Science.gov

Sample records for environmentally triggered setting

  1. Setting the Triggering Thresholds on Swift

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, Kassandra M.; Fenimore, E.E.; Palmer, David; Barthelmy, S.; Gehrels, N.; Krimm, H.; Markwardt, C.; Parsons, A.

    2004-09-28

    The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on Swift has two main types of 'rate' triggers: short and long. Short trigger time scales range from 4ms to 64ms, while long triggers are 64ms to {approx_equal} 16 seconds. While both short and long trigger have criteria with one background sample (traditional 'one-sided' triggers), the long triggers can also have criteria with two background samples ('bracketed' triggers) which remove trends in the background. Both long and short triggers can select energy ranges of 15-25, 15-50, 25-100 and 50-350 KeV. There are more than 180 short triggering criteria and approximately 500 long triggering criteria used to detect gamma ray bursts. To fully utilize these criteria, the thresholds must be set correctly. The optimum thresholds are determined by a tradeoff between avoiding false triggers and capturing as many bursts as possible. We use realistic simulated orbital variations, which are the prime cause of false triggers.

  2. Environmental Triggers of Autoimmune Thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Burek, C. Lynne; Talor, Monica V.

    2009-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroiditis is among the most prevalent of all the autoimmunities. Autoimmune thyroiditis is multifactorial with contributions from genetic and environmental factors. Much information has been published about the genetic predisposition to autoimmune thyroiditis both in experimental animals and humans. There is, in contrast, very little data on environmental agents that can serve as the trigger or autoimmunity in a genetically predisposed host. The best-established environmental factor is excess dietary iodine. Increased iodine consumption is strongly implicated as a trigger for thyroiditis, but only in genetically susceptible individuals. However, excess iodine is not the only environmental agent implicated as a trigger leading to autoimmune thyroiditis. There are a wide variety of other synthetic chemicals that affect the thyroid gland or have the ability to promote immune dysfunction in the host. These chemicals are released into the environment by design, such as in pesticides, or as a by-product of industry. Candidate pollutants include polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polybrominated biphenols, and polychlorinated biphenols, among others. Infections are also reputed to trigger autoimmunity and may act alone or in concert with environmental chemicals. We have utilized a unique animal model, the NOD.H2h4 mouse to explore the influence of iodine and other environmental factors on autoimmune thyroiditis. PMID:19818584

  3. Environmental triggers of autoimmune thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Burek, C Lynne; Talor, Monica V

    2009-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroiditis is among the most prevalent of all the autoimmunities. Autoimmune thyroiditis is multifactorial with contributions from genetic and environmental factors. Much information has been published about the genetic predisposition to autoimmune thyroiditis both in experimental animals and humans. There is, in contrast, very little data on environmental agents that can serve as the trigger for autoimmunity in a genetically predisposed host. The best-established environmental factor is excess dietary iodine. Increased iodine consumption is strongly implicated as a trigger for thyroiditis, but only in genetically susceptible individuals. However, excess iodine is not the only environmental agent implicated as a trigger leading to autoimmune thyroiditis. There are a wide variety of other synthetic chemicals that affect the thyroid gland or have the ability to promote immune dysfunction in the host. These chemicals are released into the environment by design, such as in pesticides, or as a by-product of industry. Candidate pollutants include polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polybrominated biphenols, and polychlorinated biphenols, among others. Infections are also reputed to trigger autoimmunity and may act alone or in concert with environmental chemicals. We have utilized a unique animal model, the NOD.H2(h4) mouse to explore the influence of iodine and other environmental factors on autoimmune thyroiditis. PMID:19818584

  4. Setting Environmental Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishbein, Gershon

    1975-01-01

    Recent court decisions have pointed out the complexities involved in setting environmental standards. Environmental health is composed of multiple causative agents, most of which work over long periods of time. This makes the cause-and-effect relationship between health statistics and environmental contaminant exposures difficult to prove in…

  5. Childhood Asthma Management and Environmental Triggers.

    PubMed

    Hollenbach, Jessica P; Cloutier, Michelle M

    2015-10-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease among children. It cannot be prevented but can be controlled. Industrialized countries experience high lifetime asthma prevalence that has increased over recent decades. Asthma has a complex interplay of genetic and environmental triggers. Studies have revealed complex interactions of lung structure and function genes with environmental exposures such as environmental tobacco smoke and vitamin D. Home environmental strategies can reduce asthma morbidity in children but should be tailored to specific allergens. Coupled with education and severity-specific asthma therapy, tailored interventions may be the most effective strategy to manage childhood asthma.

  6. Unconsciously triggered response inhibition requires an executive setting.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yu-Chin; Aron, Adam R

    2014-02-01

    Much research on response inhibition has focused on a consciously triggered variety (i.e., outright stopping of action). However, recent studies have shown that response inhibition can also be triggered unconsciously. For example, van Gaal, Ridderinkhof, Scholte, and Lamme (2010) showed that an unconscious no-go prime slowed down ongoing behavior, at least when outright stopping was sometimes required (i.e., in an executive setting). Here we replicated that result but also went further by including a condition with no executive setting. Then there was no slowing following a no-go prime. These results support the hypothesis that an executive setting is necessary for unconsciously triggered inhibition. We speculate that this arises from the fact that when the context includes outright stopping, the brain network for response inhibition is primed, and it can be triggered by the unconscious prime. The result has theoretical implications for the distinction between conscious and unconscious response inhibition and also clinical implications for how to train response inhibition so that it is instantiated automatically.

  7. Unconsciously triggered response inhibition requires an executive setting.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yu-Chin; Aron, Adam R

    2014-02-01

    Much research on response inhibition has focused on a consciously triggered variety (i.e., outright stopping of action). However, recent studies have shown that response inhibition can also be triggered unconsciously. For example, van Gaal, Ridderinkhof, Scholte, and Lamme (2010) showed that an unconscious no-go prime slowed down ongoing behavior, at least when outright stopping was sometimes required (i.e., in an executive setting). Here we replicated that result but also went further by including a condition with no executive setting. Then there was no slowing following a no-go prime. These results support the hypothesis that an executive setting is necessary for unconsciously triggered inhibition. We speculate that this arises from the fact that when the context includes outright stopping, the brain network for response inhibition is primed, and it can be triggered by the unconscious prime. The result has theoretical implications for the distinction between conscious and unconscious response inhibition and also clinical implications for how to train response inhibition so that it is instantiated automatically. PMID:23317085

  8. Conceptual frameworks for setting environmental standards.

    PubMed

    Philipp, R

    1996-01-01

    Following the Second European Conference on Environment and Health, held from 20 to 22 June 1994 in Helsinki, the World Health Organization (WHO) established a National Environmental Health Action Plan pilot project. During 1995, and as part of its work for this project with the WHO European Environmental Health Committee, the UK Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution began to seek evidence for the basis of setting environmental standards and to ask if a more consistent and robust basis can be found for establishing them. This paper explores the conceptual frameworks needed to help establish policy and address practical questions associated with different pollutants, exposures and environmental settings. It addresses sustainable development, inter-generational equity and environmental quality, the European Charter on Environment and Health, the Treaty of Maastricht, economic, educational and training issues, risk assessment, the role of environmental epidemiology, and definitions of environmental quality objectives, environmental health indicators, environmental epidemiology and environmental impact assessment.

  9. Science and Judgment in Environmental Standard Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasanoff, Sheila

    1998-01-01

    Several major types of environmental standards (design, performance, exposure, safety, and behavioral) are discussed, and their points of contact with educational standards are reviewed. Some areas of judgment are common to both standard-setting processes, and experiences in the environmental area can be extended to the educational arena. (SLD)

  10. Salmon spawning migration: metabolic shifts and environmental triggers.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kristina M; Schulze, Angela D; Ginther, Norma; Li, Shaorong; Patterson, David A; Farrell, Anthony P; Hinch, Scott G

    2009-06-01

    A large-scale functional genomics study revealed shifting metabolic processes in white muscle during the final 1300 km migration of wild sockeye salmon to their spawning grounds in the Fraser River, British Columbia. In 2006, Lower Adams stock sockeye salmon ceased feeding after passing the Queen Charlotte Islands, 850 km from the Fraser River. Enhanced protein turnover and reduced transcription of actin, muscle contractile and heme-related proteins were early starvation responses in saltwater. Arrival to the estuarine environment triggered massive protein turnover through induction of proteasomal and lysosomal proteolysis and protein biosynthesis, and a shift from anaerobic glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation. Response to entry into freshwater was modest, with up-regulation of heat shock proteins and nitric oxide biosynthesis. High river temperatures resulted in a strong defense/immune response and high mortalities in 50% of fish. Arrival to the spawning grounds triggered further up-regulation of oxidative phosphorylation and proteolysis, down-regulation of protein biosynthesis and helicase activity, and continued down-regulation of muscle proteins and most glycolytic enzymes. However, sharp up-regulation of PFK-I indicated induction of glycolytic potential at the spawning grounds. The identification of potential environmental cues triggering genome-wide transcriptional shifts in white muscle associated with migration and the strong activation of proteasomal proteolysis were both novel findings.

  11. Environmental setting of Maple Creek watershed, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fredrick, Brian S.; Linard, Joshua I.; Carpenter, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    The Maple Creek watershed covers a 955-square-kilometer area in eastern Nebraska, which is a region dominated by agricultural land use. The Maple Creek watershed is one of seven areas currently included in a nationwide study of the sources, transport, and fate of water and chemicals in agricultural watersheds. This study, known as the topical study of 'Agricultural Chemicals: Sources, Transport, and Fate' is part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. The Program is designed to describe water-quality conditions and trends based on representative surface- and ground-water resources across the Nation. The objective of the Agricultural Chemicals topical study is to investigate the sources, transport, and fate of selected agricultural chemicals in a variety of agriculturally diverse environmental settings. The Maple Creek watershed was selected for the Agricultural Chemicals topical study because its watershed represents the agricultural setting that characterizes eastern Nebraska. This report describes the environmental setting of the Maple Creek watershed in the context of how agricultural practices, including agricultural chemical applications and irrigation methods, interface with natural settings and hydrologic processes. A description of the environmental setting of a subwatershed within the drainage area of Maple Creek is included to improve the understanding of the variability of hydrologic and chemical cycles at two different scales.

  12. Influence of central set on anticipatory and triggered grip-force adjustments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winstein, C. J.; Horak, F. B.; Fisher, B. E.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    The effects of predictability of load magnitude on anticipatory and triggered grip-force adjustments were studied as nine normal subjects used a precision grip to lift, hold, and replace an instrumented test object. Experience with a predictable stimulus has been shown to enhance magnitude scaling of triggered postural responses to different amplitudes of perturbations. However, this phenomenon, known as a central-set effect, has not been tested systematically for grip-force responses in the hand. In our study, predictability was manipulated by applying load perturbations of different magnitudes to the test object under conditions in which the upcoming load magnitude was presented repeatedly or under conditions in which the load magnitudes were presented randomly, each with two different pre-load grip conditions (unconstrained and constrained). In constrained conditions, initial grip forces were maintained near the minimum level necessary to prevent pre-loaded object slippage, while in unconstrained conditions, no initial grip force restrictions were imposed. The effect of predictable (blocked) and unpredictable (random) load presentations on scaling of anticipatory and triggered grip responses was tested by comparing the slopes of linear regressions between the imposed load and grip response magnitude. Anticipatory and triggered grip force responses were scaled to load magnitude in all conditions. However, regardless of pre-load grip force constraint, the gains (slopes) of grip responses relative to load magnitudes were greater when the magnitude of the upcoming load was predictable than when the load increase was unpredictable. In addition, a central-set effect was evidenced by the fewer number of drop trials in the predictable relative to unpredictable load conditions. Pre-load grip forces showed the greatest set effects. However, grip responses showed larger set effects, based on prediction, when pre-load grip force was constrained to lower levels. These

  13. Children's environmental health in agricultural settings.

    PubMed

    Karr, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Children residing in rural settings may encounter environmental hazards derived from agricultural production activities. Health consequences of organic dusts, farm chemicals including pesticides, machinery noise, excess sun exposure, and zoonotic infectious agents have been clearly described among farm-working adults. The author reviews the related evidence base on child health with a life-stage perspective on their differential exposure and vulnerabilities. Methemoglobinemia among infants consuming nitrate-contaminated well water, neurodevelopmental health impacts associated with early life exposure to organophosphate pesticides, and diarrheal disease due to zoonotic infectious agents are well-described pediatric concerns. There is suggestive but more limited evidence for respiratory health consequences from air contaminants associated with confined animal feeding operations and hearing deficits for children exposed to machinery-related noise. Many contaminants of concern for children in these environments remain largely understudied-diesel exhaust, biomass burning, solvents, veterinary antibiotics, and silica-containing particulate matter. Overall, the state of knowledge and programmatic activities on agriculturally derived environmental contaminants and child health is immature and much less complete than for working adults. This overview provides a context for research, policy, and programmatic needs. PMID:22490026

  14. Core Mechanisms Regulating Developmentally Timed and Environmentally Triggered Abscission.

    PubMed

    Patharkar, O Rahul; Walker, John C

    2016-09-01

    Drought-triggered abscission is a strategy used by plants to avoid the full consequences of drought; however, it is poorly understood at the molecular genetic level. Here, we show that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) can be used to elucidate the pathway controlling drought-triggered leaf shedding. We further show that much of the pathway regulating developmentally timed floral organ abscission is conserved in regulating drought-triggered leaf abscission. Gene expression of HAESA (HAE) and INFLORESCENCE DEFICIENT IN ABSCISSION (IDA) is induced in cauline leaf abscission zones when the leaves become wilted in response to limited water and HAE continues to accumulate in the leaf abscission zones through the abscission process. The genes that encode HAE/HAESA-LIKE2, IDA, NEVERSHED, and MAPK KINASE4 and 5 are all necessary for drought-induced leaf abscission. Our findings offer a molecular mechanism explaining drought-triggered leaf abscission. Furthermore, the ability to study leaf abscission in Arabidopsis opens up a new avenue to tease apart mechanisms involved in abscission that have been difficult to separate from flower development as well as for understanding the mechanistic role of water and turgor pressure in abscission. PMID:27468996

  15. A Cook, A Cardinal, His Priests, and the Press: Deviance as a Trigger for Intermedia Agenda Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Michael J.

    1997-01-01

    Uses content analysis to examine the changes in trends in the aftermath of deviant acts by individual members of the clergy, given that such acts are "triggering events" for further negative stories. Finds strong media agenda-setting effects of the negative triggering events on subsequent coverage of the clergy in general. (SR)

  16. Sensitizing events as trigger for discursive renewal and institutional change in Flanders’ environmental health approach, 1970s-1990s

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sensitizing events may trigger and stimulate discursive renewal. From a discursive institutional perspective, changing discourses are the driving force behind the institutional dynamics of policy domains. Theoretically informed by discursive institutionalism, this article assesses the impact of a series of four sensitizing events that triggered serious environmental health concerns in Flanders between the 1970s till the 1990s, and led onto the gradual institutionalization of a Flemish environmental health arrangement. Methods The Policy Arrangement Approach is used as the analytical framework to structure the empirical results of the historical analysis based on document analysis and in-depth interviews. Results Until the 1990s, environmental health was characterized as an ad hoc policy field in Flanders, where agenda setting was based on sensitizing events – also referred to as incident-driven. Each of these events contributed to a gradual rethinking of the epistemological discourses about environmental health risks and uncertainties. These new discourses were the driving forces behind institutional dynamics as they gradually resulted in an increased need for: 1) long-term, policy-oriented, interdisciplinary environmental health research; 2) policy coordination and integration between the environmental and public health policy fields; and 3) new forms of science-policy interactions based on mutual learning. These changes are desirable in order to detect environmental health problems as fast as possible, to react immediately and communicate appropriately. Conclusions The series of four events that triggered serious environmental health concerns in Flanders provided the opportunity to rethink and re-organize the current affairs concerning environmental health and gradually resulted into the institutionalization of a Flemish environmental health arrangement. PMID:23758822

  17. Environmental Trigger(s) of Type 1 Diabetes: Why So Difficult to Identify?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is one of the most common chronic diseases with childhood onset, and the disease has increased two- to fivefold over the past half century by as yet unknown means. T1D occurs when the body's immune system turns against itself so that, in a very specific and targeted way, it destroys the pancreatic β-cells. T1D results from poorly defined interactions between susceptibility genes and environmental determinants. In contrast to the rapid progress in finding T1D genes, identification and confirmation of environmental determinants remain a formidable challenge. This review article will focus on factors which have to be evaluated and decision to take before starting a new prospective cohort study. Considering all the large ongoing prospective studies, new and more conclusive data than that obtained so far should instead come from international collaboration on the ongoing cohort studies. PMID:25883954

  18. Epigenetics changes associated to environmental triggers in autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Cañas, Carlos A; Cañas, Felipe; Bonilla-Abadía, Fabio; Ospina, Fabio E; Tobón, Gabriel J

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (AIDs) are chronic conditions initiated by the loss of immunological tolerance to self-antigens and represent a heterogeneous group of disorders that affect specific target organs or multiple organs in different systems. While the pathogenesis of AID remains unclear, its aetiology is multifunctional and includes a combination of genetic, epigenetic, immunological and environmental factors. In AIDs, several epigenetic mechanisms are defective including DNA demethylation, abnormal chromatin positioning associated with autoantibody production and abnormalities in the expression of RNA interference (RNAi). It is known that environmental factors may interfere with DNA methylation and histone modifications, however, little is known about epigenetic changes derived of regulation of RNAi. An approach to the known environmental factors and the mechanisms that alter the epigenetic regulation in AIDs (with emphasis in systemic lupus erythematosus, the prototype of systemic AID) are showed in this review. PMID:26369426

  19. Environmental triggers and epigenetic deregulation in autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Javierre, Biola M; Hernando, Henar; Ballestar, Esteban

    2011-12-01

    The study of epigenetic mechanisms in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases is receiving unprecedented attention from clinicians and researchers in the field. Autoimmune disorders comprise a wide range of genetically complex diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, and multiple sclerosis. Together they affect a significant proportion of the population and have a great economic impact on public health systems. Epigenetic mechanisms control gene expression and are influenced by external stimuli, linking environment and gene function. A variety of environmental agents, such as viral infection, hormones, certain drugs, and pollutants, have been found to influence the development of autoimmune diseases. On the other hand, there is considerable evidence of epigenetic changes, particularly DNA methylation alterations, in diseases like systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, or multiple sclerosis. However, the gap in our understanding between the specific effects of external agents and the influence on epigenetic profiles has not yet been filled. Here we review a number of studies describing epigenetic alterations in autoimmune diseases and a range of environmental factors that influence the development of autoimmune diseases. We also discuss potential mechanisms linking environment and epigenetics, consider the prospects for future epigenetic studies addressing the relationship between environment and epigenetics, and comment on the use of drugs with an epigenetic-reversing effect in the clinical management of these diseases. PMID:22204770

  20. Separating environmental triggers of morphological transformation and star formation quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnick, Gregory

    2010-09-01

    Dense regions of the universe, such as groups and clusters, have a significantly higher fraction of red and dead early-type galaxies than the field. Despite much work on the subject, it is nonetheless unclear if this difference actually results from a transformation of galaxies as they enter dense environments. We will address this in a new way by measuring the current star formation rate {SFR}, recent star formation history {SFH}, and evidence for ongoing morphological transformation in a set of very well studied cluster, group, and field galaxies, all at an epoch where the galaxy population was rapidly evolving. With this analysis we will determine the relative sequencing of star formation suppression and morphological transformation in a range of environments and as a function of galaxy mass. We have all the elements in place to carry out this program and ask in this proposal for funds to: 1} analyze HST/ACS data for a set of z 0.7 galaxies in 12 clusters, 7 groups, and the field to measure weak morphological distortions of the sort likely to produce early type galaxies from spirals; 2} use the detailed output of state-of-the-art minor merger simulations to determine the timescales over which the distortions are observable; 3} link the evidence of morphological transformation to the recent SFH and current SFR using our extensive 8-meter spectroscopy and multi-wavelength data for our target galaxies.

  1. Infection as an Environmental Trigger of Multiple Sclerosis Disease Exacerbation

    PubMed Central

    Steelman, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several decades, significant advances have been made in identifying factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and have culminated in the approval of some effective therapeutic strategies for disease intervention. However, the mechanisms by which environmental factors, such as infection, contribute to the pathogenesis and/or symptom exacerbation remain to be fully elucidated. Relapse frequency in MS patients contributes to neurological impairment and, in the initial phases of disease, serves as a predictor of poor disease prognosis. The purpose of this review is to examine the evidence that supports a role for peripheral infection in modulating the natural history of this disease. Evidence supporting a role for infection in promoting exacerbation in animal models of MS is also reviewed. Finally, a few mechanisms by which infection may exacerbate symptoms of MS and other neurological diseases are discussed. Those who comprise the majority of MS patients acquire approximately two upper-respiratory infections per year; furthermore, this type of infection doubles the risk for MS relapse, underscoring the contribution of this relationship as being potentially important and particularly detrimental. PMID:26539193

  2. Influences of large sets of environmental exposures on immune responses in healthy adult men

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Buqing; Rykova, Marina; Jäger, Gundula; Feuerecker, Matthias; Hörl, Marion; Matzel, Sandra; Ponomarev, Sergey; Vassilieva, Galina; Nichiporuk, Igor; Choukèr, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors have long been known to influence immune responses. In particular, clinical studies about the association between migration and increased risk of atopy/asthma have provided important information on the role of migration associated large sets of environmental exposures in the development of allergic diseases. However, investigations about environmental effects on immune responses are mostly limited in candidate environmental exposures, such as air pollution. The influences of large sets of environmental exposures on immune responses are still largely unknown. A simulated 520-d Mars mission provided an opportunity to investigate this topic. Six healthy males lived in a closed habitat simulating a spacecraft for 520 days. When they exited their “spacecraft” after the mission, the scenario was similar to that of migration, involving exposure to a new set of environmental pollutants and allergens. We measured multiple immune parameters with blood samples at chosen time points after the mission. At the early adaptation stage, highly enhanced cytokine responses were observed upon ex vivo antigen stimulations. For cell population frequencies, we found the subjects displayed increased neutrophils. These results may presumably represent the immune changes occurred in healthy humans when migrating, indicating that large sets of environmental exposures may trigger aberrant immune activity. PMID:26306804

  3. Influences of large sets of environmental exposures on immune responses in healthy adult men.

    PubMed

    Yi, Buqing; Rykova, Marina; Jäger, Gundula; Feuerecker, Matthias; Hörl, Marion; Matzel, Sandra; Ponomarev, Sergey; Vassilieva, Galina; Nichiporuk, Igor; Choukèr, Alexander

    2015-08-26

    Environmental factors have long been known to influence immune responses. In particular, clinical studies about the association between migration and increased risk of atopy/asthma have provided important information on the role of migration associated large sets of environmental exposures in the development of allergic diseases. However, investigations about environmental effects on immune responses are mostly limited in candidate environmental exposures, such as air pollution. The influences of large sets of environmental exposures on immune responses are still largely unknown. A simulated 520-d Mars mission provided an opportunity to investigate this topic. Six healthy males lived in a closed habitat simulating a spacecraft for 520 days. When they exited their "spacecraft" after the mission, the scenario was similar to that of migration, involving exposure to a new set of environmental pollutants and allergens. We measured multiple immune parameters with blood samples at chosen time points after the mission. At the early adaptation stage, highly enhanced cytokine responses were observed upon ex vivo antigen stimulations. For cell population frequencies, we found the subjects displayed increased neutrophils. These results may presumably represent the immune changes occurred in healthy humans when migrating, indicating that large sets of environmental exposures may trigger aberrant immune activity.

  4. Influences of large sets of environmental exposures on immune responses in healthy adult men.

    PubMed

    Yi, Buqing; Rykova, Marina; Jäger, Gundula; Feuerecker, Matthias; Hörl, Marion; Matzel, Sandra; Ponomarev, Sergey; Vassilieva, Galina; Nichiporuk, Igor; Choukèr, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors have long been known to influence immune responses. In particular, clinical studies about the association between migration and increased risk of atopy/asthma have provided important information on the role of migration associated large sets of environmental exposures in the development of allergic diseases. However, investigations about environmental effects on immune responses are mostly limited in candidate environmental exposures, such as air pollution. The influences of large sets of environmental exposures on immune responses are still largely unknown. A simulated 520-d Mars mission provided an opportunity to investigate this topic. Six healthy males lived in a closed habitat simulating a spacecraft for 520 days. When they exited their "spacecraft" after the mission, the scenario was similar to that of migration, involving exposure to a new set of environmental pollutants and allergens. We measured multiple immune parameters with blood samples at chosen time points after the mission. At the early adaptation stage, highly enhanced cytokine responses were observed upon ex vivo antigen stimulations. For cell population frequencies, we found the subjects displayed increased neutrophils. These results may presumably represent the immune changes occurred in healthy humans when migrating, indicating that large sets of environmental exposures may trigger aberrant immune activity. PMID:26306804

  5. The 2010-2011 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence: Environmental effects, seismic triggering thresholds and geologic legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, Mark C.; Hughes, Matthew W.; Bradley, Brendon A.; van Ballegooy, Sjoerd; Reid, Catherine; Morgenroth, Justin; Horton, Travis; Duffy, Brendan; Pettinga, Jarg R.

    2016-03-01

    characteristics. However, the severity of a given environmental response at any given site related predominantly to ground shaking characteristics (PGA, peak ground velocities) and site conditions (water table depth, soil type, geomorphic and topographic setting) rather than earthquake Mw. In most cases, the most severe liquefaction, rockfall, cliff collapse, subsidence, flooding, tree damage, and biologic habitat changes were triggered by proximal, moderate magnitude (Mw ≤ 6.2) earthquakes on blind faults. CES environmental effects will be incompletely preserved in the geologic record and variably diagnostic of spatial and temporal earthquake clustering. Liquefaction feeder dikes in areas of severe and recurrent liquefaction will provide the best preserved and potentially most diagnostic CES features. Rockfall talus deposits and boulders will be well preserved and potentially diagnostic of the strong intensity of CES shaking, but challenging to decipher in terms of single versus multiple events. Most other phenomena will be transient (e.g., distal groundwater responses), not uniquely diagnostic of earthquakes (e.g., flooding), or more ambiguous (e.g. biologic changes). Preliminary palaeoseismic investigations in the CES region indicate recurrence of liquefaction in susceptible sediments of ~ 100 to 300 yr, recurrence of severe rockfall event(s) of ca. 6000 to 8000 yr, and recurrence of surface rupturing on the largest CES source fault of ca. 20,000 to 30,000 yr. These data highlight the importance of utilising multiple proxy datasets in palaeoearthquake studies. The severity of environmental effects triggered during the strongest CES earthquakes was as great as or equivalent to any historic or prehistoric effects recorded in the geologic record. We suggest that the shaking caused by rupture of local blind faults in the CES comprised a 'worst case' seismic shaking scenario for parts of the Christchurch urban area. Moderate Mw blind fault earthquakes may contribute the highest

  6. A Review of Video Triggers and Video Production in Higher Education and Continuing Education PBL Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasi, Päivi M.; Poikela, Sari

    2016-01-01

    Higher education faces the challenges of bridging education and authentic work. In addition, it needs to respond to the highly multimodal and participatory communication and content creation practices, preferences, and cultures of present and future students. The aim of our article is to discuss how the use of video triggers and video production…

  7. Public Perception of Environmental Issues in a Developing Setting: Environmental Concern in Coastal Ghana.

    PubMed

    White, Michael J; Hunter, Lori M

    2009-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: Balancing environmental quality with economic growth in less developed settings is clearly a challenge. Still surprisingly little empirical evidence has been brought to bear on the relative priority given environmental and socioeconomic issues among the residents themselves of such settings. This research explores such perceptions. METHODS: We undertake survey research with 2500 residents of coastal Ghana on policy issues, focusing on environmental topics. RESULTS: Our analyses reveal a significant amount of environmental awareness, with education and political engagement consistently predicting higher levels of concern. In addition, environmental issues are deemed important even when considered relative to other socioeconomic issues. CONCLUSION: In the end, we argue that our work sheds light on global environmentalism and the ways in which local populations in less developed settings prioritize social and environmental concerns. This work also has important policy implications since insight on local perceptions may help buttress policy responses designed to cope with global change. PMID:22639472

  8. Public Perception of Environmental Issues in a Developing Setting: Environmental Concern in Coastal Ghana

    PubMed Central

    White, Michael J.; Hunter, Lori M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Balancing environmental quality with economic growth in less developed settings is clearly a challenge. Still surprisingly little empirical evidence has been brought to bear on the relative priority given environmental and socioeconomic issues among the residents themselves of such settings. This research explores such perceptions. Methods We undertake survey research with 2500 residents of coastal Ghana on policy issues, focusing on environmental topics. Results Our analyses reveal a significant amount of environmental awareness, with education and political engagement consistently predicting higher levels of concern. In addition, environmental issues are deemed important even when considered relative to other socioeconomic issues. Conclusion In the end, we argue that our work sheds light on global environmentalism and the ways in which local populations in less developed settings prioritize social and environmental concerns. This work also has important policy implications since insight on local perceptions may help buttress policy responses designed to cope with global change. PMID:22639472

  9. Public Perception of Environmental Issues in a Developing Setting: Environmental Concern in Coastal Ghana.

    PubMed

    White, Michael J; Hunter, Lori M

    2009-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: Balancing environmental quality with economic growth in less developed settings is clearly a challenge. Still surprisingly little empirical evidence has been brought to bear on the relative priority given environmental and socioeconomic issues among the residents themselves of such settings. This research explores such perceptions. METHODS: We undertake survey research with 2500 residents of coastal Ghana on policy issues, focusing on environmental topics. RESULTS: Our analyses reveal a significant amount of environmental awareness, with education and political engagement consistently predicting higher levels of concern. In addition, environmental issues are deemed important even when considered relative to other socioeconomic issues. CONCLUSION: In the end, we argue that our work sheds light on global environmentalism and the ways in which local populations in less developed settings prioritize social and environmental concerns. This work also has important policy implications since insight on local perceptions may help buttress policy responses designed to cope with global change.

  10. Environmental History Modulates Arabidopsis Pattern-Triggered Immunity in a HISTONE ACETYLTRANSFERASE1-Dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Singh, Prashant; Yekondi, Shweta; Chen, Po-Wen; Tsai, Chia-Hong; Yu, Chun-Wei; Wu, Keqiang; Zimmerli, Laurent

    2014-06-24

    In nature, plants are exposed to a fluctuating environment, and individuals exposed to contrasting environmental factors develop different environmental histories. Whether different environmental histories alter plant responses to a current stress remains elusive. Here, we show that environmental history modulates the plant response to microbial pathogens. Arabidopsis thaliana plants exposed to repetitive heat, cold, or salt stress were more resistant to virulent bacteria than Arabidopsis grown in a more stable environment. By contrast, long-term exposure to heat, cold, or exposure to high concentrations of NaCl did not provide enhanced protection against bacteria. Enhanced resistance occurred with priming of Arabidopsis pattern-triggered immunity (PTI)-responsive genes and the potentiation of PTI-mediated callose deposition. In repetitively stress-challenged Arabidopsis, PTI-responsive genes showed enrichment for epigenetic marks associated with transcriptional activation. Upon bacterial infection, enrichment of RNA polymerase II at primed PTI marker genes was observed in environmentally challenged Arabidopsis. Finally, repetitively stress-challenged histone acetyltransferase1-1 (hac1-1) mutants failed to demonstrate enhanced resistance to bacteria, priming of PTI, and increased open chromatin states. These findings reveal that environmental history shapes the plant response to bacteria through the development of a HAC1-dependent epigenetic mark characteristic of a primed PTI response, demonstrating a mechanistic link between the primed state in plants and epigenetics.

  11. Recent advances in environmental controls outside the home setting

    PubMed Central

    Hauptman, Marissa; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review It has been well studied that aeroallergen, mold, and airborne pollutant exposure in the inner-city home environment is associated with significant childhood asthma morbidity. Although the home environment has been extensively studied, the school environment is less well understood. Recent findings In this article, we discuss the relationship between environmental exposures within the school and daycare environment and pediatric asthma morbidity and novel environmental interventions designed to help mitigate pediatric asthma morbidity. Summary Studies assessing environmental exposures outside the home environment and interventions to mitigate these exposures have the potential to reduce pediatric asthma morbidity. Further study in this area should focus on the complex cost benefit analyses of environmental interventions outside the home setting, while controlling for the home environment. PMID:26859366

  12. An alert system for triggering different levels of coastal management urgency: Tunisia case study using rapid environmental assessment data.

    PubMed

    Price, A R G; Jaoui, K; Pearson, M P; Jeudy de Grissac, A

    2014-03-15

    Rapid environmental assessment (REA) involves scoring abundances of ecosystems/species groups and magnitude of pressures, concurrently, using the same logarithmic (0-6) assessment scale. We demonstrate the utility of REA data for an alert system identifying different levels of coastal management concern. Thresholds set for abundances/magnitudes, when crossed, trigger proposed responses. Kerkennah, Tunisia, our case study, has significant natural assets (e.g. exceptional seagrass and invertebrate abundances), subjected to varying levels of disturbance and management concern. Using REA thresholds set, fishing, green algae/eutrophication and oil occurred at 'low' levels (scores 0-1): management not (currently) necessary. Construction and wood litter prevailed at 'moderate' levels (scores 2-4): management alerted for (further) monitoring. Solid waste densities were 'high' (scores 5-6): management alerted for action; quantities of rubbish were substantial (20-200 items m⁻¹ beach) but not unprecedented. REA is considered a robust methodology and complementary to other rapid assessment techniques, environmental frameworks and indicators of ecosystem condition.

  13. Non-infectious environmental antigens as a trigger for the initiation of an autoimmune skin disease.

    PubMed

    Qian, Ye; Culton, Donna A; Jeong, Joseph S; Trupiano, Nicole; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Diaz, Luis A

    2016-09-01

    Pemphigus represents a group of organ specific autoimmune blistering disorders of the skin mediated by pathogenic autoantibodies with well-defined antigenic targets. While most of these diseases are sporadic, endemic forms of disease do exist. The endemic form of pemphigus foliaceus (also known as fogo selvagem, FS) exhibits epidemiological features that suggest exposure to hematophagous insect bites are a possible precipitating factor of this autoimmune disease, and provides a unique opportunity to study how environmental factors contribute to autoimmune disease development. FS patients and healthy individuals from endemic regions show an autoreactive IgM response that starts in early childhood and becomes restricted to IgG4 autoantibodies in FS patients. In searching for triggering environmental antigens, we have found that IgG4 and IgE autoantibodies from FS patients cross-react with a salivary antigen from sand flies. The presence of these cross-reactive antibodies and antibody genetic analysis confirming that these antibodies evolve from the same naïve B cells provides compelling evidence that this non-infectious environmental antigen could be the initial target of the autoantibody response in FS. Consequently, FS serves as an ideal model to study the impact of environmental antigens in the development of autoimmune disease.

  14. Dietary exposure to an environmental toxin triggers neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid deposits in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Paul Alan; Davis, David A.; Mash, Deborah C.; Metcalf, James S.; Banack, Sandra Anne

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and β-amyloid plaques are the neurological hallmarks of both Alzheimer's disease and an unusual paralytic illness suffered by Chamorro villagers on the Pacific island of Guam. Many Chamorros with the disease suffer dementia, and in some villages one-quarter of the adults perished from the disease. Like Alzheimer's, the causal factors of Guamanian amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism dementia complex (ALS/PDC) are poorly understood. In replicated experiments, we found that chronic dietary exposure to a cyanobacterial toxin present in the traditional Chamorro diet, β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), triggers the formation of both NFT and β-amyloid deposits similar in structure and density to those found in brain tissues of Chamorros who died with ALS/PDC. Vervets (Chlorocebus sabaeus) fed for 140 days with BMAA-dosed fruit developed NFT and sparse β-amyloid deposits in the brain. Co-administration of the dietary amino acid l-serine with l-BMAA significantly reduced the density of NFT. These findings indicate that while chronic exposure to the environmental toxin BMAA can trigger neurodegeneration in vulnerable individuals, increasing the amount of l-serine in the diet can reduce the risk. PMID:26791617

  15. Outdoor environmental assessment of attention promoting settings for preschool children.

    PubMed

    Mårtensson, F; Boldemann, C; Söderström, M; Blennow, M; Englund, J-E; Grahn, P

    2009-12-01

    The restorative potential of green outdoor environments for children in preschool settings was investigated by measuring the attention of children playing in settings with different environmental features. Eleven preschools with outdoor environments typical for the Stockholm area were assessed using the outdoor play environment categories (OPEC) and the fraction of visible sky from play structures (sky view factor), and 198 children, aged 4.5-6.5 years, were rated by the staff for inattentive, hyperactive and impulsive behaviors with the ECADDES tool. Children playing in large and integrated outdoor areas containing large areas of trees, shrubbery and a hilly terrain showed less often behaviors of inattention (p<.05). The choice of tool for assessment of attention is discussed in relation to outdoor stay and play characteristics in Swedish preschool settings. The results indicate that the restorative potential of green outdoor environments applies also to preschool children and that environmental assessment tools as OPEC can be useful when to locate and develop health-promoting land adjacent to preschools. PMID:19643655

  16. Setting environmental agendas: The search for common ground

    SciTech Connect

    Mushak, B.

    1993-04-22

    Tension and overt conflict among government, industry, environmental advocacy groups, and the research community over the form and focus of environmental agendas have been around a long time. But the tenor of the interactions may be changing. A sampling of representatives from government, business and industry, regulatory offices, environmental advocacy groups, and research scientists indicates a readiness and a willingness to try a more cooperative approach. Cooperative research programs between government and industry such as the Health Effects Institute are enjoying credibility. The Green Lights voluntary pollution reduction program of the EPA and industry is another example of a successful cooperative effort, where cooperation followed the realization that companies could save money while reducing pollution. There is a growing use of mediation and negotiation in determining the final form of environmental regulations in contrast to the usual practice of litigating first. There are substantive signs that more proactive approaches to getting all interested parties to work on issues of mutual concern are in place today. The United States Congress has provided recent, explicit directions for cooperation among federal departments and agencies in the form of legislation. Broadening input for agenda setting, including addressing the role of risk assessment, has become an interest for a number of different agencies involved in research. The challenges facing most if not all attempts to move to coordinated, coherent environmental agendas for the nation are economics ones. The economics of any proposals for a national environmental agenda are likely to be considered a lot more on the cost side that the pure environmentalists think appropriate, and a lot more on the benefit side than short-time planners among business and antiregulatory interests think proper.

  17. Two sets of RNAi components are required for heterochromatin formation in trans triggered by truncated transgenes.

    PubMed

    Götz, Ulrike; Marker, Simone; Cheaib, Miriam; Andresen, Karsten; Shrestha, Simon; Durai, Dilip A; Nordström, Karl J; Schulz, Marcel H; Simon, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Across kingdoms, RNA interference (RNAi) has been shown to control gene expression at the transcriptional- or the post-transcriptional level. Here, we describe a mechanism which involves both aspects: truncated transgenes, which fail to produce intact mRNA, induce siRNA accumulation and silencing of homologous loci in trans in the ciliate Paramecium We show that silencing is achieved by co-transcriptional silencing, associated with repressive histone marks at the endogenous gene. This is accompanied by secondary siRNA accumulation, strictly limited to the open reading frame of the remote locus. Our data shows that in this mechanism, heterochromatic marks depend on a variety of RNAi components. These include RDR3 and PTIWI14 as well as a second set of components, which are also involved in post-transcriptional silencing: RDR2, PTIWI13, DCR1 and CID2. Our data indicates differential processing of nascent un-spliced and long, spliced transcripts thus suggesting a hitherto-unrecognized functional interaction between post-transcriptional and co-transcriptional RNAi. Both sets of RNAi components are required for efficient trans-acting RNAi at the chromatin level and our data indicates similar mechanisms contributing to genome wide regulation of gene expression by epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:27085807

  18. Two sets of RNAi components are required for heterochromatin formation in trans triggered by truncated transgenes

    PubMed Central

    Götz, Ulrike; Marker, Simone; Cheaib, Miriam; Andresen, Karsten; Shrestha, Simon; Durai, Dilip A.; Nordström, Karl J.; Schulz, Marcel H.; Simon, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Across kingdoms, RNA interference (RNAi) has been shown to control gene expression at the transcriptional- or the post-transcriptional level. Here, we describe a mechanism which involves both aspects: truncated transgenes, which fail to produce intact mRNA, induce siRNA accumulation and silencing of homologous loci in trans in the ciliate Paramecium. We show that silencing is achieved by co-transcriptional silencing, associated with repressive histone marks at the endogenous gene. This is accompanied by secondary siRNA accumulation, strictly limited to the open reading frame of the remote locus. Our data shows that in this mechanism, heterochromatic marks depend on a variety of RNAi components. These include RDR3 and PTIWI14 as well as a second set of components, which are also involved in post-transcriptional silencing: RDR2, PTIWI13, DCR1 and CID2. Our data indicates differential processing of nascent un-spliced and long, spliced transcripts thus suggesting a hitherto-unrecognized functional interaction between post-transcriptional and co-transcriptional RNAi. Both sets of RNAi components are required for efficient trans-acting RNAi at the chromatin level and our data indicates similar mechanisms contributing to genome wide regulation of gene expression by epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:27085807

  19. International core data sets for integrated environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, A.

    1996-12-31

    Integrated environmental assessments are needed to provide policy relevant information for decision making at national, regional and international scales and the means for priority setting and action planning. One of the important components of integrated assessment is the critical examination of Pressure-State-Impact-Response (PSIR) model in key assessment areas. The paper highlights some of the initiatives of the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) in assembling the platform of information necessary for constructing an integrated assessment framework for State of the Environment (SOE) reporting. The current status of international core data sets such as land use/land cover, demographics, hydrology, topography, climatology, infrastructure, economy, soils, air quality and water quality, needed for such assessments is also briefly described.

  20. Towards setting environmental water temperature guidelines: a South African example.

    PubMed

    Rivers-Moore, Nicholas A; Dallas, Helen F; Morris, Craig

    2013-10-15

    Water temperature is a primary factor affecting the number and kinds of species in a stream. A key step towards including water temperatures in environmental flow assessments is to develop metrics which describe natural variability in a river's thermal regime. This is best achieved using time series analyses, where metrics are defined based either on time series disaggregation, or shapes of regimes defined using agglomerative techniques. The aim of this paper was to refine approaches in setting environmental water temperature guidelines for inclusion in defining environmental flows assessments. Annual water temperature series from 82 sites sampled across 48 rivers (mainstems and tributaries) in ten catchments in the southern Cape region of South Africa were described using 39 metrics based on the magnitude, frequency, duration and timing of thermal events. Sites were classified into thermal groups using their similarity in multivariate temperature regime and variation amongst groups along important temperature gradients examined. Deviation from a natural range of variability using a thermal confidence envelope is a suitable approach for broad evaluation of thermal guidelines. The approach presented can be applied at multiple levels of complexity to assess which elements of a thermal time series fall outside of reference conditions. Further steps in this approach are to link thermal patterns to biotic metrics, and gain a clearer understanding of interactions between flows, temperatures and biota, particularly below impoundments. Research on improving approaches in defining thermal regions is recommended.

  1. Eelgrass (Zostera marina) Food Web Structure in Different Environmental Settings.

    PubMed

    Thormar, Jonas; Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Baden, Susanne; Boström, Christoffer; Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Olesen, Birgit; Rasmussen, Jonas Ribergaard; Svensson, Carl Johan; Holmer, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    This study compares the structure of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) meadows and associated food webs in two eelgrass habitats in Denmark, differing in exposure, connection to the open sea, nutrient enrichment and water transparency. Meadow structure strongly reflected the environmental conditions in each habitat. The eutrophicated, protected site had higher biomass of filamentous algae, lower eelgrass biomass and shoot density, longer and narrower leaves, and higher above to below ground biomass ratio compared to the less nutrient-enriched and more exposed site. The faunal community composition and food web structure also differed markedly between sites with the eutrophicated, enclosed site having higher biomass of consumers and less complex food web. These relationships resulted in a column shaped biomass distribution of the consumers at the eutrophicated site whereas the less nutrient-rich site showed a pyramidal biomass distribution of consumers coupled with a more diverse consumer community. The differences in meadow and food web structure of the two seagrass habitats, suggest how physical setting may shape ecosystem response and resilience to anthropogenic pressure. We encourage larger, replicated studies to further disentangle the effects of different environmental variables on seagrass food web structure. PMID:26752412

  2. Indicators of environmental health in the urban setting.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Trevor

    2002-01-01

    The North American population is approximately 80% urbanized and spends almost 90% of the time indoors. Accordingly, the built environment is the most important--one might almost say "natural"--human environment. Urban settlements incorporate within their boundaries natural ecosystems of plant and animal life (often highly adapted to the urban environment), and are in turn incorporated within wider bioregions and global ecosystems. But urban settlements are not just built and natural physical environments, they are social, economic, cultural and political environments; the whole constitutes an urban ecosystem. These ecosystems have profound implications for the physical, mental, social, emotional and spiritual well-being of their human inhabitants, as well as for human beings remote from these urban ecosystems. Therefore, this paper discusses urban ecosystems and human health and presents a framework for indicators of environmental health in the urban setting based on such an understanding. The concepts of environmental viability, ecological sustainability, urban livability, community conviviality, social equity, and economic adequacy are discussed in relation to human health and are used to organize proposed candidate indicators for urban ecosystems and public health. PMID:12425175

  3. Eelgrass (Zostera marina) Food Web Structure in Different Environmental Settings.

    PubMed

    Thormar, Jonas; Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Baden, Susanne; Boström, Christoffer; Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Olesen, Birgit; Rasmussen, Jonas Ribergaard; Svensson, Carl Johan; Holmer, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    This study compares the structure of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) meadows and associated food webs in two eelgrass habitats in Denmark, differing in exposure, connection to the open sea, nutrient enrichment and water transparency. Meadow structure strongly reflected the environmental conditions in each habitat. The eutrophicated, protected site had higher biomass of filamentous algae, lower eelgrass biomass and shoot density, longer and narrower leaves, and higher above to below ground biomass ratio compared to the less nutrient-enriched and more exposed site. The faunal community composition and food web structure also differed markedly between sites with the eutrophicated, enclosed site having higher biomass of consumers and less complex food web. These relationships resulted in a column shaped biomass distribution of the consumers at the eutrophicated site whereas the less nutrient-rich site showed a pyramidal biomass distribution of consumers coupled with a more diverse consumer community. The differences in meadow and food web structure of the two seagrass habitats, suggest how physical setting may shape ecosystem response and resilience to anthropogenic pressure. We encourage larger, replicated studies to further disentangle the effects of different environmental variables on seagrass food web structure.

  4. Eelgrass (Zostera marina) Food Web Structure in Different Environmental Settings

    PubMed Central

    Thormar, Jonas; Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Baden, Susanne; Boström, Christoffer; Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Olesen, Birgit; Rasmussen, Jonas Ribergaard; Svensson, Carl Johan; Holmer, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    This study compares the structure of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) meadows and associated food webs in two eelgrass habitats in Denmark, differing in exposure, connection to the open sea, nutrient enrichment and water transparency. Meadow structure strongly reflected the environmental conditions in each habitat. The eutrophicated, protected site had higher biomass of filamentous algae, lower eelgrass biomass and shoot density, longer and narrower leaves, and higher above to below ground biomass ratio compared to the less nutrient-enriched and more exposed site. The faunal community composition and food web structure also differed markedly between sites with the eutrophicated, enclosed site having higher biomass of consumers and less complex food web. These relationships resulted in a column shaped biomass distribution of the consumers at the eutrophicated site whereas the less nutrient-rich site showed a pyramidal biomass distribution of consumers coupled with a more diverse consumer community. The differences in meadow and food web structure of the two seagrass habitats, suggest how physical setting may shape ecosystem response and resilience to anthropogenic pressure. We encourage larger, replicated studies to further disentangle the effects of different environmental variables on seagrass food web structure. PMID:26752412

  5. Allergens in school settings: results of environmental assessments in 3 city school systems.

    PubMed

    Abramson, Stuart L; Turner-Henson, Anne; Anderson, Lise; Hemstreet, Mary P; Bartholomew, L Kay; Joseph, Christine L M; Tang, Shenghui; Tyrrell, Shellie; Clark, Noreen M; Ownby, Dennis

    2006-08-01

    Environmental allergens are major triggers for pediatric asthma. While children's greatest exposure to indoor allergens is in the home, other public places where children spend a large amount of time, such as school and day care centers, may also be sources of significant allergen encounters. The purpose of this article is to describe schoolroom allergen levels from 3 different geographic sites obtained from dust samples collected in the fall and in spring. Environmental dust samples were collected from elementary schools in Birmingham (AL), Detroit (MI), and Houston (TX), from 4 room locations, including the cafeteria, library, upper grades, and lower grades. Samples were assayed for dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae), cat (Felis domesticus), and cockroach (Blatella germanica 2) allergen levels. Allergen levels varied by geographic location and type of schoolroom. Schoolroom settings differed by the type of flooring (hard and carpet), room characteristics and use (food service, library shelves with books, and general classroom with multiple types of materials [individual desks and different types of furniture]), and the average age of the schoolroom dwellers (younger vs. older children). Dust mite, cat, and cockroach allergens were present in all schoolrooms and all sites at varying levels by season and by type of room. Schools may be important sources of direct allergen exposure and reservoirs that could potentially contribute to allergic sensitization and disease exacerbation in children. Further studies are needed to carefully examine the environmental allergen load in schools and its effect on children.

  6. Can environmental conditions trigger cyanobacterial surfaces and following carbonate formation: implication for biomineralization and biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulo, C.; Dittrich, M.; Zhu, T.

    2015-12-01

    In this presentation we will give an overview what kind of the factors may trigger carbonate formations at the cell surfaces under a variety of environmental conditions. As examples, we will present the results from our recent studies on formation of calcium carbonates, dolomites and bio-cements. The extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in the Synechococcuscell envelope are recognized key players in the nucleation of carbonates in marine and freshwater environments. Yet, little is known about a nutrient contents control over the molecular composition of Synechococcus cell envelope, and consequently, biomineralization. In the first study, we investigated how a variation of the phosphorus (P) in the growth media can lead to changes in the surface reactivity of the cells and impact their ability to form carbonates. The objective of the second study is to gain insights into the spatial distribution of cyanobacterial EPS and dolomite from different sediment layers of Khor Al-Adaid sabkha (Qatar). Here, we characterized microbial mats on molecular level in respect of organic and inorganic components using in-situ 2D Raman spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) were used. Additionally, 2D chemical maps of sediment layers documented spectral characterizations of minerals and organic matter of microbial origins at high spatial resolution. Finally, we will show the results from the experiments with auto-phototrophic cyanobacteria Gloeocapsa PCC73106, which habitat on the monument surfaces, towards its application for bio-concrete, a product of microbial carbonate precipitation. We studied the biomineralization in biofilm forming Gloeocapsa PCC73106 on the concrete surface as a pre-requirement for microbial carbonate precipitation. Biomineralization on the concrete surface by live cells and killed cells were compared with that under the abiotic condition. Our experiments allow us to conclude that environmental conditions play a significant role in the control of

  7. Local nutrient regimes determine site-specific environmental triggers of cyanobacterial and microcystin variability in urban lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinang, S. C.; Reichwaldt, E. S.; Ghadouani, A.

    2015-05-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms in urban lakes present serious health hazards to humans and animals and require effective management strategies. Managing such blooms requires a sufficient understanding of the controlling environmental factors. A range of them has been proposed in the literature as potential triggers for cyanobacterial biomass development and cyanotoxin (e.g. microcystin) production in freshwater systems. However, the environmental triggers of cyanobacteria and microcystin variability remain a subject of debate due to contrasting findings. This issue has raised the question of whether the relevance of environmental triggers may depend on site-specific combinations of environmental factors. In this study, we investigated the site-specificity of environmental triggers for cyanobacterial bloom and microcystin dynamics in three urban lakes in Western Australia. Our study suggests that cyanobacterial biomass, cyanobacterial dominance and cyanobacterial microcystin content variability were significantly correlated to phosphorus and iron concentrations. However, the correlations were different between lakes, thus suggesting a site-specific effect of these environmental factors. The discrepancies in the correlations could be explained by differences in local nutrient concentration. For instance, we found no correlation between cyanobacterial fraction and total phosphorous (TP) in the lake with the highest TP concentration, while correlations were significant and negative in the other two lakes. In addition, our study indicates that the difference of the correlation between total iron (TFe) and the cyanobacterial fraction between lakes might have been a consequence of differences in the cyanobacterial community structure, specifically the presence or absence of nitrogen-fixing species. In conclusion, our study suggests that identification of significant environmental factors under site-specific conditions is an important strategy to enhance successful outcomes

  8. Walden Pond, Massachusetts: Environmental Setting and Current Investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, John A.; Waldron, Marcus C.

    1998-01-01

    Introduction Walden Pond, in Concord, Massachusetts, is famous among lakes because of its unique social history. Walden was the setting for American naturalist Henry David Thoreau's well-known essay 'Walden; or, Life in the Woods,' first published in 1854. Thoreau lived and wrote at Walden Pond from July 1845 to September 1847. In 'Walden,' Thoreau combined highly admired writing on Transcendental philosophy with pioneering observations of aquatic ecology and physical aspects of limnology, the study of lakes. Because Thoreau also defended so effectively the value of living close to nature in the Walden woods, the pond is considered by many to be the birthplace of the American conservation movement. Visitors come from all over the world to the pond, which has been designated a National Historic Landmark, and its fame has resulted in a major fund drive to preserve the surrounding woods. Walden Pond has no surfacewater inflow or outflow, and much of its ground-water contributing area likely is preserved within the Walden Pond Reservation area (fig. 1). Only 15 miles from Boston, the pond is unusually clear and pristine for an urban-area lake. However, point sources of nutrients near the pond, and a large annual visitor attendance, concentrated during the summer when the swimming beach (fig. 2) is open, may contribute a nutrient load sufficient to change the pond environment. The occurrence of nuisance algal species, a recent beach closing, and an awareness of water-quality problems suffered by other ponds in the region raise concerns about the risk of ecological change at Walden Pond. Despite the role of Walden Pond as a cultural and environmental icon, little is known about the pond's ecological features, such as its internal nutrient cycling or the structure of its food web, nor have consistent measurements been made to determine whether these features are changing or are stable. Production rates of aquatic plants in lakes and ponds naturally undergo a slow increase

  9. Environmental Awareness in Rural, Suburban, and Urban Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Clifford A.; Fox, Norris D.

    1976-01-01

    The study examined: (1) whether or not there was a positive relationship between environmental attitudes and environmental knowledge, and (2) how any relationship that might exist varied among student sub-groups. The "Environmental Knowledge and Attitude Inventory" was administered to 75 rural, 120 suburban, and 102 inner city high school…

  10. BASIS Set Exchange (BSE): Chemistry Basis Sets from the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) Basis Set Library

    DOE Data Explorer

    Feller, D; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Didier, Brett T.; Elsethagen, Todd; Sun, Lisong; Gurumoorthi, Vidhya; Chase, Jared; Li, Jun

    The Basis Set Exchange (BSE) provides a web-based user interface for downloading and uploading Gaussian-type (GTO) basis sets, including effective core potentials (ECPs), from the EMSL Basis Set Library. It provides an improved user interface and capabilities over its predecessor, the EMSL Basis Set Order Form, for exploring the contents of the EMSL Basis Set Library. The popular Basis Set Order Form and underlying Basis Set Library were originally developed by Dr. David Feller and have been available from the EMSL webpages since 1994. BSE not only allows downloading of the more than 500 Basis sets in various formats; it allows users to annotate existing sets and to upload new sets. (Specialized Interface)

  11. Leave before it's too late: anthropogenic and environmental triggers of autumn migration in a hunted ungulate population.

    PubMed

    Rivaud, Inger Maren; Bischof, Richard; Meisingset, Erling L; Zimmermann, Barbara; Loe, Leif Egil; Mysterud, Atle

    2016-04-01

    Autumn has to a large extent been neglected in the climate effect literature, yet autumn events, e.g., plant senescence and animal migration, affect fitness of animals differently than spring events. Understanding how variables including plant phenology influence timing of autumn migrations is important to gain a comprehensive understanding of the full annual cycle of migratory species. Here we use 13 yr of data from 60 male and 168 female red deer (Cervus elaphus) to identify triggers of autumn migration. We relate the timing of autumn migration to environmental variables like snow fall, temperature, and plant phenology (NDVI), and to onset of hunting, sex, and migration distance. Severe weather has been suggested as the main trigger of autumn migration, but we found that the majority of the individuals had left the summer range well before snow fall (80.3%) and frost (70.5%), and also before the peak deterioration in forage quality (71.9%). Declining temperatures were associated with a higher daily migration potential. Onset of hunting showed the largest effect on migration potential, with a marked increase during the first days of hunting. Individuals still present in the summer range when snow fall, frost, or peak forage deterioration occurred showed a significantly higher migration potential around these events. Males were less responsive to environmental cues, suggesting rutting activity, starting earlier in males, initiate movement prior to such conditions. Also, individuals with longer migration distances had a higher migration potential late in the season than individuals with shorter migration distances. Our study shows that factors beyond weather and plant phenology, such as onset of hunting, may be important triggers of autumn migration. Severe weather and forage deterioration were important triggers for the individuals experiencing this, which suggests a hierarchical response to environmental cues. The trade-off between staying longer in the summer

  12. Setting boundaries of participation in environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Salomons, Geoffrey H.; Hoberg, George

    2014-02-15

    Public participation processes are touted as an effective way to increase the capacity and legitimacy of environmental assessment and the regulatory process that rely on them. Recent changes to the Canadian environmental assessment process narrowed the criteria for who can participate in environmental assessments from any who were interested to those who were most directly affected. This article examines the potential consequences of this change by exploring other areas of Canadian regulatory law where a similar directed affected test has been applied. This new standard risks institutionalizing the long-understood representational bias confronted by more diffuse interest like environmental protection. Restricting participation to the “directly affected” is far too narrow a test for processes like environmental assessment that are designed to determine the public interest. -- Highlights: • Public participation can improve the legitimacy of environmental assessments. • New Canadian rules narrow the range of eligible participants. • Similar rules in Alberta have excluded environmental representation. • The new rules may institutionalize bias against more diffuse interests. • Restricting participation to the “directly affected” is far too narrow.

  13. Allergens in School Settings: Results of Environmental Assessments in 3 City School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Stuart L.; Turner-Henson, Anne; Anderson, Lise; Hemstreet, Mary P.; Bartholomew, L. Kay; Joseph, Christine L. M.; Tang, Shenghui; Tyrrell, Shellie; Clark, Noreen M.; Ownby, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    Environmental allergens are major triggers for pediatric asthma. While children's greatest exposure to indoor allergens is in the home, other public places where children spend a large amount of time, such as school and day care centers, may also be sources of significant allergen encounters. The purpose of this article is to describe schoolroom…

  14. Core Mechanisms Regulating Developmentally Timed and Environmentally Triggered Abscission[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Drought-triggered abscission is a strategy used by plants to avoid the full consequences of drought; however, it is poorly understood at the molecular genetic level. Here, we show that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) can be used to elucidate the pathway controlling drought-triggered leaf shedding. We further show that much of the pathway regulating developmentally timed floral organ abscission is conserved in regulating drought-triggered leaf abscission. Gene expression of HAESA (HAE) and INFLORESCENCE DEFICIENT IN ABSCISSION (IDA) is induced in cauline leaf abscission zones when the leaves become wilted in response to limited water and HAE continues to accumulate in the leaf abscission zones through the abscission process. The genes that encode HAE/HAESA-LIKE2, IDA, NEVERSHED, and MAPK KINASE4 and 5 are all necessary for drought-induced leaf abscission. Our findings offer a molecular mechanism explaining drought-triggered leaf abscission. Furthermore, the ability to study leaf abscission in Arabidopsis opens up a new avenue to tease apart mechanisms involved in abscission that have been difficult to separate from flower development as well as for understanding the mechanistic role of water and turgor pressure in abscission. PMID:27468996

  15. Deccan Volcanism: a main trigger of environmental changes leading to the KTB mass extinction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adatte, Thierry; Fantasia, Alicia; Samant, Bandana; Mohabey, Dhananjay; Keller, Gerta; Gertsch, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The nature and causes of mass extinctions in the geological past have remained topics of intense scientific debate for the past three decades. Central to this debate is the question of whether the eruption of large igneous provinces (LIP) was the primary mechanism driving the environmental changes that are commonly regarded as the proximate causes for four of the five major Phanerozoic extinction events. Model results predict that Deccan Traps emplacement was responsible for a strong increase in atmospheric pCO2 accompanied by rapid warming of 4°C that was followed by global cooling. During the warming phase, increased continental weathering of silicates associated with consumption of atmospheric CO2 likely resulted in the drawdown of greenhouse gases that reversed the warming trend leading to global cooling at the end of the Maastrichtian. Massive CO2 input together with massive release of SO2 may thus have triggered the mass extinctions in the marine realm as a result of ocean acidification leading to a carbon crisis and in the terrestrial realms due to acid rains. Global stress conditions related to these climatic changes are well known and documented in planktic foraminifera by a diversity decrease, species dwarfing, dominance of opportunistic species and near disappearance of specialized species. Deccan Traps erupted in three main phases with 6% total Deccan volume in phase-1 (base C30n), 80% in phase-2 (C29r) and 14% in phase-3 (C29n). Recent studies indicate that the bulk (80%) of Deccan trap eruptions (Phase-2) occurred over a relatively short time interval in magnetic polarity C29r, whereas multiproxy studies from central and southeastern India place the Cretaceous-Tertiary (KT) mass extinction near the end of this main phase of Deccan volcanism suggesting a cause-and-effect relationship. In India a strong floral response is observed as a direct response to Deccan volcanic phase-2. In Lameta (infratrappean) sediments preceding the volcanic eruptions

  16. Setting risk-informed environmental standards for Bacillus anthracis spores.

    PubMed

    Hong, Tao; Gurian, Patrick L; Ward, Nicholas F Dudley

    2010-10-01

    In many cases, human health risk from biological agents is associated with aerosol exposures. Because air concentrations decline rapidly after a release, it may be necessary to use concentrations found in other environmental media to infer future or past aerosol exposures. This article presents an approach for linking environmental concentrations of Bacillus. anthracis (B. anthracis) spores on walls, floors, ventilation system filters, and in human nasal passages with human health risk from exposure to B. anthracis spores. This approach is then used to calculate example values of risk-informed concentration standards for both retrospective risk mitigation (e.g., prophylactic antibiotics) and prospective risk mitigation (e.g., environmental clean up and reoccupancy). A large number of assumptions are required to calculate these values, and the resulting values have large uncertainties associated with them. The values calculated here suggest that documenting compliance with risks in the range of 10(-4) to 10(-6) would be challenging for small diameter (respirable) spore particles. For less stringent risk targets and for releases of larger diameter particles (which are less respirable and hence less hazardous), environmental sampling would be more promising.

  17. Scoring Los Angeles Landscapes: Environmental Education in an Urban Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Christopher L.; And Others

    This notebook serves as a guide for learning activities in environmental education. Twelve themes are treated in four groups: (1) sense of place includes history and landscape; (2) the natural environment covers air, water, energy, and landforms; (3) the built environment includes architecture, transportation, and housing; and (4) the social…

  18. Risk analysis and priority setting for environmental policy

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    There is a growing realization that the demand for funding to correct our nation's environmental problems will soon outstrip available resources. In the hazardous waste area alone, the estimated cost of remediating Superfund sites ranges from $32 billion to $80 billion. Numerous other areas of competing for these same financial resources. These include ozone depletion, global warming, the protection of endangered species and wetlands, toxic air pollution, carcinogenic pesticides, and urban smog. In response to this imbalance in the supply and demand for national funds, several political constituencies are calling for the use of risk assessment as a tool in the prioritization of research and budget needs. Comparative risk analysis offers a logical framework in which to organize information about complex environmental problems. Risk analysis allows policy analysts to make resource allocation decisions on the basis of scientific judgement rather than political expediency.

  19. Risk analysis and priority setting for environmental policy

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, C.C.

    1991-12-31

    There is a growing realization that the demand for funding to correct our nation`s environmental problems will soon outstrip available resources. In the hazardous waste area alone, the estimated cost of remediating Superfund sites ranges from $32 billion to $80 billion. Numerous other areas of competing for these same financial resources. These include ozone depletion, global warming, the protection of endangered species and wetlands, toxic air pollution, carcinogenic pesticides, and urban smog. In response to this imbalance in the supply and demand for national funds, several political constituencies are calling for the use of risk assessment as a tool in the prioritization of research and budget needs. Comparative risk analysis offers a logical framework in which to organize information about complex environmental problems. Risk analysis allows policy analysts to make resource allocation decisions on the basis of scientific judgement rather than political expediency.

  20. Community organizing network for environmental health: using a community health development approach to increase community capacity around reduction of environmental triggers.

    PubMed

    Parker, Edith A; Chung, Lynna K; Israel, Barbara A; Reyes, Angela; Wilkins, Donele

    2010-04-01

    The Community Organizing Network for Environmental Health (CONEH), a project of Community Action Against Asthma, used a community health development approach to improve children's asthma-related health through increasing the community's capacity to reduce physical and social environmental triggers for asthma. Three community organizers were hired to work with community groups and residents in neighborhoods in Detroit on the priority areas of air quality, housing, and citizen involvement in the environmental project and policy decision-making. As part of the evaluation of the CONEH project, 20 one-on-one semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted between August and November 2005 involving steering committee members, staff members, and key community organization staff and/or community members. Using data from the evaluation of the CONEH project, this article identifies the dimensions of community capacity that were enhanced as part of a CBPR community health development approach to reducing physical and social environmental triggers associated with childhood asthma and the factors that facilitated or inhibited the enhancement of community capacity.

  1. Leave before it's too late: anthropogenic and environmental triggers of autumn migration in a hunted ungulate population.

    PubMed

    Rivaud, Inger Maren; Bischof, Richard; Meisingset, Erling L; Zimmermann, Barbara; Loe, Leif Egil; Mysterud, Atle

    2016-04-01

    Autumn has to a large extent been neglected in the climate effect literature, yet autumn events, e.g., plant senescence and animal migration, affect fitness of animals differently than spring events. Understanding how variables including plant phenology influence timing of autumn migrations is important to gain a comprehensive understanding of the full annual cycle of migratory species. Here we use 13 yr of data from 60 male and 168 female red deer (Cervus elaphus) to identify triggers of autumn migration. We relate the timing of autumn migration to environmental variables like snow fall, temperature, and plant phenology (NDVI), and to onset of hunting, sex, and migration distance. Severe weather has been suggested as the main trigger of autumn migration, but we found that the majority of the individuals had left the summer range well before snow fall (80.3%) and frost (70.5%), and also before the peak deterioration in forage quality (71.9%). Declining temperatures were associated with a higher daily migration potential. Onset of hunting showed the largest effect on migration potential, with a marked increase during the first days of hunting. Individuals still present in the summer range when snow fall, frost, or peak forage deterioration occurred showed a significantly higher migration potential around these events. Males were less responsive to environmental cues, suggesting rutting activity, starting earlier in males, initiate movement prior to such conditions. Also, individuals with longer migration distances had a higher migration potential late in the season than individuals with shorter migration distances. Our study shows that factors beyond weather and plant phenology, such as onset of hunting, may be important triggers of autumn migration. Severe weather and forage deterioration were important triggers for the individuals experiencing this, which suggests a hierarchical response to environmental cues. The trade-off between staying longer in the summer

  2. PANDAS: the search for environmental triggers of pediatric neuropsychiatric disorders. Lessons from rheumatic fever.

    PubMed

    Garvey, M A; Giedd, J; Swedo, S E

    1998-09-01

    Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS) is a relatively new diagnostic construct applied to children or adolescents who develop, and have repeated exacerbations of, tic disorders and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder following group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infections. The proposed pathophysiology is that the group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal bacteria trigger antibodies that cross-react with the basal ganglia of genetically susceptible hosts leading to obsessive-compulsive disorder and/or tics. This is similar to the etiologic mechanisms proposed for Sydenham's chorea, in which group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal antibodies cross-react with the basal ganglia and result in abnormal behavior and involuntary movements. When first proposed, there was much controversy about the idea that streptococcal infections were etiologically related to rheumatic fever. In a like manner, discussion has arisen about the concept of infection-triggered obsessive-compulsive disorder and tic disorders. We review the historical background to these controversies, give an update on the findings provided by research on PANDAS, and address areas of future study.

