Science.gov

Sample records for environmentally triggered setting

  1. Starburst Triggering and Environmental Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combes, F.

    Introduction Stability of a two-fluid medium Mechanisms to trigger starbursts Dynamical mechanisms: non-axisymmetry and torques Angular momentum transfer for the stellar component Angular momentum transfer for the gas component feedback and self-regulation Fueling activity by bars The inner Lindblad resonance Nuclear disks and nuclear bars Bar destruction through mass concentration Gas-dominated central disk Environmental effects Numerical codes and gas modelling Star-formation processes Formation of large complexes Lessons from mergers Gas morphology in mergers Tidal tails and dark matter Ring galaxies Groups and clusters Rich clusters Galaxy evolution Evolution along the hubble sequence Fragility of disks Evolution at high redshift Gas and dark matter Hot gas in rich clusters Self-gravity and fractal structure of the ISM Conclusion

  2. Environmental triggers of type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Couper, J J

    2001-06-01

    High risk HLA class II alleles account for 40% of the genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes in Caucasians, but the majority of the genetically predisposed do not develop the disease. This supports some environmental modification of the autoimmune destruction of beta cells that precedes type 1 diabetes. Identical twin studies and geographical variation in incidence also argue for a critical role of environmental factors. Attention has been directed to the possible harmful effect of cow's milk protein (or protective effect of breast-feeding) and enteric infections in early life. Natural history studies that follow children at increased risk of type 1 diabetes provide the best opportunity to study environmental triggers. The Australian Baby Diab Study has followed approximately 500 babies from birth who have a first-degree relative with type 1 diabetes. No prospective association between duration of breast-feeding or introduction of cow's milk and the development of islet autoimmunity was found. The same Australian cohort demonstrated a relationship between rotavirus infection and the first appearance or increase in islet antibodies. Enteroviral infection is seen more frequently in prediabetic children and prior to the onset of islet autoimmunity in Finnish cohorts. Environmental factors may interact. Breast milk protects against enteric infections; enteric infections in turn could increase immunity to dietary antigens by increasing intestinal permeability. It is also possible that an alteration in gut mucosal immune function in genetically susceptible individuals underlies any effect of dietary or viral proteins on the development of islet autoimmunity in early life.

  3. A Precedent-setting Case of Dynamic Triggering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomberg, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    On October 28, 2012 the M7.7 Haida Gwaii, British Columbia earthquake broke the southern end of the Queen Charlotte plate-boundary fault system. Less than 3 months later on January 5, 2013 the M7.5 Craig, Alaska earthquake broke the same fault system ~385 km to the northwest. In its public statements about the Craig earthquake, the US Geological Survey noted its likely causal connection with the Haida Gwaii earthquake three months earlier. This inference was based on the improbability of two large earthquakes with recurrence intervals of hundreds of years or more on the same fault system occurring within the same 3-month interval by chance (the Poisson probability is ~.0004% assuming a 100 yr recurrence interval). What physical processes plausibly connect these two events? Although of the correct sign to encourage failure, static stress changes were more than an order of magnitude smaller than triggering thresholds documented elsewhere, and the duration between the events was too small for accrual of significant visco-elastic stress changes. The M7.7 Haida Gwaii earthquake was noteworthy in many aspects, but most remarkable was that the seismic waves it radiated probably dynamically triggered the M7.5 Craig earthquake thereby setting two new important precedents. First, the magnitude of the triggered earthquake exceeds all previously documented cases of dynamic triggering of frictional, shear failure earthquakes. Second, the extraordinarily large amplitude (peak velocities in excess of 1 cm/s) and long duration (several 100 sec) triggering waves likely resulted from trapping of energy within a sedimentary trough, rather than from focusing due to source effects as in most previous examples of clear dynamic triggering. Unlike source characteristics that vary unpredictably from event to event, the permanence of structural features that act as wave-guides suggests enhanced triggering probabilities in this and likely the numerous other settings. In these settings

  4. Dynamic triggering of microseismicity in a mine setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos, Fernando; Van der Baan, Mirko

    2015-08-01

    We examine spatio-temporal patterns of microseismicity recorded during one month in an underground mine by addressing three key questions: (1) where does the seismicity occur? (2) Why does it occur in these locations? and (3) what triggers it? To obtain accurate locations, we perform a multiplet analysis and use a modified version of the double-difference (DD) relocation method. This approach leads to highly accurate relative event locations and requires groups of multiplets only. Most of the 281 relocated events are close to the main shaft and tunnels; thus we postulate seismicity is facilitated by stresses associated with the potential for subsidence in addition to the hoop stresses acting on the two vertical shafts. Most events occurred during certain hours of the day and there is a 68 per cent correlation with reported rock removal; therefore, it is likely they were triggered by static and dynamic stress perturbations caused by the transportation of debris along tunnels instead of our initial guess that blasting was the principal causative mechanism. Given that seismicity is present around the main shaft but absent close to the second one, we conclude that for seismicity to occur both a favourable stress state and additional external perturbing forces must exist, thus leading to dynamic event triggering in an initially stable stress situation. This analysis provides more insight into anthropogenic processes that might trigger seismicity, thereby facilitating identification of hazardous and potential damage areas in mine settings.

  5. Environmental triggers of thyroiditis: hepatitis C and interferon-α.

    PubMed

    Menconi, F; Hasham, A; Tomer, Y

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) are postulated to develop as a result of a complex interplay between several genetic and environmental influences. The pathogenesis of AITD is still not clearly defined. However, among the implicated triggers (e.g. iodine, infections, medications), more recent data confirmed strong associations of AITD with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and interferon-α (IFNα) therapy. Moreover, it is likely that HCV and IFN act in synergism to trigger AITD in patients. Indeed, approximately 40% of HCV patients develop either clinical or subclinical disease while receiving IFNα. Interferon induced thyroiditis (IIT) can manifest as non-autoimmune thyroiditis (presenting as destructive thyroiditis, or non-autoimmune hypothyroidism), or autoimmune thyroiditis [presenting with clinical features of Graves' disease (GD) or Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT)]. Although not yet clearly understood, it is thought that IFNα can induce thyroiditis via both immune stimulatory and direct toxic effects on the thyroid. In view of the high frequency of IIT, routine screening and surveillance of HCV patients receiving IFNα is recommended to avoid the complications, such as cardiac arrhythmias, associated with thyrotoxicosis. In summary, IIT is a common clinical problem that can be readily diagnosed with routine thyroid function screening of HCV patients receiving IFN. The treatment of IIT consists of the standard therapy for differing clinical manifestations of IIT such as GD, HT, or destructive thyroiditis. However, anti-thyroid medications are not recommended in this setting since they can potentially be hepatotoxic.

  6. Environmental triggers and avoidance in the management of asthma

    PubMed Central

    Gautier, Clarisse; Charpin, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Identifying asthma triggers forms the basis of environmental secondary prevention. These triggers may be allergenic or nonallergenic. Allergenic triggers include indoor allergens, such as house dust mites (HDMs), molds, pets, cockroaches, and rodents, and outdoor allergens, such as pollens and molds. Clinical observations provide support for the role of HDM exposure as a trigger, although avoidance studies provide conflicting results. Molds and their metabolic products are now considered to be triggers of asthma attacks. Pets, dogs, and especially cats can undoubtedly trigger asthmatic symptoms in sensitized subjects. Avoidance is difficult and rarely adhered to by families. Cockroach allergens contribute to asthma morbidity, and avoidance strategies can lead to clinical benefit. Mouse allergens are mostly found in inner-city dwellings, but their implication in asthma morbidity is debated. In the outdoors, pollens can induce seasonal asthma in sensitized individuals. Avoidance relies on preventing pollens from getting into the house and on minimizing seasonal outdoor exposure. Outdoor molds may lead to severe asthma exacerbations. Nonallergenic triggers include viral infections, active and passive smoking, meteorological changes, occupational exposures, and other triggers that are less commonly involved. Viral infection is the main asthma trigger in children. Active smoking is associated with higher asthma morbidity, and smoking cessation interventions should be personalized. Passive smoking is also a risk factor for asthma exacerbation. The implementation of public smoking bans has led to a reduction in the hospitalization of asthmatic children. Air pollution levels have been linked with asthmatic symptoms, a decrease in lung function, and increased emergency room visits and hospitalizations. Since avoidance is not easy to achieve, clean air policies remain the most effective strategy. Indoor air is also affected by air pollutants, such as cigarette smoke and

  7. Mercury enrichment indicates volcanic triggering of Valanginian environmental change

    PubMed Central

    Charbonnier, Guillaume; Morales, Chloé; Duchamp-Alphonse, Stéphanie; Westermann, Stéphane; Adatte, Thierry; Föllmi, Karl B.

    2017-01-01

    The Valanginian stage (Early Cretaceous) includes an episode of significant environmental changes, which are well defined by a positive δ13C excursion. This globally recorded excursion indicates important perturbations in the carbon cycle, which has tentatively been associated with a pulse in volcanic activity and the formation of the Paraná-Etendeka large igneous province (LIP). Uncertainties in existing age models preclude, however, its positive identification as a trigger of Valanginian environmental changes. Here we report that in Valanginian sediments recovered from a drill core in Wąwał (Polish Basin, Poland), and from outcrops in the Breggia Gorge (Lombardian Basin, southern Switzerland), and Orpierre and Angles (Vocontian Basin, SE France), intervals at or near the onset of the positive δ13C excursion are significantly enriched in mercury (Hg). The persistence of the Hg anomaly in Hg/TOC, Hg/phyllosilicate, and Hg/Fe ratios shows that organic-matter scavenging and/or adsorbtion onto clay minerals or hydrous iron oxides only played a limited role. Volcanic outgassing was most probably the primary source of the Hg enrichments, which demonstrate that an important magmatic pulse triggered the Valanginian environmental perturbations. PMID:28106091

  8. Mercury enrichment indicates volcanic triggering of Valanginian environmental change.

    PubMed

    Charbonnier, Guillaume; Morales, Chloé; Duchamp-Alphonse, Stéphanie; Westermann, Stéphane; Adatte, Thierry; Föllmi, Karl B

    2017-01-20

    The Valanginian stage (Early Cretaceous) includes an episode of significant environmental changes, which are well defined by a positive δ(13)C excursion. This globally recorded excursion indicates important perturbations in the carbon cycle, which has tentatively been associated with a pulse in volcanic activity and the formation of the Paraná-Etendeka large igneous province (LIP). Uncertainties in existing age models preclude, however, its positive identification as a trigger of Valanginian environmental changes. Here we report that in Valanginian sediments recovered from a drill core in Wąwał (Polish Basin, Poland), and from outcrops in the Breggia Gorge (Lombardian Basin, southern Switzerland), and Orpierre and Angles (Vocontian Basin, SE France), intervals at or near the onset of the positive δ(13)C excursion are significantly enriched in mercury (Hg). The persistence of the Hg anomaly in Hg/TOC, Hg/phyllosilicate, and Hg/Fe ratios shows that organic-matter scavenging and/or adsorbtion onto clay minerals or hydrous iron oxides only played a limited role. Volcanic outgassing was most probably the primary source of the Hg enrichments, which demonstrate that an important magmatic pulse triggered the Valanginian environmental perturbations.

  9. Mercury enrichment indicates volcanic triggering of Valanginian environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbonnier, Guillaume; Morales, Chloé; Duchamp-Alphonse, Stéphanie; Westermann, Stéphane; Adatte, Thierry; Föllmi, Karl B.

    2017-01-01

    The Valanginian stage (Early Cretaceous) includes an episode of significant environmental changes, which are well defined by a positive δ13C excursion. This globally recorded excursion indicates important perturbations in the carbon cycle, which has tentatively been associated with a pulse in volcanic activity and the formation of the Paraná-Etendeka large igneous province (LIP). Uncertainties in existing age models preclude, however, its positive identification as a trigger of Valanginian environmental changes. Here we report that in Valanginian sediments recovered from a drill core in Wąwał (Polish Basin, Poland), and from outcrops in the Breggia Gorge (Lombardian Basin, southern Switzerland), and Orpierre and Angles (Vocontian Basin, SE France), intervals at or near the onset of the positive δ13C excursion are significantly enriched in mercury (Hg). The persistence of the Hg anomaly in Hg/TOC, Hg/phyllosilicate, and Hg/Fe ratios shows that organic-matter scavenging and/or adsorbtion onto clay minerals or hydrous iron oxides only played a limited role. Volcanic outgassing was most probably the primary source of the Hg enrichments, which demonstrate that an important magmatic pulse triggered the Valanginian environmental perturbations.

  10. Salmon spawning migration: metabolic shifts and environmental triggers.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kristina M; Schulze, Angela D; Ginther, Norma; Li, Shaorong; Patterson, David A; Farrell, Anthony P; Hinch, Scott G

    2009-06-01

    A large-scale functional genomics study revealed shifting metabolic processes in white muscle during the final 1300 km migration of wild sockeye salmon to their spawning grounds in the Fraser River, British Columbia. In 2006, Lower Adams stock sockeye salmon ceased feeding after passing the Queen Charlotte Islands, 850 km from the Fraser River. Enhanced protein turnover and reduced transcription of actin, muscle contractile and heme-related proteins were early starvation responses in saltwater. Arrival to the estuarine environment triggered massive protein turnover through induction of proteasomal and lysosomal proteolysis and protein biosynthesis, and a shift from anaerobic glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation. Response to entry into freshwater was modest, with up-regulation of heat shock proteins and nitric oxide biosynthesis. High river temperatures resulted in a strong defense/immune response and high mortalities in 50% of fish. Arrival to the spawning grounds triggered further up-regulation of oxidative phosphorylation and proteolysis, down-regulation of protein biosynthesis and helicase activity, and continued down-regulation of muscle proteins and most glycolytic enzymes. However, sharp up-regulation of PFK-I indicated induction of glycolytic potential at the spawning grounds. The identification of potential environmental cues triggering genome-wide transcriptional shifts in white muscle associated with migration and the strong activation of proteasomal proteolysis were both novel findings.

  11. Comparison of different inspiratory triggering settings in automated ventilators during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yangyang; Sun, Feng; Zhang, Yazhi; Hu, Yingying; Walline, Joseph; Zhu, Huadong; Yu, Xuezhong

    2017-01-01

    Background Mechanical ventilation via automated in-hospital ventilators is quite common during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. It is not known whether different inspiratory triggering sensitivity settings of ordinary ventilators have different effects on actual ventilation, gas exchange and hemodynamics during resuscitation. Methods 18 pigs enrolled in this study were anaesthetized and intubated. Continuous chest compressions and mechanical ventilation (volume-controlled mode, 100% O2, respiratory rate 10/min, and tidal volumes 10ml/kg) were performed after 3 minutes of ventricular fibrillation. Group trig-4, trig-10 and trig-20 (six pigs each) were characterized by triggering sensitivities of 4, 10 and 20 (cmH2O for pressure-triggering and L/min for flow-triggering), respectively. Additionally, each pig in each group was mechanically ventilated using three types of inspiratory triggering (pressure-triggering, flow-triggering and turned-off triggering) of 5 minutes duration each, and each animal matched with one of six random assortments of the three different triggering settings. Blood gas samples, respiratory and hemodynamic parameters for each period were all collected and analyzed. Results In each group, significantly lower actual respiratory rate, minute ventilation volume, mean airway pressure, arterial pH, PaO2, and higher end-tidal carbon dioxide, aortic blood pressure, coronary perfusion pressure, PaCO2 and venous oxygen saturation were observed in the ventilation periods with a turned-off triggering setting compared to those with pressure- or flow- triggering (all P<0.05), except when compared with pressure-triggering of 20 cmH2O (respiratory rate 10.5[10/11.3]/min vs 12.5[10.8/13.3]/min, P = 0.07; coronary perfusion pressure 30.3[24.5/31.6] mmHg vs 27.4[23.7/29] mmHg, P = 0.173; venous oxygen saturation 46.5[32/56.8]% vs 41.5[33.5/48.5]%, P = 0.575). Conclusions Ventilation with pressure- or flow-triggering tends to induce hyperventilation and

  12. Environmental setting of Maple Creek watershed, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fredrick, Brian S.; Linard, Joshua I.; Carpenter, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    The Maple Creek watershed covers a 955-square-kilometer area in eastern Nebraska, which is a region dominated by agricultural land use. The Maple Creek watershed is one of seven areas currently included in a nationwide study of the sources, transport, and fate of water and chemicals in agricultural watersheds. This study, known as the topical study of 'Agricultural Chemicals: Sources, Transport, and Fate' is part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. The Program is designed to describe water-quality conditions and trends based on representative surface- and ground-water resources across the Nation. The objective of the Agricultural Chemicals topical study is to investigate the sources, transport, and fate of selected agricultural chemicals in a variety of agriculturally diverse environmental settings. The Maple Creek watershed was selected for the Agricultural Chemicals topical study because its watershed represents the agricultural setting that characterizes eastern Nebraska. This report describes the environmental setting of the Maple Creek watershed in the context of how agricultural practices, including agricultural chemical applications and irrigation methods, interface with natural settings and hydrologic processes. A description of the environmental setting of a subwatershed within the drainage area of Maple Creek is included to improve the understanding of the variability of hydrologic and chemical cycles at two different scales.

  13. Influence of central set on anticipatory and triggered grip-force adjustments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winstein, C. J.; Horak, F. B.; Fisher, B. E.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    The effects of predictability of load magnitude on anticipatory and triggered grip-force adjustments were studied as nine normal subjects used a precision grip to lift, hold, and replace an instrumented test object. Experience with a predictable stimulus has been shown to enhance magnitude scaling of triggered postural responses to different amplitudes of perturbations. However, this phenomenon, known as a central-set effect, has not been tested systematically for grip-force responses in the hand. In our study, predictability was manipulated by applying load perturbations of different magnitudes to the test object under conditions in which the upcoming load magnitude was presented repeatedly or under conditions in which the load magnitudes were presented randomly, each with two different pre-load grip conditions (unconstrained and constrained). In constrained conditions, initial grip forces were maintained near the minimum level necessary to prevent pre-loaded object slippage, while in unconstrained conditions, no initial grip force restrictions were imposed. The effect of predictable (blocked) and unpredictable (random) load presentations on scaling of anticipatory and triggered grip responses was tested by comparing the slopes of linear regressions between the imposed load and grip response magnitude. Anticipatory and triggered grip force responses were scaled to load magnitude in all conditions. However, regardless of pre-load grip force constraint, the gains (slopes) of grip responses relative to load magnitudes were greater when the magnitude of the upcoming load was predictable than when the load increase was unpredictable. In addition, a central-set effect was evidenced by the fewer number of drop trials in the predictable relative to unpredictable load conditions. Pre-load grip forces showed the greatest set effects. However, grip responses showed larger set effects, based on prediction, when pre-load grip force was constrained to lower levels. These

  14. Sensitizing events as trigger for discursive renewal and institutional change in Flanders’ environmental health approach, 1970s-1990s

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sensitizing events may trigger and stimulate discursive renewal. From a discursive institutional perspective, changing discourses are the driving force behind the institutional dynamics of policy domains. Theoretically informed by discursive institutionalism, this article assesses the impact of a series of four sensitizing events that triggered serious environmental health concerns in Flanders between the 1970s till the 1990s, and led onto the gradual institutionalization of a Flemish environmental health arrangement. Methods The Policy Arrangement Approach is used as the analytical framework to structure the empirical results of the historical analysis based on document analysis and in-depth interviews. Results Until the 1990s, environmental health was characterized as an ad hoc policy field in Flanders, where agenda setting was based on sensitizing events – also referred to as incident-driven. Each of these events contributed to a gradual rethinking of the epistemological discourses about environmental health risks and uncertainties. These new discourses were the driving forces behind institutional dynamics as they gradually resulted in an increased need for: 1) long-term, policy-oriented, interdisciplinary environmental health research; 2) policy coordination and integration between the environmental and public health policy fields; and 3) new forms of science-policy interactions based on mutual learning. These changes are desirable in order to detect environmental health problems as fast as possible, to react immediately and communicate appropriately. Conclusions The series of four events that triggered serious environmental health concerns in Flanders provided the opportunity to rethink and re-organize the current affairs concerning environmental health and gradually resulted into the institutionalization of a Flemish environmental health arrangement. PMID:23758822

  15. Environmental Trigger(s) of Type 1 Diabetes: Why So Difficult to Identify?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is one of the most common chronic diseases with childhood onset, and the disease has increased two- to fivefold over the past half century by as yet unknown means. T1D occurs when the body's immune system turns against itself so that, in a very specific and targeted way, it destroys the pancreatic β-cells. T1D results from poorly defined interactions between susceptibility genes and environmental determinants. In contrast to the rapid progress in finding T1D genes, identification and confirmation of environmental determinants remain a formidable challenge. This review article will focus on factors which have to be evaluated and decision to take before starting a new prospective cohort study. Considering all the large ongoing prospective studies, new and more conclusive data than that obtained so far should instead come from international collaboration on the ongoing cohort studies. PMID:25883954

  16. Environmental triggers of hospital admissions for school-age children with asthma in two British cities.

    PubMed

    Julious, Steven A; Jain, Ritika; Mason, Suzanne

    2012-10-01

    Research has reported seasonal peaks in asthma in school age asthmatic children. The study aimed to assess if hospital admissions could be predicted from the possible environmental triggers using data from two British cities: Aberdeen and Doncaster. However, there were no consistent patterns across the two cities with no clear evidence that hospital admissions could be predicted from environmental data.

  17. Environmental triggers and epigenetic deregulation in autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Javierre, Biola M; Hernando, Henar; Ballestar, Esteban

    2011-12-01

    The study of epigenetic mechanisms in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases is receiving unprecedented attention from clinicians and researchers in the field. Autoimmune disorders comprise a wide range of genetically complex diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, and multiple sclerosis. Together they affect a significant proportion of the population and have a great economic impact on public health systems. Epigenetic mechanisms control gene expression and are influenced by external stimuli, linking environment and gene function. A variety of environmental agents, such as viral infection, hormones, certain drugs, and pollutants, have been found to influence the development of autoimmune diseases. On the other hand, there is considerable evidence of epigenetic changes, particularly DNA methylation alterations, in diseases like systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, or multiple sclerosis. However, the gap in our understanding between the specific effects of external agents and the influence on epigenetic profiles has not yet been filled. Here we review a number of studies describing epigenetic alterations in autoimmune diseases and a range of environmental factors that influence the development of autoimmune diseases. We also discuss potential mechanisms linking environment and epigenetics, consider the prospects for future epigenetic studies addressing the relationship between environment and epigenetics, and comment on the use of drugs with an epigenetic-reversing effect in the clinical management of these diseases.

  18. Dynamic Triggering of Microseismicity inferred from Spatio/Temporal Patterns in a Mine Setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos, F.; Van der Baan, M.

    2014-12-01

    We examine spatial and temporal patterns of microseismic events in an underground mine. Our objective is to address three key questions: Where does the seismicity occur? Why does it occur in these locations but not elsewhere? And what triggers it? We take advantage of waveform similarity by performing multiplet analysis based on the double-difference technique to obtain highly accurate relative locations. Seven vertical receiver boreholes that surround the area under investigation have recorded microseismic data during a month, thus providing a good azimuthal coverage. A minimum crosscorrelation level of 85% is used to detect 21 multiplet groups, which represents 60% of the total seismicity. The largest groups are located close to the main shaft and tunnels at orebody levels, thus we postulate seismicity is facilitated by the potential of subsidence if we assume a compacting earth and hoop stresses acting on the vertical shafts. Surprisingly, most events only occur during certain hours of the day but do not relate to blasting. They correlate with scheduled operations of rock removal. Therefore, it is likely they have been triggered by the transportation of the debris along the main shaft instead of blasting, as we initially expected. Given that seismicity is present around the main shaft but absent close to the second air shaft, we conclude that for seismicity to occur both a favourable stress state must exist, as well as additional external forces, causing dynamic triggering. This analysis provides more insight into anthropogenic processes and their roles as major initiators of seismicity during dynamic stress transfer thereby facilitating identification of hazardous areas in mine settings.

  19. Influences of large sets of environmental exposures on immune responses in healthy adult men

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Buqing; Rykova, Marina; Jäger, Gundula; Feuerecker, Matthias; Hörl, Marion; Matzel, Sandra; Ponomarev, Sergey; Vassilieva, Galina; Nichiporuk, Igor; Choukèr, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors have long been known to influence immune responses. In particular, clinical studies about the association between migration and increased risk of atopy/asthma have provided important information on the role of migration associated large sets of environmental exposures in the development of allergic diseases. However, investigations about environmental effects on immune responses are mostly limited in candidate environmental exposures, such as air pollution. The influences of large sets of environmental exposures on immune responses are still largely unknown. A simulated 520-d Mars mission provided an opportunity to investigate this topic. Six healthy males lived in a closed habitat simulating a spacecraft for 520 days. When they exited their “spacecraft” after the mission, the scenario was similar to that of migration, involving exposure to a new set of environmental pollutants and allergens. We measured multiple immune parameters with blood samples at chosen time points after the mission. At the early adaptation stage, highly enhanced cytokine responses were observed upon ex vivo antigen stimulations. For cell population frequencies, we found the subjects displayed increased neutrophils. These results may presumably represent the immune changes occurred in healthy humans when migrating, indicating that large sets of environmental exposures may trigger aberrant immune activity. PMID:26306804

  20. Warning Triggers in Environmental Hazards: Who Should Be Warned to Do What and When?

    PubMed

    Cova, Thomas J; Dennison, Philip E; Li, Dapeng; Drews, Frank A; Siebeneck, Laura K; Lindell, Michael K

    2016-07-13

    Determining the most effective public warnings to issue during a hazardous environmental event is a complex problem. Three primary questions need to be answered: Who should take protective action? What is the best action? and When should this action be initiated? Warning triggers provide a proactive means for emergency managers to simultaneously answer these questions by recommending that a target group take a specified protective action if a preset environmental trigger condition occurs (e.g., warn a community to evacuate if a wildfire crosses a proximal ridgeline). Triggers are used to warn the public across a wide variety of environmental hazards, and an improved understanding of their nature and role promises to: (1) advance protective action theory by unifying the natural, built, and social themes in hazards research into one framework, (2) reveal important information about emergency managers' risk perception, situational awareness, and threat assessment regarding threat behavior and public response, and (3) advance spatiotemporal models for representing the geography and timing of disaster warning and response (i.e., a coupled natural-built-social system). We provide an overview and research agenda designed to advance our understanding and modeling of warning triggers.

  1. The 2010-2011 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence: Environmental effects, seismic triggering thresholds and geologic legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, Mark C.; Hughes, Matthew W.; Bradley, Brendon A.; van Ballegooy, Sjoerd; Reid, Catherine; Morgenroth, Justin; Horton, Travis; Duffy, Brendan; Pettinga, Jarg R.

    2016-03-01

    characteristics. However, the severity of a given environmental response at any given site related predominantly to ground shaking characteristics (PGA, peak ground velocities) and site conditions (water table depth, soil type, geomorphic and topographic setting) rather than earthquake Mw. In most cases, the most severe liquefaction, rockfall, cliff collapse, subsidence, flooding, tree damage, and biologic habitat changes were triggered by proximal, moderate magnitude (Mw ≤ 6.2) earthquakes on blind faults. CES environmental effects will be incompletely preserved in the geologic record and variably diagnostic of spatial and temporal earthquake clustering. Liquefaction feeder dikes in areas of severe and recurrent liquefaction will provide the best preserved and potentially most diagnostic CES features. Rockfall talus deposits and boulders will be well preserved and potentially diagnostic of the strong intensity of CES shaking, but challenging to decipher in terms of single versus multiple events. Most other phenomena will be transient (e.g., distal groundwater responses), not uniquely diagnostic of earthquakes (e.g., flooding), or more ambiguous (e.g. biologic changes). Preliminary palaeoseismic investigations in the CES region indicate recurrence of liquefaction in susceptible sediments of ~ 100 to 300 yr, recurrence of severe rockfall event(s) of ca. 6000 to 8000 yr, and recurrence of surface rupturing on the largest CES source fault of ca. 20,000 to 30,000 yr. These data highlight the importance of utilising multiple proxy datasets in palaeoearthquake studies. The severity of environmental effects triggered during the strongest CES earthquakes was as great as or equivalent to any historic or prehistoric effects recorded in the geologic record. We suggest that the shaking caused by rupture of local blind faults in the CES comprised a 'worst case' seismic shaking scenario for parts of the Christchurch urban area. Moderate Mw blind fault earthquakes may contribute the highest

  2. Public Perception of Environmental Issues in a Developing Setting: Environmental Concern in Coastal Ghana.

    PubMed

    White, Michael J; Hunter, Lori M

    2009-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: Balancing environmental quality with economic growth in less developed settings is clearly a challenge. Still surprisingly little empirical evidence has been brought to bear on the relative priority given environmental and socioeconomic issues among the residents themselves of such settings. This research explores such perceptions. METHODS: We undertake survey research with 2500 residents of coastal Ghana on policy issues, focusing on environmental topics. RESULTS: Our analyses reveal a significant amount of environmental awareness, with education and political engagement consistently predicting higher levels of concern. In addition, environmental issues are deemed important even when considered relative to other socioeconomic issues. CONCLUSION: In the end, we argue that our work sheds light on global environmentalism and the ways in which local populations in less developed settings prioritize social and environmental concerns. This work also has important policy implications since insight on local perceptions may help buttress policy responses designed to cope with global change.

  3. Public Perception of Environmental Issues in a Developing Setting: Environmental Concern in Coastal Ghana

    PubMed Central

    White, Michael J.; Hunter, Lori M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Balancing environmental quality with economic growth in less developed settings is clearly a challenge. Still surprisingly little empirical evidence has been brought to bear on the relative priority given environmental and socioeconomic issues among the residents themselves of such settings. This research explores such perceptions. Methods We undertake survey research with 2500 residents of coastal Ghana on policy issues, focusing on environmental topics. Results Our analyses reveal a significant amount of environmental awareness, with education and political engagement consistently predicting higher levels of concern. In addition, environmental issues are deemed important even when considered relative to other socioeconomic issues. Conclusion In the end, we argue that our work sheds light on global environmentalism and the ways in which local populations in less developed settings prioritize social and environmental concerns. This work also has important policy implications since insight on local perceptions may help buttress policy responses designed to cope with global change. PMID:22639472

  4. A Review of Video Triggers and Video Production in Higher Education and Continuing Education PBL Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasi, Päivi M.; Poikela, Sari

    2016-01-01

    Higher education faces the challenges of bridging education and authentic work. In addition, it needs to respond to the highly multimodal and participatory communication and content creation practices, preferences, and cultures of present and future students. The aim of our article is to discuss how the use of video triggers and video production…

  5. Environmental History Modulates Arabidopsis Pattern-Triggered Immunity in a HISTONE ACETYLTRANSFERASE1-Dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Singh, Prashant; Yekondi, Shweta; Chen, Po-Wen; Tsai, Chia-Hong; Yu, Chun-Wei; Wu, Keqiang; Zimmerli, Laurent

    2014-06-01

    In nature, plants are exposed to a fluctuating environment, and individuals exposed to contrasting environmental factors develop different environmental histories. Whether different environmental histories alter plant responses to a current stress remains elusive. Here, we show that environmental history modulates the plant response to microbial pathogens. Arabidopsis thaliana plants exposed to repetitive heat, cold, or salt stress were more resistant to virulent bacteria than Arabidopsis grown in a more stable environment. By contrast, long-term exposure to heat, cold, or exposure to high concentrations of NaCl did not provide enhanced protection against bacteria. Enhanced resistance occurred with priming of Arabidopsis pattern-triggered immunity (PTI)-responsive genes and the potentiation of PTI-mediated callose deposition. In repetitively stress-challenged Arabidopsis, PTI-responsive genes showed enrichment for epigenetic marks associated with transcriptional activation. Upon bacterial infection, enrichment of RNA polymerase II at primed PTI marker genes was observed in environmentally challenged Arabidopsis. Finally, repetitively stress-challenged histone acetyltransferase1-1 (hac1-1) mutants failed to demonstrate enhanced resistance to bacteria, priming of PTI, and increased open chromatin states. These findings reveal that environmental history shapes the plant response to bacteria through the development of a HAC1-dependent epigenetic mark characteristic of a primed PTI response, demonstrating a mechanistic link between the primed state in plants and epigenetics.

  6. Recent advances in environmental controls outside the home setting

    PubMed Central

    Hauptman, Marissa; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review It has been well studied that aeroallergen, mold, and airborne pollutant exposure in the inner-city home environment is associated with significant childhood asthma morbidity. Although the home environment has been extensively studied, the school environment is less well understood. Recent findings In this article, we discuss the relationship between environmental exposures within the school and daycare environment and pediatric asthma morbidity and novel environmental interventions designed to help mitigate pediatric asthma morbidity. Summary Studies assessing environmental exposures outside the home environment and interventions to mitigate these exposures have the potential to reduce pediatric asthma morbidity. Further study in this area should focus on the complex cost benefit analyses of environmental interventions outside the home setting, while controlling for the home environment. PMID:26859366

  7. Acute exposure to high environmental ammonia (HEA) triggers the emersion response in the green shore crab.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Alex M; Wood, Chris M

    2017-02-01

    The physiological effects of high environmental ammonia (HEA) exposure have been well documented in many aquatic species. In particular, it has recently been demonstrated that exposure to ammonia in fish leads to a similar hyperventilatory response as observed during exposure to hypoxia. In littoral crabs, such as the green crab (Carcinus maenas), exposure to severe hypoxia triggers an emersion response whereby crabs escape hypoxia to breathe air. We hypothesized that exposure to HEA in green crabs would lead to a similar behavioural response which is specific to ammonia. Using an experimental arena containing a rock bed onto which crabs could emerse, we established that exposure to HEA (4mmol/l NH4HCO3) for 15min triggers emersion in crabs. In experiments utilizing NaHCO3 controls and NH4HCO3 injections, we further determined that emersion was triggered specifically by external ammonia and was independent of secondary acid-base or respiratory disturbances caused by HEA. We then hypothesized that emersion from HEA provides a physiological benefit, similar to emersion from hypoxia. Exposure to 15min of HEA without emersion (no rock bed present) caused significant increases in arterial haemolymph total ammonia (Tamm), pH, and [HCO3(-)]. When emersion was allowed, arterial haemolymph Tamm and [HCO3(-)] increased, but no alkalosis developed. Moreover, emersion decreased haemolymph partial pressure of NH3 relative to crabs which could not emerse. Overall, we demonstrate a novel behavioural response to HEA exposure in crabs which we propose may share similar mechanistic pathways with the emersion response triggered by hypoxia.

  8. Non-infectious environmental antigens as a trigger for the initiation of an autoimmune skin disease.

    PubMed

    Qian, Ye; Culton, Donna A; Jeong, Joseph S; Trupiano, Nicole; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Diaz, Luis A

    2016-09-01

    Pemphigus represents a group of organ specific autoimmune blistering disorders of the skin mediated by pathogenic autoantibodies with well-defined antigenic targets. While most of these diseases are sporadic, endemic forms of disease do exist. The endemic form of pemphigus foliaceus (also known as fogo selvagem, FS) exhibits epidemiological features that suggest exposure to hematophagous insect bites are a possible precipitating factor of this autoimmune disease, and provides a unique opportunity to study how environmental factors contribute to autoimmune disease development. FS patients and healthy individuals from endemic regions show an autoreactive IgM response that starts in early childhood and becomes restricted to IgG4 autoantibodies in FS patients. In searching for triggering environmental antigens, we have found that IgG4 and IgE autoantibodies from FS patients cross-react with a salivary antigen from sand flies. The presence of these cross-reactive antibodies and antibody genetic analysis confirming that these antibodies evolve from the same naïve B cells provides compelling evidence that this non-infectious environmental antigen could be the initial target of the autoantibody response in FS. Consequently, FS serves as an ideal model to study the impact of environmental antigens in the development of autoimmune disease.

  9. The sex-inducing pheromone and wounding trigger the same set of genes in the multicellular green alga Volvox.

    PubMed

    Amon, P; Haas, E; Sumper, M

    1998-05-01

    The sex-inducing pheromone of the multicellular green alga Volvox carteri is a glycoprotein that triggers development of males and females at a concentration <10(-16) M. By differential screening of a cDNA library, two novel genes were identified that are transcribed under the control of this pheromone. Unexpectedly, one gene product was characterized as a lysozyme/chitinase, and the other gene product was shown to encode a polypeptide with a striking modular composition. This polypeptide has a cysteine protease domain separated by an extensin-like module from three repeats of a chitin binding domain. In higher plants, similar protein families are known to play an important role in defense against fungi. Indeed, we found that the same set of genes triggered by the sexual pheromone was also inducible in V. carteri by wounding.

  10. The sex-inducing pheromone and wounding trigger the same set of genes in the multicellular green alga Volvox.

    PubMed Central

    Amon, P; Haas, E; Sumper, M

    1998-01-01

    The sex-inducing pheromone of the multicellular green alga Volvox carteri is a glycoprotein that triggers development of males and females at a concentration <10(-16) M. By differential screening of a cDNA library, two novel genes were identified that are transcribed under the control of this pheromone. Unexpectedly, one gene product was characterized as a lysozyme/chitinase, and the other gene product was shown to encode a polypeptide with a striking modular composition. This polypeptide has a cysteine protease domain separated by an extensin-like module from three repeats of a chitin binding domain. In higher plants, similar protein families are known to play an important role in defense against fungi. Indeed, we found that the same set of genes triggered by the sexual pheromone was also inducible in V. carteri by wounding. PMID:9596636

  11. Local nutrient regimes determine site-specific environmental triggers of cyanobacterial and microcystin variability in urban lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinang, S. C.; Reichwaldt, E. S.; Ghadouani, A.

    2014-10-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms in urban lakes present serious health hazards to humans and animals and require effective management strategies. In the management of toxic cyanobacteria blooms, understanding the roles of environmental factors is crucial. To date, a range of environmental factors have been proposed as potential triggers for the spatiotemporal variability of cyanobacterial biomass and microcystins in freshwater systems. However, the environmental triggers of cyanobacteria and microcystin variability remain a subject of debate due to contrasting findings. This issue has raised the question if the environmental triggers are site-specific and unique between water bodies. In this study, we investigated the site-specificity of environmental triggers for cyanobacterial bloom and cyanotoxins dynamics. Our study suggests that cyanobacterial dominance and cyanobacterial microcystin content variability were significantly correlated to phosphorus and iron concentrations. However, the correlations between phosphorus and iron with cyanobacterial biomass and microcystin variability were not consistent between lakes, thus suggesting a site specificity of these environmental factors. The discrepancies in the correlations could be explained by differences in local nutrient concentration and the cyanobacterial community in the systems. The findings of this study suggest that identification of site-specific environmental factors under unique local conditions is an important strategy to enhance positive outcomes in cyanobacterial bloom control measures.

  12. Dietary exposure to an environmental toxin triggers neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid deposits in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Paul Alan; Davis, David A.; Mash, Deborah C.; Metcalf, James S.; Banack, Sandra Anne

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and β-amyloid plaques are the neurological hallmarks of both Alzheimer's disease and an unusual paralytic illness suffered by Chamorro villagers on the Pacific island of Guam. Many Chamorros with the disease suffer dementia, and in some villages one-quarter of the adults perished from the disease. Like Alzheimer's, the causal factors of Guamanian amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism dementia complex (ALS/PDC) are poorly understood. In replicated experiments, we found that chronic dietary exposure to a cyanobacterial toxin present in the traditional Chamorro diet, β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), triggers the formation of both NFT and β-amyloid deposits similar in structure and density to those found in brain tissues of Chamorros who died with ALS/PDC. Vervets (Chlorocebus sabaeus) fed for 140 days with BMAA-dosed fruit developed NFT and sparse β-amyloid deposits in the brain. Co-administration of the dietary amino acid l-serine with l-BMAA significantly reduced the density of NFT. These findings indicate that while chronic exposure to the environmental toxin BMAA can trigger neurodegeneration in vulnerable individuals, increasing the amount of l-serine in the diet can reduce the risk. PMID:26791617

  13. Environmental signals triggering methylenomycin production by Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2).

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, A; Hobbs, G; Smith, C P; Oliver, S G; Butler, P R

    1997-01-01

    Methylenomycin production by Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) may be triggered by either of two environmental signals: alanine growth-rate-limiting conditions and/or an acidic pH shock. The production of this SCP1-encoded antibiotic was studied by using batch and chemostat cultures. Batch cultures indicated a role for both nutritional status and culture pH in its regulation. Steady-state methylenomycin production and transcription of an mmy gene under alanine but not glucose growth-rate-limiting conditions was demonstrated in chemostat culture. Transient mmy expression and methylenomycin production occurred following an acidic pH shock. This stimulation of methylenomycin production occurred independently of the nutritional status of the growth environment. Antibiotic production was partially suppressed under alanine compared with glucose growth-rate-limiting conditions following the acidic pH shock. A low specific growth rate was a prerequisite for both steady-state and transient production of methylenomycin. PMID:9287007

  14. Outdoor environmental assessment of attention promoting settings for preschool children.

    PubMed

    Mårtensson, F; Boldemann, C; Söderström, M; Blennow, M; Englund, J-E; Grahn, P

    2009-12-01

    The restorative potential of green outdoor environments for children in preschool settings was investigated by measuring the attention of children playing in settings with different environmental features. Eleven preschools with outdoor environments typical for the Stockholm area were assessed using the outdoor play environment categories (OPEC) and the fraction of visible sky from play structures (sky view factor), and 198 children, aged 4.5-6.5 years, were rated by the staff for inattentive, hyperactive and impulsive behaviors with the ECADDES tool. Children playing in large and integrated outdoor areas containing large areas of trees, shrubbery and a hilly terrain showed less often behaviors of inattention (p<.05). The choice of tool for assessment of attention is discussed in relation to outdoor stay and play characteristics in Swedish preschool settings. The results indicate that the restorative potential of green outdoor environments applies also to preschool children and that environmental assessment tools as OPEC can be useful when to locate and develop health-promoting land adjacent to preschools.

  15. Eelgrass (Zostera marina) Food Web Structure in Different Environmental Settings

    PubMed Central

    Thormar, Jonas; Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Baden, Susanne; Boström, Christoffer; Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Olesen, Birgit; Rasmussen, Jonas Ribergaard; Svensson, Carl Johan; Holmer, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    This study compares the structure of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) meadows and associated food webs in two eelgrass habitats in Denmark, differing in exposure, connection to the open sea, nutrient enrichment and water transparency. Meadow structure strongly reflected the environmental conditions in each habitat. The eutrophicated, protected site had higher biomass of filamentous algae, lower eelgrass biomass and shoot density, longer and narrower leaves, and higher above to below ground biomass ratio compared to the less nutrient-enriched and more exposed site. The faunal community composition and food web structure also differed markedly between sites with the eutrophicated, enclosed site having higher biomass of consumers and less complex food web. These relationships resulted in a column shaped biomass distribution of the consumers at the eutrophicated site whereas the less nutrient-rich site showed a pyramidal biomass distribution of consumers coupled with a more diverse consumer community. The differences in meadow and food web structure of the two seagrass habitats, suggest how physical setting may shape ecosystem response and resilience to anthropogenic pressure. We encourage larger, replicated studies to further disentangle the effects of different environmental variables on seagrass food web structure. PMID:26752412

  16. Eelgrass (Zostera marina) Food Web Structure in Different Environmental Settings.

    PubMed

    Thormar, Jonas; Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Baden, Susanne; Boström, Christoffer; Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Olesen, Birgit; Rasmussen, Jonas Ribergaard; Svensson, Carl Johan; Holmer, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    This study compares the structure of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) meadows and associated food webs in two eelgrass habitats in Denmark, differing in exposure, connection to the open sea, nutrient enrichment and water transparency. Meadow structure strongly reflected the environmental conditions in each habitat. The eutrophicated, protected site had higher biomass of filamentous algae, lower eelgrass biomass and shoot density, longer and narrower leaves, and higher above to below ground biomass ratio compared to the less nutrient-enriched and more exposed site. The faunal community composition and food web structure also differed markedly between sites with the eutrophicated, enclosed site having higher biomass of consumers and less complex food web. These relationships resulted in a column shaped biomass distribution of the consumers at the eutrophicated site whereas the less nutrient-rich site showed a pyramidal biomass distribution of consumers coupled with a more diverse consumer community. The differences in meadow and food web structure of the two seagrass habitats, suggest how physical setting may shape ecosystem response and resilience to anthropogenic pressure. We encourage larger, replicated studies to further disentangle the effects of different environmental variables on seagrass food web structure.

  17. Can environmental conditions trigger cyanobacterial surfaces and following carbonate formation: implication for biomineralization and biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulo, C.; Dittrich, M.; Zhu, T.

    2015-12-01

    In this presentation we will give an overview what kind of the factors may trigger carbonate formations at the cell surfaces under a variety of environmental conditions. As examples, we will present the results from our recent studies on formation of calcium carbonates, dolomites and bio-cements. The extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in the Synechococcuscell envelope are recognized key players in the nucleation of carbonates in marine and freshwater environments. Yet, little is known about a nutrient contents control over the molecular composition of Synechococcus cell envelope, and consequently, biomineralization. In the first study, we investigated how a variation of the phosphorus (P) in the growth media can lead to changes in the surface reactivity of the cells and impact their ability to form carbonates. The objective of the second study is to gain insights into the spatial distribution of cyanobacterial EPS and dolomite from different sediment layers of Khor Al-Adaid sabkha (Qatar). Here, we characterized microbial mats on molecular level in respect of organic and inorganic components using in-situ 2D Raman spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) were used. Additionally, 2D chemical maps of sediment layers documented spectral characterizations of minerals and organic matter of microbial origins at high spatial resolution. Finally, we will show the results from the experiments with auto-phototrophic cyanobacteria Gloeocapsa PCC73106, which habitat on the monument surfaces, towards its application for bio-concrete, a product of microbial carbonate precipitation. We studied the biomineralization in biofilm forming Gloeocapsa PCC73106 on the concrete surface as a pre-requirement for microbial carbonate precipitation. Biomineralization on the concrete surface by live cells and killed cells were compared with that under the abiotic condition. Our experiments allow us to conclude that environmental conditions play a significant role in the control of

  18. Local nutrient regimes determine site-specific environmental triggers of cyanobacterial and microcystin variability in urban lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinang, S. C.; Reichwaldt, E. S.; Ghadouani, A.

    2015-05-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms in urban lakes present serious health hazards to humans and animals and require effective management strategies. Managing such blooms requires a sufficient understanding of the controlling environmental factors. A range of them has been proposed in the literature as potential triggers for cyanobacterial biomass development and cyanotoxin (e.g. microcystin) production in freshwater systems. However, the environmental triggers of cyanobacteria and microcystin variability remain a subject of debate due to contrasting findings. This issue has raised the question of whether the relevance of environmental triggers may depend on site-specific combinations of environmental factors. In this study, we investigated the site-specificity of environmental triggers for cyanobacterial bloom and microcystin dynamics in three urban lakes in Western Australia. Our study suggests that cyanobacterial biomass, cyanobacterial dominance and cyanobacterial microcystin content variability were significantly correlated to phosphorus and iron concentrations. However, the correlations were different between lakes, thus suggesting a site-specific effect of these environmental factors. The discrepancies in the correlations could be explained by differences in local nutrient concentration. For instance, we found no correlation between cyanobacterial fraction and total phosphorous (TP) in the lake with the highest TP concentration, while correlations were significant and negative in the other two lakes. In addition, our study indicates that the difference of the correlation between total iron (TFe) and the cyanobacterial fraction between lakes might have been a consequence of differences in the cyanobacterial community structure, specifically the presence or absence of nitrogen-fixing species. In conclusion, our study suggests that identification of significant environmental factors under site-specific conditions is an important strategy to enhance successful outcomes

  19. Functional adaptations of the bacterial chaperone trigger factor to extreme environmental temperatures.

    PubMed

    Godin-Roulling, Amandine; Schmidpeter, Philipp A M; Schmid, Franz X; Feller, Georges

    2015-07-01

    Trigger factor (TF) is the first molecular chaperone interacting cotranslationally with virtually all nascent polypeptides synthesized by the ribosome in bacteria. Thermal adaptation of chaperone function was investigated in TFs from the Antarctic psychrophile Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis, the mesophile Escherichia coli and the hyperthermophile Thermotoga maritima. This series covers nearly all temperatures encountered by bacteria. Although structurally homologous, these TFs display strikingly distinct properties that are related to the bacterial environmental temperature. The hyperthermophilic TF strongly binds model proteins during their folding and protects them from heat-induced misfolding and aggregation. It decreases the folding rate and counteracts the fast folding rate imposed by high temperature. It also functions as a carrier of partially folded proteins for delivery to downstream chaperones ensuring final maturation. By contrast, the psychrophilic TF displays weak chaperone activities, showing that these functions are less important in cold conditions because protein folding, misfolding and aggregation are slowed down at low temperature. It efficiently catalyses prolyl isomerization at low temperature as a result of its increased cellular concentration rather than from an improved activity. Some chaperone properties of the mesophilic TF possibly reflect its function as a cold shock protein in E. coli.

  20. Optically-triggered GaAs thyristor switches: Integrated structures for environmental hardening

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, R.F.; Weaver, H.T.; Hughes, R.C.; Zipperian, T.E.; Brennan, T.M.; Hammons, B.E.

    1990-01-01

    Optically-triggered thyristor switches often operate in adverse environments, such as high temperature and high dose-rate transient radiation, which can result in lowered operating voltage and premature triggering. These effects can be reduced by connecting or monolithically integrating a reverse-biased compensating photodiode or phototransistor into the gate of the optically-triggered thyristor. We have demonstrated the effectiveness of this hardening concept in silicon thyristors packaged with photodiodes, and in gallium arsenide optically-triggered thyristors monolithically integrated with compensating phototransistors.

  1. Walden Pond, Massachusetts: Environmental Setting and Current Investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, John A.; Waldron, Marcus C.

    1998-01-01

    Introduction Walden Pond, in Concord, Massachusetts, is famous among lakes because of its unique social history. Walden was the setting for American naturalist Henry David Thoreau's well-known essay 'Walden; or, Life in the Woods,' first published in 1854. Thoreau lived and wrote at Walden Pond from July 1845 to September 1847. In 'Walden,' Thoreau combined highly admired writing on Transcendental philosophy with pioneering observations of aquatic ecology and physical aspects of limnology, the study of lakes. Because Thoreau also defended so effectively the value of living close to nature in the Walden woods, the pond is considered by many to be the birthplace of the American conservation movement. Visitors come from all over the world to the pond, which has been designated a National Historic Landmark, and its fame has resulted in a major fund drive to preserve the surrounding woods. Walden Pond has no surfacewater inflow or outflow, and much of its ground-water contributing area likely is preserved within the Walden Pond Reservation area (fig. 1). Only 15 miles from Boston, the pond is unusually clear and pristine for an urban-area lake. However, point sources of nutrients near the pond, and a large annual visitor attendance, concentrated during the summer when the swimming beach (fig. 2) is open, may contribute a nutrient load sufficient to change the pond environment. The occurrence of nuisance algal species, a recent beach closing, and an awareness of water-quality problems suffered by other ponds in the region raise concerns about the risk of ecological change at Walden Pond. Despite the role of Walden Pond as a cultural and environmental icon, little is known about the pond's ecological features, such as its internal nutrient cycling or the structure of its food web, nor have consistent measurements been made to determine whether these features are changing or are stable. Production rates of aquatic plants in lakes and ponds naturally undergo a slow increase

  2. Education in Environmental Chemistry: Setting the Agenda and Recommending Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoller, Uri

    2005-01-01

    The effective utilization of Education in Environmental Chemistry (EEC) in addressing global and societal environmental problems requires integration between educational, technical, financial, ethical and societal considerations. An interdisciplinary approach is fundamental to efforts to achieve long-term solutions.

  3. Maltreatment-Associated Psychiatric Problems: An Example of Environmentally Triggered ESSENCE?

    PubMed Central

    Minnis, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new concept—maltreatment associated psychiatric problems (MAPP)—a syndrome of overlapping complex neurodevelopmental problems in children who have experienced abuse or neglect in early life. Children with MAPP are a hidden population in the community and, in clinical settings, their problems can seem overwhelming. Individual disorders associated with maltreatment are discussed as well as the overlap between these disorders and their shared environmental and genetic predisposing factors. Because of the complex and overlapping nature of MAPP, with symptoms emerging in early life, I argue that it should be considered an example of ESSENCE. Children presenting with likely MAPP should receive a comprehensive assessment, probing for symptoms of all of the ESSENCE disorders and leading to the use of evidence-based treatments where these are available. PMID:23710133

  4. BASIS Set Exchange (BSE): Chemistry Basis Sets from the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) Basis Set Library

    DOE Data Explorer

    Feller, D; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Didier, Brett T.; Elsethagen, Todd; Sun, Lisong; Gurumoorthi, Vidhya; Chase, Jared; Li, Jun

    The Basis Set Exchange (BSE) provides a web-based user interface for downloading and uploading Gaussian-type (GTO) basis sets, including effective core potentials (ECPs), from the EMSL Basis Set Library. It provides an improved user interface and capabilities over its predecessor, the EMSL Basis Set Order Form, for exploring the contents of the EMSL Basis Set Library. The popular Basis Set Order Form and underlying Basis Set Library were originally developed by Dr. David Feller and have been available from the EMSL webpages since 1994. BSE not only allows downloading of the more than 500 Basis sets in various formats; it allows users to annotate existing sets and to upload new sets. (Specialized Interface)

  5. Leave before it's too late: anthropogenic and environmental triggers of autumn migration in a hunted ungulate population.

    PubMed

    Rivaud, Inger Maren; Bischof, Richard; Meisingset, Erling L; Zimmermann, Barbara; Loe, Leif Egil; Mysterud, Atle

    2016-04-01

    Autumn has to a large extent been neglected in the climate effect literature, yet autumn events, e.g., plant senescence and animal migration, affect fitness of animals differently than spring events. Understanding how variables including plant phenology influence timing of autumn migrations is important to gain a comprehensive understanding of the full annual cycle of migratory species. Here we use 13 yr of data from 60 male and 168 female red deer (Cervus elaphus) to identify triggers of autumn migration. We relate the timing of autumn migration to environmental variables like snow fall, temperature, and plant phenology (NDVI), and to onset of hunting, sex, and migration distance. Severe weather has been suggested as the main trigger of autumn migration, but we found that the majority of the individuals had left the summer range well before snow fall (80.3%) and frost (70.5%), and also before the peak deterioration in forage quality (71.9%). Declining temperatures were associated with a higher daily migration potential. Onset of hunting showed the largest effect on migration potential, with a marked increase during the first days of hunting. Individuals still present in the summer range when snow fall, frost, or peak forage deterioration occurred showed a significantly higher migration potential around these events. Males were less responsive to environmental cues, suggesting rutting activity, starting earlier in males, initiate movement prior to such conditions. Also, individuals with longer migration distances had a higher migration potential late in the season than individuals with shorter migration distances. Our study shows that factors beyond weather and plant phenology, such as onset of hunting, may be important triggers of autumn migration. Severe weather and forage deterioration were important triggers for the individuals experiencing this, which suggests a hierarchical response to environmental cues. The trade-off between staying longer in the summer

  6. Setting boundaries of participation in environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Salomons, Geoffrey H.; Hoberg, George

    2014-02-15

    Public participation processes are touted as an effective way to increase the capacity and legitimacy of environmental assessment and the regulatory process that rely on them. Recent changes to the Canadian environmental assessment process narrowed the criteria for who can participate in environmental assessments from any who were interested to those who were most directly affected. This article examines the potential consequences of this change by exploring other areas of Canadian regulatory law where a similar directed affected test has been applied. This new standard risks institutionalizing the long-understood representational bias confronted by more diffuse interest like environmental protection. Restricting participation to the “directly affected” is far too narrow a test for processes like environmental assessment that are designed to determine the public interest. -- Highlights: • Public participation can improve the legitimacy of environmental assessments. • New Canadian rules narrow the range of eligible participants. • Similar rules in Alberta have excluded environmental representation. • The new rules may institutionalize bias against more diffuse interests. • Restricting participation to the “directly affected” is far too narrow.

  7. Allergens in School Settings: Results of Environmental Assessments in 3 City School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Stuart L.; Turner-Henson, Anne; Anderson, Lise; Hemstreet, Mary P.; Bartholomew, L. Kay; Joseph, Christine L. M.; Tang, Shenghui; Tyrrell, Shellie; Clark, Noreen M.; Ownby, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    Environmental allergens are major triggers for pediatric asthma. While children's greatest exposure to indoor allergens is in the home, other public places where children spend a large amount of time, such as school and day care centers, may also be sources of significant allergen encounters. The purpose of this article is to describe schoolroom…

  8. Core Mechanisms Regulating Developmentally Timed and Environmentally Triggered Abscission[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Drought-triggered abscission is a strategy used by plants to avoid the full consequences of drought; however, it is poorly understood at the molecular genetic level. Here, we show that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) can be used to elucidate the pathway controlling drought-triggered leaf shedding. We further show that much of the pathway regulating developmentally timed floral organ abscission is conserved in regulating drought-triggered leaf abscission. Gene expression of HAESA (HAE) and INFLORESCENCE DEFICIENT IN ABSCISSION (IDA) is induced in cauline leaf abscission zones when the leaves become wilted in response to limited water and HAE continues to accumulate in the leaf abscission zones through the abscission process. The genes that encode HAE/HAESA-LIKE2, IDA, NEVERSHED, and MAPK KINASE4 and 5 are all necessary for drought-induced leaf abscission. Our findings offer a molecular mechanism explaining drought-triggered leaf abscission. Furthermore, the ability to study leaf abscission in Arabidopsis opens up a new avenue to tease apart mechanisms involved in abscission that have been difficult to separate from flower development as well as for understanding the mechanistic role of water and turgor pressure in abscission. PMID:27468996

  9. Deccan Volcanism: a main trigger of environmental changes leading to the KTB mass extinction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adatte, Thierry; Fantasia, Alicia; Samant, Bandana; Mohabey, Dhananjay; Keller, Gerta; Gertsch, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The nature and causes of mass extinctions in the geological past have remained topics of intense scientific debate for the past three decades. Central to this debate is the question of whether the eruption of large igneous provinces (LIP) was the primary mechanism driving the environmental changes that are commonly regarded as the proximate causes for four of the five major Phanerozoic extinction events. Model results predict that Deccan Traps emplacement was responsible for a strong increase in atmospheric pCO2 accompanied by rapid warming of 4°C that was followed by global cooling. During the warming phase, increased continental weathering of silicates associated with consumption of atmospheric CO2 likely resulted in the drawdown of greenhouse gases that reversed the warming trend leading to global cooling at the end of the Maastrichtian. Massive CO2 input together with massive release of SO2 may thus have triggered the mass extinctions in the marine realm as a result of ocean acidification leading to a carbon crisis and in the terrestrial realms due to acid rains. Global stress conditions related to these climatic changes are well known and documented in planktic foraminifera by a diversity decrease, species dwarfing, dominance of opportunistic species and near disappearance of specialized species. Deccan Traps erupted in three main phases with 6% total Deccan volume in phase-1 (base C30n), 80% in phase-2 (C29r) and 14% in phase-3 (C29n). Recent studies indicate that the bulk (80%) of Deccan trap eruptions (Phase-2) occurred over a relatively short time interval in magnetic polarity C29r, whereas multiproxy studies from central and southeastern India place the Cretaceous-Tertiary (KT) mass extinction near the end of this main phase of Deccan volcanism suggesting a cause-and-effect relationship. In India a strong floral response is observed as a direct response to Deccan volcanic phase-2. In Lameta (infratrappean) sediments preceding the volcanic eruptions

  10. Scoring Los Angeles Landscapes: Environmental Education in an Urban Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Christopher L.; And Others

    This notebook serves as a guide for learning activities in environmental education. Twelve themes are treated in four groups: (1) sense of place includes history and landscape; (2) the natural environment covers air, water, energy, and landforms; (3) the built environment includes architecture, transportation, and housing; and (4) the social…

  11. Setting risk-informed environmental standards for Bacillus anthracis spores.

    PubMed

    Hong, Tao; Gurian, Patrick L; Ward, Nicholas F Dudley

    2010-10-01

    In many cases, human health risk from biological agents is associated with aerosol exposures. Because air concentrations decline rapidly after a release, it may be necessary to use concentrations found in other environmental media to infer future or past aerosol exposures. This article presents an approach for linking environmental concentrations of Bacillus. anthracis (B. anthracis) spores on walls, floors, ventilation system filters, and in human nasal passages with human health risk from exposure to B. anthracis spores. This approach is then used to calculate example values of risk-informed concentration standards for both retrospective risk mitigation (e.g., prophylactic antibiotics) and prospective risk mitigation (e.g., environmental clean up and reoccupancy). A large number of assumptions are required to calculate these values, and the resulting values have large uncertainties associated with them. The values calculated here suggest that documenting compliance with risks in the range of 10(-4) to 10(-6) would be challenging for small diameter (respirable) spore particles. For less stringent risk targets and for releases of larger diameter particles (which are less respirable and hence less hazardous), environmental sampling would be more promising.

  12. Do Kenyan Set Book Novel Kidagaa Kimemwozea Advance Environmental Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magothe, Stephen Njangiru

    2016-01-01

    Environmental protection is a sensitive issue in the world today. Erratic weather changes have been witnessed in many parts world including Kenya. Indeed, scholars and critics have argued that human beings are a major contributing factor to destruction of nature through industrialization, farming activities, transport, deforestation, wildlife…

  13. Setting a new syllabus: environmental health science in the classroom.

    PubMed

    Brown, Valerie J

    2004-10-01

    Environmental health is a subject that has only relatively recently become prominent in the social consciousness. Even as its significance becomes known, finding ways to integrate the subject into education for primary and secondary students is difficult because of federal testing requirements under the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 and other demands placed on teachers. A number of efforts are under way, however, to provide teachers with resources to help them bring environment health into their classrooms.

  14. Inferring neutral biodiversity parameters using environmental DNA data sets

    PubMed Central

    Sommeria-Klein, Guilhem; Zinger, Lucie; Taberlet, Pierre; Coissac, Eric; Chave, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    The DNA present in the environment is a unique and increasingly exploited source of information for conducting fast and standardized biodiversity assessments for any type of organisms. The datasets resulting from these surveys are however rarely compared to the quantitative predictions of biodiversity models. In this study, we simulate neutral taxa-abundance datasets, and artificially noise them by simulating noise terms typical of DNA-based biodiversity surveys. The resulting noised taxa abundances are used to assess whether the two parameters of Hubbell’s neutral theory of biodiversity can still be estimated. We find that parameters can be inferred provided that PCR noise on taxa abundances does not exceed a certain threshold. However, inference is seriously biased by the presence of artifactual taxa. The uneven contribution of organisms to environmental DNA owing to size differences and barcode copy number variability does not impede neutral parameter inference, provided that the number of sequence reads used for inference is smaller than the number of effectively sampled individuals. Hence, estimating neutral parameters from DNA-based taxa abundance patterns is possible but requires some caution. In studies that include empirical noise assessments, our comprehensive simulation benchmark provides objective criteria to evaluate the robustness of neutral parameter inference. PMID:27762295

  15. Seasonal movements and environmental triggers to fall migration of Sage Sparrows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fesenmyer, K.A.; Knick, S.T.

    2011-01-01

    Post-breeding ecology of shrubland passerines prior to onset of migration is unknown relative to dynamics of breeding areas. We radiomarked and monitored 38 Sage Sparrows (Amphispiza belli ssp. nevadensis) at one site in Oregon and two in Nevada from September to mid-November 2007 to track local movements, estimate seasonal range sizes, and characterize weather patterns triggering onset of migration. Median area used by Sage Sparrows monitored between 3 and 18 days during or prior to migration was 14 ha; maximum daily movement was 15 km. Radio-marked Sage Sparrows at each location departed individually, rather than en masse, corresponding with passage of cold front weather systems. Conventional telemetry techniques limited our ability to monitor Sage Sparrows beyond pre-migratory periods and precluded detecting and tracking actual movements during migration. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  16. The Roles of Autophagy and the Inflammasome during Environmental Stress-Triggered Skin Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rong-Jane; Lee, Yu-Hsuan; Yeh, Ya-Ling; Wang, Ying-Jan; Wang, Bour-Jr

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory skin diseases are the most common problem in dermatology. The induction of skin inflammation by environmental stressors such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR), hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and TiO2/ZnO/Ag nanoparticles (NPs) has been demonstrated previously. Recent studies have indicated that the inflammasome is often wrongly activated by these environmental irritants, thus inducing massive inflammation and resulting in the development of inflammatory diseases. The regulation of the inflammasome with respect to skin inflammation is complex and is still not completely understood. Autophagy, an intracellular degradation system that is associated with the maintenance of cellular homeostasis, plays a key role in inflammasome inactivation. As a housekeeping pathway, cells utilize autophagy to maintain the homeostasis of the organ structure and function when exposed to environmental stressors. However, only a few studies have examined the effect of autophagy and/or the inflammasome on skin pathogenesis. Here we review recent findings regarding the involvement of autophagy and inflammasome activation during skin inflammation. We posit that autophagy induction is a novel mechanism inter-modulating environmental stressor-induced skin inflammation. We also attempt to highlight the role of the inflammasome and the possible underlying mechanisms and pathways reflecting the pathogenesis of skin inflammation induced by UVR, Cr(VI) and TiO2/ZnO/Ag NPs. A more profound understanding about the crosstalk between autophagy and the inflammasome will contribute to the development of prevention and intervention strategies against human skin disease. PMID:27941683

  17. Programming for responsiveness to environmental antigens that trigger allergic respiratory disease in adulthood is initiated during the perinatal period.

