the lumped-parameter models, the

  9. Coastal waters environmental monitoring supported by river basin pluviometry and offshore wave data.

    PubMed

    Abramic, Andrej; Martínez-Alzamora, Nieves; González del Rio Rams, Julio; Ferrer Polo, José

    2015-03-15

    Environmental monitoring in the scope of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC (WFD) is usually expensive and requires considerable human effort. In this study, we analyzed data obtained by a WFD coastal waters monitoring network over a three-year period (35 campaigns), with the aim to ascertain is it possible to increase the monitoring efficiency and obtain more accurate results. As the trophic condition of the coastal waters of Valencia is primarily, but not entirely, determined by continental loads and hydrodynamic conditions, additionally we analyzed related river basin pluviometry (daily frequency) and oceanographic (one hour frequency) data. Chlorophyll a, salinity, rain and wave data time series were analyzed separately, to identify any possible pattern. Analyzing coastal water bodies integrating all four parameters, it is found strong interactions between coastal waters trophic conditions, sea hydrodynamics and related basin pluviometry. Eight phytoplankton biomass scenarios associated to environmental conditions are identified and finally developed basis for a new efficient monitoring strategy and more accurate coastal waters assessment.

  10. Environmental Fate of Chiral Herbicide Fenoxaprop-ethyl in Water-Sediment Microcosms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Xu; Yao, Guojun; Liu, Donghui; Liu, Mingke; Wang, Peng; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2016-05-01

    The environmental fate of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl (FE) in water, sediment and water-sediment microcosm was studied and degradation products fenoxaprop (FA), ethyl-2-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)propanoate (EHPP), 2-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)propanoic acid (HPPA) and 6-chloro-2,3-dihydrobenzoxazol-2-one (CDHB) were monitored. FE, FA, EHPP and HPPA were chiral and the environmental behavior was investigated on an enantiomeric level. In water, sediment and water-sediment microcosms, fenoxaprop-ethyl degraded very fast with half-lives less than 1 day and it was found the herbicidally inactive S-enantiomer degraded faster. Fenoxaprop was the main primary degradation product which was quickly formed and the further degradation was relatively slow with half-lives of 6.4-12.4 days, and the S-enantiomer degraded faster too. EHPP, HPPA and CDHB could be found and S-EHPP and S-HPPA were degraded preferentially. The effects of microorganism and water content were investigated and it was found that the enantioselectivity was attributed to microorganisms. In sediment, the main degradation pathway of fenoxaprop-ethyl was hydrolysis and the degradation rate of fenoxaprop-ethyl increased with water content. The degradation products and enantioselectivity should be considered for the impact of fenoxaprop-ethyl on the aquatic system.

  11. Environmental Fate of Chiral Herbicide Fenoxaprop-ethyl in Water-Sediment Microcosms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Xu; Yao, Guojun; Liu, Donghui; Liu, Mingke; Wang, Peng; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2016-05-01

    The environmental fate of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl (FE) in water, sediment and water-sediment microcosm was studied and degradation products fenoxaprop (FA), ethyl-2-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)propanoate (EHPP), 2-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)propanoic acid (HPPA) and 6-chloro-2,3-dihydrobenzoxazol-2-one (CDHB) were monitored. FE, FA, EHPP and HPPA were chiral and the environmental behavior was investigated on an enantiomeric level. In water, sediment and water-sediment microcosms, fenoxaprop-ethyl degraded very fast with half-lives less than 1 day and it was found the herbicidally inactive S-enantiomer degraded faster. Fenoxaprop was the main primary degradation product which was quickly formed and the further degradation was relatively slow with half-lives of 6.4–12.4 days, and the S-enantiomer degraded faster too. EHPP, HPPA and CDHB could be found and S-EHPP and S-HPPA were degraded preferentially. The effects of microorganism and water content were investigated and it was found that the enantioselectivity was attributed to microorganisms. In sediment, the main degradation pathway of fenoxaprop-ethyl was hydrolysis and the degradation rate of fenoxaprop-ethyl increased with water content. The degradation products and enantioselectivity should be considered for the impact of fenoxaprop-ethyl on the aquatic system.