  3. The link between 'green' and economic success: environmental management as the crucial trigger between environmental and economic performance.

    PubMed

    Schaltegger, Stefan; Synnestvedt, Terje

    2002-08-01

    The link between environmental and economic performance has been widely debated in the literature for the last ten to fifteen years. One view is that improved environmental performance mainly causes extra costs for the firm and thus reduces profitability. However, also the opposite has been argued for: improved environmental performance would induce cost savings and increase sales and thus improve economic performance. Theoretical and empirical research have provided arguments for both positions and have not been conclusive so far. This article discusses reasons for the different views and the differences in empirical research and presents a theoretical framework to explain the coexistence of the conflicting views. It is argued that not merely the level of environmental performance, but mainly the kind of environmental management with which a certain level is achieved, influences the economic outcome. The model presented provides implications for both empirical research and company management in practice. Research and business practice should focus less on general correlations and more on causal relationships of eco-efficiency, i.e. the effect of different environmental management approaches on economic performance.

  4. Inferring neutral biodiversity parameters using environmental DNA data sets

    PubMed Central

    Sommeria-Klein, Guilhem; Zinger, Lucie; Taberlet, Pierre; Coissac, Eric; Chave, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    The DNA present in the environment is a unique and increasingly exploited source of information for conducting fast and standardized biodiversity assessments for any type of organisms. The datasets resulting from these surveys are however rarely compared to the quantitative predictions of biodiversity models. In this study, we simulate neutral taxa-abundance datasets, and artificially noise them by simulating noise terms typical of DNA-based biodiversity surveys. The resulting noised taxa abundances are used to assess whether the two parameters of Hubbell’s neutral theory of biodiversity can still be estimated. We find that parameters can be inferred provided that PCR noise on taxa abundances does not exceed a certain threshold. However, inference is seriously biased by the presence of artifactual taxa. The uneven contribution of organisms to environmental DNA owing to size differences and barcode copy number variability does not impede neutral parameter inference, provided that the number of sequence reads used for inference is smaller than the number of effectively sampled individuals. Hence, estimating neutral parameters from DNA-based taxa abundance patterns is possible but requires some caution. In studies that include empirical noise assessments, our comprehensive simulation benchmark provides objective criteria to evaluate the robustness of neutral parameter inference. PMID:27762295

  5. Seasonal movements and environmental triggers to fall migration of Sage Sparrows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fesenmyer, K.A.; Knick, S.T.

    2011-01-01

    Post-breeding ecology of shrubland passerines prior to onset of migration is unknown relative to dynamics of breeding areas. We radiomarked and monitored 38 Sage Sparrows (Amphispiza belli ssp. nevadensis) at one site in Oregon and two in Nevada from September to mid-November 2007 to track local movements, estimate seasonal range sizes, and characterize weather patterns triggering onset of migration. Median area used by Sage Sparrows monitored between 3 and 18 days during or prior to migration was 14 ha; maximum daily movement was 15 km. Radio-marked Sage Sparrows at each location departed individually, rather than en masse, corresponding with passage of cold front weather systems. Conventional telemetry techniques limited our ability to monitor Sage Sparrows beyond pre-migratory periods and precluded detecting and tracking actual movements during migration. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  6. Triggering Klystrons

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan, Kelton D.; /Purdue U. /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    To determine if klystrons will perform to the specifications of the LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source) project, a new digital trigger controller is needed for the Klystron/Microwave Department Test Laboratory. The controller needed to be programmed and Windows based user interface software needed to be written to interface with the device over a USB (Universal Serial Bus). Programming the device consisted of writing logic in VHDL (VHSIC (Very High Speed Integrated Circuits) hardware description language), and the Windows interface software was written in C++. Xilinx ISE (Integrated Software Environment) was used to compile the VHDL code and program the device, and Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 was used to compile the C++ based Windows software. The device was programmed in such a way as to easily allow read/write operations to it using a simple addressing model, and Windows software was developed to interface with the device over a USB connection. A method of setting configuration registers in the trigger device is absolutely necessary to the development of a new triggering system, and the method developed will fulfill this need adequately. More work is needed before the new trigger system is ready for use. The configuration registers in the device need to be fully integrated with the logic that will generate the RF signals, and this system will need to be tested extensively to determine if it meets the requirements for low noise trigger outputs.

  7. Environmental setting of the San Joaquin-Tulare basins, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gronberg, JoAnn A.; Dubrovsky, Neil M.; Kratzer, Charles R.; Domagalski, Joseph L.; Brown, Larry R.; Burow, Karen R.

    1998-01-01

    among basins and specific land use settings, as well as within and among study units at the national level.

  8. Environmental triggers for primary outbreaks of crown-of-thorns starfish on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Wooldridge, Scott A; Brodie, Jon E

    2015-12-30

    In this paper, we postulate a unique environmental triggering sequence for primary outbreaks of crown-of-thorns starfish (COTS, Acanthaster planci) on the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR, Australia). Notably, we extend the previous terrestrial runoff hypothesis, viz. nutrient-enriched terrestrial runoff → elevated phytoplankton 'bloom' concentrations → enhanced COTS larval survival, to include the additional importance of strong larvae retention around reefs or within reef groups (clusters) that share enhanced phytoplankton concentrations. For the central GBR, this scenario is shown to occur when El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) linked hydrodynamic conditions cause the 'regional' larval connectivity network to fragment into smaller 'local' reef clusters due to low ocean current velocities. As inter-annual variations in hydrodynamic circulation patterns are not amenable to direct management intervention, the ability to reduce the future frequency of COTS outbreaks on the central GBR is shown to be contingent on reducing terrestrial bioavailable nutrient loads ~20-40%. PMID:26460182

  9. Environmental triggers for primary outbreaks of crown-of-thorns starfish on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Wooldridge, Scott A; Brodie, Jon E

    2015-12-30

    In this paper, we postulate a unique environmental triggering sequence for primary outbreaks of crown-of-thorns starfish (COTS, Acanthaster planci) on the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR, Australia). Notably, we extend the previous terrestrial runoff hypothesis, viz. nutrient-enriched terrestrial runoff → elevated phytoplankton 'bloom' concentrations → enhanced COTS larval survival, to include the additional importance of strong larvae retention around reefs or within reef groups (clusters) that share enhanced phytoplankton concentrations. For the central GBR, this scenario is shown to occur when El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) linked hydrodynamic conditions cause the 'regional' larval connectivity network to fragment into smaller 'local' reef clusters due to low ocean current velocities. As inter-annual variations in hydrodynamic circulation patterns are not amenable to direct management intervention, the ability to reduce the future frequency of COTS outbreaks on the central GBR is shown to be contingent on reducing terrestrial bioavailable nutrient loads ~20-40%.

  10. Environmental Indicators. A Preliminary Set = Indicateurs d'environnement. Une etude pilote.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This document provides a preliminary set of environmental indicators by which to measure environmental performance. The indicators are patterned on the outline of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) "Report on the State of the Environment," a companion volume published in the same year. This volume is comprised of 18…

  11. Diet and specific microbial exposure trigger features of environmental enteropathy in a novel murine model

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Eric M.; Wlodarska, Marta; Willing, Benjamin P.; Vonaesch, Pascale; Han, Jun; Reynolds, Lisa A.; Arrieta, Marie-Claire; Uhrig, Marco; Scholz, Roland; Partida, Oswaldo; Borchers, Christoph H.; Sansonetti, Philippe J.; Finlay, B. Brett

    2015-01-01

    Environmental enteropathy (EE) is a subclinical chronic inflammatory disease of the small intestine and has a profound impact on the persistence of childhood malnutrition worldwide. However, the aetiology of the disease remains unknown and no animal model exists to date, the creation of which would aid in understanding this complex disease. Here we demonstrate that early-life consumption of a moderately malnourished diet, in combination with iterative oral exposure to commensal Bacteroidales species and Escherichia coli, remodels the murine small intestine to resemble features of EE observed in humans. We further report the profound changes that malnutrition imparts on the small intestinal microbiota, metabolite and intraepithelial lymphocyte composition, along with the susceptibility to enteric infection. Our findings provide evidence indicating that both diet and microbes combine to contribute to the aetiology of EE, and describe a novel murine model that can be used to elucidate the mechanisms behind this understudied disease. PMID:26241678

  12. Recurrent environmentally triggered thrombophlebitis: a five-year follow-up

    SciTech Connect

    Rea, W.J.; Peters, D.W.; Smiley, R.E.; Edgar, R.; Greenberg, M.; Fenyves, E.

    1981-11-01

    Twenty disabled patients with recurrent intractable nontraumatic phlebitis were studied. The patients were divided into two groups and matched for age and severity. The control group was continued on their standard anticoagulant regime, bed rest and support hose. The other group was placed in an especially designed Environmental Control Unit (ECU) where all air, food and water could be controlled. These patients were taken off all medication and not fed until the leg pain and swelling disappeared, which was four to seven days. The patients then showed specific sensitivities to foods and ambient subthreshold doses of inhaled chemicals such as formaldehyde less than 0.2 ppm, phenol less than 0.0024 ppm, chlorine less than 0.33 ppm, petroleum alcohol less than 0.5 ppm and pesticide (2,4 DNP) less than 0.0134 ppm under controlled double-blind challenges. Eight out of 10 patients had their phlebitis reproduced in this manner. When in the symptom-free state, these patients were required to ride an exercycle at 150 kpm for one mile daily to demonstrate absence of phlebitis (none could walk across the room prior to examination). The five-year follow-up in the group showed two 48-hour episodes of phlebitis cleared by home bed rest and food abstenance. In contrast, the control group had more than 60 episodes of phlebitis at home and 41 episodes in the hospital. Medical costs in these comparable groups are discussed.

  13. Childhood Obesity Prevention in Childcare Settings: the Potential of Policy and Environmental Change Interventions.

    PubMed

    Lessard, Laura; Breck, Andrew

    2015-06-01

    Current obesity rates in young children are a serious public health concern; developing and implementing obesity prevention interventions in childcare settings is a promising avenue to address this issue. In recent years, there has been increasing focus on environmental and policy change interventions for this setting. Improving access to and quality of outdoor play spaces and implementing the Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC) are two promising environmental change strategies in this setting. Laws at the local, state, and federal level have also been implemented; New York City and Delaware are two jurisdictions that have passed policies and provided preliminary evidence of the potential of policy interventions to change child outcomes. A combination of programmatic, environmental, and policy change strategies will likely be most effective in maximizing the potential of childcare settings to promote healthy weight in children. PMID:26627214

  14. Imbalanced nutrients as triggers for black shale formation in a shallow shelf setting during the OAE 2 (Wunstorf, Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenberg, M.; Wiese, F.

    2012-05-01

    During the oceanic anoxic event 2 (OAE 2) in the mid-Cretaceous widespread black shale (BS) formation occurred, reflecting perturbations in major biogeochemical cycles. Here we present geochemical and biomarker data of the OAE 2 from a shelf setting situated at about 100 to 150 water depth (Wunstorf, Germany). Our data support that processes inducing BS deposition were related to orbital cyclicity in Wunstorf and that they were not restricted to the time of the OAE 2 carbon isotope excursion. Correlations of total organic carbon (TOC) and δ15N and high relative abundances of functionalized hopanoids (incl. 2-methylated structures) suggest that BS were formed during times of imbalanced nutrients with high phosphorus inputs and increased (cyano)bacterial nitrogen fixation. Periods of BS formation were also characterized by enhanced growth of dinoflagellates and bacteriovorous ciliates, the latter supporting the presence of a stratified water body. The lack of biomarkers specific for green-sulfur bacteria excludes photic zone euxinia during OAE 2 in Wunstorf. Conflicting maturities and biomarker distributions in kerogen and extractable organic matter and, interestingly, a negative correlation of the diagenetically resistant 2-methyl hopane hydrocarbons with TOC indicate a complex depositional setting at Wunstorf. In Wunstorf this might have been induced by high continental run-off during BS formation and the accompanying mobilisation of refractory OM from the shelfs and near shore areas.

  15. Imbalanced nutrients as triggers for black shale formation in a shallow shelf setting during the OAE 2 (Wunstorf, Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenberg, M.; Wiese, F.

    2012-10-01

    During the oceanic anoxic event 2 (OAE 2) in the Mid-Cretaceous Period, widespread black shale (BS) formation occurred, reflecting perturbations in major biogeochemical cycles. Here we present geochemical and biomarker data of the OAE 2 from a shelf setting situated at about 100-150 m water depth (Wunstorf, Germany). Our data support that processes inducing BS deposition were related to orbital cyclicity in Wunstorf and that they were not restricted to the time of the OAE 2 carbon isotope excursion. Correlations of total organic carbon (TOC) and δ15N and high relative abundances of functionalized hopanoids (including 2-methylated structures) suggest that BS were formed during times of imbalanced nutrients with high phosphorus inputs and increased cyanobacterial nitrogen fixation. Periods of BS formation were also characterized by enhanced growth of dinoflagellates and bacteriovorous ciliates, the latter supporting the presence of a stratified water body. The lack of biomarkers specific for green sulfur bacteria excludes photic zone euxinia during OAE 2 in Wunstorf. Conflicting maturities and biomarker distributions in kerogen and extractable organic matter and, interestingly, a negative correlation of the diagenetically resistant 2-methyl hopane hydrocarbons with TOC indicate a complex depositional setting at Wunstorf. This might have been induced by high continental runoff during BS formation and the accompanying mobilisation of refractory OM from the shelves and near shore areas.

  16. Bioaccumulation of photoprotective compounds in copepods: environmental triggers and sources of intra-specific variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagarese, H. E.; García, P.; Diéguez, M. D.; Ferraro, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and temperature are two globally important abiotic factors affecting freshwater ecosystems. Planktonic organisms have developed a battery of counteracting mechanisms to minimize the risk of being damaged by UVR, which respond to three basic principles: avoid, protect, repair. Copepods are among the most successful zooplankton groups. They are highly adaptable animals, capable of displaying flexible behaviors, physiologies, and life strategies. In particular, they are well equipped to cope with harmful UVR. Their arsenal includes vertical migration, accumulation of photoprotective compounds, and photorepair. The preference for a particular strategy is affected by a plethora of environmental (extrinsic) parameters, such as the existence of a depth refuge, the risk of visual predation, and temperature. Temperature modifies the environment (e.g. the lake thermal structure), and animal metabolism (e.g., swimming speed, bioaccumulation of photoprotective compounds). In addition, the relative weight of UVR-coping strategies is also influenced by the organism (intrinsic) characteristics (e.g., inter- and intra-specific variability). The UV absorbing compounds, mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), are widely distributed among freshwater copepods. Animals are unable to synthesize MAAs, and therefore depend on external sources for accumulating these compounds. Although copepods may acquire MAAs from their food, for the few centropagic species investigated so far, the main source of MAAs are microbial (most likely prokaryotic) organisms living in close association with the copepods. Boeckella gracilipes is a common centropagic copepod in Patagonian lakes. We suspected that its occurrence in different types of lakes, hydrologically unconnected, but within close geographical proximity, could have resulted in different microbial-copepod associations (i.e., different MAAs sources) that could translate into intra-specific differences in the accumulation

  17. Environmental settings for selected US Department of Energy installations - support information for the programmatic environmental impact statement and the baseline environmental management report

    SciTech Connect

    Holdren, G.R.; Glantz, C.S.; Berg, L.K.; Delinger, K.; Fosmire, C.J.; Goodwin, S.M.; Rustad, J.R.; Schalla, R.; Schramke, J.A.

    1995-05-01

    This report contains the environmental setting information developed for 25 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) installations in support of the DOE`s Programmatic Environmental Impact Study (PEIS) and the Baseline Environmental Management Report (BEMR). The common objective of the PEIS and the BEMR is to provide the public with information about the environmental contamination problems associated with major DOE facilities across the country, and to assess the relative risks that radiological and hazardous contaminants pose to the public, onsite workers, and the environment. Environmental setting information consists of the site-specific data required to model (using the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System) the atmospheric, groundwater, and surface water transport of contaminants within and near the boundaries of the installations. The environmental settings data describes the climate, atmospheric dispersion, hydrogeology, and surface water characteristics of the installations. The number of discrete environmental settings established for each installation was governed by two competing requirements: (1) the risks posed by contaminants released from numerous waste sites were to be modeled as accurately as possible, and (2) the modeling required for numerous release sites and a large number of contaminants had to be completed within the limits imposed by the PEIS and BEMR schedule. The final product is the result of attempts to balance these competing concerns in a way that minimizes the number of settings per installation in order to meet the project schedule while at the same, time providing adequate, if sometimes highly simplified, representations of the different areas within an installation. Environmental settings were developed in conjunction with installation experts in the fields of meteorology, geology, hydrology, and geochemistry.

  18. Triggers of the HSP70 stress response: environmental responses and laboratory manipulation in an Antarctic marine invertebrate (Nacella concinna)

    PubMed Central

    Peck, Lloyd S.

    2009-01-01

    The Antarctic limpet, Nacella concinna, exhibits the classical heat shock response, with up-regulation of duplicated forms of the inducible heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) gene in response to experimental manipulation of seawater temperatures. However, this response only occurs in the laboratory at temperatures well in excess of any experienced in the field. Subsequent environmental sampling of inter-tidal animals also showed up-regulation of these genes, but at temperature thresholds much lower than those required to elicit a response in the laboratory. It was hypothesised that this was a reflection of the complexity of the stresses encountered in the inter-tidal region. Here, we describe a further series of experiments comprising both laboratory manipulation and environmental sampling of N. concinna. We investigate the expression of HSP70 gene family members (HSP70A, HSP70B, GRP78 and HSC70) in response to a further suite of environmental stressors: seasonal and experimental cold, freshwater, desiccation, chronic heat and periodic emersion. Lowered temperatures (−1.9°C and −1.6°C), generally produced a down-regulation of all HSP70 family members, with some up-regulation of HSC70 when emerging from the winter period and increasing sea temperatures. There was no significant response to freshwater immersion. In response to acute and chronic heat treatments plus simulated tidal cycles, the data showed a clear pattern. HSP70A showed a strong but very short-term response to heat whilst the duplicated HSP70B also showed heat to be a trigger, but had a more sustained response to complex stresses. GRP78 expression indicates that it was acting as a generalised stress response under the experimental conditions described here. HSC70 was the major chaperone invoked in response to long-term stresses of varying types. These results provide intriguing clues not only to the complexity of HSP70 gene expression in response to environmental change but also insights into the

  19. Developmentally and environmentally regulated expression of gamone 1: the trigger molecule for sexual reproduction in Blepharisma japonicum.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Mayumi; Kawahara, Seiko; Iio, Hideo; Harumoto, Terue

    2005-06-15

    Sexual reproduction (conjugation) in protozoan ciliates is induced by specific cell-cell interactions between cells of complementary mating types. The ancestral ciliate Blepharisma japonicum has two mating types, I and II. The substances that act as signaling molecules in this extracellular interaction for conjugation are called gamones. The glycoprotein gamone 1, produced by mating type I cells, is a key factor that triggers this interaction. We have previously isolated gamone 1 and determined its complete amino acid sequence. To elucidate the mechanism of initiation of conjugation in ciliates, we investigated the transcription of the gamone 1 gene and found that it is controlled by various internal and external factors. The gamone 1 gene transcript appeared specifically when sexually mature mating type I cells were starved. It was not detected in immature cells, mating type II cells or proliferating cells. The level of transcription was markedly increased in type I cells when they were stimulated with gamone 2, which is secreted by type II cells. This is the first report that the transcription of gamone genes in ciliates is strictly regulated by developmental and environmental factors. This study suggests that the onset of transcription of gamone 1 is linked to the switching mechanism that converts mitotically proliferating cells to differentiated preconjugants, the mechanism of differentiation from immature to mature cells in clonal development, and the mechanism that ensures mating type-specific gene silencing.

  20. Environmental setting of the upper Illinois River basin and implications for water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnold, Terri L.; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Harris, Mitchell A.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Scudder, Barbara C.; Ruhl, Peter M.; Hanchar, Dorothea W.; Stewart, Jana S.

    1999-01-01

    The upper Illinois River Basin (UIRB) is the 10,949 square mile drainage area upstream from Ottawa, Illinois, on the Illinois River. The UIRB is one of 13 studies that began in 1996 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water- Quality Assessment program. A compilation of environmental data from Federal, State, and local agencies provides a description of the environmental setting of the UIRB. Environmental data include natural factors such as bedrock geology, physiography and surficial geology, soils, vegetation, climate, and ecoregions; and human factors such as land use, urbanization trends, and population change. Characterization of the environmental setting is useful for understanding the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of surface and ground water in the UIRB and the possible implications of that environmental setting for water quality. Some of the possible implications identified include depletion of dissolved oxygen because of high concentrations of organic matter in wastewater, increased flooding because of suburbanization, elevated arsenic concentrations in ground water because of weathering of shale bedrock, and decreasing ground-water levels because of heavy pumping of water from the bedrock aquifers.

  1. Freddie Fish. A Primary Environmental Study of Basic Numerals, Sets, Ordinals and Shapes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraynak, Ola

    This teacher's guide and study guide are an environmental approach to mathematics education in the primary grades. The mathematical studies of the numerals 0-10, ordinals, number sets, and basic shapes - diamond, circle, square, rectangle, and triangle - are developed through the story of Freddie Fish and his search for clean water. The…

  2. Mother-Child Joint Writing in an Environmental Print Setting: Relations with Emergent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Michelle M.; Hood, Michelle; Ford, Ruth M.

    2012-01-01

    Mother-child dyads (N = 35) were videoed as they wrote a shopping list in an environmental print-rich grocery shop play setting. The children (M age = 4.3 years) were assessed on emergent literacy skills (letter name and sound knowledge, print concepts, phonological awareness, and letter and name writing). Mothers' general level of print and…

  3. Changes in Mobility of Children with Cerebral Palsy over Time and across Environmental Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tieman, Beth L.; Palisano, Robert J.; Gracely, Edward J.; Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Chiarello, Lisa A.; O'Neil, Margaret E.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined changes in mobility methods of children with cerebral palsy (CP) over time and across environmental settings. Sixty-two children with CP, ages 6-14 years and classified as levels II-IV on the Gross Motor Function Classification System, were randomly selected from a larger data base and followed for three to four years. On each…

  4. Obesity-related abnormalities couple environmental triggers with genetic susceptibility in adult-onset T1D.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, K Hoa; Ande, Sudharsana R; Mishra, Suresh

    2016-01-29

    The incidence of adult-onset T1D in low-risk non-HLA type has increased several folds, whereas the contemporaneous incidence in high-risk HLA-type remains stable. Various factors behind this selective increase in T1D in young adults remain unclear. Obesity and its associated abnormalities appear to be an important determinant; however, the underlying mechanism involved is not understood. Recently, we have developed two novel transgenic obese mice models, Mito-Ob and m-Mito-Ob, by expressing a pleiotropic protein prohibitin (PHB) and a phospho mutant form of PHB (Y114F-PHB or m-PHB) from the aP2 gene promoter, respectively. Both mice models develop obesity in a sex-neutral manner, independent of diet; but obesity associated chronic low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance in a male sex-specific manner. Interestingly, on a high fat diet (HFD) only male m-Mito-Ob mice displayed marked mononuclear cell infiltration in pancreas and developed insulitis that mimic adult-onset T1D. Male Mito-Ob mice that share the metabolic phenotype of male m-Mito-Ob mice, and female m-Mito-Ob that harbor m-PHB similar to male m-Mito-Ob mice, did not develop insulitis. Thus, insulitis development in male m-Mito-Ob in response to HFD requires both, obesity-related abnormalities and m-PHB. Collectively, this data provides a proof-of-concept that obesity-associated abnormalities couple environmental triggers with genetic susceptibility in adult-onset T1D and reveals PHB as a potential susceptibility gene for T1D.

  5. Vapor sampling of ERCs for environmental assessment in atmospheric and soil settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acevedo, Damarys; Padilla, Ingrid; Torres, Perla M.; Torres, Alexander; Anaya, Angel A.

    2007-04-01

    The existence of explosive related chemicals (ERCs) near the soil-atmospheric and other surfaces depend on their fate and transport characteristics within the environmental settings. Consequently, detection of ERC in environmental matrices is influenced by conditions that affect their fate and transport. Experimental work to study the fate and transport behavior of ERCs relies on proper temporal and spatial sampling techniques. Because the low vapor pressure of these chemicals and their susceptibility to adsorption and degradation, vapor concentrations in environmental matrices are very low. Depending on the environmental conditions, the amount of samples that can be withdrawn for analysis is also limited. It is, therefore, necessary to develop sampling technologies that can provide quantitative measures of ERC concentrations in limited sampling environments. This paper presents experimental work conducted to develop a sampling technique to quantify DNT and TNT vapor concentrations of low vapor-pressure ERCs in environmental setting having limited sampling volumes and large sample numbers. Two potential vapor sampling techniques, Solid phase Microextraction (SPME) and Solid Phase Extraction (SPE), were developed and evaluated. SPME sampling techniques are excellent to quantify for DNT and TNT at very low concentrations. Its passive sampling capabilities meet the requirement for low-volume environmental sampling, but measured concentrations may be lagged in time. SPMEs' requirements for immediate analysis after sampling limit the technique for continuous vapor sampling. SPE showed to be a sensitive and reproducible technique to determine vapor concentrations of TNT and DNT in atmospheric and soil setting having limited sampling volumes and large sample numbers. Smallvolume (600μL) air samples provide measurements in the μgL -1 concentration range using isoamyl acetate and acetonitrile as the solvents. Small extraction volumes make this technique cost efficient and

  6. A cross-disciplinary understanding of incipient motion for effective environmental flow setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neverman, Andrew; Fuller, Ian; Death, Russell; Procter, Jon; Singh, Ranvir

    2016-04-01

    Environmental flow setting as a tool for maintaining ecological health in rivers has been a focus of debate for many years. Environmental flow setting often involves the establishment of base flow levels below impoundment structures as well as setting flushing flows in order to control excess periphyton accrual and sedimentation. The role of bedload transport and substrate stability is recognised as an integral part of effectively managing benthic communities, but environmental flow regulations often do not focus on managing sediment processes. Environmental flows which fail to scour periphyton have been attributed to increased biomass accumulation through increasing nutrient supply to periphyton mats. It may therefore be more effective to establish environmental flow models based on incipient motion thresholds. The aim of these models would be to establish target near-bed velocities as opposed to discharges. Establishment of such models requires an accurate understanding of the threshold conditions for incipient motion. Despite decades of incipient motion studies scientists are unable to consistently and accurately predict bedload transport in natural channels. Incipient motion results from a complex set of geomorphic, hydrologic, and ecological interactions operating over a range of spatial and temporal scales. Direct measurement of these processes can be difficult and time consuming, and has been restricted by a lack of suitable high spatio-temporal resolution methods in the past. This paper presents a cross-disciplinary approach to the study of incipient motion to develop effective environmental flow targets. Recent developments in remote sensing and 3D point cloud analysis are used to characterise substrate surfaces. Groundwater head pressures are measured during floods to examine changes in threshold velocities under different seepage conditions. The onset of bedload transport is recorded using impact plate sensors to relate transport initiation to near

  7. Environmental Settings of Selected Streams Sampled for Mercury in Oregon, Wisconsin, and Florida, 2002-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bell, Amanda H.; Lutz, Michelle A.

    2008-01-01

    From 2002 through 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program conducted studies investigating mercury biogeochemistry and food-web bioaccumulation in eight streams from three distinct geographic areas of the United States. These streams varied greatly in environmental characteristics, including land-cover, hydrologic, climatic, and chemical characteristics. They ranged from a clear-water, high-gradient, low-percentage wetland stream in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon, to an urban stream near Milwaukee, Wisconsin, to a low-gradient, blackwater stream draining the Okefenokee and Pinhook Swamps along the Georgia-Florida border. This report summarizes the environmental settings of these eight streams.

  8. Dynamic triggering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, David P.; Prejean, Stephanie; Schubert, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic stresses propagating as seismic waves from large earthquakes trigger a spectrum of responses at global distances. In addition to locally triggered earthquakes in a variety of tectonic environments, dynamic stresses trigger tectonic (nonvolcanic) tremor in the brittle–plastic transition zone along major plate-boundary faults, activity changes in hydrothermal and volcanic systems, and, in hydrologic domains, changes in spring discharge, water well levels, soil liquefaction, and the eruption of mud volcanoes. Surface waves with periods of 15–200 s are the most effective triggering agents; body-wave trigger is less frequent. Triggering dynamic stresses can be < 1 kPa.

  9. Presence of asthma risk factors and environmental exposures related to upper respiratory infection-triggered wheezing in middle school-age children.

    PubMed Central

    Sotir, Mark; Yeatts, Karin; Shy, Carl

    2003-01-01

    Viral respiratory infections and exposure to environmental constituents such as tobacco smoke are known or suspected to trigger wheezing/asthma exacerbations in children. However, few population-based data exist that examine the relationship between wheezing triggered by viral respiratory infections and environmental exposures. In this investigation we used population-based data to evaluate differences in exposures between symptomatic middle school-age children who did and did not report wheezing triggered by viral respiratory infections. As part of the North Carolina School Asthma Survey (NCSAS), a 66-question data instrument was used to collect information from children enrolled in North Carolina public middle schools during the 1999-2000 school year. Associations between exposures and upper respiratory infection-triggered wheezing (URI-TW) among symptomatic children were examined using adjusted prevalence odds ratios (PORs). Video methods developed for the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood were used to assess wheezing. Among the 33,534 NCSAS symptomatic participants, positive associations were observed between most exposures and URI-TW. Reported presence of all allergy variables (PORs ranging from 2.11 to 2.45) was more strongly associated with URI-TW than either smoking or other exposures. Presence of URI-TW was higher at increasing levels of tobacco smoke exposure, but no apparent dose-response effect was observed for other indoor air pollutants. URI-TW in middle school children is most associated with reported allergen sensitivity, relative to other asthma risk factors and environmental exposures. Data from this investigation may be useful in developing assessment, screening, and targeting strategies to improve asthma and wheezing management in children. PMID:12676631

  10. Common Asthma Triggers

    MedlinePlus

    ... your bedding on the hottest water setting. Outdoor Air Pollution Outdoor air pollution can trigger an asthma attack. This pollution can ... your newspaper to plan your activities for when air pollution levels will be low. Cockroach Allergen Cockroaches and ...

  11. Education in Environmental Chemistry: Setting the Agenda and Recommending Action. A Workshop Report Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoller, Uri

    2005-08-01

    Worldwide, the essence of the current reform in science education is a paradigm shift from algorithmic, lower-order cognitive skills (LOCS) teaching to higher-order cognitive skills (HOCS) learning. In the context of education in environmental chemistry (EEC), the ultimate goal is to educate students to be science technology environment society (STES)-literate, capable of evaluative thinking, decision making, problem solving and taking responsible action accordingly. Educators need to translate this goal into effective courses that can be implemented: this includes developing teaching strategies and assessment methodologies that are consonant with the goal of HOCS learning. An international workshop—"Environmental Chemistry Education in Europe: Setting the Agenda"—yielded two main recommendations for those undertaking educational reform in science education, particularly to promote meaningful EEC. The first recommendation concerns integration of environmental sciences into core chemistry courses as well as the development and implementation of HOCS-promoting teaching strategies and assessment methodologies in chemical education. The second emphasizes the development of students' HOCS for transfer, followed by performance assessment of HOCS. This requires changing the way environmental chemistry is typically taught, moving from a narrowly focused approach (applied analytical, ecotoxicological, or environmental engineering chemistry) to an interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary approach.

  12. Environmental impact classification with fuzzy sets for urban land cover from satellite remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, Maria A.; Nicolae, Doina N.; Talianu, Camelia

    2004-10-01

    Urban area is a mosaic of complex, interacting ecosystems, rich natural resources and socio-economic activity. Dramatic changes in urban's land cover are due to natural and anthropogenic causes. A scientific management system for protection, conservation and restoration must be based on reliable information on bio-geophysical and geomorphologic, dynamics processes, and climatic change effects. Synergetic use of quasi-simultaneously acquired multi-sensor data may therefore allow for a better approach of change detection and environmental impact classification and assessment in urban area. It is difficult to quantify the environmental impacts of human and industrial activities in urban areas. There are often many different indicators than can conflict with each other, frequently important observations are lacking, and potentially valuable information may non-quantitative in nature. Fuzzy set theory offers a modern methodology for dealing with these problems and provides useful approach to difficult classification problems for satellite remote sensing data. This paper describes how fuzzy logic can be applied to analysis of environmental impacts for urban land cover. Based on classified Landsat TM, SPOT images and SAR ERS-1 for Bucharest area, Romania, it was performed a land cover classification and subsequent environmental impact analysis.

  13. Environmental settings of streams sampled for mercury in New York and South Carolina, 2005-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scudder Eikenberry, Barbara C.; Riva-Murray, Karen; Smith, Martyn J.; Bradley, Paul M.; Button, Daniel T.; Clark, Jimmy M.; Burns, Douglas A.; Journey, Celeste A.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the environmental settings of streams in New York and South Carolina, where the U.S. Geological Survey completed detailed investigations during 2005-09 into factors contributing to mercury bioaccumulation in top-predator fish and other stream organisms. Descriptions of location, land use/land cover, climate, precipitation, atmospheric deposition, hydrology, water temperature, and other characteristics are provided. Atmospheric deposition is the dominant mercury source in the studied basins where biota, sediment, soil, and water were sampled for mercury and for physical and chemical characteristics believed to be important in mercury methylation and transport.

  14. Engaging novice teachers in semiotic inquiry: considering the environmental messages of school learning settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Bonnie

    2014-12-01

    Katherine Fogelberg's insightful study of the messages of zoo signs describes the complex, sometimes contradictory nature of the messages they communicate. The construction and content of signs are influenced by institutional power. Fogelberg argues that the creation of zoo signage designed to inform the public can, through its messages, silence a perspective of care and compassion for animals. The research presented in the following article extends discussion about the value of critical considerations of cultural and institutional messages created and read in another type of setting designed to educate and inform, the school learning setting. The article reports on a project that engaged novice teachers in explorations of the nature and types of environmental messages found in learning settings. During our inquiry work together, novice teachers suggested areas of particular concern to them, and began to construct ideas about aspects of their work in which they plan to take action or engage in future inquiry. The research also reveals some of the challenges involved when novice educators first begin the process of engaging in semiotic interpretive readings of learning settings.

  15. Individual and Environmental Factors Influencing Adolescents’ Dietary Behavior in Low- and Middle-Income Settings

    PubMed Central

    Verstraeten, Roosmarijn; Leroy, Jef L.; Pieniak, Zuzanna; Ochoa-Avilès, Angélica; Holdsworth, Michelle; Verbeke, Wim; Maes, Lea; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Objective Given the public health importance of improving dietary behavior in chronic disease prevention in low- and middle-income countries it is crucial to understand the factors influencing dietary behavior in these settings. This study tested the validity of a conceptual framework linking individual and environmental factors to dietary behavior among Ecuadorian adolescents aged 10–16 years. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 784 school-going Ecuadorian adolescents in urban and rural Southern Ecuador. Participants provided data on socio-economic status, anthropometry, dietary behavior and its determining factors. The relationships between individual (perceived benefits and barriers, self-efficacy, habit strength, and a better understanding of healthy food) and environmental factors (physical environment: accessibility to healthy food; social environment: parental permissiveness and school support), and their association with key components of dietary behavior (fruit and vegetables, sugary drinks, breakfast, and unhealthy snack intake) were assessed using structural equation modeling. Results The conceptual model performed well for each component of eating behavior, indicating acceptable goodness-of-fit for both the measurement and structural models. Models for vegetable intake and unhealthy snacking showed significant and direct effects of individual factors (perceived benefits). For breakfast and sugary drink consumption, there was a direct and positive association with socio-environmental factors (school support and parental permissiveness). Access to healthy food was associated indirectly with all eating behaviors (except for sugary drink intake) and this effect operated through socio-environmental (parental permissiveness and school support) and individual factors (perceived benefits). Conclusion Our study demonstrated that key components of adolescents’ dietary behaviors are influenced by a complex interplay of individual and

  16. Environmental Setting and Implications on Water Quality, Upper Colorado River Basin, Colorado and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apodaca, Lori E.; Driver, Nancy E.; Stephens, Verlin C.; Spahr, Norman E.

    1995-01-01

    The Upper Colorado River Basin in Colorado and Utah is 1 of 60 study units selected for water-quality assessment as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program, which began full implementation in 1991. Understanding the environmental setting of the Upper Colorado River Basin study unit is important in evaluating water-quality issues in the basin. Natural and human factors that affect water quality in the basin are presented, including an overview of the physiography, climatic conditions, general geology and soils, ecoregions, population, land use, water management and use, hydrologic characteristics, and to the extent possible aquatic biology. These factors have substantial implications on water-quality conditions in the basin. For example, high concentrations of dissolved solids and selenium are present in the natural background water conditions of surface and ground water in parts ofthe basin. In addition, mining, urban, and agricultural land and water uses result in the presence of certain constituents in the surface and ground water of the basin that can detrimentally affect water quality. The environmental setting of the study unit provides a framework of the basin characteristics, which is important in the design of integrated studies of surface water, ground water, and biology.

  17. The mosaic of environment involvement in autoimmunity: the abrogation of viral latency by stress, a non-infectious environmental agent, is an intrinsic prerequisite prelude before viruses can rank as infectious environmental agents that trigger autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Temajo, Norbert O; Howard, Neville

    2014-06-01

    An autoimmune disease (AD), organ-specific or systemic, results from an aberrant response in which the protective immune system normally schooled to recognize and destroy invading infectious agents (viruses, etc.) instead fails to distinguish self-antigens and proceeds to attack and destroy the host's organs. There can be familial aggregation in which a single AD may occur in members of a family, or a single family may be afflicted with multiple ADs. Finally, sometimes multiple ADs co-occur in a single individual: the kaleidoscope of autoimmunity. Autoimmunity is a multifactorial process in which genetic, hormonal, immunological and environmental factors act in concert to materialize the mosaic of autoimmunity phenomenon. A genetically primed individual may yet not develop an AD: the contribution by an environmental factor (non-infectious or infectious) is essential for completion of the act. Of the non-infectious factors, stress plays a determinative step in autoimmunity in that it abrogates viral latency and thereby ordains the viruses to qualify as infectious environmental factors that trigger ADs. This is note-worthy as viruses rank first as the most important environmental triggers of ADs. Furthermore, all these viruses experience going through latency. Hence the hypothesis: "The abrogation of viral latency by stress, a non-infectious environmental agent, is an intrinsic prerequisite prelude before viruses can rank as infectious environmental agents that trigger autoimmune diseases". There is collaboration here between non-infectious- and infectious-agent to achieve the cause of autoimmunity. We say viral latency and stress have a covenant: continued perpetration of autoimmunity is dependent on the intervention by stress to reactivate latent infections.

  18. Environmental setting of the Yellowstone River basin, Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zelt, Ronald B.; Boughton, G.K.; Miller, K.A.; Mason, J.P.; Gianakos, L.M.

    1999-01-01

    Natural and anthropogenic factors influence water-quality conditions in the Yellowstone River Basin. Physiography parallels the structural geologic setting that is generally composed of several uplifts and structural basins. Contrasts in climate and vegetation reflect topographic controls and the midcontinental location of the study unit. Surface-water hydrology reflects water surpluses in mountainous areas that are dominated by snowmelt runoff, and arid to semiarid conditions in the plains that are dissected by typically irrigated valleys in the remainder of the study unit. Principal shallow aquifers are Tertiary sandstones and unconsolidated Quaternary deposits. Human population, though sparsely distributed in general, is growing most rapidly in a few urban centers and resort areas, mostly in the northwestern part of the basin. Land use is areally dominated by grazing in the basins and plains and economically dominated by mineral-extraction activities. Forests are the dominant land cover in mountainous areas. Cropland is a major land use in principal stream valleys. Water use is dominated by irrigated agriculture overall, but mining and public-supply facilities are major users of ground water. Coal and hydrocarbon production and reserves distinguish the Yellowstone River Basin as a principal energy-minerals resources region. Current metallic ore production or reserves are nationally significant for platinum-group elements and chromium.The study unit was subdivided as an initial environmental stratification for use in designing the National Water-Quality Assessment Program investigation that began in 1997. Ecoregions, geologic groups, mineral-resource areas, and general land-cover and land-use categories were used in combination to define 18 environmental settings in the Yellowstone River Basin. It is expected that these different settings will be reflected in differing water-quality or aquatic-ecological characteristics.

  19. 40 CFR 227.3 - Materials which do not satisfy the environmental impact criteria set forth in subpart B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS General § 227.3 Materials which do not satisfy the environmental impact criteria set forth in subpart B. If the material proposed for ocean dumping does not satisfy...

  20. Trigger finger

    MedlinePlus

    ... Redness in your cut or hand Swelling or warmth in your cut or hand Yellow or green drainage from the cut Hand pain or discomfort Fever If your trigger finger returns, call your surgeon. You may need another surgery.

  1. The tomato FT ortholog triggers systemic signals that regulate growth and flowering and substitute for diverse environmental stimuli.

    PubMed

    Lifschitz, Eliezer; Eviatar, Tamar; Rozman, Alexander; Shalit, Akiva; Goldshmidt, Alexander; Amsellem, Ziva; Alvarez, John Paul; Eshed, Yuval

    2006-04-18

    The systemic model for floral induction, dubbed florigen, was conceived in photoperiod-sensitive plants but implies, in its ultimate form, a graft-transmissible signal that, although activated by different stimuli in different flowering systems, is common to all plants. We show that SFT (SINGLE-FLOWER TRUSS), the tomato ortholog of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), induces flowering in day-neutral tomato and tobacco plants and is encoded by SFT. sft tomato mutant plants are late-flowering, with altered architecture and flower morphology. SFT-dependent graft-transmissible signals complement all developmental defects in sft plants and substitute for long-day stimuli in Arabidopsis, short-day stimuli in Maryland Mammoth tobacco, and light-dose requirements in tomato uniflora mutant plants. The absence of donor SFT RNA from flowering receptor shoots and the localization of the protein in leaf nuclei implicate florigen-like messages in tomato as a downstream pathway triggered by cell-autonomous SFT RNA transcripts. Flowering in tomato is synonymous with termination of the shoot apical meristems, and systemic SFT messages attenuate the growth of apical meristems before and independent of floral production. Floral enhancement by systemic SFT signals is therefore one pleiotropic effect of FT orthologs.

  2. Peculiarity and vulnerability of karst settings, analyzed through a review of available environmental indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parise, Mario; Mazzei, Marianna

    2016-04-01

    Karst is a unique environment on Earth, characterized by a variety of peculiar geological and hydrological features, that are expressed by typical landforms at the surface (doline, ponor, polje, etc.) and underground (single cave, sinkhole, complex hypogean systems consisting of sequences of pits and galleries, etc.). Among the main characters of karst, the direct connection between the surface and the underground is at the origin of the fragility of karst settings, and the related high vulnerability. Many different types of natural geological hazards (or geo-hazards) may potentially affect karst lands, with sinkholes and flash floods being the most frequent and typical. In addition, karst is exposed to a variety of anthropogenic disturbances as well, including loss of natural landscapes, destruction of caves and speleothems, and contamination and pollution problems. At this latter regard, it has to be reminded that karst aquifers host high quality groundwaters, that are used as source of drinking water worldwide, with estimates indicating that the supply of drinking water from karst is going to have a significant increase in the next decades, From all of this, the importance in fully defining the karst setting, and in a detail examination of all the natural and anthropogenic events that may cause negative effects on it, comes out. Uniqueness of karst has been acknowledged since a long time, but only in recent years efforts have been made to develop approaches and methods specifically dedicated to this peculiar environment. Such approaches represent definitely a mandatory step in the correct management of karst terranes, providing useful elements to stakeholders, land managers and people living in karst lands about their fragility, and the need to safeguard them and the natural resources therein contained. Starting from these considerations, in this contribution we review the main environmental indices dedicated to karst that have been recently proposed in the

  3. Environmental setting of benchmark streams in agricultural areas of eastern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rheaume, S.J.; Stewart, J.S.; Lenz, B.N.

    1996-01-01

    Differences in land use/land cover, and riparian vegetation and instream habitat characteristics are presented. Summaries of field measurements of water temperature, pH, specific conductance and concentrations of dissolved oxygen, total organic plus ammonia nitrogen, dissolved ammonium, nitrate plus nitrte as nitrogen, total phosphorus, dissolved orthophosphate, and atrazine are listed. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen for the sampled streams ranged from 6 A to 14.3 and met the standards set by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) for supporting fish and aquatic life. Specific conductance ranged from 98 to 753 u,Scm with values highest in RHU's 1 and 3, where streams are underlain by carbonate bedrock. Median pH did not vary greatly among the four RHU's and ranged from 6.7 to 8.8 also meeting the WDNR standards. Concentrations of total organic plus ammonia nitrogen, dissolved ammonium, total phosphorus, and dissolved orthophosphate show little variation between streams and are generally low, compared to concentrations measured in agriculturally-affected streams in the same RHU's during the same sampling period. Concentrations of the most commonly used pesticide in the study unit, atrazine, were low in all streams, and most concentrations were below trn 0.1 u,g/L detection limit. Riparian vegetation for the benchmark streams were characterized by lowland species of the native plant communities described by John T. Curtis in the "Vegetation of Wisconsin." Based on the environmental setting and water-quality information collected to date, these streams appear to show minimal adverse effects from human activity.

  4. How Reliable Are ATP Bioluminescence Meters in Assessing Decontamination of Environmental Surfaces in Healthcare Settings?

    PubMed Central

    Omidbakhsh, Navid; Ahmadpour, Faraz; Kenny, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Background Meters based on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence measurements in relative light units (RLU) are often used to rapidly assess the level of cleanliness of environmental surfaces in healthcare and other settings. Can such ATP measurements be adversely affected by factors such as soil and cleaner-disinfectant chemistry? Objective This study tested a number of leading ATP meters for their sensitivity, linearity of the measurements, correlation of the readings to the actual microbial contamination, and the potential disinfectant chemicals’ interference in their readings. Methods First, solutions of pure ATP in various concentrations were used to construct a standard curve and determine linearity and sensitivity. Serial dilutions of a broth culture of Staphylococcus aureus, as a representative nosocomial pathogen, were then used to determine if a given meter’s ATP readings correlated with the actual CFUs. Next, various types of disinfectant chemistries were tested for their potential to interfere with the standard ATP readings. Results All four ATP meters tested herein demonstrated acceptable linearity and repeatability in their readings. However, there were significant differences in their sensitivity to detect the levels of viable microorganisms on experimentally contaminated surfaces. Further, most disinfectant chemistries tested here quenched the ATP readings variably in different ATP meters evaluated. Conclusions Apart from their limited sensitivity in detecting low levels of microbial contamination, the ATP meters tested were also prone to interference by different disinfectant chemistries. PMID:24940751

  5. The new dedicated PIXE set-up at the National Environmental Research Institute, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, Kâre; Waahlin, Peter

    1999-06-01

    The Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen was in the beginning of the 70'es one of the early places for PIXE. Contributions were made to the theoretical interpretation of the PIXE spectra as well as the practical application. The home-made 4 MV van de Graaff accelerator at the Niels Bohr Institute was an excellent tool for PIXE. The accelerator, which was used for many years, has now found its place on a museum after more than 40 years of active service. A dedicated PIXE set-up has now been established at the National Environmental Research Institute using a new 1.7 MV Tandem Pelletron (5SDH) from NEC. The main application is elemental analysis of outdoor aerosols. The main work is unsophisticated macro analyses, which do not push the equipment to its limits. This enables automated analysis of about 10,000 samples per year using very limited manpower resources. The research focuses on the contribution from various source types to the atmosphere over Europe, the North Atlantic and Greenland. Source compositions and their temporal variations are studied.

  6. An Environmental Data Set for Vector-Borne Disease Modeling and Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Chabot-Couture, Guillaume; Nigmatulina, Karima; Eckhoff, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the environmental conditions of disease transmission is important in the study of vector-borne diseases. Low- and middle-income countries bear a significant portion of the disease burden; but data about weather conditions in those countries can be sparse and difficult to reconstruct. Here, we describe methods to assemble high-resolution gridded time series data sets of air temperature, relative humidity, land temperature, and rainfall for such areas; and we test these methods on the island of Madagascar. Air temperature and relative humidity were constructed using statistical interpolation of weather station measurements; the resulting median 95th percentile absolute errors were 2.75°C and 16.6%. Missing pixels from the MODIS11 remote sensing land temperature product were estimated using Fourier decomposition and time-series analysis; thus providing an alternative to the 8-day and 30-day aggregated products. The RFE 2.0 remote sensing rainfall estimator was characterized by comparing it with multiple interpolated rainfall products, and we observed significant differences in temporal and spatial heterogeneity relevant to vector-borne disease modeling. PMID:24755954

  7. Water-quality assessment of the lower Illinois River Basin; environmental setting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, Kelly L.

    1998-01-01

    The lower Illinois River Basin (LIRB) encompasses 18,000 square miles of central and western Illinois. Historical and recent information from Federal, State, and local agencies describing the physiography, population, land use, soils, climate, geology, streamflow, habitat, ground water, water use, and aquatic biology is summarized to describe the environmental setting of the LIRB. The LIRB is in the Till Plains Section of the Central Lowland physiographic province. The basin is characterized by flat topography, which is dissected by the Illinois River. The drainage pattern of the LIRB has been shaped by many bedrock and glacial geologic processes. Erosion prior to and during Pleistocene time created wide and deep bedrock valleys. The thickest deposits and most major aquifers are in buried bedrock valleys. The Wisconsinan glaciation, which bisects the northern half of the LIRB, affects the distribution and characteristics of glacial deposits in the basin. Agriculture is the largest land use and forested land is the second largest land use in the LIRB. The major urban areas are near Peoria, Springfield, Decatur, and Bloomington-Normal. Soil type and distribution affect the amount of soil erosion, which results in sedimentation of lakes and reservoirs in the basin. Rates of soil erosion of up to 2 percent per year of farmland soil have been measured. Many of the 300 reservoirs, lakes, and wetlands are disappearing because of sedimentation resulting from agriculture activities, levee building, and urbanization. Sedimentation and the destruction of habitat appreciably affect the ecosystem. The Illinois River is a large river-floodplain ecosystem where biological productivity is enhanced by annual flood pulses that advance and retreat over the flood plain and temporarily expand backwater and flood-plain lakes. Ground-water discharge to streams affects the flow and water quality of the streams. The water budget of several subbasins show variability in ground

  8. Current State of Environmental Education in Mexico: A Study on Practices, Audiences, Settings, and Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcos-Iga, Jose; Shaw, William

    2011-01-01

    Environmental education in Mexico takes many forms and plays a wide variety of roles. Through an online survey, we addressed the need to present a wider picture on the current state of environmental education practices in Mexico: Who is engaging in environmental education practices, how important is it for their organization, who are they…

  9. Peculiarity and vulnerability of karst settings, analyzed through a review of available environmental indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parise, Mario; Mazzei, Marianna

    2016-04-01

    Karst is a unique environment on Earth, characterized by a variety of peculiar geological and hydrological features, that are expressed by typical landforms at the surface (doline, ponor, polje, etc.) and underground (single cave, sinkhole, complex hypogean systems consisting of sequences of pits and galleries, etc.). Among the main characters of karst, the direct connection between the surface and the underground is at the origin of the fragility of karst settings, and the related high vulnerability. Many different types of natural geological hazards (or geo-hazards) may potentially affect karst lands, with sinkholes and flash floods being the most frequent and typical. In addition, karst is exposed to a variety of anthropogenic disturbances as well, including loss of natural landscapes, destruction of caves and speleothems, and contamination and pollution problems. At this latter regard, it has to be reminded that karst aquifers host high quality groundwaters, that are used as source of drinking water worldwide, with estimates indicating that the supply of drinking water from karst is going to have a significant increase in the next decades, From all of this, the importance in fully defining the karst setting, and in a detail examination of all the natural and anthropogenic events that may cause negative effects on it, comes out. Uniqueness of karst has been acknowledged since a long time, but only in recent years efforts have been made to develop approaches and methods specifically dedicated to this peculiar environment. Such approaches represent definitely a mandatory step in the correct management of karst terranes, providing useful elements to stakeholders, land managers and people living in karst lands about their fragility, and the need to safeguard them and the natural resources therein contained. Starting from these considerations, in this contribution we review the main environmental indices dedicated to karst that have been recently proposed in the

  10. STATE TRANSITION7-Dependent Phosphorylation Is Modulated by Changing Environmental Conditions, and Its Absence Triggers Remodeling of Photosynthetic Protein Complexes1

    PubMed Central

    Bergner, Sonja Verena; Scholz, Martin; Trompelt, Kerstin; Barth, Johannes; Gäbelein, Philipp; Steinbeck, Janina; Xue, Huidan; Clowez, Sophie; Fucile, Geoffrey; Goldschmidt-Clermont, Michel; Fufezan, Christian; Hippler, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In plants and algae, the serine/threonine kinase STN7/STT7, orthologous protein kinases in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), respectively, is an important regulator in acclimation to changing light environments. In this work, we assessed STT7-dependent protein phosphorylation under high light in C. reinhardtii, known to fully induce the expression of LIGHT-HARVESTING COMPLEX STRESS-RELATED PROTEIN3 (LHCSR3) and a nonphotochemical quenching mechanism, in relationship to anoxia where the activity of cyclic electron flow is stimulated. Our quantitative proteomics data revealed numerous unique STT7 protein substrates and STT7-dependent protein phosphorylation variations that were reliant on the environmental condition. These results indicate that STT7-dependent phosphorylation is modulated by the environment and point to an intricate chloroplast phosphorylation network responding in a highly sensitive and dynamic manner to environmental cues and alterations in kinase function. Functionally, the absence of the STT7 kinase triggered changes in protein expression and photoinhibition of photosystem I (PSI) and resulted in the remodeling of photosynthetic complexes. This remodeling initiated a pronounced association of LHCSR3 with PSI-LIGHT HARVESTING COMPLEX I (LHCI)-ferredoxin-NADPH oxidoreductase supercomplexes. Lack of STT7 kinase strongly diminished PSII-LHCII supercomplexes, while PSII core complex phosphorylation and accumulation were significantly enhanced. In conclusion, our study provides strong evidence that the regulation of protein phosphorylation is critical for driving successful acclimation to high light and anoxic growth environments and gives new insights into acclimation strategies to these environmental conditions. PMID:25858915

  11. Identification of three doublesex genes in the monogonont rotifer Brachionus koreanus and their transcriptional responses to environmental stressor-triggered population growth retardation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo-Mi; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Kim, Il-Chan; Yim, Joung Han; Lee, Yong Sung; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2014-08-01

    Doublesex and Mab-3-related transcription factor (Dmrt) gene family members have rarely been identified or characterized in aquatic invertebrates. In this study, we identified and characterized three DMdomain-containing genes - Dmrt11E, Dmrt93B, and Dmrt99B - in the monogonont rotifer, Brachionus koreanus. DMdomains of the proteins encoded by the B.koreanus Dmrt (Bk-Dmrt) genes had high similarities to DM domains of other invertebrate species. To understand the potential effects of environmental stressors on the transcriptional expression of Dmrt genes in rotifers, we exposed B.koreanus to a wide range of UV-B radiation and different concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) over different time courses. Transcript levels of all Bk-Dmrt genes decreased significantly in response to relatively high doses of UV-B irradiation, and were also downregulated in response to exposure to UV-B radiation over time. Transcript levels of all Bk-Dmrt genes were downregulated in response to B[a]P exposure for 24h. This decrease in expression of all Bk-Dmrt genes was concomitant with the growth retardation induced by UV-B and B[a]P exposure. We concluded that both environmental stressors have detrimental effects on transcriptional regulation of all Bk-Dmrt genes, especially relatively high doses of these stressors, leading to growth retardation. However, further studies are required to better understand the potential role of Dmrt genes in environmental stressor-triggered growth retardation in the rotifer B.koreanus.

  12. Learning and Teaching as Emergent Features of Informal Settings: An Ethnographic Study in an Environmental Action Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Leanna; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2006-01-01

    Around the world, many people concerned with the state of the environment participate in environmental action groups. Much of their learning occurs informally, simply by participating in the everyday, ongoing collective life of the chosen group. Such settings provide unique opportunities for studying how people learn science in complex settings…

  13. A Review of Research on Environmental Education in Non-Traditional Settings in Turkey, 2000 and 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Mehmet; Usak, Muhammet; Bahar, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to collect and analyze the research on environmental education in non-traditional settings in Turkey undertaken with various subjects (e.g. students, graduates and teachers) and published over the years of 2000-2011. For systematic analysis, selected data-bases and journals were scrutinized across five…

  14. Environmental Health in the School Setting: The Role of the School Nurse. Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Bernadette Moran; Bryner, Janet; Chau, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental health is a branch of public health that is concerned with all aspects of the natural and built environment. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines environmental health as those aspects of human health and diseases that are determined by factors in the environment. It also refers to the theory and practice of assessing and…

  15. Adult Learning in Free-Choice, Environmental Settings: What Makes It Different?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimlich, Joe E.; Horr, E. Elaine T.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental learning, or how individuals make sense and meaning about nature, the environment, ecology, and environmental issues, is best understood as lifelong, life-wide, and life-deep (Banks and others, 2007). Lifelong learning refers to acquisition of skills, competencies, attitudes, and knowledge over time; life-wide is learning across…

  16. A System Approach to the Development of a Wildland Setting and Associated Program for Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prater, Merle Pafford

    This thesis documents how a wildland site became the cornerstone of an environmental education system concerned with the development of site, educational program, community action, and enrichment projects. The process described should help others interested in developing a similar community based environmental education facility. Four major…

  17. Effectiveness of an antimicrobial polymer to decrease contamination of environmental surfaces in the clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Thom, Kerri A; Standiford, Harold C; Johnson, J Kristie; Hanna, Nader; Furuno, Jon P

    2014-08-01

    We performed a real-world, controlled intervention to investigate use of an antimicrobial surface polymer, MSDS Poly, on environmental contamination. Pathogenic bacteria were identified in 18 (90%) of 20 observations in treated rooms and 19 (83%) of 23 observations in untreated rooms (P = .67). MSDS Poly had no significant effect on environmental contamination.

  18. Comparing environmental changes and habitability settings in the geological history of Sahara and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ori, G. G.; Sabbadini, R.; Komatsu, G.

    2014-12-01

    Sahara has experienced during its long geological history a large number of climatic changes from humid conditions (with savanna-type environments) to dry conditions (with hot desert environments). Therefore, since the late Miocene (?), Sahara experienced periods with rivers, lakes, deltas, and swamps alternated with dry periods with strong aeolian activity and the formation of deflation surface and sand seas. The fluvio-lacustrine deposits formed during humid periods have been strongly reworked by wind processes during the dry periods leaving only the coarse-grained portion of the sediments (conglomerate to rudite). This highly efficient reworking eeolian mechanism affected both of the fluvial and deltaic channel deposits and the large inland lakes, flood plains and other waterlogged areas. The former occurs, at present day, as morphological features and coarse-grained remnants of large fluvial systems whereas the latter are mostly buried below sand seas such as Grand Erg Oriental, Erg Chech, and Azawad. While the sand to silt material accumulated (mostly by saltation) in the sand seas and sand sheets, the finer portion (able to enter the wind as suspended material) was probably swallowed in the large- scale atmospheric circulation redistributed in Sahara itself, in adjacent continents (mostly Europe and South America), and oceans. This geological setting is similar to the one of Mars where fluvial deposits and morphologies abound as largely eroded discontinuous remains. Large-scale alluvial basins and terminal lakes or waterlogged areas (such as the allucial plain in Zephyria) have been largely present in the Martian Noachian-Hesperian time (and possibly even later) but relatively scanty sedimentary deposits testify their existence. When deposits are present they are basically coarse-grained (e.g. the meandering channels of the Eberswalde deltaic plain) due to the long lasting aeolian erosion similarly than the Sahara example. The wind, that dominated the long

  19. Environmental factors related to the production of a complex set of spicules in a tropical freshwater sponge.

    PubMed

    Matteuzzo, Marcela C; Volkmer-Ribeiro, Cecília; Varajão, Angélica F D C; Varajão, César A C; Alexandre, Anne; Guadagnin, Demetrio L; Almeida, Ariana C S

    2015-01-01

    Adverse natural conditions will, generally, induce gemmulation in freshwater sponges. Because of this environmental dependence, gemmoscleres are given exceptional value in taxonomic, ecological and paleoenvironmental studies. Other spicules categories such as microscleres and beta megascleres have received little attention with regard to their occurrence and function during the sponge biological cycle. Metania spinata, a South American species common to bog waters in the Cerrado biome, produces alpha and beta megascleres, microscleres and gemmoscleres. To detect the environmental factors triggering the production of all these kinds of spicules, the species annual seasonal cycle was studied. Artificial substrates were devised, supplied with gemmules and placed in Lagoa Verde pond which contained a natural population of M. spinata. Field monitoring was conducted for eight months in order to observe the growth of sponges and spicules formation. Samples of water were taken monthly for physical and chemical parameters determination. The appearance of the alpha megascleres was sequentially followed by that of microscleres, gemmoscleres and beta megascleres. The first ones built the new sponge skeleton, the last three were involved in keeping inner moisture in the sponge body or its gemmules. The water level, temperature and the silicon (Si) concentration in the pond were the most important factors related to this sequential production of spicules, confirming environmental reconstructions based on the presence or absence of alpha megascleres and gemmoscleres in past sediments.

  20. Environmental factors related to the production of a complex set of spicules in a tropical freshwater sponge.

    PubMed

    Matteuzzo, Marcela C; Volkmer-Ribeiro, Cecília; Varajão, Angélica F D C; Varajão, César A C; Alexandre, Anne; Guadagnin, Demetrio L; Almeida, Ariana C S

    2015-01-01

    Adverse natural conditions will, generally, induce gemmulation in freshwater sponges. Because of this environmental dependence, gemmoscleres are given exceptional value in taxonomic, ecological and paleoenvironmental studies. Other spicules categories such as microscleres and beta megascleres have received little attention with regard to their occurrence and function during the sponge biological cycle. Metania spinata, a South American species common to bog waters in the Cerrado biome, produces alpha and beta megascleres, microscleres and gemmoscleres. To detect the environmental factors triggering the production of all these kinds of spicules, the species annual seasonal cycle was studied. Artificial substrates were devised, supplied with gemmules and placed in Lagoa Verde pond which contained a natural population of M. spinata. Field monitoring was conducted for eight months in order to observe the growth of sponges and spicules formation. Samples of water were taken monthly for physical and chemical parameters determination. The appearance of the alpha megascleres was sequentially followed by that of microscleres, gemmoscleres and beta megascleres. The first ones built the new sponge skeleton, the last three were involved in keeping inner moisture in the sponge body or its gemmules. The water level, temperature and the silicon (Si) concentration in the pond were the most important factors related to this sequential production of spicules, confirming environmental reconstructions based on the presence or absence of alpha megascleres and gemmoscleres in past sediments. PMID:26628027

  1. Personal and environmental relationships among the elderly living in residential settings.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ballesteros, R; Montorio, I; Fernández de Trocóniz, M I

    1998-01-01

    There is strong empirical evidence to support the influence of environmental and social factors in health and behavior among the institutionalized elderly. In order to assess personal and environmental relationships, 32 residential centers for the elderly and 1403 of their inhabitants were assessed using the Sistema de Evaluación de Residencias de Ancianos (SERA). Our principal findings were as follows: (1) relationships between individual variables (e.g. objective and subjective health, depression) and subjective variables (e.g. satisfaction); (2) the predictive power of the environment characteristics (e.g. policy choice) on the subjects functioning (e.g. level of activity); (3) residential satisfaction is the product of several personal variables (e.g. objective and perceived health), as well as of social environmental factors (e.g. physical comfort); and (4) very weak relationships were found between social climate dimensions and other environmental factors. PMID:18653136

  2. Modeling Geographic and Demographic Variability in Residential Concentrations of Environmental Tobacco Smoke Using National Data Sets

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite substantial attention toward environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure, previous studies have not provided adequate information to apply broadly within community-scale risk assessments. We aim to estimate residential concentrations of particulate matter (PM) from ETS in ...

  3. Comparing environmental risks: a consultative approach to setting priorities at the community level.

    PubMed

    Guidotti, T L

    1994-01-01

    Environmental risk management is facing a crisis. The number of recognized environmental hazards has clearly outstripped the resources available to do detailed studies on each or to establish effective control measures for each on an individual basis. Some method of prioritizing environmental hazards is required that does not involve detailed and individualized quantitative risk assessment. An alternative approach that has gained favour in recent years has been "risk comparison", as sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and as applied in several American states and local communities. Risk comparison is an approach that involves expert panels and the interested public in a consultative and iterative process leading to widespread agreement, if not consensus, on the relative rankings of often disparate environmental hazards. An outline of steps in the process formulated by the Northeast Center for Comparative Risk at the Vermont Law School is presented with commentary regarding its applicability to the Canadian scene. Implicit tradeoffs in risk comparison are also explored, including emphasis on categorical hazards v. media quality, magnitude of hazard v. population affected, ecological integrity v. human health, social concern v. scientific assessment, and novel v. familiar hazards. In practice, risk comparison is a process-oriented and often tedious approach, but it represents one way out of the current conundrum in dealing with environmental hazards. PMID:7708943

  4. CHALLENGES AND BENEFITS OF CONDUCTING ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE RESEARCH IN A SCHOOL SETTING

    PubMed Central

    GUIDRY, VIRGINIA T.; LOWMAN, AMY; HALL, DEVON; BARON, DOTHULA; WING, STEVE

    2015-01-01

    Environmental justice (EJ) research requires attention to consequences for research participants beyond those typically considered by institutional review boards. The imbalance of power between impacted communities and those who create and regulate pollution creates challenges for participation, yet research can also benefit those involved. Our community-academic partnership designed the Rural Air Pollutants and Children's Health (RAPCH) study to provide positive impacts while measuring health effects at three low-resource public middle schools near concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in North Carolina. We evaluated perceived benefits and challenges of study involvement by interviewing school staff and community liaisons who facilitated data collection. Reported benefits included enhancement of students’ academic environment and increased community environmental awareness; challenges were associated mainly with some participants’ immaturity. Leadership from a strong community-based organization was crucial to recruitment, yet our approach entailed minimal focus on EJ, which may have limited opportunities for community education or organizing for environmental health. PMID:25085828

  5. Challenges and benefits of conducting environmental justice research in a school setting.

    PubMed

    Guidry, Virginia T; Lowman, Amy; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Wing, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Environmental justice (EJ) research requires attention to consequences for research participants beyond those typically considered by institutional review boards. The imbalance of power between impacted communities and those who create and regulate pollution creates challenges for participation, yet research can also benefit those involved. Our community-academic partnership designed the Rural Air Pollutants and Children's Health (RAPCH) study to provide positive impacts while measuring health effects at three low-resource public middle schools near concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in North Carolina. We evaluated perceived benefits and challenges of study involvement by interviewing school staff and community liaisons who facilitated data collection. Reported benefits included enhancement of students' academic environment and increased community environmental awareness; challenges were associated mainly with some participants' immaturity. Leadership from a strong community-based organization was crucial to recruitment, yet our approach entailed minimal focus on EJ, which may have limited opportunities for community education or organizing for environmental health.