    PubMed

    Holt, P G

    1998-06-01

    Allergy to airborne environmental antigens (allergens) is a major cause of asthma in children and adults. This review argues that the development of allergen-specific immunologic memory of the type that predisposes to allergy development is the end result of a T-cell selection process operative during infancy, which is triggered via encounters between the immature immune system and incoming airborne allergens from the environment. In normal individuals this process leads to the development of allergen-specific T-memory cells that secure the T helper (Th)-1 pattern of cytokines, which actively suppress the growth of their allergy-inducing Th-2 cytokine-secreting counterparts. However, these protective allergen-reactive Th-1 memory cells fail to develop in some individuals, permitting the subsequent proliferation of allergen-specific Th-2 cells that can trigger allergic reactions. Recent evidence suggests that genetic predisposition to allergy may be due in part to hyperactivity of control mechanisms operative in utero and which normally protect the fetoplacental unit against the toxic effect of Th-1 cytokines.

  18. Environmental triggers for primary outbreaks of crown-of-thorns starfish on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Wooldridge, Scott A; Brodie, Jon E

    2015-12-30

    In this paper, we postulate a unique environmental triggering sequence for primary outbreaks of crown-of-thorns starfish (COTS, Acanthaster planci) on the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR, Australia). Notably, we extend the previous terrestrial runoff hypothesis, viz. nutrient-enriched terrestrial runoff → elevated phytoplankton 'bloom' concentrations → enhanced COTS larval survival, to include the additional importance of strong larvae retention around reefs or within reef groups (clusters) that share enhanced phytoplankton concentrations. For the central GBR, this scenario is shown to occur when El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) linked hydrodynamic conditions cause the 'regional' larval connectivity network to fragment into smaller 'local' reef clusters due to low ocean current velocities. As inter-annual variations in hydrodynamic circulation patterns are not amenable to direct management intervention, the ability to reduce the future frequency of COTS outbreaks on the central GBR is shown to be contingent on reducing terrestrial bioavailable nutrient loads ~20-40%.

  19. Learning styles of nursing students and environmental press perceptions of two clinical nursing settings.

    PubMed

    Laschinger, H K

    1986-05-01

    Kolb's Learning Style Inventory and Environmental Press Questionnaire were used to study 68 third-year baccalaureate nursing students' learning styles and perceptions of environmental press differences in medical-surgical and psychiatric nursing settings from the experiential learning theory perspective. Evidence for a hypothesized match between predominating student learning styles and predominating environmental press was sought. As hypothesized, student learning styles were found to be predominantly concrete as was the predominating environmental press in both nursing settings. Medical-surgical and psychiatric nursing settings did not differ significantly from environmental press. A profile of competencies felt to be important in nursing emerged with concrete people-oriented competencies rating higher than abstract competencies.

  20. Triggering Klystrons

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan, Kelton D.; /Purdue U. /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    To determine if klystrons will perform to the specifications of the LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source) project, a new digital trigger controller is needed for the Klystron/Microwave Department Test Laboratory. The controller needed to be programmed and Windows based user interface software needed to be written to interface with the device over a USB (Universal Serial Bus). Programming the device consisted of writing logic in VHDL (VHSIC (Very High Speed Integrated Circuits) hardware description language), and the Windows interface software was written in C++. Xilinx ISE (Integrated Software Environment) was used to compile the VHDL code and program the device, and Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 was used to compile the C++ based Windows software. The device was programmed in such a way as to easily allow read/write operations to it using a simple addressing model, and Windows software was developed to interface with the device over a USB connection. A method of setting configuration registers in the trigger device is absolutely necessary to the development of a new triggering system, and the method developed will fulfill this need adequately. More work is needed before the new trigger system is ready for use. The configuration registers in the device need to be fully integrated with the logic that will generate the RF signals, and this system will need to be tested extensively to determine if it meets the requirements for low noise trigger outputs.

  1. Environmental Indicators. A Preliminary Set = Indicateurs d'environnement. Une etude pilote.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This document provides a preliminary set of environmental indicators by which to measure environmental performance. The indicators are patterned on the outline of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) "Report on the State of the Environment," a companion volume published in the same year. This volume is…

  2. Childhood Obesity Prevention in Childcare Settings: the Potential of Policy and Environmental Change Interventions.

    PubMed

    Lessard, Laura; Breck, Andrew

    2015-06-01

    Current obesity rates in young children are a serious public health concern; developing and implementing obesity prevention interventions in childcare settings is a promising avenue to address this issue. In recent years, there has been increasing focus on environmental and policy change interventions for this setting. Improving access to and quality of outdoor play spaces and implementing the Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC) are two promising environmental change strategies in this setting. Laws at the local, state, and federal level have also been implemented; New York City and Delaware are two jurisdictions that have passed policies and provided preliminary evidence of the potential of policy interventions to change child outcomes. A combination of programmatic, environmental, and policy change strategies will likely be most effective in maximizing the potential of childcare settings to promote healthy weight in children.

  3. Environmental settings for selected US Department of Energy installations - support information for the programmatic environmental impact statement and the baseline environmental management report

    SciTech Connect

    Holdren, G.R.; Glantz, C.S.; Berg, L.K.; Delinger, K.; Fosmire, C.J.; Goodwin, S.M.; Rustad, J.R.; Schalla, R.; Schramke, J.A.

    1995-05-01

    This report contains the environmental setting information developed for 25 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) installations in support of the DOE`s Programmatic Environmental Impact Study (PEIS) and the Baseline Environmental Management Report (BEMR). The common objective of the PEIS and the BEMR is to provide the public with information about the environmental contamination problems associated with major DOE facilities across the country, and to assess the relative risks that radiological and hazardous contaminants pose to the public, onsite workers, and the environment. Environmental setting information consists of the site-specific data required to model (using the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System) the atmospheric, groundwater, and surface water transport of contaminants within and near the boundaries of the installations. The environmental settings data describes the climate, atmospheric dispersion, hydrogeology, and surface water characteristics of the installations. The number of discrete environmental settings established for each installation was governed by two competing requirements: (1) the risks posed by contaminants released from numerous waste sites were to be modeled as accurately as possible, and (2) the modeling required for numerous release sites and a large number of contaminants had to be completed within the limits imposed by the PEIS and BEMR schedule. The final product is the result of attempts to balance these competing concerns in a way that minimizes the number of settings per installation in order to meet the project schedule while at the same, time providing adequate, if sometimes highly simplified, representations of the different areas within an installation. Environmental settings were developed in conjunction with installation experts in the fields of meteorology, geology, hydrology, and geochemistry.

  4. Bioaccumulation of photoprotective compounds in copepods: environmental triggers and sources of intra-specific variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagarese, H. E.; García, P.; Diéguez, M. D.; Ferraro, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and temperature are two globally important abiotic factors affecting freshwater ecosystems. Planktonic organisms have developed a battery of counteracting mechanisms to minimize the risk of being damaged by UVR, which respond to three basic principles: avoid, protect, repair. Copepods are among the most successful zooplankton groups. They are highly adaptable animals, capable of displaying flexible behaviors, physiologies, and life strategies. In particular, they are well equipped to cope with harmful UVR. Their arsenal includes vertical migration, accumulation of photoprotective compounds, and photorepair. The preference for a particular strategy is affected by a plethora of environmental (extrinsic) parameters, such as the existence of a depth refuge, the risk of visual predation, and temperature. Temperature modifies the environment (e.g. the lake thermal structure), and animal metabolism (e.g., swimming speed, bioaccumulation of photoprotective compounds). In addition, the relative weight of UVR-coping strategies is also influenced by the organism (intrinsic) characteristics (e.g., inter- and intra-specific variability). The UV absorbing compounds, mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), are widely distributed among freshwater copepods. Animals are unable to synthesize MAAs, and therefore depend on external sources for accumulating these compounds. Although copepods may acquire MAAs from their food, for the few centropagic species investigated so far, the main source of MAAs are microbial (most likely prokaryotic) organisms living in close association with the copepods. Boeckella gracilipes is a common centropagic copepod in Patagonian lakes. We suspected that its occurrence in different types of lakes, hydrologically unconnected, but within close geographical proximity, could have resulted in different microbial-copepod associations (i.e., different MAAs sources) that could translate into intra-specific differences in the accumulation

  5. Triggers of the HSP70 stress response: environmental responses and laboratory manipulation in an Antarctic marine invertebrate (Nacella concinna).

    PubMed

    Clark, Melody S; Peck, Lloyd S

    2009-11-01

    The Antarctic limpet, Nacella concinna, exhibits the classical heat shock response, with up-regulation of duplicated forms of the inducible heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) gene in response to experimental manipulation of seawater temperatures. However, this response only occurs in the laboratory at temperatures well in excess of any experienced in the field. Subsequent environmental sampling of inter-tidal animals also showed up-regulation of these genes, but at temperature thresholds much lower than those required to elicit a response in the laboratory. It was hypothesised that this was a reflection of the complexity of the stresses encountered in the inter-tidal region. Here, we describe a further series of experiments comprising both laboratory manipulation and environmental sampling of N. concinna. We investigate the expression of HSP70 gene family members (HSP70A, HSP70B, GRP78 and HSC70) in response to a further suite of environmental stressors: seasonal and experimental cold, freshwater, desiccation, chronic heat and periodic emersion. Lowered temperatures (-1.9 degrees C and -1.6 degrees C), generally produced a down-regulation of all HSP70 family members, with some up-regulation of HSC70 when emerging from the winter period and increasing sea temperatures. There was no significant response to freshwater immersion. In response to acute and chronic heat treatments plus simulated tidal cycles, the data showed a clear pattern. HSP70A showed a strong but very short-term response to heat whilst the duplicated HSP70B also showed heat to be a trigger, but had a more sustained response to complex stresses. GRP78 expression indicates that it was acting as a generalised stress response under the experimental conditions described here. HSC70 was the major chaperone invoked in response to long-term stresses of varying types. These results provide intriguing clues not only to the complexity of HSP70 gene expression in response to environmental change but also insights

  6. Eliminating a set of four penicillin binding proteins triggers the Rcs phosphorelay and Cpx stress responses in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Evans, Kerry L; Kannan, Suresh; Li, Gang; de Pedro, Miguel A; Young, Kevin D

    2013-10-01

    Penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) are responsible for synthesizing and modifying the bacterial cell wall, and in Escherichia coli the loss of several nonessential low-molecular-weight PBPs gives rise to abnormalities in cell shape and division. To determine whether these proteins help connect the flagellar basal body to the peptidoglycan wall, we surveyed a set of PBP mutants and found that motility in an agar migration assay was compromised by the simultaneous absence of four enzymes: PBP4, PBP5, PBP7, and AmpH. A wild-type copy of any one of these restored migration, and complementation depended on the integrity of the PBP active-site serine. However, the migration defect was caused by the absence of flagella instead of improper flagellar assembly. Migration was restored if the flhDC genes were overexpressed or if the rcsB or cpxR genes were deleted. Thus, migration was inhibited because the Rcs and Cpx stress response systems were induced in the absence of these four specific PBPs. Furthermore, in this situation Rcs induction depended on the presence of CpxR. The results imply that small changes in peptidoglycan structure are sufficient to activate these stress responses, suggesting that a specific cell wall fragment may be the signal being sensed. The fact that four PBPs must be inactivated may explain why large perturbations to the envelope are required to induce stress responses.

  7. Environmental setting of the upper Illinois River basin and implications for water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnold, Terri L.; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Harris, Mitchell A.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Scudder, Barbara C.; Ruhl, Peter M.; Hanchar, Dorothea W.; Stewart, Jana S.

    1999-01-01

    The upper Illinois River Basin (UIRB) is the 10,949 square mile drainage area upstream from Ottawa, Illinois, on the Illinois River. The UIRB is one of 13 studies that began in 1996 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water- Quality Assessment program. A compilation of environmental data from Federal, State, and local agencies provides a description of the environmental setting of the UIRB. Environmental data include natural factors such as bedrock geology, physiography and surficial geology, soils, vegetation, climate, and ecoregions; and human factors such as land use, urbanization trends, and population change. Characterization of the environmental setting is useful for understanding the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of surface and ground water in the UIRB and the possible implications of that environmental setting for water quality. Some of the possible implications identified include depletion of dissolved oxygen because of high concentrations of organic matter in wastewater, increased flooding because of suburbanization, elevated arsenic concentrations in ground water because of weathering of shale bedrock, and decreasing ground-water levels because of heavy pumping of water from the bedrock aquifers.

  8. A risk-informed decision framework for setting environmental windows for dredging projects.

    PubMed

    Suedel, Burton C; Kim, Jongbum; Clarke, Douglas G; Linkov, Igor

    2008-09-15

    Sediment dredging is necessary to sustain navigation infrastructure in ports and harbor areas. In the United States alone between 250 and 300 million cubic yards of sediment are dredged annually. Dredging activities may cause stress on aquatic biota by locally increasing turbidity and suspended sediment concentrations, physically disturbing habitat by elevated sedimentation rates, interfering in migratory behaviors, and hydraulically entraining bottom dwelling organisms. Environmental windows are a management practice used to alleviate such stresses on resident and transient biota by placing temporal restrictions on the conduct of dredging operations. Adherence to environmental windows can significantly inflate costs for project sponsors and local stakeholders. Since their inception following passage of NEPA in 1969 the process for setting environmental windows has not followed structured procedures and represents an example of the difficulty inherent in achieving a balance between biological resource protection and cost-effective construction and maintenance of navigation infrastructure. Recent developments in the fields of risk assessment for non-chemical stressors as well as experience in implementing structured risk-informed decision-making tools for sediment and natural resource management are summarized in this paper in relation to setting environmental windows. Combining risk assessment and multi-criteria decision analysis allows development of a framework for an objective process consistent with recommendations by the National Academy of Sciences for setting environmental windows. A hypothetical application of the framework for protection of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) in San Francisco Bay is discussed.

  9. Freddie Fish. A Primary Environmental Study of Basic Numerals, Sets, Ordinals and Shapes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraynak, Ola

    This teacher's guide and study guide are an environmental approach to mathematics education in the primary grades. The mathematical studies of the numerals 0-10, ordinals, number sets, and basic shapes - diamond, circle, square, rectangle, and triangle - are developed through the story of Freddie Fish and his search for clean water. The…

  10. Obesity-related abnormalities couple environmental triggers with genetic susceptibility in adult-onset T1D.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, K Hoa; Ande, Sudharsana R; Mishra, Suresh

    2016-01-29

    The incidence of adult-onset T1D in low-risk non-HLA type has increased several folds, whereas the contemporaneous incidence in high-risk HLA-type remains stable. Various factors behind this selective increase in T1D in young adults remain unclear. Obesity and its associated abnormalities appear to be an important determinant; however, the underlying mechanism involved is not understood. Recently, we have developed two novel transgenic obese mice models, Mito-Ob and m-Mito-Ob, by expressing a pleiotropic protein prohibitin (PHB) and a phospho mutant form of PHB (Y114F-PHB or m-PHB) from the aP2 gene promoter, respectively. Both mice models develop obesity in a sex-neutral manner, independent of diet; but obesity associated chronic low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance in a male sex-specific manner. Interestingly, on a high fat diet (HFD) only male m-Mito-Ob mice displayed marked mononuclear cell infiltration in pancreas and developed insulitis that mimic adult-onset T1D. Male Mito-Ob mice that share the metabolic phenotype of male m-Mito-Ob mice, and female m-Mito-Ob that harbor m-PHB similar to male m-Mito-Ob mice, did not develop insulitis. Thus, insulitis development in male m-Mito-Ob in response to HFD requires both, obesity-related abnormalities and m-PHB. Collectively, this data provides a proof-of-concept that obesity-associated abnormalities couple environmental triggers with genetic susceptibility in adult-onset T1D and reveals PHB as a potential susceptibility gene for T1D.

  11. Role of Tectonomagmatic Processes in the Early Paleoproterozoic as a Trigger for Surface Environmental Changes and Evolution of Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, E. V.; Bogina, M.

    2009-05-01

    It is known that ecological system in the Middle Paleoproterozoic experienced a fundamental change, which finally led to the appearance of multicellular organisms. Though organic life has been already existed in the Paleoarchean (Sergeev et al., 2007 and references herein), the multicellular organisms appeared only in the middle Paleoproterozoic about 1.6 Ga ago, subsequent to a fundamental change of tectononagmatic processes at 2.3-2.0 Ga ago, when early Precambrian high-Mg melts, derived from depleted mantle, gave way to the geochemically enriched Fe-Ti picrites and basalts, whose origin has been related to ascending of thermochemical mantle plumes. This new type of melts was characterized by elevated and high contents of Fe, Ti, Cu, P, Mn, alkalis (especially, Na), LREE, and other incompatible elements (Zr, Ba, Sr, U Th, F, and others). A large-scale influx of alkalies in the World Ocean presumably neutralized its water, making it more suitable for the life, while input of Fe-group metals, P, and other trace elements, which are required for metabolism and fermentation, rapidly expanded the possibility for the development of biosphere. This caused a rapid development of photosynthesizing cyanobacteria and, subsequently, the emergence of oxidizing atmosphere marked by formation of cupriferous red beds at all Precambrian shields, and generation of first hydrocarbon deposits (Melezhik et al., 2005). A drop in atmospheric CO2 presumably suppressed the greenhouse effect, while significant intensification of relief ruggedness caused by wide development of plate tectonics after 2 Ga resulted in the change of atmospheric circulation. All these processes finally led to the global glaciations. The latters commenced earlier, in the Paleproterozoic (Huronian glaciation), simultaneously with first manifestations of Fe--Ti basaltic magmatism, which came into force only in the middle Paleoproterozoic. Thus, a fundamental change in tectonomagmatic activity acted as the trigger

  12. [Dynamics of induced EEG in the intervals between a target and trigger stimuli during formation of a set to emotionally negative facial expression].

    PubMed

    Kostandov, É A; Cheremushkin, E A; Ashkinazi, M L

    2012-01-01

    A visual set was used as a model to study the influence of the increased memory load on the recognition of facial expression in 70 healthy adults. In order to additionally load the working memory, we lengthened the time gap between target (faces) and trigger stimuli. Such a lengthening from 1 to 8 s resulted in an increase of set plasticity (fewer mistakes in facial expression recognition). It also led to a reduction of the reaction time and less number of contrast illusions in recognition. We analyzed theta- and alpha-band EEG changes during individual segments of the time gap and suggested that repeated trials with a certain fixed interval between stimuli formed an inner representation of the interval duration. This inner representation up-regulates the visual attention in case of anticipation of a relevant event (stimulus) and down-regulates the attention when the stimulus is not expected. In case of the plastic set, the induced EEG synchronization in the alpha band is stronger in the trials with correct recognition in the middle of the inter-stimulus time gap. We think this synchronization reflects the action of the top-down cognitive control that suppresses the influence of irrelevant information on the brain activity. Theta-band dynamics in the inter-stimulus time gap can be associated with the emotional strain caused by the fact that a person had to retain in memory (for several seconds) the result of facial expression recognition.

  13. A cross-disciplinary understanding of incipient motion for effective environmental flow setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neverman, Andrew; Fuller, Ian; Death, Russell; Procter, Jon; Singh, Ranvir

    2016-04-01

    Environmental flow setting as a tool for maintaining ecological health in rivers has been a focus of debate for many years. Environmental flow setting often involves the establishment of base flow levels below impoundment structures as well as setting flushing flows in order to control excess periphyton accrual and sedimentation. The role of bedload transport and substrate stability is recognised as an integral part of effectively managing benthic communities, but environmental flow regulations often do not focus on managing sediment processes. Environmental flows which fail to scour periphyton have been attributed to increased biomass accumulation through increasing nutrient supply to periphyton mats. It may therefore be more effective to establish environmental flow models based on incipient motion thresholds. The aim of these models would be to establish target near-bed velocities as opposed to discharges. Establishment of such models requires an accurate understanding of the threshold conditions for incipient motion. Despite decades of incipient motion studies scientists are unable to consistently and accurately predict bedload transport in natural channels. Incipient motion results from a complex set of geomorphic, hydrologic, and ecological interactions operating over a range of spatial and temporal scales. Direct measurement of these processes can be difficult and time consuming, and has been restricted by a lack of suitable high spatio-temporal resolution methods in the past. This paper presents a cross-disciplinary approach to the study of incipient motion to develop effective environmental flow targets. Recent developments in remote sensing and 3D point cloud analysis are used to characterise substrate surfaces. Groundwater head pressures are measured during floods to examine changes in threshold velocities under different seepage conditions. The onset of bedload transport is recorded using impact plate sensors to relate transport initiation to near

  14. Environmental Settings of Selected Streams Sampled for Mercury in Oregon, Wisconsin, and Florida, 2002-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bell, Amanda H.; Lutz, Michelle A.

    2008-01-01

    From 2002 through 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program conducted studies investigating mercury biogeochemistry and food-web bioaccumulation in eight streams from three distinct geographic areas of the United States. These streams varied greatly in environmental characteristics, including land-cover, hydrologic, climatic, and chemical characteristics. They ranged from a clear-water, high-gradient, low-percentage wetland stream in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon, to an urban stream near Milwaukee, Wisconsin, to a low-gradient, blackwater stream draining the Okefenokee and Pinhook Swamps along the Georgia-Florida border. This report summarizes the environmental settings of these eight streams.

  15. The Effect of Priming with Photographs of Environmental Settings on Walking Speed in an Outdoor Environment

    PubMed Central

    Franěk, Marek; Režný, Lukáš

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effect of priming with photographs of various environmental settings on the speed of a subsequent outdoor walk in an urban environment. Either photographs of urban greenery, conifer forests, or shopping malls were presented or no prime was employed. Three experiments were conducted (N = 126, N = 88, and N = 121). After being exposed to the priming or no-priming conditions, the participants were asked to walk along an urban route 1.9 km long with vegetation and mature trees (Experiment 1, Experiment 3) or along a route in a modern suburb (Experiment 2). In accord with the concept of approach-avoidance behavior, it was expected that priming with photographs congruent with the environmental setting of the walking route would result in slower walking speed. Conversely, priming with photographs incongruent with the environmental setting should result in faster walking speed. The results showed that priming with the photographs with vegetation caused a decrease in overall walking speed on the route relative to other experimental conditions. However, priming with incongruent primes did not lead to a significant increase in walking speed. In all experimental conditions, the slowest walking speed was found in sections with the highest natural character. The results are explained in terms of congruency between the prime and the environment, as well as by the positive psychological effects of viewing nature. PMID:28184208

  16. The Effect of Priming with Photographs of Environmental Settings on Walking Speed in an Outdoor Environment.

    PubMed

    Franěk, Marek; Režný, Lukáš

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effect of priming with photographs of various environmental settings on the speed of a subsequent outdoor walk in an urban environment. Either photographs of urban greenery, conifer forests, or shopping malls were presented or no prime was employed. Three experiments were conducted (N = 126, N = 88, and N = 121). After being exposed to the priming or no-priming conditions, the participants were asked to walk along an urban route 1.9 km long with vegetation and mature trees (Experiment 1, Experiment 3) or along a route in a modern suburb (Experiment 2). In accord with the concept of approach-avoidance behavior, it was expected that priming with photographs congruent with the environmental setting of the walking route would result in slower walking speed. Conversely, priming with photographs incongruent with the environmental setting should result in faster walking speed. The results showed that priming with the photographs with vegetation caused a decrease in overall walking speed on the route relative to other experimental conditions. However, priming with incongruent primes did not lead to a significant increase in walking speed. In all experimental conditions, the slowest walking speed was found in sections with the highest natural character. The results are explained in terms of congruency between the prime and the environment, as well as by the positive psychological effects of viewing nature.

  17. Effect of environmental interventions to reduce exposure to asthma triggers in homes of low-income children in Seattle.

    PubMed

    Takaro, Tim K; Krieger, James W; Song, Lin

    2004-01-01

    The effectiveness of community health workers (CHWs) assisting families in reducing exposure to indoor asthma triggers has not been studied. In all, 274 low-income asthmatic children were randomly assigned to high- or low-intensity groups. CHWs visited all homes to assess exposures, develop action plans and provide bedding encasements. The higher-intensity group also received cleaning equipment and five to nine visits over a year focusing on asthma trigger reduction. The asthma trigger composite score decreased from 1.56 to 1.19 (Delta=-0.37, 95% CI 0.13, 0.61) in the higher-intensity group and from 1.63 to 1.43 in the low-intensity group (Delta=-0.20, 95% CI 0.004, 0.4). The difference in this measure due to the intervention was significant at the P=0.096 level. The higher-intensity group also showed improvement during the intervention year in measurements of condensation, roaches, moisture, cleaning behavior, dust weight, dust mite antigen, and total antigens above a cut point, effects not demonstrated in the low-intensity group. CHWs are effective in reducing asthma trigger exposure in low-income children. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of specific interventions and structural improvements on asthma trigger exposure and health.

  18. Presence of asthma risk factors and environmental exposures related to upper respiratory infection-triggered wheezing in middle school-age children.

    PubMed Central

    Sotir, Mark; Yeatts, Karin; Shy, Carl

    2003-01-01

    Viral respiratory infections and exposure to environmental constituents such as tobacco smoke are known or suspected to trigger wheezing/asthma exacerbations in children. However, few population-based data exist that examine the relationship between wheezing triggered by viral respiratory infections and environmental exposures. In this investigation we used population-based data to evaluate differences in exposures between symptomatic middle school-age children who did and did not report wheezing triggered by viral respiratory infections. As part of the North Carolina School Asthma Survey (NCSAS), a 66-question data instrument was used to collect information from children enrolled in North Carolina public middle schools during the 1999-2000 school year. Associations between exposures and upper respiratory infection-triggered wheezing (URI-TW) among symptomatic children were examined using adjusted prevalence odds ratios (PORs). Video methods developed for the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood were used to assess wheezing. Among the 33,534 NCSAS symptomatic participants, positive associations were observed between most exposures and URI-TW. Reported presence of all allergy variables (PORs ranging from 2.11 to 2.45) was more strongly associated with URI-TW than either smoking or other exposures. Presence of URI-TW was higher at increasing levels of tobacco smoke exposure, but no apparent dose-response effect was observed for other indoor air pollutants. URI-TW in middle school children is most associated with reported allergen sensitivity, relative to other asthma risk factors and environmental exposures. Data from this investigation may be useful in developing assessment, screening, and targeting strategies to improve asthma and wheezing management in children. PMID:12676631

  19. Education in Environmental Chemistry: Setting the Agenda and Recommending Action. A Workshop Report Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoller, Uri

    2005-08-01

    Worldwide, the essence of the current reform in science education is a paradigm shift from algorithmic, lower-order cognitive skills (LOCS) teaching to higher-order cognitive skills (HOCS) learning. In the context of education in environmental chemistry (EEC), the ultimate goal is to educate students to be science technology environment society (STES)-literate, capable of evaluative thinking, decision making, problem solving and taking responsible action accordingly. Educators need to translate this goal into effective courses that can be implemented: this includes developing teaching strategies and assessment methodologies that are consonant with the goal of HOCS learning. An international workshop—"Environmental Chemistry Education in Europe: Setting the Agenda"—yielded two main recommendations for those undertaking educational reform in science education, particularly to promote meaningful EEC. The first recommendation concerns integration of environmental sciences into core chemistry courses as well as the development and implementation of HOCS-promoting teaching strategies and assessment methodologies in chemical education. The second emphasizes the development of students' HOCS for transfer, followed by performance assessment of HOCS. This requires changing the way environmental chemistry is typically taught, moving from a narrowly focused approach (applied analytical, ecotoxicological, or environmental engineering chemistry) to an interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary approach.

  20. Environmental Setting of the Granger Drain and DR2 Basins, Washington, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Payne, Karen L.; Johnson, Henry M.; Black, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    The Granger Drain and DR2 basins are located in the Yakima River basin in south central Washington. These agricultural basins are one of five areas in the United States selected for study as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program Agricultural Chemicals: Source, Transport, and Fate Study. The Program is designed to describe water-quality conditions and trends based on representative surface- and ground-water resources across the Nation. The objective of the Agricultural Chemicals topical study is to investigate the sources, transport, and fate of selected agricultural chemicals in a variety of agriculturally diverse environmental settings. The Granger Drain and DR2 basins were selected for the Agricultural Chemicals topical study because they represent the irrigated agricultural setting that characterizes eastern Washington. These basins are located in one of the most productive agricultural areas in the United States. This report describes the environmental setting of the Granger Drain and DR2 basins in the context of how agricultural practices, including agricultural chemical applications and irrigation methods, interface with natural settings and hydrologic processes.

  1. Physical activity and healthy eating environmental audit tools in youth care settings: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ajja, Rahma; Beets, Michael W.; Chandler, Jessica; Kaczynski, Andrew T.; Ward, Dianne S.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a growing interest in evaluating the physical activity (PA) and healthy eating (HE) policy and practice environment characteristics in settings frequented by youth (≤18 years). Objective This review evaluates the measurement properties of audit tools designed to assess PA and HE policy and practice environmental characteristics in settings that care for youth (e.g., childcare, school, afterschool, summer camp). Method Three electronic databases, reference lists, educational department and national health organizations’ web pages were searched between January 1980 and February 2014 to identify tools assessing PA and/or HE policy and practice environments in settings that care for youth (≤18 years). Results Sixty-five audit tools were identified of which 53 individual tools met the inclusion criteria. Thirty-three tools assessed both the PA and HE domains, 6 assessed PA domain and 14 assessed HE domain solely. The majority of the tools were self-assessment tools (n=40), and were developed to assess the PA and/or HE environment in school settings (n=33), childcare (n=12), and afterschool programs (n=4). Four tools assessed the community at-large and had sections for assessing preschool, school and/or afterschool settings within the tool. The majority of audit tools lacked validity and/or reliability data (n=42). Inter-rater reliability and construct validity were the most frequently reported reliability (n= 7) and validity types (n=5). Conclusions Limited attention has been given to establishing the reliability and validity of audit tools for settings that care for youth. Future efforts should be directed towards establishing a strong measurement foundation for these important environmental audit tools. PMID:25964078

  2. Considerations for estimating microbial environmental data concentrations collected from a field setting.

    PubMed

    Silvestri, Erin E; Yund, Cynthia; Taft, Sarah; Bowling, Charlena Yoder; Chappie, Daniel; Garrahan, Kevin; Brady-Roberts, Eletha; Stone, Harry; Nichols, Tonya L

    2017-03-01

    In the event of an indoor release of an environmentally persistent microbial pathogen such as Bacillus anthracis, the potential for human exposure will be considered when remedial decisions are made. Microbial site characterization and clearance sampling data collected in the field might be used to estimate exposure. However, there are many challenges associated with estimating environmental concentrations of B. anthracis or other spore-forming organisms after such an event before being able to estimate exposure. These challenges include: (1) collecting environmental field samples that are adequate for the intended purpose, (2) conducting laboratory analyses and selecting the reporting format needed for the laboratory data, and (3) analyzing and interpreting the data using appropriate statistical techniques. This paper summarizes some key challenges faced in collecting, analyzing, and interpreting microbial field data from a contaminated site. Although the paper was written with considerations for B. anthracis contamination, it may also be applicable to other bacterial agents. It explores the implications and limitations of using field data for determining environmental concentrations both before and after decontamination. Several findings were of interest. First, to date, the only validated surface/sampling device combinations are swabs and sponge-sticks on stainless steel surfaces, thus limiting availability of quantitative analytical results which could be used for statistical analysis. Second, agreement needs to be reached with the analytical laboratory on the definition of the countable range and on reporting of data below the limit of quantitation. Finally, the distribution of the microbial field data and statistical methods needed for a particular data set could vary depending on these data that were collected, and guidance is needed on appropriate statistical software for handling microbial data. Further, research is needed to develop better methods to

  3. Considerations for estimating microbial environmental data concentrations collected from a field setting

    PubMed Central

    Silvestri, Erin E; Yund, Cynthia; Taft, Sarah; Bowling, Charlena Yoder; Chappie, Daniel; Garrahan, Kevin; Brady-Roberts, Eletha; Stone, Harry; Nichols, Tonya L

    2017-01-01

    In the event of an indoor release of an environmentally persistent microbial pathogen such as Bacillus anthracis, the potential for human exposure will be considered when remedial decisions are made. Microbial site characterization and clearance sampling data collected in the field might be used to estimate exposure. However, there are many challenges associated with estimating environmental concentrations of B. anthracis or other spore-forming organisms after such an event before being able to estimate exposure. These challenges include: (1) collecting environmental field samples that are adequate for the intended purpose, (2) conducting laboratory analyses and selecting the reporting format needed for the laboratory data, and (3) analyzing and interpreting the data using appropriate statistical techniques. This paper summarizes some key challenges faced in collecting, analyzing, and interpreting microbial field data from a contaminated site. Although the paper was written with considerations for B. anthracis contamination, it may also be applicable to other bacterial agents. It explores the implications and limitations of using field data for determining environmental concentrations both before and after decontamination. Several findings were of interest. First, to date, the only validated surface/sampling device combinations are swabs and sponge-sticks on stainless steel surfaces, thus limiting availability of quantitative analytical results which could be used for statistical analysis. Second, agreement needs to be reached with the analytical laboratory on the definition of the countable range and on reporting of data below the limit of quantitation. Finally, the distribution of the microbial field data and statistical methods needed for a particular data set could vary depending on these data that were collected, and guidance is needed on appropriate statistical software for handling microbial data. Further, research is needed to develop better methods to

  4. Dynamic triggering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, David P.; Prejean, Stephanie; Schubert, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic stresses propagating as seismic waves from large earthquakes trigger a spectrum of responses at global distances. In addition to locally triggered earthquakes in a variety of tectonic environments, dynamic stresses trigger tectonic (nonvolcanic) tremor in the brittle–plastic transition zone along major plate-boundary faults, activity changes in hydrothermal and volcanic systems, and, in hydrologic domains, changes in spring discharge, water well levels, soil liquefaction, and the eruption of mud volcanoes. Surface waves with periods of 15–200 s are the most effective triggering agents; body-wave trigger is less frequent. Triggering dynamic stresses can be < 1 kPa.

  5. Feasibility of Deploying Inhaler Sensors to Identify the Impacts of Environmental Triggers and Built Environment Factors on Asthma Short-Acting Bronchodilator Use

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jason G.; Barrett, Meredith A.; Henderson, Kelly; Humblet, Olivier; Smith, Ted; Sublett, James W.; Nesbitt, LaQuandra; Hogg, Chris; Van Sickle, David; Sublett, James L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological asthma research has relied upon self-reported symptoms or healthcare utilization data, and used the residential address as the primary location for exposure. These data sources can be temporally limited, spatially aggregated, subjective, and burdensome for the patient to collect. Objectives: First, we aimed to test the feasibility of collecting rescue inhaler use data in space–time using electronic sensors. Second, we aimed to evaluate whether these data have the potential to identify environmental triggers and built environment factors associated with rescue inhaler use and to determine whether these findings would be consistent with the existing literature. Methods: We utilized zero-truncated negative binomial models to identify triggers associated with inhaler use, and implemented three sensitivity analyses to validate our findings. Results: Electronic sensors fitted on metered dose inhalers tracked 5,660 rescue inhaler use events in space and time for 140 participants from 13 June 2012 to 28 February 2014. We found that the inhaler sensors were feasible in passively collecting objective rescue inhaler use data. We identified several environmental triggers with a positive and significant association with inhaler use, including: AQI, PM10, weed pollen, and mold. Conversely, the spatial distribution of tree cover demonstrated a negative and significant association with inhaler use. Conclusions: Utilizing a sensor to capture the signal of rescue inhaler use in space–time offered a passive and objective signal of asthma activity. This approach enabled detailed analyses to identify environmental triggers and built environment factors that are associated with asthma symptoms beyond the residential address. The application of these new technologies has the potential to improve our surveillance and understanding of asthma. Citation: Su JG, Barrett MA, Henderson K, Humblet O, Smith T, Sublett JW, Nesbitt L, Hogg C, Van Sickle D, Sublett JL

  6. 40 CFR 227.3 - Materials which do not satisfy the environmental impact criteria set forth in subpart B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... environmental impact criteria set forth in subpart B. 227.3 Section 227.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS General § 227.3 Materials which do not satisfy the environmental...

  7. Acute sensory responses of nonsmokers at very low environmental tobacco smoke concentrations in controlled laboratory settings.

    PubMed Central

    Junker, M H; Danuser, B; Monn, C; Koller, T

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a basis for effectively protecting nonsmokers from acute sensory impacts and for preventing deterioration of indoor air quality caused by environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) emissions. With an olfactory experiment we determined odor detection thresholds (OT) of sidestream ETS (sETS), and with a full-body exposure experiment we investigated sensory symptoms at very low sETS exposure concentrations. OT concentrations for sETS are three and more orders of magnitude lower than ETS concentrations measured in field settings and correspond to a fresh air dilution volume of > 19,000 m(3) per cigarette, over 100 times more than had previously been suggested for acceptable indoor air conditions. Eye and nasal irritations were observed at one order of magnitude lower sETS concentrations than previously reported, corresponding to a fresh air dilution volume of > 3,000 m(3) per cigarette. These findings have great practical implications for defining indoor air quality standards in indoor compartments where ETS emissions occur. Our study strongly supports the implementation and control of smoking policies such as segregating smoking areas from areas where smoking is not permitted or instituting smoking bans in public buildings. PMID:11675270

  8. Environmental impact classification with fuzzy sets for urban land cover from satellite remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, Maria A.; Nicolae, Doina N.; Talianu, Camelia

    2004-10-01

    Urban area is a mosaic of complex, interacting ecosystems, rich natural resources and socio-economic activity. Dramatic changes in urban's land cover are due to natural and anthropogenic causes. A scientific management system for protection, conservation and restoration must be based on reliable information on bio-geophysical and geomorphologic, dynamics processes, and climatic change effects. Synergetic use of quasi-simultaneously acquired multi-sensor data may therefore allow for a better approach of change detection and environmental impact classification and assessment in urban area. It is difficult to quantify the environmental impacts of human and industrial activities in urban areas. There are often many different indicators than can conflict with each other, frequently important observations are lacking, and potentially valuable information may non-quantitative in nature. Fuzzy set theory offers a modern methodology for dealing with these problems and provides useful approach to difficult classification problems for satellite remote sensing data. This paper describes how fuzzy logic can be applied to analysis of environmental impacts for urban land cover. Based on classified Landsat TM, SPOT images and SAR ERS-1 for Bucharest area, Romania, it was performed a land cover classification and subsequent environmental impact analysis.

  9. Assessing the Potential Adoption and Usefulness of Concurrent, Action-Oriented, Electronic Adverse Drug Event Triggers Designed for the Outpatient Setting

    PubMed Central

    Mull, Hillary J.; Rosen, Amy K.; Shimada, Stephanie L.; Rivard, Peter E.; Nordberg, Brian; Long, Brenna; Hoffman, Jennifer M.; Leecaster, Molly; Savitz, Lucy A.; Shanahan, Christopher W.; Helwig, Amy; Nebeker, Jonathan R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adverse drug event (ADE) detection is an important priority for patient safety research. Trigger tools have been developed to help identify ADEs. In previous work we developed seven concurrent, action-oriented, electronic trigger algorithms designed to prompt clinicians to address ADEs in outpatient care. Objectives: We assessed the potential adoption and usefulness of the seven triggers by testing the positive predictive validity and obtaining stakeholder input. Methods: We adapted ADE triggers, “bone marrow toxin—white blood cell count (BMT-WBC),” “bone marrow toxin - platelet (BMT-platelet),” “potassium raisers,” “potassium reducers,” “creatinine,” “warfarin,” and “sedative hypnotics,” with logic to suppress flagging events with evidence of clinical intervention and applied the triggers to 50,145 patients from three large health care systems. Four pharmacists assessed trigger positive predictive value (PPV) with respect to ADE detection (conservatively excluding ADEs occurring during clinically appropriate care) and clinical usefulness (i.e., whether the trigger alert could change care to prevent harm). We measured agreement between raters using the free kappa and assessed positive PPV for the trigger’s detection of harm, clinical usefulness, and both. Stakeholders from the participating health care systems rated the likelihood of trigger adoption and the perceived ease of implementation. Findings: Agreement between pharmacist raters was moderately high for each ADE trigger (kappa free > 0.60). Trigger PPVs for harm ranged from 0 (Creatinine, BMT-WBC) to 17 percent (potassium raisers), while PPV for care change ranged from 0 (WBC) to 60 percent (Creatinine). Fifteen stakeholders rated the triggers. Our assessment identified five of the seven triggers as good candidates for implementation: Creatinine, BMT-Platelet, Potassium Raisers, Potassium Reducers, and Warfarin. Conclusions: At least five outpatient ADE triggers

  10. Environmental settings of streams sampled for mercury in New York and South Carolina, 2005-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scudder Eikenberry, Barbara C.; Riva-Murray, Karen; Smith, Martyn J.; Bradley, Paul M.; Button, Daniel T.; Clark, Jimmy M.; Burns, Douglas A.; Journey, Celeste

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the environmental settings of streams in New York and South Carolina, where the U.S. Geological Survey completed detailed investigations during 2005-09 into factors contributing to mercury bioaccumulation in top-predator fish and other stream organisms. Descriptions of location, land use/land cover, climate, precipitation, atmospheric deposition, hydrology, water temperature, and other characteristics are provided. Atmospheric deposition is the dominant mercury source in the studied basins where biota, sediment, soil, and water were sampled for mercury and for physical and chemical characteristics believed to be important in mercury methylation and transport.

  11. Evaluation of Community Action Against Asthma: A Community Health Worker Intervention to Improve Children’s Asthma-Related Health by Reducing Household Environmental Triggers for Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Edith A.; Israel, Barbara A.; Robins, Thomas G.; Mentz, Graciela; Lin, Xihong; Brakefield-Caldwell, Wilma; Ramirez, Erminia; Edgren, Katherine K.; Salinas, Maria; Lewis, Toby C.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the evaluation of a community-based participatory research (CBPR) community health worker (CHW) intervention to improve children’s asthma-related health by reducing household environmental triggers for asthma. After randomization to an intervention or control group, 298 households in Detroit, Michigan, with a child, aged 7 to 11, with persistent asthma symptoms participated. The intervention was effective in increasing some of the measures of lung function (daily nadir Forced Expiratory Volume at one second [p = .03] and daily nadir Peak Flow [p = .02]), reducing the frequency of two symptoms (“cough that won’t go away,” “coughing with exercise”), reducing the proportion of children requiring unscheduled medical visits and reporting inadequate use of asthma controller medication, reducing caregiver report of depressive symptoms, reducing concentrations of dog allergen in the dust, and increasing some behaviors related to reducing indoor environmental triggers. The results suggest a CHW environmental intervention can improve children’s asthma-related health, although the pathway for improvement is complex. PMID:17761540

  12. Individual and Environmental Factors Influencing Adolescents’ Dietary Behavior in Low- and Middle-Income Settings

    PubMed Central

    Verstraeten, Roosmarijn; Leroy, Jef L.; Pieniak, Zuzanna; Ochoa-Avilès, Angélica; Holdsworth, Michelle; Verbeke, Wim; Maes, Lea; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Objective Given the public health importance of improving dietary behavior in chronic disease prevention in low- and middle-income countries it is crucial to understand the factors influencing dietary behavior in these settings. This study tested the validity of a conceptual framework linking individual and environmental factors to dietary behavior among Ecuadorian adolescents aged 10–16 years. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 784 school-going Ecuadorian adolescents in urban and rural Southern Ecuador. Participants provided data on socio-economic status, anthropometry, dietary behavior and its determining factors. The relationships between individual (perceived benefits and barriers, self-efficacy, habit strength, and a better understanding of healthy food) and environmental factors (physical environment: accessibility to healthy food; social environment: parental permissiveness and school support), and their association with key components of dietary behavior (fruit and vegetables, sugary drinks, breakfast, and unhealthy snack intake) were assessed using structural equation modeling. Results The conceptual model performed well for each component of eating behavior, indicating acceptable goodness-of-fit for both the measurement and structural models. Models for vegetable intake and unhealthy snacking showed significant and direct effects of individual factors (perceived benefits). For breakfast and sugary drink consumption, there was a direct and positive association with socio-environmental factors (school support and parental permissiveness). Access to healthy food was associated indirectly with all eating behaviors (except for sugary drink intake) and this effect operated through socio-environmental (parental permissiveness and school support) and individual factors (perceived benefits). Conclusion Our study demonstrated that key components of adolescents’ dietary behaviors are influenced by a complex interplay of individual and

  13. Engaging novice teachers in semiotic inquiry: considering the environmental messages of school learning settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Bonnie

    2014-12-01

    Katherine Fogelberg's insightful study of the messages of zoo signs describes the complex, sometimes contradictory nature of the messages they communicate. The construction and content of signs are influenced by institutional power. Fogelberg argues that the creation of zoo signage designed to inform the public can, through its messages, silence a perspective of care and compassion for animals. The research presented in the following article extends discussion about the value of critical considerations of cultural and institutional messages created and read in another type of setting designed to educate and inform, the school learning setting. The article reports on a project that engaged novice teachers in explorations of the nature and types of environmental messages found in learning settings. During our inquiry work together, novice teachers suggested areas of particular concern to them, and began to construct ideas about aspects of their work in which they plan to take action or engage in future inquiry. The research also reveals some of the challenges involved when novice educators first begin the process of engaging in semiotic interpretive readings of learning settings.

  14. Environmental setting of the Yellowstone River basin, Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zelt, Ronald B.; Boughton, G.K.; Miller, K.A.; Mason, J.P.; Gianakos, L.M.

    1999-01-01

    Natural and anthropogenic factors influence water-quality conditions in the Yellowstone River Basin. Physiography parallels the structural geologic setting that is generally composed of several uplifts and structural basins. Contrasts in climate and vegetation reflect topographic controls and the midcontinental location of the study unit. Surface-water hydrology reflects water surpluses in mountainous areas that are dominated by snowmelt runoff, and arid to semiarid conditions in the plains that are dissected by typically irrigated valleys in the remainder of the study unit. Principal shallow aquifers are Tertiary sandstones and unconsolidated Quaternary deposits. Human population, though sparsely distributed in general, is growing most rapidly in a few urban centers and resort areas, mostly in the northwestern part of the basin. Land use is areally dominated by grazing in the basins and plains and economically dominated by mineral-extraction activities. Forests are the dominant land cover in mountainous areas. Cropland is a major land use in principal stream valleys. Water use is dominated by irrigated agriculture overall, but mining and public-supply facilities are major users of ground water. Coal and hydrocarbon production and reserves distinguish the Yellowstone River Basin as a principal energy-minerals resources region. Current metallic ore production or reserves are nationally significant for platinum-group elements and chromium.The study unit was subdivided as an initial environmental stratification for use in designing the National Water-Quality Assessment Program investigation that began in 1997. Ecoregions, geologic groups, mineral-resource areas, and general land-cover and land-use categories were used in combination to define 18 environmental settings in the Yellowstone River Basin. It is expected that these different settings will be reflected in differing water-quality or aquatic-ecological characteristics.

  15. Monitoring of environmental change in Dzungar basin by the analysis of multi temporal satellite data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Y.; Yanagi, T.; Nishimura, J.

    In recent 40-50 years, rapid environmental changes are shown in the arid and semi-arid regions of the inland areas in each continent. The environment change situation is especially remarkable at closed lakes and their vicinity of the Asian continent inland. This study aimed to investigate the environmental change and its cause in Dzungar basin of the central Asia through the analysis of multi-temporal satellite data sets. The multi temporal and multi stage satellite data sets were firstly created by using high spatial resolution satellite data such as LANDSAT/MSS TM, Terra/ASTER, and JERS-1/OPS, and wide observation satellite data such as NOAA/AVHRR and Terra/MODIS. Next, the fluctuations of the past about 50 years in water area of lakes were investigated in detail by analyzing the data sets, and also changes in the irrigated agricultural lands along the inflow rivers, and the snow and glacier covering the mountainous district were investigated. Finally, hydrological change situation and its cause in the object area were examined by comparing the analyzed results with meteorological data and auxiliary sources. The results of this study are summarized as follows; Most of closed lakes in Dzungar basin have shown the rapid shrinkages in the past about 50 years. However, it changed into the remarkable expansion of the water area since 2001. According to the analysis results of changes in the irrigated agricultural lands, snow and glacier extents, it was shown that the influence of human activities such as development of irrigation lands was bigger than the influence of the nature fluctuation based on the global warming as a cause of the change in closed lakes.

  16. Teaching Environmental Education Using Out-of-School Settings and Mass Media. ERIC/SMEAC Environmental Education Digest No. 1, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Robert W.; Disinger, John F.

    Research related to environmental education has consistently indicated that many students and young adults attribute a large amount of their knowledge of environmental concepts, problems, and issues to out-of-school (non-formal) educational settings and experiences. Data also indicate that students and young adults attribute much of their…

  17. Water quality assessment of the Sacramento River Basin, California; environmental setting and study design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Domagalski, Joseph L.; Knifong, Donna L.; MacCoy, Dorene E.; Dileanis, Peter D.; Dawson, Barbara J.; Majewski, Michael S.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the environmental setting and investigative activities of the Sacramento River Basin study unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The Sacramento River Basin is one of 60 study units located throughout the United States that has been scheduled for study as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The Sacramento River Basin is the most important source of freshwater in California. Water quality studies in the Sacramento River Basin study unit focus on the Sacramento Valley because it is here that the principal uses of water and potential impacts on water quality occur. Investigative activities include a network of surface water sites, where water chemistry and aquatic biological sampling are done, and a variety of ground water studies. In addition, investigations of the cycling and distribution of volatile organic compounds in the urban environment and the distribution of total and methyl mercury in the Sacramento River and tributaries will be completed.

  18. 40 CFR 227.3 - Materials which do not satisfy the environmental impact criteria set forth in subpart B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS General § 227.3 Materials which do not satisfy the environmental impact criteria set forth in subpart B. If the material proposed for ocean dumping does not satisfy...

  19. Environmental and hydrologic setting of the Ozark Plateaus study unit, Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adamski, James C.; Petersen, James C.; Freiwald, David A.; Davis, Jerri V.

    1995-01-01

    The environmental and hydrologic setting of the Ozark Plateaus National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study unit and the factors that affect water quality are described in this report. The primary natural and cultural features that affect water- quality characteristics and the potential for future water-quality problems are described. These environmental features include climate, physio- graphy, geology, soils, population, land use, water use, and surface- and ground-water flow systems. The study-unit area is approximately 47,600 square miles and includes most of the Ozark Plateaus Province and parts of the adjacent Osage Plains and Mississippi Alluvial Plain in parts of Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma. The geology is characterized by basement igneous rocks overlain by a thick sequence of dolomites, limestones, sandstones, and shales of Paleozoic age. Land use in the study unit is predominantly pasture and forest in the southeastern part, and pasture and cropland in the northwestern part. All or part of the White, Neosho-lllinois, Osage, Gasconade, Meramec, St. Francis, and Black River Basins are within the study unit. Streams in the Boston Mountains contain the least mineralized water, and those in the Osage Plains contain the most mineralized water. The study unit contains eight hydrogeologic units including three major aquifers--the Springfield Plateau, Ozark, and St. Francois aquifers. Streams and aquifers in the study unit generally contain calcium or calcium-magnesium bicarbonate waters. Ground- and surface-water interactions are greatest in the Salem and Springfield Plateaus and least in the Boston Mountains and Osage Plains. Geology, land use, and population probably are the most important environmental factors that affect water quality.

  20. Antibiotic Resistant Superbugs: Assessment of the Interrelationship of Occurrence in Clinical Settings and Environmental Niches.

    PubMed

    Adegoke, Anthony Ayodeji; Faleye, Adekunle Christopher; Singh, Gulshan; Stenström, Thor Axel

    2016-12-27

    The increasing threat to global health posed by antibiotic resistance remains of serious concern. Human health remains at higher risk due to several reported therapeutic failures to many life threatening drug resistant microbial infections. The resultant effects have been prolonged hospital stay, higher cost of alternative therapy, increased mortality, etc. This opinionated review considers the two main concerns in integrated human health risk assessment (i.e., residual antibiotics and antibiotic resistant genes) in various compartments of human environment, as well as clinical dynamics associated with the development and transfer of antibiotic resistance (AR). Contributions of quorum sensing, biofilms, enzyme production, and small colony variants in bacteria, among other factors in soil, water, animal farm and clinical settings were also considered. Every potential factor in environmental and clinical settings that brings about AR needs to be identified for the summative effects in overall resistance. There is a need to embrace coordinated multi-locational approaches and interrelationships to track the emergence of resistance in different niches in soil and water versus the hospital environment. The further integration with advocacy, legislation, enforcement, technological innovations and further research input and recourse to WHO guidelines on antibiotic policy would be advantageous towards addressing the emergence of antibiotic resistant superbugs.

  1. Compensatory density feedback of Oncomelania hupensis populations in two different environmental settings in China

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The most recent strategy for schistosomiasis control in the People's Republic of China aims to reduce the likelihood of environmental contamination of schistosome eggs. Despite considerable progress, it is believed that achievements would be further consolidated with additional intermediate host snail control measures. We provide an empirical framework for discerning the relative contribution of intrinsic effects (density feedback) from other extrinsic drivers of snail population dynamics. Methods We set up experiments in two study locations to collect reproduction data of Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum. We applied a set of four population dynamic models that have been widely used to study phenomenological time-series data to examine the properties of demographic density feedback patterns from abundance data. We also contrasted the obtained results with the component feedback of density on survival rate to determine whether adult survival was the principal driver of the demographic feedback observed. Results Demographic density feedback models (Ricker- and Gompertz-logistic) accounted for > 99% of Akaike's information criterion model weight, with the Gompertz ranking highest in all O. hupensis population groups. We found some evidence for stronger compensatory feedback in the O. hupensis population from Sichuan compared to a Jiangsu population. Survival rates revealed strong component feedback, but the log-linear relationships (i.e. Gompertz) had less support in the demographic feedback analysis. Conclusions Our findings indicate that integrated schistosomiasis control measures must continue to reduce parasite abundance further because intermediate host snail populations tend to grow exponentially at low densities, especially O. hupensis populations in mountainous regions. We conclude that density feedback in adult survival is the principal component contribution to the demographic phenomenon observed in the

  2. Environmental setting of benchmark streams in agricultural areas of eastern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rheaume, S.J.; Stewart, J.S.; Lenz, B.N.

    1996-01-01

    Differences in land use/land cover, and riparian vegetation and instream habitat characteristics are presented. Summaries of field measurements of water temperature, pH, specific conductance and concentrations of dissolved oxygen, total organic plus ammonia nitrogen, dissolved ammonium, nitrate plus nitrte as nitrogen, total phosphorus, dissolved orthophosphate, and atrazine are listed. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen for the sampled streams ranged from 6 A to 14.3 and met the standards set by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) for supporting fish and aquatic life. Specific conductance ranged from 98 to 753 u,Scm with values highest in RHU's 1 and 3, where streams are underlain by carbonate bedrock. Median pH did not vary greatly among the four RHU's and ranged from 6.7 to 8.8 also meeting the WDNR standards. Concentrations of total organic plus ammonia nitrogen, dissolved ammonium, total phosphorus, and dissolved orthophosphate show little variation between streams and are generally low, compared to concentrations measured in agriculturally-affected streams in the same RHU's during the same sampling period. Concentrations of the most commonly used pesticide in the study unit, atrazine, were low in all streams, and most concentrations were below trn 0.1 u,g/L detection limit. Riparian vegetation for the benchmark streams were characterized by lowland species of the native plant communities described by John T. Curtis in the "Vegetation of Wisconsin." Based on the environmental setting and water-quality information collected to date, these streams appear to show minimal adverse effects from human activity.

  3. Trigger finger

    MedlinePlus

    ... Redness in your cut or hand Swelling or warmth in your cut or hand Yellow or green drainage from the cut Hand pain or discomfort Fever If your trigger finger returns, call your surgeon. You may need another surgery.

  4. How Reliable Are ATP Bioluminescence Meters in Assessing Decontamination of Environmental Surfaces in Healthcare Settings?

    PubMed Central

    Omidbakhsh, Navid; Ahmadpour, Faraz; Kenny, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Background Meters based on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence measurements in relative light units (RLU) are often used to rapidly assess the level of cleanliness of environmental surfaces in healthcare and other settings. Can such ATP measurements be adversely affected by factors such as soil and cleaner-disinfectant chemistry? Objective This study tested a number of leading ATP meters for their sensitivity, linearity of the measurements, correlation of the readings to the actual microbial contamination, and the potential disinfectant chemicals’ interference in their readings. Methods First, solutions of pure ATP in various concentrations were used to construct a standard curve and determine linearity and sensitivity. Serial dilutions of a broth culture of Staphylococcus aureus, as a representative nosocomial pathogen, were then used to determine if a given meter’s ATP readings correlated with the actual CFUs. Next, various types of disinfectant chemistries were tested for their potential to interfere with the standard ATP readings. Results All four ATP meters tested herein demonstrated acceptable linearity and repeatability in their readings. However, there were significant differences in their sensitivity to detect the levels of viable microorganisms on experimentally contaminated surfaces. Further, most disinfectant chemistries tested here quenched the ATP readings variably in different ATP meters evaluated. Conclusions Apart from their limited sensitivity in detecting low levels of microbial contamination, the ATP meters tested were also prone to interference by different disinfectant chemistries. PMID:24940751

  5. An Environmental Data Set for Vector-Borne Disease Modeling and Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Chabot-Couture, Guillaume; Nigmatulina, Karima; Eckhoff, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the environmental conditions of disease transmission is important in the study of vector-borne diseases. Low- and middle-income countries bear a significant portion of the disease burden; but data about weather conditions in those countries can be sparse and difficult to reconstruct. Here, we describe methods to assemble high-resolution gridded time series data sets of air temperature, relative humidity, land temperature, and rainfall for such areas; and we test these methods on the island of Madagascar. Air temperature and relative humidity were constructed using statistical interpolation of weather station measurements; the resulting median 95th percentile absolute errors were 2.75°C and 16.6%. Missing pixels from the MODIS11 remote sensing land temperature product were estimated using Fourier decomposition and time-series analysis; thus providing an alternative to the 8-day and 30-day aggregated products. The RFE 2.0 remote sensing rainfall estimator was characterized by comparing it with multiple interpolated rainfall products, and we observed significant differences in temporal and spatial heterogeneity relevant to vector-borne disease modeling. PMID:24755954

  6. Water-quality assessment of the lower Illinois River Basin; environmental setting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, Kelly L.

    1998-01-01

    The lower Illinois River Basin (LIRB) encompasses 18,000 square miles of central and western Illinois. Historical and recent information from Federal, State, and local agencies describing the physiography, population, land use, soils, climate, geology, streamflow, habitat, ground water, water use, and aquatic biology is summarized to describe the environmental setting of the LIRB. The LIRB is in the Till Plains Section of the Central Lowland physiographic province. The basin is characterized by flat topography, which is dissected by the Illinois River. The drainage pattern of the LIRB has been shaped by many bedrock and glacial geologic processes. Erosion prior to and during Pleistocene time created wide and deep bedrock valleys. The thickest deposits and most major aquifers are in buried bedrock valleys. The Wisconsinan glaciation, which bisects the northern half of the LIRB, affects the distribution and characteristics of glacial deposits in the basin. Agriculture is the largest land use and forested land is the second largest land use in the LIRB. The major urban areas are near Peoria, Springfield, Decatur, and Bloomington-Normal. Soil type and distribution affect the amount of soil erosion, which results in sedimentation of lakes and reservoirs in the basin. Rates of soil erosion of up to 2 percent per year of farmland soil have been measured. Many of the 300 reservoirs, lakes, and wetlands are disappearing because of sedimentation resulting from agriculture activities, levee building, and urbanization. Sedimentation and the destruction of habitat appreciably affect the ecosystem. The Illinois River is a large river-floodplain ecosystem where biological productivity is enhanced by annual flood pulses that advance and retreat over the flood plain and temporarily expand backwater and flood-plain lakes. Ground-water discharge to streams affects the flow and water quality of the streams. The water budget of several subbasins show variability in ground

  7. 77 FR 1501 - Special Purpose Permit Application; Draft Environmental Assessment; Hawaii-Based Shallow-Set...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Special Purpose Permit Application; Draft Environmental Assessment; Hawaii... Special Purpose permitting regulations. We invite public comment on the draft environmental assessment... (Service) has received an application from NMFS for a special purpose permit under the Migratory...

  8. Information for Government Agencies about Specific Environmental Health Issues in Child-Care Settings

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    research on child care environmental health issues, identify key state and regional healthy child care organizations for partnerships, and see how other states are addressing child care environmental health issues.

  9. Current State of Environmental Education in Mexico: A Study on Practices, Audiences, Settings, and Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcos-Iga, Jose; Shaw, William

    2011-01-01

    Environmental education in Mexico takes many forms and plays a wide variety of roles. Through an online survey, we addressed the need to present a wider picture on the current state of environmental education practices in Mexico: Who is engaging in environmental education practices, how important is it for their organization, who are they…

  10. Peculiarity and vulnerability of karst settings, analyzed through a review of available environmental indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parise, Mario; Mazzei, Marianna

    2016-04-01

    Karst is a unique environment on Earth, characterized by a variety of peculiar geological and hydrological features, that are expressed by typical landforms at the surface (doline, ponor, polje, etc.) and underground (single cave, sinkhole, complex hypogean systems consisting of sequences of pits and galleries, etc.). Among the main characters of karst, the direct connection between the surface and the underground is at the origin of the fragility of karst settings, and the related high vulnerability. Many different types of natural geological hazards (or geo-hazards) may potentially affect karst lands, with sinkholes and flash floods being the most frequent and typical. In addition, karst is exposed to a variety of anthropogenic disturbances as well, including loss of natural landscapes, destruction of caves and speleothems, and contamination and pollution problems. At this latter regard, it has to be reminded that karst aquifers host high quality groundwaters, that are used as source of drinking water worldwide, with estimates indicating that the supply of drinking water from karst is going to have a significant increase in the next decades, From all of this, the importance in fully defining the karst setting, and in a detail examination of all the natural and anthropogenic events that may cause negative effects on it, comes out. Uniqueness of karst has been acknowledged since a long time, but only in recent years efforts have been made to develop approaches and methods specifically dedicated to this peculiar environment. Such approaches represent definitely a mandatory step in the correct management of karst terranes, providing useful elements to stakeholders, land managers and people living in karst lands about their fragility, and the need to safeguard them and the natural resources therein contained. Starting from these considerations, in this contribution we review the main environmental indices dedicated to karst that have been recently proposed in the

  11. Environmental setting of fixed sites in the western Lake Michigan drainages, Michigan and Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, D.J.; Peterson, E.M.; Richards, K.D.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes selected environmental- setting features for 11 fixed surface-water sites in the Western Lake Michigan Drainages study unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment Pro- gram. The study unit, which includes 10 major river systems draining to Lake Michigan, is bounded on the south by the Illinois State line and extends north to about 31 miles north of Escanaba, Mich. The fixed sites are on the following streams: Peshekee River, Popple River, Menominee River, Pensaukee River, Duck Creek, Tomorrow River, East River, Fox River, North Branch Milwaukee River, Lincoln Creek, and Milwaukee River. Drainage basins above these sites receive runoff from land uses and land covers, bedrock types, and surficial deposits representative of the main types of each of these characteristics in the study unit. Data types collected at the fixed sites include water chemistry; organic compounds and trace elements in streambed sediment and biological tissues; algal, benthic-invertebrate, and fish communities; and aquatic habitat. Field measurements include water temperature, pH, specific conductance, alkalinity, and dissolved oxygen. Results of water- quality field measurements indicate little variation in temperature among the fixed sites. Specific conductance and alkalinity were generally higher at sites underlain by carbonate bedrock than at sites underlain by igneous/metamorphic bedrock. Differences in pH among the fixed sites were less than those for specific conductance and alkalinity, but pH seemed to increase slightly from north to south. Dissolved-oxygen concentration varied more at agricultural sites than at forested and urban sites, perhaps because of higher nutrient inputs at agricultural sites. The information included in this report has been assembled as reference material for ongoing studies at the fixed sites.

  12. DNA alterations triggered by environmentally relevant polymetallic concentrations in marine clams Ruditapes philippinarum and polychaete worms Hediste diversicolor.

    PubMed

    Dedeh, Amina; Ciutat, Aurélie; Tran, Damien; Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul

    2014-11-01

    We exposed marine clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) and aquatic worms (Hediste diversicolor) to environmentally relevant concentrations of two metal mixtures each containing three divalent metals [(C₁ in µg/L) cadmium (Cd) 1, mercury (Hg) 0.1, and lead (Pb) 4] and [C₂ in µg/L) Cd 17, Hg 1.1, and Pb 55]. Animals collected in the Arcachon Bay were exposed for 8 days in microcosms made up of a mixed biotope consisting of a water column and natural marine sediment both taken up from the Arcachon Bay. Bioaccumulation analysis showed a significant increase of Cd, Hg, and Pb in clams, particularly at C₂ concentration in the water column reaching, in soft body, 2.3 ± 0.3 µg Cd/g, 0.7 ± 0.2 µg Hg/g, and 45 µg Pb/g dry weight (dw). DNA alterations and upregulation of the cox1 mitochondrial gene were also observed in clam gill after exposure to the metal blend. For worms exposed to the C₂ metal blend, DNA alterations and significant increase of Cd and Hg concentrations were observed reaching 0.5 ± 0.1 µg Cd/g and 2 ± 0.6 µg Hg/g dw.

  13. A Review of Research on Environmental Education in Non-Traditional Settings in Turkey, 2000 and 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Mehmet; Usak, Muhammet; Bahar, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to collect and analyze the research on environmental education in non-traditional settings in Turkey undertaken with various subjects (e.g. students, graduates and teachers) and published over the years of 2000-2011. For systematic analysis, selected data-bases and journals were scrutinized across five…

  14. Adult Learning in Free-Choice, Environmental Settings: What Makes It Different?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimlich, Joe E.; Horr, E. Elaine T.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental learning, or how individuals make sense and meaning about nature, the environment, ecology, and environmental issues, is best understood as lifelong, life-wide, and life-deep (Banks and others, 2007). Lifelong learning refers to acquisition of skills, competencies, attitudes, and knowledge over time; life-wide is learning across…

  15. Environmental Health in the School Setting: The Role of the School Nurse. Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Bernadette Moran; Bryner, Janet; Chau, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental health is a branch of public health that is concerned with all aspects of the natural and built environment. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines environmental health as those aspects of human health and diseases that are determined by factors in the environment. It also refers to the theory and practice of assessing and…

  16. Comparing environmental changes and habitability settings in the geological history of Sahara and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ori, G. G.; Sabbadini, R.; Komatsu, G.

