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Sample records for enzimas alt ast

  1. The AST/ALT (De-Ritis) ratio

    PubMed Central

    Rief, Peter; Pichler, Martin; Raggam, Reinhard; Hafner, Franz; Gerger, Armin; Eller, Philipp; Brodmann, Marianne; Gary, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aspartat aminotransferase (AST)/alanin aminotransferase (ALT) (De-Ritis) ratio (AAR) is an easily applicable blood test. An elevated AAR on the one hand has been associated with an increase in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD on the other hand is associated with an increase in cardiovascular disease, all-cause mortality, and diabetes. As the AAR is also elevated in case of muscular damage, we investigated AAR and its association with critical limb ischemia (CLI) in peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) patients. In our cross-sectional study, we included 1782 PAOD patients treated at our institution from 2005 to 2010. Patients with chronic alcohol consumption (>20 g/day) were excluded. AAR was calculated and the cohort was categorized into tertiles according to the AAR. An optimal cut-off value for the continuous AAR was calculated by applying a receiver operating curve analysis to discriminate between CLI and non-CLI. In our cohort, occurrence of CLI significantly increased with an elevation in AAR. As an optimal cut-off value, an AAR of 1.67 (sensitivity 34.1%, specificity 81.0%) was identified. Two groups were categorized, 1st group containing 1385 patients (AAR < 1.67) and a 2nd group with 397 patients (AAR > 1.67). CLI was more frequent in AAR > 1.67 patients (166 [41.9%]) compared to AAR < 1.67 patients (329 [23.8%]) (P < 0.001), as was prior myocardial infarction (28 [7.1%] vs 54 [3.9%], P = 0.01). Regarding inflammatory parameters, C-reactive protein (median 8.1 mg/L [2.9–28.23] vs median 4.3 mg/L [2.0–11.5]) and fibrinogen (median 427.5 mg/dL [344.25–530.0] vs 388.0 mg/dL [327.0–493.0]) also significantly differed in the 2 patient groups (both P < 0.001). Finally, an AAR > 1.67 was associated with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7–2.3) for CLI even after adjustment for other well-established vascular risk factors. An increased AAR is significantly

  2. The genetic architecture of liver enzyme levels: GGT, ALT and AST.

    PubMed

    van Beek, Jenny H D A; de Moor, Marleen H M; de Geus, Eco J C; Lubke, Gitta H; Vink, Jacqueline M; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2013-07-01

    High levels of liver enzymes GGT, ALT and AST are predictive of disease and all-cause mortality and can reflect liver injury, fatty liver and/or oxidative stress. Variation in GGT, ALT and AST levels is heritable. Moderation of the heritability of these liver enzymes by age and sex has not often been explored, and it is not clear to what extent non-additive genetic and shared environmental factors may play a role. To examine the genetic architecture of GGT, ALT and AST, plasma levels were assessed in a large sample of twins, their siblings, parents and spouses (N = 8,371; age range 18-90). For GGT and ALT, but not for AST, genetic structural equation modeling showed evidence for quantitative sex differences in the genetic architecture. There was no evidence for qualitative sex differences, i.e. the same genes were expressed in males and females. Both additive and non-additive genetic factors were important for GGT in females (total heritability h(2) 60 %) and AST in both sexes (total h(2) 43 %). The heritability of GGT in males and ALT for both sexes was due to additive effects only (GGT males 30 %; ALT males 40 %, females 22 %). Evidence emerged for shared environmental factors influencing GGT in the male offspring generation (variance explained 28 %). Thus, the same genes influence liver enzyme levels across sex and age, but their relative contribution to the variation in GGT and ALT differs in males and females and for GGT across age. Given adequate sample sizes these results suggest that genome-wide association studies may result in the detection of new susceptibility loci for liver enzyme levels when pooling results over sex and age. PMID:23580007

  3. Incremental Predictive Value of Serum AST-to-ALT Ratio for Incident Metabolic Syndrome: The ARIRANG Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Song Vogue; Baik, Soon Koo; Cho, Youn zoo; Koh, Sang Baek; Huh, Ji Hye; Chang, Yoosoo; Sung, Ki-Chul; Kim, Jang Young

    2016-01-01

    Aims The ratio of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is of great interest as a possible novel marker of metabolic syndrome. However, longitudinal studies emphasizing the incremental predictive value of the AST-to-ALT ratio in diagnosing individuals at higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome are very scarce. Therefore, our study aimed to evaluate the AST-to-ALT ratio as an incremental predictor of new onset metabolic syndrome in a population-based cohort study. Material and Methods The population-based cohort study included 2276 adults (903 men and 1373 women) aged 40–70 years, who participated from 2005–2008 (baseline) without metabolic syndrome and were followed up from 2008–2011. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the harmonized definition of metabolic syndrome. Serum concentrations of AST and ALT were determined by enzymatic methods. Results During an average follow-up period of 2.6-years, 395 individuals (17.4%) developed metabolic syndrome. In a multivariable adjusted model, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for new onset of metabolic syndrome, comparing the fourth quartile to the first quartile of the AST-to-ALT ratio, was 0.598 (0.422–0.853). The AST-to-ALT ratio also improved the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for predicting new cases of metabolic syndrome (0.715 vs. 0.732, P = 0.004). The net reclassification improvement of prediction models including the AST-to-ALT ratio was 0.23 (95% CI: 0.124–0.337, P<0.001), and the integrated discrimination improvement was 0.0094 (95% CI: 0.0046–0.0143, P<0.001). Conclusions The AST-to-ALT ratio independently predicted the future development of metabolic syndrome and had incremental predictive value for incident metabolic syndrome. PMID:27560931

  4. Fibroscan Compared to FIB-4, APRI, and AST/ALT Ratio for Assessment of Liver Fibrosis in Saudi Patients With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fallatah, Hind I.; Akbar, Hisham O.; Fallatah, Alyaa M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is being increasingly recognized as a cause of chronic liver disease. It has also been associated with devastating outcomes such as decompensated liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Objectives This study was conducted in order to assess liver fibrosis using Fibroscan, and to compare these results to the use of Fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) scores, AST platelet ratio index (APRI scores), and the AST/ALT ratios on NAFLD patients. Patients and Methods A cross sectional study was conducted on NAFLD patients who underwent Fibroscan examinations between September 1, 2011 and June 30, 2014. Demographic data was collected, including sex, age, and nationality; serum alanine aminotransferase levels (ALT, 30 - 65 U/L), serum aspartate aminotransferase levels (AST, 15 - 37 U/L), and platelet counts (150 - 400 k/μL) were also determined. The stages of fibrosis (F0 1 - 6, F1 6.1 - 7, F2 7 - 9, F3 9.1 - 10.3, and F4 ≥ 10.4) were defined in kPa. For each patient, the AST/ALT ratio was also measured. The results of APRI and FIB-4 were compared with the Fibroscan fibrosis scores. Results The results of 122 patients were analyzed, including 65 (53.3%) males with a mean age of 50.2 years (SD: 13.7; range: 18 - 86). The males were significantly younger than the females (48.7 years (SD: 16.03) versus 51.8 years (SD: 10.3 P = 0.05), respectively). The mean stiffness score was 12.02 (SD: 12.7) kPa. Forty-four patients (36%) had advanced fibrosis. The mean platelet and serum ALT levels were normal. There was a significant positive correlation between the Fibroscan results and the AST/ALT ratios, the APRI scores, and the FIB-4 results. Similarly, there was a significant positive correlation between age and fibrosis score, and a significant negative correlation between platelet count and stiffness score. Conclusions The data showed that more than one-third of the cohort exhibited advanced

  5. Elevated Preoperative Serum Alanine Aminotransferase/Aspartate Aminotransferase (ALT/AST) Ratio Is Associated with Better Prognosis in Patients Undergoing Curative Treatment for Gastric Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shu-Lin; Li, Jian-Pei; Li, Lin-Fang; Zeng, Tao; He, Xia

    2016-01-01

    The level of anine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST) ratio in the serum was often used to assess liver injury. Whether the ALT/AST ratio (LSR) was associated with prognosis for gastric adenocarcinoma (GA) has not been reported in the literature. Our aim was to investigate the prognostic value of the preoperative LSR in patients with GA. A retrospective study was performed in 231 patients with GA undergoing curative resection. The medical records collected include clinical information and laboratory results. We investigated the correlations between the preoperative LSR and overall survival (OS). Survival analysis was conducted with the Kaplan–Meier method, and Cox regression analysis was used to determine significant independent prognostic factors for predicting survival. A p value of <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. A total of 231 patients were finally enrolled. The median overall survival was 47 months. Multivariate analysis indicated that preoperative LSR was an independent prognostic factor in GA. Patients with LSR ≤ 0.80 had a greater risk of death than those with LSR > 0.80. The LSR was independently associated with OS in patients with GA (hazard ratio: 0.610; 95% confidence interval: 0.388–0.958; p = 0.032), along with tumor stages (hazard ratio: 3.118; 95% confidence interval: 2.044–4.756; p < 0.001) and distant metastases (hazard ratio: 1.957; 95% confidence interval: 1.119–3.422; p = 0.019). Our study first established a connection between the preoperative LSR and patients undergoing curative resection for GA, suggesting that LSR was a simple, inexpensive, and easily measurable marker as a prognostic factor, and may help to identify high-risk patients for treatment decisions. PMID:27294917

  6. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... mono") Muscle disease or trauma Swollen and inflamed pancreas ( pancreatitis ) AST level may also increase after: Burns (deep) Heart procedures Seizure Surgery Pregnancy and exercise may also cause an increased AST level.

  7. Association of ALT and the metabolic syndrome among Mexican children.

    PubMed

    Elizondo-Montemayor, Leticia; Ugalde-Casas, Patricia A; Lam-Franco, Lorena; Bustamante-Careaga, Humberto; Serrano-González, Mónica; Gutiérrez, Norma G; Martínez, Ubaldo

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is emerging as a component of the metabolic syndrome (MetS); Hispanics being particularly predisposed. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is considered a marker of NAFLD. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associations between ALT elevations and MetS in normal-weight, overweight and obese Mexican children and adolescents, since data in Mexico is scarce. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), percentage body fat, blood pressure, glucose, lipid profiles, ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured in 236, 6-12yo normal-weight, overweight and obese Mexicans from eight public schools. The results showed that elevated ALT (>40 IU/L) was found in 17.7% of the obese and overweight population, with no gender difference. The prevalence of elevated ALT increased linearly across BMI categories (p = 0.001), from 0.0% for the normal-weight group (95%CI 0.0-€“8.0) to 22.4% for the obese one (95%CI 16.2-€“30.2). AST/ALT ratio <1 also increased linearly, as did the prevalence of MetS (p = 0.001), from 0.0% for the normal-weight group to 40.3% for the obese one. The prevalence of MetS was strongly associated with elevated ALT (p = 0.002), 50% in the elevated ALT group (95%CI 34.1-€“65.9) and 24.1% in the normal ALT one (95%CI 18.1-€“31.3). There was also a strong association between MetS and an AST/ALT ratio <1. WC was the best predictor of elevated ALT (AOR = 7.13). Pearson correlation showed that MetS components were significantly correlated with elevated ALT. Therefore elevated ALT levels were highly prevalent and strongly associated with MetS in Mexican children, it should be screened in overweight and obese children.

  8. Leak prevention critical for ASTs

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, B.

    1994-08-01

    Aboveground storage tanks can be crafted to prevent leaks caused by vandalism, overfill accidents and faulty valves. New designs and safety devices available in aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) have made ASTs viable option for owners of commercial, institutional and governmental facilities with storage needs of less than 20,000 gallons.

  9. ALT/Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Malke, Ed.; Conarro, Ryan; Upshaw, Allison; Makol, Suzanne; Kelin, Daniel A., II; Redman, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Stories in the "ALT/Space" section of each issue of "Teaching Artist Journal" illustrate and document a wide variety of topics surrounding the work of teaching artists while simultaneously revealing some larger truths about what it means to be an artist who teaches. This particular section focuses on the process and realities…

  10. Aerodynamic challenges of ALT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooks, I.; Homan, D.; Romere, P. O.

    1985-01-01

    The approach and landing test (ALT) of the Space Shuttle Orbiter presented a number of unique challenges in the area of aerodynamics. The purpose of the ALT program was both to confirm the use of the Boeing 747 as a transport vehicle for ferrying the Orbiter across the country and to demonstrate the flight characteristics of the Orbiter in its approach and landing phase. Concerns for structural fatigue and performance dictated a tailcone be attached to the Orbiter for ferry and for the initial landing tests. The Orbiter with a tailcone attached presented additional challenges to the normal aft sting concept of wind tunnel testing. The landing tests required that the Orbiter be separated from the 747 at approximately 20,000 feet using aerodynamic forces to fly the vehicles apart. The concept required a complex test program to determine the relative effects of the two vehicles on each other. Also of concern, and tested, was the vortex wake created by the 747 and the means for the Orbiter to avoid it following separation.

  11. PPAR{alpha} regulates the hepatotoxic biomarker alanine aminotransferase (ALT1) gene expression in human hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Thulin, Petra; Rafter, Ingalill; Stockling, Kenneth; Tomkiewicz, Celine; Norjavaara, Ensio; Aggerbeck, Martine; Hellmold, Heike; Ehrenborg, Ewa; Andersson, Ulf; Cotgreave, Ian; Glinghammar, Bjoern

    2008-08-15

    In this work, we investigated a potential mechanism behind the observation of increased aminotransferase levels in a phase I clinical trial using a lipid-lowering drug, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) {alpha} agonist, AZD4619. In healthy volunteers treated with AZD4619, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were elevated without an increase in other markers for liver injury. These increases in serum aminotransferases have previously been reported in some patients receiving another PPAR{alpha} agonist, fenofibrate. In subsequent in vitro studies, we observed increased expression of ALT1 protein and mRNA in human hepatocytes after treatment with fenofibric acid. The PPAR effect on ALT1 expression was shown to act through a direct transcriptional mechanism involving at least one PPAR response element (PPRE) in the proximal ALT1 promoter, while no effect of fenofibrate and AZD4619 was observed on the ALT2 promoter. Binding of PPARs to the PPRE located at - 574 bp from the transcriptional start site was confirmed on both synthetic oligonucleotides and DNA in hepatocytes. These data show that intracellular ALT expression is regulated by PPAR agonists and that this mechanism might contribute to increased ALT activity in serum.

  12. AST Combustion Workshop: Diagnostics Working Group Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, Randy J.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Hanson, Ronald K.

    1996-01-01

    A workshop was convened under NASA's Advanced Subsonics Technologies (AST) Program. Many of the principal combustion diagnosticians from industry, academia, and government laboratories were assembled in the Diagnostics/Testing Subsection of this workshop to discuss the requirements and obstacles to the successful implementation of advanced diagnostic techniques to the test environment of the proposed AST combustor. The participants, who represented the major relevant areas of advanced diagnostic methods currently applied to combustion and related fields, first established the anticipated AST combustor flowfield conditions. Critical flow parameters were then examined and prioritized as to their importance to combustor/fuel injector design and manufacture, environmental concerns, and computational interests. Diagnostic techniques were then evaluated in terms of current status, merits and obstacles for each flow parameter. All evaluations are presented in tabular form and recommendations are made on the best-suited diagnostic method to implement for each flow parameter in order of applicability and intrinsic value.

  13. astLib: Tools for research astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, Matt; Boada, Steven

    2016-07-01

    astLib is a set of Python modules for performing astronomical plots, some statistics, common calculations, coordinate conversions, and manipulating FITS images with World Coordinate System (WCS) information through PyWCSTools, a simple wrapping of WCSTools (ascl:1109.015).

  14. ASteCA: Automated Stellar Cluster Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perren, G. I.; Vázquez, R. A.; Piatti, A. E.

    2015-04-01

    We present the Automated Stellar Cluster Analysis package (ASteCA), a suit of tools designed to fully automate the standard tests applied on stellar clusters to determine their basic parameters. The set of functions included in the code make use of positional and photometric data to obtain precise and objective values for a given cluster's center coordinates, radius, luminosity function and integrated color magnitude, as well as characterizing through a statistical estimator its probability of being a true physical cluster rather than a random overdensity of field stars. ASteCA incorporates a Bayesian field star decontamination algorithm capable of assigning membership probabilities using photometric data alone. An isochrone fitting process based on the generation of synthetic clusters from theoretical isochrones and selection of the best fit through a genetic algorithm is also present, which allows ASteCA to provide accurate estimates for a cluster's metallicity, age, extinction and distance values along with its uncertainties. To validate the code we applied it on a large set of over 400 synthetic MASSCLEAN clusters with varying degrees of field star contamination as well as a smaller set of 20 observed Milky Way open clusters (Berkeley 7, Bochum 11, Czernik 26, Czernik 30, Haffner 11, Haffner 19, NGC 133, NGC 2236, NGC 2264, NGC 2324, NGC 2421, NGC 2627, NGC 6231, NGC 6383, NGC 6705, Ruprecht 1, Tombaugh 1, Trumpler 1, Trumpler 5 and Trumpler 14) studied in the literature. The results show that ASteCA is able to recover cluster parameters with an acceptable precision even for those clusters affected by substantial field star contamination. ASteCA is written in Python and is made available as an open source code which can be downloaded ready to be used from its official site.

  15. Faraday diagnostics for ALT-3

    SciTech Connect

    Oro, David M; Tabaka, Leonard J

    2011-01-13

    ALT-3 and R-Damage are experiments to be executed in collaboration between LANL and VNIIEF personnel. They are planned to be fielded in Sarov, Russia at VNIIEF. Both experiments employ Russian explosively driven pulse-power systems to generate a pulse of electrical current that is used to drive the experiment. The current pulse will be measured with Faraday-rotation fiber-optic loops. Using this well known technique, the change in the current enclosed by the loops is determined by measuring the change in the magnetic field integrated along the fiber-optic loop by detecting the Faraday rotation of linearly polarized light traveling through the fiber. The amount of polarization rotation of the light is related to the integrated magnetic field and therefore the enclosed current (Ampere's law) through the Verdet constant which for the optical-fibers used in this experiment has been determined to within 1 %. The presentation describes how the technique will be employed in the ALT-3 experiment.

  16. Bridging the UST/AST gap

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    Choosing between underground and aboveground storage tank options can be a daunting--and risky--enterprise. Although USTs are conveniently out of sight, they cannot remain out of mind, and must be monitored continuously for possible unseen leaks or structural damage. ASTs provide easy access for monitoring and maintenance, but this benefit makes them open targets for vandalism, accidents and long-term effects of exposure to the elements. CON/SPAN{reg_sign} Bridge Systems, Dayton, Ohio, in association with the Dayton-based engineering firm LJB Inc., developed a unique solution to the AST/UST dilemma by adapting the company`s modular-concrete bridge construction technology to storage tank installation.

  17. AstRoMap European Astrobiology Roadmap.

    PubMed

    Horneck, Gerda; Walter, Nicolas; Westall, Frances; Grenfell, John Lee; Martin, William F; Gomez, Felipe; Leuko, Stefan; Lee, Natuschka; Onofri, Silvano; Tsiganis, Kleomenis; Saladino, Raffaele; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Palomba, Ernesto; Harrison, Jesse; Rull, Fernando; Muller, Christian; Strazzulla, Giovanni; Brucato, John R; Rettberg, Petra; Capria, Maria Teresa

    2016-03-01

    The European AstRoMap project (supported by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme) surveyed the state of the art of astrobiology in Europe and beyond and produced the first European roadmap for astrobiology research. In the context of this roadmap, astrobiology is understood as the study of the origin, evolution, and distribution of life in the context of cosmic evolution; this includes habitability in the Solar System and beyond. The AstRoMap Roadmap identifies five research topics, specifies several key scientific objectives for each topic, and suggests ways to achieve all the objectives. The five AstRoMap Research Topics are • Research Topic 1: Origin and Evolution of Planetary Systems • Research Topic 2: Origins of Organic Compounds in Space • Research Topic 3: Rock-Water-Carbon Interactions, Organic Synthesis on Earth, and Steps to Life • Research Topic 4: Life and Habitability • Research Topic 5: Biosignatures as Facilitating Life Detection It is strongly recommended that steps be taken towards the definition and implementation of a European Astrobiology Platform (or Institute) to streamline and optimize the scientific return by using a coordinated infrastructure and funding system.

  18. AST Composite Wing Program: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karal, Michael

    2001-01-01

    The Boeing Company demonstrated the application of stitched/resin infused (S/RFI) composite materials on commercial transport aircraft primary wing structures under the Advanced Subsonic technology (AST) Composite Wing contract. This report describes a weight trade study utilizing a wing torque box design applicable to a 220-passenger commercial aircraft and was used to verify the weight savings a S/RFI structure would offer compared to an identical aluminum wing box design. This trade study was performed in the AST Composite Wing program, and the overall weight savings are reported. Previous program work involved the design of a S/RFI-base-line wing box structural test component and its associated testing hardware. This detail structural design effort which is known as the "semi-span" in this report, was completed under a previous NASA contract. The full-scale wing design was based on a configuration for a MD-90-40X airplane, and the objective of this structural test component was to demonstrate the maturity of the S/RFI technology through the evaluation of a full-scale wing box/fuselage section structural test. However, scope reductions of the AST Composite Wing Program pre-vented the fabrication and evaluation of this wing box structure. Results obtained from the weight trade study, the full-scale test component design effort, fabrication, design development testing, and full-scale testing of the semi-span wing box are reported.

  19. AstRoMap European Astrobiology Roadmap.

    PubMed

    Horneck, Gerda; Walter, Nicolas; Westall, Frances; Grenfell, John Lee; Martin, William F; Gomez, Felipe; Leuko, Stefan; Lee, Natuschka; Onofri, Silvano; Tsiganis, Kleomenis; Saladino, Raffaele; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Palomba, Ernesto; Harrison, Jesse; Rull, Fernando; Muller, Christian; Strazzulla, Giovanni; Brucato, John R; Rettberg, Petra; Capria, Maria Teresa

    2016-03-01

    The European AstRoMap project (supported by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme) surveyed the state of the art of astrobiology in Europe and beyond and produced the first European roadmap for astrobiology research. In the context of this roadmap, astrobiology is understood as the study of the origin, evolution, and distribution of life in the context of cosmic evolution; this includes habitability in the Solar System and beyond. The AstRoMap Roadmap identifies five research topics, specifies several key scientific objectives for each topic, and suggests ways to achieve all the objectives. The five AstRoMap Research Topics are • Research Topic 1: Origin and Evolution of Planetary Systems • Research Topic 2: Origins of Organic Compounds in Space • Research Topic 3: Rock-Water-Carbon Interactions, Organic Synthesis on Earth, and Steps to Life • Research Topic 4: Life and Habitability • Research Topic 5: Biosignatures as Facilitating Life Detection It is strongly recommended that steps be taken towards the definition and implementation of a European Astrobiology Platform (or Institute) to streamline and optimize the scientific return by using a coordinated infrastructure and funding system. PMID:27003862

  20. AstRoMap European Astrobiology Roadmap

    PubMed Central

    Horneck, Gerda; Westall, Frances; Grenfell, John Lee; Martin, William F.; Gomez, Felipe; Leuko, Stefan; Lee, Natuschka; Onofri, Silvano; Tsiganis, Kleomenis; Saladino, Raffaele; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Palomba, Ernesto; Harrison, Jesse; Rull, Fernando; Muller, Christian; Strazzulla, Giovanni; Brucato, John R.; Rettberg, Petra; Capria, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The European AstRoMap project (supported by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme) surveyed the state of the art of astrobiology in Europe and beyond and produced the first European roadmap for astrobiology research. In the context of this roadmap, astrobiology is understood as the study of the origin, evolution, and distribution of life in the context of cosmic evolution; this includes habitability in the Solar System and beyond. The AstRoMap Roadmap identifies five research topics, specifies several key scientific objectives for each topic, and suggests ways to achieve all the objectives. The five AstRoMap Research Topics are • Research Topic 1: Origin and Evolution of Planetary Systems• Research Topic 2: Origins of Organic Compounds in Space• Research Topic 3: Rock-Water-Carbon Interactions, Organic Synthesis on Earth, and Steps to Life• Research Topic 4: Life and Habitability• Research Topic 5: Biosignatures as Facilitating Life Detection It is strongly recommended that steps be taken towards the definition and implementation of a European Astrobiology Platform (or Institute) to streamline and optimize the scientific return by using a coordinated infrastructure and funding system. Key Words: Astrobiology roadmap—Europe—Origin and evolution of life—Habitability—Life detection—Life in extreme environments. Astrobiology 16, 201–243. PMID:27003862

  1. Elements of F-ast proton decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tianjun; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.; Walker, Joel W.

    2011-05-01

    Gauge coupling unification in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) strongly suggests the existence of a Grand Unified Theory (GUT), which could be probed by the observation of proton decay. Proton lifetime in the p→(π dimension six mode is proportional in the fourth power to the GUT mass scale, and inversely proportional in the fourth power to the GUT coupling. Flipped SU(5) with strict MSSM field content is known to survive existing null detection limits for proton decay approaching 10 years, and indeed, the lifetime predicted by prior studies can be so long that successful detection is not currently plausible. We provide an updated dictionary of solutions for the relevant flipped unification parameters with generic β-function coefficients, significantly upgrading the level of detail with which second order effects are treated, and correcting subtle published errors. Recently studied classes of F-theory derived GUT models postulate additional vector-like multiplets at the TeV scale which modify the renormalization group to yield a substantial increase in the SU(3×SU(2 unified coupling. In conjunction with the naturally depressed F-lipped SU(5) partial unification mass M, the F-resh analysis undertaken predicts comparatively F-ast proton decay which only narrowly evades existing detection limits, and likely falls within the observable range of proposed next generation detectors such as DUSEL and Hyper-Kamiokande. The TeV-scale vector multiplets are themselves suitable for cross correlation by the Large Hadron Collider. Their presence moreover magnifies the gap between the dual mass scales of Flipped SU(5), allowing for an elongated second stage renormalization, pushing the F-inal grand unification to the doorstep of the reduced Planck mass.

  2. Fusarium sambucinum astA gene expressed during potato infection is a functional orthologue of Aspergillus nidulans astA.

    PubMed

    Piłsyk, Sebastian; Natorff, Renata; Gawińska-Urbanowicz, Hanna; Kruszewska, Joanna S

    2015-06-01

    Sulfate assimilation plays a vital role in prototrophic organisms. Orthologues of the alternative sulfate transporter (AstA) gene from Aspergillus nidulans were identified in the fungal plant pathogens Fusarium sambucinum and Fusarium graminearum. By physiological and biochemical analyses, the AstA orthologues were determined to be able to uptake sulfate from the environment. Similarly to astA in A. nidulans, the FsastA gene was found to be regulated by sulfur metabolite repression (SMR) in a sulfur-dependent manner. In contrast, the FgastA transcript was undetectable, however, when the FgastA gene was expressed heterologously in A. nidulans, the translated FgAstA protein acted as a sulfate transporter. Interestingly, F. sambucinum astA expression was remarkably augmented in infected potato tubers, despite the presence abundant sulfate and was found not to be correlated with plant resistance.

  3. Fusarium sambucinum astA gene expressed during potato infection is a functional orthologue of Aspergillus nidulans astA.

    PubMed

    Piłsyk, Sebastian; Natorff, Renata; Gawińska-Urbanowicz, Hanna; Kruszewska, Joanna S

    2015-06-01

    Sulfate assimilation plays a vital role in prototrophic organisms. Orthologues of the alternative sulfate transporter (AstA) gene from Aspergillus nidulans were identified in the fungal plant pathogens Fusarium sambucinum and Fusarium graminearum. By physiological and biochemical analyses, the AstA orthologues were determined to be able to uptake sulfate from the environment. Similarly to astA in A. nidulans, the FsastA gene was found to be regulated by sulfur metabolite repression (SMR) in a sulfur-dependent manner. In contrast, the FgastA transcript was undetectable, however, when the FgastA gene was expressed heterologously in A. nidulans, the translated FgAstA protein acted as a sulfate transporter. Interestingly, F. sambucinum astA expression was remarkably augmented in infected potato tubers, despite the presence abundant sulfate and was found not to be correlated with plant resistance. PMID:25986548

  4. AST: A library for modelling and manipulating coordinate systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, David S.; Warren-Smith, Rodney F.; Jenness, Tim

    2016-04-01

    In view of increased interest in object-oriented systems for describing coordinate information, we present a description of the data model used by the Starlink AST library. AST provides a comprehensive range of facilities for attaching world co-ordinate systems to astronomical data, and for retrieving and interpreting that information in a variety of formats, including FITS-WCS. AST is a mature system that has been in use for more than 17 years, and may consequently be useful as a means of informing development of similar systems in the future.

  5. ALT-3 Target & CMU Version 4

    SciTech Connect

    Griego, Jeffrey R; Atchison, Walter L.; Holtkamp, David; Oro, David M.; Reinovsky, Robert E.; Rousculp, Christopher L.; Tabaka, Leonard J.

    2012-06-11

    The third Advance Liner Technology (ALT-3) experiment is the next in a long tradition of collaborations between LANL and RFNC/VNIIEF in high-explosive pulsed-power. Here a VNIIEF provided Disk Explosive Magnetic Generator (DEMG) will drive a LANL provided experimental load and diagnostic package. The objective of the experiment is to explore the use of a cylindrical liner-ontarget in tera-Pascal equation of state measurement. This presentation will discuss version 4 of the experimental target and central measuring unit (CMU) along with R & D already performed in fabrication of the target.

  6. Effects of BRCA2 deficiency on telomere recombination in non-ALT and ALT cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that BRCA2 affects telomere maintenance. Interestingly, anti cancer treatments that involve BRCA2 and telomerase individually are currently being explored. In the light of the above recent studies their combinatorial targeting may be justified in the development of future treatments. In order to investigate effects of BRCA2 that can be explored for this combinatorial targeting we focused on the analysis of recombination rates at telomeres by monitoring T-SCEs (Telomere Sister Chromatid Exchanges). Results We observed a significant increase in T-SCE frequencies in four BRCA2 defective human cell lines thus suggesting that BRCA2 suppresses recombination at telomeres. To test this hypothesis further we analyzed T-SCE frequencies in a set of Chinese hamster cell lines with or without functional BRCA2. Our results indicate that introduction of functional BRCA2 normalizes frequencies of T-SCEs thus supporting the notion that BRCA2 suppresses recombination at telomeres. Given that ALT (Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres) positive cells maintain telomeres by recombination we investigated the effect of BRCA2 depletion in these cells. Our results show that this depletion causes a dramatic reduction in T-SCE frequencies in ALT positive cells, but not in non-ALT cells. Conclusion BRCA2 suppresses recombination at telomeres in cells that maintain them by conventional mechanisms. Furthermore, BRCA2 depletion in ALT positive cells reduces high levels of T-SCEs normally found in these cells. Our results could be potentially important for refining telomerase-based anti-cancer therapies. PMID:22152194

  7. Performance of the Microwave Anisotropy Probe AST-201 Star Trackers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, David K.; vanBezooijen, Roelof; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) was launched to create a full-sky map of the cosmic microwave background. MAP incorporates two modified Lockheed Martin AST-201 (Autonomous Star Tracker) star trackers. The AST-201 employs an eight element radiation hardened lens assembly which is used to focus an image on a charge coupled device (CCD). The CCD image is then processed by a star identification algorithm which outputs a three-axis attitude. A CCD-shift algorithm called Time Delayed Integration (TDI) was also included in each star tracker. In order to provide some radiation effect filtering during MAP's three to five phasing loop passes through the Van Allen radiation belts, a simple pixel filtering scheme was implemented, rather than using a more complex, but more robust windowing algorithm. The trackers also include a fiber optic data interface. This paper details the ground testing that was accomplished on the MAP trackers.

  8. Generating a Magellanic star cluster catalog with ASteCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perren, G. I.; Piatti, A. E.; Vázquez, R. A.

    2016-08-01

    An increasing number of software tools have been employed in the recent years for the automated or semi-automated processing of astronomical data. The main advantages of using these tools over a standard by-eye analysis include: speed (particularly for large databases), homogeneity, reproducibility, and precision. At the same time, they enable a statistically correct study of the uncertainties associated with the analysis, in contrast with manually set errors, or the still widespread practice of simply not assigning errors. We present a catalog comprising 210 star clusters located in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, observed with Washington photometry. Their fundamental parameters were estimated through an homogeneous, automatized and completely unassisted process, via the Automated Stellar Cluster Analysis package ( ASteCA). Our results are compared with two types of studies on these clusters: one where the photometry is the same, and another where the photometric system is different than that employed by ASteCA.

  9. M4AST - A Tool for Asteroid Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birlan, Mirel; Popescu, Marcel; Irimiea, Lucian; Binzel, Richard

    2016-10-01

    M4AST (Modelling for asteroids) is an online tool devoted to the analysis and interpretation of reflection spectra of asteroids in the visible and near-infrared spectral intervals. It consists into a spectral database of individual objects and a set of routines for analysis which address scientific aspects such as: taxonomy, curve matching with laboratory spectra, space weathering models, and mineralogical diagnosis. Spectral data were obtained using groundbased facilities; part of these data are precompiled from the literature[1].The database is composed by permanent and temporary files. Each permanent file contains a header and two or three columns (wavelength, spectral reflectance, and the error on spectral reflectance). Temporary files can be uploaded anonymously, and are purged for the property of submitted data. The computing routines are organized in order to accomplish several scientific objectives: visualize spectra, compute the asteroid taxonomic class, compare an asteroid spectrum with similar spectra of meteorites, and computing mineralogical parameters. One facility of using the Virtual Observatory protocols was also developed.A new version of the service was released in June 2016. This new release of M4AST contains a database and facilities to model more than 6,000 spectra of asteroids. A new web-interface was designed. This development allows new functionalities into a user-friendly environment. A bridge system of access and exploiting the database SMASS-MIT (http://smass.mit.edu) allows the treatment and analysis of these data in the framework of M4AST environment.Reference:[1] M. Popescu, M. Birlan, and D.A. Nedelcu, "Modeling of asteroids: M4AST," Astronomy & Astrophysics 544, EDP Sciences, pp. A130, 2012.

  10. Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Zibordi, Giuseppe; Berthon, Jean-Francoise; Doyle, John P.; Grossi, Stefania; vanderLinde, Dirk; Targa, Cristina; Alberotanza, Luigi; McClain, Charles R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS) Project aimed at supporting ocean color research and applications, from 1995 up to the time of publication of this document, has ensured the collection of a comprehensive atmospheric and marine data set from an oceanographic tower located in the northern Adriatic Sea. The instruments and the measurement methodologies used to gather quantities relevant for bio-optical modeling and for the calibration and validation of ocean color sensors, are described. Particular emphasis is placed on four items: (1) the evaluation of perturbation effects in radiometric data (i.e., tower-shading, instrument self-shading, and bottom effects); (2) the intercomparison of seawater absorption coefficients from in situ measurements and from laboratory spectrometric analysis on discrete samples; (3) the intercomparison of two filter techniques for in vivo measurement of particulate absorption coefficients; and (4) the analysis of repeatability and reproducibility of the most relevant laboratory measurements carried out on seawater samples (i.e., particulate and yellow substance absorption coefficients, and pigment and total suspended matter concentrations). Sample data are also presented and discussed to illustrate the typical features characterizing the CoASTS measurement site in view of supporting the suitability of the CoASTS data set for bio-optical modeling and ocean color calibration and validation.

  11. Submillimeter Astronomy from the South Pole (AST/RO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Antony A.

    2013-01-01

    The Antarctic Submillimeter Telescope and Remote Observatory (AST/RO), a 1.7 m diameter offset Gregorian telescope for astronomy and aeronomy studies at wavelengths between 200 and 2000 μm, saw first light in 1995 and operated until 2005. It was the first radio telescope to operate continuously throughout the winter on the Antarctic Plateau. It served as a site testing instrument and prototype for later instruments, as well as executing a wide variety of scientific programs that resulted in six doctoral theses and more than one hundred scientific publications. The South Pole environment is unique among observatory sites for unusually low wind speeds, low absolute humidity, and the consistent clarity of the submillimeter sky. Especially significant are the exceptionally low values of sky noise found at this site, a result of the small water vapor content of the atmosphere. Multiple submillimeter-wave and Terahertz detector systems were in operation on AST/RO, including heterodyne and bolometric arrays. AST/RO's legacy includes comprehensive submillimeter-wave site testing of the South Pole, spectroscopic studies of 492 GHz and 809 GHz neutral atomic carbon and 460 GHz and 806 GHz carbon monoxide in the Milky Way and Magellanic Clouds, and the first detection of the 1.46 THz [N II] line from a ground-based observatory.

  12. Identification of antifungal compounds produced by Lactobacillus casei AST18.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongjuan; Liu, Lu; Zhang, Shuwen; Cui, Wenming; Lv, Jiaping

    2012-08-01

    Lactobacillus casei AST18 was screened as an antifungal lactic acid bacteria which we have reported before. In this research, the antifungal properties of cell-free culture filtrate (CCF) from L. casei AST18 were detected, and the antifungal compounds of CCF were prepared by ultrafiltration, and semi-preparative HPLC, and then determined by GC-MS. CCF was sensitive to pH and heat treatment but it was not affected by the treatment of trypsin and pepsin. Through the treatment of ultrafiltration and semi-preparative HPLC there were two parts of CCF which showed antifungal activities: part 1 and part 4. Lactic acid was identified as the main antifungal compound in part 1. In part 4, three small molecular substances were detected with GC-MS. The three potential antifungal substances were cyclo-(Leu-Pro), 2,6-diphenyl-piperidine, and 5,10-diethoxy-2,3,7,8-tetrahydro-1H,6H-dipyrrolo[1,2-a;1',2'-d]pyrazine. The antifungal activity of L. casei AST18 was a synergistic effect of lactic acid and cyclopeptides. PMID:22580887

  13. PISCES and ALT-II: Juelich PSI papers

    SciTech Connect

    Conn, R.W.; Hirooka, Y.; LaBombard, B.; Moyer, R.; Goebel, D.M.; Leung, W.K.; Nygren, R.E.; Corbett, W.J.; Lehmer, R.; Ra, Y.; Tynan, G.; Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H.; Hardkte, A.; Kohlhaas, W.; Wolf, G.; Vandenplas, P.; Messian, M.; Van Oost, G.; Weynants, R.; Franconi, E.; Miyahara, A.; Sagara, A.; Gauster, W.B.; Koski, J.A.; McGrath, R.T.; Watkins, J.G.; Malinowski, M.E.

    1988-08-01

    This publication comprises papers from the PISCES and ALT-II Programs at UCLA which were presented at the International Plasma Surface Interactions Meeting held in Juelich, FRG, on May 2-6, 1988. A list of publications from the PISCES and ALT-II contained in this report are: Deuterium pumping and erosion behavior of selected graphite materials under high flux plasma bombardment in PISCES; Erosion and redeposition behavior of selected NET-candidate materials under high-flux hydrogen, deuterium plasma bombardment in PISCES; Presheath profiles in simulated tokamak edge plasmas; Boundary asymmetries and plasma flow to the ALT-II toroidal belt pump limiter; ALT-II toroidal belt pump limiter performance in TEXTOR; and An in-situ spectroscopic erosion yield measurement with applications to sputtering and surface morphology alterations.

  14. Expression and purification of a functional recombinant aspartate aminotransferase (AST) from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zou, Lihui; Zhao, Haijian; Wang, Daguang; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Chuanbao; Xiao, Fei

    2014-07-01

    Aspartate aminotransferase (AST; E.C. 2.6.1.1), a vitamin B6-dependent enzyme, preferentially promotes the mutual transformation of aspartate and α-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and glutamate. It plays a key role in amino acid metabolism and has been widely recommended as a biomarker of liver and heart damage. Our study aimed to evaluate the extensive preparation of AST and its application in quality control in clinical laboratories. We describe a scheme to express and purify the 6His-AST fusion protein. An optimized sequence coding AST was synthesized and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) strain for protein expression. Ideally, the fusion protein has a volumetric productivity achieving 900 mg/l cultures. After affinity chromatography, the enzyme activity of purified AST reached 150,000 U/L. Commutability assessment between the engineered AST and standard AST from Roche suggested that the engineered AST was the better candidate for the reference material. Moreover, the AST showed high stability during long-term storage at -20ºC. In conclusion, the highly soluble 6His-tagged AST can become a convenient tool for supplying a much better and cheaper standard or reference material for the clinical laboratory. PMID:24722375

  15. AST-120 Improves Microvascular Endothelial Dysfunction in End-Stage Renal Disease Patients Receiving Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Jung-Hwa; Yu, Mina; Lee, Sihna; Ryu, Dong-Ryeol; Kim, Seung-Jung; Kang, Duk-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Endothelial dysfunction (ED) is a pivotal phenomenon in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients receiving hemodialysis (HD). Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is a known uremic toxin that induces ED in patients with chronic kidney disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether AST-120, an absorbent of IS, improves microvascular or macrovascular ED in HD patients. Materials and Methods We conducted a prospective, case-controlled trial. Fourteen patients each were enrolled in respective AST-120 and control groups. The subjects in the AST-120 group were treated with AST-120 (6 g/day) for 6 months. Microvascular function was assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry using iontophoresis of acetylcholine (Ach) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) at baseline and again at 3 and 6 months. Carotid arterial intima-media thickness (cIMT) and flow-mediated vasodilation were measured at baseline and 6 months. The Wilcoxon rank test was used to compare values before and after AST-120 treatment. Results Ach-induced iontophoresis (endothelium-dependent response) was dramatically ameliorated at 3 months and 6 months in the AST-120 group. SNP-induced response showed delayed improvement only at 6 months in the AST-120 group. The IS level was decreased at 3 months in the AST-120 group, but remained stable thereafter. cIMT was significantly reduced after AST-120 treatment. No significant complications in patients taking AST-120 were reported. Conclusion AST-120 ameliorated microvascular ED and cIMT in HD patients. A randomized study including a larger population will be required to establish a definitive role of AST-120 as a preventive medication for CVD in HD patients. PMID:27189289

  16. DynAstVO : the Europlanet orbital asteroid database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmars, Josselin; Thuillot, William; Hestroffer, Daniel J.; David, Pedro

    2016-10-01

    DynAstVO is a new orbital database dedicated to Near Earth Asteroid orbits, developed within the Europlanet 2020 RI framework.It provides parameters of asteroid orbits: orbital elements, observational information, minimum distance with Earth and planets, ephemeris and in particular, orbit uncertainty and associated covariance matrix.This database is updated daily on the basis of the Minor Planet Electronic Circulars.Orbit determination and improvement is computed as soon as new observations are available or an object is discovered.This database conforms to EPN-TAP environment (Erard et al. 2015, A&C 7) and is accessible through VO protocols or classical web access. Auxiliary data such as SPICE kernels for their ephemerides are provided.Finally, we present a comparison with other classical databases such as Astorb or MPCORB.Acknowledgements: This work is done in the framework of Europlanet 2020 RI which has received fundingfrom the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 654208.