  6. Environmental health research: setting an agenda by spinning our wheels or climbing the mountain?

    PubMed

    Eyles, J

    1997-03-01

    This paper examines the nature and characteristics of research in environmental health, viewed as the effects of the environment on human health. It is argued that most of this work has been predicated on an epidemiological approach which has yielded significant (if sometimes equivocal) findings about exposure-outcome relationships. This discussion, however, concentrates on the limited and somewhat partial view of theory implied in this perspective. It advocates instead a broad-based approach to theory as the basis for understanding significant portions of the social world. It posits, as illustrations, several social theories and with examples tries to show how environmental health research might be different.

  7. Setting the PAS, the role of circadian PAS domain proteins during environmental adaptation in plants

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Julia H. M.; Schippers, Jos H. M.

    2015-01-01

    The per-ARNT-sim (PAS) domain represents an ancient protein module that can be found across all kingdoms of life. The domain functions as a sensing unit for a diverse array of signals, including molecular oxygen, small metabolites, and light. In plants, several PAS domain-containing proteins form an integral part of the circadian clock and regulate responses to environmental change. Moreover, these proteins function in pathways that control development and plant stress adaptation responses. Here, we discuss the role of PAS domain-containing proteins in anticipation, and adaptation to environmental changes in plants. PMID:26217364

  8. Environmental settings of the South Fork Iowa River basin, Iowa, and the Bogue Phalia basin, Mississippi, 2006-10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Rose, Claire E.; Kalkhoff, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of the transport and fate of agricultural chemicals in different environmental settings were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program's Agricultural Chemicals Team (ACT) at seven sites across the Nation, including the South Fork Iowa River basin in central Iowa and the Bogue Phalia basin in northwestern Mississippi. The South Fork Iowa River basin is representative of midwestern agriculture, where corn and soybeans are the predominant crops and a large percentage of the cultivated land is underlain by artificial drainage. The Bogue Phalia basin is representative of corn, soybean, cotton, and rice cropping in the humid, subtropical southeastern United States. Details of the environmental settings of these basins and the data-collection activities conducted by the USGS ACT over the 2006-10 study period are described in this report.

  9. ROBUST ESTIMATION OF MEAN AND VARIANCE USING ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SETS WITH BELOW DETECTION LIMIT OBSERVATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scientists, especially environmental scientists often encounter trace level concentrations that are typically reported as less than a certain limit of detection, L. Type 1, left-censored data arise when certain low values lying below L are ignored or unknown as they cannot be mea...

  10. Setting boundaries: environmental and spatial effects on Odonata larvae distribution (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Mendes, Thiago P; Cabette, Helena S R; Juen, Leandro

    2015-03-01

    Environmental characteristics and spatial distances between sites have been used to explain species distribution in the environment, through Neutral (space) and Niche theory (environment) predictions. We evaluated the effects of spatial and environmental factors on Odonata larvae distribution along the Suiá-Missú River Basin, state of Mato Grosso. We tested the hypotheses that (1) the environment is the main factor structuring the community due to its ecophysiological requirements; and (2) the pattern, if present, is clearer for Zygoptera. Samples were made in 12 sites on the Suiá-Missú River Basin in three seasons (2007/2008), with a total of 1.382 Odonata larvae, comprising 10 families, 51 genera and 100 morphospecies. The Anisoptera were more abundant than Zygoptera, comprising 81% of all specimens. The environment affected Zygoptera (R=0.291; p=0.007) and was the main factor structuring the assembly. Thus, Niche theory was confirmed. The absence of this effect on Anisoptera may be due to the ecophysiological adaptations that enable it to occupy different habitats. Zygoptera larvae are indicators of changes in habitat structure. The effects of environmental variables on larvae ecology emphasize the strong relationship between these organisms and environmental integrity. PMID:25806986

  11. INCORPORATING PRIOR KNOWLEDGE IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING: RANKED SET SAMPLING AND OTHER DOUBLE SAMPLING PROCEDURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental sampling can be difficult and expensive to carry out. Those taking the samples would like to integrate their knowledge of the system of study or their judgment about the system into the sample selection process to decrease the number of necessary samples. However,...

  12. Eco-innovation of a wooden childhood furniture set: an example of environmental solutions in the wood sector.

    PubMed

    González-García, Sara; García Lozano, Raúl; Moreira, M Teresa; Gabarrell, Xavier; Rieradevall i Pons, Joan; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Murphy, Richard J

    2012-06-01

    The environmental profile of a set of wood furniture was carried out to define the best design criteria for its eco-design. A baby cot convertible into a bed, a study desk and a bedside table were the objects of study. Two quantitative and qualitative environmental approaches were combined in order to propose improvement alternatives: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Design for Environment (DfE). In the first case Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was applied to identify the hot spots in the product system. As a next step, LCA information was used in eco-briefing to determine several improvement alternatives. A wood products company located in Catalonia (NE Spain) was assessed in detail, dividing the process into three stages: assembly, finishing and packaging. Ten impact categories were considered in the LCA study: abiotic depletion, acidification, eutrophication, global warming, ozone layer depletion, human toxicity, fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity, marine aquatic ecotoxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity and photochemical oxidant formation. Two processes can be considered the key environmental factors: the production of the wooden boards and electricity, with contributions of 45-68% and 14-33% respectively depending on the impact categories. Subsequently, several improvement alternatives were proposed in the eco-design process (DfE) to achieve reductions in a short-medium period of time in the environmental impact. These eco-design strategies could reduce the environmental profile of the setup by 14%. The correct methodological adaptation of the concept of eco-briefing, as a tool for communication among environmental technicians and designers, the simplification of the analytical tool used and the LCA, could facilitate the environmental analysis of a product. The results obtained provide information that can help the furniture sector to improve their environmental performance. PMID:22542234

  13. Eco-innovation of a wooden childhood furniture set: an example of environmental solutions in the wood sector.

    PubMed

    González-García, Sara; García Lozano, Raúl; Moreira, M Teresa; Gabarrell, Xavier; Rieradevall i Pons, Joan; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Murphy, Richard J

    2012-06-01

    The environmental profile of a set of wood furniture was carried out to define the best design criteria for its eco-design. A baby cot convertible into a bed, a study desk and a bedside table were the objects of study. Two quantitative and qualitative environmental approaches were combined in order to propose improvement alternatives: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Design for Environment (DfE). In the first case Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was applied to identify the hot spots in the product system. As a next step, LCA information was used in eco-briefing to determine several improvement alternatives. A wood products company located in Catalonia (NE Spain) was assessed in detail, dividing the process into three stages: assembly, finishing and packaging. Ten impact categories were considered in the LCA study: abiotic depletion, acidification, eutrophication, global warming, ozone layer depletion, human toxicity, fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity, marine aquatic ecotoxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity and photochemical oxidant formation. Two processes can be considered the key environmental factors: the production of the wooden boards and electricity, with contributions of 45-68% and 14-33% respectively depending on the impact categories. Subsequently, several improvement alternatives were proposed in the eco-design process (DfE) to achieve reductions in a short-medium period of time in the environmental impact. These eco-design strategies could reduce the environmental profile of the setup by 14%. The correct methodological adaptation of the concept of eco-briefing, as a tool for communication among environmental technicians and designers, the simplification of the analytical tool used and the LCA, could facilitate the environmental analysis of a product. The results obtained provide information that can help the furniture sector to improve their environmental performance.

  14. Experiential benefits, place meanings, and environmental setting preferences between proximate and distant visitors to a national scenic trail.

    PubMed

    Kil, Namyun; Holland, Stephen M; Stein, Taylor V

    2015-05-01

    Effective management of conserved natural areas often requires a good understanding of recreation visitors who possess various values for those areas. This study examined differences in experiential benefits sought, place meanings, and environmental setting preferences between proximate and distant visitors to a publicly managed national scenic trail, which transects a variety of conserved public lands. Data were collected using on-site post-hike interviews with visitors at low, moderate, and high use trailheads. Proximate visitors sought mental and physical health more strongly than distant visitors, while distant visitors sought environmental exploration more strongly than proximate visitors. No significant difference in family bonding and achievement benefits existed between the two groups. Meanings related to place dependence, family identity, community identity, and place identity were more strongly ascribed by proximate visitors, and both groups rated ecological integrity meanings highly. Distant visitors showed stronger tendencies toward preferring a lesser level of trail development, lower level of encounters with other groups, and higher level of natural landscapes, which indicated an inclination toward natural settings. These findings indicate a managerially relevant role of the degree of proximity to environmental resources on individuals' recreation behaviors, meanings ascribed to the resources and setting conditions. Understanding differences and similarities between groups dichotomized by proximity to natural resources should advance more effective management of recreation and benefit opportunities for diverse visitor groups.

  15. Experiential Benefits, Place Meanings, and Environmental Setting Preferences Between Proximate and Distant Visitors to a National Scenic Trail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kil, Namyun; Holland, Stephen M.; Stein, Taylor V.

    2015-05-01

    Effective management of conserved natural areas often requires a good understanding of recreation visitors who possess various values for those areas. This study examined differences in experiential benefits sought, place meanings, and environmental setting preferences between proximate and distant visitors to a publicly managed national scenic trail, which transects a variety of conserved public lands. Data were collected using on-site post-hike interviews with visitors at low, moderate, and high use trailheads. Proximate visitors sought mental and physical health more strongly than distant visitors, while distant visitors sought environmental exploration more strongly than proximate visitors. No significant difference in family bonding and achievement benefits existed between the two groups. Meanings related to place dependence, family identity, community identity, and place identity were more strongly ascribed by proximate visitors, and both groups rated ecological integrity meanings highly. Distant visitors showed stronger tendencies toward preferring a lesser level of trail development, lower level of encounters with other groups, and higher level of natural landscapes, which indicated an inclination toward natural settings. These findings indicate a managerially relevant role of the degree of proximity to environmental resources on individuals' recreation behaviors, meanings ascribed to the resources and setting conditions. Understanding differences and similarities between groups dichotomized by proximity to natural resources should advance more effective management of recreation and benefit opportunities for diverse visitor groups.

  16. Firearm trigger assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, David L.; Watson, Richard W.

    2010-02-16

    A firearm trigger assembly for use with a firearm includes a trigger mounted to a forestock of the firearm so that the trigger is movable between a rest position and a triggering position by a forwardly placed support hand of a user. An elongated trigger member operatively associated with the trigger operates a sear assembly of the firearm when the trigger is moved to the triggering position. An action release assembly operatively associated with the firearm trigger assembly and a movable assembly of the firearm prevents the trigger from being moved to the triggering position when the movable assembly is not in the locked position.

  17. Validation of dipslides as a tool for environmental sampling in a real-life hospital setting.

    PubMed

    Ibfelt, T; Foged, C; Andersen, L P

    2014-05-01

    Environmental sampling in hospitals is becoming increasingly important because of the rise in nosocomial infections. In order to monitor and track these infections and optimize cleaning and disinfection, we need to be able to locate the fomites with the highest amount of microorganisms, but the optimal method for this is not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate which of four different dipslides or a standard TSA contact plate were best at recovering human bacteria from the environment. We tested four different dipslides with selective and non-selective agars versus a standard TSA contact plate in order to find the best sampling media. Two hundred sites in a children's medical ward in Copenhagen University hospital were sampled in autumn 2012. There was no difference in total bacteria count between the TSA contact plate and the dipslides. Faecal indicator bacteria recovery was the same for the dipslides and the TSA contact plate. Dipslides may be equally well suited for environmental sampling and hygiene assessment as TSA contact plates. Dipslides have some advantages, such as better sample security, easier sampling in confined spaces and longer shelf life that may speak in favour of choosing these for bacteria environmental sampling in hospitals, depending on the task.

  18. Determination of Glucocorticoids in UPLC-MS in Environmental Samples from an Occupational Setting

    PubMed Central

    Oddone, Enrico; Negri, Sara; Bellinzona, Massimo; Martino, Silvia; Di Tuccio, Marcello; Grignani, Elena; Cottica, Danilo; Imbriani, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposures to glucocorticoids are still a neglected issue in some work environments, including pharmaceutical plants. We developed an analytical method to quantify simultaneously 21 glucocorticoids using UPLC coupled with mass spectrometry to provide a basis to carry out environmental monitoring. Samples were taken from air, hand-washing tests, pad-tests and wipe-tests. This paper reports the contents of the analytical methodology, along with the results of this extensive environmental and personal monitoring of glucocorticoids. The method in UPLC-MS turned out to be suitable and effective for the aim of the study. Wipe-test and pad-test desorption was carried out using 50 mL syringes, a simple technique that saves time without adversely affecting analyte recovery. Results showed a widespread environmental pollution due to glucocorticoids. This is of particular concern. Evaluation of the dose absorbed by each worker and identification of a biomarker for occupational exposure will contribute to assessment and prevention of occupational exposure. PMID:25821468

  19. Groundwater flow pattern and related environmental phenomena in complex geologic setting based on integrated model construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, Ádám; Havril, Tímea; Simon, Szilvia; Galsa, Attila; Monteiro Santos, Fernando A.; Müller, Imre; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit

    2016-08-01

    Groundwater flow, driven, controlled and determined by topography, geology and climate, is responsible for several natural surface manifestations and affected by anthropogenic processes. Therefore, flowing groundwater can be regarded as an environmental agent. Numerical simulation of groundwater flow could reveal the flow pattern and explain the observed features. In complex geologic framework, where the geologic-hydrogeologic knowledge is limited, the groundwater flow model could not be constructed based solely on borehole data, but geophysical information could aid the model building. The integrated model construction was presented via the case study of the Tihany Peninsula, Hungary, with the aims of understanding the background and occurrence of groundwater-related environmental phenomena, such as wetlands, surface water-groundwater interaction, slope instability, and revealing the potential effect of anthropogenic activity and climate change. The hydrogeologic model was prepared on the basis of the compiled archive geophysical database and the results of recently performed geophysical measurements complemented with geologic-hydrogeologic data. Derivation of different electrostratigraphic units, revealing fracturing and detecting tectonic elements was achieved by systematically combined electromagnetic geophysical methods. The deduced information can be used as model input for groundwater flow simulation concerning hydrostratigraphy, geometry and boundary conditions. The results of numerical modelling were interpreted on the basis of gravity-driven regional groundwater flow concept and validated by field mapping of groundwater-related phenomena. The 3D model clarified the hydraulic behaviour of the formations, revealed the subsurface hydraulic connection between groundwater and wetlands and displayed the groundwater discharge pattern, as well. The position of wetlands, their vegetation type, discharge features and induced landslides were explained as

  20. Management and display of four-dimensional environmental data sets using McIDAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibbard, William L.; Santek, David; Suomi, Verner E.

    1990-01-01

    Over the past four years, great strides have been made in the areas of data management and display of 4-D meteorological data sets. A survey was conducted of available and planned 4-D meteorological data sources. The data types were evaluated for their impact on the data management and display system. The requirements were analyzed for data base management generated by the 4-D data display system. The suitability of the existing data base management procedures and file structure were evaluated in light of the new requirements. Where needed, new data base management tools and file procedures were designed and implemented. The quality of the basic 4-D data sets was assured. The interpolation and extrapolation techniques of the 4-D data were investigated. The 4-D data from various sources were combined to make a uniform and consistent data set for display purposes. Data display software was designed to create abstract line graphic 3-D displays. Realistic shaded 3-D displays were created. Animation routines for these displays were developed in order to produce a dynamic 4-D presentation. A prototype dynamic color stereo workstation was implemented. A computer functional design specification was produced based on interactive studies and user feedback.

  1. Interactive access and management for four-dimensional environmental data sets using McIDAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibbard, William L.; Tripoli, Gregory J.

    1991-01-01

    Significant accomplishments in the following areas are presented: (1) enhancements to the visualization of 5-D data sets (VIS-5D); (2) development of the visualization of global images (VIS-GI) application; (3) design of the Visualization for Algorithm Development (VIS-AD) System; and (4) numerical modeling applications. The focus of current research and future research plans is presented and the following topics are addressed: (1) further enhancements to VIS-5D; (2) generalization and enhancement of the VIS-GI application; (3) the implementation of the VIS-AD System; and (4) plans for modeling applications.

  2. Integrating Public Data Sets for Analysis of Maternal Airborne Environmental Exposures and Stillbirth

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Eric S.; Connolly, Natalia; Jones, David E.; DeFranco, Emily A.

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to study relationships between maternal airborne pollutant exposures and poor pregnancy outcomes have been frustrated by data limitations. Our objective was to report the proportion of Ohio women in 2006–2010 experiencing stillbirth whose pregnancy exposure to six criteria airborne pollutants could be approximated by applying a geospatial approach to vital records and Environmental Protection Agency air monitoring data. In addition, we characterized clinical and socio-demographic differences among women who lived within 10 km of monitoring stations compared to women who did not live within proximity of monitoring stations. For women who experienced stillbirth, 10.8% listed a residence within 10 km of each type of monitoring station. Maternal race, education, and marital status were significantly different (p<0.0001) comparing those within proximity to monitoring stations to those outside of monitoring range. No significant differences were identified in maternal age, ethnicity, smoking status, hypertension, or diabetes between groups. PMID:25954365

  3. Setting priorities for environmental sanitation interventions based on epidemiological criteria: a Brazilian study.

    PubMed

    Heller, Léo; Colosimo, Enrico A; Antunes, Carlos M F

    2005-09-01

    The present study addresses the use of analytical epidemiologic approaches to subsidize the establishment of priorities in environmental sanitation interventions. An epidemiological investigation was carried out in 1993 in the urban area of Betim, a southeast Brazilian City of 160,000 inhabitants. The case-control 'inclusive' (or case-cohort) design, with a sample of 997 cases and 999 controls, was employed. Cases were defined as children of less than five years of age presenting diarrhoea episodes, while controls were randomly selected among children of the same age, living in the study area. After logistic regression adjustment, 11 of several exposure variables analysed were significantly associated with diarrhoea. Four different criteria, using as risk measures the relative risk, the attributable risk, the standardized coefficient of the logistic regression and the cost standardized coefficient, were used in order to define intervention priorities. PMID:16209031

  4. Learning and teaching as emergent features of informal settings: An ethnographic study in an environmental action group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, Leanna; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2006-11-01

    Around the world, many people concerned with the state of the environment participate in environmental action groups. Much of their learning occurs informally, simply by participating in the everyday, ongoing collective life of the chosen group. Such settings provide unique opportunities for studying how people learn science in complex settings without being directly instructed. This study was designed to investigate learning and teaching that occurs through ordinary, everyday participation in environmental action. We draw on data collected during a 2-year ethnographic study of a coast-wide eelgrass-mapping project. Taking a whole activity as our unit of analysis, we articulate the forms of participation that volunteers take and theorize learning in terms of changing participation and expanding opportunities for action. The community-based eelgrass stewardship group we studied is both socially and materially heterogeneous, made up of people young and old and with different expertise. We show that changing forms of participation are emergent features of unfolding sociomaterial inter-action, not determinate roles or rules. Furthermore, the possibilities for learning expand when individuals have the opportunity to frame problems that arise in ongoing activity. In the setting of our study, attributions (dichotomies) such as off-task/on-task and teacher/learner are artificial. We suggest that by providing expanding opportunities, in the form of a variety of sociomaterial resources, science educators can rethink the design of school-based science learning environments.

  5. Methods to characterize environmental settings of stream and groundwater sampling sites for National Water-Quality Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakagaki, Naomi; Hitt, Kerie J.; Price, Curtis V.; Falcone, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of natural and anthropogenic features that define the environmental settings of sampling sites for streams and groundwater, including drainage basins and groundwater study areas, is an essential component of water-quality and ecological investigations being conducted as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program. Quantitative characterization of environmental settings, combined with physical, chemical, and biological data collected at sampling sites, contributes to understanding the status of, and influences on, water-quality and ecological conditions. To support studies for the National Water-Quality Assessment program, a geographic information system (GIS) was used to develop a standard set of methods to consistently characterize the sites, drainage basins, and groundwater study areas across the nation. This report describes three methods used for characterization-simple overlay, area-weighted areal interpolation, and land-cover-weighted areal interpolation-and their appropriate applications to geographic analyses that have different objectives and data constraints. In addition, this document records the GIS thematic datasets that are used for the Program's national design and data analyses.

  6. Accurate Prediction of Severe Allergic Reactions by a Small Set of Environmental Parameters (NDVI, Temperature)

    PubMed Central

    Andrianaki, Maria; Azariadis, Kalliopi; Kampouri, Errika; Theodoropoulou, Katerina; Lavrentaki, Katerina; Kastrinakis, Stelios; Kampa, Marilena; Agouridakis, Panagiotis; Pirintsos, Stergios; Castanas, Elias

    2015-01-01

    Severe allergic reactions of unknown etiology,necessitating a hospital visit, have an important impact in the life of affected individuals and impose a major economic burden to societies. The prediction of clinically severe allergic reactions would be of great importance, but current attempts have been limited by the lack of a well-founded applicable methodology and the wide spatiotemporal distribution of allergic reactions. The valid prediction of severe allergies (and especially those needing hospital treatment) in a region, could alert health authorities and implicated individuals to take appropriate preemptive measures. In the present report we have collecterd visits for serious allergic reactions of unknown etiology from two major hospitals in the island of Crete, for two distinct time periods (validation and test sets). We have used the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), a satellite-based, freely available measurement, which is an indicator of live green vegetation at a given geographic area, and a set of meteorological data to develop a model capable of describing and predicting severe allergic reaction frequency. Our analysis has retained NDVI and temperature as accurate identifiers and predictors of increased hospital severe allergic reactions visits. Our approach may contribute towards the development of satellite-based modules, for the prediction of severe allergic reactions in specific, well-defined geographical areas. It could also probably be used for the prediction of other environment related diseases and conditions. PMID:25794106

  7. Changes in Capacity and Performance in Mobility Across Different Environmental Settings in Children with Cerebral Palsy: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Diwan, Jasmin; Bansal, Ankita B.; Patel, Pankaj R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Children with cerebral palsy, although having similar diagnosis, varies in their abilities & level of functioning within & across different environmental context e.g. home, school or community setting. Capacity (what a child can do in standardized, controlled environment) may or may not be the same as performance (what a child actually does do in her/her daily environment). Materials and Methods After getting approval from Institutional Ethic’s Committee (IEC), 63 children with cerebral palsy (4-16 year, mean 7.4 year with SD 0.39) of all clinical types, Gross Motor Functional Classification System (GMFCS) level I-V were examined for mobility using Gross Motor Functional Measure 88 (GMFM). Motor capacity was assessed in clinical setting by highest of 3 GMFM items attained, i.e., crawling (44), walks with support (68) & walks without support (70). Motor performance was measured by Functional Mobility Scale version 2. Result On analysis of motor capacity 42.85% children were walking without support, 15.87% were able to crawl & 26.98% were able walk with support in clinical setting. Spearman’s Correlation was done between GMFM item 70 with FMS 5 (home setting) to check correlation of capacity with performance & was found to be significantly correlated (r=0.586, p=0.04). All three GMFM items were correlated with FMS 5, 50, 500 & found positively correlated. For community setting (FMS 500), 52.38% children were lifted by parents & only 6.34% were using wheel chair mobility. A total of 21.87% patients were able to walk with or without support & still lifted by parents in school or community setting. Conclusion Change in capacity and performance of mobility exists mainly in school and community setting in studied population. Context should be given importance to prioritize rehabilitation process. PMID:26436034

  8. Environmental testing of a diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG laser and a set of diode-laser-arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, H.; Lesh, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    Results of the environmental test of a compact, rigid and lightweight diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG laser module are discussed. All optical elements are bonded onto the module using space applicable epoxy, and two 200 mW diode laser arrays for pump sources are used to achieve 126 mW of CW output with about 7 percent electrical-to-optical conversion efficiency. This laser assembly and a set of 20 semiconductor diode laser arrays were environmentally tested by being subjected to vibrational and thermal conditions similar to those experienced during launch of the Space Shuttle, and both performed well. Nevertheless, some damage to the laser front facet in diode lasers was observed. Significant degradation was observed only on lasers which performed poorly in the life test. Improvements in the reliability of the Nd:YAG laser are suggested.

  9. Interactive access and management for four-dimensional environmental data sets using McIDAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibbard, William L.; Tripoli, Gregory J.

    1995-01-01

    This grant has fundamentally changed the way that meteorologists look at the output of their atmospheric models, through the development and wide distribution of the Vis5D system. The Vis5D system is also gaining acceptance among oceanographers and atmospheric chemists. Vis5D gives these scientists an interactive three-dimensional movie of their very large data sets that they can use to understand physical mechanisms and to trace problems to their sources. This grant has also helped to define the future direction of scientific visualization through the development of the VisAD system and its lattice data model. The VisAD system can be used to interactively steer and visualize scientific computations. A key element of this capability is the flexibility of the system's data model to adapt to a wide variety of scientific data, including the integration of several forms of scientific metadata.

  10. Influences of Green Outdoors versus Indoors Environmental Settings on Psychological and Social Outcomes of Controlled Exercise.

    PubMed

    Rogerson, Mike; Gladwell, Valerie F; Gallagher, Daniel J; Barton, Jo L

    2016-04-01

    This study addressed a methodological gap by comparing psychological and social outcomes of exercise in green outdoors versus built indoors settings, whilst rigorously controlling exercise mode and intensity. The hypotheses were that greater improvements or more desirable values for directed attention, mood, perceived exertion, social interaction time, intention for future exercise behaviour and enjoyment would be associated with outdoors compared to indoors exercise. Following a baseline session, paired participants completed two conditions of 15 min of cycling on an ergometer placed outside in a natural environment and inside in a laboratory setting in a randomized, counter-balanced order. At pre- and post-exercise, directed attention was measured with the digit span backwards task, and mood was assessed with the Profile of Mood States. During the exercise session, visual and verbal interactions were recorded by means of experimenter observations. After each exercise session, participants provided self-reports of their enjoyment of the exercise, perceived exertion and intention for future exercise in the same environment. Social interaction time was significantly greater during outdoors exercise versus indoors; on average, participants engaged in three minutes more social interaction during exercise outdoors compared to indoors. Social interaction time significantly predicted intention for future exercise in the outdoors condition, but did not in the indoor condition. There was a significant time by condition interaction for directed attention. Scores worsened in the indoors condition, but improved in the outdoors condition. There was no statistically-significant time by condition interaction for mood and no significant difference between conditions for either perceived exertion or intention. Taken together, these findings show that exercise in a natural environment may promote directed attention and social interactions, which may positively influence future

  11. Influences of Green Outdoors versus Indoors Environmental Settings on Psychological and Social Outcomes of Controlled Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Rogerson, Mike; Gladwell, Valerie F.; Gallagher, Daniel J.; Barton, Jo L.

    2016-01-01

    This study addressed a methodological gap by comparing psychological and social outcomes of exercise in green outdoors versus built indoors settings, whilst rigorously controlling exercise mode and intensity. The hypotheses were that greater improvements or more desirable values for directed attention, mood, perceived exertion, social interaction time, intention for future exercise behaviour and enjoyment would be associated with outdoors compared to indoors exercise. Following a baseline session, paired participants completed two conditions of 15 min of cycling on an ergometer placed outside in a natural environment and inside in a laboratory setting in a randomized, counter-balanced order. At pre- and post-exercise, directed attention was measured with the digit span backwards task, and mood was assessed with the Profile of Mood States. During the exercise session, visual and verbal interactions were recorded by means of experimenter observations. After each exercise session, participants provided self-reports of their enjoyment of the exercise, perceived exertion and intention for future exercise in the same environment. Social interaction time was significantly greater during outdoors exercise versus indoors; on average, participants engaged in three minutes more social interaction during exercise outdoors compared to indoors. Social interaction time significantly predicted intention for future exercise in the outdoors condition, but did not in the indoor condition. There was a significant time by condition interaction for directed attention. Scores worsened in the indoors condition, but improved in the outdoors condition. There was no statistically-significant time by condition interaction for mood and no significant difference between conditions for either perceived exertion or intention. Taken together, these findings show that exercise in a natural environment may promote directed attention and social interactions, which may positively influence future

  12. Optically triggered fire set/detonator system

    DOEpatents

    Chase, Jay B.; Pincosy, Philip A.; Chato, Donna M.; Kirbie, Hugh; James, Glen F.

    2007-03-20

    The present invention is directed to a system having a plurality of capacitor discharge units (CDUs) that includes electrical bridge type detonators operatively coupled to respective explosives. A pulse charging circuit is adapted to provide a voltage for each respective capacitor in each CDU. Such capacitors are discharged through the electrical bridge type detonators upon receiving an optical signal to detonate respective operatively coupled explosives at substantially the same time.

  13. Can natural variability trigger effects on fish and fish habitat as defined in environment Canada's metal mining environmental effects monitoring program?

    PubMed

    Mackey, Robin; Rees, Cassandra; Wells, Kelly; Pham, Samantha; England, Kent

    2013-01-01

    The Metal Mining Effluent Regulations (MMER) took effect in 2002 and require most metal mining operations in Canada to complete environmental effects monitoring (EEM) programs. An "effect" under the MMER EEM program is considered any positive or negative statistically significant difference in fish population, fish usability, or benthic invertebrate community EEM-defined endpoints. Two consecutive studies with the same statistically significant differences trigger more intensive monitoring, including the characterization of extent and magnitude and investigation of cause. Standard EEM study designs do not require multiple reference areas or preexposure sampling, thus results and conclusions about mine effects are highly contingent on the selection of a near perfect reference area and are at risk of falsely labeling natural variation as mine related "effects." A case study was completed to characterize the natural variability in EEM-defined endpoints during preexposure or baseline conditions. This involved completing a typical EEM study in future reference and exposure lakes surrounding a proposed uranium (U) mine in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. Moon Lake was sampled as the future exposure area as it is currently proposed to receive effluent from the U mine. Two reference areas were used: Slush Lake for both the fish population and benthic invertebrate community surveys and Lake C as a second reference area for the benthic invertebrate community survey. Moon Lake, Slush Lake, and Lake C are located in the same drainage basin in close proximity to one another. All 3 lakes contained similar water quality, fish communities, aquatic habitat, and a sediment composition largely comprised of fine-textured particles. The fish population survey consisted of a nonlethal northern pike (Esox lucius) and a lethal yellow perch (Perca flavescens) survey. A comparison of the 5 benthic invertebrate community effect endpoints, 4 nonlethal northern pike population effect endpoints

  14. Palaeo-environmental variations in eastern Mediterranean sediments: a multidisciplinary approach in a prehistoric setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lange, Gert J.; Van Santvoort, P. J. M.; Langereis, C.; Thomson, J.; Corselli, C.; Michard, A.; Rossignol-Strick, M.; Paterne, M.; Anastasakis, G.

    1999-08-01

    Not only the occurrence of distinct organic-rich intervals (sapropels), but also the relative contents of key major and minor elements and isotopes in the sediments of the eastern Mediterranean, appear to be cyclic and to be astronomically associated. Interpretations of the environmental conditions leading to sapropel formation are based on results from sedimentological, micropalaeontological and geochemical studies of the dark-coloured layers and the cream/brownish sediments that occur above and below them. Part of the signal may be removed by early diagenetic processes. The extent and direction of these processes are ultimately controled by the amount and reactivity of organic matter. The interval of dark colour associated with a sapropel is often somewhat thicker than that defined by the >2% C org definition and usually has a sharp colour change at upper and lower boundaries. A grey so-called ‘proto-sapropel’ layer of variable thickness underlies most sapropel layers. A few centimeters above the most recent sapropel S1, is usually found a clear dark-brown layer 2-3 cm thickness is usually found, which has a diffuse, often mottled, upper boundary and a relatively abrupt colour transition at its lower boundary. The colour is characteristic of Mn oxyhydroxide enrichments. In the interval from the dark-brown layer to the visible upper S1 boundary, there is usually an increasingly red-brownish colour. The distinct upper manganese Marker-Bed has been related to the Santorini (Minoan) eruption in 3356±18 BP ( Bruins, H. J., & Van Der Plicht, J. (1996). The Exodus enigma. Nature, London, 382, 213-214 ), but is more likely to be associated with a Basin-wide re-ventilation event induced by changing climatic (humidity) conditions. Using barite-Ba as a paleo-productivity indicator, enhanced fluxes, and hence increases in accumulation rates of organic carbon to the seafloor, must have occurred from approximately 9 to 5 ky BP. The perfect correlations between observed C

  15. Prospects for international trade in environmental services: An analysis of international carbon emission off-sets

    SciTech Connect

    Swisher, J.N.

    1991-01-01

    This dissertation presents a case study analysis in which the costs to a US electric utility of reducing its carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions are compared with the costs of carbon-saving forestry projects in Costa Rica and Guatemala. The results show that a large electric utility in the south-central US would find it relatively inexpensive, even profitable given a conducive regulatory treatment, to reduce its CO{sub 2} emissions by a few percent over the next ten years, through direct investment in energy end-use efficiency improvements. In comparison, the costs of the forestry projects studied in Central America range from $1/TC to a worst-case value of about $55/TC, with most project costs between $5 and $13/TC, depending on the type of project, the climate, and the opportunity cost of land. The total amount of CO{sub 2} storage potential is significant, about 100 million tons per country, but not enough to suggest that forestry can offset more than a few percent of global CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel use. These case studies suggest that international trade in the environmental service of reducing global CO{sub 2} accumulation could have significant economic and ecological benefits. A transaction in which a utility pays for forestry projects in exchange for credit against an emission reduction policy is an example of an international carbon emission offset (ICEO). ICEO's could provide a currency for funding carbon-saving services as a way to comply with national policies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, as long as compliance is allowed through investments in other countries. This type of North-South transfer is necessary to reconcile economic efficiency and international equity, because of the disparity between the national allocations of responsibility for greenhouse gas emissions and opportunities for emission reductions.

  16. A comparison of the influences of urbanization in contrasting environmental settings on stream benthic algal assemblages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Potapova, M.; Coles, J.F.; Giddings, E.M.P.; Zappia, H.

    2005-01-01

    Patterns of stream benthic algal assemblages along urbanization gradients were investigated in three metropolitan areas-Boston (BOS), Massachusetts; Birmingham (BIR), Alabama; and Salt Lake City (SLC), Utah. An index of urban intensity derived from socioeconomic, infrastructure, and land-use characteristics was used as a measure of urbanization. Of the various attributes of the algal assemblages, species composition changed along gradients of urban intensity in a more consistent manner than biomass or diversity. In urban streams, the relative abundance of pollution-tolerant species was often higher than in less affected streams. Shifts in assemblage composition were associated primarily with increased levels of conductivity, nutrients, and alterations in physical habitat. Water mineralization and nutrients were the most important determinants of assemblage composition in the BOS and SLC study areas; flow regime and grazers were key factors in the BIR study area. Species composition of algal assemblages differed significantly among geographic regions, and no particular algal taxa were found to be universal indicators of urbanization. Patterns in algal biomass and diversity along urban gradients varied among study areas, depending on local environmental conditions and habitat alteration. Biomass and diversity increased with urbanization in the BOS area, apparently because of increased nutrients, light, and flow stability in urban streams, which often are regulated by dams. Biomass and diversity decreased with urbanization in the BIR study area because of intensive fish grazing and less stable flow regime. In the SLC study area, correlations between algal biomass, diversity, and urban intensity were positive but weak. Thus, algal responses to urbanization differed considerably among the three study areas. We concluded that the wide range of responses of benthic algae to urbanization implied that tools for stream bioassessment must be region specific. ?? 2005 by the

  17. Nutrients in streams during baseflow in selected environmental settings of the Potomac River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, C.V.; Denis, J.M.; Ator, S.W.; Brakebill, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    A regional assessment of water quality in small streams was conducted within four areas of distinct physiography and lithology in the upper Potomac River Basin. The Potomac River is a major tributary to the Chesapeake Bay, and this study provides new insight on the relationships between nutrient concentrations in small streams and watershed characteristics within this river basin. Nutrient concentrations were compared to land-use data including categories for agriculture (cropland and pasture), urban areas, and forests. Among agricultural areas, streams draining areas of intense row cropping typically contained higher nitrate concentrations than did those draining pastures. Streams draining forested areas typically had the lowest nutrient concentrations. Streams in areas underlain by carbonate bedrock were more likely to contain elevated concentrations of inorganic nitrogen and potassium than did streams in areas underlain by fractured siliciclastic or crystalline rocks, and we suggest that this is a physical phenomenon related to high hydraulic conductivities in carbonate ground-water systems. The median nitrate concentrations were highest in the Great Valley portion of the Valley and Ridge physiographic province, particularly in watersheds that have both carbonate bedrock and intensive row cropping. Values of nitrate in these streams ranged up to 8.99 mg/L as nitrogen. The soluble phosphorus concentrations during baseflow were generally low in all subunits, even in some settings with potential for high phosphorus inputs such as urban areas with municipal point sources or agricultural areas. The mobility of phosphorus in these environments may be hindered by adsorption and geochemical reactions.

  18. Linking life history theory, environmental setting, and individual-based modeling to compare responses of different fish species to environmental change

    SciTech Connect

    Van Winkle, W.; Rose, K.A.; Winemiller, K.O.; DeAngelis, D.L.; Christensen, S.W. ); Otto, R.G. ); Shuter, B.J. )

    1993-05-01

    We link life history theory, environmental setting, and individual-based modeling to compare the responses of two fish species to environmental change. Life history theory provides the framework for selecting representative species, and in combination with information on important environmental characteristics, it provides the framework for predicting the results of model simulations. Individual-based modeling offers a promising tool for integrating and extrapolating our mechanistic understanding of reproduction, growth, and mortality at the individual level to population-level responses such as size-frequency distributions and indices of year-class strength. Based on the trade-offs between life history characteristics of striped bass Morone saxatilis and smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu and differences in their respective environments, we predicted that young-of-year smallmouth bass are likely to demonstrate a greater compensatory change in growth and mortality than young-of-year striped bass in response to changes in density of early life stages and turnover rates of zooplankton prey. We tested this prediction with a simulation experiment. The pattern of model results was consistent with our expectations: by the end of the first growing season, compensatory changes in length and abundance of juveniles were more pronounced for smallmouth bass than for striped bass. The results also highlighted the dependence of model predictions on the interplay between density of larvae and juveniles and characteristics of their zooplankton prey.

  19. Environmental setting and water-quality issues in the lower Tennessee River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kingsbury, James A.; Hoos, Anne B.; Woodside, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    The goals of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program are to describe current water-quality conditions for a large part of the Nation's water resources, identify water-quality changes over time, and identify the primary natural and human factors that affect water quality. The lower Tennessee River Basin is one of 59 river basins selected for study. The water-quality assessment of the lower Tennessee River Basin study unit began in 1997. The lower Tennessee River Basin study unit encompasses an area of about 19,500 square miles and extends from Chattanooga, Tennessee, to Paducah, Kentucky. The study unit had a population of about 1.5 million people in 1995.The study unit was subdivided into subunits with relatively homogeneous geology and physiography. Subdivision of the study unit creates a framework to assess the effects of natural and cultural settings on water quality. Nine subunits were delineated in the study unit; their boundaries generally coincide with level III and level IV ecoregion boundaries. The nine subunits are the Coastal Plain, Transition, Western Highland Rim, Outer Nashville Basin, Inner Nashville Basin, Eastern Highland Rim, Plateau Escarpment and Valleys, Cumberland Plateau, and Valley and Ridge.The lower Tennessee River Basin consists of predominantly forest (51 percent) and agricultural land (40 percent). Activities related to agricultural land use, therefore, are the primary cultural factors likely to have a widespread effect on surface- and ground-water quality in the study unit. Inputs of total nitrogen and phosphorus from agricultural activities in 1992 were about 161,000 and 37,900 tons, respectively. About 3.7 million pounds (active ingredient) of pesticides was applied to crops in the lower Tennessee River Basin in 1992.State water-quality agencies identified nutrient enrichment and pathogens as water-quality issues affecting both surface and ground water in the lower Tennessee River Basin. Water-quality data collected by State

  20. Relevance of joint action toxicity evaluations in setting realistic environmental safe limits of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Otitoloju, Adebayo Akeem

    2003-02-01

    The evaluation of types of toxicological interactions existing between heavy metals, which are prominent in effluents of some industrial establishments in Lagos State, Nigeria and the Lagos lagoon sediment was carried out against benthic animals, Tympanotonus fuscatus, Clibanarius africanus and Sesarma huzardi of the Lagos lagoon. In order to determine the type of interactions existing between the metals, acute toxicity tests of the metal compounds when acting singly and in joint action studies, by adopting mixture ratios that depict (i) the proportions of the concentrations of the metal ions in the sediment of the Lagos lagoon and (ii) equitoxic mixtures, i.e. based on the 96 hLC(50) values of the metal compounds under single action studies were carried out in laboratory biotests. The joint action evaluations of the test metal mixtures, prepared on the basis of the proportion of the availability of the metals ions in lagoon sediment and equitoxic ratio against the test animals agreed mainly with the model of antagonism (reduction in toxicity) except for test mixtures prepared on the basis of equitoxic ratio and tested against T. fuscatus, where interactions between the test metals was in conformity with the model of synergism, indicating that the toxicity of the constituent metals in the mixture was enhanced. Furthermore, on the basis of classification of synergistic ratio model, the toxic effect of Pb compound which was the least toxic metal compound in the single action toxicity studies was found to be enhanced (synergised) in the presence of other metals when tested jointly. The significance of the results in setting water quality criteria aimed at protecting aquatic biota was discussed.

  1. Using earthquake-triggered landslides as a hillslope-scale shear strength test: Insights into rock strength properties at geomorphically relevant spatial scales in high-relief, tectonically active settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallen, Sean; Clark, Marin; Godt, Jonathan; Lowe, Katherine

    2016-04-01

    The material strength of rock is known to be a fundamental property in setting landscape form and geomorphic process rates as it acts to modulate feedbacks between earth surface processes, tectonics, and climate. Despite the long recognition of its importance in landscape evolution, a quantitative understanding of the role of rock strength in affecting geomorphic processes lags our knowledge of the influence of tectonics and climate. This gap stems largely from the fact that it remains challenging to quantify rock strength at the hillslope scale. Rock strength is strongly scale dependent because the number, size, spacing, and aperture of fractures sets the upper limit on rock strength, making it difficult to extrapolate laboratory measurements to landscape-scale interpretations. Here we present a method to determine near-surface rock strength at the hillslope-scale, relying on earthquake-triggered landslides as a regional-scale "shear strength" test. We define near-surface strength as the average strength of rock sample by the landslides, which is typically < 10 m. Based on a Newmark sliding block model, which approximates slope stability during an earthquake assuming a material with frictional and cohesive strength, we developed a coseismic landslide model that is capable of reproducing statistical characteristics of the distribution of earthquake-triggered landslides. We present results from two well-documented case-studies of earthquakes that caused widespread mass-wasting; the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake, Sichuan Province, China and the 1994 Mw. 6.8 Northridge Earthquake, CA, USA. We show how this model can be used to determine near-surface rock strength and reproduce mapped landslide patterns provided the spatial distribution of local hillslope gradient, earthquake peak ground acceleration (PGA), and coseismic landsliding are well constrained. Results suggest that near-surface rock strength in these tectonically active settings is much lower than that

  2. Rock magnetic properties of soils from different environmental settings: Implications for the anthropogenic impact on the environment (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, C.; Vedrines, H.; Schramm, W.

    2009-12-01

    Magnetic susceptibility is a property of soils that is easily, rapidly, and inexpensively determined. It provides a highly sensitive measurement of the compositional changes of mineral materials in the soil. The objective of our study is to detect the presence of magnetic anthropogenic particles related to environmental pollution by measuring the magnetic signature of soil samples. Our main goals are (1) to generate a magnetic susceptibility map of the topsoil and the shallow subsurface, (2) to determine the concentration of magnetic carriers, their grain size, and mineralogy, and (3) to relate these results to natural and anthropogenic factors. Based on the idea that topsoil contains a higher concentration of magnetic particles than the subsoil because of the settling of airborne anthropogenic pollutants, magnetic susceptibility has the potential for mapping anthropogenic heavy metal concentrations in soils. Magnetic susceptibility is also influenced by natural lithological heavy metal content as well as soil type. It is therefore crucial to distinguish the anthropogenically-enhanced susceptibility from the natural susceptibility. In this large-scale study, we sampled an area of 260 km2 in and around Baton Rouge, Louisiana, in small 2.6 km2 subsets, and attempted to cover a wide variety of environmental settings, from rural city outskirts to the more industrialized parts of the inner city. This area was selected because industrial, rural, metropolitan, and suburban settings coexist in close proximity and allow for a direct comparison of results without significant changes in pedological, climatic, or other parameters that influence the magnetic susceptibility signal. Topsoil and subsoil samples were collected for detailed analysis at an accessible and undisturbed random location within each sampling square. At each site, shallow cores were taken, and a statistically significant number of susceptibility measurements were obtained with a field probe, and deeper

  3. Smart trigger logic for focal plane arrays

    DOEpatents

    Levy, James E; Campbell, David V; Holmes, Michael L; Lovejoy, Robert; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kay, Randolph R; Cavanaugh, William S; Gurrieri, Thomas M

    2014-03-25

    An electronic device includes a memory configured to receive data representing light intensity values from pixels in a focal plane array and a processor that analyzes the received data to determine which light values correspond to triggered pixels, where the triggered pixels are those pixels that meet a predefined set of criteria, and determines, for each triggered pixel, a set of neighbor pixels for which light intensity values are to be stored. The electronic device also includes a buffer that temporarily stores light intensity values for at least one previously processed row of pixels, so that when a triggered pixel is identified in a current row, light intensity values for the neighbor pixels in the previously processed row and for the triggered pixel are persistently stored, as well as a data transmitter that transmits the persistently stored light intensity values for the triggered and neighbor pixels to a data receiver.

  4. Evaluation of statistical treatments of left-censored environmental data using coincident uncensored data sets: I. Summary statistics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Antweiler, R.C.; Taylor, H.E.

    2008-01-01

    The main classes of statistical treatment of below-detection limit (left-censored) environmental data for the determination of basic statistics that have been used in the literature are substitution methods, maximum likelihood, regression on order statistics (ROS), and nonparametric techniques. These treatments, along with using all instrument-generated data (even those below detection), were evaluated by examining data sets in which the true values of the censored data were known. It was found that for data sets with less than 70% censored data, the best technique overall for determination of summary statistics was the nonparametric Kaplan-Meier technique. ROS and the two substitution methods of assigning one-half the detection limit value to censored data or assigning a random number between zero and the detection limit to censored data were adequate alternatives. The use of these two substitution methods, however, requires a thorough understanding of how the laboratory censored the data. The technique of employing all instrument-generated data - including numbers below the detection limit - was found to be less adequate than the above techniques. At high degrees of censoring (greater than 70% censored data), no technique provided good estimates of summary statistics. Maximum likelihood techniques were found to be far inferior to all other treatments except substituting zero or the detection limit value to censored data.

  5. Identifying asthma triggers.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Justin C; Ferguson, Berrylin J

    2014-02-01

    Asthma has many triggers including rhinosinusitis; allergy; irritants; medications (aspirin in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease); and obesity. Paradoxic vocal fold dysfunction mimics asthma and may be present along with asthma. This article reviews each of these triggers, outlining methods of recognizing the trigger and then its management. In many patients more than one trigger may be present. Full appreciation of the complexity of these relationships and targeted therapy to the trigger is needed to best care for the patient with asthma.

  6. Environmental setting and water-quality issues of the Mobile River Basin, Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, and Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Gregory C.; Kidd, Robert E.; Journey, Celeste A.; Zappia, Humbert; Atkins, J. Brian

    2002-01-01

    The Mobile River Basin is one of over 50 river basins and aquifer systems being investigated as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. This basin is the sixth largest river basin in the United States, and fourth largest in terms of streamflow, encompassing parts of Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, and Tennessee. Almost two-thirds of the 44,000-square-mile basin is located in Alabama. Extensive water resources of the Mobile River Basin are influenced by an array of natural and cultural factors. These factors impart unique and variable qualities to the streams, rivers, and aquifers providing abundant habitat to sustain the diverse aquatic life in the basin. Data from Federal, State, and local agencies provide a description of the environmental setting of the Mobile River Basin. Environmental data include natural factors such as physiography, geology, soils, climate, hydrology, ecoregions, and aquatic ecology, and human factors such as reservoirs, land use and population change, water use, and water-quality issues. Characterization of the environmental setting is useful for understanding the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of surface and ground water in the Mobile River Basin and the possible implications of that environmental setting for water quality. The Mobile River Basin encompasses parts of five physiographic provinces. Fifty-six percent of the basin lies within the East Gulf section of the Coastal Plain Physiographic Province. The remaining northeastern part of the basin lies, from west to east, within the Cumberland Plateau section of the Appalachian Plateaus Physiographic Province, the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province, the Piedmont Physiographic Province, and the Blue Ridge Physiographic Province. Based on the 1991 land-use data, about 70 percent of the basin is forested, while agriculture, including livestock (poultry, cattle, and swine), row crops (cotton, corn, soybeans, sorghum, and

  7. Global Trigger Upgrade firmware architecture for the level-1 Trigger of the CMS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahbaran, B.; Arnold, B.; Bergauer, H.; Wittmann, J.; Matsushita, T.

    2015-02-01

    The Global Trigger (GT) is the final step of the CMS Level-1 Trigger and implements the ``menu'' of triggers, which is a set of selection requirements applied to the final list of objects (such as muons, electrons or jets) to trigger the readout of the detector and serve as basis for further calculations by the High Level Trigger. Operational experience in developing trigger menus from the first LHC run has shown that the requirements increased as the luminosity and pile-up increased. The new GT (μGT) is designed based on Xilinx Virtex-7 FPGAs, which combine unsurpassed flexibility with regard to scalability and high robustness. Furthermore, a custom board which receives signals from legacy electronics and basic binary inputs from less complex trigger sources is presented. Additionally, this paper describes the architecture of a distributed testing framework and the Trigger Menu Editor.

  8. Inflammatory Micro-Environmental Cues of Human Atherothrombotic Arteries Confer to Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells the Capacity to Trigger Lymphoid Neogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Marc; Morvan, Marion; Delbosc, Sandrine; Gaston, Anh-Thu; Andreata, Francesco; Castier, Yves; Deschildre, Catherine; Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Caligiuri, Giuseppina; Nicoletti, Antonino

    2014-01-01

    Background Experimental atherosclerosis is characterized by the formation of tertiary lymphoid structures (TLOs) within the adventitial layer, which involves the chemokine-expressing aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs). TLOs have also been described around human atherothrombotic arteries but the mechanisms of their formation remain poorly investigated. Herein, we tested whether human vascular SMCs play the role of chemokine-expressing cells that would trigger the formation of TLOs in atherothrombotic arteries. Results We first characterized, by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence analysis, the prevalence and cell composition of TLOs in human abdominal aneurysms of the aorta (AAAs), an evolutive form of atherothrombosis. Chemotaxis experiments revealed that the conditioned medium from AAA tissues recruited significantly more B and T lymphocytes than the conditioned medium from control (N-AAA) tissues. This was associated with an increase in the concentration of CXCL13, CXCL16, CCL19, CCL20, and CCL21 chemokines in the conditioned medium from AAA tissues. Immunofluorescence analysis of AAA cryosections revealed that α-SMA-positive SMCs were the main contributors to the chemokine production. These results were confirmed by RT-qPCR assays where we found that primary vascular SMCs from AAA tissues expressed significantly more chemokines than SMCs from N-AAA. Finally, in vitro experiments demonstrated that the inflammatory cytokines found to be increased in the conditioned medium from AAA were able to trigger the production of chemokines by primary SMCs. Conclusion Together, these results suggest that human vascular SMCs in atherothrombotic arteries, in response to inflammatory signals, are converted into chemokine-expressing cells that trigger the recruitment of immune cells and the formation of aortic TLOs. PMID:25548922

  9. Environmental Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... system to a normally harmless substance called an allergen. A variety of environmental allergens, such as pollen and animal dander, can trigger ... allergies. Understanding Environmental Allergies Cause Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Immunotherapy Last Updated April 22, 2015 CONNECT WITH NIAID ...

  10. A generalized watershed disturbance-invertebrate relation applicable in a range of environmental settings across the continental United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steuer, Jeffrey J.

    2010-01-01

    It is widely recognized that urbanization can affect ecological conditions in aquatic systems; numerous studies have identified impervious surface cover as an indicator of urban intensity and as an index of development at the watershed, regional, and national scale. Watershed percent imperviousness, a commonly understood urban metric was used as the basis for a generalized watershed disturbance metric that, when applied in conjunction with weighted percent agriculture and percent grassland, predicted stream biotic conditions based on Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) richness across a wide range of environmental settings. Data were collected in streams that encompassed a wide range of watershed area (4.4-1,714 km), precipitation (38-204 cm/yr), and elevation (31-2,024 m) conditions. Nevertheless the simple 3-landcover disturbance metric accounted for 58% of the variability in EPT richness based on the 261 nationwide sites. On the metropolitan area scale, relationship r ranged from 0.04 to 0.74. At disturbance values 15. Future work may incorporate watershed management practices within the disturbance metric, further increasing the management applicability of the relation. Such relations developed on a regional or metropolitan area scale are likely to be stronger than geographically generalized models; as found in these EPT richness relations. However, broad spatial models are able to provide much needed understanding in unmonitored areas and provide initial guidance for stream potential.

  11. Evaluation of Statistical Treatments of Left-Censored Environmental Data Using Coincident Uncensored Data Sets. II. Group Comparisons.

    PubMed

    Antweiler, Ronald C

    2015-11-17

    The main classes of statistical treatments that have been used to determine if two groups of censored environmental data arise from the same distribution are substitution methods, maximum likelihood (MLE) techniques, and nonparametric methods. These treatments along with using all instrument-generated data (IN), even those less than the detection limit, were evaluated by examining 550 data sets in which the true values of the censored data were known, and therefore "true" probabilities could be calculated and used as a yardstick for comparison. It was found that technique "quality" was strongly dependent on the degree of censoring present in the groups. For low degrees of censoring (<25% in each group), the Generalized Wilcoxon (GW) technique and substitution of √2/2 times the detection limit gave overall the best results. For moderate degrees of censoring, MLE worked best, but only if the distribution could be estimated to be normal or log-normal prior to its application; otherwise, GW was a suitable alternative. For higher degrees of censoring (each group >40% censoring), no technique provided reliable estimates of the true probability. Group size did not appear to influence the quality of the result, and no technique appeared to become better or worse than other techniques relative to group size. Finally, IN appeared to do very well relative to the other techniques regardless of censoring or group size.

  12. Use of an urban intensity index to assess urban effects on streams in three contrasting environmental settings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tate, C.M.; Cuffney, T.F.; McMahon, G.; Giddings, E.M.P.; Coles, J.F.; Zappia, H.

    2005-01-01

    To assess the effects of urbanization on assemblages (fish, invertebrate, and algal), physical habitat, and water chemistry, we investigated the relations among varying intensities of basin urbanization and stream ecology in three metropolitan areas: the humid northeastern United States around Boston, Massachusetts; the humid southeastern United States around Birmingham, Alabama; and the semiarid western United States around Salt Lake City, Utah. A consistent process was used to develop a multimetric urban intensity index (UII) based on locally important variables (land-use/land-cover, infrastructure, and socioeconomic variables) in each study area and a common urban intensity index (CUII) based on a subset of five variables common to all study areas. The UII was used to characterize 30 basins along an urban gradient in each metropolitan area. Study basins were located within a single ecoregion in each of the metropolitan areas. The UII, ecoregions, and site characteristics provided a method for limiting the variability of natural landscape characteristics while assessing the magnitude of urban effects. Conditions in Salt Lake City (semiarid climate and water diversions) and Birmingham (topography) required nesting sites within the same basin. The UII and CUII facilitated comparisons of aquatic assemblages response to urbanization across different environmental settings. ?? 2005 by the American Fisheries Society.

  13. Asthma triggers (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... common asthma triggers are mold, pets, dust, grasses, pollen, cockroaches, odors from chemicals, and smoke from cigarettes. ... common asthma triggers are mold, pets, dust, grasses, pollen, cockroaches, odors from chemicals, and smoke from cigarettes.

  14. Environmental, dietary and case-control study of Nodding Syndrome in Uganda: A post-measles brain disorder triggered by malnutrition?

    PubMed

    Spencer, Peter S; Mazumder, Rajarshi; Palmer, Valerie S; Lasarev, Michael R; Stadnik, Ryan C; King, Peter; Kabahenda, Margaret; Kitara, David L; Stadler, Diane; McArdle, Breanna; Tumwine, James K

    2016-10-15

    Nodding Syndrome (NS) is an epileptic encephalopathy characterized by involuntary vertical head nodding, other types of seizures, and progressive neurological deficits. The etiology of the east African NS epidemic is unknown. In March 2014, we conducted a case-control study of medical, nutritional and other risk factors associated with NS among children (aged 5-18years) of Kitgum District, northern Uganda (Acholiland). Data on food availability, rainfall, and prevalent disease temporally related to the NS epidemic were also analyzed. In NS Cases, the mean age of reported head nodding onset was 7.6years (range 1-17years). The epidemiologic curve of NS incidence spanned 2000-2013, with peaks in 2003 and 2008. Month of onset of head nodding was non-uniform, with all-year-aggregated peaks in April and June when food availability was low. Families with one or more NS Cases had been significantly more dependent on emergency food and, immediately prior to head nodding onset in the child, subsistence on moldy plant materials, specifically moldy maize. Medical history revealed a single significant association with NS, namely prior measles infection. NS is compared with the post-measles disorder subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, with clinical expression triggered by factors associated with poor nutrition. PMID:27653888

  15. Effect of environmental setting on sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus concentrations in Albemarle-Pamlico drainage basin, North Carolina and Virginia, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, G.; Harned, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    Environmental settings were defined, through an overlay process, as areas of coincidence between categories of three mapped variables - land use, surficial geology, and soil drainage characteristics. Expert judgment was used in selecting factors thought to influence sediment and nutrient concentrations in the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage area. This study's findings support the hypothesis that environmental settings defined using these three variables can explain variations in the concentration of certain sediment and nutrient constituents. This finding underscores the importance of developing watershed management plans that account for differences associated with the mosaic of natural and anthropogenic factors that define a basin's environmental setting. At least in the case of sediment and nutrients in the Albemarle-Pamlico region, a watershed management plan that focuses only on anthropogenic factors, such as point-source discharges, and does not account for natural characteristics of a watershed and the influences of these characteristics on water quality, may lead to water-quality goals that are over- or underprotective of key environmental features and to a misallocation of the resources available for environmental protection.

  16. Development of the Environmental Strategies Instrument to Measure Adolescent Alcohol Prevention-Related Outcomes in Community Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervantes, Richard C.; Goldbach, Jeremy; Yeung, Albert; Rey, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Recently, evidence-based community policy approaches to preventing substance use and alcohol abuse, called environmental strategies, have gained in popularity. The environmental survey instrument (ESI) was developed to evaluate perceptions around drinking and related problems. Specifically, the authors were interested in assessing community…

  17. Coupled Socio-Environmental Changes Triggered Indigenous Aymara Depopulation of the Semiarid Andes of Tarapacá-Chile during the Late 19th-20th Centuries.

    PubMed

    Lima, Mauricio; Christie, Duncan A; Santoro, M Calogero; Latorre, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Socio-economic and environmental changes are well known causes of demographic collapse of agrarian cultures. The collapse of human societies is a complex phenomenon where historical and cultural dimensions play a key role, and they may interact with the environmental context. However, the importance of the interaction between socio-economic and climatic factors in explaining possible breakdowns in Native American societies has been poorly explored. The aim of this study is to test the role of socio-economic causes and rainfall variability in the collapse suffered by the Aymara people of the semiarid Andean region of Tarapacá during the period 1820-1970. Our motivation is to demonstrate that simple population dynamic models can be helpful in understanding the causes and relative importance of population changes in Andean agro-pastoral societies in responses to socio-environmental variability. Simple logistic models that combine the effects of external socio-economic causes and past rainfall variability (inferred from Gross Domestic Product [GDP] and tree-rings, respectively) were quite accurate in predicting the sustained population decline of the Aymara people. Our results suggest that the depopulation in the semiarid Tarapacá province was caused by the interaction among external socio-economic pressures given by the economic growth of the lowlands and demands for labor coupled with a persistent decline in rainfall. This study constitutes an example of how applied ecological knowledge, in particular the application of the logistic equation and theories pertaining to nonlinear population dynamics and exogenous perturbations, can be used to better understand major demographic changes in human societies. PMID:27560499

  18. Coupled Socio-Environmental Changes Triggered Indigenous Aymara Depopulation of the Semiarid Andes of Tarapacá-Chile during the Late 19th-20th Centuries

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Mauricio; Christie, Duncan A.; Santoro, M. Calogero; Latorre, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Socio-economic and environmental changes are well known causes of demographic collapse of agrarian cultures. The collapse of human societies is a complex phenomenon where historical and cultural dimensions play a key role, and they may interact with the environmental context. However, the importance of the interaction between socio-economic and climatic factors in explaining possible breakdowns in Native American societies has been poorly explored. The aim of this study is to test the role of socio-economic causes and rainfall variability in the collapse suffered by the Aymara people of the semiarid Andean region of Tarapacá during the period 1820–1970. Our motivation is to demonstrate that simple population dynamic models can be helpful in understanding the causes and relative importance of population changes in Andean agro-pastoral societies in responses to socio-environmental variability. Simple logistic models that combine the effects of external socio-economic causes and past rainfall variability (inferred from Gross Domestic Product [GDP] and tree-rings, respectively) were quite accurate in predicting the sustained population decline of the Aymara people. Our results suggest that the depopulation in the semiarid Tarapacá province was caused by the interaction among external socio-economic pressures given by the economic growth of the lowlands and demands for labor coupled with a persistent decline in rainfall. This study constitutes an example of how applied ecological knowledge, in particular the application of the logistic equation and theories pertaining to nonlinear population dynamics and exogenous perturbations, can be used to better understand major demographic changes in human societies. PMID:27560499

  19. Coupled Socio-Environmental Changes Triggered Indigenous Aymara Depopulation of the Semiarid Andes of Tarapacá-Chile during the Late 19th-20th Centuries.

    PubMed

    Lima, Mauricio; Christie, Duncan A; Santoro, M Calogero; Latorre, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Socio-economic and environmental changes are well known causes of demographic collapse of agrarian cultures. The collapse of human societies is a complex phenomenon where historical and cultural dimensions play a key role, and they may interact with the environmental context. However, the importance of the interaction between socio-economic and climatic factors in explaining possible breakdowns in Native American societies has been poorly explored. The aim of this study is to test the role of socio-economic causes and rainfall variability in the collapse suffered by the Aymara people of the semiarid Andean region of Tarapacá during the period 1820-1970. Our motivation is to demonstrate that simple population dynamic models can be helpful in understanding the causes and relative importance of population changes in Andean agro-pastoral societies in responses to socio-environmental variability. Simple logistic models that combine the effects of external socio-economic causes and past rainfall variability (inferred from Gross Domestic Product [GDP] and tree-rings, respectively) were quite accurate in predicting the sustained population decline of the Aymara people. Our results suggest that the depopulation in the semiarid Tarapacá province was caused by the interaction among external socio-economic pressures given by the economic growth of the lowlands and demands for labor coupled with a persistent decline in rainfall. This study constitutes an example of how applied ecological knowledge, in particular the application of the logistic equation and theories pertaining to nonlinear population dynamics and exogenous perturbations, can be used to better understand major demographic changes in human societies.

  20. Myofascial trigger points.

    PubMed

    Lavelle, Elizabeth Demers; Lavelle, William; Smith, Howard S

    2007-03-01

    Painful conditions of the musculoskeletal system, including myofascial pain syndrome, constitute some of the most important chronic problems encountered in a clinical practice. A myofascial trigger points is a hyperirritable spot, usually within a taut band of skeletal muscle, which is painful on compression and can give rise to characteristic referred pain, motor dysfunction, and autonomic phenomena. Trigger points may be relieved through noninvasive measures, such as spray and stretch, transcutaneous electrical stimulation, physical therapy, and massage. Invasive treatments for myofascial trigger points include injections with local anesthetics, corticosteroids, or botulism toxin or dry needling. The etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of myofascial trigger points are addressed in this article.

  1. Software for implementing trigger algorithms on the upgraded CMS Global Trigger System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Takashi; Arnold, Bernhard

    2015-12-01

    The Global Trigger is the final step of the CMS Level-1 Trigger and implements a trigger menu, a set of selection requirements applied to the final list of trigger objects. The conditions for trigger object selection, with possible topological requirements on multiobject triggers, are combined by simple combinatorial logic to form the algorithms. The LHC has resumed its operation in 2015, the collision-energy will be increased to 13 TeV with the luminosity expected to go up to 2x1034 cm-2s-1. The CMS Level-1 trigger system will be upgraded to improve its performance for selecting interesting physics events and to operate within the predefined data-acquisition rate in the challenging environment expected at LHC Run 2. The Global Trigger will be re-implemented on modern FPGAs on an Advanced Mezzanine Card in MicroTCA crate. The upgraded system will benefit from the ability to process complex algorithms with DSP slices and increased processing resources with optical links running at 10 Gbit/s, enabling more algorithms at a time than previously possible and allowing CMS to be more flexible in how it handles the trigger bandwidth. In order to handle the increased complexity of the trigger menu implemented on the upgraded Global Trigger, a set of new software has been developed. The software allows a physicist to define a menu with analysis-like triggers using intuitive user interface. The menu is then realised on FPGAs with further software processing, instantiating predefined firmware blocks. The design and implementation of the software for preparing a menu for the upgraded CMS Global Trigger system are presented.

  2. An ecofeminist conceptual framework to explore gendered environmental health inequities in urban settings and to inform healthy public policy.

    PubMed

    Chircop, Andrea

    2008-06-01

    This theoretical exploration is an attempt to conceptualize the link between gender and urban environmental health. The proposed ecofeminist framework enables an understanding of the link between the urban physical and social environments and health inequities mediated by gender and socioeconomic status. This framework is proposed as a theoretical magnifying glass to reveal the underlying logic that connects environmental exploitation on the one hand, and gendered health inequities on the other. Ecofeminism has the potential to reveal an inherent, normative conceptual analysis and argumentative justification of western society that permits the oppression of women and the exploitation of the environment. This insight will contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying gendered environmental health inequities and inform healthy public policy that is supportive of urban environmental health, particularly for low-income mothers.

  3. An ecofeminist conceptual framework to explore gendered environmental health inequities in urban settings and to inform healthy public policy.