    2014-12-01

    Sahara has experienced during its long geological history a large number of climatic changes from humid conditions (with savanna-type environments) to dry conditions (with hot desert environments). Therefore, since the late Miocene (?), Sahara experienced periods with rivers, lakes, deltas, and swamps alternated with dry periods with strong aeolian activity and the formation of deflation surface and sand seas. The fluvio-lacustrine deposits formed during humid periods have been strongly reworked by wind processes during the dry periods leaving only the coarse-grained portion of the sediments (conglomerate to rudite). This highly efficient reworking eeolian mechanism affected both of the fluvial and deltaic channel deposits and the large inland lakes, flood plains and other waterlogged areas. The former occurs, at present day, as morphological features and coarse-grained remnants of large fluvial systems whereas the latter are mostly buried below sand seas such as Grand Erg Oriental, Erg Chech, and Azawad. While the sand to silt material accumulated (mostly by saltation) in the sand seas and sand sheets, the finer portion (able to enter the wind as suspended material) was probably swallowed in the large- scale atmospheric circulation redistributed in Sahara itself, in adjacent continents (mostly Europe and South America), and oceans. This geological setting is similar to the one of Mars where fluvial deposits and morphologies abound as largely eroded discontinuous remains. Large-scale alluvial basins and terminal lakes or waterlogged areas (such as the allucial plain in Zephyria) have been largely present in the Martian Noachian-Hesperian time (and possibly even later) but relatively scanty sedimentary deposits testify their existence. When deposits are present they are basically coarse-grained (e.g. the meandering channels of the Eberswalde deltaic plain) due to the long lasting aeolian erosion similarly than the Sahara example. The wind, that dominated the long

  17. Deformed cross-stratified deposits in the Early Pleistocene tidally-dominated Catanzaro strait-fill succession, Calabrian Arc (Southern Italy): Triggering mechanisms and environmental significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiarella, Domenico; Moretti, Massimo; Longhitano, Sergio G.; Muto, Francesco

    2016-10-01

    The Early-Pleistocene Catanzaro strait-fill succession consists of large-scale tidal sets, accumulated in a tectonically confined basin during a phase of rapid relative sea-level rise. It crops out mainly in the present-day Catanzaro Trough where numerous field sections supported the characterization of the vertical and lateral facies variations and the documentation of a variety of soft-sediment deformation structures, exposed throughout their vertical and lateral extents. The soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDS) are the result of liquefaction and fluidization processes that deformed cross-laminations and other primary structures into folds, fluid-escape structures, and structureless expanses. Three different groups of SSDS have been documented in the cross-stratified deposits of the Catanzaro strait. The detailed description of these soft-sediment deformation structures in a depositional context established by facies analysis enables interpretation in terms of possible trigger mechanisms. Consistent relationships between the occurrence of distinctive SSDS and specific tidally dominated facies have been established, indicating a probable autogenic origin for the soft-sediment deformations. Liquefaction and fluidization features are interpreted as the result of increases in water pore-pressure, induced by overloading. In particular, two types of overloading agents are hypothesized, which affect the lee and stoss sides of the migrating dunes in distinct events, and inducing the deformation of foreset laminae or sets of cross-strata, respectively.

  18. Modeling Geographic and Demographic Variability in Residential Concentrations of Environmental Tobacco Smoke Using National Data Sets

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite substantial attention toward environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure, previous studies have not provided adequate information to apply broadly within community-scale risk assessments. We aim to estimate residential concentrations of particulate matter (PM) from ETS in ...

  19. Personal and environmental relationships among the elderly living in residential settings.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ballesteros, R; Montorio, I; Fernández de Trocóniz, M I

    1998-01-01

    There is strong empirical evidence to support the influence of environmental and social factors in health and behavior among the institutionalized elderly. In order to assess personal and environmental relationships, 32 residential centers for the elderly and 1403 of their inhabitants were assessed using the Sistema de Evaluación de Residencias de Ancianos (SERA). Our principal findings were as follows: (1) relationships between individual variables (e.g. objective and subjective health, depression) and subjective variables (e.g. satisfaction); (2) the predictive power of the environment characteristics (e.g. policy choice) on the subjects functioning (e.g. level of activity); (3) residential satisfaction is the product of several personal variables (e.g. objective and perceived health), as well as of social environmental factors (e.g. physical comfort); and (4) very weak relationships were found between social climate dimensions and other environmental factors.

  20. CHALLENGES AND BENEFITS OF CONDUCTING ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE RESEARCH IN A SCHOOL SETTING

    PubMed Central

    GUIDRY, VIRGINIA T.; LOWMAN, AMY; HALL, DEVON; BARON, DOTHULA; WING, STEVE

    2015-01-01

    Environmental justice (EJ) research requires attention to consequences for research participants beyond those typically considered by institutional review boards. The imbalance of power between impacted communities and those who create and regulate pollution creates challenges for participation, yet research can also benefit those involved. Our community-academic partnership designed the Rural Air Pollutants and Children's Health (RAPCH) study to provide positive impacts while measuring health effects at three low-resource public middle schools near concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in North Carolina. We evaluated perceived benefits and challenges of study involvement by interviewing school staff and community liaisons who facilitated data collection. Reported benefits included enhancement of students’ academic environment and increased community environmental awareness; challenges were associated mainly with some participants’ immaturity. Leadership from a strong community-based organization was crucial to recruitment, yet our approach entailed minimal focus on EJ, which may have limited opportunities for community education or organizing for environmental health. PMID:25085828

  1. Potential Environmental Triggers of Myositis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    polymyositis and dermatomyositis . Healthy controls were composed of 5 women (mean age 58.2 ± 2.8 years) while myositis patients consisted of 4 male and...Responder Responder Non-resp_onder 2 patient samples is provided below, where OM = dermatomyositis and PM = polymyositis. All patients

  2. Environmental settings of the South Fork Iowa River basin, Iowa, and the Bogue Phalia basin, Mississippi, 2006-10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Rose, Claire E.; Kalkhoff, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of the transport and fate of agricultural chemicals in different environmental settings were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program's Agricultural Chemicals Team (ACT) at seven sites across the Nation, including the South Fork Iowa River basin in central Iowa and the Bogue Phalia basin in northwestern Mississippi. The South Fork Iowa River basin is representative of midwestern agriculture, where corn and soybeans are the predominant crops and a large percentage of the cultivated land is underlain by artificial drainage. The Bogue Phalia basin is representative of corn, soybean, cotton, and rice cropping in the humid, subtropical southeastern United States. Details of the environmental settings of these basins and the data-collection activities conducted by the USGS ACT over the 2006-10 study period are described in this report.

  3. Mining remote sensing image data: an integration of fuzzy set theory and image understanding techniques for environmental change detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eklund, Peter W.; You, Jane; Deer, Peter

    2000-04-01

    This paper presents an image understanding approach to mine remotely sensed image data from different source dates for environmental change detection. It is focused on the immediate needs for knowledge discovery from large sets of image data for environmental monitoring. In contrast to the traditional approaches for change detection, we introduce a wavelet-based hierarchical scheme which integrates fuzzy set theory and image understanding techniques for knowledge discovery of the remote image data. The proposed approach includes algorithms for hierarchical change detection, region representations and classification. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithms is demonstrated throughout the completion of three tasks, namely hierarchial detection of change by fuzzy post classification comparisons, localization of change by B-spline based region representation, and categorization of change by hierarchial texture classification.

  4. INCORPORATING PRIOR KNOWLEDGE IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING: RANKED SET SAMPLING AND OTHER DOUBLE SAMPLING PROCEDURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental sampling can be difficult and expensive to carry out. Those taking the samples would like to integrate their knowledge of the system of study or their judgment about the system into the sample selection process to decrease the number of necessary samples. However,...

  5. Setting boundaries: environmental and spatial effects on Odonata larvae distribution (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Mendes, Thiago P; Cabette, Helena S R; Juen, Leandro

    2015-03-01

    Environmental characteristics and spatial distances between sites have been used to explain species distribution in the environment, through Neutral (space) and Niche theory (environment) predictions. We evaluated the effects of spatial and environmental factors on Odonata larvae distribution along the Suiá-Missú River Basin, state of Mato Grosso. We tested the hypotheses that (1) the environment is the main factor structuring the community due to its ecophysiological requirements; and (2) the pattern, if present, is clearer for Zygoptera. Samples were made in 12 sites on the Suiá-Missú River Basin in three seasons (2007/2008), with a total of 1.382 Odonata larvae, comprising 10 families, 51 genera and 100 morphospecies. The Anisoptera were more abundant than Zygoptera, comprising 81% of all specimens. The environment affected Zygoptera (R=0.291; p=0.007) and was the main factor structuring the assembly. Thus, Niche theory was confirmed. The absence of this effect on Anisoptera may be due to the ecophysiological adaptations that enable it to occupy different habitats. Zygoptera larvae are indicators of changes in habitat structure. The effects of environmental variables on larvae ecology emphasize the strong relationship between these organisms and environmental integrity.

  6. ROBUST ESTIMATION OF MEAN AND VARIANCE USING ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SETS WITH BELOW DETECTION LIMIT OBSERVATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scientists, especially environmental scientists often encounter trace level concentrations that are typically reported as less than a certain limit of detection, L. Type 1, left-censored data arise when certain low values lying below L are ignored or unknown as they cannot be mea...

  7. Skill Sets Required for Environmental Engineering and Where They Are Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Kathaleen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge, skills, abilities and traits environmental engineers need. Two questions were asked: what skills are considered important, and where are they learned? Dreyfus and Dreyfus' novice-to-expert model, which describes a progressive, five-step process of skill development that occurs over time…

  8. Eco-innovation of a wooden childhood furniture set: an example of environmental solutions in the wood sector.

    PubMed

    González-García, Sara; García Lozano, Raúl; Moreira, M Teresa; Gabarrell, Xavier; Rieradevall i Pons, Joan; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Murphy, Richard J

    2012-06-01

    The environmental profile of a set of wood furniture was carried out to define the best design criteria for its eco-design. A baby cot convertible into a bed, a study desk and a bedside table were the objects of study. Two quantitative and qualitative environmental approaches were combined in order to propose improvement alternatives: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Design for Environment (DfE). In the first case Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was applied to identify the hot spots in the product system. As a next step, LCA information was used in eco-briefing to determine several improvement alternatives. A wood products company located in Catalonia (NE Spain) was assessed in detail, dividing the process into three stages: assembly, finishing and packaging. Ten impact categories were considered in the LCA study: abiotic depletion, acidification, eutrophication, global warming, ozone layer depletion, human toxicity, fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity, marine aquatic ecotoxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity and photochemical oxidant formation. Two processes can be considered the key environmental factors: the production of the wooden boards and electricity, with contributions of 45-68% and 14-33% respectively depending on the impact categories. Subsequently, several improvement alternatives were proposed in the eco-design process (DfE) to achieve reductions in a short-medium period of time in the environmental impact. These eco-design strategies could reduce the environmental profile of the setup by 14%. The correct methodological adaptation of the concept of eco-briefing, as a tool for communication among environmental technicians and designers, the simplification of the analytical tool used and the LCA, could facilitate the environmental analysis of a product. The results obtained provide information that can help the furniture sector to improve their environmental performance.

  9. The Influence of The Geological and Geomorphological Settings On The Shallow Landslides Triggered During The 19th June, 1996 Heavy Rainfalls In Southern Apuan Alps (italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amato Avanzi, G.; Giannecchini, R.; Puccinelli, A.

    volume poured into the riverbeds, while the rest remained on the slopes involved. The research is still in progress; many pluviometric, hydro- geologic and geotechnical data will be analysed after a monitoring period to better evaluate slope stability conditions and critical landslide-triggering rainfall thresholds.

  10. Experiential Benefits, Place Meanings, and Environmental Setting Preferences Between Proximate and Distant Visitors to a National Scenic Trail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kil, Namyun; Holland, Stephen M.; Stein, Taylor V.

    2015-05-01

    Effective management of conserved natural areas often requires a good understanding of recreation visitors who possess various values for those areas. This study examined differences in experiential benefits sought, place meanings, and environmental setting preferences between proximate and distant visitors to a publicly managed national scenic trail, which transects a variety of conserved public lands. Data were collected using on-site post-hike interviews with visitors at low, moderate, and high use trailheads. Proximate visitors sought mental and physical health more strongly than distant visitors, while distant visitors sought environmental exploration more strongly than proximate visitors. No significant difference in family bonding and achievement benefits existed between the two groups. Meanings related to place dependence, family identity, community identity, and place identity were more strongly ascribed by proximate visitors, and both groups rated ecological integrity meanings highly. Distant visitors showed stronger tendencies toward preferring a lesser level of trail development, lower level of encounters with other groups, and higher level of natural landscapes, which indicated an inclination toward natural settings. These findings indicate a managerially relevant role of the degree of proximity to environmental resources on individuals' recreation behaviors, meanings ascribed to the resources and setting conditions. Understanding differences and similarities between groups dichotomized by proximity to natural resources should advance more effective management of recreation and benefit opportunities for diverse visitor groups.

  11. Validation of dipslides as a tool for environmental sampling in a real-life hospital setting.

    PubMed

    Ibfelt, T; Foged, C; Andersen, L P

    2014-05-01

    Environmental sampling in hospitals is becoming increasingly important because of the rise in nosocomial infections. In order to monitor and track these infections and optimize cleaning and disinfection, we need to be able to locate the fomites with the highest amount of microorganisms, but the optimal method for this is not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate which of four different dipslides or a standard TSA contact plate were best at recovering human bacteria from the environment. We tested four different dipslides with selective and non-selective agars versus a standard TSA contact plate in order to find the best sampling media. Two hundred sites in a children's medical ward in Copenhagen University hospital were sampled in autumn 2012. There was no difference in total bacteria count between the TSA contact plate and the dipslides. Faecal indicator bacteria recovery was the same for the dipslides and the TSA contact plate. Dipslides may be equally well suited for environmental sampling and hygiene assessment as TSA contact plates. Dipslides have some advantages, such as better sample security, easier sampling in confined spaces and longer shelf life that may speak in favour of choosing these for bacteria environmental sampling in hospitals, depending on the task.

  12. A Longitudinal Study of Agenda Setting for the Issue of Environmental Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ader, Christine R.

    1995-01-01

    Finds that the agenda-setting hypothesis was supported for the issue of pollution from 1970 to 1990; real-world conditions and the public agenda were not correlated for this issue; despite the overall reduction in pollution, media coverage has increased; and for waste pollution, there was a positive correlation between the media agenda and…

  13. Groundwater flow pattern and related environmental phenomena in complex geologic setting based on integrated model construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, Ádám; Havril, Tímea; Simon, Szilvia; Galsa, Attila; Monteiro Santos, Fernando A.; Müller, Imre; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit

    2016-08-01

    Groundwater flow, driven, controlled and determined by topography, geology and climate, is responsible for several natural surface manifestations and affected by anthropogenic processes. Therefore, flowing groundwater can be regarded as an environmental agent. Numerical simulation of groundwater flow could reveal the flow pattern and explain the observed features. In complex geologic framework, where the geologic-hydrogeologic knowledge is limited, the groundwater flow model could not be constructed based solely on borehole data, but geophysical information could aid the model building. The integrated model construction was presented via the case study of the Tihany Peninsula, Hungary, with the aims of understanding the background and occurrence of groundwater-related environmental phenomena, such as wetlands, surface water-groundwater interaction, slope instability, and revealing the potential effect of anthropogenic activity and climate change. The hydrogeologic model was prepared on the basis of the compiled archive geophysical database and the results of recently performed geophysical measurements complemented with geologic-hydrogeologic data. Derivation of different electrostratigraphic units, revealing fracturing and detecting tectonic elements was achieved by systematically combined electromagnetic geophysical methods. The deduced information can be used as model input for groundwater flow simulation concerning hydrostratigraphy, geometry and boundary conditions. The results of numerical modelling were interpreted on the basis of gravity-driven regional groundwater flow concept and validated by field mapping of groundwater-related phenomena. The 3D model clarified the hydraulic behaviour of the formations, revealed the subsurface hydraulic connection between groundwater and wetlands and displayed the groundwater discharge pattern, as well. The position of wetlands, their vegetation type, discharge features and induced landslides were explained as

  14. Management and display of four-dimensional environmental data sets using McIDAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibbard, William L.; Santek, David; Suomi, Verner E.

    1990-01-01

    Over the past four years, great strides have been made in the areas of data management and display of 4-D meteorological data sets. A survey was conducted of available and planned 4-D meteorological data sources. The data types were evaluated for their impact on the data management and display system. The requirements were analyzed for data base management generated by the 4-D data display system. The suitability of the existing data base management procedures and file structure were evaluated in light of the new requirements. Where needed, new data base management tools and file procedures were designed and implemented. The quality of the basic 4-D data sets was assured. The interpolation and extrapolation techniques of the 4-D data were investigated. The 4-D data from various sources were combined to make a uniform and consistent data set for display purposes. Data display software was designed to create abstract line graphic 3-D displays. Realistic shaded 3-D displays were created. Animation routines for these displays were developed in order to produce a dynamic 4-D presentation. A prototype dynamic color stereo workstation was implemented. A computer functional design specification was produced based on interactive studies and user feedback.

  15. Firearm trigger assembly

    DOEpatents

    Crandall, David L.; Watson, Richard W.

    2010-02-16

    A firearm trigger assembly for use with a firearm includes a trigger mounted to a forestock of the firearm so that the trigger is movable between a rest position and a triggering position by a forwardly placed support hand of a user. An elongated trigger member operatively associated with the trigger operates a sear assembly of the firearm when the trigger is moved to the triggering position. An action release assembly operatively associated with the firearm trigger assembly and a movable assembly of the firearm prevents the trigger from being moved to the triggering position when the movable assembly is not in the locked position.

  16. Mining environmental high-throughput sequence data sets to identify divergent amplicon clusters for phylogenetic reconstruction and morphotype visualization.

    PubMed

    Gimmler, Anna; Stoeck, Thorsten

    2015-08-01

    Environmental high-throughput sequencing (envHTS) is a very powerful tool, which in protistan ecology is predominantly used for the exploration of diversity and its geographic and local patterns. We here used a pyrosequenced V4-SSU rDNA data set from a solar saltern pond as test case to exploit such massive protistan amplicon data sets beyond this descriptive purpose. Therefore, we combined a Swarm-based blastn network including 11 579 ciliate V4 amplicons to identify divergent amplicon clusters with targeted polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer design for full-length small subunit of the ribosomal DNA retrieval and probe design for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This powerful strategy allows to benefit from envHTS data sets to (i) reveal the phylogenetic position of the taxon behind divergent amplicons; (ii) improve phylogenetic resolution and evolutionary history of specific taxon groups; (iii) solidly assess an amplicons (species') degree of similarity to its closest described relative; (iv) visualize the morphotype behind a divergent amplicons cluster; (v) rapidly FISH screen many environmental samples for geographic/habitat distribution and abundances of the respective organism and (vi) to monitor the success of enrichment strategies in live samples for cultivation and isolation of the respective organisms.

  17. Methods to characterize environmental settings of stream and groundwater sampling sites for National Water-Quality Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakagaki, Naomi; Hitt, Kerie J.; Price, Curtis V.; Falcone, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of natural and anthropogenic features that define the environmental settings of sampling sites for streams and groundwater, including drainage basins and groundwater study areas, is an essential component of water-quality and ecological investigations being conducted as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program. Quantitative characterization of environmental settings, combined with physical, chemical, and biological data collected at sampling sites, contributes to understanding the status of, and influences on, water-quality and ecological conditions. To support studies for the National Water-Quality Assessment program, a geographic information system (GIS) was used to develop a standard set of methods to consistently characterize the sites, drainage basins, and groundwater study areas across the nation. This report describes three methods used for characterization-simple overlay, area-weighted areal interpolation, and land-cover-weighted areal interpolation-and their appropriate applications to geographic analyses that have different objectives and data constraints. In addition, this document records the GIS thematic datasets that are used for the Program's national design and data analyses.

  18. Systematic testing of Gaussian and complete basis set methods with dispersion corrections for environmentally relevant clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemke, Kono H.

    2014-11-01

    Results are presented demonstrating the ability of CBS-x and Gn theory to predict energies for non-covalently bound complexes, both uncorrected and upon implementation of dispersion-sensitive DFT. CBS-QCI/APNO performs best among uncorrected methods (MUE 0.88 kcal mol-1), while G4 (MUE 1.05 kcal mol-1) and CBS-QB3 (MUE 1.13 kcal mol-1) provide energies close to that of CBS-QCI/APNO, but at a reduced cost. Inclusion of B2PLYP-D and B97-D as well as M0N-2X type functionals into G4 and CBS-QB3 results in improved binding energies. From a comparison with CCSD(T)/CBS results, M05-2X/CBS-QB3 structures and binding energies provide a cost-effective and accurate description of environmentally relevant non-covalent interactions.

  19. Accurate prediction of severe allergic reactions by a small set of environmental parameters (NDVI, temperature).

    PubMed

    Notas, George; Bariotakis, Michail; Kalogrias, Vaios; Andrianaki, Maria; Azariadis, Kalliopi; Kampouri, Errika; Theodoropoulou, Katerina; Lavrentaki, Katerina; Kastrinakis, Stelios; Kampa, Marilena; Agouridakis, Panagiotis; Pirintsos, Stergios; Castanas, Elias

    2015-01-01

    Severe allergic reactions of unknown etiology,necessitating a hospital visit, have an important impact in the life of affected individuals and impose a major economic burden to societies. The prediction of clinically severe allergic reactions would be of great importance, but current attempts have been limited by the lack of a well-founded applicable methodology and the wide spatiotemporal distribution of allergic reactions. The valid prediction of severe allergies (and especially those needing hospital treatment) in a region, could alert health authorities and implicated individuals to take appropriate preemptive measures. In the present report we have collecterd visits for serious allergic reactions of unknown etiology from two major hospitals in the island of Crete, for two distinct time periods (validation and test sets). We have used the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), a satellite-based, freely available measurement, which is an indicator of live green vegetation at a given geographic area, and a set of meteorological data to develop a model capable of describing and predicting severe allergic reaction frequency. Our analysis has retained NDVI and temperature as accurate identifiers and predictors of increased hospital severe allergic reactions visits. Our approach may contribute towards the development of satellite-based modules, for the prediction of severe allergic reactions in specific, well-defined geographical areas. It could also probably be used for the prediction of other environment related diseases and conditions.

  20. Accurate Prediction of Severe Allergic Reactions by a Small Set of Environmental Parameters (NDVI, Temperature)

    PubMed Central

    Andrianaki, Maria; Azariadis, Kalliopi; Kampouri, Errika; Theodoropoulou, Katerina; Lavrentaki, Katerina; Kastrinakis, Stelios; Kampa, Marilena; Agouridakis, Panagiotis; Pirintsos, Stergios; Castanas, Elias

    2015-01-01

    Severe allergic reactions of unknown etiology,necessitating a hospital visit, have an important impact in the life of affected individuals and impose a major economic burden to societies. The prediction of clinically severe allergic reactions would be of great importance, but current attempts have been limited by the lack of a well-founded applicable methodology and the wide spatiotemporal distribution of allergic reactions. The valid prediction of severe allergies (and especially those needing hospital treatment) in a region, could alert health authorities and implicated individuals to take appropriate preemptive measures. In the present report we have collecterd visits for serious allergic reactions of unknown etiology from two major hospitals in the island of Crete, for two distinct time periods (validation and test sets). We have used the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), a satellite-based, freely available measurement, which is an indicator of live green vegetation at a given geographic area, and a set of meteorological data to develop a model capable of describing and predicting severe allergic reaction frequency. Our analysis has retained NDVI and temperature as accurate identifiers and predictors of increased hospital severe allergic reactions visits. Our approach may contribute towards the development of satellite-based modules, for the prediction of severe allergic reactions in specific, well-defined geographical areas. It could also probably be used for the prediction of other environment related diseases and conditions. PMID:25794106

  1. Environmental issues in urban settings: Contributions of geology to conflict minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Vitek, J.D. ); Giardino, J.R. )

    1992-01-01

    Human utilization of the surface of the earth reaches maximum intensity in high density urban areas. Structures, roads, and parking lots conceal the surface and its numerous characteristics from view. Residents of urban environments quickly forget (assuming they knew in the first place) the importance of the land surface upon which they function daily. Although rivers and the shoreline are seldom lost to view, they are treated as static rather than dynamic phenomena. Earthquakes and landslides, geologic events which easily destroy urban structures, are infrequent events which contribute to human denial of potential impact. Geologists have a critical role to play in educating urban decision-makers about the geologic characteristics that are unique to each city. Two decades ago Robert F. Leggett developed the general concept of the interrelationships between geology and urban settings in his book Cities and Geology''. Geologic characteristics, including age and bedrock lithology and earthquake potential, in conjunction with geomorphic phenomena, including river floods, sea-level fluctuation from tides and storms, mass movement, and soil dynamics, comprise the most fundamental data in terms of developing a geologically safe urban environment and insuring safety during periods of growth and expansion. The unique setting of every city requires similar studies being repeated at each location. Urban decision makers must promote the use of geologic knowledge in all city activities.

  2. Analysis of the Relationship Between Physical Environmental Parameters and Beach Water Quality in a Subtropical Setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X.; Wang, J. D.; Elmir, S.; Solo-Gabriele, H. M.; Wright, M. E.; Abdelzaher, A.

    2006-12-01

    Fecal Indicator Bacteria(FIB) are found in high concentrations in sewage water, and thus are used to indicate whether there is fecal material related pathogen present and to determine whether a beach is safe for recreational use. Studies have shown, however, in subtropical regions, FIB concentrations above EPA standards may be present in the absence of known point sources of human or animal waste, thus reducing the efficacy of FIB beach monitoring programs. An interdisciplinary study is being conducted in Miami, Florida , the goal is to understand the sources and behavior of FIB on a beach without point source loads and also to improve beach health hazard warnings in subtropical regions. This study, examines relationship between enterococci (EPA recommended FIB for use in marine water) and physical environmental parameters such as rain, tide and wind. FIB data employed include Florida Department of Health weekly beach monitoring enterococci (ENT) data during a five year period and a two-day experiment with hourly sampling at Hobie Cat Beach on Virginia Key in the Miami metropolitan area. The environmental data consist of wind from a nearby CMAN tower, and local rain and tide. The analysis also includes data from nearby beaches monitored by the Health Department. Results show the correlation coefficient between ENT and tide at Hobie Cat Beach is positive but not significant(r=0.17). Rain events have a significant influence on ENT at Hobie Cat Beach, with a correlation coefficient of up to 0.7 while at other beaches the correlation is less than 0.2. Reasons for this aberration are being investigated. Although this is the only beach allowing dogs there are other factors of possible importance, such as tidal flats frequented by birds and weaker water circulation and exchange at this beach facing a bay rather than the ocean. Higher ENT levels (> 300CFU/100ml water) are more likely (67% of the time) to be associated with periods of onshore winds, which may affect the

  3. Interplay of diverse environmental settings and their influence on the plankton community off Myanmar during the Spring Intermonsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jyothibabu, R.; Win, Ni Ni; Shenoy, D. M.; Swe, U. Tint; Pratik, M.; Thwin, Swe; Jagadeesan, L.

    2014-11-01

    The northern Andaman Sea including the Myanmar waters is one of the least studied regions of the northern Indian Ocean. The freshwater and suspended sediments carried by Ayeyawady/Irrawaddy, the peculiar surface circulation, coastline morphology and shallow bathymetry in the Gulf of Mottama facilitate several diverse environmental settings in the study region. In order to understand the environmental settings and their linkages to the plankton community in the study region, this paper combined in situ data of 'First India-Myanmar Joint Oceanographic Expedition' with satellite oceanography observations. The study period was the Spring Intermonsoon (March-May), which was characterized by high tidal activity in the Gulf of Mottama region (tidal height 6-8 m) causing strong tidal currents and re-suspension of sediments. The tidal currents and eastward advection of Ayeyawady influx caused the lowest salinity, highest concentration of nutrients, suspended sediments and chlorophyll a in the Gulf of Mottama region. Conversely, high salinity, highest temperature, lowest nutrients and suspended sediments prevalent in the offshore waters of the northern Andaman Sea induced a massive bloom of Trichodesmium erythraeum, which was mostly in the declining phase during the observation. The in situ and satellite remote sensing data clearly showed that the T. erythraeum bloom observed in the offshore waters was closely linked to a warm core eddy. The decomposition of the bloom favored swarms of siphonophores and hydromedusae through a trophic link involving copepods and appendicularians. Aided by satellite remote sensing data and multivariate statistical tools, five diverse environmental settings have been identified in the study domain. The analysis showed a close coupling between phytoplankton biomass and nutrients with their higher values in the Gulf of Mottama, off Rakhine, Ayeyawady and Thanintharyi region as compared to the offshore waters in the northern Andaman Sea. The

  4. Interactive access and management for four-dimensional environmental data sets using McIDAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibbard, William L.; Tripoli, Gregory J.

    1995-01-01

    This grant has fundamentally changed the way that meteorologists look at the output of their atmospheric models, through the development and wide distribution of the Vis5D system. The Vis5D system is also gaining acceptance among oceanographers and atmospheric chemists. Vis5D gives these scientists an interactive three-dimensional movie of their very large data sets that they can use to understand physical mechanisms and to trace problems to their sources. This grant has also helped to define the future direction of scientific visualization through the development of the VisAD system and its lattice data model. The VisAD system can be used to interactively steer and visualize scientific computations. A key element of this capability is the flexibility of the system's data model to adapt to a wide variety of scientific data, including the integration of several forms of scientific metadata.

  5. Influences of Green Outdoors versus Indoors Environmental Settings on Psychological and Social Outcomes of Controlled Exercise.

    PubMed

    Rogerson, Mike; Gladwell, Valerie F; Gallagher, Daniel J; Barton, Jo L

    2016-03-25

    This study addressed a methodological gap by comparing psychological and social outcomes of exercise in green outdoors versus built indoors settings, whilst rigorously controlling exercise mode and intensity. The hypotheses were that greater improvements or more desirable values for directed attention, mood, perceived exertion, social interaction time, intention for future exercise behaviour and enjoyment would be associated with outdoors compared to indoors exercise. Following a baseline session, paired participants completed two conditions of 15 min of cycling on an ergometer placed outside in a natural environment and inside in a laboratory setting in a randomized, counter-balanced order. At pre- and post-exercise, directed attention was measured with the digit span backwards task, and mood was assessed with the Profile of Mood States. During the exercise session, visual and verbal interactions were recorded by means of experimenter observations. After each exercise session, participants provided self-reports of their enjoyment of the exercise, perceived exertion and intention for future exercise in the same environment. Social interaction time was significantly greater during outdoors exercise versus indoors; on average, participants engaged in three minutes more social interaction during exercise outdoors compared to indoors. Social interaction time significantly predicted intention for future exercise in the outdoors condition, but did not in the indoor condition. There was a significant time by condition interaction for directed attention. Scores worsened in the indoors condition, but improved in the outdoors condition. There was no statistically-significant time by condition interaction for mood and no significant difference between conditions for either perceived exertion or intention. Taken together, these findings show that exercise in a natural environment may promote directed attention and social interactions, which may positively influence future

  6. Influences of Green Outdoors versus Indoors Environmental Settings on Psychological and Social Outcomes of Controlled Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Rogerson, Mike; Gladwell, Valerie F.; Gallagher, Daniel J.; Barton, Jo L.

    2016-01-01

    This study addressed a methodological gap by comparing psychological and social outcomes of exercise in green outdoors versus built indoors settings, whilst rigorously controlling exercise mode and intensity. The hypotheses were that greater improvements or more desirable values for directed attention, mood, perceived exertion, social interaction time, intention for future exercise behaviour and enjoyment would be associated with outdoors compared to indoors exercise. Following a baseline session, paired participants completed two conditions of 15 min of cycling on an ergometer placed outside in a natural environment and inside in a laboratory setting in a randomized, counter-balanced order. At pre- and post-exercise, directed attention was measured with the digit span backwards task, and mood was assessed with the Profile of Mood States. During the exercise session, visual and verbal interactions were recorded by means of experimenter observations. After each exercise session, participants provided self-reports of their enjoyment of the exercise, perceived exertion and intention for future exercise in the same environment. Social interaction time was significantly greater during outdoors exercise versus indoors; on average, participants engaged in three minutes more social interaction during exercise outdoors compared to indoors. Social interaction time significantly predicted intention for future exercise in the outdoors condition, but did not in the indoor condition. There was a significant time by condition interaction for directed attention. Scores worsened in the indoors condition, but improved in the outdoors condition. There was no statistically-significant time by condition interaction for mood and no significant difference between conditions for either perceived exertion or intention. Taken together, these findings show that exercise in a natural environment may promote directed attention and social interactions, which may positively influence future

  7. WebGL Visualisation of 3D Environmental Models Based on Finnish Open Geospatial Data Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krooks, A.; Kahkonen, J.; Lehto, L.; Latvala, P.; Karjalainen, M.; Honkavaara, E.

    2014-08-01

    Recent developments in spatial data infrastructures have enabled real time GIS analysis and visualization using open input data sources and service interfaces. In this study we present a new concept where metric point clouds derived from national open airborne laser scanning (ALS) and photogrammetric image data are processed, analyzed, finally visualised a through open service interfaces to produce user-driven analysis products from targeted areas. The concept is demonstrated in three environmental applications: assessment of forest storm damages, assessment of volumetric changes in open pit mine and 3D city model visualization. One of the main objectives was to study the usability and requirements of national level photogrammetric imagery in these applications. The results demonstrated that user driven 3D geospatial analyses were possible with the proposed approach and current technology, for instance, the landowner could assess the amount of fallen trees within his property borders after a storm easily using any web browser. On the other hand, our study indicated that there are still many uncertainties especially due to the insufficient standardization of photogrammetric products and processes and their quality indicators.

  8. Palaeo-environmental variations in eastern Mediterranean sediments: a multidisciplinary approach in a prehistoric setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lange, Gert J.; Van Santvoort, P. J. M.; Langereis, C.; Thomson, J.; Corselli, C.; Michard, A.; Rossignol-Strick, M.; Paterne, M.; Anastasakis, G.

    1999-08-01

    Not only the occurrence of distinct organic-rich intervals (sapropels), but also the relative contents of key major and minor elements and isotopes in the sediments of the eastern Mediterranean, appear to be cyclic and to be astronomically associated. Interpretations of the environmental conditions leading to sapropel formation are based on results from sedimentological, micropalaeontological and geochemical studies of the dark-coloured layers and the cream/brownish sediments that occur above and below them. Part of the signal may be removed by early diagenetic processes. The extent and direction of these processes are ultimately controled by the amount and reactivity of organic matter. The interval of dark colour associated with a sapropel is often somewhat thicker than that defined by the >2% C org definition and usually has a sharp colour change at upper and lower boundaries. A grey so-called ‘proto-sapropel’ layer of variable thickness underlies most sapropel layers. A few centimeters above the most recent sapropel S1, is usually found a clear dark-brown layer 2-3 cm thickness is usually found, which has a diffuse, often mottled, upper boundary and a relatively abrupt colour transition at its lower boundary. The colour is characteristic of Mn oxyhydroxide enrichments. In the interval from the dark-brown layer to the visible upper S1 boundary, there is usually an increasingly red-brownish colour. The distinct upper manganese Marker-Bed has been related to the Santorini (Minoan) eruption in 3356±18 BP ( Bruins, H. J., & Van Der Plicht, J. (1996). The Exodus enigma. Nature, London, 382, 213-214 ), but is more likely to be associated with a Basin-wide re-ventilation event induced by changing climatic (humidity) conditions. Using barite-Ba as a paleo-productivity indicator, enhanced fluxes, and hence increases in accumulation rates of organic carbon to the seafloor, must have occurred from approximately 9 to 5 ky BP. The perfect correlations between observed C

  9. Prospects for international trade in environmental services: An analysis of international carbon emission off-sets

    SciTech Connect

    Swisher, J.N.

    1991-01-01

    This dissertation presents a case study analysis in which the costs to a US electric utility of reducing its carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions are compared with the costs of carbon-saving forestry projects in Costa Rica and Guatemala. The results show that a large electric utility in the south-central US would find it relatively inexpensive, even profitable given a conducive regulatory treatment, to reduce its CO{sub 2} emissions by a few percent over the next ten years, through direct investment in energy end-use efficiency improvements. In comparison, the costs of the forestry projects studied in Central America range from $1/TC to a worst-case value of about $55/TC, with most project costs between $5 and $13/TC, depending on the type of project, the climate, and the opportunity cost of land. The total amount of CO{sub 2} storage potential is significant, about 100 million tons per country, but not enough to suggest that forestry can offset more than a few percent of global CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel use. These case studies suggest that international trade in the environmental service of reducing global CO{sub 2} accumulation could have significant economic and ecological benefits. A transaction in which a utility pays for forestry projects in exchange for credit against an emission reduction policy is an example of an international carbon emission offset (ICEO). ICEO's could provide a currency for funding carbon-saving services as a way to comply with national policies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, as long as compliance is allowed through investments in other countries. This type of North-South transfer is necessary to reconcile economic efficiency and international equity, because of the disparity between the national allocations of responsibility for greenhouse gas emissions and opportunities for emission reductions.

  10. A comparison of the influences of urbanization in contrasting environmental settings on stream benthic algal assemblages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Potapova, M.; Coles, J.F.; Giddings, E.M.P.; Zappia, H.

    2005-01-01

    Patterns of stream benthic algal assemblages along urbanization gradients were investigated in three metropolitan areas-Boston (BOS), Massachusetts; Birmingham (BIR), Alabama; and Salt Lake City (SLC), Utah. An index of urban intensity derived from socioeconomic, infrastructure, and land-use characteristics was used as a measure of urbanization. Of the various attributes of the algal assemblages, species composition changed along gradients of urban intensity in a more consistent manner than biomass or diversity. In urban streams, the relative abundance of pollution-tolerant species was often higher than in less affected streams. Shifts in assemblage composition were associated primarily with increased levels of conductivity, nutrients, and alterations in physical habitat. Water mineralization and nutrients were the most important determinants of assemblage composition in the BOS and SLC study areas; flow regime and grazers were key factors in the BIR study area. Species composition of algal assemblages differed significantly among geographic regions, and no particular algal taxa were found to be universal indicators of urbanization. Patterns in algal biomass and diversity along urban gradients varied among study areas, depending on local environmental conditions and habitat alteration. Biomass and diversity increased with urbanization in the BOS area, apparently because of increased nutrients, light, and flow stability in urban streams, which often are regulated by dams. Biomass and diversity decreased with urbanization in the BIR study area because of intensive fish grazing and less stable flow regime. In the SLC study area, correlations between algal biomass, diversity, and urban intensity were positive but weak. Thus, algal responses to urbanization differed considerably among the three study areas. We concluded that the wide range of responses of benthic algae to urbanization implied that tools for stream bioassessment must be region specific. ?? 2005 by the

  11. Nutrients in streams during baseflow in selected environmental settings of the Potomac River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, C.V.; Denis, J.M.; Ator, S.W.; Brakebill, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    A regional assessment of water quality in small streams was conducted within four areas of distinct physiography and lithology in the upper Potomac River Basin. The Potomac River is a major tributary to the Chesapeake Bay, and this study provides new insight on the relationships between nutrient concentrations in small streams and watershed characteristics within this river basin. Nutrient concentrations were compared to land-use data including categories for agriculture (cropland and pasture), urban areas, and forests. Among agricultural areas, streams draining areas of intense row cropping typically contained higher nitrate concentrations than did those draining pastures. Streams draining forested areas typically had the lowest nutrient concentrations. Streams in areas underlain by carbonate bedrock were more likely to contain elevated concentrations of inorganic nitrogen and potassium than did streams in areas underlain by fractured siliciclastic or crystalline rocks, and we suggest that this is a physical phenomenon related to high hydraulic conductivities in carbonate ground-water systems. The median nitrate concentrations were highest in the Great Valley portion of the Valley and Ridge physiographic province, particularly in watersheds that have both carbonate bedrock and intensive row cropping. Values of nitrate in these streams ranged up to 8.99 mg/L as nitrogen. The soluble phosphorus concentrations during baseflow were generally low in all subunits, even in some settings with potential for high phosphorus inputs such as urban areas with municipal point sources or agricultural areas. The mobility of phosphorus in these environments may be hindered by adsorption and geochemical reactions.

  12. Structure, diversity and environmental role of foraminiferal assemblages from reefal settings of Moorea (Society Islands, French Polynesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajemila, Olugbenga; Langer, Martin R.

    2015-04-01

    Reefal and shallow lagoonal environments around the island Moorea (Society Islands, French Polynesia) offer a spectacular variety of microhabitats providing a multitude niches and ideal settings for rich assemblages of tropical benthic foraminifera. The Society Islands are located near the hotspot of tropical marine diversity and represent a transitional location between the high diversity assemblages of the coral triangle and the low diversity biotas of the eastern Pacific. This area constitutes an important biogeographic link and stepping stone between the eastern and western biotas of the tropical Pacific Ocean. We have analyzed the structure, diversity and composition of benthic foraminiferal assemblages from around Moorea to document the composition, species richness and environmental role of larger and smaller benthic foraminifera from within the lagoonal system, the mangrove habitats and fore-reef sites. Foraminifera are prominent producers of calcium carbonate and contribute significantly to structures in reefal settings of the tropical Pacific. We evaluate the potential of larger symbiont-bearing foraminifera as environmental engineers and apply the FORAM-Index as proxy to assess the conditions around Moorea Island. We also evaluate the role of the Society Islands as stepping stone between biogeographic regions of the Pacific Ocean.

  13. Environmental setting and water-quality issues in the lower Tennessee River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kingsbury, James A.; Hoos, Anne B.; Woodside, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    The goals of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program are to describe current water-quality conditions for a large part of the Nation's water resources, identify water-quality changes over time, and identify the primary natural and human factors that affect water quality. The lower Tennessee River Basin is one of 59 river basins selected for study. The water-quality assessment of the lower Tennessee River Basin study unit began in 1997. The lower Tennessee River Basin study unit encompasses an area of about 19,500 square miles and extends from Chattanooga, Tennessee, to Paducah, Kentucky. The study unit had a population of about 1.5 million people in 1995.The study unit was subdivided into subunits with relatively homogeneous geology and physiography. Subdivision of the study unit creates a framework to assess the effects of natural and cultural settings on water quality. Nine subunits were delineated in the study unit; their boundaries generally coincide with level III and level IV ecoregion boundaries. The nine subunits are the Coastal Plain, Transition, Western Highland Rim, Outer Nashville Basin, Inner Nashville Basin, Eastern Highland Rim, Plateau Escarpment and Valleys, Cumberland Plateau, and Valley and Ridge.The lower Tennessee River Basin consists of predominantly forest (51 percent) and agricultural land (40 percent). Activities related to agricultural land use, therefore, are the primary cultural factors likely to have a widespread effect on surface- and ground-water quality in the study unit. Inputs of total nitrogen and phosphorus from agricultural activities in 1992 were about 161,000 and 37,900 tons, respectively. About 3.7 million pounds (active ingredient) of pesticides was applied to crops in the lower Tennessee River Basin in 1992.State water-quality agencies identified nutrient enrichment and pathogens as water-quality issues affecting both surface and ground water in the lower Tennessee River Basin. Water-quality data collected by State

  14. Optically triggered fire set/detonator system

    DOEpatents

    Chase, Jay B.; Pincosy, Philip A.; Chato, Donna M.; Kirbie, Hugh; James, Glen F.

    2007-03-20

    The present invention is directed to a system having a plurality of capacitor discharge units (CDUs) that includes electrical bridge type detonators operatively coupled to respective explosives. A pulse charging circuit is adapted to provide a voltage for each respective capacitor in each CDU. Such capacitors are discharged through the electrical bridge type detonators upon receiving an optical signal to detonate respective operatively coupled explosives at substantially the same time.

  15. Using earthquake-triggered landslides as a hillslope-scale shear strength test: Insights into rock strength properties at geomorphically relevant spatial scales in high-relief, tectonically active settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallen, Sean; Clark, Marin; Godt, Jonathan; Lowe, Katherine

    2016-04-01

    The material strength of rock is known to be a fundamental property in setting landscape form and geomorphic process rates as it acts to modulate feedbacks between earth surface processes, tectonics, and climate. Despite the long recognition of its importance in landscape evolution, a quantitative understanding of the role of rock strength in affecting geomorphic processes lags our knowledge of the influence of tectonics and climate. This gap stems largely from the fact that it remains challenging to quantify rock strength at the hillslope scale. Rock strength is strongly scale dependent because the number, size, spacing, and aperture of fractures sets the upper limit on rock strength, making it difficult to extrapolate laboratory measurements to landscape-scale interpretations. Here we present a method to determine near-surface rock strength at the hillslope-scale, relying on earthquake-triggered landslides as a regional-scale "shear strength" test. We define near-surface strength as the average strength of rock sample by the landslides, which is typically < 10 m. Based on a Newmark sliding block model, which approximates slope stability during an earthquake assuming a material with frictional and cohesive strength, we developed a coseismic landslide model that is capable of reproducing statistical characteristics of the distribution of earthquake-triggered landslides. We present results from two well-documented case-studies of earthquakes that caused widespread mass-wasting; the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake, Sichuan Province, China and the 1994 Mw. 6.8 Northridge Earthquake, CA, USA. We show how this model can be used to determine near-surface rock strength and reproduce mapped landslide patterns provided the spatial distribution of local hillslope gradient, earthquake peak ground acceleration (PGA), and coseismic landsliding are well constrained. Results suggest that near-surface rock strength in these tectonically active settings is much lower than that

  16. Evaluation of statistical treatments of left-censored environmental data using coincident uncensored data sets: I. Summary statistics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Antweiler, R.C.; Taylor, H.E.

    2008-01-01

    The main classes of statistical treatment of below-detection limit (left-censored) environmental data for the determination of basic statistics that have been used in the literature are substitution methods, maximum likelihood, regression on order statistics (ROS), and nonparametric techniques. These treatments, along with using all instrument-generated data (even those below detection), were evaluated by examining data sets in which the true values of the censored data were known. It was found that for data sets with less than 70% censored data, the best technique overall for determination of summary statistics was the nonparametric Kaplan-Meier technique. ROS and the two substitution methods of assigning one-half the detection limit value to censored data or assigning a random number between zero and the detection limit to censored data were adequate alternatives. The use of these two substitution methods, however, requires a thorough understanding of how the laboratory censored the data. The technique of employing all instrument-generated data - including numbers below the detection limit - was found to be less adequate than the above techniques. At high degrees of censoring (greater than 70% censored data), no technique provided good estimates of summary statistics. Maximum likelihood techniques were found to be far inferior to all other treatments except substituting zero or the detection limit value to censored data.

  17. Texting and walking: effect of environmental setting and task prioritization on dual-task interference in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Plummer, Prudence; Apple, Sarah; Dowd, Colleen; Keith, Eliza

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that young adults significantly reduce their gait speed and weave more when texting while walking. Previous research has not examined the simultaneous dual-task effects on texting performance, therefore, the attention prioritization strategy used by young adults while texting and walking is not currently known. Moreover, it is not known whether laboratory-based studies accurately reflect texting and walking performance in the real world. This study compared dual-task interference during texting and walking between laboratory and real-world settings, and examined the ability of young adults to flexibly prioritize their attention between the two tasks in each environment. Texting and walking were assessed in single-task and three dual-task conditions (no-priority, gait-priority, texting-priority) in the lab and a University Student Center, in 32 healthy young adults. Dual-task effects on gait speed, texting speed, and texting accuracy were significant, but did not significantly differ between the two environments. Young adults were able to flexibly prioritize their attention between texting and walking, according to specific instruction, and this ability was not influenced by environmental setting. In the absence of instructions, young adults prioritized the texting task in the low-distraction environment, but displayed more equal focus between tasks in the real world. The finding that young adults do not significantly modify their texting and walking behavior in high-distraction environments lends weight to growing concerns about cell phone use and pedestrian safety.

  18. Environmental setting and water-quality issues of the Mobile River Basin, Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, and Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Gregory C.; Kidd, Robert E.; Journey, Celeste; Zappia, Humbert; Atkins, J. Brian

    2002-01-01

    The Mobile River Basin is one of over 50 river basins and aquifer systems being investigated as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. This basin is the sixth largest river basin in the United States, and fourth largest in terms of streamflow, encompassing parts of Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, and Tennessee. Almost two-thirds of the 44,000-square-mile basin is located in Alabama. Extensive water resources of the Mobile River Basin are influenced by an array of natural and cultural factors. These factors impart unique and variable qualities to the streams, rivers, and aquifers providing abundant habitat to sustain the diverse aquatic life in the basin. Data from Federal, State, and local agencies provide a description of the environmental setting of the Mobile River Basin. Environmental data include natural factors such as physiography, geology, soils, climate, hydrology, ecoregions, and aquatic ecology, and human factors such as reservoirs, land use and population change, water use, and water-quality issues. Characterization of the environmental setting is useful for understanding the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of surface and ground water in the Mobile River Basin and the possible implications of that environmental setting for water quality. The Mobile River Basin encompasses parts of five physiographic provinces. Fifty-six percent of the basin lies within the East Gulf section of the Coastal Plain Physiographic Province. The remaining northeastern part of the basin lies, from west to east, within the Cumberland Plateau section of the Appalachian Plateaus Physiographic Province, the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province, the Piedmont Physiographic Province, and the Blue Ridge Physiographic Province. Based on the 1991 land-use data, about 70 percent of the basin is forested, while agriculture, including livestock (poultry, cattle, and swine), row crops (cotton, corn, soybeans, sorghum, and

  19. Echinoids of the Kerguelen Plateau – occurrence data and environmental setting for past, present, and future species distribution modelling

    PubMed Central

    Guillaumot, Charlène; Martin, Alexis; Fabri-Ruiz, Salomé; Eléaume, Marc; Saucède, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The present dataset provides a case study for species distribution modelling (SDM) and for model testing in a poorly documented marine region. The dataset includes spatially-explicit data for echinoid (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) distribution. Echinoids were collected during oceanographic campaigns led around the Kerguelen Plateau (+63°/+81°E; -46°/-56°S) since 1872. In addition to the identification of collection specimens from historical cruises, original data from the recent campaigns POKER II (2010) and PROTEKER 2 to 4 (2013-2015) are also provided. In total, five families, ten genera, and 12 echinoid species are recorded in the region of the Kerguelen Plateau. The dataset is complemented with environmental descriptors available and relevant for echinoid ecology and SDM. The environmental data was compiled from different sources and was modified to suit the geographic extent of the Kerguelen Plateau, using scripts developed with the R language (R Core Team 2015). Spatial resolution was set at a common 0.1° pixel resolution. Mean seafloor and sea surface temperatures, salinity and their amplitudes, all derived from the World Ocean Database (Boyer et al. 2013) are made available for the six following decades: 1955–1964, 1965–1974, 1975–1984, 1985–1994, 1995–2004, 2005–2012. Future projections are provided for several parameters: they were modified from the Bio-ORACLE database (Tyberghein et al. 2012). They are based on three IPCC scenarii (B1, AIB, A2) for years 2100 and 2200 (IPCC, 4th report). PMID:27917039

  20. Smart trigger logic for focal plane arrays

    DOEpatents

    Levy, James E; Campbell, David V; Holmes, Michael L; Lovejoy, Robert; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kay, Randolph R; Cavanaugh, William S; Gurrieri, Thomas M

    2014-03-25

    An electronic device includes a memory configured to receive data representing light intensity values from pixels in a focal plane array and a processor that analyzes the received data to determine which light values correspond to triggered pixels, where the triggered pixels are those pixels that meet a predefined set of criteria, and determines, for each triggered pixel, a set of neighbor pixels for which light intensity values are to be stored. The electronic device also includes a buffer that temporarily stores light intensity values for at least one previously processed row of pixels, so that when a triggered pixel is identified in a current row, light intensity values for the neighbor pixels in the previously processed row and for the triggered pixel are persistently stored, as well as a data transmitter that transmits the persistently stored light intensity values for the triggered and neighbor pixels to a data receiver.

  1. Species Distribution and In Vitro Azole Susceptibility of Aspergillus Section Nigri Isolates from Clinical and Environmental Settings

    PubMed Central

    Iatta, Roberta; Nuccio, Federica; Immediato, Davide; Mosca, Adriana; De Carlo, Carmela; Miragliotta, Giuseppe; Parisi, Antonio; Crescenzo, Giuseppe; Otranto, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus section Nigri includes species of interest for animal and human health, although studies on species distribution are limited to human cases. Data on the antifungal susceptibilities and the molecular mechanism of triazole resistance in strains belonging to this section are scant. Forty-two black Aspergillus strains from human patients (16 isolates), animals (14 isolates), and the environment (12 isolates) were molecularly characterized and their in vitro triazole susceptibilities investigated. Aspergillus tubingensis was isolated from humans, animals, and environmental settings, whereas Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus niger were isolated exclusively from humans. Phylogenetic analyses of β-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences were concordant in differentiating A. tubingensis from A. awamori and A. niger. Voriconazole and posaconazole (PSZ) were the most active triazoles. One A. tubingensis strain was resistant to itraconazole and PSZ and one A. niger strain to PSZ. Sequence analysis of the cyp51A gene revealed different sequence types within a species, and A. tubingensis strains were also phylogenetically distinct from A. awamori/A. niger strains according to the strain origin and susceptibility profile. Genetic analysis of the cyp51A sequences suggests that two nonsynonymous mutations resulting in amino acid substitutions in the CYP51A protein (changes of L to R at position 21 [L21R] and of Q to R at position 228 [Q228R]) might be involved in azole resistance. Though azole resistance in black Aspergillus isolates from animals and rural environments does not represent a threat to public health in Southern Italy, the use of triazoles in the clinical setting needs to better monitored. The cyp51A sequence is useful for the molecular identification of black Aspergillus, and point mutations in protein sequences could be responsible for azole resistance phenomena. PMID:27413191

  2. Sleep in a Gymnasium: A Study to Examine the Psychophysiological and Environmental Conditions in Shelter-Analogue Settings

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Koh; Okamoto-Mizuno, Kazue; Tanabe, Motoko; Niwano, Katsuko

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to examine sleep in shelter-analogue settings to determine the sleep and environmental conditions in evacuation shelters. A summer social/educational event was conducted in an elementary school, wherein children and their parents (n = 109) spent one night in the school gymnasium; a total of 15 children and 7 adults completed the study. Data were recording using wrist actigraphy and questionnaires, from two days before the event to two days after the event. During the night in the gymnasium, sleep initiation in the children was found to be significantly delayed, whereas adults did not show any significant change in actigraphic sleep parameters. Although 57% of adults complained of stiffness of the floor, only 7% of children had the same complaint. The nocturnal noise recorded at four locations in the gymnasium showed that the percentage of 1-min data epochs with a noise level >40 dB ranged from 53% to 74% during lights-out. The number of subjects that woke up during the night showed a similar pattern with the changes in the noise level. The changes in sleep might represent event-specific responses, such as to a noisy environment, and the different complaints between adults and children could be useful in shelter management. PMID:27916912

  3. Sleep in a Gymnasium: A Study to Examine the Psychophysiological and Environmental Conditions in Shelter-Analogue Settings.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Koh; Okamoto-Mizuno, Kazue; Tanabe, Motoko; Niwano, Katsuko

    2016-11-30

    We aimed to examine sleep in shelter-analogue settings to determine the sleep and environmental conditions in evacuation shelters. A summer social/educational event was conducted in an elementary school, wherein children and their parents (n = 109) spent one night in the school gymnasium; a total of 15 children and 7 adults completed the study. Data were recording using wrist actigraphy and questionnaires, from two days before the event to two days after the event. During the night in the gymnasium, sleep initiation in the children was found to be significantly delayed, whereas adults did not show any significant change in actigraphic sleep parameters. Although 57% of adults complained of stiffness of the floor, only 7% of children had the same complaint. The nocturnal noise recorded at four locations in the gymnasium showed that the percentage of 1-min data epochs with a noise level >40 dB ranged from 53% to 74% during lights-out. The number of subjects that woke up during the night showed a similar pattern with the changes in the noise level. The changes in sleep might represent event-specific responses, such as to a noisy environment, and the different complaints between adults and children could be useful in shelter management.

  4. Use of an urban intensity index to assess urban effects on streams in three contrasting environmental settings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tate, C.M.; Cuffney, T.F.; McMahon, G.; Giddings, E.M.P.; Coles, J.F.; Zappia, H.

    2005-01-01

    To assess the effects of urbanization on assemblages (fish, invertebrate, and algal), physical habitat, and water chemistry, we investigated the relations among varying intensities of basin urbanization and stream ecology in three metropolitan areas: the humid northeastern United States around Boston, Massachusetts; the humid southeastern United States around Birmingham, Alabama; and the semiarid western United States around Salt Lake City, Utah. A consistent process was used to develop a multimetric urban intensity index (UII) based on locally important variables (land-use/land-cover, infrastructure, and socioeconomic variables) in each study area and a common urban intensity index (CUII) based on a subset of five variables common to all study areas. The UII was used to characterize 30 basins along an urban gradient in each metropolitan area. Study basins were located within a single ecoregion in each of the metropolitan areas. The UII, ecoregions, and site characteristics provided a method for limiting the variability of natural landscape characteristics while assessing the magnitude of urban effects. Conditions in Salt Lake City (semiarid climate and water diversions) and Birmingham (topography) required nesting sites within the same basin. The UII and CUII facilitated comparisons of aquatic assemblages response to urbanization across different environmental settings. ?? 2005 by the American Fisheries Society.

  5. A generalized watershed disturbance-invertebrate relation applicable in a range of environmental settings across the continental United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steuer, Jeffrey J.

    2010-01-01

    It is widely recognized that urbanization can affect ecological conditions in aquatic systems; numerous studies have identified impervious surface cover as an indicator of urban intensity and as an index of development at the watershed, regional, and national scale. Watershed percent imperviousness, a commonly understood urban metric was used as the basis for a generalized watershed disturbance metric that, when applied in conjunction with weighted percent agriculture and percent grassland, predicted stream biotic conditions based on Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) richness across a wide range of environmental settings. Data were collected in streams that encompassed a wide range of watershed area (4.4-1,714 km), precipitation (38-204 cm/yr), and elevation (31-2,024 m) conditions. Nevertheless the simple 3-landcover disturbance metric accounted for 58% of the variability in EPT richness based on the 261 nationwide sites. On the metropolitan area scale, relationship r ranged from 0.04 to 0.74. At disturbance values 15. Future work may incorporate watershed management practices within the disturbance metric, further increasing the management applicability of the relation. Such relations developed on a regional or metropolitan area scale are likely to be stronger than geographically generalized models; as found in these EPT richness relations. However, broad spatial models are able to provide much needed understanding in unmonitored areas and provide initial guidance for stream potential.

  6. Asthma triggers (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... common asthma triggers are mold, pets, dust, grasses, pollen, cockroaches, odors from chemicals, and smoke from cigarettes. ... common asthma triggers are mold, pets, dust, grasses, pollen, cockroaches, odors from chemicals, and smoke from cigarettes.

  7. Effect of environmental setting on sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus concentrations in Albemarle-Pamlico drainage basin, North Carolina and Virginia, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, G.; Harned, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    Environmental settings were defined, through an overlay process, as areas of coincidence between categories of three mapped variables - land use, surficial geology, and soil drainage characteristics. Expert judgment was used in selecting factors thought to influence sediment and nutrient concentrations in the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage area. This study's findings support the hypothesis that environmental settings defined using these three variables can explain variations in the concentration of certain sediment and nutrient constituents. This finding underscores the importance of developing watershed management plans that account for differences associated with the mosaic of natural and anthropogenic factors that define a basin's environmental setting. At least in the case of sediment and nutrients in the Albemarle-Pamlico region, a watershed management plan that focuses only on anthropogenic factors, such as point-source discharges, and does not account for natural characteristics of a watershed and the influences of these characteristics on water quality, may lead to water-quality goals that are over- or underprotective of key environmental features and to a misallocation of the resources available for environmental protection.

  8. Development of the Environmental Strategies Instrument to Measure Adolescent Alcohol Prevention-Related Outcomes in Community Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervantes, Richard C.; Goldbach, Jeremy; Yeung, Albert; Rey, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Recently, evidence-based community policy approaches to preventing substance use and alcohol abuse, called environmental strategies, have gained in popularity. The environmental survey instrument (ESI) was developed to evaluate perceptions around drinking and related problems. Specifically, the authors were interested in assessing community…

  9. A longitudinal study on Anopheles mosquito larval abundance in distinct geographical and environmental settings in western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background As the ecology of mosquito larvae can be complex there is need to develop a rational framework for undertaking larval ecological studies. Local environmental characteristics, such as altitude, climate and land use, can significantly impact on phenology and population dynamics of mosquito larvae, and indirectly affect the dynamics of mosquito-borne diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of implementing an integrated approach to larval source management under the distinct ecological settings. Methods The study was conducted in two highland villages and one village, at a lower altitude, in the Lake Victoria basin, where malaria is endemic and transmitted by the same Anopheles mosquito species. In each village the stability of mosquito larval habitats was classified as either temporary or permanent. The productivity of these habitat types was quantified by carrying out weekly larval sampling using a standard dipping method for a period of two years. During sampling the physical characteristic of the larval habitat, including the vegetation cover were noted. Ambient temperature, rainfall and relative humidity were recorded on a 21 × Micro-datalogger in each study site. Results Anopheles gambiae sensu lato larvae were found in all study sites. Anopheles arabiensis was more abundant (93%) in Nyalenda (Lake Victoria basin) and Fort Ternan (highland area; 71%). In Lunyerere (highland area), An. gambiae sensu stricto comprised 93% of the total An. gambiae s.l. larvae. Larvae of An. gambiae s.l. mosquitoes were present in both temporary and permanent habitats with monthly variations dependent on rainfall intensity and location. Anopheles larvae were more likely to be found in man-made as opposed to natural habitats. Grassy habitats were preferred and were, therefore, more productive of Anopheles larvae compared to other habitat types. Weekly rainfall intensity led to an increase or decrease in mosquito larval abundance depending on the

  10. Coupled Socio-Environmental Changes Triggered Indigenous Aymara Depopulation of the Semiarid Andes of Tarapacá-Chile during the Late 19th-20th Centuries

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Mauricio; Christie, Duncan A.; Santoro, M. Calogero; Latorre, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Socio-economic and environmental changes are well known causes of demographic collapse of agrarian cultures. The collapse of human societies is a complex phenomenon where historical and cultural dimensions play a key role, and they may interact with the environmental context. However, the importance of the interaction between socio-economic and climatic factors in explaining possible breakdowns in Native American societies has been poorly explored. The aim of this study is to test the role of socio-economic causes and rainfall variability in the collapse suffered by the Aymara people of the semiarid Andean region of Tarapacá during the period 1820–1970. Our motivation is to demonstrate that simple population dynamic models can be helpful in understanding the causes and relative importance of population changes in Andean agro-pastoral societies in responses to socio-environmental variability. Simple logistic models that combine the effects of external socio-economic causes and past rainfall variability (inferred from Gross Domestic Product [GDP] and tree-rings, respectively) were quite accurate in predicting the sustained population decline of the Aymara people. Our results suggest that the depopulation in the semiarid Tarapacá province was caused by the interaction among external socio-economic pressures given by the economic growth of the lowlands and demands for labor coupled with a persistent decline in rainfall. This study constitutes an example of how applied ecological knowledge, in particular the application of the logistic equation and theories pertaining to nonlinear population dynamics and exogenous perturbations, can be used to better understand major demographic changes in human societies. PMID:27560499

  11. Coupled Socio-Environmental Changes Triggered Indigenous Aymara Depopulation of the Semiarid Andes of Tarapacá-Chile during the Late 19th-20th Centuries.

    PubMed

    Lima, Mauricio; Christie, Duncan A; Santoro, M Calogero; Latorre, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Socio-economic and environmental changes are well known causes of demographic collapse of agrarian cultures. The collapse of human societies is a complex phenomenon where historical and cultural dimensions play a key role, and they may interact with the environmental context. However, the importance of the interaction between socio-economic and climatic factors in explaining possible breakdowns in Native American societies has been poorly explored. The aim of this study is to test the role of socio-economic causes and rainfall variability in the collapse suffered by the Aymara people of the semiarid Andean region of Tarapacá during the period 1820-1970. Our motivation is to demonstrate that simple population dynamic models can be helpful in understanding the causes and relative importance of population changes in Andean agro-pastoral societies in responses to socio-environmental variability. Simple logistic models that combine the effects of external socio-economic causes and past rainfall variability (inferred from Gross Domestic Product [GDP] and tree-rings, respectively) were quite accurate in predicting the sustained population decline of the Aymara people. Our results suggest that the depopulation in the semiarid Tarapacá province was caused by the interaction among external socio-economic pressures given by the economic growth of the lowlands and demands for labor coupled with a persistent decline in rainfall. This study constitutes an example of how applied ecological knowledge, in particular the application of the logistic equation and theories pertaining to nonlinear population dynamics and exogenous perturbations, can be used to better understand major demographic changes in human societies.