  17. Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Berthon, Jean-Francoise; Zibordi, Giuseppe; Doyle, John P.; Grossi, Stefania; vanderLinde, Dirk; Targa, Cristina; McClain, Charles R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this document, the first three years of a time series of bio-optical marine and atmospheric measurements are presented and analyzed. These measurements were performed from an oceanographic tower in the northern Adriatic Sea within the framework of the Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS) project, an ocean color calibration and validation activity. The data set collected includes spectral measurements of the in-water apparent (diffuse attenuation coefficient, reflectance, Q-factor, etc.) and inherent (absorption and scattering coefficients) optical properties, as well as the concentrations of the main optical components (pigment and suspended matter concentrations). Clear seasonal patterns are exhibited by the marine quantities on which an appreciable short-term variability (on the order of a half day to one day) is superimposed. This short-term variability is well correlated with the changes in salinity at the surface resulting from the southward transport of freshwater coming from the northern rivers. Concentrations of chlorophyll alpha and total suspended matter span more than two orders of magnitude. The bio-optical characteristics of the measurement site pertain to both Case-I (about 64%) and Case-II (about 36%) waters, based on a relationship between the beam attenuation coefficient at 660nm and the chlorophyll alpha concentration. Empirical algorithms relating in-water remote sensing reflectance ratios and optical components or properties of interest (chlorophyll alpha, total suspended matter, and the diffuse attenuation coefficient) are presented.

  18. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Ryan; Baker, Arnold Barry; Drennen, Thomas E.

    2009-12-01

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks (switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees), biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL), coal (coal to liquid, or CTL), and coal with biomass (CBTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion ratio, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the structure and methodology of AltSim, presents results, and provides a detailed sensitivity analysis. The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 sets a goal for the increased use of biofuels in the U.S., ultimately reaching 36 billion gallons by 2022. AltSim's base case assumes EPA projected feedstock costs in 2022 (EPA, 2009). For the base case assumptions, AltSim estimates per gallon production costs for the five ethanol feedstocks (corn, switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees) of $1.86, $2.32, $2.45, $1.52, and $1.91, respectively. The projected production cost of biodiesel is $1.81/gallon. The estimates for CTL without biomass range from $1.36 to $2.22. With biomass, the estimated costs increase, ranging from $2.19 per gallon for the CTL option with 8% biomass to $2.79 per gallon for the CTL option with 30% biomass and carbon capture and sequestration. AltSim compares the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) associated with both the production and consumption of the various fuels. EISA allows fuels emitting 20% less greenhouse gases (GHG) than conventional gasoline and diesels to qualify as renewable fuels. This allows several of the CBTL

  19. AST/ASTS workshop on increasing organ donation in the United States: creating an "arc of change" from removing disincentives to testing incentives.

    PubMed

    Salomon, D R; Langnas, A N; Reed, A I; Bloom, R D; Magee, J C; Gaston, R S

    2015-05-01

    The American Society of Transplantation (AST) and American Society of Transplant Surgeons (ASTS) convened a workshop on June 2-3, 2014, to explore increasing both living and deceased organ donation in the United States. Recent articles in the lay press on illegal organ sales and transplant tourism highlight the impact of the current black market in kidneys that accompanies the growing global organ shortage. We believe it important not to conflate the illegal market for organs, which we reject in the strongest possible terms, with the potential in the United States for concerted action to remove all remaining financial disincentives for donors and critically consider testing the impact and acceptability of incentives to increase organ availability in the United States. However, we do not support any trials of direct payments or valuable considerations to donors or families based on a process of market-assigned values of organs. This White Paper represents a summary by the authors of the deliberations of the Incentives Workshop Group and has been approved by both AST and ASTS Boards.

  20. AST/ASTS workshop on increasing organ donation in the United States: creating an "arc of change" from removing disincentives to testing incentives.

    PubMed

    Salomon, D R; Langnas, A N; Reed, A I; Bloom, R D; Magee, J C; Gaston, R S

    2015-05-01

    The American Society of Transplantation (AST) and American Society of Transplant Surgeons (ASTS) convened a workshop on June 2-3, 2014, to explore increasing both living and deceased organ donation in the United States. Recent articles in the lay press on illegal organ sales and transplant tourism highlight the impact of the current black market in kidneys that accompanies the growing global organ shortage. We believe it important not to conflate the illegal market for organs, which we reject in the strongest possible terms, with the potential in the United States for concerted action to remove all remaining financial disincentives for donors and critically consider testing the impact and acceptability of incentives to increase organ availability in the United States. However, we do not support any trials of direct payments or valuable considerations to donors or families based on a process of market-assigned values of organs. This White Paper represents a summary by the authors of the deliberations of the Incentives Workshop Group and has been approved by both AST and ASTS Boards. PMID:25833653

  1. Initial ALT-I pump limiter studies on TEXOR

    SciTech Connect

    Pontau, A.E.; Guthrie, S.E.; Malinowski, M.E.; Ver Berkmoes, A.A.; Whitley, J.B.; McDonald, J.M.; Watson, R.D.; Gauster, W.B.; Campbell, G.A.; Goebel, D.M.

    1984-05-01

    The ALT-I pump limiter has been used to control the fueling and recycling characteristics of TEXTOR during stable, reproducible tokamak discharges. The module has been operated in three modes: (1) Normal Limiter, with no particle collection, (2) Particle Scoop, with a maximum approx. 2 x 10/sup -3/ torr pressure rise in the 700 liter unpumped collection chamber, and (3) Pump Limiter, with up to approx. 10,000 1/s pumping speed and particle removal rates of up to 6 x 10/sup 20//s. In a comparison of operation in modes (1) and (3) using identical gas fueling programs, the total core electron number decreased by as much as 50%. The effective TEXTOR particle confinement time, tau/sub p/* = tau/sub p//(1-R), was decreased by a similar ratio. Within the throat region, during typical operation, electron densities and temperatures were 6 x 10/sup 11/ to 2 x 10/sup 12//cm/sup 3/ and 15 to 30 eV. These conditions are representative of an operating regime in which there is high reionization of neutrals, but no change in incoming plasma parameters in the throat region. Energetic particles near the deflector plate were observed. During a gradual insertion of TiC-coated ALT-I beyond the stainless steel TEXTOR main limiters, the density of Ti in the plasma increased to a level similar to those of Cr and Fe. The gas injection fueling efficiency while puffing hydrogen directly into the plasma at the pump limiter tangency point was measured to be > 0.9. These results are discussed in conjunction with measurements of particle flows within ALT-I and other plasma diagnostics to characterize pump limiter operation on TEXTOR.

  2. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Arnold Barry; Williams, Ryan; Drennen, Thomas E.; Klotz, Richard

    2007-10-01

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production costs, carbon dioxide emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL) and coal (coal to liquid, or CTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion efficiency, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the preliminary results from the model. For the base cases, CTL and cellulosic ethanol are the least cost fuel options, at $1.60 and $1.71 per gallon, respectively. Base case assumptions do not include tax or other credits. This compares to a $2.35/gallon production cost of gasoline at September, 2007 crude oil prices ($80.57/barrel). On an energy content basis, the CTL is the low cost alternative, at $12.90/MMBtu, compared to $22.47/MMBtu for cellulosic ethanol. In terms of carbon dioxide emissions, a typical vehicle fueled with cellulosic ethanol will release 0.48 tons CO{sub 2} per year, compared to 13.23 tons per year for coal to liquid.

  3. Advanced Supersonic Technology concept AST-100 characteristics developed in a baseline-update study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baber, H. T., Jr.; Swanson, E. E.

    1976-01-01

    The advanced supersonic technology configuration, AST-100, is described. The combination of wing thickness reduction, nacelle recontouring for minimum drag at cruise, and the use of the horizontal tail to produce lift during climb and cruise resulted in an increase in maximum lift-to-drag ratio. Lighter engines and lower fuel weight associated with this resizing result in a six percent reduction in takeoff gross weight. The AST-100 takeoff maximum effective perceived noise at the runway centerline and sideline measurement stations was 114.4 decibels. Since 1.5-decibels tradeoff is available from the approach noise, the required engine noise supression is 4.9 decibels. The AST-100 largest maximum overpressure would occur during transonic climb acceleration when the aircraft was at relatively low altitude. Calculated standard +8 C day range of the AST-100, with a 292 passenger payload, is 7348 km (3968 n.mi). Fuel price is the largest contributor to direct operating cost. However, if the AST-100 were flown subsonically (M = 0.9), direct operating costs would increase approximately 50 percent because of time related costs.

  4. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.; Pang, Y.

    1995-10-10

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R{sup 1})(R{sup 2})Si--C{triple_bond}C--(R{sup 3})(R{sup 4})Si--CH{double_bond}CH--]{sub n}--, wherein n{>=}2; and each R{sup 1}, R{sup 2}, R{sup 3}, and R{sup 4} is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  5. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Barton, Thomas J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina; Pang, Yi

    1995-10-10

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R.sup.1)(R.sup.2)Si--C.tbd.C--(R.sup.3)(R.sup.4)Si--CH.dbd.CH--].sub .n --, wherein n.gtoreq.2; and each R.sup.1, R.sup.2, R.sup.3, and R.sup.4 is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  6. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.; Yi Pang.

    1993-08-31

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: -[-(R[sup 1])(R[sup 2])Si-C[triple bond]C-(R[sup 3])(R[sup 4])Si-CH[double bond]CH-][sub n]-, wherein n[>=]2; each R[sup 1], R[sup 2], R[sup 3], and R[sup 4] is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  7. Report of the second joint meeting of ESOT and AST: current pipelines in biotech and pharma.

    PubMed

    van Gelder, Teun; Baan, Carla; Vincenti, Flavio; Mannon, Roslyn B

    2013-09-01

    Following the first joint meeting organized by the European (ESOT) and American (AST) Societies of Transplantation in 2010, a second joint meeting was held in Nice, France, on October 12-14, 2012 at the Palais de la Mediterannee. Co-chairs of the scientific advisory committee were Dr. Flavio Vincenti (AST) and Dr. Teun Van Gelder (ESOT). The goal was to discuss the key unmet needs in solid organ transplantation with the opportunity to interrelate current basic research efforts with clinical translation. Thus, the topic of this second meeting "Transformational therapies and diagnostics in transplantation" was devised and a summary of this meeting follows.

  8. Detailed design specification for the ALT Shuttle Information Extraction Subsystem (SIES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clouette, G. L.; Fitzpatrick, W. N.

    1976-01-01

    The approach and landing test (ALT) shuttle information extraction system (SIES) is described in terms of general requirements and system characteristics output products and processing options, output products and data sources, and system data flow. The ALT SIES is a data reduction system designed to satisfy certain data processing requirements for the ALT phase of the space shuttle program. The specific ALT SIES data processing requirements are stated in the data reduction complex approach and landing test data processing requirements. In general, ALT SIES must produce time correlated data products as a result of standardized data reduction or special purpose analytical processes. The main characteristics of ALT SIES are: (1) the system operates in a batch (non-interactive) mode; (2) the processing is table driven; (3) it is data base oriented; (4) it has simple operating procedures; and (5) it requires a minimum of run time information.

  9. Maximization of orbiter altitude at ALT interface airspeed, mission planning, mission analysis and software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    The determination of the separation initial conditions (i.e. incidence angle) that maximize orbiter altitude at the ALT interface airspeed is considered. Optimum altitude airspeed profiles are generated for each orbiter incidence angle and tailcone configuration. Results show that the highest separation altitude does not result in the highest altitude at ALT interface airspeed. The altitude attainable at ALT interface airspeed should therefore be considered in the selection of the initial conditions (i.e. incidence angle). Without violating any known constraints, the incidence angles that maximize orbiter altitude at the ALT interface airspeeds are 7.0 deg for ALT free flight 1 and 5.5 deg for ALT free flight 6.

  10. Ethanol ingestion in two infants under 2 months old: a previously unreported cause of ALTE.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Taylor; Levine, Michael; Knox, Oma; Claudius, Ilene

    2013-02-01

    The differential diagnosis for the infant presenting with an apparent life-threatening event (ALTE) is broad. Toxic ingestions are a relatively uncommon cause of an ALTE, although several over-the-counter, prescription, and illicit drugs have been implicated. We present 2 cases of ethanol intoxication in infants as a previously unreported cause of an ALTE. Additionally, serial ethanol levels for these patients offer novel insight into the pharmacokinetics of ethanol metabolism in infants. Ethanol ingestion may be an underrecognized cause of an ALTE and should be considered if the history or physical examination is suggestive. PMID:23319534

  11. Evaluation of the Alfred 60/AST Device as a Screening Test for Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Stathopoulos, George; Chan, Raymond C.; van Hal, Sebastiaan J.

    2013-01-01

    The performance of the Alfred 60/AST device, an automated bacterial culture device which uses laser nephelometry to detect and quantify bacterial growth, was evaluated. The instrument is effective at screening negative samples and is more reliable at detecting bacteria than yeasts. Microscopy can be used to reduce the false-negative numbers. PMID:23885005

  12. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  17. Randomized Placebo-Controlled EPPIC Trials of AST-120 in CKD

    PubMed Central

    Berl, Tomas; Beck, Gerald J.; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Ritz, Eberhard; Arita, Kiyoshi; Kato, Akira; Shimizu, Miho

    2015-01-01

    Reduced GFR in patients with CKD causes systemic accumulation of uremic toxins, which has been correlated with disease progression and increased morbidity. The orally administered spherical carbon adsorbent AST-120 reduces systemic toxin absorption through gastrointestinal sequestration, which may slow disease progression in these patients. The multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Evaluating Prevention of Progression in CKD (EPPIC)-1 and EPPIC-2 trials evaluated the effects of AST-120 on the progression of CKD when added to standard therapy. We randomly assigned 2035 adults with moderate to severe disease (serum creatinine at screening, 2.0–5.0 mg/dl for men and 1.5–5.0 mg/dl for women) to receive either placebo or AST-120 (9 g/d). The primary end point was a composite of dialysis initiation, kidney transplantation, and serum creatinine doubling. Each trial continued until accrual of 291 primary end points. The time to primary end point was similar between the AST-120 and the placebo groups in both trials (EPPIC-1: hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 0.84 to 1.27; P=0.78) (EPPIC-2: hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.74 to 1.12; P=0.37); a pooled analysis of both trials showed similar results. The estimated median time to primary end points for the placebo groups was 124 weeks for power calculations, but actual times were 189.0 and 170.3 weeks for EPPIC-1 and EPPIC-2, respectively. Thus, disease progression was more gradual than expected in the trial populations. In conclusion, the benefit of adding AST-120 to standard therapy in patients with moderate to severe CKD is not supported by these data. PMID:25349205

  18. Neutral transport in the ALT-I limiter

    SciTech Connect

    Boley, C.D.; Heifetz, D.B.; Post, D.E.; Malinowski, M.E.

    1983-10-01

    The behavior of neutral atoms and molecules in the TEXTOR pump limiter ALT-I has been investigated with the aid of the 2-D Monte Carlo neutral transport code DEGAS. The code incorporates the full set of relevant collision processes (atomic and molecular), and it has a standard wall model which includes fast-neutral reflection and molecular desorption. The limiter was modeled with a 2-D geometry, which included corrections for 3-D effects. Among the quantities predicted by the code which are directly relevant to experiment include the neutral pressure within the plenum and along the duct leading into the plenum, the gettering rates, and the heat flux to the walls of the duct. These have been calculated for a variety of plasma parameters in the inlet, and the behavior with respect to variations of the duct widths has been studied. Because of the presence of the long duct separating the entrance chamber from the plenum, a high probability of ionization generally results, suggesting that a calculation allowing the plasma to adjust to the neutral sources might show a large amount of recycling.

  19. Production of the allergenic protein Alt a 1 by Alternaria isolates from working environments.

    PubMed

    Skóra, Justyna; Otlewska, Anna; Gutarowska, Beata; Leszczyńska, Joanna; Majak, Iwona; Stępień, Łukasz

    2015-02-16

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of Alternaria isolates from workplaces to produce Alt a 1 allergenic protein, and to analyze whether technical materials (cellulose, compost, leather) present within the working environment stimulate or inhibit Alt a 1 production (ELISA test). Studies included identification of the isolated molds by nucleotide sequences analyzing of the ITS1/ITS2 regions, actin, calmodulin and Alt a 1 genes. It has been shown that Alternaria molds are significant part of microbiocenosis in the archive, museum, library, composting plant and tannery (14%-16% frequency in the air). The presence of the gene encoding the Alt a 1 protein has been detected for the strains: Alternaria alternata, A. lini, A. limoniasperae A. nobilis and A. tenuissima. Environmental strains produced Alt a 1 at higher concentrations (1.103-6.528 ng/mL) than a ATCC strain (0.551-0.975 ng/mL). It has been shown that the homogenization of the mycelium and the use of ultrafiltration allow a considerable increase of Alt a 1 concentration. Variations in the production of Alt a 1 protein, depend on the strain and extraction methods. These studies revealed no impact of the technical material from the workplaces on the production of Alt a 1 protein.

  20. Production of the Allergenic Protein Alt a 1 by Alternaria Isolates from Working Environments

    PubMed Central

    Skóra, Justyna; Otlewska, Anna; Gutarowska, Beata; Leszczyńska, Joanna; Majak, Iwona; Stępień, Łukasz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of Alternaria isolates from workplaces to produce Alt a 1 allergenic protein, and to analyze whether technical materials (cellulose, compost, leather) present within the working environment stimulate or inhibit Alt a 1 production (ELISA test). Studies included identification of the isolated molds by nucleotide sequences analyzing of the ITS1/ITS2 regions, actin, calmodulin and Alt a 1 genes. It has been shown that Alternaria molds are significant part of microbiocenosis in the archive, museum, library, composting plant and tannery (14%–16% frequency in the air). The presence of the gene encoding the Alt a 1 protein has been detected for the strains: Alternaria alternata, A. lini, A. limoniasperae A. nobilis and A. tenuissima. Environmental strains produced Alt a 1 at higher concentrations (1.103–6.528 ng/mL) than a ATCC strain (0.551–0.975 ng/mL). It has been shown that the homogenization of the mycelium and the use of ultrafiltration allow a considerable increase of Alt a 1 concentration. Variations in the production of Alt a 1 protein, depend on the strain and extraction methods. These studies revealed no impact of the technical material from the workplaces on the production of Alt a 1 protein. PMID:25689994

  1. Production of the allergenic protein Alt a 1 by Alternaria isolates from working environments.

    PubMed

    Skóra, Justyna; Otlewska, Anna; Gutarowska, Beata; Leszczyńska, Joanna; Majak, Iwona; Stępień, Łukasz

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of Alternaria isolates from workplaces to produce Alt a 1 allergenic protein, and to analyze whether technical materials (cellulose, compost, leather) present within the working environment stimulate or inhibit Alt a 1 production (ELISA test). Studies included identification of the isolated molds by nucleotide sequences analyzing of the ITS1/ITS2 regions, actin, calmodulin and Alt a 1 genes. It has been shown that Alternaria molds are significant part of microbiocenosis in the archive, museum, library, composting plant and tannery (14%-16% frequency in the air). The presence of the gene encoding the Alt a 1 protein has been detected for the strains: Alternaria alternata, A. lini, A. limoniasperae A. nobilis and A. tenuissima. Environmental strains produced Alt a 1 at higher concentrations (1.103-6.528 ng/mL) than a ATCC strain (0.551-0.975 ng/mL). It has been shown that the homogenization of the mycelium and the use of ultrafiltration allow a considerable increase of Alt a 1 concentration. Variations in the production of Alt a 1 protein, depend on the strain and extraction methods. These studies revealed no impact of the technical material from the workplaces on the production of Alt a 1 protein. PMID:25689994

  2. Switch telomerase to ALT mechanism by inducing telomeric DNA damages and dysfunction of ATRX and DAXX.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yang; Shi, Guang; Zhang, Laichen; Li, Feng; Jiang, Yuanling; Jiang, Shuai; Ma, Wenbin; Zhao, Yong; Songyang, Zhou; Huang, Junjiu

    2016-01-01

    Activation of telomerase or alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) is necessary for tumours to escape from dysfunctional telomere-mediated senescence. Anti-telomerase drugs might be effective in suppressing tumour growth in approximately 85-90% of telomerase-positive cancer cells. However, there are still chances for these cells to bypass drug treatment after switching to the ALT mechanism to maintain their telomere integrity. But the mechanism underlying this switch is unknown. In this study, we used telomerase-positive cancer cells (HTC75) to discover the mechanism of the telomerase-ALT switch by inducing telomere-specific DNA damage, alpha-thalassemia X-linked syndrome protein (ATRX) knockdown and deletion of death associated protein (DAXX). Surprisingly, two important ALT hallmarks in the ALT-like HTC75 cells were observed after treatments: ALT-associated promyelocytic leukaemia bodies (APBs) and extrachromosomal circular DNA of telomeric repeats. Moreover, knocking out hTERT by utilizing the CRISPR/Cas9 technique led to telomere elongation in a telomerase-independent manner in ALT-like HTC75 cells. In summary, this is the first report to show that inducing telomeric DNA damage, disrupting the ATRX/DAXX complex and inhibiting telomerase activity in telomerase-positive cancer cells lead to the ALT switch. PMID:27578458

  3. Switch telomerase to ALT mechanism by inducing telomeric DNA damages and dysfunction of ATRX and DAXX

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yang; Shi, Guang; Zhang, Laichen; Li, Feng; Jiang, Yuanling; Jiang, Shuai; Ma, Wenbin; Zhao, Yong; Songyang, Zhou; Huang, Junjiu

    2016-01-01

    Activation of telomerase or alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) is necessary for tumours to escape from dysfunctional telomere-mediated senescence. Anti-telomerase drugs might be effective in suppressing tumour growth in approximately 85–90% of telomerase-positive cancer cells. However, there are still chances for these cells to bypass drug treatment after switching to the ALT mechanism to maintain their telomere integrity. But the mechanism underlying this switch is unknown. In this study, we used telomerase-positive cancer cells (HTC75) to discover the mechanism of the telomerase-ALT switch by inducing telomere-specific DNA damage, alpha-thalassemia X-linked syndrome protein (ATRX) knockdown and deletion of death associated protein (DAXX). Surprisingly, two important ALT hallmarks in the ALT-like HTC75 cells were observed after treatments: ALT-associated promyelocytic leukaemia bodies (APBs) and extrachromosomal circular DNA of telomeric repeats. Moreover, knocking out hTERT by utilizing the CRISPR/Cas9 technique led to telomere elongation in a telomerase-independent manner in ALT-like HTC75 cells. In summary, this is the first report to show that inducing telomeric DNA damage, disrupting the ATRX/DAXX complex and inhibiting telomerase activity in telomerase-positive cancer cells lead to the ALT switch. PMID:27578458

  4. Telomerase suppresses formation of ALT-associated single-stranded telomeric C-circles.

    PubMed

    Plantinga, Matthew J; Pascarelli, Kara M; Merkel, Anna S; Lazar, Alexander J; von Mehren, Margaret; Lev, Dina; Broccoli, Dominique

    2013-06-01

    Telomere maintenance is an essential characteristic of cancer cells, most commonly achieved by activation of telomerase. Telomeres can also be maintained by a recombination-based mechanism, alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). Cells using ALT are characterized by the presence of ALT-associated promyelocytic leukemia (PML) bodies (APB), long, heterogeneously sized telomeres, extrachromosomal telomeric circular DNA, and elevated telomeric recombination. Consistent with other reports, we found that liposarcomas containing APBs, but lacking telomerase expression, always contained C-rich circles (C-circles), and these C-circles were never present in the absence of APBs, indicating a tight link between these features in ALT cells. However, a rare subgroup of tumors showing evidence of telomere maintenance by both telomerase and ALT did not contain C-circles. To test the hypothesis that telomerase expression disrupts the tight link between APBs and C-circles, we used ALT cell lines that were engineered to express telomerase. Introduction of telomerase activity in these ALT cells resulted in, on average, shorter telomeres with retention of APBs. However, at high passage, the level of C-circles was significantly reduced, which was paralleled by a switch from C-strand overhangs to G-strand overhangs. We propose that by extending critically short telomeres in these cells, telomerase is disrupting a key step in the ALT pathway necessary for production and/or maintenance of C-circles.

  5. Academic careers and lifestyle characteristics of 171 transplant surgeons in the ASTS.

    PubMed

    Florence, L S; Feng, S; Foster, C E; Fryer, J P; Olthoff, K M; Pomfret, E; Sheiner, P A; Sanfey, H; Bumgardner, G L

    2011-02-01

    This manuscript reports the demographics, education and training, professional activities and lifestyle characteristics of 171 members of the American Society of Transplant Surgeons (ASTS). ASTS members were sent a comprehensive survey by electronic mail. There were 171 respondents who were 49 ± 8 years of age and predominantly Caucasian males. Female transplant surgeons comprised 10% of respondents. ASTS respondents underwent 15.6 ± 1.0 years of education and training (including college, medical school, residency and transplantation fellowship) and had practiced for 14.7 ± 9.2 years. Clinical practice included kidney, pancreas and liver organ transplantation, living donor surgery, organ procurement, vascular access procedures and general surgery. Transplant surgeons also devote a significant amount of time to nonsurgical patient care, research, education and administration. Transplant surgeons, both male and female, reported working approximately 70 h/week and a median of 195 operative cases per year. The anticipated retirement age for men was 64.6 ± 8.6 and for women was 62.2 ± 4.2 years. This is the largest study to date assessing professional and lifestyle characteristics of abdominal transplant surgeons.

  6. On the N={1}^{ast } gauge theory on a circle and elliptic integrable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourget, Antoine; Troost, Jan

    2016-01-01

    We continue our study of the N={1}^{ast } supersymmetric gauge theory on R^{2,1}× {S}^1 and its relation to elliptic integrable systems. Upon compactification on a circle, we show that the semi-classical analysis of the massless and massive vacua depends on the classification of nilpotent orbits, as well as on the conjugacy classes of the component group of their centralizer. We demonstrate that semi-classically massless vacua can be lifted by Wilson lines in unbroken discrete gauge groups. The pseudo-Levi subalgebras that play a classifying role in the nilpotent orbit theory are also key in defining generalized Inozemtsev limits of (twisted) elliptic integrable systems. We illustrate our analysis in the N={1}^{ast } theories with gauge algebras su(3), su(4), so(5) and for the exceptional gauge algebra G 2. We map out modular duality diagrams of the massive and massless vacua. Moreover, we provide an analytic description of the branches of massless vacua in the case of the su(3) and the so(5) theory. The description of these branches in terms of the complexified Wilson lines on the circle invokes the Eichler-Zagier technique for inverting the elliptic Weierstrass function. After fine-tuning the coupling to elliptic points of order three, we identify the Argyres-Douglas singularities of the su(3) N={1}^{ast } theory.

  7. Peculiarities of vaporization of vitreous alloys of the As-Te system. Heat of formation of gaseous arsenic tellurides

    SciTech Connect

    Alikhanyan, A.S.; Steblevskii, A.V.; Gorgoraki, V.I.; Pashinkin, A.S.; Malyusov, V.A.

    1986-11-01

    Interpretation of the mass spectrum of the gas phase above vitreous alloys of the system As-Te showed virtual absence of AsTe molecules in the saturated vapor; to be precise, the content of these molecules does not exceed 5 x 10/sup -5/ Pa at 550 K. Taking this value as the upper limit of the partial pressure of AsTe, they determined, on the basis of the third law of thermodynamics, the limiting values of the enthalpy of formation and the energy of atomization of AsTe. The requisite values of the entropy of gaseous AsTe and the enthalpy of formation of As/sub (g)/ and Te/sub (g)/ were taken. The calculated results referred to 298.15 K are given. The energy of atomization of the AsTe molecule estimated thus agrees well with the value D/sub 298//sup 0/ (AsTe) = 307.2 kJ/mole calculated by the Pauling's equation with allowance for the electronegativities of arsenic and tellurium.

  8. Characterisation of a flavonoid ligand of the fungal protein Alt a 1

    PubMed Central

    Garrido-Arandia, María; Silva-Navas, Javier; Ramírez-Castillejo, Carmen; Cubells-Baeza, Nuria; Gómez-Casado, Cristina; Barber, Domingo; Pozo, Juan C.; Melendi, Pablo G.; Pacios, Luis F.; Díaz-Perales, Araceli

    2016-01-01

    Spores of pathogenic fungi are virtually ubiquitous and cause human disease and severe losses in crops. The endophytic fungi Alternaria species produce host-selective phytotoxins. Alt a 1 is a strongly allergenic protein found in A. alternata that causes severe asthma. Despite the well-established pathogenicity of Alt a 1, the molecular mechanisms underlying its action and physiological function remain largely unknown. To gain insight into the role played by this protein in the pathogenicity of the fungus, we studied production of Alt a 1 and its activity in spores. We found that Alt a 1 accumulates inside spores and that its release with a ligand is pH-dependent, with optimum production in the 5.0–6.5 interval. The Alt a 1 ligand was identified as a methylated flavonoid that inhibits plant root growth and detoxifies reactive oxygen species. We also found that Alt a 1 changes its oligomerization state depending on the pH of the surrounding medium and that these changes facilitate the release of the ligand. Based on these results, we propose that release of Alt a 1 should be a pathogenic target in approaches used to block plant defenses and consequently to favor fungal entry into the plant. PMID:27633190

  9. Characterisation of a flavonoid ligand of the fungal protein Alt a 1.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Arandia, María; Silva-Navas, Javier; Ramírez-Castillejo, Carmen; Cubells-Baeza, Nuria; Gómez-Casado, Cristina; Barber, Domingo; Pozo, Juan C; Melendi, Pablo G; Pacios, Luis F; Díaz-Perales, Araceli

    2016-01-01

    Spores of pathogenic fungi are virtually ubiquitous and cause human disease and severe losses in crops. The endophytic fungi Alternaria species produce host-selective phytotoxins. Alt a 1 is a strongly allergenic protein found in A. alternata that causes severe asthma. Despite the well-established pathogenicity of Alt a 1, the molecular mechanisms underlying its action and physiological function remain largely unknown. To gain insight into the role played by this protein in the pathogenicity of the fungus, we studied production of Alt a 1 and its activity in spores. We found that Alt a 1 accumulates inside spores and that its release with a ligand is pH-dependent, with optimum production in the 5.0-6.5 interval. The Alt a 1 ligand was identified as a methylated flavonoid that inhibits plant root growth and detoxifies reactive oxygen species. We also found that Alt a 1 changes its oligomerization state depending on the pH of the surrounding medium and that these changes facilitate the release of the ligand. Based on these results, we propose that release of Alt a 1 should be a pathogenic target in approaches used to block plant defenses and consequently to favor fungal entry into the plant. PMID:27633190

  10. Comparison of the Superagonist Complex, ALT-803, to IL15 as Cancer Immunotherapeutics in Animal Models.

    PubMed

    Rhode, Peter R; Egan, Jack O; Xu, Wenxin; Hong, Hao; Webb, Gabriela M; Chen, Xiaoyue; Liu, Bai; Zhu, Xiaoyun; Wen, Jinghai; You, Lijing; Kong, Lin; Edwards, Ana C; Han, Kaiping; Shi, Sixiang; Alter, Sarah; Sacha, Jonah B; Jeng, Emily K; Cai, Weibo; Wong, Hing C

    2016-01-01

    IL15, a potent stimulant of CD8(+) T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, is a promising cancer immunotherapeutic. ALT-803 is a complex of an IL15 superagonist mutant and a dimeric IL15 receptor αSu/Fc fusion protein that was found to exhibit enhanced biologic activity in vivo, with a substantially longer serum half-life than recombinant IL15. A single intravenous dose of ALT-803, but not IL15, eliminated well-established tumors and prolonged survival of mice bearing multiple myeloma. In this study, we extended these findings to demonstrate the superior antitumor activity of ALT-803 over IL15 in mice bearing subcutaneous B16F10 melanoma tumors and CT26 colon carcinoma metastases. Tissue biodistribution studies in mice also showed much greater retention of ALT-803 in the lymphoid organs compared with IL15, consistent with its highly potent immunostimulatory and antitumor activities in vivo. Weekly dosing with 1 mg/kg ALT-803 in C57BL/6 mice was well tolerated, yet capable of increasing peripheral blood lymphocyte, neutrophil, and monocyte counts by >8-fold. ALT-803 dose-dependent stimulation of immune cell infiltration into the lymphoid organs was also observed. Similarly, cynomolgus monkeys treated weekly with ALT-803 showed dose-dependent increases of peripheral blood lymphocyte counts, including NK, CD4(+), and CD8(+) memory T-cell subsets. In vitro studies demonstrated ALT-803-mediated stimulation of mouse and human immune cell proliferation and IFNγ production without inducing a broad-based release of other proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., cytokine storm). Based on these results, a weekly dosing regimen of ALT-803 has been implemented in multiple clinical studies to evaluate the dose required for effective immune cell stimulation in humans. PMID:26511282

  11. Comparison of the Superagonist Complex, ALT-803, to IL15 as Cancer Immunotherapeutics in Animal Models.

    PubMed

    Rhode, Peter R; Egan, Jack O; Xu, Wenxin; Hong, Hao; Webb, Gabriela M; Chen, Xiaoyue; Liu, Bai; Zhu, Xiaoyun; Wen, Jinghai; You, Lijing; Kong, Lin; Edwards, Ana C; Han, Kaiping; Shi, Sixiang; Alter, Sarah; Sacha, Jonah B; Jeng, Emily K; Cai, Weibo; Wong, Hing C

    2016-01-01

    IL15, a potent stimulant of CD8(+) T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, is a promising cancer immunotherapeutic. ALT-803 is a complex of an IL15 superagonist mutant and a dimeric IL15 receptor αSu/Fc fusion protein that was found to exhibit enhanced biologic activity in vivo, with a substantially longer serum half-life than recombinant IL15. A single intravenous dose of ALT-803, but not IL15, eliminated well-established tumors and prolonged survival of mice bearing multiple myeloma. In this study, we extended these findings to demonstrate the superior antitumor activity of ALT-803 over IL15 in mice bearing subcutaneous B16F10 melanoma tumors and CT26 colon carcinoma metastases. Tissue biodistribution studies in mice also showed much greater retention of ALT-803 in the lymphoid organs compared with IL15, consistent with its highly potent immunostimulatory and antitumor activities in vivo. Weekly dosing with 1 mg/kg ALT-803 in C57BL/6 mice was well tolerated, yet capable of increasing peripheral blood lymphocyte, neutrophil, and monocyte counts by >8-fold. ALT-803 dose-dependent stimulation of immune cell infiltration into the lymphoid organs was also observed. Similarly, cynomolgus monkeys treated weekly with ALT-803 showed dose-dependent increases of peripheral blood lymphocyte counts, including NK, CD4(+), and CD8(+) memory T-cell subsets. In vitro studies demonstrated ALT-803-mediated stimulation of mouse and human immune cell proliferation and IFNγ production without inducing a broad-based release of other proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., cytokine storm). Based on these results, a weekly dosing regimen of ALT-803 has been implemented in multiple clinical studies to evaluate the dose required for effective immune cell stimulation in humans.

  12. Post-test navigation data analysis techniques for the shuttle ALT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Postflight test analysis data processing techniques for shuttle approach and landing tests (ALT) navigation data are defined. Postfight test processor requirements are described along with operational and design requirements, data input requirements, and software test requirements. The postflight test data processing is described based on the natural test sequence: quick-look analysis, postflight navigation processing, and error isolation processing. Emphasis is placed on the tradeoffs that must remain open and subject to analysis until final definition is achieved in the shuttle data processing system and the overall ALT plan. A development plan for the implementation of the ALT postflight test navigation data processing system is presented. Conclusions are presented.

  13. The Role of ATRX in the Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Amorim, João P; Santos, Gustavo; Vinagre, João; Soares, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres are responsible for protecting chromosome ends in order to prevent the loss of coding DNA. Their maintenance is required for achieving immortality by neoplastic cells and can occur by upregulation of the telomerase enzyme or through a homologous recombination-associated process, the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). The precise mechanisms that govern the activation of ALT or telomerase in tumor cells are not fully understood, although cellular origin may favor one of the other mechanisms that have been found thus far in mutual exclusivity. Specific mutational events influence ALT activation and maintenance: a unifying frequent feature of tumors that acquire this phenotype are the recurrent mutations of the Alpha Thalassemia/Mental Retardation Syndrome X-Linked (ATRX) or Death-Domain Associated Protein (DAXX) genes. This review summarizes the established criteria about this phenotype: its prevalence, theoretical molecular mechanisms and relation with ATRX, DAXX and other proteins (directly or indirectly interacting and resulting in the ALT phenotype). PMID:27657132

  14. The Role of ATRX in the Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Amorim, João P; Santos, Gustavo; Vinagre, João; Soares, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres are responsible for protecting chromosome ends in order to prevent the loss of coding DNA. Their maintenance is required for achieving immortality by neoplastic cells and can occur by upregulation of the telomerase enzyme or through a homologous recombination-associated process, the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). The precise mechanisms that govern the activation of ALT or telomerase in tumor cells are not fully understood, although cellular origin may favor one of the other mechanisms that have been found thus far in mutual exclusivity. Specific mutational events influence ALT activation and maintenance: a unifying frequent feature of tumors that acquire this phenotype are the recurrent mutations of the Alpha Thalassemia/Mental Retardation Syndrome X-Linked (ATRX) or Death-Domain Associated Protein (DAXX) genes. This review summarizes the established criteria about this phenotype: its prevalence, theoretical molecular mechanisms and relation with ATRX, DAXX and other proteins (directly or indirectly interacting and resulting in the ALT phenotype).