    PubMed

    Chircop, Andrea

    2008-06-01

    This theoretical exploration is an attempt to conceptualize the link between gender and urban environmental health. The proposed ecofeminist framework enables an understanding of the link between the urban physical and social environments and health inequities mediated by gender and socioeconomic status. This framework is proposed as a theoretical magnifying glass to reveal the underlying logic that connects environmental exploitation on the one hand, and gendered health inequities on the other. Ecofeminism has the potential to reveal an inherent, normative conceptual analysis and argumentative justification of western society that permits the oppression of women and the exploitation of the environment. This insight will contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying gendered environmental health inequities and inform healthy public policy that is supportive of urban environmental health, particularly for low-income mothers. PMID:18476856

  4. Combining Environmental and Individual Weight Management Interventions in a Work Setting Results From the Dow Chemical Study

    PubMed Central

    DeJoy, David M.; Parker, Kristin M.; Padilla, Heather M.; Wilson, Mark G.; Roemer, Enid C.; Goetzel, Ron Z.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the comparative effectiveness of environmental weight loss interventions alone versus in combination with an individual intervention. Methods A quasiexperimental design compared with outcomes for two levels of environmental interventions and for participants who did or did not simultaneously self-select into an individually focused weight loss intervention (YW8). ANCOVA and logistic regression techniques were used to examine risk outcomes. Results Employees who participated in YW8 were no more successful at losing weight than those exposed to only the environmental interventions. Approximately, 13.5% of each group lost at least 5% of their body weight; overall changes in mean body weight and body mass index were negligible in both groups. Conclusions Simple worksite environmental modifications may help with weight maintenance, but are not likely to result in substantial weight reductions even when combined with low-intensity individual interventions. PMID:21346636

  5. Lessons from (triggered) tremor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, Joan

    2010-01-01

    I test a “clock-advance” model that implies triggered tremor is ambient tremor that occurs at a sped-up rate as a result of loading from passing seismic waves. This proposed model predicts that triggering probability is proportional to the product of the ambient tremor rate and a function describing the efficacy of the triggering wave to initiate a tremor event. Using data mostly from Cascadia, I have compared qualitatively a suite of teleseismic waves that did and did not trigger tremor with ambient tremor rates. Many of the observations are consistent with the model if the efficacy of the triggering wave depends on wave amplitude. One triggered tremor observation clearly violates the clock-advance model. The model prediction that larger triggering waves result in larger triggered tremor signals also appears inconsistent with the measurements. I conclude that the tremor source process is a more complex system than that described by the clock-advance model predictions tested. Results of this and previous studies also demonstrate that (1) conditions suitable for tremor generation exist in many tectonic environments, but, within each, only occur at particular spots whose locations change with time; (2) any fluid flow must be restricted to less than a meter; (3) the degree to which delayed failure and secondary triggering occurs is likely insignificant; and 4) both shear and dilatational deformations may trigger tremor. Triggered and ambient tremor rates correlate more strongly with stress than stressing rate, suggesting tremor sources result from time-dependent weakening processes rather than simple Coulomb failure.

  6. AMY trigger system

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Yoshihide

    1989-04-01

    A trigger system of the AMY detector at TRISTAN e{sup +}e{sup -} collider is described briefly. The system uses simple track segment and shower cluster counting scheme to classify events to be triggered. It has been operating successfully since 1987.

  7. New Design Strategy for Development of Specific Primer Sets for PCR-Based Detection of Chlorophyceae and Bacillariophyceae in Environmental Samples▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Valiente Moro, Claire; Crouzet, Olivier; Rasconi, Séréna; Thouvenot, Antoine; Coffe, Gérard; Batisson, Isabelle; Bohatier, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Studying aquatic microalgae is essential for monitoring biodiversity and water quality. We designed new sets of 18S rRNA PCR primers for Chlorophyceae and Bacillariophyceae by using the ARB software and implementing a virtual PCR program. The results of specificity analysis showed that most of the targeted algal families were identified and nontargeted organisms, such as fungi or ciliates, were excluded. These newly developed PCR primer sets were also able to amplify microalgal rRNA genes from environmental samples with accurate specificity. These tools could be of great interest for studying freshwater microalgal ecology and for developing bioindicators of the health status of aquatic environments. PMID:19592531

  8. New design strategy for development of specific primer sets for PCR-based detection of Chlorophyceae and Bacillariophyceae in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Moro, Claire Valiente; Crouzet, Olivier; Rasconi, Séréna; Thouvenot, Antoine; Coffe, Gérard; Batisson, Isabelle; Bohatier, Jacques

    2009-09-01

    Studying aquatic microalgae is essential for monitoring biodiversity and water quality. We designed new sets of 18S rRNA PCR primers for Chlorophyceae and Bacillariophyceae by using the ARB software and implementing a virtual PCR program. The results of specificity analysis showed that most of the targeted algal families were identified and nontargeted organisms, such as fungi or ciliates, were excluded. These newly developed PCR primer sets were also able to amplify microalgal rRNA genes from environmental samples with accurate specificity. These tools could be of great interest for studying freshwater microalgal ecology and for developing bioindicators of the health status of aquatic environments. PMID:19592531

  9. Private peer group settings as an environmental determinant of alcohol use in Dutch adolescents: results from a representative survey in the region of Twente.

    PubMed

    Korte, Jojanneke; Pieterse, Marcel E; Postel, Marloes G; Van Hoof, Joris J

    2012-07-01

    This study supports the hypothesis that the drinking setting can be an environmental risk factor for hazardous alcohol use. In a survey of Dutch adolescents (n = 1516), alcohol consumption and participation in private peer group settings (PPSs), environments where adolescents meet and drink alcohol without direct adult supervision, were measured. After controlling for demographic variables, adolescents visiting PPSs as compared to non-visitors, appeared to have a significantly higher lifetime prevalence of alcohol use, average weekly consumption, and frequency of heavy episodic drinking. Moreover, accounting for school clustering, the frequency of PPS visits was associated with increased alcohol consumption. PMID:22429488

  10. THE COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF ALTERNATIVE INSTRUMENTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN A SECOND-BEST SETTING. (R825313)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    This paper employs analytical and numerical general equilibrium models to examine the significance of pre-existing factor taxes for the costs of pollution reduction under a wide range of environmental policy instruments. Pre-existing taxes imply significantly ...

  11. STATISTICAL METHODS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS USING DATA SETS WITH BELOW DETECTION LIMIT OBSERVATIONS AS INCORPORTED IN PROUCL 4.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nondetect (ND) or below detection limit (BDL) results cannot be measured accurately, and, therefore, are reported as less than certain detection limit (DL) values. However, since the presence of some contaminants (e.g., dioxin) in environmental media may pose a threat to human he...

  12. LHCb Topological Trigger Reoptimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Ilten, Philip; Khairullin, Egor; Rogozhnikov, Alex; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Williams, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so- called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger, which utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected a nearly 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%; its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and neural networks. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all ’interesting” decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. Methods studied include cascading, ensembling and blending techniques. Furthermore, novel boosting techniques have been implemented that will help reduce systematic uncertainties in Run 2 measurements. We demonstrate that the reoptimized topological trigger is expected to significantly improve on the Run 1 performance for a wide range of b-hadron decays.

  13. Clustering Properties of BzK-selected Galaxies in GOODS-N: Environmental Quenching and Triggering of Star Formation at z ~ 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Lihwai; Dickinson, Mark; Jian, Hung-Yu; Merson, A. I.; Baugh, C. M.; Scott, Douglas; Foucaud, Sebastien; Wang, Wei-Hao; Yan, Chi-Hung; Yan, Hao-Jing; Cheng, Yi-Wen; Guo, Yicheng; Helly, John; Kirsten, Franz; Koo, David C.; Lagos, Claudia del P.; Meger, Nicole; Messias, Hugo; Pope, Alexandra; Simard, Luc; Grogin, Norman A.; Wang, Shiang-Yu

    2012-09-01

    Using a sample of BzK-selected galaxies at z ~ 2 identified from the CFHT/WIRCAM near-infrared survey of GOODS-North, we discuss the relation between star formation rate (SFR), specific star formation rate (SSFR), and stellar mass (M *), and the clustering of galaxies as a function of these parameters. For star-forming galaxies (sBzKs), the UV-based SFR, corrected for extinction, scales with the stellar mass as SFRvpropM α * with α = 0.74 ± 0.20 down to M * ~ 109 M ⊙, indicating a weak dependence on the stellar mass of the SFR efficiency, namely, SSFR. We also measure the angular correlation function and hence infer the correlation length for sBzK galaxies as a function of M *, SFR, and SSFR, as well as K-band apparent magnitude. We show that passive galaxies (pBzKs) are more strongly clustered than sBzK galaxies at a given stellar mass, mirroring the color-density relation seen at lower redshifts. We also find that the correlation length of sBzK galaxies ranges from 4 to 20 h -1 Mpc, being a strong function of MK , M *, and SFR. On the other hand, the clustering dependence on SSFR changes abruptly at 2 × 10-9 yr-1, which is the typical value for "main-sequence" star-forming galaxies at z ~ 2. We show that the correlation length reaches a minimum at this characteristic value, and is larger for galaxies with both smaller and larger SSFRs; a dichotomy that is only marginally implied from the predictions of the semi-analytical models. Our results suggest that there are two types of environmental effects at work at z ~ 2. Stronger clustering for relatively quiescent galaxies implies that the environment has started to play a role in quenching star formation. At the same time, stronger clustering for galaxies with elevated SSFRs ("starbursts") might be attributed to an increased efficiency for galaxy interactions and mergers in dense environments.

  14. A contribution to the seismic hazard of the Apulia Region (Southern Italy): environmental effects triggered by historical earthquakes in last centuries.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porfido, Sabina; Alessio, Giuliana; Nappi, Rosa; De Lucia, Maddalena; Gaudiosi, Germana

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is a critical revision of the historical and recent seismicity of the Apulia and surrounding seismogenetic areas, for re-evaluating the macroseismic effects in MCS scale and ground effects in natural environment according to the ESI 2007 scale (Michetti et al., 2007) as a contribution to the seismic hazard of the region. The most important environmental effect due to historical earthquakes in the Apulia was the tsunami occurrence, followed by landslides, liquefaction phenomena, hydrological changes and ground cracks. The Apulia (Southern Italy) has been hit by several low energy and a few high energy earthquakes in the last centuries. In particular, the July 30, 1627 earthquake (I=X MCS, Rovida et al., 2011) and the May 5, 1646 event (I=X MCS), the strongest earthquakes of the Gargano promontory have been reviewed, together with the March 20, 1731 earthquake (I=IX MCS, Mw=6.5, Rovida et al., 2011), the most relevant of the Foggia province, and the February 20, 1743 earthquake (I=IX MCS, Mw= 7.1, Rovida et al., 2011, I ESI=X, Nappi et al, 2015), the strongest of the Salento area,. The whole Apulia region has also been struck by strong earthquakes of neighboring seismogenetic areas located in the Southern Apennines, Adriatic and Ionian Sea, Albania and Greece, well propagated throughout the Italian peninsula, and in particular in the southern regions, where the intensity degrees are higher, sometimes exceeding the limit of damage. Some well documented examples of Greek earthquakes strongly felt in the whole Apulia region were: the August 27, 1886 earthquake (Peloponnesus, Greece); the May 28, 1897 earthquake (Creta-Cypro); the June 26, 1926 earthquake (Creta and Cipro, Imax=X MCS), felt all over the Southern Italy; the August 28, 1962 earthquake (epicenter in Peloponnesus area). It is noteworthy that earthquakes located in the Southern Apennines were powerfully felt in the whole Apulia region; among the strongest historical events of the

  15. CLUSTERING PROPERTIES OF BzK-SELECTED GALAXIES IN GOODS-N: ENVIRONMENTAL QUENCHING AND TRIGGERING OF STAR FORMATION AT z {approx} 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lin Lihwai; Wang Weihao; Yan, Chi-Hung; Dickinson, Mark; Jian, Hung-Yu; Merson, A. I.; Baugh, C. M.; Helly, John; Lagos, Claudia del P; Scott, Douglas; Meger, Nicole; Foucaud, Sebastien; Yan Haojing; Cheng, Yi-Wen; Guo Yicheng; Pope, Alexandra; Kirsten, Franz; Koo, David C.; Simard, Luc; and others

    2012-09-01

    Using a sample of BzK-selected galaxies at z {approx} 2 identified from the CFHT/WIRCAM near-infrared survey of GOODS-North, we discuss the relation between star formation rate (SFR), specific star formation rate (SSFR), and stellar mass (M{sub *}), and the clustering of galaxies as a function of these parameters. For star-forming galaxies (sBzKs), the UV-based SFR, corrected for extinction, scales with the stellar mass as SFR{proportional_to}M{sup {alpha}}{sub *} with {alpha} = 0.74 {+-} 0.20 down to M{sub *} {approx} 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }, indicating a weak dependence on the stellar mass of the SFR efficiency, namely, SSFR. We also measure the angular correlation function and hence infer the correlation length for sBzK galaxies as a function of M{sub *}, SFR, and SSFR, as well as K-band apparent magnitude. We show that passive galaxies (pBzKs) are more strongly clustered than sBzK galaxies at a given stellar mass, mirroring the color-density relation seen at lower redshifts. We also find that the correlation length of sBzK galaxies ranges from 4 to 20 h {sup -1} Mpc, being a strong function of M{sub K} , M{sub *}, and SFR. On the other hand, the clustering dependence on SSFR changes abruptly at 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} yr{sup -1}, which is the typical value for 'main-sequence' star-forming galaxies at z {approx} 2. We show that the correlation length reaches a minimum at this characteristic value, and is larger for galaxies with both smaller and larger SSFRs; a dichotomy that is only marginally implied from the predictions of the semi-analytical models. Our results suggest that there are two types of environmental effects at work at z {approx} 2. Stronger clustering for relatively quiescent galaxies implies that the environment has started to play a role in quenching star formation. At the same time, stronger clustering for galaxies with elevated SSFRs ({sup s}tarbursts{sup )} might be attributed to an increased efficiency for galaxy interactions and

  16. Antiviral immune responses: triggers of or triggered by autoimmunity?

    PubMed Central

    Münz, Christian; Lünemann, Jan D.; Getts, Meghann Teague; Miller, Stephen D.

    2010-01-01

    Several common autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and multiple sclerosis, are genetically linked to distinct human MHC class II molecules and other immune modulators. However, genetic predisposition is only one risk factor for the development of these diseases, and low concordance rates in monozygotic twins as well as geographical distribution of disease risk point towards environmental factors in the genesis of these diseases. Among these environmental factors, infections have been implicated in the onset and/or promotion of autoimmunity. In this review, we outline mechanisms by which pathogens can trigger autoimmune disease, and also pathways by which infection and immune control of infectious disease might be dysregulated during autoimmunity. PMID:19319143

  17. Applying low-molecular weight supramolecular gelators in an environmental setting - self-assembled gels as smart materials for pollutant removal.

    PubMed

    Okesola, Babatunde O; Smith, David K

    2016-07-25

    This review explores supramolecular gels as materials for environmental remediation. These soft materials are formed by self-assembling low-molecular-weight building blocks, which can be programmed with molecular-scale information by simple organic synthesis. The resulting gels often have nanoscale 'solid-like' networks which are sample-spanning within a 'liquid-like' solvent phase. There is intimate contact between the solvent and the gel nanostructure, which has a very high effective surface area as a result of its dimensions. As such, these materials have the ability to bring a solid-like phase into contact with liquids in an environmental setting. Such materials can therefore remediate unwanted pollutants from the environment including: immobilisation of oil spills, removal of dyes, extraction of heavy metals or toxic anions, and the detection or removal of chemical weapons. Controlling the interactions between the gel nanofibres and pollutants can lead to selective uptake and extraction. Furthermore, if suitably designed, such materials can be recyclable and environmentally benign, while the responsive and tunable nature of the self-assembled network offers significant advantages over other materials solutions to problems caused by pollution in an environmental setting. PMID:27241027

  18. Remotely triggered earthquakes following moderate main shocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1992, remotely triggered earthquakes have been identified following large (M > 7) earthquakes in California as well as in other regions. These events, which occur at much greater distances than classic aftershocks, occur predominantly in active geothermal or volcanic regions, leading to theories that the earthquakes are triggered when passing seismic waves cause disruptions in magmatic or other fluid systems. In this paper, I focus on observations of remotely triggered earthquakes following moderate main shocks in diverse tectonic settings. I summarize evidence that remotely triggered earthquakes occur commonly in mid-continent and collisional zones. This evidence is derived from analysis of both historic earthquake sequences and from instrumentally recorded M5-6 earthquakes in eastern Canada. The latter analysis suggests that, while remotely triggered earthquakes do not occur pervasively following moderate earthquakes in eastern North America, a low level of triggering often does occur at distances beyond conventional aftershock zones. The inferred triggered events occur at the distances at which SmS waves are known to significantly increase ground motions. A similar result was found for 28 recent M5.3-7.1 earthquakes in California. In California, seismicity is found to increase on average to a distance of at least 200 km following moderate main shocks. This supports the conclusion that, even at distances of ???100 km, dynamic stress changes control the occurrence of triggered events. There are two explanations that can account for the occurrence of remotely triggered earthquakes in intraplate settings: (1) they occur at local zones of weakness, or (2) they occur in zones of local stress concentration. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  19. Lessons learned from curriculum changes and setting curriculum objectives at the University of Pennsylvania's Earth and Environmental Science Department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmochowski, J. E.

    2009-12-01

    Recent restructuring of the University of Pennsylvania’s curriculum, including a revised multi-disciplinary Environmental Studies major and a proposed Environmental Science major has led to several changes, including a mandatory junior research seminar. Feedback from students indicates that a more structured curriculum has helped guide them through the multi-disciplinary Environmental Studies major. The addition of mandatory courses in Statistics, Geographical and Environmental Modeling, as well as Economics and Policy has ensured that students have important skills needed to succeed after graduation. We have compiled a curriculum objective matrix to clarify both the broad and focused objectives of our curriculum and how each course helps to fulfill these objectives. An important aspect of both majors is the Senior Thesis. The junior research seminar was recently revised to help students prepare for their thesis research. Topic selection, library research, data presentation, basic research methods, advisor identification, and funding options are discussed. Throughout the course, faculty from within the department lecture about their research and highlight opportunities for undergraduates. In one assignment, students are given a few types of datasets and asked to present the data and error analysis in various formats using different software (SPSS and Excel). The final paper was a research proposal outlining the student’s Senior Thesis. Based on both the university and instructor written course evaluations, students felt they benefited most from writing their senior thesis proposal; doing assignments on data analysis, library research and critical analysis; and the faculty research lectures. The lessons learned in restructuring this flexible major and providing a research seminar in the junior year may benefit other departments considering such changes.

  20. Dealing with Asthma Triggers

    MedlinePlus

    ... smell given off by paint or gas, and air pollution. If you notice that an irritant triggers your ... or other tobacco products around you. If outdoor air pollution is a problem, running the air conditioner or ...

  1. ELECTRONIC TRIGGER CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Russell, J.A.G.

    1958-01-01

    An electronic trigger circuit is described of the type where an output pulse is obtained only after an input voltage has cqualed or exceeded a selected reference voltage. In general, the invention comprises a source of direct current reference voltage in series with an impedance and a diode rectifying element. An input pulse of preselected amplitude causes the diode to conduct and develop a signal across the impedance. The signal is delivered to an amplifier where an output pulse is produced and part of the output is fed back in a positive manner to the diode so that the amplifier produces a steep wave front trigger pulsc at the output. The trigger point of the described circuit is not subject to variation due to the aging, etc., of multi-electrode tabes, since the diode circuit essentially determines the trigger point.

  2. The LHCb Trigger System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, E.; LHCb Collaboration

    2007-08-01

    The LHCb detector has been conceived to study with high precision CP violation and rare decays of b-flavoured hadrons produced at the LHC. The LHCb trigger is of crucial importance in selecting the collisions of interest for b-physics studies. The trigger is based on a two-level system. The first level, Level-0, is implemented in hardware and uses information from the calorimeter, muon and pile-up systems to select events containing particles with relatively large transverse momentum, typically above 1-2 GeV. The Level-0 trigger accepts events at a rate of 1 MHz. All the detector information is then read out and fed into the High Level Trigger. This software trigger runs in the event-filter farm composed of about 1800 CPU nodes. Events are selected at a rate of 2 kHz and sent for mass storage and subsequent offline reconstruction and analysis. The current status and expected performance of the trigger system are described.

  3. The magnitude distribution of dynamically triggered earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Stephen

    Large dynamic strains carried by seismic waves are known to trigger seismicity far from their source region. It is unknown, however, whether surface waves trigger only small earthquakes, or whether they can also trigger large, societally significant earthquakes. To address this question, we use a mixing model approach in which total seismicity is decomposed into 2 broad subclasses: "triggered" events initiated or advanced by far-field dynamic strains, and "untriggered" spontaneous events consisting of everything else. The b-value of a mixed data set, b MIX, is decomposed into a weighted sum of b-values of its constituent components, bT and bU. For populations of earthquakes subjected to dynamic strain, the fraction of earthquakes that are likely triggered, f T, is estimated via inter-event time ratios and used to invert for bT. The confidence bounds on b T are estimated by multiple inversions of bootstrap resamplings of bMIX and fT. For Californian seismicity, data are consistent with a single-parameter Gutenberg-Richter hypothesis governing the magnitudes of both triggered and untriggered earthquakes. Triggered earthquakes therefore seem just as likely to be societally significant as any other population of earthquakes.

  4. A degenerate primer MOB typing (DPMT) method to classify gamma-proteobacterial plasmids in clinical and environmental settings.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Andrés; Garcillán-Barcia, M Pilar; de la Cruz, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Transmissible plasmids are responsible for the spread of genetic determinants, such as antibiotic resistance or virulence traits, causing a large ecological and epidemiological impact. Transmissible plasmids, either conjugative or mobilizable, have in common the presence of a relaxase gene. Relaxases were previously classified in six protein families according to their phylogeny. Degenerate primers hybridizing to coding sequences of conserved amino acid motifs were designed to amplify related relaxase genes from γ-Proteobacterial plasmids. Specificity and sensitivity of a selected set of 19 primer pairs were first tested using a collection of 33 reference relaxases, representing the diversity of γ-Proteobacterial plasmids. The validated set was then applied to the analysis of two plasmid collections obtained from clinical isolates. The relaxase screening method, which we call "Degenerate Primer MOB Typing" or DPMT, detected not only most known Inc/Rep groups, but also a plethora of plasmids not previously assigned to any Inc group or Rep-type.

  5. Upgrade of the ATLAS Central Trigger for LHC Run-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artz, S.; Bauss, B.; Boterenbrood, H.; Buescher, V.; Degele, R.; Dhaliwal, S.; Ellis, N.; Farthouat, P.; Galster, G.; Ghibaudi, M.; Glatzer, J.; Haas, S.; Igonkina, O.; Jakobi, K.; Jansweijer, P.; Kahra, C.; Kaluza, A.; Kaneda, M.; Marzin, A.; Ohm, C.; Silva Oliveira, M. V.; Pauly, T.; Pöttgen, R.; Reiss, A.; Schäfer, U.; Schäffer, J.; Schipper, J. D.; Schmieden, K.; Schreuder, F.; Simioni, E.; Simon, M.; Spiwoks, R.; Stelzer, J.; Tapprogge, S.; Vermeulen, J.; Vogel, A.; Zinser, M.

    2015-02-01

    The increased energy and luminosity of the LHC in the run-2 data taking period requires a more selective trigger menu in order to satisfy the physics goals of ATLAS. Therefore the electronics of the central trigger system is upgraded to allow for a larger variety and more sophisticated trigger criteria. In addition, the software controlling the central trigger processor (CTP) has been redesigned to allow the CTP to accommodate three freely configurable and separately operating sets of sub detectors, each independently using the almost full functionality of the trigger hardware. This new approach and its operational advantages are discussed as well as the hardware upgrades.

  6. Genetic and Environmental Interactions in Determining the Early Lexicon: Evidence from a Set of Tri-Zygotic Quadruplets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Karla K.; Capone, Nina C.

    2004-01-01

    A set of tri-zygotic quadruplets, three girls and one boy, participated in weekly observations from 1;2 to 1;10 (years;months), a period of transition from prelinguistic gesture to 50 words. In the study, one girl served as a genetic mate to her identical twin and a biological risk mate to her fraternal sister. The biological risk mates achieved…

  7. The barriers to environmental sustainability in post-disaster settings: a case study of transitional shelter implementation in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Abrahams, Daniel

    2014-04-01

    Disaster recovery operations that do not account for environmental sustainability (ES) risk exacerbating the impact of the disaster and hindering long-term recovery efforts. Yet aid agencies do not always consider ES. This research is a case study of the recovery that followed the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. Using timber and concrete procurement as proxies for broader post-disaster operations, research examined perceptions of ES as well as attempts at and barriers to incorporating it into programming. Identified barriers can be grouped into two categories: (1) prioritisations and perceptions within the disaster response sector that resulted in limited enthusiasm for incorporating ES into programming, and (2) structural and organisational barriers within the disaster response framework that impeded ES attempts and served as a further disincentive to incorporating ES into programming. As a result of those barriers, incorporation of ES was sporadic and inconsistent and often depended on the capacity and motivation of specific implementers.

  8. Water-quality assessment of part of the Upper Mississippi River basin, Minnesota and Wisconsin, environmental setting and study design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stark, J.R.; Andrews, W.J.; Fallon, J.D.; Fong, A.L.; Goldstein, R.M.; Hanson, P.E.; Kroening, S.E.; Lee, K.E.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental stratification consists of dividing the study unit into subareas with homogeneous characteristics to assess natural and anthropogenic factors affecting water quality. The assessment of water quality in streams and in aquifers is based on the sampling design that compares water quality within homogeneous subareas defined by subbasins or aquifer boundaries. The study unit is stratified at four levels for the surface-water component: glacial deposit composition, surficial geology, general land use and land cover, and secondary land use. Ground-water studies emphasize shallow ground water where quality is most likely influenced by overlying land use and land cover. Stratification for ground-water sampling is superimposed on the distribution of shallow aquifers. For each aquifer and surface-water basin this stratification forms the basis for the proposed sampling design used in the Upper Mississippi River Basin National Water-Quality Assessment.

  9. Dark-matter halo assembly bias: Environmental dependence in the non-Markovian excursion-set theory

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jun; Ma, Chung-Pei; Riotto, Antonio

    2014-02-10

    In the standard excursion-set model for the growth of structure, the statistical properties of halos are governed by the halo mass and are independent of the larger-scale environment in which the halos reside. Numerical simulations, however, have found the spatial distributions of halos to depend not only on their mass but also on the details of their assembly history and environment. Here we present a theoretical framework for incorporating this 'assembly bias' into the excursion-set model. Our derivations are based on modifications of the path-integral approach of Maggiore and Riotto that models halo formation as a non-Markovian random-walk process. The perturbed density field is assumed to evolve stochastically with the smoothing scale and exhibits correlated walks in the presence of a density barrier. We write down conditional probabilities for multiple barrier crossings and derive from them analytic expressions for descendant and progenitor halo mass functions and halo merger rates as a function of both halo mass and the linear overdensity δ {sub e} of the larger-scale environment of the halo. Our results predict a higher halo merger rate and higher progenitor halo mass function in regions of higher overdensity, consistent with the behavior seen in N-body simulations.

  10. Setting up of in-vacuum PIXE system for direct elemental analysis of thick solid environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Rihawy, M S; Ismail, I M; Halloum, D

    2016-04-01

    Experimental set-up, development, characterization, and calibration of an in-vacuum PIXE system at the tandem accelerator facility of the Atomic Energy Commission of Syria (AECS) is described. The PIXE system calibration involved experimental characterization of the X-ray detector parameters and careful determination of the H-values that control dependence of the detector solid angle with the X-ray energies and correct imperfect values of the detector efficiency. Setting up of an electron flood gun to compensate charge built up and utilization of a beam profile monitor to perform indirect measurement of the beam charge, provide a direct PIXE measurement of thick insulating samples in-vacuum. The PIXE system has been subsequently examined to verify its ability to perform direct PIXE measurements on geological materials. A combination of minimum sample preparation procedures and specific experimental conditions applied enables simple and accurate elemental analysis. Elemental concentrations of several elements heavier than sodium in different reference geological samples, at about 5-10% absolute accuracy for most elements, have been determined. Comprehensive discussion of the obtained elemental concentration values, for most elements of visible X-ray peaks in the PIXE spectra, has been considered. PMID:26803668

  11. Trigger mechanism for engines

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, L.R.

    1989-02-28

    A trigger mechanism is described for a blower-vacuum apparatus having a trigger mounted within a handle and a small engine comprising: a throttle; a ''L'' shaped lever having first and second legs mounted for rotation about an intermediate pivot within the handle when the trigger is depressed, interconnecting the trigger and the throttle, the second leg having first teeth defined therein, the lever further having idle, full throttle and stop positions; a normally raised latch means adapted to be rotated and axially depressed, the latch means having second teeth situated on a cam to engage the first teeth for holding the lever in an intermediate position between the idle and full throttle positions when the latch means is rotated. The latch means further are cam teeth into potential engagement with the lever teeth when the trigger is depressed, lever is biased to the stop position; and idle adjusting means means for intercepting the second leg for preventing the second leg from reaching the stop position when the latch means is raised.

  12. Cygnus Trigger System

    SciTech Connect

    G. Corrow, M. Hansen, D. Henderson, C. Mitton

    2008-02-01

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two radiographic sources (Cygnus 1, Cygnus 2) each with a dose rating of 4 rads at 1 m, and a 1-mm diameter spot size. The electrical specifications are: 2.25 MV, 60 kA, 60 ns. This facility is located in an underground environment at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These sources were developed as a primary diagnostic for subcritical tests, which are single-shot, high-value events. In such an application there is an emphasis on reliability and reproducibility. A robust, low-jitter trigger system is a key element for meeting these goals. The trigger system was developed with both commercial and project-specific equipment. In addition to the traditional functions of a trigger system there are novel features added to protect the investment of a high-value shot. Details of the trigger system, including elements designed specifically for a subcritical test application, will be presented. The individual electronic components have their nominal throughput, and when assembled have a system throughput with a measured range of jitter. The shot-to-shot jitter will be assessed both individually and in combination. Trigger reliability and reproducibility results will be presented for a substantial number of shots executed at the NTS.

  13. Microfabricated triggered vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Roesler, Alexander W.; Schare, Joshua M.; Bunch, Kyle

    2010-05-11

    A microfabricated vacuum switch is disclosed which includes a substrate upon which an anode, cathode and trigger electrode are located. A cover is sealed over the substrate under vacuum to complete the vacuum switch. In some embodiments of the present invention, a metal cover can be used in place of the trigger electrode on the substrate. Materials used for the vacuum switch are compatible with high vacuum, relatively high temperature processing. These materials include molybdenum, niobium, copper, tungsten, aluminum and alloys thereof for the anode and cathode. Carbon in the form of graphitic carbon, a diamond-like material, or carbon nanotubes can be used in the trigger electrode. Channels can be optionally formed in the substrate to mitigate against surface breakdown.

  14. The environmental rule in the shape of soft-sediment deformation structures in the shelf to base of slope settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnerat de Oliveira, Carlos M.

    2015-04-01

    Soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDS) can be divided into in situ and detached structures. The latter include slides, slumps, and debrites (mass transport deposits) and dominate the literature compared to processes and products of deformation that takes place in situ. This study addresses in detail the origin and development of in situ SSDS and their stratigraphic and depositional context in well exposed shelf edge and upper to lower slope successions of the Karoo and the Neuquén basins. In the study areas, in situ SSDS occur preferentially in shelf-edge/upper-slope settings, but can also develop in middle and lower slope settings in association with detached structures. Flame and load structures are the most common in situ features and a systematic quantitative study of flame structures shows that they are elongated and have preferential orientation. The relationship between morphometric parameters, such as height, width and spacing, is statistically proven to be independent of the scale of occurrence and depositional environment in the majority of the cases. This indicates that similar physical and rheological conditions occurred during their formation in both shallow and deepwater environments. Divergence in the trends can indicate changes in the boundary conditions. Comparison of statistical results from Karoo and Neuquén datasets indicates a grain size influence on the dimension of structures; the greater the grain size the shorter the flame structures. Morphology of flame structures is independent of outcrop scale, as shown by statistical relationships. This characteristic allows prediction of the dimension/geometry of flame structures at outcrop scale. Extrapolation to scales below or above the range of outcrop limits must be done with care. The methodological basis for the evaluation of these out of outcrop scale situations are initiated here but still need to be effectively evaluated.

  15. Investigation of Techniques to Improve Continuous Air Monitors Under Conditions of High Dust Loading in Environmental Settings

    SciTech Connect

    Suilou Huang; Stephen D. Schery; John C. Rodgers

    2002-07-23

    A number of DOE facilities, such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), use alpha-particle environmental continuous air monitors (ECAMs) to monitor air for unwanted releases of radioactive aerosols containing such materials as plutonium and uranium. High sensitivity, ease of operation, and lack of false alarms are all important for ECAMs. The object of the project was to conduct investigations to improve operation of ECAMs, particularly under conditions where a lot of nonradioactive dust may be deposited on the filters (conditions of high dust loading). The presence of such dust may increase the frequency with which filters must be changed and can lead to an increased incidence of false alarms due to deteriorated energy resolution and response specificity to the radionuclides of interest. A major finding of the investigation, not previously documented, was that under many conditions thick layers of underlying nonradioactive dust do not decrease energy resolution and specificity for target radionuclides if the radioactive aerosol arrives as a sudden thin burst deposit, as commonly occurs in the early-warning alarm mode. As a result, operators of ECAMs may not need to change filters as often as previously thought and have data upon which to base more reliable operating procedures.

  16. Reaching new heights: the effect of an environmentally enhanced outdoor enclosure on gibbons in a zoo setting.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Megan R

    2014-01-01

    Gibbons have adapted to live in the canopy layer of the rainforest. Gibbons in the wild predominantly spend their time high in the trees resting, traveling, and foraging for food. Comparatively, gibbons in the zoo often rest and search for their food terrestrially. The purpose of this study was to provide these arboreal smaller apes with more opportunities to utilize more vertical space. Six gibbons (4 Nomascus leucogenys and 2 Symphalangus syndactylus) were observed in 2 phases of an observational study. The 1st phase measured space utilization and behaviors of the zoo-housed gibbons in their original outdoor enclosures using instantaneous sampling. The 2nd phase measured the same space usage and behaviors after several modifications were made to the environmental structures in the same outdoor enclosures. A 2-way mixed-model analysis of variance tested the height utilization of the 6 gibbons. The gibbons chose to spend significantly more time outside and at higher heights when the new structures were added. This study shows that given the opportunity, gibbons will exhibit more species-appropriate behaviors.

  17. Video Event Trigger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Glenn L.; Lichter, Michael J.

    1994-01-01

    Video event trigger (VET) processes video image data to generate trigger signal when image shows significant change like motion or appearance, disappearance, change in color, change in brightness, or dilation of object. System aids in efficient utilization of image-data-storage and image-data-processing equipment in applications in which many video frames show no changes and are wasteful to record and analyze all frames when only relatively few frames show changes of interest. Applications include video recording of automobile crash tests, automated video monitoring of entrances, exits, parking lots, and secure areas.

  18. Decision-making triggers in adaptive management.

    PubMed

    Nie, Martin A; Schultz, Courtney A

    2012-12-01

    We analyzed whether decision-making triggers increase accountability of adaptive-management plans. Triggers are prenegotiated commitments in an adaptive-management plan that specify what actions are to be taken and when on the basis of information obtained from monitoring. Triggers improve certainty that particular actions will be taken by agencies in the future. We conducted an in-depth, qualitative review of the political and legal contexts of adaptive management and its application by U.S. federal agencies. Agencies must satisfy the judiciary that adaptive-management plans meet substantive legal standards and comply with the U.S. National Environmental Policy Act. We examined 3 cases in which triggers were used in adaptive-management plans: salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the Columbia River, oil and gas development by the Bureau of Land Management, and a habitat conservation plan under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. In all the cases, key aspects of adaptive management, including controls and preidentified feedback loops, were not incorporated in the plans. Monitoring and triggered mitigation actions were limited in their enforceability, which was contingent on several factors, including which laws applied in each case and the degree of specificity in how triggers were written into plans. Other controversial aspects of these plans revolved around who designed, conducted, interpreted, and funded monitoring programs. Additional contentious issues were the level of precaution associated with trigger mechanisms and the definition of ecological baselines used as points of comparison. Despite these challenges, triggers can be used to increase accountability, by predefining points at which an adaptive management plan will be revisited and reevaluated, and thus improve the application of adaptive management in its complicated political and legal context. PMID:22891956

  19. Environmental Setting and Effects on Water Quality in the Great and Little Miami River Basins, Ohio and Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Debrewer, Linda M.; Rowe, Gary L.; Reutter, David C.; Moore, Rhett C.; Hambrook, Julie A.; Baker, Nancy T.

    2000-01-01

    The Great and Little Miami River Basins drain approximately 7,354 square miles in southwestern Ohio and southeastern Indiana and are included in the more than 50 major river basins and aquifer systems selected for water-quality assessment as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Principal streams include the Great and Little Miami Rivers in Ohio and the Whitewater River in Indiana. The Great and Little Miami River Basins are almost entirely within the Till Plains section of the Central Lowland physiographic province and have a humid continental climate, characterized by well-defined summer and winter seasons. With the exception of a few areas near the Ohio River, Pleistocene glacial deposits, which are predominantly till, overlie lower Paleozoic limestone, dolomite, and shale bedrock. The principal aquifer is a complex buried-valley system of sand and gravel aquifers capable of supporting sustained well yields exceeding 1,000 gallons per min-ute. Designated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as a sole-source aquifer, the Buried-Valley Aquifer System is the principal source of drinking water for 1.6 million people in the basins and is the dominant source of water for southwestern Ohio. Water use in the Great and Little Miami River Basins averaged 745 million gallons per day in 1995. Of this amount, 48 percent was supplied by surface water (including the Ohio River) and 52 percent was supplied by ground water. Land-use and waste-management practices influence the quality of water found in streams and aquifers in the Great and Little Miami River Basins. Land use is approximately 79 percent agriculture, 13 percent urban (residential, industrial, and commercial), and 7 percent forest. An estimated 2.8 million people live in the Great and Little Miami River Basins; major urban areas include Cincinnati and Dayton, Ohio. Fertilizers and pesticides associated with agricultural activity, discharges from municipal and

  20. Personal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in workplace and away from work settings: A 16 city case study

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.A.; Palausky, M.A.; Counts, R.W.; Guerin, M.R.; Dindal, A.B.; Bayne, C.K.

    1995-08-01

    A large study of personal exposure of non-smokers to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been conducted in 16 cities in the United States. Individual participants wear two personal sampling pumps, one each at work and away-from-work. Samples of breathing zone air are collected, and subsequently analyzed for both particle phase and gas phase markers of ETS, including respirable suspended particulate matter (RSP), UV-absorbing and fluorescing particulate matter, solanesol, nicotine, 3-ethenyl pyridine, and myosmine. In addition, prior- and post-exposure saliva samples are collected, in order that smoking status may be determined using salivary cotinine. Participants are segregated into a 2{times}2 factorial study design: smoking and non-smoking homes and workplaces. A comparison of the demographic distribution of the sample population with that of the United States indicates that the sample population is more female and of higher socioeconomic status. The data indicates that median 8-hour or 16-hour exposure levels are considerably lower than those which would be extrapolated from short duration area measurements. Median exposure levels of nicotine, 3-ethenyl pyridine, and RSP were 0.034, 0.029, and 23 {mu}g/m{sup 3} respectively in non-smoking workplaces, vs. 0.21, 0.16, and 23 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in workplaces where smoking was observed. Median 16-hour exposure levels for these same components away from work where subjects observed tobacco products in use were 0.36, 0.25, and 23 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, compared with 0.024, 0.019, and 15 {mu}g/m{sup 3} when no tobacco products were observed.

  1. A concept of integrated environmental approach for building upgrades and new construction: Part 1—setting the stage

    SciTech Connect

    Bomberg, Mark; Gibson, Michael; Zhang, Jian

    2015-01-31

    This article highlights the need for an active role for building physics in the development of near-zero energy buildings while analyzing an example of an integrated system for the upgrade of existing buildings. The science called either Building Physics in Europe or Building Science in North America has so far a passive role in explaining observed failures in construction practice. In its new role, it would be integrating modeling and testing to provide predictive capability, so much needed in the development of near-zero energy buildings. The authors attempt to create a compact package, applicable to different climates with small modifications of some hygrothermal properties of materials. This universal solution is based on a systems approach that is routine for building physics but in contrast to separately conceived sub-systems that are typical for the design of buildings today. One knows that the building structure, energy efficiency, indoor environmental quality, and moisture management all need to be considered to ensure durability of materials and control cost of near-zero energy buildings. These factors must be addressed through contributions of the whole design team. The same approach must be used for the retrofit of buildings. As this integrated design paradigm resulted from demands of sustainable built environment approach, building physics must drop its passive role and improve two critical domains of analysis: (i) linked, real-time hygrothermal and energy models capable of predicting the performance of existing buildings after renovation and (ii) basic methods of indoor environment and moisture management when the exterior of the building cannot be modified.

  2. The Two Sets of DMSO Respiratory Systems of Shewanella piezotolerans WP3 Are Involved in Deep Sea Environmental Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Lei; Jian, Huahua; Zhang, Yuxia; Xiao, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is an abundant methylated sulfur compound in deep sea ecosystems. However, the mechanism underlying DMSO-induced reduction in benthic microorganisms is unknown. Shewanella piezotolerans WP3, which was isolated from a west Pacific deep sea sediment, can utilize DMSO as the terminal electron acceptor. In this study, two putative dms gene clusters [type I (dmsEFA1B1G1H1) and type II (dmsA2B2G2H2)] were identified in the WP3 genome. Genetic and physiological analyses demonstrated that both dms gene clusters were functional and the transcription of both gene clusters was affected by changes in pressure and temperature. Notably, the type I system is essential for WP3 to thrive under in situ conditions (4°C/20 MPa), whereas the type II system is more important under high pressure or low temperature conditions (20°C/20 MPa, 4°C/0.1 MPa). Additionally, DMSO-dependent growth conferred by the presence of both dms gene clusters was higher than growth conferred by either of the dms gene clusters alone. These data collectively suggest that the possession of two sets of DMSO respiratory systems is an adaptive strategy for WP3 survival in deep sea environments. We propose, for the first time, that deep sea microorganisms might be involved in global DMSO/DMS cycling. PMID:27656177

  3. The Two Sets of DMSO Respiratory Systems of Shewanella piezotolerans WP3 Are Involved in Deep Sea Environmental Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Lei; Jian, Huahua; Zhang, Yuxia; Xiao, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is an abundant methylated sulfur compound in deep sea ecosystems. However, the mechanism underlying DMSO-induced reduction in benthic microorganisms is unknown. Shewanella piezotolerans WP3, which was isolated from a west Pacific deep sea sediment, can utilize DMSO as the terminal electron acceptor. In this study, two putative dms gene clusters [type I (dmsEFA1B1G1H1) and type II (dmsA2B2G2H2)] were identified in the WP3 genome. Genetic and physiological analyses demonstrated that both dms gene clusters were functional and the transcription of both gene clusters was affected by changes in pressure and temperature. Notably, the type I system is essential for WP3 to thrive under in situ conditions (4°C/20 MPa), whereas the type II system is more important under high pressure or low temperature conditions (20°C/20 MPa, 4°C/0.1 MPa). Additionally, DMSO-dependent growth conferred by the presence of both dms gene clusters was higher than growth conferred by either of the dms gene clusters alone. These data collectively suggest that the possession of two sets of DMSO respiratory systems is an adaptive strategy for WP3 survival in deep sea environments. We propose, for the first time, that deep sea microorganisms might be involved in global DMSO/DMS cycling.

  4. The Two Sets of DMSO Respiratory Systems of Shewanella piezotolerans WP3 Are Involved in Deep Sea Environmental Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Lei; Jian, Huahua; Zhang, Yuxia; Xiao, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is an abundant methylated sulfur compound in deep sea ecosystems. However, the mechanism underlying DMSO-induced reduction in benthic microorganisms is unknown. Shewanella piezotolerans WP3, which was isolated from a west Pacific deep sea sediment, can utilize DMSO as the terminal electron acceptor. In this study, two putative dms gene clusters [type I (dmsEFA1B1G1H1) and type II (dmsA2B2G2H2)] were identified in the WP3 genome. Genetic and physiological analyses demonstrated that both dms gene clusters were functional and the transcription of both gene clusters was affected by changes in pressure and temperature. Notably, the type I system is essential for WP3 to thrive under in situ conditions (4°C/20 MPa), whereas the type II system is more important under high pressure or low temperature conditions (20°C/20 MPa, 4°C/0.1 MPa). Additionally, DMSO-dependent growth conferred by the presence of both dms gene clusters was higher than growth conferred by either of the dms gene clusters alone. These data collectively suggest that the possession of two sets of DMSO respiratory systems is an adaptive strategy for WP3 survival in deep sea environments. We propose, for the first time, that deep sea microorganisms might be involved in global DMSO/DMS cycling. PMID:27656177

  5. Triggered plasma opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, Clifford W.

    1988-01-01

    A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductors and a magnetic field for breaking the plasma conduction path and magnetically insulating the electrons when it is desired to open the switch.

  6. Disambiguating Syntactic Triggers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakas, William Gregory; Fodor, Janet Dean

    2012-01-01

    We present data from an artificial language domain that suggest new contributions to the theory of syntactic triggers. Whether a learning algorithm is capable of matching the achievements of child learners depends in part on how much parametric ambiguity there is in the input. For practical reasons this cannot be established for the domain of all…

  7. Triggered plasma opening switch

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, C W

    1988-02-23

    A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductors and a magnetic field for breaking the plasma conduction path and magnetically insulating the electrons when it is desired to open the switch.

  8. Water-quality assessment of the Central Arizona Basins, Arizona and northern Mexico; environmental setting and overview of water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cordy, Gail E.; Rees, Julie A.; Edmonds, Robert J.; Gebler, Joseph B.; Wirt, Laurie; Gellenbeck, Dorinda J.; Anning, David W.

    1998-01-01

    The Central Arizona Basins study area in central and southern Arizona and northern Mexico is one of 60 study units that are part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program. The purpose of this report is to describe the physical, chemical, and environmental characteristics that may affect water quality in the Central Arizona Basins study area and present an overview of water quality. Covering 34,700 square miles, the study area is characterized by generally north to northwestward-trending mountain ranges separated by broad, gently sloping alluvial valleys. Most of the perennial rivers and streams are in the northern part of the study area. Rivers and streams in the south are predominantly intermittent or ephemeral and flow in response to precipitation such as summer thunderstorms. Effluent-dependent streams do provide perennial flow in some reaches. The major aquifers in the study area are in the basin-fill deposits that may be as much as 12,000 feet thick. The 1990 population in the study area was about 3.45 million, and about 61 percent of the total was in Maricopa County (Phoenix and surrounding cities). Extensive population growth over the past decade has resulted in a twofold increase in urban land areas and increased municipal water use; however, agriculture remains the major water use. Seventy-three percent of all water with drawn in the study area during 1990 was used for agricultural purposes. The largest rivers in the study area-the Gila, Salt, and Verde-are perennial near their headwaters but become intermittent downstream because of impoundments and artificial diversions. As a result, the Central Arizona Basins study area is unique compared to less arid basins because the mean surface-water outflow is only 528 cubic feet per second from a total drainage area of 49,650 square miles. Peak flows in the northern part of the study area are the result of snowmelt runoff; whereas, summer thunderstorms account for the peak flows in

  9. Method for modifying trigger level for adsorber regeneration

    DOEpatents

    Ruth, Michael J.; Cunningham, Michael J.

    2010-05-25

    A method for modifying a NO.sub.x adsorber regeneration triggering variable. Engine operating conditions are monitored until the regeneration triggering variable is met. The adsorber is regenerated and the adsorbtion efficiency of the adsorber is subsequently determined. The regeneration triggering variable is modified to correspond with the decline in adsorber efficiency. The adsorber efficiency may be determined using an empirically predetermined set of values or by using a pair of oxygen sensors to determine the oxygen response delay across the sensors.

  10. Environmental Setting and the Effects of Natural and Human-Related Factors on Water Quality and Aquatic Biota, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oki, Delwyn S.; Brasher, Anne M.D.

    2003-01-01

    The island of Oahu is the third largest island of the State of Hawaii, and is formed by the eroded remnants of the Waianae and Koolau shield volcanoes. The landscape of Oahu ranges from a broad coastal plain to steep interior mountains. Rainfall is greatest in the mountainous interior parts of the island, and lowest near the southwestern coastal areas. The structure and form of the two volcanoes in conjunction with processes that have modified the original surfaces of the volcanoes control the hydrologic setting. The rift zones of the volcanoes contain dikes that tend to impede the flow of ground water, leading to high ground-water levels in the dike-impounded ground-water system. In the windward (northeastern) part of the island, dike-impounded ground-water levels may reach the land surface in stream valleys, resulting in ground-water discharge to streams. Where dikes are not present, the volcanic rocks are highly permeable, and a lens of freshwater overlies a brackish-water transition zone separating the freshwater from saltwater. Ground water discharges to coastal springs and streams where the water table in the freshwater-lens system intersects the land surface. The Waianae and Koolau Ranges have been deeply dissected by numerous streams. Streams originate in the mountainous interior areas and terminate at the coast. Some streams flow perennially throughout their entire course, others flow perennially over parts of their course, and the remaining streams flow during only parts of the year throughout their entire course. Hawaiian streams have relatively few native species compared to continental streams. Widespread diverse orders of insects are absent from the native biota, and there are only five native fish, two native shrimp, and a few native snails. The native fish and crustaceans of Hawaii's freshwater systems are all amphidromous (adult lives are spent in streams, and larval periods as marine or estuarine zooplankton). During the 20th century, land

  11. Environmental setting and factors that affect water quality in the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berndt, M.P.; Oaksford, E.T.; Darst, M.R.; Marella, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    , geologic setting, ground-water systems, surface- water systems, climate, floods, droughts, population, land use, and water use. Factors affecting water quality in the study area are land use (primarily urban and agricultural land uses), water use in coastal areas, hydrogeology, ground-water/surface-water interaction, geology, and climate. Surface-water quality problems in urban areas have occurred in the Ogeechee, Canoochee, Ocmulgee, St. Marys, Alapaha, Withlacoochee (north), Santa Fe, Ochlockonee, St. Johns, and Oklawaha Rivers and include nitrogen and phosphorus loading, low dissolved oxygen, elevated bacteria, sediment, and turbidity, and increased concentrations of metals. In agricultural areas, surface-water quality problems include elevated nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations, erosion, and sedimentation and have occurred in the Ocmulgee, St. Marys, Santa Fe, Ochlockonee, St. Johns, Oklawaha, Withlacoochee (South), Hillsborough, and Alafia Rivers. Ground water-quality problems such as saltwater intrusion have occurred mostly in coastal areas and were caused by excessive withdrawals.

  12. Optically triggered infrared photodetector.

    PubMed

    Ramiro, Íñigo; Martí, Antonio; Antolín, Elisa; López, Esther; Datas, Alejandro; Luque, Antonio; Ripalda, José M; González, Yolanda

    2015-01-14

    We demonstrate a new class of semiconductor device: the optically triggered infrared photodetector (OTIP). This photodetector is based on a new physical principle that allows the detection of infrared light to be switched ON and OFF by means of an external light. Our experimental device, fabricated using InAs/AlGaAs quantum-dot technology, demonstrates normal incidence infrared detection in the 2-6 μm range. The detection is optically triggered by a 590 nm light-emitting diode. Furthermore, the detection gain is achieved in our device without an increase of the noise level. The novel characteristics of OTIPs open up new possibilities for third generation infrared imaging systems ( Rogalski, A.; Antoszewski, J.; Faraone, L. J. Appl. Phys. 2009, 105 (9), 091101). PMID:25490236

  13. Optically triggered infrared photodetector.

    PubMed

    Ramiro, Íñigo; Martí, Antonio; Antolín, Elisa; López, Esther; Datas, Alejandro; Luque, Antonio; Ripalda, José M; González, Yolanda

    2015-01-14

    We demonstrate a new class of semiconductor device: the optically triggered infrared photodetector (OTIP). This photodetector is based on a new physical principle that allows the detection of infrared light to be switched ON and OFF by means of an external light. Our experimental device, fabricated using InAs/AlGaAs quantum-dot technology, demonstrates normal incidence infrared detection in the 2-6 μm range. The detection is optically triggered by a 590 nm light-emitting diode. Furthermore, the detection gain is achieved in our device without an increase of the noise level. The novel characteristics of OTIPs open up new possibilities for third generation infrared imaging systems ( Rogalski, A.; Antoszewski, J.; Faraone, L. J. Appl. Phys. 2009, 105 (9), 091101).

  14. Neural networks for triggering

    SciTech Connect

    Denby, B. ); Campbell, M. ); Bedeschi, F. ); Chriss, N.; Bowers, C. ); Nesti, F. )

    1990-01-01

    Two types of neural network beauty trigger architectures, based on identification of electrons in jets and recognition of secondary vertices, have been simulated in the environment of the Fermilab CDF experiment. The efficiencies for B's and rejection of background obtained are encouraging. If hardware tests are successful, the electron identification architecture will be tested in the 1991 run of CDF. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Earthquake Simulator Finds Tremor Triggers

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Paul

    2015-03-27

    Using a novel device that simulates earthquakes in a laboratory setting, a Los Alamos researcher has found that seismic waves-the sounds radiated from earthquakes-can induce earthquake aftershocks, often long after a quake has subsided. The research provides insight into how earthquakes may be triggered and how they recur. Los Alamos researcher Paul Johnson and colleague Chris Marone at Penn State have discovered how wave energy can be stored in certain types of granular materials-like the type found along certain fault lines across the globe-and how this stored energy can suddenly be released as an earthquake when hit by relatively small seismic waves far beyond the traditional “aftershock zone” of a main quake. Perhaps most surprising, researchers have found that the release of energy can occur minutes, hours, or even days after the sound waves pass; the cause of the delay remains a tantalizing mystery.

  16. Dopamine triggers heterosynaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Masago; Otaka, Mami; Huang, Yanhua H; Neumann, Peter A; Winters, Bradley D; Grace, Anthony A; Schlüter, Oliver M; Dong, Yan

    2013-04-17

    As a classic neuromodulator, dopamine has long been thought to modulate, rather than trigger, synaptic plasticity. In contrast, our present results demonstrate that within the parallel projections of dopaminergic and GABAergic terminals from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens core (NAcCo), action-potential-activated release of dopamine heterosynaptically triggers LTD at GABAergic synapses, which is likely mediated by activating presynaptically located dopamine D1 class receptors and expressed by inhibiting presynaptic release of GABA. Moreover, this dopamine-mediated heterosynaptic LTD is abolished after withdrawal from cocaine exposure. These results suggest that action-potential-dependent dopamine release triggers very different cellular consequences from those induced by volume release or pharmacological manipulation. Activation of the ventral tegmental area to NAcCo projections is essential for emotional and motivational responses. This dopamine-mediated LTD allows a flexible output of NAcCo neurons, whereas disruption of this LTD may contribute to the rigid emotional and motivational state observed in addicts during cocaine withdrawal.

  17. Isolating Triggered Star Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, Elizabeth J.; Arnold, Jacob A.; Zentner, Andrew R.; Bullock, James S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2007-09-12

    Galaxy pairs provide a potentially powerful means of studying triggered star formation from galaxy interactions. We use a large cosmological N-body simulation coupled with a well-tested semi-analytic substructure model to demonstrate that the majority of galaxies in close pairs reside within cluster or group-size halos and therefore represent a biased population, poorly suited for direct comparison to 'field' galaxies. Thus, the frequent observation that some types of galaxies in pairs have redder colors than 'field' galaxies is primarily a selection effect. We use our simulations to devise a means to select galaxy pairs that are isolated in their dark matter halos with respect to other massive subhalos (N= 2 halos) and to select a control sample of isolated galaxies (N= 1 halos) for comparison. We then apply these selection criteria to a volume-limited subset of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey with M{sub B,j} {le} -19 and obtain the first clean measure of the typical fraction of galaxies affected by triggered star formation and the average elevation in the star formation rate. We find that 24% (30.5 %) of these L* and sub-L* galaxies in isolated 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc pairs exhibit star formation that is boosted by a factor of {approx}> 5 above their average past value, while only 10% of isolated galaxies in the control sample show this level of enhancement. Thus, 14% (20 %) of the galaxies in these close pairs show clear triggered star formation. Our orbit models suggest that 12% (16%) of 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc close pairs that are isolated according to our definition have had a close ({le} 30 h{sup -1} kpc) pass within the last Gyr. Thus, the data are broadly consistent with a scenario in which most or all close passes of isolated pairs result in triggered star formation. The isolation criteria we develop provide a means to constrain star formation and feedback prescriptions in hydrodynamic simulations and a very general method of understanding the importance of

  18. Environmental Monitoring and Analysis of Faecal Contamination in an Urban Setting in the City of Bari (Apulia Region, Italy): Health and Hygiene Implications

    PubMed Central

    Tarsitano, Elvira; Greco, Grazia; Decaro, Nicola; Nicassio, Francesco; Lucente, Maria Stella; Buonavoglia, Canio; Tempesta, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have been conducted in Italy to quantify the potential risk associated with dynamics and distribution of pathogens in urban settings. The aim of this study was to acquire data on the environmental faecal contamination in urban ecosystems, by assessing the presence of pathogens in public areas in the city of Bari (Apulia region, Italy). To determine the degree of environmental contamination, samples of dog faeces and bird guano were collected from different areas in the city of Bari (park green areas, playgrounds, public housing areas, parkways, and a school). A total of 152 canine faecal samples, in 54 pools, and two samples of pigeon guano from 66 monitored sites were examined. No samples were found in 12 areas spread over nine sites. Chlamydophila psittaci was detected in seven canine and two pigeon guano samples. Salmonella species were not found. On the other hand, four of 54 canine faecal samples were positive for reovirus. Thirteen canine faecal samples were positive for parasite eggs: 8/54 samples contained Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina eggs and 5/54 samples contained Ancylostoma caninum eggs. Our study showed that public areas are often contaminated by potentially zoonotic pathogens. PMID:21139871

  19. Environmental monitoring and analysis of faecal contamination in an urban setting in the city of Bari (Apulia region, Italy): health and hygiene implications.

    PubMed

    Tarsitano, Elvira; Greco, Grazia; Decaro, Nicola; Nicassio, Francesco; Lucente, Maria Stella; Buonavoglia, Canio; Tempesta, Maria

    2010-11-01

    Few studies have been conducted in Italy to quantify the potential risk associated with dynamics and distribution of pathogens in urban settings. The aim of this study was to acquire data on the environmental faecal contamination in urban ecosystems, by assessing the presence of pathogens in public areas in the city of Bari (Apulia region, Italy). To determine the degree of environmental contamination, samples of dog faeces and bird guano were collected from different areas in the city of Bari (park green areas, playgrounds, public housing areas, parkways, and a school). A total of 152 canine faecal samples, in 54 pools, and two samples of pigeon guano from 66 monitored sites were examined. No samples were found in 12 areas spread over nine sites. Chlamydophila psittaci was detected in seven canine and two pigeon guano samples. Salmonella species were not found. On the other hand, four of 54 canine faecal samples were positive for reovirus. Thirteen canine faecal samples were positive for parasite eggs: 8/54 samples contained Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina eggs and 5/54 samples contained Ancylostoma caninum eggs. Our study showed that public areas are often contaminated by potentially zoonotic pathogens. PMID:21139871

  20. A comparison of two 16S rRNA gene-based PCR primer sets in unraveling anammox bacteria from different environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Han, Ping; Huang, Yu-Tzu; Lin, Jih-Gaw; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2013-12-01

    Two 16S rRNA gene-based PCR primer sets (Brod541F/Amx820R and A438f/A684r) for detecting anammox bacteria were compared using sediments from Mai Po wetlands (MP), the South China Sea (SCS), a freshwater reservoir (R2), and sludge granules from a wastewater treatment plant (A2). By comparing their ability in profiling anammox bacteria, the recovered diversity, community structure, and abundance of anammox bacteria among all these diverse samples indicated that A438f/A684r performed better than Brod541F/Amx820R in retrieving anammox bacteria from these different environmental samples. Five Scalindua subclusters (zhenghei-I, SCS-I, SCS-III, arabica, and brodae) dominated in SCS whereas two Scalindua subclusters (zhenghei-II and wagneri) and one cluster of Kuenenia dominated in MP. R2 showed a higher diversity of anammox bacteria with two new retrieved clusters (R2-New-1 and R2-New-2), which deserves further detailed study. The dominance of Brocadia in sample A2 was supported by both of the primer sets used. Results collectively indicate strongly niche-specific community structures of anammox bacteria in different environments, and A438f/A684r is highly recommended for screening anammox bacteria from various environments when dealing with a collection of samples with diverse physiochemical characteristics.

  1. Association of environmental traits with the geographic ranges of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) of medical and veterinary importance in the western Palearctic. A digital data set.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Peña, A; Farkas, Robert; Jaenson, Thomas G T; Koenen, Frank; Madder, Maxime; Pascucci, Ilaria; Salman, Mo; Tarrés-Call, Jordi; Jongejan, Frans

    2013-03-01

    We compiled information on the distribution of ticks in the western Palearctic (11°W, 45°E; 29°N, 71°N), published during 1970-2010. The literature search was filtered by the tick's species name and an unambiguous reference to the point of capture. Records from some curated collections were included. We focused on tick species of importance to human and animal health, in particular: Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor marginatus, D. reticulatus, Haemaphysalis punctata, H. sulcata, Hyalomma marginatum, Hy. lusitanicum, Rhipicephalus annulatus, R. bursa, and the R. sanguineus group. A few records of other species (I. canisuga, I. hexagonus, Hy. impeltatum, Hy. anatolicum, Hy. excavatum, Hy. scupense) were also included. A total of 10,280 records was included in the data set. Almost 42 % of published references are not adequately referenced (and not included in the data set), host is reported for only 61 % of records and a reference to time of collection is missed for 84 % of published records. Ixodes ricinus accounted for 44.3 % of total records, with H. marginatum and D. marginatus accounting for 7.1 and 8.1 % of records, respectively. The lack of homogeneity of the references and potential pitfalls in the compilation were addressed to create a digital data set of the records of the ticks. We attached to every record a coherent set of quantitative descriptors for the site of reporting, namely gridded interpolated monthly climate and remotely sensed data on vegetation (NDVI). We also attached categorical descriptors of the habitat: a standard classification of land biomes and an ad hoc classification of the target territory from remotely sensed temperature and NDVI data. A descriptive analysis of the data revealed that a principal components reduction of the environmental (temperature and NDVI) variables described the distribution of the species in the target territory. However, categorical descriptors of the habitat were less effective. We stressed the importance of

  2. Triggering filamentation using turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eeltink, D.; Berti, N.; Marchiando, N.; Hermelin, S.; Gateau, J.; Brunetti, M.; Wolf, J. P.; Kasparian, J.

    2016-09-01

    We study the triggering of single filaments due to turbulence in the beam path for a laser of power below the filamenting threshold. Turbulence can act as a switch between the beam not filamenting and producing single filaments. This positive effect of turbulence on the filament probability, combined with our observation of off-axis filaments, suggests the underlying mechanism is modulation instability caused by transverse perturbations. We hereby experimentally explore the interaction of modulation instability and turbulence, commonly associated with multiple filaments, in the single-filament regime.

  3. Subnanosecond trigger system for ETA

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, E.G.; Lauer, E.J.; Reginato, L.L.; Rogers D.; Schmidt, J.A.

    1980-05-30

    A high-voltage trigger system capable of triggering 30, 250 kV spark gaps; each with less than +- 1 ns jitter has been constructed. In addition to low jitter rates, the trigger system must be capable of delivering the high voltage pulses to the spark gaps either simultaneously or sequentially as determined by other system requirements. The trigger system consists of several stages of pulse amplification culminating in 160 kV pulses having 30 ns risetime. The trigger system is described and test data provided.

  4. Trigger point therapy.

    PubMed

    Janssens, L A

    1992-03-01

    Trigger points (TP) are objectively demonstrable foci in muscles. They are painful on compression and trigger pain in a referred area. This area may be the only locus of complaint in humans. In dogs we cannot prove the existence of referred zones of pain. Therefore, we can only diagnose a TP-induced claudication if we cannot find bone, joint, or neurologic abnormalities, and we do find TP that disappear after treatment together with the original lameness. Several methods have been developed to demonstrate TP existence objectively. These are pressure algometry, pressure threshold measurements, magnetic resonance thermography, and histology. In humans, 71% of the TP described are acupuncture points. TP treatment consists of TP stimulation with non-invasive or invasive methods such as dry needling or injections. In the dog, ten TP are described in two categories of clinical patients. First, those with one or few TP reacting favorably on treatment (+/- 80% success in +/- 2-3 weeks). Second, those with many TPs reacting badly on treatment. Most probably the latter group are fibromyalgia patients.

  5. Response of fish communities to cropland density and natural environmental setting in the Eastern Highland Rim Ecoregion of the lower Tennessee River basin, Alabama and Tennessee, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Jeffrey R.

    2003-01-01

    Response of fish communities to cropland density and natural environmental setting were evaluated at 20 streams in the Eastern Highland Rim Ecoregion of the lower Tennessee River Basin during the spring of 1999. Sites were selected to represent a gradient of cropland densities in basins draining about 30 to 100 square miles. Fish communities were sampled by using a combination of seining and electrofishing techniques. A total of 10,550 individual fish, representing 63 species and 15 families, were collected during the study and included the families Cyprinidae (minnows), 18 species; Percidae (perch and darters), 12 species; and Centrarchidae (sunfish), 12 species. Assessments of environmental characteristics, including instream and terrestrial data and land-cover data, were conducted for each site. Instream measurements, such as depth, velocity, substrate type, and embeddedness, were recorded at 3 points across 11 equidistant transects at each site. Terrestrial measurements, such as bank angle, canopy angle, and canopy closure percentage, were made along the stream bank and midchannel areas. Water-quality data collected included pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductivity, water temperature, nutrients, and fecal-indicator bacteria. Substrate embeddedness was the only variable correlated with both cropland density and fish communities (as characterized by ordination scores and several community level metrics). Multivariate and nonparametric correlation techniques were used to evaluate fish-community responses to physical and chemical factors associated with a cropland-density gradient, where the gradient was defined as the percentage of the basin in row crops. Principal component analysis and correspondence analysis suggest that the Eastern Highland Rim Ecoregion is composed of three subgroups of sites based on inherent physical and biological differences. Data for the subgroup containing the largest number of sites were then re-analyzed, revealing that several

  6. Relations of Water Quality to Agricultural Chemical Use and Environmental Setting at Various Scales - Results from Selected Studies of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began studies of 51 major river basins and aquifers across the United States as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program to provide scientifically sound information for managing the Nation's water resources. The major goals of the NAWQA Program are to assess the status and long-term trends of the Nation's surface- and ground-water quality and to understand the natural and human factors that affect it (Gilliom and others, 1995). In 2001, the NAWQA Program began a second decade of intensive water-quality assessments. The 42 study units for this second decade were selected to represent a wide range of important hydrologic environments and potential contaminant sources. These NAWQA studies continue to address the goals of the first decade of the assessments to determine how water-quality conditions are changing over time. In addition to local- and regional-scale studies, NAWQA began to analyze and synthesize water-quality status and trends at the principal aquifer and major river-basin scales. This fact sheet summarizes results from four NAWQA studies that relate water quality to agricultural chemical use and environmental setting at these various scales: * Comparison of ground-water quality in northern and southern High Plains agricultural settings (principal aquifer scale); * Distribution patterns of pesticides and degradates in rain (local scale); * Occurrence of pesticides in shallow ground water underlying four agricultural areas (local and regional scales); and * Trends in nutrients and sediment over time in the Missouri River and its tributaries (major river-basin scale).

  7. Latent myofascial trigger points.

    PubMed

    Ge, Hong-You; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2011-10-01

    A latent myofascial trigger point (MTP) is defined as a focus of hyperirritability in a muscle taut band that is clinically associated with local twitch response and tenderness and/or referred pain upon manual examination. Current evidence suggests that the temporal profile of the spontaneous electrical activity at an MTP is similar to focal muscle fiber contraction and/or muscle cramp potentials, which contribute significantly to the induction of local tenderness and pain and motor dysfunctions. This review highlights the potential mechanisms underlying the sensory-motor dysfunctions associated with latent MTPs and discusses the contribution of central sensitization associated with latent MTPs and the MTP network to the spatial propagation of pain and motor dysfunctions. Treating latent MTPs in patients with musculoskeletal pain may not only decrease pain sensitivity and improve motor functions, but also prevent latent MTPs from transforming into active MTPs, and hence, prevent the development of myofascial pain syndrome.