  12. Environmental Fate of Chiral Herbicide Fenoxaprop-ethyl in Water-Sediment Microcosms

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Xu; Yao, Guojun; Liu, Donghui; Liu, Mingke; Wang, Peng; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    The environmental fate of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl (FE) in water, sediment and water-sediment microcosm was studied and degradation products fenoxaprop (FA), ethyl-2-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)propanoate (EHPP), 2-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)propanoic acid (HPPA) and 6-chloro-2,3-dihydrobenzoxazol-2-one (CDHB) were monitored. FE, FA, EHPP and HPPA were chiral and the environmental behavior was investigated on an enantiomeric level. In water, sediment and water-sediment microcosms, fenoxaprop-ethyl degraded very fast with half-lives less than 1 day and it was found the herbicidally inactive S-enantiomer degraded faster. Fenoxaprop was the main primary degradation product which was quickly formed and the further degradation was relatively slow with half-lives of 6.4–12.4 days, and the S-enantiomer degraded faster too. EHPP, HPPA and CDHB could be found and S-EHPP and S-HPPA were degraded preferentially. The effects of microorganism and water content were investigated and it was found that the enantioselectivity was attributed to microorganisms. In sediment, the main degradation pathway of fenoxaprop-ethyl was hydrolysis and the degradation rate of fenoxaprop-ethyl increased with water content. The degradation products and enantioselectivity should be considered for the impact of fenoxaprop-ethyl on the aquatic system. PMID:27225540

  13. Environmental Fate of Chiral Herbicide Fenoxaprop-ethyl in Water-Sediment Microcosms.

    PubMed

    Jing, Xu; Yao, Guojun; Liu, Donghui; Liu, Mingke; Wang, Peng; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    The environmental fate of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl (FE) in water, sediment and water-sediment microcosm was studied and degradation products fenoxaprop (FA), ethyl-2-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)propanoate (EHPP), 2-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)propanoic acid (HPPA) and 6-chloro-2,3-dihydrobenzoxazol-2-one (CDHB) were monitored. FE, FA, EHPP and HPPA were chiral and the environmental behavior was investigated on an enantiomeric level. In water, sediment and water-sediment microcosms, fenoxaprop-ethyl degraded very fast with half-lives less than 1 day and it was found the herbicidally inactive S-enantiomer degraded faster. Fenoxaprop was the main primary degradation product which was quickly formed and the further degradation was relatively slow with half-lives of 6.4-12.4 days, and the S-enantiomer degraded faster too. EHPP, HPPA and CDHB could be found and S-EHPP and S-HPPA were degraded preferentially. The effects of microorganism and water content were investigated and it was found that the enantioselectivity was attributed to microorganisms. In sediment, the main degradation pathway of fenoxaprop-ethyl was hydrolysis and the degradation rate of fenoxaprop-ethyl increased with water content. The degradation products and enantioselectivity should be considered for the impact of fenoxaprop-ethyl on the aquatic system. PMID:27225540

  14. New Approaches for Enhanced Detection of Enteroviruses from Hawaiian Environmental Waters

    PubMed Central

    Connell, Christina; Tong, Hsin-I; Wang, Zi; Allmann, Erin; Lu, Yuanan

    2012-01-01

    Health risks associated with sewage-contaminated recreational waters are of important public health concern. Reliable water monitoring systems are therefore crucial. Current recreational water quality criteria rely predominantly on the enumeration of bacterial indicators, while potentially dangerous viral pathogens often remain undetected. Human enteric viruses have been proposed as alternative indicators; however, their detection is often hindered by low viral concentrations present in the environment. Reported here are novel and effective laboratory protocols for viral concentration and highly sensitive and optimized RT-PCR for the efficient detection of enteroviruses, an important enteric virus subset, in Hawaiian environmental waters. Eighteen published enterovirus primer pairs were comparatively evaluated for detection sensitivity. The primer set exhibiting the lowest detection limit under optimized conditions, EQ-1/EQ-2, was validated in a field survey of 22 recreational bodies of water located around the island of Oahu, Hawaii. Eleven sites tested positive for enterovirus, indicating fecal contamination at these locations. As an additional means of viral concentration, shellfish were collected from 9 sample sites and subjected to dissection, RNA extraction, and subsequent RT-PCR. Shellfish tissue from 6 of 9 sites tested positive for enterovirus. The techniques implemented here are valuable resources to aid accurate reflection of microbial contamination in Hawaii’s environmental waters. PMID:22567083

  15. THE NATIONAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF RECREATIONAL WATERS: RESULTS FROM THE FIRST SUMMER FULL-SCALE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction

    The National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Waters (NEEAR) is a multi-year study of recreational water conducted by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), design...