  15. The Role of ATRX in the Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Amorim, João P.; Santos, Gustavo; Vinagre, João; Soares, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres are responsible for protecting chromosome ends in order to prevent the loss of coding DNA. Their maintenance is required for achieving immortality by neoplastic cells and can occur by upregulation of the telomerase enzyme or through a homologous recombination-associated process, the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). The precise mechanisms that govern the activation of ALT or telomerase in tumor cells are not fully understood, although cellular origin may favor one of the other mechanisms that have been found thus far in mutual exclusivity. Specific mutational events influence ALT activation and maintenance: a unifying frequent feature of tumors that acquire this phenotype are the recurrent mutations of the Alpha Thalassemia/Mental Retardation Syndrome X-Linked (ATRX) or Death-Domain Associated Protein (DAXX) genes. This review summarizes the established criteria about this phenotype: its prevalence, theoretical molecular mechanisms and relation with ATRX, DAXX and other proteins (directly or indirectly interacting and resulting in the ALT phenotype). PMID:27657132

  16. Differential Evolutionary Selection and Natural Evolvability Observed in ALT Proteins of Human Filarial Parasites.

    PubMed

    Devoe, Neil C; Corbett, Ian J; Barker, Linsey; Chang, Robert; Gudis, Polyxeni; Mullen, Nathan; Perez, Kailey; Raposo, Hugo; Scholz, John; May, Meghan

    2016-01-01

    The abundant larval transcript (ALT-2) protein is present in all members of the Filarioidea, and has been reported as a potential candidate antigen for a subunit vaccine against lymphatic filariasis. To assess the potential for vaccine escape or heterologous protection, we examined the evolutionary selection acting on ALT-2. The ratios of nonsynonymous (K(a)) to synonymous (K(s)) mutation frequencies (ω) were calculated for the alt-2 genes of the lymphatic filariasis agents Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti and the agents of river blindness and African eyeworm disease Onchocerca volvulus and Loa loa. Two distinct Bayesian models of sequence evolution showed that ALT-2 of W. bancrofti and L. loa were under significant (P<0.05; P < 0.001) diversifying selection, while ALT-2 of B. malayi and O. volvulus were under neutral to stabilizing selection. Diversifying selection as measured by ω values was notably strongest on the region of ALT-2 encoding the signal peptide of L. loa and was elevated in the variable acidic domain of L. loa and W. bancrofti. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the ALT-2 consensus sequences formed three clades: the first consisting of B. malayi, the second consisting of W. bancrofti, and the third containing both O. volvulus and L. loa. ALT-2 selection was therefore not predictable by phylogeny or pathology, as the two species parasitizing the eye were selected differently, as were the two species parasitizing the lymphatic system. The most immunogenic regions of L. loa and W. bancrofti ALT-2 sequence as modeled by antigenicity prediction analysis did not correspond with elevated levels of diversifying selection, and were not selected differently than predicted antigenic epitopes in B. malayi and O. volvulus. Measurements of ALT-2 evolvability made by χ2 analysis between alleles that were stable (O. volvulus and B. malayi) and those that were under diversifying selection (W. bancrofti and L. loa) indicated significant (P<0

  17. Differential Evolutionary Selection and Natural Evolvability Observed in ALT Proteins of Human Filarial Parasites.

    PubMed

    Devoe, Neil C; Corbett, Ian J; Barker, Linsey; Chang, Robert; Gudis, Polyxeni; Mullen, Nathan; Perez, Kailey; Raposo, Hugo; Scholz, John; May, Meghan

    2016-01-01

    The abundant larval transcript (ALT-2) protein is present in all members of the Filarioidea, and has been reported as a potential candidate antigen for a subunit vaccine against lymphatic filariasis. To assess the potential for vaccine escape or heterologous protection, we examined the evolutionary selection acting on ALT-2. The ratios of nonsynonymous (K(a)) to synonymous (K(s)) mutation frequencies (ω) were calculated for the alt-2 genes of the lymphatic filariasis agents Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti and the agents of river blindness and African eyeworm disease Onchocerca volvulus and Loa loa. Two distinct Bayesian models of sequence evolution showed that ALT-2 of W. bancrofti and L. loa were under significant (P<0.05; P < 0.001) diversifying selection, while ALT-2 of B. malayi and O. volvulus were under neutral to stabilizing selection. Diversifying selection as measured by ω values was notably strongest on the region of ALT-2 encoding the signal peptide of L. loa and was elevated in the variable acidic domain of L. loa and W. bancrofti. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the ALT-2 consensus sequences formed three clades: the first consisting of B. malayi, the second consisting of W. bancrofti, and the third containing both O. volvulus and L. loa. ALT-2 selection was therefore not predictable by phylogeny or pathology, as the two species parasitizing the eye were selected differently, as were the two species parasitizing the lymphatic system. The most immunogenic regions of L. loa and W. bancrofti ALT-2 sequence as modeled by antigenicity prediction analysis did not correspond with elevated levels of diversifying selection, and were not selected differently than predicted antigenic epitopes in B. malayi and O. volvulus. Measurements of ALT-2 evolvability made by χ2 analysis between alleles that were stable (O. volvulus and B. malayi) and those that were under diversifying selection (W. bancrofti and L. loa) indicated significant (P<0

  18. Differential Evolutionary Selection and Natural Evolvability Observed in ALT Proteins of Human Filarial Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Devoe, Neil C.; Corbett, Ian J.; Barker, Linsey; Chang, Robert; Gudis, Polyxeni; Mullen, Nathan; Perez, Kailey; Raposo, Hugo; Scholz, John; May, Meghan

    2016-01-01

    The abundant larval transcript (ALT-2) protein is present in all members of the Filarioidea, and has been reported as a potential candidate antigen for a subunit vaccine against lymphatic filariasis. To assess the potential for vaccine escape or heterologous protection, we examined the evolutionary selection acting on ALT-2. The ratios of nonsynonymous (K(a)) to synonymous (K(s)) mutation frequencies (ω) were calculated for the alt-2 genes of the lymphatic filariasis agents Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti and the agents of river blindness and African eyeworm disease Onchocerca volvulus and Loa loa. Two distinct Bayesian models of sequence evolution showed that ALT-2 of W. bancrofti and L. loa were under significant (P<0.05; P < 0.001) diversifying selection, while ALT-2 of B. malayi and O. volvulus were under neutral to stabilizing selection. Diversifying selection as measured by ω values was notably strongest on the region of ALT-2 encoding the signal peptide of L. loa and was elevated in the variable acidic domain of L. loa and W. bancrofti. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the ALT-2 consensus sequences formed three clades: the first consisting of B. malayi, the second consisting of W. bancrofti, and the third containing both O. volvulus and L. loa. ALT-2 selection was therefore not predictable by phylogeny or pathology, as the two species parasitizing the eye were selected differently, as were the two species parasitizing the lymphatic system. The most immunogenic regions of L. loa and W. bancrofti ALT-2 sequence as modeled by antigenicity prediction analysis did not correspond with elevated levels of diversifying selection, and were not selected differently than predicted antigenic epitopes in B. malayi and O. volvulus. Measurements of ALT-2 evolvability made by χ2 analysis between alleles that were stable (O. volvulus and B. malayi) and those that were under diversifying selection (W. bancrofti and L. loa) indicated significant (P<0

  19. Influence of Preoperative Serum Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) Level on the Prognosis of Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shu-Lin; Xue, Ning; Wu, Mian-Tao; Chen, Hao; He, Xia; Li, Jian-Pei; Liu, Wan-Li; Dai, Shu-Qin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to analyze preoperative serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels and their effect on the prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after surgical operation. These analyses were performed retrospectively in patients with NSCLC followed by surgery; participants were recruited between January 2004 and January 2008. All clinical information and laboratory results were collected from medical records. We explored the association between preoperative serum AST and recurrence-free survival (RFS), and the overall survival (OS) of NSCLC patients. Kaplan–Meier analysis and Cox multivariate analysis, stratified by the AST median value, were used to evaluate the prognostic effect. A chi-squared test was performed to compare clinical characteristics in different subgroups. A p-value of ≤0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. A total of 231 patients were enrolled. The median RFS and OS were 22 and 59 months, respectively. The AST levels were divided into two groups, using a cut-off value of 19 U/L: High AST (>19 U/L), n = 113 vs. low AST (≤19 U/L), n = 118. Multivariate analysis indicated that preoperative serum AST > 19 U/L (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.685, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.493–0.994, p = 0.046 for RFS, HR = 0.646, 95% CI: 0.438–0.954, p = 0.028 for OS) was an independent prognostic factor for both RFS and OS. High preoperative serum AST levels may serve as a valuable marker to predict the prognosis of NSCLC after operation. PMID:27598151

  20. Alt a 15 is a new cross-reactive minor allergen of Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, M F; Postigo, I; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, A; Suñén, E; Guisantes, J A; Fernández, J; Tomaz, C T; Martínez, J

    2016-02-01

    Alternaria alternata is one of the most common saprophytes worldwide that is clinically and epidemiologically associated with severe asthma. Therefore, the identification and characterization of all A. alternata allergens are of major clinical importance. This study describes a new cross-reactive A. alternata allergen that was officially named Alt a 15 by the official Allergen Nomenclature Subcommittee. The complete coding region for Alt a 15 was amplified using 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends and PCR. The recombinant protein was produced in Escherichia coli as a 65-kDa fusion protein, and the protein sequence exhibits high homology with several important fungal allergens. Immunoblotting analyses revealed that IgE antibodies from A. alternata-sensitized patients (n=59) bound to rAlt a 15 with a prevalence of 10.2%. All patients who presented sIgE to rAlt a 15 were apparently poly-sensitized to A. alternata and C. lunata. The extensive cross-reactivity between A. alternata and C. lunata serine proteases was confirmed using immunoblotting inhibition assays. Overall, Alt a 15 is an important new cross-reactive allergen of A. alternata that explains some allergies to A. alternata without Alt a 1 sensitization and initial diagnostic errors for allergies to Alternaria. This molecule may improve the accuracy of the diagnosis, the understanding, and the management of IgE-mediated fungal diseases.

  1. Detection of Carbapenemases in Clinical Enterobacteriaceae Isolates Using the VITEK AST-N202 Card

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Il Kwon; Kang, Hyun-Kyung; Jang, In-Ho; Lee, Woonhyoung; Kim, Keonhan; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Lee, Kyungwon

    2015-01-01

    Background The rapid and accurate detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in clinical microbiology laboratories is essential for the treatment and control of infections caused by these microorganisms. This study was performed to evaluate the ability of the VITEK AST-N202 card to detect CPE isolates. Materials and Methods A total of 43 (Klebsiella pneumoniae, n = 37; Escherichia coli, n = 3; and Enterobacter cloacae, n = 3) CPE isolates and 79 carbapenemase-non-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CNE) isolates were included in this study. The CPE isolates harbored KPC-2 (n = 11), KPC-3 (n = 20), GES-5 (n = 5), VIM-2 (n = 2), IMP-1 (n = 1), NDM-1 (n = 2), or OXA-232 (n = 2). Of the 79 CNE isolates, eight K. pneumoniae isolates were resistant to ertapenem, imipenem, and meropenem, while the remaining 71 isolates were susceptible to the carbapenems. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were tested using the VITEK AST-N202 card, and the results were interpreted as positive when the isolates showed resistant or intermediate results. Modified-Hodge tests (MHTs) were performed using ertapenem or meropenem disks for the screening of carbapenemase production. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing were used to identify β-lactamase genes. Results Sensitivity of MHT with ertapenem and meropenem disks for the detection of carbapenemase was 81.4% (35/43) and 81.4% (35/43), respectively, and a combination with both antibiotic disks increased the sensitivity to 88.4% (38/43). Specificity of the MHT was 100% (79/79) for the CNE isolates. Sensitivity of ertapenem, imipenem, and meropenem as assessed by the VITEK AST-N202 card was 100% (43/43), 93% (40/43), and 95.3% (41/43), respectively. Specificity (89.8%, 71/79) of the test with each carbapenem was improved to 100% (71/71) when eight carbapenem-resistant CNE isolates were excluded from the testing. Conclusion The VITEK AST-N202 card showed high sensitivity for the detection of carbapenemases in

  2. AST: Activity-Security-Trust driven modeling of time varying networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Xu, Jiake; Liu, Yanheng; Deng, Weiwen

    2016-02-18

    Network modeling is a flexible mathematical structure that enables to identify statistical regularities and structural principles hidden in complex systems. The majority of recent driving forces in modeling complex networks are originated from activity, in which an activity potential of a time invariant function is introduced to identify agents' interactions and to construct an activity-driven model. However, the new-emerging network evolutions are already deeply coupled with not only the explicit factors (e.g. activity) but also the implicit considerations (e.g. security and trust), so more intrinsic driving forces behind should be integrated into the modeling of time varying networks. The agents undoubtedly seek to build a time-dependent trade-off among activity, security, and trust in generating a new connection to another. Thus, we reasonably propose the Activity-Security-Trust (AST) driven model through synthetically considering the explicit and implicit driving forces (e.g. activity, security, and trust) underlying the decision process. AST-driven model facilitates to more accurately capture highly dynamical network behaviors and figure out the complex evolution process, allowing a profound understanding of the effects of security and trust in driving network evolution, and improving the biases induced by only involving activity representations in analyzing the dynamical processes.

  3. AST: Activity-Security-Trust driven modeling of time varying networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Xu, Jiake; Liu, Yanheng; Deng, Weiwen

    2016-01-01

    Network modeling is a flexible mathematical structure that enables to identify statistical regularities and structural principles hidden in complex systems. The majority of recent driving forces in modeling complex networks are originated from activity, in which an activity potential of a time invariant function is introduced to identify agents’ interactions and to construct an activity-driven model. However, the new-emerging network evolutions are already deeply coupled with not only the explicit factors (e.g. activity) but also the implicit considerations (e.g. security and trust), so more intrinsic driving forces behind should be integrated into the modeling of time varying networks. The agents undoubtedly seek to build a time-dependent trade-off among activity, security, and trust in generating a new connection to another. Thus, we reasonably propose the Activity-Security-Trust (AST) driven model through synthetically considering the explicit and implicit driving forces (e.g. activity, security, and trust) underlying the decision process. AST-driven model facilitates to more accurately capture highly dynamical network behaviors and figure out the complex evolution process, allowing a profound understanding of the effects of security and trust in driving network evolution, and improving the biases induced by only involving activity representations in analyzing the dynamical processes. PMID:26888717

  4. AST: Activity-Security-Trust driven modeling of time varying networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Xu, Jiake; Liu, Yanheng; Deng, Weiwen

    2016-01-01

    Network modeling is a flexible mathematical structure that enables to identify statistical regularities and structural principles hidden in complex systems. The majority of recent driving forces in modeling complex networks are originated from activity, in which an activity potential of a time invariant function is introduced to identify agents' interactions and to construct an activity-driven model. However, the new-emerging network evolutions are already deeply coupled with not only the explicit factors (e.g. activity) but also the implicit considerations (e.g. security and trust), so more intrinsic driving forces behind should be integrated into the modeling of time varying networks. The agents undoubtedly seek to build a time-dependent trade-off among activity, security, and trust in generating a new connection to another. Thus, we reasonably propose the Activity-Security-Trust (AST) driven model through synthetically considering the explicit and implicit driving forces (e.g. activity, security, and trust) underlying the decision process. AST-driven model facilitates to more accurately capture highly dynamical network behaviors and figure out the complex evolution process, allowing a profound understanding of the effects of security and trust in driving network evolution, and improving the biases induced by only involving activity representations in analyzing the dynamical processes. PMID:26888717

  5. Alternaria alternata allergen, Alt a 1 - a unique, β-barrel protein dimer exclusively found in fungi

    PubMed Central

    Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Chapman, Martin D.; Osinski, Tomasz; Solberg, Robert; Demas, Matthew; Porebski, Przemyslaw J.; Majorek, Karolina A.; Pomés, Anna; Minor, Wladek

    2012-01-01

    Background Alternaria is one of the most common molds associated with allergic diseases and 80% of Alternaria-sensitive patients produce IgE antibodies to a major protein allergen, Alt a 1. The structure and function of Alt a 1 is unknown. Objective To obtain a high resolution structure of Alt a 1 by X-ray crystallography and to investigate structural relationships between Alt a 1 and other allergens and proteins reported in the Protein Data Bank. Methods X-ray crystallography was used to determine the structure of Alt a 1 using a custom-designed set of crystallization conditions. An initial Alt a 1 model was determined by the application of a Ta6Br122+ cluster and Single-wavelength Anomalous Diffraction. Bioinformatic analyses were used to compare the Alt a 1 sequence and structure with other proteins. Results Alt a 1 is a unique β-barrel comprising 11 β-strands and forms a ‘butterfly-like’ dimer linked by a single disulfide bond, with a large (1345Å2) dimer interface. Intramolecular disulfide bonds are conserved among Alt a 1 homologs. Currently, the Alt a 1 structure has no equivalent in the Protein Data Bank. Bioinformatics analyses suggest that the structure is found exclusively in fungi. Four previously reported putative IgE binding peptides have been located on the Alt a 1 structure. Conclusions Alt a 1 has a unique, dimeric β-barrel structure that appears to define a new protein family with unknown function found exclusively in fungi. The location of IgE antibody binding epitopes is in agreement with the structural analysis of Alt a 1.The Alt a 1 structure will allow mechanistic structure/function studies and immunologic studies directed towards new forms of immunotherapy for Alternaria-sensitive allergic patients. PMID:22664167

  6. Analysis of the survivability of the shuttle (ALT) fault-tolerant avionics system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An extension of the Complementary-Analytic-Simulative Technique (CAST) is presented which is applicable to the Shuttle Data Processing Subsystem (DPS). A two step process was used. The first step provides models, both analytic and simulative, for analysis of the Approach-Landing Test (ALT) configuration. The ALT modeling and analysis are presented. Since CAST had already been shown to be multicomputer systems, the emphasis was placed on extending the CAST concept so it is applicable to computer systems including the multiplicity of input and output devices found in a real-time control system application. The DPS mission-critical survivability for a six-hour mission was determined to be 0.999863 for the Shuttle ALT baseline configuration. Thus it can be said that for ALT, the survivability is adequate. However, the fact that orbiting missions of up to 30 days are planned illustrates the necessity of extending the ALT work to be applicable to OFT and actual mission scenarios. The above analysis led to the evaluation of three selected options which identified two areas of possible improvement. These improvements would result from use of a recovery technique which combines roll ahead with memory copy, and increased TACAN fault detectability.

  7. Telomeric DNA in ALT Cells Is Characterized by Free Telomeric Circles and Heterogeneous t-Loops

    PubMed Central

    Cesare, Anthony J.; Griffith, Jack D.

    2004-01-01

    A prerequisite for cellular immortalization in human cells is the elongation of telomeres through the upregulation of telomerase or by the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway. In this study, telomere structure in multiple ALT cell lines was examined by electron microscopy. Nuclei were isolated from GM847, GM847-Tert, and WI-38 VA13 ALT cells, psoralen photo-cross-linked in situ, and the telomere restriction fragments were purified by gel filtration chromatography. Examination of telomere-enriched fractions revealed frequent extrachromosomal circles, ranging from 0.7 to 56.8 kb. t-loops were also observed, with the loop portion ranging from 0.5 to 70.2 kb. The total length of the loop plus tail of the t-loops corresponded to the telomere restriction fragment length from the ALT cell lines as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The presence of extrachromosomal circles containing telomeric DNA was confirmed by two-dimensional pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. These results show that extrachromosomal telomeric DNA circles are present in ALT nuclei and suggest a roll-and-spread mechanism of telomere elongation similar to that seen in previous observations of multiple yeast species. Results presented here also indicate that expression of telomerase in GM847 cells does not affect t-loop or extrachromosomal circle formation. PMID:15509797

  8. Next challenges for the NEODyS and AstDyS data processing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardi, Fabrizio

    2015-08-01

    NEODyS and AstDyS are systems that provide asteroid dynamical data through dedicated web services. In particular, NEODyS is devoted to the Near Earth Objects orbital data computations and impact monitoring activities on a hourly basis, while AstDyS computes orbits and dynamical information (such as the asteroid family membership) of all numbered and multi-opposition asteroids on a monthly basis. Both systems are operational for more than 15 years.During the last years the major NEO surveys such as CSS, Pan-STARRS and so on and so forth increased the rate of discovery of new NEOs passing the threshold of 1000 discoveries/year. In particular, in 2014 there was a relative increase of about 42% wtrt 2013, mostly thanks to the full availability of the Pan-STARRS telescope for the NEO survey.In this framework is important to notice that the NEO population characterization is near to be complete for objects brighter that 18th, while the big majority of new discoveries are smaller and smaller objects.The major consequence is that we should expect a higher and higher number of discoveries of the so-called possible imminent impactors, that is small objects (from the Tunguska class and less) which are going to impact the Earth within the next days or hours.It is foreseen that in the next decade new dedicated surveys such as the American ATLAS and the European Fly-Eye telescopes will scan the sky just with the purpose of detecting such possible imminent impactors. The amount of data from the already operative surveys and the new ones will increase dramatically, while the time for processing such amount of data must be necessary shorten than in the past. Moreover, this huge quantity of astrometric data will increase also the knowledge of the dynamics of all known asteroids of the Solar System.In this panel we discuss the next decades new challenges for the NEODyS and AstDyS systems and for the NEO system as a whole. The major players of the NEO system will be the observers

  9. A Metabolomic Approach to Clarifying the Effect of AST-120 on 5/6 Nephrectomized Rats by Capillary Electrophoresis with Mass Spectrometry (CE-MS)

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Yasutoshi; Takeuchi, Yoichi; Kikuchi, Koichi; Mishima, Eikan; Yamamoto, Yasuaki; Suzuki, Chitose; Toyohara, Takafumi; Suzuki, Takehiro; Hozawa, Atsushi; Ito, Sadayoshi; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Abe, Takaaki

    2012-01-01

    The oral adsorbent AST-120 is composed of spherical carbon particles and has an adsorption ability for certain small-molecular-weight compounds that accumulate in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). So far, very few compounds are known to be adsorbed by AST-120 in vivo. To examine the effect of AST-120 in vivo, we comprehensively evaluated the plasma concentrations of 146 compounds (61 anions and 85 cations) in CKD model rats, with or without four weeks of treatment with AST-120. By capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometry, we identified 6 anions and 17 cations that were significantly decreased by AST-120 treatment. In contrast, we also identified 2 cations that were significantly increased by AST-120. Among them, 4 anions, apart from indoxyl sulfate and hippurate, and 19 cations were newly identified in this study. The plasma levels of N-acetyl-neuraminate, 4-pyridoxate, 4-oxopentanoate, glycine, γ-guanidinobutyrate, N-γ-ethylglutamine, allantoin, cytosine, 5-methylcytosine and imidazole-4-acetate were significantly increased in the CKD model compared with the sham-operated group, and were significantly decreased by AST-120 treatment. Therefore, these 10 compounds could be added as uremic compounds that indicate the effect of AST-120 treatment. This study provides useful information not only for identifying the indicators of AST-120, but also for clarifying changes in the metabolic profile by AST-120 treatment in the clinical setting. PMID:23202318

  10. Alt a 1 from Alternaria interacts with PR5 thaumatin-like proteins.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Casado, Cristina; Murua-García, Amaya; Garrido-Arandia, María; González-Melendi, Pablo; Sánchez-Monge, Rosa; Barber, Domingo; Pacios, Luis F; Díaz-Perales, Araceli

    2014-05-01

    Alt a 1 is a protein found in Alternaria alternata spores related to virulence and pathogenicity and considered to be responsible for chronic asthma in children. We found that spores of Alternaria inoculated on the outer surface of kiwifruits did not develop hyphae. Nevertheless, the expression of Alt a 1 gene was upregulated, and the protein was detected in the pulp where it co-localized with kiwi PR5. Pull-down assays demonstrated experimentally that the two proteins interact in such a way that Alt a 1 inhibits the enzymatic activity of PR5. These results are relevant not only for plant defense, but also for human health as patients with chronic asthma could suffer from an allergic reaction when they eat fruit contaminated with Alternaria.

  11. Characterization of (As.Te)1-xSex thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafiz, M. M.; Moharram, A. H.; Abu-Sehly, A. A.

    Optical absorption at room temperature and electrical resistivity at temperatures between 200 and 320 K for (As.Te)1-xSex thin films (where x=0.20, 0.23, 0.27, 0.32 and 0.44) have been studied. Increasing the Se content was found to increase the optical energy gap and the activation energy for conduction of the investigated films. The optical energy gap of the As0.40Te0.40Se0.20 films was increased up to 1.21 eV by increasing the film thickness to 120 nm, while thermal annealing at 480 K reduced it down to 0.83 eV. The decrease of the optical gap is discussed on the basis of amorphous-crystalline transformations.

  12. National blood requirement, serum ALT and hepatitis in Ethiopian blood donors.

    PubMed

    Zawde, D; Sisay, Y

    1991-10-01

    To appraise the national blood requirement and supply, and to determine the impact of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) screening on the blood supply, 407 random blood donor sera were tested for HBsAg, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and ALT activity. HBsAg and anti-HIV antibody were determined by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique using Hepanostica and Welcozyme kits, respectively. The Western Blot test was performed to confirm anti-HIV positive sera by the ELISA technique. ALT was determined by an automated photometer using ALAT kits and serologic testing for syphilis was done by the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test. The amount of blood required in Ethiopia and the actual supply was calculated on the basis of the number and type of hospital beds in Addis Abeba and the amount of blood transfusions in units per hospital bed. The results showed that the combined donor and unit rejection rate was 34.6%. The annual blood requirement was 7 units for emergency and 4 units for nonemergency beds. The national blood requirement in 1989 was 64,350-80,000 units, but the supply met only a third of the requirement. The mean and 2SD cut off ALT levels were 28 and 69 IU/L, respectively. ALT was elevated in 9.1% of HBsAg positive but apparently healthy donors, while HBsAg screening eliminated 25% of those with elevated ALT activity. This data suggests that there is a serious blood shortage in Ethiopia and that the currently supplied blood is relatively unsafe in terms of hepatitis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1659534

  13. ALTE and Feeding Intolerance as a Presentation of Double Aortic Arch

    PubMed Central

    Green Golan Mackintosh, Liza; Bynum, Francine

    2016-01-01

    Many children who are admitted to pediatric hospitals with the chief complaint of apparent life-threatening event (ALTE) are, in fact, well appearing by the time the inpatient medical team evaluates the patient. This presents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We describe a case of a six-month-old full-term female presenting with an ALTE and found to have a double aortic arch, a congenital anomaly that usually presents with a more progressive onset of symptoms such as chronic cough, positional stridor, and feeding difficulties. This case highlights the importance of maintaining a broad differential in a patient presenting with findings of tracheoesophageal pathology on clinical exam. PMID:27722004

  14. AltText: A Showcase of User Centred Design in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asjes, Kathleen

    In the information processing chain many documents are produced that are inaccessible to the reading impaired. The altText project aims to increase the accessibility of this content by: a) raising awareness among content providers about content adaption; b) allowing content providers to deliver content in a way that suits the needs of the information receiver; c) developing an online service that converts written text into several accessible formats (Braille, synthetic speech, large print or DaisyXML). The name of this service is the altText conversion portal. The paper argues that user centred innovation will be crucial to the success of this project.

  15. The ASCUS/LSIL Triage Study for Cervical Cancer (ALTS) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    ALTS was a clinical trial to find the best way to help women and their doctors decide what to do about the mildly abnormal and very common Pap test results known as ASCUS and LSIL. About three million women in the United States are diagnosed with ASCUS and LSIL each year. | ALTS was a clinical trial to find the best way to help women and their doctors decide what to do about the mildly abnormal and very common Pap test results known as ASCUS and LSIL.

  16. Distribution of C-type allatostatin (C-AST)-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Caroline H.; Christie, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    The C-type Allatostatins (C-ASTs) are a family of highly pleiotropic arthropod neuropeptides. In crustaceans, transcriptomic/mass spectral studies have identified C-ASTs in the nervous systems of many species; the cellular distributions of these peptides remain unknown. Here, the distribution of C-AST was mapped in the nervous system of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus, the major contributor to the North Atlantic’s zooplanktonic biomass; C-AST-immunopositive neurons were identified in the protocerebrum, in several peripheral ganglia associated with feeding appendages, and in the ganglia controlling the swimming legs, with immunopositive axons present throughout the ventral nerve cord. In addition, axons innervating the dorsal longitudinal and ventral longitudinal muscles of the body wall of the metasome were labeled by the C-AST antibody. While the distribution of C-AST-like immunoreactivity was similar between sexes, several differences were noted, i.e. two pair of somata located at the deutocerebral/tritocerbral border in males and immunopositive fibers that surround the genital opening in females. To place the C-AST-like labeling into context with those of several previously mapped peptides, i.e. A-type allatostatin (A-AST) and tachykinin-related peptide (TRP), we conducted double-labeling studies; the C-AST-like immunopositive neurons appear distinct from those expressing either A-AST or TRP (and through extrapolation, pigment dispersing hormone). Collectively, our data represent the first mapping of C-AST in crustacean neural tissue, show that sex-specific differences in the distribution of C-AST exist in the C. finmarchicus CNS, and suggest that the peptide may be involved in the modulation of both feeding and postural control/locomotion. PMID:20338176

  17. The Basis of Aluminum Tolerance Encoded by the Alt3 Locus of Rye

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity, affecting around half of the world’s arable land, severely hinders the ability of crop plants to cope with drought and nutrient stresses by restricting root growth and function. Among the cultivated cereals, rye is the most Al tolerant. At the Alt3 Al tolerance locus on rye ...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  1. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  3. lambda altSF: a phage variant that acquired the ability to substitute specific sets of genes at high frequency.

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, D; Tomich, P; Parsons, C; Olson, E; Deans, R; Flamm, E

    1981-01-01

    We report the isolation of lambda altSF, a variant of Escherichia coli phage lambda that substitutes sets of genes at high frequency. Two forms of the variant phage have been studied: lambda altSF lambda, which exhibits the immunity (repressor recognition) of phage lambda, and lambda altSF22, which exhibits the immunity of Salmonella phage P22. Lysates made from single plaques of lambda altSF lambda contain 10-30% phage of the P22 form. Similarly, lysates from single plaques of lambda altSF22 contain as much as 1% phage of the lambda form. Heteroduplex analyses reveal the following features of the lambda altSF chromosomes: (i) each form has the immunity genes appropriate to its immune phenotype, (ii) the substituted segments include genes involved in regulation and replication, and (iii) the alt phages have unusual additions and substitutions of DNA not normally found associated with either immunity region. In the case of lambda altSF lambda, there is a small insertion in the region of the cI gene. Because revertants that lose this inserted DNA concomitantly lose the ability to substitute, we conclude that the insertion plays a role in the substitution process. In the case of change from lambda altSF lambda to lambda altSF22, the substituting P22 genes are derived from the E. coli host. We have identified a set of Salmonella phage P22 genes in a standard nonlysogenic strain of E. coli K-12 that is apparently carried in a silent form. The reason for this lack of expression is not obvious, because this P22 material includes structural genes and associated promoters and is potentially active. When this set of genes substitutes for the analogous set of genetic material on the genome of lambda altSF lambda, the P22 genes are expressed in a normal manner. Images PMID:6454136

  4. Exact partition functions for the Ω-deformed {N}={2}^{ast } SU(2) gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beccaria, Matteo; Macorini, Guido

    2016-07-01

    We study the low energy effective action of the Ω-deformed {N}={2}^{ast } SU(2) gauge theory. It depends on the deformation parameters ɛ 1, ɛ 2, the scalar field expectation value a, and the hypermultiplet mass m. We explore the plane (m/ɛ_1,ɛ_2/ɛ_1) looking for special features in the multi-instanton contributions to the prepotential, motivated by what happens in the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit ɛ 2 → 0. We propose a simple condition on the structure of poles of the k-instanton prepotential and show that it is admissible at a finite set of points in the above plane. At these special points, the prepotential has poles at fixed positions independent on the instanton number. Besides and remarkably, both the instanton partition function and the full prepotential, including the perturbative contribution, may be given in closed form as functions of the scalar expectation value a and the modular parameter q appearing in special combinations of Eisenstein series and Dedekind η function. As a byproduct, the modular anomaly equation can be tested at all orders at these points. We discuss these special features from the point of view of the AGT correspondence and provide explicit toroidal 1-blocks in non-trivial closed form. The full list of solutions with 1, 2, 3, and 4 poles is determined and described in details.

  5. Test and Commissioning of the AST3-1 Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Wang, Daxing

    2013-01-01

    The first of three Antarctic Survey Telescopes (AST3-1), a 50/68cm Schmidt-like equatorial-mount telescope, is the first trackable Chinese telescope operating on the Antarctic plateau. It was installed at Dome A (80°22', 77°21'E, 4,093m), the highest place on the Antarctic plateau, in 2012. The telescope is unmanned during night-time operations through the Austral winter. The telescope optics and mechanics, as well as the motors and position sensors, are exposed to a harsh environment. The mechanics is enclosed with a foldable tent-like dome to prevent snow, diamond dust and ice. While the control cabinet containing drive boxes, circuit board boxes, power converters and the Telescope Control Computer (TCC) is located inside the warm instrumental module. In about 15 weeks remote testing and commissioning, from January 24 when the expedition team left there to May 8, when the communication failed, we obtained images with the best FWHM of less than 2''. We also recorded the telescope movement performance and fine-tuned the dynamic properties of the telescope control system. Some experiences and lessons will be disscussed in this paper.

  6. A European Roadmap for Research in Astrobiology - The AstRoMap Roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, F.; Walter, N.; Horneck, G.; Muller, C.; Rettberg, P.; Capria, M.; Palomba, E.

    2015-10-01

    AstRoMap (Astrobiology Road Mapping activity-www.astromap-eu.org) is a collaborative project which will provide the European Planetary Science Community with a road map in astrobiology. The goals of the project have been: (i) to pose big questions related to astrobiology; and (ii) the identification of experiments, new technology and/or those space missions to be developed in future programs and which could answer those big questions. This collaborative infrastructure includes the organization of expert panels and international workshops in order to discuss about those big questions and the science objectives by the community to be addressed. The main deliverable will be a Roadmap document. The project is steered by a consortium of six European and national research institutes and associations: -­- Centro de Astrobiologica (INTACSIC), Spain -­- European Science Foundation, France -­- Association pour un Réseau Européen d'Exo/Astrobiology (EANA), France -­- B-USOC, Belgium -­- Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Germany -­- National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF), ItalyOrigin and evolution of planetary systems -­- Origin of organic compounds in space -­- Rock-water-carbon interactions, organic synthesis, and steps to life -­- Life and habitability on Earth and in Space -­- -­- Biosignatures as facilitating life detection The key topics will focus on a limited number of strategic scientific objectives to be addressed in the next 20 years by European astrobiologists, and suggest research activities for future development.

  7. Mre11 and Blm-Dependent Formation of ALT-Like Telomeres in Ku-Deficient Ustilago maydis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Eun Young; Pérez-Martín, José; Holloman, William K; Lue, Neal F

    2015-10-01

    A subset of human cancer cells uses a specialized, aberrant recombination pathway known as ALT to maintain telomeres, which in these cells are characterized by complex aberrations including length heterogeneity, high levels of unpaired C-strand, and accumulation of extra-chromosomal telomere repeats (ECTR). These phenotypes have not been recapitulated in any standard budding or fission yeast mutant. We found that eliminating Ku70 or Ku80 in the yeast-like fungus Ustilago maydis results initially in all the characteristic telomere aberrations of ALT cancer cells, including C-circles, a highly specific marker of ALT. Subsequently the ku mutants experience permanent G2 cell cycle arrest, accompanied by loss of telomere repeats from chromosome ends and even more drastic accumulation of very short ECTRs (vsECTRs). The deletion of atr1 or chk1 rescued the lethality of the ku mutant, and "trapped" the telomere aberrations in the early ALT-like stage. Telomere abnormalities are telomerase-independent, but dramatically suppressed by deletion of mre11 or blm, suggesting major roles for these factors in the induction of the ALT pathway. In contrast, removal of other DNA damage response and repair factors such as Rad51 has disparate effects on the ALT phenotypes, suggesting that these factors process ALT intermediates or products. Notably, the antagonism of Ku and Mre11 in the induction of ALT is reminiscent of their roles in DSB resection, in which Blm is also known to play a key role. We suggest that an aberrant resection reaction may constitute an early trigger for ALT telomeres, and that the outcomes of ALT are distinct from DSB because of the unique telomere nucleoprotein structure.

  8. Suicide inactivation of rat liver aryl sulfotransferase IV (AST IV) by the sulfuric acid ester of N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene (NOH-AAF)

    SciTech Connect

    Ringer, D.P.; Norton, T.R.; Self, R.R. )

    1991-03-11

    Rat liver NOH-AAf sulfotransferase activity is mediated by AST IV and causes the bioactivation of NOH-AAF to a highly reactive, mutagenic sulfuric acid ester form which putatively has a role in inducing liver cancer. Unexpectedly, AAF has been found to decrease liver NOH-AAF sulfotransferase activity in dietary protocols used to induce hepatocarcinogenesis. The authors have thus examined reaction-product, suicide inactivation of AST IV as a possible mechanism for the loss in sulfotransferase activity. In initial experiments, purified AST IV was found to undergo a PAPS-dependent binding with ({sup 14}C)-NOH-AAF. Alkaline hydrolysis and C18-HPLC analysis of the AST IV:AAF conjugates revealed that linkage primarily involved cysteine and methionine residues of AST IV. Experiments testing the effect of pretreatment of AST IV with NOH-AAF upon subsequent assay of sulfotransferase activity, showed that there was a NOH-AAF and PAPS dependent loss in AST IV sulfotransferase activity. These results demonstrate the highly reactive, sulfuric acid ester of NOH-AAF can covalently link with AST IV causing suicide inactivation of the enzyme, and suggests that it deserves consideration as an in vivo mechanism for loss of NOH-AAF sulfotransferase activity.

  9. Astrobiology Road Mapping (AstRoMap) - A project within FP7 of the European Commission: First results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Gomez, Felipe; Capria, Maria Teresa; Palomba, Ernesto; Walter, Nicolas; Rettberg, Petra; Muller, Christian; Horneck, Gerda

    AstRoMap (Astrobiology and Planetary Exploration Road Mapping) is a funded project formulated in the 5th Call of the European Commission FP7 framework. The main objectives of the AstRoMap are: 1. Identify the main astrobiology issues to be addressed by Europe in the next decades in relation with space exploration 2. Identify potential mission concepts that would allow addressing these issues 3. Identify the technology developments required to enable these missions 4. Provide a prioritized roadmap integrating science and technology activities as well as ground-based approach 5. Map scientific knowledge related to astrobiology in Europe To reach those objectives, AstRoMap is executed within the following steps: 1. Community consultation. In order to map the European astrobiology landscape and to provide a collaborative networking platform for this community, the AstRoMap project hosts a database of scientists (European and beyond) interested in astrobiology and planetary exploration (see: http://www.astromap.eu/database.html). It reflects the demography and the research and teaching activities of the astrobiology community, as well as their professional profiles and involvement in astrobiology projects. Considering future aspects of astrobiology in Europe, the need for more astrobiology-dedicated funding programmes at the EU level, especially for cross-disciplinary groups, was stressed. This might eventually lead to the creation of a European laboratory of Astrobiology, or even of a European Astrobiology Institute. 2. Workshops organisation. On the basis of the feedbacks from the community consultation, the potential participants and interesting topics are being identified to take part in the following workshops: 1-. Origin of organic compounds, steps to life; 2. Physico-chemical boundary conditions for habitability 3. Biosignatures as facilitating life detection 4. Origin of the Solar system 3. Astrobiology road-mapping. Based on the results and major conclusions

  10. AltPSM contact hole application at DRAM 4xnm nodes with dry 193nm lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noelscher, Christoph; Henkel, Thomas; Jauzion-Graverolle, Franck; Hennig, Mario; Morgana, Nicolo; Schlief, Ralph; Moukara, Molela; Koehle, Roderick; Neubauer, Ralf

    2008-03-01

    To avoid expensive immersion lithography and to further use existing dry tools for critical contact layer lithography at 4Xnm DRAM nodes the application of altPSM is investigated and compared to attPSM. Simulations and experiments with several test masks showed that by use of altPSM with suitable 0°/180° coloring and assist placement 30nm smaller contacts can be resolved through pitch with sufficient process windows (PW). This holds for arrays of contacts with variable lengths through short and long side pitches. A further benefit is the lower mask error enhancement factor (MEEF). Nevertheless 3D mask errors (ME) consume benefits in the PW and the assist placement and coloring of the main features (MF) put some constraints on the chip design. An altPSM compatible 4Xnm full-chip layout was realized without loss of chip area. Mask making showed very convincing results with respect to CDU, etch depth uniformity and defectiveness. The printed intra-field CD uniformity was comparable to attPSM despite the smaller target CDs. Room for improvement is identified in OPC accuracy and in automatic assist placement and sizing.

  11. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) v. 2.0

    2010-02-24

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, energy balances, and greenhouse gas emissions for several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks, biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL), coal (coal to liquid, or CTL), and coal with biomass (CBTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses onmore » capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion efficiency, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO2 taxes, and plant capacity factor. AltSim also includes policy tools to allow for consideration of greenhouse gas offset policies, production tax credits, and land use requirements. The main goal is to allow interested stakeholders to understand the complicated economic and environmental tradeoffs associated with the various options. The software is designed to address policy questions related to the economic competitiveness of technologies under different economic and technical assumptions. This model will be used to inform policy makers and staff about the economic and environmental tradeoffs associated with various fuel alternatives.« less

  12. Twist-3 fragmentation effects for ALT in light hadron production from proton-proton collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Y.; Pitonyak, D.; Takagi, Y.; Yoshida, S.

    2016-01-01

    We compute the contribution from the twist-3 fragmentation function for light hadron production in collisions between transversely and longitudinally polarized protons, i.e., p↑ p → → h X, which can cause a double-spin asymmetry (DSA) ALT. This is a naïve T-even twist-3 observable that we analyze in collinear factorization using both Feynman gauge and lightcone gauge as well as give a general proof of color gauge invariance. So far only twist-3 effects in the transversely polarized proton have been studied for ALT in p↑ p → → h X. However, there are indications that the naïve T-odd transverse single-spin asymmetry (SSA) AN in p↑ p → h X is dominated not by such distribution effects but rather by a fragmentation mechanism. Therefore, one may expect similarly that the fragmentation contribution is important for ALT. Given possible plans at RHIC to measure this observable, it is timely to provide a calculation of this term.

  13. ALT-I pump limiter experiments with ICRF heating on TEXTOR. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, W.K.; Goebel, D.M.; Conn, R.W.; Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H.; Thomas, G.J.

    1986-05-01

    The ALT-I (Advanced Limiter Test-I) was installed on TEXTOR to benchmark the ability of a pump limiter as an efficient particle collector and to determine the physics of pump limiter operation. Experiments continue to show its capability of removing particles from the plasma edge under different operating conditions. In this paper we report first experimental results using ALT-I in conjunction with high power ICRF heating. The particle removal rate increases as the edge flux and density increase during the ICRF pulse. For a head geometry that collects flux from both electron and ion drift sides, the plasma temperature rise is asymmetric with electron temperature on the electron side increasing more than on the ion side during the ICRF pulse. When ALT-I is the major limiter, the particle fluxes on both sides increase by about the same factor and the particle flux on the ion side is always larger, by a factor of 1.5 to 2 than on the electron side during both ohmic and ICRF periods. The degradation of particle confinement inferred from Langmuir probe measurement is more than a factor of two at a maximum achieved power of 2 MW.

  14. Spermine-alt-poly(ethylene glycol) polyspermine as a safe and efficient aerosol gene carrier for lung cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, You-Kyoung; Cho, Chong-Su; Cho, Myung-Haing; Jiang, Hu-Lin

    2014-07-01

    The clinical success of gene therapy critically depends upon the safety and efficiency of delivery system used. Although polyethylenimine (PEI) has been commonly used as an efficient cationic polymeric gene carrier due to its high transfection efficiency, its cytotoxicity and nondegradability limit the polymer's therapeutic applications in clinical trials. In this study, biocompatible polyspermine based on spermine (SPE) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) diacrylate (SPE-alt-PEG) was synthesized using a Michael-type addition reaction, and its ability as an alternative gene carrier for lung cancer therapy was evaluated. SPE-alt-PEG polyspermine was complexed with plasmid DNA, and the resulting complexes were characterized by particle size and surface charge by dynamic light scattering, complex formation and DNA protection ability by gel retardation, and complex shape by energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy. The SPE-alt-PEG copolymer showed low cytotoxicity, and SPE-alt-PEG/DNA complexes showed efficacious transfection efficiency compared with 25 kDa PEI (PEI 25K). Also SPE-alt-PEG/GFP complexes were efficiently transferred into the lungs after aerosol administration without toxicity, and delivery of Pdcd4 gene as a therapeutic gene with SPE-alt-PEG polyspermine greatly reduced tumor size as well as tumor numbers in K-ras(LA1) lung cancer model mice compared relative to the effect observed for PEI 25K. These results suggest that SPE-alt-PEG has potential as a gene carrier for lung cancer gene therapy. PMID:23929634

  15. Conceptual study of an advanced supersonic technology transport (AST-107) for transpacific range using low-bypass-ratio turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, S. J., Jr.; Foss, W. E., Jr.; Neubauer, M. J., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    An advanced supersonic technology configuration concept designated the AST-107, using a low bypass ratio turbofan engine, is described and analyzed. The aircraft had provisions for 273 passengers arranged five abreast. The cruise Mach number was 2.62. The mission range for the AST-107 was 8.48 Mm (4576 n.mi.) and an average lift drag ratio of 9.15 during cruise was achieved. The available lateral control was not sufficient for the required 15.4 m/s (30 kt) crosswind landing condition, and a crosswind landing gear or a significant reduction in dihedral effect would be necessary to meet this requirement. The lowest computed noise levels, including a mechanical suppressor noise reduction of 3 EPNdB at the flyover and sideline monitoring stations, were 110.3 EPNdB (sideline noise), 113.1 EPNdB (centerline noise) and 110.5 EPNdB (approach noise).