  8. Gravity triggered neutrino condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Barenboim, Gabriela

    2010-11-01

    In this work we use the Schwinger-Dyson equations to study the possibility that an enhanced gravitational attraction triggers the formation of a right-handed neutrino condensate, inducing dynamical symmetry breaking and generating a Majorana mass for the right-handed neutrino at a scale appropriate for the seesaw mechanism. The composite field formed by the condensate phase could drive an early epoch of inflation. We find that to the lowest order, the theory does not allow dynamical symmetry breaking. Nevertheless, thanks to the large number of matter fields in the model, the suppression by additional powers in G of higher order terms can be compensated, boosting them up to their lowest order counterparts. This way chiral symmetry can be broken dynamically and the infrared mass generated turns out to be in the expected range for a successful seesaw scenario.

  9. Early anther ablation triggers parthenocarpic fruit development in tomato.

    PubMed

    Medina, Mónica; Roque, Edelín; Pineda, Benito; Cañas, Luis; Rodriguez-Concepción, Manuel; Beltrán, José Pío; Gómez-Mena, Concepción

    2013-08-01

    Fruit set and fruit development in tomato is largely affected by changes in environmental conditions, therefore autonomous fruit set independent of fertilization is a highly desirable trait in tomato. Here, we report the production and characterization of male-sterile transgenic plants that produce parthenocarpic fruits in two tomato cultivars (Micro-Tom and Moneymaker). We generated male-sterility using the cytotoxic gene barnase targeted to the anthers with the PsEND1 anther-specific promoter. The ovaries of these plants grew in the absence of fertilization producing seedless, parthenocarpic fruits. Early anther ablation is essential to trigger the developing of the transgenic ovaries into fruits, in the absence of the signals usually generated during pollination and fertilization. Ovaries are fully functional and can be manually pollinated to obtain seeds. The transgenic plants obtained in the commercial cultivar Moneymaker show that the parthenocarpic development of the fruit does not have negative consequences in fruit quality. Throughout metabolomic analyses of the tomato fruits, we have identified two elite lines which showed increased levels of several health promoting metabolites and volatile compounds. Thus, early anther ablation can be considered a useful tool to promote fruit set and to obtain seedless and good quality fruits in tomato plants. These plants are also useful parental lines to be used in hybrid breeding approaches. PMID:23581527

  10. Early anther ablation triggers parthenocarpic fruit development in tomato.

    PubMed

    Medina, Mónica; Roque, Edelín; Pineda, Benito; Cañas, Luis; Rodriguez-Concepción, Manuel; Beltrán, José Pío; Gómez-Mena, Concepción

    2013-08-01

    Fruit set and fruit development in tomato is largely affected by changes in environmental conditions, therefore autonomous fruit set independent of fertilization is a highly desirable trait in tomato. Here, we report the production and characterization of male-sterile transgenic plants that produce parthenocarpic fruits in two tomato cultivars (Micro-Tom and Moneymaker). We generated male-sterility using the cytotoxic gene barnase targeted to the anthers with the PsEND1 anther-specific promoter. The ovaries of these plants grew in the absence of fertilization producing seedless, parthenocarpic fruits. Early anther ablation is essential to trigger the developing of the transgenic ovaries into fruits, in the absence of the signals usually generated during pollination and fertilization. Ovaries are fully functional and can be manually pollinated to obtain seeds. The transgenic plants obtained in the commercial cultivar Moneymaker show that the parthenocarpic development of the fruit does not have negative consequences in fruit quality. Throughout metabolomic analyses of the tomato fruits, we have identified two elite lines which showed increased levels of several health promoting metabolites and volatile compounds. Thus, early anther ablation can be considered a useful tool to promote fruit set and to obtain seedless and good quality fruits in tomato plants. These plants are also useful parental lines to be used in hybrid breeding approaches.

  11. Mirror-image trigger thumb in dichorionic identical twins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Eric D; Xu, Xiaoti; Dagum, Alexander B

    2012-06-01

    The congenital vs acquired etiology of pediatric trigger thumb is the subject of considerable debate. Existing case reports of bilateral presentation in identical twins and first-degree familial association support the congenital hypothesis. However, prospective studies have yet to report a neonate presenting with this anomaly at birth. This article describes the first known set of dichorionic, monozygotic identical twins with unilateral trigger thumbs, affecting contralateral (mirror-image) hands and with asynchronous age at presentation (11 months and 18 months, respectively).Pediatric trigger thumb is caused by a mismatch between the flexor pollicis longus tendon and its A1 synovial pulley. Four sets of twins have been previously reported in the literature with trigger thumb. Of these, 3 sets were monozygotic twins who had bilaterally affected thumbs. Together with the absence of trauma, a congenital etiology was suggested. The fact that pediatric trigger thumb is generally seen several months after birth was felt to be due to infants holding their thumbs clutched in their palms until 6 months. However, no confirmed cases of trigger thumb have been diagnosed at birth in several large prospective studies of newborns.In the current case, the asynchronous presentation of unilateral trigger thumbs in identical twins does not support a solely congenital cause. Furthermore, the mirror-image presentation contradicts current embryological understanding of the temporal course of twinning and the determination of laterality. Thus, a multifactorial etiology is supported with both a genetic and acquired component affecting the development of this condition. PMID:22691680

  12. The CMS high level trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gori, Valentina

    2014-05-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system: the Level 1 Trigger, implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a tradeoff between the complexity of the algorithms running on the available computing power, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. Here we will present the performance of the main triggers used during the 2012 data taking, ranging from simpler single-object selections to more complex algorithms combining different objects, and applying analysis-level reconstruction and selection. We will discuss the optimisation of the triggers and the specific techniques to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up, reducing its impact on the physics performance.

  13. The CMS High Level Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trocino, Daniele

    2014-06-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger, implemented in custom-designed electronics, and the High-Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a tradeoff between the complexity of the algorithms running with the available computing power, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. We present the performance of the main triggers used during the 2012 data taking, ranging from simple single-object selections to more complex algorithms combining different objects, and applying analysis-level reconstruction and selection. We discuss the optimisation of the trigger and the specific techniques to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up, reducing its impact on the physics performance.

  14. Protein environmental effects on iron-sulfur clusters: A set of rules for constructing computational models for inner and outer coordination spheres.

    PubMed

    Harris, Travis V; Szilagyi, Robert K

    2016-07-01

    The structural properties and reactivity of iron-sulfur proteins are greatly affected by interactions between the prosthetic groups and the surrounding amino acid residues. Thus, quantum chemical investigations of the structure and properties of protein-bound iron-sulfur clusters can be severely limited by truncation of computational models. The aim of this study was to identify, a priori, significant interactions that must be included in a quantum chemical model. Using the [2Fe-2S] accessory cluster of the FeFe-hydrogenase as a demonstrative example with rich electronic structural features, the electrostatic and covalent effects of the surrounding side chains, charged groups, and backbone moieties were systematically mapped through density functional theoretical calculations. Electron affinities, spin density differences, and delocalization indexes from the quantum theory of atoms in molecules were used to evaluate the importance of each interaction. Case studies for hydrogen bonding and charged side-chain interactions were used to develop selection rules regarding the significance of a given protein environmental effect. A set of general rules is proposed for constructing quantum chemical models for iron-sulfur active sites that capture all significant interactions from the protein environment. This methodology was applied to our previously used models in galactose oxidase and the 6Fe-cluster of FeFe-hydrogenase. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27117497

  15. Improvement of the identification of four heavy metals in environmental samples by using predictive decision tree models coupled with a set of five bioluminescent bacteria.

    PubMed

    Jouanneau, Sulivan; Durand, Marie-José; Courcoux, Philippe; Blusseau, Thomas; Thouand, Gérald

    2011-04-01

    A primary statistical model based on the crossings between the different detection ranges of a set of five bioluminescent bacterial strains was developed to identify and quantify four metals which were at several concentrations in different mixtures: cadmium, arsenic III, mercury, and copper. Four specific decision trees based on the CHAID algorithm (CHi-squared Automatic Interaction Detector type) which compose this model were designed from a database of 576 experiments (192 different mixture conditions). A specific software, 'Metalsoft', helped us choose the best decision tree and a user-friendly way to identify the metal. To validate this innovative approach, 18 environmental samples containing a mixture of these metals were submitted to a bioassay and to standardized chemical methods. The results show on average a high correlation of 98.6% for the qualitative metal identification and 94.2% for the quantification. The results are particularly encouraging, and our model is able to provide semiquantitative information after only 60 min without pretreatments of samples. PMID:21355529

  16. Protein environmental effects on iron-sulfur clusters: A set of rules for constructing computational models for inner and outer coordination spheres.

    PubMed

    Harris, Travis V; Szilagyi, Robert K

    2016-07-01

    The structural properties and reactivity of iron-sulfur proteins are greatly affected by interactions between the prosthetic groups and the surrounding amino acid residues. Thus, quantum chemical investigations of the structure and properties of protein-bound iron-sulfur clusters can be severely limited by truncation of computational models. The aim of this study was to identify, a priori, significant interactions that must be included in a quantum chemical model. Using the [2Fe-2S] accessory cluster of the FeFe-hydrogenase as a demonstrative example with rich electronic structural features, the electrostatic and covalent effects of the surrounding side chains, charged groups, and backbone moieties were systematically mapped through density functional theoretical calculations. Electron affinities, spin density differences, and delocalization indexes from the quantum theory of atoms in molecules were used to evaluate the importance of each interaction. Case studies for hydrogen bonding and charged side-chain interactions were used to develop selection rules regarding the significance of a given protein environmental effect. A set of general rules is proposed for constructing quantum chemical models for iron-sulfur active sites that capture all significant interactions from the protein environment. This methodology was applied to our previously used models in galactose oxidase and the 6Fe-cluster of FeFe-hydrogenase. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Remotely triggered nonvolcanic tremor in Sumbawa, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Florian; Lupi, Matteo; Miller, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    Nonvolcanic (or tectonic) tremor is a seismic phenomenom which can provide important information about dynamics of plate boundaries but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Tectonic tremor is often associated with slow-slip (termed episodic tremor and slip) and understanding the mechanisms driving tremor presents an important challenge because it is likely a dominant aspect of the evolutionary processes leading to tsunamigenic, megathrust subduction zone earthquakes. Tectonic tremor is observed worldwide, mainly along major subduction zones and plate boundaries such as in Alaska/Aleutians, Cascadia, the San Andreas Fault, Japan or Taiwan. We present, for the first time, evidence for triggered tremor beneath the island of Sumbawa, Indonesia. The island of Sumbawa, Indonesia, is part of the Lesser Sunda Group about 250 km north of the Australian/Eurasian plate collision at the Java Trench with a convergence rate of approximately 70 mm/yr. We show surface wave triggered tremor beneath Sumbawa in response to three teleseismic earthquakes: the Mw9.0 2011 Tohoku earthquake and two oceanic strike-slip earthquakes (Mw 8.6 and Mw8.2) offshore of Sumatra in 2012. Tremor amplitudes scale with ground motion and peak at 180 nm/s ground velocity on the horizontal components. A comparison of ground motion of the three triggering events and a similar (nontriggering) Mw7.6 2012 Philippines event constrains an apparent triggering threshold of approximately 1 mm/s ground velocity or 8 kPa dynamic stress. Surface wave periods of 45-65 s appear optimal for triggering tremor at Sumbawa which predominantly correlates with Rayleigh waves, even though the 2012 oceanic events have stronger Love wave amplitudes and triggering potential. Rayleigh wave triggering, low-triggering amplitudes, and the tectonic setting all favor a model of tremor generated by localized fluid transport. We could not locate the tremor because of minimal station coverage, but data indicate several

  18. The NA62 trigger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivda, M.; NA62 Collaboration

    2013-08-01

    The main aim of the NA62 experiment (NA62 Technical Design Report, [1]) is to study ultra-rare Kaon decays. In order to select rare events over the overwhelming background, central systems with high-performance, high bandwidth, flexibility and configurability are necessary, that minimize dead time while maximizing data collection reliability. The NA62 experiment consists of 12 sub-detector systems and several trigger and control systems, for a total channel count of less than 100,000. The GigaTracKer (GTK) has the largest number of channels (54,000), and the Liquid Krypton (LKr) calorimeter shares with it the largest raw data rate (19 GB/s). The NA62 trigger system works with 3 trigger levels. The first trigger level is based on a hardware central trigger unit, so-called L0 Trigger Processor (L0TP), and Local Trigger Units (LTU), which are all located in the experimental cavern. Other two trigger levels are based on software, and done with a computer farm located on surface. The L0TP receives information from triggering sub-detectors asynchronously via Ethernet; it processes the information, and then transmits a final trigger decision synchronously to each sub-detector through the Trigger and Timing Control (TTC) system. The interface between L0TP and the TTC system, which is used for trigger and clock distribution, is provided by the Local Trigger Unit board (LTU). The LTU can work in two modes: global and stand-alone. In the global mode, the LTU provides an interface between L0TP and TTC system. In the stand-alone mode, the LTU can fully emulate L0TP and so provides an independent way for each sub-detector for testing or calibration purposes. In addition to the emulation functionality, a further functionality is implemented that allows to synchronize the clock of the LTU with the L0TP and the TTC system. For testing and debugging purposes, a Snap Shot Memory (SSM) interface is implemented, that can work

  19. Determination of dual parameter auto-sampling trigger thresholds for pollutant load monitoring in various land uses.

    PubMed

    Nnadi, Fidelia; Gurr, Eric

    2015-05-01

    Environmental pollutants are health hazards and are typically transported during runoff events. Monitoring the loadings of these pollutants with auto-samplers require precise trigger thresholds to effectively account for total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) entering natural water bodies. Traditionally, auto-samplers are triggered by delaying the start of sampling until pollutant wave is present during rainfall event. The rainfall-related triggers are typically limited to small watersheds, where lag and travel times are consistent and predictable. However, in large and more complex watersheds, flow or stage is typically used either by a set threshold on change in instantaneous flow rate or water level. Generally, trigger thresholds are difficult to establish due to seasonal fluctuations in stream flow and variations in rainfall. This study investigated dual parameter trigger based on instantaneous change and variance from a moving average for flow and stage. Nineteen auto-samplers, installed within six watersheds of varying land uses in City of Kissimmee, FL, were evaluated over 3-year period. The results suggested that using 20- to 30-min moving average of 5-min sampling interval for both parameters was sufficient to detect pollutant waves with minimal false triggers. Also, change from average flow rate (∆Qave) and a percent change from average stage (∆Have%) were found to the preferred parameters. The ∆Have% values ranging from -0.012 to 0.20% and ∆Qave ranging from 0.014 to 0.850 m(3)/s were found to give effective results for all stations in the study area. It was also observed that these trigger thresholds varied with land use, stream flow condition, and auto-sampler locations within the watershed. PMID:25838061

  20. Urinary trace element concentrations in environmental settings: is there a value for systematic creatinine adjustment or do we introduce a bias?

    PubMed

    Hoet, Perrine; Deumer, Gladys; Bernard, Alfred; Lison, Dominique; Haufroid, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Systematic creatinine adjustment of urinary concentrations of biomarkers has been a challenge over the past years because the assumption of a constant creatinine excretion rate appears erroneous and the issue of overadjustment has recently emerged. This study aimed at determining whether systematic creatinine adjustment is to be recommended for urinary concentrations of trace elements (TEs) in environmental settings. Paired 24-h collection and random spot urine samples (spotU) were obtained from 39 volunteers not occupationally exposed to TEs. Four models to express TEs concentration in spotU were tested to predict the 24-h excretion rate of these TEs (TEμg/24h) considered as the gold standard reference: absolute concentration (TEμg/l); ratio to creatinine (TEμg/gcr); TEμg/gcr adjusted to creatinine (TEμg/gcr-adj); and concentration adjusted to specific gravity (TEμg/l-SG). As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Li, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sn, Sb, Se, Te, V and Zn were analyzed by inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometry. There was no single pattern of relationship between urinary TEs concentrations in spotU and TEμg/24h. TEμg/l predicted TEμg/24h with an explained variance ranging from 0 to 60%. Creatinine adjustment improved the explained variance by an additional 5 to ~60% for many TEs, but with a risk of overadjustment for the most of them. This issue could be addressed by adjusting TE concentrations on the basis of the regression coefficient of the relationship between TEμg/gcr and creatinine concentration. SG adjustment was as suitable as creatinine adjustment to predict TEμg/24h with no SG-overadjustment (except V). Regarding Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Te, none of the models were found to reflect TEμg/24h. In the context of environmental exposure, systematic creatinine adjustment is not recommended for urinary concentrations of TEs. SG adjustment appears to be a more reliable alternative. For some TEs, however, neither methods appear suitable.

  1. Water-quality assessment of the Albermarle-Pamlico drainage basin, North Carolina and Virginia; environmental setting and water-quality issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, Gerard; Lloyd, Orville B.

    1995-01-01

    The Albemarle-Pamlico drainage study unit is one of 60 units of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program, and includes the large river basins which drain into the Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds-the Chowan, Roanoke, Tar-Pamlico, and Neuse River Basins. The study unit includes about 28,000 square miles and has an interrelated set of environmental characteristics which strongly influence water quality. The chemical and physical nature of these characteristics are the dominant controls on baseline water quality in the study area. About 50 percent of the study area is forested, slightly more than 30 percent is agricultural, about 15 percent is wetlands, and less than 5 percent is developed. Three million people live in the study area, and activities related to agriculture and development have caused increased concentrations of constituents such as nutrients, pesticides, and suspended sediment. About two-thirds of the 36 to 52 inches of precipitation in the area reenters the atmosphere by evapotranspiration. About one-third of the remaining precipitation reaches streams by overland runoff; the remainder recharges the water table aquifer, where much of the water eventually discharges to streams as ground water. Thus, ground-water quality has a substantial influence on surface-water quality, particularly during dry weather. In 1990, about 152,900 tons of elemental nitrogen and 10,500 tons of elemental phosphorus either were applied to crops as fertilizer or fixed by biological processes, and in 1987, about 43,500 tons of nitrogen and 12,200 tons of phosphorus were produced as animal wastes. In addition, about 1,300 tons of selected herbicides and 400 tons of selected insecticides were applied to crops in 1990. Some 249 permitted point sources discharged 410 million gallons per day, containing an annual load of 5,800 tons of nitrogen and 1,800 tons of phosphorus, to the study area in 1990. Data from 1970-79 indicate that mean annual suspended

  2. MiFish, a set of universal PCR primers for metabarcoding environmental DNA from fishes: detection of more than 230 subtropical marine species

    PubMed Central

    Miya, M.; Sato, Y.; Fukunaga, T.; Sado, T.; Poulsen, J. Y.; Sato, K.; Minamoto, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, H.; Araki, H.; Kondoh, M.; Iwasaki, W.

    2015-01-01

    We developed a set of universal PCR primers (MiFish-U/E) for metabarcoding environmental DNA (eDNA) from fishes. Primers were designed using aligned whole mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences from 880 species, supplemented by partial mitogenome sequences from 160 elasmobranchs (sharks and rays). The primers target a hypervariable region of the 12S rRNA gene (163–185 bp), which contains sufficient information to identify fishes to taxonomic family, genus and species except for some closely related congeners. To test versatility of the primers across a diverse range of fishes, we sampled eDNA from four tanks in the Okinawa Churaumi Aquarium with known species compositions, prepared dual-indexed libraries and performed paired-end sequencing of the region using high-throughput next-generation sequencing technologies. Out of the 180 marine fish species contained in the four tanks with reference sequences in a custom database, we detected 168 species (93.3%) distributed across 59 families and 123 genera. These fishes are not only taxonomically diverse, ranging from sharks and rays to higher teleosts, but are also greatly varied in their ecology, including both pelagic and benthic species living in shallow coastal to deep waters. We also sampled natural seawaters around coral reefs near the aquarium and detected 93 fish species using this approach. Of the 93 species, 64 were not detected in the four aquarium tanks, rendering the total number of species detected to 232 (from 70 families and 152 genera). The metabarcoding approach presented here is non-invasive, more efficient, more cost-effective and more sensitive than the traditional survey methods. It has the potential to serve as an alternative (or complementary) tool for biodiversity monitoring that revolutionizes natural resource management and ecological studies of fish communities on larger spatial and temporal scales. PMID:26587265

  3. Water-quality assessment of the New England Coastal Basins in Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island : environmental settings and implications for water quality and aquatic biota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flanagan, Sarah M.; Nielsen, Martha G.; Robinson, Keith W.; Coles, James F.

    1999-01-01

    The New England Coastal Basins in Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island constitute one of 59 study units selected for water-quality assessment as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. England Coastal Basins study unit encompasses the fresh surface waters and ground waters in a 23,000 square-mile area that drains to the Atlantic Ocean. Major basins include those of the Kennebec, Androscoggin, Saco, Merrimack, Charles, Blackstone, Taunton, and Pawcatuck Rivers. Defining the environmental setting of the study unit is the first step in designing and conducting a multi-disciplinary regional water-quality assessment. The report describes the natural and human factors that affect water quality in the basins and includes descriptions of the physiography, climate, geology, soils, surface- and ground-water hydrology, land use, and the aquatic ecosystem. Although surface-water quality has greatly improved over the past 30 years as a result of improved wastewater treatment at municipal and industrial wastewater facilities, a number of water-quality problems remain. Industrial and municipal wastewater discharges, combined sewer overflows, hydrologic modifications from dams and water diversions, and runoff from urban land use are the major causes of water-quality degradation in 1998. The most frequently detected contaminants in ground water in the study area are volatile organic compounds, petroleum-related products, nitrates, and chloride and sodium. Sources of these contaminants include leaking storage tanks, accidental spills, landfills, road salting, and septic systems and lagoons. Elevated concentrations of mercury are found in fish tissue from streams and lakes throughout the study area.

  4. MiFish, a set of universal PCR primers for metabarcoding environmental DNA from fishes: detection of more than 230 subtropical marine species.

    PubMed

    Miya, M; Sato, Y; Fukunaga, T; Sado, T; Poulsen, J Y; Sato, K; Minamoto, T; Yamamoto, S; Yamanaka, H; Araki, H; Kondoh, M; Iwasaki, W

    2015-07-01

    We developed a set of universal PCR primers (MiFish-U/E) for metabarcoding environmental DNA (eDNA) from fishes. Primers were designed using aligned whole mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences from 880 species, supplemented by partial mitogenome sequences from 160 elasmobranchs (sharks and rays). The primers target a hypervariable region of the 12S rRNA gene (163-185 bp), which contains sufficient information to identify fishes to taxonomic family, genus and species except for some closely related congeners. To test versatility of the primers across a diverse range of fishes, we sampled eDNA from four tanks in the Okinawa Churaumi Aquarium with known species compositions, prepared dual-indexed libraries and performed paired-end sequencing of the region using high-throughput next-generation sequencing technologies. Out of the 180 marine fish species contained in the four tanks with reference sequences in a custom database, we detected 168 species (93.3%) distributed across 59 families and 123 genera. These fishes are not only taxonomically diverse, ranging from sharks and rays to higher teleosts, but are also greatly varied in their ecology, including both pelagic and benthic species living in shallow coastal to deep waters. We also sampled natural seawaters around coral reefs near the aquarium and detected 93 fish species using this approach. Of the 93 species, 64 were not detected in the four aquarium tanks, rendering the total number of species detected to 232 (from 70 families and 152 genera). The metabarcoding approach presented here is non-invasive, more efficient, more cost-effective and more sensitive than the traditional survey methods. It has the potential to serve as an alternative (or complementary) tool for biodiversity monitoring that revolutionizes natural resource management and ecological studies of fish communities on larger spatial and temporal scales. PMID:26587265

  5. The role of auxin and gibberellin in tomato fruit set.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Maaike; Mariani, Celestina; Vriezen, Wim H

    2009-01-01

    The initiation of tomato fruit growth, fruit set, is very sensitive to environmental conditions. Therefore, an understanding of the mechanisms that regulate this process can facilitate the production of this agriculturally valuable fruit crop. Over the years, it has been well established that tomato fruit set depends on successful pollination and fertilization, which trigger the fruit developmental programme through the activation of the auxin and gibberellin signalling pathways. However, the exact role of each of these two hormones is still poorly understood, probably because only few of the signalling components involved have been identified so far. Recent research on fruit set induced by hormone applications has led to new insights into hormone biosynthesis and signalling. The aim of this review is to consolidate the current knowledge on the role of auxin and gibberellin in tomato fruit set. PMID:19321650

  6. Triggering requirements for SSC physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gilchriese, M.G.D.

    1989-04-01

    Some aspects of triggering requirements for high P{sub T} physics processes at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) are described. A very wide range of trigger types will be required to enable detection of the large number of potential physics signatures possible at the SSC. Although in many cases trigger rates are not now well understood, it is possible to conclude that the ability to trigger on transverse energy, number and energy of jets, number and energy of leptons (electrons and muons), missing energy and combinations of these will be required. An SSC trigger system must be both highly flexible and redundant to ensure reliable detection of many new physics processes at the SSC.

  7. Evaluation of triggering functions in convective parameterization schemes using observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettammal, S.; Zhang, G. J.

    2013-12-01

    Realistic simulation of different modes of atmospheric variability ranging from the diurnal cycle to inter-annual variability in global climate models (GCMs) depends crucially on the convection triggering criteria. In this study, using the data from constrained variational analysis by the Atmospheric System Research program for single column models (SCM), the performance of the commonly used convective triggering functions in GCMs is evaluated, based on the equitable threat score (ETS) value, a widely used forecast verification metric. From the ETS score, four consistently better performing triggering functions were identified. They are based on dilute dCAPE, parcel buoyancy at the lifting condensation level (Bechtold scheme), undilute dCAPE and dilute CAPE triggering functions. The key variables used to define these triggering functions were examined in detail. It was found that the skill score value of the dilute dCAPE triggering function does not show much variation among different data sets. Analysis of the composite fields and probability distributions of key variables of the triggering functions, based on the correct-prediction, over-prediction, under-prediction of convection and correct prediction of no convection cases for convection onset, brings to light some critical factors responsible for the performance of the trigger functions.

  8. GLAST Burst Monitor Trigger Classification Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perrin, D. J.; Sidman, E. D.; Meegan, C. A.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V.

    2004-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), currently set for launch in the first quarter of 2007, will consist of two instruments, the GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) and the Large Area Telescope (LAT). One of the goals of the GBM is to identify and locate gamma-ray bursts using on-board software. The GLAST observatory can then be re-oriented to allow observations by the LAT. A Bayesian analysis will be used to distinguish gamma-ray bursts from other triggering events, such as solar flares, magnetospheric particle precipitation, soft gamma repeaters (SGRs), and Cygnus X-1 flaring. The trigger parameters used in the analysis are the burst celestial coordinates, angle from the Earth's horizon, spectral hardness, and the spacecraft geomagnetic latitude. The algorithm will be described and the results of testing will be presented.

  9. Low-power triggered data acquisition system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Champaigne, Kevin (Inventor); Sumners, Jonathan (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A low-power triggered data acquisition system and method utilizes low-powered circuitry, comparators, and digital logic incorporated into a miniaturized device interfaced with self-generating transducer sensor inputs to detect, identify and assess impact and damage to surfaces and structures wherein, upon the occurrence of a triggering event that produces a signal greater than a set threshold changes the comparator output and causes the system to acquire and store digital data representative of the incoming waveform on at least one triggered channel. The sensors may be disposed in an array to provide triangulation and location of the impact.

  10. Seismology: dynamic triggering of earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Gomberg, Joan; Johnson, Paul

    2005-10-01

    After an earthquake, numerous smaller shocks are triggered over distances comparable to the dimensions of the mainshock fault rupture, although they are rare at larger distances. Here we analyse the scaling of dynamic deformations (the stresses and strains associated with seismic waves) with distance from, and magnitude of, their triggering earthquake, and show that they can cause further earthquakes at any distance if their amplitude exceeds several microstrain, regardless of their frequency content. These triggering requirements are remarkably similar to those measured in the laboratory for inducing dynamic elastic nonlinear behaviour, which suggests that the underlying physics is similar.

  11. Pulsed thyristor trigger control circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A trigger control circuit is provided for producing firing pulses for the thyristor of a thyristor control system such as a power factor controller. The control circuit overcomes thyristor triggering problems involved with the current lag associated with controlling inductive loads and utilizes a phase difference signal, already present in the power factor controller, in deriving a signal for inhibiting generation of a firing pulse until no load current is flowing from the preceding half cycle and thereby ensuring that the thyristor is triggered on during each half cycle.

  12. Triggered Release from Polymer Capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Esser-Kahn, Aaron P.; Odom, Susan A.; Sottos, Nancy R.; White, Scott R.; Moore, Jeffrey S.

    2011-07-06

    Stimuli-responsive capsules are of interest in drug delivery, fragrance release, food preservation, and self-healing materials. Many methods are used to trigger the release of encapsulated contents. Here we highlight mechanisms for the controlled release of encapsulated cargo that utilize chemical reactions occurring in solid polymeric shell walls. Triggering mechanisms responsible for covalent bond cleavage that result in the release of capsule contents include chemical, biological, light, thermal, magnetic, and electrical stimuli. We present methods for encapsulation and release, triggering methods, and mechanisms and conclude with our opinions on interesting obstacles for chemically induced activation with relevance for controlled release.

  13. Triggers of airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kerrebijn, K F

    1986-01-01

    Most asthmatics have hyperresponsive airways. This makes them more sensitive than non-asthmatics to bronchoconstricting environmental exposures which, in their turn, may enhance responsiveness. Airway inflammation is considered to be a key determinant of airway hyperresponsiveness: the fact that chronic airway inflammation in cystic fibrosis does not lead to airway hyperresponsiveness of any importance indicates, however, that the role of airway inflammation is complex and incompletely elucidated. The main inducers of airway inflammation are viral infections, antigens, occupational stimuli and pollutants. Although exercise, airway cooling and hyper- or hypotonic aerosols are potent stimuli of bronchoconstriction, it is questionable if airway inflammation is involved in their mode of action. Each of the above-mentioned stimuli is discussed, with emphasis laid on the relation of symptoms to mechanisms. PMID:3533597

  14. Landslide triggering modeling in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari Manesh, Ahoura; Mignan, Arnaud; Giardini, Domenico

    2016-04-01

    Switzerland is prone to hazard interactions due to its mountainous landscape. Historical earthquakes are known to have triggered aftershocks, landslides, rock falls and avalanches, as well as lake tsunamis. Here we present a simple cellular automaton to simulate landslide footprints triggered by both rain and earthquakes. The method is based on the Sandpile model, which dynamics is controlled by the ground slope. Rain levels are approximated by ground water saturation and earthquake-landslide triggering is evaluated using the concept of Newmark displacement. That concept is then modified to estimate stable slopes during shaking at which locations the landslide stops. The cellular automaton is first tested in a virtual region where a parameter sensitivity analysis is made. Then it is tested in a region of Switzerland, where historic landslides triggered by earthquakes are known to have occurred.

  15. piRNAs Can Trigger a Multigenerational Epigenetic Memory in the Germline of C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Ashe, Alyson; Sapetschnig, Alexandra; Weick, Eva-Maria; Mitchell, Jacinth; Bagijn, Marloes P.; Cording, Amy C.; Doebley, Anna-Lisa; Goldstein, Leonard D.; Lehrbach, Nicolas J.; Le Pen, Jérémie; Pintacuda, Greta; Sakaguchi, Aisa; Sarkies, Peter; Ahmed, Shawn; Miska, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Transgenerational effects have wide-ranging implications for human health, biological adaptation, and evolution; however, their mechanisms and biology remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that a germline nuclear small RNA/chromatin pathway can maintain stable inheritance for many generations when triggered by a piRNA-dependent foreign RNA response in C. elegans. Using forward genetic screens and candidate approaches, we find that a core set of nuclear RNAi and chromatin factors is required for multigenerational inheritance of environmental RNAi and piRNA silencing. These include a germline-specific nuclear Argonaute HRDE1/WAGO-9, a HP1 ortholog HPL-2, and two putative histone methyltransferases, SET-25 and SET-32. piRNAs can trigger highly stable long-term silencing lasting at least 20 generations. Once established, this long-term memory becomes independent of the piRNA trigger but remains dependent on the nuclear RNAi/chromatin pathway. Our data present a multigenerational epigenetic inheritance mechanism induced by piRNAs. PMID:22738725

  16. Stimuli triggering violence in psychoses.

    PubMed

    Pontius, A A

    1981-01-01

    Various behavioral and neurophysiological models are suggested to objectify and quantify the defense of insanity and to assess dangerousness in someone who is being considered for release from custody. Two cases are presented that show a pattern of specific relationships between traumatic experiences in youth and a later trigger stimulus that releases homicidal action. Until a refined classification system and neurophysiological understanding of sudden aggression can be achieved, forensic psychiatrists should be aware of the psychotic trigger reaction within a clinical psychiatric model.

  17. Hydrodynamical trigger mechanism for pulsar glitches.

    PubMed

    Glampedakis, Kostas; Andersson, Nils

    2009-04-10

    We describe a new instability that may trigger the global unpinning of vortices in a spinning neutron star, leading to the transfer of angular momentum from the superfluid component to the star's crust. The instability, which is associated with the inertial r modes of a superfluid neutron star, sets in once the rotational lag in the system reaches a critical level. We demonstrate that our simple model agrees well with the observed glitch data. This new idea should stimulate work on more detailed neutron star models, which would account for the crustal shear stresses and magnetic field effects we have ignored. PMID:19392421

  18. Effect-based trigger values for in vitro bioassays: Reading across from existing water quality guideline values.

    PubMed

    Escher, Beate I; Neale, Peta A; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2015-09-15

    Cell-based bioassays are becoming increasingly popular in water quality assessment. The new generations of reporter-gene assays are very sensitive and effects are often detected in very clean water types such as drinking water and recycled water. For monitoring applications it is therefore imperative to derive trigger values that differentiate between acceptable and unacceptable effect levels. In this proof-of-concept paper, we propose a statistical method to read directly across from chemical guideline values to trigger values without the need to perform in vitro to in vivo extrapolations. The derivation is based on matching effect concentrations with existing chemical guideline values and filtering out appropriate chemicals that are responsive in the given bioassays at concentrations in the range of the guideline values. To account for the mixture effects of many chemicals acting together in a complex water sample, we propose bioanalytical equivalents that integrate the effects of groups of chemicals with the same mode of action that act in a concentration-additive manner. Statistical distribution methods are proposed to derive a specific effect-based trigger bioanalytical equivalent concentration (EBT-BEQ) for each bioassay of environmental interest that targets receptor-mediated toxicity. Even bioassays that are indicative of the same mode of action have slightly different numeric trigger values due to differences in their inherent sensitivity. The algorithm was applied to 18 cell-based bioassays and 11 provisional effect-based trigger bioanalytical equivalents were derived as an illustrative example using the 349 chemical guideline values protective for human health of the Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling. We illustrate the applicability using the example of a diverse set of water samples including recycled water. Most recycled water samples were compliant with the proposed triggers while wastewater effluent would not have been compliant with a few

  19. Effect-based trigger values for in vitro bioassays: Reading across from existing water quality guideline values.

    PubMed

    Escher, Beate I; Neale, Peta A; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2015-09-15

    Cell-based bioassays are becoming increasingly popular in water quality assessment. The new generations of reporter-gene assays are very sensitive and effects are often detected in very clean water types such as drinking water and recycled water. For monitoring applications it is therefore imperative to derive trigger values that differentiate between acceptable and unacceptable effect levels. In this proof-of-concept paper, we propose a statistical method to read directly across from chemical guideline values to trigger values without the need to perform in vitro to in vivo extrapolations. The derivation is based on matching effect concentrations with existing chemical guideline values and filtering out appropriate chemicals that are responsive in the given bioassays at concentrations in the range of the guideline values. To account for the mixture effects of many chemicals acting together in a complex water sample, we propose bioanalytical equivalents that integrate the effects of groups of chemicals with the same mode of action that act in a concentration-additive manner. Statistical distribution methods are proposed to derive a specific effect-based trigger bioanalytical equivalent concentration (EBT-BEQ) for each bioassay of environmental interest that targets receptor-mediated toxicity. Even bioassays that are indicative of the same mode of action have slightly different numeric trigger values due to differences in their inherent sensitivity. The algorithm was applied to 18 cell-based bioassays and 11 provisional effect-based trigger bioanalytical equivalents were derived as an illustrative example using the 349 chemical guideline values protective for human health of the Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling. We illustrate the applicability using the example of a diverse set of water samples including recycled water. Most recycled water samples were compliant with the proposed triggers while wastewater effluent would not have been compliant with a few

  20. Vaccines as a trigger for myopathies.

    PubMed

    Orbach, H; Tanay, A

    2009-11-01

    Vaccines are considered to be among the greatest medical discoveries, credited with the virtual eradication of some diseases and the consequent improved survival and quality of life of the at-risk population. With that, vaccines are among the environmental factors implicated as triggers for the development of inflammatory myopathies. The sporadic reports on vaccine-induced inflammatory myopathies include cases of hepatitis B virus, bacillus Calmette-Guérin, tetanus, influenza, smallpox, polio, diphtheria, diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus, combination of diphtheria with scarlet fever and diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus with polio vaccines. However, a significant increase in the incidence of dermatomyositis or polymyositis after any massive vaccination campaign has not been reported in the literature. In study patients with inflammatory myopathies, no recent immunization was recorded in any of the patients. Moreover, after the 1976 mass flu vaccination, no increase in the incidence of inflammatory myopathies was observed. Although rare, macrophagic myofasciitis has been reported following vaccination and is attributed to the aluminium hydroxide used as an adjuvant in some vaccines. Prospective multicenter studies are needed to identify potential environmental factors, including vaccines, as potential triggers for inflammatory myopathies.

  1. Conformal Prediction Classification of a Large Data Set of Environmental Chemicals from ToxCast and Tox21 Estrogen Receptor Assays.

    PubMed

    Norinder, Ulf; Boyer, Scott

    2016-06-20

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) are critical to exploitation of the chemical information in toxicology databases. Exploitation can be extraction of chemical knowledge from the data but also making predictions of new chemicals based on quantitative analysis of past findings. In this study, we analyzed the ToxCast and Tox21 estrogen receptor data sets using Conformal Prediction to enhance the full exploitation of the information in these data sets. We applied aggregated conformal prediction (ACP) to the ToxCast and Tox21 estrogen receptor data sets using support vector machine classifiers to compare overall performance of the models but, more importantly, to explore the performance of ACP on data sets that are significantly enriched in one class without employing sampling strategies of the training set. ACP was also used to investigate the problem of applicability domain using both data sets. Comparison of ACP to previous results obtained on the same data sets using traditional QSAR approaches indicated similar overall balanced performance to methods in which careful training set selections were made, e.g., sensitivity and specificity for the external Tox21 data set of 70-75% and far superior results to those obtained using traditional methods without training set sampling where the corresponding results showed a clear imbalance of 50 and 96%, respectively. Application of conformal prediction to imbalanced data sets facilitates an unambiguous analysis of all data, allows accurate predictive models to be built which display similar accuracy in external validation to external validation, and, most importantly, allows an unambiguous treatment of the applicability domain.

  2. Performance evaluation of trigger algorithm for the MACE telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Kuldeep; Yadav, K. K.; Bhatt, N.; Chouhan, N.; Sikder, S. S.; Behere, A.; Pithawa, C. K.; Tickoo, A. K.; Rannot, R. C.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Mitra, A. K.; Koul, R.

    The MACE (Major Atmospheric Cherenkov Experiment) telescope with a light collector diameter of 21 m, is being set up at Hanle (32.80 N, 78.90 E, 4200m asl) India, to explore the gamma-ray sky in the tens of GeV energy range. The imaging camera of the telescope comprises 1088 pixels covering a total field-of-view of 4.30 × 4.00 with trigger field-of-view of 2.60 × 3.00 and an uniform pixel resolution of 0.120. In order to achieve low energy trigger threshold of less than 30 GeV, a two level trigger scheme is being designed for the telescope. The first level trigger is generated within 16 pixels of the Camera Integrated Module (CIM) based on 4 nearest neighbour (4NN) close cluster configuration within a coincidence gate window of 5 ns while the second level trigger is generated by combining the first level triggers from neighbouring CIMs. Each pixel of the telescope is expected to operate at a single pixel threshold between 8-10 photo-electrons where the single channel rate dominated by the after- pulsing is expected to be ˜500 kHz. The hardware implementation of the trigger logic is based on complex programmable logic devices (CPLD). The basic design concept, hardware implementation and performance evaluation of the trigger system in terms of threshold energy and trigger rate estimates based on Monte Carlo data for the MACE telescope will be presented in this meeting.

  3. Full-scale physical model of landslide triggering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lora, M.; Camporese, M.; Salandin, P.

    2013-12-01

    Landslide triggering induced by high-intensity rainfall infiltration in hillslopes is a complex phenomenon that involves hydrological processes operating at different spatio-temporal scales. Empirical methods give rough information about landslide-prone areas, without investigating the theoretical framework needed to achieve an in-depth understanding of the involved physical processes. In this study, we tackle this issue through physical experiments developed in an artificial hillslope realized in the Department of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering of the University of Padua. The structure consists of a reinforced concrete box containing a soil prism with the following maximum dimensions: 3.5 m high, 6 m long, and 2 m wide. In order to analyze and examine the triggered failure state, the experiments are carried out with intensive monitoring of pore water pressure and moisture content response. Subsurface monitoring instruments are installed at several locations and depths to measure downward infiltration and/or a rising groundwater table. We measure the unsaturated soil water pressure as well as positive pore pressures preceding failure in each experiments with six tensiometers. The volumetric water content is determined through six Time Domain Reflectometry probes. Two pressure transducers are located in observation wells to determine the position of the water table in time. Two stream gauges are positioned at the toeslope, for measuring both runoff and subsurface outflow. All data are collected and recorded by an acquisition data system from Campbell Scientific. The artificial hillslope is characterized by well-known and controlled conditions, which are designed to reproduce an ideal set-up susceptible to heavy rainfall landslide. The hydrologic forcing is generated by a rainfall simulator realized with nozzles from Sprying System and. specifically designed to produce a spatially uniform rainfall of intensity ranging from 50 to 150 mm/h. The aim

  4. Anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The physical mechanism of the anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes on active faults is studied on the basis of experimental phenomenology, i.e., that earthquakes occur on active tectonic faults, that crustal stress values are those measured in situ and, on active faults, comply to the values of the stress drop measured for real earthquakes, that the static friction coefficients are those inferred on faults, and that the effective triggering stresses are those inferred for real earthquakes. Deriving the conditions for earthquake nucleation as a time-dependent solution of the Tresca-Von Mises criterion applied in the framework of poroelasticity yields that active faults can be triggered by fluid overpressures < 0.1 MPa. Comparing this with the deviatoric stresses at the depth of crustal hypocenters, which are of the order of 1-10 MPa, we find that injecting in the subsoil fluids at the pressures typical of oil and gas production and storage may trigger destructive earthquakes on active faults at a few tens of kilometers. Fluid pressure propagates as slow stress waves along geometric paths operating in a drained condition and can advance the natural occurrence of earthquakes by a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, it is illusory to control earthquake triggering by close monitoring of minor "foreshocks", since the induction may occur with a delay up to several years.

  5. Anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The physical mechanism of the anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes on active faults is studied on the basis of experimental phenomenology, i.e., that earthquakes occur on active tectonic faults, that crustal stress values are those measured in situ and, on active faults, comply to the values of the stress drop measured for real earthquakes, that the static friction coefficients are those inferred on faults, and that the effective triggering stresses are those inferred for real earthquakes. Deriving the conditions for earthquake nucleation as a time-dependent solution of the Tresca-Von Mises criterion applied in the framework of poroelasticity yields that active faults can be triggered by fluid overpressures < 0.1 MPa. Comparing this with the deviatoric stresses at the depth of crustal hypocenters, which are of the order of 1-10 MPa, we find that injecting in the subsoil fluids at the pressures typical of oil and gas production and storage may trigger destructive earthquakes on active faults at a few tens of kilometers. Fluid pressure propagates as slow stress waves along geometric paths operating in a drained condition and can advance the natural occurrence of earthquakes by a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, it is illusory to control earthquake triggering by close monitoring of minor "foreshocks", since the induction may occur with a delay up to several years. PMID:25156190

  6. Anthropogenic Triggering of Large Earthquakes

    PubMed Central

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The physical mechanism of the anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes on active faults is studied on the basis of experimental phenomenology, i.e., that earthquakes occur on active tectonic faults, that crustal stress values are those measured in situ and, on active faults, comply to the values of the stress drop measured for real earthquakes, that the static friction coefficients are those inferred on faults, and that the effective triggering stresses are those inferred for real earthquakes. Deriving the conditions for earthquake nucleation as a time-dependent solution of the Tresca-Von Mises criterion applied in the framework of poroelasticity yields that active faults can be triggered by fluid overpressures < 0.1 MPa. Comparing this with the deviatoric stresses at the depth of crustal hypocenters, which are of the order of 1–10 MPa, we find that injecting in the subsoil fluids at the pressures typical of oil and gas production and storage may trigger destructive earthquakes on active faults at a few tens of kilometers. Fluid pressure propagates as slow stress waves along geometric paths operating in a drained condition and can advance the natural occurrence of earthquakes by a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, it is illusory to control earthquake triggering by close monitoring of minor “foreshocks”, since the induction may occur with a delay up to several years. PMID:25156190

  7. Triggering of repeating earthquakes in central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Chunquan; Gomberg, Joan; Ben-Naim, Eli; Johnson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic stresses carried by transient seismic waves have been found capable of triggering earthquakes instantly in various tectonic settings. Delayed triggering may be even more common, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Catalogs of repeating earthquakes, earthquakes that recur repeatedly at the same location, provide ideal data sets to test the effects of transient dynamic perturbations on the timing of earthquake occurrence. Here we employ a catalog of 165 families containing ~2500 total repeating earthquakes to test whether dynamic perturbations from local, regional, and teleseismic earthquakes change recurrence intervals. The distance to the earthquake generating the perturbing waves is a proxy for the relative potential contributions of static and dynamic deformations, because static deformations decay more rapidly with distance. Clear changes followed the nearby 2004 Mw6 Parkfield earthquake, so we study only repeaters prior to its origin time. We apply a Monte Carlo approach to compare the observed number of shortened recurrence intervals following dynamic perturbations with the distribution of this number estimated for randomized perturbation times. We examine the comparison for a series of dynamic stress peak amplitude and distance thresholds. The results suggest a weak correlation between dynamic perturbations in excess of ~20 kPa and shortened recurrence intervals, for both nearby and remote perturbations.

  8. Holocene earthquake-triggered turbidites from the Saguenay (Eastern Canada) and Reloncavi (Chilean margin) fjords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Onge, Guillaume; Chapron, Emmanuel; Mulsow, Sandor; Salas, Marcos; Debret, Maxime; Foucher, Anthony; Mulder, Thierry; Desmet, Marc; Costa, Pedro; Ghaleb, Bassam; Locat, Jacques

    2013-04-01

    Fjords are unique archives of climatic and environmental changes, but also of natural hazards. They can preserve thick sedimentary sequences deposited under very high sediment accumulation rates, making them ideally suited to record historical and pre-historical sedimentological events such as major landslides, floods or earthquakes. In fact, by carefully characterizing and dating the sediments and by comparing the basin fill seismic stratigraphy and sedimentary records with historical events, it is possible to "calibrate" recent rapidly deposited layers such as turbidites with a trigger mechanism and extend these observations further back in time by using seismic reflection profiles and longer sediment cores. Here, we will compare earthquake-triggered turbidites in fjords from the Southern and Northern Hemispheres: the Saguenay (Eastern Canada) and Reloncavi fjords (southern Chilean margin). In both settings, we will first look at basin fill geometries and at the sedimentological properties of historical events before extending the records further back in time. In both fjords, several turbidites were associated with large magnitude historic and pre-historic earthquakes including the 1663 AD (M>7) earthquake in the Saguenay Fjord, and the 1960 (M 9.5), 1837 (M~8) and 1575 AD major Chilean subduction earthquakes in the Reloncavi Fjord. In addition, a sand layer with sea urchin fragments and the exoscopic characteristics typical of a tsunami deposit was observed immediately above the turbidite associated with the 1575 AD earthquake in the Reloncavi Fjord and supports both the chronology and the large magnitude of that historic earthquake. In both fjords, as well as in other recently recognized earthquake-triggered turbidites, the decimeter-to meter-thick normally-graded turbidites are characterized by a homogeneous, but slightly fining upward tail. Finally, new radiocarbon results will be presented and indicate that at least 19 earthquake-triggered turbidites were

  9. Integral magnetic ignition pickup trigger

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.

    1992-10-27

    This patent describes a trigger system for the ignition system of an internal combustion engine having a crankcase with a rotatable crankshaft therein, and a flywheel on one end of the crankcase connected to an end of the crankshaft. It comprises: a nonferromagnetic disk-shaped hub for connection to the crankshaft and rotatable therewith on the end opposite the flywheel; and a stationary sensor mounted adjacent the hub for detecting impulses from the magnetically responsive elements as the hub rotates and utilizing the impulses to trigger the ignition system.

  10. Know Your Smoking Triggers | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    Triggers are the things that make you want to smoke. Different people have different triggers, like a stressful situation, sipping coffee, going to a party, or smelling cigarette smoke. Most triggers fall into one of these four categories: Emotional Pattern Social Withdrawal Knowing your triggers and understanding the best way to deal with them is your first line of defense.

  11. A New Look at Trigger Point Injections

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Clara S. M.; Wong, Steven H. S.

    2012-01-01

    Trigger point injections are commonly practised pain interventional techniques. However, there is still lack of objective diagnostic criteria for trigger points. The mechanisms of action of trigger point injection remain obscure and its efficacy remains heterogeneous. The advent of ultrasound technology in the noninvasive real-time imaging of soft tissues sheds new light on visualization of trigger points, explaining the effect of trigger point injection by blockade of peripheral nerves, and minimizing the complications of blind injection. PMID:21969825

  12. Using the Many-Faceted Rasch Model to Evaluate Standard Setting Judgments: An Illustration with the Advanced Placement Environmental Science Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaliski, Pamela K.; Wind, Stefanie A.; Engelhard, George, Jr.; Morgan, Deanna L.; Plake, Barbara S.; Reshetar, Rosemary A.

    2013-01-01

    The many-faceted Rasch (MFR) model has been used to evaluate the quality of ratings on constructed response assessments; however, it can also be used to evaluate the quality of judgments from panel-based standard setting procedures. The current study illustrates the use of the MFR model for examining the quality of ratings obtained from a standard…

  13. Suicide Triggers Described by Herodotus

    PubMed Central

    Auchincloss, Stephane; Ahmadi, Jamshid

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to better understand the triggers of suicide, particularly among the ancient Greek and Persian soldiers and commanders. Method: ‘Herodotus:TheHistories’ is a history of the rulers and soldiery who participated in the Greco-Persian wars (492-449 BCE). A new translation (2013) of this manuscript was studied. Accounts of suicide were collected and collated, with descriptions of circumstances, methods, and probable triggers. Results: Nine accounts of suicide were identified. Eight of these were named individuals (4 Greeks and 4 Persians); of whom, seven were male. Only one (not the female) appeared to act in response to a mental disorder. Other triggers of suicide included guilt, avoidance of dishonour/punishment and altruism. Cutting/ stabbing was the most common method; others included hanging, jumping, poison, and burning (the single female). Conclusion: While soldiers at a time of war do not reflect the general community, they are nevertheless members of their society. Thus, this evidence demonstrates that suicide triggered by burdensome circumstances (in addition to mental disorder) was known to the Greek and Persian people more than two millennia ago. PMID:27437010

  14. Triggering Reform at Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Andrew P.

    2012-01-01

    An intriguing experiment is afoot in some of the nation's struggling public schools. New "Parent Trigger" laws passed in California and on the agenda in New York, Ohio, Colorado, and Chicago, allow parents of chronically failing schools to unseat the schools' leadership and staff. But the initiative has pitfalls. It's easy to mobilize parents to…

  15. Host defenses trigger salmonella's arsenal.

    PubMed

    Keestra, A Marijke; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2011-03-17

    Salmonella survives in macrophages by using a molecular syringe to deliver proteins into the host-cell cytosol where they manipulate phagocyte physiology. Arpaia and colleagues (Arpaia et al., 2011) show that deployment of this virulence factor is triggered by the very responses that are intended to confer host resistance. PMID:21402352

  16. A Parameterization for the Triggering of Landscape Generated Moist Convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynn, Barry H.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Abramopoulos, Frank

    1998-01-01

    A set of relatively high resolution three-dimensional (3D) simulations were produced to investigate the triggering of moist convection by landscape generated mesoscale circulations. The local accumulated rainfall varied monotonically (linearly) with the size of individual landscape patches, demonstrating the need to develop a trigger function that is sensitive to the size of individual patches. A new triggering function that includes the effect of landscapes generated mesoscale circulations over patches of different sizes consists of a parcel's perturbation in vertical velocity (nu(sub 0)), temperature (theta(sub 0)), and moisture (q(sub 0)). Each variable in the triggering function was also sensitive to soil moisture gradients, atmospheric initial conditions, and moist processes. The parcel's vertical velocity, temperature, and moisture perturbation were partitioned into mesoscale and turbulent components. Budget equations were derived for theta(sub 0) and q(sub 0). Of the many terms in this set of budget equations, the turbulent, vertical flux of the mesoscale temperature and moisture contributed most to the triggering of moist convection through the impact of these fluxes on the parcel's temperature and moisture profile. These fluxes needed to be parameterized to obtain theta(sub 0) and q(sub 0). The mesoscale vertical velocity also affected the profile of nu(sub 0). We used similarity theory to parameterize these fluxes as well as the parcel's mesoscale vertical velocity.

  17. Text Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents annotations of approximately 30 titles grouped in text sets. Defines a text set as five to ten books on a particular topic or theme. Discusses books on the following topics: living creatures; pirates; physical appearance; natural disasters; and the Irish potato famine. (SG)

  18. Spatial Distributions of Foreshocks and Aftershocks: Static or Dynamic Triggering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, M. J.; Rubin, A. M.

    2012-04-01

    change from much earlier but nearby large (m>5) quakes, suggesting that a misattribution of aftershocks statically triggered by large quakes as remotely-triggered aftershocks seems unlikely. An analysis of the Japanese JMA catalog supports some of these results, but not all. In particular, while the full data set suggests remote triggering of aftershocks by small (m<4) mainshocks out to 15 km, a high-quality onshore data subset with low residual timing errors does not support remote triggering at all. However, if the remote triggering signal in the full JMA catalog is spurious and instead due to temporally larger location uncertainties after moderate earthquakes, these uncertainties need to persist beyond the first 10 minutes after each (3

  19. Radiation-Triggered Surveillance for UF6 Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, Michael M.

    2015-12-01

    This paper recommends the use of radiation detectors, singly or in sets, to trigger surveillance cameras. Ideally, the cameras will monitor cylinders transiting the process area as well as the process area itself. The general process area will be surveyed to record how many cylinders have been attached and detached to the process between inspections. Rad-triggered cameras can dramatically reduce the quantity of recorded images, because the movement of personnel and equipment not involving UF6 cylinders will not generate a surveillance review file.

  20. Trigger Finger: Adult and Pediatric Treatment Strategies.

    PubMed

    Giugale, Juan M; Fowler, John R

    2015-10-01

    Trigger fingers are common tendinopathies representing a stenosing flexor tenosynovitis of the fingers. Adult trigger finger can be treated nonsurgically using activity modification, splinting, and/or corticosteroid injections. Surgical treatment options include percutaneous A1 pulley release and open A1 pulley release. Excision of a slip of the flexor digitorum superficialis is reserved for patients with persistent triggering despite A1 release or patients with persistent flexion contracture. Pediatric trigger thumb is treated with open A1 pulley release. Pediatric trigger finger is treated with release of the A1 pulley with excision of a slip or all of the flexor digitorum superficialis if triggering persists. PMID:26410644

  1. Method for triggering an action

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Bartholomew, David B.; Johnson, Monte L.; Moon, Justin; Koehler, Roger O.

    2006-10-17

    A method for triggering an action of at least one downhole device on a downhole network integrated into a downhole tool string synchronized to an event comprises determining latency, sending a latency adjusted signal, and performing the action. The latency is determined between a control device and the at least one downhole device. The latency adjusted signal for triggering an action is sent to the downhole device. The action is performed downhole synchronized to the event. A preferred method for determining latency comprises the steps: a control device sends a first signal to the downhole device; after receiving the signal, the downhole device sends a response signal to the control device; and the control device analyzes the time from sending the signal to receiving the response signal.

  2. The CDF silicon vertex trigger

    SciTech Connect

    B. Ashmanskas; A. Barchiesi; A. Bardi

    2003-06-23

    The CDF experiment's Silicon Vertex Trigger is a system of 150 custom 9U VME boards that reconstructs axial tracks in the CDF silicon strip detector in a 15 {mu}sec pipeline. SVT's 35 {mu}m impact parameter resolution enables CDF's Level 2 trigger to distinguish primary and secondary particles, and hence to collect large samples of hadronic bottom and charm decays. We review some of SVT's key design features. Speed is achieved with custom VLSI pattern recognition, linearized track fitting, pipelining, and parallel processing. Testing and reliability are aided by built-in logic state analysis and test-data sourcing at each board's input and output, a common inter-board data link, and a universal ''Merger'' board for data fan-in/fan-out. Speed and adaptability are enhanced by use of modern FPGAs.

  3. Stimulus conflict triggers behavioral avoidance.

    PubMed

    Dignath, David; Eder, Andreas B

    2015-12-01

    According to a recent extension of the conflict-monitoring theory, conflict between two competing response tendencies is registered as an aversive event and triggers a motivation to avoid the source of conflict. In the present study, we tested this assumption. Over five experiments, we examined whether conflict is associated with an avoidance motivation and whether stimulus conflict or response conflict triggers an avoidance tendency. Participants first performed a color Stroop task. In a subsequent motivation test, participants responded to Stroop stimuli with approach- and avoidance-related lever movements. These results showed that Stroop-conflict stimuli increased the frequency of avoidance responses in a free-choice motivation test, and also increased the speed of avoidance relative to approach responses in a forced-choice test. High and low proportions of response conflict in the Stroop task had no effect on avoidance in the motivation test. Avoidance of conflict was, however, obtained even with new conflict stimuli that had not been presented before in a Stroop task, and when the Stroop task was replaced with an unrelated filler task. Taken together, these results suggest that stimulus conflict is sufficient to trigger avoidance.

  4. Stimulus conflict triggers behavioral avoidance.

    PubMed

    Dignath, David; Eder, Andreas B

    2015-12-01

    According to a recent extension of the conflict-monitoring theory, conflict between two competing response tendencies is registered as an aversive event and triggers a motivation to avoid the source of conflict. In the present study, we tested this assumption. Over five experiments, we examined whether conflict is associated with an avoidance motivation and whether stimulus conflict or response conflict triggers an avoidance tendency. Participants first performed a color Stroop task. In a subsequent motivation test, participants responded to Stroop stimuli with approach- and avoidance-related lever movements. These results showed that Stroop-conflict stimuli increased the frequency of avoidance responses in a free-choice motivation test, and also increased the speed of avoidance relative to approach responses in a forced-choice test. High and low proportions of response conflict in the Stroop task had no effect on avoidance in the motivation test. Avoidance of conflict was, however, obtained even with new conflict stimuli that had not been presented before in a Stroop task, and when the Stroop task was replaced with an unrelated filler task. Taken together, these results suggest that stimulus conflict is sufficient to trigger avoidance. PMID:25931151

  5. On the sensitivity of transtensional versus transpressional tectonic regimes to remote dynamic triggering by Coulomb failure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, David P.

    2015-01-01

     Accumulating evidence, although still strongly spatially aliased, indicates that although remote dynamic triggering of small-to-moderate (Mw<5) earthquakes can occur in all tectonic settings, transtensional stress regimes with normal and subsidiary strike-slip faulting seem to be more susceptible to dynamic triggering than transpressional regimes with reverse and subsidiary strike-slip faulting. Analysis of the triggering potential of Love- and Rayleigh-wave dynamic stresses incident on normal, reverse, and strike-slip faults assuming Andersonian faulting theory and simple Coulomb failure supports this apparent difference for rapid-onset triggering susceptibility.

  6. Initial results from a mesoscale atmospheric simulation system and comparisons with the AVE-SESAME I data set. [Atmospheric Variability Experiment-Severe Environmental Storms And Mesoscale Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, M. L.; Zack, J. W.; Wong, V. C.; Tuccillo, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    The development of a comprehensive mesoscale atmospheric simulation system (MASS) is described in detail. The modeling system is designed for both research and real-time forecast applications. The 14-level numerical model, which has a 48 km grid mesh, can be run over most of North America and the adjacent oceanic regions. The model employs sixth-order accurate numerics, generalized similarity theory boundary-layer physics, a sophisticated cumulus parameterization scheme, and state of the art analysis and initialization techniques. Examples of model output on the synoptic and subsynoptic scales are presented for the AVE-SESAME I field experiment on 10-11 April 1979. The model output is subjectively compared to the observational analysis and the LFM II output on the synoptic scale. Subsynoptic model output is compared to analyses generated from the AVE-SESAME I data set.

  7. Ichnological evidence for the environmental setting of the Fossil-Lagerstätten in the Devonian Hunsrück Slate, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutcliffe, Owen E.; Briggs, Derek E. G.; Bartels, Christoph

    1999-03-01

    Analysis of the ichnology and sedimentology of the Lower Devonian Hunsrück Slate, Germany, reveals that the distribution and preservation of the famous pyritized fauna were controlled by the deposition of fine-grained turbidites that formed a firm substrate. The nature of this substrate is evidenced by the preservation of laminae and the finest details of arthropod trackways. The trace fossils are dominated by two ecological groups: those made by epifaunal organisms and those involving burrow systems connected to the sediment-water interface. Trace makers that moved through the sediment are poorly represented. The diversity of in situ body fossils and epifaunal traces confirms that conditions within the water column remained well oxygenated, even though the sediment rapidly became inhospitable. The Hunsrück Slate Konservat-Lagerstätten are remarkable in preserving soft tissues where unusual geochemical conditions prevailed in the environment where the animals lived, rather than following transport to a different setting.

  8. Environmental implications of plastic debris in marine settings--entanglement, ingestion, smothering, hangers-on, hitch-hiking and alien invasions.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Murray R

    2009-07-27

    Over the past five or six decades, contamination and pollution of the world's enclosed seas, coastal waters and the wider open oceans by plastics and other synthetic, non-biodegradable materials (generally known as 'marine debris') has been an ever-increasing phenomenon. The sources of these polluting materials are both land- and marine-based, their origins may be local or distant, and the environmental consequences are many and varied. The more widely recognized problems are typically associated with entanglement, ingestion, suffocation and general debilitation, and are often related to stranding events and public perception. Among the less frequently recognized and recorded problems are global hazards to shipping, fisheries and other maritime activities. Today, there are rapidly developing research interests in the biota attracted to freely floating (i.e. pelagic) marine debris, commonly known as 'hangers-on and hitch-hikers' as well as material sinking to the sea floor despite being buoyant. Dispersal of aggressive alien and invasive species by these mechanisms leads one to reflect on the possibilities that ensuing invasions could endanger sensitive, or at-risk coastal environments (both marine and terrestrial) far from their native habitats.

  9. Research on Dynamic Stress Triggering at Chinese North-South Seismic Belt in Recent Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B.

    2012-12-01

    geologic structure. The research on seismic dynamic stress is complicated, for it is affected by so many factors: the main earthquake parameters and the structure of triggered area with the time delay problem at the same time. The main earthquake parameters have huge effect when we calculated stress tensor in the triggered point. Three key elements of change fault (rake, dip angle and slide angle), breaking time and rising time have great effect on the final result and trend of the dynamic stress. The change of the main seismic moment and the size of the seismic fault only affect the result of calculation, but the trend does not change. The change of most main earthquakes' parameters can affect the final result, so we must get much more accurate parameters when calculating the dynamic stress changing produced by earthquakes. Besides, tectonic setting also has great effect on the earthquake dynamic triggering. Studying indicates that most triggered earthquakes happened in geothermal or volcanic area and extension blocks. We also find a little of triggered earthquakes in nobbing blocks. Strike-slip and normal fault earthquakes are more easily triggered by dynamic stress. Seismic activity will be triggered not long before strong shocks surface wave arrived at triggered area, but lots of triggered earthquakes have time delay, the time may range from several days to several weeks.

  10. Environmental setting, water quality, and ecological indicators of surface-water quality in the Mermentau River Basin, southwestern Louisiana, 1998-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skrobialowski, Stanley C.; Mize, Scott V.; Demcheck, Dennis K.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected data from 29 wells and 24 surface-water sites in the Mermentau River Basin, 1998-2001, to better understand ground-water and surface-water quality; aquatic invertebrate communities; and habitat conditions, in relation to land use. This study was apart of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, which was designed to assess water quality as it relates to various land uses. Water-quality data were evaluated with criteria established for the protection of drinking water and aquatic life, and bed-sediment data were compared to aquatic life criteria. Water-quality and ecological data were analyzed statistically in relation to drainage area and agricultural land-use integrity. Concentrations of nutrients and major inorganic ions in ground water and surface water generally were highest in the southeastern part of the study area where soils contain thick loess deposits. Peak concentrations of nutrients in surface water occurred March-may at two sites with high agricultural intensity; the lowest concentrations occurred August-January. The greatest potential for eutrophic conditions in surface water, based on nutrient concentrations, existed March-May, at about the same time or shortly after ricefields were drained. Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) were exceeded for sulfate, chloride, iron, or manganese in samples from 20 wells, and for iron or manganese in samples from all surface-water sites. Fewer pesticides were detected in ground water than in surface water. In 11 of of the 29 wells sampled, at least one pesticide or pesticide degradation product was detected. The most frequently detected pesticides or pesticide degradation products in ground water were the herbicides benzaton and atrazine. Concentrations of 47 pesticides and degradation products were detected in surface water. At least 3 pesticides were detected in all surface-water samples. In 72 percent of

  11. The central trigger control system of the CMS experiment at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taurok, A.; Arnold, B.; Bergauer, H.; Eichberger, M.; Erö, J.; Hartl, Ch; Jeitler, M.; Kastner, K.; Mikulec, I.; Neuherz, B.; Padrta, M.; Sakulin, H.; Strauss, J.; Wulz, C.-E.; Varela, J.; Smith, W. H.

    2011-03-01

    The Large Hadron Collider will deliver up to 32 million physics collisions per second. This rate is far too high to be processed by present-day computer farms, let alone stored on disk by the experiments for offline analysis. A fast selection of interesting events must therefore be made. In the CMS experiment, this is implemented in two stages: the Level-1 Trigger of the CMS experiment uses custom-made, fast electronics, while the experiment's high-level trigger is implemented in computer farms. The Level-1 Global Trigger electronics has to receive signals from the subdetector systems that enter the trigger (mostly from muon detectors and calorimeters), synchronize them, determine if a pre-set trigger condition is fulfilled, check if the various subsystems are ready to accept triggers based on information from the Trigger Throttling System and on calculations of possible dead-times, and finally distribute the trigger decision (``Level-1 Accept'') together with timing signals to the subdetectors over the so-called ``Trigger, Timing and Control'' distribution tree of the experiment. These functions are fulfilled by several specialized, custom-made VME modules, most of which are housed in one crate. The overall control is exerted by the central ``Trigger Control System'', which is described in this paper. It consists of one main module and several ancillary boards for input and output functions.