  16. THE NATIONAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF RECREATIONAL WATERS: RESULTS FROM THE FIRST SUMMER OF FULL-SCALE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction

    The National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Waters (NEEAR) is a multi-year study of recreational water conducted by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), design...

  17. Environmental variation, vegetation distribution, carbon dynamics and water/energy exchange at high latitudes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, A.D.; Wirth, C.; Apps, M.; Beringer, J.; Clein, J.; Epstein, H.; Kicklighter, D.W.; Bhatti, J.; Chapin, F. S.; De Groot, B.; Efremov, D.; Eugster, W.; Fukuda, M.; Gower, T.; Hinzman, L.; Huntley, B.; Jia, G.J.; Kasischke, E.; Melillo, J.; Romanovsky, V.; Shvidenko, A.; Vaganov, E.; Walker, D.

    2002-01-01

    The responses of high latitude ecosystems to global change involve complex interactions among environmental variables, vegetation distribution, carbon dynamics, and water and energy exchange. These responses may have important consequences for the earth system. In this study, we evaluated how vegetation distribution, carbon stocks and turnover, and water and energy exchange are related to environmental variation spanned by the network of the IGBP high latitude transects. While the most notable feature of the high latitude transects is that they generally span temperature gradients from southern to northern latitudes, there are substantial differences in temperature among the transects. Also, along each transect temperature co-varies with precipitation and photosynthetically active radiation, which are also variable among the transects. Both climate and disturbance interact to influence latitudinal patterns of vegetation and soil carbon storage among the transects, and vegetation distribution appears to interact with climate to determine exchanges of heat and moisture in high latitudes. Despite limitations imposed by the data we assembled, the analyses in this study have taken an important step toward clarifying the complexity of interactions among environmental variables, vegetation distribution, carbon stocks and turnover, and water and energy exchange in high latitude regions. This study reveals the need to conduct coordinated global change studies in high latitudes to further elucidate how interactions among climate, disturbance, and vegetation distribution influence carbon dynamics and water and energy exchange in high latitudes.

  18. Environmental assessment of drainage water impacts on water quality and eutrophication level of Lake Idku, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ali, Elham M; Khairy, Hanan M

    2016-09-01

    Lake Idku, northern Egypt, receives large quantities of drainage water from four main discharging drains. Ecological and biological status of Lake Idku has been monitored during (autumn 2012 to summer 2013) to examine the lake water quality and eutrophication level in response to the quality as well as the source of the discharging water. Discrete water samples were collected from the lake body and the drains. Chemical analyses revealed an excessive nutrient load goes into the lake. A range of 1.4-10.6 mg nitrites/L was determined for drain waters, however a sudden increase was observed in lake and drain water samples of up to 84 and 74.5 mg/L, respectively. Reactive silicate ranged between 2.9 and 4.8 mg/L; while inorganic phosphate fluctuated between 0.2 and 0.43 mg/L. Transparency varied from 45 cm to 134 cm with better light conditions at drain sites. Biological results indicated a hyper-eutrophic status for the lake with a range of chlorophyll-a varied from a minimum of 39.9 μg/L (at Idku Drains) and a maximum of 104.2 μg/L (at El-Khairy drain). Phytoplankton community structure revealed higher abundance at lake sites compared with the drains. Maximum phytoplankton density was detected during summer with the dominance of Bacilariophyceae (e.g. Cyclotella meneghiniana, Cyclotella comate, Melosira varians) followed by Chlorophycean taxon (e.g. Scenedesmus dimorphus, S. bijuga and Crucigenia tetrapedia). Five indices were applied to evaluate the water quality of the lake. Diversity Index (DI) indicated slight to light pollution along all sites; while Sapropic Index (SI) indicated slight pollution with acceptable oxygen conditions and an availability of sensitive species. Palmer Index (PI) gave a strong evidence of high organic pollution at some sites in the lake, while Generic Diatom Index (GDI) revealed that levels of pollution varied from average to strong. Trophic Index (TI), suggest that there are an obvious signs of eutrophication in the lake. PMID

  19. Environmental, political, and economic determinants of water quality monitoring in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Lucas; Bernauer, Thomas; Kalbhenn, Anna