  16. Continuous Reduction of Protein-Bound Uraemic Toxins with Improved Oxidative Stress by Using the Oral Charcoal Adsorbent AST-120 in Haemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Suguru; Kazama, Junichiro J; Omori, Kentaro; Matsuo, Koji; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Kawamura, Kazuko; Matsuto, Takayuki; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Maruyama, Toru; Narita, Ichiei

    2015-09-23

    Accumulation of protein-bound uraemic toxins (PBUTs) is one of the reasons for the development of uraemia-related complications including cardiovascular disease; however, conventional haemodialysis is limited in its ability to remove PBUTs. We aimed to examine whether the oral charcoal adsorbent AST-120 has an additive effect on PBUT removal in haemodialysis patients. During the 4-week study, anuric patients undergoing haemodialysis received AST-120 (6 g/day) in the last 2 weeks (n = 10) or the first 2 weeks (n = 10). Serum levels of total and free PBUTs such as indoxyl sulfate, p-cresyl sulfate, and phenyl sulfate at the pre- and postdialysis sessions were measured before and after AST-120 use and after discontinuation. Levels of the oxidative stress markers oxidized albumin and 8-isoprostane were also measured. AST-120 use induced dramatic reduction of indoxyl sulfate (total, 45.7% [33.2-50.5%]; free, 70.4% [44.8-79.8%]), p-cresyl sulfate (total, 31.1% [25.0-48.0%]; free, 63.5% [49.3-70.9%]), and phenyl sulfate (free, 50.6% [32.3-71.2%]) levels; however, this effect disappeared after the discontinuation of AST-120. AST-120 use also induced substantial reduction of the oxidized albumin and 8-isoprostane levels. In conclusion, oral administration of AST-120 had additive effects on the continuous reduction of some PBUTs in anuric patients undergoing haemodialysis.

  17. Outcomes following pharyngolaryngectomy reconstruction with the anterolateral thigh (ALT) free flap.

    PubMed

    Ho, M W; Houghton, L; Gillmartin, E; Jackson, S R; Lancaster, J; Jones, T M; Blackburn, T K; Homer, J J; Loughran, S; Ascott, F M; Shaw, R J

    2012-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed 15 cases of pharyngolaryngectomy for advanced laryngeal carcinoma reconstructed with the anterolateral thigh (ALT) free flap. Thirteen patients had primary surgery and adjuvant treatment (radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy), and two had salvage surgery. Thirteen had stage III or IV disease, and eight had cervical nodal extracapsular spread. In this series all the flaps survived, and at median follow-up of 14.5 months (range 3.7-31.2), 12 of the 15 patients were alive. One patient developed a chronic pharyngocutaneous fistula, and five required repeat balloon dilatations for late pharyngeal strictures. Six patients enjoyed restoration of full oral intake, seven were able to take a soft diet, and two were dependent on feeding by percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy. Four patients developed adequate tracheo-oesophageal speech, and one successfully developed oesophageal speech. In this series many of the surgical problems associated with pharyngolaryngectomy reconstruction were addressed successfully by the ALT, but late dysphagia remained troublesome in an appreciable minority. While adjuvant radiotherapy could have contributed to this, future innovations will focus on the reduction of late strictures. PMID:21055852

  18. The advanced glycation end product-lowering agent ALT-711 is a low-affinity inhibitor of thiamine diphosphokinase.

    PubMed

    Krautwald, Martina; Leech, Dale; Horne, Stacey; Steele, Megan L; Forbes, Josephine; Rahmadi, Anton; Griffith, Renate; Münch, Gerald

    2011-08-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are involved in age-related diseases, including the complications of diabetes and chronic renal impairment with arterial stiffening. Alagebrium chloride (ALT-711) is an AGE-lowering agent with beneficial effects in renal structural and functional parameters in diabetes, decreased diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis, and age-related myocardial stiffening. ALT-711 exhibits a structural homology to thiamine, and it was suggested to interfere with thiamine metabolism. Thiamine is converted to thiamine diphosphate (TDP) by thiamine diphosphokinase (TDPK). TDP is a cofactor for pyruvate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and transketolase. A decreased activity of these enzymes due to TDP deficiency results in disorders such as beriberi and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Therefore, we investigated whether ALT-711 is an inhibitor of TDPK. Molecular modeling studies showed that ALT-711 fits into the thiamine-binding pocket of TDPK, and there are three interactions between the thiazolium ring and the enzyme, as well as parallel stacking between the phenyl ring and the indole ring of Trp222B. Enzyme kinetic experiments also showed that ALT-711 dose-dependently decreased TDPK activity with K(i)s, calculated by different experiments and fitting models ranging from 0.88 to 1.09 mM. Fitting of the kinetic data favored mixed-mode inhibition with a major role for competitive inhibition. In summary, our results suggest that ALT-711 is a low-affinity inhibitor of TDPK, but is unlikely to interfere with thiamine metabolism at therapeutic concentrations. However, when new AGE-crosslink breakers based on thiamine are designed, care should be taken that they do not act as more potent competitive inhibitors than ALT-711. PMID:21612515

  19. Ephedra alte (Joint Pine): An Invasive, Problematic Weedy Species in Forestry and Fruit Tree Orchards in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Qasem, Jamal R.

    2012-01-01

    A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008–2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked. PMID:22645486

  20. Twist-3 effect from the longitudinally polarized proton for ALT in hadron production from pp collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Yuji; Pitonyak, Daniel; Yoshida, Shinsuke

    2016-08-01

    We compute the contribution from the longitudinally polarized proton to the twist-3 double-spin asymmetry ALT in inclusive (light) hadron production from proton-proton collisions, i.e., p↑ p → → h X. We show that using the relevant QCD equation-of-motion relation and Lorentz invariance relation allows one to eliminate the twist-3 quark-gluon correlator (associated with the longitudinally polarized proton) in favor of one-variable twist-3 quark distributions and the (twist-2) transversity parton density. Including this result with the twist-3 pieces associated with the transversely polarized proton and unpolarized final-state hadron (which have already been calculated in the literature), we now have the complete leading-order cross section for this process.

  1. Progress report on pump limiter developments for the TEXTOR tokamak: ALT-I

    SciTech Connect

    Pontau, A.E.; Campbell, G.A.; Doyle, B.L.; Finken, F.H.; Gauster, W.B.; Guthrie, S.E.; Malinowski, M.E.; Ver Berkmoes, A.A.; Watson, R.D.; Whitley, J.B.

    1984-09-01

    A collaborative program is underway to field a comprehensive pump limiter experimental program on TEXTOR: Advanced Limiter Test-I (ALT-I). Either of two interchangeable limiter modules may be attached to an insertion/rotation mechanism to direct particles to the about1 m/sup 3/ pumping chamber. Pumping is provided primarily by a solid getter assembly at about20,000 1/sec. Variation of geometric dimensions and gas puffing in the modules will allow the study of plasma and neutral interaction in differing recycle regimes. Multiple diagnostic systems are incorporated into the pump limiter design for use in conjunction with TEXTOR plasma diagnostics. Initial experiments are scheduled for December 1983.

  2. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process densifying porous silicon-carbide bodies

    DOEpatents

    Barton, Thomas J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina; Pang, Yi

    1994-05-17

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R.sup.1)(R.sup.2)Si--C.tbd.C--(R.sup.3)(R.sup.4)Si--CH=CH--].sub.n-- , wherein n.gtoreq.2; and each R.sup.1, R.sup.2, R.sup.3, and R.sup.4 is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  3. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process densifying porous silicon-carbide bodies

    DOEpatents

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.; Pang, Y.

    1994-05-17

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R[sup 1])(R[sup 2])Si--C[triple bond]C-(R[sup 3])(R[sup 4])Si--CH[double bond]CH--][sub n]--, wherein n[>=]2; and each R[sup 1], R[sup 2], R[sup 3], and R[sup 4] is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  4. Orthologous Allergens and Diagnostic Utility of Major Allergen Alt a 1

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Antonio; Alcover, Javier; Rodríguez, David; Palacios, Ricardo; Martínez-Naves, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Hypersensitivity to fungi is associated with rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma. For some fungi, such as Alternaria alternata (A. alternata), the symptoms of asthma are persistent, increasing disease severity and the risk of fatal outcomes. There are a large number of species of fungi but knowledge of them remains limited. This, together with the difficulties in obtaining adequate standardized extracts, means that there remain significant challenges in the diagnosis and immunotherapy of allergy associated with fungi. The type of indoor fungi related to asthma/allergy varies according to geographic, climatic, and seasonal factors, making their study difficult. The aim of this study was to determine hypersensitivity to indoor fungi in a population from Cuenca, Spain. Methods Thirty-five patients with symptoms compatible with rhinitis or asthma who showed clear worsening of their symptoms in their homes or workplace were included. In vivo and in vitro tests were made with a battery of fungal allergens, including the species isolated in the home or workplace. Results Ulocladium botrytis (U. botrytis) and A. alternata were the most representative species as a source of home sensitization. These species showed very high concordance in skin tests, specific IgE, and histamine release. The allergen Alt a 1, which was recognized in all patients, was detected in A. alternata, U. botrytis, and Stemphylium botryosum (S. botryosum). Conclusions U. botrytis and A. alternata were the most representative species as a source of home sensitization. Alt a 1 was recognized in all patients and may be considered a non-species-specific allergen that could be used as a diagnostic source of sensitization to some species of the Pleosporaceae family. PMID:27334781

  5. Evaluation of the Effect of Passive Smoking on Lactoferrin and AST on 12 - 15 Years Old Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jenabian, Niloofar; Pouramir, Mahdi; Motallebnejad, Mina; Bamdadian, Jale; Rahimi-Rad, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Passive smokers are involuntarily exposed to cigarette or tobacco smoke and as known, inhalation of environmental tobacco smoke is a serious threat. There is little information about the effect of passive smoking on salivary markers and periodontal indices. Objectives: This study investigated the effect of passive smoking on lactoferrin and AST in 12 - 15 years old children and adolescents. Patients and Methods: This case-control analytic correlation type study with no-convenience random sampling method was performed on 160 children aged 12 - 15 who had smokers in their families. The eligible children were divided into two equal groups; 80 cot+ children as case group and 80 cot– children as control group, matched according to age, sex and plaque index. Plaque index was obtained from all subjects. 2 cc unstimulated salivary samples were collected by spitting method. The collected specimens were tested by lactoferrin and AST kits in biochemistry were measured on the day of sampling laboratory. Gingival index Loe and Silness (GI) and Probing Pocket Depth (PPD). Results: Mean and Standard Deviation of PPD and GI was 2.01 ± 0.077 and 1.53 ± 0.055 in experimental group and 1.93 ± 0.073 and 1.49 ± 0.046 in control group respectively (P < 0.001). The Mean and Standard Deviation parameters of lactoferrin and AST, in the experimental group was 38.66 ± 25.15 and 13.45 ± 6.33 and in the control group 10.18 ± 6.82 and 6.53 ± 2.65 group, respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Passive smoking can be effective on inflammatory process of periodontal and salivary biomarkers related to inflammation. Lactoferrin was 11 - 104 in case group and 0.5 - 38 in control group. Aspartat aminotransferase in case group was 2.64 - 30.43 and in control group it was 2.16 - 12.02. PMID:26495095

  6. ALT1, a Snf2 family chromatin remodeling ATPase, negatively regulates alkaline tolerance through enhanced defense against oxidative stress in rice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mingxin; Wang, Ruci; Wang, Juan; Hua, Kai; Wang, Yueming; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Yao, Shanguo

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline salt stress adversely affects rice growth, productivity and grain quality. However, the mechanism underlying this process remains elusive. We characterized here an alkaline tolerant mutant, alt1 in rice. Map-based cloning revealed that alt1 harbors a mutation in a chromatin remodeling ATPase gene. ALT1-RNAi transgenic plants under different genetic background mimicked the alt1 phenotype, exhibiting tolerance to alkaline stress in a transcript dosage-dependent manner. The predicted ALT1 protein belonged to the Ris1 subgroup of the Snf2 family and was localized in the nucleus, and transcription of ALT1 was transiently suppressed after alkaline treatment. Although the absorption of several metal ions maintained well in the mutant under alkaline stress, expression level of the genes involved in metal ions homeostasis was not altered in the alt1 mutant. Classification of differentially expressed abiotic stress related genes, as revealed by microarray analysis, found that the majority (50/78) were involved in ROS production, ROS scavenging, and DNA repair. This finding was further confirmed by that alt1 exhibited lower levels of H2O2 under alkaline stress and tolerance to methyl viologen treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that ALT1 negatively functions in alkaline tolerance mainly through the defense against oxidative damage, and provide a potential two-step strategy for improving the tolerance of rice plants to alkaline stress. PMID:25473841

  7. PhyloToAST: Bioinformatics tools for species-level analysis and visualization of complex microbial datasets.

    PubMed

    Dabdoub, Shareef M; Fellows, Megan L; Paropkari, Akshay D; Mason, Matthew R; Huja, Sarandeep S; Tsigarida, Alexandra A; Kumar, Purnima S

    2016-01-01

    The 16S rRNA gene is widely used for taxonomic profiling of microbial ecosystems; and recent advances in sequencing chemistry have allowed extremely large numbers of sequences to be generated from minimal amounts of biological samples. Analysis speed and resolution of data to species-level taxa are two important factors in large-scale explorations of complex microbiomes using 16S sequencing. We present here new software, Phylogenetic Tools for Analysis of Species-level Taxa (PhyloToAST), that completely integrates with the QIIME pipeline to improve analysis speed, reduce primer bias (requiring two sequencing primers), enhance species-level analysis, and add new visualization tools. The code is free and open source, and can be accessed at http://phylotoast.org. PMID:27357721

  8. Optics characterization of a 900-GHz HEB receiver for the ASTE telescope: design, measurement and tolerance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, A.; Soma, T.; Shiino, T.; Kaneko, K.; Uzawa, Y.; Yamamoto, S.

    2014-09-01

    The optics of a 900-GHz HEB receiver for the ASTE telescope have been analyzed by quasi-optical analysis and Physical Optics simulations in combination with beam pattern measurements. The disagreement between simulations and measurements has motivated an extensive campaign of Monte Carlo analyses to find out the cause of such a difference in results. Monte Carlo analyses have considered fabrication and assembly tolerances in all components in the RF chain, as well as some non-expected fabrication errors. This strategy has allowed determining the defective component. In short, the use of all available analyses techniques together with measurements has allowed singling out an underperforming element in an astronomical receiver. The change of this component will improve the optical efficiency and ease astronomical observations. These ideas can be of interest for any quasi-optical receiver at THz frequencies.

  9. PhyloToAST: Bioinformatics tools for species-level analysis and visualization of complex microbial datasets

    PubMed Central

    Dabdoub, Shareef M.; Fellows, Megan L.; Paropkari, Akshay D.; Mason, Matthew R.; Huja, Sarandeep S.; Tsigarida, Alexandra A.; Kumar, Purnima S.

    2016-01-01

    The 16S rRNA gene is widely used for taxonomic profiling of microbial ecosystems; and recent advances in sequencing chemistry have allowed extremely large numbers of sequences to be generated from minimal amounts of biological samples. Analysis speed and resolution of data to species-level taxa are two important factors in large-scale explorations of complex microbiomes using 16S sequencing. We present here new software, Phylogenetic Tools for Analysis of Species-level Taxa (PhyloToAST), that completely integrates with the QIIME pipeline to improve analysis speed, reduce primer bias (requiring two sequencing primers), enhance species-level analysis, and add new visualization tools. The code is free and open source, and can be accessed at http://phylotoast.org. PMID:27357721

  10. AST to Platelet Index Correlates with Hepatic Cirrhosis But Not with Fibrosis in Pediatric Patients with Intestinal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Juan J; Gura, Kathleen M.; Roda, Juliamna; Perez-Atayde, Antonio R.; Duggan, Christopher; Jaksic, Tom; Lo, Clifford W.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with Intestinal failure (IF) require parenteral nutrition (PN) support to obtain enough nutrients to sustain growth. long-term PN use is associated with significant liver damage. Objective To analyze the utility of a non-invasive test, the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to platelet ratio index (APRI), in the diagnosis of liver disease in pediatric patients with IF. Methods Medical records of all Boston Children’s Hospital patients who received PN and underwent a liver biopsy from January 2006 until November 2010 were reviewed. Patients with a clinical diagnosis with IF were selected. APRI was calculated as follows (AST (U/L)/ upper normal limit) × 100/ platelets (109/L). Presence of fibrosis and cirrhosis was estimated using the METAVIR score in liver biopsies. Results 62 liver biopsies from 48 patients (22 female) were studied. Mean APRI values in the different METAVIR categories (0-1; 2-3; 4) were: 1.80, 1.17, and 4.24 respectively (ANOVA; P=0.053; Bonferroni test for cirrhosis versus fibrosis P=0.048). APRI could significantly predict cirrhosis (OR 1.2.; 95% CI 1.001-1.43) but not significant fibrosis (METAVIR 2-3, OR 1.00; 95% CI =0.86-1.18). Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for cirrhosis was 0.67 (95% CI= 0.45-0.89; p=0.13). Conclusion APRI, a non invasive, easy to obtain bedside test significantly predicts cirrhosis but not fibrosis in pediatric patients with IFALD. As the clinicians need a non invasive test to differentiate among different stages of liver fibrosis rather than differentiating cirrhosis from normal, we cannot recommend the use of this test in pediatric patients with IFALD for this purpose. PMID:23666459

  11. Open-loop signal tracking of AltBOC-Modulated GNSS signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creekmore, Paul F.

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) such as the United States' GPS and Europe's upcoming Galileo system provide unique signals-of-opportunity for atmospheric sounding. When a planetary atmosphere occults a radio-frequency (RF) signal, its physical properties cause measurable changes in the signal. Therefore, at any time we can track a GNSS signal that is propagating along a path that intersects the atmosphere, we can measure various properties of the atmosphere along that path. Researchers have successfully demonstrated this radio occultation (RO) technique with GPS signals, and the National Research Council has recommended widespread deployment of RO receivers on future Earth-observing satellites. In the coming years, Europe's new Galileo navigation system's deployment will double the number of GNSS satellites in orbit. An RO receiver that can track both GPS and Galileo signals will be able to observe roughly twice as many RO events, doubling its measurement density in space and time for minimal additional cost. Additionally, open-loop (OL) signal tracking has proven to be an effective method for tracking occulted signals through low altitudes where strong refractivity gradients often overwhelm traditional closed-loop (CL) trackers. The OL method predicts the character of the signal ahead of time and measures the prediction error upon arrival of the actual signal. In contrast, the CL method relies on error feedback to fully characterize the signal in real time. This thesis provides an overview of the Galileo GNSS and its AltBOC-modulated E5 signal, introduces and compares several AltBOC tracking discriminators and develops two prototype RO receivers for E5 employing an open-loop signal tracking approach to decrease the minimum altitude at which we can observe RO events. The Galileo constellation does not yet exist, so it is not possible to test a fully representative RO receiver. To provide initial validation of the E5 OL tracking algorithms, these

  12. An ALMT1 gene cluster controlling aluminium (aluminum) tolerance at the Alt4 locus of rye (Secale cereale L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminium toxicity is a major problem in agriculture worldwide. Among the cultivated triticeae, rye (Secale cereale L.) is one of the most Al-tolerant and represents an important potential source of Al-tolerance for improvement of wheat. The Alt4 Al-tolerance locus of rye contains a cluster of genes...

  13. Isolation and expression of a cDNA clone encoding an Alternaria alternata Alt a 1 subunit.

    PubMed

    De Vouge, M W; Thaker, A J; Curran, I H; Zhang, L; Muradia, G; Rode, H; Vijay, H M

    1996-12-01

    Alternaria alternata is recognized as an important source of fungal aeroallergens. Alt a 1, the major allergen of this mold, is a dimer of disulfide-linked subunits that migrate in SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions at apparent M(r)s of 14,500 and 16,000. IgE antibodies to this protein are present in the sera of >90% of A. alternata-sensitive individuals. Previous studies from this laboratory showed that the N-termini twenty amino acids of the purified subunits are nearly identical. We now report the isolation of clones from an A. alternata (strain 34-016) cDNA library constructed in lambda(gt)11, using rabbit IgG antiserum against partially purified Alt a 1. One of nineteen clones selected from screens totalling 305,000 pfu (rb51) was sequenced, and determined to harbor an insert of 660 bp. An in-frame open reading frame within the cloned insert encodes a peptide of M(r) 16,960 that bears no significant homology to known allergens or proteins. The size of the rb51 transcript was determined to be approximately 0.7 kb by Northern analysis of A. alternata total RNA. The largely hydrophobic N-terminal region of the peptide contains an alpha-helical domain and other features characteristic of membrane targeting or secretory signals. The peptide sequence downstream of this region matches previously sequenced Alt a 1 N-terminal from two independent sources at 17 of 20, and 24 of 26 positions. Recombinant Alt a 1 expressed as a secreted protein in Pichia pastoris exists as a dimer in conditioned medium, as shown by immunoblotting under nonreducing conditions. Recombinant Alt a 1, like the natural allergen in A. alternata extracts, is also reactive with serum IgE from A. alternata-sensitive individuals.

  14. Flexible Polyimide Aerogel Cross-linked by Poly(maleic Anhydride-alt-alkylene)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Haiquan; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Wilkewitz, Brittany Marie

    2014-01-01

    Aerogels are potential materials for aerospace applications due to their lower thermal conductivity, lighter weight, and low dielectric constant. However, silica aerogels are restricted due to their inherent fragility, hygroscopic nature, and poor mechanical properties, especially in extreme aerospace environments. In order to fit the needs of aerospace applications, developing new thermal insulation materials that are flexible, and moisture resistant is needed. To this end, we fabricated a series of polyimide aerogels crosslinked with different poly(maleic anhydride-alt-alkylene)s as seen in Scheme 1. The polyimide oligomers were made with 3,3,4,4-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA), and different diamines or diamine combinations. The resulting aerogels have low density (0.06 gcm3 to 0.16 gcm3) and high surface area (240-440 m2g). The effect of the different backbone structures on density, shrinkage, porosity, surface area, mechanical properties, moisture resistance and thermal properties will be discussed. These novel polyalkylene-imide aerogels may be potential candidates for applications such as space suit insulation for planetary surface missions, insulation for inflatable structures for habitats, inflatable aerodynamic decelerators for entry, descent and landing (EDL) operations, and cryotank insulation for advance space propulsion systems. Scheme 1. Network of polyimide aerogels crosslinked with deifferent poly(maleic anhydride).

  15. Structure of poly(styrene-b-ethylene-alt-propylene) diblock copolymer micelles in squalane.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soo-Hyung; Bates, Frank S; Lodge, Timothy P

    2009-10-22

    The temperature dependence of the micellar structures formed by poly(styrene-b-ethylene-alt-propylene) (SEP) diblock copolymers in squalane, a highly selective solvent for the PEP blocks, has been studied using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Four SEP diblock copolymers were prepared by sequential anionic polymerization of styrene and isoprene, followed by hydrogenation of the isoprene blocks, to yield SEP(17-73), SEP(26-66), SEP(36-69), and SEP(42-60), where the numbers indicate block molecular weights in kDa. All four polymers formed well-defined spherical micelles. In dilute solution, DLS provided the temperature-dependent mean hydrodynamic radius, R(h), and its distribution, while detailed fitting of the SAXS profiles gave the core radius, R(c), the equivalent hard sphere radius, R(hs), and an estimate of the aggregation number, N(agg). In general, the micelles became smaller as the critical micelle temperature (CMT) was approached, which was well above the glass transition of the core block. As concentration increased the micelles packed onto body centered cubic lattices for all four copolymers, which underwent order-disorder transitions upon heating near the dilute solution CMTs. The results are discussed in terms of current understanding of block copolymer solution self-assembly, and particular attention is paid to the issue of equilibration, given the high glass transition temperature of the core block.

  16. "Control-alt-delete": rebooting solutions for the E-waste problem.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhui; Zeng, Xianlai; Chen, Mengjun; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Stevels, Ab

    2015-06-16

    A number of efforts have been launched to solve the global electronic waste (e-waste) problem. The efficiency of e-waste recycling is subject to variable national legislation, technical capacity, consumer participation, and even detoxification. E-waste management activities result in procedural irregularities and risk disparities across national boundaries. We review these variables to reveal opportunities for research and policy to reduce the risks from accumulating e-waste and ineffective recycling. Full regulation and consumer participation should be controlled and reinforced to improve local e-waste system. Aiming at standardizing best practice, we alter and identify modular recycling process and infrastructure in eco-industrial parks that will be expectantly effective in countries and regions to handle the similar e-waste stream. Toxicity can be deleted through material substitution and detoxification during the life cycle of electronics. Based on the idea of "Control-Alt-Delete", four patterns of the way forward for global e-waste recycling are proposed to meet a variety of local situations.

  17. Structure of Poly(styrene-b-ethylene-alt-propylene) Diblock Copolymer Micelles in Squalane

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Soo-Hyung; Bates, Frank S.; Lodge, Timothy P.

    2009-11-04

    The temperature dependence of the micellar structures formed by poly(styrene-b-ethylene-alt-propylene) (SEP) diblock copolymers in squalane, a highly selective solvent for the PEP blocks, has been studied using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Four SEP diblock copolymers were prepared by sequential anionic polymerization of styrene and isoprene, followed by hydrogenation of the isoprene blocks, to yield SEP(17-73), SEP(26-66), SEP(36-69), and SEP(42-60), where the numbers indicate block molecular weights in kDa. All four polymers formed well-defined spherical micelles. In dilute solution, DLS provided the temperature-dependent mean hydrodynamic radius, R{sub h}, and its distribution, while detailed fitting of the SAXS profiles gave the core radius, R{sub c}, the equivalent hard sphere radius, R{sub hs}, and an estimate of the aggregation number, N{sub agg}. In general, the micelles became smaller as the critical micelle temperature (CMT) was approached, which was well above the glass transition of the core block. As concentration increased the micelles packed onto body centered cubic lattices for all four copolymers, which underwent order-disorder transitions upon heating near the dilute solution CMTs. The results are discussed in terms of current understanding of block copolymer solution self-assembly, and particular attention is paid to the issue of equilibration, given the high glass transition temperature of the core block.

  18. Characteristics of the advanced supersonic technology AST-105-1 configured for transpacific range with Pratt and Whitney aircraft variable stream control engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baber, H. T., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Credence to systems weights and assurance that the noise study AST concept can be balanced were studied. Current titanium structural technology is assumed. A duct-burning turbofan variable stream control engine (VSCE), with noise reduction potential through use of a coannular nozzle was used. With 273 passengers, range of the AST-105-1 for a cruise Mach number of 2.62 is essentially transpacific. Lift-to-drag ratio is slightly higher than for previous AST configurations. It is trimmable over a center-of-gravity range of 4.7m (15.5 ft). Inherent high positive effective dihedral, typical of arrow-wing configurations in high-lift approach, would limit AST-105-1 to operating in crosswinds of 11.6 m/sec (22.4 kt), or less, with 75 percent of available lateral control. Normal power takeoff with cutback results in noise in excess of Federal Aviation Regulation Part 36 but less than for conventional procedure takeoff. Results of advanced (noncertificated) programmed throttle takeoff and approach procedures, not yet optimized, indicate that such can be an important additional method noise reduction.

  19. Wide-field Imaging Survey of Dust Continuum Emissions at lambda = 1.1 mm toward the Chamaeleon and Lupus Regions with AzTEC on ASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Momose, Munetake; Hiramatsu, Masaaki; Tsukagoshi, Takashi; Shimajiri, Yoshito; Ezawa, Hajime; Kawabe, Ryohei; Ikeda, Norio; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Kamegai, Kazuhisa; Saito, Masao

    2009-08-05

    We carried out an imaging survey of dust continuum emissions toward the Chamaeleon and Lupus regions. Observations were made with the 144-element bolometer array camera AzTEC mounted on the 10-meter sub-millimeter telescope ASTE during 2007-2008. The preliminary results of disk search and the cloud structure of Lupus III are presented.

  20. [Investigation of the relationship between serum nitric oxide levels, HBV-DNA and ALT levels in chronic hepatitis B patients].

    PubMed

    Sener, Asli Gamze; Kirdar, Sevin; Serter, Mukadder; Afşar, Ilhan; Demir, Ece Mine; Ceylan, Cengiz; Aydin, Neriman

    2009-01-01

    It has been reported that increased nitric oxide (NO) production by the hepatocytes during chronic inflammatory processes, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis B. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum levels of NOx (nitrite + nitrate) with the viral load and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. A total of 93 CHB patients (67 male, 26 female; mean age: 47.3 +/- 10.9 years) and 53 healthy control subjects (17 male, 36 female; mean age: 58.6 +/- 2.1 years) followed-up during 2006-2007 period were included to the study. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) serologic markers, viral load and ALT levels were studied by chemiluminescence method (Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics, USA), by real-time polimerase chain reaction (PCR) (ABI PRISM 7700, Applied Biosystem, CA), and by Aeroset System (Abbott Laboratories, USA), respectively. NOx levels were determined by a method which was based on the reduction of nitrate to nitrite by cadmium. Mean levels of ALT and HBV-DNA of the patients were found as 98.7 +/- 138.4 IU/I and 1.6 x 10(9) +/- 4.0 x 10(9) copies/ml, respectively. In the evaluation of mean levels of NOx in patient and control groups, the difference was found statistically significant (30.6 +/- 21.7 micromol/l and 23.7 +/- 5.2 micromol/l, respectively; p< 0.05). In view of the relationship between the parameters, a positive correlation was detected between viral load and ALT levels (r= 0.768; p< 0.001), besides the significant correlations between NOx and viral load, and NOx and ALT (r= 0.346, p= 0.001 and r= 0.314, p= 0.002, respectively). As a result, although the NOx levels in chronic hepatitis patients were found higher than those in the control group, and significant correlations were detected between NO, viral load and ALT, the exact role of NO in the disease pathogenesis and outcome needs to be studied further at cellular level. PMID:19334384

  1. A radiometric and petrographic approach to risk assessment at Alte Madonie Mounts region (Sicily, Italy).

    PubMed

    Lanzo, G; Rizzo, S; Tomarchio, E

    2014-03-01

    The main goal of this work was to assess the radiological hazard at Alte Madonie Mounts region (north-central Sicily, Italy) in response to rumours of an increase in the incidence of cancer in this area. A correlation between the natural radionuclide contents and the petrographic features of the soil and rock samples was also evaluated. A total of 41 samples of selected soils and rocks were collected, powdered, dried and sealed in 'Marinelli' beakers for 20 d prior to measurement to ensure that a radioactive equilibrium between (226)Ra and (214)Bi had been reached. A gamma-ray spectrometer was used to quantify the radioactivity concentrations. To determine (238)U and (232)Th activities, the 609.3-keV line from (214)Bi in secular equilibrium with (226)Ra and the 911-keV line from (228)Ac, with which (232)Th can be assumed to be in equilibrium, were used, respectively. The gamma transition of 1461 keV was used to determine (40)K activity. The average values of the concentrations of (214)Bi, (228)Ac and (40)K were 30, 17 and 227 Bq kg(-1), respectively, whereas the greatest values were 134, 59 and 748 Bq kg(-1), respectively. A linear relationship was found between the activity values of (214)Bi, (228)Ac and (40)K. An exception was found for a group of samples in which the (214)Bi activities were much higher than expected. The chemical compositions and mineralogical features of the samples permitted the justification of these anomalies. The results of the primordial radionuclide contents are reassuring from a radiation protection point of view because the activities of the uranium and thorium series products and of the (40)K do not present a significant radiological hazard.

  2. A radiometric and petrographic approach to risk assessment at Alte Madonie Mounts region (Sicily, Italy).

    PubMed

    Lanzo, G; Rizzo, S; Tomarchio, E

    2014-03-01

    The main goal of this work was to assess the radiological hazard at Alte Madonie Mounts region (north-central Sicily, Italy) in response to rumours of an increase in the incidence of cancer in this area. A correlation between the natural radionuclide contents and the petrographic features of the soil and rock samples was also evaluated. A total of 41 samples of selected soils and rocks were collected, powdered, dried and sealed in 'Marinelli' beakers for 20 d prior to measurement to ensure that a radioactive equilibrium between (226)Ra and (214)Bi had been reached. A gamma-ray spectrometer was used to quantify the radioactivity concentrations. To determine (238)U and (232)Th activities, the 609.3-keV line from (214)Bi in secular equilibrium with (226)Ra and the 911-keV line from (228)Ac, with which (232)Th can be assumed to be in equilibrium, were used, respectively. The gamma transition of 1461 keV was used to determine (40)K activity. The average values of the concentrations of (214)Bi, (228)Ac and (40)K were 30, 17 and 227 Bq kg(-1), respectively, whereas the greatest values were 134, 59 and 748 Bq kg(-1), respectively. A linear relationship was found between the activity values of (214)Bi, (228)Ac and (40)K. An exception was found for a group of samples in which the (214)Bi activities were much higher than expected. The chemical compositions and mineralogical features of the samples permitted the justification of these anomalies. The results of the primordial radionuclide contents are reassuring from a radiation protection point of view because the activities of the uranium and thorium series products and of the (40)K do not present a significant radiological hazard. PMID:24106332

  3. [Evaluation of the VITEK 2 system (AST-YSO1 cards) for antifungal susceptibility testing against different Candida species].

    PubMed

    Ochiuzzi, María E; Arechavala, Alicia; Guelfand, Liliana; Maldonado, Ivana; Soloaga, Rolando

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the results of antifungal susceptibility for various Candida species using the Vitek 2 semi-automated system (AST-YSO1 cards, bioMérieux), and to compare them with those obtained by the CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) broth microdilution reference method (Document M27-A3,2008). The essential agreement (EA) was > 90%, except for Candida glabrata against voriconazole (VCZ); and for Candida krusei against fluconazole (FCZ). The overall categorical agreement (CA) was > 90% when FCZ was evaluated and 89.5% at 24h and 80.7% at 48 h for VCZ. The average time for obtaining results was 15.5h. Minor errors were 7.8% at 24h and 6.1% at 48 h for FCZ, and 10.5% at 24h and 19.3% at 48 h for VCZ. There was only one very major error for FCZ against Candida parapsilosis and no major errors were observed. For amphotericin B, only three isolates showed MICs ≥ 2 μg/ml. The Vitek 2 system detected the MIC value for various Candida species and showed excellent agreement with the reference method proposed by the CLSI.

  4. AST Launch Vehicle Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, Janice; Counter, D.; Giacomoni, D.

    2015-01-01

    The liftoff phase induces acoustic loading over a broad frequency range for a launch vehicle. These external acoustic environments are then used in the prediction of internal vibration responses of the vehicle and components which result in the qualification levels. Thus, predicting these liftoff acoustic (LOA) environments is critical to the design requirements of any launch vehicle. If there is a significant amount of uncertainty in the predictions or if acoustic mitigation options must be implemented, a subscale acoustic test is a feasible pre-launch test option to verify the LOA environments. The NASA Space Launch System (SLS) program initiated the Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT) to verify the predicted SLS LOA environments and to determine the acoustic reduction with an above deck water sound suppression system. The SMAT was conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center and the test article included a 5% scale SLS vehicle model, tower and Mobile Launcher. Acoustic and pressure data were measured by approximately 250 instruments. The SMAT liftoff acoustic results are presented, findings are discussed and a comparison is shown to the Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) results.

  5. Spectral Line Survey toward RCrA IRS7B in the 345 GHz Window with ASTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Y.; Sakai, N.; Lindberg, J.; Jorgensen, J.; Bisschopi, S.; Yamamoto, S.

    2011-05-01

    Recently, it has been pointed out that the chemical composition in the low-mass protostars varies from source to source. Two extreme cases are the hot corinos where various complex organic molecules are abundant, and the WCCC (Warm Carbon-Chain Chemistry) sources where carbon-chain molecules are abundant. Understanding an origin of such chemical diversity is an important target for astrochemistry. We have conducted a spectral line survey in the 332 - 364 GHz band (figure 1) with ASTE toward a low mass class 0 protostar in the Corona Australis (R CrA IRS7B), which have been recognized as a hot corino candidate because of its bright emissions of H_2CO and CH_3OH. We have also performed a supplementary observations in the 450 GHz band. In total, 16 molecular species including CO, CS, CN, NO, CCH, c-C3H2, HCO+, H2CO and CH3OH are identified. Strong emissions of CN, and CCH are observed, whereas, complex organic molecules and long carbon-chain molecules were not detected. The rotation temperature of CH3OH is evaluated to be ˜ 16 K, which is much lower than that in the typical hot corino IRAS 16293-2422 (˜85 K). The deuterium fractionation ratio for CCH and H2CO are obtained to be 0.06-0.01, which are an order of magnitude lower than that found in the hot corino. Furthermore c-C3H2, whose production pathway is related to carbon-chain molecules, is abundant, and its rotation temperature is similar to that of CH3OH. From these results, it is likely that the RCrA IRS7B is a borderline source between the hot corinos and the WCCC sources. A related survey in the 230 GHz band is in progress for full characterization of the chemical composition of this low-mass protostellar source (Lindberg et al. 2011).

  6. Static and Wind Tunnel Aero-Performance Tests of NASA AST Separate Flow Nozzle Noise Reduction Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikkelsen, Kevin L.; McDonald, Timothy J.; Saiyed, Naseem (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of cold flow model tests to determine the static and wind tunnel performance of several NASA AST separate flow nozzle noise reduction configurations. The tests were conducted by Aero Systems Engineering, Inc., for NASA Glenn Research Center. The tests were performed in the Channels 14 and 6 static thrust stands and the Channel 10 transonic wind tunnel at the FluiDyne Aerodynamics Laboratory in Plymouth, Minnesota. Facility checkout tests were made using standard ASME long-radius metering nozzles. These tests demonstrated facility data accuracy at flow conditions similar to the model tests. Channel 14 static tests reported here consisted of 21 ASME nozzle facility checkout tests and 57 static model performance tests (including 22 at no charge). Fan nozzle pressure ratio varied from 1.4 to 2.0, and fan to core total pressure ratio varied from 1.0 to 1.19. Core to fan total temperature ratio was 1.0. Channel 10 wind tunnel tests consisted of 15 tests at Mach number 0.28 and 31 tests at Mach 0.8. The sting was checked out statically in Channel 6 before the wind tunnel tests. In the Channel 6 facility, 12 ASME nozzle data points were taken and 7 model data points were taken. In the wind tunnel, fan nozzle pressure ratio varied from 1.73 to 2.8, and fan to core total pressure ratio varied from 1.0 to 1.19. Core to fan total temperature ratio was 1.0. Test results include thrust coefficients, thrust vector angle, core and fan nozzle discharge coefficients, total pressure and temperature charging station profiles, and boat-tail static pressure distributions in the wind tunnel.

  7. Investigating the relation between CO (3-2) and far-infrared luminosities for nearby merging galaxies using ASTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michiyama, Tomonari; Iono, Daisuke; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Ueda, Junko; Saito, Toshiki; Ando, Misaki; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Takuji; Matsuda, Yuichi; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Kikuchi, Kenichi; Komugi, Shinya; Muto, Takayuki

    2016-09-01

    We present the new single-dish CO (3-2) emission data obtained toward 19 early-stage and 7 late-stage nearby merging galaxies using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE). Combining with the single-dish and interferometric data of galaxies observed in previous studies, we investigate the relation between the CO (3-2) luminosity (L^' }_CO(3-2)) and the far-infrared luminosity (LFIR) in a sample of 29 early-stage and 31 late-stage merging galaxies, and 28 nearby isolated spiral galaxies. We find that normal isolated spiral galaxies and merging galaxies have different slopes (α) in the log L^' }_CO(3-2)-log LFIR plane (α ˜ 0.79 for spirals and ˜1.12 for mergers). The large slope (α > 1) for merging galaxies can be interpreted as evidence for increasing star formation efficiency (SFE = L_FIR/L^' }_CO(3-2)) as a function of LFIR. Comparing our results with sub-kpc-scale local star formation and global starburst activity in the high-z universe, we find deviations from the linear relationship in the log L^' }_CO(3-2)-log LFIR plane for the late-stage mergers and high-z star-forming galaxies. Finally, we find that the average SFE gradually increases from isolated galaxies to merging galaxies and to high-z submillimeter galaxies/quasi-stellar objects. By comparing our findings with results from numerical simulations, we suggest that: (1) inefficient starbursts triggered by disk-wide dense clumps occur in the early stage of interaction, and (2) efficient starbursts triggered by central concentration of gas occur in the final stage. A systematic high spatial resolution survey of diffuse- and dense-gas tracers is the key to confirming this scenario.

  8. Plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activities in water buffaloes with experimental subclinical fasciolosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Q; Mao, W H; Ferre, I; Bayón, J E; Mao, X Z; González-Gallego, J

    1998-07-31

    The effect of chronic Fasciola hepatica infection on the activity of plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) was investigated in water buffaloes dosed daily with 60 F. hepatica metacercariae over 20 days. Experimental fluke infection caused no clinical signs but provoked an increase in plasma level of IgG directed against F. hepatica from 4 weeks after infection. There was a significant increase in plasma AST from 6 weeks post-infection. Maximal values were reached at 14 weeks and remained significantly elevated by 23 weeks. Plasma GLDH was significantly elevated from 6 to 21 weeks post-infection. Significant increases in plasma GGT occurred from 8 to 26 weeks post-infection, reaching maximal values at 15 weeks. This study shows that plasma enzyme activities may be useful in studies of fluke-induced liver damage in water buffaloes.

  9. Crystal Structure of N-succinylarginine Dihydrolase AstB, Bound to Substrate and Product, an Enzyme from the Arginine Catabolic Pathway of Escherichia Coli

    SciTech Connect

    Tocilj,A.; Schrag, J.; Li, Y.; Schneider, B.; Reitzer, L.; Matte, A.; Cygler, M.

    2005-01-01

    The ammonia-producing arginine succinyltransferase pathway is the major pathway in Escherichia coli and related bacteria for arginine catabolism as a sole nitrogen source. This pathway consists of five steps, each catalyzed by a distinct enzyme. Here we report the crystal structure of N-succinylarginine dihydrolase AstB, the second enzyme of the arginine succinyltransferase pathway, providing the first structural insight into enzymes from this pathway. The enzyme exhibits a pseudo 5-fold symmetric {alpha}/{beta} propeller fold of circularly arranged {beta}{beta}{alpha}{beta} modules enclosing the active site. The crystal structure indicates clearly that this enzyme belongs to the amidinotransferase (AT) superfamily and that the active site contains a Cys-His-Glu triad characteristic of the AT superfamily. Structures of the complexes of AstB with the reaction product and a C365S mutant with bound the N-succinylarginine substrate suggest a catalytic mechanism that consists of two cycles of hydrolysis and ammonia release, with each cycle utilizing a mechanism similar to that proposed for arginine deiminases. Like other members of the AT superfamily of enzymes, AstB possesses a flexible loop that is disordered in the absence of substrate and assumes an ordered conformation upon substrate binding, shielding the ligand from the bulk solvent, thereby controlling substrate access and product release.