  12. Involvement of FvSet1 in Fumonisin B1 Biosynthesis, Vegetative Growth, Fungal Virulence, and Environmental Stress Responses in Fusarium verticillioides

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Qin; Tahir, Hafiz Abdul Samad; Zhang, Hao; Huang, Hai; Ji, Tiantian; Sun, Xiao; Wu, Liming; Wu, Huijun; Gao, Xuewen

    2017-01-01

    Fusarium verticillioides (teleomorph, Gibberella moniliformis) is an important plant pathogen that causes seedling blight, stalk rot, and ear rot in maize (Zea mays). During infection, F. verticillioides produce fumonsins B1 (FB1) that pose a serious threat to human and animal health. Recent studies showed that Set1, a methyltransferase of H3K4, was responsible for toxin biosynthesis in filamentous fungi. However, to date, the regulation of FvSet1 on FB1 biosynthesis remains unclear. In the current study, we identified only one Set1 ortholog in F. verticillioides (FvSet1) and found that the deletion of FvSET1 led to various defects in fungal growth and pathogenicity. More interestingly, the FvSET1 deletion mutant (ΔFvSet1) showed a significant defect in FB1 biosynthesis and lower expression levels of FUM genes. FvSet1 was also found to play an important role in the responses of F. verticillioides to multiple environmental stresses via regulating the phosphorylation of FvMgv1 and FvHog1. Taken together, these results indicate that FvSet1 plays essential roles in the regulation of FB1 biosynthesis, fungal growth and virulence, as well as various stress responses in F. verticillioides. PMID:28125013

  13. Involvement of FvSet1 in Fumonisin B1 Biosynthesis, Vegetative Growth, Fungal Virulence, and Environmental Stress Responses in Fusarium verticillioides.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qin; Tahir, Hafiz Abdul Samad; Zhang, Hao; Huang, Hai; Ji, Tiantian; Sun, Xiao; Wu, Liming; Wu, Huijun; Gao, Xuewen

    2017-01-24

    Fusarium verticillioides (teleomorph, Gibberella moniliformis) is an important plant pathogen that causes seedling blight, stalk rot, and ear rot in maize (Zea mays). During infection, F. verticillioides produce fumonsins B1 (FB1) that pose a serious threat to human and animal health. Recent studies showed that Set1, a methyltransferase of H3K4, was responsible for toxin biosynthesis in filamentous fungi. However, to date, the regulation of FvSet1 on FB1 biosynthesis remains unclear. In the current study, we identified only one Set1 ortholog in F. verticillioides (FvSet1) and found that the deletion of FvSET1 led to various defects in fungal growth and pathogenicity. More interestingly, the FvSET1 deletion mutant (ΔFvSet1) showed a significant defect in FB1 biosynthesis and lower expression levels of FUM genes. FvSet1 was also found to play an important role in the responses of F. verticillioides to multiple environmental stresses via regulating the phosphorylation of FvMgv1 and FvHog1. Taken together, these results indicate that FvSet1 plays essential roles in the regulation of FB1 biosynthesis, fungal growth and virulence, as well as various stress responses in F. verticillioides.

  14. An ecofeminist conceptual framework to explore gendered environmental health inequities in urban settings and to inform healthy public policy.

    PubMed

    Chircop, Andrea

    2008-06-01

    This theoretical exploration is an attempt to conceptualize the link between gender and urban environmental health. The proposed ecofeminist framework enables an understanding of the link between the urban physical and social environments and health inequities mediated by gender and socioeconomic status. This framework is proposed as a theoretical magnifying glass to reveal the underlying logic that connects environmental exploitation on the one hand, and gendered health inequities on the other. Ecofeminism has the potential to reveal an inherent, normative conceptual analysis and argumentative justification of western society that permits the oppression of women and the exploitation of the environment. This insight will contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying gendered environmental health inequities and inform healthy public policy that is supportive of urban environmental health, particularly for low-income mothers.

  15. Software for implementing trigger algorithms on the upgraded CMS Global Trigger System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Takashi; Arnold, Bernhard

    2015-12-01

    The Global Trigger is the final step of the CMS Level-1 Trigger and implements a trigger menu, a set of selection requirements applied to the final list of trigger objects. The conditions for trigger object selection, with possible topological requirements on multiobject triggers, are combined by simple combinatorial logic to form the algorithms. The LHC has resumed its operation in 2015, the collision-energy will be increased to 13 TeV with the luminosity expected to go up to 2x1034 cm-2s-1. The CMS Level-1 trigger system will be upgraded to improve its performance for selecting interesting physics events and to operate within the predefined data-acquisition rate in the challenging environment expected at LHC Run 2. The Global Trigger will be re-implemented on modern FPGAs on an Advanced Mezzanine Card in MicroTCA crate. The upgraded system will benefit from the ability to process complex algorithms with DSP slices and increased processing resources with optical links running at 10 Gbit/s, enabling more algorithms at a time than previously possible and allowing CMS to be more flexible in how it handles the trigger bandwidth. In order to handle the increased complexity of the trigger menu implemented on the upgraded Global Trigger, a set of new software has been developed. The software allows a physicist to define a menu with analysis-like triggers using intuitive user interface. The menu is then realised on FPGAs with further software processing, instantiating predefined firmware blocks. The design and implementation of the software for preparing a menu for the upgraded CMS Global Trigger system are presented.

  16. New Design Strategy for Development of Specific Primer Sets for PCR-Based Detection of Chlorophyceae and Bacillariophyceae in Environmental Samples▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Valiente Moro, Claire; Crouzet, Olivier; Rasconi, Séréna; Thouvenot, Antoine; Coffe, Gérard; Batisson, Isabelle; Bohatier, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Studying aquatic microalgae is essential for monitoring biodiversity and water quality. We designed new sets of 18S rRNA PCR primers for Chlorophyceae and Bacillariophyceae by using the ARB software and implementing a virtual PCR program. The results of specificity analysis showed that most of the targeted algal families were identified and nontargeted organisms, such as fungi or ciliates, were excluded. These newly developed PCR primer sets were also able to amplify microalgal rRNA genes from environmental samples with accurate specificity. These tools could be of great interest for studying freshwater microalgal ecology and for developing bioindicators of the health status of aquatic environments. PMID:19592531

  17. New design strategy for development of specific primer sets for PCR-based detection of Chlorophyceae and Bacillariophyceae in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Moro, Claire Valiente; Crouzet, Olivier; Rasconi, Séréna; Thouvenot, Antoine; Coffe, Gérard; Batisson, Isabelle; Bohatier, Jacques

    2009-09-01

    Studying aquatic microalgae is essential for monitoring biodiversity and water quality. We designed new sets of 18S rRNA PCR primers for Chlorophyceae and Bacillariophyceae by using the ARB software and implementing a virtual PCR program. The results of specificity analysis showed that most of the targeted algal families were identified and nontargeted organisms, such as fungi or ciliates, were excluded. These newly developed PCR primer sets were also able to amplify microalgal rRNA genes from environmental samples with accurate specificity. These tools could be of great interest for studying freshwater microalgal ecology and for developing bioindicators of the health status of aquatic environments.

  18. Lessons from (triggered) tremor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, Joan

    2010-01-01

    I test a “clock-advance” model that implies triggered tremor is ambient tremor that occurs at a sped-up rate as a result of loading from passing seismic waves. This proposed model predicts that triggering probability is proportional to the product of the ambient tremor rate and a function describing the efficacy of the triggering wave to initiate a tremor event. Using data mostly from Cascadia, I have compared qualitatively a suite of teleseismic waves that did and did not trigger tremor with ambient tremor rates. Many of the observations are consistent with the model if the efficacy of the triggering wave depends on wave amplitude. One triggered tremor observation clearly violates the clock-advance model. The model prediction that larger triggering waves result in larger triggered tremor signals also appears inconsistent with the measurements. I conclude that the tremor source process is a more complex system than that described by the clock-advance model predictions tested. Results of this and previous studies also demonstrate that (1) conditions suitable for tremor generation exist in many tectonic environments, but, within each, only occur at particular spots whose locations change with time; (2) any fluid flow must be restricted to less than a meter; (3) the degree to which delayed failure and secondary triggering occurs is likely insignificant; and 4) both shear and dilatational deformations may trigger tremor. Triggered and ambient tremor rates correlate more strongly with stress than stressing rate, suggesting tremor sources result from time-dependent weakening processes rather than simple Coulomb failure.

  19. A set of scientific issues being considered by the United States Environmental Protection Agency regarding pollinator risk assessment framework.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On September 11-14, 2012, the US Environmental Protection Agency convened a public meeting of the FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP) to address scientific issues associated with the Office of Pesticides Program’s (OPP) proposed “Pollinator Risk Assessment Framework”. Several sources have reporte...

  20. STATISTICAL METHODS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS USING DATA SETS WITH BELOW DETECTION LIMIT OBSERVATIONS AS INCORPORTED IN PROUCL 4.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nondetect (ND) or below detection limit (BDL) results cannot be measured accurately, and, therefore, are reported as less than certain detection limit (DL) values. However, since the presence of some contaminants (e.g., dioxin) in environmental media may pose a threat to human he...

  1. THE COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF ALTERNATIVE INSTRUMENTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN A SECOND-BEST SETTING. (R825313)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    This paper employs analytical and numerical general equilibrium models to examine the significance of pre-existing factor taxes for the costs of pollution reduction under a wide range of environmental policy instruments. Pre-existing taxes imply significantly ...

  2. Remedial Investigation concept plan for Picatinny arsenal: Volume 1, Environmental setting, applicable regulations, summaries of site sampling plans, sampling priorities, and supporting appendixes

    SciTech Connect

    Benioff, P.A.; Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Biang, C.; Chiu, S.Y.; Miller, S.; Patton, T.; Pearl, R.; Yonk, A.; Yuen, C.R. )

    1991-03-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has prepared a Remedial Investigation (RI) Concept Plan for Picatinny Arsenal in New Jersey. Based on types of activity and location, the 156 RI Sites identified during the study are grouped into 16 Areas. The plan assesses the environmental status and identifies additional data needed for each RI Site in each Area. The plan was developed to comply with state and federal hazardous waste and water quality regulations. The plan also provides a ranking of the 16 Areas according to their potential for impacts on public health and the environment. Volume 1 describes the environmental setting of Picatinny Arsenal, discusses applicable federal and state environmental regulations, briefly describes the Areas and the Sites within each Area, provides a ranking of the Areas, summarizes the proposed RI sampling plan for each Site in each Area, and gives supplementary information. 60 refs., 9 figs., 25 tabs.

  3. A contribution to the seismic hazard of the Apulia Region (Southern Italy): environmental effects triggered by historical earthquakes in last centuries.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porfido, Sabina; Alessio, Giuliana; Nappi, Rosa; De Lucia, Maddalena; Gaudiosi, Germana

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is a critical revision of the historical and recent seismicity of the Apulia and surrounding seismogenetic areas, for re-evaluating the macroseismic effects in MCS scale and ground effects in natural environment according to the ESI 2007 scale (Michetti et al., 2007) as a contribution to the seismic hazard of the region. The most important environmental effect due to historical earthquakes in the Apulia was the tsunami occurrence, followed by landslides, liquefaction phenomena, hydrological changes and ground cracks. The Apulia (Southern Italy) has been hit by several low energy and a few high energy earthquakes in the last centuries. In particular, the July 30, 1627 earthquake (I=X MCS, Rovida et al., 2011) and the May 5, 1646 event (I=X MCS), the strongest earthquakes of the Gargano promontory have been reviewed, together with the March 20, 1731 earthquake (I=IX MCS, Mw=6.5, Rovida et al., 2011), the most relevant of the Foggia province, and the February 20, 1743 earthquake (I=IX MCS, Mw= 7.1, Rovida et al., 2011, I ESI=X, Nappi et al, 2015), the strongest of the Salento area,. The whole Apulia region has also been struck by strong earthquakes of neighboring seismogenetic areas located in the Southern Apennines, Adriatic and Ionian Sea, Albania and Greece, well propagated throughout the Italian peninsula, and in particular in the southern regions, where the intensity degrees are higher, sometimes exceeding the limit of damage. Some well documented examples of Greek earthquakes strongly felt in the whole Apulia region were: the August 27, 1886 earthquake (Peloponnesus, Greece); the May 28, 1897 earthquake (Creta-Cypro); the June 26, 1926 earthquake (Creta and Cipro, Imax=X MCS), felt all over the Southern Italy; the August 28, 1962 earthquake (epicenter in Peloponnesus area). It is noteworthy that earthquakes located in the Southern Apennines were powerfully felt in the whole Apulia region; among the strongest historical events of the

  4. Causality and headache triggers

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Dana P.; Smitherman, Todd A.; Martin, Vincent T.; Penzien, Donald B.; Houle, Timothy T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to explore the conditions necessary to assign causal status to headache triggers. Background The term “headache trigger” is commonly used to label any stimulus that is assumed to cause headaches. However, the assumptions required for determining if a given stimulus in fact has a causal-type relationship in eliciting headaches have not been explicated. Methods A synthesis and application of Rubin’s Causal Model is applied to the context of headache causes. From this application the conditions necessary to infer that one event (trigger) causes another (headache) are outlined using basic assumptions and examples from relevant literature. Results Although many conditions must be satisfied for a causal attribution, three basic assumptions are identified for determining causality in headache triggers: 1) constancy of the sufferer; 2) constancy of the trigger effect; and 3) constancy of the trigger presentation. A valid evaluation of a potential trigger’s effect can only be undertaken once these three basic assumptions are satisfied during formal or informal studies of headache triggers. Conclusions Evaluating these assumptions is extremely difficult or infeasible in clinical practice, and satisfying them during natural experimentation is unlikely. Researchers, practitioners, and headache sufferers are encouraged to avoid natural experimentation to determine the causal effects of headache triggers. Instead, formal experimental designs or retrospective diary studies using advanced statistical modeling techniques provide the best approaches to satisfy the required assumptions and inform causal statements about headache triggers. PMID:23534872

  5. AMY trigger system

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Yoshihide

    1989-04-01

    A trigger system of the AMY detector at TRISTAN e{sup +}e{sup -} collider is described briefly. The system uses simple track segment and shower cluster counting scheme to classify events to be triggered. It has been operating successfully since 1987.

  6. Lessons learned from curriculum changes and setting curriculum objectives at the University of Pennsylvania's Earth and Environmental Science Department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmochowski, J. E.

    2009-12-01

    Recent restructuring of the University of Pennsylvania’s curriculum, including a revised multi-disciplinary Environmental Studies major and a proposed Environmental Science major has led to several changes, including a mandatory junior research seminar. Feedback from students indicates that a more structured curriculum has helped guide them through the multi-disciplinary Environmental Studies major. The addition of mandatory courses in Statistics, Geographical and Environmental Modeling, as well as Economics and Policy has ensured that students have important skills needed to succeed after graduation. We have compiled a curriculum objective matrix to clarify both the broad and focused objectives of our curriculum and how each course helps to fulfill these objectives. An important aspect of both majors is the Senior Thesis. The junior research seminar was recently revised to help students prepare for their thesis research. Topic selection, library research, data presentation, basic research methods, advisor identification, and funding options are discussed. Throughout the course, faculty from within the department lecture about their research and highlight opportunities for undergraduates. In one assignment, students are given a few types of datasets and asked to present the data and error analysis in various formats using different software (SPSS and Excel). The final paper was a research proposal outlining the student’s Senior Thesis. Based on both the university and instructor written course evaluations, students felt they benefited most from writing their senior thesis proposal; doing assignments on data analysis, library research and critical analysis; and the faculty research lectures. The lessons learned in restructuring this flexible major and providing a research seminar in the junior year may benefit other departments considering such changes.

  7. LHCb Topological Trigger Reoptimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Ilten, Philip; Khairullin, Egor; Rogozhnikov, Alex; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Williams, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so- called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger, which utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected a nearly 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%; its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and neural networks. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all ’interesting” decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. Methods studied include cascading, ensembling and blending techniques. Furthermore, novel boosting techniques have been implemented that will help reduce systematic uncertainties in Run 2 measurements. We demonstrate that the reoptimized topological trigger is expected to significantly improve on the Run 1 performance for a wide range of b-hadron decays.

  8. Genetic and Environmental Interactions in Determining the Early Lexicon: Evidence from a Set of Tri-Zygotic Quadruplets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Karla K.; Capone, Nina C.

    2004-01-01

    A set of tri-zygotic quadruplets, three girls and one boy, participated in weekly observations from 1;2 to 1;10 (years;months), a period of transition from prelinguistic gesture to 50 words. In the study, one girl served as a genetic mate to her identical twin and a biological risk mate to her fraternal sister. The biological risk mates achieved…

  9. Remotely triggered earthquakes following moderate main shocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1992, remotely triggered earthquakes have been identified following large (M > 7) earthquakes in California as well as in other regions. These events, which occur at much greater distances than classic aftershocks, occur predominantly in active geothermal or volcanic regions, leading to theories that the earthquakes are triggered when passing seismic waves cause disruptions in magmatic or other fluid systems. In this paper, I focus on observations of remotely triggered earthquakes following moderate main shocks in diverse tectonic settings. I summarize evidence that remotely triggered earthquakes occur commonly in mid-continent and collisional zones. This evidence is derived from analysis of both historic earthquake sequences and from instrumentally recorded M5-6 earthquakes in eastern Canada. The latter analysis suggests that, while remotely triggered earthquakes do not occur pervasively following moderate earthquakes in eastern North America, a low level of triggering often does occur at distances beyond conventional aftershock zones. The inferred triggered events occur at the distances at which SmS waves are known to significantly increase ground motions. A similar result was found for 28 recent M5.3-7.1 earthquakes in California. In California, seismicity is found to increase on average to a distance of at least 200 km following moderate main shocks. This supports the conclusion that, even at distances of ???100 km, dynamic stress changes control the occurrence of triggered events. There are two explanations that can account for the occurrence of remotely triggered earthquakes in intraplate settings: (1) they occur at local zones of weakness, or (2) they occur in zones of local stress concentration. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  10. Calorimetry Triggering in ATLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Igonkina, O.; Achenbach, R.; Adragna, P.; Aharrouche, M.; Alexandre, G.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X.; Aracena, I.; Backlund, S.; Baines, J.; Barnett, B.M.; Bauss, B.; Bee, C.; Behera, P.; Bell, P.; Bendel, M.; Benslama, K.; Berry, T.; Bogaerts, A.; Bohm, C.; Bold, T.; /UC, Irvine /AGH-UST, Cracow /Birmingham U. /Barcelona, IFAE /CERN /Birmingham U. /Rutherford /Montreal U. /Santa Maria U., Valparaiso /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /Geneva U. /City Coll., N.Y. /Barcelona, IFAE /CERN /Birmingham U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Birmingham U. /Lisbon, LIFEP /Rio de Janeiro Federal U. /City Coll., N.Y. /Birmingham U. /Copenhagen U. /Copenhagen U. /Brookhaven /Rutherford /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Pennsylvania U. /Montreal U. /SLAC /CERN /Michigan State U. /Chile U., Catolica /City Coll., N.Y. /Oxford U. /La Plata U. /McGill U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Hamburg U. /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /Geneva U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /CERN /Rutherford /Rio de Janeiro Federal U. /Birmingham U. /Montreal U. /CERN /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Liverpool U. /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Pennsylvania U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Geneva U. /Birmingham U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Rutherford /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Rutherford /Royal Holloway, U. of London /AGH-UST, Cracow /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Birmingham U. /Hamburg U. /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /Geneva U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Michigan State U. /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U. /Birmingham U. /CERN /Montreal U. /Stockholm U. /Arizona U. /Regina U. /Regina U. /Rutherford /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /City Coll., N.Y. /University Coll. London /Humboldt U., Berlin /Queen Mary, U. of London /Argonne /LPSC, Grenoble /Arizona U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Birmingham U. /Antonio Narino U. /Hamburg U. /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Birmingham U. /Chile U., Catolica /Indiana U. /Manchester U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Rutherford /City Coll., N.Y. /Stockholm U. /La Plata U. /Antonio Narino U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Antonio Narino U. /Pavia U. /City Coll., N.Y. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Pennsylvania U. /Barcelona, IFAE /Barcelona, IFAE /Chile U., Catolica /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Rutherford /Barcelona, IFAE /Nevis Labs, Columbia U. /CERN /Antonio Narino U. /McGill U. /Rutherford /Santa Maria U., Valparaiso /Rutherford /Chile U., Catolica /Brookhaven /Oregon U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Barcelona, IFAE /McGill U. /Antonio Narino U. /Antonio Narino U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Sydney U. /Rutherford /McGill U. /McGill U. /Pavia U. /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Barcelona, IFAE /SLAC /Stockholm U. /Moscow State U. /Stockholm U. /Birmingham U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /Birmingham U. /Geneva U. /Oregon U. /Barcelona, IFAE /University Coll. London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Birmingham U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Birmingham U. /Birmingham U. /Oregon U. /La Plata U. /Geneva U. /Chile U., Catolica /McGill U. /Pavia U. /Barcelona, IFAE /Regina U. /Birmingham U. /Birmingham U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Oxford U. /CERN /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /UC, Irvine /UC, Irvine /Wisconsin U., Madison /Rutherford /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /CERN /Geneva U. /Copenhagen U. /City Coll., N.Y. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Rio de Janeiro Federal U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Stockholm U. /University Coll. London

    2011-12-08

    The ATLAS experiment is preparing for data taking at 14 TeV collision energy. A rich discovery physics program is being prepared in addition to the detailed study of Standard Model processes which will be produced in abundance. The ATLAS multi-level trigger system is designed to accept one event in 2/10{sup 5} to enable the selection of rare and unusual physics events. The ATLAS calorimeter system is a precise instrument, which includes liquid Argon electro-magnetic and hadronic components as well as a scintillator-tile hadronic calorimeter. All these components are used in the various levels of the trigger system. A wide physics coverage is ensured by inclusively selecting events with candidate electrons, photons, taus, jets or those with large missing transverse energy. The commissioning of the trigger system is being performed with cosmic ray events and by replaying simulated Monte Carlo events through the trigger and data acquisition system.

  11. Dealing with Asthma Triggers

    MedlinePlus

    ... smell given off by paint or gas, and air pollution. If you notice that an irritant triggers your ... or other tobacco products around you. If outdoor air pollution is a problem, running the air conditioner or ...

  12. Dealing with Asthma Triggers

    MedlinePlus

    ... reactions stuff in the air, like smoke and pollution colds or the flu weather conditions exercise continue ... given off by paint or gas, and air pollution. If you notice that an irritant triggers your ...

  13. ELECTRONIC TRIGGER CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Russell, J.A.G.

    1958-01-01

    An electronic trigger circuit is described of the type where an output pulse is obtained only after an input voltage has cqualed or exceeded a selected reference voltage. In general, the invention comprises a source of direct current reference voltage in series with an impedance and a diode rectifying element. An input pulse of preselected amplitude causes the diode to conduct and develop a signal across the impedance. The signal is delivered to an amplifier where an output pulse is produced and part of the output is fed back in a positive manner to the diode so that the amplifier produces a steep wave front trigger pulsc at the output. The trigger point of the described circuit is not subject to variation due to the aging, etc., of multi-electrode tabes, since the diode circuit essentially determines the trigger point.

  14. Water-quality assessment of part of the Upper Mississippi River basin, Minnesota and Wisconsin, environmental setting and study design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stark, J.R.; Andrews, W.J.; Fallon, J.D.; Fong, A.L.; Goldstein, R.M.; Hanson, P.E.; Kroening, S.E.; Lee, K.E.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental stratification consists of dividing the study unit into subareas with homogeneous characteristics to assess natural and anthropogenic factors affecting water quality. The assessment of water quality in streams and in aquifers is based on the sampling design that compares water quality within homogeneous subareas defined by subbasins or aquifer boundaries. The study unit is stratified at four levels for the surface-water component: glacial deposit composition, surficial geology, general land use and land cover, and secondary land use. Ground-water studies emphasize shallow ground water where quality is most likely influenced by overlying land use and land cover. Stratification for ground-water sampling is superimposed on the distribution of shallow aquifers. For each aquifer and surface-water basin this stratification forms the basis for the proposed sampling design used in the Upper Mississippi River Basin National Water-Quality Assessment.

  15. Distribution and structure of the upper sublittoral macrobenthic communities of Tróia sand beaches (Setúbal, Portugal) and their relationship with environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Vale, Maria; Cabral, Henrique; Andrade, Francisco

    2010-04-01

    The present study dealt with the spatial and temporal variability of the distribution of the upper sublittoral benthic macrofauna of the Tróia peninsula sand beaches and its relationship with abiotic environmental factors. The existence of a relationship between the data set of macrobenthic species distribution and community structure in the Sado estuary (432 individual samples) and the environmental factors in analysis was investigated. Morpho-sedimentary data analysis revealed an environmental gradient, from the marine margin (exposed marine environment) to the estuarine margin (sheltered estuarine environment). Benthic macrofauna analysis showed a gradient of increasing number of individuals, species richness and diversity from the marine margin (Exposed) to the estuarine margin (Sheltered). Canonical Correspondence Analysis showed the dominant patterns in the community structure to be explained by the environmental factors considered, the most important, of which in influencing the spatial and temporal pattern, being beach slope, organic matter and calcium carbonate contents. The structure of the sandy beach communities studied showed a clear dominance of the spatial patterns over the seasonal ones. Four assemblages were defined-(1) an assemblage dominated by Angulus tenuis, on the marine margin of the peninsula; (2) an assemblage dominated by Euclymene sp. and Apseudes latreillei, on the sea-estuary transition area and related to the presence of a Zostera spp. meadow; (3) an assemblage dominated by Glycera sp. and Scoloplos armiger, on the sea-estuary transition area; (4) an assemblage dominated by Notomastus latericeus, Nassarius reticulatus and Cyathura carinata, on the estuarine margin.

  16. Digital footprints: facilitating large-scale environmental psychiatric research in naturalistic settings through data from everyday technologies.

    PubMed

    Bidargaddi, N; Musiat, P; Makinen, V-P; Ermes, M; Schrader, G; Licinio, J

    2017-02-01

    Digital footprints, the automatically accumulated by-products of our technology-saturated lives, offer an exciting opportunity for psychiatric research. The commercial sector has already embraced the electronic trails of customers as an enabling tool for guiding consumer behaviour, and analogous efforts are ongoing to monitor and improve the mental health of psychiatric patients. The untargeted collection of digital footprints that may or may not be health orientated comprises a large untapped information resource for epidemiological scale research into psychiatric disorders. Real-time monitoring of mood, sleep and physical and social activity in a substantial portion of the affected population in a naturalistic setting is unprecedented in psychiatry. We propose that digital footprints can provide these measurements from real world setting unobtrusively and in a longitudinal fashion. In this perspective article, we outline the concept of digital footprints and the services and devices that create them, and present examples where digital footprints have been successfully used in research. We then critically discuss the opportunities and fundamental challenges associated digital footprints in psychiatric research, such as collecting data from different sources, analysis, ethical and research design challenges.

  17. Digital footprints: facilitating large-scale environmental psychiatric research in naturalistic settings through data from everyday technologies

    PubMed Central

    Bidargaddi, N; Musiat, P; Makinen, V-P; Ermes, M; Schrader, G; Licinio, J

    2017-01-01

    Digital footprints, the automatically accumulated by-products of our technology-saturated lives, offer an exciting opportunity for psychiatric research. The commercial sector has already embraced the electronic trails of customers as an enabling tool for guiding consumer behaviour, and analogous efforts are ongoing to monitor and improve the mental health of psychiatric patients. The untargeted collection of digital footprints that may or may not be health orientated comprises a large untapped information resource for epidemiological scale research into psychiatric disorders. Real-time monitoring of mood, sleep and physical and social activity in a substantial portion of the affected population in a naturalistic setting is unprecedented in psychiatry. We propose that digital footprints can provide these measurements from real world setting unobtrusively and in a longitudinal fashion. In this perspective article, we outline the concept of digital footprints and the services and devices that create them, and present examples where digital footprints have been successfully used in research. We then critically discuss the opportunities and fundamental challenges associated digital footprints in psychiatric research, such as collecting data from different sources, analysis, ethical and research design challenges. PMID:27922603

  18. Investigation of Techniques to Improve Continuous Air Monitors Under Conditions of High Dust Loading in Environmental Settings

    SciTech Connect

    Suilou Huang; Stephen D. Schery; John C. Rodgers

    2002-07-23

    A number of DOE facilities, such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), use alpha-particle environmental continuous air monitors (ECAMs) to monitor air for unwanted releases of radioactive aerosols containing such materials as plutonium and uranium. High sensitivity, ease of operation, and lack of false alarms are all important for ECAMs. The object of the project was to conduct investigations to improve operation of ECAMs, particularly under conditions where a lot of nonradioactive dust may be deposited on the filters (conditions of high dust loading). The presence of such dust may increase the frequency with which filters must be changed and can lead to an increased incidence of false alarms due to deteriorated energy resolution and response specificity to the radionuclides of interest. A major finding of the investigation, not previously documented, was that under many conditions thick layers of underlying nonradioactive dust do not decrease energy resolution and specificity for target radionuclides if the radioactive aerosol arrives as a sudden thin burst deposit, as commonly occurs in the early-warning alarm mode. As a result, operators of ECAMs may not need to change filters as often as previously thought and have data upon which to base more reliable operating procedures.

  19. Triggered Earthquakes Following Parkfield?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hough, S. E.

    2004-12-01

    When the M5.0 Arvin earthquake struck approximately 30 hours after the 28 September 2004 M6.0 Parkfield earthquake, it seemed likely if not obvious that the latter had triggered the former. The odds of a M5.0 or greater event occurring by random chance in a given 2-day window is low, on the order of 2%. However, previously published results suggest that remotely triggered earthquakes are observed only following much larger mainshocks, typically M7 or above. Moreover, using a standard beta-statistic approach, one finds no pervasive regional increase of seismicity in the weeks following the Parkfield mainshock. (Neither were any moderate events observed at regional distances following the 1934 and 1966 Parkfield earthquakes.) Was Arvin a remotely triggered earthquake? To address this issue further I compare the seismicity rate changes following the Parkfield mainshock with those following 14 previous M5.3-7.1 earthquakes in central and southern California. I show that, on average, seismicity increased to a distance of at least 120 km following these events. For all but the M7.1 Hector Mine mainshock, this is well beyond the radius of what would be considered a traditional aftershock zone. Average seismicity rates also increase, albeit more weakly, to a distance of about 220 km. These results suggest that even moderate mainshocks in central and southern California do trigger seismicity at distances up to 220 km, supporting the inference that Arvin was indeed a remotely triggered earthquake. In general, only weak triggering is expected following moderate (M5.5-6.5) mainshocks. However, as illustrated by Arvin and, in retrospect, the 1986 M5.5 Oceanside earthquake, which struck just 5 days after the M5.9 North Palm Springs earthquake, triggered events can sometimes be large enough to generate public interest, and anxiety.

  20. Environmental Setting and Effects on Water Quality in the Great and Little Miami River Basins, Ohio and Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Debrewer, Linda M.; Rowe, Gary L.; Reutter, David C.; Moore, Rhett C.; Hambrook, Julie A.; Baker, Nancy T.

    2000-01-01

    The Great and Little Miami River Basins drain approximately 7,354 square miles in southwestern Ohio and southeastern Indiana and are included in the more than 50 major river basins and aquifer systems selected for water-quality assessment as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Principal streams include the Great and Little Miami Rivers in Ohio and the Whitewater River in Indiana. The Great and Little Miami River Basins are almost entirely within the Till Plains section of the Central Lowland physiographic province and have a humid continental climate, characterized by well-defined summer and winter seasons. With the exception of a few areas near the Ohio River, Pleistocene glacial deposits, which are predominantly till, overlie lower Paleozoic limestone, dolomite, and shale bedrock. The principal aquifer is a complex buried-valley system of sand and gravel aquifers capable of supporting sustained well yields exceeding 1,000 gallons per min-ute. Designated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as a sole-source aquifer, the Buried-Valley Aquifer System is the principal source of drinking water for 1.6 million people in the basins and is the dominant source of water for southwestern Ohio. Water use in the Great and Little Miami River Basins averaged 745 million gallons per day in 1995. Of this amount, 48 percent was supplied by surface water (including the Ohio River) and 52 percent was supplied by ground water. Land-use and waste-management practices influence the quality of water found in streams and aquifers in the Great and Little Miami River Basins. Land use is approximately 79 percent agriculture, 13 percent urban (residential, industrial, and commercial), and 7 percent forest. An estimated 2.8 million people live in the Great and Little Miami River Basins; major urban areas include Cincinnati and Dayton, Ohio. Fertilizers and pesticides associated with agricultural activity, discharges from municipal and

  1. A concept of integrated environmental approach for building upgrades and new construction: Part 1—setting the stage

    SciTech Connect

    Bomberg, Mark; Gibson, Michael; Zhang, Jian

    2015-01-31

    This article highlights the need for an active role for building physics in the development of near-zero energy buildings while analyzing an example of an integrated system for the upgrade of existing buildings. The science called either Building Physics in Europe or Building Science in North America has so far a passive role in explaining observed failures in construction practice. In its new role, it would be integrating modeling and testing to provide predictive capability, so much needed in the development of near-zero energy buildings. The authors attempt to create a compact package, applicable to different climates with small modifications of some hygrothermal properties of materials. This universal solution is based on a systems approach that is routine for building physics but in contrast to separately conceived sub-systems that are typical for the design of buildings today. One knows that the building structure, energy efficiency, indoor environmental quality, and moisture management all need to be considered to ensure durability of materials and control cost of near-zero energy buildings. These factors must be addressed through contributions of the whole design team. The same approach must be used for the retrofit of buildings. As this integrated design paradigm resulted from demands of sustainable built environment approach, building physics must drop its passive role and improve two critical domains of analysis: (i) linked, real-time hygrothermal and energy models capable of predicting the performance of existing buildings after renovation and (ii) basic methods of indoor environment and moisture management when the exterior of the building cannot be modified.

  2. Assessment of potential nitrate pollution sources in the Marano Lagoon (Italy) and set-up of an environmental monitoring programme.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saccon, Pierpaolo; Leis, Albrecht

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the project is to identify and differentiate the main anthropogenic nitrogen sources present and their impact on the Marano Lagoon (Italy) and its catchment area by applying a combined approach of hydrochemical, isotopic and remote sensing techniques. The present investigation represents a new study, which, beside the traditional hydrochemical analyses (main ions and nutrients), introduces stable isotopes of nitrate, the stable isotope signature of boron and the stable isotopes of water. The analysis of stable isotopes in the nitrate molecule will be used to differentiate between nitrate coming from agriculture (synthetic and natural fertilizer), airborne nitrate and nitrate from nitrification processes in soils. Boron isotopes will be used to identify the impact of domestic wastewater on the aquatic system. The stable isotopes of the water molecule are useful tracers to calculate mixing ratios between sea and fresh water and the mean altitude of the recharge area of surface water. Moreover, this study represents a very new innovative approach for the investigation of the complex hydrogeochemical processes at the mixing interface between sea and fresh water. In addition to the analytical part, the monitoring programme will also include remote sensing techniques. Remotely sensed data from the satellites Landsat 1 MSS, Landsat 5 TM and Landsat 7 ETM+ will be analysed and processed. This analysis is to assess the multi-temporal and spatial evolution of most superficial algae flora activity and the water temperature of the Lagoon as main indicators of eutrophication and, additionally, to identify the main environmental and morphological changes of the Lagoon since the beginning of the seventies.

  3. The Two Sets of DMSO Respiratory Systems of Shewanella piezotolerans WP3 Are Involved in Deep Sea Environmental Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Lei; Jian, Huahua; Zhang, Yuxia; Xiao, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is an abundant methylated sulfur compound in deep sea ecosystems. However, the mechanism underlying DMSO-induced reduction in benthic microorganisms is unknown. Shewanella piezotolerans WP3, which was isolated from a west Pacific deep sea sediment, can utilize DMSO as the terminal electron acceptor. In this study, two putative dms gene clusters [type I (dmsEFA1B1G1H1) and type II (dmsA2B2G2H2)] were identified in the WP3 genome. Genetic and physiological analyses demonstrated that both dms gene clusters were functional and the transcription of both gene clusters was affected by changes in pressure and temperature. Notably, the type I system is essential for WP3 to thrive under in situ conditions (4°C/20 MPa), whereas the type II system is more important under high pressure or low temperature conditions (20°C/20 MPa, 4°C/0.1 MPa). Additionally, DMSO-dependent growth conferred by the presence of both dms gene clusters was higher than growth conferred by either of the dms gene clusters alone. These data collectively suggest that the possession of two sets of DMSO respiratory systems is an adaptive strategy for WP3 survival in deep sea environments. We propose, for the first time, that deep sea microorganisms might be involved in global DMSO/DMS cycling.

  4. The Two Sets of DMSO Respiratory Systems of Shewanella piezotolerans WP3 Are Involved in Deep Sea Environmental Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Lei; Jian, Huahua; Zhang, Yuxia; Xiao, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is an abundant methylated sulfur compound in deep sea ecosystems. However, the mechanism underlying DMSO-induced reduction in benthic microorganisms is unknown. Shewanella piezotolerans WP3, which was isolated from a west Pacific deep sea sediment, can utilize DMSO as the terminal electron acceptor. In this study, two putative dms gene clusters [type I (dmsEFA1B1G1H1) and type II (dmsA2B2G2H2)] were identified in the WP3 genome. Genetic and physiological analyses demonstrated that both dms gene clusters were functional and the transcription of both gene clusters was affected by changes in pressure and temperature. Notably, the type I system is essential for WP3 to thrive under in situ conditions (4°C/20 MPa), whereas the type II system is more important under high pressure or low temperature conditions (20°C/20 MPa, 4°C/0.1 MPa). Additionally, DMSO-dependent growth conferred by the presence of both dms gene clusters was higher than growth conferred by either of the dms gene clusters alone. These data collectively suggest that the possession of two sets of DMSO respiratory systems is an adaptive strategy for WP3 survival in deep sea environments. We propose, for the first time, that deep sea microorganisms might be involved in global DMSO/DMS cycling. PMID:27656177

  5. Trigger mechanism for engines

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, L.R.

    1989-02-28

    A trigger mechanism is described for a blower-vacuum apparatus having a trigger mounted within a handle and a small engine comprising: a throttle; a ''L'' shaped lever having first and second legs mounted for rotation about an intermediate pivot within the handle when the trigger is depressed, interconnecting the trigger and the throttle, the second leg having first teeth defined therein, the lever further having idle, full throttle and stop positions; a normally raised latch means adapted to be rotated and axially depressed, the latch means having second teeth situated on a cam to engage the first teeth for holding the lever in an intermediate position between the idle and full throttle positions when the latch means is rotated. The latch means further are cam teeth into potential engagement with the lever teeth when the trigger is depressed, lever is biased to the stop position; and idle adjusting means means for intercepting the second leg for preventing the second leg from reaching the stop position when the latch means is raised.

  6. The CMS trigger system

    DOE PAGES

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2017-01-24

    This paper describes the CMS trigger system and its performance during Run 1 of the LHC. The trigger system consists of two levels designed to select events of potential physics interest from a GHz (MHz) interaction rate of proton-proton (heavy ion) collisions. The first level of the trigger is implemented in hardware, and selects events containing detector signals consistent with an electron, photon, muon, tau lepton, jet, or missing transverse energy. A programmable menu of up to 128 object-based algorithms is used to select events for subsequent processing. The trigger thresholds are adjusted to the LHC instantaneous luminosity during datamore » taking in order to restrict the output rate to 100 kHz, the upper limit imposed by the CMS readout electronics. The second level, implemented in software, further refines the purity of the output stream, selecting an average rate of 400 Hz for offline event storage. The objectives, strategy and performance of the trigger system during the LHC Run 1 are described.« less

  7. The CMS trigger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; De Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Tytgat, M.; Van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; Damiao, D. De Jesus; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; De Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Assran, Y.; El Sawy, M.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Merlin, J. A.; Skovpen, K.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Lagarde, F.; Laktineh, I. B.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Toriashvili, T.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heister, A.; Kiesel, M. K.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Ostapchuk, A.; Preuten, M.; Raupach, F.; Schael, S.; Schulte, J. F.; Verlage, T.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Brodski, M.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Endres, M.; Erdmann, M.; Erdweg, S.; Esch, T.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klingebiel, D.; Knutzen, S.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Pook, T.; Radziej, M.; Reithler, H.; Rieger, M.; Scheuch, F.; Sonnenschein, L.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Künsken, A.; Lingemann, J.; Nehrkorn, A.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Pistone, C.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Asin, I.; Bartosik, N.; Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Bell, A. J.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Campbell, A.; Choudhury, S.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dolinska, G.; Dooling, S.; Dorland, T.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Flucke, G.; Gallo, E.; Garay Garcia, J.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Gunnellini, P.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Karacheban, O.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kieseler, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lobanov, A.; Lohmann, W.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Nayak, A.; Ntomari, E.; Perrey, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Roland, B.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Saxena, P.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Schröder, M.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Trippkewitz, K. D.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Draeger, A. R.; Erfle, J.; Garutti, E.; Goebel, K.; Gonzalez, D.; Görner, M.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Höing, R. S.; Junkes, A.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Kovalchuk, N.; Lapsien, T.; Lenz, T.; Marchesini, I.; Marconi, D.; Meyer, M.; Nowatschin, D.; Ott, J.; Pantaleo, F.; Peiffer, T.; Perieanu, A.; Pietsch, N.; Poehlsen, J.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Scharf, C.; Schettler, H.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Schwandt, J.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Tholen, H.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Vanhoefer, A.; Vormwald, B.; Akbiyik, M.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Butz, E.; Chwalek, T.; Colombo, F.; De Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Fink, S.; Frensch, F.; Friese, R.; Giffels, M.; Gilbert, A.; Haitz, D.; Hartmann, F.; Heindl, S. M.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Kornmayer, A.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Maier, B.; Mildner, H.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, T.; Müller, Th.; Plagge, M.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Röcker, S.; Roscher, F.; Sieber, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. M.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weber, M.; Weiler, T.; Wöhrmann, C.; Wolf, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Giakoumopoulou, V. A.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Psallidas, A.; Topsis-Giotis, I.; Agapitos, A.; Kesisoglou, S.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Tziaferi, E.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Loukas, N.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Strologas, J.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hazi, A.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Karancsi, J.; Molnar, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Bartók, M.; Makovec, A.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Mal, P.; Mandal, K.; Sahoo, D. K.; Sahoo, N.; Swain, S. K.; Bansal, S.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Chawla, R.; Gupta, R.; Bhawandeep, U.; Kalsi, A. K.; Kaur, A.; Kaur, M.; Kumar, R.; Mehta, A.; Mittal, M.; Singh, J. B.; Walia, G.; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Garg, R. B.; Kumar, A.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Nishu, N.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, R.; Sharma, V.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Dey, S.; Dutta, S.; Jain, Sa.; Majumdar, N.; Modak, A.; Mondal, K.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Roy, A.; Roy, D.; Chowdhury, S. Roy; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Abdulsalam, A.; Chudasama, R.; Dutta, D.; Jha, V.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Banerjee, S.; Bhowmik, S.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Dewanjee, R. K.; Dugad, S.; Ganguly, S.; Ghosh, S.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Kole, G.; Kumar, S.; Mahakud, B.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mitra, S.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sarkar, T.; Sur, N.; Sutar, B.; Wickramage, N.; Chauhan, S.; Dube, S.; Kothekar, K.; Sharma, S.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Behnamian, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Goldouzian, R.; Khakzad, M.; Najafabadi, M. Mohammadi; Naseri, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, F.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Felcini, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Caputo, C.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; Cristella, L.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Miniello, G.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Ranieri, A.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Abbiendi, G.; Battilana, C.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Chhibra, S. S.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Perrotta, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Tosi, N.; Travaglini, R.; Cappello, G.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Di Mattia, A.; Giordano, F.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Gonzi, S.; Gori, V.; Lenzi, P.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tropiano, A.; Viliani, L.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Primavera, F.; Calvelli, V.; Ferro, F.; Lo Vetere, M.; Monge, M. R.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Brianza, L.; Dinardo, M. E.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Gerosa, R.; Ghezzi, A.; Govoni, P.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Marzocchi, B.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Redaelli, N.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; Di Guida, S.; Esposito, M.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Lanza, G.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Sciacca, C.; Thyssen, F.; Bacchetta, N.; Bellato, M.; Benato, L.; Bisello, D.; Boletti, A.; Carlin, R.; Checchia, P.; Dall'Osso, M.; Dosselli, U.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Gozzelino, A.; Lacaprara, S.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Montecassiano, F.; Passaseo, M.; Pazzini, J.; Pegoraro, M.; Pozzobon, N.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Tosi, M.; Vanini, S.; Ventura, S.; Zanetti, M.; Zotto, P.; Zucchetta, A.; Zumerle, G.; Braghieri, A.; Magnani, A.; Montagna, P.; Ratti, S. P.; Re, V.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vai, I.; Vitulo, P.; Alunni Solestizi, L.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Castaldi, R.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Donato, S.; Fedi, G.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Serban, A. T.; Spagnolo, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; D'imperio, G.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Gelli, S.; Jorda, C.; Longo, E.; Margaroli, F.; Meridiani, P.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Preiato, F.; Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Santanastasio, F.; Traczyk, P.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Bellan, R.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Costa, M.; Covarelli, R.; Degano, A.; Demaria, N.; Finco, L.; Kiani, B.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Monteil, E.; Obertino, M. M.; Pacher, L.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinna Angioni, G. L.; Ravera, F.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Tamponi, U.; Belforte, S.; Candelise, V.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Gobbo, B.; La Licata, C.; Marone, M.; Schizzi, A.; Zanetti, A.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Nam, S. K.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, M. S.; Kong, D. J.; Lee, S.; Oh, Y. D.; Sakharov, A.; Son, D. C.; Brochero Cifuentes, J. A.; Kim, H.; Kim, T. J.; Song, S.; Choi, S.; Go, Y.; Gyun, D.; Hong, B.; Jo, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, Y.; Lee, B.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S.; Park, S. K.; Roh, Y.; Yoo, H. D.; Choi, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, J. S. H.; Park, I. C.; Ryu, G.; Ryu, M. S.; Choi, Y.; Goh, J.; Kim, D.; Kwon, E.; Lee, J.; Yu, I.; Dudenas, V.; Juodagalvis, A.; Vaitkus, J.; Ahmed, I.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Ali, M. A. B. Md; Mohamad Idris, F.; Abdullah, W. A. T. Wan; Yusli, M. N.; Casimiro Linares, E.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Hernandez-Almada, A.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Pedraza, I.; Salazar Ibarguen, H. A.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Krofcheck, D.; Butler, P. H.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmad, M.; Hassan, Q.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khan, W. A.; Khurshid, T.; Shoaib, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Bluj, M.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Zalewski, P.; Brona, G.; Bunkowski, K.; Byszuk, A.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Kierzkowski, K.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Misiura, M.; Oklinski, W.; Olszewski, M.; Pozniak, K.; Walczak, M.; Zabolotny, W.; Bargassa, P.; Silva, C. Beirão Da Cruz E.; Di Francesco, A.; Faccioli, P.; Ferreira Parracho, P. 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    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the CMS trigger system and its performance during Run 1 of the LHC. The trigger system consists of two levels designed to select events of potential physics interest from a GHz (MHz) interaction rate of proton-proton (heavy ion) collisions. The first level of the trigger is implemented in hardware, and selects events containing detector signals consistent with an electron, photon, muon, τ lepton, jet, or missing transverse energy. A programmable menu of up to 128 object-based algorithms is used to select events for subsequent processing. The trigger thresholds are adjusted to the LHC instantaneous luminosity during data taking in order to restrict the output rate to 100 kHz, the upper limit imposed by the CMS readout electronics. The second level, implemented in software, further refines the purity of the output stream, selecting an average rate of 400 Hz for offline event storage. The objectives, strategy and performance of the trigger system during the LHC Run 1 are described.

  8. Water-quality assessment of the Central Arizona Basins, Arizona and northern Mexico; environmental setting and overview of water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cordy, Gail E.; Rees, Julie A.; Edmonds, Robert J.; Gebler, Joseph B.; Wirt, Laurie; Gellenbeck, Dorinda J.; Anning, David W.

    1998-01-01

    The Central Arizona Basins study area in central and southern Arizona and northern Mexico is one of 60 study units that are part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program. The purpose of this report is to describe the physical, chemical, and environmental characteristics that may affect water quality in the Central Arizona Basins study area and present an overview of water quality. Covering 34,700 square miles, the study area is characterized by generally north to northwestward-trending mountain ranges separated by broad, gently sloping alluvial valleys. Most of the perennial rivers and streams are in the northern part of the study area. Rivers and streams in the south are predominantly intermittent or ephemeral and flow in response to precipitation such as summer thunderstorms. Effluent-dependent streams do provide perennial flow in some reaches. The major aquifers in the study area are in the basin-fill deposits that may be as much as 12,000 feet thick. The 1990 population in the study area was about 3.45 million, and about 61 percent of the total was in Maricopa County (Phoenix and surrounding cities). Extensive population growth over the past decade has resulted in a twofold increase in urban land areas and increased municipal water use; however, agriculture remains the major water use. Seventy-three percent of all water with drawn in the study area during 1990 was used for agricultural purposes. The largest rivers in the study area-the Gila, Salt, and Verde-are perennial near their headwaters but become intermittent downstream because of impoundments and artificial diversions. As a result, the Central Arizona Basins study area is unique compared to less arid basins because the mean surface-water outflow is only 528 cubic feet per second from a total drainage area of 49,650 square miles. Peak flows in the northern part of the study area are the result of snowmelt runoff; whereas, summer thunderstorms account for the peak flows in

  9. Transformative environmental governance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaffin, Brian C.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Harm Benson, Melinda; Angeler, David G.; Arnold, Craig Anthony (Tony); Cosens, Barbara; Kundis Craig, Robin; Ruhl, J.B.; Allen, Craig R.

    2016-01-01

    Transformative governance is an approach to environmental governance that has the capacity to respond to, manage, and trigger regime shifts in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) at multiple scales. The goal of transformative governance is to actively shift degraded SESs to alternative, more desirable, or more functional regimes by altering the structures and processes that define the system. Transformative governance is rooted in ecological theories to explain cross-scale dynamics in complex systems, as well as social theories of change, innovation, and technological transformation. Similar to adaptive governance, transformative governance involves a broad set of governance components, but requires additional capacity to foster new social-ecological regimes including increased risk tolerance, significant systemic investment, and restructured economies and power relations. Transformative governance has the potential to actively respond to regime shifts triggered by climate change, and thus future research should focus on identifying system drivers and leading indicators associated with social-ecological thresholds.

  10. Microfabricated triggered vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Roesler, Alexander W.; Schare, Joshua M.; Bunch, Kyle

    2010-05-11

    A microfabricated vacuum switch is disclosed which includes a substrate upon which an anode, cathode and trigger electrode are located. A cover is sealed over the substrate under vacuum to complete the vacuum switch. In some embodiments of the present invention, a metal cover can be used in place of the trigger electrode on the substrate. Materials used for the vacuum switch are compatible with high vacuum, relatively high temperature processing. These materials include molybdenum, niobium, copper, tungsten, aluminum and alloys thereof for the anode and cathode. Carbon in the form of graphitic carbon, a diamond-like material, or carbon nanotubes can be used in the trigger electrode. Channels can be optionally formed in the substrate to mitigate against surface breakdown.

  11. Triggered Nanoparticles as Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang Soo; Duncan, Bradley; Creran, Brian; Rotello, Vincent M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Drug delivery systems (DDSs) face several challenges including site-specific delivery, stability, and the programmed release of drugs. Engineered nanoparticle (NP) surfaces with responsive moieties can enhance the efficacy of DDSs for in vitro and in vivo systems. This triggering process can be achieved through both endogenous (biologically controlled release) and exogenous (external stimuli controlled release) activation. In this review, we will highlight recent examples of the use of triggered release strategies of engineered nanomaterials for in vitro and in vivo applications. PMID:24159362

  12. Trigger Circuit for Marx Generators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-02-08

    A trigger circuit is provided for a trigger system for a Marx generator column. The column includes a plurality of metal electrode pairs wherein the...electrode (trigatron) spark gap switch forming the first spark gap of the Marx generator column. The triggering circuit includes a trigger

  13. Environmental Setting and the Effects of Natural and Human-Related Factors on Water Quality and Aquatic Biota, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oki, Delwyn S.; Brasher, Anne M.D.

    2003-01-01

    The island of Oahu is the third largest island of the State of Hawaii, and is formed by the eroded remnants of the Waianae and Koolau shield volcanoes. The landscape of Oahu ranges from a broad coastal plain to steep interior mountains. Rainfall is greatest in the mountainous interior parts of the island, and lowest near the southwestern coastal areas. The structure and form of the two volcanoes in conjunction with processes that have modified the original surfaces of the volcanoes control the hydrologic setting. The rift zones of the volcanoes contain dikes that tend to impede the flow of ground water, leading to high ground-water levels in the dike-impounded ground-water system. In the windward (northeastern) part of the island, dike-impounded ground-water levels may reach the land surface in stream valleys, resulting in ground-water discharge to streams. Where dikes are not present, the volcanic rocks are highly permeable, and a lens of freshwater overlies a brackish-water transition zone separating the freshwater from saltwater. Ground water discharges to coastal springs and streams where the water table in the freshwater-lens system intersects the land surface. The Waianae and Koolau Ranges have been deeply dissected by numerous streams. Streams originate in the mountainous interior areas and terminate at the coast. Some streams flow perennially throughout their entire course, others flow perennially over parts of their course, and the remaining streams flow during only parts of the year throughout their entire course. Hawaiian streams have relatively few native species compared to continental streams. Widespread diverse orders of insects are absent from the native biota, and there are only five native fish, two native shrimp, and a few native snails. The native fish and crustaceans of Hawaii's freshwater systems are all amphidromous (adult lives are spent in streams, and larval periods as marine or estuarine zooplankton). During the 20th century, land

  14. Environmental setting and factors that affect water quality in the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berndt, M.P.; Oaksford, E.T.; Darst, M.R.; Marella, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    , geologic setting, ground-water systems, surface- water systems, climate, floods, droughts, population, land use, and water use. Factors affecting water quality in the study area are land use (primarily urban and agricultural land uses), water use in coastal areas, hydrogeology, ground-water/surface-water interaction, geology, and climate. Surface-water quality problems in urban areas have occurred in the Ogeechee, Canoochee, Ocmulgee, St. Marys, Alapaha, Withlacoochee (north), Santa Fe, Ochlockonee, St. Johns, and Oklawaha Rivers and include nitrogen and phosphorus loading, low dissolved oxygen, elevated bacteria, sediment, and turbidity, and increased concentrations of metals. In agricultural areas, surface-water quality problems include elevated nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations, erosion, and sedimentation and have occurred in the Ocmulgee, St. Marys, Santa Fe, Ochlockonee, St. Johns, Oklawaha, Withlacoochee (South), Hillsborough, and Alafia Rivers. Ground water-quality problems such as saltwater intrusion have occurred mostly in coastal areas and were caused by excessive withdrawals.

  15. Norovirus in Healthcare Settings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Evaluating Environmental Cleaning Appendices to the Conceptual Program Model for Environmental Evaluation Basic Infection Control and Prevention Plan for Outpatient Oncology Settings Appendices Outpatient Care Guide Tools for Protecting Healthcare Personnel PPE Training ...

  16. AIDS radio triggers.

    PubMed

    Elias, A M

    1991-07-01

    In April 1991, the Ethnic Communities' Council of NSW was granted funding under the Community AIDS Prevention and Education Program through the Department of Community Services and Health, to produce a series of 6x50 second AIDS radio triggers with a 10-second tag line for further information. The triggers are designed to disseminate culturally-sensitive information about HIV/AIDS in English, Italian, Greek, Spanish, Khmer, Turkish, Macedonian, Serbo-Croatian, Arabic, Cantonese, and Vietnamese, with the goal of increasing awareness and decreasing the degree of misinformation about HIV/AIDS among people of non-English-speaking backgrounds through radio and sound. The 6 triggers cover the denial that AIDS exists in the community, beliefs that words and feelings do not protect one from catching HIV, encouraging friends to be compassionate, compassion within the family, AIDS information for a young audience, and the provision of accurate and honest information on HIV/AIDS. The triggers are slated to be completed by the end of July 1991 and will be broadcast on all possible community, ethnic, and commercial radio networks across Australia. They will be available upon request in composite form with an information kit for use by health care professionals and community workers.

  17. Triggered plasma opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, Clifford W.

    1988-01-01

    A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductors and a magnetic field for breaking the plasma conduction path and magnetically insulating the electrons when it is desired to open the switch.

  18. A Gamma-Ray Burst Trigger Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Band, David L.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The detection rate of a gamma-ray burst detector can be increased by using a count rate trigger with many accumulation times DELTAt and energy bands DELTAE Because a burst's peak flux varies when averaged over different DELTAt and DELTAE the nominal sensitivity (the numerical value of the peak flux) of a trigger system is less important than how much fainter a burst could be at the detection threshold as DELTAt and DELTAE are changed. The relative sensitivity of different triggers can be quantified by referencing the detection threshold back to the peak flux for a fiducial value of DELTAt and DELTA E. This mapping between peak flux values for different sets of DELTAt and DELTAE varies from burst to burst. Quantitative estimates of the burst detection rate for a given detector and trigger system can be based on the observed rate at a measured peak flux value in this fiducial trigger. Predictions of a proposed trigger's burst detection rate depend on the assumed burst population, and these predictions can be wildly in error for triggers that differ significantly from previous missions. I base the fiducial rate on the BATSE observations: 550 bursts per sky above a peak flux of 0.3 ph per square centimeter per second averaged over DELTAt=1.024 sec and DELTAE=50-300 keV. Using a sample of 100 burst lightcurves I find that triggering on any value of DELTAt that is a multiple of 0.064 sec decreases the average threshold peak flux on the 1.024 sec timescale by a factor of 0.6. Extending DELTAE to lower energies includes the large flux of the X-ray background, increasing the background count rate. Consequently a low energy DELTAE is advantageous only for very soft bursts. Whether a large fraction of the population of bright bursts is soft is disputed; the new population of X-ray Flashes is soft but relatively faint.

  19. Asthma Education and Intervention Program: Partnership for Asthma Trigger-Free Homes (PATH)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    triggers can reduce the disease symptoms and severity. Indoor asthma triggers include allergens (dust mite, cockroach, cat , dog , rodent), environmental...cockroach, cat , dog , rodent), environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), pesticides, and molds. The Project Coordinator trained participants (parents or guardians...Although asthma is a complicated multi-factorial disease with both genetic and environmental components, reducing levels of certain indoor asthma

  20. Environmental monitoring and analysis of faecal contamination in an urban setting in the city of Bari (Apulia region, Italy): health and hygiene implications.

    PubMed

    Tarsitano, Elvira; Greco, Grazia; Decaro, Nicola; Nicassio, Francesco; Lucente, Maria Stella; Buonavoglia, Canio; Tempesta, Maria

    2010-11-01

    Few studies have been conducted in Italy to quantify the potential risk associated with dynamics and distribution of pathogens in urban settings. The aim of this study was to acquire data on the environmental faecal contamination in urban ecosystems, by assessing the presence of pathogens in public areas in the city of Bari (Apulia region, Italy). To determine the degree of environmental contamination, samples of dog faeces and bird guano were collected from different areas in the city of Bari (park green areas, playgrounds, public housing areas, parkways, and a school). A total of 152 canine faecal samples, in 54 pools, and two samples of pigeon guano from 66 monitored sites were examined. No samples were found in 12 areas spread over nine sites. Chlamydophila psittaci was detected in seven canine and two pigeon guano samples. Salmonella species were not found. On the other hand, four of 54 canine faecal samples were positive for reovirus. Thirteen canine faecal samples were positive for parasite eggs: 8/54 samples contained Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina eggs and 5/54 samples contained Ancylostoma caninum eggs. Our study showed that public areas are often contaminated by potentially zoonotic pathogens.

  1. Environmental Monitoring and Analysis of Faecal Contamination in an Urban Setting in the City of Bari (Apulia Region, Italy): Health and Hygiene Implications

    PubMed Central

    Tarsitano, Elvira; Greco, Grazia; Decaro, Nicola; Nicassio, Francesco; Lucente, Maria Stella; Buonavoglia, Canio; Tempesta, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have been conducted in Italy to quantify the potential risk associated with dynamics and distribution of pathogens in urban settings. The aim of this study was to acquire data on the environmental faecal contamination in urban ecosystems, by assessing the presence of pathogens in public areas in the city of Bari (Apulia region, Italy). To determine the degree of environmental contamination, samples of dog faeces and bird guano were collected from different areas in the city of Bari (park green areas, playgrounds, public housing areas, parkways, and a school). A total of 152 canine faecal samples, in 54 pools, and two samples of pigeon guano from 66 monitored sites were examined. No samples were found in 12 areas spread over nine sites. Chlamydophila psittaci was detected in seven canine and two pigeon guano samples. Salmonella species were not found. On the other hand, four of 54 canine faecal samples were positive for reovirus. Thirteen canine faecal samples were positive for parasite eggs: 8/54 samples contained Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina eggs and 5/54 samples contained Ancylostoma caninum eggs. Our study showed that public areas are often contaminated by potentially zoonotic pathogens. PMID:21139871

  2. Optically triggered infrared photodetector.

    PubMed

    Ramiro, Íñigo; Martí, Antonio; Antolín, Elisa; López, Esther; Datas, Alejandro; Luque, Antonio; Ripalda, José M; González, Yolanda

    2015-01-14

    We demonstrate a new class of semiconductor device: the optically triggered infrared photodetector (OTIP). This photodetector is based on a new physical principle that allows the detection of infrared light to be switched ON and OFF by means of an external light. Our experimental device, fabricated using InAs/AlGaAs quantum-dot technology, demonstrates normal incidence infrared detection in the 2-6 μm range. The detection is optically triggered by a 590 nm light-emitting diode. Furthermore, the detection gain is achieved in our device without an increase of the noise level. The novel characteristics of OTIPs open up new possibilities for third generation infrared imaging systems ( Rogalski, A.; Antoszewski, J.; Faraone, L. J. Appl. Phys. 2009, 105 (9), 091101).

  3. Trigger developments for ARA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ming-Yuan

    2013-04-01

    The Askaryan Radio Array (ARA) is a planned large-scale neutrino detector at the South Pole aiming at observing ultra-high-energy cosmogenic neutrinos via detecting radio Cherenkov radiation from neutrinos' interaction with Antarctic ice. By the end of the austral summer of 2012/13 three detector stations have been deployed at depths of up to 200 m. A prototype detector station has been taking data for two years. The final array is planned to consist of 37 stations with a 200 km^2 coverage, and provide high sensitivity in the range of 10 PeV to 10 EeV. In order to increase the discover potential of the stations, advanced triggering schemes are in development which take into account the topology of signal events. Here a brief status and the triggering schemes in development will be presented, and based on simulations their improvements to ARA neutrino sensitivity will be discussed.

  4. Neural networks for triggering

    SciTech Connect

    Denby, B. ); Campbell, M. ); Bedeschi, F. ); Chriss, N.; Bowers, C. ); Nesti, F. )

    1990-01-01

    Two types of neural network beauty trigger architectures, based on identification of electrons in jets and recognition of secondary vertices, have been simulated in the environment of the Fermilab CDF experiment. The efficiencies for B's and rejection of background obtained are encouraging. If hardware tests are successful, the electron identification architecture will be tested in the 1991 run of CDF. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  5. GLAST's GBM Burst Trigger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Band, D.; Briggs, M.; Connaughton, V.; Kippen, M.; Preece, R.

    2003-01-01

    The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) will detect and localize bursts for the GLAST mission, and provide the spectral and temporal context in the traditional 10 keV to 25 MeV band for the high energy observations by the Large Area Telescope (LAT). The GBM will use traditional rate triggers in up to three energy bands, and on a variety of timescales between 16 ms and 16 s.

  6. Data compression studies for NOAA Hyperspectral Environmental Suite (HES) using 3D integer wavelet transforms with 3D set partitioning in hierarchical trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bormin; Huang, Hung-Lung; Chen, Hao; Ahuja, Alok; Baggett, Kevin; Schmit, Timothy J.; Heymann, Roger W.

    2004-02-01

    The next-generation NOAA/NESDIS GOES-R hyperspectral sounder, now referred to as the HES (Hyperspectral Environmental Suite), will have hyperspectral resolution (over one thousand channels with spectral widths on the order of 0.5 wavenumber) and high spatial resolution (less than 10 km). Hyperspectral sounder data is a particular class of data requiring high accuracy for useful retrieval of atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles, surface characteristics, cloud properties, and trace gas information. Hence compression of these data sets is better to be lossless or near lossless. Given the large volume of three-dimensional hyperspectral sounder data that will be generated by the HES instrument, the use of robust data compression techniques will be beneficial to data transfer and archive. In this paper, we study lossless data compression for the HES using 3D integer wavelet transforms via the lifting schemes. The wavelet coefficients are processed with the 3D set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) scheme followed by context-based arithmetic coding. SPIHT provides better coding efficiency than Shapiro's original embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) algorithm. We extend the 3D SPIHT scheme to take on any size of 3D satellite data, each of whose dimensions need not be divisible by 2N, where N is the levels of the wavelet decomposition being performed. The compression ratios of various kinds of wavelet transforms are presented along with a comparison with the JPEG2000 codec.

  7. Earthquake Simulator Finds Tremor Triggers

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Paul

    2015-03-27

    Using a novel device that simulates earthquakes in a laboratory setting, a Los Alamos researcher has found that seismic waves-the sounds radiated from earthquakes-can induce earthquake aftershocks, often long after a quake has subsided. The research provides insight into how earthquakes may be triggered and how they recur. Los Alamos researcher Paul Johnson and colleague Chris Marone at Penn State have discovered how wave energy can be stored in certain types of granular materials-like the type found along certain fault lines across the globe-and how this stored energy can suddenly be released as an earthquake when hit by relatively small seismic waves far beyond the traditional “aftershock zone” of a main quake. Perhaps most surprising, researchers have found that the release of energy can occur minutes, hours, or even days after the sound waves pass; the cause of the delay remains a tantalizing mystery.

  8. Earthquake Simulator Finds Tremor Triggers

    ScienceCinema

    Johnson, Paul

    2016-07-12

    Using a novel device that simulates earthquakes in a laboratory setting, a Los Alamos researcher has found that seismic waves-the sounds radiated from earthquakes-can induce earthquake aftershocks, often long after a quake has subsided. The research provides insight into how earthquakes may be triggered and how they recur. Los Alamos researcher Paul Johnson and colleague Chris Marone at Penn State have discovered how wave energy can be stored in certain types of granular materials-like the type found along certain fault lines across the globe-and how this stored energy can suddenly be released as an earthquake when hit by relatively small seismic waves far beyond the traditional “aftershock zone” of a main quake. Perhaps most surprising, researchers have found that the release of energy can occur minutes, hours, or even days after the sound waves pass; the cause of the delay remains a tantalizing mystery.