  12. Structural and functional diversity of Nematoda in relation with environmental variables in the Setúbal and Cascais canyons, Western Iberian Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingels, Jeroen; Billett, David S. M.; Kiriakoulakis, Konstadinos; Wolff, George A.; Vanreusel, Ann

    2011-12-01

    Samples collected at two different depths (ca. 3200 and ca. 4200 m) in the Setúbal and Cascais canyons off the Portuguese coast, during the HERMES RRS Charles Darwin cruise CD179, were analysed for (1) sediment biogeochemistry (TOC, TN) and (2) composition, and structural and trophic diversity of nematode communities. Multivariate PERMANOVA analysis on the nematode community data revealed differences between sediment layers that were greater than differences between canyons, water depths, and stations. This suggests that biogeochemical gradients along the vertical sediment profile are crucial in determining nematode community structure. The interaction between canyon conditions and the nematode community is illustrated by biogeochemical patterns in the sediment and the prevalence of nematode genera that are able to persist in disturbed sediments. Trophic analysis of the nematode community indicated that non-selective deposit feeders are dominant, presumably because of their non-selective feeding behaviour compared to other feeding types, which gives them a competitive advantage in exploiting lower-quality food resources. This study presents a preliminary conceptual scheme for interactions between canyon conditions and the resident fauna.

  13. Autism and environmental influences: review and commentary.

    PubMed

    Bello, Scott C

    2007-01-01

    Progress has been slow in identifying pre- and post-natal environmental exposures that might trigger the features that characterize autism. During the past thirty years, research in the field of autism has been conducted in a setting in which diagnostic criteria for this condition have changed and broadened, and differences of opinion regarding diagnostic issues and diagnostic terminology continue. The documented prevalence of all forms of autism has increased steadily during this time, suggesting one or more environmental contributors. Not established, however, is whether an increasing incidence of autism is responsible for increasing prevalence. The increase in documented prevalence could result from expanding and changing case definitions and increased reporting due to increased awareness on the part of professionals who work with children and by the public. This review provides a background for the evolving story of autism and describes the research on the relation between autism and the environment, with a particular focus on some of the more recently proposed environmental triggers. Critical analysis of this body of scientific research in a historical framework helps to explain the often controversial nature of the proposed relations between autism and environmental factors, as well as to rationalize some of the pitfalls in research design and in the often questionable interpretation of data so obtained.

  14. An experimental comparison of triggered and random pulse train uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Henzlova, Daniela; Menlove, Howard O; Swinhoe, Martyn T

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present an experimental comparison of signal-triggered and randomly triggered based analysis algorithms of neutron multiplicity data. Traditional shift register type signal-triggered multiplicity analysis of singles, doubles and triples rates is compared with analysis using randomly triggered gates. Two methods of random gate generation are explored - non-overlapping gates (Feyrunan approach) and periodic overlapping gates (fast accidentals). Using californium sources with low, medium and high rate in combination with AmLi sources (as a surrogate for plutonium) we investigate relative standard deviation (RSD) of data in order to determine if there are parameter spaces in which one of the measurement methods should be preferred. Neutron correlation analysis is a commonly used NDA technique to assay plutonium mass. The data can be collected in two distinct ways: using signal-triggered or randomly triggered counting gates. Analysis algorithms were developed for both approaches to determine singles (S), doubles (D) and triples (7) rates from the measured sample. Currently the most commonly implemented technique to collect neutron coincidence data utilizes shift register based electronics. Shift register uses signal-triggered counting gates to generate foreground multiplicity distribution of correlated+accidental events and a random gate (opened after a predefined long delay following the signal trigger) to generate background multiplicity distribution of accidental events. Modern shift registers include fast accidental option to sample data with a fixed clock frequency. This way a set of overlapping gates is used to generate background multiplicity distributions in order to improve the measurement precision. In parallel to shift register approach the Feynman variance technique is frequently used, which utilizes set of consecutive non-overlapping gates. In general, different user communities (e.g. safeguards, nuclear material accountancy, emergency

  15. Infrasonic Observations from Triggered Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arechiga, R. O.; Johnson, J. B.; Edens, H. E.; Rison, W.; Thomas, R. J.; Eack, K.; Eastvedt, E. M.

    2009-12-01

    We measured acoustic signals during both triggered and natural lightning. A comparative analysis of simultaneous data from the Lightning Mapping Array (LMA), acoustic measurements and digital high-speed photography operating in the same area was made. Acoustic emissions, providing quantitative estimates of acoustic power and spectral content, will complement coincident investigations, such as X-ray emissions. Most cloud-to-ground lightning flashes lower negative charge to ground, but flashes that lower positive charge to ground are often unusually destructive and are less understood. The New Mexico Tech Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) locates the sources of impulsive RF radiation produced by lightning flashes in three spatial dimensions and time, operating in the 60 - 66 MHz television band. However, positive breakdown is rarely detected by the LMA and positive leader channels are outlined only by recoil events. Positive cloud-to-ground (CG) channels are usually not mapped (or partially mapped because they may have recoil events). Acoustic and electric field instruments are a good complement to the LMA, since they can detect both negative and positive leaders. An array of five stations was deployed during the Summer of 2009 (July 20 to August 13) in the Magdalena mountains of New Mexico, to monitor infrasound (below 20 Hz) and audio range sources due to natural and triggered lightning. The stations were located at close (57 m), medium (303 and 537 m) and far (1403 and 2556 m) distances surrounding the triggering site. Each station consisted of five sensors, one infrasonic and one in the audio range at the center, and three infrasonic in a triangular configuration. This research will provide a more complete picture, and provide further insight into the nature of lightning.

  16. Individual and interpersonal triggers to quit smoking in China: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Im, Pek Kei; McNeill, Ann; Thompson, Mary E.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Xu, Steve; Quah, Anne C. K.; Jiang, Yuan; Shahab, Lion

    2015-01-01

    Aims To determine the most prominent individual and interpersonal triggers to quit smoking in China and their associations with socio-demographic characteristics. Methods Data come from Waves 1-3 (2006-2009) of the ITC China Survey, analysed cross-sectionally as person-waves (N=14,358). Measures included socio-demographic and smoking characteristics. Those who quit between waves (4.3%) were asked about triggers that “very much” led them to stop smoking, and continuing smokers about triggers that “very much” made them think about quitting. Triggers covered individual (personal health concerns, cigarette price, smoking restrictions, advertisements, warning labels) and interpersonal factors (family/societal disapproval of smoking, setting an example to children, concerns about second-hand smoke). Results Over a third of respondents (34.9%) endorsed at least one trigger strongly; quitters were more likely than smokers to mention any trigger. While similar proportions of smokers endorsed individual (24.4%) and interpersonal triggers (24.0%), quitters endorsed more individual (61.1%) than interpersonal (48.3%) triggers. However, the most common triggers (‘personal health concerns’; ‘setting an example to children’) were the same, endorsed by two-thirds of quitters and a quarter of smokers, as were the least common triggers (‘warning labels’; ‘cigarette price’), endorsed by one in ten quitters and one in twenty smokers. Lower dependence among smokers and greater education among all respondents were associated with endorsing any trigger. Conclusions Individual rather than interpersonal triggers appear more important for quitters. Major opportunities to motivate quit attempts are missed in China, particularly with regard to taxation and risk communication. Interventions need to focus on more dependent and less-educated smokers. PMID:25888422

  17. Factors controlling present-day tufa dynamics in the Monasterio de Piedra Natural Park (Iberian Range, Spain): depositional environmental settings, sedimentation rates and hydrochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez-Urbez, M.; Arenas, C.; Sancho, C.; Osácar, C.; Auqué, L.; Pardo, G.

    2010-07-01

    The tufa record and hydrochemical characteristics of the River Piedra in the Monasterio de Piedra Natural Park (NE Spain) were studied for 6 years. The mean discharge of this river was 1.22 m3/s. The water was supersaturated with calcium carbonate. The HCO3 -, Ca2+ and TDIC concentrations decreased along the 0.5-km-long studied stretch, whereas the calcite SI showed no systematic downstream or seasonal variation over the same stretch. Several sedimentary subenvironments exist in which four broad types of tufa facies form: (1) Dense laminated tufa (stromatolites), (2) Dense to porous, massive tufa, (3) Porous, coarsely laminated tufa with bryophytes and algae, and (4) Dense, hard, laminated deposits in caves. The half-yearly period thickness and weight of sediment accumulated on 14 tablets installed in several subenvironments showed that the deposition rate was greater in fast flowing river areas and in stepped waterfalls, and lower in slow flowing or standing river areas and in spray and splash areas. Mechanical CO2 outgassing is the main factor controlling calcite precipitation on the river bed and in waterfalls, but this process does not explain the seasonal changes in depositional rates. The deposition rates showed a half-yearly period pattern recorded in all fluvial subenvironments persistent over time (5.26 mm, 0.86 g/cm2 in warm periods; 2.26 mm, 0.13 g/cm2 in cool periods). Mass balance calculations showed higher calcite mass values in warm (21.58 mg/L) than in cool (13.68 mg/L) periods. This biannual variation is mainly attributed to the seasonal differences in temperature that caused changes in inorganic calcite precipitation rate and in biomass and the correlative photosynthetic activity. Tufa sedimentation was therefore controlled by both physicochemical and biological processes. The results of this study may help test depositional rates and their environmental controls and thus assess the climatic and hydrological significance of ancient tufas in semi

  18. Growth Dynamics of the Threatened Caribbean Staghorn Coral Acropora cervicornis: Influence of Host Genotype, Symbiont Identity, Colony Size, and Environmental Setting

    PubMed Central

    Lirman, Diego; Schopmeyer, Stephanie; Galvan, Victor; Drury, Crawford; Baker, Andrew C.; Baums, Iliana B.

    2014-01-01

    Background The drastic decline in the abundance of Caribbean acroporid corals (Acropora cervicornis, A. palmata) has prompted the listing of this genus as threatened as well as the development of a regional propagation and restoration program. Using in situ underwater nurseries, we documented the influence of coral genotype and symbiont identity, colony size, and propagation method on the growth and branching patterns of staghorn corals in Florida and the Dominican Republic. Methodology/Principal Findings Individual tracking of> 1700 nursery-grown staghorn fragments and colonies from 37 distinct genotypes (identified using microsatellites) in Florida and the Dominican Republic revealed a significant positive relationship between size and growth, but a decreasing rate of productivity with increasing size. Pruning vigor (enhanced growth after fragmentation) was documented even in colonies that lost 95% of their coral tissue/skeleton, indicating that high productivity can be maintained within nurseries by sequentially fragmenting corals. A significant effect of coral genotype was documented for corals grown in a common-garden setting, with fast-growing genotypes growing up to an order of magnitude faster than slow-growing genotypes. Algal-symbiont identity established using qPCR techniques showed that clade A (likely Symbiodinium A3) was the dominant symbiont type for all coral genotypes, except for one coral genotype in the DR and two in Florida that were dominated by clade C, with A- and C-dominated genotypes having similar growth rates. Conclusion/Significance The threatened Caribbean staghorn coral is capable of extremely fast growth, with annual productivity rates exceeding 5 cm of new coral produced for every cm of existing coral. This species benefits from high fragment survivorship coupled by the pruning vigor experienced by the parent colonies after fragmentation. These life-history characteristics make A. cervicornis a successful candidate nursery species

  19. Laser-triggered vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Brannon, Paul J.; Cowgill, Donald F.

    1990-01-01

    A laser-triggered vacuum switch has a material such as a alkali metal halide on the cathode electrode for thermally activated field emission of electrons and ions upon interaction with a laser beam, the material being in contact with the cathode with a surface facing the discharge gap. The material is preferably a mixture of KCl and Ti powders. The laser may either shine directly on the material, preferably through a hole in the anode, or be directed to the material over a fiber optic cable.

  20. Star formation and its triggers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combes, F.

    2016-06-01

    The relation between star formation and gas density appears linear for galaxies on the main sequence, and when the molecular gas is considered. However, the star formation efficiency (SFE) defined as the ratio of SFR to gas surface densities, can be much higher when SF is triggered by a dynamical process such as galaxy interaction or mergers, or even secular evolution and cold gas accretion. I review recent work showing how the SFE can vary as a function of morphological type, environment, or redshift. Physical processes able to explain positive and negative feedback from supernovae or AGN are discussed.

  1. SETS. Set Equation Transformation System

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, R.B.

    1992-01-13

    SETS is used for symbolic manipulation of Boolean equations, particularly the reduction of equations by the application of Boolean identities. It is a flexible and efficient tool for performing probabilistic risk analysis (PRA), vital area analysis, and common cause analysis. The equation manipulation capabilities of SETS can also be used to analyze noncoherent fault trees and determine prime implicants of Boolean functions, to verify circuit design implementation, to determine minimum cost fire protection requirements for nuclear reactor plants, to obtain solutions to combinatorial optimization problems with Boolean constraints, and to determine the susceptibility of a facility to unauthorized access through nullification of sensors in its protection system.

  2. Setting standards: Legislative proposals

    SciTech Connect

    Pontius, F.W.

    1995-11-01

    This article, second of a two-part series examining the standard-setting process reviews legislative proposals that would change the way drinking water standards are set. How drinking water standards should be set and which contaminants should be regulated is a central issue for Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) reauthorization. Suggested amendments to the standard-setting provisions of the SDWA cover a broad spectrum of issues. In general, environmental groups argue that standards are not strict enough and that greater consideration should be given to sensitive subpopulations. Others note that the high costs associated with meeting increasingly strict standards are not justified in light of the uncertain and sometimes nonexistent incremental benefits.

  3. Dynamic Triggering of Microseismic Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, H.; Van der Baan, M.

    2015-12-01

    Microseismic events are commonly recorded during hydraulic fracturing experiments. In microseismic interpretations, each event is often regarded as independent and uncorrelated to neighboring ones. In reality, both the rock deformation (static stresses) and transient wave motion (dynamic stresses) associated with microseismic events add to the stress field together with the external loading (fluid injection). We believe the resulting static and dynamic stress perturbations will influence both the timing and spatial evolution of the microseismic cloud. We study the dynamic triggering of microseismicity using numerical simulations of a biaxial deformation test by means of a bonded particle method (Potyondy and Cundall, 2004), where crack development can be tracked and analyzed independently. Our methodology is to compare the stress changes due to one specific event with the occurrence of the next few events in the numerical simulations. In addition, we compute the dynamic stress perturbations for recorded large events analytically given their (non-double couple) failure mechanisms. Our results show that cracks following a major event tend to form in zones affected by the dynamic stresses by promoting new failure in areas that are critically stressed. This confirms that dynamic triggering during hydraulic fracturing operations but also larger scale seismicity is likely. It also demonstrates the often complex interplay between the dynamic and static stress changes and their effect on the temporal and spatial evolution of rock deformation at all scales.

  4. XI UV Laser Trigger System

    SciTech Connect

    Brickeen, B.K.; Morelli, G.L.; Paiva, R.A.; Powell, C.A.; Sundvold, P.D.

    1999-01-26

    The X1 accelerator project at Sandia National Laboratory/New Mexico utilizes SF6 insulated, multi-stage, UV laser triggered gas switches. A 265 nm UV laser system was designed and built to generate eight simultaneous output pulses of 10 mJ each with a 13 nsec pulse width. A 1061 nm solid-state Nd:Cr:GSGG laser was frequency quadrupled using a two-stage doubling process. The 1061 nm fundamental laser energy was frequency doubled with a KTP crystal to 530 nm, achieving 65% conversion efficiency. The 530 nm output was frequency doubled with KD*P crystal to 265 nm, achieving conversion efficiency of 31%. The 265 nm beam pulse was split into eight parallel channels with a system of partially reflecting mirrors. Low timing jitter and stable energy output were achieved. The entire optical system was packaged into a rugged, o-ring sealed, aluminum structure 10''x19''x2.75''. The size of the electronics was 12''x8''x8''. Subsequent accelerator system requirements dictated a redesign of the triggering system for an output beam with less angular divergence. An unstable, crossed porro prism resonator was designed and incorporated into the system. The beam divergence of the redesigned system was successfully decreased to 0.97 mrad in the UV. The resulting frequency doubling efficiencies were 55% to 530 nm and 25% to 265 nm. The optical output remained at 10 mJ in each channel with an 11 nsec pulse width.

  5. Landslides triggered by the earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Harp, E.L.; Keefer, D.K.

    1990-01-01

    The May 2 earthquake triggered landslides numbering in the thousands. Most numerous were rockfalls and rockslides that occurred mainly on slopes steeper than 60{degree} within sandstone, siltstone, and shale units of Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary strata. Soil falls from cutbank slopes along streams were also numerous. Seven slumps in natural slopes were triggered, and minor liquefaction-induced lateral-spread failures occurred along Los Gatos Creek. Rockfalls and rockslides occurred as far as 34 km northwest, 15 km south, and 26 km southwest of the epicenter. There were few slope failures to the east of the epicenter, owing to the absence of steep slopes in that direction. Throughout the area affected, rockfalls and rockslides were concentrated on southwest-facing slopes; the failures on slopes facing in the southwest quadrant accounted for as much as 93% of all failures in some areas. Rockfalls and rockslides from ridge crests were predominantly from sandstone units. Along steeply incised canyons, however, failures in shale and siltstone units were also common. Small rockslides and soil slides occurred from cut slopes above oil-well pump pads in the oil fields; slumps were common in the outer parts of steep fill slopes of the pump pads. The distribution of seismically induced landslides throughout the entire earthquake-affected area was mapped from true-color airphotos taken on May 3, 1985.

  6. What triggers coronal mass ejections ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulanier, Guillaume

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are large clouds of highly magnetized plasma. They are ac-celerated from the solar atmosphere into interplanetary space by the Lorentz force, which is associated to their strong current-carrying magnetic fields. Both theory and observations lead to the inevitable conclusion that the launch of a CME must result from the sudden release of free magnetic energy, which has slowly been accumulated in the corona for a long time before the eruption. Since the incomplete, but seminal, loss-of-equilibrium model was proposed by van Tend and Kuperus (1978), a large variety of analytical and numerical storage-and-release MHD models has been put forward in the past 20 years or so. All these models rely on the slow increase of currents and/or the slow decrease of the restraining magnetic tension preceding the eruption. But they all put the emphazis on different physical mechanisms to achieve this preeruptive evolution, and to suddenly trigger and later drive a CME. Nevertheless, all these models actually share many common features, which all describe many individual observed aspects of solar eruptions. It is therefore not always clear which of all the suggested mecha-nisms do really account for the triggering of observed CMEs in general. Also, these mechanisms should arguably not be as numerous as the models themselves, owing to the common occurence of CMEs. In order to shed some light on this challenging, but unripe, topic, I will attempt to rediscuss the applicability of the models to the Sun, and to rethink the most sensitive ones in a common frame, so as to find their common denominator. I will elaborate on the idea that many of the proposed triggering mechanisms may actually only be considered as different ways to apply a "last push", which puts the system beyond its eruptive threshold. I will argue that, in most cases, the eruptive threshold is determined by the vertical gradient of the magnetic field in the low-β corona, just like the usual

  7. Episodic tremor triggers small earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-08-01

    It has been suggested that episodic tremor and slip (ETS), the weak shaking not associated with measurable earthquakes, could trigger nearby earthquakes. However, this had not been confirmed until recently. Vidale et al. monitored seismicity in the 4-month period around a 16-day episode of episodic tremor and slip in March 2010 in the Cascadia region. They observed five small earthquakes within the subducting slab during the ETS episode. They found that the timing and locations of earthquakes near the tremor suggest that the tremor and earthquakes are related. Furthermore, they observed that the rate of earthquakes across the area was several times higher within 2 days of tremor activity than at other times, adding to evidence of a connection between tremor and earthquakes. (Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, doi:10.1029/2011GC003559, 2011)

  8. Tail reconnection triggering substorm onset.

    PubMed

    Angelopoulos, Vassilis; McFadden, James P; Larson, Davin; Carlson, Charles W; Mende, Stephen B; Frey, Harald; Phan, Tai; Sibeck, David G; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz; Auster, Uli; Donovan, Eric; Mann, Ian R; Rae, I Jonathan; Russell, Christopher T; Runov, Andrei; Zhou, Xu-Zhi; Kepko, Larry

    2008-08-15

    Magnetospheric substorms explosively release solar wind energy previously stored in Earth's magnetotail, encompassing the entire magnetosphere and producing spectacular auroral displays. It has been unclear whether a substorm is triggered by a disruption of the electrical current flowing across the near-Earth magnetotail, at approximately 10 R(E) (R(E): Earth radius, or 6374 kilometers), or by the process of magnetic reconnection typically seen farther out in the magnetotail, at approximately 20 to 30 R(E). We report on simultaneous measurements in the magnetotail at multiple distances, at the time of substorm onset. Reconnection was observed at 20 R(E), at least 1.5 minutes before auroral intensification, at least 2 minutes before substorm expansion, and about 3 minutes before near-Earth current disruption. These results demonstrate that substorms are likely initiated by tail reconnection. PMID:18653845

  9. Bars Triggered By Galaxy Flybys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Lang, Meagan; Sinha, Manodeep

    2015-05-01

    Galaxy mergers drive galaxy evolution and are a key mechanism by which galaxies grow and transform. Unlike galaxy mergers where two galaxies combine into one remnant, galaxy flybys occur when two independent galaxy halos interpenetrate but detach at a later time; these one-time events are surprisingly common and can even out-number galaxy mergers at low redshift for massive halos. Although these interactions are transient and occur far outside the galaxy disk, flybys can still drive a rapid and large pertubations within both the intruder and victim halos. We explored how flyby encounters can transform each galaxy using a suite of N-body simulations. We present results from three co-planar flybys between disk galaxies, demonstrating that flybys can both trigger strong bar formation and can spin-up dark matter halos.

  10. A Mechanochemically Triggered "Click" Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Michael, Philipp; Binder, Wolfgang H

    2015-11-16

    "Click" chemistry represents one of the most powerful approaches for linking molecules in chemistry and materials science. Triggering this reaction by mechanical force would enable site- and stress-specific "click" reactions--a hitherto unreported observation. We introduce the design and realization of a homogeneous Cu catalyst able to activate through mechanical force when attached to suitable polymer chains, acting as a lever to transmit the force to the central catalytic system. Activation of the subsequent copper-catalyzed "click" reaction (CuAAC) is achieved either by ultrasonication or mechanical pressing of a polymeric material, using a fluorogenic dye to detect the activation of the catalyst. Based on an N-heterocyclic copper(I) carbene with attached polymeric chains of different flexibility, the force is transmitted to the central catalyst, thereby activating a CuAAC in solution and in the solid state. PMID:26420664

  11. CDF level 2 trigger upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Anikeev, K.; Bogdan, M.; DeMaat, R.; Fedorko, W.; Frisch, H.; Hahn, K.; Hakala, M.; Keener, P.; Kim, Y.; Kroll, J.; Kwang, S.; Lewis, J.; Lin, C.; Liu, T.; Marjamaa, F.; Mansikkala, T.; Neu, C.; Pitkanen, S.; Reisert, B.; Rusu, V.; Sanders, H.; /Fermilab /Chicago U. /Pennsylvania U.

    2006-01-01

    We describe the new CDF Level 2 Trigger, which was commissioned during Spring 2005. The upgrade was necessitated by several factors that included increased bandwidth requirements, in view of the growing instantaneous luminosity of the Tevatron, and the need for a more robust system, since the older system was reaching the limits of maintainability. The challenges in designing the new system were interfacing with many different upstream detector subsystems, processing larger volumes of data at higher speed, and minimizing the impact on running the CDF experiment during the system commissioning phase. To meet these challenges, the new system was designed around a general purpose motherboard, the PULSAR, which is instrumented with powerful FPGAs and modern SRAMs, and which uses mezzanine cards to interface with upstream detector components and an industry standard data link (S-LINK) within the system.

  12. Home asthma triggers: barriers to asthma control in Chicago Puerto Rican children.

    PubMed

    Martin, Molly A; Thomas, Ann Marie; Mosnaim, Giselle; Greve, Matthew; Swider, Susan M; Rothschild, Steven K

    2013-05-01

    We sought objectively to measure, summarize, and contextualize the asthma triggers found in the homes of urban high-risk Puerto Rican children and adolescents with asthma in Chicago. Data were from the baseline home assessments of Project CURA. Research assistants interviewed caregivers, conducted a home visual inspection, and collected saliva samples for cotinine analysis. A trigger behavior summary score was created. The housing inspected was old with multiple units and obvious structural deficiencies. Many allergic and irritant triggers were observed. Having a controller medicine or private insurance was associated with lower trigger behavior summary scores; caregiver depression, caregiver perceived stress, and child negative life events were associated with high trigger scores. The final multivariate model retained had a controller medicine, private insurance, and caregiver perceived stress. The data from this high-risk cohort identified modifiable areas where environmental interventions could reduce morbidity in Puerto Rican children and adolescents. PMID:23728047

  13. Home asthma triggers: barriers to asthma control in Chicago Puerto Rican children.

    PubMed

    Martin, Molly A; Thomas, Ann Marie; Mosnaim, Giselle; Greve, Matthew; Swider, Susan M; Rothschild, Steven K

    2013-05-01

    We sought objectively to measure, summarize, and contextualize the asthma triggers found in the homes of urban high-risk Puerto Rican children and adolescents with asthma in Chicago. Data were from the baseline home assessments of Project CURA. Research assistants interviewed caregivers, conducted a home visual inspection, and collected saliva samples for cotinine analysis. A trigger behavior summary score was created. The housing inspected was old with multiple units and obvious structural deficiencies. Many allergic and irritant triggers were observed. Having a controller medicine or private insurance was associated with lower trigger behavior summary scores; caregiver depression, caregiver perceived stress, and child negative life events were associated with high trigger scores. The final multivariate model retained had a controller medicine, private insurance, and caregiver perceived stress. The data from this high-risk cohort identified modifiable areas where environmental interventions could reduce morbidity in Puerto Rican children and adolescents.

  14. Landslide triggering by rain infiltration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iverson, Richard M.

    2000-01-01

    Landsliding in response to rainfall involves physical processes that operate on disparate timescales. Relationships between these timescales guide development of a mathematical model that uses reduced forms of Richards equation to evaluate effects of rainfall infiltration on landslide occurrence, timing, depth, and acceleration in diverse situations. The longest pertinent timescale is A/D0, where D0 is the maximum hydraulic diffusivity of the soil and A is the catchment area that potentially affects groundwater pressures at a prospective landslide slip surface location with areal coordinates x, y and depth H. Times greater than A/D0 are necessary for establishment of steady background water pressures that develop at (x, y, H) in response to rainfall averaged over periods that commonly range from days to many decades. These steady groundwater pressures influence the propensity for landsliding at (x, y, H), but they do not trigger slope failure. Failure results from rainfall over a typically shorter timescale H2/D0 associated with transient pore pressure transmission during and following storms. Commonly, this timescale ranges from minutes to months. The shortest timescale affecting landslide responses to rainfall is √(H/g), where g is the magnitude of gravitational acceleration. Postfailure landslide motion occurs on this timescale, which indicates that the thinnest landslides accelerate most quickly if all other factors are constant. Effects of hydrologic processes on landslide processes across these diverse timescales are encapsulated by a response function, R(t*) = √(t*/π) exp (-1/t*) - erfc (1/√t*), which depends only on normalized time, t*. Use of R(t*) in conjunction with topographic data, rainfall intensity and duration information, an infinite-slope failure criterion, and Newton's second law predicts the timing, depth, and acceleration of rainfall-triggered landslides. Data from contrasting landslides that exhibit rapid, shallow motion and slow, deep

  15. Disaster triggers disaster: Earthquake triggering by tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wdowinski, S.; Tsukanov, I.

    2011-12-01

    Three recent devastating earthquakes, the 1999 M=7.6 Chi-Chi (Taiwan), 2010 M=7.0 Leogane (Haiti), 2010 M=6.4 Kaohsiung (Taiwan), and additional three moderate size earthquakes (66 earthquake that occurred in the central mountainous area of Taiwan within three years after the typhoon. The 2009 Morakot typhoon was followed by 2009 M=6.2 Nantou and 2010 M=6.4 Kaohsiung earthquakes; the 1969 Flossie typhoon was followed by an M=6.3 earthquake in 1972; and the 1996 Herb typhoon by the 1998 M=6.2 Rueyli and 1999 M=7.6 Chi-Chi earthquakes. The earthquake catalog of Taiwan lists only two other M>6 main-shocks that occurred in Taiwan's central mountainous belt, one of them was in 1964 only four months after the wet Typhoon Gloria poured heavy rain in the same area. We suggest that the close proximity in time and space between wet tropical cyclones and earthquakes reflects a physical link between the two hazard types in which these earthquakes were triggered by rapid erosion induced by tropical cyclone's heavy rain. Based on remote sensing observations, meshfree finite element modeling, and Coulomb failure stress analysis, we show that the

  16. Architecture of the MEGA detector trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. K.; Cooper, M. D.; Cooper, P. S.; Dzemidzic, M.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Hogan, G. E.; Hungerford, E. V.; Kim, G. J.; Knott, J. E.; Lan, K. J.; Liu, F.; Mayes, B. W.; Mischke, R. E.; Phelps, R.; Pinsky, L. S.; Stantz, K. M.; Szymanski, J. J.; Tang, L. G.; Tribble, R. E.; Tu, X. L.; Van Ausdeln, L. A.; Von Witsch, W.; Wright, C. S.

    The trigger for the MEGA detector system is based on signals from single, high-energy photons interacting in one of the three MEGA pair spectrometers. The trigger is divided into a fast and a slow stage. The first stage produces a fast output if a specific pattern of detector hits is observed in the scintillators and high-speed wire chambers of a pair spectrometer. The second, slow-stage interrogates drift chamber hit patterns and provides a veto when the pattern fails a minimal requirement for reconstruction of the hits into a pair of circular orbits. The trigger interacts with the photon detector electronics by gating limited sections of the detector during the read-out of an event. This paper describes the two stage trigger system, the photon detector electronics, and the implementation of the trigger outputs to strobe the data acquisition system. The performance of the trigger is compared to Monte Carlo simulations of the photon detector response.

  17. Emergency Room Validation of the Revised Suicide Trigger Scale (STS-3): A Measure of a Hypothesized Suicide Trigger State

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Janki; Cohen, Lisa J.; Galynker, Igor I.

    2012-01-01

    Background The Suicide Trigger Scale (STS) was designed to measure the construct of an affective ‘suicide trigger state.’ This study aims to extend the inpatient setting validation study of the original Suicide Trigger Scale version 2 to the revised Suicide Trigger Scale version 3 (STS-3) in an acute psychiatric emergency room setting. Methods The 42-item STS-3 and a brief psychological test battery were administered to 183 adult psychiatric patients with suicidal ideation or attempt in the psychiatric emergency room, and re-administered to subjects at 1 year follow up. Factor analysis, linear and logistic regressions were used to examine construct structure, divergent and convergent validity, and construct validity, respectively. Results The STS-3 demonstrated strong internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha 0.94). Factor analysis yielded a three-factor solution, which explained 43.4% of the variance. Principal axis factor analysis was used to identify three reliable subscales: Frantic Hopelessness, Ruminative Flooding, and Near-Psychotic Somatization (Cronbach’s alphas 0.90, 0.80, and 0.76, respectively). Significant positive associations were observed between Frantic Hopelessness and BSI depression and anxiety subscales, between Ruminative Flooding and BSI anxiety and paranoia subscales, and Near Psychotic Somatization and BSI somatization subscales. Suicidal subjects with suicide attempt history had mean scores 7 points higher than those without history of suicide attempts. Frantic hopelessness was a significant predictor of current suicide attempt when only attempts requiring at least some medical attention were considered. Conclusion The STS-3 measures a distinct clinical entity, provisionally termed the ‘suicide trigger state.’ Scores on the STS-3 or select subscales appear to relate to degree of suicidality in terms of severity of ideation, history of attempt, and presence of substantive current attempts. Further study is required to confirm the

  18. A muon trigger for the MACRO apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbarito, E.; Bellotti, R.; Calicchio, M.; Castellano, M.; DeCataldo, G.; DeMarzo, C.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Giglietto, N.; Liuzzi, R.; Spinelli, P.

    1991-02-01

    A trigger circuit based on EPROM components, able to manage up to 30 lines from independent counters, is described. The circuit has been designed and used in the MACRO apparatus at the Gran Sasso Laboratory for triggering on fast particles. The circuit works with standard TTL positive logic and is assembled in a double standard CAMAC module. It has a high triggering capacity and a high flexibility.

  19. The BTeV trigger: Recent developments

    SciTech Connect

    Kasper, Penelope; /Fermilab

    2003-12-01

    BTeV is a collider experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron dedicated to precision measurements of CP violation, mixing and rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons. The detector is a forward spectrometer with a pixel vertex detector inside a dipole magnet. A unique feature of BTeV is the trigger, which reconstructs tracks and vertices in every beam crossing. They present here an overview of the BTeV trigger and a description of recent improvements in trigger timing.

  20. Permanently enhanced dynamic triggering probabilities as evidenced by two M ≥ 7.5 earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, Joan S.

    2013-01-01

    The 2012 M7.7 Haida Gwaii earthquake radiated waves that likely dynamically triggered the 2013M7.5 Craig earthquake, setting two precedents. First, the triggered earthquake is the largest dynamically triggered shear failure event documented to date. Second, the events highlight a connection between geologic structure, sedimentary troughs that act as waveguides, and triggering probability. The Haida Gwaii earthquake excited extraordinarily large waves within and beyond the Queen Charlotte Trough, which propagated well into mainland Alaska and likely triggering the Craig earthquake along the way. Previously, focusing and associated dynamic triggering have been attributed to unpredictable source effects. This case suggests that elevated dynamic triggering probabilities may exist along the many structures where sedimentary troughs overlie major faults, such as subduction zones’ accretionary prisms and transform faults’ axial valleys. Although data are sparse, I find no evidence of accelerating seismic activity in the vicinity of the Craig rupture between it and the Haida Gwaii earthquake.

  1. Test concentration setting for fish in vivo endocrine screening assays.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, James R; Panter, Grace H; Weltje, Lennart; Thorpe, Karen L

    2013-08-01

    Fish in vivo screening methods to detect endocrine active substances, specifically interacting with the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, have been developed by both the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA). In application of these methods, i.e. regulatory testing, this paper provides a proposal on the setting of test concentrations using all available acute and chronic data and also discusses the importance of avoiding the confounding effects of systemic toxicity on endocrine endpoints. This guidance is aimed at reducing the number of false positives and subsequently the number of inappropriate definitive vertebrate studies potentially triggered by effects consequent to systemic, rather than endocrine, toxicity. At the same time it provides a pragmatic approach that maximizes the probability of detecting an effect, if it exists, thus limiting the potential for false negative outcomes.

  2. Pattern formation in the wake of triggered pushed fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goh, Ryan; Scheel, Arnd

    2016-08-01

    Pattern-forming fronts are often controlled by an external stimulus which progresses through a stable medium at a fixed speed, rendering it unstable in its wake. By controlling the speed of excitation, such stimuli, or ‘triggers’, can mediate pattern forming fronts which freely invade an unstable equilibrium and control which pattern is selected. In this work, we analytically and numerically study when the trigger perturbs an oscillatory pushed free front. In such a situation, the resulting patterned front, which we call a pushed trigger front, exhibits a variety of phenomenon, including snaking, non-monotonic wave-number selection, and hysteresis. Assuming the existence of a generic oscillatory pushed free front, we use heteroclinic bifurcation techniques to prove the existence of trigger fronts in an abstract setting motivated by the spatial dynamics approach. We then derive a leading order expansion for the selected wave-number in terms of the trigger speed. Furthermore, we show that such a bifurcation curve is governed by the difference of certain strong-stable and weakly-stable spatial eigenvalues associated with the decay of the free pushed front. We also study prototypical examples of these phenomena in the cubic-quintic complex Ginzburg Landau equation and a modified Cahn-Hilliard equation.

  3. Remote hydraulic ocean instrument trigger: DIRECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, M.

    1993-05-01

    A robust, reliable, inexpensive, easily operated, remote acting, deep ocean triggering system called DIRECTS (depth-indexed remote-equipment-commanding trigger system) is designed to initiate and power the operation of generic instrumentation at specific depths in the sea. The triggers, hydraulically actuated, are accurate within a few meters of depth and provide important post-retrieval confirmation of depth at the time of operation. The majority of research and commercial endeavors in the sea depend on the ability to accuratesly initiate subsea activities at specifically determined depths. Chemical, physical, and biological oceanographic sampling, commercial fishing, and offshore petroleum resource assessment are among operations requiring depth-accurate triggering capabilities.

  4. Environmental properties set cell mechanics and morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janmey, Paul

    2012-02-01

    Many cell types are sensitive to mechanical signals that are produced either by application of exogenous force to their surfaces, or by the resistance that their surroundings place on forces generated by the cells themselves. Cell morphology, motility, proliferation, and protein expression all change in response to substrate stiffness. Changing the elastic moduli of substrates alters the formation of focal adhesions, the assembly of actin filaments into bundles, and the stability of intermediate filaments. The range of stiffness over which different primary cell types respond can vary over a wide range and generally reflects the elastic modulus of the tissue from which these cells were isolated. Mechanosensing depends on the type of adhesion receptor by which the cell binds, and therefore on both the molecular composition of the extracellular matrix and the nature of its link to the cytoskeleton. Many cell types can alter their own stiffness to match that of the substrate to which they adhere. The maximal elastic modulus that cells such as fibroblasts can attain is similar to that of crosslinked actin networks at the concentrations in the cell cortex. The precise mechanisms of mechanosensing are not well defined, but they presumably require an elastic connection between cell and substrate, mediated by transmembrane proteins. The viscoelastic properties of different extracellular matrices and cytoskeletal elements strongly influence the response of cells to mechanical signals, and the unusual non-linear elasticity of many biopolymer gels, characterized by strain-stiffening, leads to novel mechanisms by which cells alter their stiffness by engagement of molecular motors that produce internal stresses. Cell cortical elasticity is dominated by cytoskeletal polymer networks and can be modulated by internal tension. Simultaneous control of substrate stiffness and adhesive patterns suggests that stiffness sensing occurs on a length scale much larger than single molecular linkages and that the time needed for mechanosensing is on the order of a few seconds.

  5. Possible Triggering Effect of Influenza Vaccination on Psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Gunes, Ali Tahsin; Fetil, Emel; Akarsu, Sevgi; Ozbagcivan, Ozlem; Babayeva, Lale

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, recurrent, immune-mediated inflammatory disease and it can be provoked or exacerbated by a variety of different environmental factors, particularly infections and drugs. In addition, a possible association between vaccination and the new onset and/or exacerbation of psoriasis has been reported by a number of different authors. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of influenza vaccination on patients with psoriasis. Here, we report the findings from 43 patients suffering from psoriasis (clinical phenotypes as mixed guttate/plaque lesions, palmoplantar or scalp psoriasis) whose diseases had been triggered after influenza vaccination applied in the 2009-2010 season. The short time intervals between vaccination and psoriasis flares in our patients and the lack of other possible triggers suggest that influenza vaccinations may have provocative effects on psoriasis. However, further large and controlled studies need to be carried out to confirm this relationship.

  6. Ischemic Compression After Trigger Point Injection Affect the Treatment of Myofascial Trigger Points

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo A; Oh, Ki Young; Choi, Won Hyuck

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of trigger point injection with or without ischemic compression in treatment of myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle. Methods Sixty patients with active myofascial trigger points in upper trapezius muscle were randomly divided into three groups: group 1 (n=20) received only trigger point injections, group 2 (n=20) received trigger point injections with 30 seconds of ischemic compression, and group 3 (n=20) received trigger point injections with 60 seconds of ischemic compression. The visual analogue scale, pressure pain threshold, and range of motion of the neck were assessed before treatment, immediately after treatment, and 1 week after treatment. Korean Neck Disability Indexes were assessed before treatment and 1 week after treatment. Results We found a significant improvement in all assessment parameters (p<0.05) in all groups. But, receiving trigger point injections with ischemic compression group showed significant improvement as compared with the receiving only trigger point injections group. And no significant differences between receiving 30 seconds of ischemic compression group and 60 seconds of ischemic compression group. Conclusion This study demonstrated the effectiveness of ischemic compression for myofascial trigger point. Trigger point injections combined with ischemic compression shows better effects on treatment of myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle than the only trigger point injections therapy. But the duration of ischemic compression did not affect treatment of myofascial trigger point. PMID:24020035

  7. Nonlinear dynamical triggering of slow slip

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Paul A; Knuth, Matthew W; Kaproth, Bryan M; Carpenter, Brett; Guyer, Robert A; Le Bas, Pierre - Yves; Daub, Eric G; Marone, Chris

    2010-12-10

    Among the most fascinating, recent discoveries in seismology have been the phenomena of triggered slip, including triggered earthquakes and triggered-tremor, as well as triggered slow, silent-slip during which no seismic energy is radiated. Because fault nucleation depths cannot be probed directly, the physical regimes in which these phenomena occur are poorly understood. Thus determining physical properties that control diverse types of triggered fault sliding and what frictional constitutive laws govern triggered faulting variability is challenging. We are characterizing the physical controls of triggered faulting with the goal of developing constitutive relations by conducting laboratory and numerical modeling experiments in sheared granular media at varying load conditions. In order to simulate granular fault zone gouge in the laboratory, glass beads are sheared in a double-direct configuration under constant normal stress, while subject to transient perturbation by acoustic waves. We find that triggered, slow, silent-slip occurs at very small confining loads ({approx}1-3 MPa) that are smaller than those where dynamic earthquake triggering takes place (4-7 MPa), and that triggered slow-slip is associated with bursts of LFE-like acoustic emission. Experimental evidence suggests that the nonlinear dynamical response of the gouge material induced by dynamic waves may be responsible for the triggered slip behavior: the slip-duration, stress-drop and along-strike slip displacement are proportional to the triggering wave amplitude. Further, we observe a shear-modulus decrease corresponding to dynamic-wave triggering relative to the shear modulus of stick-slips. Modulus decrease in response to dynamical wave amplitudes of roughly a microstrain and above is a hallmark of elastic nonlinear behavior. We believe that the dynamical waves increase the material non-affine elastic deformation during shearing, simultaneously leading to instability and slow-slip. The inferred

  8. Submarine landslides: processes, triggers and hazard prediction.

    PubMed

    Masson, D G; Harbitz, C B; Wynn, R B; Pedersen, G; Løvholt, F

    2006-08-15

    Huge landslides, mobilizing hundreds to thousands of km(3) of sediment and rock are ubiquitous in submarine settings ranging from the steepest volcanic island slopes to the gentlest muddy slopes of submarine deltas. Here, we summarize current knowledge of such landslides and the problems of assessing their hazard potential. The major hazards related to submarine landslides include destruction of seabed infrastructure, collapse of coastal areas into the sea and landslide-generated tsunamis. Most submarine slopes are inherently stable. Elevated pore pressures (leading to decreased frictional resistance to sliding) and specific weak layers within stratified sequences appear to be the key factors influencing landslide occurrence. Elevated pore pressures can result from normal depositional processes or from transient processes such as earthquake shaking; historical evidence suggests that the majority of large submarine landslides are triggered by earthquakes. Because of their tsunamigenic potential, ocean-island flank collapses and rockslides in fjords have been identified as the most dangerous of all landslide related hazards. Published models of ocean-island landslides mainly examine 'worst-case scenarios' that have a low probability of occurrence. Areas prone to submarine landsliding are relatively easy to identify, but we are still some way from being able to forecast individual events with precision. Monitoring of critical areas where landslides might be imminent and modelling landslide consequences so that appropriate mitigation strategies can be developed would appear to be areas where advances on current practice are possible.

  9. Submarine landslides: processes, triggers and hazard prediction.

    PubMed

    Masson, D G; Harbitz, C B; Wynn, R B; Pedersen, G; Løvholt, F

    2006-08-15

    Huge landslides, mobilizing hundreds to thousands of km(3) of sediment and rock are ubiquitous in submarine settings ranging from the steepest volcanic island slopes to the gentlest muddy slopes of submarine deltas. Here, we summarize current knowledge of such landslides and the problems of assessing their hazard potential. The major hazards related to submarine landslides include destruction of seabed infrastructure, collapse of coastal areas into the sea and landslide-generated tsunamis. Most submarine slopes are inherently stable. Elevated pore pressures (leading to decreased frictional resistance to sliding) and specific weak layers within stratified sequences appear to be the key factors influencing landslide occurrence. Elevated pore pressures can result from normal depositional processes or from transient processes such as earthquake shaking; historical evidence suggests that the majority of large submarine landslides are triggered by earthquakes. Because of their tsunamigenic potential, ocean-island flank collapses and rockslides in fjords have been identified as the most dangerous of all landslide related hazards. Published models of ocean-island landslides mainly examine 'worst-case scenarios' that have a low probability of occurrence. Areas prone to submarine landsliding are relatively easy to identify, but we are still some way from being able to forecast individual events with precision. Monitoring of critical areas where landslides might be imminent and modelling landslide consequences so that appropriate mitigation strategies can be developed would appear to be areas where advances on current practice are possible. PMID:16844646

  10. Measuring impairments of functioning and health in patients with axial spondyloarthritis by using the ASAS Health Index and the Environmental Item Set: translation and cross-cultural adaptation into 15 languages

    PubMed Central

    Kiltz, U; van der Heijde, D; Boonen, A; Bautista-Molano, W; Burgos-Vargas, R; Chiowchanwisawakit, P; Duruoz, T; El-Zorkany, B; Essers, I; Gaydukova, I; Géher, P; Gossec, L; Grazio, S; Gu, J; Khan, M A; Kim, T J; Maksymowych, W P; Marzo-Ortega, H; Navarro-Compán, V; Olivieri, I; Patrikos, D; Pimentel-Santos, F M; Schirmer, M; van den Bosch, F; Weber, U; Zochling, J; Braun, J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The Assessments of SpondyloArthritis international society Health Index (ASAS HI) measures functioning and health in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA) across 17 aspects of health and 9 environmental factors (EF). The objective was to translate and adapt the original English version of the ASAS HI, including the EF Item Set, cross-culturally into 15 languages. Methods Translation and cross-cultural adaptation has been carried out following the forward–backward procedure. In the cognitive debriefing, 10 patients/country across a broad spectrum of sociodemographic background, were included. Results The ASAS HI and the EF Item Set were translated into Arabic, Chinese, Croatian, Dutch, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Korean, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, Thai and Turkish. Some difficulties were experienced with translation of the contextual factors indicating that these concepts may be more culturally-dependent. A total of 215 patients with axial SpA across 23 countries (62.3% men, mean (SD) age 42.4 (13.9) years) participated in the field test. Cognitive debriefing showed that items of the ASAS HI and EF Item Set are clear, relevant and comprehensive. All versions were accepted with minor modifications with respect to item wording and response option. The wording of three items had to be adapted to improve clarity. As a result of cognitive debriefing, a new response option ‘not applicable’ was added to two items of the ASAS HI to improve appropriateness. Discussion This study showed that the items of the ASAS HI including the EFs were readily adaptable throughout all countries, indicating that the concepts covered were comprehensive, clear and meaningful in different cultures. PMID:27752358

  11. Trigger Points: An Anatomical Substratum

    PubMed Central

    Akamatsu, Flávia Emi; Ayres, Bernardo Rodrigues; Saleh, Samir Omar; Hojaij, Flávio; Andrade, Mauro; Hsing, Wu Tu; Jacomo, Alfredo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to bring the trapezius muscle knowledge of the locations where the accessory nerve branches enter the muscle belly to reach the motor endplates and find myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). Although anatomoclinical correlations represent a major feature of MTrP, no previous reports describing the distribution of the accessory nerve branches and their anatomical relationship with MTrP are found in the literature. Both trapezius muscles from twelve adult cadavers were carefully dissected by the authors (anatomy professors and medical graduate students) to observe the exact point where the branches of the spinal accessory nerve entered the muscle belly. Dissection was performed through stratigraphic layers to preserve the motor innervation of the trapezius muscle, which is located deep in the muscle. Seven points are described, four of which are motor points: in all cases, these locations corresponded to clinically described MTrPs. The four points were common in these twelve cadavers. This type of clinical correlation between spinal accessory nerve branching and MTrP is useful to achieve a better understanding of the anatomical correlation of MTrP and the physiopathology of these disorders and may provide a scientific basis for their treatment, rendering useful additional information to therapists to achieve better diagnoses and improve therapeutic approaches. PMID:25811029

  12. Fluid pressure waves trigger earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Fluids-essentially meteoric water-are present everywhere in the Earth's crust, occasionally also with pressures higher than hydrostatic due to the tectonic strain imposed on impermeable undrained layers, to the impoundment of artificial lakes or to the forced injections required by oil and gas exploration and production. Experimental evidence suggests that such fluids flow along preferred paths of high diffusivity, provided by rock joints and faults. Studying the coupled poroelastic problem, we find that such flow is ruled by a nonlinear partial differential equation amenable to a Barenblatt-type solution, implying that it takes place in form of solitary pressure waves propagating at a velocity which decreases with time as v ∝ t [1/(n - 1) - 1] with n ≳ 7. According to Tresca-Von Mises criterion, these waves appear to play a major role in earthquake triggering, being also capable to account for aftershock delay without any further assumption. The measure of stress and fluid pressure inside active faults may therefore provide direct information about fault potential instability.

  13. Migraine and triggers: Post hoc ergo propter hoc?

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Jan; Recober, Ana

    2013-01-01

    The influence of environmental factors on the clinical manifestation of migraine has been a matter of extensive debate over the past decades. Migraineurs commonly report foods, alcohol, meteorologic or atmospheric changes, exposure to light, sounds, or odors, as factors that trigger or aggravate their migraine attacks. In the same way, physicians frequently follow this belief in their recommendations in how migraineurs may reduce their attack frequency, especially with regard to the consumption of certain food components. Interestingly, despite being such a common belief, most of the clinical studies have shown conflicting results. The aim of the review is to critically analyze clinical and pathophysiological facts that support or refute a correlation between certain environmental stimuli and the occurrence of migraine attacks. Given the substantial discrepancy between patients' reports and objective clinical data, the methodological difficulties of investigating the link between environmental factors and migraine are highlighted. PMID:23996725

  14. Hierarchical Trigger of the ALICE Calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, Hans; Awes, Terry C

    2010-05-01

    The trigger of the ALICE electromagnetic calorimeters is implemented in 2 hierarchically connected layers of electronics. In the lower layer, level-0 algorithms search shower energy above threshold in locally confined Trigger Region Units (TRU). The top layer is implemented as a single, global trigger unit that receives the trigger data from all TRUs as input to the level-1 algorithm. This architecture was first developed for the PHOS high p{sub T} photon trigger before it was adopted by EMCal also for the jet trigger. TRU units digitize up to 112 analogue input signals from the Front End Electronics (FEE) and concentrate their digital stream in a single FPGA. A charge and time summing algorithm is combined with a peakfinder that suppresses spurious noise and is precise to single LHC bunches. With a peak-to-peak noise level of 150 MeV the linear dynamic range above threshold spans from MIP energies at 215 up to 50 GeV. Local level-0 decisions take less than 600 ns after LHC collisions, upon which all TRUs transfer their level-0 trigger data to the upstream global trigger module which searches within the remaining level-1 latency for high p{sub T} gamma showers (PHOS) and/or for Jet cone areas (EMCaL).

  15. Hierarchical trigger of the ALICE calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Hans; Awes, Terry C.; Novitzky, Norbert; Kral, Jiri; Rak, Jan; Schambach, Jo; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Dong; Zhou, Daicui

    2010-05-01

    The trigger of the ALICE electromagnetic calorimeters is implemented in 2 hierarchically connected layers of electronics. In the lower layer, level-0 algorithms search shower energy above threshold in locally confined Trigger Region Units (TRU). The top layer is implemented as a single, global trigger unit that receives the trigger data from all TRUs as input to the level-1 algorithm. This architecture was first developed for the PHOS high pT photon trigger before it was adopted by EMCal also for the jet trigger. TRU units digitize up to 112 analogue input signals from the Front End Electronics (FEE) and concentrate their digital stream in a single FPGA. A charge and time summing algorithm is combined with a peakfinder that suppresses spurious noise and is precise to single LHC bunches. With a peak-to-peak noise level of 150 MeV the linear dynamic range above threshold spans from MIP energies at 215 up to 50 GeV. Local level-0 decisions take less than 600 ns after LHC collisions, upon which all TRUs transfer their level-0 trigger data to the upstream global trigger module which searches within the remaining level-1 latency for high pT gamma showers (PHOS) and/or for Jet cone areas (EMCaL).

  16. Aspirin-triggered metabolites of EFAs.

    PubMed

    Makriyannis, Alexandros; Nikas, Spyros P

    2011-10-28

    Aspirin triggers the biosynthesis of oxygenated metabolites from arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids. In a preceding issue, Serhan et al. (2011) describe a novel aspirin-triggered DHA pathway for the biosynthesis of a potent anti-inflammatory and proresolving molecule. PMID:22035788

  17. Study of Tectonic Tremor in Depth: Triggering Stress Observation and Model of the Triggering Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tien-Huei

    including NVT occur on these sections have slower slip rates than that of the general earthquakes (Rubin, 2008; Ide, 2008). In Azna region, we use envelope and waveform cross-correlation to detect tremor. We investigate the stress required to trigger tremor and tremor spectrum using continuous broadband seismograms from 11 stations located near Anza, California. We examine 44 Mw≥7.4 teleseismic events between 2001 and 2011, in addition to one regional earthquake of smaller-magnitude, the 2009 Mw 6.5 Gulf of California earthquake, because it induced extremely high strain at Anza. The result suggests that not only the amplitude of the induced strain, but also the period of the incoming surface wave, may control triggering of tremor near Anza. In addition, we find that the transient-shear stress (17--35 kPa) required to trigger tremor along the SJF at Anza is distinctly higher than what has been reported for the well-studied SAF (Gulihem et al. 2010). We model slip initiation using the analytical solution of rate-and-state friction. We verify the correctness of this method by comparing the results with that from the dynamic model, implemented using the Multi-Dimensional Spectral Boundary Integral Code (MDSBI) written by Eric M. Dunham from Sanford University. We find that the analytical result is consistent with that of the dynamic model. We set up a patch model with which the source stress and frictional conditions best resemble the current estimates of the tremor source. The frictional regime of this patch is rate-weakening. The initial normal and shear stress, and friction parameters are suggested by previous observations of tectonic tremors both in this and other studies (Brown et al., 2005; Shelly et al., 2006; Miyazawa, 2008; Ben-Zion, 2012). Our dynamic loading first consists of simple harmonic stress change with fixed periods, simplifying the transient stress history to resemble teleseismic earthquakes. We tested the period and amplitude of such periodic loading. We

  18. Methods for automatic trigger threshold adjustment

    DOEpatents

    Welch, Benjamin J; Partridge, Michael E

    2014-03-18

    Methods are presented for adjusting trigger threshold values to compensate for drift in the quiescent level of a signal monitored for initiating a data recording event, thereby avoiding false triggering conditions. Initial threshold values are periodically adjusted by re-measuring the quiescent signal level, and adjusting the threshold values by an offset computation based upon the measured quiescent signal level drift. Re-computation of the trigger threshold values can be implemented on time based or counter based criteria. Additionally, a qualification width counter can be utilized to implement a requirement that a trigger threshold criterion be met a given number of times prior to initiating a data recording event, further reducing the possibility of a false triggering situation.

  19. The LHCb trigger and its upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziurda, A.

    2016-07-01

    The current LHCb trigger system consists of a hardware level, which reduces the LHC inelastic collision rate of 30 MHz, at which the entire detector is read out. In a second level, implemented in a farm of 20 k parallel-processing CPUs, the event rate is reduced to about 5 kHz. We review the performance of the LHCb trigger system during Run I of the LHC. Special attention is given to the use of multivariate analyses in the High Level Trigger. The major bottleneck for hadronic decays is the hardware trigger. LHCb plans a major upgrade of the detector and DAQ system in the LHC shutdown of 2018, enabling a purely software based trigger to process the full 30 MHz of inelastic collisions delivered by the LHC. We demonstrate that the planned architecture will be able to meet this challenge.

  20. Neurotoxins and environmental poisons

    SciTech Connect

    Verity, M.A. )

    1992-06-01

    Recent applications of modern neurobiological techniques have provided an impetus to understanding mechanisms of neurotoxicity. Environmental chemicals, including aluminium, and the organocompounds of mercury, lead and tin, may trigger neurodegenerative disorders. Regional differences in toxicity may be related to the complexity of the amino acid excitatory systems and the ability of individual cell systems to handle long-term abusive stimulation.33 references.

  1. Time Triggered Ethernet System Testing Means and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithgall, William Todd (Inventor); Hall, Brendan (Inventor); Varadarajan, Srivatsan (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for evaluating the performance of a Time Triggered Ethernet (TTE) system employing Time Triggered (TT) communication. A real TTE system under test (SUT) having real input elements communicating using TT messages with output elements via one or more first TTE switches during a first time interval schedule established for the SUT. A simulation system is also provided having input simulators that communicate using TT messages via one or more second TTE switches with the same output elements during a second time interval schedule established for the simulation system. The first and second time interval schedules are off-set slightly so that messages from the input simulators, when present, arrive at the output elements prior to messages from the analogous real inputs, thereby having priority over messages from the real inputs and causing the system to operate based on the simulated inputs when present.

  2. Triggered optical coherence tomography for capturing rapid periodic motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ernest W.; Kobler, James B.; Yun, Seok H.

    2011-07-01

    Quantitative cross-sectional imaging of vocal folds during phonation is potentially useful for diagnosis and treatments of laryngeal disorders. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful technique, but its relatively low frame rates makes it challenging to visualize rapidly vibrating tissues. Here, we demonstrate a novel method based on triggered laser scanning to capture 4-dimensional (4D) images of samples in motu at audio frequencies over 100 Hz. As proof-of-concept experiments, we applied this technique to imaging the oscillations of biopolymer gels on acoustic vibrators and aerodynamically driven vibrations of the vocal fold in an ex vivo calf larynx model. Our results suggest that triggered 4D OCT may be useful in understanding and assessing the function of vocal folds and developing novel treatments in research and clinical settings.

  3. An FPGA-based trigger for the phase II of the MEG experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldini, A.; Bemporad, C.; Cei, F.; Galli, L.; Grassi, M.; Morsani, F.; Nicolò, D.; Ritt, S.; Venturini, M.

    2016-07-01

    For the phase II of MEG, we are going to develop a combined trigger and DAQ system. Here we focus on the former side, which operates an on-line reconstruction of detector signals and event selection within 450 μs from event occurrence. Trigger concentrator boards (TCB) are under development to gather data from different crates, each connected to a set of detector channels, to accomplish higher-level algorithms to issue a trigger in the case of a candidate signal event. We describe the major features of the new system, in comparison with phase I, as well as its performances in terms of selection efficiency and background rejection.

  4. An empirical profile of VLF triggered emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. D.; Spasojevic, M.; Inan, U. S.

    2015-08-01

    The Siple Transmitter Experiment operated from 1973 to 1988 and generated a wealth of observations of nonlinear wave-particle interactions including extensive recordings of triggered emissions generated by VLF signals injected into the magnetosphere from the transmitter at Siple Station, Antarctica. Due to their complex appearance and immensely varied behavior, triggered emissions remain poorly described and understood. This work provides a comprehensive statistical description of observed triggered emissions and establishes statistical bounds on triggered emission type (fallers, risers, and positive and negative hooks) and behavior (frequency changes between 1 kHz and 2.5 kHz with initial sweep rates between -2.5 kHz/s and 2.5 kHz/s, with risers undergoing a median frequency change of 556 Hz and fallers a median frequency change of -198 Hz). The statistical study also reveals an apparent dependence of the triggered emission behavior on the transmitted signal itself. Long tones and rising ramps generate more risers and positive hooks, while short tones and falling ramps produce more fallers and negative hooks. Triggered emissions also appear to favorably initiate with sweep rates similar to that of the triggering element, with the 1 kHz/s rising ramps triggering initial risers with a median sweep rate of 1.03 kHz/s and -1 kHz/s triggering initial fallers with a median sweep rate of -0.73 kHz/s. These results improve observations of wave modification resulting from wave-particle interactions in the radiation belts and can be used to validate numerical simulations of triggered emissions.

  5. JASMONATE-TRIGGERED PLANT IMMUNITY

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Marcelo L.; Kang, Jin-Ho; Howe, Gregg A.

    2014-01-01

    The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) exerts direct control over the production of chemical defense compounds that confer resistance to a remarkable spectrum of plant-associated organisms, ranging from microbial pathogens to vertebrate herbivores. The underlying mechanism of JA-triggered immunity (JATI) can be conceptualized as a multi-stage signal transduction cascade involving: i) pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that couple the perception of danger signals to rapid synthesis of bioactive JA; ii) an evolutionarily conserved JA signaling module that links fluctuating JA levels to changes in the abundance of transcriptional repressor proteins; and iii) activation (de-repression) of transcription factors that orchestrate the expression of myriad chemical and morphological defense traits. Multiple negative feedback loops act in concert to restrain the duration and amplitude of defense responses, presumably to mitigate potential fitness costs of JATI. The convergence of diverse plant- and non-plant-derived signals on the core JA module indicates that JATI is a general response to perceived danger. However, the modular structure of JATI may accommodate attacker-specific defense responses through evolutionary innovation of PRRs (inputs) and defense traits (outputs). The efficacy of JATI as a defense strategy is highlighted by its capacity to shape natural populations of plant attackers, as well as the propensity of plant-associated organisms to subvert or otherwise manipulate JA signaling. As both a cellular hub for integrating informational cues from the environment and a common target of pathogen effectors, the core JA module provides a focal point for understanding immune system networks and the evolution of chemical diversity in the plant kingdom. PMID:24973116

  6. Analysis of Trigger Factors in Episodic Migraineurs Using a Smartphone Headache Diary Applications

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong-Wook; Chu, Min Kyung; Kim, Jae-Moon; Park, Sang-Gue; Cho, Soo-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background Various stimuli can trigger migraines in susceptible individuals. We examined migraine trigger factors by using a smartphone headache diary application. Method Episodic migraineurs who agreed to participate in our study downloaded smartphone headache diary application, which was designed to capture the details regarding headache trigger factors and characteristics for 3 months. The participants were asked to access the smartphone headache diary application daily and to confirm the presence of a headache and input the types of trigger factors. Results Sixty-two participants kept diary entries until the end of the study. The diary data for 4,579 days were analyzed. In this data set, 1,099 headache days (336 migraines, 763 non-migraine headaches) were recorded; of these, 772 headache events had with trigger factors, and 327 events did not have trigger factors. The common trigger factors that were present on headache days included stress, fatigue, sleep deprivation, hormonal changes, and weather changes. The likelihood of a headache trigger was 57.7% for stress, 55.1% for sleep deprivation, 48.5% for fatigue, and 46.5% for any trigger. The headaches with trigger factors were associated with greater pain intensity (p<0.001), headache-related disability (p<0.001), abortive medication use (p = 0.02), and the proportion of migraine (p < 0.001), relative to those without trigger factors. Traveling (odd ratios [OR]: 6.4), hormonal changes (OR: 3.5), noise (OR: 2.8), alcohol (OR: 2.5), overeating (OR: 2.4), and stress (OR:1.8) were significantly associated with migraines compared to non-migraine headaches. The headaches that were associated with hormonal changes or noise were more often migraines, regardless of the preventive medication. The headaches due to stress, overeating, alcohol, and traveling were more often migraines without preventive medication, but it was not evident with preventive medication. Conclusion Smartphone headache diary application is an

  7. Nature plus nurture: the triggering of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Wekerle, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Recent clinical and experimental studies indicate that multiple sclerosis develops as consequence of a failed interplay between genetic ("nature") and environmental ("nurture") factors. A large number of risk genes favour an autoimmune response against the body's own brain matter. New experimental data indicate that the actual trigger of this attack is however provided by an interaction of brain-specific immune cells with components of the regular commensal gut flora, the intestinal microbiota. This concept opens the way for new therapeutic approaches involving modulation of the microbiota by dietary or antibiotic regimens. PMID:26430854

  8. Nature plus nurture: the triggering of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Wekerle, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Recent clinical and experimental studies indicate that multiple sclerosis develops as consequence of a failed interplay between genetic ("nature") and environmental ("nurture") factors. A large number of risk genes favour an autoimmune response against the body's own brain matter. New experimental data indicate that the actual trigger of this attack is however provided by an interaction of brain-specific immune cells with components of the regular commensal gut flora, the intestinal microbiota. This concept opens the way for new therapeutic approaches involving modulation of the microbiota by dietary or antibiotic regimens.

  9. Triggered tremor sweet spots in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, Joan; Prejean, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    To better understand what controls fault slip along plate boundaries, we have exploited the abundance of seismic and geodetic data available from the richly varied tectonic environments composing Alaska. A search for tremor triggered by 11 large earthquakes throughout all of seismically monitored Alaska reveals two tremor “sweet spots”—regions where large-amplitude seismic waves repeatedly triggered tremor between 2006 and 2012. The two sweet spots locate in very different tectonic environments—one just trenchward and between the Aleutian islands of Unalaska and Akutan and the other in central mainland Alaska. The Unalaska/Akutan spot corroborates previous evidence that the region is ripe for tremor, perhaps because it is located where plate-interface frictional properties transition between stick-slip and stably sliding in both the dip direction and laterally. The mainland sweet spot coincides with a region of complex and uncertain plate interactions, and where no slow slip events or major crustal faults have been noted previously. Analyses showed that larger triggering wave amplitudes, and perhaps lower frequencies (<~0.03 Hz), may enhance the probability of triggering tremor. However, neither the maximum amplitude in the time domain or in a particular frequency band, nor the geometric relationship of the wavefield to the tremor source faults alone ensures a high probability of triggering. Triggered tremor at the two sweet spots also does not occur during slow slip events visually detectable in GPS data, although slow slip below the detection threshold may have facilitated tremor triggering.

  10. Performance of the ATLAS trigger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casadei, Diego

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS trigger has been used very successfully to collect collision data during 2009-2011 LHC running at centre of mass energies between 900 GeV and 7 TeV. The three-level trigger system reduces the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of about 300 Hz. The first level uses custom electronics to reject most background events, in less than 2.5 μs, using information from the calorimeter and muon detectors. The upper two trigger levels are software-based triggers. The trigger system selects events by identifying signatures of muon, electron, photon, tau lepton, jet, and B meson candidates, as well as using global event signatures, such as missing transverse energy. We give an overview of the performance of these trigger selections based on extensive online running during the 2011 LHC run and discuss issues encountered during 2011 operations. We describe how the trigger has evolved with increasing LHC luminosity coping with pile-up conditions close to LHC design luminosity.

  11. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and autism: is this a trigger?

    PubMed

    Dow, Coad Thomas

    2011-12-01

    Autism is a heterogeneous group of life-long neurologic problems that begin in childhood. Success in efforts to understand and treat autism has been mostly elusive. The role of autoimmunity in autism has gained recognition both for associated systemic autoimmune disease and the presence of brain autoantibodies in autistic children and their family members. There is an acknowledged genetic susceptibility to autism--most notably allotypes of complement C4. C4 defects are associated with several autoimmune diseases and also confer susceptibility to mycobacterial infections. Mycobacterium avium ss. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes an enteric inflammatory disease in ruminant animals (Johne's disease) and is the putative cause of the very similar Crohn's disease in humans. Humans are widely exposed to MAP in food and water. MAP has been also linked to ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, sarcoidosis, Blau syndrome, autoimmune (Type 1) diabetes, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and multiple sclerosis. Environmental agents are thought to trigger autism in the genetically at risk. Molecular mimicry is the proposed mechanism by which MAP is thought to trigger autoantibodies. Autoantibodies to brain myelin basic protein (MBP) is a common feature of autism. This article considers the subset of autoimmunity-related autism patients and postulates that MAP, through molecular mimicry to its heat shock protein HSP65, triggers autism by stimulating antibodies that cross react with myelin basic protein (MBP).