  10. Association Mapping Provides Insights into the Origin and the Fine Structure of the Sorghum Aluminum Tolerance Locus, AltSB

    PubMed Central

    Caniato, Fernanda F.; Hamblin, Martha T.; Guimaraes, Claudia T.; Zhang, Zhiwu; Schaffert, Robert E.; Kochian, Leon V.; Magalhaes, Jurandir V.

    2014-01-01

    Root damage caused by aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major cause of grain yield reduction on acid soils, which are prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions of the world where food security is most tenuous. In sorghum, Al tolerance is conferred by SbMATE, an Al-activated root citrate efflux transporter that underlies the major Al tolerance locus, AltSB, on sorghum chromosome 3. We used association mapping to gain insights into the origin and evolution of Al tolerance in sorghum and to detect functional variants amenable to allele mining applications. Linkage disequilibrium across the AltSB locus decreased much faster than in previous reports in sorghum, and reached basal levels at approximately 1000 bp. Accordingly, intra-locus recombination events were found to be extensive. SNPs and indels highly associated with Al tolerance showed a narrow frequency range, between 0.06 and 0.1, suggesting a rather recent origin of Al tolerance mutations within AltSB. A haplotype network analysis suggested a single geographic and racial origin of causative mutations in primordial guinea domesticates in West Africa. Al tolerance assessment in accessions harboring recombinant haplotypes suggests that causative polymorphisms are localized to a ∼6 kb region including intronic polymorphisms and a transposon (MITE) insertion, whose size variation has been shown to be positively correlated with Al tolerance. The SNP with the strongest association signal, located in the second SbMATE intron, recovers 9 of the 14 highly Al tolerant accessions and 80% of all the Al tolerant and intermediately tolerant accessions in the association panel. Our results also demonstrate the pivotal importance of knowledge on the origin and evolution of Al tolerance mutations in molecular breeding applications. Allele mining strategies based on associated loci are expected to lead to the efficient identification, in diverse sorghum germplasm, of Al tolerant accessions able maintain grain yields under Al

  11. Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) 22-Inch Low Noise Research Fan Rig Preliminary Design of ADP-Type Fan 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeracki, Robert J. (Technical Monitor); Topol, David A.; Ingram, Clint L.; Larkin, Michael J.; Roche, Charles H.; Thulin, Robert D.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents results of the work completed on the preliminary design of Fan 3 of NASA s 22-inch Fan Low Noise Research project. Fan 3 was intended to build on the experience gained from Fans 1 and 2 by demonstrating noise reduction technology that surpasses 1992 levels by 6 dB. The work was performed as part of NASA s Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) program. Work on this task was conducted in the areas of CFD code validation, acoustic prediction and validation, rotor parametric studies, and fan exit guide vane (FEGV) studies up to the time when a NASA decision was made to cancel the design, fabrication and testing phases of the work. The scope of the program changed accordingly to concentrate on two subtasks: (1) Rig data analysis and CFD code validation and (2) Fan and FEGV optimization studies. The results of the CFD code validation work showed that this tool predicts 3D flowfield features well from the blade trailing edge to about a chord downstream. The CFD tool loses accuracy as the distance from the trailing edge increases beyond a blade chord. The comparisons of noise predictions to rig test data showed that both the tone noise tool and the broadband noise tool demonstrated reasonable agreement with the data to the degree that these tools can reliably be used for design work. The section on rig airflow and inlet separation analysis describes the method used to determine total fan airflow, shows the good agreement of predicted boundary layer profiles to measured profiles, and shows separation angles of attack ranging from 29.5 to 27deg for the range of airflows tested. The results of the rotor parametric studies were significant in leading to the decision not to pursue a new rotor design for Fan 3 and resulted in recommendations to concentrate efforts on FEGV stator designs. The ensuing parametric study on FEGV designs showed the potential for 8 to 10 EPNdB noise reduction relative to the baseline.

  12. Alt-Az telescope control system standardization attempt: case study of the TT1 (Toppo Telescope #1) control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancini, Dario; Brescia, Massimo; Spirito, Gianfranco

    1998-05-01

    The TT1 is a 1.54 m Alt-Az telescope designed and built by the Technology Working Group of the Astronomical Observatory of Capodimonte, Naples, Italy. The standardization process is of course one of the fundamental requirements for telescope control system design and development, well considered in the TT1 design. In this paper we present the approach used to identify a control system applicable to medium-size Alt-Az telescope. The TT1 control system architecture is based on a distributed working flow and it is PC-based, i.e. organized in several interconnected standard PCs and standard fast communication protocol. Every PC is based on the 'dedicated processing unit' concept and it makes real time own tasks independently by other units. Also, the extremely reduced communication flow between PCs, and the internal organization based on the preference given to software rather than hardware solutions, makes its control system extremely reliable, easily reconfigurable and upgradable, obsolescence deprived and independent from any hardware choice.

  13. Frederick W. Alt received the 2015 Szent-Györgi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research.

    PubMed

    Scully, Peter; Zhao, Jie; Ba, Sujuan

    2016-01-01

    The Szent-Györgyi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research is a prestigious scientific award established by the National Foundation for Cancer Research (NFCR)--a leading cancer research charitable organization in the United States that is committed to supporting scientific research and public education relating to the prevention, early diagnosis, better treatments, and ultimately, a cure for cancer. Each year, the Szent-Györgyi Prize honors an outstanding researcher, nominated by colleagues or peers, who has contributed outstanding, significant research to the fight against cancer, and whose accomplishments have helped improve treatment options for cancer patients. The Prize also promotes public awareness of the importance of basic cancer research and encourages the sustained investment needed to accelerate the translation of these research discoveries into new cancer treatments. This report highlights the pioneering work led by the 2015 Prize winner, Dr. Frederick Alt. Dr. Alt's work in the area of cancer genetics over four decades has helped to shape the very roots of modern cancer research. His work continues to profoundly impact the approaches that doctors around the globe use to diagnose and treat cancer. In particular, his seminal discoveries of gene amplification and his pioneering work on molecular mechanisms of DNA damage repair have helped to usher in the era of genetically targeted therapy and personalized medicine.

  14. CHK1-driven histone H3.3 serine 31 phosphorylation is important for chromatin maintenance and cell survival in human ALT cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fiona T M; Chan, F Lyn; R McGhie, James D; Udugama, Maheshi; Mayne, Lynne; Collas, Philippe; Mann, Jeffrey R; Wong, Lee H

    2015-03-11

    Human ALT cancers show high mutation rates in ATRX and DAXX. Although it is well known that the absence of ATRX/DAXX disrupts H3.3 deposition at heterochromatin, its impact on H3.3 deposition and post-translational modification in the global genome remains unclear. Here, we explore the dynamics of phosphorylated H3.3 serine 31 (H3.3S31ph) in human ALT cancer cells. While H3.3S31ph is found only at pericentric satellite DNA repeats during mitosis in most somatic human cells, a high level of H3.3S31ph is detected on the entire chromosome in ALT cells, attributable to an elevated CHK1 activity in these cells. Drug inhibition of CHK1 activity during mitosis and expression of mutant H3.3S31A in these ALT cells result in a decrease in H3.3S31ph levels accompanied with increased levels of phosphorylated H2AX serine 139 on chromosome arms and at the telomeres. Furthermore, the inhibition of CHK1 activity in these cells also reduces cell viability. Our findings suggest a novel role of CHK1 as an H3.3S31 kinase, and that CHK1-mediated H3.3S31ph plays an important role in the maintenance of chromatin integrity and cell survival in ALT cancer cells. PMID:25690891

  15. Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of poly [LA-co-(Glc-alt-Lys)] for nerve regeneration scaffold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yi-Xia; Yi, Ji-Ling; Xie, Li-Juan; Yan, Qiong-Jiao; Dai, Hong-Lian; Li, Shi-Pu

    2014-03-01

    A novel nerve repairing material poly [LA-co-(Glc-alt-Lys)] (PLGL) was synthesized. The viability and growth of Schwann cells (SCs) co-cultured with poly (D, Llactic acid) (PDLLA) films (control group) and PLGL films were evaluated by MTTassay and SEM observation. Then, contact angle measurement, histological assessment and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing on inflammatory-related cytokines such as IL-10 and TGF-β1 were performed. The results showed that, compared with PDLLA, PLGL films possesses better hydrophilicity, biocompatibility, degradation property and less inflammatory reaction. The present study indicated that PLGL scaffolds would meet the requirements of artificial nerve scaffold and have a potential application in the fields of nerve regeneration.

  16. Electronic structure disorder, vibronic coupling, and charge transfer excitons in poly(fluorene-alt-bithiophene):fullerene films

    SciTech Connect

    Riisness, I.; Gordon, M. J.

    2013-03-18

    Charge transfer processes in conjugated polymer:fullerene blends play an important role in the operation of organic solar cells and organic light emitting diodes. Herein, near-infrared emission from poly-(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-bithiophene) (F8T2) and [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester blends was studied and attributed to charge transfer exciton (CTX) recombination. Polymer and CTX emission were monitored via low-temperature/transient photoluminescence and absorbance to elucidate the effects of annealing and composition on donor-acceptor morphology. CTX emission decreased and F8T2 vibronic structure was partially restored due to lower fullerene dispersion and polymer realignment upon annealing. Differences in the temperature-dependent emissions of the polymer singlet vs. CTX were attributed to exciton diffusion in the polymer phase vs. enhanced quenching at the donor-acceptor interface, respectively.

  17. Shape evolution of SrCO{sub 3} particles in the presence of poly-(styrene-alt-maleic acid)

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Jiaguo . E-mail: jiaguoyu@yahoo.com; Guo Hua; Cheng Bei

    2006-03-15

    In this paper, strontium carbonate particles with different morphologies were prepared by a simple precipitation reaction of sodium carbonate with strontium nitrate in the absence and presence of poly-(styrene-alt-maleic acid) (PSMA). The as-prepared products were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effects of the concentration of PSMA on the morphologies and phase structures of strontium carbonate particles were investigated and discussed. The results showed that SrCO{sub 3} particles with various shapes, such as bundles, dumbbells, irregular aggregates and spheres could be obtained by varying the concentration of PSMA. A schematic illustration was proposed to account for the shape evolution of the as-prepared SrCO{sub 3} particles.

  18. Intravesical ALT-803 and BCG Treatment Reduces Tumor Burden in a Carcinogen Induced Bladder Cancer Rat Model; a Role for Cytokine Production and NK Cell Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Goodison, Steve; Sriharan, Aravindhan; Zhang, Ge; You, Lijing; Egan, Jack O.; Rhode, Peter R.; Parker, Alexander S.; Chai, Karl X.; Wong, Hing C.; Rosser, Charles J.

    2014-01-01

    Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been shown to induce a specific immunologic response (i.e., activation of IL-2 and effector T-cells), while preclinical studies using ALT-803 (mutated IL-15 analogue combined with IL-15Rα-Fc fusion) have shown promising results by prolonging the agent's half-life and stimulating CD8+ T-cells. Based on these results, we hypothesized that the intravesical administration of ALT-803 along with BCG will generate an immunologic response leading to significant bladder tumor burden reduction. Using a well-established carcinogen induced rat non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) model, we studied the effects of intravesical ALT-803 with and without BCG. Rat tissues were evaluated to document treatment response. Intravesical ALT-803 was safe and well tolerated alone and in combination with BCG. As a single treatment agent, ALT-803 reduced tumor burden by 35% compared to control whereas BCG alone only reduced tumor burden by 15%. However, the combination of ALT-803 plus BCG reduced tumor burden by 46% compared to control. Immune monitoring suggested that the antitumor response was linked to the production and secretion of IL-1α, IL-1β and RANTES, which in turn, induced the proliferation and activation of NK cells. Lastly, tumoral responses of the combinational treatment were associated with 76% reduction in angiogenesis, which is significantly higher than when assessed with either agent alone. The enhanced therapeutic index seen with this duplet provides justification for the development of this regimen for future clinical trials. PMID:24896845

  19. Intravesical ALT-803 and BCG treatment reduces tumor burden in a carcinogen induced bladder cancer rat model; a role for cytokine production and NK cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Gomes-Giacoia, Evan; Miyake, Makito; Goodison, Steve; Sriharan, Aravindhan; Zhang, Ge; You, Lijing; Egan, Jack O; Rhode, Peter R; Parker, Alexander S; Chai, Karl X; Wong, Hing C; Rosser, Charles J

    2014-01-01

    Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been shown to induce a specific immunologic response (i.e., activation of IL-2 and effector T-cells), while preclinical studies using ALT-803 (mutated IL-15 analogue combined with IL-15Rα-Fc fusion) have shown promising results by prolonging the agent's half-life and stimulating CD8+ T-cells. Based on these results, we hypothesized that the intravesical administration of ALT-803 along with BCG will generate an immunologic response leading to significant bladder tumor burden reduction. Using a well-established carcinogen induced rat non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) model, we studied the effects of intravesical ALT-803 with and without BCG. Rat tissues were evaluated to document treatment response. Intravesical ALT-803 was safe and well tolerated alone and in combination with BCG. As a single treatment agent, ALT-803 reduced tumor burden by 35% compared to control whereas BCG alone only reduced tumor burden by 15%. However, the combination of ALT-803 plus BCG reduced tumor burden by 46% compared to control. Immune monitoring suggested that the antitumor response was linked to the production and secretion of IL-1α, IL-1β and RANTES, which in turn, induced the proliferation and activation of NK cells. Lastly, tumoral responses of the combinational treatment were associated with 76% reduction in angiogenesis, which is significantly higher than when assessed with either agent alone. The enhanced therapeutic index seen with this duplet provides justification for the development of this regimen for future clinical trials.

  20. Physical analysis of the complex rye (Secale cereale L.) Alt4 aluminium (aluminum) tolerance locus using a whole-genome BAC library of rye cv. Blanco.

    PubMed

    Shi, B-J; Gustafson, J P; Button, J; Miyazaki, J; Pallotta, M; Gustafson, N; Zhou, H; Langridge, P; Collins, N C

    2009-08-01

    Rye is a diploid crop species with many outstanding qualities, and is important as a source of new traits for wheat and triticale improvement. Rye is highly tolerant of aluminum (Al) toxicity, and possesses a complex structure at the Alt4 Al tolerance locus not found at the corresponding locus in wheat. Here we describe a BAC library of rye cv. Blanco, representing a valuable resource for rye molecular genetic studies, and assess the library's suitability for investigating Al tolerance genes. The library provides 6 x genome coverage of the 8.1 Gb rye genome, has an average insert size of 131 kb, and contains only ~2% of empty or organelle-derived clones. Genetic analysis attributed the Al tolerance of Blanco to the Alt4 locus on the short arm of chromosome 7R, and revealed the presence of multiple allelic variants (haplotypes) of the Alt4 locus in the BAC library. BAC clones containing ALMT1 gene clusters from several Alt4 haplotypes were identified, and will provide useful starting points for exploring the basis for the structural variability and functional specialization of ALMT1 genes at this locus.

  1. AzTEC/ASTE Millimeter-wave Monitoring and Target-of-opportunity Observations of Selected Radio-bright Fermi-detected Gamma-ray Blazars and GRBs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacy, J. Gregory; Wilson, G.; AzTEC/ASTE Collaboration

    2010-11-01

    We report on correlative millimeter-wave radio observations at 1.1 mm of high-priority Fermi-detected gamma-ray blazars using the AzTEC bolometer-array camera mounted on the 10-m ASTE radio telescope in northern Chile. These observations were carried out during the latter part of the 2008 observing season, overlapping with the first months of operation of the Fermi Observatory. High-priority blazars were monitored and we responded as well to Fermi alerts of elevated gamma-ray emission or flaring activity. We also report on the upper limits obtained to millimeter-wave emission in the early afterglow from GRB 081121. These correlative measurements constituted a pilot observing program that will be extended and expanded to include numerous additional gamma-ray targets for the Large Millimeter Telescope as part of its commissioning operations over the coming year. This work is supported in part by the National Science Foundation.

  2. Measurement of CP violation parameters and polarisation fractions in {B}s^0to J/ψ {overline{K}}^{ast 0} decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Bellee, V.; Belloli, N.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Billoir, P.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Buchanan, E.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C.-T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Demmer, M.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fohl, K.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianì, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kecke, M.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Krzemien, W.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Lemos Cid, E.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Liu, X.; Loh, D.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Lusiani, A.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martin, M.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Melnychuk, D.; Merk, M.; Michielin, E.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, D.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nandi, A.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Osorio Rodrigues, B.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Pappenheimer, C.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Ronayne, J. W.; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Siddi, B. G.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Silva de Oliveira, L.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, I. T.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Stefkova, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tayduganov, A.; Tekampe, T.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Todd, J.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Volkov, V.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Williams, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yu, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zucchelli, S.

    2015-11-01

    The first measurement of CP asymmetries in the decay {B}_s^0to J/ψ {overline{K}}^{ast }{(892)}^0 and an updated measurement of its branching fraction and polarisation fractions are presented. The results are obtained using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 .0 fb -1 of proton-proton collisions recorded with the LHCb detector at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. Together with constraints from B 0 → J/ψ ρ 0, the results are used to constrain additional contributions due to penguin diagrams in the CP -violating phase ϕ s , measured through B s 0 decays to charmonium. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α agonist, AZD4619, induces alanine aminotransferase-1 gene and protein expression in human, but not in rat hepatocytes: Correlation with serum ALT levels.

    PubMed

    Thulin, Petra; Bamberg, Krister; Buler, Marcin; Dahl, Björn; Glinghammar, Björn

    2016-09-01

    Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in serum is the standard biomarker for liver injury. We have previously described a clinical trial with a novel selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) agonist (AZD4619), which unexpectedly caused increased serum levels of ALT in treated individuals without any other evidence of liver injury. We pinpointed a plausible mechanism through which AZD4619 could increase serum ALT levels; namely through the PPARα-specific activation of the human ALT1 gene at the transcriptional level. In the present study, we present data from the preceding rat toxicity study, demonstrating that AZD4619 had no effect on rat serum ALT activity levels, and further experiments were performed to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for this species-related difference. Our results revealed that AZD4619 increased ALT1 protein expression in a dose-dependent manner in human, but not in rat primary hepatocytes. Cloning of the human and rat ALT1 promoters into luciferase vectors confirmed that AZD4619 induced only the human, but not the rat ALT1 gene promoter in a dose-dependent manner. In PPARα-GAL4 reporter gene assays, AZD4619 was >100-fold more potent on the human vs. rat PPARα levels, explaining the differences in induction of the ALT1 gene between the species at the concentration range tested. These data demonstrate the usefulness of the human and rat ALT1 reporter gene assays for testing future drug candidates at the preclinical stage. In drug discovery projects, these assays elucidate whether elevations in ALT levels observed in vivo or in the clinic are due to metabolic effects rather than a toxic event in the liver. PMID:27430334

  4. Cooperative therapeutic anti-tumor effect of IL-15 agonist ALT-803 and co-targeting soluble NKG2D ligand sMIC

    PubMed Central

    Basher, Fahmin; Jeng, Emily K.; Wong, Hing; Wu, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Shedding of the human NKG2D ligand MIC (MHC class I-chain-related molecule) from tumor cell surfaces correlates with progression of many epithelial cancers. Shedding-derived soluble MIC (sMIC) enables tumor immune escape through multiple immune suppressive mechanisms, such as disturbing natural killer (NK) cell homeostatic maintenance, impairing NKG2D expression on NK cells and effector T cells, and facilitating the expansion of arginase I+ myeloid suppressor cells. Our recent study has demonstrated that sMIC is an effective cancer therapeutic target. Whether targeting tumor-derived sMIC would enhance current active immunotherapy is not known. Here, we determined the in vivo therapeutic effect of an antibody co-targeting sMIC with the immunostimulatory IL-15 superagonist complex, ALT-803, using genetically engineered transplantable syngeneic sMIC+ tumor models. We demonstrate that combined therapy of a nonblocking antibody neutralizing sMIC and ALT-803 improved the survival of animals bearing sMIC+ tumors in comparison to monotherapy. We further demonstrate that the enhanced therapeutic effect with combined therapy is through concurrent augmentation of NK and CD8 T cell anti-tumor responses. In particular, expression of activation-induced surface molecules and increased functional potential by cytokine secretion are improved greatly by the administration of combined therapy. Depletion of NK cells abolished the cooperative therapeutic effect. Our findings suggest that administration of the sMIC-neutralizing antibody can enhance the anti-tumor effects of ALT-803. With ALT-803 currently in clinical trials to treat progressive solid tumors, the majority of which are sMIC+, our findings provide a rationale for co-targeting sMIC to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of ALT-803 or other IL-15 agonists. PMID:26625316

  5. Free Enterprise: Contributions of the Approach and Landing Test (ALT) Program to the Development of the Space Shuttle Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merlin, Peter W.

    2006-01-01

    The space shuttle orbiter was the first spacecraft designed with the aerodynamic characteristics and in-atmosphere handling qualities of a conventional airplane. In order to evaluate the orbiter's flight control systems and subsonic handling characteristics, a series of flight tests were undertaken at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in 1977. A modified Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft carried the Enterprise, a prototype orbiter, during eight captive tests to determine how well the two vehicles flew together and to test some of the orbiter s systems. The free-flight phase of the ALT program allowed shuttle pilots to explore the orbiter's low-speed flight and landing characteristics. The Enterprise provided realistic, in-flight simulations of how subsequent space shuttles would be flown at the end of an orbital mission. The fifth free flight, with the Enterprise landing on a concrete runway for the first time, revealed a problem with the space shuttle flight control system that made it susceptible to pilot-induced oscillation, a potentially dangerous control problem. Further research using various aircraft, particularly NASA Dryden's F-8 Digital-Fly-By-Wire testbed, led to correction of the problem before the first Orbital Test Flight.

  6. Immunochemical quantitation of airborne short ragweed, Alternaria, antigen E, and Alt-I allergens: a two-year prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, M.K.; Swanson, M.C.; Reed, C.E.; Yunginger, J.W.

    1983-07-01

    We conducted a 2 yr prospective study to measure atmospheric short ragweed and Alternaria allergens by RAST inhibition analysis of eluates from filter sheets exposed in air samplers. In both years ragweed pollen and Alternaria spore counts, obtained with a rotoslide sampler, correlated significantly with immunochemically measured airborne ragweed and Alternaria allergenic activity. Airborne levels of the purified allergens AgE and Alt-I were successfully quantitated; these levels correlated closely with total airborne ragweed and Alternaria allergenic activities, respectively, and also with ragweed pollen and Alternaria spore counts. Eluates from filter sheets exposed during late summer and fall produced positive wheal-and-flare skin tests in patients with fall hay fever. In both years immunochemical measurements of allergenic activity due to airborne short ragweed correlated closely with mean symptom score indices in groups of short ragweed-sensitive individuals. Measurable levels of atmospheric ragweed allergenic activity were noted before and after the ragweed pollination season, and at these times we noted small increases in mean symptom score indices in the short ragweed-sensitive groups. Thus immunochemical analyses provide important information concerning levels of environmental allergens.

  7. A monotopic aluminum telluride with an Al=Te double bond stabilized by N-heterocyclic carbenes

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Daniel; Szilvási, Tibor; Irran, Elisabeth; Inoue, Shigeyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum chalcogenides are mostly encountered in the form of bulk aluminum oxides that are structurally diverse but typically consist of networks with high lattice energy in which the chalcogen atoms bridge the metal centres. This makes their molecular congeners difficult to synthesize because of a pronounced tendency for oligomerization. Here we describe the isolation of the monotopic aluminum chalcogenide (LDipN)AlTe(LEt)2 (LDip=1,3-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-imidazolin-2-imine, LEt=1,3-diethyl-4,5-dimethyl-imidazolin-2-ylidene). Unique features of (LDipN)AlTe(LEt)2 are the terminal position of the tellurium atom, the shortest aluminum–tellurium distance hitherto reported for a molecular complex and the highest bond order reported for an interaction between these elements, to the best of our knowledge. At elevated temperature (LDipN)AlTe(LEt)2 equilibrates with dimeric {(LDipN)AlTe(LEt)}2 in which the chalcogen atoms assume their common role as bridges between the metal centres. These findings demonstrate that (LDipN)AlTe(LEt)2 comprises the elusive Al=Te double bond in the form of an N-heterocyclic carbene-stabilized species. PMID:26612781

  8. New semi-conducting poly(phenylene vinylene-alt-anthrylene vinylene)s: Synthesis, characterization and photophysical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Salem, Balkiss; Hriz, Khaled; Jaballah, Nejmeddine; Kreher, David; Majdoub, Mustapha

    2015-12-01

    An anthracene-based semi-conducting polymer (P1) and its cyano-analogue (P2) were synthesized via the Wittig and Knoevenagel polycondensations. The polymers were soluble in common organic solvents and have number-average molecular weights of 13,750 and 6430 g mol-1 for P1 and P2, respectively. The DSC analyzes show a good thermal stability and an amorphous morphology in solid state for these organic materials. The optical properties of the polymers were investigated by UV-visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies. The HOMO and LUMO levels were estimated using cyclic voltammetry analysis. The effect of cyano group on the photophysical properties of poly(phenylene vinylene-alt-anthrylene vinylene)s was investigated. The results demonstrate an enhancement in the ionization potential and a significant improvement of the fluorescence yield due to introduction of such groups into the π-conjugated system. Single-layer diodes based on these organic semiconductors have been fabricated and showed relatively low turn-on voltages.

  9. Diluted Blood Reperfusion as a Model for Transplantation of Ischemic Rat Livers: ALT is a Direct Indicator of Viability

    PubMed Central

    Uygun, Korkut; Tolboom, Herman; Izamis, Maria-Louisa; Uygun, Basak; Sharma, Nripen; Yagi, Hiroshi; Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro; Hertl, Martin; Berthiaume, François; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2010-01-01

    Donors after Cardiac Death present a significant pool of untapped organs for transplantation, and use of machine perfusion strategies has been an active focus area in experimental transplantation. However, despite two decades of research, a gold standard is yet to emerge for machine perfusion systems and protocols. Whole blood reperfusion has been used as a surrogate for organ transplantation, especially as a model for the short-term response post transplantation, for optimization of perfusion systems. While it is known that there is a strong correlation between liver function in whole-blood reperfusion and survival, the exact nature of these correlations, and to what extent they can be considered as an indicator of viability for transplantation/recipient survival, remain unclear. In this work, we demonstrate that diluted whole-blood reperfusion can be used as a direct model for transplantation of ischemic rat liver grafts. Moreover, it was shown that recipient survival can be predicted based simply on the value of ALT during perfusion, and quantitative criteria of viability was developed for use in this animal model. These results indicate that in the rat model graft survival is highly correlated to hepatocellular damage. PMID:20832525

  10. Solvent effect on post-irradiation grafting of styrene onto poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napoleão Geraldes, Adriana; Augusto Zen, Heloísa; Ribeiro, Geise; Fernandes Parra, Duclerc; Benévolo Lugão, Ademar

    2013-03-01

    Radiation-induced grafting of styrene onto ETFE films in different solvent was investigated after simultaneous irradiation (in post-irradiation condition) using a 60Co source. Grafting of styrene followed by sulfonation onto poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) are currently studied for synthesis of ion exchange membranes. The ETFE films were immersed in styrene/toluene, styrene/methanol and styrene/isopropyl alcohol and irradiated at 20 and 100 kGy doses at room temperature. The post-irradiation time was established at 14 day and the grafting degree was evaluated. The grafted films were sulfonated using chlorosulfonic acid and 1,2-dichloroethane 20:80 (v/v) at room temperature for 5 h. The degree of grafting (DOG) was determined gravimetrically and physical or chemical changes were evaluated by differential scanning calorimeter analysis (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ion exchange capacity (IEC) values showed the best performance of sulfonation for ETFE membranes grafted in toluene solvent. Surface images of the grafted films by SEM technique have presented a strong effect of the solvents on the films morphology.

  11. Poly(2-vinylnaphthalene-alt-maleic acid)-graft polystyrene as a photoactive polymer micelle and stabilizer for polystyrene latexes

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, T.; Yin, W.; Webber, S.E. )

    1994-12-05

    Polymerization of maleic anhydride and 2-vinylnaphthalene produces alternating polymers. Imidization of the polymer with amino-terminated polystyrene yields different loadings of an alternating polymer with polystyrene combs''. Upton rigorous hydrolysis one obtains poly(2-vinylnaphthalene-alt-maleic acid)-graft-polystyrene (P2VNMA-PS), which is a fluorescent polymer with unusual solution properties and with significant surface activity. P2VNMA-PS forms a small micelle structure in solution or can be used as a surfactant for an emulsion polymerization of polystyrene (no cosurfactant is required), producing monodisperse latex particles which are stable for pH > 3.9. Centrifugation shows that >90% of the P2VNMA-PS is associated with the latex particles. Fluorescence quenching studies of the naphthalene excimer with Tl[sup +] indicate that approximately 84% and 77% of the naphthalene groups remain exposed to the aqueous phase when this polymer is micellized or incorporated onto a latex particle, respectively. These data imply that the P2VNMA-PS polymer is permanently associated with the exterior of the latex particle, as one would expect given the amphiphilic nature of this polymer.

  12. Performance of an Optimized Paper-Based Test for Rapid Visual Measurement of Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) in Fingerstick and Venipuncture Samples

    PubMed Central

    Noubary, Farzad; Coonahan, Erin; Schoeplein, Ryan; Baden, Rachel; Curry, Michael; Afdhal, Nezam; Kumar, Shailendra; Pollock, Nira R.

    2015-01-01

    Background A paper-based, multiplexed, microfluidic assay has been developed to visually measure alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in a fingerstick sample, generating rapid, semi-quantitative results. Prior studies indicated a need for improved accuracy; the device was subsequently optimized using an FDA-approved automated platform (Abaxis Piccolo Xpress) as a comparator. Here, we evaluated the performance of the optimized paper test for measurement of ALT in fingerstick blood and serum, as compared to Abaxis and Roche/Hitachi platforms. To evaluate feasibility of remote results interpretation, we also compared reading cell phone camera images of completed tests to reading the device in real time. Methods 96 ambulatory patients with varied baseline ALT concentration underwent fingerstick testing using the paper device; cell phone images of completed devices were taken and texted to a blinded off-site reader. Venipuncture serum was obtained from 93/96 participants for routine clinical testing (Roche/Hitachi); subsequently, 88/93 serum samples were captured and applied to paper and Abaxis platforms. Paper test and reference standard results were compared by Bland-Altman analysis. Findings For serum, there was excellent agreement between paper test and Abaxis results, with negligible bias (+4.5 U/L). Abaxis results were systematically 8.6% lower than Roche/Hitachi results. ALT values in fingerstick samples tested on paper were systematically lower than values in paired serum tested on paper (bias -23.6 U/L) or Abaxis (bias -18.4 U/L); a correction factor was developed for the paper device to match fingerstick blood to serum. Visual reads of cell phone images closely matched reads made in real time (bias +5.5 U/L). Conclusions The paper ALT test is highly accurate for serum testing, matching the reference method against which it was optimized better than the reference methods matched each other. A systematic difference exists between ALT values in fingerstick and paired

  13. Blood Test: Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP)

    MedlinePlus

    ... may signal a decrease in kidney function. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) , alanine amino transferase (ALT) , aspartate amino transferase (AST) , and bilirubin ; ALP, ALT, and AST are liver enzymes; bilirubin is produced by the liver. Elevated concentrations ...

  14. Evaluation of the Phoenix 100 ID/AST System and NID Panel for Identification of Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrionaceae, and Commonly Isolated Nonenteric Gram-Negative Bacilli

    PubMed Central

    O'Hara, Caroline M.

    2006-01-01

    The Phoenix 100 ID/AST system (Becton Dickinson Co., Sparks, Md.) is an automated system for the identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial isolates. This system with its negative identification (NID) panel was evaluated for its accuracy in the identification of 507 isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae, 57 other nonenteric gram-negative isolates that are commonly isolated in clinical microbiology laboratories, and 138 isolates of the family Vibrionaceae. All of the isolates had been characterized by using approximately 48 conventional tube biochemicals. Of the 507 isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae, 456 (89.9%) were correctly identified to the genus and species levels. The five isolates of Proteus penneri required an off-line indole test, as suggested by the system to differentiate them from Proteus vulgaris. The identifications of 20 (3.9%) isolates were correct to the genus level but incorrect at the species level. Two (0.4%) isolates were reported as “no identification.” Misidentifications to the genus and species levels occurred for 29 (5.7%) isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae. These incorrect identifications were spread over 14 different genera. The most common error was the misidentification of Salmonella species. The shortest time for a correct identification was 2 h 8 min. The longest time was 12 h 27 min, for the identification of a Serratia marcescens isolate. Of the 57 isolates of nonenteric gram-negative bacilli (Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Burkholderia, Plesiomonas, Pseudomonas, and Stenotrophomonas spp.), 48 (84.2%) were correctly identified to the genus and species levels and 7 (12.3%) were correctly identified to the genus level but not to the species level. The average time for a correct identification was 5 h 11 min. Of the Vibrionaceae spp., 123 (89.1%) were correctly identified at the end of the initial incubation period, which averaged 4 h. Based on the findings of this study, the Phoenix 100 ID/AST system NID

  15. AST IV inhibits H₂O₂-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell apoptosis by suppressing Nox4 expression through the TGF-β1/Smad2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuhong; Li, Weizu; Yin, Yanyan; Li, Weiping

    2015-06-01

    Endothelial cell apoptosis plays an important role in the pathophysiological mechanisms of vascular complications in diabetes mellitus (DM). NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4)-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) aggregation is the main cause of vascular endothelial cell apoptosis. The transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)/Smad2 signaling pathway is involved in the apoptosis of several types of cells. However, the association between vascular endothelial cell apoptosis and Nox4, and the involvement of the TGF-β1/Smad2 signaling pathway in vascular endothelial cell apoptosis remain unclear. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of Nox4-dependent ROS production and to determine the involvement of the TGF-β1/Smad2 signaling pathway in endothelial cell apoptosis induced by oxidative stress which causes vascular injury in DM. We demonstrated that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) increased Nox4-dependent-ROS aggregation, as well as the expression of TGF-β1, Smad2, Bax and caspase-3, decreased Bcl-2 expression and increased the apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Treatment with diphenyliodonium (DPI), a specific inhibitor of Nox4 or astragaloside IV (AST IV), a monomer located in an extract of astragaloside, decreased Nox4 expression and the levels of ROS, decreased TGF-β1 and Smad2 expression, altered the expression of apoptosis-related genes and decreased the apoptosis of HUVECs. Treatment with LY2109761, a selective inhibitor of the TGF-β1/Smad2 pathway, produced results similar to those of DPI; however, LY2109761 had no effect on Nox4 expression and ROS levels. Taken together, the findings of the present study suggest that H2O2 contributes to HUVEC apoptosis by inducing Nox4-dependent ROS aggregation and activating the TGF-β1/Smad2 signaling pathway. Our data indicate that the protective effects of AST IV against vascular endothelial cell apoptosis in DM are mainly associated with the decrease in Nox4 expression through the TGF-β1

  16. An ADP-ribosyltransferase Alt of bacteriophage T4 negatively regulates the Escherichia coli MazF toxin of a toxin-antitoxin module.

    PubMed

    Alawneh, Abdulraheem M; Qi, Dan; Yonesaki, Tetsuro; Otsuka, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are linked to many roles in cell physiology, such as plasmid maintenance, stress response, persistence and protection from phage infection, and the activities of toxins are tightly regulated. Here, we describe a novel regulatory mechanism for a toxin of Escherichia coli TA systems. The MazF toxin of MazE-MazF, which is one of the best characterized type II TA systems, was modified immediately after infection with bacteriophage T4. Mass spectrometry demonstrated that the molecular weight of this modification was 542 Da, corresponding to a mono-ADP-ribosylation. This modification disappeared in cells infected with T4 phage lacking Alt, which is one of three ADP-ribosyltransferases encoded by T4 phage and is injected together with phage DNA upon infection. In vivo and in vitro analyses confirmed that T4 Alt ADP-ribosylated MazF at an arginine residue at position 4. Finally, the ADP-ribosylation of MazF by Alt resulted in the reduction of MazF RNA cleavage activity in vitro, suggesting that it may function to inactivate MazF during T4 infection. This is the first example of the chemical modification of an E. coli toxin in TA systems to regulate activity.

  17. Distribution of the HLA class I allele in chronic hepatitis C and its association with serum ALT level in chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Yasuteru; Kobayashi, Koju; Kobayashi, Tomoo; Shiina, Masaaki; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Satoh, Takaomi; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2003-10-01

    An essential process for resolution of viral infections is the efficient recognition and elimination of intracellular virus. Recognition of viral antigens in the form of short peptides associated with HLA class I molecule is a major task of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes. In this study, we have evaluated the frequency of the HLA class I alleles in patients with chronic hepatitis C. HLA-B51, -B52, -B55, -B56, -B61, B70, -Cw1, -Cw3, and -Cw4 are less frequent in patients with chronic hepatitis C than in Japanese individuals. The frequency of HLA-A2 is slightly lower in the patients but tends to be higher in patients with normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level than in those with elevated ALT level (p = 0.07). Other HLA alleles are not significantly different between two groups. Comparison of HLA homozygosity at HLA-A and -B or -C or at two or three loci did not show a significant association with levels of serum ALT or with the clinical outcome of interferon therapy in patients with hepatitis C. These results suggest a possibility that the alterations of host response, which depends on genetic background, influence disease activities of HCV infection.

  18. Evaluation of CO2-philicity of poly(vinyl acetate) and poly(vinyl acetate-alt-maleate) copolymers through molecular modeling and dissolution behavior measurement.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dongdong; Sun, Shaojun; Yuan, Peiqing; Zhao, Ling; Liu, Tao

    2015-02-19

    Multiscale molecular modeling and dissolution behavior measurement were both used to evaluate the factors conclusive on the CO2-philicity of poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) homopolymer and poly(vinyl acetate-alt-maleate) copolymers. The ab initio calculated interaction energies of the candidate CO2-philic molecule models with CO2, including vinyl acetate dimer (VAc), dimethyl maleate (DMM), diethyl maleate (DEM), and dibutyl maleate (DBM), showed that VAc was the most CO2-philc segment. However, the cohesive energy density, solubility parameter, Flory-Huggins parameter, and radial distribution functions calculated by using the molecular dynamics simulations for the four polymer and polymer-CO2 systems indicated that poly(VAc-alt-DBM) had the most CO2-philicity. The corresponding polymers were synthesized by using free radical polymerization. The measurement of cloud point pressures of the four polymers in CO2 also demonstrated that poly(VAc-alt-DBM) had the most CO2-philicity. Although copolymerization of maleate, such as DEM or DBM, with PVAc reduced the polymer-CO2 interactions, the weakened polymer-polymer interaction increased the CO2-philicity of the copolymers. The polymer-polymer interaction had a significant influence on the CO2-philicity of the polymer. Reduction of the polymer-polymer interaction might be a promising strategy to prepare the high CO2-philic polymers on the premise that the strong polymer-CO2 interaction could be maintained.

  19. Synthesis, biophysical, and pharmacological evaluation of the melanocortin agonist AST3-88: modifications of peptide backbone at Trp 7 position lead to a potent, selective, and stable ligand of the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R).

    PubMed

    Singh, Anamika; Dirain, Marvin L; Wilczynski, Andrzej; Chen, Chi; Gosnell, Blake A; Levine, Allen S; Edison, Arthur S; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie

    2014-10-15

    The melanocortin-3 (MC3R) and melanocortin-4 (MC4R) receptors are expressed in the brain and are implicated in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. The endogenous agonist ligands for these receptors (α-, β-, γ-MSH and ACTH) are linear peptides with limited receptor subtype selectivity and metabolic stability, thus minimizing their use as probes to characterize the overlapping pharmacological and physiological functions of the melanocortin receptor subtypes. In the present study, an engineered template, in which the peptide backbone was modified by a heterocyclic reverse turn mimetic at the Trp(7) residue, was synthesized using solid phase peptide synthesis and characterized by a β-galactosidase cAMP based reporter gene assay. The functional assay identified a ∼5 nM mouse MC4R agonist (AST3-88) with more than 50-fold selectivity over the mMC3R. Biophysical studies (2D (1)H NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics) of AST3-88 identified a type VIII β-turn secondary structure spanning the pharmacophore domain stabilized by the intramolecular interactions between the side chains of the His and Trp residues. Enzymatic studies of AST3-88 revealed enhanced stability of AST3-88 over the α-MSH endogenous peptide in rat serum. Upon central administration of AST3-88 into rats, a decreased food intake response was observed. This is the first study to probe the in vivo physiological activity of this engineered peptide-heterocycle template. These findings advance the present knowledge of pharmacophore design for potent, selective, and metabolically stable melanocortin ligands. PMID:25141170

  20. Close linkage of a blast resistance gene, Pias(t), with a bacterial leaf blight resistance gene, Xa1-as(t), in a rice cultivar 'Asominori'.

    PubMed

    Endo, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masayuki; Kaji, Ryota; Nakagomi, Koji; Kataoka, Tomomori; Yokogami, Narifumi; Nakamura, Toshiki; Ishikawa, Goro; Yonemaru, Jun-Ichi; Nishio, Takeshi

    2012-12-01

    It has long been known that a bacterial leaf blight-resistant line in rice obtained from a crossing using 'Asominori' as a resistant parent also has resistance to blast, but a blast resistance gene in 'Asominori' has not been investigated in detail. In the present study, a blast resistance gene in 'Asominori', tentatively named Pias(t), was revealed to be located within 162-kb region between DNA markers YX4-3 and NX4-1 on chromosome 4 and to be linked with an 'Asominori' allele of the bacterial leaf blight resistance gene Xa1, tentatively named Xa1-as(t). An 'Asominori' allele of Pias(t) was found to be dominant and difference of disease severity between lines having the 'Asominori' allele of Pias(t) and those without it was 1.2 in disease index from 0 to 10. Pias(t) was also closely linked with the Ph gene controlling phenol reaction, suggesting the possibility of successful selection of blast resistance using the phenol reaction. Since blast-resistant commercial cultivars have been developed using 'Asominori' as a parent, Pias(t) is considered to be a useful gene in rice breeding for blast resistance. PMID:23341747

  1. The Identification of Novel Diagnostic Marker Genes for the Detection of Beer Spoiling Pediococcus damnosus Strains Using the BlAst Diagnostic Gene findEr

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Jonas; Zehe, Anja; Vogel, Rudi F.