  9. Association of environmental traits with the geographic ranges of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) of medical and veterinary importance in the western Palearctic. A digital data set.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Peña, A; Farkas, Robert; Jaenson, Thomas G T; Koenen, Frank; Madder, Maxime; Pascucci, Ilaria; Salman, Mo; Tarrés-Call, Jordi; Jongejan, Frans

    2013-03-01

    We compiled information on the distribution of ticks in the western Palearctic (11°W, 45°E; 29°N, 71°N), published during 1970-2010. The literature search was filtered by the tick's species name and an unambiguous reference to the point of capture. Records from some curated collections were included. We focused on tick species of importance to human and animal health, in particular: Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor marginatus, D. reticulatus, Haemaphysalis punctata, H. sulcata, Hyalomma marginatum, Hy. lusitanicum, Rhipicephalus annulatus, R. bursa, and the R. sanguineus group. A few records of other species (I. canisuga, I. hexagonus, Hy. impeltatum, Hy. anatolicum, Hy. excavatum, Hy. scupense) were also included. A total of 10,280 records was included in the data set. Almost 42 % of published references are not adequately referenced (and not included in the data set), host is reported for only 61 % of records and a reference to time of collection is missed for 84 % of published records. Ixodes ricinus accounted for 44.3 % of total records, with H. marginatum and D. marginatus accounting for 7.1 and 8.1 % of records, respectively. The lack of homogeneity of the references and potential pitfalls in the compilation were addressed to create a digital data set of the records of the ticks. We attached to every record a coherent set of quantitative descriptors for the site of reporting, namely gridded interpolated monthly climate and remotely sensed data on vegetation (NDVI). We also attached categorical descriptors of the habitat: a standard classification of land biomes and an ad hoc classification of the target territory from remotely sensed temperature and NDVI data. A descriptive analysis of the data revealed that a principal components reduction of the environmental (temperature and NDVI) variables described the distribution of the species in the target territory. However, categorical descriptors of the habitat were less effective. We stressed the importance of

  10. High Level Trigger Configuration and Handling of Trigger Tables in the CMS Filter Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, G; Behrens, U; Boyer, V; Branson, J; Brett, A; Cano, E; Carboni, A; Ciganek, M; Cittolin, S; O'dell, V; Erhan, S; Gigi, D; Glege, F; Gomez-Reino, R; Gulmini, M; Gutleber, J; Hollar, J; Lange, D; Kim, J C; Klute, M; Lipeles, E; Perez, J L; Maron, G; Meijers, F; Meschi, E; Moser, R; Mlot, E G; Murray, S; Oh, A; Orsini, L; Paus, C; Petrucci, A; Pieri, M; Pollet, L; Racz, A; Sakulin, H; Sani, M; Schieferdecker, P; Schwick, C; Sumorok, K; Suzuki, I; Tsirigkas, D; Varela, J

    2009-11-22

    The CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider is currently being commissioned and is scheduled to collect the first pp collision data in 2008. CMS features a two-level trigger system. The Level-1 trigger, based on custom hardware, is designed to reduce the collision rate of 40 MHz to approximately 100 kHz. Data for events accepted by the Level-1 trigger are read out and assembled by an Event Builder. The High Level Trigger (HLT) employs a set of sophisticated software algorithms, to analyze the complete event information, and further reduce the accepted event rate for permanent storage and analysis. This paper describes the design and implementation of the HLT Configuration Management system. First experiences with commissioning of the HLT system are also reported.

  11. Response of fish communities to cropland density and natural environmental setting in the Eastern Highland Rim Ecoregion of the lower Tennessee River basin, Alabama and Tennessee, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Jeffrey R.

    2003-01-01

    Response of fish communities to cropland density and natural environmental setting were evaluated at 20 streams in the Eastern Highland Rim Ecoregion of the lower Tennessee River Basin during the spring of 1999. Sites were selected to represent a gradient of cropland densities in basins draining about 30 to 100 square miles. Fish communities were sampled by using a combination of seining and electrofishing techniques. A total of 10,550 individual fish, representing 63 species and 15 families, were collected during the study and included the families Cyprinidae (minnows), 18 species; Percidae (perch and darters), 12 species; and Centrarchidae (sunfish), 12 species. Assessments of environmental characteristics, including instream and terrestrial data and land-cover data, were conducted for each site. Instream measurements, such as depth, velocity, substrate type, and embeddedness, were recorded at 3 points across 11 equidistant transects at each site. Terrestrial measurements, such as bank angle, canopy angle, and canopy closure percentage, were made along the stream bank and midchannel areas. Water-quality data collected included pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductivity, water temperature, nutrients, and fecal-indicator bacteria. Substrate embeddedness was the only variable correlated with both cropland density and fish communities (as characterized by ordination scores and several community level metrics). Multivariate and nonparametric correlation techniques were used to evaluate fish-community responses to physical and chemical factors associated with a cropland-density gradient, where the gradient was defined as the percentage of the basin in row crops. Principal component analysis and correspondence analysis suggest that the Eastern Highland Rim Ecoregion is composed of three subgroups of sites based on inherent physical and biological differences. Data for the subgroup containing the largest number of sites were then re-analyzed, revealing that several

  12. Cross-Lingual Lexical Triggers in Statistical Language Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    significant reductions in both perplexity and recognition errors. We also compare our cross-lingual adaptation scheme to monolingual language model adaptation...as an intermedi- ate step. In a monolingual setting, the mutual infor- mation between lexical pairs co-occurring anywhere within a long “window” of...inspiration to propose the follow- ing notion of cross-lingual lexical triggers. In a monolingual setting, a pair of words xyQz is considered a trigger

  13. Subnanosecond trigger system for ETA

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, E.G.; Lauer, E.J.; Reginato, L.L.; Rogers D.; Schmidt, J.A.

    1980-05-30

    A high-voltage trigger system capable of triggering 30, 250 kV spark gaps; each with less than +- 1 ns jitter has been constructed. In addition to low jitter rates, the trigger system must be capable of delivering the high voltage pulses to the spark gaps either simultaneously or sequentially as determined by other system requirements. The trigger system consists of several stages of pulse amplification culminating in 160 kV pulses having 30 ns risetime. The trigger system is described and test data provided.

  14. Relations of Water Quality to Agricultural Chemical Use and Environmental Setting at Various Scales - Results from Selected Studies of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began studies of 51 major river basins and aquifers across the United States as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program to provide scientifically sound information for managing the Nation's water resources. The major goals of the NAWQA Program are to assess the status and long-term trends of the Nation's surface- and ground-water quality and to understand the natural and human factors that affect it (Gilliom and others, 1995). In 2001, the NAWQA Program began a second decade of intensive water-quality assessments. The 42 study units for this second decade were selected to represent a wide range of important hydrologic environments and potential contaminant sources. These NAWQA studies continue to address the goals of the first decade of the assessments to determine how water-quality conditions are changing over time. In addition to local- and regional-scale studies, NAWQA began to analyze and synthesize water-quality status and trends at the principal aquifer and major river-basin scales. This fact sheet summarizes results from four NAWQA studies that relate water quality to agricultural chemical use and environmental setting at these various scales: * Comparison of ground-water quality in northern and southern High Plains agricultural settings (principal aquifer scale); * Distribution patterns of pesticides and degradates in rain (local scale); * Occurrence of pesticides in shallow ground water underlying four agricultural areas (local and regional scales); and * Trends in nutrients and sediment over time in the Missouri River and its tributaries (major river-basin scale).

  15. Protons Trigger Mitochondrial Flashes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianhua; Zhang, Xing; Huang, Zhanglong; Wu, Di; Liu, Beibei; Zhang, Rufeng; Yin, Rongkang; Hou, Tingting; Jian, Chongshu; Xu, Jiejia; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Yanru; Gao, Feng; Cheng, Heping

    2016-07-26

    Emerging evidence indicates that mitochondrial flashes (mitoflashes) are highly conserved elemental mitochondrial signaling events. However, which signal controls their ignition and how they are integrated with other mitochondrial signals and functions remain elusive. In this study, we aimed to further delineate the signal components of the mitoflash and determine the mitoflash trigger mechanism. Using multiple biosensors and chemical probes as well as label-free autofluorescence, we found that the mitoflash reflects chemical and electrical excitation at the single-organelle level, comprising bursting superoxide production, oxidative redox shift, and matrix alkalinization as well as transient membrane depolarization. Both electroneutral H(+)/K(+) or H(+)/Na(+) antiport and matrix proton uncaging elicited immediate and robust mitoflash responses over a broad dynamic range in cardiomyocytes and HeLa cells. However, charge-uncompensated proton transport, which depolarizes mitochondria, caused the opposite effect, and steady matrix acidification mildly inhibited mitoflashes. Based on a numerical simulation, we estimated a mean proton lifetime of 1.42 ns and diffusion distance of 2.06 nm in the matrix. We conclude that nanodomain protons act as a novel, to our knowledge, trigger of mitoflashes in energized mitochondria. This finding suggests that mitoflash genesis is functionally and mechanistically integrated with mitochondrial energy metabolism.

  16. Protein environmental effects on iron-sulfur clusters: A set of rules for constructing computational models for inner and outer coordination spheres.

    PubMed

    Harris, Travis V; Szilagyi, Robert K

    2016-07-05

    The structural properties and reactivity of iron-sulfur proteins are greatly affected by interactions between the prosthetic groups and the surrounding amino acid residues. Thus, quantum chemical investigations of the structure and properties of protein-bound iron-sulfur clusters can be severely limited by truncation of computational models. The aim of this study was to identify, a priori, significant interactions that must be included in a quantum chemical model. Using the [2Fe-2S] accessory cluster of the FeFe-hydrogenase as a demonstrative example with rich electronic structural features, the electrostatic and covalent effects of the surrounding side chains, charged groups, and backbone moieties were systematically mapped through density functional theoretical calculations. Electron affinities, spin density differences, and delocalization indexes from the quantum theory of atoms in molecules were used to evaluate the importance of each interaction. Case studies for hydrogen bonding and charged side-chain interactions were used to develop selection rules regarding the significance of a given protein environmental effect. A set of general rules is proposed for constructing quantum chemical models for iron-sulfur active sites that capture all significant interactions from the protein environment. This methodology was applied to our previously used models in galactose oxidase and the 6Fe-cluster of FeFe-hydrogenase. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Improvement of the identification of four heavy metals in environmental samples by using predictive decision tree models coupled with a set of five bioluminescent bacteria.

    PubMed

    Jouanneau, Sulivan; Durand, Marie-José; Courcoux, Philippe; Blusseau, Thomas; Thouand, Gérald

    2011-04-01

    A primary statistical model based on the crossings between the different detection ranges of a set of five bioluminescent bacterial strains was developed to identify and quantify four metals which were at several concentrations in different mixtures: cadmium, arsenic III, mercury, and copper. Four specific decision trees based on the CHAID algorithm (CHi-squared Automatic Interaction Detector type) which compose this model were designed from a database of 576 experiments (192 different mixture conditions). A specific software, 'Metalsoft', helped us choose the best decision tree and a user-friendly way to identify the metal. To validate this innovative approach, 18 environmental samples containing a mixture of these metals were submitted to a bioassay and to standardized chemical methods. The results show on average a high correlation of 98.6% for the qualitative metal identification and 94.2% for the quantification. The results are particularly encouraging, and our model is able to provide semiquantitative information after only 60 min without pretreatments of samples.

  18. Early anther ablation triggers parthenocarpic fruit development in tomato.

    PubMed

    Medina, Mónica; Roque, Edelín; Pineda, Benito; Cañas, Luis; Rodriguez-Concepción, Manuel; Beltrán, José Pío; Gómez-Mena, Concepción

    2013-08-01

    Fruit set and fruit development in tomato is largely affected by changes in environmental conditions, therefore autonomous fruit set independent of fertilization is a highly desirable trait in tomato. Here, we report the production and characterization of male-sterile transgenic plants that produce parthenocarpic fruits in two tomato cultivars (Micro-Tom and Moneymaker). We generated male-sterility using the cytotoxic gene barnase targeted to the anthers with the PsEND1 anther-specific promoter. The ovaries of these plants grew in the absence of fertilization producing seedless, parthenocarpic fruits. Early anther ablation is essential to trigger the developing of the transgenic ovaries into fruits, in the absence of the signals usually generated during pollination and fertilization. Ovaries are fully functional and can be manually pollinated to obtain seeds. The transgenic plants obtained in the commercial cultivar Moneymaker show that the parthenocarpic development of the fruit does not have negative consequences in fruit quality. Throughout metabolomic analyses of the tomato fruits, we have identified two elite lines which showed increased levels of several health promoting metabolites and volatile compounds. Thus, early anther ablation can be considered a useful tool to promote fruit set and to obtain seedless and good quality fruits in tomato plants. These plants are also useful parental lines to be used in hybrid breeding approaches.

  19. Gravity triggered neutrino condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Barenboim, Gabriela

    2010-11-01

    In this work we use the Schwinger-Dyson equations to study the possibility that an enhanced gravitational attraction triggers the formation of a right-handed neutrino condensate, inducing dynamical symmetry breaking and generating a Majorana mass for the right-handed neutrino at a scale appropriate for the seesaw mechanism. The composite field formed by the condensate phase could drive an early epoch of inflation. We find that to the lowest order, the theory does not allow dynamical symmetry breaking. Nevertheless, thanks to the large number of matter fields in the model, the suppression by additional powers in G of higher order terms can be compensated, boosting them up to their lowest order counterparts. This way chiral symmetry can be broken dynamically and the infrared mass generated turns out to be in the expected range for a successful seesaw scenario.

  20. Water-quality assessment of the Albermarle-Pamlico drainage basin, North Carolina and Virginia; environmental setting and water-quality issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, Gerard; Lloyd, Orville B.

    1995-01-01

    The Albemarle-Pamlico drainage study unit is one of 60 units of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program, and includes the large river basins which drain into the Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds-the Chowan, Roanoke, Tar-Pamlico, and Neuse River Basins. The study unit includes about 28,000 square miles and has an interrelated set of environmental characteristics which strongly influence water quality. The chemical and physical nature of these characteristics are the dominant controls on baseline water quality in the study area. About 50 percent of the study area is forested, slightly more than 30 percent is agricultural, about 15 percent is wetlands, and less than 5 percent is developed. Three million people live in the study area, and activities related to agriculture and development have caused increased concentrations of constituents such as nutrients, pesticides, and suspended sediment. About two-thirds of the 36 to 52 inches of precipitation in the area reenters the atmosphere by evapotranspiration. About one-third of the remaining precipitation reaches streams by overland runoff; the remainder recharges the water table aquifer, where much of the water eventually discharges to streams as ground water. Thus, ground-water quality has a substantial influence on surface-water quality, particularly during dry weather. In 1990, about 152,900 tons of elemental nitrogen and 10,500 tons of elemental phosphorus either were applied to crops as fertilizer or fixed by biological processes, and in 1987, about 43,500 tons of nitrogen and 12,200 tons of phosphorus were produced as animal wastes. In addition, about 1,300 tons of selected herbicides and 400 tons of selected insecticides were applied to crops in 1990. Some 249 permitted point sources discharged 410 million gallons per day, containing an annual load of 5,800 tons of nitrogen and 1,800 tons of phosphorus, to the study area in 1990. Data from 1970-79 indicate that mean annual suspended

  1. The CMS High Level Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trocino, Daniele

    2014-06-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger, implemented in custom-designed electronics, and the High-Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a tradeoff between the complexity of the algorithms running with the available computing power, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. We present the performance of the main triggers used during the 2012 data taking, ranging from simple single-object selections to more complex algorithms combining different objects, and applying analysis-level reconstruction and selection. We discuss the optimisation of the trigger and the specific techniques to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up, reducing its impact on the physics performance.

  2. A compilation of field surveys on gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) from contrasting environmental settings in Europe, South America, South Africa and China: separating fads from facts.

    PubMed

    Higueras, Pablo; Oyarzun, Roberto; Kotnik, Joze; Esbrí, José María; Martínez-Coronado, Alba; Horvat, Milena; López-Berdonces, Miguel Angel; Llanos, Willians; Vaselli, Orlando; Nisi, Barbara; Mashyanov, Nikolay; Ryzov, Vladimir; Spiric, Zdravko; Panichev, Nikolay; McCrindle, Rob; Feng, Xinbin; Fu, Xuewu; Lillo, Javier; Loredo, Jorge; García, María Eugenia; Alfonso, Pura; Villegas, Karla; Palacios, Silvia; Oyarzún, Jorge; Maturana, Hugo; Contreras, Felicia; Adams, Melitón; Ribeiro-Guevara, Sergio; Niecenski, Luise Felipe; Giammanco, Salvatore; Huremović, Jasna

    2014-08-01

    Mercury is transported globally in the atmosphere mostly in gaseous elemental form (GEM, [Formula: see text]), but still few worldwide studies taking into account different and contrasted environmental settings are available in a single publication. This work presents and discusses data from Argentina, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, China, Croatia, Finland, Italy, Russia, South Africa, Spain, Slovenia and Venezuela. We classified the information in four groups: (1) mining districts where this contaminant poses or has posed a risk for human populations and/or ecosystems; (2) cities, where the concentration of atmospheric mercury could be higher than normal due to the burning of fossil fuels and industrial activities; (3) areas with natural emissions from volcanoes; and (4) pristine areas where no anthropogenic influence was apparent. All the surveys were performed using portable LUMEX RA-915 series atomic absorption spectrometers. The results for cities fall within a low GEM concentration range that rarely exceeds 30 ng m(-3), that is, 6.6 times lower than the restrictive ATSDR threshold (200 ng m(-3)) for chronic exposure to this pollutant. We also observed this behavior in the former mercury mining districts, where few data were above 200 ng m(-3). We noted that high concentrations of GEM are localized phenomena that fade away in short distances. However, this does not imply that they do not pose a risk for those working in close proximity to the source. This is the case of the artisanal gold miners that heat the Au-Hg amalgam to vaporize mercury. In this respect, while GEM can be truly regarded as a hazard, because of possible physical-chemical transformations into other species, it is only under these localized conditions, implying exposure to high GEM concentrations, which it becomes a direct risk for humans.

  3. MiFish, a set of universal PCR primers for metabarcoding environmental DNA from fishes: detection of more than 230 subtropical marine species

    PubMed Central

    Miya, M.; Sato, Y.; Fukunaga, T.; Sado, T.; Poulsen, J. Y.; Sato, K.; Minamoto, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, H.; Araki, H.; Kondoh, M.; Iwasaki, W.

    2015-01-01

    We developed a set of universal PCR primers (MiFish-U/E) for metabarcoding environmental DNA (eDNA) from fishes. Primers were designed using aligned whole mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences from 880 species, supplemented by partial mitogenome sequences from 160 elasmobranchs (sharks and rays). The primers target a hypervariable region of the 12S rRNA gene (163–185 bp), which contains sufficient information to identify fishes to taxonomic family, genus and species except for some closely related congeners. To test versatility of the primers across a diverse range of fishes, we sampled eDNA from four tanks in the Okinawa Churaumi Aquarium with known species compositions, prepared dual-indexed libraries and performed paired-end sequencing of the region using high-throughput next-generation sequencing technologies. Out of the 180 marine fish species contained in the four tanks with reference sequences in a custom database, we detected 168 species (93.3%) distributed across 59 families and 123 genera. These fishes are not only taxonomically diverse, ranging from sharks and rays to higher teleosts, but are also greatly varied in their ecology, including both pelagic and benthic species living in shallow coastal to deep waters. We also sampled natural seawaters around coral reefs near the aquarium and detected 93 fish species using this approach. Of the 93 species, 64 were not detected in the four aquarium tanks, rendering the total number of species detected to 232 (from 70 families and 152 genera). The metabarcoding approach presented here is non-invasive, more efficient, more cost-effective and more sensitive than the traditional survey methods. It has the potential to serve as an alternative (or complementary) tool for biodiversity monitoring that revolutionizes natural resource management and ecological studies of fish communities on larger spatial and temporal scales. PMID:26587265

  4. Water-quality assessment of the New England Coastal Basins in Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island : environmental settings and implications for water quality and aquatic biota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flanagan, Sarah M.; Nielsen, Martha G.; Robinson, Keith W.; Coles, James F.

    1999-01-01

    The New England Coastal Basins in Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island constitute one of 59 study units selected for water-quality assessment as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. England Coastal Basins study unit encompasses the fresh surface waters and ground waters in a 23,000 square-mile area that drains to the Atlantic Ocean. Major basins include those of the Kennebec, Androscoggin, Saco, Merrimack, Charles, Blackstone, Taunton, and Pawcatuck Rivers. Defining the environmental setting of the study unit is the first step in designing and conducting a multi-disciplinary regional water-quality assessment. The report describes the natural and human factors that affect water quality in the basins and includes descriptions of the physiography, climate, geology, soils, surface- and ground-water hydrology, land use, and the aquatic ecosystem. Although surface-water quality has greatly improved over the past 30 years as a result of improved wastewater treatment at municipal and industrial wastewater facilities, a number of water-quality problems remain. Industrial and municipal wastewater discharges, combined sewer overflows, hydrologic modifications from dams and water diversions, and runoff from urban land use are the major causes of water-quality degradation in 1998. The most frequently detected contaminants in ground water in the study area are volatile organic compounds, petroleum-related products, nitrates, and chloride and sodium. Sources of these contaminants include leaking storage tanks, accidental spills, landfills, road salting, and septic systems and lagoons. Elevated concentrations of mercury are found in fish tissue from streams and lakes throughout the study area.

  5. Remotely triggered nonvolcanic tremor in Sumbawa, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Florian; Lupi, Matteo; Miller, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    Nonvolcanic (or tectonic) tremor is a seismic phenomenom which can provide important information about dynamics of plate boundaries but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Tectonic tremor is often associated with slow-slip (termed episodic tremor and slip) and understanding the mechanisms driving tremor presents an important challenge because it is likely a dominant aspect of the evolutionary processes leading to tsunamigenic, megathrust subduction zone earthquakes. Tectonic tremor is observed worldwide, mainly along major subduction zones and plate boundaries such as in Alaska/Aleutians, Cascadia, the San Andreas Fault, Japan or Taiwan. We present, for the first time, evidence for triggered tremor beneath the island of Sumbawa, Indonesia. The island of Sumbawa, Indonesia, is part of the Lesser Sunda Group about 250 km north of the Australian/Eurasian plate collision at the Java Trench with a convergence rate of approximately 70 mm/yr. We show surface wave triggered tremor beneath Sumbawa in response to three teleseismic earthquakes: the Mw9.0 2011 Tohoku earthquake and two oceanic strike-slip earthquakes (Mw 8.6 and Mw8.2) offshore of Sumatra in 2012. Tremor amplitudes scale with ground motion and peak at 180 nm/s ground velocity on the horizontal components. A comparison of ground motion of the three triggering events and a similar (nontriggering) Mw7.6 2012 Philippines event constrains an apparent triggering threshold of approximately 1 mm/s ground velocity or 8 kPa dynamic stress. Surface wave periods of 45-65 s appear optimal for triggering tremor at Sumbawa which predominantly correlates with Rayleigh waves, even though the 2012 oceanic events have stronger Love wave amplitudes and triggering potential. Rayleigh wave triggering, low-triggering amplitudes, and the tectonic setting all favor a model of tremor generated by localized fluid transport. We could not locate the tremor because of minimal station coverage, but data indicate several

  6. Ionization and Triggered Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritschneder, M.; Lin, D. N. C.; Murray, S. D.; Burkert, A.

    2011-12-01

    We perform a set of high resolution simulations on the impact of the UV-radiation of massive stars on the turbulent interstellar medium with the tree-SPH code iVINE. This parameter study includes different levels and driving scales of the turbulence, different ionizing flux as well as different temperatures and densities of the cold gas. We find a clear correlation between the initial state of the turbulent cloud and the final morphology and physical properties of the structures adjacent to the HII region. From the simulations we are able to derive a criterion for the formation of pillar-like structures and thus the formation of cores and stars. Gravitational collapse occurs regularly on the tips of the structures. We also derive column densities and velocity profiles of our simulations and find these to be in very good agreement with the observations of trunks and cores. In addition, we investigate the further evolution of the pillars once the massive star explodes. This leads to a supernova triggered scenario for the formation of our Solar System.

  7. Peptide motif analysis predicts alphaviruses as triggers for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Hogeboom, Charissa

    2015-12-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) develops in response to both genetic and environmental factors. The strongest genetic determinant is HLA-DR, where polymorphisms within the P4 and P6 binding pockets confer elevated risk. However, low disease concordance across monozygotic twin pairs underscores the importance of an environmental factor, probably infectious. The goal of this investigation was to predict the microorganism most likely to interact with HLA-DR to trigger RA under the molecular mimicry hypothesis. A set of 185 structural proteins from viruses or intracellular bacteria was scanned for regions of sequence homology with a collagen peptide that binds preferentially to DR4; candidates were then evaluated against a motif required for T cell cross-reactivity. The plausibility of the predicted agent was evaluated by comparison of microbial prevalence patterns to epidemiological characteristics of RA. Peptides from alphavirus capsid proteins provided the closest fit. Variations in the P6 position suggest that the HLA binding preference may vary by species, with Ross River virus, Chikungunya virus, and Mayaro virus peptides binding preferentially to DR4, and peptides from Sindbis/Ockelbo virus showing stronger affinity to DR1. The predicted HLA preference is supported by epidemiological studies of post-infection chronic arthralgia. Parallels between the cytokine profiles of RA and chronic alphavirus infection are discussed.

  8. The TOTEM modular trigger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagliesi, M. G.; Berretti, M.; Cecchi, R.; Greco, V.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Oliveri, E.; Pedreschi, E.; Scribano, A.; Spinella, F.; Turini, N.

    2010-05-01

    The TOTEM experiment will measure the total cross-section with the luminosity independent method and study elastic and diffractive scattering at the LHC. We are developing a modular trigger system, based on programmable logic, that will select meaningful events within 2.5 μs. The trigger algorithm is based on a tree structure in order to obtain information compression. The trigger primitive is generated directly on the readout chip, VFAT, that has a specific fast output that gives low resolution hits information. In two of the TOTEM detectors, Roman Pots and T2, a coincidence chip will perform track recognition directly on the detector readout boards, while for T1 the hits are transferred from the VFATs to the trigger hardware. Starting from more than 2000 bits delivered by the detector electronics, we extract, in a first step, six trigger patterns of 32 LVDS signals each; we build, then, on a dedicated board, a 1-bit (L1) trigger signal for the TOTEM experiment and 16 trigger bits to the CMS experiment global trigger system for future common data taking.

  9. Triggering requirements for SSC physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gilchriese, M.G.D.

    1989-04-01

    Some aspects of triggering requirements for high P{sub T} physics processes at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) are described. A very wide range of trigger types will be required to enable detection of the large number of potential physics signatures possible at the SSC. Although in many cases trigger rates are not now well understood, it is possible to conclude that the ability to trigger on transverse energy, number and energy of jets, number and energy of leptons (electrons and muons), missing energy and combinations of these will be required. An SSC trigger system must be both highly flexible and redundant to ensure reliable detection of many new physics processes at the SSC.

  10. GLAST Burst Monitor Trigger Classification Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perrin, D. J.; Sidman, E. D.; Meegan, C. A.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V.

    2004-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), currently set for launch in the first quarter of 2007, will consist of two instruments, the GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) and the Large Area Telescope (LAT). One of the goals of the GBM is to identify and locate gamma-ray bursts using on-board software. The GLAST observatory can then be re-oriented to allow observations by the LAT. A Bayesian analysis will be used to distinguish gamma-ray bursts from other triggering events, such as solar flares, magnetospheric particle precipitation, soft gamma repeaters (SGRs), and Cygnus X-1 flaring. The trigger parameters used in the analysis are the burst celestial coordinates, angle from the Earth's horizon, spectral hardness, and the spacecraft geomagnetic latitude. The algorithm will be described and the results of testing will be presented.

  11. Evaluation of triggering functions in convective parameterization schemes using observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettammal, S.; Zhang, G. J.

    2013-12-01

    Realistic simulation of different modes of atmospheric variability ranging from the diurnal cycle to inter-annual variability in global climate models (GCMs) depends crucially on the convection triggering criteria. In this study, using the data from constrained variational analysis by the Atmospheric System Research program for single column models (SCM), the performance of the commonly used convective triggering functions in GCMs is evaluated, based on the equitable threat score (ETS) value, a widely used forecast verification metric. From the ETS score, four consistently better performing triggering functions were identified. They are based on dilute dCAPE, parcel buoyancy at the lifting condensation level (Bechtold scheme), undilute dCAPE and dilute CAPE triggering functions. The key variables used to define these triggering functions were examined in detail. It was found that the skill score value of the dilute dCAPE triggering function does not show much variation among different data sets. Analysis of the composite fields and probability distributions of key variables of the triggering functions, based on the correct-prediction, over-prediction, under-prediction of convection and correct prediction of no convection cases for convection onset, brings to light some critical factors responsible for the performance of the trigger functions.

  12. Low-power triggered data acquisition system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Champaigne, Kevin (Inventor); Sumners, Jonathan (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A low-power triggered data acquisition system and method utilizes low-powered circuitry, comparators, and digital logic incorporated into a miniaturized device interfaced with self-generating transducer sensor inputs to detect, identify and assess impact and damage to surfaces and structures wherein, upon the occurrence of a triggering event that produces a signal greater than a set threshold changes the comparator output and causes the system to acquire and store digital data representative of the incoming waveform on at least one triggered channel. The sensors may be disposed in an array to provide triangulation and location of the impact.

  13. Parameter studies using an IDL model of the FORTE trigger box

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.

    1996-06-01

    The author presents the results of parameter studies designed to estimate the optimum settings for the trigger circuit which will be used by the fast on-orbit recording of transient events (FORTE) satellite. Real broadband data recorded by the Los Alamos Blackbeard experiment was processed by a computer model that simulated the action of the FORTE trigger. The probability of detection and false-event rate was determined for a variety of trigger-parameter settings, and the results are presented in the report. The result of the study is a well-defined set of parameters chosen to give the best possible triggering performance.

  14. Triggers of airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kerrebijn, K F

    1986-01-01

    Most asthmatics have hyperresponsive airways. This makes them more sensitive than non-asthmatics to bronchoconstricting environmental exposures which, in their turn, may enhance responsiveness. Airway inflammation is considered to be a key determinant of airway hyperresponsiveness: the fact that chronic airway inflammation in cystic fibrosis does not lead to airway hyperresponsiveness of any importance indicates, however, that the role of airway inflammation is complex and incompletely elucidated. The main inducers of airway inflammation are viral infections, antigens, occupational stimuli and pollutants. Although exercise, airway cooling and hyper- or hypotonic aerosols are potent stimuli of bronchoconstriction, it is questionable if airway inflammation is involved in their mode of action. Each of the above-mentioned stimuli is discussed, with emphasis laid on the relation of symptoms to mechanisms.

  15. Triggered Release from Polymer Capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Esser-Kahn, Aaron P.; Odom, Susan A.; Sottos, Nancy R.; White, Scott R.; Moore, Jeffrey S.

    2011-07-06

    Stimuli-responsive capsules are of interest in drug delivery, fragrance release, food preservation, and self-healing materials. Many methods are used to trigger the release of encapsulated contents. Here we highlight mechanisms for the controlled release of encapsulated cargo that utilize chemical reactions occurring in solid polymeric shell walls. Triggering mechanisms responsible for covalent bond cleavage that result in the release of capsule contents include chemical, biological, light, thermal, magnetic, and electrical stimuli. We present methods for encapsulation and release, triggering methods, and mechanisms and conclude with our opinions on interesting obstacles for chemically induced activation with relevance for controlled release.

  16. Seismology: dynamic triggering of earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Gomberg, Joan; Johnson, Paul

    2005-10-06

    After an earthquake, numerous smaller shocks are triggered over distances comparable to the dimensions of the mainshock fault rupture, although they are rare at larger distances. Here we analyse the scaling of dynamic deformations (the stresses and strains associated with seismic waves) with distance from, and magnitude of, their triggering earthquake, and show that they can cause further earthquakes at any distance if their amplitude exceeds several microstrain, regardless of their frequency content. These triggering requirements are remarkably similar to those measured in the laboratory for inducing dynamic elastic nonlinear behaviour, which suggests that the underlying physics is similar.

  17. Does the gut microbiota trigger Hashimoto's thyroiditis?

    PubMed

    Mori, Kouki; Nakagawa, Yoshinori; Ozaki, Hiroshi

    2012-11-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis is an organ-specific autoimmune disease in which both genetic predisposition and environmental factors serve as the trigger of the disease. A growing body of evidence suggests involvement of viral infection in the development of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. However, not only pathogenic microorganisms but also non-pathogenic commensal microorganisms induce proinflammatory or regulatory immune responses within the host. In accordance, series of studies indicate a critical role of intestinal commensal microbiota in the development of autoimmune diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases, type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis. In contrast, the role of the gut and indigenous microorganisms in Hashimoto's thyroiditis has received little attention. Whereas activation of innate pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors and disturbed intestinal epithelial barrier may contribute to thyroiditis development, only a few studies have addressed a link between the gut and Hashimoto's thyroiditis and provided just indirect and weak evidence for such a link. Despite this unsatisfactory situation, we here focus on the possible interaction between the gut and thyroid autoimmunity. Further studies are clearly needed to test the hypothesis that the gut commensal microflora represents an important environmental factor triggering Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

  18. Effect-based trigger values for in vitro bioassays: Reading across from existing water quality guideline values.

    PubMed

    Escher, Beate I; Neale, Peta A; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2015-09-15

    Cell-based bioassays are becoming increasingly popular in water quality assessment. The new generations of reporter-gene assays are very sensitive and effects are often detected in very clean water types such as drinking water and recycled water. For monitoring applications it is therefore imperative to derive trigger values that differentiate between acceptable and unacceptable effect levels. In this proof-of-concept paper, we propose a statistical method to read directly across from chemical guideline values to trigger values without the need to perform in vitro to in vivo extrapolations. The derivation is based on matching effect concentrations with existing chemical guideline values and filtering out appropriate chemicals that are responsive in the given bioassays at concentrations in the range of the guideline values. To account for the mixture effects of many chemicals acting together in a complex water sample, we propose bioanalytical equivalents that integrate the effects of groups of chemicals with the same mode of action that act in a concentration-additive manner. Statistical distribution methods are proposed to derive a specific effect-based trigger bioanalytical equivalent concentration (EBT-BEQ) for each bioassay of environmental interest that targets receptor-mediated toxicity. Even bioassays that are indicative of the same mode of action have slightly different numeric trigger values due to differences in their inherent sensitivity. The algorithm was applied to 18 cell-based bioassays and 11 provisional effect-based trigger bioanalytical equivalents were derived as an illustrative example using the 349 chemical guideline values protective for human health of the Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling. We illustrate the applicability using the example of a diverse set of water samples including recycled water. Most recycled water samples were compliant with the proposed triggers while wastewater effluent would not have been compliant with a few

  19. Laser Trigger For High Speed Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Rong-Seng; Lin, Chin-Wu; Cheng, Tung

    1987-09-01

    High speed camera coorperated with laser trigger to catch high speed unpredictable events has many applications: such as scoring system for the end game of missile interception, war head explosive study etc. When the event happening in a very short duration, the repetition rate of the laser ranging must be as high as 5K herze and the pulse duration should be less than 10 nsec. In some environment, like inside the aircraft, the abailable space for high speed camera to set up is limited, large film capacity camera could not be used. In order to use the small capacity film, the exact trigger time for the camera are especially important. The target velocity, camera acceleration characteristics, speed regulation, camera size, weight and the ruggedness are all be considered before the laser trigger be designed. Electric temporal gate is used to measure the time of flight ranging datum. The triangular distance measurement principle are also used to get the ranging when the base line i.e. the distance between the laser transmitter and receiver are large enough.

  20. Red cell transfusion "trigger": a review.

    PubMed

    Petrides, Marian

    2003-07-01

    Despite the publication of several consensus guidelines that set forth recommendations for the transfusion of red cells, actual clinical practice continues to vary widely. Animal data and studies in human volunteers and patients support a red cell transfusion threshold of 7 to 8 g/dl in most patients. However, conflicting data, particularly in cardiac patients and in the elderly, suggest that it may be impossible to define a single red cell "trigger" for all patients. A well-designed, randomized, controlled trial is still needed to establish a safe threshold for red cell transfusion in adults with coronary artery disease.

  1. 24 CFR 573.8 - Environmental procedures and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... implements the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the related Federal environmental laws and... the proposed property triggers thresholds for the applicable Federal environmental laws and... any property, Federal environmental laws and authorities may apply when the property is: (i)...

  2. 24 CFR 573.8 - Environmental procedures and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... implements the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the related Federal environmental laws and... the proposed property triggers thresholds for the applicable Federal environmental laws and... any property, Federal environmental laws and authorities may apply when the property is: (i)...

  3. 24 CFR 573.8 - Environmental procedures and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... implements the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the related Federal environmental laws and... the proposed property triggers thresholds for the applicable Federal environmental laws and... any property, Federal environmental laws and authorities may apply when the property is: (i)...

  4. 24 CFR 573.8 - Environmental procedures and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... implements the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the related Federal environmental laws and... the proposed property triggers thresholds for the applicable Federal environmental laws and... any property, Federal environmental laws and authorities may apply when the property is: (i)...

  5. 24 CFR 573.8 - Environmental procedures and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... implements the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the related Federal environmental laws and... the proposed property triggers thresholds for the applicable Federal environmental laws and... any property, Federal environmental laws and authorities may apply when the property is: (i)...

  6. Damaging sediment density flows triggered by tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Ed L.; Talling, Peter J.; Carter, Lionel; Clare, Michael A.; Hunt, James E.

    2017-01-01

    The global network of subsea fibre-optic cables plays a critical role in the world economy and is considered as strategic infrastructure for many nations. Sediment density flows have caused significant disruption to this network in the recent past. These cable breaks represent the only means to actively monitor such flows over large oceanic regions. Here, we use a global cable break database to analyse tropical cyclone triggering of sediment density flows worldwide over 25 yrs. Cable breaking sediment density flows are triggered in nearly all areas exposed to tropical cyclones but most occur in the NW Pacific. They are triggered by one of three sets of mechanisms. Tropical cyclones directly trigger flows, synchronous to their passage, as a consequence of storm waves, currents and surges. Cyclones also trigger flows indirectly, with near-synchronous timing to their passage, as a consequence of peak flood discharges. Last, cyclones trigger flows after a delay of days as a consequence of the failure of large volumes of rapidly deposited sediment. No clear relationship emerges between tropical cyclone activity (i.e. track, frequency and intensity) and the number of sediment density flows triggered. This is a consequence of the short period of observation. However, expansion of the cable network and predicted changes to cyclone activity in specific regions increases the likelihood of increasing numbers of damaging flows.

  7. A programmable systolic trigger processor for FERA-bus data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appelquist, G.; Hovander, B.; Sellden, B.; Bohm, C.

    1992-09-01

    A generic CAMAC based trigger processor module for fast processing of large amounts of Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) data was designed. This module was realized using complex programmable gate arrays. The gate arrays were connected to memories and multipliers in such a way that different gate array configurations can cover a wide range of module applications. Using this module, it is possible to construct complex trigger processors. The module uses both the fast ECL FERA bus and the CAMAC bus for inputs and outputs. The latter is used for set up and control but may also be used for data output. Large numbers of ADC's can be served by a hierarchical arrangement of trigger processor modules which process ADC data with pipeline arithmetics and produce the final result at the apex of the pyramid. The trigger decision is transmitted to the data acquisition system via a logic signal while numeric results may be extracted by the CAMAC controller. The trigger processor was developed for the proposed neutral particle search. It was designed to serve as a second level trigger processor. It was required to correct all ADC raw data for efficiency and pedestal, calculate the total calorimeter energy, obtain the optimal time of flight data, and calculate the particle mass. A suitable mass cut would then deliver the trigger decision.

  8. The H1 Trigger with Emphasis on Tracking Triggers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedlberger, J.

    1995-11-01

    Since the commissioning of the electron proton collider HERA in 1992 at DESY the H1 experiment collected data with stable performance. The collision frequency of 10.4 MHz necessitates a pipelined design of the data acquisition and the trigger. A multilevel trigger is used to provide the required selectivity on physics processes and to allow for fast rejection of background events. Subdetector-based, deadtime-free triggers are combined to produce a first level trigger. The dcr φ trigger described herein, extracts its data from the central driftchamber. The drifttime of the signals is measured online and logical functions are applied on the digitized time measurements. To account for different performance parameters of the driftchamber the hardware demands a high flexibility, thus leading to a design with Programmable Gate Arrays (XILINX). Track-finding is achieved by means of ten thousand look-up tables, each with typically 20 inputs. Although the signals for one event will arrive within 1.1 μs, it is possible to determine the timing of the event online within one bunchcrossing (0.096 μs).

  9. Municipality of Isabela Agrees to Environmental Improvements at Landfill, Settlement with EPA Sets Timetable for Landfills Closure and Launches Recycling Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (New York, N.Y.) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Municipality of Isabela, Puerto Rico, have reached a legal agreement that will result in upgrades at the Isabela Municipal Solid Waste Landfill, and a plan to permanently close the landfill

  10. Full-scale physical model of landslide triggering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lora, M.; Camporese, M.; Salandin, P.

    2013-12-01

    Landslide triggering induced by high-intensity rainfall infiltration in hillslopes is a complex phenomenon that involves hydrological processes operating at different spatio-temporal scales. Empirical methods give rough information about landslide-prone areas, without investigating the theoretical framework needed to achieve an in-depth understanding of the involved physical processes. In this study, we tackle this issue through physical experiments developed in an artificial hillslope realized in the Department of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering of the University of Padua. The structure consists of a reinforced concrete box containing a soil prism with the following maximum dimensions: 3.5 m high, 6 m long, and 2 m wide. In order to analyze and examine the triggered failure state, the experiments are carried out with intensive monitoring of pore water pressure and moisture content response. Subsurface monitoring instruments are installed at several locations and depths to measure downward infiltration and/or a rising groundwater table. We measure the unsaturated soil water pressure as well as positive pore pressures preceding failure in each experiments with six tensiometers. The volumetric water content is determined through six Time Domain Reflectometry probes. Two pressure transducers are located in observation wells to determine the position of the water table in time. Two stream gauges are positioned at the toeslope, for measuring both runoff and subsurface outflow. All data are collected and recorded by an acquisition data system from Campbell Scientific. The artificial hillslope is characterized by well-known and controlled conditions, which are designed to reproduce an ideal set-up susceptible to heavy rainfall landslide. The hydrologic forcing is generated by a rainfall simulator realized with nozzles from Sprying System and. specifically designed to produce a spatially uniform rainfall of intensity ranging from 50 to 150 mm/h. The aim

  11. Where do we stand after twenty years of dynamic triggering studies? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prejean, S. G.; Hill, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    In the past two decades, remote dynamic triggering of earthquakes by other earthquakes has been explored in a variety of physical environments with a wide array of observation and modeling techniques. These studies have significantly refined our understanding of the state of the crust and the physical conditions controlling earthquake nucleation. Despite an ever growing database of dynamic triggering observations, significant uncertainties remain and vigorous debate in almost all aspects of the science continues. For example, although dynamic earthquake triggering can occur with peak dynamic stresses as small as 1 kPa, triggering thresholds and their dependence on local stress state, hydrological environment, and frictional properties of faults are not well understood. Some studies find a simple threshold based on the peak amplitude of shaking while others find dependencies on frequency, recharge time, and other parameters. Considerable debate remains over the range of physical processes responsible for dynamic triggering, and the wide variation in dynamic triggering responses and time scales suggests triggering by multiple physical processes. Although Coulomb shear failure with various friction laws can often explain dynamic triggering, particularly instantaneous triggering, delayed dynamic triggering may be dependent on fluid transport and other slowly evolving aseismic processes. Although our understanding of the global distribution of dynamic triggering has improved, it is far from complete due to spatially uneven monitoring. A major challenge involves establishing statistical significance of potentially triggered earthquakes, particularly if they are isolated events or time-delayed with respect to triggering stresses. Here we highlight these challenges and opportunities with existing data. We focus on environmental dependence of dynamic triggering by large remote earthquakes particularly in volcanic and geothermal systems, as these systems often have high

  12. Anthropogenic Triggering of Large Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    The physical mechanism of the anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes on active faults is studied on the basis of experimental phenomenology, i.e., that earthquakes occur on active tectonic faults, that crustal stress values are those measured in situ and, on active faults, comply to the values of the stress drop measured for real earthquakes, that the static friction coefficients are those inferred on faults, and that the effective triggering stresses are those inferred for real earthquakes. Deriving the conditions for earthquake nucleation as a time-dependent solution of the Tresca-Von Mises criterion applied in the framework of poroelasticity yields that active faults can be triggered by fluid overpressures < 0.1 MPa. Comparing this with the deviatoric stresses at the depth of crustal hypocenters, which are of the order of 1-10 MPa, we find that injecting in the subsoil fluids at the pressures typical of oil and gas production and storage may trigger destructive earthquakes on active faults at a few tens of kilometers. Fluid pressure propagates as slow stress waves along geometric paths operating in a drained condition and can advance the natural occurrence of earthquakes by a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, it is illusory to control earthquake triggering by close monitoring of minor ``foreshocks'', since the induction may occur with a delay up to several years.

  13. Anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2014-08-26

    The physical mechanism of the anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes on active faults is studied on the basis of experimental phenomenology, i.e., that earthquakes occur on active tectonic faults, that crustal stress values are those measured in situ and, on active faults, comply to the values of the stress drop measured for real earthquakes, that the static friction coefficients are those inferred on faults, and that the effective triggering stresses are those inferred for real earthquakes. Deriving the conditions for earthquake nucleation as a time-dependent solution of the Tresca-Von Mises criterion applied in the framework of poroelasticity yields that active faults can be triggered by fluid overpressures < 0.1 MPa. Comparing this with the deviatoric stresses at the depth of crustal hypocenters, which are of the order of 1-10 MPa, we find that injecting in the subsoil fluids at the pressures typical of oil and gas production and storage may trigger destructive earthquakes on active faults at a few tens of kilometers. Fluid pressure propagates as slow stress waves along geometric paths operating in a drained condition and can advance the natural occurrence of earthquakes by a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, it is illusory to control earthquake triggering by close monitoring of minor "foreshocks", since the induction may occur with a delay up to several years.

  14. Anthropogenic Triggering of Large Earthquakes

    PubMed Central

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The physical mechanism of the anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes on active faults is studied on the basis of experimental phenomenology, i.e., that earthquakes occur on active tectonic faults, that crustal stress values are those measured in situ and, on active faults, comply to the values of the stress drop measured for real earthquakes, that the static friction coefficients are those inferred on faults, and that the effective triggering stresses are those inferred for real earthquakes. Deriving the conditions for earthquake nucleation as a time-dependent solution of the Tresca-Von Mises criterion applied in the framework of poroelasticity yields that active faults can be triggered by fluid overpressures < 0.1 MPa. Comparing this with the deviatoric stresses at the depth of crustal hypocenters, which are of the order of 1–10 MPa, we find that injecting in the subsoil fluids at the pressures typical of oil and gas production and storage may trigger destructive earthquakes on active faults at a few tens of kilometers. Fluid pressure propagates as slow stress waves along geometric paths operating in a drained condition and can advance the natural occurrence of earthquakes by a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, it is illusory to control earthquake triggering by close monitoring of minor “foreshocks”, since the induction may occur with a delay up to several years. PMID:25156190

  15. Enhancing the Utility of the Rapid Environmental Assessment Database Through the Use of In Situ and Modelled Data Sets During Q316

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    and ambient noise data into a single database management system. As well, the database contains bathymetry data and temperature-salinity...données sur la température, la vitesse du son, l’affaiblissement de transmission et le bruit ambiant en un seul système de gestion de base de données...environmental data such as air temperatures and humidity, ambient noise data, and transmission loss data. The database (DB) was constructed under contract

  16. Performance evaluation of trigger algorithm for the MACE telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Kuldeep; Yadav, K. K.; Bhatt, N.; Chouhan, N.; Sikder, S. S.; Behere, A.; Pithawa, C. K.; Tickoo, A. K.; Rannot, R. C.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Mitra, A. K.; Koul, R.

    The MACE (Major Atmospheric Cherenkov Experiment) telescope with a light collector diameter of 21 m, is being set up at Hanle (32.80 N, 78.90 E, 4200m asl) India, to explore the gamma-ray sky in the tens of GeV energy range. The imaging camera of the telescope comprises 1088 pixels covering a total field-of-view of 4.30 × 4.00 with trigger field-of-view of 2.60 × 3.00 and an uniform pixel resolution of 0.120. In order to achieve low energy trigger threshold of less than 30 GeV, a two level trigger scheme is being designed for the telescope. The first level trigger is generated within 16 pixels of the Camera Integrated Module (CIM) based on 4 nearest neighbour (4NN) close cluster configuration within a coincidence gate window of 5 ns while the second level trigger is generated by combining the first level triggers from neighbouring CIMs. Each pixel of the telescope is expected to operate at a single pixel threshold between 8-10 photo-electrons where the single channel rate dominated by the after- pulsing is expected to be ˜500 kHz. The hardware implementation of the trigger logic is based on complex programmable logic devices (CPLD). The basic design concept, hardware implementation and performance evaluation of the trigger system in terms of threshold energy and trigger rate estimates based on Monte Carlo data for the MACE telescope will be presented in this meeting.

  17. Occurrence frequencies of IMF triggered and nontriggered substorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Tung-Shin; McPherron, Robert L.

    2003-01-01

    The occurrence of triggered and nontriggered substorm are examined in light of current interest in such issues as substorm identification, IMF By variations, and potentially undetected small-scale solar wind perturbation. Global substorms are identified using a sudden, persistent decrease in the AL index. The onset of this global expansion is taken to be the time of the Pi 2 burst nearest in time to the beginning of the AL, decrease. IMF triggers were identified both subjectively through visual scanning of the data and automatically with a computer algorithm. Both northward turnings of the IMF Bz and decreases in the amplitude of the By component were considered as possible triggers. Two different solar wind monitors were used in the investigation: IMP-8 in a circular orbit with a distance 12 to approx.35 Re to the Earth-Sun line and ISEE-2 in an elliptical orbit with a distance only 5 to approx.10 Re to the Earth-Sun line. The IMP-8 results show that the triggering probability does not depend on the distance of the monitor from the Earth-Sun line in the range 12-35 Re. The ISEE dataset shows that closer than 12 Re the triggering probability is the same as it is in the IMP-8 data set. Thus there appears to be no dependence of triggering on the location of the monitor provided it is within 35 Re of the Earth. We also demonstrate that including the By component does not significantly increase the probability of substorm triggering. Approximately 60% of all substorms appear to be triggered. Of the 40% for which we could not identify a trigger, 10% occurred while the IMF was northward. The data suggest that substorm onset is a consequence of an internal magnetospheric instability that is highly sensitive to changes in magnetospheric convection induced by a sudden change in the IMF, but that these changes are not always necessary.

  18. Triggering of repeating earthquakes in central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Chunquan; Gomberg, Joan; Ben-Naim, Eli; Johnson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic stresses carried by transient seismic waves have been found capable of triggering earthquakes instantly in various tectonic settings. Delayed triggering may be even more common, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Catalogs of repeating earthquakes, earthquakes that recur repeatedly at the same location, provide ideal data sets to test the effects of transient dynamic perturbations on the timing of earthquake occurrence. Here we employ a catalog of 165 families containing ~2500 total repeating earthquakes to test whether dynamic perturbations from local, regional, and teleseismic earthquakes change recurrence intervals. The distance to the earthquake generating the perturbing waves is a proxy for the relative potential contributions of static and dynamic deformations, because static deformations decay more rapidly with distance. Clear changes followed the nearby 2004 Mw6 Parkfield earthquake, so we study only repeaters prior to its origin time. We apply a Monte Carlo approach to compare the observed number of shortened recurrence intervals following dynamic perturbations with the distribution of this number estimated for randomized perturbation times. We examine the comparison for a series of dynamic stress peak amplitude and distance thresholds. The results suggest a weak correlation between dynamic perturbations in excess of ~20 kPa and shortened recurrence intervals, for both nearby and remote perturbations.

  19. Usage pattern-based exposure screening as a simple tool for the regional priority-setting in environmental risk assessment of veterinary antibiotics: a case study of north-western Germany.

    PubMed

    Menz, J; Schneider, M; Kümmerer, K

    2015-05-01

    Veterinary antibiotics (VAs) are widely recognized as important environmental contaminants. Despite the extensive use of antibiotic agents in meat and poultry production and the known resistance problems in human and veterinary medicine, detailed knowledge about usage patterns of VAs in Germany is still scarce. This lack of knowledge severely impacts current research on the environmental risk of VAs, but it is expected that recently established surveillance programs for antimicrobial drug usage will close this knowledge gap. Therefore, a spatially more precise environmental risk assessment and management might become possible in the near future. In this study, a new usage pattern-based exposure screening (UPES) approach for the comprehensive environmental exposure assessment of veterinary antibiotics was preliminarily assessed using approximated scenarios of antimicrobial substance usage in German meat and poultry production. Resulting predicted manure concentrations covered seven orders of magnitude ranging from ng kg(-1) to g kg(-1) dry weight (dw). Beyond that 14 antibiotic substances of 10 different antimicrobial classes were predicted to have the potential to occur in soil concentrations higher than 100 μg kg(-1) dw. These findings raise further questions regarding the environmental exposure and risks of frequently used VAs, especially in regions with higher-than-average livestock density. With this case study we demonstrate that UPES simplifies to account for differing local agricultural factors and therefore facilitates priority-setting on a regional level. In this context a simple prioritization scheme for environmental assessment of VAs, considering both the expected environmental concentration and the frequency of application, is proposed in this paper.

  20. Transformative environmental governance | Science Inventory ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Transformative governance is an approach to environmental governance that has the capacity to respond to, manage, and trigger regime shifts in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) at multiple scales. The goal of transformative governance is to actively shift degraded SESs to alternative, more desirable, or more functional regimes by altering the structures and processes that define the system. Transformative governance is rooted in ecological theories to explain cross-scale dynamics in complex systems, as well as social theories of change, innovation, and technological transformation. Similar to adaptive governance, transformative governance involves a broad set of governance components, but requires additional capacity to foster new social-ecological regimes including increased risk tolerance, significant systemic investment, and restructured economies and power relations. Transformative governance has the potential to actively respond to regime shifts triggered by climate change, and thus future research should focus on identifying system drivers and leading indicators associated with social-ecological thresholds. Transformative governance has the potential to actively respond to regime shifts triggered by climate change, and thus future research should focus on identifying system drivers and leading indicators associated with social-ecological thresholds.

  1. Slow Earthquakes Triggered by Typhoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.; Linde, A. T.; Sacks, I. S.

    2006-12-01

    Taiwan experiences very high deformation rates, particularly along its eastern margins. To investigate this region, we have started (in 2003) to install several small networks of Sacks-Evertson strainmeters. The initial data from all sites show characteristics of good quality: tidal signals with very high signal to noise ratio and large (~10,000 counts on 24 bit ADC system) amplitudes; strains trending into contraction with rates that decrease exponentially with time and earthquakes clearly recorded. Additionally the instruments have recorded a number of slow strain changes with durations ranging from about an hour up to a few days; we interpret these signals in terms of slow earthquakes. All of the slow events identified to date occur at the times of typhoons passing over or very close to the study area, but not all typhoons are associated with slow strain events (9 typhoons in 2004 were accompanied by 5 slow events). Seismicity for the area deliniates a roughly north-south striking steeply dipping (to the west) zone with reverse slip; the shallowest extent of the zone is just inland. We look for source solutions consistent with that tectonic setting. The slow events exhibit a considerable range of amplitude and complexity; small, short amplitude events have a quite simple and smooth waveform; the longest (2 days) and largest (100 to 350 nanostrain at 3 sites) has waveforms with a lot of structure. The similarity among the stations (located in an ~isosceles triangular array with spacing ~10 km and 4 km) is indicative of rupture propagation of a slow slip source (equivalent magnitude about 5). We are able to match the essential character of the data with a very simple model of a downward propagating line source with uniform slip; the largest slow event appears to be comprised of 3 sub-events all starting at a depth of ~3 km with the final sub-event propagating to a depth ~10 km. Typhoon activity produces a large increase in short period (~sec) energy so it is not

  2. Holocene earthquake-triggered turbidites from the Saguenay (Eastern Canada) and Reloncavi (Chilean margin) fjords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Onge, Guillaume; Chapron, Emmanuel; Mulsow, Sandor; Salas, Marcos; Debret, Maxime; Foucher, Anthony; Mulder, Thierry; Desmet, Marc; Costa, Pedro; Ghaleb, Bassam; Locat, Jacques

    2013-04-01

    Fjords are unique archives of climatic and environmental changes, but also of natural hazards. They can preserve thick sedimentary sequences deposited under very high sediment accumulation rates, making them ideally suited to record historical and pre-historical sedimentological events such as major landslides, floods or earthquakes. In fact, by carefully characterizing and dating the sediments and by comparing the basin fill seismic stratigraphy and sedimentary records with historical events, it is possible to "calibrate" recent rapidly deposited layers such as turbidites with a trigger mechanism and extend these observations further back in time by using seismic reflection profiles and longer sediment cores. Here, we will compare earthquake-triggered turbidites in fjords from the Southern and Northern Hemispheres: the Saguenay (Eastern Canada) and Reloncavi fjords (southern Chilean margin). In both settings, we will first look at basin fill geometries and at the sedimentological properties of historical events before extending the records further back in time. In both fjords, several turbidites were associated with large magnitude historic and pre-historic earthquakes including the 1663 AD (M>7) earthquake in the Saguenay Fjord, and the 1960 (M 9.5), 1837 (M~8) and 1575 AD major Chilean subduction earthquakes in the Reloncavi Fjord. In addition, a sand layer with sea urchin fragments and the exoscopic characteristics typical of a tsunami deposit was observed immediately above the turbidite associated with the 1575 AD earthquake in the Reloncavi Fjord and supports both the chronology and the large magnitude of that historic earthquake. In both fjords, as well as in other recently recognized earthquake-triggered turbidites, the decimeter-to meter-thick normally-graded turbidites are characterized by a homogeneous, but slightly fining upward tail. Finally, new radiocarbon results will be presented and indicate that at least 19 earthquake-triggered turbidites were

  3. Industrial accidents triggered by lightning.

    PubMed

    Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth; Cozzani, Valerio

    2010-12-15

    Natural disasters can cause major accidents in chemical facilities where they can lead to the release of hazardous materials which in turn can result in fires, explosions or toxic dispersion. Lightning strikes are the most frequent cause of major accidents triggered by natural events. In order to contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing lightning risk at industrial facilities, lightning-triggered accident case histories were retrieved from the major industrial accident databases and analysed to extract information on types of vulnerable equipment, failure dynamics and damage states, as well as on the final consequences of the event. The most vulnerable category of equipment is storage tanks. Lightning damage is incurred by immediate ignition, electrical and electronic systems failure or structural damage with subsequent release. Toxic releases and tank fires tend to be the most common scenarios associated with lightning strikes. Oil, diesel and gasoline are the substances most frequently released during lightning-triggered Natech accidents.

  4. Detector array control and triggering

    SciTech Connect

    Aiello, S.; Anzalone, A.; Bartolucci, M. |

    1998-08-01

    A commercial DSP-based board installed in a host-PC was employed for the fast, on-line and real-time computation of special algorithms, in order to perform event selection and operate as a 2nd level trigger. Moreover an ad hoc build interface, realized using PLDs with a view to connecting the DSP-board to the ADCs and to the data acquisition system, has been tested in order to evaluate the performances of these programmable devices used as a look-up-table and as a decisional part of a 1st level trigger.

  5. Dynamic triggering and earthquake swarms on East Pacific Rise transform faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattania, Camilla; McGuire, Jeffrey J.; Collins, John A.

    2017-01-01

    While dynamic earthquake triggering has been reported in several continental settings, offshore observations are rare. Oceanic transform faults share properties with continental geothermal areas known for dynamic triggering: high geothermal gradients, high seismicity rates, and frequent swarms. We study dynamic triggering along the East Pacific Rise by analyzing 1 year of seismicity recorded by Ocean Bottom Seismographs. By comparing the response to teleseismic waves from global earthquakes, we find triggering to be most sensitive to changes in normal stress and to preferentially occur above 0.25 kPa. The clearest example of triggering occurs on the Quebrada and Gofar faults after the Mw8.0 Wenchuan earthquake. On Gofar, triggered seismicity occurs between the rupture areas of large earthquakes, within a zone characterized by aseismic slip, abundant microseismicity, frequent swarms, and low Vp. We infer that lithological properties inhibiting rupture propagation, such as high porosity and fluid content, also favor dynamic triggering.

  6. A New Look at Trigger Point Injections

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Clara S. M.; Wong, Steven H. S.

    2012-01-01

    Trigger point injections are commonly practised pain interventional techniques. However, there is still lack of objective diagnostic criteria for trigger points. The mechanisms of action of trigger point injection remain obscure and its efficacy remains heterogeneous. The advent of ultrasound technology in the noninvasive real-time imaging of soft tissues sheds new light on visualization of trigger points, explaining the effect of trigger point injection by blockade of peripheral nerves, and minimizing the complications of blind injection. PMID:21969825

  7. Suicide Triggers Described by Herodotus

    PubMed Central

    Auchincloss, Stephane; Ahmadi, Jamshid

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to better understand the triggers of suicide, particularly among the ancient Greek and Persian soldiers and commanders. Method: ‘Herodotus:TheHistories’ is a history of the rulers and soldiery who participated in the Greco-Persian wars (492-449 BCE). A new translation (2013) of this manuscript was studied. Accounts of suicide were collected and collated, with descriptions of circumstances, methods, and probable triggers. Results: Nine accounts of suicide were identified. Eight of these were named individuals (4 Greeks and 4 Persians); of whom, seven were male. Only one (not the female) appeared to act in response to a mental disorder. Other triggers of suicide included guilt, avoidance of dishonour/punishment and altruism. Cutting/ stabbing was the most common method; others included hanging, jumping, poison, and burning (the single female). Conclusion: While soldiers at a time of war do not reflect the general community, they are nevertheless members of their society. Thus, this evidence demonstrates that suicide triggered by burdensome circumstances (in addition to mental disorder) was known to the Greek and Persian people more than two millennia ago. PMID:27437010

  8. A Parameterization for the Triggering of Landscape Generated Moist Convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynn, Barry H.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Abramopoulos, Frank

    1998-01-01

    A set of relatively high resolution three-dimensional (3D) simulations were produced to investigate the triggering of moist convection by landscape generated mesoscale circulations. The local accumulated rainfall varied monotonically (linearly) with the size of individual landscape patches, demonstrating the need to develop a trigger function that is sensitive to the size of individual patches. A new triggering function that includes the effect of landscapes generated mesoscale circulations over patches of different sizes consists of a parcel's perturbation in vertical velocity (nu(sub 0)), temperature (theta(sub 0)), and moisture (q(sub 0)). Each variable in the triggering function was also sensitive to soil moisture gradients, atmospheric initial conditions, and moist processes. The parcel's vertical velocity, temperature, and moisture perturbation were partitioned into mesoscale and turbulent components. Budget equations were derived for theta(sub 0) and q(sub 0). Of the many terms in this set of budget equations, the turbulent, vertical flux of the mesoscale temperature and moisture contributed most to the triggering of moist convection through the impact of these fluxes on the parcel's temperature and moisture profile. These fluxes needed to be parameterized to obtain theta(sub 0) and q(sub 0). The mesoscale vertical velocity also affected the profile of nu(sub 0). We used similarity theory to parameterize these fluxes as well as the parcel's mesoscale vertical velocity.

  9. Automatic sets and Delone sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbé, A.; von Haeseler, F.

    2004-04-01

    Automatic sets D\\subset{\\bb Z}^m are characterized by having a finite number of decimations. They are equivalently generated by fixed points of certain substitution systems, or by certain finite automata. As examples, two-dimensional versions of the Thue-Morse, Baum-Sweet, Rudin-Shapiro and paperfolding sequences are presented. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for an automatic set D\\subset{\\bb Z}^m to be a Delone set in {\\bb R}^m . The result is then extended to automatic sets that are defined as fixed points of certain substitutions. The morphology of automatic sets is discussed by means of examples.

  10. How to estimate moments and quantiles of environmental data sets with non-detected observations? A case study on volatile organic compounds in marine water samples.

    PubMed

    Huybrechts, Tom; Thas, Olivier; Dewulf, Jo; Van Langenhov, Herman

    2002-10-25

    Concentrations of 27 priority volatile organic compounds were measured in water samples of the North Sea and Scheldt estuary during a 3-year monitoring study. Despite the use of a sensitive analytical method, a number of data were censored. That is, some concentrations were below the decision limit or critical level defined by IUPAC. To characterize the observed measurement results, an attempt was made to identify an appropriate procedure to compute summary statistics for the censored data sets. Several parametric and robust parametric approaches based on the maximum likelihood principle and probability-plot regression method were evaluated for the estimation of the mean, standard deviation, median and interquartile range using three uncensored analytes (1,1,2-trichloroethane, tetrachloroethene and o-xylene) from the monitoring survey. Performance was assessed by artificially censoring the observed concentrations and estimating moments and quantiles at each censoring level. Results showed that methods with the least distributional assumptions, such as the robust bias-corrected restricted maximum likelihood method, perform best for estimating the mean and standard deviation, while both parametric and robust parametric techniques can be used for quantiles. Hence, summary statistics could be estimated with little bias (5-10%) up to 80% of censoring for the data sets employed in this study.