  12. Intraplate triggered earthquakes: Observations and interpretation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.; Seeber, L.; Armbruster, J.G.

    2003-01-01

    We present evidence that at least two of the three 1811-1812 New Madrid, central United States, mainshocks and the 1886 Charleston, South Carolina, earthquake triggered earthquakes at regional distances. In addition to previously published evidence for triggered earthquakes in the northern Kentucky/southern Ohio region in 1812, we present evidence suggesting that triggered events might have occurred in the Wabash Valley, to the south of the New Madrid Seismic Zone, and near Charleston, South Carolina. We also discuss evidence that earthquakes might have been triggered in northern Kentucky within seconds of the passage of surface waves from the 23 January 1812 New Madrid mainshock. After the 1886 Charleston earthquake, accounts suggest that triggered events occurred near Moodus, Connecticut, and in southern Indiana. Notwithstanding the uncertainty associated with analysis of historical accounts, there is evidence that at least three out of the four known Mw 7 earthquakes in the central and eastern United States seem to have triggered earthquakes at distances beyond the typically assumed aftershock zone of 1-2 mainshock fault lengths. We explore the possibility that remotely triggered earthquakes might be common in low-strain-rate regions. We suggest that in a low-strain-rate environment, permanent, nonelastic deformation might play a more important role in stress accumulation than it does in interplate crust. Using a simple model incorporating elastic and anelastic strain release, we show that, for realistic parameter values, faults in intraplate crust remain close to their failure stress for a longer part of the earthquake cycle than do faults in high-strain-rate regions. Our results further suggest that remotely triggered earthquakes occur preferentially in regions of recent and/or future seismic activity, which suggests that faults are at a critical stress state in only some areas. Remotely triggered earthquakes may thus serve as beacons that identify regions of

  13. Revisiting Pneumatic Nail Gun Trigger Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Albers, James; Lipscomb, Hester; Hudock, Stephen; Dement, John; Evanoff, Bradley; Fullen, Mark; Gillen, Matt; Kaskutas, Vicki; Nolan, James; Patterson, Dennis; Platner, James; Pompeii, Lisa; Schoenfisch, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Summary Use of a pneumatic nail gun with a sequential actuation trigger (SAT) significantly diminishes the risk for acute traumatic injury compared to use of a contact actuation trigger (CAT) nail gun. A theoretically-based increased risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders from use of a SAT nail gun, relative to CAT, appears unlikely and remains unproven. Based on current knowledge, the use of CAT nail guns cannot be justified as a safe alternative to SAT nail guns. This letter provides a perspective of ergonomists and occupational safety researchers recommending the use of the sequential actuation trigger for all nail gun tasks in the construction industry. PMID:26366020

  14. The ATLAS level 2 trigger supervisor.

    SciTech Connect

    Abolins, M.; Blair, R. E.; Dawson, J. W.; Owen, D.; Pope, B. G.; Schlereth, J. L.; Weber dos Santos, R.

    1997-04-03

    This paper presents an overview of the hardware and software proposed for the ATLAS level 2 Trigger ROI Builder/Supervisor. The essential requirements of this system are that it operate at the design Level 1 Trigger rate of 100kHz and that it support the technical requirements of the architectures suggested for the ATLAS Level 2 Trigger. Commercial equipment and software support are used to the maximum extent possible, with support from dedicated hardware. Timing requirements and latencies are discussed and simulation results are presented.

  15. Introduction to myofascial trigger points in dogs.

    PubMed

    Wall, Rick

    2014-06-01

    In dogs, muscles make up 44%-57% of total body weight and can serve as source of both pain and dysfunction when myofascial trigger points are present. However, rarely is muscle mentioned as a generator of pain in dogs, and even less mentioned is muscle dysfunction. The veterinary practitioner with interest in pain management, rehabilitation, orthopedics, and sports medicine must be familiar with the characteristics, etiology, and precipitating factors of myofascial trigger points. Additionally, the development of examination and treatment skill is needed to effectively manage myofascial trigger points in dogs. PMID:25454375

  16. Attempted Suicide Triggers in Thai Adolescent Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sukhawaha, Supattra; Arunpongpaisal, Suwanna; Rungreangkulkij, Somporn

    2016-06-01

    The study goal was to describe attempted suicide triggers in Thai adolescents. A descriptive exploratory qualitative study approach was used utilizing in-depth interviews with twelve adolescents who had attempted suicide and six of their parents. Content analysis was conducted. Attempted suicide triggers were (1) severe verbal criticisms and expulsion to die by a significant family member, (2) disappointed and unwanted by boyfriend in first serious relationship, (3) unwanted pregnancy, and (4) mental illness leading to intense emotions and irresistible impulses. These attempted suicide triggers should be of concern and brought into suicide prevention management programs such as emotional management, effective communication for adolescents and family. PMID:27256938

  17. Electronic trigger for the ASP experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.J.

    1985-11-01

    The Anomalous Single Photon (ASP) electronic trigger is described. The experiments is based on an electromagnetic calorimeter composed of arrays of lead glass blocks, read out with photo-multiplier tubes, surrounding the interaction point at the PEP storage ring. The primary requirement of the trigger system is to be sensitive to low energy (approx. =0.5 GeV and above) photons whilst discriminating against high backgrounds at PEP. Analogue summing of the PMT signals and a sequence of programmable digital look-up tables produces a ''dead-timeless'' trigger for the beam collision rate of 408 kHz. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Introduction to myofascial trigger points in dogs.

    PubMed

    Wall, Rick

    2014-06-01

    In dogs, muscles make up 44%-57% of total body weight and can serve as source of both pain and dysfunction when myofascial trigger points are present. However, rarely is muscle mentioned as a generator of pain in dogs, and even less mentioned is muscle dysfunction. The veterinary practitioner with interest in pain management, rehabilitation, orthopedics, and sports medicine must be familiar with the characteristics, etiology, and precipitating factors of myofascial trigger points. Additionally, the development of examination and treatment skill is needed to effectively manage myofascial trigger points in dogs.

  19. Annual modulation of triggered seismicity following the 1992 Landers earthquake in California

    PubMed

    Gao; Silver; Linde; Sacks

    2000-08-01

    The mechanism responsible for the triggering of earthquakes remains one of the least-understood aspects of the earthquake process. The magnitude-7.3 Landers, California earthquake of 28 June 1992 was followed for several weeks by triggered seismic activity over a large area, encompassing much of the western United States. Here we show that this triggered seismicity marked the beginning of a five-year trend, consisting of an elevated microearthquake rate that was modulated by an annual cycle, decaying with time. The annual cycle is mainly associated with several hydrothermal or volcanic regions where short-term triggering was also observed. These data indicate that the Landers earthquake produced long-term physical changes in these areas, and that an environmental source of stress--plausibly barometric pressure--might be responsible for the annual variation. PMID:10952308

  20. [Non-alimentary trigger factors of migraine and tension-type headache].

    PubMed

    Holzhammer, J; Wöber, C

    2006-06-01

    Based on an overview of the literature, this contribution critically discusses the importance of non-alimentary trigger factors of migraine and tension-type headache. Menstruation, environmental factors, psychological effects as well as sleep disorders and fatigue are mentioned most frequently. According to controlled studies, menstruation is indubitably associated with an increased risk of headache. Although a correlation between specific meteorological parameters and the appearance of headaches was established in some patients, the subjective observations of the patients did not however correlate with the objective weather data. Sensory stimuli function as triggers particularly for migraine with aura. Psychological factors, especially stress and everyday pressures, have been confirmed as trigger factors, but further prospective trials addressing this issue would be advantageous. Additional studies are also needed to elucidate the significance of sleep (disorders) and fatigue since their importance as triggers or symptoms of a headache attack has not been conclusively determined.

  1. Dynamic triggering during rupture nucleation in sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubnel, Alexandre; Chanard, Kristel; Latour, Soumaya; Petrelis, François; Hatano, Takahiro; Mair, Karen; Vinciguerra, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    Fluid induced stress perturbations in the crust at seismogenic depths can be caused by various sources, such as deglaciation unloading, magmatic intrusion or fluid injection and withdrawal. Numbers of studies have robustly shown their link to earthquake triggering. However, the role of small periodic stress variations induced by solid earth and oceanic tides or seasonal hydrology in the seismic cycle, of the order of a few kPa, remains unclear. Indeed, the existence or absence of correlation between these loading phenomena and earthquakes have been equally proposed in the literature. To investigate this question, we performed a set of triaxial deformation experiments on porous water-saturated Fontainebleau sandstones. Rock samples were loaded by the combined action of steps of constant stress (creep), intended to simulate tectonic loading and small sinusoidal pore pressure variations with a range of amplitudes, analogous to tides or seasonal loading. All tests were conducted at a regulated temperature of 35C and a constant 35 MPa confining pressure. Our experimental results show that (1) pore pressure oscillations do not seem to influence the deformation rate at which the rock fails, (2) they correlate with acoustic emissions. Even more interestingly, we observe a progressive increase of the correlation coefficient in time as the rock approaches failure. The correlation coefficient is also sensitive to the amplitude of pore pressure oscillations as larger oscillations produce higher correlation levels. Finally, we show that, in the last hours of creep before failure, acoustic emissions occur significantly more when the pore pressure is at its lowest. This suggest that the correlation of small stress perturbations and acoustic emissions depend on the state stress of a rock and the amplitude of the perturbations and that emissions occur more likely when cracks are unclamped.

  2. Radio AGN in the local universe: unification, triggering and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadhunter, Clive

    2016-06-01

    Associated with one of the most important forms of active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback, and showing a strong preference for giant elliptical host galaxies, radio AGN (L_{1.4 GHz} > 10^{24} W Hz^{-1}) are a key sub-class of the overall AGN population. Recently their study has benefitted dramatically from the availability of high-quality data covering the X-ray to far-IR wavelength range obtained with the current generation of ground- and space-based telescope facilities. Reflecting this progress, here I review our current state of understanding of the population of radio AGN at low and intermediate redshifts (z < 0.7), concentrating on their nuclear AGN and host galaxy properties, and covering three interlocking themes: the classification of radio AGN and its interpretation; the triggering and fuelling of the jet and AGN activity; and the evolution of the host galaxies. I show that much of the observed diversity in the AGN properties of radio AGN can be explained in terms of a combination of orientation/anisotropy, mass accretion rate, and variability effects. The detailed morphologies of the host galaxies are consistent with the triggering of strong-line radio galaxies (SLRG) in galaxy mergers. However, the star formation properties and cool ISM contents suggest that the triggering mergers are relatively minor in terms of their gas masses in most cases, and would not lead to major growth of the supermassive black holes and stellar bulges; therefore, apart from a minority (<20 %) that show evidence for higher star formation rates and more massive cool ISM reservoirs, the SLRG represent late-time re-triggering of activity in mature giant elliptical galaxies. In contrast, the host and environmental properties of weak-line radio galaxies (WLRG) with Fanaroff-Riley class I radio morphologies are consistent with more gradual fuelling of the activity via gas accretion at low rates onto the supermassive black holes.

  3. Triggered creep as a possible mechanism for delayed dynamic triggering of tremor and earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shelly, D.R.; Peng, Z.; Hill, D.P.; Aiken, C.

    2011-01-01

    The passage of radiating seismic waves generates transient stresses in the Earth's crust that can trigger slip on faults far away from the original earthquake source. The triggered fault slip is detectable in the form of earthquakes and seismic tremor. However, the significance of these triggered events remains controversial, in part because they often occur with some delay, long after the triggering stress has passed. Here we scrutinize the location and timing of tremor on the San Andreas fault between 2001 and 2010 in relation to distant earthquakes. We observe tremor on the San Andreas fault that is initiated by passing seismic waves, yet migrates along the fault at a much slower velocity than the radiating seismic waves. We suggest that the migrating tremor records triggered slow slip of the San Andreas fault as a propagating creep event. We find that the triggered tremor and fault creep can be initiated by distant earthquakes as small as magnitude 5.4 and can persist for several days after the seismic waves have passed. Our observations of prolonged tremor activity provide a clear example of the delayed dynamic triggering of seismic events. Fault creep has been shown to trigger earthquakes, and we therefore suggest that the dynamic triggering of prolonged fault creep could provide a mechanism for the delayed triggering of earthquakes. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  4. The dangers of being trigger-happy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, J. E.; Haworth, T. J.; Bressert, E.

    2015-06-01

    We examine the evidence offered for triggered star formation against the backdrop provided by recent numerical simulations of feedback from massive stars at or below giant molecular cloud sizescales. We compile a catalogue of 67 observational papers, mostly published over the last decade, and examine the signposts most commonly used to infer the presence of triggered star formation. We then determine how well these signposts perform in a recent suite of hydrodynamic simulations of star formation including feedback from O-type stars performed by Dale et al. We find that none of the observational markers improve the chances of correctly identifying a given star as triggered by more than factors of 2 at most. This limits the fidelity of these techniques in interpreting star formation histories. We therefore urge caution in interpreting observations of star formation near feedback-driven structures in terms of triggering.

  5. The new UA1 calorimeter trigger processor

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, S.A.; Campbell, D.; Cawthraw, M.; Coughlan, J.; Flynn, P.; Galagadera, S.; Grayer, G.; Halsall, R.; Shah, T.P.; Stephens, R.

    1989-02-01

    The UA1 First Level Trigger Processor (TP) is a fast digital machine with a highly parallel pipelined architecture of fast TTL combinational and programmable logic controlled by programmable microsequencers. The TP uses 100,000 IC's housed in 18 crates each containing 21 fastbus sized modules. It is hardwired with a very high level of interconnection. The energy deposited in the upgraded calorimeter is digitised into 1700 bytes of input data every beam crossing. The Processor selects in 1.5 microseconds events for further processing. The new electron trigger has improved hadron jet rejection, achieved by requiring low energy deposition around the electro-magnetic cluster. A missing transverse energy trigger and a total energy trigger have also been implemented.

  6. A hypothesis for delayed dynamic earthquake triggering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.

    2005-01-01

    It's uncertain whether more near-field earthquakes are triggered by static or dynamic stress changes. This ratio matters because static earthquake interactions are increasingly incorporated into probabilistic forecasts. Recent studies were unable to demonstrate all predictions from the static-stress-change hypothesis, particularly seismicity rate reductions. However, current dynamic stress change hypotheses do not explain delayed earthquake triggering and Omori's law. Here I show numerically that if seismic waves can alter some frictional contacts in neighboring fault zones, then dynamic triggering might cause delayed triggering and an Omori-law response. The hypothesis depends on faults following a rate/state friction law, and on seismic waves changing the mean critical slip distance (Dc) at nucleation zones.

  7. Graphics Processing Units for HEP trigger systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammendola, R.; Bauce, M.; Biagioni, A.; Chiozzi, S.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Fantechi, R.; Fiorini, M.; Giagu, S.; Gianoli, A.; Lamanna, G.; Lonardo, A.; Messina, A.; Neri, I.; Paolucci, P. S.; Piandani, R.; Pontisso, L.; Rescigno, M.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Vicini, P.

    2016-07-01

    General-purpose computing on GPUs (Graphics Processing Units) is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to the specific strengths of such devices as accelerator in offline computation. With the steady reduction of GPU latencies, and the increase in link and memory throughput, the use of such devices for real-time applications in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems is becoming ripe. We will discuss the use of online parallel computing on GPU for synchronous low level trigger, focusing on CERN NA62 experiment trigger system. The use of GPU in higher level trigger system is also briefly considered.

  8. Trigger System Upgrades for the SNO+ Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzec, Eric; Sno+ Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The SNO+ experiment will explore many topics in neutrino physics including neutrino-less double beta decay, low-energy solar neutrinos, antineutrinos from reactors and natural sources, nucleon decay, and potentially supernova neutrinos. The SNO+ trigger and readout system consists of electronics both inherited from the SNO detector and newly created specifically to address the challenges presented by the addition of scintillation light. Addition of new utilities to the SNO+ trigger system will allow for a flexible calibration interface, more sophisticated use of the existing trigger system, and new, more targeted, background cuts that will improve physics sensitivity. These utilities will largely be orchestrated by a MicroZed System on Chip (SoC), micro-controller. Their range of application includes automatic fault detection, upgrades of SNO utilities, noise reduction, and interfacing between components of the trigger system.

  9. Remotely triggered nonvolcanic tremor in Sumbawa, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, F.; Lupi, M.; Miller, S. A.

    2014-06-01

    We present, for the first time, evidence for triggered tremor beneath the island of Sumbawa, Indonesia. We show triggered tremor in response to three teleseismic earthquakes: the Mw9.0 2011 Tohoku earthquake and two oceanic strike-slip earthquakes (Mw 8.6 and Mw8.2) offshore of Sumatra in 2012. We constrain an apparent triggering threshold of 1 mm/s ground velocity that corresponds to about 8 kPa dynamic stress. Peak tremor amplitudes of about 180 nm/s are observed, and scale with the ground velocity induced by the remote earthquakes. Triggered tremor responds to 45-65 s period surface waves and predominantly correlates with Rayleigh waves, even though the 2012 oceanic events have stronger Love wave amplitudes. We could not locate the tremor because of minimal station coverage, but data indicate several potential source volumes including the Flores Thrust, the Java subduction zone, or Tambora volcano.

  10. Sensor-trigger device for explosion barrier.

    PubMed

    Liebman, I; Duda, F; Conti, R

    1979-11-01

    A flame sensor-trigger device was developed for use with barriers to suppress coal dust explosions in undergound mines. Principal feature of the device is a dual infrared flame sensor combined with a pressure-arming element. This combination prevents false and premature triggering of the barrier. With minor modifications, the device can also be used with barriers for protection in other facilities against gas explosions and explosions involving dusts other than coal.

  11. Dynamic stresses, Coulomb failure, and remote triggering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, D.P.

    2008-01-01

    Dynamic stresses associated with crustal surface waves with 15-30-sec periods and peak amplitudes 5 km). The latter is consistent with the observation that extensional or transtensional tectonic regimes are more susceptible to remote triggering by Rayleigh-wave dynamic stresses than compressional or transpressional regimes. Locally elevated pore pressures may have a role in the observed prevalence of dynamic triggering in extensional regimes and geothermal/volcanic systems.

  12. Trigger finger, tendinosis, and intratendinous gene expression.

    PubMed

    Lundin, A-C; Aspenberg, P; Eliasson, P

    2014-04-01

    The pathogenesis of trigger finger has generally been ascribed to primary changes in the first annular ligament. In contrast, we recently found histological changes in the tendons, similar to the findings in Achilles tendinosis or tendinopathy. We therefore hypothesized that trigger finger tendons would show differences in gene expression in comparison to normal tendons in a pattern similar to what is published for Achilles tendinosis. We performed quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction on biopsies from finger flexor tendons, 13 trigger fingers and 13 apparently healthy control tendons, to assess the expression of 10 genes which have been described to be differently expressed in tendinosis (collagen type 1a1, collagen 3a1, MMP-2, MMP-3, ADAMTS-5, TIMP-3, aggrecan, biglycan, decorin, and versican). In trigger finger tendons, collagen types 1a1 and 3a1, aggrecan and biglycan were all up-regulated, and MMP-3and TIMP-3 were down-regulated. These changes were statistically significant and have been previously described for Achilles tendinosis. The remaining four genes were not significantly altered. The changes in gene expression support the hypothesis that trigger finger is a form of tendinosis. Because trigger finger is a common condition, often treated surgically, it could provide opportunities for clinical research on tendinosis. PMID:22882155

  13. The CDF level 2 calorimetric trigger upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatti, A.; Canepa, A.; Casarsa, M.; Convery, M.; Cortiana, G.; Dell'Orso, M.; Donati, S.; Flanagan, G.; Frisch, H.; Fukun, T.; Krop, D.; /Chicago U., EFI /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore

    2009-01-01

    CDF II upgraded the calorimeter trigger to cope with the higher detector occupancy due to the increased Tevatron instantaneous luminosity ({approx} 2.8 x 10{sup 32} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}). While the original system was implemented in custom hardware and provided to the L2 trigger a limited-quality jet clustering performed using a reduced resolution measurement of the transverse energy in the calorimeter trigger towers, the upgraded system provides offline-quality jet reconstruction of the full resolution calorimeter data. This allows to keep better under control the dependence of the trigger rates on the instantaneous luminosity and to improve the efficiency and purity of the trigger selections. The upgraded calorimeter trigger uses the general purpose VME board Pulsar, developed at CDF II and already widely used to upgrade the L2 tracking and L2 decision systems. A battery of Pulsars is used to merge and send the calorimeter data to the L2 CPUs, where software-implemented algorithms perform offline-like clustering. In this paper we review the design and the performance of the upgraded system.

  14. The Zeus calorimeter first level trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.J.

    1989-04-01

    The design of the Zeus Detector Calorimeter Level Trigger is presented. The Zeus detector is being built for operation at HERA, a new storage ring that will provide collisions between 820 GeV protons and 30 GeV electrons in 1990. The calorimeter is made of depleted uranium plates and plastic scintillator read out by wavelength shifter bars into 12,864 photomultiplier tubes. These signals are combined into 974 trigger towers with separate electromagnetic and hadronic sums. The calorimeter first level trigger is pipelined with a decision provided 5 {mu}sec after each beam crossing, occurring every 96 nsec. The trigger determines the total energy, the total transverse energy, the missing energy, and the energy and number of isolated electrons and muons. It also provides information on the number and energy of clusters. The trigger rate needs to be held to 1 kHz against a rate of proton-beam gas interactions of approximately 500 kHz. The summed trigger tower pulseheights are digitized by flash ADC`s. The digital values are linearized, stored and used for sums and pattern tests.

  15. Commissioning of the CMS High Level Trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Agostino, Lorenzo; et al.

    2009-08-01

    The CMS experiment will collect data from the proton-proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a centre-of-mass energy up to 14 TeV. The CMS trigger system is designed to cope with unprecedented luminosities and LHC bunch-crossing rates up to 40 MHz. The unique CMS trigger architecture only employs two trigger levels. The Level-1 trigger is implemented using custom electronics, while the High Level Trigger (HLT) is based on software algorithms running on a large cluster of commercial processors, the Event Filter Farm. We present the major functionalities of the CMS High Level Trigger system as of the starting of LHC beams operations in September 2008. The validation of the HLT system in the online environment with Monte Carlo simulated data and its commissioning during cosmic rays data taking campaigns are discussed in detail. We conclude with the description of the HLT operations with the first circulating LHC beams before the incident occurred the 19th September 2008.

  16. Flower abscission in Vitis vinifera L. triggered by gibberellic acid and shade discloses differences in the underlying metabolic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Domingos, Sara; Scafidi, Pietro; Cardoso, Vania; Leitao, Antonio E.; Di Lorenzo, Rosario; Oliveira, Cristina M.; Goulao, Luis F.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding abscission is both a biological and an agronomic challenge. Flower abscission induced independently by shade and gibberellic acid (GAc) sprays was monitored in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) growing under a soilless greenhouse system during two seasonal growing conditions, in an early and late production cycle. Physiological and metabolic changes triggered by each of the two distinct stimuli were determined. Environmental conditions exerted a significant effect on fruit set as showed by the higher natural drop rate recorded in the late production cycle with respect to the early cycle. Shade and GAc treatments increased the percentage of flower drop compared to the control, and at a similar degree, during the late production cycle. The reduction of leaf gas exchanges under shade conditions was not observed in GAc treated vines. The metabolic profile assessed in samples collected during the late cycle differently affected primary and secondary metabolisms and showed that most of the treatment-resulting variations occurred in opposite trends in inflorescences unbalanced in either hormonal or energy deficit abscission-inducing signals. Particularly concerning carbohydrates metabolism, sucrose, glucose, tricarboxylic acid metabolites and intermediates of the raffinose family oligosaccharides pathway were lower in shaded and higher in GAc samples. Altered oxidative stress remediation mechanisms and indolacetic acid (IAA) concentration were identified as abscission signatures common to both stimuli. According to the global analysis performed, we report that grape flower abscission mechanisms triggered by GAc application and C-starvation are not based on the same metabolic pathways. PMID:26157448

  17. Flower abscission in Vitis vinifera L. triggered by gibberellic acid and shade discloses differences in the underlying metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Sara; Scafidi, Pietro; Cardoso, Vania; Leitao, Antonio E; Di Lorenzo, Rosario; Oliveira, Cristina M; Goulao, Luis F

    2015-01-01

    Understanding abscission is both a biological and an agronomic challenge. Flower abscission induced independently by shade and gibberellic acid (GAc) sprays was monitored in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) growing under a soilless greenhouse system during two seasonal growing conditions, in an early and late production cycle. Physiological and metabolic changes triggered by each of the two distinct stimuli were determined. Environmental conditions exerted a significant effect on fruit set as showed by the higher natural drop rate recorded in the late production cycle with respect to the early cycle. Shade and GAc treatments increased the percentage of flower drop compared to the control, and at a similar degree, during the late production cycle. The reduction of leaf gas exchanges under shade conditions was not observed in GAc treated vines. The metabolic profile assessed in samples collected during the late cycle differently affected primary and secondary metabolisms and showed that most of the treatment-resulting variations occurred in opposite trends in inflorescences unbalanced in either hormonal or energy deficit abscission-inducing signals. Particularly concerning carbohydrates metabolism, sucrose, glucose, tricarboxylic acid metabolites and intermediates of the raffinose family oligosaccharides pathway were lower in shaded and higher in GAc samples. Altered oxidative stress remediation mechanisms and indolacetic acid (IAA) concentration were identified as abscission signatures common to both stimuli. According to the global analysis performed, we report that grape flower abscission mechanisms triggered by GAc application and C-starvation are not based on the same metabolic pathways. PMID:26157448

  18. The Topo-trigger: a new concept of stereo trigger system for imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Coto, R.; Mazin, D.; Paoletti, R.; Blanch Bigas, O.; Cortina, J.

    2016-04-01

    Imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) such as the Major Atmospheric Gamma-ray Imaging Cherenkov (MAGIC) telescopes endeavor to reach the lowest possible energy threshold. In doing so the trigger system is a key element. Reducing the trigger threshold is hampered by the rapid increase of accidental triggers generated by ambient light (the so-called Night Sky Background NSB). In this paper we present a topological trigger, dubbed Topo-trigger, which rejects events on the basis of their relative orientation in the telescope cameras. We have simulated and tested the trigger selection algorithm in the MAGIC telescopes. The algorithm was tested using MonteCarlo simulations and shows a rejection of 85% of the accidental stereo triggers while preserving 99% of the gamma rays. A full implementation of this trigger system would achieve an increase in collection area between 10 and 20% at the energy threshold. The analysis energy threshold of the instrument is expected to decrease by ~ 8%. The selection algorithm was tested on real MAGIC data taken with the current trigger configuration and no γ-like events were found to be lost.

  19. Transient triggering of near and distant earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, J.; Blanpied, M.L.; Beeler, N.M.

    1997-01-01

    We demonstrate qualitatively that frictional instability theory provides a context for understanding how earthquakes may be triggered by transient loads associated with seismic waves from near and distance earthquakes. We assume that earthquake triggering is a stick-slip process and test two hypotheses about the effect of transients on the timing of instabilities using a simple spring-slider model and a rate- and state-dependent friction constitutive law. A critical triggering threshold is implicit in such a model formulation. Our first hypothesis is that transient loads lead to clock advances; i.e., transients hasten the time of earthquakes that would have happened eventually due to constant background loading alone. Modeling results demonstrate that transient loads do lead to clock advances and that the triggered instabilities may occur after the transient has ceased (i.e., triggering may be delayed). These simple "clock-advance" models predict complex relationships between the triggering delay, the clock advance, and the transient characteristics. The triggering delay and the degree of clock advance both depend nonlinearly on when in the earthquake cycle the transient load is applied. This implies that the stress required to bring about failure does not depend linearly on loading time, even when the fault is loaded at a constant rate. The timing of instability also depends nonlinearly on the transient loading rate, faster rates more rapidly hastening instability. This implies that higher-frequency and/or longer-duration seismic waves should increase the amount of clock advance. These modeling results and simple calculations suggest that near (tens of kilometers) small/moderate earthquakes and remote (thousands of kilometers) earthquakes with magnitudes 2 to 3 units larger may be equally effective at triggering seismicity. Our second hypothesis is that some triggered seismicity represents earthquakes that would not have happened without the transient load (i

  20. Radiation Hardness of Trigger Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawisza, Irene; Safonov, Alexei; Gilmore, Jason; Khotilovich, Vadim

    2011-10-01

    As the maximum intensity of particle accelerators increases, probing the most basic questions of the Universe, detectors and electronics must be designed to insure reliability in high-radiation environments. As the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) beam intensity is increased, it is necessary to upgrade the electronics in the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS). To select interesting events, CMS utilizes fast electronics, which are installed in the experimental cavern. However, much higher post-upgrade levels of radiation in the cavern set tight requirements on the radiation hardness of the new electronics. Damaging effects of high and low energy radiation leads to disruption of digital circuits and accumulated degradation of silicon components. Quantifying the radiation exposure is required for the design of a radiation-tolerant system, but current simulation studies suffer from large uncertainties. We compare simulation predictions with measured performance in two different experimental studies, which evaluate component performance for pre and post irradiation determining the survivability of electronics in the harsh CMS environment. Funded by DOE and NSF-REU Program.

  1. The ATLAS trigger - commissioning with cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, J.

    2008-07-01

    The ATLAS detector at CERN's LHC will be exposed to proton-proton collisions from beams crossing at 40 MHz. At the design luminosity there are roughly 23 collisions per bunch crossing. ATLAS has designed a three-level trigger system to select potentially interesting events. The first-level trigger, implemented in custom-built electronics, reduces the incoming rate to less than 100 kHz with a total latency of less than 2.5μs. The next two trigger levels run in software on commercial PC farms. They reduce the output rate to 100-200 Hz. In preparation for collision data-taking which is scheduled to commence in May 2008, several cosmic-ray commissioning runs have been performed. Among the first sub-detectors available for commissioning runs are parts of the barrel muon detector including the RPC detectors that are used in the first-level trigger. Data have been taken with a full slice of the muon trigger and readout chain, from the detectors in one sector of the RPC system, to the second-level trigger algorithms and the data-acquisition system. The system is being prepared to include the inner-tracking detector in the readout and second-level trigger. We will present the status and results of these cosmic-ray based commissioning activities. This work will prove to be invaluable not only during the commissioning phase but also for cosmic-ray data-taking during the normal running for detector performance studies.

  2. Improvements in computer-aided detection/computer-aided classification (CAD/CAC) of bottom mines through post analysis of a diverse set of very shallow water (VSW) environmental test data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciany, Charles M.; Zurawski, William C.

    2004-09-01

    In 1999 Raytheon adapted its shallow-water Side-Looking Sonar (SLS) Computer Aided Detection/Computer Aided Classification (CAD/CAC) algorithm to process side-scan sonar data obtained with the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute's Remote Environmental Monitoring Units (REMUS) autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). To date, Raytheon has demonstrated the ability to effectively execute mine-hunting missions with the REMUS vehicle through the fusion of its CAD/CAC algorithm with several other CAD/CAC algorithms to achieve low false alarm rates while maintaining a high probability of correct detection/classification. Mine-hunting in the very shallow water (VSW) environment poses a host of difficulties including such issues as: a higher incidence of man made clutter, significant interference due to biological sources (such as kelp or silt), the scouring of mines into the bottom, interference from surface/bottom bounce, and image distortion due to vehicle motion during image generation. These issues coupled with highly variable bottom conditions and small bottom targets make reliable hunting in the VSW environment very difficult. In order to be operationally viable, the individual CAD/CAC algorithms must demonstrate robustness over these very different mine-hunting environments. A higher normalized false alarm rate per algorithm is considered acceptable based on the false alarm reduction achieved through multi-algorithm fusion. Raytheon's recent CAD/CAC algorithm enhancements demonstrate a significant improvement in overall CAD/CAC performance across a diverse set of environments, from the relatively benign Gulf of Mexico environment to the more challenging areas off the coast of southern California containing significant biological and bottom clutter. The improvements are attributed to incorporating an image normalizer into the algorithm's pre-processing stage in conjunction with several other modifications. The algorithm enhancements resulted in an 11% increase in overall

  3. Prediction of earthquake-triggered landslide event sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Anika; Havenith, Hans-Balder; Schlögel, Romy

    2016-04-01

    Seismically induced landslides are a major environmental effect of earthquakes, which may significantly contribute to related losses. Moreover, in paleoseismology landslide event sizes are an important proxy for the estimation of the intensity and magnitude of past earthquakes and thus allowing us to improve seismic hazard assessment over longer terms. Not only earthquake intensity, but also factors such as the fault characteristics, topography, climatic conditions and the geological environment have a major impact on the intensity and spatial distribution of earthquake induced landslides. We present here a review of factors contributing to earthquake triggered slope failures based on an "event-by-event" classification approach. The objective of this analysis is to enable the short-term prediction of earthquake triggered landslide event sizes in terms of numbers and size of the affected area right after an earthquake event occurred. Five main factors, 'Intensity', 'Fault', 'Topographic energy', 'Climatic conditions' and 'Surface geology' were used to establish a relationship to the number and spatial extend of landslides triggered by an earthquake. The relative weight of these factors was extracted from published data for numerous past earthquakes; topographic inputs were checked in Google Earth and through geographic information systems. Based on well-documented recent earthquakes (e.g. Haiti 2010, Wenchuan 2008) and on older events for which reliable extensive information was available (e.g. Northridge 1994, Loma Prieta 1989, Guatemala 1976, Peru 1970) the combination and relative weight of the factors was calibrated. The calibrated factor combination was then applied to more than 20 earthquake events for which landslide distribution characteristics could be cross-checked. One of our main findings is that the 'Fault' factor, which is based on characteristics of the fault, the surface rupture and its location with respect to mountain areas, has the most important

  4. The D/Ø Silicon Track Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbrück, Georg

    2003-09-01

    We describe a trigger preprocessor to be used by the D Ø experiment for selecting events with tracks from the decay of long-lived particles. This Level 2 impact parameter trigger utilizes information from the Silicon Microstrip Tracker to reconstruct tracks with improved spatial and momentum resolutions compared to those obtained by the Level 1 tracking trigger. It is constructed of VME boards with much of the logic existing in programmable processors. A common motherboard provides the I/O infrastructure and three different daughter boards perform the tasks of identifying the roads from the tracking trigger data, finding the clusters in the roads in the silicon detector, and fitting tracks to the clusters. This approach provides flexibility for the design, testing and maintenance phases of the project. The track parameters are provided to the trigger framework in 25 μs. The effective impact parameter resolution for high-momentum tracks is 35 μm, dominated by the size of the Tevatron beam.

  5. Dietary aspects of migraine trigger factors.

    PubMed

    Rockett, Fernanda C; de Oliveira, Vanessa R; Castro, Kamila; Chaves, Márcia L F; Perla, Alexandre da S; Perry, Ingrid D S

    2012-06-01

    The significance of dietary factors as triggers for migraines is controversial, and the assessment of this topic is complex and inconclusive. In order to evaluate the published evidence on dietary triggers, a critical review of the literature was performed by conducting a search for food item descriptors linked to migraines in the PubMed and SciELO databases. Reviews and relevant references cited within the articles that resulted from the search were also included. Of the 45 studies reviewed, 16 were population studies that involved the association between migraines and eating habits or the prevalence of related dietary factors; 12 involved interventions or analyzed observational prospective cohorts; and 17 were retrospective studies. Approximately 30 dietary triggers were explored in total, although only seven of these were addressed experimentally. In the prospective studies, patients were instructed to keep a diary; two of these studies involved dietary interventions. Conclusions that are based on nonpharmacological prophylactic strategies with a scientific basis and that show an association between certain dietary factors and the triggering of migraines are limited by the lack of prospective studies with clear experimental designs. Nevertheless, the high frequency of possible specific dietary triggers validates efforts to elucidate the involvement of food-related factors in precipitating migraines.

  6. CMS muon detector and trigger performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccolo, Davide; CMS Collaboration

    2011-02-01

    In the CMS experiment at the LHC proton-proton collider, a key role will be played by the muon system that is embedded inside the iron yoke used to close the magnetic flux of the CMS solenoid. The muon system of the CMS experiment performs three main tasks: triggering of muons, identifying muons, and assisting the central tracker in order to measure the momentum and charge of high-pt muons in the pseudorapidity region |η|≤2.4. The system is composed by a central barrel and two closing endcaps. Three independent technologies are used to reconstruct and trigger muons: Drift Tubes (DT) in the barrel, Cathode Strips Chambers (CSC) in the endcaps and Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) in both barrel and endcap regions. All the detectors will contribute to the tracking and triggering of muons. Towards the end of 2008 and in 2009 the CMS experiment was commissioned with many millions of cosmic rays. These data have been fundamental to check the performance of the three sub-detectors and of the trigger response. In this paper the results in terms of the detection and trigger performance at the level of each sub-detector and at the level of the full muon system will be reported.

  7. Tau Trigger at the ATLAS Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Benslama, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Belanger-Champange, C.; Brenner, R.; Bosman, M.; Casado, P.; Osuna, C.; Perez, E.; Vorwerk, V.; Czyczula, Z.; Dam, M.; Xella, S.; Demers, S.; Farrington, S.; Igonkina, O.; Kanaya, N.; Tsuno, S.; Ptacek, E.; Reinsch, A.; Strom, David M.; Torrence, E.; /Oregon U. /Sydney U. /Lancaster U. /Birmingham U.

    2011-11-09

    Many theoretical models, like the Standard Model or SUSY at large tan({beta}), predict Higgs bosons or new particles which decay more abundantly to final states including tau leptons than to other leptons. At the energy scale of the LHC, the identification of tau leptons, in particular in the hadronic decay mode, will be a challenging task due to an overwhelming QCD background which gives rise to jets of particles that can be hard to distinguish from hadronic tau decays. Equipped with excellent tracking and calorimetry, the ATLAS experiment has developed tau identification tools capable of working at the trigger level. This contribution presents tau trigger algorithms which exploit the main features of hadronic tau decays and describes the current tau trigger commissioning activities. Many of the SM processes being investigated at ATLAS, as well as numerous BSM searches, contain tau leptons in their final states. Being able to trigger effectively on the tau leptons in these events will contribute to the success of the ATLAS experiment. The tau trigger algorithms and monitoring infrastructure are ready for the first data, and are being tested with the data collected with cosmic muons. The development of efficiency measurements methods using QCD and Z {yields} {tau}{tau} events is well advanced.

  8. Impact on Epidemic Measles of Vaccination Campaigns Triggered by Disease Outbreaks or Serosurveys: A Modeling Study

    PubMed Central

    Metcalf, C. Jessica E.; Cutts, Felicity T.; Grenfell, Bryan T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Routine vaccination supplemented by planned campaigns occurring at 2–5 y intervals is the core of current measles control and elimination efforts. Yet, large, unexpected outbreaks still occur, even when control measures appear effective. Supplementing these activities with mass vaccination campaigns triggered when low levels of measles immunity are observed in a sample of the population (i.e., serosurveys) or incident measles cases occur may provide a way to limit the size of outbreaks. Methods and Findings Measles incidence was simulated using stochastic age-structured epidemic models in settings conducive to high or low measles incidence, roughly reflecting demographic contexts and measles vaccination coverage of four heterogeneous countries: Nepal, Niger, Yemen, and Zambia. Uncertainty in underlying vaccination rates was modeled. Scenarios with case- or serosurvey-triggered campaigns reaching 20% of the susceptible population were compared to scenarios without triggered campaigns. The best performing of the tested case-triggered campaigns prevent an average of 28,613 (95% CI 25,722–31,505) cases over 15 y in our highest incidence setting and 599 (95% CI 464–735) cases in the lowest incidence setting. Serosurvey-triggered campaigns can prevent 89,173 (95% CI, 86,768–91,577) and 744 (612–876) cases, respectively, but are triggered yearly in high-incidence settings. Triggered campaigns reduce the highest cumulative incidence seen in simulations by up to 80%. While the scenarios considered in this strategic modeling exercise are reflective of real populations, the exact quantitative interpretation of the results is limited by the simplifications in country structure, vaccination policy, and surveillance system performance. Careful investigation into the cost-effectiveness in different contexts would be essential before moving forward with implementation. Conclusions Serologically triggered campaigns could help prevent severe epidemics in the

  9. Landslides triggered by the 8 October 2005 Kashmir earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Lewis A.; Kamp, Ulrich; Khattak, Ghazanfar A.; Harp, Edwin L.; Keefer, David K.; Bauer, Mark A.

    2008-02-01

    The 8 October 2005 Kashmir earthquake triggered several thousand landslides. These were mainly rock falls and debris falls, although translational rock and debris slides also occurred. In addition, a sturzstrom (debris avalanche) comprising ˜ 80 million m 3 buried four villages and blocked streams to create two lakes. Although landsliding occurred throughout the region, covering an area of > 7500 km 2, the failures were highly concentrated, associated with six geomorphic-geologic-anthropogenic settings, including natural failures in (1) highly fractured carbonate rocks comprising the lowest beds in the hanging wall of the likely earthquake fault; (2) Tertiary siliciclastic rocks along antecedent drainages that traverse the Hazara-Kashmir Syntaxis; (3) steep (> 50°) slopes comprising Precambrian and Lower Paleozoic rocks; (4) very steep (» 50°) lower slopes of fluvially undercut Quaternary valley fills; and (5) ridges and spur crests. The sixth setting was associated with road construction. Extensive fissuring in many of the valley slopes together with the freshly mobilized landslide debris constitutes a potential hazard in the coming snowmelt and monsoon seasons. This study supports the view that earthquake-triggered landslides are highly concentrated in specific zones associated with the lithology, structure, geomorphology, topography, and human presence.

  10. Landslides triggered by the 8 October 2005 Kashmir earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen, L.A.; Kamp, U.; Khattak, G.A.; Harp, E.L.; Keefer, D.K.; Bauer, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The 8 October 2005 Kashmir earthquake triggered several thousand landslides. These were mainly rock falls and debris falls, although translational rock and debris slides also occurred. In addition, a sturzstrom (debris avalanche) comprising ??? 80??million m3 buried four villages and blocked streams to create two lakes. Although landsliding occurred throughout the region, covering an area of > 7500??km2, the failures were highly concentrated, associated with six geomorphic-geologic-anthropogenic settings, including natural failures in (1) highly fractured carbonate rocks comprising the lowest beds in the hanging wall of the likely earthquake fault; (2) Tertiary siliciclastic rocks along antecedent drainages that traverse the Hazara-Kashmir Syntaxis; (3) steep (> 50??) slopes comprising Precambrian and Lower Paleozoic rocks; (4) very steep (?? 50??) lower slopes of fluvially undercut Quaternary valley fills; and (5) ridges and spur crests. The sixth setting was associated with road construction. Extensive fissuring in many of the valley slopes together with the freshly mobilized landslide debris constitutes a potential hazard in the coming snowmelt and monsoon seasons. This study supports the view that earthquake-triggered landslides are highly concentrated in specific zones associated with the lithology, structure, geomorphology, topography, and human presence. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Setting standards: Risk assessment issues

    SciTech Connect

    Pontius, F.W.

    1995-07-01

    How drinking water standards are set and which contaminants should be regulated are central issues in reauthorization of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). Suggested amendments to the standard-setting provisions of the SDWA cover a broad spectrum. In general, environmental groups argue that standards are not strict enough and that greater consideration should be given to sensitive subpopulations. Other note that the high cost associated with meeting increasingly strict standards is unjustified in light of the uncertain and sometimes nonexistent incremental benefits. This article takes a look at the issues involved in developing a rational approach for establishing drinking water standards. It reviews the current approach used by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to set standards.

  12. Explosively triggered gas-dielectric crowbar switch.

    PubMed

    Higgins, P B; Mathews, F H

    1979-04-01

    A gas-insulated gap switch with an unusually high standoff-to-trigger voltage ratio is described. Designed to standoff 500 kV when pressurized with SF(6) at 1.5 MPa (212 psi), the switch was triggered with as little as 19.3 kV across the gap by firing a shaped charge from one electrode toward the opposite electrode. Similar air-insulated and SF(6)-insulated gaps pressurized to 83 kPa (12 psi) and designed to standoff 50 and 150 kV, respectively, were triggered with 15.4 kV across the gap by firing an ordinary RP-2 detonator from one electrode toward the other.

  13. Self-triggering superconducting fault current limiter

    DOEpatents

    Yuan, Xing; Tekletsadik, Kasegn

    2008-10-21

    A modular and scaleable Matrix Fault Current Limiter (MFCL) that functions as a "variable impedance" device in an electric power network, using components made of superconducting and non-superconducting electrically conductive materials. The matrix fault current limiter comprises a fault current limiter module that includes a superconductor which is electrically coupled in parallel with a trigger coil, wherein the trigger coil is magnetically coupled to the superconductor. The current surge doing a fault within the electrical power network will cause the superconductor to transition to its resistive state and also generate a uniform magnetic field in the trigger coil and simultaneously limit the voltage developed across the superconductor. This results in fast and uniform quenching of the superconductors, significantly reduces the burnout risk associated with non-uniformity often existing within the volume of superconductor materials. The fault current limiter modules may be electrically coupled together to form various "n" (rows).times."m" (columns) matrix configurations.

  14. Use of GPUs in Trigger Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamanna, Gianluca

    In recent years the interest for using graphics processor (GPU) in general purpose high performance computing is constantly rising. In this paper we discuss the possible use of GPUs to construct a fast and effective real time trigger system, both in software and hardware levels. In particular, we study the integration of such a system in the NA62 trigger. The first application of GPUs for rings pattern recognition in the RICH will be presented. The results obtained show that there are not showstoppers in trigger systems with relatively low latency. Thanks to the use of off-the-shelf technology, in continous development for purposes related to video game and image processing market, the architecture described would be easily exported to other experiments, to build a versatile and fully customizable online selection.

  15. Paroxysmal discharges triggered by hearing spoken language.

    PubMed

    Tsuzuki, H; Kasuga, I

    1978-04-01

    We examined the modality of EEG activation by various kinds of acoustic stimulation in a middle-aged Japanese female with epilepsy. Paroxysmal discharges were triggered in the right frontal area (F4) by verval stimulation. For the activation of EEG, concentration of attention on the stimulation was essential; therefore paroxysmal discharges were triggered most easily by verbal stimuli when someone spoke to the patient directly. Stronger responses than usual were triggered by specific words, and apparently reflected the interest and concern of the patient. The latency from stimulation to paroxysmal discharges ranged from 230 to 1,300 msec, suggesting that the responses may have been a function of the perception and recognition of acoustic stimuli. "Heard-word epilepsy" or "Angesprochene Epilepsie" is suggested in this case.

  16. BTeV trigger/DAQ innovations

    SciTech Connect

    Votava, Margaret; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    BTeV was a proposed high-energy physics (HEP) collider experiment designed for the study of B-physics and CP Violation at the Tevatron at Fermilab. BTeV included a large-scale, high-speed trigger and data acquisition (DAQ) system, reading data from the detector at 500 Gbytes/sec and writing data to mass storage at a rate of 200 Mbytes/sec. The design of the trigger/DAQ system was innovative while remaining realistic in terms of technical feasibility, schedule and cost. This paper will give an overview of the BTeV trigger/DAQ architecture, highlight some of the technical challenges, and describe the approach that was used to solve these challenges.

  17. BTeV level 1 vertex trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Michael H.L.S. Wang

    2001-11-05

    BTeV is a B-physics experiment that expects to begin collecting data at the C0 interaction region of the Fermilab Tevatron in the year 2006. Its primary goal is to achieve unprecedented levels of sensitivity in the study of CP violation, mixing, and rare decays in b and c quark systems. In order to realize this, it will employ a state-of-the-art first-level vertex trigger (Level 1) that will look at every beam crossing to identify detached secondary vertices that provide evidence for heavy quark decays. This talk will briefly describe the BTeV detector and trigger, focus on the software and hardware aspects of the Level 1 vertex trigger, and describe work currently being done in these areas.

  18. Earthquake triggering by transient and static deformations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, J.; Beeler, N.M.; Blanpied, M.L.; Bodin, P.

    1998-01-01

    Observational evidence for both static and transient near-field and far-field triggered seismicity are explained in terms of a frictional instability model, based on a single degree of freedom spring-slider system and rate- and state-dependent frictional constitutive equations. In this study a triggered earthquake is one whose failure time has been advanced by ??t (clock advance) due to a stress perturbation. Triggering stress perturbations considered include square-wave transients and step functions, analogous to seismic waves and coseismic static stress changes, respectively. Perturbations are superimposed on a constant background stressing rate which represents the tectonic stressing rate. The normal stress is assumed to be constant. Approximate, closed-form solutions of the rate-and-state equations are derived for these triggering and background loads, building on the work of Dieterich [1992, 1994]. These solutions can be used to simulate the effects of static and transient stresses as a function of amplitude, onset time t0, and in the case of square waves, duration. The accuracies of the approximate closed-form solutions are also evaluated with respect to the full numerical solution and t0. The approximate solutions underpredict the full solutions, although the difference decreases as t0, approaches the end of the earthquake cycle. The relationship between ??t and t0 differs for transient and static loads: a static stress step imposed late in the cycle causes less clock advance than an equal step imposed earlier, whereas a later applied transient causes greater clock advance than an equal one imposed earlier. For equal ??t, transient amplitudes must be greater than static loads by factors of several tens to hundreds depending on t0. We show that the rate-and-state model requires that the total slip at failure is a constant, regardless of the loading history. Thus a static load applied early in the cycle, or a transient applied at any time, reduces the stress

  19. Triggering of great earthquakes: calculation and analysis of combined tidal effect of the Moon and Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubarov, D. L.; Kochnev, V. A.; Terre, D. A.

    2016-09-01

    The largest part of solid minerals (with the exception of those which are at the earth's surface) is being extracted world-wide by surface and underground mining techniques, with adits, mines and other mine workings being used. A considerable amount of mineral deposits (including oil reservoirs) is located either close to a fault-line or immediately within the zone of high seismic activity. To prevent economic and environmental damage under the effect of an earthquake, thorough seismic monitoring of the area must be performed, as well as the study of all possible mechanisms of an earthquake occurrence. In analysing the trigger effect of moon- and sun-induced tidal forces on seismic activity, six great earthquakes which occurred close to equatorial latitude over the last 15 years have been considered. Based on the positions of the Sun and Moon during the day relative to the point mass, the maps of horizontal, vertical components and vector of gravitational forces per unit mass have been plotted. The developed technique can be applicable to a set of methods to study integration and stress unloading mechanisms at the boundaries of block structures.

  20. More About The Video Event Trigger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Glenn L.

    1996-01-01

    Report presents additional information about system described in "Video Event Trigger" (LEW-15076). Digital electronic system processes video-image data to generate trigger signal when image shows significant change, such as motion, or appearance, disappearance, change in color, brightness, or dilation of object. Potential uses include monitoring of hallways, parking lots, and other areas during hours when supposed unoccupied, looking for fires, tracking airplanes or other moving objects, identification of missing or defective parts on production lines, and video recording of automobile crash tests.

  1. THE HIGH ENERGY TRANSIENT EXPLORER TRIGGERING ALGORITHM

    SciTech Connect

    E. FENIMORE; M. GALASSI

    2001-05-01

    The High Energy Transient Explorer uses a triggering algorithm for gamma-ray bursts that can achieve near the statistical limit by fitting to several background regions to remove trends. Dozens of trigger criteria run simultaneously covering time scales from 80 msec to 10.5 sec or longer. Each criteria is controlled by about 25 constants which gives the flexibility to search wide parameter spaces. On orbit, we have been able to operate at 6{sigma}, a factor of two more sensitive than previous experiments.

  2. The ZEUS calorimeter first level trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Foudas, C.; Dawson, J.; Krakauer, D.; Talaga, R.; Ali, I.; Behrens, B.; Fordham, C.; Goussiou, A.; Jaworski, M.; Lackey, J.

    1994-12-31

    The authors present results on the efficiency and performance of the ZEUS detector Calorimeter First Level Trigger (CFLT) using data taken during the 1993 HERA physics run. The CFLT is designed to process events in a digital pipeline applying pattern recognition algorithms and fast digital summation techniques in order to collect interesting physics events and reduce background from beam gas interactions. The total FLT efficiency was 98% for neutral current events and 85% for charged current events above Q{sup 2} of 10 GeV{sup 2}. The introduction of the isolated electron trigger increases the CFLT beam gas rejection by a factor of two.

  3. Careers in Environmental Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This guide was developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to provide individuals with information about potential careers in environmental research with the agency. The brochure's introduction presents an overview of the EPA and its involvement in setting environmental standards, standards enforcement and monitoring, and future trends…

  4. Pemphigus: etiology, pathogenesis, and inducing or triggering factors: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Ruocco, Vincenzo; Ruocco, Eleonora; Lo Schiavo, Ada; Brunetti, Giampiero; Guerrera, Luigi Pio; Wolf, Ronni

    2013-01-01

    Pemphigus includes a group of autoimmune bullous diseases with intraepithelial lesions involving the skin and Malpighian mucous membranes. Pemphigus vulgaris (PV), the most frequent and representative form of the group, is a prototypical organ-specific human autoimmune disorder with a poor prognosis in the absence of medical treatment. The pathomechanism of PV hinges on autoantibodies damaging cell-cell cohesion and leading to cell-cell detachment (acantholysis) of the epidermis and Malpighian mucosae (mainly oral mucosa). A controversy exists about which subset of autoantibodies is primarily pathogenic: the desmoglein-reactive antibodies or those directed against the acetylcholine receptors of the keratinocyte membrane. The onset and course of PV depend on a variable interaction between predisposing and inducing factors. Genetic predisposition has a complex polygenic basis, involving multiple genetic loci; however, the genetic background alone ("the soil"), although essential, is not by itself sufficient to initiate the autoimmune mechanism, as proven by the reports of PV in only one of two monozygotic twins and in only two of three siblings with an identical PV-prone haplotype. The intervention of inducing or triggering environmental factors ("the seed") seems to be crucial to set off the disease. The precipitating factors are many and various, most of them directly originating from the environment (eg, drug intake, viral infections, physical agents, contact allergens, diet), others being endogenous (eg, emotional stress, hormonal disorders) but somehow linked with the subject's lifestyle. As to certain drugs, their potential of provoking acantholysis may be implemented by their interfering with the keratinocyte membrane biochemistry (biochemical acantholysis) and/or with the immune balance (immunologic acantholysis). Viral infections, especially the herpetic ones, may trigger the outbreak of PV or simply complicate its clinical course. The precipitating effect

  5. Perceived triggers of asthma: key to symptom perception and management.

    PubMed

    Janssens, T; Ritz, T

    2013-09-01

    Adequate asthma management depends on an accurate identification of asthma triggers. A review of the literature on trigger perception in asthma shows that individuals vary in their perception of asthma triggers and that the correlation between self-reported asthma triggers and allergy tests is only modest. In this article, we provide an overview of psychological mechanisms involved in the process of asthma triggers identification. We identify sources of errors in trigger identification and targets for behavioural interventions that aim to improve the accuracy of asthma trigger identification and thereby enhance asthma control.

  6. Facies and environmental setting of the Miocene coral reefs in the late-orogenic fill of the Antalya Basin, western Taurides, Turkey: implications for tectonic control and sea-level changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabıyıkoğlu, M.; Tuzcu, S.; Çiner, A.; Deynoux, M.; Örçen, S.; Hakyemez, A.

    2005-01-01

    Facies and environmental setting of the Miocene coral reefs in the Late Cenozoic Antalya Basin are studied to contribute towards a better understanding of the time and space relationships of the reef development and the associated basin fill evolution in a tectonically active basin. The Antalya Basin is an extention-compression-related late post-orogenic basin that developed unconformably on a basement comprising a Mesozoic para-authocthonous carbonate platform overthrust by the Antalya Nappes and Alanya Massif metamorphics within the Isparta angle. The Late Cenozoic basin fill consists of thick Miocene to Recent clastic-dominated terrestrial and marine deposits with subordinate marine carbonates and extensive travertines. Late Miocene compressional deformation has resulted into three parts, referred as Aksu, Köprüçay and Manavgat sub-basins, bounded by north-south extending dextral Kırkkavak fault and the westward-verging Aksu thrust. Coralgal reefs are common within the Miocene sequences and are represented by coral assemblages closely similar to that of the circum-Mediterranean fauna. They occur as massive, small, isolated, patch reefs that developed in two contrasting depositional systems (progradational coastal alluvial fan and/or fan-delta conglomerates and transgressive shelf carbonates) during Early-Middle Miocene and Late Miocene. The Early-Middle Miocene reefs are represented by rich and high-diversity hermatypic corals, mainly comprising Tarbellastraea, Heliastraea, Favites, Favia, Acanthastraea, Porites, Caulastraea and Stylophora with occasional presence of solitary (ahermatypic) corals, Lithophyllia, Mussismilia and Leptomusso, locally reflecting relative changes in the bathymetry. Densely packed, massive, domal and hemispherical growth forms bounded by coralline algae and encrusting foraminifera Acervulina construct the reef framework. They occur in the fan-deltas and the transgressive open marine shelf carbonates of the Manavgat and the K

  7. Thermally triggered degradation of transient electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan Woo; Kang, Seung-Kyun; Hernandez, Hector Lopez; Kaitz, Joshua A; Wie, Dae Seung; Shin, Jiho; Lee, Olivia P; Sottos, Nancy R; Moore, Jeffrey S; Rogers, John A; White, Scott R

    2015-07-01

    Thermally triggered transient electronics using wax-encapsulated acid, which enable rapid device destruction via acidic degradation of the metal electronic components are reported. Using a cyclic poly(phthalaldehyde) (cPPA) substrate affords a more rapid destruction of the device due to acidic depolymerization of cPPA.

  8. Osmotic pressure-triggered cavitation in microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Shang, Luoran; Cheng, Yao; Wang, Jie; Yu, Yunru; Zhao, Yuanjin; Chen, Yongping; Gu, Zhongze

    2016-01-21

    A cavitation system was found in solid microcapsules with a membrane shell and a liquid core. By simply treating these microcapsules with hypertonic solutions, cavitation could be controllably triggered without special equipment or complex operations. A cavitation-formed vapor bubble was fully entrapped within the microcapsules, thus providing an advantageous method for fabricating encapsulated microbubbles with controllable dimensions and functional components. PMID:26659708

  9. Triggering of earthquake aftershocks by dynamic stresses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kilb, Debi; Gomberg, J.; Bodin, P.

    2000-01-01

    It is thought that small 'static' stress changes due to permanent fault displacement can alter the likelihood of, or trigger, earthquakes on nearby faults. Many studies of triggering in the nearfield, particularly of aftershocks, rely on these static changes as the triggering agent and consider them only in terms of equivalent changes in the applied load on the fault. Here we report a comparison of the aftershock pattern of the moment magnitude MW = 7.3 Landers earthquake, not only with static stress changes but also with transient, oscillatory stress changes transmitted as seismic waves (that is, 'dynamic' stresses). Dynamic stresses do not permanently change the applied load and thus can trigger earthquakes only by altering the mechanical state or properties of the fault zone. These dynamically weakened faults may fail after the seismic waves have passed by, and might even cause earthquakes that would not otherwise have occurred. We find similar asymmetries in the aftershock and dynamic stress patterns, the latter being due to rupture propagation, whereas the static stress changes lack this asymmetry. Previous studies have shown that dynamic stresses can promote failure at remote distances, but here we show that they can also do so nearby.

  10. Event reconstruction algorithms for the ATLAS trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    F-Martin, T.; Abolins, M.; Adragna, P.; Aleksandrov, E.; Aleksandrov, I.; Amorim, A.; Anderson, K.; Anduaga, X.; Aracena, I.; Asquith, L.; Avolio, G.; Backlund, S.; Badescu, E.; Baines, J.; Barria, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Batreanu, S.; Beck, H. P.; Bee, C.; Bell, P.; Bell, W. H.; Bellomo, M.; Benslama, K.; Berge, D.; Berger, N.; Berry, T.; Biglietti, M.; Blair, R. R.; Bogaerts, A.; Bold, T.; Bosman, M.; Boyd, J.; Brelier, B.; Burckhart, C. D.; Buttar, C.; Campanelli, M.; Caprini, M.; Carlino, G.; Casadei, D.; Casado, P.; Cataldi, G.; Cimino, D.; Ciobotaru, M.; Clements, D.; Coccaro, A.; Conde, M. P.; Conventi, F.; Corso, R. A.; Costa, M. J.; Coura, T. R.; Cranfield, R.; Cranmer, K.; Crone, G.; Dam, M.; Damazio, D.; Dawson, I.; Dawson, J.; DeAlmeida Simoes, A. J.; DeCecco, S.; DeSanto, A.; Della Pietra, M.; Delsart, P.-A.; Demers, S.; Demirkoz, B.; Di Mattia, A.; Dionisi, C.; Djilkibaev, R.; Dobinson, R.; Dobson, M.; Dotti, A.; Dova, M.; Drake, G.; Dufour, M.-A.; Eckweiler, S.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Eifert, T.; Ellis, N.; Emeliyanov, D.; Enoque Ferreira de Lima, D.; Ermoline, Y.; Eschrich, I.; Facius, K.; Falciano, S.; Farthouat, P.; Feng, E.; Ferland, J.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrer, M. L.; Fischer, G.; Francis, D.; Gadomski, S.; Garitaonandia, E. H.; Gaudio, G.; Gaumer, O.; George, S.; Giagu, S.; Goncalo, R.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gowdy, S.; Grabowska, B. I.; Grancagnolo, S.; Green, B.; Haas, S.; Haberichter, W.; Hadavand, H.; Haeberli, C.; Haller, J.; Hamilton, A.; Hansen, J. R.; Hauschild, M.; Hauser, R.; Head, S.; Hillier, S.; Hoecker, A.; Hryn'ova, T.; Hughes, J. R.; Huston, J.; Idarraga, J.; Igonkina, O.; Inada, M.; Jain, V.; Johns, K.; Joos, M.; Kama, S.; Kanaya, N.; Kazarov, A.; Kehoe, R.; Khoriauli, G.; Kieft, G.; Kilvington, G.; Kirk, J.; Kiyamura, H.; Kolos, S.; Kono, T.; Konstantinidis, N.; Korcyl, K.; Kordas, K.; Kotov, V.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Kubota, T.; Kugel, A.; Kuhn, D.; Kurasige, H.; Kuwabara, T.; Kwee, R.; Lankford, A.; LeCompte, T.; Leahu, L.; Leahu, M.; Ledroit, F.; Lehmann, M. G.; Lei, X.; Lellouch, D.; Leyton, M.; Li, S.; Lim, H.; Lohse, T.; Losada, M.; Luci, C.; Luminari, L.; Mapelli, L.; Martin, B.; Martin, B. T.; Marzano, F.; Masik, J.; McMahon, T.; Mcpherson, R.; Medinnis, M.; Meessen, C.; Meirosu, C.; Messina, A.; Mincer, A.; Mineev, M.; Misiejuk, A.; Moenig, K.; Monticelli, F.; Moraes, A.; Moreno, D.; Morettini, P.; Murillo, G. R.; Nagano, K.; Nagasaka, Y.; Negri, A.; Nemethy, P.; Neusiedl, A.; Nisati, A.; Nozicka, M.; Omachi, C.; Osculati, B.; Osuna, C.; Padilla, C.; Panikashvili, N.; Parodi, F.; Pasqualucci, E.; Pauly, T.; Perera, V.; Perez, E.; Perez Reale, V.; Petersen, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pilcher, J.; Pinzon, G.; Pope, B.; Potter, C.; Primavera, M.; Radescu, V.; Rajagopalan, S.; Renkel, P.; Rescigno, M.; Rieke, S.; Risler, C.; Riu, I.; Robertson, S.; Roda, C.; Rodriguez, D.; Rogriquez, Y.; Ryabov, Y.; Ryan, P.; Salvatore, D.; Santamarina, C.; Santamarina, R. C.; Scannicchio, D.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Schiavi, C.; Schlereth, J.; Scholtes, I.; Schooltz, D.; Scott, W.; Segura, E.; Shimbo, N.; Sidoti, A.; Siragusa, G.; Sivoklokov, S.; Sloper, J. E.; Smizanska, M.; Soloviev, I.; Soluk, R.; Spagnolo, S.; Spiwoks, R.; Stancu, S.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, J.; Stradling, A.; Strom, D.; Strong, J.; Su, D.; Sushkov, S.; Sutton, M.; Szymocha, T.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tarem, Z.; Teixeira, D. P.; Tokoshuku, K.; Torrence, E.; Touchard, F.; Tremblet, L.; Tripiana, M.; Usai, G.; Vachon, B.; Vandelli, W.; Ventura, A.; Vercesi, V.; Vermeulen, J.; Von Der Schmitt, J.; Wang, M.; Watson, A.; Wengler, T.; Werner, P.; Wheeler, E. S.; Wickens, F.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers M, M.; Wilkens, H.; Winklmeier, F.; Woehrling, E.-E.; Wu, S.-L.; Wu, X.; Xella, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yu, M.; Zema, F.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, L.; Zobernig, H.; dos Anjos, A.; zur Nedden, M.; zcan, E.; nel, G.

    2008-07-01

    The ATLAS experiment under construction at CERN is due to begin operation at the end of 2007. The detector will record the results of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. The trigger is a three-tier system designed to identify in real-time potentially interesting events that are then saved for detailed offline analysis. The trigger system will select approximately 200 Hz of potentially interesting events out of the 40 MHz bunch-crossing rate (with 109 interactions per second at the nominal luminosity). Algorithms used in the trigger system to identify different event features of interest will be described, as well as their expected performance in terms of selection efficiency, background rejection and computation time per event. The talk will concentrate on recent improvements and on performance studies, using a very detailed simulation of the ATLAS detector and electronics chain that emulates the raw data as it will appear at the input to the trigger system.

  11. Performance of the CMS High Level Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrotta, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system. The first level is implemented using custom-designed electronics. The second level is the so-called High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. For Run II of the Large Hadron Collider, the increases in center-of-mass energy and luminosity will raise the event rate to a level challenging for the HLT algorithms. The increase in the number of interactions per bunch crossing, on average 25 in 2012, and expected to be around 40 in Run II, will be an additional complication. We present here the expected performance of the main triggers that will be used during the 2015 data taking campaign, paying particular attention to the new approaches that have been developed to cope with the challenges of the new run. This includes improvements in HLT electron and photon reconstruction as well as better performing muon triggers. We will also present the performance of the improved tracking and vertexing algorithms, discussing their impact on the b-tagging performance as well as on the jet and missing energy reconstruction.

  12. Histopathology of tenosynovium in trigger fingers.

    PubMed

    Uchihashi, Kazuyoshi; Tsuruta, Toshiyuki; Mine, Hiroko; Aoki, Shigehisa; Nishijima-Matsunobu, Aki; Yamamoto, Mihoko; Kuraoka, Akio; Toda, Shuji

    2014-06-01

    Stenosing flexor tenosynovitis, trigger finger, is a common clinical disorder causing painful locking or contracture of the involved digits, and most instances are idiopathic. This problem is generally caused by a size mismatch between the swollen flexor tendon and the thickened first annular pulley. Although hypertrophic pulleys have been histologically and ultrasonographically detected, little is known about the histopathology of the tenosynovium covering the tendons of trigger fingers. We identified chondrocytoid cells that produced hyaluronic acid in 23 (61%) fingers and hypocellular collagen matrix in 32 (84%) fingers around the tenosynovium among 38 specimens of tenosynovium from patients with trigger fingers. These chondrocytoid cells expressed the synovial B cell marker CD44, but not the chondrocyte marker S-100 protein. The incidence of these findings was much higher than that of conventional findings of synovitis, such as inflammatory infiltrate (37%), increased vascularity (37%), hyperplasia of synovial lining cells (21%), or fibrin exudation (5%). We discovered the following distinctive histopathological features of trigger finger: hyaluronic acid-producing chondrocytoid cells originated from fibroblastic synovial B cells, and a hypocellular collagen matrix surrounding the tenosynovium. Thus, an edematous extracellular matrix with active hyaluronic acid synthesis might increase pressure under the pulley and contribute to the progression of stenosis. PMID:24965110

  13. THE STAR LEVEL-3 TRIGGER SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    LANGE, J.S.; ADLER, C.; BERGER, J.; DEMELLO, M.; FLIERL, D.; ET AL

    1999-11-15

    The STAR level-3 trigger is a MYRINET interconnected ALPHA processor farm, performing online tracking of N{sub track} {ge} 8000 particles (N{sub point} {le} 45 per track) with a design input rate of R=100 Hz. A large scale prototype system was tested in 12/99 with laser and cosmic particle events.