    2016-01-01

    As the number of bacterial genomes increases dramatically, the demand for easy to use tools with transparent functionality and comprehensible output for applied comparative genomics grows as well. We present BlAst Diagnostic Gene findEr (BADGE), a tool for the rapid prediction of diagnostic marker genes (DMGs) for the differentiation of bacterial groups (e.g. pathogenic / nonpathogenic). DMG identification settings can be modified easily and installing and running BADGE does not require specific bioinformatics skills. During the BADGE run the user is informed step by step about the DMG finding process, thus making it easy to evaluate the impact of chosen settings and options. On the basis of an example with relevance for beer brewing, being one of the oldest biotechnological processes known, we show a straightforward procedure, from phenotyping, genome sequencing, assembly and annotation, up to a discriminant marker gene PCR assay, making comparative genomics a means to an end. The value and the functionality of BADGE were thoroughly examined, resulting in the successful identification and validation of an outstanding novel DMG (fabZ) for the discrimination of harmless and harmful contaminations of Pediococcus damnosus, which can be applied for spoilage risk determination in breweries. Concomitantly, we present and compare five complete P. damnosus genomes sequenced in this study, finding that the ability to produce the unwanted, spoilage associated off-flavor diacetyl is a plasmid encoded trait in this important beer spoiling species. PMID:27028007

  2. The Identification of Novel Diagnostic Marker Genes for the Detection of Beer Spoiling Pediococcus damnosus Strains Using the BlAst Diagnostic Gene findEr.

    PubMed

    Behr, Jürgen; Geissler, Andreas J; Schmid, Jonas; Zehe, Anja; Vogel, Rudi F

    2016-01-01

    As the number of bacterial genomes increases dramatically, the demand for easy to use tools with transparent functionality and comprehensible output for applied comparative genomics grows as well. We present BlAst Diagnostic Gene findEr (BADGE), a tool for the rapid prediction of diagnostic marker genes (DMGs) for the differentiation of bacterial groups (e.g. pathogenic / nonpathogenic). DMG identification settings can be modified easily and installing and running BADGE does not require specific bioinformatics skills. During the BADGE run the user is informed step by step about the DMG finding process, thus making it easy to evaluate the impact of chosen settings and options. On the basis of an example with relevance for beer brewing, being one of the oldest biotechnological processes known, we show a straightforward procedure, from phenotyping, genome sequencing, assembly and annotation, up to a discriminant marker gene PCR assay, making comparative genomics a means to an end. The value and the functionality of BADGE were thoroughly examined, resulting in the successful identification and validation of an outstanding novel DMG (fabZ) for the discrimination of harmless and harmful contaminations of Pediococcus damnosus, which can be applied for spoilage risk determination in breweries. Concomitantly, we present and compare five complete P. damnosus genomes sequenced in this study, finding that the ability to produce the unwanted, spoilage associated off-flavor diacetyl is a plasmid encoded trait in this important beer spoiling species.

  3. Molecular cloning, sequencing and expression in Escherichia coli of the capsid protein gene from rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (Spanish isolate AST/89).

    PubMed

    Boga, J A; Casais, R; Marin, M S; Martin-Alonso, J M; Carmenes, R S; Prieto, M; Parra, F

    1994-09-01

    We describe the cloning, nucleotide sequencing and expression in Escherichia coli of the major capsid component (VP60) from the Spanish field isolate AST/89 of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV). The sequence of the 3'-terminal 2483 nucleotides of the genome was found to be 95.4% identical to the German RHDV strain, showing ten changes in the deduced VP60 amino acid sequence. The gene coding for this structural polypeptide has been expressed in bacteria as a beta-galactosidase fusion protein or using a T7 RNA polymerase-based system. The VP60 fusion protein showed only partial antigenic similarity with native VP60 and did not confer protective immunity. The recombinant VP60 produced in the T7 RNA polymerase-based system was antigenically similar to the viral polypeptide as determined using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. When used to immunize rabbits the recombinant VP60 was able to protect the animals against a lethal challenge using purified RHDV.

  4. AST Critical Propulsion and Noise Reduction Technologies for Future Commercial Subsonic Engines Area of Interest 1.0: Reliable and Affordable Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, William; Winter, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The General Electric Reliable and Affordable Controls effort under the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Program has designed, fabricated, and tested advanced controls hardware and software to reduce emissions and improve engine safety and reliability. The original effort consisted of four elements: 1) a Hydraulic Multiplexer; 2) Active Combustor Control; 3) a Variable Displacement Vane Pump (VDVP); and 4) Intelligent Engine Control. The VDVP and Intelligent Engine Control elements were cancelled due to funding constraints and are reported here only to the state they progressed. The Hydraulic Multiplexing element developed and tested a prototype which improves reliability by combining the functionality of up to 16 solenoids and servo-valves into one component with a single electrically powered force motor. The Active Combustor Control element developed intelligent staging and control strategies for low emission combustors. This included development and tests of a Controlled Pressure Fuel Nozzle for fuel sequencing, a Fuel Multiplexer for individual fuel cup metering, and model-based control logic. Both the Hydraulic Multiplexer and Controlled Pressure Fuel Nozzle system were cleared for engine test. The Fuel Multiplexer was cleared for combustor rig test which must be followed by an engine test to achieve full maturation.

  5. The Identification of Novel Diagnostic Marker Genes for the Detection of Beer Spoiling Pediococcus damnosus Strains Using the BlAst Diagnostic Gene findEr.

    PubMed

    Behr, Jürgen; Geissler, Andreas J; Schmid, Jonas; Zehe, Anja; Vogel, Rudi F

    2016-01-01

    As the number of bacterial genomes increases dramatically, the demand for easy to use tools with transparent functionality and comprehensible output for applied comparative genomics grows as well. We present BlAst Diagnostic Gene findEr (BADGE), a tool for the rapid prediction of diagnostic marker genes (DMGs) for the differentiation of bacterial groups (e.g. pathogenic / nonpathogenic). DMG identification settings can be modified easily and installing and running BADGE does not require specific bioinformatics skills. During the BADGE run the user is informed step by step about the DMG finding process, thus making it easy to evaluate the impact of chosen settings and options. On the basis of an example with relevance for beer brewing, being one of the oldest biotechnological processes known, we show a straightforward procedure, from phenotyping, genome sequencing, assembly and annotation, up to a discriminant marker gene PCR assay, making comparative genomics a means to an end. The value and the functionality of BADGE were thoroughly examined, resulting in the successful identification and validation of an outstanding novel DMG (fabZ) for the discrimination of harmless and harmful contaminations of Pediococcus damnosus, which can be applied for spoilage risk determination in breweries. Concomitantly, we present and compare five complete P. damnosus genomes sequenced in this study, finding that the ability to produce the unwanted, spoilage associated off-flavor diacetyl is a plasmid encoded trait in this important beer spoiling species. PMID:27028007

  6. SEROEPIDEMIOLOGY OF HEPATITIS B VIRUS (HBV) AND HEPATITIS C VIRUS (HCV) AND RELATIONSHIP TO ALANINE TRANSFERASE (ALT) IN SAUDI WORKERS AT YANBU INDUSTRIAL CITY

    PubMed Central

    Kashgari, Rashad H.; Mohamad, Adel A.

    1997-01-01

    Objectives: To study the epidemiology of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCP) in a relatively new industrial community in Yanbu, and to find out whether any relationship exists between increased serum Alanine Transferase (ALT) and HBV infection. Method: A group of Saudi male workers (n=332) (mean age = 32 years) were screened for Hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc), Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), Hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV), and Alanine Transferase (ALT) level and the results were correlated with age and marital status. Results: Overall, the prevalence of anti-HBc, HBsAg, and anti-HCV were 23.2%, 7.7% and 0.6% respectively. Age-related HBsAg carrier rates were 7.8%, 6.4% and 9.4% for age groups 18-20, 21-30 and over 30 years respec-tively. Anti-HBc positivity rates lucre 7.8%, 24.3% and 23.1 M for the same age groups. Anti-HCV was positive in only two cases (0.6%) of all subjects. Con-sidering marital status, HBsAg and anti-HBc positivity rates were 7.8% and 20.5% for single subjects compared with 7.4% and 24.5% for married subjects (P=> 0.5 and > 0.5). Twenty-two percent of all subjects had ALT levels above 35 U/L with no correlation between the increase of ALT and anti-HBc or HBsAg positivity. Conclusions: The findings of this work: (1) Support the notion of relatively low prevalence of HCV in the Saudi Population as compared to HBV. (2) Provide clues regarding possible routes of transmission of HBV in Saudis that may help in vaccination policies for control of HBV infection. (3) Emphasize the fact that ALT level is an independent factor of HBV infection, and (4) Signify the need to screen industrial workers fir non-viral causes of liver disease. PMID:23008562

  7. Lower liver cancer risk with antiviral therapy in chronic hepatitis B patients with normal to minimally elevated ALT and no cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Joseph K.; Yang, Hwai-I; Le, An; Nguyen, Nghia H.; Lin, Derek; Vu, Vinh D.; Chaung, Kevin; Nguyen, Vincent; Trinh, Huy N.; Li, Jiayi; Zhang, Jian Q.; Chen, Chien-Jen; Nguyen, Mindie H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract For chronic hepatitis B (CHB), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ≥2 × upper limit of normal (ULN) is often used as a major criteria to initiate treatment in absence of cirrhosis, though patients with lower ALT may not be free from future risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We aimed to examine the effect of antiviral therapy on HCC incidence based on ALT levels. We performed a retrospective study on 3665 patients consisting of United States and Taiwanese REVEAL-HBV cohort who were consecutive, treatment-naïve, noncirrhotic CHB patients aged ≥40 years. Patients were categorized by ALT cutoffs (≥2 × ULN vs <2 × ULN) and subgrouped by treatment status. Kaplan–Meier and Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate cumulative incidence and hazard ratio (HR) of HCC adjusting for REACH-B scores. A total of 202 patients developed HCC. Antiviral treatment significantly reduced HCC risk: HR 0.24, 95% confidence interval 0.10–0.58; P = 0.001. HCC incidence per 100,000 person-years was significantly higher in untreated versus treated patients, even for those with ALT < 2 × ULN: 314.46 versus 0 per 100,000 person-years, P = 0.0042. For patients with Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) ≥ 2000 IU/mL, the number-needed-to-treat (NNT) were 15 and 14 to prevent 1 incident HCC at year 10 for patients with ALT < 2 × ULN and ≥2 × ULN, respectively. After adjustment by REACH-B score, antiviral treatment significantly decreased HCC incidence even in patients with ALT < 2 × ULN. NNT to prevent 1 incident HCC after 10 years of therapy was low (14–15) in patients with mildly elevated HBV DNA ≥ 2000 IU/mL regardless of ALT levels. PMID:27495067

  8. Elevated AST-to-platelet ratio index is associated with increased all-cause mortality among HIV-infected adults in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Vinikoor, Michael J.; Sinkala, Edford; Mweemba, Aggrey; Zanolini, Arianna; Mulenga, Lloyd; Sikazwe, Izukanji; Fried, Michael W.; Eron, Joseph J.; Wandeler, Gilles; Chi, Benjamin H.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims We investigated the association between significant liver fibrosis, determined by AST-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), and all-cause mortality among HIV-infected patients prescribed antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Zambia Methods Among HIV-infected adults who initiated ART, we categorized baseline APRI scores according to established thresholds for significant hepatic fibrosis (APRI ≥1.5) and cirrhosis (APRI ≥2.0). Using multivariable logistic regression we identified risk factors for elevated APRI including demographic characteristics, body mass index (BMI), HIV clinical and immunologic status, and tuberculosis. In the subset tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), we investigated the association of hepatitis B virus co-infection with APRI score. Using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression we determined the association of elevated APRI with death during ART. Results Among 20,308 adults in the analysis cohort, 1,027 (5.1%) had significant liver fibrosis at ART initiation including 616 (3.0%) with cirrhosis. Risk factors for significant fibrosis or cirrhosis included male sex, BMI <18, WHO clinical stage 3 or 4, CD4+ count <200 cells/mm3, and tuberculosis. Among the 237 (1.2%) who were tested, HBsAg-positive patients had four times the odds (adjusted odds ratio, 4.15; 95% CI, 1.71–10.04) of significant fibrosis compared HBsAg-negatives. Both significant fibrosis (adjusted hazard ratio 1.41, 95% CI, 1.21–1.64) and cirrhosis (adjusted hazard ratio 1.57, 95% CI, 1.31–1.89) were associated with increased all-cause mortality. Conclusion Liver fibrosis may be a risk factor for mortality during ART among HIV-infected individuals in Africa. APRI is an inexpensive and potentially useful test for liver fibrosis in resource-constrained settings. PMID:25581487

  9. Patterns of viral load in chronic hepatitis B patients in Brazil and their association with ALT levels and HBeAg status.

    PubMed

    Nita, Marcelo Eidi; Gaburo, Nelson; Cheinquer, Hugo; L'Italien, Gilbert; Affonso de Araujo, Evaldo Stanislau; Mantilla, Patricia; Cure-Bolt, Nancy; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2009-01-01

    Serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA level is a predictor of the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis B patients. Nevertheless, the distribution of viral load levels in chronic HBV patients in Brazil has yet to be described. This cross-sectional study included 564 participants selected in nine Brazilian cities located in four of the five regions of the country using the database of a medical diagnostics company. Admission criteria included hepatitis B surface antigen seropositivity, availability of HBV viral load samples and age >or=18 years. Males comprised 64.5% of the study population. Mean age was 43.7 years. Most individuals (62.1%) were seronegative for the hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg). Median serum ALT level was 34 U/L. In 58.5% of the patients HBV-DNA levels ranged from 300 to 99,999 copies/mL; however, in 21.6% levels were undetectable. Median HBV-DNA level was 2,351 copies/mL. Over 60% of the patients who tested negative for HBeAg and in whom ALT level was less than 1.5 times the upper limit of the normal range had HBV-DNA levels > 2,000 IU/mL, which has been considered a cut-off point for indicating a liver biopsy and/or treatment. In conclusion, HBV-DNA level identified a significant proportion of Brazilian individuals with chronic hepatitis B at risk of disease progression. Furthermore, this tool enables those individuals with high HBV-DNA levels who are susceptible to disease progression to be identified among patients with normal or slightly elevated ALT. PMID:20009133

  10. A search for natural bioactive compounds in Bolivia through a multidisciplinary approach. Part III. Evaluation Of the antimalarial activity of plants used by Alteños Indians.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, V; Sauvain, M; Bourdy, G; Arrázola, S; Callapa, J; Ruiz, G; Choque, J; Deharo, E

    2000-07-01

    A total of 40 plant extracts traditionally used by the Alteños Indians, a native community living between the Andean block and the tropical valleys of Bolivia, were screened for antimalarial activity in vitro on Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistant (Indo) strain, and in vivo on rodent malaria Plasmodium vinckei petteri. Eleven extracts displayed good or moderate activity in vivo, and ten extracts good or very good antimalarial activity in vitro. Results of the screening are discussed here, in relation with the traditional use of plants.

  11. Cross-Linked Hydrogels Formed through Diels-Alder Coupling of Furan- and Maleimide-Modified Poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic acid).

    PubMed

    Stewart, S Alison; Backholm, Matilda; Burke, Nicholas A D; Stöver, Harald D H

    2016-02-23

    The Diels-Alder [4 + 2] cycloaddition between furan- and maleimide-functional polyanions was used to form cross-linked synthetic polymer hydrogels. Poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic anhydride) was reacted with furfurylamine or N-(2-aminoethyl)maleimide in acetonitrile to form pairs of furan- and maleimide-functionalized poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic acid)s. Mixtures of these mutually reactive polyanions in water gelled within 15 min to 18 h, depending on degree of functionalization and polymer concentrations. Solution and magic-angle spinning (1)H NMR were used to confirm the formation of the Diels-Alder adduct, to analyze competing hydrolytic side reactions, and demonstrate postgelation functionalization. The effect of the degree of furan and maleimide functionalization, polymer concentration, pH, and calcium ion concentration, on gelation time, gel mechanical properties, and equilibrium swelling, are described. Release of dextran as a model drug was studied using fluorescence spectroscopy, as a function of gel composition and calcium treatment. PMID:26800849

  12. New use of an old drug: chloroquine reduces viral and ALT levels in HCV non-responders (a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial).

    PubMed

    Peymani, Payam; Yeganeh, Behzad; Sabour, Siamak; Geramizadeh, Bita; Fattahi, Mohammad Reza; Keyvani, Hossein; Azarpira, Negar; Coombs, Kevin M; Ghavami, Saied; Lankarani, Kamran B

    2016-06-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection induces autophagy, but the virus assimilates the autophagic response into its own life cycle. Chloroquine (CQ) is an autophagy inhibitor that is clinically used to treat malaria. The aims of this pilot clinical trial were to evaluate the therapeutic potential and short-term safety of CQ in patients with chronic HCV genotype 1, who were unresponsive to a combination of pegylated interferon alpha and ribavirin. Ten non-responders to previous antiviral treatment(s) were randomized to receive either CQ (150 mg daily for 8 weeks) or placebo, and were followed for 4 weeks after CQ therapy. HCV RNA load and plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) levels were measured at baseline, week 4 (initial response), week 8 (end-of-treatment response), and at the end of 12 weeks. A significant decrease in HCV RNA after the treatments (week 8) was observed in all patients in the CQ group (P = 0.04). However, HCV RNA levels increased within 4 weeks after discontinuation of CQ treatment although they were still lower than baseline. In addition, the ALT normalized during treatment in the CQ group. However, this response was also lost after treatment cessation. This study provides preliminary evidence that CQ is possibly a safe treatment option for HCV non-responders.

  13. Detection of virulence factors of Escherichia coli focused on prevalence of EAST1 toxin in stool of diarrheic and non-diarrheic piglets and presence of adhesion involving virulence factors in astA positive strains.

    PubMed

    Zajacova, Zuzana Sramkova; Konstantinova, Lucie; Alexa, Pavel

    2012-01-27

    Between 2005 and 2009, a total of 800 Escherichia coli strains isolated from piglets with diarrhea were tested for the presence of enteroaggregative heat-stable enterotoxin EAST1, heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable enterotoxins (STa) and shigatoxin (Stx2e) by PCR with the purpose of investigating the present distribution of virulence factors on swine farms in the Czech Republic. The isolates were analyzed for their O-serogroup, fimbrial (K88, K99, 987P, F41, F18) and nonfimbrial adhesins (adhesin involved in diffuse adherence AIDA and porcine attaching and effacing-associated factor PAA). The detection rates of ETEC and STEC isolates were 36.5% and 7.75%, respectively, which implies that ETEC play the major role in E. coli infections in Czech herds. Generally, the most common serotype was O149:K88 which possessed genetic determinants for LT and EAST1. None of the tested E. coli isolates was positive for genes K99, 987P and F41. It was shown that out of 800 E. coli strains isolated from pigs, 277 were EAST1 positive and 74% from the latter were identified as ETEC. Of the fimbrial adhesins, K88 and F18 were commonly detected. Over 80% of K88/EAST1 positive strains possessed the gene for paa. We detected no EAE isolate positive for fimbrial adhesins or PAA and AIDA. The AIDA was more often associated with F18 than with K88. The gene astA was also identified among E. coli isolates of non-diarrheic piglets. We tested rectal swab samples collected from apparently healthy piglets on three farms. On all farms, E. coli astA positive strains (26.66%, 90.00% and 46.66% astA positive animals) were isolated. Our results showed a significantly higher prevalence of astA positive E. coli isolates among apparently healthy piglets in comparison with diarrheic piglets. The question remains as to what is the role of the astA gene in the pathogenesis of porcine colibacillosis and as a virulence factor. PMID:21864997

  14. Synthesis of Cis,syndiotactic A-alt-B Copolymers from Two Enantiomerically Pure Trans-2,3-Disubstituted-5,6-Norbornenes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cis,syndiotacticA-alt-B copolymers, where A and B are two enantiomerically pure trans-2,3-disubstituted-5,6-norbornenes with “opposite” chiralities, can be prepared with stereogenic-at-metal initiators of the type M(NR)(CHR′)(OR”)(pyrrolide). Formation of a high percentage of alternating AB copolymer linkages relies on an inversion of chirality at the metal with each propagating step and a relatively fast formation of an AB sequence as a consequence of a preferred diastereomeric relationship between the chirality at the metal and the chirality of the monomer. This approach to formation of an alternating AB copolymer contrasts dramatically with the principle of forming AB copolymers from achiral monomers and catalysts. PMID:27725961

  15. Synthesis and Luminescence of Yellow/Orange-Emitting Poly[tris(2,5-dihexyloxy-l,4-phenylenevinylene)-alt-(l,3-phenylenevinylene)]s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liao, Liang; Pang, Yi; Ding, Liming; Karasz, Frank E.; Smith, Philip R.; Meador, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    Soluble yellow/orange-emitting poly[tris(2,5-dihexyloxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene)-alt- (1,3-phenylenevinylene)] derivatives (6) have been synthesized and characterized. These polymers contain oligo(p-phenylene vinylene) chromophores of equal conjugation length, which are linked to a m-phenylene unit. Optical comparison between 6 and its model compound 8 at room and low temperature reveals the similarity in their absorption and fluorescence band structures. The vibronic band structure of 6 is assigned with the aid of the spectroscopic data for 8 at low temperature. Polymers 6 are electroluminescent with emission lambda (sub max), at approximately 565 nm. By using the device configuration of ITO/PEDOT/6/Ca, the polymer exhibits an external EL efficiency as high as 0.46%.

  16. Ion irradiation effects on critical temperature of Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10-ALT="delta" /> and Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2O8-ALT="delta" />

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunami, Noriaki; Matsumoto, K.; Takai, Y.

    1999-12-01

    We have measured resistivity modification of Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (Bi-2223) and Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2O8-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (Bi-2212) films H+, 100 keV He+ and 1 MeV O+ irradiation at normal incidence and at room temperature. It appears that degradation of critical temperature (Tc) follows the nuclear collision process or scales with the displacement per atom as in other high critical temperature superconductor (HTSC) oxides such as YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (YBCO), assuming a displacement threshold energy of 20 eV. No significant difference of Tc degradation is observed between Bi-2223 and Bi-2212 phases. It is also found that Tc degradation of Bi-based HTSC oxide films is quite similar to that of Tl2Ca2Ba2Cu3O10-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (Tl-2223), indicating that Bi-based and Tl-based HTSC oxides are more sensitive to ion irradiation than YBCO.

  17. Rhodium-Coordinated Poly(arylene-ethynylene)-alt-Poly(arylene-vinylene) Copolymer Acting as Photocatalyst for Visible-Light-Powered NAD+/NADH Reduction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A 2,2′-bipyridyl-containing poly(arylene-ethynylene)-alt-poly(arylene-vinylene) polymer, acting as a light-harvesting ligand system, was synthesized and coupled to an organometallic rhodium complex designed for photocatalytic NAD+/NADH reduction. The material, which absorbs over a wide spectral range, was characterized by using various analytical techniques, confirming its chemical structure and properties. The dielectric function of the material was determined from spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. Photocatalytic reduction of nucleotide redox cofactors under visible light irradiation (390–650 nm) was performed and is discussed in detail. The new metal-containing polymer can be used to cover large surface areas (e.g. glass beads) and, due to this immobilization step, can be easily separated from the reaction solution after photolysis. Because of its high stability, the polymer-based catalyst system can be repeatedly used under different reaction conditions for (photo)chemical reduction of NAD+. With this concept, enzymatic, photo-biocatalytic systems for solar energy conversion can be facilitated, and the precious metal catalyst can be recycled. PMID:25130570

  18. Encapsulation and stabilization of indocyanine green within poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) block-poly(styrene) micelles for near-infrared imaging.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Victoria B; Henry, Scott M; Hoffman, Allan S; Stayton, Patrick S; Li, Xingde; Pun, Suzie H

    2008-01-01

    Indocyanine green (ICG) is a Federal Drug Administration-approved near-infrared imaging agent susceptible to chemical degradation, nonspecific binding to blood proteins, and rapid clearance from the body. In this study, we describe the encapsulation of ICG within polymeric micelles formed from poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride)-block-poly(styrene) (PSMA-b-PSTY) diblock copolymers to stabilize ICG for applications in near-infrared diagnostic imaging. In aqueous solution, the diblock copolymers self-assemble to form highly stable micelles approximately 55 nm in diameter with a critical micelle concentration (CMC) of approximately 1 mg/L. Hydrophobic ICG salts readily partition into the PSTY core of these micelles with high efficiency, and produce no change in micelle morphology or CMC. Once loaded in the micelle core, ICG is protected from aqueous and thermal degradation, with no significant decrease in fluorescence emission over 14 days at room temperature and retaining 63% of its original emission at 37 degrees C. Free ICG does not release rapidly from the micelle core, with only 11% release over 24 h. The ICG-loaded micelles do not exhibit significant cell toxicity. This system has the potential to greatly improve near-infrared imaging in breast cancer detection by increasing the stability of ICG for formulation/administration, and by providing a means to target ICG to tumor tissue.

  19. ALT-GTS-Stem Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Thuan Nguyen

    2008-09-25

    In 2007, a study investigated options to manufacture stems utilizing methods that would replace crush form grinding while maintaining or improving quality at a comparative cost. Crush form grinding is a special process used at the Kansas City Plant to finish stem sections of reservoir products. However, crush form grinding is a complex process with many variables affecting the final product. This study identified two potential methods that can be applied to stems. Profile grinding was investigated in 2007. This project continued in 2008 proving that single point turning on a multi-turret is an option with additional benefits. It is an economical way to meet floor space limitations for our KCRIMS mission.

  20. Alt-Az Spacewatch Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Tom

    1997-01-01

    This grant funded about one third of the cost of the construction of a telescope with an aperture 1.8 meters in diameter to discover asteroids and comets and investigate the statistics of their populations and orbital distributions. This telescope has been built to the PI's specifications and installed in a dome on Kitt Peak mountain in Arizona. Funds for the dome and building were provided entirely by private sources. The dome building and telescope were dedicated in a ceremony at the site on June 7, 1997. The attached abstract describes the parameters of the telescope. The telescope is a new item of capital property. It is permanently located in University of Arizona building number 910 in the Steward Observatory compound on Kitt Peak mountain in the Tohono O'odham Nation, Arizona. fts property tag number is A252107. This grant did not include funds for the coma corrector lens, instrument derotator, CCD detector, detector electronics, or computers to acquire or process the data. It also did not include funds to operate the telescope or conduct research with it. Funds for these items and efforts are pending from NASA and other sources.

  1. Alanine transaminase (ALT) blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 21. Pratt DS. Liver chemistry and function tests. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, ...

  2. Beam-Target Double-Spin Asymmetry ALT in Charged Pion Production from Deep Inelastic Scattering on a Transversely Polarized He3 Target at 1.4

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, J.; Allada, K.; Dutta, C.; Katich, J.; Qian, X.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Aniol, K.; Annand, J. R. M.; Averett, T.; et al

    2012-01-01

    We report the first measurement of the double-spin asymmetry ALT for charged pion electroproduction in semi-inclusive deep inelastic electron scattering on a transversely polarized 3He target. The kinematics focused on the valence quark region, 0.16 < x < 0.35 with 1.4 < Q2 < 2.7 GeV2. The corresponding neutron ALT asymmetries were extracted from the measured 3He asymmetries and proton/3He cross section ratios using the effective polarization approximation. These new data probe the transverse momentum dependent parton distribution function g1Tq and therefore provide access to quark spin-orbit correlations. Our results indicate a positive azimuthal asymmetry for π- production on 3Hemore » and the neutron, while our π+ asymmetries are consistent with zero.« less

  3. DFM in practice: results of a three way partnership between a leading fabless design house, foundry, and EDA company to implement alternating-phase shift mask (Alt-PSM) on a 90-nm FPGA chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chun-Chi; Shieh, Ming-Feng; Liu, Erick; Lin, Benjamin; Lin, Henry; Chacko, Manoj; Li, Xiaoyang; Lei, Wen-Kang; Ho, Jonathan; Wu, Xin

    2005-05-01

    At the sub 90nm nodes, resolution enhancement techniques (RETs) such as optical proximity correction (OPC), phase-shifting masks (PSM), sub-resolution assist features (SRAF) have become essential steps in the post-physical verification 'Mask Synthesis' process and a key component of design for manufacturing (DFM). Several studies have been conducted and the results have been published on the implication and application of the different types of RETs on mask printability and costs. More specifically, double-exposure-based, dark-field, alternating PSM (Alt-PSM) technology has received lot of attention with respect to the mask manufacturing challenges and its implementation into a production flow, despite its yield and critical dimension (CD) control superiority. Implementation of Alt-PSM generally requires phase compliance rules and proper phase topology in the layout and this has been successful for the technology node with these rules implemented. However, this may not be true for a matured, production process technology, in this case 90 nm. Especially, in the foundry-fabless business model where the foundry provides a standard set of design rules to its customers for a given process technology, and where not all the foundry customers require Alt-PSM in their tapeout flow. What follows is an in-depth review of the DFM challenges to each partner faced, its effect on the tapeout flow, and how design, manufacturing, and EDA teams worked together to resolve phase conflicts, tapeout the chip, and finally verify the silicon results in production.

  4. Close linkage of a blast resistance gene, Pias(t), with a bacterial leaf blight resistance gene, Xa1-as(t), in a rice cultivar ‘Asominori’

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masayuki; Kaji, Ryota; Nakagomi, Koji; Kataoka, Tomomori; Yokogami, Narifumi; Nakamura, Toshiki; Ishikawa, Goro; Yonemaru, Jun-ichi; Nishio, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    It has long been known that a bacterial leaf blight-resistant line in rice obtained from a crossing using ‘Asominori’ as a resistant parent also has resistance to blast, but a blast resistance gene in ‘Asominori’ has not been investigated in detail. In the present study, a blast resistance gene in ‘Asominori’, tentatively named Pias(t), was revealed to be located within 162-kb region between DNA markers YX4-3 and NX4-1 on chromosome 4 and to be linked with an ‘Asominori’ allele of the bacterial leaf blight resistance gene Xa1, tentatively named Xa1-as(t). An ‘Asominori’ allele of Pias(t) was found to be dominant and difference of disease severity between lines having the ‘Asominori’ allele of Pias(t) and those without it was 1.2 in disease index from 0 to 10. Pias(t) was also closely linked with the Ph gene controlling phenol reaction, suggesting the possibility of successful selection of blast resistance using the phenol reaction. Since blast-resistant commercial cultivars have been developed using ‘Asominori’ as a parent, Pias(t) is considered to be a useful gene in rice breeding for blast resistance. PMID:23341747

  5. Multifunctional electroactive electrospun nanofiber structures from water solution blends of PVA/ODA–MMT and poly(maleic acid-alt-acrylic acid): effects of Ag, organoclay, structural rearrangement and NaOH doping factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şimşek, Murat; Rzayev, Zakir M. O.; Bunyatova, Ulviya

    2016-06-01

    Novel multifunctional colloidal polymer nanofiber electrolytes were fabricated by green reactive electrospinning nanotechnology from various water solution/dispersed blends of poly (vinyl alcohol-co-vinyl acetate) (PVA)/octadecyl amine-montmorillonite (ODA–MMT) as matrix polymer nanocomposite and poly(maleic acid-alt-acrylic acid) (poly(MAc-alt-AA) and/or its Ag-carrying complex as partner copolymers. Polymer nanofiber electrolytes were characterized using FTIR, XRD, thermal (DSC, TGA–DTG), SEM, and electrical analysis methods. Effects of partner copolymers, organoclay, in situ generated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), and annealing procedure on physical and chemical properties of polymer composite nanofibers were investigated. The electrical properties (resistance, conductivity, activation energy) of nanofibers with/without NaOH doping agent were also evaluated. This work presented a structural rearrangement of nanofiber mats by annealing via decarboxylation of anhydride units with the formation of new conjugated double bond sites onto partner copolymer main chains. It was also found that the semiconductor behaviors of nanofiber structures were essentially improved with increasing temperature and fraction of partner copolymers as well as presence of organoclay and AgNPs in nanofiber composite.

  6. Multifunctional electroactive electrospun nanofiber structures from water solution blends of PVA/ODA-MMT and poly(maleic acid-alt-acrylic acid): effects of Ag, organoclay, structural rearrangement and NaOH doping factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şimşek, Murat; Rzayev, Zakir M. O.; Bunyatova, Ulviya

    2016-06-01

    Novel multifunctional colloidal polymer nanofiber electrolytes were fabricated by green reactive electrospinning nanotechnology from various water solution/dispersed blends of poly (vinyl alcohol-co-vinyl acetate) (PVA)/octadecyl amine-montmorillonite (ODA-MMT) as matrix polymer nanocomposite and poly(maleic acid-alt-acrylic acid) (poly(MAc-alt-AA) and/or its Ag-carrying complex as partner copolymers. Polymer nanofiber electrolytes were characterized using FTIR, XRD, thermal (DSC, TGA-DTG), SEM, and electrical analysis methods. Effects of partner copolymers, organoclay, in situ generated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), and annealing procedure on physical and chemical properties of polymer composite nanofibers were investigated. The electrical properties (resistance, conductivity, activation energy) of nanofibers with/without NaOH doping agent were also evaluated. This work presented a structural rearrangement of nanofiber mats by annealing via decarboxylation of anhydride units with the formation of new conjugated double bond sites onto partner copolymer main chains. It was also found that the semiconductor behaviors of nanofiber structures were essentially improved with increasing temperature and fraction of partner copolymers as well as presence of organoclay and AgNPs in nanofiber composite.

  7. Enhanced optophysical properties of poly[(9,9-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-alt-(benzo[2,1,3] thiadiazol-4,8-diyl)] via addition of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Fuzi, Siti Aishah Ahmad Jumali, Mohammad Hafizuddin Hj Al-Asbahi, Bandar Ali Abdulqader

    2015-09-25

    This work investigated the effect on 5 wt% addition of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs) on the optical absorption characteristics of Poly[(9,9-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-alt-(benzo[2,1,3] thiadiazol-4,8-diyl)] (F8BT). Both materials were mixed using solution blending method and then spin coated onto ITO-coated glass substrate at 1000 rpm for 30s. The optical properties of the nanocomposite were determined using UV-Vis spectroscopy. Compares to pristine film, the absorption peak of the nanocomposite film improved and shifted to longer wavelength indicating reduction in the direct and indirect band gaps. Better optophysical properties of F8BT/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites is believed due to compatible band structures and efficient charge trapping effect displayed by the NPs.

  8. Warm and Dense Molecular Gas in the N 159 Region: 12CO J = 4-3 and 13CO J = 3-2 Observations with NANTEN2 and ASTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, Yoji; Kawamura, Akiko; Onishi, Toshikazu; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro; Muller, Erik; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Hayakawa, Takahiro; Mizuno, Norikazu; Mizuno, Akira; Stutzki, Jürgen; Pineda, Jorge L.; Klein, Uli; Bertoldi, Frank; Koo, Bon-Chul; Rubio, Monica; Burton, Michael; Benz, Arnold; Ezawa, Hajime; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Kohno, Kotaro; Hasegawa, Tetsuo; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Ikeda, Masafumi; Ott, Jürgen; Wong, Tony; Hughes, Annie; Meixner, Margaret; Indebetouw, Remy; Gordon, Karl D.; Whitney, Barbara; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Fukui, Yasuo

    2010-02-01

    New 12CO J = 4-3 and 13CO J = 3-2 observations of the N 159 region, an active site of massive star formation in the Large Magellanic Cloud, have been made with the NANTEN2 and ASTE submillimeter telescopes, respectively. The 12CO J = 4-3 distribution is separated into three clumps, each associated with N 159 W, N 159 E, and N 159 S. These new measurements toward the three clumps are used in coupled calculations of molecular rotational excitation and line radiation transfer, along with other transitions of the 12CO J = 1-0, J = 2-1, J = 3-2, and J = 7-6 as well as the isotope transitions of 13CO J = 1-0, J = 2-1, J = 3-2, and J = 4-3. The 13CO J = 3-2 data were newly taken for the present work. The temperatures and densities were found to be ˜70-80 K and ˜3 × 10³ cm-3 in N 159 W and N 159 E, and ˜30 K and ˜1.6 × 10³ cm-3 in N 159 S. These results were compared with the star-formation activity based on data of young stellar clusters and HII regions as well as midinfrared emission obtained with the Spitzer MIPS. The N 159 E clump is associated with cluster(s) embedded, as observed at 24μm by the Spitzer MIPS, and the derived high temperature, 80 K, is interpreted as being heated by these sources. The N 159 E clump is likely to be responsible for a dark lane in a large HII region by dust extinction. On the other hand, the N 159 W clump is associated with clusters embedded mainly toward the eastern edge of the clump only. These clusters show offsets of 20''-40'' from the 12CO J = 4-3 peak, and are probably responsible for heating indicated by the derived high temperature, 70 K. The N 159 W clump exhibits no sign of star formation toward the 12CO J = 4-3 peak position and its western region that shows enhanced R4-3/1-0 and R3-2/1-0 ratios. We therefore suggest that the N 159 W peak represents a pre-star-cluster core of ˜105Modot which deserves further detailed studies. The N 159 S clump shows little sign of star formation, as is consistent with the lower

  9. Synthesis and Photophysical and Electroluminescent Properties of Poly(1,4-phenylene–ethynylene)-alt-poly(1,4-phenylene–vinylene)s with Various Dissymmetric Substitution of Alkoxy Side Chains

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of a set of conjugated polymers, poly(1,4-phenylene–ethynylene)-alt-poly(1,4-phenylene–vinylene)s (PPE–PPVs), with a dissymmetrical configuration (partial or total) of alkoxy side chains is reported. Five new polymers bearing octyloxy and/or octadecyloxy side chains at the phenylene–ethynylene and phenylene–vinylene segments, respectively, were obtained. Two symmetrical substituted polymers were used for comparison. Polymers with weight-average molecular weight, Mw, up to 430 000 g/mol and degree of polymerization between 17 and 322 were obtained by a Horner–Wadsworth–Emmons olefination polycondensation reaction of the respective luminophoric dialdehydes and bisphosphonates. As expected, identical conjugated backbones in all polymers results in very similar photophysical response in dilute solution, with high fluorescence quantum yields between 50% and 80%. In contrast, the thin film properties are dependent on the combinatorial effects of side chain configuration, molecular weight, and film thickness parameters, which are the basis of the resulting comparison and discussion. PMID:26877550

  10. Orientation of thin YBa2Cu3O7-ALT="delta" />/YSZ films characterization by micro-Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M. S.; Shen, Z. X.; Zhou, W. Z.; Xu, S. Y.; Ong, C. K.

    1999-05-01

    Micro-Raman scattering of thin YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> films of various thicknesses, deposited by pulsed laser deposition on the yttrium-stabilized zirconia (001) substrates, was carried out at different scattering geometries. The fraction of c-axis orientation of the films was calculated from the intensity ratio of the O(2,3)-B1g and O(4)-Ag modes. It is shown that it is strongly dependent on the film thickness and the highest fraction of c-axis orientation occurs for film thickness around 80 nm. The lower c-axis fraction for thinner films was explained by the simultaneous growth of a- and c-axis-oriented grains at the interface region, while the lower c-axis fraction for thicker films was due to the faults and voids in the films. Several a- and b-axis in-plane orientations have been identified using polarized Raman spectra.

  11. ALT space shuttle barometric altimeter altitude analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, R.

    1978-01-01

    The accuracy was analyzed of the barometric altimeters onboard the space shuttle orbiter. Altitude estimates from the air data systems including the operational instrumentation and the developmental flight instrumentation were obtained for each of the approach and landing test flights. By comparing the barometric altitude estimates to altitudes derived from radar tracking data filtered through a Kalman filter and fully corrected for atmospheric refraction, the errors in the barometric altitudes were shown to be 4 to 5 percent of the Kalman altitudes. By comparing the altitude determined from the true atmosphere derived from weather balloon data to the altitude determined from the U.S. Standard Atmosphere of 1962, it was determined that the assumption of the Standard Atmosphere equations contributes roughly 75 percent of the total error in the baro estimates. After correcting the barometric altitude estimates using an average summer model atmosphere computed for the average latitude of the space shuttle landing sites, the residual error in the altitude estimates was reduced to less than 373 feet. This corresponds to an error of less than 1.5 percent for altitudes above 4000 feet for all flights.

  12. Alt/Space 12(3)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Malke, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    This section is full of stories from teaching artists working to clarify what needs to change within their practices and moving toward solutions--whether it's supporting a classroom of learners in new and unexpected ways, reassessing one's approach in the classroom, shepherding an individual child toward success, or professionalizing an…

  13. Efficient bulk heterojunction solar cells with poly[2,7-(9,9-dihexylfluorene)-alt-bithiophene] and 6,6-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester blends and their application in tandem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dewei; Tang, Weihua; Ke, Lin; Tan, Swee Tiam; Sun, Xiao Wei

    2010-03-01

    We present herein efficient bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells via mixing poly[2,7-(9,9-dihexylfluorene)-alt-bithiophene] (F6T2) and 6,6-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) with variable weight ratios. The photo-physics and morphology of F6T2:PCBM blend films and the electrical characteristics of their corresponding single cells were studied in details by changing PCBM concentration. The complete photoluminescence quenching of F6T2 emission occurs with only a small fraction of PCBM blended, demonstrating effective photoinduced charge transfer between F6T2 and PCBM. Morphology images from atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveal that the phase separation in F6T2:PCBM blend films becomes pronounced with the increase of PCBM concentration, resulting in the increased fill factor from 25.2% (1:1) to 56.9% (1:6). A SEM image also shows the phase separation is within the range of 10 - 20 nm. With the optimized F6T2:PCBM weight ratio (1:2), the single cell exhibits a highest power conversion efficiency of 2.46% due to the balance of light absorption and charge transport. Finally, the polymer-small molecule tandem cells are constructed using F6T2:PCBM BHJ as the bottom cell and copper phthalocyanine (CuPc):fullerene (C(60)) as the top cell. The open-circuit voltage (V(oc)) of tandem cell (1.27 V) is equal to the summation of the V(oc) values of the bottom cell (0.86 V) and the top cell (0.43 V). PMID:20356288

  14. Enzyme activities in plasma, liver, and kidney of black ducks and mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    Activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured in plasma, liver, and kidney, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) was measured in liver and kidney of black ducks (Anas rubripes). Activities of ALT, AST, GGT, and ornithine carbamyl transferase (OCT) were assayed in plasma, liver, and kidney of game-farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Appreciable OCT and AST activity occurred in both liver and kidney. Activities of ALT, CPK, ALP and GGT were higher in kidney, while LDH was higher in liver, GGT was detected in plasma from one of four mallards.