  11. Autism and environmental influences: review and commentary.

    PubMed

    Bello, Scott C

    2007-01-01

    Progress has been slow in identifying pre- and post-natal environmental exposures that might trigger the features that characterize autism. During the past thirty years, research in the field of autism has been conducted in a setting in which diagnostic criteria for this condition have changed and broadened, and differences of opinion regarding diagnostic issues and diagnostic terminology continue. The documented prevalence of all forms of autism has increased steadily during this time, suggesting one or more environmental contributors. Not established, however, is whether an increasing incidence of autism is responsible for increasing prevalence. The increase in documented prevalence could result from expanding and changing case definitions and increased reporting due to increased awareness on the part of professionals who work with children and by the public. This review provides a background for the evolving story of autism and describes the research on the relation between autism and the environment, with a particular focus on some of the more recently proposed environmental triggers. Critical analysis of this body of scientific research in a historical framework helps to explain the often controversial nature of the proposed relations between autism and environmental factors, as well as to rationalize some of the pitfalls in research design and in the often questionable interpretation of data so obtained.

  12. Text Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents annotations of approximately 30 titles grouped in text sets. Defines a text set as five to ten books on a particular topic or theme. Discusses books on the following topics: living creatures; pirates; physical appearance; natural disasters; and the Irish potato famine. (SG)

  13. Initial results from a mesoscale atmospheric simulation system and comparisons with the AVE-SESAME I data set. [Atmospheric Variability Experiment-Severe Environmental Storms And Mesoscale Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, M. L.; Zack, J. W.; Wong, V. C.; Tuccillo, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    The development of a comprehensive mesoscale atmospheric simulation system (MASS) is described in detail. The modeling system is designed for both research and real-time forecast applications. The 14-level numerical model, which has a 48 km grid mesh, can be run over most of North America and the adjacent oceanic regions. The model employs sixth-order accurate numerics, generalized similarity theory boundary-layer physics, a sophisticated cumulus parameterization scheme, and state of the art analysis and initialization techniques. Examples of model output on the synoptic and subsynoptic scales are presented for the AVE-SESAME I field experiment on 10-11 April 1979. The model output is subjectively compared to the observational analysis and the LFM II output on the synoptic scale. Subsynoptic model output is compared to analyses generated from the AVE-SESAME I data set.

  14. Ichnological evidence for the environmental setting of the Fossil-Lagerstätten in the Devonian Hunsrück Slate, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutcliffe, Owen E.; Briggs, Derek E. G.; Bartels, Christoph

    1999-03-01

    Analysis of the ichnology and sedimentology of the Lower Devonian Hunsrück Slate, Germany, reveals that the distribution and preservation of the famous pyritized fauna were controlled by the deposition of fine-grained turbidites that formed a firm substrate. The nature of this substrate is evidenced by the preservation of laminae and the finest details of arthropod trackways. The trace fossils are dominated by two ecological groups: those made by epifaunal organisms and those involving burrow systems connected to the sediment-water interface. Trace makers that moved through the sediment are poorly represented. The diversity of in situ body fossils and epifaunal traces confirms that conditions within the water column remained well oxygenated, even though the sediment rapidly became inhospitable. The Hunsrück Slate Konservat-Lagerstätten are remarkable in preserving soft tissues where unusual geochemical conditions prevailed in the environment where the animals lived, rather than following transport to a different setting.

  15. Environmental implications of plastic debris in marine settings--entanglement, ingestion, smothering, hangers-on, hitch-hiking and alien invasions.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Murray R

    2009-07-27

    Over the past five or six decades, contamination and pollution of the world's enclosed seas, coastal waters and the wider open oceans by plastics and other synthetic, non-biodegradable materials (generally known as 'marine debris') has been an ever-increasing phenomenon. The sources of these polluting materials are both land- and marine-based, their origins may be local or distant, and the environmental consequences are many and varied. The more widely recognized problems are typically associated with entanglement, ingestion, suffocation and general debilitation, and are often related to stranding events and public perception. Among the less frequently recognized and recorded problems are global hazards to shipping, fisheries and other maritime activities. Today, there are rapidly developing research interests in the biota attracted to freely floating (i.e. pelagic) marine debris, commonly known as 'hangers-on and hitch-hikers' as well as material sinking to the sea floor despite being buoyant. Dispersal of aggressive alien and invasive species by these mechanisms leads one to reflect on the possibilities that ensuing invasions could endanger sensitive, or at-risk coastal environments (both marine and terrestrial) far from their native habitats.

  16. Radiation-Triggered Surveillance for UF6 Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, Michael M.

    2015-12-01

    This paper recommends the use of radiation detectors, singly or in sets, to trigger surveillance cameras. Ideally, the cameras will monitor cylinders transiting the process area as well as the process area itself. The general process area will be surveyed to record how many cylinders have been attached and detached to the process between inspections. Rad-triggered cameras can dramatically reduce the quantity of recorded images, because the movement of personnel and equipment not involving UF6 cylinders will not generate a surveillance review file.

  17. Method for triggering an action

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Bartholomew, David B.; Johnson, Monte L.; Moon, Justin; Koehler, Roger O.

    2006-10-17

    A method for triggering an action of at least one downhole device on a downhole network integrated into a downhole tool string synchronized to an event comprises determining latency, sending a latency adjusted signal, and performing the action. The latency is determined between a control device and the at least one downhole device. The latency adjusted signal for triggering an action is sent to the downhole device. The action is performed downhole synchronized to the event. A preferred method for determining latency comprises the steps: a control device sends a first signal to the downhole device; after receiving the signal, the downhole device sends a response signal to the control device; and the control device analyzes the time from sending the signal to receiving the response signal.

  18. The CDF silicon vertex trigger

    SciTech Connect

    B. Ashmanskas; A. Barchiesi; A. Bardi

    2003-06-23

    The CDF experiment's Silicon Vertex Trigger is a system of 150 custom 9U VME boards that reconstructs axial tracks in the CDF silicon strip detector in a 15 {mu}sec pipeline. SVT's 35 {mu}m impact parameter resolution enables CDF's Level 2 trigger to distinguish primary and secondary particles, and hence to collect large samples of hadronic bottom and charm decays. We review some of SVT's key design features. Speed is achieved with custom VLSI pattern recognition, linearized track fitting, pipelining, and parallel processing. Testing and reliability are aided by built-in logic state analysis and test-data sourcing at each board's input and output, a common inter-board data link, and a universal ''Merger'' board for data fan-in/fan-out. Speed and adaptability are enhanced by use of modern FPGAs.

  19. Environmental setting, water quality, and ecological indicators of surface-water quality in the Mermentau River Basin, southwestern Louisiana, 1998-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skrobialowski, Stanley C.; Mize, Scott V.; Demcheck, Dennis K.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected data from 29 wells and 24 surface-water sites in the Mermentau River Basin, 1998-2001, to better understand ground-water and surface-water quality; aquatic invertebrate communities; and habitat conditions, in relation to land use. This study was apart of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, which was designed to assess water quality as it relates to various land uses. Water-quality data were evaluated with criteria established for the protection of drinking water and aquatic life, and bed-sediment data were compared to aquatic life criteria. Water-quality and ecological data were analyzed statistically in relation to drainage area and agricultural land-use integrity. Concentrations of nutrients and major inorganic ions in ground water and surface water generally were highest in the southeastern part of the study area where soils contain thick loess deposits. Peak concentrations of nutrients in surface water occurred March-may at two sites with high agricultural intensity; the lowest concentrations occurred August-January. The greatest potential for eutrophic conditions in surface water, based on nutrient concentrations, existed March-May, at about the same time or shortly after ricefields were drained. Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) were exceeded for sulfate, chloride, iron, or manganese in samples from 20 wells, and for iron or manganese in samples from all surface-water sites. Fewer pesticides were detected in ground water than in surface water. In 11 of of the 29 wells sampled, at least one pesticide or pesticide degradation product was detected. The most frequently detected pesticides or pesticide degradation products in ground water were the herbicides benzaton and atrazine. Concentrations of 47 pesticides and degradation products were detected in surface water. At least 3 pesticides were detected in all surface-water samples. In 72 percent of

  20. Optical Spectra of Triggered Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, T. D.; Biagi, C. J.; Hill, J. D.; Jordan, D. M.; Uman, M. A.; Christian, H. J., Jr.

    2009-12-01

    In August 2009, the first optical spectra of triggered lightning flashes were acquired. Data from two triggered lightning flashes were obtained at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing in north-central Florida. The spectrometer that was used has an average dispersion of 260 Å/mm resulting in an average resolution of 5 Å when mated to a Photron (SA1.1) high-speed camera. The spectra captured with this system had a free spectral range of 3800-8000 Å. The spectra were captured at 300,000 frames per second. The spectrometer's vertical field of view was 3 m at an altitude 50 m above the launch tower, intended to view the middle of the triggering wire. Preliminary results show that the copper spectrum dominated the earliest part of the flash and copper lines persisted during the total lifetime of the detectable spectrum. Animations over the lifetime of the stroke from the initial wire illumination to multiple return strokes show the evolution of the spectrum. In addition, coordinated high speed channel base current, electric field and imagery measurements of the exploding wire, downward leaders, and return strokes were recorded. Quantitative analysis of the spectral evolution will be discussed in the context of the overall flash development.

  1. Stimulus conflict triggers behavioral avoidance.

    PubMed

    Dignath, David; Eder, Andreas B

    2015-12-01

    According to a recent extension of the conflict-monitoring theory, conflict between two competing response tendencies is registered as an aversive event and triggers a motivation to avoid the source of conflict. In the present study, we tested this assumption. Over five experiments, we examined whether conflict is associated with an avoidance motivation and whether stimulus conflict or response conflict triggers an avoidance tendency. Participants first performed a color Stroop task. In a subsequent motivation test, participants responded to Stroop stimuli with approach- and avoidance-related lever movements. These results showed that Stroop-conflict stimuli increased the frequency of avoidance responses in a free-choice motivation test, and also increased the speed of avoidance relative to approach responses in a forced-choice test. High and low proportions of response conflict in the Stroop task had no effect on avoidance in the motivation test. Avoidance of conflict was, however, obtained even with new conflict stimuli that had not been presented before in a Stroop task, and when the Stroop task was replaced with an unrelated filler task. Taken together, these results suggest that stimulus conflict is sufficient to trigger avoidance.

  2. Development of autonomous triggering instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, Steve E.; Swift, Theresa M.; Fonda, James W.

    2008-03-01

    Triggering instrumentation for autonomous monitoring of load-induced strain is described for economical, fast bridge inspection. The development addresses one aspect for the management of transportation infrastructure - bridge monitoring and inspection. The objectives are to provide quantitative performance information from a load test, to minimize the setup time at the bridge, and to minimize the closure time to traffic. Multiple or networked measurements can be made for a prescribed loading sequence. The proposed smart system consists of in-situ strain sensors, an embedded data acquisition module, and a measurement triggering system. A companion control unit is mounted on the truck serving as the load. As the truck moves to the proper position, the desired measurement is automatically relayed back to the control unit. In this work, the testing protocol is developed and the performance parameters for the triggering and data acquisition are measured. The test system uses a dedicated wireless sensor mote and an infrared positioning system. The electronic procedure offers improvements in available information and economics.

  3. Structural and functional diversity of Nematoda in relation with environmental variables in the Setúbal and Cascais canyons, Western Iberian Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingels, Jeroen; Billett, David S. M.; Kiriakoulakis, Konstadinos; Wolff, George A.; Vanreusel, Ann

    2011-12-01

    Samples collected at two different depths (ca. 3200 and ca. 4200 m) in the Setúbal and Cascais canyons off the Portuguese coast, during the HERMES RRS Charles Darwin cruise CD179, were analysed for (1) sediment biogeochemistry (TOC, TN) and (2) composition, and structural and trophic diversity of nematode communities. Multivariate PERMANOVA analysis on the nematode community data revealed differences between sediment layers that were greater than differences between canyons, water depths, and stations. This suggests that biogeochemical gradients along the vertical sediment profile are crucial in determining nematode community structure. The interaction between canyon conditions and the nematode community is illustrated by biogeochemical patterns in the sediment and the prevalence of nematode genera that are able to persist in disturbed sediments. Trophic analysis of the nematode community indicated that non-selective deposit feeders are dominant, presumably because of their non-selective feeding behaviour compared to other feeding types, which gives them a competitive advantage in exploiting lower-quality food resources. This study presents a preliminary conceptual scheme for interactions between canyon conditions and the resident fauna.

  4. The heated condensation framework as a convective trigger in the NCEP Climate Forecast System version 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombardi, Rodrigo J.; Tawfik, Ahmed B.; Manganello, Julia V.; Marx, Lawrence; Shin, Chul-Su; Halder, Subhadeep; Schneider, Edwin K.; Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Kinter, James L.

    2016-09-01

    An updated version of the Heated Condensation Framework (HCF) is implemented as a convective triggering criterion into the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFSv2). The new trigger replaces the original criteria in both the deep (Simplified Arakawa-Schubert - SAS) and shallow (SAS based) convective schemes. The performance of the original and new triggering criteria is first compared against radiosonde observations. Then, a series of hindcasts are performed to evaluate the influence of the triggering criterion in the CFSv2 representation of summer precipitation, the diurnal cycle of precipitation, and hurricanes that made landfall. The observational analysis shows that the HCF trigger better captures the frequency of convection, where the original SAS trigger initiates convection too often. When implemented in CFSv2, the HCF trigger improves the seasonal forecast of the Indian summer monsoon rainfall, including the representation of the onset dates of the rainy season over India. On the other hand, the HCF trigger increases error in the seasonal forecast of precipitation over the eastern United States. The HCF trigger also improves the representation of the intensity of hurricanes. Moreover, the simulation of hurricanes provides insights on the mechanism whereby the HCF trigger impacts the representation of convection.

  5. ATLAS level-1 calorimeter trigger: Monitoring and data reprocessing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimond, David; Hong, Tae; Carlson, Benjamin; Atlas Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    We present the monitoring and data reprocessing for the calorimeter-based hardware level-1 trigger system (L1Calo) for the ATLAS experiment. This trigger system was upgraded after the Run-1 data taking period (2009-2012) to prepare for Run-2 (2015-current), which allowed better control the event rates for algorithms based on jets and/or missing energy. Monitoring tools for the upgraded system is described. We also present a new offline tool to reprocess previous data samples with altered L1Calo settings, such as calibration constants and noise cuts. The samples are used to study the dependence of the event rates and signal efficiencies on the settings. The studies can help plan the appropriate L1Calo settings for upcoming data taking periods as well as for future runs.

  6. Factors controlling present-day tufa dynamics in the Monasterio de Piedra Natural Park (Iberian Range, Spain): depositional environmental settings, sedimentation rates and hydrochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez-Urbez, M.; Arenas, C.; Sancho, C.; Osácar, C.; Auqué, L.; Pardo, G.

    2010-07-01

    The tufa record and hydrochemical characteristics of the River Piedra in the Monasterio de Piedra Natural Park (NE Spain) were studied for 6 years. The mean discharge of this river was 1.22 m3/s. The water was supersaturated with calcium carbonate. The HCO3 -, Ca2+ and TDIC concentrations decreased along the 0.5-km-long studied stretch, whereas the calcite SI showed no systematic downstream or seasonal variation over the same stretch. Several sedimentary subenvironments exist in which four broad types of tufa facies form: (1) Dense laminated tufa (stromatolites), (2) Dense to porous, massive tufa, (3) Porous, coarsely laminated tufa with bryophytes and algae, and (4) Dense, hard, laminated deposits in caves. The half-yearly period thickness and weight of sediment accumulated on 14 tablets installed in several subenvironments showed that the deposition rate was greater in fast flowing river areas and in stepped waterfalls, and lower in slow flowing or standing river areas and in spray and splash areas. Mechanical CO2 outgassing is the main factor controlling calcite precipitation on the river bed and in waterfalls, but this process does not explain the seasonal changes in depositional rates. The deposition rates showed a half-yearly period pattern recorded in all fluvial subenvironments persistent over time (5.26 mm, 0.86 g/cm2 in warm periods; 2.26 mm, 0.13 g/cm2 in cool periods). Mass balance calculations showed higher calcite mass values in warm (21.58 mg/L) than in cool (13.68 mg/L) periods. This biannual variation is mainly attributed to the seasonal differences in temperature that caused changes in inorganic calcite precipitation rate and in biomass and the correlative photosynthetic activity. Tufa sedimentation was therefore controlled by both physicochemical and biological processes. The results of this study may help test depositional rates and their environmental controls and thus assess the climatic and hydrological significance of ancient tufas in semi

  7. On the sensitivity of transtensional versus transpressional tectonic regimes to remote dynamic triggering by Coulomb failure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, David P.

    2015-01-01

     Accumulating evidence, although still strongly spatially aliased, indicates that although remote dynamic triggering of small-to-moderate (Mw<5) earthquakes can occur in all tectonic settings, transtensional stress regimes with normal and subsidiary strike-slip faulting seem to be more susceptible to dynamic triggering than transpressional regimes with reverse and subsidiary strike-slip faulting. Analysis of the triggering potential of Love- and Rayleigh-wave dynamic stresses incident on normal, reverse, and strike-slip faults assuming Andersonian faulting theory and simple Coulomb failure supports this apparent difference for rapid-onset triggering susceptibility.

  8. Environmental Basis of Autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Floreani, Annarosa; Leung, Patrick S C; Gershwin, M Eric

    2016-06-01

    The three common themes that underlie the induction and perpetuation of autoimmunity are genetic predisposition, environmental factors, and immune regulation. Environmental factors have gained much attention for their role in triggering autoimmunity, with increasing evidence of their influence as demonstrated by epidemiological studies, laboratory research, and animal studies. Environmental factors known to trigger and perpetuate autoimmunity include infections, gut microbiota, as well as physical and environmental agents. To address these issues, we will review major potential mechanisms that underlie autoimmunity including molecular mimicry, epitope spreading, bystander activation, polyclonal activation of B and T cells, infections, and autoinflammatory activation of innate immunity. The association of the gut microbiota on autoimmunity will be particularly highlighted by their interaction with pharmaceutical agents that may lead to organ-specific autoimmunity. Nonetheless, and we will emphasize this point, the precise mechanism of environmental influence on disease pathogenesis remains elusive.

  9. Study of Tectonic Tremor in Depth: Triggering Stress Observation and Model of the Triggering Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tien-Huei

    including NVT occur on these sections have slower slip rates than that of the general earthquakes (Rubin, 2008; Ide, 2008). In Azna region, we use envelope and waveform cross-correlation to detect tremor. We investigate the stress required to trigger tremor and tremor spectrum using continuous broadband seismograms from 11 stations located near Anza, California. We examine 44 Mw≥7.4 teleseismic events between 2001 and 2011, in addition to one regional earthquake of smaller-magnitude, the 2009 Mw 6.5 Gulf of California earthquake, because it induced extremely high strain at Anza. The result suggests that not only the amplitude of the induced strain, but also the period of the incoming surface wave, may control triggering of tremor near Anza. In addition, we find that the transient-shear stress (17--35 kPa) required to trigger tremor along the SJF at Anza is distinctly higher than what has been reported for the well-studied SAF (Gulihem et al. 2010). We model slip initiation using the analytical solution of rate-and-state friction. We verify the correctness of this method by comparing the results with that from the dynamic model, implemented using the Multi-Dimensional Spectral Boundary Integral Code (MDSBI) written by Eric M. Dunham from Sanford University. We find that the analytical result is consistent with that of the dynamic model. We set up a patch model with which the source stress and frictional conditions best resemble the current estimates of the tremor source. The frictional regime of this patch is rate-weakening. The initial normal and shear stress, and friction parameters are suggested by previous observations of tectonic tremors both in this and other studies (Brown et al., 2005; Shelly et al., 2006; Miyazawa, 2008; Ben-Zion, 2012). Our dynamic loading first consists of simple harmonic stress change with fixed periods, simplifying the transient stress history to resemble teleseismic earthquakes. We tested the period and amplitude of such periodic loading. We

  10. Research on Dynamic Stress Triggering at Chinese North-South Seismic Belt in Recent Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B.

    2012-12-01

    geologic structure. The research on seismic dynamic stress is complicated, for it is affected by so many factors: the main earthquake parameters and the structure of triggered area with the time delay problem at the same time. The main earthquake parameters have huge effect when we calculated stress tensor in the triggered point. Three key elements of change fault (rake, dip angle and slide angle), breaking time and rising time have great effect on the final result and trend of the dynamic stress. The change of the main seismic moment and the size of the seismic fault only affect the result of calculation, but the trend does not change. The change of most main earthquakes' parameters can affect the final result, so we must get much more accurate parameters when calculating the dynamic stress changing produced by earthquakes. Besides, tectonic setting also has great effect on the earthquake dynamic triggering. Studying indicates that most triggered earthquakes happened in geothermal or volcanic area and extension blocks. We also find a little of triggered earthquakes in nobbing blocks. Strike-slip and normal fault earthquakes are more easily triggered by dynamic stress. Seismic activity will be triggered not long before strong shocks surface wave arrived at triggered area, but lots of triggered earthquakes have time delay, the time may range from several days to several weeks.

  11. Estimating return period of landslide triggering by Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peres, D. J.; Cancelliere, A.

    2016-10-01

    Assessment of landslide hazard is a crucial step for landslide mitigation planning. Estimation of the return period of slope instability represents a quantitative method to map landslide triggering hazard on a catchment. The most common approach to estimate return periods consists in coupling a triggering threshold equation, derived from an hydrological and slope stability process-based model, with a rainfall intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curve. Such a traditional approach generally neglects the effect of rainfall intensity variability within events, as well as the variability of initial conditions, which depend on antecedent rainfall. We propose a Monte Carlo approach for estimating the return period of shallow landslide triggering which enables to account for both variabilities. Synthetic hourly rainfall-landslide data generated by Monte Carlo simulations are analysed to compute return periods as the mean interarrival time of a factor of safety less than one. Applications are first conducted to map landslide triggering hazard in the Loco catchment, located in highly landslide-prone area of the Peloritani Mountains, Sicily, Italy. Then a set of additional simulations are performed in order to evaluate the traditional IDF-based method by comparison with the Monte Carlo one. Results show that return period is affected significantly by variability of both rainfall intensity within events and of initial conditions, and that the traditional IDF-based approach may lead to an overestimation of the return period of landslide triggering, or, in other words, a non-conservative assessment of landslide hazard.

  12. Efficient Distribution of Triggered Synchronous Block Diagrams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-21

    called a trigger. At a given synchronous step, if the trigger is true , the block fires normally; otherwise, the block stutters , that is, keeps its...trigger is false, no updates are made and the values written at the outputs are the same as in the previous step (i.e., the process “ stutters ”). All

  13. Holin triggering in real time.

    PubMed

    White, Rebecca; Chiba, Shinobu; Pang, Ting; Dewey, Jill S; Savva, Christos G; Holzenburg, Andreas; Pogliano, Kit; Young, Ry

    2011-01-11

    During λ infections, the holin S105 accumulates harmlessly in the membrane until, at an allele-specific time, suddenly triggering to form irregular holes of unprecedented size (>300 nm), releasing the endolysin from the cytoplasm, resulting in lysis within seconds. Here we used a functional S105-GFP chimera and real-time deconvolution fluorescence microscopy to show that the S105-GFP fusion accumulated in a uniformly distributed fashion, until suddenly, within 1 min, it formed aggregates, or rafts, at the time of lethal triggering. Moreover, the isogenic fusion to a nonlethal S105 mutant remained uniformly distributed, whereas a fusion to an early-lysing mutant showed early triggering and early raft formation. Protein accumulation rates of the WT, early, and nonlethal alleles were identical. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) revealed that the nonlethal mutant and untriggered WT hybrids were highly mobile in the membrane, whereas the WT raft was essentially immobile. Finally, an antiholin allele, S105(ΔTMD1)-mcherryfp, in the product of which the S105 sequence deleted for the first transmembrane domain was fused to mCherryFP. This hybrid retained full antiholin activity, in that it blocked lethal hole formation by the S105-GFP fusion, accumulated uniformly throughout the host membrane and prevented the S105-GFP protein from forming rafts. These findings suggest that phage lysis occurs when the holin reaches a critical concentration and nucleates to form rafts, analogous to the initiation of purple membrane formation after the induction of bacteriorhodopsin in halobacteria. This model for holin function may be relevant for processes in mammalian cells, including the release of nonenveloped viruses and apoptosis.

  14. Infrasonic Observations from Triggered Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arechiga, R. O.; Johnson, J. B.; Edens, H. E.; Rison, W.; Thomas, R. J.; Eack, K.; Eastvedt, E. M.

    2009-12-01

    We measured acoustic signals during both triggered and natural lightning. A comparative analysis of simultaneous data from the Lightning Mapping Array (LMA), acoustic measurements and digital high-speed photography operating in the same area was made. Acoustic emissions, providing quantitative estimates of acoustic power and spectral content, will complement coincident investigations, such as X-ray emissions. Most cloud-to-ground lightning flashes lower negative charge to ground, but flashes that lower positive charge to ground are often unusually destructive and are less understood. The New Mexico Tech Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) locates the sources of impulsive RF radiation produced by lightning flashes in three spatial dimensions and time, operating in the 60 - 66 MHz television band. However, positive breakdown is rarely detected by the LMA and positive leader channels are outlined only by recoil events. Positive cloud-to-ground (CG) channels are usually not mapped (or partially mapped because they may have recoil events). Acoustic and electric field instruments are a good complement to the LMA, since they can detect both negative and positive leaders. An array of five stations was deployed during the Summer of 2009 (July 20 to August 13) in the Magdalena mountains of New Mexico, to monitor infrasound (below 20 Hz) and audio range sources due to natural and triggered lightning. The stations were located at close (57 m), medium (303 and 537 m) and far (1403 and 2556 m) distances surrounding the triggering site. Each station consisted of five sensors, one infrasonic and one in the audio range at the center, and three infrasonic in a triangular configuration. This research will provide a more complete picture, and provide further insight into the nature of lightning.

  15. Laser-triggered vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Brannon, Paul J.; Cowgill, Donald F.

    1990-01-01

    A laser-triggered vacuum switch has a material such as a alkali metal halide on the cathode electrode for thermally activated field emission of electrons and ions upon interaction with a laser beam, the material being in contact with the cathode with a surface facing the discharge gap. The material is preferably a mixture of KCl and Ti powders. The laser may either shine directly on the material, preferably through a hole in the anode, or be directed to the material over a fiber optic cable.

  16. An experimental comparison of triggered and random pulse train uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Henzlova, Daniela; Menlove, Howard O; Swinhoe, Martyn T

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present an experimental comparison of signal-triggered and randomly triggered based analysis algorithms of neutron multiplicity data. Traditional shift register type signal-triggered multiplicity analysis of singles, doubles and triples rates is compared with analysis using randomly triggered gates. Two methods of random gate generation are explored - non-overlapping gates (Feyrunan approach) and periodic overlapping gates (fast accidentals). Using californium sources with low, medium and high rate in combination with AmLi sources (as a surrogate for plutonium) we investigate relative standard deviation (RSD) of data in order to determine if there are parameter spaces in which one of the measurement methods should be preferred. Neutron correlation analysis is a commonly used NDA technique to assay plutonium mass. The data can be collected in two distinct ways: using signal-triggered or randomly triggered counting gates. Analysis algorithms were developed for both approaches to determine singles (S), doubles (D) and triples (7) rates from the measured sample. Currently the most commonly implemented technique to collect neutron coincidence data utilizes shift register based electronics. Shift register uses signal-triggered counting gates to generate foreground multiplicity distribution of correlated+accidental events and a random gate (opened after a predefined long delay following the signal trigger) to generate background multiplicity distribution of accidental events. Modern shift registers include fast accidental option to sample data with a fixed clock frequency. This way a set of overlapping gates is used to generate background multiplicity distributions in order to improve the measurement precision. In parallel to shift register approach the Feynman variance technique is frequently used, which utilizes set of consecutive non-overlapping gates. In general, different user communities (e.g. safeguards, nuclear material accountancy, emergency

  17. Dynamic Triggering of Microseismic Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, H.; Van der Baan, M.

    2015-12-01

    Microseismic events are commonly recorded during hydraulic fracturing experiments. In microseismic interpretations, each event is often regarded as independent and uncorrelated to neighboring ones. In reality, both the rock deformation (static stresses) and transient wave motion (dynamic stresses) associated with microseismic events add to the stress field together with the external loading (fluid injection). We believe the resulting static and dynamic stress perturbations will influence both the timing and spatial evolution of the microseismic cloud. We study the dynamic triggering of microseismicity using numerical simulations of a biaxial deformation test by means of a bonded particle method (Potyondy and Cundall, 2004), where crack development can be tracked and analyzed independently. Our methodology is to compare the stress changes due to one specific event with the occurrence of the next few events in the numerical simulations. In addition, we compute the dynamic stress perturbations for recorded large events analytically given their (non-double couple) failure mechanisms. Our results show that cracks following a major event tend to form in zones affected by the dynamic stresses by promoting new failure in areas that are critically stressed. This confirms that dynamic triggering during hydraulic fracturing operations but also larger scale seismicity is likely. It also demonstrates the often complex interplay between the dynamic and static stress changes and their effect on the temporal and spatial evolution of rock deformation at all scales.

  18. Environmental setting of San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conomos, T.J.; Smith, R.E.; Gartner, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    San Francisco Bay, the largest bay on the California coast, is a broad, shallow, turbid estuary comprising two geographically and hydrologically distinct subestuaries: the northern reach lying between the connection to the Pacific Ocean at the Golden Gate and the confluence of the Sacramento-San Joaquin River system, and the southern reach (herein called South Bay) between the Golden Gate and the southern terminus of the bay. The northern reach is a partially mixed estuary dominated by seasonally varying river inflow, and the South Bay is a tidally oscillating lagoon-type estuary. Freshwater inflows, highest during winter, generate strong estuarine circulation and largely determine water residence times. They also bring large volumes of dissolved and particulate materials to the estuary. Tidal currents, generated by mixed semidiurnal and diurnal tides, mix the water column and, together with river inflow and basin geometry, determine circulation patterns. Winds, which are strongest during summer and during winter storms, exert stress on the bay's water surface, thereby creating large waves that resuspend sediment from the shallow bay bottom and, together with the tidal currents, contribute markedly to the transport of water masses throughout the shallow estuary. ?? 1985 Dr W. Junk Publishers.

  19. Generator Set Environmental and Stability Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    be seen in Figure 1. Table 1. Generator Equipment Details Model Serial Numbers of Units Tested Output [kW] MFR Engine Model Weight [lbs...Scientific model CR3000. Thirty two thermocouples were used on each generator , along with five pressure transducers. Voltage, current, and frequency...cleaned and adjusted to meet the spec. After reinstallation, both generators ran smooth at no load conditions. Model : Serial: Cylinder # Old

  20. Documentation of myofascial trigger points.

    PubMed

    Fischer, A A

    1988-04-01

    Two basic diagnostic features of myofascial trigger points (TPs), namely, local tenderness and alteration of tissue consistency (such as in taut bands, muscle spasm), can be documented quantitatively by simple hand-held instruments. A pressure threshold meter (algometer) assists in location of TPs and their relative sensitivity. A side-to-side difference exceeding 2kg in comparison with normal values indicates pathologic tenderness. The effect of treatment can be quantified. Pressure tolerance, measured over normal muscles and shin bones, expresses pain sensitivity. Myopathy is suspected if muscle tolerance drops below bone tolerance. Tissue compliance measurement documents objectively and quantitatively alteration in soft tissue consistency. Muscle spasm, tension, spasticity, taut bands, scar tissues, or fibrositic nodules can be documented. The universal clinical dynamometer is used as part of a physical examination to quantify weakness. Thermography (heat imaging) demonstrates discoid shaped hot spots over TPs. Muscle activity, spasm, or contraction is visualized as increased heat emission in the shape of the active muscle.

  1. Landslide triggering by rain infiltration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iverson, Richard M.

    2000-01-01

    Landsliding in response to rainfall involves physical processes that operate on disparate timescales. Relationships between these timescales guide development of a mathematical model that uses reduced forms of Richards equation to evaluate effects of rainfall infiltration on landslide occurrence, timing, depth, and acceleration in diverse situations. The longest pertinent timescale is A/D0, where D0 is the maximum hydraulic diffusivity of the soil and A is the catchment area that potentially affects groundwater pressures at a prospective landslide slip surface location with areal coordinates x, y and depth H. Times greater than A/D0 are necessary for establishment of steady background water pressures that develop at (x, y, H) in response to rainfall averaged over periods that commonly range from days to many decades. These steady groundwater pressures influence the propensity for landsliding at (x, y, H), but they do not trigger slope failure. Failure results from rainfall over a typically shorter timescale H2/D0 associated with transient pore pressure transmission during and following storms. Commonly, this timescale ranges from minutes to months. The shortest timescale affecting landslide responses to rainfall is √(H/g), where g is the magnitude of gravitational acceleration. Postfailure landslide motion occurs on this timescale, which indicates that the thinnest landslides accelerate most quickly if all other factors are constant. Effects of hydrologic processes on landslide processes across these diverse timescales are encapsulated by a response function, R(t*) = √(t*/π) exp (-1/t*) - erfc (1/√t*), which depends only on normalized time, t*. Use of R(t*) in conjunction with topographic data, rainfall intensity and duration information, an infinite-slope failure criterion, and Newton's second law predicts the timing, depth, and acceleration of rainfall-triggered landslides. Data from contrasting landslides that exhibit rapid, shallow motion and slow, deep

  2. Transformative environmental governance

    EPA Science Inventory

    Transformative governance is an approach to environmental governance that has the capacity to respond to, manage, and trigger regime shifts in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) at multiple scales. The goal of transformative governance is to actively shift degraded SESs to ...

  3. Disaster triggers disaster: Earthquake triggering by tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wdowinski, S.; Tsukanov, I.

    2011-12-01

    Three recent devastating earthquakes, the 1999 M=7.6 Chi-Chi (Taiwan), 2010 M=7.0 Leogane (Haiti), 2010 M=6.4 Kaohsiung (Taiwan), and additional three moderate size earthquakes (66 earthquake that occurred in the central mountainous area of Taiwan within three years after the typhoon. The 2009 Morakot typhoon was followed by 2009 M=6.2 Nantou and 2010 M=6.4 Kaohsiung earthquakes; the 1969 Flossie typhoon was followed by an M=6.3 earthquake in 1972; and the 1996 Herb typhoon by the 1998 M=6.2 Rueyli and 1999 M=7.6 Chi-Chi earthquakes. The earthquake catalog of Taiwan lists only two other M>6 main-shocks that occurred in Taiwan's central mountainous belt, one of them was in 1964 only four months after the wet Typhoon Gloria poured heavy rain in the same area. We suggest that the close proximity in time and space between wet tropical cyclones and earthquakes reflects a physical link between the two hazard types in which these earthquakes were triggered by rapid erosion induced by tropical cyclone's heavy rain. Based on remote sensing observations, meshfree finite element modeling, and Coulomb failure stress analysis, we show that the

  4. Measuring impairments of functioning and health in patients with axial spondyloarthritis by using the ASAS Health Index and the Environmental Item Set: translation and cross-cultural adaptation into 15 languages

    PubMed Central

    Kiltz, U; van der Heijde, D; Boonen, A; Bautista-Molano, W; Burgos-Vargas, R; Chiowchanwisawakit, P; Duruoz, T; El-Zorkany, B; Essers, I; Gaydukova, I; Géher, P; Gossec, L; Grazio, S; Gu, J; Khan, M A; Kim, T J; Maksymowych, W P; Marzo-Ortega, H; Navarro-Compán, V; Olivieri, I; Patrikos, D; Pimentel-Santos, F M; Schirmer, M; van den Bosch, F; Weber, U; Zochling, J; Braun, J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The Assessments of SpondyloArthritis international society Health Index (ASAS HI) measures functioning and health in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA) across 17 aspects of health and 9 environmental factors (EF). The objective was to translate and adapt the original English version of the ASAS HI, including the EF Item Set, cross-culturally into 15 languages. Methods Translation and cross-cultural adaptation has been carried out following the forward–backward procedure. In the cognitive debriefing, 10 patients/country across a broad spectrum of sociodemographic background, were included. Results The ASAS HI and the EF Item Set were translated into Arabic, Chinese, Croatian, Dutch, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Korean, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, Thai and Turkish. Some difficulties were experienced with translation of the contextual factors indicating that these concepts may be more culturally-dependent. A total of 215 patients with axial SpA across 23 countries (62.3% men, mean (SD) age 42.4 (13.9) years) participated in the field test. Cognitive debriefing showed that items of the ASAS HI and EF Item Set are clear, relevant and comprehensive. All versions were accepted with minor modifications with respect to item wording and response option. The wording of three items had to be adapted to improve clarity. As a result of cognitive debriefing, a new response option ‘not applicable’ was added to two items of the ASAS HI to improve appropriateness. Discussion This study showed that the items of the ASAS HI including the EFs were readily adaptable throughout all countries, indicating that the concepts covered were comprehensive, clear and meaningful in different cultures. PMID:27752358

  5. Internal Triggering Marx Generator Using Hydrogen Thyratrons.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    Operation of a Marx generator using hydrogen thyratrons as switches, with the switches in the upper stages of the Marx being triggered by a signal...derived from the lower stages (internal triggering) was investigated. The Marx was in a negative output configuration and utilized pulse forming...PFN’s. Timing requirements and erection diagnostics were determined using a two-stage Marx , with both stages triggered from separate external sources

  6. The BTeV trigger: Recent developments

    SciTech Connect

    Kasper, Penelope; /Fermilab

    2003-12-01

    BTeV is a collider experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron dedicated to precision measurements of CP violation, mixing and rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons. The detector is a forward spectrometer with a pixel vertex detector inside a dipole magnet. A unique feature of BTeV is the trigger, which reconstructs tracks and vertices in every beam crossing. They present here an overview of the BTeV trigger and a description of recent improvements in trigger timing.

  7. Observations and modeling of dynamically triggered high frequency burst events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Adam David

    2008-10-01

    A series of high-frequency (>20Hz) bursts of energy are observed on strong motion records during the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan Earthquake Mw7.6. We hypothesized that these bursts originated near the individual stations as small, shallow events that were dynamically triggered by the P- and S-waves generated by the Chi-Chi mainshock. These bursts were originally interpreted as a mainshock source signal by Chen et al., [2006] but our observations of events on strong motion records recorded at stations up to 170 km from the mainshock epicenter is consistent with the local triggering hypothesis. If the bursts originated on the Chi-Chi fault plane, as hypothesized by Chen et al. [2006] based on their analysis of recordings within 20Km from the Chelungpu fault, then they should not be observable at this distance assuming any reasonable value of crustal attenuation. The bursts on all strong motion stations in the Taiwan Central Weather Bureau network (TWCB) were identified using a numerical algorithm approach. This data set was analyzed in the context of local dynamic triggering which resulted in a stress threshold for triggering in the range 0.03 to 0.05 MPa for S-wave triggering and 0.0013 to 0.0033 MPa for P-wave triggering, consistent with prior observations of surface wave triggering. In an attempt to better characterize the nature of high frequency bursts, similar analysis of strong motion records was performed on the records of the 2004 Parkfield, CA earthquake (Mw6) at the USGS UPSAR array. The average array spacing was relatively small compared to the instruments in Taiwan so that further constraint of the location of bursts was possible. Bursts were found to be incoherent even for stations spaced 40m apart, suggesting that they occur in a region approximately 20m from the stations. The triggering threshold was found to be ~0.02Mpa, consistent with the observations from Taiwan. To test the possibility of nucleating unstable slip events in the very shallow crust we

  8. Monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance triggering atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Usman; Isbel, Nicole; Mollee, Peter; Mallett, Andrew; Govindarajulu, Sridevi; Francis, Ross

    2017-02-01

    Haemolytic uraemic syndrome is a rare condition with an overall incidence of one to two cases in a population of 100 000 and approximately 10% of these cases are classified as atypical. Atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS) is a thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) characterized by microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia (MAHA), thrombocytopenia and acute kidney injury. aHUS can be genetic, acquired or idiopathic (negative genetic screening and no environmental triggers). We describe a case of aHUS triggered by monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance (MGRS) successfully treated with plasmapheresis and a bortezomib-based chemotherapy regimen, resulting in marked improvement in renal function and other markers of haemolysis. This patient has been in remission for more than 2 years currently.

  9. Ionospheric effects of whistler waves from rocket-triggered lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotts, B. R. T.; Gołkowski, M.; Moore, R. C.

    2011-12-01

    Lightning-induced electron precipitation (LEP) is one of the primary mechanisms for energetic electron loss from Earth's radiation belts. While previous works have emphasized lightning location and the return stroke peak current in quantifying lightning's role in radiation belt electron loss, the spectrum of the lightning return stroke has received far less attention. Rocket-triggered lightning experiments performed at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) at Camp Blanding, Florida, provide a means to directly measure the spectral content of individual lightning return strokes. Using an integrated set of numerical models and directly observed rocket-triggered lightning channel-base currents we calculate the latitudinal dependence of the precipitation signature. Model results indicate that rocket-triggered lightning may produce detectable LEP events and that return strokes with higher ELF (3 Hz-3 kHz) content cause proportionally more ionospheric ionization and precipitate more electrons at higher latitudes than return strokes with proportionally higher VLF (3 kHz-30 kHz) content. The predicted spatio-temporal signature of the induced electron precipitation is highly dependent upon the return stroke spectral content. As a result, we postulate that rocket-triggered lightning experiments enable us to the estimate the spectral profile of energetic electrons precipitated from the Earth's radiation belts.

  10. Pattern formation in the wake of triggered pushed fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goh, Ryan; Scheel, Arnd

    2016-08-01

    Pattern-forming fronts are often controlled by an external stimulus which progresses through a stable medium at a fixed speed, rendering it unstable in its wake. By controlling the speed of excitation, such stimuli, or ‘triggers’, can mediate pattern forming fronts which freely invade an unstable equilibrium and control which pattern is selected. In this work, we analytically and numerically study when the trigger perturbs an oscillatory pushed free front. In such a situation, the resulting patterned front, which we call a pushed trigger front, exhibits a variety of phenomenon, including snaking, non-monotonic wave-number selection, and hysteresis. Assuming the existence of a generic oscillatory pushed free front, we use heteroclinic bifurcation techniques to prove the existence of trigger fronts in an abstract setting motivated by the spatial dynamics approach. We then derive a leading order expansion for the selected wave-number in terms of the trigger speed. Furthermore, we show that such a bifurcation curve is governed by the difference of certain strong-stable and weakly-stable spatial eigenvalues associated with the decay of the free pushed front. We also study prototypical examples of these phenomena in the cubic-quintic complex Ginzburg Landau equation and a modified Cahn-Hilliard equation.

  11. Permanently enhanced dynamic triggering probabilities as evidenced by two M ≥ 7.5 earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, Joan S.

    2013-01-01

    The 2012 M7.7 Haida Gwaii earthquake radiated waves that likely dynamically triggered the 2013M7.5 Craig earthquake, setting two precedents. First, the triggered earthquake is the largest dynamically triggered shear failure event documented to date. Second, the events highlight a connection between geologic structure, sedimentary troughs that act as waveguides, and triggering probability. The Haida Gwaii earthquake excited extraordinarily large waves within and beyond the Queen Charlotte Trough, which propagated well into mainland Alaska and likely triggering the Craig earthquake along the way. Previously, focusing and associated dynamic triggering have been attributed to unpredictable source effects. This case suggests that elevated dynamic triggering probabilities may exist along the many structures where sedimentary troughs overlie major faults, such as subduction zones’ accretionary prisms and transform faults’ axial valleys. Although data are sparse, I find no evidence of accelerating seismic activity in the vicinity of the Craig rupture between it and the Haida Gwaii earthquake.

  12. Prompt trigger primitives for a self-seeded track trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressanandt, N.; Halgeri, A.; Kamat, M.; Koppal, V.; Newcomer, M.

    2012-10-01

    A viable self-seeded track trigger for a high rate collider detector environment must have excellent angular precision, response times commensurate with beam crossing rate and low mass. We have designed a fast clustering block servicing 128 contiguous strips to be included in an LHC upgrade silicon strip front end ASIC (ABC130) with these objectives in mind. The block is based on the presence of an analog front end with binary (threshold determined) strip readout latched at each beam crossing. Combinatorial logic tests for the presence of one or two adjacent strips over threshold, a qualifying cluster, at each beam crossing and transmits up to two, eight bits clusters descriptors, specifying address and cluster width via a high speed LVDS output. It is envisioned that a correlator chip, presently in conception, receives this data and via look-up tables checks for coincident hits between silicon strip layers. Since the clustering output will report the presence of one or two hit strips, a half strip pitch ( ~ 40 um for the ATLAS detector) resolution may be possible for each cluster. Our timing results show that the combinatorial clustering logic will settle within 6 ns. Assuming a beam crossing rate of 40 MHz, 16 bits of serialized data can be shifted out at 640MHz each crossing. This will allow a beam synchronous update rate providing data for up to two clusters for each bank of 128 strips. The data latency into the correlator chip will be only two crossings. Present power estimates suggest that the fast cluster block with LVDS driver will consume less than 12 mW.

  13. Fluid pressure waves trigger earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Fluids-essentially meteoric water-are present everywhere in the Earth's crust, occasionally also with pressures higher than hydrostatic due to the tectonic strain imposed on impermeable undrained layers, to the impoundment of artificial lakes or to the forced injections required by oil and gas exploration and production. Experimental evidence suggests that such fluids flow along preferred paths of high diffusivity, provided by rock joints and faults. Studying the coupled poroelastic problem, we find that such flow is ruled by a nonlinear partial differential equation amenable to a Barenblatt-type solution, implying that it takes place in form of solitary pressure waves propagating at a velocity which decreases with time as v ∝ t [1/(n - 1) - 1] with n ≳ 7. According to Tresca-Von Mises criterion, these waves appear to play a major role in earthquake triggering, being also capable to account for aftershock delay without any further assumption. The measure of stress and fluid pressure inside active faults may therefore provide direct information about fault potential instability.

  14. Trigger Points: An Anatomical Substratum

    PubMed Central

    Akamatsu, Flávia Emi; Ayres, Bernardo Rodrigues; Saleh, Samir Omar; Hojaij, Flávio; Andrade, Mauro; Hsing, Wu Tu; Jacomo, Alfredo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to bring the trapezius muscle knowledge of the locations where the accessory nerve branches enter the muscle belly to reach the motor endplates and find myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). Although anatomoclinical correlations represent a major feature of MTrP, no previous reports describing the distribution of the accessory nerve branches and their anatomical relationship with MTrP are found in the literature. Both trapezius muscles from twelve adult cadavers were carefully dissected by the authors (anatomy professors and medical graduate students) to observe the exact point where the branches of the spinal accessory nerve entered the muscle belly. Dissection was performed through stratigraphic layers to preserve the motor innervation of the trapezius muscle, which is located deep in the muscle. Seven points are described, four of which are motor points: in all cases, these locations corresponded to clinically described MTrPs. The four points were common in these twelve cadavers. This type of clinical correlation between spinal accessory nerve branching and MTrP is useful to achieve a better understanding of the anatomical correlation of MTrP and the physiopathology of these disorders and may provide a scientific basis for their treatment, rendering useful additional information to therapists to achieve better diagnoses and improve therapeutic approaches. PMID:25811029

  15. LHC signatures of WIMP-triggered baryogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yanou; Okui, Takemichi; Yunesi, Arash

    2016-12-01

    A robust mechanism was recently proposed in which thermal freeze-out of WIMPs can provide a unified origin of dark matter and baryon abundances in our universe. We point out that this WIMP-triggered baryogenesis mechanism can exhibit a rich collider phenomenology and be tested at the current and near-future experiments at LHC, even in the case where the WIMPs are completely devoid of SM gauge and Higgs portal interactions, as may be motivated by the persistent null results of WIMP dark matter searches. We catalog a rich array of LHC signatures robustly present in such a scenario. In particular, the simplest such implementation can already offer a very clean signal of a TeV-scale resonance that decays to diphotons with a cross section that can easily be within the reach of the current and near-future LHC runs in the region of parameter space that leads to a successful baryogenesis. Other characteristic signatures include the production of multiple bottom and/or multiple top quarks, promptly or displaced. An even more exotic possibility is the production of two separate sets of isolated emerging jets connected by a charged track, which may require new dedicated studies. Finally, dinucleon decay can also provide a powerful probe of the mechanism.

  16. Submarine landslides: processes, triggers and hazard prediction.

    PubMed

    Masson, D G; Harbitz, C B; Wynn, R B; Pedersen, G; Løvholt, F

    2006-08-15

    Huge landslides, mobilizing hundreds to thousands of km(3) of sediment and rock are ubiquitous in submarine settings ranging from the steepest volcanic island slopes to the gentlest muddy slopes of submarine deltas. Here, we summarize current knowledge of such landslides and the problems of assessing their hazard potential. The major hazards related to submarine landslides include destruction of seabed infrastructure, collapse of coastal areas into the sea and landslide-generated tsunamis. Most submarine slopes are inherently stable. Elevated pore pressures (leading to decreased frictional resistance to sliding) and specific weak layers within stratified sequences appear to be the key factors influencing landslide occurrence. Elevated pore pressures can result from normal depositional processes or from transient processes such as earthquake shaking; historical evidence suggests that the majority of large submarine landslides are triggered by earthquakes. Because of their tsunamigenic potential, ocean-island flank collapses and rockslides in fjords have been identified as the most dangerous of all landslide related hazards. Published models of ocean-island landslides mainly examine 'worst-case scenarios' that have a low probability of occurrence. Areas prone to submarine landsliding are relatively easy to identify, but we are still some way from being able to forecast individual events with precision. Monitoring of critical areas where landslides might be imminent and modelling landslide consequences so that appropriate mitigation strategies can be developed would appear to be areas where advances on current practice are possible.

  17. Nonlinear Dynamical Triggering of Slow-Slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, P. A.; Knuth, M. W.; Kaproth, B. M.; Carpenter, B. M.; Guyer, R. A.; Le Bas, P.; Daub, E. G.; Marone, C.

    2010-12-01

    Among the most fascinating, recent discoveries in seismology have been the phenomena of triggered slip, including triggered earthquakes and triggered-tremor, as well as triggered slow, silent-slip during which no seismic energy is radiated. Because fault nucleation depths cannot be probed directly, the physical regimes in which these phenomena occur are poorly understood. Thus determining physical properties that control diverse types of triggered fault sliding and what frictional constitutive laws govern triggered faulting variability is challenging. We are characterizing the physical controls of triggered faulting with the goal of developing constitutive relations by conducting laboratory and numerical modeling experiments in sheared granular media at varying load conditions. In order to simulate granular fault zone gouge in the laboratory, glass beads are sheared in a double-direct configuration under constant normal stress, while subject to transient perturbation by acoustic waves. We find that triggered, slow, silent-slip occurs at very small confining loads (~1-3 MPa) that are smaller than those where dynamic earthquake triggering takes place (4-7 MPa), and that triggered slow-slip is associated with bursts of LFE-like acoustic emission. Experimental evidence suggests that the nonlinear dynamical response of the gouge material induced by dynamic waves may be responsible for the triggered slip behavior: the slip-duration, stress-drop and along-strike slip displacement are proportional to the triggering wave amplitude. Further, we observe a shear-modulus decrease corresponding to dynamic-wave triggering relative to the shear modulus of stick-slips. Modulus decrease in response to dynamical wave amplitudes of roughly a microstrain and above is a hallmark of elastic nonlinear behavior. We believe that the dynamical waves increase the material non-affine elastic deformation during shearing, simultaneously leading to instability and slow-slip. The inferred

  18. Nonlinear dynamical triggering of slow slip

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Paul A; Knuth, Matthew W; Kaproth, Bryan M; Carpenter, Brett; Guyer, Robert A; Le Bas, Pierre - Yves; Daub, Eric G; Marone, Chris

    2010-12-10

    Among the most fascinating, recent discoveries in seismology have been the phenomena of triggered slip, including triggered earthquakes and triggered-tremor, as well as triggered slow, silent-slip during which no seismic energy is radiated. Because fault nucleation depths cannot be probed directly, the physical regimes in which these phenomena occur are poorly understood. Thus determining physical properties that control diverse types of triggered fault sliding and what frictional constitutive laws govern triggered faulting variability is challenging. We are characterizing the physical controls of triggered faulting with the goal of developing constitutive relations by conducting laboratory and numerical modeling experiments in sheared granular media at varying load conditions. In order to simulate granular fault zone gouge in the laboratory, glass beads are sheared in a double-direct configuration under constant normal stress, while subject to transient perturbation by acoustic waves. We find that triggered, slow, silent-slip occurs at very small confining loads ({approx}1-3 MPa) that are smaller than those where dynamic earthquake triggering takes place (4-7 MPa), and that triggered slow-slip is associated with bursts of LFE-like acoustic emission. Experimental evidence suggests that the nonlinear dynamical response of the gouge material induced by dynamic waves may be responsible for the triggered slip behavior: the slip-duration, stress-drop and along-strike slip displacement are proportional to the triggering wave amplitude. Further, we observe a shear-modulus decrease corresponding to dynamic-wave triggering relative to the shear modulus of stick-slips. Modulus decrease in response to dynamical wave amplitudes of roughly a microstrain and above is a hallmark of elastic nonlinear behavior. We believe that the dynamical waves increase the material non-affine elastic deformation during shearing, simultaneously leading to instability and slow-slip. The inferred

  19. Environmental era

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, W.

    1982-02-01

    The emergence of environmentalism is a post 1960 phenomenon that has become increasingly conservative and elite in its effort to protect privilege rather than promote progress. Subgroups have successfully lobbied for regulations that force the public to pay for standards that benefit a small portion of the population. The environmentalist elite has benefited from our economic system, but sets high environmental goals to make it more difficult for others to benefit. Its positions conform to those of the aristocracy throughout history. Environmental elitists oppose putting a price on clean air regardless of any benefit to other social goals. The new elite grew out of an awareness that the middle class was enlarging and diluting prestige. After seeking early alliances with the socially disadvantaged, liberalism later turned to the traditional conservatism of the rich and upper middle class. The author traces this development and its parallel with an underlying wish for an environmental reckoning. (DCK)

  20. Methods for automatic trigger threshold adjustment

    DOEpatents

    Welch, Benjamin J; Partridge, Michael E

    2014-03-18

    Methods are presented for adjusting trigger threshold values to compensate for drift in the quiescent level of a signal monitored for initiating a data recording event, thereby avoiding false triggering conditions. Initial threshold values are periodically adjusted by re-measuring the quiescent signal level, and adjusting the threshold values by an offset computation based upon the measured quiescent signal level drift. Re-computation of the trigger threshold values can be implemented on time based or counter based criteria. Additionally, a qualification width counter can be utilized to implement a requirement that a trigger threshold criterion be met a given number of times prior to initiating a data recording event, further reducing the possibility of a false triggering situation.

  1. The LHCb trigger and its upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziurda, A.

    2016-07-01

    The current LHCb trigger system consists of a hardware level, which reduces the LHC inelastic collision rate of 30 MHz, at which the entire detector is read out. In a second level, implemented in a farm of 20 k parallel-processing CPUs, the event rate is reduced to about 5 kHz. We review the performance of the LHCb trigger system during Run I of the LHC. Special attention is given to the use of multivariate analyses in the High Level Trigger. The major bottleneck for hadronic decays is the hardware trigger. LHCb plans a major upgrade of the detector and DAQ system in the LHC shutdown of 2018, enabling a purely software based trigger to process the full 30 MHz of inelastic collisions delivered by the LHC. We demonstrate that the planned architecture will be able to meet this challenge.

  2. Dark matter triggers of supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Peter W.; Rajendran, Surjeet; Varela, Jaime

    2015-09-01

    The transit of primordial black holes through a white dwarf causes localized heating around the trajectory of the black hole through dynamical friction. For sufficiently massive black holes, this heat can initiate runaway thermonuclear fusion causing the white dwarf to explode as a supernova. The shape of the observed distribution of white dwarfs with masses up to 1.25 M⊙ rules out primordial black holes with masses ˜1019- 1020 gm as a dominant constituent of the local dark matter density. Black holes with masses as large as 1024 gm will be excluded if recent observations by the NuStar Collaboration of a population of white dwarfs near the galactic center are confirmed. Black holes in the mass range 1020- 1022 gm are also constrained by the observed supernova rate, though these bounds are subject to astrophysical uncertainties. These bounds can be further strengthened through measurements of white dwarf binaries in gravitational wave observatories. The mechanism proposed in this paper can constrain a variety of other dark matter scenarios such as Q balls, annihilation/collision of large composite states of dark matter and models of dark matter where the accretion of dark matter leads to the formation of compact cores within the star. White dwarfs, with their astronomical lifetimes and sizes, can thus act as large spacetime volume detectors enabling a unique probe of the properties of dark matter, especially of dark matter candidates that have low number density. This mechanism also raises the intriguing possibility that a class of supernova may be triggered through rare events induced by dark matter rather than the conventional mechanism of accreting white dwarfs that explode upon reaching the Chandrasekhar mass.

  3. JASMONATE-TRIGGERED PLANT IMMUNITY

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Marcelo L.; Kang, Jin-Ho; Howe, Gregg A.

    2014-01-01

    The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) exerts direct control over the production of chemical defense compounds that confer resistance to a remarkable spectrum of plant-associated organisms, ranging from microbial pathogens to vertebrate herbivores. The underlying mechanism of JA-triggered immunity (JATI) can be conceptualized as a multi-stage signal transduction cascade involving: i) pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that couple the perception of danger signals to rapid synthesis of bioactive JA; ii) an evolutionarily conserved JA signaling module that links fluctuating JA levels to changes in the abundance of transcriptional repressor proteins; and iii) activation (de-repression) of transcription factors that orchestrate the expression of myriad chemical and morphological defense traits. Multiple negative feedback loops act in concert to restrain the duration and amplitude of defense responses, presumably to mitigate potential fitness costs of JATI. The convergence of diverse plant- and non-plant-derived signals on the core JA module indicates that JATI is a general response to perceived danger. However, the modular structure of JATI may accommodate attacker-specific defense responses through evolutionary innovation of PRRs (inputs) and defense traits (outputs). The efficacy of JATI as a defense strategy is highlighted by its capacity to shape natural populations of plant attackers, as well as the propensity of plant-associated organisms to subvert or otherwise manipulate JA signaling. As both a cellular hub for integrating informational cues from the environment and a common target of pathogen effectors, the core JA module provides a focal point for understanding immune system networks and the evolution of chemical diversity in the plant kingdom. PMID:24973116

  4. Triggered optical coherence tomography for capturing rapid periodic motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ernest W.; Kobler, James B.; Yun, Seok H.

    2011-07-01

    Quantitative cross-sectional imaging of vocal folds during phonation is potentially useful for diagnosis and treatments of laryngeal disorders. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful technique, but its relatively low frame rates makes it challenging to visualize rapidly vibrating tissues. Here, we demonstrate a novel method based on triggered laser scanning to capture 4-dimensional (4D) images of samples in motu at audio frequencies over 100 Hz. As proof-of-concept experiments, we applied this technique to imaging the oscillations of biopolymer gels on acoustic vibrators and aerodynamically driven vibrations of the vocal fold in an ex vivo calf larynx model. Our results suggest that triggered 4D OCT may be useful in understanding and assessing the function of vocal folds and developing novel treatments in research and clinical settings.

  5. Time Triggered Ethernet System Testing Means and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithgall, William Todd (Inventor); Hall, Brendan (Inventor); Varadarajan, Srivatsan (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for evaluating the performance of a Time Triggered Ethernet (TTE) system employing Time Triggered (TT) communication. A real TTE system under test (SUT) having real input elements communicating using TT messages with output elements via one or more first TTE switches during a first time interval schedule established for the SUT. A simulation system is also provided having input simulators that communicate using TT messages via one or more second TTE switches with the same output elements during a second time interval schedule established for the simulation system. The first and second time interval schedules are off-set slightly so that messages from the input simulators, when present, arrive at the output elements prior to messages from the analogous real inputs, thereby having priority over messages from the real inputs and causing the system to operate based on the simulated inputs when present.

  6. Repeated triggering of sporulation in Bacillus subtilis selects against a protein that affects the timing of cell division.

    PubMed

    Siebring, Jeroen; Elema, Matthijs J H; Drubi Vega, Fátima; Kovács, Akos T; Haccou, Patsy; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis sporulation is a last-resort phenotypical adaptation in response to starvation. The regulatory network underlying this developmental pathway has been studied extensively. However, how sporulation initiation is concerted in relation to the environmental nutrient availability is poorly understood. In a fed-batch fermentation set-up, in which sporulation of ultraviolet (UV)-mutagenized B. subtilis is repeatedly triggered by periods of starvation, fitter strains with mutated tagE evolved. These mutants display altered timing of phenotypical differentiation. The substrate for the wall teichoic acid (WTA)-modifying enzyme TagE, UDP-glucose, has recently been shown to be an intracellular proxy for nutrient availability, and influences the timing of cell division. Here we suggest that UDP-glucose also influences timing of cellular differentiation.

  7. Tidal triggering of earthquakes in the Northeast Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcock, William S. D.

    2009-11-01

    There have been many searches for evidence of tidal triggering in earthquake catalogues. With the exception of volcanically active regions, the more rigorous studies in continental settings tend to find no correlation or only a very weak correlation. In the oceans, the effect of loading by the ocean tides can increase tidal stresses by about an order of magnitude over continental settings. In recent years, several studies have reported evidence of tidal triggering in oceanic regions and such observations can represent a useful constraint on models of earthquake rupture. In this paper, I systematically search for a link between ocean tide height and the incidence of earthquakes in the Northeast Pacific Ocean, a region of high-amplitude open ocean tides. The focal mechanisms of most of the earthquakes in these catalogues are unknown but it can be shown that tidal stresses will in most instances promote failure at low tides. I investigate three declustered data sets comprising (1) earthquakes from 1980 to 2007 on the Juan de Fuca plate and in the Queen Charlotte Fault region from land based catalogues; (2) earthquakes from 1992 to 2001 on the Juan de Fuca plate located with the US Navy's Sound Surveillance System (SOSUS) hydrophone array and (3) earthquakes from 1980 to 2001 south of Alaska and the Aleutians located with land based networks. I look at the distributions of earthquakes with ocean tide phase, height, and tidal range and apply Schuster and binomial tests and Monte Carlo simulations to determine if they deviate significantly from random. The results show no evidence of triggering during intervals of increased tidal range but all three data sets show a significant increase in earthquake incidence at low tides. The signal is particularly strong in the land-based catalogue for the Juan de Fuca Plate and Queen Charlotte Fault regions where there is a 15 per cent increase in the rate of seismicity within 15° of the lowest tides. The signal is weakest in the

  8. Nature plus nurture: the triggering of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Wekerle, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Recent clinical and experimental studies indicate that multiple sclerosis develops as consequence of a failed interplay between genetic ("nature") and environmental ("nurture") factors. A large number of risk genes favour an autoimmune response against the body's own brain matter. New experimental data indicate that the actual trigger of this attack is however provided by an interaction of brain-specific immune cells with components of the regular commensal gut flora, the intestinal microbiota. This concept opens the way for new therapeutic approaches involving modulation of the microbiota by dietary or antibiotic regimens.

  9. Systemic lupus erythematosus flare triggered by a spider bite.

    PubMed

    Martín Nares, Eduardo; López Iñiguez, Alvaro; Ontiveros Mercado, Heriberto

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus is a chronic autoimmune disease with a relapsing and remitting course characterized by disease flares. Flares are a major cause of hospitalization, morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Some triggers for these exacerbations have been identified, including infections, vaccines, pregnancy, environmental factors such as weather, stress and drugs. We report a patient who presented with a lupus flare with predominantly mucocutaneous, serosal and cardiac involvement after being bitten by a spider and we present the possible mechanisms by which the venom elicited such a reaction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such case reported in the literature.

  10. An FPGA-based trigger for the phase II of the MEG experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldini, A.; Bemporad, C.; Cei, F.; Galli, L.; Grassi, M.; Morsani, F.; Nicolò, D.; Ritt, S.; Venturini, M.

    2016-07-01

    For the phase II of MEG, we are going to develop a combined trigger and DAQ system. Here we focus on the former side, which operates an on-line reconstruction of detector signals and event selection within 450 μs from event occurrence. Trigger concentrator boards (TCB) are under development to gather data from different crates, each connected to a set of detector channels, to accomplish higher-level algorithms to issue a trigger in the case of a candidate signal event. We describe the major features of the new system, in comparison with phase I, as well as its performances in terms of selection efficiency and background rejection.

  11. Analysis of Trigger Factors in Episodic Migraineurs Using a Smartphone Headache Diary Applications

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong-Wook; Chu, Min Kyung; Kim, Jae-Moon; Park, Sang-Gue; Cho, Soo-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background Various stimuli can trigger migraines in susceptible individuals. We examined migraine trigger factors by using a smartphone headache diary application. Method Episodic migraineurs who agreed to participate in our study downloaded smartphone headache diary application, which was designed to capture the details regarding headache trigger factors and characteristics for 3 months. The participants were asked to access the smartphone headache diary application daily and to confirm the presence of a headache and input the types of trigger factors. Results Sixty-two participants kept diary entries until the end of the study. The diary data for 4,579 days were analyzed. In this data set, 1,099 headache days (336 migraines, 763 non-migraine headaches) were recorded; of these, 772 headache events had with trigger factors, and 327 events did not have trigger factors. The common trigger factors that were present on headache days included stress, fatigue, sleep deprivation, hormonal changes, and weather changes. The likelihood of a headache trigger was 57.7% for stress, 55.1% for sleep deprivation, 48.5% for fatigue, and 46.5% for any trigger. The headaches with trigger factors were associated with greater pain intensity (p<0.001), headache-related disability (p<0.001), abortive medication use (p = 0.02), and the proportion of migraine (p < 0.001), relative to those without trigger factors. Traveling (odd ratios [OR]: 6.4), hormonal changes (OR: 3.5), noise (OR: 2.8), alcohol (OR: 2.5), overeating (OR: 2.4), and stress (OR:1.8) were significantly associated with migraines compared to non-migraine headaches. The headaches that were associated with hormonal changes or noise were more often migraines, regardless of the preventive medication. The headaches due to stress, overeating, alcohol, and traveling were more often migraines without preventive medication, but it was not evident with preventive medication. Conclusion Smartphone headache diary application is an

  12. Tremors Triggered along the Queen Charlotte Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiken, C.; Peng, Z.; Chao, K.