  14. Triggered earthquakes and deep well activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicholson, C.; Wesson, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Earthquakes can be triggered by any significant perturbation of the hydrologic regime. In areas where potentially active faults are already close to failure, the increased pore pressure resulting from fluid injection, or, alternatively, the massive extraction of fluid or gas, can induce sufficient stress and/or strain changes that, with time, can lead to sudden catastrophic failure in a major earthquake. Injection-induced earthquakes typically result from the reduction in frictional strength along preexisting, nearby faults caused by the increased formation fluid pressure. Earthquakes associated with production appear to respond to more complex mechanisms of subsidence, crustal unloading, and poroelastic changes in response to applied strains induced by the massive withdrawal of subsurface material. As each of these different types of triggered events can occur up to several years after well activities have begun (or even several years after all well activities have stopped), this suggests that the actual triggering process may be a very complex combination of effects, particularly if both fluid extraction and injection have taken place locally. To date, more than thirty cases of earthquakes triggered by well activities can be documented throughout the United States and Canada. Based on these case histories, it is evident that, owing to preexisting stress conditions in the upper crust, certain areas tend to have higher probabilities of exhibiting such induced seismicity. ?? 1992 Birkha??user Verlag.

  15. Triggering of earthquake aftershocks by dynamic stresses.

    PubMed

    Kilb, D; Gomberg, J; Bodin, P

    2000-11-30

    It is thought that small 'static' stress changes due to permanent fault displacement can alter the likelihood of, or trigger, earthquakes on nearby faults. Many studies of triggering in the near-field, particularly of aftershocks, rely on these static changes as the triggering agent and consider them only in terms of equivalent changes in the applied load on the fault. Here we report a comparison of the aftershock pattern of the moment magnitude Mw = 7.3 Landers earthquake, not only with static stress changes but also with transient, oscillatory stress changes transmitted as seismic waves (that is, 'dynamic' stresses). Dynamic stresses do not permanently change the applied load and thus can trigger earthquakes only by altering the mechanical state or properties of the fault zone. These dynamically weakened faults may fail after the seismic waves have passed by, and might even cause earthquakes that would not otherwise have occurred. We find similar asymmetries in the aftershock and dynamic stress patterns, the latter being due to rupture propagation, whereas the static stress changes lack this asymmetry. Previous studies have shown that dynamic stresses can promote failure at remote distances, but here we show that they can also do so nearby.

  16. Multiple output timing and trigger generator

    SciTech Connect

    Wheat, Robert M.; Dale, Gregory E

    2009-01-01

    In support of the development of a multiple stage pulse modulator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have developed a first generation, multiple output timing and trigger generator. Exploiting Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Micro Controller Units (MCU's), the timing and trigger generator provides 32 independent outputs with a timing resolution of about 500 ns. The timing and trigger generator system is comprised of two MCU boards and a single PC. One of the MCU boards performs the functions of the timing and signal generation (the timing controller) while the second MCU board accepts commands from the PC and provides the timing instructions to the timing controller. The PC provides the user interface for adjusting the on and off timing for each of the output signals. This system provides 32 output or timing signals which can be pre-programmed to be in an on or off state for each of 64 time steps. The width or duration of each of the 64 time steps is programmable from 2 {micro}s to 2.5 ms with a minimum time resolution of 500 ns. The repetition rate of the programmed pulse train is only limited by the time duration of the programmed event. This paper describes the design and function of the timing and trigger generator system and software including test results and measurements.

  17. FPGA Trigger System to Run Klystrons

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Darius; /Texas A-M /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    The Klystron Department is in need of a new trigger system to update the laboratory capabilities. The objective of the research is to develop the trigger system using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology with a user interface that will allow one to communicate with the FPGA via a Universal Serial Bus (USB). This trigger system will be used for the testing of klystrons. The key materials used consists of the Xilinx Integrated Software Environment (ISE) Foundation, a Programmable Read Only Memory (Prom) XCF04S, a Xilinx Spartan 3E 35S500E FPGA, Xilinx Platform Cable USB II, a Printed Circuit Board (PCB), a 100 MHz oscillator, and an oscilloscope. Key considerations include eight triggers, two of which have variable phase shifting capabilities. Once the project was completed the output signals were able to be manipulated via a Graphical User Interface by varying the delay and width of the signal. This was as planned; however, the ability to vary the phase was not completed. Future work could consist of being able to vary the phase. This project will give the operators in the Klystron Department more flexibility to run various tests.

  18. Cough in asthma triggered by reflux episodes.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Devendra; He, Zhaoping; Padman, Raj

    2014-05-01

    With combined pH and impedance monitoring, non-acid, as well as acid reflux episodes, are more commonly detected immediately prior to cough in asthma in children. Gastroesophageal reflux should be evaluated as a trigger for cough in difficult childhood asthma.

  19. Myofacial Trigger Points in Advanced Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hasuo, Hideaki; Ishihara, Tatsuhiko; Kanbara, Kenji; Fukunaga, Mikihiko

    2016-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome is started to be recognized as one of important factors of pain in cancer patients. However, no reports on features of myofascial trigger points were found in terminally-ill cancer populations. This time, we encountered 5 patients with myofascial pain syndrome and terminal cancer in whom delirium developed due to increased doses of opioid without a diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome on initial presentation. The delirium subsided with dose reductions of opioid and treatment of myofascial pain syndrome. The common reason for a delayed diagnosis among the patients included an incomplete palpation of the painful sites, which led to unsuccessful myofascial trigger points identification. The features of myofascial trigger points included single onset in the cancer pain management site with opioid and the contralateral abdominal side muscles of the non-common sites. Withdrawal reflexes associated with cancer pain in the supine position, which are increasingly seen in the terminal cancer patients, were considered to have contributed to this siuation. We consider that careful palpation of the painful site is important, in order to obtain greater knowledge and understanding of the features of myofascial trigger points. PMID:26962285

  20. Event Reconstruction Algorithms for the ATLAS Trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Fonseca-Martin, T.; Abolins, M.; Adragna, P.; Aleksandrov, E.; Aleksandrov, I.; Amorim, A.; Anderson, K.; Anduaga, X.; Aracena, I.; Asquith, L.; Avolio, G.; Backlund, S.; Badescu, E.; Baines, J.; Barria, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Batreanu, S.; Beck, H.P.; Bee, C.; Bell, P.; Bell, W.H.; /more authors..

    2011-11-09

    The ATLAS experiment under construction at CERN is due to begin operation at the end of 2007. The detector will record the results of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. The trigger is a three-tier system designed to identify in real-time potentially interesting events that are then saved for detailed offline analysis. The trigger system will select approximately 200 Hz of potentially interesting events out of the 40 MHz bunch-crossing rate (with 10{sup 9} interactions per second at the nominal luminosity). Algorithms used in the trigger system to identify different event features of interest will be described, as well as their expected performance in terms of selection efficiency, background rejection and computation time per event. The talk will concentrate on recent improvements and on performance studies, using a very detailed simulation of the ATLAS detector and electronics chain that emulates the raw data as it will appear at the input to the trigger system.

  1. Natural and unnatural triggers of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Kloner, Robert A

    2006-01-01

    Previous analyses have suggested that factors that stimulate the sympathetic nervous system and catecholamine release can trigger acute myocardial infarction. The wake-up time, Mondays, winter season, physical exertion, emotional upset, overeating, lack of sleep, cocaine, marijuana, anger, and sexual activity are some of the more common triggers. Certain natural disasters such as earthquakes and blizzards have also been associated with an increase in cardiac events. Certain unnatural triggers may play a role including the Holiday season. Holiday season cardiac events peak on Christmas and New Year. A number of hypotheses have been raised to explain the increase in cardiac events during the holidays, including overeating, excessive use of salt and alcohol, exposure to particulates, from fireplaces, a delay in seeking medical help, anxiety or depression related to the holidays, and poorer staffing of health care facilities at this time. War has been associated with an increase in cardiac events. Data regarding an increase in cardiac events during the 9/11 terrorist attack have been mixed. Understanding the cause of cardiovascular triggers will help in developing potential therapies.

  2. Avenues to autoimmune arthritis triggered by diverse remote inflammatory challenges.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Nina; Tan, Jian K; Mason, Linda J; Robert, Remy; McKenzie, Craig I; Lim, Florence; Wong, Connie H; Macia, Laurence; Thorburn, Alison N; Russ, Brendan E; Masters, Seth L; Mackay, Charles R

    2016-09-01

    Environmental factors contribute to development of autoimmune diseases. For instance, human autoimmune arthritis can associate with intestinal inflammation, cigarette smoking, periodontal disease, and various infections. The cellular and, molecular pathways whereby such remote challenges might precipitate arthritis or flares remain unclear. Here, we used a transfer model of self-reactive arthritis-inducing CD4(+) cells from KRNtg mice that, upon transfer, induce a very mild form of autoinflammatory arthritis in recipient animals. This model enabled us to identify external factors that greatly aggravated disease. We show that several distinct challenges precipitated full-blown arthritis, including intestinal inflammation through DSS-induced colitis, and bronchial stress through Influenza infection. Both triggers induced strong IL-17 expression primarily in self-reactive CD4(+) cells in lymph nodes draining the site of inflammation. Moreover, treatment of mice with IL-1β greatly exacerbated arthritis, while transfer of KRNtg CD4(+) cells lacking IL-1R significantly reduced disease and IL-17 expression. Thus, IL-1β enhances the autoaggressive potential of self-reactive CD4(+) cells, through increased Th17 differentiation, and this influences inflammatory events in the joints. We propose that diverse challenges that cause remote inflammation (lung infection or colitis, etc.) result in IL-1β-driven Th17 differentiation, and this precipitates arthritis in genetically susceptible individuals. Thus the etiology of autoimmune inflammatory arthritis likely relates to diverse triggers that converge to a common pathway involving IL-1β production and Th17 cell distribution. PMID:27427404

  3. Avenues to autoimmune arthritis triggered by diverse remote inflammatory challenges.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Nina; Tan, Jian K; Mason, Linda J; Robert, Remy; McKenzie, Craig I; Lim, Florence; Wong, Connie H; Macia, Laurence; Thorburn, Alison N; Russ, Brendan E; Masters, Seth L; Mackay, Charles R

    2016-09-01

    Environmental factors contribute to development of autoimmune diseases. For instance, human autoimmune arthritis can associate with intestinal inflammation, cigarette smoking, periodontal disease, and various infections. The cellular and, molecular pathways whereby such remote challenges might precipitate arthritis or flares remain unclear. Here, we used a transfer model of self-reactive arthritis-inducing CD4(+) cells from KRNtg mice that, upon transfer, induce a very mild form of autoinflammatory arthritis in recipient animals. This model enabled us to identify external factors that greatly aggravated disease. We show that several distinct challenges precipitated full-blown arthritis, including intestinal inflammation through DSS-induced colitis, and bronchial stress through Influenza infection. Both triggers induced strong IL-17 expression primarily in self-reactive CD4(+) cells in lymph nodes draining the site of inflammation. Moreover, treatment of mice with IL-1β greatly exacerbated arthritis, while transfer of KRNtg CD4(+) cells lacking IL-1R significantly reduced disease and IL-17 expression. Thus, IL-1β enhances the autoaggressive potential of self-reactive CD4(+) cells, through increased Th17 differentiation, and this influences inflammatory events in the joints. We propose that diverse challenges that cause remote inflammation (lung infection or colitis, etc.) result in IL-1β-driven Th17 differentiation, and this precipitates arthritis in genetically susceptible individuals. Thus the etiology of autoimmune inflammatory arthritis likely relates to diverse triggers that converge to a common pathway involving IL-1β production and Th17 cell distribution.

  4. Analysis of meteorological trigger conditions for torrential processes on a daily time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Martin; Kaitna, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Floods, intensive bedload transport, debris floods, and debris flows represent a severe hazard in torrent catchments in Alpine regions. These processes are expected to be mostly triggered by intensive, localized thunderstorm events or long lasting low-pressure systems. For forecasting debris flow hazards and estimation of potential changes due to climate change, identification of meteorological trigger conditions is of interest. In this study we investigate meteorological trigger conditions of torrential events recorded in Austria. The analysis is based on daily rainfall and temperature data. In total 7617 events and 1032 data-sets from meteorological stations, distributed over a region of approximately 80,000 km², and dating back until the year 1874, are available for analysis. Nearest stations to event as well as a weighted distance approach were combined with a Bayesian analysis to determine typical trigger conditions in different alpine settings. While according to Bayesian analysis the majority of debris flows is likely to be triggered by short rainfall events with an intensity of 60-70 mm/day, the signal for debris floods is less clear. Thresholds for debris floods tend to show higher rainfall intensities of 70-100 mm/day as prerequisites, but also a significant amount was caused by longer rainfall durations up to two days. Furthermore, the total event rainfall plays a higher role compared to debris flows. Intensive bedload transport shows a more complex relationship with a typical triggering event rainfall between 150 and 200 mm and rainfall intensities exceeding 100 mm/day. Flood events are mainly caused by a complex combination of influencing factors with different combinations of triggering event rainfall, high rainfall intensities and rainfall duration. The results of our study contribute to an improved understanding of torrential activity in the Alps and examine the influence of rainfall conditions on different types of torrential events.

  5. On near-source earthquake triggering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.; Velasco, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    When one earthquake triggers others nearby, what connects them? Two processes are observed: static stress change from fault offset and dynamic stress changes from passing seismic waves. In the near-source region (r ??? 50 km for M ??? 5 sources) both processes may be operating, and since both mechanisms are expected to raise earthquake rates, it is difficult to isolate them. We thus compare explosions with earthquakes because only earthquakes cause significant static stress changes. We find that large explosions at the Nevada Test Site do not trigger earthquakes at rates comparable to similar magnitude earthquakes. Surface waves are associated with regional and long-range dynamic triggering, but we note that surface waves with low enough frequency to penetrate to depths where most aftershocks of the 1992 M = 5.7 Little Skull Mountain main shock occurred (???12 km) would not have developed significant amplitude within a 50-km radius. We therefore focus on the best candidate phases to cause local dynamic triggering, direct waves that pass through observed near-source aftershock clusters. We examine these phases, which arrived at the nearest (200-270 km) broadband station before the surface wave train and could thus be isolated for study. Direct comparison of spectral amplitudes of presurface wave arrivals shows that M ??? 5 explosions and earthquakes deliver the same peak dynamic stresses into the near-source crust. We conclude that a static stress change model can readily explain observed aftershock patterns, whereas it is difficult to attribute near-source triggering to a dynamic process because of the dearth of aftershocks near large explosions.

  6. A large aperture laser triggered intensified charge coupled device using second-harmonic laser light triggering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Toshihiko; Dimock, Dirck

    1997-06-01

    For application to a ruby laser Thomson scattering system, we have developed a laser triggered intensified charge coupled device (CCD) with 80 mm aperture, two stages of intensification, and 80 ns gating. To improve the dynamic range, the CCD is cooled and read out slowly (1 s). To obtain a good extinction ratio (>1.1×107), the zoom electrode of the first intensifier is gated using a ˜10 kV laser triggered spark gap. The stability of this spark gap has been greatly improved by frequency doubling the laser trigger light.

  7. AMPLITUDE DISCRIMINATOR HAVING SEPARATE TRIGGERING AND RECOVERY CONTROLS UTILIZING AUTOMATIC TRIGGERING

    DOEpatents

    Chase, R.L.

    1962-01-23

    A transistorized amplitude discriminator circuit is described in which the initial triggering sensitivity and the recovery threshold are separately adjustable in a convenient manner. The discriminator is provided with two independent bias components, one of which is for circuit hysteresis (recovery) and one of which is for trigger threshold level. A switching circuit is provided to remove the second bias component upon activation of the trigger so that the recovery threshold is always at the point where the trailing edge of the input signal pulse goes through zero or other desired value. (AEC)

  8. UpSet: Visualization of Intersecting Sets

    PubMed Central

    Lex, Alexander; Gehlenborg, Nils; Strobelt, Hendrik; Vuillemot, Romain; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2016-01-01

    Understanding relationships between sets is an important analysis task that has received widespread attention in the visualization community. The major challenge in this context is the combinatorial explosion of the number of set intersections if the number of sets exceeds a trivial threshold. In this paper we introduce UpSet, a novel visualization technique for the quantitative analysis of sets, their intersections, and aggregates of intersections. UpSet is focused on creating task-driven aggregates, communicating the size and properties of aggregates and intersections, and a duality between the visualization of the elements in a dataset and their set membership. UpSet visualizes set intersections in a matrix layout and introduces aggregates based on groupings and queries. The matrix layout enables the effective representation of associated data, such as the number of elements in the aggregates and intersections, as well as additional summary statistics derived from subset or element attributes. Sorting according to various measures enables a task-driven analysis of relevant intersections and aggregates. The elements represented in the sets and their associated attributes are visualized in a separate view. Queries based on containment in specific intersections, aggregates or driven by attribute filters are propagated between both views. We also introduce several advanced visual encodings and interaction methods to overcome the problems of varying scales and to address scalability. UpSet is web-based and open source. We demonstrate its general utility in multiple use cases from various domains. PMID:26356912

  9. Electron Pattern Recognition using trigger mode SOI pixel sensor for Advanced Compton Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazoe, K.; Yoshihara, Y.; Fairuz, A.; Koyama, A.; Takahashi, H.; Takeda, A.; Tsuru, T.; Arai, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Compton imaging is a useful method for localizing sub MeV to a few MeV gamma-rays and widely used for environmental and medical applications. The direction of recoiled electrons in Compton scattering process provides the additional information to limit the Compton cones and increases the sensitivity in the system. The capability of recoiled electron tracking using trigger-mode Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) sensor is investigated with various radiation sources. The trigger-mode SOI sensor consists of 144 by 144 active pixels with 30 μm cells and the thickness of sensor is 500 μm. The sensor generates the digital output when it is hit by gamma-rays and 25 by 25 pixel pattern of surrounding the triggered pixel is readout to extract the recoiled electron track. The electron track is successfully observed for 60Co and 137Cs sources, which provides useful information for future electron tracking Compton camera.

  10. Using Water-Testing Data Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varrella, Gary F.

    1994-01-01

    Advocates an approach to teaching environmentally related studies based on constructivism. Presents an activity that makes use of data on chemicals in the water supply, and discusses obtaining and using data sets in the classroom. (LZ)

  11. A high power microwave triggered RF opening switch.

    PubMed

    Beeson, S; Dickens, J; Neuber, A

    2015-03-01

    A 4-port S-band waveguide structure was designed and fabricated such that a signal of any amplitude (less than 1 MW) can be switched from a normally closed state, <0.5 dB insertion loss (IL), to an open state >30 dB IL by initiating plasma in a gas cell situated at the junction of this waveguide and one propagating a megawatt level magnetron pulse. The 90/10 switching time is as low as 20 ns with a delay of ∼30 ns between the onset of the high power microwave pulse and the initial drop of the signal. Two ports of this device are for the high power triggering pulse while the other two ports are for the triggered signal in a Moreno-like coupler configuration. In order to maintain high isolation, these two sets of waveguides are rotated 90° from each other with a TE111 resonator/plasma cell located at the intersection. This manuscript describes the design and optimization of this structure using COMSOL 4.4 at the design frequency of 2.85 GHz, comparison of simulated scattering parameters with measured "cold tests" (testing without plasma), and finally the temporal waveforms of this device being used to successfully switch a low power CW signal from 2 W to <5 mW on a sub-microsecond timescale. PMID:25832255

  12. Investigation of Self Triggered Cosmic Ray Detectors using Silicon Photomultiplier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, Adrian; Niduaza, Rommel; Hernandez, Victor; Ruiz, Daniel; Ramos, Daniel; Fan, Sewan; Fatuzzo, Laura; Ritt, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    The silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) is a highly sensitive light detector capable of measuring single photons. It costs a fraction of the photomultiplier tube and operates slightly above the breakdown voltage. At this conference we describe our investigation of SiPM, the multipixel photon counters (MPPC) from Hamamatsu as readout detectors for plastic scintillators working for detecting cosmic ray particles. Our setup consists of scintillator sheets embedded with blue to green wavelength shifting fibers optically coupled to MPPCs to detect scintillating light. Four detector assemblies would be constructed and arranged to work in self triggered mode. Using custom matching tee boxes, the amplified MPPC signals are fed to discriminators with threshold set to give a reasonable coincidence count rate. Moreover, the detector waveforms are digitized using a 5 Giga Samples per second waveform digitizer, the DRS4, and triggered with the coincidence logic to capture the MPPC waveforms. Offline analysis of the digitized waveforms is accomplished using the CERN package PAW and results of our experiments and the data analysis would also be discussed. US Department of Education Title V Grant Number PO31S090007.

  13. A high power microwave triggered RF opening switch.

    PubMed

    Beeson, S; Dickens, J; Neuber, A

    2015-03-01

    A 4-port S-band waveguide structure was designed and fabricated such that a signal of any amplitude (less than 1 MW) can be switched from a normally closed state, <0.5 dB insertion loss (IL), to an open state >30 dB IL by initiating plasma in a gas cell situated at the junction of this waveguide and one propagating a megawatt level magnetron pulse. The 90/10 switching time is as low as 20 ns with a delay of ∼30 ns between the onset of the high power microwave pulse and the initial drop of the signal. Two ports of this device are for the high power triggering pulse while the other two ports are for the triggered signal in a Moreno-like coupler configuration. In order to maintain high isolation, these two sets of waveguides are rotated 90° from each other with a TE111 resonator/plasma cell located at the intersection. This manuscript describes the design and optimization of this structure using COMSOL 4.4 at the design frequency of 2.85 GHz, comparison of simulated scattering parameters with measured "cold tests" (testing without plasma), and finally the temporal waveforms of this device being used to successfully switch a low power CW signal from 2 W to <5 mW on a sub-microsecond timescale.

  14. Nonlinear triggered lightning models for use in finite difference calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, Terence; Perala, Rodney A.; Ng, Poh H.

    1989-01-01

    Two nonlinear triggered lightning models have been developed for use in finite difference calculations. Both are based on three species of air chemistry physics and couple nonlinearly calculated air conductivity to Maxwell's equations. The first model is suitable for use in three-dimensional modeling and has been applied to the analysis of triggered lightning on the NASA F106B Thunderstorm Research Aircraft. The model calculates number densities of positive ions, negative ions, and electrons as a function of time and space through continuity equations, including convective derivative terms. The set of equations is closed by using experimentally determined mobilities, and the mobilities are also used to determine the air conductivity. Results from the model's application to the F106B are shown. The second model is two-dimensional and incorporates an enhanced air chemistry formulation. Momentum conservation equations replace the mobility assumption of the first model. Energy conservation equations for neutrals, heavy ions, and electrons are also used. Energy transfer into molecular vibrational modes is accounted for. The purpose for the enhanced model is to include the effects of temperature into the air breakdown, a necessary step if the model is to simulate more than the very earliest stages of breakdown. Therefore, the model also incorporates a temperature-dependent electron avalanche rate. Results from the model's application to breakdown around a conducting ellipsoid placed in an electric field are shown.

  15. Performance of the PHENIX Forward Trigger Resistive Plate Chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Towell, Ramsey

    2012-10-01

    The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory studies polarized proton-proton collisions to learn more about the spin structure of the proton. PHENIX's data acquisition system is able to record several thousand collisions each second. However, millions of collisions occur every second. So a forward trigger is required to select rare events of interest. To study the sea quark contribution to the spin structure of the proton, the interesting events are single high transverse momentum muons. The muon trigger upgrade includes two sets of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) in both muon arms. Run 12 was the first run that had all of the RPCs installed. Now that the run is over, the performance of the RPCs under data-taking conditions can be analyzed. Initial studies indicate that the chambers performed extremely well. However, there were some noisy and dead channels identified. This careful systematic analysis has assisted in locating those channels so that they can be repaired before the next RHIC run. Results of the analyzed data showing the noisy and dead channels will be presented.

  16. Wide Range SET Pulse Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuler, Robert L.; Chen, Li

    2012-01-01

    A method for measuring a wide range of SET pulses is demonstrated. Use of dynamic logic, faster than ordinary CMOS, allows capture of short pulses. A weighted binning of SET lengths allows measurement of a wide range of pulse lengths with compact circuitry. A pulse-length-conservative pulse combiner tree routes SETs from combinational logic to the measurement circuit, allowing SET measurements in circuits that cannot easily be arranged in long chains. The method is applied to add-multiplex combinational logic, and to an array of NFET routing switches, at .35 micron. Pulses are captured in a chain of Domino Logic AND gates. Propagation through the chain is frozen on the trailing edge by dropping low the second "enable" input to the AND gates. Capacitive loading is increased in the latter stages to create an approximately logarithmic weighted binning, so that a broad range of pulse lengths can be captured with a 10 stage capture chain. Simulations show pulses can be captured which are 1/5th the length of those typically captured with leading edge triggered latch methods, and less than the length of those captured with a trailing edge latch method. After capture, the pulse pattern is transferred to an SEU protected shift register for readout. 64 instances of each of two types of logic are used as targets. One is a full adder with a 4 to 1 mux on its inputs. The other is a 4 x 4 NFET routing matrix. The outputs are passed through buffered XNOR comparators to identify pulses, which are merged in a buffered not-nand (OR) tree designed to avoid pulse absorption as much as possible. The output from each of the two test circuits are input into separate pulse measurement circuits. Test inputs were provided so that the circuit could be bench tested and calibrated. A third SET measurement circuit with no inputs was used to judge the contribution from direct hits on the measurement circuit. Heavy ions were used with an LET range from 12 to 176. At LET of 21 and below, the very

  17. Photoconductive semiconductor switches: Laser Q-switch trigger and switch-trigger laser integration

    SciTech Connect

    Loubriel, G.M.; Mar, A.; Hamil, R.A.; Zutavern, F.J.; Helgeson, W.D.

    1997-12-01

    This report provides a summary of the Pulser In a Chip 9000-Discretionary LDRD. The program began in January of 1997 and concluded in September of 1997. The over-arching goal of this LDRD is to study whether laser diode triggered photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) can be used to activate electro-optic devices such as Q-switches and Pockels cells and to study possible laser diode/switch integration. The PCSS switches we used were high gain GaAs switches because they can be triggered with small amounts of laser light. The specific goals of the LDRD were to demonstrate: (1) that small laser diode arrays that are potential candidates for laser-switch integration will indeed trigger the PCSS switch, and (2) that high gain GaAs switches can be used to trigger optical Q-switches in lasers such as the lasers to be used in the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source and the laser used for direct optical initiation (DOI) of explosives. The technology developed with this LDRD is now the prime candidate for triggering the Q switch in the multiple lasers in the laser trigger system of the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source and may be utilized in other accelerators. As part of the LDRD we developed a commercial supplier. To study laser/switch integration we tested triggering the high gain GaAs switches with: edge emitting laser diodes, vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs), and transverse junction stripe (TJS) lasers. The first two types of lasers (edge emitting and VCSELs) did activate the PCSS but are harder to integrate with the PCSS for a compact package. The US lasers, while easier to integrate with the switch, did not trigger the PCSS at the US laser power levels we used. The PCSS was used to activate the Q-switch of the compact laser to be used in the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source.

  18. Nonlinear Viscoelastic Stress Transfer As a Possible Aftershock Triggering Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Shcherbakov, R.

    2014-12-01

    The earthquake dynamics can be modelled by employing the spring-block system [Burridge and Knopoff, 1967]. In this approach the earthquake fault is modelled by an array of blocks coupling the loading plate and the lower plate. The dynamics of the system is governed by the system of equations of motion for each block. It is possible to map this system into a cellular automata model, where the stress acting on each block is increased in each time step, and the failing process (frictional slip) is described by stress transfer rules [Olami et al, 1992]. The OFC model produces a power-law distribution for avalanche statistics but it is not capable of producing robust aftershock sequences which follow Omori's law.We propose a nonlinear viscoelastic stress transfer mechanism in the aftershock triggering. In a basic spring-block model setting, we introduce the nonlinear viscoelastic stress transfer between neighbouring blocks, as well as between blocks and the top loading plate. The shear stress of the viscous component is a power-law function of the velocity gradient with an exponent smaller or greater than 1 for the nonlinear viscoelasticity, or 1 for the linear case. The stress transfer function of this nonlinear viscoelastic model has a power-law time-dependent form. It features an instantaneous stress transmission triggering an instantaneous avalanche, which is the same as the original spring-block model; and a power-law relaxation term, which could trigger further aftershocks. We incorporate this nonlinear viscoelasticity mechanism in a lattice cellular automata model. The model could exhibit both the Gutenberg-Richter scaling for the frequency-magnitude distribution and a power-law time decay of aftershocks, which is in accordance with Omori's law. Our study suggests that the stress transfer function may play an important role in the aftershock triggering. We have found that the time decay curve of aftershocks is affected by the shape of the stress transfer function

  19. Probabilistic clustering of rainfall condition for landslide triggering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Mauro; Luciani, Silvia; Cesare Mondini, Alessandro; Kirschbaum, Dalia; Valigi, Daniela; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2013-04-01

    Landslides are widespread natural and man made phenomena. They are triggered by earthquakes, rapid snow melting, human activities, but mostly by typhoons and intense or prolonged rainfall precipitations. In Italy mostly they are triggered by intense precipitation. The prediction of landslide triggered by rainfall precipitations over large areas is commonly based on the exploitation of empirical models. Empirical landslide rainfall thresholds are used to identify rainfall conditions for the possible landslide initiation. It's common practice to define rainfall thresholds by assuming a power law lower boundary in the rainfall intensity-duration or cumulative rainfall-duration space above which landslide can occur. The boundary is defined considering rainfall conditions associated to landslide phenomena using heuristic approaches, and doesn't consider rainfall events not causing landslides. Here we present a new fully automatic method to identify the probability of landslide occurrence associated to rainfall conditions characterized by measures of intensity or cumulative rainfall and rainfall duration. The method splits the rainfall events of the past in two groups: a group of events causing landslides and its complementary, then estimate their probabilistic distributions. Next, the probabilistic membership of the new event to one of the two clusters is estimated. The method doesn't assume a priori any threshold model, but simple exploits the real empirical distribution of rainfall events. The approach was applied in the Umbria region, Central Italy, where a catalogue of landslide timing, were obtained through the search of chronicles, blogs and other source of information in the period 2002-2012. The approach was tested using rain gauge measures and satellite rainfall estimates (NASA TRMM-v6), allowing in both cases the identification of the rainfall condition triggering landslides in the region. Compared to the other existing threshold definition methods, the prosed

  20. An Electronic Diary Study of Contextual Triggers and ADHD: Get Ready, Get Set, Get Mad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, Carol K.; Henker, Barbara; Ishikawa, Sharon S.; Jamner, Larry D.; Floro, Joshua N.; Johnston, Joseph A.; Swindle, Ralph

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to examine context effects or provocation ecologies in the daily lives of children with ADHD. Method: Across 7 days, mothers and children (27 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD] taking stimulant medication; 25 children without ADHD; ages 7-12 years) provided electronic diary reports…

  1. Community Mobilization for Girls Enrollment in Educational Settings: Triggers of Change Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Margaret M.

    The benefits of girls' education include increased family incomes, later marriages, reduced fertility rates, reduced infant and maternal mortality rates, better nourished families, and greater opportunities for women. However, ingrained attitudes towards women are difficult to change. Only when communities believe that the benefits of girls in…

  2. The BTeV trigger architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Michael H.L.S. Wang

    2003-08-21

    BTeV is a high-statistics B-physics experiment that will achieve new levels of sensitivity in testing the Standard Model explanation of CP violation, mixing, and rare decays in the b and c quark systems by operating in the unique environment of a hadron collider. In order to achieve its goals, it will make use of a state-of-the-art Si-pixel vertex detector and a novel 3-level hierarchical trigger that will look at every single beam crossing to detect the presence of heavy quark decays. This talk will describe the trigger architecture focusing on key design aspects that allow the use of commercially available technology in a highly feasible and practical solution that meets the demanding physics requirements of the BTeV experiment.

  3. A light-triggered protein secretion system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daniel; Gibson, Emily S; Kennedy, Matthew J

    2013-05-13

    Optical control of protein interactions has emerged as a powerful experimental paradigm for manipulating and studying various cellular processes. Tools are now available for controlling a number of cellular functions, but some fundamental processes, such as protein secretion, have been difficult to engineer using current optical tools. Here we use UVR8, a plant photoreceptor protein that forms photolabile homodimers, to engineer the first light-triggered protein secretion system. UVR8 fusion proteins were conditionally sequestered in the endoplasmic reticulum, and a brief pulse of light triggered robust forward trafficking through the secretory pathway to the plasma membrane. UVR8 was not responsive to excitation light used to image cyan, green, or red fluorescent protein variants, allowing multicolor visualization of cellular markers and secreted protein cargo as it traverses the cellular secretory pathway. We implemented this novel tool in neurons to demonstrate restricted, local trafficking of secretory cargo near dendritic branch points.

  4. Level-2 Calorimeter Trigger Upgrade at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, G.U.; /Purdue U.

    2007-04-01

    The CDF Run II Level-2 calorimeter trigger is implemented in hardware and is based on an algorithm used in Run I. This system insured good performance at low luminosity obtained during the Tevatron Run II. However, as the Tevatron instantaneous luminosity increases, the limitations of the current system due to the algorithm start to become clear. In this paper, we will present an upgrade of the Level-2 calorimeter trigger system at CDF. The upgrade is based on the Pulsar board, a general purpose VME board developed at CDF and used for upgrading both the Level-2 tracking and the Level-2 global decision crate. This paper will describe the design, hardware and software implementation, as well as the advantages of this approach over the existing system.

  5. Checkpoint triggering in a computer system

    DOEpatents

    Cher, Chen-Yong

    2016-09-06

    According to an aspect, a method for triggering creation of a checkpoint in a computer system includes executing a task in a processing node of the computer system and determining whether it is time to read a monitor associated with a metric of the task. The monitor is read to determine a value of the metric based on determining that it is time to read the monitor. A threshold for triggering creation of the checkpoint is determined based on the value of the metric. Based on determining that the value of the metric has crossed the threshold, the checkpoint including state data of the task is created to enable restarting execution of the task upon a restart operation.

  6. Does low atmospheric pressure independently trigger migraine?

    PubMed

    Bolay, Hayrunnisa; Rapoport, Alan

    2011-10-01

    Although atmospheric weather changes are often listed among the common migraine triggers, studies to determine the specific weather component(s) responsible have yielded inconsistent results. Atmospheric pressure change produces air movement, and low pressure in particular is associated with warm weather, winds, clouds, dust, and precipitation, but how this effect might generate migraine is not immediately obvious. Humans are exposed to low atmospheric pressure in situations such as ascent to high altitude or traveling by airplane in a pressurized cabin. In this brief overview, we consider those conditions and experimental data delineating other elements in the atmosphere potentially related to migraine (such as Saharan dust). We conclude that the available data suggest low atmospheric pressure unaccompanied by other factors does not trigger migraine.

  7. Insignificant solar-terrestrial triggering of earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Thomas, Jeremy N.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the claim that solar-terrestrial interaction, as measured by sunspots, solar wind velocity, and geomagnetic activity, might play a role in triggering earthquakes. We count the number of earthquakes having magnitudes that exceed chosen thresholds in calendar years, months, and days, and we order these counts by the corresponding rank of annual, monthly, and daily averages of the solar-terrestrial variables. We measure the statistical significance of the difference between the earthquake-number distributions below and above the median of the solar-terrestrial averages by χ2 and Student's t tests. Across a range of earthquake magnitude thresholds, we find no consistent and statistically significant distributional differences. We also introduce time lags between the solar-terrestrial variables and the number of earthquakes, but again no statistically significant distributional difference is found. We cannot reject the null hypothesis of no solar-terrestrial triggering of earthquakes.

  8. Correlated observations of three triggered lightning flashes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Idone, V. P.; Orville, R. E.; Hubert, P.; Barret, L.; Eybert-Berard, A.

    1984-01-01

    Three triggered lightning flashes, initiated during the Thunderstorm Research International Program (1981) at Langmuir Laboratory, New Mexico, are examined on the basis of three-dimensional return stroke propagation speeds and peak currents. Nonlinear relationships result between return stroke propagation speed and stroke peak current for 56 strokes, and between return stroke propagation speed and dart leader propagation speed for 32 strokes. Calculated linear correlation coefficients include dart leader propagation speed and ensuing return stroke peak current (32 strokes; r = 0.84); and stroke peak current and interstroke interval (69 strokes; r = 0.57). Earlier natural lightning data do not concur with the weak positive correlation between dart leader propagation speed and interstroke interval. Therefore, application of triggered lightning results to natural lightning phenomena must be made with certain caveats. Mean values are included for the three-dimensional return stroke propagation speed and for the three-dimensional dart leader propagation speed.

  9. The ALICE Central Trigger Processor (CTP) upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivda, M.; Alexandre, D.; Barnby, L. S.; Evans, D.; Jones, P. G.; Jusko, A.; Lietava, R.; Pospíšil, J.; Villalobos Baillie, O.

    2016-03-01

    The ALICE Central Trigger Processor (CTP) at the CERN LHC has been upgraded for LHC Run 2, to improve the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) data-taking efficiency and to improve the physics performance of ALICE. There is a new additional CTP interaction record sent using a new second Detector Data Link (DDL), a 2 GB DDR3 memory and an extension of functionality for classes. The CTP switch has been incorporated directly onto the new LM0 board. A design proposal for an ALICE CTP upgrade for LHC Run 3 is also presented. Part of the development is a low latency high bandwidth interface whose purpose is to minimize an overall trigger latency.

  10. CNS disease triggering Takotsubo stress cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Wahbi, Karim

    2014-12-15

    There are a number of hereditary and non-hereditary central nervous system (CNS) disorders, which directly or indirectly affect the heart (brain-heart disorders). The most well-known of these CNS disorders are epilepsy, stroke, infectious or immunological encephalitis/meningitis, migraine, and traumatic brain injury. In addition, a number of hereditary and non-hereditary neurodegenerative disorders may impair cardiac functions. Affection of the heart may manifest not only as arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, autonomic impairment, systolic dysfunction/heart failure, arterial hypertension, or pulmonary hypertension, but also as stress cardiomyopathy (Takotsubo syndrome, TTS). CNS disease triggering TTS includes subarachnoid bleeding, epilepsy, ischemic stroke, intracerebral bleeding, migraine, encephalitis, traumatic brain injury, PRES syndrome, or ALS. Usually, TTS is acutely precipitated by stress triggered by various different events. TTS is one of the cardiac abnormalities most frequently induced by CNS disorders. Appropriate management of TTS from CNS disorders is essential to improve the outcome of affected patients. PMID:25213573

  11. Does low atmospheric pressure independently trigger migraine?

    PubMed

    Bolay, Hayrunnisa; Rapoport, Alan

    2011-10-01

    Although atmospheric weather changes are often listed among the common migraine triggers, studies to determine the specific weather component(s) responsible have yielded inconsistent results. Atmospheric pressure change produces air movement, and low pressure in particular is associated with warm weather, winds, clouds, dust, and precipitation, but how this effect might generate migraine is not immediately obvious. Humans are exposed to low atmospheric pressure in situations such as ascent to high altitude or traveling by airplane in a pressurized cabin. In this brief overview, we consider those conditions and experimental data delineating other elements in the atmosphere potentially related to migraine (such as Saharan dust). We conclude that the available data suggest low atmospheric pressure unaccompanied by other factors does not trigger migraine. PMID:21906054

  12. Modeling seismic swarms triggered by aseismic transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llenos, Andrea L.; McGuire, Jeffrey J.; Ogata, Yosihiko

    2009-04-01

    The rate of earthquake occurrence varies by many orders of magnitude in a given region due to variations in the stress state of the crust. Our focus here is on variations in seismicity rate triggered by transient aseismic processes such as fluid flow, fault creep or magma intrusion. While these processes have been shown to trigger earthquakes, converting observed seismicity variations into estimates of stress rate variations has been challenging. Essentially aftershock sequences often obscure changes in the background seismicity rate resulting from aseismic processes. Two common approaches for estimating the time dependence of the underlying driving mechanisms are the stochastic Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence model (ETAS) [Ogata, Y., (1988), Statistical models for earthquake occurrences and residual analysis for point processes, J. Am. Stat. Assoc., 83, 9-27.] and a physical approach based on the rate- and state-model of fault friction [Dieterich, J., (1994), A constitutive law for rate of earthquake production and its application to earthquake clustering, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 2601-2618.]. The models have different strengths that could be combined to allow more quantitative studies of earthquake triggering. To accomplish this, we identify the parameters that relate to one another in the two models and examine their dependence on stressing rate. A particular conflict arises because the rate-state model predicts that aftershock productivity scales with stressing rate while the ETAS model assumes that it is time independent. To resolve this issue, we estimate triggering parameters for 4 earthquake swarms contemporaneous with geodetically observed deformation transients in various tectonic environments. We find that stressing rate transients increase the background seismicity rate without affecting aftershock productivity. We then specify a combined model for seismicity rate variations that will allow future studies to invert seismicity catalogs for variations in

  13. Moon origin - The impact-trigger hypothesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, William K.

    1986-01-01

    Arguments in favor of the impact-trigger model of lunar origin are presented. Lunar properties favoring this hypothesis include: (1) lunar iron and volatile deficiency; (2) angular momentum of the earth-moon system; and (3) similar O isotopes, bulk iron contents, and densities of earth's mantle and the moon. It is shown that the intense early bombardment averaged during earth's formation was several billion times the present meteoritic mass flux, consistent with a giant impact.

  14. Acoustic Manifestations of Natural versus Triggered Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arechiga, R. O.; Johnson, J. B.; Edens, H. E.; Rison, W.; Thomas, R. J.; Eack, K.; Eastvedt, E. M.; Aulich, G. D.; Trueblood, J.

    2010-12-01

    Positive leaders are rarely detected by VHF lightning detection systems; positive leader channels are usually outlined only by recoil events. Positive cloud-to-ground (CG) channels are usually not mapped. The goal of this work is to study the types of thunder produced by natural versus triggered lightning and to assess which types of thunder signals have electromagnetic activity detected by the lightning mapping array (LMA). Towards this end we are investigating the lightning detection capabilities of acoustic techniques, and comparing them with the LMA. In a previous study we used array beam forming and time of flight information to locate acoustic sources associated with lightning. Even though there was some mismatch, generally LMA and acoustic techniques saw the same phenomena. To increase the database of acoustic data from lightning, we deployed a network of three infrasound arrays (30 m aperture) during the summer of 2010 (August 3 to present) in the Magdalena mountains of New Mexico, to monitor infrasound (below 20 Hz) and audio range sources due to natural and triggered lightning. The arrays were located at a range of distances (60 to 1400 m) surrounding the triggering site, called the Kiva, used by Langmuir Laboratory to launch rockets. We have continuous acoustic measurements of lightning data from July 20 to September 18 of 2009, and from August 3 to September 1 of 2010. So far, lightning activity around the Kiva was higher during the summer of 2009. We will present acoustic data from several interesting lightning flashes including a comparison between a natural and a triggered one.

  15. CMS muon detector and trigger performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sung Keun; CMS Collaboration

    2011-06-01

    The CMS muon system has been in full operation since its commissioning with several million events of cosmic ray data. The muon system of the CMS experiment consists of three independent detectors: Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) both in the barrel and the endcap, Drift Tubes (DTs) in the barrel, and Cathode Strip Chambers (CSCs) in the endcap region. In this report, the performance of each of these muon detectors and their trigger response are presented.

  16. MLR events and associated triggered emissions observed by DEMETER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrot, M.; Němec, F.

    2009-11-01

    This paper gives an overview of different sets of new Magnetospheric Line Radiation (MLR) observed by the satellite DEMETER. Different types of emissions have been observed: emissions called Power Line Harmonic Radiation (PLHR) with frequency lines exactly separated by 50/100 or 60/120 Hz, emissions with frequency lines not exactly separated by 50/100 or 60/120 Hz and drifting in frequency (MLR). By comparison with past observations one can say that some MLR events are due to man-made PLHR which may suffer a non-linear gyro-resonant interaction at the magnetic equator. It is also shown that periodic emissions are very often associated with the MLR. In this case the origin of these waves is natural. The lines are produced by the periodicity and the frequency band limits of the individual elements which causes the appearance of lines on the spectrograms. Finally the paper shows that MLR can trigger emissions.

  17. Time Triggered Protocol (TTP) for Integration Modular Avionics (IMA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwaltney, David A.; Bauer, Guenther; Jakovljevic, Mirko; Gagea,Leonard; Motzet, Guenter

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation is a review of the Time Triggered Protocol, designed to work with NASA's Integrated Safety-Critical Advanced Avionics Communication and Control (ISAACC) system. ISAACC is the product of the Propulsion High-Impact Avionics Technologies (PHIAT) project at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) during FY03 to the end of FY05. The goal is an avionics architecture suitable for control and monitoring of safety critical systems of manned spacecraft. It must be scalable to allow its use in robotic vehicles or launch pad and propulsion test stand monitoring and control systems. The developed IMA should have: a common power supply and rugged chassis for a set of modules, many upgradeable software functions on one module (i.e. processing unit Reduced weight, straightforward update and system integration. It is also important that it have Partitioning and a Memory Management Unit (MMU)

  18. On the complexity of triggering evolutionary radiations.

    PubMed

    Bouchenak-Khelladi, Yanis; Onstein, Renske E; Xing, Yaowu; Schwery, Orlando; Linder, H Peter

    2015-07-01

    Recent developments in phylogenetic methods have made it possible to reconstruct evolutionary radiations from extant taxa, but identifying the triggers of radiations is still problematic. Here, we propose a conceptual framework to explore the role of variables that may impact radiations. We classify the variables into extrinsic conditions vs intrinsic traits, whether they provide background conditions, trigger the radiation, or modulate the radiation. We used three clades representing angiosperm phylogenetic and structural diversity (Ericaceae, Fagales and Poales) as test groups. We located radiation events, selected variables potentially associated with diversification, and inferred the temporal sequences of evolution. We found 13 shifts in diversification regimes in the three clades. We classified the associated variables, and determined whether they originated before the relevant radiation (backgrounds), originated simultaneously with the radiations (triggers), or evolved later (modulators). By applying this conceptual framework, we establish that radiations require both extrinsic conditions and intrinsic traits, but that the sequence of these is not important. We also show that diversification drivers can be detected by being more variable within a radiation than conserved traits that only allow occupation of a new habitat. This framework facilitates exploration of the causative factors of evolutionary radiations.

  19. Transdermal anaesthesia for percutaneous trigger finger release.

    PubMed

    Yiannakopoulos, Christos K; Ignatiadis, Ioannis A

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficiency of transdermal anaesthesia using eutectic mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine (EMLA) in patients undergoing percutaneous trigger finger release and to compare it with lidocaine infiltration. In this prospective, randomised study percutaneous release of the A1 annular pulley was performed to treat stenosing tenosynovitis (trigger finger syndrome) in 50 patients (50 fingers). The procedure was performed either under transdermal anaesthesia using EMLA applied transcutaneously 120 minutes prior to the operation (Group A, n = 25) or using local infiltration anaesthesia using lidocaine (Group B, n = 25). Pain experienced during administration of anaesthesia and during the operation was assessed using a 10-point Visual Analogue Pain Scale (VAPS), while all patients rated the effectiveness of anaesthesia with a 5-point scale. There were no significant differences between the two groups in the VAPS during the operation (1.33 +/- 0.52 versus 1.59 +/- 0.87) and the satisfaction scores (4.6 +/- 0.2 versus 4.4 +/- 0.3). The VAPS score during the administration of anaesthesia was statistically significantly less in the EMLA group (0 versus 5.96 +/- 2.41). All patients were satisfied with the final result of the operation. Percutaneous trigger finger release can be performed as an office procedure with the use of EMLA avoiding the use of injectable local infiltration anaesthesia. PMID:17405199

  20. ENSO-triggered floods in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isla, Federico Ignacio

    2016-04-01

    ENSO-triggered floods altered completely the annual discharge of most watersheds of South America. Anomalous years as 1941, 1982-83 and 1997-98 signified enormous discharges of rivers draining toward the Pacific but also to the Atlantic Ocean. These floods affected large cities as Porto Alegre, Blumenau, Curitiba, Asunción, Santa Fe and Buenos Aires. Maximum discharge months are particular and easily distinguished at those watersheds located at the South American Arid Diagonal. At watersheds conditioned by precipitations delivered from the Atlantic or Pacific anticyclonic centers the ENSO-triggered floods are difficult to discern. The floods of 1941 affected 70,000 inhabitants in Porto Alegre. In 1983, Blumenau city was flooded during several days; and the Paraná River multiplied 15 times the width of its middle floodplain. The Colorado River in Northern Patagonia connected for the last time to the Desaguadero-Chadileuvú-Curacó system and therefore received saline water. ENSO years modify also the water balance of certain piedmont lakes of Southern Patagonia: the increases in snow accumulations cause high water levels with a lag of 13 months. The correlation between the maximum monthly discharges of 1982-83 and 1997-98 at different regions and watersheds indicates they can be forecasted for future floods triggered by same phenomena. South American rivers can be classified therefore into ENSO-affected, and ENSO-dominated, for those within the Arid Diagonal that are exclusively subject to high discharges during these years.

  1. CMS High Level Trigger Timing Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Clint

    2015-12-01

    The two-level trigger system employed by CMS consists of the Level 1 (L1) Trigger, which is implemented using custom-built electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a farm of commercial CPUs running a streamlined version of the offline CMS reconstruction software. The operational L1 output rate of 100 kHz, together with the number of CPUs in the HLT farm, imposes a fundamental constraint on the amount of time available for the HLT to process events. Exceeding this limit impacts the experiment's ability to collect data efficiently. Hence, there is a critical need to characterize the performance of the HLT farm as well as the algorithms run prior to start up in order to ensure optimal data taking. Additional complications arise from the fact that the HLT farm consists of multiple generations of hardware and there can be subtleties in machine performance. We present our methods of measuring the timing performance of the CMS HLT, including the challenges of making such measurements. Results for the performance of various Intel Xeon architectures from 2009-2014 and different data taking scenarios are also presented.

  2. Another look at aircraft-triggered lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifford, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    There is positive evidence that a rapidly moving aircraft charged to high potentials by triboelectric processes can trigger lightning discharges by passage through freezing precipitation. The freezing zone in a nonstormy rain cloud is shown to be an electrically volatile region because of the potent charge exchange mechanisms which are active in agitated mixtures of supercooled water droplet and ice. Several intensifying effects are suggested which can be produced by the passage of an aircraft through this precipitation, resulting in a highly-ionized wake which acts like a trailing conductor. If weak charge centers are present in the cloud, the ionized wake acts to short out the gradient field resulting in very high potentials at the aircraft. The high potentials explain the electrical activity at the aircraft described by pilots, including intense corona, sparks and radio interference terminating in a loud discharge. Lightning strikes to naval aircraft towing gunnery targets at the end of long steel cables are described, showing that the same triggering mechanism may be involved in those cases. Recommendations are made to include triggering experiments in government flight programs now in progress.

  3. ATP-triggered anticancer drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Ran; Jiang, Tianyue; Disanto, Rocco; Tai, Wanyi; Gu, Zhen

    2014-03-01

    Stimuli-triggered drug delivery systems have been increasingly used to promote physiological specificity and on-demand therapeutic efficacy of anticancer drugs. Here we utilize adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) as a trigger for the controlled release of anticancer drugs. We demonstrate that polymeric nanocarriers functionalized with an ATP-binding aptamer-incorporated DNA motif can selectively release the intercalating doxorubicin via a conformational switch when in an ATP-rich environment. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration of ATP-responsive nanovehicles is 0.24 μM in MDA-MB-231 cells, a 3.6-fold increase in the cytotoxicity compared with that of non-ATP-responsive nanovehicles. Equipped with an outer shell crosslinked by hyaluronic acid, a specific tumour-targeting ligand, the ATP-responsive nanocarriers present an improvement in the chemotherapeutic inhibition of tumour growth using xenograft MDA-MB-231 tumour-bearing mice. This ATP-triggered drug release system provides a more sophisticated drug delivery system, which can differentiate ATP levels to facilitate the selective release of drugs.

  4. Clinical implication of latent myofascial trigger point.

    PubMed

    Celik, Derya; Mutlu, Ebru Kaya

    2013-08-01

    Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are hyperirritable points located within a taut band of skeletal muscle or fascia, which cause referred pain, local tenderness and autonomic changes when compressed. There are fundamental differences between the effects produced by the two basic types of MTrPs (active and latent). Active trigger points (ATrPs) usually produce referred pain and tenderness. In contrast, latent trigger points (LTrPs) are foci of hyperirritability in a taut band of muscle, which are clinically associated with a local twitch response, tenderness and/or referred pain upon manual examination. LTrPs may be found in many pain-free skeletal muscles and may be "activated" and converted to ATrPs by continuous detrimental stimuli. ATrPs can be inactivated by different treatment strategies; however, they never fully disappear but rather convert to the latent form. Therefore, the diagnosis and treatment of LTrPs is important. This review highlights the clinical implication of LTrPs.

  5. Aspartame as a dietary trigger of headache.

    PubMed

    Lipton, R B; Newman, L C; Cohen, J S; Solomon, S

    1989-02-01

    Many dietary factors have been implicated as possible precipitants of headache. There have been recent differences of opinion with regard to the effect of the artificial sweetener aspartame as a precipitant of headache. To assess the importance of aspartame as a dietary factor in headache, 190 consecutive patients of the Montefiore Medical Center Headache Unit were questioned about the effect of alcohol, carbohydrates and aspartame in triggering their headaches. Of the 171 patients who fully completed the survey, 49.7 percent reported alcohol as a precipitating factor, compared to 8.2 percent reporting aspartame and 2.3 percent reporting carbohydrates. Patients with migraine were significantly more likely to report alcohol as a triggering factor and also reported aspartame as a precipitant three times more often than those having other types of headache. The conflicting results of two recent placebo-control studies of aspartame and headache are discussed. We conclude that aspartame may be an important dietary trigger of headache in some people.

  6. The Sandia transportable triggered lightning instrumentation facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnetzer, George H.; Fisher, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    Development of the Sandia Transportable Triggered Lightning Instrumentation Facility (SATTLIF) was motivated by a requirement for the in situ testing of a munitions storage bunker. Transfer functions relating the incident flash currents to voltages, currents, and electromagnetic field values throughout the structure will be obtained for use in refining and validating a lightning response computer model of this type of structure. A preliminary shakedown trial of the facility under actual operational conditions was performed during summer of 1990 at the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) rocket-triggered lightning test site. A description is given of the SATTLIF, which is readily transportable on a single flatbed truck of by aircraft, and its instrumentation for measuring incident lightning channel currents and the responses of the systems under test. Measurements of return-stroke current peaks obtained with the SATTLIF are presented. Agreement with data acquired on the same flashes with existing KSC instrumentation is, on average, to within approximately 7 percent. Continuing currents were measured with a resolution of approximately 2.5 A. This field trial demonstrated the practicality of using a transportable triggered lightning facility for specialized test applications.

  7. Control of asthma triggers in indoor air with air cleaners: a modeling analysis

    PubMed Central

    Myatt, Theodore A; Minegishi, Taeko; Allen, Joseph G; MacIntosh, David L

    2008-01-01

    Background Reducing exposure to environmental agents indoors shown to increase asthma symptoms or lead to asthma exacerbations is an important component of a strategy to manage asthma for individuals. Numerous investigations have demonstrated that portable air cleaning devices can reduce concentrations of asthma triggers in indoor air; however, their benefits for breathing problems have not always been reproducible. The potential exposure benefits of whole house high efficiency in-duct air cleaners for sensitive subpopulations have yet to be evaluated. Methods We used an indoor air quality modeling system (CONTAM) developed by NIST to examine peak and time-integrated concentrations of common asthma triggers present in indoor air over a year as a function of natural ventilation, portable air cleaners, and forced air ventilation equipped with conventional and high efficiency filtration systems. Emission rates for asthma triggers were based on experimental studies published in the scientific literature. Results Forced air systems with high efficiency filtration were found to provide the best control of asthma triggers: 30–55% lower cat allergen levels, 90–99% lower risk of respiratory infection through the inhalation route of exposure, 90–98% lower environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) levels, and 50–75% lower fungal spore levels than the other ventilation/filtration systems considered. These results indicate that the use of high efficiency in-duct air cleaners provide an effective means of controlling allergen levels not only in a single room, like a portable air cleaner, but the whole house. Conclusion These findings are useful for evaluating potential benefits of high efficiency in-duct filtration systems for controlling exposure to asthma triggers indoors and for the design of trials of environmental interventions intended to evaluate their utility in practice. PMID:18684328

  8. Environmental control.

    PubMed

    Squillace, S P

    1992-12-01

    Environmental control measures help eliminate triggers that initiate the allergic reaction and reduce the conditions that sustain it. The most frequent offenders are the ubiquitous dust mites, which are ideally suited to living in the home environment. Control measures consist of minimizing their reservoirs in the patient's bedding, carpets, and upholstered furniture; decreasing humidity; and using acaricides. Cats are the source of another important indoor allergen that becomes and stays airborne as small particles. Removal of the animal (or washing it weekly) and the use of high-efficiency particulate air filters for air ducts and vacuum cleaners are useful in reducing dust mite and cat allergens. Dogs and rodents also produce allergens offensive to the sensitized patient and should be removed or relegated outdoors. Cockroaches have become an increasingly prevalent source of allergens responsible for asthma and rhinitis. Their removal is the focus of research, because current control measures are usually inadequate. Molds, which thrive in any moist environment, produce allergens. Closed windows prevent further influx of outdoor molds and pollens, whereas those harbored indoors, including those residing on plants, should be eliminated.

  9. Predicting asthma control: the role of psychological triggers.

    PubMed

    Ritz, Thomas; Bobb, Carol; Griffiths, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Asthma triggers have been linked to adverse health outcomes in asthma, but little is known about their association with asthma control. Because trigger avoidance is an integral part of successful asthma management, psychological triggers in particular may be associated with suboptimal asthma control, given the difficulty of controlling them. We examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of perceived asthma triggers with self-report of asthma control impairment, symptoms, and spirometric lung function (forced expiratory volume in the 1st second, [FEV1]) in 179 adult primary care asthma patients. Perceived asthma triggers explained up to 42.5% of the variance in asthma control and symptoms, but not in FEV1 alone. Allergic triggers explained up to 12.1% of the asthma control and symptom variance, three nonallergic trigger types, air pollution/irritants, physical activity, and infection, explained up to 26.2% over and above allergic triggers, and psychological triggers up to 9.5% over and above all other triggers. Psychological triggers alone explained up to 33.9% of the variance and were the only trigger class that was consistently significant in all final multiple regression models predicting control and symptoms. Psychological triggers also predicted lower asthma control 3-6 months later, although controlling for initial asthma control eliminated this association. In free reports of individually relevant triggers, only psychological triggers were associated with suboptimal asthma control. Trigger factors are important predictors of self-reported asthma control and symptoms but not actual lung function. Particular attention should be directed to psychological triggers as indicators of patients' perceptions of suboptimal asthma control.

  10. Oracle Database Y2K Protection Triggers Generators

    SciTech Connect

    Cribbs, C.A.

    1999-06-02

    I developed PL/SQL code that generates or modifies PL/SQL �BEFORE EACH ROW� triggers to protect database date columns from Y2K non-compliant date input (from all sources) into the database. A function is imbedded in the triggers that uses the �RR� year formatted date conversion. For each table with at least one date column and with INSERT/UPDATE/DELETE trigger(s), my code inserts date conversion code into the existing trigger(s). For INSERT/UPDATE not in a trigger(s), my code creates a trigger for the absent DML command(s). Designed to be: Transferable to other servers with minimum effort; A uniform and consistent problem solution with easy implementation, testing, and configuration management. No need to manually code and edit SQL trigger files: Modifies existing triggers; Creates needed triggers; Self documented (output comments with code); SQL files configuration management ready. Can customize the: Date conversion function; Code modifications for the trigger; Universal lookup/key; �

  11. Children with Asthma: Assessment and Treatment in School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Grigerick, Sarah E.; Loftus, Susan; Nicholson, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic disease of the airways. It affects approximately 12% of American children, and it appears that that incidence is increasing. Asthma in children negatively influences school-based outcomes such as absenteeism and friendship formation. Potential triggers of asthma include environmental allergens, exercise, weather, and emotional…

  12. False triggering of an ultraviolet flame detector after 99mTc-MDP injection.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Hisashi; Starkey, Jay

    2016-06-01

    We report a patient who set off a restroom's ultraviolet-spectrum flame detector, occurring 2.5 h after administration of radioisotope 99mTc-MDP (740 MBq) for bone scintigraphy. The radiation dose rate emitted from the patient was estimated to be about 11.82 μSv/h at a distance of 100 cm. To date, many cases have been reported of radiation detector false alarms triggered by radioisotopes administered to patients, presumably due to strengthened security measures and increased radioisotope use. Only one other case of false flame detector triggering in relation to radioisotope administration has been reported, in that case due to therapeutic radioiodine; there have been no prior reports of diagnostic (99m)Tc triggering flame detectors.

  13. Integration of the Super Nova early warning system with the NOvA Trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Habig, Alec; Zirnstein, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The NOvA experiment, with a baseline of 810km, samples Fermilab’s upgraded NuMI beam with a Near Detector on-site and a Far Detector (FD) at Ash River, MN, to observe oscillations of muon neutrinos. The 344,064 liquid scintillator-filled cells of the 14 kton FD provide high granularity of a large detector mass and enable us to also study non-accelerator based neutrinos with our Data Driven Trigger framework. This paper will focus on the real time integration of the SNEWS with the NOvA Trigger where we have set up an XML-RPC based messaging system to inject the SNEWS signal directly into our trigger. In conclusion, this presents a departure from the E-Mail based notification mechanism used by SNEWS in the past and allows NOvA more control over propagation and transmission timing.

  14. Integration of the Super Nova early warning system with the NOvA Trigger

    DOE PAGES

    Habig, Alec; Zirnstein, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The NOvA experiment, with a baseline of 810km, samples Fermilab’s upgraded NuMI beam with a Near Detector on-site and a Far Detector (FD) at Ash River, MN, to observe oscillations of muon neutrinos. The 344,064 liquid scintillator-filled cells of the 14 kton FD provide high granularity of a large detector mass and enable us to also study non-accelerator based neutrinos with our Data Driven Trigger framework. This paper will focus on the real time integration of the SNEWS with the NOvA Trigger where we have set up an XML-RPC based messaging system to inject the SNEWS signal directly into ourmore » trigger. In conclusion, this presents a departure from the E-Mail based notification mechanism used by SNEWS in the past and allows NOvA more control over propagation and transmission timing.« less

  15. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: Analysis of trigger behavior of high voltage LDMOS under TLP and VFTLP stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Zhu; Qinsong, Qian; Weifeng, Sun; Siyang, Liu

    2010-01-01

    The physical mechanisms triggering electrostatic discharge (ESD) in high voltage LDMOS power transistors (> 160 V) under transmission line pulsing (TLP) and very fast transmission line pulsing (VFTLP) stress are investigated by TCAD simulations using a set of macroscopic physical models related to previous studies implemented in Sentaurus Device. Under VFTLP stress, it is observed that the triggering voltage of the high voltage LDMOS obviously increases, which is a unique phenomenon compared with the low voltage ESD protection devices like NMOS and SCR. The relationship between the triggering voltage increase and the parasitic capacitances is also analyzed in detail. A compact equivalent circuit schematic is presented according to the investigated phenomena. An improved structure to alleviate this effect is also proposed and confirmed by the experiments.

  16. Body-related pride in young adults: an exploration of the triggers, contexts, outcomes and attributions.

    PubMed

    Castonguay, Andree L; Gilchrist, Jenna D; Mack, Diane E; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2013-06-01

    This study explored body-related emotional experiences of pride in young adult males (n=138) and females (n=165). Data were collected using a relived emotion task and analyzed using inductive content analysis. Thirty-nine codes were identified and grouped into six categories (triggers, contexts, cognitive attributions, and affective, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes) for each of two themes (hubristic and authentic pride). Hubristic pride triggers included evaluating appearance/fitness as superior. Cognitions centered on feelings of superiority. Behaviors included strategies to show off. Triggers for authentic pride were personal improvements/maintenance in appearance and meeting or exceeding goals. Feeling accomplished was a cognitive outcome, and physical activity was a behavioral strategy. Contexts for the experience of both facets of pride primarily involved sports settings, swimming/beach, and clothes shopping. These findings provide theoretical support for models of pride as it applies to body image, and advances conceptual understanding of positive body image.

  17. Integration of the Super Nova Early Warning System with the NOvA Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habig, Alec; Zirnstein, Jan

    2015-12-01

    The NOvA experiment, with a baseline of 810km, samples Fermilab's upgraded NuMI beam with a Near Detector on-site and a Far Detector (FD) at Ash River, MN, to observe oscillations of muon neutrinos. The 344,064 liquid scintillator-filled cells of the 14kton FD provide high granularity of a large detector mass and enable us to also study non-accelerator based neutrinos with our Data Driven Trigger framework. This paper will focus on the real time integration of the SNEWS with the NOvA Trigger where we have set up an XML-RPC based messaging system to inject the SNEWS signal directly into our trigger. This presents a departure from the E-Mail based notification mechanism used by SNEWS in the past and allows NOvA more control over propagation and transmission timing.

  18. Characterization of the Omicron Trigger Generator and Transient Analysis of a LIGO Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabbard, Hunter; LIGO Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Omicron is a burst-type trigger generator. We performed coincidence tests between Omicron generated triggers of ER5 LIGO data and various types of injection wave forms (Sine-Gaussian, White-Noise-Burst, and String Cusp) using a Coincidence Finder program that we developed. Through these tests we determined the efficiency at which the Omicron trigger generator is able to detect specific transient events with varying sets of parameters. We tested and debugged a new version of Omicron and utilized Omicron to perform a close analysis of lock time data at the gravitational wave detector in Livingston, Louisiana. From this analysis we were able to classify noise events and determine several of their sources.

  19. FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel Minutes No. 21015-04. A set of scientific issues being considered by the Environmental Protection Agency regarding integrated endocrine bioactivity and exposure-based prioritization & screening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On December 2-4, 2014, the US Environmental Protection Agency convened a public meeting of the FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP) to address scientific issues associated with the agency’s “Integrated Endocrine Bioactivity and Exposure-Based Prioritization and Screening” methods. EPA is proposing ...

  20. SAP Minutes No. 2014-03 for FIFRA meeting held July 29-31, 2014. A set of scientific issues being considered by the Environmental Protection Agency regarding new high throughput methods to estimate chemical exposure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On July 29-31, 2014, the US Environmental Protection Agency convened a public meeting of the FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP) to address scientific issues associated with the agency’s “new High Throughput Methods to Estimate Chemical Exposure”. EPA is proposing to use these methods to identify...