  15. Transaminase Activity Predicts Survival in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Takenaka, Yukinori; Takemoto, Norihiko; Yasui, Toshimichi; Yamamoto, Yoshifumi; Uno, Atsuhiko; Miyabe, Haruka; Ashida, Naoki; Shimizu, Kotaro; Nakahara, Susumu; Hanamoto, Atshushi; Fukusumi, Takahito; Michiba, Takahiro; Cho, Hironori; Yamamoto, Masashi; Inohara, Hidenori

    2016-01-01

    Various serum biomarkers have been developed for predicting head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) prognosis. However, none of them have been proven to be clinically significant. A recent study reported that the ratio of aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) to alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) had a prognostic effect on non-metastatic cancers. This study aimed to examine the effect of the AST/ALT ratio on the survival of patients with HNSCC. Clinical data of 356 patients with locoregionally advanced HNSCC were collected. The effect of the AST/ALT ratio on overall survival was analyzed using a Cox proportional hazard model. Moreover, recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) was used to divide the patients into groups on the basis of the clinical stage and AST/ALT ratio. The prognostic ability of this grouping was validated using an independent data set (N = 167). The AST/ALT ratio ranged from 0.42 to 4.30 (median, 1.42) and was a prognostic factor for overall survival that was independent of age, primary sites, and tumor stage (hazard ratio: 1.36, confidence interval: 1.08−1.68, P = 0.010). RPA divided patients with stage IVA into the following two subgroups: high AST/ALT (≥2.3) and low AST/ALT (<2.3) subgroups. The 5-year survival rate for patients with stage III, stage IVA with a low AST/ALT ratio, stage IVA with a high AST/ALT ratio, and stage IVB were 64.8%, 49.2%, 28.6%, and 33.3%, respectively (p < 0.001). Compared with the low AST/ALT group, the adjusted hazard ratio for death was 2.17 for high AST/ALT group (confidence interval: 1.02–.22 P = 0.045). The AST/ALT ratio was demonstrated to be a prognostic factor of HNSCC. The ratio subdivided patients with stage IVA into low- and high-risk groups. Moreover, intensified treatment for the high-risk group may be considered. PMID:27732629

  16. Aerodynamic design and analysis of the AST-204, AST-205, and AST-206 blended wing-fuse large supersonic transport configuration concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, G. L.; Walkley, K. B.

    1980-01-01

    The aerodynamic design and analysis of three blended wing-fuselage supersonic cruise configurations providing four, five, and six abreast seating was conducted using a previously designed supersonic cruise configuration as the baseline. The five abreast configuration was optimized for wave drag at a Mach number of 2.7. The four and six abreast configurations were also optimized at Mach 2.7, but with the added constraint that the majority of their structure be common with the five abreast configuration. Analysis of the three configurations indicated an improvement of 6.0, 7.5, and 7.7 percent in cruise lift-to-drag ratio over the baseline configuration for the four, five, and six abreast configurations, respectively.

  17. EFFECT OF ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL ON SEVERITY OF CIRRHOSIS IN HUMANS.

    PubMed

    Colpo, Elisangela; Gomes Farias, Julia; Gomes Farias, Iria Luiza; Brenner Reetz, Luiz Gustavo; Oliveira, Liliane; Michelon de Carli, Diego; Irineu Müller, Edson; Marlon de Moraes Flores, Érico; Roth Dalcin, Saulo; Teixeira da Rocha, João Batista

    2015-11-01

    Introducción/Objetivos: examinar la relación entre los potenciales antioxidantes y los parámetros de gravedad de la cirrosis en los seres humanos. Métodos: quince pacientes con cirrosis hepática (nueve sujetos - grupo Child B, y seis sujetos - grupo Child C) y nueve sujetos control fueron incluidos en el estudio. Los principales criterios que se tuvieron en cuenta para caracterizar el diagnóstico de la cirrosis y sus complicaciones fueron la AST: relación de ALT, AST índice de la relación de plaquetas, clasificación Bonacini, clasificación MELD y clasificación de Child. Estos parámetros fueron determinados con base en los resultados de laboratorio y los registros clínicos del paciente. Se midieron los niveles de Zn, ácido ascórbico (AA) y los parámetros de estrés oxidativo en muestras de sangre de pacientes cirróticos. Resultados: el análisis de los niveles plasmáticos de Se y AA mostraron bajas concentraciones en los pacientes cirróticos en comparación con los sujetos control (P < 0,05); sin embargo, hubo una correlación positiva entre el plasma de Se y los parámetros de gravedad de la cirrosis en pacientes del grupo Child B y C. En la actividad de las enzimas antioxidantes catalasa solamente fue menor en los pacientes del grupo Child C, en comparación con el grupo control. Conclusión: se encontraron niveles bajos en plasma de Se y AA en pacientes cirróticos. Sin embargo, no está claro por qué los niveles de selenio tienden a aumentar con la gravedad de la cirrosis hepática.

  18. ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase) Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... known as: ALK PHOS; Alkp Formal name: Alkaline Phosphatase Related tests: AST ; ALT ; GGT ; Bilirubin ; Liver Panel ; Bone Markers ; Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzymes; Bone Specific ALP All content on Lab ...

  19. Hepatic ischemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... does not cause symptoms until it affects liver function. Blood clots in the liver's main artery may cause ... will be done: Blood tests to check liver function ( AST and ALT ) Doppler ultrasound of the liver's blood vessels

  20. Biliary Tract Disorders, Gallbladder Disorders, and Gallstone Pancreatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... of bile from the liver (ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin). Inflammation of the pancreas is best ... associated with an increase in the products and enzymes made by the liver, gallbladder and pancreas, which ...

  1. The Attitude Scale towards Distance Nursing Education (AstDNE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boz Yuksekdag, Belgian; Unsal Barlas, Gul

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a measurement is seen as an instrument to measure the attitudes of the nurses towards the distance nursing education was developed. The study population consist of nurses who working in two hospitals of the ministry of health and two special hospitals in Istanbul. The sample of the study consisted of 194 nurses who agreed to…

  2. Surface Meteorological Station - Astoria, OR (AST) - Raw Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Coleman, Tim

    2016-10-25

    A variety of instruments are used to measure various quantities related to meteorology, precipitation, and radiation near the Earth’s surface. Typically, a standard suite of instruments is deployed to monitor meteorological state variables.

  3. Radar - 449MHz - Astoria, OR (AST) - Raw Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Coleman, Tim

    2016-10-25

    **Winds.** A radar wind profiler measures the Doppler shift of electromagnetic energy scattered back from atmospheric turbulence and hydrometeors along 3-5 vertical and off-vertical point beam directions. Back-scattered signal strength and radial-component velocities are remotely sensed along all beam directions and are combined to derive the horizontal wind field over the radar. These data typically are sampled and averaged hourly and usually have 6-m and/or 100-m vertical resolutions up to 4 km for the 915 MHz and 8 km for the 449 MHz systems. **Temperature.** To measure atmospheric temperature, a radio acoustic sound system (RASS) is used in conjunction with the wind profile. These data typically are sampled and averaged for five minutes each hour and have a 60-m vertical resolution up to 1.5 km for the 915 MHz and 60-m up to 3.5k m for the 449 MHz. **Spectra.** The daily raw spectra data are available. The files are labeled "header" and "data." These data files are generated by LapXM, binary encoded, and are specific to this application. These datasets contain the raw data from the radar, such as signal-to-noise, signal power, radial velocity, and spectra widths.

  4. Astrometry Verifications and Tests; AST-OV-20 (repeat 2185)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jefferys, William

    1990-12-01

    The goal of this test is to 1) verify that each FGS filter wheel position as commanded actually results from the command. This is required for any observations requiring a filter other than the "clear" filter. 2) verify that the FGSs will be able to observe stars of different magnitudes by using different integration sample times. The test will be coordinated with P-E. Successful conclusion of this test is required for astrometry on objects fainter than the Guide Star limit. 3) determine if objects fainter than the nominal 17.0 magnitude limit can be observed with the FGSs. The nominal limit may be used as a guide line, but the magnitudes may be uncertain by a magnitude. 4) verify the ability of the FGSs to obtain astrometric data on a 17th and 16th magnitude star which will allow its relative position to be determined to 0.002" in one minute. 5) determine the effects of varying FGE NFES Slope in transiting from coarse track to fine lock, on the statistical nature of the astrometric data, and on the parameters which allow acquisition of astrometric targets with different characteristics (FGS 3 and 1 only. FGS 2 completed). Test has been slightly modified to reflect partial success of first run of 2185. Transfer scans and 2/3 aperture have been added to magnitude limit sub-test. 2/3 aperture observations added to Verify Integration Times sub-test.

  5. Observational constraint on Pluto's atmospheric CO with ASTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iino, Takahiro; Hirahara, Yasuhiro; Hidemori, Takehiro; Tsukagoshi, Takashi; Nakajima, Taku; Nakamoto, Satoru; Kato, Chihaya

    2016-02-01

    To confirm the previous observational results of Pluto's atmospheric CO in the J = 2-1 rotational transition, we conducted a new observation of CO (J = 3-2) in Pluto's atmosphere in 2014 August with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment 10 m single-dish telescope. In contrast to the previous observational result obtained with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in 2009 and 2010 by using the J = 2-1 transition, no emission structure was observed near the rest frequency in our attempt. Possible explanations for the nondetection result of the J = 3-2 transition are discussed.

  6. Sustainable health in a globalised world^ast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, P.

    2006-12-01

    It is clear that in making the concept of sustainable development concrete, one has to take into account a number of practical elements and obstacles. There is little doubt that integrated approaches are required to support sustainable development. Therefore, a new research paradigm is needed that is better able to reflect the complexity and the multidimensional character of sustainable development. The new paradigm, referred to as sustainability science, must be able to encompass different magnitudes of scales (of time, space, and function), multiple balances (dynamics), multiple actors (interests) and multiple failures (systemic faults). To illustrate the above, we described potential health transitions in a globalised world.

  7. TOPICAL REVIEW: High-pressure synthesis, crystal growth, phase diagrams, structural and magnetic properties of Y2Ba4CunO2n+x, HgBa2Can- 1CunO2n+2+ALT="delta" /> and quasi-one-dimensional cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpinski, J.; Meijer, G. I.; Schwer, H.; Molinski, R.; Kopnin, E.; Conder, K.; Angst, M.; Jun, J.; Kazakov, S.; Wisniewski, A.; Puzniak, R.; Hofer, J.; Alyoshin, V.; Sin, A.

    1999-09-01

    In this paper we present a review of high-gas-pressure single crystal growth studies of YBa2Cu4O8 and Y2Ba4Cu7O15-x performed in oxygen pressure up to 3000 bar and Hg1-xMxBa2Can- 1CunO2n+2+icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (M = Pb, Re; n = 1-7) compounds in argon pressure up 11 000 bar at temperature up to 1200 °C. Chain compounds A1-xCuO2 (A = Sr, Ca, Ba) have been synthesized at high oxygen pressure up to 2000 bar. High-pressure phase diagram studies of the investigated systems are also discussed. Structure analyses of Y2Ba4CunO2n+x (n = 6-8), Hg1-xMxBa2Can- 1CunO2n+2+icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (M = Pb, Re; n = 1-8), Sr0.73CuO2 and (Sr,Ca)4Cu6O10 single crystals have been performed. The effects of substitutions and trends in bondlengths are discussed. The vortex state properties of HgBa2Ca2Cu3O8+icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> and YBa2Cu4O8 single crystals are compared. For Hg-based compounds, the influence of oxygen content, chemical substitutions and radiation defects on vortex pinning were determined. The quasi-one-dimensional cuprates Ca0.83CuO2 and Sr0.73CuO2 show an antiferromagnetically ordered state of long-range 3D character at T < 10 K. The spin dynamics of Sr0.73CuO2, measured by inelastic neutron scattering, indicate that this ordered state coexists with a dimerized singlet ground state.

  8. Pen and Pal are nucleotide-sugar dehydratases that convert UDP-GlcNAc to UDP-6-deoxy-D-GlcNAc-5,6-ene and then to UDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-L-AltNAc for CMP-pseudaminic acid synthesis in Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Li, Zi; Hwang, Soyoun; Ericson, Jaime; Bowler, Kyle; Bar-Peled, Maor

    2015-01-01

    CMP-pseudaminic acid is a precursor required for the O-glycosylation of flagellin in some pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, a process known to be critical in bacterial motility and infection. However, little is known about flagellin glycosylation in Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we identified and functionally characterized an operon, named Bti_pse, in Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis ATCC 35646, which encodes seven different enzymes that together convert UDP-GlcNAc to CMP-pseudaminic acid. In contrast, Gram-negative bacteria complete this reaction with six enzymes. The first enzyme, which we named Pen, converts UDP-d-GlcNAc to an uncommon UDP-sugar, UDP-6-deoxy-D-GlcNAc-5,6-ene. Pen contains strongly bound NADP(+) and has distinct UDP-GlcNAc 4-oxidase, 5,6-dehydratase, and 4-reductase activities. The second enzyme, which we named Pal, converts UDP-6-deoxy-D-GlcNAc-5,6-ene to UDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-L-AltNAc. Pal is NAD(+)-dependent and has distinct UDP-6-deoxy-d-GlcNAc-5,6-ene 4-oxidase, 5,6-reductase, and 5-epimerase activities. We also show here using NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry that in B. thuringiensis, the enzymatic product of Pen and Pal, UDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-L-AltNAc, is converted to CMP-pseudaminic acid by the sequential activities of a C4″-transaminase (Pam), a 4-N-acetyltransferase (Pdi), a UDP-hydrolase (Phy), an enzyme (Ppa) that adds phosphoenolpyruvate to form pseudaminic acid, and finally a cytidylyltransferase that condenses CTP to generate CMP-pseudaminic acid. Knowledge of the distinct dehydratase-like enzymes Pen and Pal and their role in CMP-pseudaminic acid biosynthesis in Gram-positive bacteria provides a foundation to investigate the role of pseudaminic acid and flagellin glycosylation in Bacillus and their involvement in bacterial motility and pathogenicity.

  9. Pen and Pal Are Nucleotide-Sugar Dehydratases That Convert UDP-GlcNAc to UDP-6-Deoxy-d-GlcNAc-5,6-ene and Then to UDP-4-Keto-6-deoxy-l-AltNAc for CMP-Pseudaminic Acid Synthesis in Bacillus thuringiensis*♦

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zi; Hwang, Soyoun; Ericson, Jaime; Bowler, Kyle; Bar-Peled, Maor

    2015-01-01

    CMP-pseudaminic acid is a precursor required for the O-glycosylation of flagellin in some pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, a process known to be critical in bacterial motility and infection. However, little is known about flagellin glycosylation in Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we identified and functionally characterized an operon, named Bti_pse, in Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis ATCC 35646, which encodes seven different enzymes that together convert UDP-GlcNAc to CMP-pseudaminic acid. In contrast, Gram-negative bacteria complete this reaction with six enzymes. The first enzyme, which we named Pen, converts UDP-d-GlcNAc to an uncommon UDP-sugar, UDP-6-deoxy-d-GlcNAc-5,6-ene. Pen contains strongly bound NADP+ and has distinct UDP-GlcNAc 4-oxidase, 5,6-dehydratase, and 4-reductase activities. The second enzyme, which we named Pal, converts UDP-6-deoxy-d-GlcNAc-5,6-ene to UDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-l-AltNAc. Pal is NAD+-dependent and has distinct UDP-6-deoxy-d-GlcNAc-5,6-ene 4-oxidase, 5,6-reductase, and 5-epimerase activities. We also show here using NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry that in B. thuringiensis, the enzymatic product of Pen and Pal, UDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-l-AltNAc, is converted to CMP-pseudaminic acid by the sequential activities of a C4″-transaminase (Pam), a 4-N-acetyltransferase (Pdi), a UDP-hydrolase (Phy), an enzyme (Ppa) that adds phosphoenolpyruvate to form pseudaminic acid, and finally a cytidylyltransferase that condenses CTP to generate CMP-pseudaminic acid. Knowledge of the distinct dehydratase-like enzymes Pen and Pal and their role in CMP-pseudaminic acid biosynthesis in Gram-positive bacteria provides a foundation to investigate the role of pseudaminic acid and flagellin glycosylation in Bacillus and their involvement in bacterial motility and pathogenicity. PMID:25414257

  10. Enhanced Performance of Inverted Polymer Solar Cells by Combining ZnO Nanoparticles and Poly[(9,9-bis(3'-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctyfluorene)] as Electron Transport Layer.

    PubMed

    Han, Changfeng; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Chen, Ling; Qian, Lei; Yang, Ziyan; Xue, Wei; Zhang, Ting; Yang, Yixing; Cao, Weiran

    2016-02-10

    A highly efficient inverted polymer solar cell (PSC) has been successfully demonstrated by using a ZnO nanoparticle (NP) and poly[(9,9-bis(3'-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctyfluorene)] (PFN) bilayer structure as an effective electron collecting layer. This ZnO/PFN bilayer structure is designed to combine the advantages of both ZnO and PFN, based on the performance comparison of ZnO-only, PFN-only, and ZnO/PFN bilayer devices in our work. ZnO NPs can serve as an efficient electron transport and buffer layer for reduced series resistance, while the PFN interlayer can improve the energy level alignment of devices through the formation of an interfacial dipole. With the enhanced electron extraction induced by the ZnO/PFN bilayer structure and PTB7:ICBA:PC71BM ternary system, the corresponding inverted PSC device shows a high PCE of 9.3%, which is more than a 15% improvement compared to the ZnO- or PFN-only devices.

  11. Effects of alcohol consumption on hepatocellular injury in Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Dakeishi, Miwako; Iwata, Toyoto; Ishii, Noriko; Murata, Katsuyuki

    2004-01-01

    To clarify the effects of alcohol consumption on hepatocellular injury, we examined aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), together with weekly alcohol consumption calculated from a self-rating questionnaire, in 1113 Japanese salesmen. The thresholds of associations between alcohol consumption and liver markers were estimated by the benchmark dose (BMD) method. The AST, ALT and GGT were positively correlated with alcohol intake (p<0.001), as well as age and body mass index (BMI); the relations to alcohol were statistically significant even when controlling for age, BMI and smoking habit. Although the AST and GGT were associated with four types of alcoholic beverage (p<0.01), it was only whiskey that had close relation to the ALT (p<0.05). The thresholds of alcohol consumption (ethanol g/week), i.e., 95% lower confidence limits of the BMD, were 362 for AST, 660 for ALT, and 252 for GGT. The thresholds for GGT and AST in Japanese men seem to be somewhat higher than those reported in Western countries. It is suggested that hepatocellular injury (i.e., AST elevation) in Japanese men may emerge at the ethanol level of more than 50 g/day. PMID:14738322

  12. Serum γ-Glutamyltransferase, Alanine Aminotransferase and Aspartate Aminotransferase Activity in Healthy Blood Donor of Different Ethnic Groups in Gorgan

    PubMed Central

    Mehrpouya, Masoumeh; Pourhashem, Zeinab

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Measure of liver enzymes may help to increase safety of blood donation for both blood donor and recipient. Determination of liver enzymes may prepare valuable clinical information. Aim To assess serum γ-Glutamyltransferase (GGT), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), and Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) activities in healthy blood donors in different ethnic groups in Gorgan. Materials and Methods This study was performed in 450 healthy male blood donors, in three ethnic groups (Fars, Sistanee and Turkman) who attended Gorgan blood transfusion center. Liver enzymes (GGT, ALT and AST) were determined. Results Serum AST and ALT in three ethnic groups were significant except for serum GGT levels. There was significant correlation between family histories of liver disease and systolic blood pressure and AST in Fars, and GGT in Sistanee ethnic groups. Conclusion Several factors, such as age, family history of diabetes mellitus, family history of liver disease and smoking habit had no effect on some liver enzymes in different ethnic groups in this area. Variation of AST, ALT, and GGT enzyme activities in healthy subjects was associated with some subjects in our study groups. According to our study, it suggests that screening of AST and GGT enzymes in subjects with family history of liver disease is necessary in different ethnic groups. PMID:27630834

  13. An RF link analysis of MSBLS during ALT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speir, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis of the microwave scanning beam landing system (MSBLS) ground station to orbiter radio frequency (RF) link was made to determine if the expected signal levels will be compatible with orbiter receiver capabilities. Of primary interest was whether or not loss of data will occur due to interference caused by the orbiter 101 nose boom which provides additional air data during the approach and landing test. The results of the analysis indicate that a small amount of data loss may occur due to the proximity of the MSBLS antennas and the nose boom. Tabulated data of antenna radiation patterns are given.

  14. Alt-Energy Grand Prix Inspires an "I Can" Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessmer, Al; Trzeciak, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how a team comprised largely of high school students builds and races an E85-fueled car and takes first place at the Bowling Green (Ohio) State University (BGSU) Grand Prix. Free and open to the public, the event features student drivers and crews, racing go-karts powered by renewable, ethanol-based E85 fuel. The track is a…

  15. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Barton, Thomas J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina; Pang, Yi

    1993-08-31

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylenealt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R.sup.1)(R.sup.2)Si--C.ident.C--(R.sup.3)(R.sup.4)Si--CH=CH--].sub.n --, wherein n.gtoreq.2; each R.sup.1, R.sup.2, R.sup.3, and R.sup.4 is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  16. Second virial coefficient of poly(ethylene-alt-1-butene)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlfarth, Ch.

    This document is part of Subvolume D2 'Polymer Solutions - Physical Properties and their Relations I (Thermodynamic Properties: PVT -Data and miscellaneous Properties of polymer Solutions) of Volume 6 `Polymers' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII `Advanced Materials and Technologies'.

  17. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors and hepatotoxicity in type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Longhao; Chen, Qiyan; Li, Ling; Kwong, Joey S W; Jia, Pengli; Zhao, Pujing; Wang, Wen; Zhou, Xu; Zhang, Mingming; Sun, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs) was reported to be associated with several rare adverse hepatic events, but with inconsistent results. We aimed to investigate the risk of hepatotoxicity associated with the use of AGIs in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. Fourteen studies (n = 2881) were eligible, all of which were RCTs. Meta-analysis of data regarding elevation of more than 3-fold the upper limit of normal (ULN) of AST and ALT showed statistically significant differences between AGIs treatment versus control (OR 6.86, 95% CI 2.50 to 18.80; OR 6.48, 95% CI 2.40 to 17.49). Subgroup analyses of elevation of more than 1.8-fold ULN of AST and ALT by dose of AGIs showed differential effects on AST and ALT (AST: OR 0.38 vs 7.31, interaction P = 0.003; ALT: OR 0.32 vs 4.55, interaction p = 0.02). Meta-analysis showed that AGIs might increase the risk of hepatotoxicity, and higher dose appeared to be associated with higher risk of hepatotoxicity. However, the evidence is limited with surrogate measures (i.e. ALT and AST), and no clinically important adverse events were observed. PMID:27596383

  18. Molecular characterization of Aeromonas species isolated from farmed eels (Anguilla japonica).

    PubMed

    Yi, Seung-Won; You, Myung-Jo; Cho, Ho-Seong; Lee, Chang-Seop; Kwon, Joong-Ki; Shin, Gee-Wook

    2013-05-31

    Seventy Aeromonas strains were identified by phylogenetic analysis using housekeeping genes (gyrB and rpoD) in order to investigate etiological agents for aeromoniasis in farmed eels (Anguilla japonica). The phylogenetic analysis showed that Aeromonas aquariorum (n=22, 31.4%) was the predominant species among the investigated eel strains, followed by Aeromonas caviae (n=16, 22.9%), A. veronii (n=13, 18.6%), A. hydrophila (n=12, 17.1%), A. jandaei (n=4, 5.7%), A. media (n=2, 2.9%), and A. trota (n=1, 1.4%). The potential virulence of the present strains was estimated by performing PCR assays using the following seven virulence genes: cytotoxic enterotoxin (act), two cytotonic enterotoxins (alt and ast), glycerophospholipid:cholesterol acyltransferase (gcaT), DNase (exu), lipase (lip), and flagellin (fla). The detection rates of act, alt, ast, gcaT, exu, lip, and fla among all 70 strains were 91.4%, 55.7%, 27.1%, 97.1%, 95.7%, 100%, and 98.6%, respectively. In genotyping of enterotoxin genes, act(+)/alt(+)/ast(+), act(+)/alt(+)/ast(-), and act(+)/alt(-)/ast(-) genotypes were prevalent in A. hydrophila (8/12 strains), A. aquariorum (13/22 strains), and A. caviae (14/16 strains), respectively, suggesting a high heterogeneity among Aeromonas species. In this study, A. aquariorum, which has been an unrecorded species in Korea, can be an etiological agent for aeromoniasis of eel.

  19. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors and hepatotoxicity in type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Longhao; Chen, Qiyan; Li, Ling; Kwong, Joey S. W.; Jia, Pengli; Zhao, Pujing; Wang, Wen; Zhou, Xu; Zhang, Mingming; Sun, Xin

    2016-09-01

    Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs) was reported to be associated with several rare adverse hepatic events, but with inconsistent results. We aimed to investigate the risk of hepatotoxicity associated with the use of AGIs in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. Fourteen studies (n = 2881) were eligible, all of which were RCTs. Meta-analysis of data regarding elevation of more than 3-fold the upper limit of normal (ULN) of AST and ALT showed statistically significant differences between AGIs treatment versus control (OR 6.86, 95% CI 2.50 to 18.80; OR 6.48, 95% CI 2.40 to 17.49). Subgroup analyses of elevation of more than 1.8-fold ULN of AST and ALT by dose of AGIs showed differential effects on AST and ALT (AST: OR 0.38 vs 7.31, interaction P = 0.003 ALT: OR 0.32 vs 4.55, interaction p = 0.02). Meta-analysis showed that AGIs might increase the risk of hepatotoxicity, and higher dose appeared to be associated with higher risk of hepatotoxicity. However, the evidence is limited with surrogate measures (i.e. ALT and AST), and no clinically important adverse events were observed.

  20. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors and hepatotoxicity in type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Longhao; Chen, Qiyan; Li, Ling; Kwong, Joey S. W.; Jia, Pengli; Zhao, Pujing; Wang, Wen; Zhou, Xu; Zhang, Mingming; Sun, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs) was reported to be associated with several rare adverse hepatic events, but with inconsistent results. We aimed to investigate the risk of hepatotoxicity associated with the use of AGIs in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. Fourteen studies (n = 2881) were eligible, all of which were RCTs. Meta-analysis of data regarding elevation of more than 3-fold the upper limit of normal (ULN) of AST and ALT showed statistically significant differences between AGIs treatment versus control (OR 6.86, 95% CI 2.50 to 18.80; OR 6.48, 95% CI 2.40 to 17.49). Subgroup analyses of elevation of more than 1.8-fold ULN of AST and ALT by dose of AGIs showed differential effects on AST and ALT (AST: OR 0.38 vs 7.31, interaction P = 0.003; ALT: OR 0.32 vs 4.55, interaction p = 0.02). Meta-analysis showed that AGIs might increase the risk of hepatotoxicity, and higher dose appeared to be associated with higher risk of hepatotoxicity. However, the evidence is limited with surrogate measures (i.e. ALT and AST), and no clinically important adverse events were observed. PMID:27596383

  1. Relation between Liver Transaminases and Dyslipidaemia among 2-10 y.o. Northern Mexican Children

    PubMed Central

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Salas, Rogelio; Nuñez, Georgina M.; Villarreal, Jesús Z.; Sureda, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims The increase in overweight and obese children may be linked to increased rates of liver damage and dyslipidaemia. This study aimed to explore the associations of liver biomarkers with overweight/obesity and dyslipidaemia in Mexican children. Methods The study was a population-based cross-sectional nutritional survey carried out in the State of Nuevo León, Mexico. The study included a 414 subjects aged between 2 and 10 years old (47.8% girls) who took part in the State Survey of Nutrition and Health–Nuevo León 2011/2012. Associations between alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), ALT/AST ratio, and major components of serum lipid profile were assessed. Results Children with high ALT (defined as ≥P75) showed higher prevalence of dyslipidaemia than their counterparts, with high prevalence of high TChol (P = 0.053), non-HDL-chol, TG, and low HDL-chol. Children with an AST/ALT ≥T3 ratio were 0.43-times (95% CI: 0.25–0.74) and 0.27-times (95% CI: 0.17–0.44) low likely to be overweight/obese and to have dyslipidaemia than those with an AST/ALT AST/ALT ratio groups. Conclusions Our results pose the need for further investigation on whether AST/ALT may be useful as screening test in the assessment of children with cardiometabolic risk. PMID:27203747

  2. Coexposure of lead- and lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury in rats: involvement of nitric oxide-initiated oxidative stress and TNF-alpha.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming-Yie; Cheng, Yu-Jung; Chen, Cheng-Kuang; Yang, Bei-Chang

    2005-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the interaction between lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lead (Pb) and the involvement of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and oxidative stress in Pb-plus-LPS (Pb/LPS)-induced liver damage in rats. Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), TNF-alpha, nitric oxide (NO), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were determined in rats treated with Pb and/or LPS. Pb ranging from 0 to 15 mg/kg dose dependently increased AST, ALT, NO, or LPO in LPS-treated rats. Pretreatment with iNOS inhibitor 1400W reduced NO, LPO, TNF-alpha, AST, and ALT in Pb/LPS-treated rats. Thus, Pb increased LPS-induced liver damage, which might be associated with increased NO-initiated oxidative stress and TNF-alpha in rats.

  3. Variation in metabolic enzymatic activity in white muscle and liver of blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus, in response to long-term thermal acclimatization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younis, Elsayed M.

    2015-05-01

    The effects of rearing temperature on white muscle and hepatic phosphofructokinase (PFK), pyruvate kinase (PK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were examined in fingerlings of blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus. The experiment was conducted for 14 weeks at temperatures of 18, 22, 26, 30, and 34°C. The activity of the glycolytic enzymes PFK, PK, and LDH in white muscle increased significantly with increase in water temperature. A reverse trend was observed for these enzymes in the liver, except for LDH, which behaved in the same manner as in white muscle. Cytosolic AST and ALT activity increased in both white muscle and liver in response to warm thermal acclimatization, while a reduction in mitochondrial AST and ALT activity was noticed at high temperatures in comparison with those at a lower temperature.

  4. Sarcocystis fusiformis: some protein metabolic enzymes in various fractions of sarcocysts of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Gupta, R S; Kushwah, H S; Kushwah, A

    1993-01-01

    An investigation on the relative presence of some protein metabolic enzymes, namely aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), NAD+ and NADP+ dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) and arginase in cyst wall (CW), cyst fluid (CF) and zoite (ZT) fractions of the sarcocysts of Sarcocystis fusiformis in the oesophageal muscles of Indian water buffalo was carried out. Both the transaminases were present in all the fractions of the cyst, although in variable amounts. There was a higher level of AST activity than of ALT activity. AST activity was the highest in ZT, whereas ALT activity was at a maximum in the CF fraction. The levels of activity of NAD+ and NADP+ dependent GLDH and arginase remained beyond detectable limits. The study revealed that the intermediates of carbohydrate metabolism are linked to protein metabolism by transaminases. The possibility of concomitant removal of ammonia and its subsequent incorporation into the urea cycle is ruled out in this parasitic protozoan.

  5. IL-15 superagonist/IL-15RαSushi-Fc fusion complex (IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc; ALT-803) markedly enhances specific subpopulations of NK and memory CD8+ T cells, and mediates potent anti-tumor activity against murine breast and colon carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Peter S.; Kwilas, Anna R.; Xu, Wenxin; Alter, Sarah; Jeng, Emily K.; Wong, Hing C.

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-15-N72D superagonist-complexed with IL-15RαSushi-Fc fusion protein (IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc; ALT-803) has been reported to exhibit significant anti-tumor activity in murine myeloma, rat bladder cancer, and murine glioblastoma models. In this study, we examined the immunomodulatory and anti-tumor effects of IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc in tumor-free and highly metastatic tumor-bearing mice. Here, IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc significantly expanded natural killer (NK) and CD8+ T cells. In examining NK cell subsets, the greatest significant increase was in highly cytotoxic and migrating (CD11b+, CD27hi; high effector) NK cells, leading to enhanced function on a per-cell basis. CD8+ T cell subset analysis determined that IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc significantly increased IL-15 responding memory (CD122+, CD44+) CD8+ T cells, in particular those having the innate (NKG2D+, PD1−) phenotype. In 4T1 breast tumor–bearing mice, IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc induced significant anti-tumor activity against spontaneous pulmonary metastases, depending on CD8+ T and NK cells, and resulting in prolonged survival. Similar anti-tumor activity was seen in the experimental pulmonary metastasis model of CT26 colon carcinoma cells, particularly when IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc was combined with a cocktail of checkpoint inhibitors, anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-L1. Altogether, these studies showed for the first time that IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc (1) promoted the development of high effector NK cells and CD8+ T cell responders of the innate phenotype, (2) enhanced function of NK cells, and (3) played a vital role in reducing tumor metastasis and ultimately survival, especially in combination with checkpoint inhibitors. PMID:26910920

  6. Hyper-CK-emia in pediatric celiac disease: prevalence and clinical importance.

    PubMed

    Selimoglu, Mukadder Ayse; Ertekin, Vildan; Altinkaynak, Sevin

    2007-08-01

    Hyper-transaminasemia (HT) is a well-known laboratory sign of celiac disease (CD); however, hyper-creatine phosphokinase (CK)-emia (HCK) is not so familiar. As there are reported cases of myopathy associated CD in the literature, we aimed to investigate serum CK levels of children with CD. Newly diagnosed 126 children were included. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and CK levels were determined. Mean age was 8.7+/-4.4 years (11 mo to 18 y). Of patients, 77 (61.1%) had classic form, 49 (38.9%) had atypical form. Elevated levels of AST, ALT, and CK, respectively, were found in 65 (51.6%), 45 (35.7%), and 50 (39.7%) patients. Isolated HCK was detected in 9 (7.1%) patients. AST, ALT, and CK were all elevated in 29 (23.0%) children. Mean serum AST, ALT, and CK levels were found as 56.1+/-53.7 U/L (11 to 403), 44.7+/-44.0 U/L (7 to 290), and 258.0+/-686.5 U/L (36 to 5956), respectively. In 95 (75.4%) children, AST/ALT value was greater than 1, and in 19 (15.1%) it was greater than 2. We found positive correlations with the level of CK and AST, and ALT (P=0.01). CK level was inversely correlated with hemoglobin and cholesterol levels (P=0.013 and 0.007). In conclusion, this is the first study, which determined elevated serum levels of CK in CD and demonstrated that HCK is as common as HT in children with CD. We emphasize that HT seen in CD is not necessarily a sign of liver injury, but may also be due to myopathy. PMID:17667050

  7. Effect of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaf aqueous extract on paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Bhanwra, S; Singh, J; Khosla, P

    2000-01-01

    The effect of aqueous leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (A. indica) was evaluated in paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Liver necrosis was produced by administering single dose of paracetamol (2 g/kg, p.o.). The liver damage was evidenced by elevated levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT) and by histopathological observations of liver sections. Aqueous A. indica leaf extract (500 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly (P < 0.01) reduced these elevated levels of AST, ALT and gamma-GT. Paracetamol induced liver necrosis was also found to be reduced as observed macroscopically and histologically. PMID:10919097

  8. Effect of the aqueous extract of Syzygium cumini on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Moresco, Rafael Noal; Sperotto, Rita Leal; Bernardi, Anie Schiavo; Cardoso, Ricardo França; Gomes, Patrícia

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the aqueous Syzygium cumini leaf extract, given either as a single dose or by 7 days of pretreatment, on hepatotoxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. Blood samples obtained after treatments were measured for aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). A significant increase in the AST and ALT activities occurred after carbon tetrachloride administration alone, which was significantly lowered by preadministration with the aqueous extract of Syzygium cumini, but not by a single dose. This suggests that the extract may be useful for liver protection but needs to be given over a significant period and prior to liver injury. PMID:17450508

  9. Meta-analysis of the influence of TM6SF2 E167K variant on Plasma Concentration of Aminotransferases across different Populations and Diverse Liver Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Sookoian, Silvia; Pirola, Carlos J.

    2016-01-01

    A nonsynonymous E167K (rs58542926 C/T) variant in TM6SF2 gene was recently associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We explored the association between E167K and plasma concentrations of alanine (ALT) and aspartate (AST) aminotransferases through a meta-analysis. We also estimated the strength of the effect across diverse liver phenotypes, including NAFLD and chronic viral hepatitis; fourteen studies were included. We found that ALT (p = 3.2 × 10−6, n = 94,414) and AST (p = 0007, n = 93,809) levels were significantly associated with rs58542926 in NAFLD. By contrast, rs58542926 was not associated with either ALT (p = 0.24, n = 4187) or AST (p = 0.17, n = 2678) levels in four studies on chronic hepatitis. In conclusion, the results of the pooled estimates in patients with NAFLD showed that carriers of the T allele (EK + KK), when compared with homozygous subjects for the C allele (EE genotype) have increased levels of aminotransferases; however, this increase represents –2.5 (9.8%) and 1.2 (5%) IU/L of ALT and AST respectively, which is fairly small compared with the large effect of PNPLA3- rs738409-G allele that is associated with a –28% increase in serum ALT. PMID:27278285

  10. Aerobic Conditioning Might Protect Against Liver and Muscle Injury Caused by Short-Term Military Training.

    PubMed

    Koury, Josely C; Daleprane, Julio B; Pitaluga-Filho, Mario V; de Oliveira, Cyntia F; Gonçalves, Mariana C; Passos, Magna C F

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to compare the biochemical markers of muscle and liver injury and total antioxidant capacity in army cadets after a traditional army physical training program and to correlate these effects with aerobic conditioning. Male army cadets (n = 87; age, 20 ± 2 years) were evaluated 12 hours before the start of training (T0), 12 hours after a 30-km march (T1), and 48 hours after military training (T2). Creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) serum levels were measured using an autoanalyzer. Total antioxidant capacity was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity (Sc%). Seventy-four percent of army cadets were classified as having excellent aerobic conditioning (53.9 ± 3.0 ml · kg(-) · min(-1) predicted VO2max from the Cooper test). The median serum concentration of all enzymes increased 12 hours after marching (T1: CK 675%; ALT 59%; AST 336%; AST/ALT ratio 85%; p = 0.001) and 48 hours after the end of training (T2: CK 878%; ALT 256%; AST 418%; AST/ALT ratio 180%; p = 0.001). Sc% was higher in T2 (31.1 ± 9.8%; p = 0.01) than in T0 (3.4% change). Maximal oxygen consumption (ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)) correlated negatively with CK (r = -0.25; p = 0.009) and ALT (r = -0.21; p = 0.03) serum levels, and positively with the change in Sc% (r = 0.22; p = 0.04) at T2. The results indicate that intense military training can cause liver and muscle injury and that aerobic conditioning can be considered as a protective factor for these injuries. PMID:26813633

  11. Toxicological evaluation of the hydro-alcohol extract of the dry leaves of Peumus boldus and boldine in rats.

    PubMed

    Almeida, E R; Melo, A M; Xavier, H

    2000-03-01

    The hydro-alcohol extract of the dry leaves of Peumus boldus and boldine, showed abortive and teratogenic action and changes in the blood levels of bilirubin, cholesterol, glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and urea in rats. The long term administration of the extract and boldine did not cause histological modification during a period of 90 days. PMID:10685105

  12. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of two iridoids from Mussaenda 'dona aurora'.

    PubMed

    Vidyalakshmi, Kandulva Sethuraman; Nagarajan, Sulochana; Vasanthi, Hannah Rachel; Venkappaya; Rajamanickam, Victor

    2009-01-01

    Mussaenda 'dona aurora' (sepals) has been investigated for its hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities. The highest activity was observed in the ethyl acetate fraction. The separation of the ethyl acetate fraction gave two iridoids, sanshiside-D and lamalbide. Sanshiside-D exhibited a hepatoprotective activity greater than silimarin as was evidenced by significant reduction of ALT and AST in the serum enzyme levels.

  13. Evaluation of Risk Factors and Follow-Up Criteria for Severity of Snakebite in Children

    PubMed Central

    Aktar, Fesih; Aktar, Safak; Yolbas, Ilyas; Tekin, Recep

    2016-01-01

    Background Snakebites are an emergency medical condition and require rapid treatment procedures in children. Objectives This study aimed to present an overview of the demographic characteristics, clinical presentations, laboratory findings, severity, and complications that developed in pediatric patients due to snakebites. Patients and Methods A total of 151 children with snakebite were enrolled in the study. All patients had a history of snakebite obtained between June 2006 and August 2015 retrospectively. Results Duration of hospitalization (P < 0.001), rural occurrence (P < 0.001), white blood cell (WBC) count (P = 0.002), aspartate aminotransferase to alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) ratio (P = 0.010), hypoproteinemia (P = 0.001), hypoalbuminemia (P < 0.001), and hypocalcemia (P = 0.005) were significantly high in the severe snakebite group. WBC (P = 0.006) and AST/ALT ratio (P = 0.018) were significantly higher on the first day of the snakebite than on subsequent days. Conclusions Children admitted to the hospital due to snakebite should be monitored for at least 24 - 48 hours even if no signs of clinical envenomation could be observed. According to the severity of the disease, antivenom should be administered to the patients. Duration of hospitalization, rural occurrence, WBC count, AST/ALT ratio, CK, hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, and hypocalcemia can be associated with the severity of snakebite. WBC AST/ALT ratio can be used as follow-up criteria in children with snakebite PMID:27729959

  14. Effect of Syzygium calophyllifolium Walp. seed extract on transaminases and phosphatases in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Gurusamy, K.; Kokilavani, R; Teepa, K. S. Ananta

    2007-01-01

    The antidiabetic effect of an aqueous seed extract of Syzygium calophyllifolium Walp. was studied in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Changes in serum and tissue AST, ALT LDH, ACP and ALP, enzymes activities in alloxan induced rats were studied and found to be reversed by the oral administration of S.calophyllifolium seed extract. PMID:22557266

  15. Importance of Flagella and Enterotoxins for Aeromonas Virulence in a Mouse Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    A genetic characterization of eight virulence factor genes, elastase, lipase, polar flagella (flaA/flaB, flaG), lateral flagella (lafA), and the enterotoxins alt, act, and ast, was performed using polymerase chain reaction with 55 drinking water and nine clinical isolates. When 1...