    2012-12-01

    In the past decade, deep tectonic tremors have been observed in numerous tectonic environments surrounding the Pacific and Caribbean plates. In these regions, tremors triggered by both regional and distant earthquakes have also been observed. Despite the ubiquitous observations of triggered tremors, tremors triggered in differing strike-slip environments are less understood. Here, we conduct a preliminary search of tremors triggered by teleseismic earthquakes along the transpressive Queen Charlotte Fault (QCF) located between the Cascadia subduction zone and Alaska. Tectonic tremors have not been previously reported along the QCF. We select teleseismic earthquakes during the 1990-2012 period as having magnitude M ≥ 6.5 and occurring at least 1,000 km away from the region. We reduce the number of mainshocks by selecting those that generate greater than 1 kPa dynamic stress estimated from surface-wave magnitude equations [e.g. van der Elst and Brodsky, 2010]. Our mainshock waveforms are retrieved from the Canadian National Seismograph Network (CNSN), processed, and filtered for triggered tremor observations. We characterize triggered tremors as high-frequency signals visible among several stations and coincident with broadband surface wave peaks. So far, we have found tremors triggered along the QCF by surface waves of five great earthquakes - the 2002/11/03 Mw7.9 Denali Fault, 2004/12/26 Mw9.0 Sumatra, 2010/02/27 Mw8.8 Chile, 2011/03/11 Mw9.0 Japan, and 2012/04/11 Mw8.6 Sumatra earthquakes. We compare our results to tremors triggered by teleseismic earthquakes on strike-slip faults in central and southern California, as well as Cuba [Peng et al., 2012]. Among strike-slip faults in these regions, we also compare triggered tremor amplitudes to peak ground velocities from the mainshocks and compute dynamic stresses to determine a triggering threshold for the QCF. We find that in most cases tremors in the QCF are triggered primarily by the Love waves, and additional

  13. The D0 run II trigger system

    SciTech Connect

    Schwienhorst, Reinhard; /Michigan State U.

    2004-11-01

    The D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron was upgraded for Run II. This upgrade included improvements to the trigger system in order to be able to handle the increased Tevatron luminosity and higher bunch crossing rates compared to Run I. The D0 Run II trigger is a highly exible system to select events to be written to tape from an initial interaction rate of about 2.5 MHz. This is done in a three-tier pipelined, buffered system. The first tier (level 1) processes fast detector pick-off signals in a hardware/firmware based system to reduce the event rate to about 1. 5kHz. The second tier (level 2) uses information from level 1 and forms simple Physics objects to reduce the rate to about 850 Hz. The third tier (level 3) uses full detector readout and event reconstruction on a filter farm to reduce the rate to 20-30 Hz. The D0 trigger menu contains a wide variety of triggers. While the emphasis is on triggering on generic lepton and jet final states, there are also trigger terms for specific final state signatures. In this document we describe the D0 trigger system as it was implemented and is currently operating in Run II.

  14. Triggered tremor sweet spots in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, Joan; Prejean, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    To better understand what controls fault slip along plate boundaries, we have exploited the abundance of seismic and geodetic data available from the richly varied tectonic environments composing Alaska. A search for tremor triggered by 11 large earthquakes throughout all of seismically monitored Alaska reveals two tremor “sweet spots”—regions where large-amplitude seismic waves repeatedly triggered tremor between 2006 and 2012. The two sweet spots locate in very different tectonic environments—one just trenchward and between the Aleutian islands of Unalaska and Akutan and the other in central mainland Alaska. The Unalaska/Akutan spot corroborates previous evidence that the region is ripe for tremor, perhaps because it is located where plate-interface frictional properties transition between stick-slip and stably sliding in both the dip direction and laterally. The mainland sweet spot coincides with a region of complex and uncertain plate interactions, and where no slow slip events or major crustal faults have been noted previously. Analyses showed that larger triggering wave amplitudes, and perhaps lower frequencies (<~0.03 Hz), may enhance the probability of triggering tremor. However, neither the maximum amplitude in the time domain or in a particular frequency band, nor the geometric relationship of the wavefield to the tremor source faults alone ensures a high probability of triggering. Triggered tremor at the two sweet spots also does not occur during slow slip events visually detectable in GPS data, although slow slip below the detection threshold may have facilitated tremor triggering.

  15. Intraplate triggered earthquakes: Observations and interpretation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.; Seeber, L.; Armbruster, J.G.

    2003-01-01

    We present evidence that at least two of the three 1811-1812 New Madrid, central United States, mainshocks and the 1886 Charleston, South Carolina, earthquake triggered earthquakes at regional distances. In addition to previously published evidence for triggered earthquakes in the northern Kentucky/southern Ohio region in 1812, we present evidence suggesting that triggered events might have occurred in the Wabash Valley, to the south of the New Madrid Seismic Zone, and near Charleston, South Carolina. We also discuss evidence that earthquakes might have been triggered in northern Kentucky within seconds of the passage of surface waves from the 23 January 1812 New Madrid mainshock. After the 1886 Charleston earthquake, accounts suggest that triggered events occurred near Moodus, Connecticut, and in southern Indiana. Notwithstanding the uncertainty associated with analysis of historical accounts, there is evidence that at least three out of the four known Mw 7 earthquakes in the central and eastern United States seem to have triggered earthquakes at distances beyond the typically assumed aftershock zone of 1-2 mainshock fault lengths. We explore the possibility that remotely triggered earthquakes might be common in low-strain-rate regions. We suggest that in a low-strain-rate environment, permanent, nonelastic deformation might play a more important role in stress accumulation than it does in interplate crust. Using a simple model incorporating elastic and anelastic strain release, we show that, for realistic parameter values, faults in intraplate crust remain close to their failure stress for a longer part of the earthquake cycle than do faults in high-strain-rate regions. Our results further suggest that remotely triggered earthquakes occur preferentially in regions of recent and/or future seismic activity, which suggests that faults are at a critical stress state in only some areas. Remotely triggered earthquakes may thus serve as beacons that identify regions of

  16. Causes and mechanisms of landslides triggered on foundation soil areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotaru, Ancuta

    2010-05-01

    . Compressible pore water causes a delayed reaction of the pore water pressure on any pressure change at the boundaries if the soil has the permeability less than the velocity of the lowering of the surface water level. Due to this phenomenon, the stability is affected by the interaction of surface water and pore water. The effect of retarded pore water pressure release on slope stability is primarily dependent on the permeability of the soil, the compressibility of the pore water, and the velocity of the pressure change. Many of the slopes represent geosystems that are functioning under conditions of unstable equilibrium. One of the consequences of its disturbance is the appearance or intensification of geological processes. This acts to alter drastically and sometimes irreversibly the engineering-geological and environmental setting. The paper presents the causes and the mechanisms of the disturbance of stability under natural and artificial effects affecting foundation soils.

  17. The upgrade of the CMS Global Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmann, J.; Arnold, B.; Bergauer, H.; Jeitler, M.; Matsushita, T.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Wulz, C.-E.

    2016-02-01

    The Global Trigger is the final step of the CMS Level-1 Trigger. Previously implemented in VME, it has been redesigned and completely rebuilt in MicroTCA technology, using the Virtex-7 FPGA chip family. It will allow to implement trigger algorithms close to the final physics selection. The new system is presented, together with performance tests undertaken in parallel operation with the legacy system during the initial months of Run II of the LHC at a beam energy of 13 TeV.

  18. Revisiting Pneumatic Nail Gun Trigger Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Albers, James; Lipscomb, Hester; Hudock, Stephen; Dement, John; Evanoff, Bradley; Fullen, Mark; Gillen, Matt; Kaskutas, Vicki; Nolan, James; Patterson, Dennis; Platner, James; Pompeii, Lisa; Schoenfisch, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Summary Use of a pneumatic nail gun with a sequential actuation trigger (SAT) significantly diminishes the risk for acute traumatic injury compared to use of a contact actuation trigger (CAT) nail gun. A theoretically-based increased risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders from use of a SAT nail gun, relative to CAT, appears unlikely and remains unproven. Based on current knowledge, the use of CAT nail guns cannot be justified as a safe alternative to SAT nail guns. This letter provides a perspective of ergonomists and occupational safety researchers recommending the use of the sequential actuation trigger for all nail gun tasks in the construction industry. PMID:26366020

  19. Revisiting Pneumatic Nail Gun Trigger Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Albers, James; Lowe, Brian; Lipscomb, Hester; Hudock, Stephen; Dement, John; Evanoff, Bradley; Fullen, Mark; Gillen, Matt; Kaskutas, Vicki; Nolan, James; Patterson, Dennis; Platner, James; Pompeii, Lisa; Schoenfisch, Ashley

    2015-03-01

    Use of a pneumatic nail gun with a sequential actuation trigger (SAT) significantly diminishes the risk for acute traumatic injury compared to use of a contact actuation trigger (CAT) nail gun. A theoretically-based increased risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders from use of a SAT nail gun, relative to CAT, appears unlikely and remains unproven. Based on current knowledge, the use of CAT nail guns cannot be justified as a safe alternative to SAT nail guns. This letter provides a perspective of ergonomists and occupational safety researchers recommending the use of the sequential actuation trigger for all nail gun tasks in the construction industry.

  20. Global Search for Deep Triggered Tremor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, K.; Peng, Z.; Enescu, B.; Wu, C.; Fry, B.

    2011-12-01

    Deep "non-volcanic" tremor has been observed at many major plate-boundary faults, which provides new information about fault slip behaviors below the seismogenic zone. Most 'regular' or 'ambient' tremor occurs spontaneously or accompanies slow-slip events, while some tremor can be 'triggered' by large distant earthquakes. Recent studies have shown that triggered tremor occurs on the same fault patches as ambient tremor and can be used as a proxy to estimate background tremor activity. However, it is still not clear why tremor can only be observed in certain tectonic regions, and what the necessary conditions are for tremor generation. Here we conduct a global search for tremor triggered by teleseismic earthquakes with Mw ≥ 7.5 between 2001 and 2011 following our previous studies. We focus on regions in southwest Japan and the North Island of New Zealand. In southwest Japan, we found a total of 16 teleseismic earthquakes associated with clear triggered tremor during the passing surface waves. Using standard envelope cross-correlation techniques, we found that the triggered tremor is located close to the regions where ambient tremor is identified previously. Thus far, in New Zealand, we have only identified 4 events associated with triggered tremor in the North Island. Next, we calculate the dynamic stress loading and compare the stress threshold of triggering with the following regions: the Parkfield-Cholame section of the San Andreas Fault in central California, the Calaveras Fault in northern California, the San Jacinto Fault in southern California, the southern and northern Central Range in Taiwan, and the Vancouver Island in Cascadia. The apparent triggering threshold in southwest Japan is around 3-4 KPa, close to the triggering threshold at Parkfield (2-3 KPa) and southern Central Range in Taiwan (7-8 KPa). Our next steps are to explore the triggering potentials at these regions with amplitude, frequency, incident angle and types of incoming waves, and

  1. National Environmental Leadership Award in Asthma Management

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The National Asthma Awards recognizes health plans, healthcare providers and communities in action that demonstrate an environmental component to address asthma triggers, collaborate with others and save healthcare dollars with their programming.

  2. [Non-alimentary trigger factors of migraine and tension-type headache].

    PubMed

    Holzhammer, J; Wöber, C

    2006-06-01

    Based on an overview of the literature, this contribution critically discusses the importance of non-alimentary trigger factors of migraine and tension-type headache. Menstruation, environmental factors, psychological effects as well as sleep disorders and fatigue are mentioned most frequently. According to controlled studies, menstruation is indubitably associated with an increased risk of headache. Although a correlation between specific meteorological parameters and the appearance of headaches was established in some patients, the subjective observations of the patients did not however correlate with the objective weather data. Sensory stimuli function as triggers particularly for migraine with aura. Psychological factors, especially stress and everyday pressures, have been confirmed as trigger factors, but further prospective trials addressing this issue would be advantageous. Additional studies are also needed to elucidate the significance of sleep (disorders) and fatigue since their importance as triggers or symptoms of a headache attack has not been conclusively determined.

  3. Triggered Snap-Through of Bistable Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yijie; Huang, Shicheng; Trase, Ian; Hu, Nan; Chen, Zi

    Elastic bistable shells are common structures in nature and engineering, such as the lobes of the Venus flytrap or the surface of a toy jumping poppers. Despite their ubiquity, the parameters that control the bistability of such structures are not well understood. In this study, we explore how the geometrical features of radially symmetric elastic shells affect the shape and potential energy of a shell's stable states, and how to tune certain parameters in order to generate a snap-through transition from a convex semi-stable state to concave stable state. We fabricated a series of elastic shells with varying geometric parameters out of silicone rubber and measured the resulting potential energy in the semi-stable state. Finite element simulations were also conducted in order to determine the deformation and stress in the shells during snap-through. It was found that the energy of the semi-stable state is controlled by only two geometric parameters and a dimensionless ratio. We also noted two distinct transitions during snap-through, one between monostability and semi-bistability (the state a popper toy is in before it snaps-through and jumps), and a second transition between semi-bistability and true bistability. This work shows that it is possible to use a set of simple parameters to tailor the energy landscape of an elastic shell in order to generate complex trigger motions for their potential use in smart applications. Z.C. acknowledge support from Society in Science-Branco Weiss Fellowship, administered by ETH Zurich.

  4. Triggered creep as a possible mechanism for delayed dynamic triggering of tremor and earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shelly, D.R.; Peng, Z.; Hill, D.P.; Aiken, C.

    2011-01-01

    The passage of radiating seismic waves generates transient stresses in the Earth's crust that can trigger slip on faults far away from the original earthquake source. The triggered fault slip is detectable in the form of earthquakes and seismic tremor. However, the significance of these triggered events remains controversial, in part because they often occur with some delay, long after the triggering stress has passed. Here we scrutinize the location and timing of tremor on the San Andreas fault between 2001 and 2010 in relation to distant earthquakes. We observe tremor on the San Andreas fault that is initiated by passing seismic waves, yet migrates along the fault at a much slower velocity than the radiating seismic waves. We suggest that the migrating tremor records triggered slow slip of the San Andreas fault as a propagating creep event. We find that the triggered tremor and fault creep can be initiated by distant earthquakes as small as magnitude 5.4 and can persist for several days after the seismic waves have passed. Our observations of prolonged tremor activity provide a clear example of the delayed dynamic triggering of seismic events. Fault creep has been shown to trigger earthquakes, and we therefore suggest that the dynamic triggering of prolonged fault creep could provide a mechanism for the delayed triggering of earthquakes. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  5. Session summary: Electronics, triggering and data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Rescia, S.

    1991-12-01

    The session focused on the requirements for calorimetry at the SSC/LHC. Results on new readout techniques, calibration, radiation hard electronics and semiconductor devices, analog and digital front and electronics, and trigger strategies are presented.

  6. Trigger circuits for the PHENIX electromagnetic calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, S.S.; Britton, C.L. Jr.; Winterberg, A.L.; Young, G.R.

    1997-11-01

    Monolithic and discrete circuits have been developed to provide trigger signals for the PHENIX electromagnetic calorimeter detector. These trigger circuits are deadtimeless and create overlapping 4 by 4 energy sums, a cosmic muon trigger, and a 144 channel energy sum. The front end electronics of the PHENIX system sample the energy and timing channels at each bunch crossing (BC) but it is not known immediately if this data is of interest. The information from the trigger circuits is used to determine if the data collected is of interest and should be digitized and stored or discarded. This paper presents details of the design, issues affecting circuit performance, characterization of prototypes fabricated in 1.2 {micro}m Orbit CMOS, and integration of the circuits into the EMCal electronics system.

  7. New Fast Interaction Trigger for ALICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk

    2017-02-01

    The LHC heavy-ion luminosity and collision rate from 2021 onwards will considerably exceed the design parameters of the present ALICE forward trigger detectors and the introduction of the Muon Forward Tracker (MFT) will significantly reduce the space available for the new trigger detectors. To comply with these conditions a new Fast Interaction Trigger (FIT) will be built. FIT will be the main forward trigger, luminometer, and interaction-time detector. It will also determine multiplicity, centrality, and reaction plane of heavy-ion collisions. FIT will consist of two arrays of Cherenkov quartz radiators with MCP-PMT sensors and of a plastic scintillator ring. By increasing the overall acceptance of FIT, the scintillator will improve centrality and event plane resolution. It will also add sensitivity for the detection of beam-gas events and provide some degree of redundancy. FIT is currently undergoing an intense R&D and prototyping period. It is scheduled for installation in ALICE during 2020.

  8. Remotely triggered nonvolcanic tremor in Sumbawa, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, F.; Lupi, M.; Miller, S. A.

    2014-06-01

    We present, for the first time, evidence for triggered tremor beneath the island of Sumbawa, Indonesia. We show triggered tremor in response to three teleseismic earthquakes: the Mw9.0 2011 Tohoku earthquake and two oceanic strike-slip earthquakes (Mw 8.6 and Mw8.2) offshore of Sumatra in 2012. We constrain an apparent triggering threshold of 1 mm/s ground velocity that corresponds to about 8 kPa dynamic stress. Peak tremor amplitudes of about 180 nm/s are observed, and scale with the ground velocity induced by the remote earthquakes. Triggered tremor responds to 45-65 s period surface waves and predominantly correlates with Rayleigh waves, even though the 2012 oceanic events have stronger Love wave amplitudes. We could not locate the tremor because of minimal station coverage, but data indicate several potential source volumes including the Flores Thrust, the Java subduction zone, or Tambora volcano.

  9. A hypothesis for delayed dynamic earthquake triggering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.

    2005-01-01

    It's uncertain whether more near-field earthquakes are triggered by static or dynamic stress changes. This ratio matters because static earthquake interactions are increasingly incorporated into probabilistic forecasts. Recent studies were unable to demonstrate all predictions from the static-stress-change hypothesis, particularly seismicity rate reductions. However, current dynamic stress change hypotheses do not explain delayed earthquake triggering and Omori's law. Here I show numerically that if seismic waves can alter some frictional contacts in neighboring fault zones, then dynamic triggering might cause delayed triggering and an Omori-law response. The hypothesis depends on faults following a rate/state friction law, and on seismic waves changing the mean critical slip distance (Dc) at nucleation zones.

  10. Graphics Processing Units for HEP trigger systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammendola, R.; Bauce, M.; Biagioni, A.; Chiozzi, S.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Fantechi, R.; Fiorini, M.; Giagu, S.; Gianoli, A.; Lamanna, G.; Lonardo, A.; Messina, A.; Neri, I.; Paolucci, P. S.; Piandani, R.; Pontisso, L.; Rescigno, M.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Vicini, P.

    2016-07-01

    General-purpose computing on GPUs (Graphics Processing Units) is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to the specific strengths of such devices as accelerator in offline computation. With the steady reduction of GPU latencies, and the increase in link and memory throughput, the use of such devices for real-time applications in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems is becoming ripe. We will discuss the use of online parallel computing on GPU for synchronous low level trigger, focusing on CERN NA62 experiment trigger system. The use of GPU in higher level trigger system is also briefly considered.

  11. Flower abscission in Vitis vinifera L. triggered by gibberellic acid and shade discloses differences in the underlying metabolic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Domingos, Sara; Scafidi, Pietro; Cardoso, Vania; Leitao, Antonio E.; Di Lorenzo, Rosario; Oliveira, Cristina M.; Goulao, Luis F.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding abscission is both a biological and an agronomic challenge. Flower abscission induced independently by shade and gibberellic acid (GAc) sprays was monitored in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) growing under a soilless greenhouse system during two seasonal growing conditions, in an early and late production cycle. Physiological and metabolic changes triggered by each of the two distinct stimuli were determined. Environmental conditions exerted a significant effect on fruit set as showed by the higher natural drop rate recorded in the late production cycle with respect to the early cycle. Shade and GAc treatments increased the percentage of flower drop compared to the control, and at a similar degree, during the late production cycle. The reduction of leaf gas exchanges under shade conditions was not observed in GAc treated vines. The metabolic profile assessed in samples collected during the late cycle differently affected primary and secondary metabolisms and showed that most of the treatment-resulting variations occurred in opposite trends in inflorescences unbalanced in either hormonal or energy deficit abscission-inducing signals. Particularly concerning carbohydrates metabolism, sucrose, glucose, tricarboxylic acid metabolites and intermediates of the raffinose family oligosaccharides pathway were lower in shaded and higher in GAc samples. Altered oxidative stress remediation mechanisms and indolacetic acid (IAA) concentration were identified as abscission signatures common to both stimuli. According to the global analysis performed, we report that grape flower abscission mechanisms triggered by GAc application and C-starvation are not based on the same metabolic pathways. PMID:26157448

  12. Comment on "Tail reconnection triggering substorm onset".

    PubMed

    Lui, A T Y

    2009-06-12

    Angelopoulos et al. (Research Articles, 15 August 2008, p. 931) reported that magnetic reconnection in Earth's magnetotail triggered the onset of a magnetospheric substorm. We provide evidence that (i) near-Earth current disruption, occurring before the conventional tail reconnection signatures, triggered the onset; (ii) the observed auroral intensification and tail reconnection are not causally linked; and (iii) the onset they identified is a continuation of earlier substorm activities.

  13. Diclofenac: a new trigger of pemphigus vulgaris?

    PubMed

    Matz, H; Bialy-Golan, A; Brenner, S

    1997-01-01

    Many drugs have been shown to induce pemphigus, including thiol and nonthiol drugs. We present a case of pemphigus vulgaris where a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication, diclofenac in suppositories and topical gel preparations, is suspected of having triggered the disease. The temporal relationship between drug and outbreak of disease together with the positive migration inhibition factor test to diclofenac point to the possible involvement of this drug in triggering pemphigus vulgaris.

  14. Dynamic stresses, Coulomb failure, and remote triggering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, D.P.

    2008-01-01

    Dynamic stresses associated with crustal surface waves with 15-30-sec periods and peak amplitudes 5 km). The latter is consistent with the observation that extensional or transtensional tectonic regimes are more susceptible to remote triggering by Rayleigh-wave dynamic stresses than compressional or transpressional regimes. Locally elevated pore pressures may have a role in the observed prevalence of dynamic triggering in extensional regimes and geothermal/volcanic systems.

  15. Tremor, remote triggering and earthquake cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Deep tectonic tremor and episodic slow-slip events have been observed at major plate-boundary faults around the Pacific Rim. These events have much longer source durations than regular earthquakes, and are generally located near or below the seismogenic zone where regular earthquakes occur. Tremor and slow-slip events appear to be extremely stress sensitive, and could be instantaneously triggered by distant earthquakes and solid earth tides. However, many important questions remain open. For example, it is still not clear what are the necessary conditions for tremor generation, and how remote triggering could affect large earthquake cycle. Here I report a global search of tremor triggered by recent large teleseismic earthquakes. We mainly focus on major subduction zones around the Pacific Rim. These include the southwest and northeast Japan subduction zones, the Hikurangi subduction zone in New Zealand, the Cascadia subduction zone, and the major subduction zones in Central and South America. In addition, we examine major strike-slip faults around the Caribbean plate, the Queen Charlotte fault in northern Pacific Northwest Coast, and the San Andreas fault system in California. In each place, we first identify triggered tremor as a high-frequency non-impulsive signal that is in phase with the large-amplitude teleseismic waves. We also calculate the dynamic stress and check the triggering relationship with the Love and Rayleigh waves. Finally, we calculate the triggering potential with the local fault orientation and surface-wave incident angles. Our results suggest that tremor exists at many plate-boundary faults in different tectonic environments, and could be triggered by dynamic stress as low as a few kPas. In addition, we summarize recent observations of slow-slip events and earthquake swarms triggered by large distant earthquakes. Finally, we propose several mechanisms that could explain apparent clustering of large earthquakes around the world.

  16. Global Search of Triggered Tectonic Tremor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Z.; Aiken, C.; Chao, K.; Gonzalez-Huizar, H.; Wang, B.; Ojha, L.; Yang, H.

    2013-05-01

    Deep tectonic tremor has been observed at major plate-boundary faults around the Pacific Rim. While regular or ambient tremor occurs spontaneously or accompanies slow-slip events, tremor could be also triggered by large distant earthquakes and solid earth tides. Because triggered tremor occurs on the same fault patches as ambient tremor and is relatively easy to identify, a systematic global search of triggered tremor could help to identify the physical mechanisms and necessary conditions for tremor generation. Here we conduct a global search of tremor triggered by large teleseismic earthquakes. We mainly focus on major faults with significant strain accumulations where no tremor has been reported before. These includes subduction zones in Central and South America, strike-slip faults around the Caribbean plate, the Queen Charlotte-Fairweather fault system and the Denali fault in the western Canada and Alaska, the Sumatra-Java subduction zone, the Himalaya frontal thrust faults, as well as major strike-slip faults around Tibet. In each region, we first compute the predicted dynamic stresses σd from global earthquakes with magnitude>=5.0 in the past 20 years, and select events with σd > 1 kPa. Next, we download seismic data recorded by stations from local or global seismic networks, and identify triggered tremor as a high-frequency non-impulsive signal that is in phase with the large-amplitude teleseismic waves. In cases where station distributions are dense enough, we also locate tremor based on the standard envelope cross-correlation techniques. Finally, we calculate the triggering potential for the Love and Rayleigh waves with the local fault orientation and surface-wave incident angles. So far we have found several new places that are capable of generating triggered tremor. We will summarize these observations and discuss their implications on physical mechanisms of tremor and remote triggering.

  17. 10 Joule High Voltage Trigger Micro Marx

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    A low energy Marx generator makes a convenient trigger for various spark gaps. With an output around 200 kV and a rise time less than 2 ns, the micro... Marx can multichannel field distortion gaps or fire a number of gaps without much gap-to-gap isolation. This design features small size, low cost, and good triggering characteristics. The complete unit is shown in Fig. 1.

  18. Ionospheric effects of whistler waves from rocket-triggered lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, D.; Cotts, B.; Golkowski, M.; Moore, R. C.

    2011-12-01

    Lightning-induced electron precipitation (LEP) is one of the primary mechanisms for energetic electron loss from Earth's radiation belts. The spatial and temporal structure of LEP are affected by parameters such as lightning location and the return stroke peak current and spectral distribution. While previous works have emphasized lightning location and return stroke peak current in quantifying lightning's role in radiation belt electron loss, the spectrum of the lightning return stroke has received far less attention. Rocket-triggered lightning experiments performed at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) at Camp Blanding, Florida, provide a means to evaluate the spectral content of individual lightning return strokes. Using an integrated set of numerical models we calculate the latitudinal dependence of the precipitation signature using observed rocket-triggered lightning channel-base currents. Results indicate that return strokes with higher ELF (3 Hz - 3 kHz) content cause proportionally more ionospheric ionization and precipitate more electrons at higher latitudes than return strokes with higher VLF (3 kHz - 30 kHz) content. The ability to directly measure the channel-base current of the rocket-triggered lightning return stroke enables us to determine the relationship between lightning source spectrum and the removal of energetic electrons from the Earth's radiation belts and to predict the geographic location and magnitude of electron precipitation in both the northern and southern hemispheres.

  19. Commissioning of the CMS High Level Trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Agostino, Lorenzo; et al.

    2009-08-01

    The CMS experiment will collect data from the proton-proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a centre-of-mass energy up to 14 TeV. The CMS trigger system is designed to cope with unprecedented luminosities and LHC bunch-crossing rates up to 40 MHz. The unique CMS trigger architecture only employs two trigger levels. The Level-1 trigger is implemented using custom electronics, while the High Level Trigger (HLT) is based on software algorithms running on a large cluster of commercial processors, the Event Filter Farm. We present the major functionalities of the CMS High Level Trigger system as of the starting of LHC beams operations in September 2008. The validation of the HLT system in the online environment with Monte Carlo simulated data and its commissioning during cosmic rays data taking campaigns are discussed in detail. We conclude with the description of the HLT operations with the first circulating LHC beams before the incident occurred the 19th September 2008.

  20. Trigger finger, tendinosis, and intratendinous gene expression.

    PubMed

    Lundin, A-C; Aspenberg, P; Eliasson, P

    2014-04-01

    The pathogenesis of trigger finger has generally been ascribed to primary changes in the first annular ligament. In contrast, we recently found histological changes in the tendons, similar to the findings in Achilles tendinosis or tendinopathy. We therefore hypothesized that trigger finger tendons would show differences in gene expression in comparison to normal tendons in a pattern similar to what is published for Achilles tendinosis. We performed quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction on biopsies from finger flexor tendons, 13 trigger fingers and 13 apparently healthy control tendons, to assess the expression of 10 genes which have been described to be differently expressed in tendinosis (collagen type 1a1, collagen 3a1, MMP-2, MMP-3, ADAMTS-5, TIMP-3, aggrecan, biglycan, decorin, and versican). In trigger finger tendons, collagen types 1a1 and 3a1, aggrecan and biglycan were all up-regulated, and MMP-3and TIMP-3 were down-regulated. These changes were statistically significant and have been previously described for Achilles tendinosis. The remaining four genes were not significantly altered. The changes in gene expression support the hypothesis that trigger finger is a form of tendinosis. Because trigger finger is a common condition, often treated surgically, it could provide opportunities for clinical research on tendinosis.

  1. The Zeus calorimeter first level trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.J.

    1989-04-01

    The design of the Zeus Detector Calorimeter Level Trigger is presented. The Zeus detector is being built for operation at HERA, a new storage ring that will provide collisions between 820 GeV protons and 30 GeV electrons in 1990. The calorimeter is made of depleted uranium plates and plastic scintillator read out by wavelength shifter bars into 12,864 photomultiplier tubes. These signals are combined into 974 trigger towers with separate electromagnetic and hadronic sums. The calorimeter first level trigger is pipelined with a decision provided 5 {mu}sec after each beam crossing, occurring every 96 nsec. The trigger determines the total energy, the total transverse energy, the missing energy, and the energy and number of isolated electrons and muons. It also provides information on the number and energy of clusters. The trigger rate needs to be held to 1 kHz against a rate of proton-beam gas interactions of approximately 500 kHz. The summed trigger tower pulseheights are digitized by flash ADC`s. The digital values are linearized, stored and used for sums and pattern tests.

  2. Allergens might trigger migraine attacks.

    PubMed

    Bektas, Hesna; Karabulut, Hayriye; Doganay, Beyza; Acar, Baran

    2017-03-01

    Migraine is a common primary headache disorder. The mechanisms underlying the onset of a migraine attack are not completely understood. Environmental changes and a number of other factors could induce migraine attacks. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the frequency of migraine attacks and allergens. Migraine patients without aura, and healthy individuals similar in age and gender without a history of headache and allergy were prospectively included in the study. The duration of migraine, the frequency of migraine attacks, the medication history, and the symptoms during attacks were questioned. Migraine disability assessment score (MIDAS) and visual analog scale (VAS) scores were obtained. Allergen extracts including dust, fungi, insect, animal epithelium, pollens, and food allergens were applied for allergy tests. 49 migraine patients and 49 healthy individuals were enrolled in the study. There was no significant difference in terms of age and gender. The median migraine disease duration, the number of attacks in a month, and the duration of attacks were, respectively, 5.5 years (1-44), 4 (1-10) day/month, and 24 (4-72) h. The mean MIDAS grade was 2.45 ± 0.14 (1-4), and mean VAS score was 7.89 ± 0.27 (4-10). The positivity of allergy tests was 55.1 % (27/49) in the migraine group and 32.7 % (16/49) in the control group (p < 0.05). The allergy tests were positive for house dust, red birch, hazel tree, olive tree, nettle, and wheat. The frequency of migraine attacks was higher in allergy-test-positive patients than in negative ones in the migraine group (p = 0.001). The migraine patients who had frequent attacks should be examined for allergies.

  3. The Topo-trigger: a new concept of stereo trigger system for imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Coto, R.; Mazin, D.; Paoletti, R.; Blanch Bigas, O.; Cortina, J.

    2016-04-01

    Imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) such as the Major Atmospheric Gamma-ray Imaging Cherenkov (MAGIC) telescopes endeavor to reach the lowest possible energy threshold. In doing so the trigger system is a key element. Reducing the trigger threshold is hampered by the rapid increase of accidental triggers generated by ambient light (the so-called Night Sky Background NSB). In this paper we present a topological trigger, dubbed Topo-trigger, which rejects events on the basis of their relative orientation in the telescope cameras. We have simulated and tested the trigger selection algorithm in the MAGIC telescopes. The algorithm was tested using MonteCarlo simulations and shows a rejection of 85% of the accidental stereo triggers while preserving 99% of the gamma rays. A full implementation of this trigger system would achieve an increase in collection area between 10 and 20% at the energy threshold. The analysis energy threshold of the instrument is expected to decrease by ~ 8%. The selection algorithm was tested on real MAGIC data taken with the current trigger configuration and no γ-like events were found to be lost.

  4. Transient triggering of near and distant earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, J.; Blanpied, M.L.; Beeler, N.M.

    1997-01-01

    We demonstrate qualitatively that frictional instability theory provides a context for understanding how earthquakes may be triggered by transient loads associated with seismic waves from near and distance earthquakes. We assume that earthquake triggering is a stick-slip process and test two hypotheses about the effect of transients on the timing of instabilities using a simple spring-slider model and a rate- and state-dependent friction constitutive law. A critical triggering threshold is implicit in such a model formulation. Our first hypothesis is that transient loads lead to clock advances; i.e., transients hasten the time of earthquakes that would have happened eventually due to constant background loading alone. Modeling results demonstrate that transient loads do lead to clock advances and that the triggered instabilities may occur after the transient has ceased (i.e., triggering may be delayed). These simple "clock-advance" models predict complex relationships between the triggering delay, the clock advance, and the transient characteristics. The triggering delay and the degree of clock advance both depend nonlinearly on when in the earthquake cycle the transient load is applied. This implies that the stress required to bring about failure does not depend linearly on loading time, even when the fault is loaded at a constant rate. The timing of instability also depends nonlinearly on the transient loading rate, faster rates more rapidly hastening instability. This implies that higher-frequency and/or longer-duration seismic waves should increase the amount of clock advance. These modeling results and simple calculations suggest that near (tens of kilometers) small/moderate earthquakes and remote (thousands of kilometers) earthquakes with magnitudes 2 to 3 units larger may be equally effective at triggering seismicity. Our second hypothesis is that some triggered seismicity represents earthquakes that would not have happened without the transient load (i

  5. Event-triggered control for semi-global stabilisation of systems with actuator saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liangyin; Chen, Michael Z. Q.

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the problem of event-triggered control for semi-global stabilisation of null controllable systems subject to actuator saturation. First, for a continuous-time system, novel event-triggered low-gain control algorithms based on Riccati equations are proposed to achieve semi-global stabilisation. The algebraic Riccati equation with a low-gain parameter is utilised to design both the event-triggering condition and the linear controller; a minimum inter-event time based on the Riccati ordinary differential equation is set a priori to exclude the Zeno behaviour. In addition, the high-low gain techniques are utilised to extend the semi-global results to event-based global stabilisation. Furthermore, for a discrete-time system, novel low-gain and high-low-gain control algorithms are proposed to achieve event-triggered stabilisation. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the theoretical results.

  6. Predicting Trigger Bonds in Explosive Materials through Wiberg Bond Index Analysis.

    PubMed

    Harper, Lenora K; Shoaf, Ashley L; Bayse, Craig A

    2015-12-21

    Understanding the explosive decomposition pathways of high-energy-density materials (HEDMs) is important for developing compounds with improved properties. Rapid reaction rates make the detonation mechanisms of HEDMs difficult to understand, so computational tools are used to predict trigger bonds-weak bonds that break, leading to detonation. Wiberg bond indices (WBIs) have been used to compare bond densities in HEDMs to reference molecules to provide a relative scale for the bond strength to predict the activated bonds most likely to break to trigger an explosion. This analysis confirms that X-NO2 (X=N,C,O) bonds are trigger linkages in common HEDMs such as TNT, RDX and PETN, consistent with previous experimental and theoretical studies. Calculations on a small test set of substituted tetrazoles show that the assignment of the trigger bond depends upon the functionality of the material and that the relative weakening of the bond correlates with experimental impact sensitivities.

  7. Prediction of earthquake-triggered landslide event sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Anika; Havenith, Hans-Balder; Schlögel, Romy

    2016-04-01

    Seismically induced landslides are a major environmental effect of earthquakes, which may significantly contribute to related losses. Moreover, in paleoseismology landslide event sizes are an important proxy for the estimation of the intensity and magnitude of past earthquakes and thus allowing us to improve seismic hazard assessment over longer terms. Not only earthquake intensity, but also factors such as the fault characteristics, topography, climatic conditions and the geological environment have a major impact on the intensity and spatial distribution of earthquake induced landslides. We present here a review of factors contributing to earthquake triggered slope failures based on an "event-by-event" classification approach. The objective of this analysis is to enable the short-term prediction of earthquake triggered landslide event sizes in terms of numbers and size of the affected area right after an earthquake event occurred. Five main factors, 'Intensity', 'Fault', 'Topographic energy', 'Climatic conditions' and 'Surface geology' were used to establish a relationship to the number and spatial extend of landslides triggered by an earthquake. The relative weight of these factors was extracted from published data for numerous past earthquakes; topographic inputs were checked in Google Earth and through geographic information systems. Based on well-documented recent earthquakes (e.g. Haiti 2010, Wenchuan 2008) and on older events for which reliable extensive information was available (e.g. Northridge 1994, Loma Prieta 1989, Guatemala 1976, Peru 1970) the combination and relative weight of the factors was calibrated. The calibrated factor combination was then applied to more than 20 earthquake events for which landslide distribution characteristics could be cross-checked. One of our main findings is that the 'Fault' factor, which is based on characteristics of the fault, the surface rupture and its location with respect to mountain areas, has the most important

  8. Facies and environmental setting of the Miocene coral reefs in the late-orogenic fill of the Antalya Basin, western Taurides, Turkey: implications for tectonic control and sea-level changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabıyıkoğlu, M.; Tuzcu, S.; Çiner, A.; Deynoux, M.; Örçen, S.; Hakyemez, A.

    2005-01-01

    Facies and environmental setting of the Miocene coral reefs in the Late Cenozoic Antalya Basin are studied to contribute towards a better understanding of the time and space relationships of the reef development and the associated basin fill evolution in a tectonically active basin. The Antalya Basin is an extention-compression-related late post-orogenic basin that developed unconformably on a basement comprising a Mesozoic para-authocthonous carbonate platform overthrust by the Antalya Nappes and Alanya Massif metamorphics within the Isparta angle. The Late Cenozoic basin fill consists of thick Miocene to Recent clastic-dominated terrestrial and marine deposits with subordinate marine carbonates and extensive travertines. Late Miocene compressional deformation has resulted into three parts, referred as Aksu, Köprüçay and Manavgat sub-basins, bounded by north-south extending dextral Kırkkavak fault and the westward-verging Aksu thrust. Coralgal reefs are common within the Miocene sequences and are represented by coral assemblages closely similar to that of the circum-Mediterranean fauna. They occur as massive, small, isolated, patch reefs that developed in two contrasting depositional systems (progradational coastal alluvial fan and/or fan-delta conglomerates and transgressive shelf carbonates) during Early-Middle Miocene and Late Miocene. The Early-Middle Miocene reefs are represented by rich and high-diversity hermatypic corals, mainly comprising Tarbellastraea, Heliastraea, Favites, Favia, Acanthastraea, Porites, Caulastraea and Stylophora with occasional presence of solitary (ahermatypic) corals, Lithophyllia, Mussismilia and Leptomusso, locally reflecting relative changes in the bathymetry. Densely packed, massive, domal and hemispherical growth forms bounded by coralline algae and encrusting foraminifera Acervulina construct the reef framework. They occur in the fan-deltas and the transgressive open marine shelf carbonates of the Manavgat and the K

  9. Graphical processors for HEP trigger systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Chiozzi, S.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Di Lorenzo, S.; Fantechi, R.; Fiorini, M.; Frezza, O.; Lamanna, G.; Lo Cicero, F.; Lonardo, A.; Martinelli, M.; Neri, I.; Paolucci, P. S.; Pastorelli, E.; Piandani, R.; Pontisso, L.; Rossetti, D.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Vicini, P.

    2017-02-01

    General-purpose computing on GPUs is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to employ GPUs as accelerators in offline computations. With the steady decrease of GPU latencies and the increase in link and memory throughputs, time is ripe for real-time applications using GPUs in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems. We will discuss the use of online parallel computing on GPUs for synchronous low level trigger systems, focusing on tests performed on the trigger of the CERN NA62 experiment. Latencies of all components need analysing, networking being the most critical. To keep it under control, we envisioned NaNet, an FPGA-based PCIe Network Interface Card (NIC) enabling GPUDirect connection. Moreover, we discuss how specific trigger algorithms can be parallelised and thus benefit from a GPU implementation, in terms of increased execution speed. Such improvements are particularly relevant for the foreseen LHC luminosity upgrade where highly selective algorithms will be crucial to maintain sustainable trigger rates with very high pileup.

  10. The D/Ø Silicon Track Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbrück, Georg

    2003-09-01

    We describe a trigger preprocessor to be used by the D Ø experiment for selecting events with tracks from the decay of long-lived particles. This Level 2 impact parameter trigger utilizes information from the Silicon Microstrip Tracker to reconstruct tracks with improved spatial and momentum resolutions compared to those obtained by the Level 1 tracking trigger. It is constructed of VME boards with much of the logic existing in programmable processors. A common motherboard provides the I/O infrastructure and three different daughter boards perform the tasks of identifying the roads from the tracking trigger data, finding the clusters in the roads in the silicon detector, and fitting tracks to the clusters. This approach provides flexibility for the design, testing and maintenance phases of the project. The track parameters are provided to the trigger framework in 25 μs. The effective impact parameter resolution for high-momentum tracks is 35 μm, dominated by the size of the Tevatron beam.

  11. Tau Trigger at the ATLAS Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Benslama, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Belanger-Champange, C.; Brenner, R.; Bosman, M.; Casado, P.; Osuna, C.; Perez, E.; Vorwerk, V.; Czyczula, Z.; Dam, M.; Xella, S.; Demers, S.; Farrington, S.; Igonkina, O.; Kanaya, N.; Tsuno, S.; Ptacek, E.; Reinsch, A.; Strom, David M.; Torrence, E.; /Oregon U. /Sydney U. /Lancaster U. /Birmingham U.

    2011-11-09

    Many theoretical models, like the Standard Model or SUSY at large tan({beta}), predict Higgs bosons or new particles which decay more abundantly to final states including tau leptons than to other leptons. At the energy scale of the LHC, the identification of tau leptons, in particular in the hadronic decay mode, will be a challenging task due to an overwhelming QCD background which gives rise to jets of particles that can be hard to distinguish from hadronic tau decays. Equipped with excellent tracking and calorimetry, the ATLAS experiment has developed tau identification tools capable of working at the trigger level. This contribution presents tau trigger algorithms which exploit the main features of hadronic tau decays and describes the current tau trigger commissioning activities. Many of the SM processes being investigated at ATLAS, as well as numerous BSM searches, contain tau leptons in their final states. Being able to trigger effectively on the tau leptons in these events will contribute to the success of the ATLAS experiment. The tau trigger algorithms and monitoring infrastructure are ready for the first data, and are being tested with the data collected with cosmic muons. The development of efficiency measurements methods using QCD and Z {yields} {tau}{tau} events is well advanced.

  12. Trigger points – ultrasound and thermal findings

    PubMed Central

    Cojocaru, MC; Cojocaru, IM; Voiculescu, VM; Cojan-Carlea, NA; Dumitru, VL; Berteanu, M

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Muscle pain can be elicited by any irritation of the nociceptors in the muscle or central sensitization in the central nervous system. The most frequently described muscle pain syndromes are myofascial pain syndrome and fibromyalgia syndrome. Myofascial pain syndrome has a more localized manifestation, the trigger points. Objective: If there is a correlation between the clinical findings, the ultrasound examination and the thermal pattern of trigger points exist. Material and method: The presence of trigger points can be identified by using clinical criteria. An ultrasound examination was performed to evaluate the trigger point dimensions. The ultrasound showed an ellipsoidal hypoechogenic area in the muscle. A thermography of the low back region was performed in order to observe the thermal pattern of the area. Results: Trigger points are represented by a higher temperature area surrounded by a cooler area, probably caused by a deficit in the blood flow around those points. Discussion: Infrared thermography could be a great asset for the monitoring of neuromusculoskeletal disorders and their dynamics, as well as an important aid for the initial diagnosis of conditions associated with tissue temperature alterations. PMID:26351532

  13. 24 CFR 585.307 - Environmental procedures and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the related Federal environmental laws and authorities listed under 24 CFR... property triggers thresholds for the applicable Federal environmental laws and authorities listed under 24... (including lease), Federal environmental laws and authorities may apply when the property is: (i)...

  14. 24 CFR 585.307 - Environmental procedures and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the related Federal environmental laws and authorities listed under 24 CFR... property triggers thresholds for the applicable Federal environmental laws and authorities listed under 24... (including lease), Federal environmental laws and authorities may apply when the property is: (i)...

  15. 24 CFR 585.307 - Environmental procedures and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the related Federal environmental laws and authorities listed under 24 CFR... property triggers thresholds for the applicable Federal environmental laws and authorities listed under 24... (including lease), Federal environmental laws and authorities may apply when the property is: (i)...

  16. Triggering of great earthquakes: calculation and analysis of combined tidal effect of the Moon and Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubarov, D. L.; Kochnev, V. A.; Terre, D. A.

    2016-09-01

    The largest part of solid minerals (with the exception of those which are at the earth's surface) is being extracted world-wide by surface and underground mining techniques, with adits, mines and other mine workings being used. A considerable amount of mineral deposits (including oil reservoirs) is located either close to a fault-line or immediately within the zone of high seismic activity. To prevent economic and environmental damage under the effect of an earthquake, thorough seismic monitoring of the area must be performed, as well as the study of all possible mechanisms of an earthquake occurrence. In analysing the trigger effect of moon- and sun-induced tidal forces on seismic activity, six great earthquakes which occurred close to equatorial latitude over the last 15 years have been considered. Based on the positions of the Sun and Moon during the day relative to the point mass, the maps of horizontal, vertical components and vector of gravitational forces per unit mass have been plotted. The developed technique can be applicable to a set of methods to study integration and stress unloading mechanisms at the boundaries of block structures.

  17. Impact on Epidemic Measles of Vaccination Campaigns Triggered by Disease Outbreaks or Serosurveys: A Modeling Study

    PubMed Central

    Metcalf, C. Jessica E.; Cutts, Felicity T.; Grenfell, Bryan T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Routine vaccination supplemented by planned campaigns occurring at 2–5 y intervals is the core of current measles control and elimination efforts. Yet, large, unexpected outbreaks still occur, even when control measures appear effective. Supplementing these activities with mass vaccination campaigns triggered when low levels of measles immunity are observed in a sample of the population (i.e., serosurveys) or incident measles cases occur may provide a way to limit the size of outbreaks. Methods and Findings Measles incidence was simulated using stochastic age-structured epidemic models in settings conducive to high or low measles incidence, roughly reflecting demographic contexts and measles vaccination coverage of four heterogeneous countries: Nepal, Niger, Yemen, and Zambia. Uncertainty in underlying vaccination rates was modeled. Scenarios with case- or serosurvey-triggered campaigns reaching 20% of the susceptible population were compared to scenarios without triggered campaigns. The best performing of the tested case-triggered campaigns prevent an average of 28,613 (95% CI 25,722–31,505) cases over 15 y in our highest incidence setting and 599 (95% CI 464–735) cases in the lowest incidence setting. Serosurvey-triggered campaigns can prevent 89,173 (95% CI, 86,768–91,577) and 744 (612–876) cases, respectively, but are triggered yearly in high-incidence settings. Triggered campaigns reduce the highest cumulative incidence seen in simulations by up to 80%. While the scenarios considered in this strategic modeling exercise are reflective of real populations, the exact quantitative interpretation of the results is limited by the simplifications in country structure, vaccination policy, and surveillance system performance. Careful investigation into the cost-effectiveness in different contexts would be essential before moving forward with implementation. Conclusions Serologically triggered campaigns could help prevent severe epidemics in the

  18. Landslides triggered by the 8 October 2005 Kashmir earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen, L.A.; Kamp, U.; Khattak, G.A.; Harp, E.L.; Keefer, D.K.; Bauer, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The 8 October 2005 Kashmir earthquake triggered several thousand landslides. These were mainly rock falls and debris falls, although translational rock and debris slides also occurred. In addition, a sturzstrom (debris avalanche) comprising ??? 80??million m3 buried four villages and blocked streams to create two lakes. Although landsliding occurred throughout the region, covering an area of > 7500??km2, the failures were highly concentrated, associated with six geomorphic-geologic-anthropogenic settings, including natural failures in (1) highly fractured carbonate rocks comprising the lowest beds in the hanging wall of the likely earthquake fault; (2) Tertiary siliciclastic rocks along antecedent drainages that traverse the Hazara-Kashmir Syntaxis; (3) steep (> 50??) slopes comprising Precambrian and Lower Paleozoic rocks; (4) very steep (?? 50??) lower slopes of fluvially undercut Quaternary valley fills; and (5) ridges and spur crests. The sixth setting was associated with road construction. Extensive fissuring in many of the valley slopes together with the freshly mobilized landslide debris constitutes a potential hazard in the coming snowmelt and monsoon seasons. This study supports the view that earthquake-triggered landslides are highly concentrated in specific zones associated with the lithology, structure, geomorphology, topography, and human presence. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Self-triggering superconducting fault current limiter

    DOEpatents

    Yuan, Xing; Tekletsadik, Kasegn

    2008-10-21

    A modular and scaleable Matrix Fault Current Limiter (MFCL) that functions as a "variable impedance" device in an electric power network, using components made of superconducting and non-superconducting electrically conductive materials. The matrix fault current limiter comprises a fault current limiter module that includes a superconductor which is electrically coupled in parallel with a trigger coil, wherein the trigger coil is magnetically coupled to the superconductor. The current surge doing a fault within the electrical power network will cause the superconductor to transition to its resistive state and also generate a uniform magnetic field in the trigger coil and simultaneously limit the voltage developed across the superconductor. This results in fast and uniform quenching of the superconductors, significantly reduces the burnout risk associated with non-uniformity often existing within the volume of superconductor materials. The fault current limiter modules may be electrically coupled together to form various "n" (rows).times."m" (columns) matrix configurations.

  20. Use of GPUs in Trigger Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamanna, Gianluca

    In recent years the interest for using graphics processor (GPU) in general purpose high performance computing is constantly rising. In this paper we discuss the possible use of GPUs to construct a fast and effective real time trigger system, both in software and hardware levels. In particular, we study the integration of such a system in the NA62 trigger. The first application of GPUs for rings pattern recognition in the RICH will be presented. The results obtained show that there are not showstoppers in trigger systems with relatively low latency. Thanks to the use of off-the-shelf technology, in continous development for purposes related to video game and image processing market, the architecture described would be easily exported to other experiments, to build a versatile and fully customizable online selection.

  1. Earthquake triggering by transient and static deformations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, J.; Beeler, N.M.; Blanpied, M.L.; Bodin, P.

    1998-01-01

    Observational evidence for both static and transient near-field and far-field triggered seismicity are explained in terms of a frictional instability model, based on a single degree of freedom spring-slider system and rate- and state-dependent frictional constitutive equations. In this study a triggered earthquake is one whose failure time has been advanced by ??t (clock advance) due to a stress perturbation. Triggering stress perturbations considered include square-wave transients and step functions, analogous to seismic waves and coseismic static stress changes, respectively. Perturbations are superimposed on a constant background stressing rate which represents the tectonic stressing rate. The normal stress is assumed to be constant. Approximate, closed-form solutions of the rate-and-state equations are derived for these triggering and background loads, building on the work of Dieterich [1992, 1994]. These solutions can be used to simulate the effects of static and transient stresses as a function of amplitude, onset time t0, and in the case of square waves, duration. The accuracies of the approximate closed-form solutions are also evaluated with respect to the full numerical solution and t0. The approximate solutions underpredict the full solutions, although the difference decreases as t0, approaches the end of the earthquake cycle. The relationship between ??t and t0 differs for transient and static loads: a static stress step imposed late in the cycle causes less clock advance than an equal step imposed earlier, whereas a later applied transient causes greater clock advance than an equal one imposed earlier. For equal ??t, transient amplitudes must be greater than static loads by factors of several tens to hundreds depending on t0. We show that the rate-and-state model requires that the total slip at failure is a constant, regardless of the loading history. Thus a static load applied early in the cycle, or a transient applied at any time, reduces the stress

  2. BTeV trigger/DAQ innovations

    SciTech Connect

    Votava, Margaret; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    BTeV was a proposed high-energy physics (HEP) collider experiment designed for the study of B-physics and CP Violation at the Tevatron at Fermilab. BTeV included a large-scale, high-speed trigger and data acquisition (DAQ) system, reading data from the detector at 500 Gbytes/sec and writing data to mass storage at a rate of 200 Mbytes/sec. The design of the trigger/DAQ system was innovative while remaining realistic in terms of technical feasibility, schedule and cost. This paper will give an overview of the BTeV trigger/DAQ architecture, highlight some of the technical challenges, and describe the approach that was used to solve these challenges.

  3. Pemphigus: etiology, pathogenesis, and inducing or triggering factors: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Ruocco, Vincenzo; Ruocco, Eleonora; Lo Schiavo, Ada; Brunetti, Giampiero; Guerrera, Luigi Pio; Wolf, Ronni

    2013-01-01

    Pemphigus includes a group of autoimmune bullous diseases with intraepithelial lesions involving the skin and Malpighian mucous membranes. Pemphigus vulgaris (PV), the most frequent and representative form of the group, is a prototypical organ-specific human autoimmune disorder with a poor prognosis in the absence of medical treatment. The pathomechanism of PV hinges on autoantibodies damaging cell-cell cohesion and leading to cell-cell detachment (acantholysis) of the epidermis and Malpighian mucosae (mainly oral mucosa). A controversy exists about which subset of autoantibodies is primarily pathogenic: the desmoglein-reactive antibodies or those directed against the acetylcholine receptors of the keratinocyte membrane. The onset and course of PV depend on a variable interaction between predisposing and inducing factors. Genetic predisposition has a complex polygenic basis, involving multiple genetic loci; however, the genetic background alone ("the soil"), although essential, is not by itself sufficient to initiate the autoimmune mechanism, as proven by the reports of PV in only one of two monozygotic twins and in only two of three siblings with an identical PV-prone haplotype. The intervention of inducing or triggering environmental factors ("the seed") seems to be crucial to set off the disease. The precipitating factors are many and various, most of them directly originating from the environment (eg, drug intake, viral infections, physical agents, contact allergens, diet), others being endogenous (eg, emotional stress, hormonal disorders) but somehow linked with the subject's lifestyle. As to certain drugs, their potential of provoking acantholysis may be implemented by their interfering with the keratinocyte membrane biochemistry (biochemical acantholysis) and/or with the immune balance (immunologic acantholysis). Viral infections, especially the herpetic ones, may trigger the outbreak of PV or simply complicate its clinical course. The precipitating effect

  4. Triggered star formation associated with HII regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogura, Katsuo

    There are two known mechanisms of triggered star formation associated with HII regions. One is the collect-and-collapse process of the shell accumulated around an expanding HII region, and the other is radiation-driven implosion (RDI) of bright-rimmed clouds (BRCs) originated from pre-existing cloud clumps. They are very briefly reviewed first. We then present the main results of our recent observations on the RDI star formation in BRCs. Finally, a third possible mechanism of triggering is suggested, which is attributed to the formation of elephant trunk-like structures due to hydrodynamical instability of ionization/shock fronts.

  5. More About The Video Event Trigger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Glenn L.

    1996-01-01

    Report presents additional information about system described in "Video Event Trigger" (LEW-15076). Digital electronic system processes video-image data to generate trigger signal when image shows significant change, such as motion, or appearance, disappearance, change in color, brightness, or dilation of object. Potential uses include monitoring of hallways, parking lots, and other areas during hours when supposed unoccupied, looking for fires, tracking airplanes or other moving objects, identification of missing or defective parts on production lines, and video recording of automobile crash tests.

  6. THE STAR LEVEL-3 TRIGGER SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    LANGE, J.S.; ADLER, C.; BERGER, J.; DEMELLO, M.; FLIERL, D.; ET AL

    1999-11-15

    The STAR level-3 trigger is a MYRINET interconnected ALPHA processor farm, performing online tracking of N{sub track} {ge} 8000 particles (N{sub point} {le} 45 per track) with a design input rate of R=100 Hz. A large scale prototype system was tested in 12/99 with laser and cosmic particle events.

  7. California foreshock sequences suggest aseismic triggering process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaowei; Shearer, Peter M.

    2013-06-01

    Foreshocks are one of the few well-documented precursors to large earthquakes; therefore, understanding their nature is very important for earthquake prediction and hazard mitigation. However, the triggering role of foreshocks is not yet clear. It is possible that foreshocks are a self-triggering cascade of events that simply happen to trigger an unusually large aftershock; alternatively, foreshocks might originate from an external aseismic process that ultimately triggers the mainshock. In the former case, the foreshocks will have limited utility for forecasting. The latter case has been observed for several individual large earthquakes; however, it remains unclear how common it is and how to distinguish foreshock sequences from other seismicity clusters that do not lead to large earthquakes. Here we analyze foreshocks of three M>7 mainshocks in southern California. These foreshock sequences appear similar to earthquake swarms, in that they do not start with their largest events and they exhibit spatial migration of seismicity. Analysis of source spectra shows that all three foreshock sequences feature lower average stress drops and depletion of high-frequency energy compared with the aftershocks of their corresponding mainshocks. Using a longer-term stress-drop catalog, we find that the average stress drop of the Landers and Hector Mine foreshock sequences is comparable to nearby swarms. Our observations suggest that these foreshock sequences are manifestations of aseismic transients occurring close to the mainshock hypocenters, possibly related to localized fault zone complexity, which have promoted the occurrence of both the foreshocks and the eventual mainshock.

  8. Triggering of earthquake aftershocks by dynamic stresses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kilb, Debi; Gomberg, J.; Bodin, P.

    2000-01-01

    It is thought that small 'static' stress changes due to permanent fault displacement can alter the likelihood of, or trigger, earthquakes on nearby faults. Many studies of triggering in the nearfield, particularly of aftershocks, rely on these static changes as the triggering agent and consider them only in terms of equivalent changes in the applied load on the fault. Here we report a comparison of the aftershock pattern of the moment magnitude MW = 7.3 Landers earthquake, not only with static stress changes but also with transient, oscillatory stress changes transmitted as seismic waves (that is, 'dynamic' stresses). Dynamic stresses do not permanently change the applied load and thus can trigger earthquakes only by altering the mechanical state or properties of the fault zone. These dynamically weakened faults may fail after the seismic waves have passed by, and might even cause earthquakes that would not otherwise have occurred. We find similar asymmetries in the aftershock and dynamic stress patterns, the latter being due to rupture propagation, whereas the static stress changes lack this asymmetry. Previous studies have shown that dynamic stresses can promote failure at remote distances, but here we show that they can also do so nearby.

  9. Mathematical and physical scaling of triggered lightning

    SciTech Connect

    Ziolkowski, R.W.; Grant, J.B.

    1982-12-01

    As the aircraft industry incorporates current technology in airborne systems, electromagnetic compatibility can decrease. Composite fuselages can be more transparent to EMP, whether nuclear or lightning generated, than metal ones. Solid-state circuitry is sensitive to intense EM fluctuations whereas mechanical controls generally are not. With this increased vulnerability comes increased concern for these dangers. Recently the anxiety over lightning has risen. Answers are sought to such questions as: how do the lightning EM effects couple into the aircraft's interior. Do aircraft trigger lightning, and if so, can the triggering be minimized. An understanding, at least to some extent, of lightning would provide a needed foundation to examine the interaction of aircraft with lightning. A review of the literature on lightning and lightning-aircraft investigations, including triggered lightning, was conducted and is briefly summarized in this paper. In addition to this brief literature review, scaling the lightning event to laboratory size is also discussed. The ability to scale would allow accurate investigation of lightning effects, as well as the triggering phenomena, in scaled experiments.

  10. FPGA Trigger System to Run Klystrons

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Darius; /Texas A-M /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    The Klystron Department is in need of a new trigger system to update the laboratory capabilities. The objective of the research is to develop the trigger system using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology with a user interface that will allow one to communicate with the FPGA via a Universal Serial Bus (USB). This trigger system will be used for the testing of klystrons. The key materials used consists of the Xilinx Integrated Software Environment (ISE) Foundation, a Programmable Read Only Memory (Prom) XCF04S, a Xilinx Spartan 3E 35S500E FPGA, Xilinx Platform Cable USB II, a Printed Circuit Board (PCB), a 100 MHz oscillator, and an oscilloscope. Key considerations include eight triggers, two of which have variable phase shifting capabilities. Once the project was completed the output signals were able to be manipulated via a Graphical User Interface by varying the delay and width of the signal. This was as planned; however, the ability to vary the phase was not completed. Future work could consist of being able to vary the phase. This project will give the operators in the Klystron Department more flexibility to run various tests.

  11. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy triggered by alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, Joakim; Benouda, Leila; Champ-Rigot, Laure; Labombarda, Fabien

    2011-07-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a reversible cardiomyopathy frequently precipitated by a sudden emotional or physical stress. The exact physiopathology is still debated and may involve catecholamine-induced myocardial stunning. Alcohol withdrawal is associated with an hyperadrenergic state and may be a period at risk of cardiac events. We report a 56-year-old man with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy triggered by alcohol withdrawal.

  12. Myofacial Trigger Points in Advanced Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hasuo, Hideaki; Ishihara, Tatsuhiko; Kanbara, Kenji; Fukunaga, Mikihiko

    2016-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome is started to be recognized as one of important factors of pain in cancer patients. However, no reports on features of myofascial trigger points were found in terminally-ill cancer populations. This time, we encountered 5 patients with myofascial pain syndrome and terminal cancer in whom delirium developed due to increased doses of opioid without a diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome on initial presentation. The delirium subsided with dose reductions of opioid and treatment of myofascial pain syndrome. The common reason for a delayed diagnosis among the patients included an incomplete palpation of the painful sites, which led to unsuccessful myofascial trigger points identification. The features of myofascial trigger points included single onset in the cancer pain management site with opioid and the contralateral abdominal side muscles of the non-common sites. Withdrawal reflexes associated with cancer pain in the supine position, which are increasingly seen in the terminal cancer patients, were considered to have contributed to this siuation. We consider that careful palpation of the painful site is important, in order to obtain greater knowledge and understanding of the features of myofascial trigger points. PMID:26962285

  13. Multiple output timing and trigger generator

    SciTech Connect

    Wheat, Robert M.; Dale, Gregory E

    2009-01-01

    In support of the development of a multiple stage pulse modulator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have developed a first generation, multiple output timing and trigger generator. Exploiting Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Micro Controller Units (MCU's), the timing and trigger generator provides 32 independent outputs with a timing resolution of about 500 ns. The timing and trigger generator system is comprised of two MCU boards and a single PC. One of the MCU boards performs the functions of the timing and signal generation (the timing controller) while the second MCU board accepts commands from the PC and provides the timing instructions to the timing controller. The PC provides the user interface for adjusting the on and off timing for each of the output signals. This system provides 32 output or timing signals which can be pre-programmed to be in an on or off state for each of 64 time steps. The width or duration of each of the 64 time steps is programmable from 2 {micro}s to 2.5 ms with a minimum time resolution of 500 ns. The repetition rate of the programmed pulse train is only limited by the time duration of the programmed event. This paper describes the design and function of the timing and trigger generator system and software including test results and measurements.

  14. Performance of the CMS High Level Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrotta, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system. The first level is implemented using custom-designed electronics. The second level is the so-called High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. For Run II of the Large Hadron Collider, the increases in center-of-mass energy and luminosity will raise the event rate to a level challenging for the HLT algorithms. The increase in the number of interactions per bunch crossing, on average 25 in 2012, and expected to be around 40 in Run II, will be an additional complication. We present here the expected performance of the main triggers that will be used during the 2015 data taking campaign, paying particular attention to the new approaches that have been developed to cope with the challenges of the new run. This includes improvements in HLT electron and photon reconstruction as well as better performing muon triggers. We will also present the performance of the improved tracking and vertexing algorithms, discussing their impact on the b-tagging performance as well as on the jet and missing energy reconstruction.

  15. [Triggering of acute coronary syndromes. Pathophysiologic relationships].

    PubMed

    González Pliego, José Angel

    2006-01-01

    In this review, the relationship of external triggers with the development of acute coronary syndromes is described. Based on current evidence, the pathophysiological mechanisms that probably result in the rupture of vulnerable coronary plaques are revised and preventive measures to stop the functional and lethal consequences of its occurrence are proposed.

  16. An "anomalous" triggered lightning flash in Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamerota, W. R.; Uman, M. A.; Hill, J. D.; Pilkey, J.; Ngin, T.; Jordan, D. M.; Mata, C. T.

    2013-04-01

    An "anomalous" rocket-and-wire triggered lightning flash, a flash whose leaders do not follow the triggering wire remnants to ground, is characterized via high-speed video images at 10 and 300 kilo-frames per second, still camera images, 66-72 MHz source locations from a Lightning Mapping Array, channel-base current, and electric field and electric field derivative (dE/dt) measurements. This is the first anomalous flash of about 410 classically triggered flashes in north-central Florida. The flash began with an upward positively charged leader (UPL) initiating from the tip of the upward-moving triggering wire about 280 m above ground level. All but the bottom 17 m of wire exploded (became luminous) 37.6 ms after UPL initiation. A stepped leader initiated, likely from the top of the wire remnants, 282 m above ground level about 1.3 ms after the wire explosion and propagated downward for 2.1 ms, attaching to the top of a grounded utility pole 117 m southwest of the launching facility. The line charge density on the stepped leader is estimated to be of the order of 10-3 C m-1. Contrary to previously reported "anomalous" flashes in France and New Mexico (roughly 16% and 31%, respectively, of their triggered flashes), in our event, there was not a tens of milliseconds current-zero period preceding the stepped leader, there was no observed downward dart leader in the UPL channel prior to the stepped leader to ground, and there was a failed attempt to reestablish current in the exploded-wire channel between the UPL and ground.