    2010-11-01

    Effective monitoring is essential for effective pollution control in national and international water systems. To what extent are countries' monitoring choices driven by environmental criteria, as they should be? And to what extent are they also influenced by other factors, such as political and economic conditions? To address these questions, we describe and explain the evolution of one of the most important international environmental monitoring networks in Europe, the one for water quality, in the time period 1965-2004. We develop a geographic information system that contains information on the location of several thousand active monitoring stations in Europe. Using multivariate statistics, we then examine whether and to what extent the spatial and temporal clustering of monitoring intensity is driven by environmental, political, and economic factors. The results show that monitoring intensity is higher in river basins exposed to greater environmental pressure. However, political and economic factors also play a strong role in monitoring decisions: democracy, income, and peer pressure are conducive to monitoring intensity, and monitoring intensity generally increases over time. Moreover, even though monitoring is more intense in international upstream-downstream settings, we observe only a weak bias toward more monitoring downstream of international borders. In contrast, negative effects of European Union (EU) membership and runup to the EU's Water Framework Directive are potential reasons for concern. Our results strongly suggest that international coordination and standardization of water quality monitoring should be intensified. It will be interesting to apply our analytical approach also to other national and international monitoring networks, for instance, the U.S. National Water-Quality Assessment Program or the European Monitoring and Evaluation Program for air pollution.

  20. Antibiotic resistance of enterococci isolated from frozen foods and environmental water.

    PubMed

    Tansuphasiri, Unchalee; Khaminthakul, Doungngoen; Pandii, Wongdyan

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated 239 isolates of enterococci (113 from frozen foods and 126 from environmental water) for their resistance to 8 antibiotics by agar disk diffusion method. Most isolates from both sources were resistant to tetracycline (64.1% food strains; 46.8% water strains) and ciprofloxacin (53.4% food strains; 48.4% water strains). A relatively high prevalence of chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and vancomycin resistance was present, ranging from 9.7 to 27.2% for food strains and 10.3 to 15.9% for water strains; while other drug resistance (ampicillin, gentamicin and teicoplanin) was minimal (< or = 0.9% for food strains; < or = 1.6% for water strains). No significant differences in resistant rates between the two sources were found for any of the drugs (p>0.05) except tetracycline (p<0.05). The majority of isolates from both sources were multi-resistant strains (50% for food strains and 42% for water strains). Most of them showed resistance to two drugs. There was no significant difference in the non-resistance patterns and the multidrug resistance patterns (p>0.05) between the frozen food and environmental water strains, but a significant difference was seen in the single drug resistance pattern (p<0.05). Vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) were isolated from nearly all sources studied, 9.7% food isolates and 10.3% water isolates, with no significant difference between the two sources (p>0.05). This study shows a high prevalence of multidrug resistance among enterococci isolated from foods of animal origin and environmental water. This may serve as a potential transfer route of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and resistant genes into the human food-chain and environment which could potentially pose a health threat to humans in the future. The use of antibiotics for purposes other than human health, ie in animal feeds and in the treatment of infection in animals, should be reduced and eventually eliminated. Improved hygiene practices and controlled

  1. Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford Operations. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Freshley, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.

    1992-08-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides migrating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: (1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; (2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; (3) through wells next to the Columbia River downstream of Hanford that draw some or all of their water from the river (riparian wells); and (4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring by transport in the ground water. These four pathways make up the ``ground-water pathway,`` which is the subject of this study. Assessment of the ground-water pathway was performed by (1) reviewing the existing extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and (2) performing calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations where no monitoring data were collected. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to these radionuclides were calculated.

  2. Analysis of 70 Environmental Protection Agency priority pharmaceuticals in water by EPA Method 1694.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Imma; Zweigenbaum, Jerry A; Thurman, E Michael

    2010-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 1694 for the determination of pharmaceuticals in water recently brought a new challenge for treatment utilities, where pharmaceuticals have been reported in the drinking water of 41-million Americans. This proposed methodology, designed to address this important issue, consists of solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) using triple quadrupole. Under the guidelines of Method 1694, a multi-residue method was developed, validated, and applied to wastewater, surface water and drinking water samples for the analysis of 70 pharmaceuticals. Four distinct chromatographic gradients and LC conditions were used according to the polarity and extraction of the different pharmaceuticals. Positive and negative ion electrospray were used with two MRM transitions (a quantifier and a qualifier ion for each compound), which adds extra confirmation not included in the original Method 1694. Finally, we verify, for the first time, EPA M