  17. On near-source earthquake triggering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.; Velasco, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    When one earthquake triggers others nearby, what connects them? Two processes are observed: static stress change from fault offset and dynamic stress changes from passing seismic waves. In the near-source region (r ??? 50 km for M ??? 5 sources) both processes may be operating, and since both mechanisms are expected to raise earthquake rates, it is difficult to isolate them. We thus compare explosions with earthquakes because only earthquakes cause significant static stress changes. We find that large explosions at the Nevada Test Site do not trigger earthquakes at rates comparable to similar magnitude earthquakes. Surface waves are associated with regional and long-range dynamic triggering, but we note that surface waves with low enough frequency to penetrate to depths where most aftershocks of the 1992 M = 5.7 Little Skull Mountain main shock occurred (???12 km) would not have developed significant amplitude within a 50-km radius. We therefore focus on the best candidate phases to cause local dynamic triggering, direct waves that pass through observed near-source aftershock clusters. We examine these phases, which arrived at the nearest (200-270 km) broadband station before the surface wave train and could thus be isolated for study. Direct comparison of spectral amplitudes of presurface wave arrivals shows that M ??? 5 explosions and earthquakes deliver the same peak dynamic stresses into the near-source crust. We conclude that a static stress change model can readily explain observed aftershock patterns, whereas it is difficult to attribute near-source triggering to a dynamic process because of the dearth of aftershocks near large explosions.

  18. Environmentally safe fluid extractor

    DOEpatents

    Sungaila, Zenon F.

    1993-01-01

    An environmentally safe fluid extraction device for use in mobile laboratory and industrial settings comprising a pump, compressor, valving system, waste recovery tank, fluid tank, and a exhaust filtering system.

  19. Environmentally safe fluid extractor

    DOEpatents

    Sungaila, Zenon F.

    1993-07-06

    An environmentally safe fluid extraction device for use in mobile laboratory and industrial settings comprising a pump, compressor, valving system, waste recovery tank, fluid tank, and a exhaust filtering system.

  20. AMPLITUDE DISCRIMINATOR HAVING SEPARATE TRIGGERING AND RECOVERY CONTROLS UTILIZING AUTOMATIC TRIGGERING

    DOEpatents

    Chase, R.L.

    1962-01-23

    A transistorized amplitude discriminator circuit is described in which the initial triggering sensitivity and the recovery threshold are separately adjustable in a convenient manner. The discriminator is provided with two independent bias components, one of which is for circuit hysteresis (recovery) and one of which is for trigger threshold level. A switching circuit is provided to remove the second bias component upon activation of the trigger so that the recovery threshold is always at the point where the trailing edge of the input signal pulse goes through zero or other desired value. (AEC)

  1. Tidal heat pulses on a reef trigger a fine-tuned transcriptional response in corals to maintain homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Jones, Lupita J; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2017-03-01

    For reef-building corals, extreme stress exposure can result in loss of endosymbionts, leaving colonies bleached. However, corals in some habitats are commonly exposed to natural cycles of sub-bleaching stress, often leading to higher stress tolerance. We monitored transcription in the tabletop coral Acropora hyacinthus daily for 17 days over a strong tidal cycle that included extreme temperature spikes, and show that increases in temperature above 30.5°C triggered a strong transcriptional response. The transcriptomic time series data allowed us to identify a set of genes with coordinated expression that were activated only on days with strong tides, high temperature, and large diel pH and oxygen changes. The responsive genes are enriched for gene products essential to the unfolded protein response, an ancient cellular response to endoplasmic reticulum stress. After the temporary heat pulses passed, expression of these genes immediately decreased, suggesting that homeostasis was restored to the endoplasmic reticulum. In a laboratory temperature stress experiment, we found that the expression of these environmentally responsive genes increased as corals bleached, showing that the unfolded protein response becomes more intense during more severe stress. Our results point to the unfolded protein response as a first line of defense that acroporid corals use when coping with environmental stress on the reef, thus enhancing our understanding of coral stress physiology during a time of major concern for reefs.

  2. Tidal heat pulses on a reef trigger a fine-tuned transcriptional response in corals to maintain homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Jones, Lupita J.; Palumbi, Stephen R.

    2017-01-01

    For reef-building corals, extreme stress exposure can result in loss of endosymbionts, leaving colonies bleached. However, corals in some habitats are commonly exposed to natural cycles of sub-bleaching stress, often leading to higher stress tolerance. We monitored transcription in the tabletop coral Acropora hyacinthus daily for 17 days over a strong tidal cycle that included extreme temperature spikes, and show that increases in temperature above 30.5°C triggered a strong transcriptional response. The transcriptomic time series data allowed us to identify a set of genes with coordinated expression that were activated only on days with strong tides, high temperature, and large diel pH and oxygen changes. The responsive genes are enriched for gene products essential to the unfolded protein response, an ancient cellular response to endoplasmic reticulum stress. After the temporary heat pulses passed, expression of these genes immediately decreased, suggesting that homeostasis was restored to the endoplasmic reticulum. In a laboratory temperature stress experiment, we found that the expression of these environmentally responsive genes increased as corals bleached, showing that the unfolded protein response becomes more intense during more severe stress. Our results point to the unfolded protein response as a first line of defense that acroporid corals use when coping with environmental stress on the reef, thus enhancing our understanding of coral stress physiology during a time of major concern for reefs. PMID:28345029

  3. Analysis of meteorological trigger conditions for torrential processes on a daily time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Martin; Kaitna, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Floods, intensive bedload transport, debris floods, and debris flows represent a severe hazard in torrent catchments in Alpine regions. These processes are expected to be mostly triggered by intensive, localized thunderstorm events or long lasting low-pressure systems. For forecasting debris flow hazards and estimation of potential changes due to climate change, identification of meteorological trigger conditions is of interest. In this study we investigate meteorological trigger conditions of torrential events recorded in Austria. The analysis is based on daily rainfall and temperature data. In total 7617 events and 1032 data-sets from meteorological stations, distributed over a region of approximately 80,000 km², and dating back until the year 1874, are available for analysis. Nearest stations to event as well as a weighted distance approach were combined with a Bayesian analysis to determine typical trigger conditions in different alpine settings. While according to Bayesian analysis the majority of debris flows is likely to be triggered by short rainfall events with an intensity of 60-70 mm/day, the signal for debris floods is less clear. Thresholds for debris floods tend to show higher rainfall intensities of 70-100 mm/day as prerequisites, but also a significant amount was caused by longer rainfall durations up to two days. Furthermore, the total event rainfall plays a higher role compared to debris flows. Intensive bedload transport shows a more complex relationship with a typical triggering event rainfall between 150 and 200 mm and rainfall intensities exceeding 100 mm/day. Flood events are mainly caused by a complex combination of influencing factors with different combinations of triggering event rainfall, high rainfall intensities and rainfall duration. The results of our study contribute to an improved understanding of torrential activity in the Alps and examine the influence of rainfall conditions on different types of torrential events.

  4. Dynamic Triggering of Earthquakes and Tremors in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, T. C.; Chen, K. H.; Liang, W. T.; Peng, Z.; Chao, K.

    2015-12-01

    Distant earthquake matters. Its long period, long lasted surface waves could bring transient stresses, later the local stress state, and trigger earthquakes and tremors at remote distances. There exists mounting evidences for the role of dynamic stress in slow/fast earthquakes triggering. Yet, little is understood about the similar/different processes for triggered earthquakes and tremors. What is the response of tremors and earthquakes to a remote earthquake? Are the triggered tremor and earthquakes co-located? Are the triggering controlled by the characteristics of distant earthquakeor local physical condition? With generation potential of non-volcanic tremors and frequent earthquake activity, Taiwan serves as a natural laboratory to explore the similarity and difference in triggering response of tremor and earthquakes. Using a collection of Mw ≥ 7.0 events from Sumatra constraint by similar azimuth, we seek to understand the general characteristics of tremors and earthquakes triggered by Sumatra events, furthermore, discuss the predominant factors of triggering in Taiwan. By examining all recordings of the 24 Sumatra Mw ≥ 7.0 earthquakes from 2000 to 2014 , we identified four triggered tremors and 12 triggered earthquakes that occurred during the surface wave passage. The Sumatra earthquakes that triggered tremors are characterized by thrust-type focal mechanisms with right-lateral component and minimum dynamic stress of ~3 kPa. The minimum dynamic stress measured for triggered earthquakes, however, is ~0.4 kPa, smaller than that of triggered tremor. The different location and stress triggering threshold for triggered tremors and earthquakes indicates different triggering mechanisms. Triggered tremors are confined in southern Central Range characterized by high attenuation, high thermal anomaly, the boundary between high and low resistivity, and localized veins on the surfaces distributed, suggesting the involvement of fluids from metamorphic dehydration

  5. Electron Pattern Recognition using trigger mode SOI pixel sensor for Advanced Compton Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazoe, K.; Yoshihara, Y.; Fairuz, A.; Koyama, A.; Takahashi, H.; Takeda, A.; Tsuru, T.; Arai, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Compton imaging is a useful method for localizing sub MeV to a few MeV gamma-rays and widely used for environmental and medical applications. The direction of recoiled electrons in Compton scattering process provides the additional information to limit the Compton cones and increases the sensitivity in the system. The capability of recoiled electron tracking using trigger-mode Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) sensor is investigated with various radiation sources. The trigger-mode SOI sensor consists of 144 by 144 active pixels with 30 μm cells and the thickness of sensor is 500 μm. The sensor generates the digital output when it is hit by gamma-rays and 25 by 25 pixel pattern of surrounding the triggered pixel is readout to extract the recoiled electron track. The electron track is successfully observed for 60Co and 137Cs sources, which provides useful information for future electron tracking Compton camera.

  6. UpSet: Visualization of Intersecting Sets

    PubMed Central

    Lex, Alexander; Gehlenborg, Nils; Strobelt, Hendrik; Vuillemot, Romain; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2016-01-01

    Understanding relationships between sets is an important analysis task that has received widespread attention in the visualization community. The major challenge in this context is the combinatorial explosion of the number of set intersections if the number of sets exceeds a trivial threshold. In this paper we introduce UpSet, a novel visualization technique for the quantitative analysis of sets, their intersections, and aggregates of intersections. UpSet is focused on creating task-driven aggregates, communicating the size and properties of aggregates and intersections, and a duality between the visualization of the elements in a dataset and their set membership. UpSet visualizes set intersections in a matrix layout and introduces aggregates based on groupings and queries. The matrix layout enables the effective representation of associated data, such as the number of elements in the aggregates and intersections, as well as additional summary statistics derived from subset or element attributes. Sorting according to various measures enables a task-driven analysis of relevant intersections and aggregates. The elements represented in the sets and their associated attributes are visualized in a separate view. Queries based on containment in specific intersections, aggregates or driven by attribute filters are propagated between both views. We also introduce several advanced visual encodings and interaction methods to overcome the problems of varying scales and to address scalability. UpSet is web-based and open source. We demonstrate its general utility in multiple use cases from various domains. PMID:26356912

  7. Environmental Science Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strobbe, Maurice A.

    The objective of this manual is to provide a set of basic analytical procedures commonly used to determine environmental quality. Procedures are designed to be used in an introductory course in environmental science and are explicit enough to allow them to be performed by both the non-science or beginning science student. Stressing ecology and…

  8. Evaluating Environmental Chemistry Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hites, Ronald A.

    2001-01-01

    A director of the Indiana University Center for Environmental Science Research reviews textbooks on environmental chemistry. Highlights clear writing, intellectual depth, presence of problem sets covering both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the material, and full coverage of the topics of concern. Discusses the director's own approach…

  9. JPRS Report: Environmental Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-16

    environmental For the protection of giant pandas , 13 special reserves protection groups and put forward their specific plans were set up in the provinces of...Sichuan, Shaanxi and for environmental protection and control of environ- Gansu. Only about 1,000 pandas still exist in China. mental problems. And more

  10. Site environmental report summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    In this summary of the Fernald 1992 Site Environmental Report the authors will describe the impact of the Fernald site on man and the environment and provide results from the ongoing Environmental Monitoring Program. Also included is a summary of the data obtained from sampling conducted to determine if the site complies with DOE, US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and Ohio EPA (OEPA) requirements. These requirements are set to protect both man and the environment.

  11. SAP Minutes No. 2014-03 for FIFRA meeting held July 29-31, 2014. A set of scientific issues being considered by the Environmental Protection Agency regarding new high throughput methods to estimate chemical exposure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On July 29-31, 2014, the US Environmental Protection Agency convened a public meeting of the FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP) to address scientific issues associated with the agency’s “new High Throughput Methods to Estimate Chemical Exposure”. EPA is proposing to use these methods to identify...

  12. SAP Minutes No.2015-03 for FIFRA meeting held 9/15-17/2015. A set of scientific issues being considered by the Environmental Protection Agency regarding development of a spatial aquatic model(SAM)for pesticide risk assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On September 15-17th, 2014, the US Environmental Protection Agency convened a public meeting of the FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP) to address scientific issues associated with the agency’s “Development of a Spatial Aquatic Model (SAM) for Pesticide Risk Assessment”. The goal of SAM is to impr...

  13. FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel Minutes No. 21015-04. A set of scientific issues being considered by the Environmental Protection Agency regarding integrated endocrine bioactivity and exposure-based prioritization & screening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On December 2-4, 2014, the US Environmental Protection Agency convened a public meeting of the FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP) to address scientific issues associated with the agency’s “Integrated Endocrine Bioactivity and Exposure-Based Prioritization and Screening” methods. EPA is proposing ...

  14. Photoconductive semiconductor switches: Laser Q-switch trigger and switch-trigger laser integration

    SciTech Connect

    Loubriel, G.M.; Mar, A.; Hamil, R.A.; Zutavern, F.J.; Helgeson, W.D.

    1997-12-01

    This report provides a summary of the Pulser In a Chip 9000-Discretionary LDRD. The program began in January of 1997 and concluded in September of 1997. The over-arching goal of this LDRD is to study whether laser diode triggered photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) can be used to activate electro-optic devices such as Q-switches and Pockels cells and to study possible laser diode/switch integration. The PCSS switches we used were high gain GaAs switches because they can be triggered with small amounts of laser light. The specific goals of the LDRD were to demonstrate: (1) that small laser diode arrays that are potential candidates for laser-switch integration will indeed trigger the PCSS switch, and (2) that high gain GaAs switches can be used to trigger optical Q-switches in lasers such as the lasers to be used in the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source and the laser used for direct optical initiation (DOI) of explosives. The technology developed with this LDRD is now the prime candidate for triggering the Q switch in the multiple lasers in the laser trigger system of the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source and may be utilized in other accelerators. As part of the LDRD we developed a commercial supplier. To study laser/switch integration we tested triggering the high gain GaAs switches with: edge emitting laser diodes, vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs), and transverse junction stripe (TJS) lasers. The first two types of lasers (edge emitting and VCSELs) did activate the PCSS but are harder to integrate with the PCSS for a compact package. The US lasers, while easier to integrate with the switch, did not trigger the PCSS at the US laser power levels we used. The PCSS was used to activate the Q-switch of the compact laser to be used in the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source.

  15. Bryozoan paleoecology indicates mid-Phanerozoic extinctions were the product of long-term environmental stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Catherine M.; Bottjer, David J.

    2007-11-01

    We compiled the global onshore-offshore distribution of marine bryozoans within 396 Permian-Early Jurassic bryozoan assemblages and show that bryozoan assemblage generic richness declined significantly in advance of the end-Permian and end-Triassic mass extinctions, starting as early as the Capitanian prior to the end-Permian and the Norian prior to the end-Triassic. We also show that offshore settings were affected first, prior to both extinctions, suggesting that environmental stress resulted from the gradual encroachment of some deep-water phenomenon onto the shelves. These patterns support long-term oceanographic, rather than extraterrestrial, extinction mechanisms, such as widespread euxinia triggered by massive volcanism and global warming. Tracking the onshore-offshore environmental distribution of these marine invertebrates provides a unique approach to assessing prolonged environmentally induced stress through this ˜120 m.y. time interval.

  16. Control of asthma triggers in indoor air with air cleaners: a modeling analysis

    PubMed Central

    Myatt, Theodore A; Minegishi, Taeko; Allen, Joseph G; MacIntosh, David L

    2008-01-01

    Background Reducing exposure to environmental agents indoors shown to increase asthma symptoms or lead to asthma exacerbations is an important component of a strategy to manage asthma for individuals. Numerous investigations have demonstrated that portable air cleaning devices can reduce concentrations of asthma triggers in indoor air; however, their benefits for breathing problems have not always been reproducible. The potential exposure benefits of whole house high efficiency in-duct air cleaners for sensitive subpopulations have yet to be evaluated. Methods We used an indoor air quality modeling system (CONTAM) developed by NIST to examine peak and time-integrated concentrations of common asthma triggers present in indoor air over a year as a function of natural ventilation, portable air cleaners, and forced air ventilation equipped with conventional and high efficiency filtration systems. Emission rates for asthma triggers were based on experimental studies published in the scientific literature. Results Forced air systems with high efficiency filtration were found to provide the best control of asthma triggers: 30–55% lower cat allergen levels, 90–99% lower risk of respiratory infection through the inhalation route of exposure, 90–98% lower environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) levels, and 50–75% lower fungal spore levels than the other ventilation/filtration systems considered. These results indicate that the use of high efficiency in-duct air cleaners provide an effective means of controlling allergen levels not only in a single room, like a portable air cleaner, but the whole house. Conclusion These findings are useful for evaluating potential benefits of high efficiency in-duct filtration systems for controlling exposure to asthma triggers indoors and for the design of trials of environmental interventions intended to evaluate their utility in practice. PMID:18684328

  17. Nonlinear Viscoelastic Stress Transfer As a Possible Aftershock Triggering Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Shcherbakov, R.

    2014-12-01

    The earthquake dynamics can be modelled by employing the spring-block system [Burridge and Knopoff, 1967]. In this approach the earthquake fault is modelled by an array of blocks coupling the loading plate and the lower plate. The dynamics of the system is governed by the system of equations of motion for each block. It is possible to map this system into a cellular automata model, where the stress acting on each block is increased in each time step, and the failing process (frictional slip) is described by stress transfer rules [Olami et al, 1992]. The OFC model produces a power-law distribution for avalanche statistics but it is not capable of producing robust aftershock sequences which follow Omori's law.We propose a nonlinear viscoelastic stress transfer mechanism in the aftershock triggering. In a basic spring-block model setting, we introduce the nonlinear viscoelastic stress transfer between neighbouring blocks, as well as between blocks and the top loading plate. The shear stress of the viscous component is a power-law function of the velocity gradient with an exponent smaller or greater than 1 for the nonlinear viscoelasticity, or 1 for the linear case. The stress transfer function of this nonlinear viscoelastic model has a power-law time-dependent form. It features an instantaneous stress transmission triggering an instantaneous avalanche, which is the same as the original spring-block model; and a power-law relaxation term, which could trigger further aftershocks. We incorporate this nonlinear viscoelasticity mechanism in a lattice cellular automata model. The model could exhibit both the Gutenberg-Richter scaling for the frequency-magnitude distribution and a power-law time decay of aftershocks, which is in accordance with Omori's law. Our study suggests that the stress transfer function may play an important role in the aftershock triggering. We have found that the time decay curve of aftershocks is affected by the shape of the stress transfer function

  18. Landslides triggered by the 1946 Ancash earthquake, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampherm, T. S.; Evans, S. G.; Valderrama Murillo, P.

    2009-04-01

    The 1946 M7.3 Ancash Earthquake triggered a large number of landslides in an epicentral area that straddled the Continental Divide of South America in the Andes of Peru. A small number of landslides were described in reconnaissance reports by E. Silgado and Arnold Heim published shortly after the earthquake, but further details of the landslides triggered by the earthquake have not been reported since. Utilising field traverses, aerial photograph interpretation and GIS, our study mapped 45 landslides inferred to have been triggered by the event. 83% were rock avalanches involving Cretaceous limestones interbedded with shales. The five largest rock/debris avalanches occurred at Rio Llama (est. vol. 37 M m3), Suytucocha (est. vol., 13.5 Mm3), Quiches (est. vol. 10.5 Mm3 ), Pelagatos (est. vol. 8 Mm3), and Shundoy (est. vol. 8 Mm3). The Suytucocha, Quiches, and Pelagatos landslides were reported by Silgado and Heim. Rock slope failure was most common on slopes with a southwest aspect, an orientation corresponding to the regional dip direction of major planar structures in the Andean foreland belt (bedding planes and thrust faults). In valleys oriented transverse to the NW-SE structural grain of the epicentral area, south-westerly dipping bedding planes combined with orthogonal joint sets to form numerous wedge failures. Many initial rock slope failures were transformed into rock/debris avalanches by the entrainment of colluvium in their path. At Acobamba, a rock avalanche that transformed into a debris avalanche (est. vol. 4.3 Mm3) overwhelmed a village resulting in the deaths of 217 people. The cumulative volume-frequency plot shows a strong power law relation below a marked rollover, similar in form to that derived for landslides triggered by the 1994 Northridge Earthquake. The total volume of the 45 landslides is approximately 93 Mm3. The data point for the Ancash Earthquake plots near the regression line calculated by Keefer (1994), and modified by Malamud et al

  19. A light-triggered protein secretion system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daniel; Gibson, Emily S; Kennedy, Matthew J

    2013-05-13

    Optical control of protein interactions has emerged as a powerful experimental paradigm for manipulating and studying various cellular processes. Tools are now available for controlling a number of cellular functions, but some fundamental processes, such as protein secretion, have been difficult to engineer using current optical tools. Here we use UVR8, a plant photoreceptor protein that forms photolabile homodimers, to engineer the first light-triggered protein secretion system. UVR8 fusion proteins were conditionally sequestered in the endoplasmic reticulum, and a brief pulse of light triggered robust forward trafficking through the secretory pathway to the plasma membrane. UVR8 was not responsive to excitation light used to image cyan, green, or red fluorescent protein variants, allowing multicolor visualization of cellular markers and secreted protein cargo as it traverses the cellular secretory pathway. We implemented this novel tool in neurons to demonstrate restricted, local trafficking of secretory cargo near dendritic branch points.

  20. Level-2 Calorimeter Trigger Upgrade at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, G.U.; /Purdue U.

    2007-04-01

    The CDF Run II Level-2 calorimeter trigger is implemented in hardware and is based on an algorithm used in Run I. This system insured good performance at low luminosity obtained during the Tevatron Run II. However, as the Tevatron instantaneous luminosity increases, the limitations of the current system due to the algorithm start to become clear. In this paper, we will present an upgrade of the Level-2 calorimeter trigger system at CDF. The upgrade is based on the Pulsar board, a general purpose VME board developed at CDF and used for upgrading both the Level-2 tracking and the Level-2 global decision crate. This paper will describe the design, hardware and software implementation, as well as the advantages of this approach over the existing system.

  1. A self-triggered picoinjector in microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yiming; Liu, Songsheng; Jia, Chunping; Mao, Hongju; Jin, Qinghui; Zhao, Jianlong; Zhou, Hongbo

    2016-12-01

    Droplet-based microfluidics has recently emerged as a potential platform for studies of single-cell, directed evolution, and genetic sequencing. In droplet-based microfluidics, adding reagents into drops is one of the most important functions. In this paper, we develop a new self-triggered picoinjector to add controlled volumes of reagent into droplets at kilohertz rates. In the picoinjector, the reagent injecting is triggered by the coming droplet itself, without needing a droplet detection module. Meanwhile, the dosing volume can be precisely controlled. These features make the system more practical and reliable. We expect the new picoinjector will find important applications of droplet-based microfluidics in automated biological assay, directed evolution, enzyme assay, and so on.

  2. Cell biology of Ca2+-triggered exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Pang, Zhiping P; Südhof, Thomas C

    2010-08-01

    Ca(2+) triggers many forms of exocytosis in different types of eukaryotic cells, for example synaptic vesicle exocytosis in neurons, granule exocytosis in mast cells, and hormone exocytosis in endocrine cells. Work over the past two decades has shown that synaptotagmins function as the primary Ca(2+)-sensors for most of these forms of exocytosis, and that synaptotagmins act via Ca(2+)-dependent interactions with both the fusing phospholipid membranes and the membrane fusion machinery. However, some forms of Ca(2+)-induced exocytosis may utilize other, as yet unidentified Ca(2+)-sensors, for example, slow synaptic exocytosis mediating asynchronous neurotransmitter release. In the following overview, we will discuss the synaptotagmin-based mechanism of Ca(2+)-triggered exocytosis in neurons and neuroendocrine cells, and its potential extension to other types of Ca(2+)-stimulated exocytosis for which no synaptotagmin Ca(2+)-sensor has been identified.

  3. Insignificant solar-terrestrial triggering of earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Thomas, Jeremy N.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the claim that solar-terrestrial interaction, as measured by sunspots, solar wind velocity, and geomagnetic activity, might play a role in triggering earthquakes. We count the number of earthquakes having magnitudes that exceed chosen thresholds in calendar years, months, and days, and we order these counts by the corresponding rank of annual, monthly, and daily averages of the solar-terrestrial variables. We measure the statistical significance of the difference between the earthquake-number distributions below and above the median of the solar-terrestrial averages by χ2 and Student's t tests. Across a range of earthquake magnitude thresholds, we find no consistent and statistically significant distributional differences. We also introduce time lags between the solar-terrestrial variables and the number of earthquakes, but again no statistically significant distributional difference is found. We cannot reject the null hypothesis of no solar-terrestrial triggering of earthquakes.

  4. Trigger electronics upgrade of PHENIX muon tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, S.; Akiyama, T.; Aoki, K.; Asano, H.; Ebesu, S.; Fukao, Y.; Haki, Y.; Hata, M.; Ichikawa, Y.; Iinuma, H.; Ikeda, Y.; Ikeno, M.; Imai, K.; Imazu, Y.; Karatsu, K.; Kasai, M.; Kawamura, H.; Kim, E.; Kurita, K.; Mibe, T.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakamura, K. R.; Nakanishi, R.; Ninomiya, K.; Nitta, M.; Ogawa, N.; Onishi, J.; Park, S.; Sada, Y.; Saito, N.; Sameshima, R.; Sasaki, O.; Sato, A.; Seitaibashi, E.; Senzaka, K.; Shoji, K.; Taketani, A.; Tanida, K.; Toyoda, T.; Watanabe, K.

    2013-03-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) offers the unique capability to collide polarized protons at high energies. One of the highlights of the polarized proton program performed at √{s}=500 GeV is that it affords the direct measurement of sea quark contribution to the proton spin via W-boson production through the measurement of the parity violating single spin asymmetry. A new trigger electronics system for forward muons, which is especially capable of W-boson detection, was developed for the PHENIX experiment. The trigger was installed as an additional electronic circuit, and it was connected in parallel with the existing cathode readout electronics of the muon tracking chamber.

  5. Sequentially triggered star formation in OB associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preibisch, Thomas; Zinnecker, Hans

    We discuss observational evidence for sequential and triggered star formation in galactic and extragalactic OB associations. We will first review in detail the star formation process in the Scorpius-Centaurus OB association, the nearest OB association to the Sun, where several recent extensive studies have provided comprehensive information on the stellar content and the ages of the different OB subgroups. These data have allowed us to reconstruct the star formation history of the association in some detail and provided important insight into the activity in the rho Oph and Lupus dark clouds, and with the origin of several young stellar groups in the southern sky. After discussing evidence for triggered star formation in and around various other Galactic OB associations (e.g. Ori OB1, Per OB2) we will compare the observational results with recent models of rapid star formation in the turbulent interstellar medium (cf. Briceno et al. chapter in Protostars and Planets V, in press).

  6. The BTeV trigger architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Michael H.L.S. Wang

    2003-08-21

    BTeV is a high-statistics B-physics experiment that will achieve new levels of sensitivity in testing the Standard Model explanation of CP violation, mixing, and rare decays in the b and c quark systems by operating in the unique environment of a hadron collider. In order to achieve its goals, it will make use of a state-of-the-art Si-pixel vertex detector and a novel 3-level hierarchical trigger that will look at every single beam crossing to detect the presence of heavy quark decays. This talk will describe the trigger architecture focusing on key design aspects that allow the use of commercially available technology in a highly feasible and practical solution that meets the demanding physics requirements of the BTeV experiment.

  7. The DISTO first level trigger at SATURNE

    SciTech Connect

    Balestra, F. |; Bedfer, Y.; Bertini, R. ||

    1998-06-01

    The DISTO collaboration has built a large-acceptance magnetic spectrometer designed to provide broad kinematic coverage of multi-particle final states produced in pp scattering. The spectrometer has been installed in the polarized proton beam of the Saturne accelerator in Saclay to study polarization observables in the {rvec p}p {yields} pK{sup +}{rvec Y} (Y = {Lambda}, {Sigma}{sup 0} or Y{sup *}) reaction and vector meson production ({psi}, {omega} and {rho}) in pp collisions. The common signature of such events is the multiplicity of four charged particles in the final state. A flexible 1st level trigger which uses topological information from fast detectors has been built. It is completely software programmable through a menu-driven user interface and allows switching between production and monitor triggers on successive beam spills.

  8. Checkpoint triggering in a computer system

    SciTech Connect

    Cher, Chen-Yong

    2016-09-06

    According to an aspect, a method for triggering creation of a checkpoint in a computer system includes executing a task in a processing node of the computer system and determining whether it is time to read a monitor associated with a metric of the task. The monitor is read to determine a value of the metric based on determining that it is time to read the monitor. A threshold for triggering creation of the checkpoint is determined based on the value of the metric. Based on determining that the value of the metric has crossed the threshold, the checkpoint including state data of the task is created to enable restarting execution of the task upon a restart operation.

  9. Wide Range SET Pulse Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuler, Robert L.; Chen, Li

    2012-01-01

    A method for measuring a wide range of SET pulses is demonstrated. Use of dynamic logic, faster than ordinary CMOS, allows capture of short pulses. A weighted binning of SET lengths allows measurement of a wide range of pulse lengths with compact circuitry. A pulse-length-conservative pulse combiner tree routes SETs from combinational logic to the measurement circuit, allowing SET measurements in circuits that cannot easily be arranged in long chains. The method is applied to add-multiplex combinational logic, and to an array of NFET routing switches, at .35 micron. Pulses are captured in a chain of Domino Logic AND gates. Propagation through the chain is frozen on the trailing edge by dropping low the second "enable" input to the AND gates. Capacitive loading is increased in the latter stages to create an approximately logarithmic weighted binning, so that a broad range of pulse lengths can be captured with a 10 stage capture chain. Simulations show pulses can be captured which are 1/5th the length of those typically captured with leading edge triggered latch methods, and less than the length of those captured with a trailing edge latch method. After capture, the pulse pattern is transferred to an SEU protected shift register for readout. 64 instances of each of two types of logic are used as targets. One is a full adder with a 4 to 1 mux on its inputs. The other is a 4 x 4 NFET routing matrix. The outputs are passed through buffered XNOR comparators to identify pulses, which are merged in a buffered not-nand (OR) tree designed to avoid pulse absorption as much as possible. The output from each of the two test circuits are input into separate pulse measurement circuits. Test inputs were provided so that the circuit could be bench tested and calibrated. A third SET measurement circuit with no inputs was used to judge the contribution from direct hits on the measurement circuit. Heavy ions were used with an LET range from 12 to 176. At LET of 21 and below, the very

  10. Modeling seismic swarms triggered by aseismic transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llenos, Andrea L.; McGuire, Jeffrey J.; Ogata, Yosihiko

    2009-04-01

    The rate of earthquake occurrence varies by many orders of magnitude in a given region due to variations in the stress state of the crust. Our focus here is on variations in seismicity rate triggered by transient aseismic processes such as fluid flow, fault creep or magma intrusion. While these processes have been shown to trigger earthquakes, converting observed seismicity variations into estimates of stress rate variations has been challenging. Essentially aftershock sequences often obscure changes in the background seismicity rate resulting from aseismic processes. Two common approaches for estimating the time dependence of the underlying driving mechanisms are the stochastic Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence model (ETAS) [Ogata, Y., (1988), Statistical models for earthquake occurrences and residual analysis for point processes, J. Am. Stat. Assoc., 83, 9-27.] and a physical approach based on the rate- and state-model of fault friction [Dieterich, J., (1994), A constitutive law for rate of earthquake production and its application to earthquake clustering, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 2601-2618.]. The models have different strengths that could be combined to allow more quantitative studies of earthquake triggering. To accomplish this, we identify the parameters that relate to one another in the two models and examine their dependence on stressing rate. A particular conflict arises because the rate-state model predicts that aftershock productivity scales with stressing rate while the ETAS model assumes that it is time independent. To resolve this issue, we estimate triggering parameters for 4 earthquake swarms contemporaneous with geodetically observed deformation transients in various tectonic environments. We find that stressing rate transients increase the background seismicity rate without affecting aftershock productivity. We then specify a combined model for seismicity rate variations that will allow future studies to invert seismicity catalogs for variations in

  11. Apolipoprotein E Sets the Stage: Response to Injury Triggers Neuropathology, Including Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mahley, Robert W.; Huang, Yadong

    2013-01-01

    Apolipoprotein (apo) E4 is the major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and is associated with poor clinical outcome following traumatic brain injury and other neuropathological disorders. Protein instability and an isoform-specific apoE property called domain interaction are responsible for these neuropathological effects. ApoE4 is the most neurotoxic isoform and can induce neuropathology through various cellular pathways. Neuronal damage or stress induces apoE synthesis as part of the repair response; however, when apoE4 is expressed in neurons, its unique conformation makes it susceptible to proteolysis, resulting in the generation of neurotoxic fragments. These fragments cause pathological mitochondrial dysfunction and cytoskeletal alterations. Here, we review data supporting the hypothesis that apoE4 (> apoE3 > apoE2) has direct neurotoxic effects and highlight studies showing that blocking domain interaction reverses these detrimental effects. PMID:23217737

  12. An Electronic Diary Study of Contextual Triggers and ADHD: Get Ready, Get Set, Get Mad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, Carol K.; Henker, Barbara; Ishikawa, Sharon S.; Jamner, Larry D.; Floro, Joshua N.; Johnston, Joseph A.; Swindle, Ralph

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to examine context effects or provocation ecologies in the daily lives of children with ADHD. Method: Across 7 days, mothers and children (27 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD] taking stimulant medication; 25 children without ADHD; ages 7-12 years) provided electronic diary reports…

  13. Community Mobilization for Girls Enrollment in Educational Settings: Triggers of Change Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Margaret M.

    The benefits of girls' education include increased family incomes, later marriages, reduced fertility rates, reduced infant and maternal mortality rates, better nourished families, and greater opportunities for women. However, ingrained attitudes towards women are difficult to change. Only when communities believe that the benefits of girls in…

  14. The Sandia Transportable Triggered Lightning Instrumentation Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Schnetzer, G.H.; Fisher, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Development of the Sandia Transportable Triggered Lightning Instrumentation Facility (SATTLIF) was motivated by a requirement for the in situ testing of munitions storage bunker. Transfer functions relating the incident flash currents to voltages, currents, and electromagnetic field values throughout the structure will be obtained for use in refining and validating a lightning response computer model of this type of structure. A preliminary shakedown trial of the facility under actual operational conditions was performed during the summer of 1990 at the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) rocket-triggered lightning test site in Florida. A description is given of the SATTLIF, which is readily transportable on a single flatbed truck or by aircraft, and its instrumentation for measuring incident lightning channel currents and the responses of systems under test. Measurements of return-stroke current peaks obtained with the SATLLIF are presented. Agreement with data acquired on the same flashes with existing KSC instrumentation is, on average, to within {approximately}7 percent. Continuing currents were measured with a resolution of {approximately}2.5 A. This field trial demonstrated the practicality of using a transportable triggered lightning facility for specialized test applications. 5 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Transdermal anaesthesia for percutaneous trigger finger release.

    PubMed

    Yiannakopoulos, Christos K; Ignatiadis, Ioannis A

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficiency of transdermal anaesthesia using eutectic mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine (EMLA) in patients undergoing percutaneous trigger finger release and to compare it with lidocaine infiltration. In this prospective, randomised study percutaneous release of the A1 annular pulley was performed to treat stenosing tenosynovitis (trigger finger syndrome) in 50 patients (50 fingers). The procedure was performed either under transdermal anaesthesia using EMLA applied transcutaneously 120 minutes prior to the operation (Group A, n = 25) or using local infiltration anaesthesia using lidocaine (Group B, n = 25). Pain experienced during administration of anaesthesia and during the operation was assessed using a 10-point Visual Analogue Pain Scale (VAPS), while all patients rated the effectiveness of anaesthesia with a 5-point scale. There were no significant differences between the two groups in the VAPS during the operation (1.33 +/- 0.52 versus 1.59 +/- 0.87) and the satisfaction scores (4.6 +/- 0.2 versus 4.4 +/- 0.3). The VAPS score during the administration of anaesthesia was statistically significantly less in the EMLA group (0 versus 5.96 +/- 2.41). All patients were satisfied with the final result of the operation. Percutaneous trigger finger release can be performed as an office procedure with the use of EMLA avoiding the use of injectable local infiltration anaesthesia.

  16. Aspartame as a dietary trigger of headache.

    PubMed

    Lipton, R B; Newman, L C; Cohen, J S; Solomon, S

    1989-02-01

    Many dietary factors have been implicated as possible precipitants of headache. There have been recent differences of opinion with regard to the effect of the artificial sweetener aspartame as a precipitant of headache. To assess the importance of aspartame as a dietary factor in headache, 190 consecutive patients of the Montefiore Medical Center Headache Unit were questioned about the effect of alcohol, carbohydrates and aspartame in triggering their headaches. Of the 171 patients who fully completed the survey, 49.7 percent reported alcohol as a precipitating factor, compared to 8.2 percent reporting aspartame and 2.3 percent reporting carbohydrates. Patients with migraine were significantly more likely to report alcohol as a triggering factor and also reported aspartame as a precipitant three times more often than those having other types of headache. The conflicting results of two recent placebo-control studies of aspartame and headache are discussed. We conclude that aspartame may be an important dietary trigger of headache in some people.

  17. ATP-triggered anticancer drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Ran; Jiang, Tianyue; Disanto, Rocco; Tai, Wanyi; Gu, Zhen

    2014-03-01

    Stimuli-triggered drug delivery systems have been increasingly used to promote physiological specificity and on-demand therapeutic efficacy of anticancer drugs. Here we utilize adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) as a trigger for the controlled release of anticancer drugs. We demonstrate that polymeric nanocarriers functionalized with an ATP-binding aptamer-incorporated DNA motif can selectively release the intercalating doxorubicin via a conformational switch when in an ATP-rich environment. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration of ATP-responsive nanovehicles is 0.24 μM in MDA-MB-231 cells, a 3.6-fold increase in the cytotoxicity compared with that of non-ATP-responsive nanovehicles. Equipped with an outer shell crosslinked by hyaluronic acid, a specific tumour-targeting ligand, the ATP-responsive nanocarriers present an improvement in the chemotherapeutic inhibition of tumour growth using xenograft MDA-MB-231 tumour-bearing mice. This ATP-triggered drug release system provides a more sophisticated drug delivery system, which can differentiate ATP levels to facilitate the selective release of drugs.

  18. The Sandia transportable triggered lightning instrumentation facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnetzer, George H.; Fisher, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    Development of the Sandia Transportable Triggered Lightning Instrumentation Facility (SATTLIF) was motivated by a requirement for the in situ testing of a munitions storage bunker. Transfer functions relating the incident flash currents to voltages, currents, and electromagnetic field values throughout the structure will be obtained for use in refining and validating a lightning response computer model of this type of structure. A preliminary shakedown trial of the facility under actual operational conditions was performed during summer of 1990 at the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) rocket-triggered lightning test site. A description is given of the SATTLIF, which is readily transportable on a single flatbed truck of by aircraft, and its instrumentation for measuring incident lightning channel currents and the responses of the systems under test. Measurements of return-stroke current peaks obtained with the SATTLIF are presented. Agreement with data acquired on the same flashes with existing KSC instrumentation is, on average, to within approximately 7 percent. Continuing currents were measured with a resolution of approximately 2.5 A. This field trial demonstrated the practicality of using a transportable triggered lightning facility for specialized test applications.

  19. ENSO-triggered floods in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isla, Federico Ignacio

    2016-04-01

    ENSO-triggered floods altered completely the annual discharge of most watersheds of South America. Anomalous years as 1941, 1982-83 and 1997-98 signified enormous discharges of rivers draining toward the Pacific but also to the Atlantic Ocean. These floods affected large cities as Porto Alegre, Blumenau, Curitiba, Asunción, Santa Fe and Buenos Aires. Maximum discharge months are particular and easily distinguished at those watersheds located at the South American Arid Diagonal. At watersheds conditioned by precipitations delivered from the Atlantic or Pacific anticyclonic centers the ENSO-triggered floods are difficult to discern. The floods of 1941 affected 70,000 inhabitants in Porto Alegre. In 1983, Blumenau city was flooded during several days; and the Paraná River multiplied 15 times the width of its middle floodplain. The Colorado River in Northern Patagonia connected for the last time to the Desaguadero-Chadileuvú-Curacó system and therefore received saline water. ENSO years modify also the water balance of certain piedmont lakes of Southern Patagonia: the increases in snow accumulations cause high water levels with a lag of 13 months. The correlation between the maximum monthly discharges of 1982-83 and 1997-98 at different regions and watersheds indicates they can be forecasted for future floods triggered by same phenomena. South American rivers can be classified therefore into ENSO-affected, and ENSO-dominated, for those within the Arid Diagonal that are exclusively subject to high discharges during these years.

  20. Understanding red blood cell alloimmunization triggers.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, Jeanne E; Tormey, Christopher A

    2016-12-02

    Blood group alloimmunization is "triggered" when a person lacking a particular antigen is exposed to this antigen during transfusion or pregnancy. Although exposure to an antigen is necessary for alloimmunization to occur, it is not alone sufficient. Blood group antigens are diverse in structure, function, and immunogenicity. In addition to red blood cells (RBCs), a recipient of an RBC transfusion is exposed to donor plasma, white blood cells, and platelets; the potential contribution of these elements to RBC alloimmunization remains unclear. Much attention in recent years has been placed on recipient factors that influence RBC alloantibody responses. Danger signals, identified in murine and human studies alike as being risk factors for alloimmunization, may be quite diverse in nature. In addition to exogenous or condition-associated inflammation, autoimmunity is also a risk factor for alloantibody formation. Triggers for alloimmunization in pregnancy are not well-understood beyond the presence of a fetal/maternal bleed. Studies using animal models of pregnancy-induced RBC alloimmunization may provide insight in this regard. A better understanding of alloimmunization triggers and signatures of "responders" and "nonresponders" is needed for prevention strategies to be optimized. A common goal of such strategies is increased transfusion safety and improved pregnancy outcomes.

  1. Children with Asthma: Assessment and Treatment in School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Grigerick, Sarah E.; Loftus, Susan; Nicholson, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic disease of the airways. It affects approximately 12% of American children, and it appears that that incidence is increasing. Asthma in children negatively influences school-based outcomes such as absenteeism and friendship formation. Potential triggers of asthma include environmental allergens, exercise, weather, and emotional…

  2. Time Triggered Protocol (TTP) for Integration Modular Avionics (IMA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwaltney, David A.; Bauer, Guenther; Jakovljevic, Mirko; Gagea,Leonard; Motzet, Guenter

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation is a review of the Time Triggered Protocol, designed to work with NASA's Integrated Safety-Critical Advanced Avionics Communication and Control (ISAACC) system. ISAACC is the product of the Propulsion High-Impact Avionics Technologies (PHIAT) project at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) during FY03 to the end of FY05. The goal is an avionics architecture suitable for control and monitoring of safety critical systems of manned spacecraft. It must be scalable to allow its use in robotic vehicles or launch pad and propulsion test stand monitoring and control systems. The developed IMA should have: a common power supply and rugged chassis for a set of modules, many upgradeable software functions on one module (i.e. processing unit Reduced weight, straightforward update and system integration. It is also important that it have Partitioning and a Memory Management Unit (MMU)

  3. Body-related pride in young adults: an exploration of the triggers, contexts, outcomes and attributions.

    PubMed

    Castonguay, Andree L; Gilchrist, Jenna D; Mack, Diane E; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2013-06-01

    This study explored body-related emotional experiences of pride in young adult males (n=138) and females (n=165). Data were collected using a relived emotion task and analyzed using inductive content analysis. Thirty-nine codes were identified and grouped into six categories (triggers, contexts, cognitive attributions, and affective, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes) for each of two themes (hubristic and authentic pride). Hubristic pride triggers included evaluating appearance/fitness as superior. Cognitions centered on feelings of superiority. Behaviors included strategies to show off. Triggers for authentic pride were personal improvements/maintenance in appearance and meeting or exceeding goals. Feeling accomplished was a cognitive outcome, and physical activity was a behavioral strategy. Contexts for the experience of both facets of pride primarily involved sports settings, swimming/beach, and clothes shopping. These findings provide theoretical support for models of pride as it applies to body image, and advances conceptual understanding of positive body image.

  4. Integration of the Super Nova early warning system with the NOvA Trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Habig, Alec; Zirnstein, Jan

    2015-12-23

    The NOvA experiment, with a baseline of 810km, samples Fermilab’s upgraded NuMI beam with a Near Detector on-site and a Far Detector (FD) at Ash River, MN, to observe oscillations of muon neutrinos. The 344,064 liquid scintillator-filled cells of the 14 kton FD provide high granularity of a large detector mass and enable us to also study non-accelerator based neutrinos with our Data Driven Trigger framework. This paper will focus on the real time integration of the SNEWS with the NOvA Trigger where we have set up an XML-RPC based messaging system to inject the SNEWS signal directly into our trigger. In conclusion, this presents a departure from the E-Mail based notification mechanism used by SNEWS in the past and allows NOvA more control over propagation and transmission timing.

  5. Integration of the Super Nova early warning system with the NOvA Trigger

    DOE PAGES

    Habig, Alec; Zirnstein, Jan

    2015-12-23

    The NOvA experiment, with a baseline of 810km, samples Fermilab’s upgraded NuMI beam with a Near Detector on-site and a Far Detector (FD) at Ash River, MN, to observe oscillations of muon neutrinos. The 344,064 liquid scintillator-filled cells of the 14 kton FD provide high granularity of a large detector mass and enable us to also study non-accelerator based neutrinos with our Data Driven Trigger framework. This paper will focus on the real time integration of the SNEWS with the NOvA Trigger where we have set up an XML-RPC based messaging system to inject the SNEWS signal directly into ourmore » trigger. In conclusion, this presents a departure from the E-Mail based notification mechanism used by SNEWS in the past and allows NOvA more control over propagation and transmission timing.« less

  6. False triggering of an ultraviolet flame detector after 99mTc-MDP injection.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Hisashi; Starkey, Jay

    2016-06-01

    We report a patient who set off a restroom's ultraviolet-spectrum flame detector, occurring 2.5 h after administration of radioisotope 99mTc-MDP (740 MBq) for bone scintigraphy. The radiation dose rate emitted from the patient was estimated to be about 11.82 μSv/h at a distance of 100 cm. To date, many cases have been reported of radiation detector false alarms triggered by radioisotopes administered to patients, presumably due to strengthened security measures and increased radioisotope use. Only one other case of false flame detector triggering in relation to radioisotope administration has been reported, in that case due to therapeutic radioiodine; there have been no prior reports of diagnostic (99m)Tc triggering flame detectors.

  7. Characterization of the Omicron Trigger Generator and Transient Analysis of a LIGO Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabbard, Hunter; LIGO Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Omicron is a burst-type trigger generator. We performed coincidence tests between Omicron generated triggers of ER5 LIGO data and various types of injection wave forms (Sine-Gaussian, White-Noise-Burst, and String Cusp) using a Coincidence Finder program that we developed. Through these tests we determined the efficiency at which the Omicron trigger generator is able to detect specific transient events with varying sets of parameters. We tested and debugged a new version of Omicron and utilized Omicron to perform a close analysis of lock time data at the gravitational wave detector in Livingston, Louisiana. From this analysis we were able to classify noise events and determine several of their sources.

  8. Integration of the Super Nova Early Warning System with the NOvA Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habig, Alec; Zirnstein, Jan

    2015-12-01

    The NOvA experiment, with a baseline of 810km, samples Fermilab's upgraded NuMI beam with a Near Detector on-site and a Far Detector (FD) at Ash River, MN, to observe oscillations of muon neutrinos. The 344,064 liquid scintillator-filled cells of the 14kton FD provide high granularity of a large detector mass and enable us to also study non-accelerator based neutrinos with our Data Driven Trigger framework. This paper will focus on the real time integration of the SNEWS with the NOvA Trigger where we have set up an XML-RPC based messaging system to inject the SNEWS signal directly into our trigger. This presents a departure from the E-Mail based notification mechanism used by SNEWS in the past and allows NOvA more control over propagation and transmission timing.

  9. Early experiences with tachycardia-triggered vagus nerve stimulation using the AspireSR stimulator.

    PubMed

    El Tahry, Riëm; Hirsch, Martin; Van Rijckevorsel, Kenou; Santos, Susana Ferrao; de Tourtchaninoff, Marianne; Rooijakkers, Herbert; Coenen, Volker; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Many epilepsy patients treated with vagus nerve stimulation additionally use an "on-demand" function, triggering an extra stimulation to terminate a seizure or diminish its severity. Nevertheless, a substantial number of patients are not able to actively trigger stimulations by use of a magnet, due to the absence of an aura or inability for voluntary actions in the early phase of a seizure. To address this need, a novel implantable pulse generator, the AspireSR VNS system, was developed to provide automated ictal stimulation triggered by a seizure-detecting algorithm. We report our experience with three patients in assessing the functionality of ictal stimulation, illustrating the detection system in practice. Detection of ictal tachycardia and variable additional detections of physiological tachycardia depended on the individual seizure-detecting algorithm settings.

  10. Compact SCR trigger circuit for ignitron switch operates efficiently

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, L. E.

    1965-01-01

    Trigger circuit with two series-connected SCR triggers an ignitron switch used to discharge high-energy capacitor banks. It does not require a warmup period and operates at relatively high efficiency.

  11. Shock from heart device often triggers further health care needs

    MedlinePlus

    ... More Shock from heart device often triggers further health care needs American Heart Association Rapid Access Journal Report ... cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) may trigger an increase in health care needs for many patients, regardless whether the shock ...

  12. Statistical Properties of Induced and Triggered Earthquakes at The Geysers, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, A. K.; Turcotte, D. L.; Kellogg, L. H.

    2015-12-01

    This study considers the statistics of induced and triggered seismicity at The Geysers geothermal field, California. Data is considered from the regional Northern California Seismic Network (NCSN) and local Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Network (LBNLN). Both data sets give good GR data fits for 2009-2014 but NCSN data have b=1.15 and LBNLN data have b=1.36. Comparing 18,000 individual earthquakes we find on average MLBNLN = MNCSN+0.5. Thus care must be taken when both data sets are used. We hypothesize that the strain accumulated due to the plate motions is a balance by the strain released in earthquakes with a maximum upper limit Mmax. We compare the strain associated with seismicity with the tectonic GPS strain being accumulated in the region. Taking the NCSN GR data with an upper magnitude cutoff, we find this cutoff to be Mmax=4.74. This is consistent with an observed upper magnitude limit to The Geysers seismicity at about M=5. We present studies of aftershock statistics of four M = 4.43, 4.16, 4.62, and 4.53 earthquakes. We find both GR and Omori Law statistics to be typical of tectonic earthquakes. We suggest that the four earthquakes release accumulated tectonic stresses but injected fluids reduce the stress required for rupture initiation. We also consider triggered seismicity caused by three remote earthquakes. We obtain excellent data for the 2010 M=7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah and the M=6.0 South Napa earthquakes. In the first case a M=3.37 event was triggered and in the second case a M=4.48 event was triggered. We conclude that the observed seismicity consists primarily of aftershocks of the large triggered earthquakes and that the directly triggered earthquakes do not satisfy GR frequency-magnitude statistics.

  13. Site Environmental Report, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Site Environmental Report (SER) is prepared annually in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, ``General Environmental Protection Program.`` This 1993 SER provides the general public as well as scientists and engineers with the results from the site`s ongoing Environmental Monitoring Program. Also included in this report is information concerning the site`s progress toward achieving full compliance with requirements set forth by DOE, US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and Ohio EPA (OEPA). For some readers, the highlights provided in the Executive Summary may provide sufficient information. Many readers, however, may wish to read more detailed descriptions of the information than those which are presented here.

  14. Application of Fault Management Theory to the Quantitive Selection of a Launch Vehicle Abort Trigger Suite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Yunnhon; Johnson, Stephen B.; Breckenridge, Jonathan T.

    2014-01-01

    SHM/FM theory has been successfully applied to the selection of the baseline set Abort Triggers for the NASA SLS center dot Quantitative assessment played a useful role in the decision process ? M&FM, which is new within NASA MSFC, required the most "new" work, as this quantitative analysis had never been done before center dot Required development of the methodology and tool to mechanize the process center dot Established new relationships to the other groups ? The process is now an accepted part of the SLS design process, and will likely be applied to similar programs in the future at NASA MSFC ? Future improvements center dot Improve technical accuracy ?Differentiate crew survivability due to an abort, vs. survivability even no immediate abort occurs (small explosion with little debris) ?Account for contingent dependence of secondary triggers on primary triggers ?Allocate "? LOC Benefit" of each trigger when added to the previously selected triggers. center dot Reduce future costs through the development of a specialized tool ? Methodology can be applied to any manned/unmanned vehicle, in space or terrestrial

  15. Event-Triggered Generalized Dissipativity Filtering for Neural Networks With Time-Varying Delays.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Zhang, Xian-Ming; Han, Qing-Long

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with event-triggered generalized dissipativity filtering for a neural network (NN) with a time-varying delay. The signal transmission from the NN to its filter is completed through a communication channel. It is assumed that the network measurement of the NN is sampled periodically. An event-triggered communication scheme is introduced to design a suitable filter such that precious communication resources can be saved significantly while certain filtering performance can be ensured. On the one hand, the event-triggered communication scheme is devised to select only those sampled signals violating a certain threshold to be transmitted, which directly leads to saving of precious communication resources. On the other hand, the filtering error system is modeled as a time-delay system closely dependent on the parameters of the event-triggered scheme. Based on this model, a suitable filter is designed such that certain filtering performance can be ensured, provided that a set of linear matrix inequalities are satisfied. Furthermore, since a generalized dissipativity performance index is introduced, several kinds of event-triggered filtering issues, such as H∞ filtering, passive filtering, mixed H∞ and passive filtering, (Q,S,R) -dissipative filtering, and L2 - L∞ filtering, are solved in a unified framework. Finally, two examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. A possible level 0 trigger scheme for the STAR EMC

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, D.

    1994-05-01

    We propose a level 0 trigger for the STAR Electromagnetic Calorimeter, EMC, which provides a global energy sum and sums over cells appropriate for triggering on direct gammas and jets. It is implemented in analog at low level and digitally with FPGA`s at higher level. It will provide trigger information in less than 800 nanoseconds.

  17. Technical Justification for Radiation Controls at an Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    DUPAQUIER, J.C.

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the technical approach used to establish radiation protection controls over incoming radioactive materials to an environmental measurements laboratory at the Hanford Site. Conditions that would trigger internal dosimetry, posting.

  18. Triggered Star Formation From Shock to Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackman, Eric

    2014-10-01

    Triggered star formation {TSF} occurs when supersonic flows generated by distant supernova blast waves, stellar winds {wind blown bubbles} or ionization fronts {D-type fronts in HII regions} sweep over a stable cloud. TSF may play a role in massive regions of star formation where winds, HII regions and, eventually, blast-waves sweep through dense, heterogeneous molecular material. In addition TSF has played an important role in discussions of the formation of our own solar system because it offers a natural way of injecting short lived radioactive isotopes {SLRI's} like 26^Al into material which will then form planetary bodies.The purpose of this proposal is to use advanced numerical tools to explore the physics of TSF in greater detail than has been attempted before. Previous studies have not been able to follow triggering past the early stages before a star forms. Our 3-D Adaptive Mesh Refinement {AMR} MHD code contains well tested physics modules which will allow us to track the influence of self-gravity, radiation-transport, cooling by molecules/neutrals/atoms and, finally, the collapse of gas into stars {i.e.condensed gravitating point-like objects or "sink-particles"}. With this tool we will follow triggering well past the formation of the star to explore the creation of accretion disks and their properties. In addition the microphysics routines in the code allow us to make detailed contact with HST observations such as the pillars in the Carina nebula via synthetic observations of line profiles, proper motions, Position-Velocity diagrams and statistics.

  19. Missing Transverse Momentum Trigger Performance Studies for the ATLAS Calorimeter Trigger Upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamas, Brianna; Parrish, Elliot; Lisi, Luc; Dudley, Christopher; Majewski, Stephanie

    2016-03-01

    The ATLAS Experiment is one of two general purpose detectors at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. In anticipation of discovering new physics, the detector will undergo numerous hardware upgrades including improvements to the Liquid Argon Calorimeter trigger electronics. For the upgrade, one component of the Level-1 trigger system will be the global feature extractor, gFEX, which will house three field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). Specifically, in order to improve the missing transverse energy (ETmiss)trigger, an adapted topological clustering algorithm is being investigated for implementation on the FPGAs for reconstruction of proton-proton interactions in the ATLAS detector. Using simulated data, this study analyzes the performance of the adapted algorithm in software.

  20. New methods for trigger electronics development

    SciTech Connect

    Cleland, W.E.; Stern, E.G.

    1991-12-31

    The large and complex nature of RHIC experiments and the tight time schedule for their construction requires that new techniques for designing the electronics should be employed. This is particularly true of the trigger and data acquisition electronics which has to be ready for turn-on of the experiment. We describe the use of the Workview package from VIEWlogic Inc. for design, simulation, and verification of a flash ADC readout system. We also show how field-programmable gate arrays such as the Xilinx 4000 might be employed to construct or prototype circuits with a large number of gates while preserving flexibility.

  1. Transient involuntary mirror writing triggered by anxiety.

    PubMed

    Della Sala, Sergio; Calia, Clara; De Caro, Maria Fara; McIntosh, Robert D

    2015-01-01

    Mirror writing (MW) has mainly been observed in left-hemisphere-damaged patients writing with the left hand. This study evaluated the presence of MW in 24 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We found that MW is not a typical feature of MCI. However, one woman (FC), mislabeled initially with MCI but in fact affected by anxiety, showed florid MW when writing with her left hand, which resolved as her anxiety receded. This case study supports anecdotal reports of MW triggered by anxiety, and the features of FC's performance indicate a motor rather than a perceptual basis for the phenomenon.

  2. Extremely Intense Magnetospheric Substorms : External Triggering? Preconditioning?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce; Echer, Ezequiel; Hajra, Rajkumar

    2016-07-01

    We study particularly intense substorms using a variety of near-Earth spacecraft data and ground observations. We will relate the solar cycle dependences of events, determine whether the supersubstorms are externally or internally triggered, and their relationship to other factors such as magnetospheric preconditioning. If time permits, we will explore the details of the events and whether they are similar to regular (Akasofu, 1964) substorms or not. These intense substorms are an important feature of space weather since they may be responsible for power outages.

  3. Widespread Triggering of Nonvolcanic Tremor in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomberg, Joan; Rubinstein, Justin L.; Peng, Zhigang; Creager, Kenneth C.; Vidale, John E.; Bodin, Paul

    2008-01-01

    We identified seven locations on or near the transform plate boundary in California where nonvolcanic tremor was triggered by the 2002 Denali earthquake. This result implies that the conditions essential for nonvolcanic tremor exist in a range of tectonic environments. Models explaining tremor typically require conditions endemic to subduction zones, that is, high temperatures and fluid pressures, because previously tremor was nearly exclusively documented in subduction zones. The absence of tremor in geothermal areas is inconsistent with such models. Additionally, we found no correlation between creeping or locked faults and tremor, contrary to predictions of frictional models of tremor.

  4. Fingerprint on trigger: A real case.

    PubMed

    Amata, B; Aprea, G M; Chiuri, A; Zampa, F

    2015-08-01

    The results obtained by employing a usual technique for latent prints development on firearms are presented. A fingermark on a trigger was enhanced and this print was used to identify the person who handled the firearm. Indeed, it is not usual to find a useful fingermark in that position and, more in general, on firearms because of many different factors described in the following sections. The uniqueness of the results reported in this paper allow to consider the present casework as very interesting for the forensic community.

  5. Metal-triggered collagen peptide disk formation.

    PubMed

    Przybyla, David E; Chmielewski, Jean

    2010-06-16

    A collagen peptide was designed for metal-triggered, hierarchical assembly through a radial growth mechanism. To achieve radial assembly, H-(byp)(2) containing Pro-Hyp-Gly repeating sequences and two staggered bipyridine ligands within the peptide was synthesized. Triple helix formation resulted in the placement of six bipyridine ligands along the triple helix, and the addition of metal ions resulted in the formation of nanometer-sized collagen peptide disks. These structures were found to disassemble upon the addition of EDTA, demonstrating that radial assembly of collagen peptide triple helices could be realized with the addition of metal ions.

  6. MASTER: OT detection during Fermi trigger inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, E.; Lipunov, V.; Buckley, D.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kornilov, V.; Chazov, V.; Vlasenko, D.; Vladimirov, V.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Potter, S.; Gabovich, A.

    2016-11-01

    During inspection of Fermi trigger 501261070 ( (Ra,Dec)=47.190,-47.210; GRB_ERROR_radius=3.27deg, GRB_TIME=2016/11/19 15:11:06.40UT http://gcn.gsfc.nasa.gov/other/501261070.fermi ) MASTER-SAAO auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 03h 22m 52.70s -48d 29m 10.9s on 2016-11-19 21:17:17.878UT with unfiltered m_OT=17.8 (mlim=19.7).

  7. Development of an Environmental Response Handbook for BNFL Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Claxton, D. G. S. A.

    2002-02-26

    The BNFL Group of Companies owns and operates a number of nuclear licensed sites in the UK, Europe, and US. These cover fuel manufacture and reactor services; power reactors; spent fuel management; and nuclear decommissioning and clean up. To implement its environmental policy, BNFL needs to have tools and techniques that allow it to: (a) Respond appropriately to Environmental Trigger Events (ETEs), and to (b) Provide assurance that BNFL is able to manage contaminated land in the short to medium term (prior to site closure). As a consequence, over the past five years, BNFL has developed the Environmental Response Handbook (ERH). ETEs on a nuclear licensed site cover a number of scenarios: proactive action to remediate known contamination; change in behavior or location of known contamination (e.g. mobility increase); revision of permitted environmental limits on contaminants; other changes in regulatory regime; precedent set by a third party; and discovery of previously unknown contamination or new contaminating event. The main themes of the ERH are: global considerations for remediation on an operational site; detailed consideration of the application of remediation to the current ETE(s); a maintained ''toolkit'' of favored remediation techniques; and case studies and action plans In this paper the process undertaken to develop the ERH is discussed. Details of the structure and application of the ERH are also presented.

  8. 40 CFR 355.33 - What release quantities of EHSs and CERCLA hazardous substances trigger the emergency release...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CERCLA hazardous substances trigger the emergency release notification requirements of this subpart? 355.33 Section 355.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND... Release Notification Who Must Comply § 355.33 What release quantities of EHSs and CERCLA...

  9. 40 CFR 355.33 - What release quantities of EHSs and CERCLA hazardous substances trigger the emergency release...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CERCLA hazardous substances trigger the emergency release notification requirements of this subpart? 355.33 Section 355.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND... Release Notification Who Must Comply § 355.33 What release quantities of EHSs and CERCLA...

  10. 40 CFR 355.33 - What release quantities of EHSs and CERCLA hazardous substances trigger the emergency release...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CERCLA hazardous substances trigger the emergency release notification requirements of this subpart? 355.33 Section 355.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND... Release Notification Who Must Comply § 355.33 What release quantities of EHSs and CERCLA...

  11. 40 CFR 355.33 - What release quantities of EHSs and CERCLA hazardous substances trigger the emergency release...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CERCLA hazardous substances trigger the emergency release notification requirements of this subpart? 355.33 Section 355.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND... Release Notification Who Must Comply § 355.33 What release quantities of EHSs and CERCLA...

  12. 40 CFR 355.33 - What release quantities of EHSs and CERCLA hazardous substances trigger the emergency release...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CERCLA hazardous substances trigger the emergency release notification requirements of this subpart? 355.33 Section 355.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND... Release Notification Who Must Comply § 355.33 What release quantities of EHSs and CERCLA...

  13. The VME-based D0 muon trigger electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Fortner, M; Green, J; Hedin, D; Morphis, R; Repond, S; Willis, S; Zazula, R; Johns, K; Bazizi, K; Fahland, T; Hall, R E; Jerger, S; Lietzke, C; Smith, D; Butler, J M; Diehl, H T; Eartly, D; Fitzpatrick, T; Green, D; Haggerty, H; Hansen, S; Hawkins, J; Igarashi, S; Joestlein, H

    1990-11-01

    The trigger electronics for the muon system of the Fermilab D0 detector is described. The hardware trigger consists of VME-based cards designed to find probable tracks in individual chambers and then match these track segments. The fast trigger is highly parallel and able to discern probable tracks from about 15,000 trigger cells in under 200 ns from receipt of all bits in the counting house. There is a parallel confirmation trigger with a response time of 1--5 microseconds that provides a crude calculation of t