  16. Large-scale analysis of factors influencing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and its relationship with liver enzymes.

    PubMed

    Bi, W R; Yang, C Q; Shi, Q; Xu, Y; Cao, C P; Ling, J; Wang, X Y

    2014-01-01

    Serum liver enzyme levels are often used effectively for the evaluation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We aimed to investigate the associations between serum liver enzyme levels and risks for NAFLD in over 8000 cases in a large-scale analysis. A cross-sectional survey with multiple stages and random samplings was performed from May 2007 to May 2009 on 8102 workers at Tongji University. A questionnaire was given, assessments of physical measurements, plasma glucose, lipid profiles, and liver enzymes were made, and real-time liver ultrasounds conducted. The prevalence of NAFLD in Tongji University was 22.2%. It was higher in males than in females (P = 0.0023). The body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, serum total triglycerides, serum total cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) values were all higher in the NAFLD group than in the control group. For moderate and severe NAFLD patients, the ALT, AST and GGT values were significantly increased, high density lipoprotein cholesterol was decreased, and drinking much, heavy entertainment and less exercise were more prevalent (P < 0.001). There were strong correlations between serum liver enzyme levels and NAFLD (P < 0.001), with GGT being a more sensitive marker for NAFLD than ALT or AST. ALT and GGT were independent predictors for NAFLD, and GGT was a better predictor than ALT for NAFLD. PMID:25117346

  17. Monitor the Temporal Stability of the Fgs's AST-SV-7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jefferys, William

    1990-12-01

    The goal of these measurements is to monitor the internal positional stability of the FGSs by measuring a few stars in "check fields" repeatedly during the SV period. The results of these measurements are the stability characteristics of the FGS to allow an estimate of the frequency of OFAD re-calibrations. NOW USES WvA positions for PROX and ref frame. 910920 Modified 910920 by F. Benedict to 1) observe Proxima Cen starting 920201 2) do either FGS 1 or FGS 3 THIS IS AN FGS 3 TEST Modified 8 Feb 92 to remove v=16.25 target and change pupil to F583W.

  18. Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Area of Interest (AOI) 6: Develop and Validate Aeroelastic Codes for Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Kevin D.; Liu, Jong-Shang; Murthy, Durbha V.; Kruse, Marlin J.; James, Darrell

    1999-01-01

    AlliedSignal Engines, in cooperation with NASA GRC (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center), completed an evaluation of recently-developed aeroelastic computer codes using test cases from the AlliedSignal Engines fan blisk and turbine databases. Test data included strain gage, performance, and steady-state pressure information obtained for conditions where synchronous or flutter vibratory conditions were found to occur. Aeroelastic codes evaluated included quasi 3-D UNSFLO (MIT Developed/AE Modified, Quasi 3-D Aeroelastic Computer Code), 2-D FREPS (NASA-Developed Forced Response Prediction System Aeroelastic Computer Code), and 3-D TURBO-AE (NASA/Mississippi State University Developed 3-D Aeroelastic Computer Code). Unsteady pressure predictions for the turbine test case were used to evaluate the forced response prediction capabilities of each of the three aeroelastic codes. Additionally, one of the fan flutter cases was evaluated using TURBO-AE. The UNSFLO and FREPS evaluation predictions showed good agreement with the experimental test data trends, but quantitative improvements are needed. UNSFLO over-predicted turbine blade response reductions, while FREPS under-predicted them. The inviscid TURBO-AE turbine analysis predicted no discernible blade response reduction, indicating the necessity of including viscous effects for this test case. For the TURBO-AE fan blisk test case, significant effort was expended getting the viscous version of the code to give converged steady flow solutions for the transonic flow conditions. Once converged, the steady solutions provided an excellent match with test data and the calibrated DAWES (AlliedSignal 3-D Viscous Steady Flow CFD Solver). However, efforts expended establishing quality steady-state solutions prevented exercising the unsteady portion of the TURBO-AE code during the present program. AlliedSignal recommends that unsteady pressure measurement data be obtained for both test cases examined for use in aeroelastic code validation.

  19. 77 FR 27111 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability of the Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... and Reentry of SpaceShipTwo Reusable Suborbital Rockets at the Mojave Air and Space Port AGENCY... availability of the Final EA and FONSI for the Launch and Reentry of SpaceShipTwo Reusable Suborbital Rockets... rockets and WhiteKnightTwo carrier aircraft at the Mojave Air and Space Port in Mojave, California....

  20. 76 FR 57103 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability of the Supplemental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ... launch from the California Spaceport is the Athena III, consisting of a two-stage Castor 120 solid-propellant rocket motor with the addition of up to six Castor IVA or Castor IVXL rocket motors strapped to... prevention, and solid waste; health and safety; socioeconomics, environmental justice, and...

  1. 75 FR 39143 - Airworthiness Directives; Arrow Falcon Exporters, Inc. (previously Utah State University); AST...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Regulatory Findings We have determined that this AD will not have.... Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February.... (previously Ranger Helicopter Services, Inc.); US Helicopter, Inc. (previously Williams Helicopter...

  2. 76 FR 59768 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability and Request for Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... to SpaceX for Operation of the Grasshopper Vehicle at the McGregor Test Site, Texas AGENCY: Federal... for Issuing an Experimental Permit to SpaceX for Operation of the Grasshopper Vehicle at the McGregor... Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) from the McGregor test site in McGregor, TX. The Grasshopper RLV is...

  3. Elevation in liver enzymes is associated with increased IL-2 and predicts severe outcomes in clinically apparent dengue virus infection.

    PubMed

    Senaratne, Thamarasi; Carr, Jillian; Noordeen, Faseeha

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the circulating TNF-α and IL-2 levels in dengue virus (DENV) infected patients and to correlate these with clinical severity of DENV infections. A single analyte quantitative immunoassay was used to detect TNF-α and IL-2 in 24 dengue fever (DF) and 43 dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) patients, 15 healthy adults and 6 typhoid patients. The mean TNF-α and IL-2 levels of DENV- infected patients were higher than that of healthy adults and typhoid patients. No significant difference in TNF-α levels was noted between DF and DHF patients (p=0.5) but a significant increase in IL-2 levels was observed in DHF compared with DF patients (mean of DF=59.7pg/mL, mean of DHF=166.9pg/mL; p=0.02). No significant association of TNF-α or IL-2 levels was noted with packed cell volume (>45), thrombocytopenia, leucopenia or the presence of viraemia. The liver function tests measuring AST (aspartate aminotransferase) (p=0.01) and ALT (alanine aminotransferase) (p=0.02) levels were significantly elevated in DENV-infected patients. AST:ALT was significantly elevated in DHF/DSS (dengue shock syndrome) compared with DF patients. A significant positive linear correlation was noted between AST and IL-2 (r=0.31; p=0.01) and ALT and IL-2 elevations (r=0.2; p=0.02). Thus, AST and ALT levels correlate with both disease severity and circulating IL-2 levels. We suggest a role for circulating IL-2 in liver dysfunction and propose that a combined assessment of AST/ALT in conjunction with IL-2 at the early stages of symptomatic DENV infection may be useful to predict the severe forms of dengue. PMID:27155816

  4. Elevated Values of Clinically Relevant Transferases Induced by Imported Infectious Diseases: A Controlled Cross-Sectional Study of 14,559 Diseased German Travelers Returning from the Tropics and Subtropics.

    PubMed

    Herbinger, Karl-Heinz; Hanus, Ingrid; Felbinger, Thomas W; Weber, Christine; Beissner, Marcus; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Löscher, Thomas; Bretzel, Gisela; Nothdurft, Hans Dieter; Hoelscher, Michael; Alberer, Martin

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this controlled cross-sectional study was to assess the clinical validity of elevated values of three clinically relevant transferase enzymes (aspartate transaminase [AST], alanine transaminase [ALT], and gamma-glutamyl transferase [GGT]) induced by imported infectious diseases (IDs) seen among patients consulting the Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Medical Center of the University of Munich (from 1999 to 2014) after being in the sub-/tropics. Data sets of 14,559 diseased German travelers returning from Latin America (2,715), Africa (4,574), or Asia (7,270) and of 1,536 healthy controls of German origin without recent travels were analyzed. Among the cases, the proportions of those with elevated values of AST (7.8%) and of ALT (13.4%) were significantly larger than among controls (4.0% and 10.6%, respectively), whereas for GGT, no significant difference was found (cases: 10.0%; controls: 11.4%). The study identified IDs with significantly larger proportions of both AST and ALT (hepatitis A [100%/100%], cytomegalovirus [CMV] infection [77%/81%], chronic hepatitis C [67%/67%], infectious mononucleosis [65%/77%], typhoid fever [50%/50%], cyclosporiasis [45%/66%], dengue fever [43%/35%], malaria [20%/27%], and rickettsiosis [20%/24%]), of AST alone (paratyphoid fever [42%]), of ALT alone (giardiasis [20%]), and of GGT (hepatitis A [100%], infectious mononucleosis [71%], CMV infection [58%], rickettsiosis (20%], and dengue fever [19%]). The study demonstrates that the determination of AST and ALT among travelers returning from the sub-/tropics has a high clinical validity, as their elevated values are typically caused by several imported viral, bacterial, and protozoan IDs, whereas no additional clinical validity was found by the determination of GGT. PMID:27215300

  5. Elevated Values of Clinically Relevant Transferases Induced by Imported Infectious Diseases: A Controlled Cross-Sectional Study of 14,559 Diseased German Travelers Returning from the Tropics and Subtropics.

    PubMed

    Herbinger, Karl-Heinz; Hanus, Ingrid; Felbinger, Thomas W; Weber, Christine; Beissner, Marcus; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Löscher, Thomas; Bretzel, Gisela; Nothdurft, Hans Dieter; Hoelscher, Michael; Alberer, Martin

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this controlled cross-sectional study was to assess the clinical validity of elevated values of three clinically relevant transferase enzymes (aspartate transaminase [AST], alanine transaminase [ALT], and gamma-glutamyl transferase [GGT]) induced by imported infectious diseases (IDs) seen among patients consulting the Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Medical Center of the University of Munich (from 1999 to 2014) after being in the sub-/tropics. Data sets of 14,559 diseased German travelers returning from Latin America (2,715), Africa (4,574), or Asia (7,270) and of 1,536 healthy controls of German origin without recent travels were analyzed. Among the cases, the proportions of those with elevated values of AST (7.8%) and of ALT (13.4%) were significantly larger than among controls (4.0% and 10.6%, respectively), whereas for GGT, no significant difference was found (cases: 10.0%; controls: 11.4%). The study identified IDs with significantly larger proportions of both AST and ALT (hepatitis A [100%/100%], cytomegalovirus [CMV] infection [77%/81%], chronic hepatitis C [67%/67%], infectious mononucleosis [65%/77%], typhoid fever [50%/50%], cyclosporiasis [45%/66%], dengue fever [43%/35%], malaria [20%/27%], and rickettsiosis [20%/24%]), of AST alone (paratyphoid fever [42%]), of ALT alone (giardiasis [20%]), and of GGT (hepatitis A [100%], infectious mononucleosis [71%], CMV infection [58%], rickettsiosis (20%], and dengue fever [19%]). The study demonstrates that the determination of AST and ALT among travelers returning from the sub-/tropics has a high clinical validity, as their elevated values are typically caused by several imported viral, bacterial, and protozoan IDs, whereas no additional clinical validity was found by the determination of GGT.

  6. Evaluation of metabolic enzymes in response to Excel Mera 71, a glyphosate-based herbicide, and recovery pattern in freshwater teleostean fishes.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Palas; Pal, Sandipan; Mukherjee, Aloke Kumar; Ghosh, Apurba Ratan

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were evaluated in Indian teleostean fishes, namely, Anabas testudineus (Bloch) and Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch), for an exposure to 30 days of Excel Mera 71 (17.2 mg/L), a glyphosate formulation, and subsequent depuration under Liv.52, a plant extract at a dose of 187.5 mg/d/250 L for the same period in the same tissues under laboratory condition. ALT activity was significantly increased (P<0.05) in all the tissues and raised up to 229.19% in liver of A. testudineus (229.19%) and 128.61% in liver of H. fossilis. AST also increased significantly (P<0.05) and was maximum in liver of H. fossilis (526.19%) and minimum in gill of A. testudineus (124.38%). ALP activity was also raised highly in intestine of H. fossilis (490.61%) but was less in kidney of H. fossilis (149.48%). The results indicated that Excel Mera 71 caused alterations in the metabolic enzymatic activities in fish tissues and AST showed the highest alteration in both the fishes, while lowest in ALP and ALT in A. testudineus and H. fossilis, respectively. During depuration under Liv.52, all the enzyme activities came down towards the control condition which indicated the compensatory response by the fish against this herbicidal stress and it was in the following order: AST>ALT>ALP, in A. testudineus, while H. fossilis showed the following trend: ALT>AST>ALP. Therefore, these parameters could be used as indicators of herbicidal pollution in aquatic organisms and were recommended for environmental monitoring for investigating the mechanism involved in the recovery pattern.

  7. Abnormal liver function in workers exposed to low levels of ethylene dichloride and vinyl chloride monomer.

    PubMed

    Cheng, T J; Huang, M L; You, N C; Du, C L; Chau, T T

    1999-12-01

    We investigated whether exposure to ethylene dichloride (EDC) and vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) resulted in increased risk of liver damage. Epidemiological information, including occupational, medical, smoking, and drinking history, was obtained by interview from 251 male workers. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) were used as indicators of liver damage. Exposure to moderate or low levels of ECD and VCM resulted in a higher risk of developing abnormal ALT levels than did exposure to lower levels of the chemicals. Results were similar for AST. GGT was not associated with EDC or VCM exposure. Combined exposure to EDC and VCM showed a dose-response relationship in association with abnormal ALT levels. We concluded that relatively low concentrations of VCM and EDC cause liver damage.

  8. Effects of quercetin on polychlorinated biphenyls-induced liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Rocha de Oliveira, Cléia; Ceolin, Juliana; Rocha de Oliveira, Renata; Gonçalves Schemitt, Elizângela; Raskopf Colares, Josieli; De Freitas Bauermann, Liliane; Hilda Costabeber, Ijone; Morgan-Martins, Maria Isabel; Mauriz, José L; Da Silva, Juliana; Reyes, Juliana Moysés; Possa Marroni, Norma

    2014-05-01

    Introducción: los bifenilospoliclonados (PCBs) son pesticidas ampliamente usados en agricultura que pueden inducir daños irreversibles particularmente en el hígado. El estrés oxidativo ha sido implicado en diversas patogénesis hepáticas, incluidas las relacionadas conPCBs. La quercetina, un flavonoide de la dieta, ha demostrado tener un potente efecto antioxidante en diversos modelos de patología hepática. Objetivo: Evaluar el estrés oxidativo hepático inducido por PCBs y la actividad antioxidante de la quercetina. Metodología: Se usaron ratas macho de raza Wistar (n = 36), divididas en cuatro grupos: control, quercetina (50 mg/kg/día), PCBs (0,4 ml/kg/día) y ratas tratadas tanto con PCBs como con quercetina. Transcurridos 25 días de tratamiento se recogieron muestras de sangre, para evaluar la integridad hepática (AST, ALT y ALP), y de tejido para cuantificar el estrés oxidativo (TBARS), actividad antioxidante (SOD, CAT, GPx), daño al DNA (ensayo de micronúcleos) y daño histológico. Resultados: la concentración de TBARS y la actividad SOD fueron significativamente mayores en los animales que recibieron PCBs que en los que recibían quercetina. La actividad de CAT y GPx se redujo con los PCBs y se incrementó al administrar quercetina. Los análisis histológicos y de micronúcleos mostraron daño hepático y al DNA respectivamente inducido por PCBs que eran revertidos con el tratamiento con quercetina. Conclusion: La contaminación con PCBs induce un incremento en la peroxidación lipídica, modificación en la actividad de enzimas antioxidantes, daño histológico y al DNA en el hígado, siendo el antioxidante quercetina es capaz de reducir dichos cambios.

  9. Metadoxine Versus Placebo for the Treatment of Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Kotacherry T.; Balakumaran, Leena K.; Mathew, Philip; Prasad, Mohan; Prabhakar, Boddu; Sood, Ajit; Singh, Shivaram P.; Rao, Nagaraj P.; Zargar, Shoukat A.; Bignamini, Angelo A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective and design The study aimed at assessing the therapeutic efficacy and safety of metadoxine versus placebo on the ultrasonographic and histological features of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Subjects 134 subjects with biopsy-confirmed NASH were randomized to receive metadoxine 500 mg two times daily (n = 75) or placebo (n = 59) added to the standard of care, over 16 weeks. Efficacy endpoints Originally, the primary efficacy endpoint was the composite of: reduction in the steatosis by ≥1 grade, reduction in hepatic necro-inflammation by ≥1 grade and ALT normalization. Since >50% of patients refused the second biopsy, it was decided to analyze only the individual parameters. Results There was no significant difference between the treatment and the placebo groups in either liver histology or ALT or AST. Overall, as expected both groups showed reduction in serum ALT and AST compared to baseline. Compared to placebo (9 out 54), patients on metadoxine (34 out of 75) had significantly higher rates of improvement in 1-point in steatosis grade on ultrasound (P-value <0.001). Safety and tolerability did not differ between treatments. Conclusion Metadoxine is not effective in improvement of liver histology or serum ALT or AST in patients with NASH. However, there was significant improvement of steatosis assessed by ultrasound. To properly estimate the effects on histology and transaminases, further studies of longer duration and at higher doses are needed. PMID:25755546

  10. Short- and Long-Term Soy Diet Versus Casein Protects Liver Steatosis Independent of the Arginine Content.

    PubMed

    Hakkak, Reza; Zeng, Huawei; Dhakal, Ishwori B; Korourian, Soheila

    2015-11-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, a major cause of abnormal liver function, is often associated with obesity. Arginine (ARG) plays a role in modulating body weight/fat, but limited data exist as to the role of ARG in soy protein's ability to protect from liver steatosis. We investigated the role of native ARG in the soy protein isolate (SPI) in reducing liver steatosis in male obese Zucker rats. Rats (N=48; 6 weeks old) were randomly assigned to one of three diets for 8 or 16 weeks: the casein (CAS) diet as control (0.6% ARG), CAS diet supplemented to contain 1.3% ARG, or an SPI diet containing isoflavones (1.3% ARG). SPI and ARG rats gained significantly more weight (P<.05) than CAS rats after 16 weeks only. The SPI rats had lower liver steatosis scores after 8 and 16 weeks (P<.05 and P<.001, respectively) compared to CAS and ARG rats. SPI rats had lower serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels (P<.05) compared to CAS after 16 weeks, and AST was lower (P<.05) compared to ARG rats. After 16 weeks, the SPI rats had lower (P<.05) serum ALT and AST levels than at 8 weeks. Our results suggest that a longer period of SPI feeding results in lower liver steatosis and serum ALT and AST levels, while the ARG diet had no effect on steatosis or ALT and AST levels. We found that the SPI diet reduced (P<.001) serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) compared to CAS and ARG diets after 8 and 16 weeks. The SPI diet significantly reduced (P<.001) interleukin-6 (IL-6) when compared to the CAS diet at 8 weeks, but there was no significant difference at 16 weeks. Based on the findings of our study, the protective effect of SPI in reducing liver steatosis is not modulated by its native arginine content.

  11. [The effect of diet ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids of omega-3 and omega-6 families on activity of aminotransferases and gamma-glutamyltransferase in rat blood serum].

    PubMed

    Ketsa, O V; Marchenko, M M

    2014-01-01

    The effect of diet fat compositions with various ratio of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activities in blood serum of 45 white mongrel rats weighing 90-110 g (9 animals in group) has been investigated. Fat components in the semi-synthetic diet, compiled on the basis of AIN-93 diet, and sources of omega-6 and omega-3 PUFA were presented by sunflower oil, soybean oil and fish oil. It has been shown that four-week inclusion of linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (alpha-LNA) in a ratio of 7:1 into the diet (soybean oil) as well as use of only omega-6 PUFA (sunflower oil) has lead to an increase in the activity of ALT and GGT in rat blood serum compared to control animals treated with the complex of linolenic, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid through the mixture of sunflower oil and fish oil (9:1) with the ratio of omega-6 and omega-3 PUFA 7:1. Along with this, the AST:ALT ratio (de Ritis ratio) was lower (p < 0.05) as compared with the control group of rat, amounting respectively 0.92 +/- 0.08 and 0.79 +/- 0.12 vs 1.26 +/- 0.10. The use of high doses of omega-3 fatty acids (600 mg EPA and 400 mg DHA per kg of animal weight per day coming through fish oil) did not affect the activity of ALT and GGT, but increased AST serum activity (0.47 +/- 0.04 micromoles/min per mg protein) and the de Ritis ratio (2.53 +/- 0.23). The diet deprived with fat increased enzyme activity of ALT, AST and GGT in rat blood serum.

  12. Assessment of Growth and Development in Children With Hepatitis B Positivity

    PubMed Central

    Sari, Tugba; Eren, Erdal; Koruk, Suda Tekin

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic infections and liver diseases may influence the growth and development of children by leading to malnutrition. In this study, demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements and laboratory findings for children with hepatitis B positivity were analyzed. Methods A total of 43 cases were admitted to our clinic between January 2012 and February 2013 and detected to have HBsAg positivity. Results Malnutrition was detected in 11 cases (25.6%) and obesity in three cases (6.9%). Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were significantly higher in malnourished patients compared to those without malnutrition. The weight to height was significantly higher in patients with positive HBeAg compared to children with negative HBeAg. We found that the weight standard deviation scores (SDS) ratios dropped as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and AST levels increased and height SDS ratios decreased. In addition, body mass index (BMI) decreased as AST and alpha feto protein (AFP) values increased. While a significant relationship was not detected between insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and ALT, a significantly negative correlation was detected between IGFBP-3 and IGF-1 and AST. We found a malnutrition rate of 25.6% in children with HBsAg positivity. We also found that weight and height SDS rates decreased as ALT and AST levels increased. In addition, we detected that BMI decreased as AST and AFP values increased. Conclusion We consider that hepatic inflammation is the factor that affects growth. Monitoring of growth and development during follow-up of children who are detected to have HBsAg positivity would be beneficial to determine the mechanism and causes of growth retardation.

  13. Longitudinal Study on Liver Functions in Patients with Thalassemia Major before and after Deferasirox (DFX) Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Ashraf; Yassin, Mohamed; Al Yafei, Fawzia; Al-Naimi, Lolwa; Almarri, Noora; Sabt, Aml; De Sanctis, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    By performing regular blood transfusion and iron chelation therapy, most patients with beta thalassemia major (BTM) now survive beyond the third decade of life. Liver disease is becoming an important cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. Chronic hepatitis and/or severe iron overload are both important causes of liver pathology. Iron chelation with desferrioxamine (DFO) reduces excessive body iron, but its efficacy is limited by poor compliance and dose related toxicity. The recent use of Deferasirox ( DFX ), an oral single dose therapy, has improved the compliance to chelation. Aims To study the long-term liver functions in BMT patients, seronegative for liver infections before versus after DFX treatment in relation to ferritin level. Methods Only BTM patients with hepatitis negative screening (checked every year) and on treatment with DFO for at least five years and with DFX for four years were enrolled. Liver function tests including serum bilirubin, alanine transferase (ALT), aspartate transferase (AST), albumin, insulin-like growth factor – I (IGF-I) and serum ferritin concentrations were followed every six months in 40 patients with BTM. Results DFX treatment (20 mg/kg/day) significantly decreased serum ferritin level in patients with BTM; this was associated with a significant decrease in serum ALT, AST, ALP and increase in IGF-I concentrations. Albumin concentrations did not change after DFX treatment. ALT and AST levels were correlated significantly with serum ferritin concentrations ( r = 0.45 and 0.33 respectively, p < 0.05). IGF-I concentrations were correlated significantly with serum ALT (r= 0.26, p = 0.05) but not with AST, ALP, bilirubin or albumin levels. The negative correlation between serum ferritin concentrations and ALT suggests that the impairment of hepatic function negatively affect IGF-I synthesis in these patients due to iron toxicity, even in the absence of hepatitis. Conclusions Some impairment of liver function can occur

  14. Use of Databases for Early Recognition of Risk of Diabetic Complication by Analysis of Liver Enzymes in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Malenica, Maja; Prnjavorac, Besim; Causevic, Adlija; Dujic, Tanja; Bego, Tamer; Semiz, Sabina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Because of increasing prevalence of T2MD worldwide, it’s very important to recognize risk factors for diabetic complications, as soon as possible. Symptoms of complications appear a few or many years after tissue damage. So, it’s imperative to establish surveillance of diabetics with laboratory and other diagnostic procedures for early recognition of diabetic complications. Follow up of clinical curs of diabetes, by using databases of patients, provide possibility for permanent analysis of important laboratory parameters and any changes could be registered. Although an emerging evidence suggests a strong association of ALT (alanine aminotransferase) and γGT (gamma glutamyl transferase) activity with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), only a limited number of studies have analyzed the association of AST (aspartate aminotransferase), ALT, γGT, and ALP (alkaline phosphatase) activities in controlled T2DM. Material and Methods: Gender differences are of special interest in trying to follow diabetes progression and development of its complications. Here the activities of ALT, AST, γGT, ALP were analyzed as well as levels of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in 40 T2DM patients and 40 age-matched healthy subjects. Blood samples were collected from all participants in regular 3-months intervals up to 6 months period. Standard IFCC enzyme protocols were used to determine enzyme activities. Results and discussion: In first measured interval, significantly higher activities of ALT (p= 0,050) and glucose levels (p=0,045) were shown in male. A significant correlation was shown between ALT and AST activity with FPG and HbA1c levels in first and third measured interval. ALT activity was much higher in the group of patients with poor glycemia control. Average levels of activities of enzymes stay nearly in normal limits, but changes of enzymes activities should be recognized as soon as possible, earlier than tissue changes and

  15. Oral subchronic toxicity of aqueous crude extract of Plantago australis leaves.

    PubMed

    Palmeiro, N M S; Almeida, C E; Ghedini, P C; Goulart, L S; Pereira, M C F; Huber, S; da Silva, J E P; Lopes, S

    2003-09-01

    The toxic effects of chronic oral administration (60 days) of aqueous crude extract (AE) of Plantago australis Lam. (Plantaginaceae) in rats at doses of 850 and 1700 mg/kg on biochemical (ALT, AST, creatinine, urea, glucose, alkaline phosphatase, total proteins and albumin), hematological (complete hemogram), and histopathological (heart, lung, liver, kidney, esophagus, stomach and gut) parameters were studied. All biochemical and hematological parameters were found to be in the normal range, but ALT in animals that received AE of 850 mg/kg was higher. Histopathological analysis of organs, especially the liver did not present alterations. PMID:12902047

  16. Exzellenz und Equity: Neue Bildungstheoretische Perspektiven FÜR ein Altes SPANNUNGSVERHÄLTNIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamm, Margrit; Viehhauser, Martin

    2009-07-01

    EXCELLENCE AND EQUITY: APPLYING NEW PERSPECTIVES IN THE THEORY OF EDUCATION TO A TRADITIONALLY TENSE RELATIONSHIP - The majority of international assessments of school performance, as well as the international standards-based education reform focus on optimising the skills of children who perform poorly in school. This article, however, places the focus on the top␣performers ("excellence") and links this with the theory of equal opportunities ("equity"). The article follows two main lines of argument. The argument relating to the theory of education deems the achievement of equal opportunities and equity likely only if and when all children start from an equal position and are then allowed to develop unequally and appropriately, according to their individual talents. The second argument highlights the tense relationship between excellence and equity with regard to school children's varying home backgrounds, and asks how intellectual potential can best be discovered and encouraged. At the same time, the article demonstrates that the concept of accelerated learning, in differentiating between individuals within homogenous groups of learners, opens up a number of interesting perspectives and can ultimately redress the tense relationship between excellence and equity.

  17. Think Students Are Technologically Savvy? Control-Alt-Delete That Idea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    The trend in higher education these days is to speak of students' technological skills as if they are worlds different from those of individuals who actually teach them. Teachers are the dinosaurs who do not understand how to maneuver in this brave new world of technology, while students are the evolved birds who will live on into the future. Part…

  18. Advanced limiter test (ALT-1) in the TEXTOR tokamak: concept and experimental design

    SciTech Connect

    Conn, R.W.; Grontz, S.P.; Prinja, A.K.; Gauster, W.B.; Malinowski, H.E.; Pontau, A.E.; Blewer, R.S.; Whitley, J.B.; Dippel, K.H.; Fuchs, G.

    1983-01-01

    The concept and experimental design of a pump-limiter for the TEXTOR tokamak is described. The module is constructed of stainless steel with a compound curvature head designed to limit the maximum heat flux to 300 W/cm/sup 2/. The head is made of TiC-coated graphite containing a variable-aperture slot to admit plasma to a deflector plate for ballistic pumping action. The assembly is actively pumped using Zr-Al getters with an estimated hydrogen pumping speed of 3 x 10/sup 4/ 1/s. The aspect ratio of the pump duct and the length of the plasma channel are both variable to permit study of plasma plugging, ballistic scattering, and enhanced gas-conduction effects. The module can be moved radially by 10 cm to permit its operation either as the primary or secondary limiter. Major diagnostics include Langmuir and solid state probes, bolometers, infrared thermography, thermocouples, ion gauges, manometers, and a gas mass analyzer.

  19. Les neuropeptides gastro-intestinaux cibles des effets des rayonnements ionisants : altérations fonctionnelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linard, C.; Esposito, V.; Wysocki, J.; Griffiths, N. M.

    1998-04-01

    The symptoms associated with exposure to ionizing radiation are nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea. The response of the gut is complex involving modifications of motility and fluid and electrolyte transport. Gastrointestinal regulatory peptides have an important role in these functions. This study showed that radiation-induced tissue variations of neuropeptides have some repercussions on intestinal biological activity of these peptides soon after irradiation. In addition such modifications are also seen a few years after irradiation. Les symptômes associés à l'exposition aux rayonnements ionisants sont des nausées, vomissements et diarrhées. La réponse du système digestif est complexe, impliquant des modifications de la motilité et du transport d'eau et d'électrolytes. les neuropeptides gastro-intestinaux ont un rôle important dans ces fonctions. Cette étude montre que les variations tissulaires de ces neuropeptides induites par l'irradiation ont des répercussions sur l'activité biologique intestinale pour des temps précoces mais que ces perturbations sont encore visibles quelques années après l'irradiation.

  20. Orbiter Landing Loads Math Model Description and Correlation with ALT Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, D. A.; Schliesing, J. A.; Zupp, G. A., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Results of the space shuttle approach and landing test are examined in order to assess landing gear characteristics and performance and verify landing dynamic analyses. The landing gears were instrumented with load-calibrated strain gages, a wheel-speed sensor, and strut stroke measurement devices. The mathematical procedure used in predicting the shuttle touchdown loads and dynamics is presented together with the comparisons between measured flight data and the analytical predictions. Conclusions from these data are also presented.

  1. Modeling and calibration of pointing errors with alt-az telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Long; Ma, Wenli; Huang, Jinlong

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a new model for improving the pointing accuracy of a telescope. The Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) convention was used to perform an error analysis of the telescope's kinematics. A kinematic model was used to relate pointing errors to mechanical errors and the parameters of the kinematic model were estimated with a statistical model fit using data from two large astronomical telescopes. The model illustrates the geometric errors caused by imprecision in manufacturing and assembly processes and their effects on the pointing accuracy of the telescope. A kinematic model relates pointing error to axis position when certain geometric errors are assumed to be present in a telescope. In the parameter estimation portion, the semi-parametric regression model was introduced to compensate for remaining nonlinear errors. The experimental results indicate that the proposed semi-parametric regression model eliminates both geometric and nonlinear errors, and that the telescope's pointing accuracy significantly improves after this calibration.

  2. STS Approach and Landing Test (ALT): Flight 5 - pilot-induced oscillation (PIO) on landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    During 1977 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, hosted the Approach and Landing Tests for the space shuttle prototype Enterprise. Since the shuttles would land initially on Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to Dryden on Edwards Air Force Base, NASA had already modified a Boeing 747 to carry them back to their launch site at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Computer calculations and simulations had predicted the mated shuttle and 747 could fly together safely, but NASA wanted to verify that prediction in a controlled flight-test environment before the shuttles went into operation. The agency also wanted to glide test the orbiter to ensure it could land safely before sending it into space with human beings aboard. So NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, developed a three-phase test program. First, an unpiloted-captive phase tested the shuttle/747 combination without a crew on the Enterprise in case of a problem that required jettisoning the prototype. There were three taxi tests and five flight tests without a crew in the shuttle. That phase ended on March 2, 1977. The second or captive-active phase-completed on July 26, 1977, flew the orbiter mated to the 747 with a two-person crew inside. Finally there were five flights-completed on October 26, 1977, in which the orbiter separated from the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA, as the 747 was designated) and landed. Beginning on August 12, 1977, the first four landings took place uneventfully on lakebed runways, but the fifth occurred on the concrete, 15,000-foot runway at Edwards. For the first three flights, a tail cone was placed around the dummy main engines to reduce buffeting. The tail-cone fairing was removed for the last two flights. This movie clip begins with the Enterprise just prior to touchdown on the main runway at Edwards AFB after it's fifth and final unpowered free flight. Shuttle pilots Gordon Fullerton and Fred Haise were attempting a couple of firsts on this flight--a precision 'spot' landing on the concrete runway and flying the orbiter without it's tail-cone fairing, since the previous lakebed landing without the fairing had been made by Joe Engle and Richard Truly. Both Haise and Fullerton had prepared as well as possible for the variables of this mission by flying simulated approach profiles in NASA's shuttle training aircraft. However, as with most simulations, the performance wasn't completely identical to that of the real vehicle. Consequently Haise, the mission commander in the left seat, was too fast on the orbiter's landing approach. Deploying the speed brakes, he tried vainly to hit the assigned landing mark but in the stress of the moment, began to overcorrect the vehicle. The orbiter entered a pilot-induced oscillation or PIO along both it's roll and pitch axis causing the vehicle to begin to 'porpoise' down the runway. As it settled down to land it began to bounce from one main landing gear to the next before being brought under control and finally landed by the crew. Engineers at Dryden later determined that a roughly 270-millisecond time delay in the space shuttle's fly-by-wire system had been the cause of the problem, which was then explored with NASA Dryden's F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire aircraft and corrected with a suppression filter integrated into the orbiter's flight control system.

  3. Balanced Ambipolar Poly(diketopyrrolopyrrole-alt-tetrafluorobenzene) Semiconducting Polymers Synthesized via Direct Arylation Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Wang, Guojie; Wang, Mingfeng

    2015-12-01

    The synthesis of an ambipolar π-conjugated copolymer consisting of alternating diketopyrrolopyrrole and tetrafluorobenzene via direct arylation polymerization (DAP) is reported. Two different combinations of monomers are investigated under various catalytic conditions for DAP. The target polymer obtained under an optimized catalytic condition shows minimal structural defects, a number-average molecular weight of 33.2 kDa, and balanced electron and hole mobility of 1 × 10(-2) cm(2) V(-1) S(-1) in the organic field-effect transistors fabricated and tested under ambient conditions.

  4. The old Jesuit observatory in Graz. (German Title: Die alte Jesuiten-Sternwarte in Graz)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmayr, Johann; Müller, Isolde; Posch, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    We give a brief overview of the development of astronomical research at the University of Graz from the 16th to the 18th century. This period is intimately connected to the activities of the Jesuit Order and to the counter-reformation in Inner Austria (a territory roughly corresponding to today's Styria, Carinthia, Slovenia and the County of Görz in Italy). Since the opening of the University in 1585, several Jesuits achieved distinction as mathematicians, physicists and astronomers in Graz. Among them are Paul Guldin, who corresponded with Johannes Kepler and died in Graz in 1643, as well as Leopold Biwald and Karl Tirnberger. Between 1745 and 1774, the Jesuit University of Graz also had a chair of astronomy and an observatory. The chair and the observatory were well endowed at the beginning, but later on neglected by their former funders and closed down after less than 30 years. Efforts to re-establish an observatory at Graz at the beginning of the 19th century failed. They were successful only towards the end of the 19th century, which is however a period beyond the scope of the present paper.

  5. Phase I Trial of Universal Donor NK Cell Therapy in Combination With ALT803

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-01

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Chronic Myeloid Leukemia; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Non Hodgkin Lymphoma; Hodgkin Lymphoma; Myeloproliferative Syndromes; Plasma Cell Myeloma; Colon Carcinoma; Adenocarcinoma of Rectum; Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Ewing's Sarcoma; Rhabdomyosarcoma

  6. Skylab program earth resources experiment package. Volume 5: Sensor performance evaluation (S193 ALT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenney, G. P.

    1975-01-01

    The results are summarized of S193 altimeter sensor performance evaluation based on data presented to the sensor performance evaluation interim reports. The results of additional analyses of S193 altimeter performance are presented, and techniques used in sensor performance evaluation are described. Significant performance degradation identified during the Skylab missions and the performance achieved are described in terms of pertinent S193 altimeter parameters. The additional analyses include final performance analyses completed after submittal of the SL4 interim sensor performance evaluation reports, including completion of detailed analyses of basic performance parameters initiated during the interim report periods.

  7. A study on the protective effect of Silybum marianum extract on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shaojun; Chen, Zhiheng; Cao, Dongbo; Liu, Fen; Wang, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Lian; Liu, Rui; Xiao, Zhiming

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to study the protective effect of Silybum marianum extract on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury. Rats were randomly divided into five groups; namely Silybum marianum extract high-, medium-, and low-dose protection groups, model group and control group. Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury model was prepared. Serum or plasma AST, ALT, MDA, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 levels were measured. The results revealed that after liver injury, AST, ALT, MDA, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels significantly increased in succession, showing significant differences. We concluded that inflammatory cytokines participate in liver injury and that Silybum marianum extract can reduce the production of inflammatory cytokines, and thus can have a protective effect on hepatic ischemia and reperfusion.

  8. Non invasive evaluation of liver fibrosis in paediatric patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Iacobellis, Angelo; Marcellini, Matilde; Andriulli, Angelo; Perri, Francesco; Leandro, Gioacchino; Devito, Rita; Nobili, Valerio

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To identify the independent predictors of hepatic fibrosis in 69 children with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) due to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: All patients with clinically suspected NASH underwent liver biopsy as a confirmatory test. The following clinical and biochemical variables at baseline were examined as likely predictors of fibrosis at histology: age, body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), dyastolic blood pressure (DBP), fasting glucose, fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistence (HOMA-IR), cholesterol, tryglicerides, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), AST/ALT ratio, gamma glutamil transferase (GT), platelet count, prothrombin time (PT). RESULTS: At histology 28 (40.6%) patients had no fibrosis and 41 (59.4%) had mild to bridging fibrosis. At multivariate analysis, BMI > 26.3 was the only independent predictor of fibrosis (OR = 5.85, 95% CI = 1.6-21). CONCLUSION: BMI helps identify children with NASH who might have fibrotic deposition in the liver. PMID:17203527

  9. In vivo evidence of hepato- and reno-protective effect of garlic oil against sodium nitrite-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Hanaa A; El-Agmy, Sherif M; Gaur, Rajiv L; Fernando, Augusta; Raj, Madhwa Hg; Ouhtit, Allal

    2009-01-01

    Sodium nitrite (NaNO2), a food color fixative and preservative, contributes to carcinogenesis. We investigated the protective role of garlic oil against NaNO2-induced abnormalities in metabolic biochemical parameters and oxidative status in male albino rats. NaNO2 treatment for a period of three months induced a significant increase in serum levels of glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, urea and creatinine as well as hepatic AST and ALT. However, significant decrease was recorded in liver ALP activity, glycogen content, and renal urea and creatinine levels. In parallel, a significant increase in lipid peroxidation, and a decrease in glutathione content and catalase activity were observed in the liver and the kidney. However, garlic oil supplementation showed a remarkable amelioration of these abnormalities. Our data indicate that garlic is a phytoantioxidant with powerful chemopreventive properties against chemically-induced oxidative stress.

  10. Hepatoprotective effects of Calotropis gigantea extract against carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Lodhi, Gaurav; Singh, Hemant Kumar; Pant, Kamlesh K; Hussain, Zeashan

    2009-03-01

    Ethanolic extract (50 %) of stems of Calotropis gigantea R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae) at doses of 250 and 500 mg kg-1 were studied for hepatoprotective activity in male Wistar rats with liver damage induced using carbon tetrachloride, 2 mL kg-1 twice a week. The protective effect of C. gigantea extract was compared with the standard drug silymarin. Various biochemical parameters such as aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxide (LPO), superoxidedismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) were evaluated. The results revealed that the C. gigantea extract significantly decreased AST, ALT (p < 0.001) and lipid peroxide (p < 0.01) levels. The antioxidant parameters GSH, GPx, SOD and catalase levels were increased considerably compared to their levels in groups not treated with C. gigantea extract.

  11. Comparison of blood chemistry values for samples collected from juvenile chinook salmon by three methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Congleton, J.L.; LaVoie, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    Thirteen blood chemistry indices were compared for samples collected by three commonly used methods: caudal transection, heart puncture, and caudal vessel puncture. Apparent biases in blood chemistry values for samples obtained by caudal transection were consistent with dilution with tissue fluids: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), triglyceride, and K+ were increased and Na+ and Cl- were decreased relative to values for samples obtained by caudal vessel puncture. Some enzyme activities (ALT, AST, LDH) and K+ concentrations were also greater in samples taken by heart puncture than in samples taken by caudal vessel puncture. Of the methods tested, caudal vessel puncture had the least effect on blood chemistry values and should be preferred for blood chemistry studies on juvenile salmonids.

  12. Protective effects of C-phycocyanin on alcohol-induced acute liver injury in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Dong; Liu, Bing; Luan, Xiying; Sun, Junyan; Liu, Nana; Qin, Song; Du, Zhenning

    2016-03-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption leads to liver disease. Extensive evidence suggests that C-phycocyanin (C-PC), a chromophore phycocyanobilin derived from Spirulina platensis, exerts protective effects against chemical-induced organ damage. In this study, we investigated whether C-PC could protect against ethanol-induced acute liver injury. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (CHOL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), liver homogenate malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) content were measured, and pathological examination of liver sections were examined. C-PC showed obvious inhibitory effects on serum ALT, AST, TG, CHOL, LDL and MDA, and SOD content significantly increased in the liver. The structure of hepatic lobules was clear, liver sinus returned to normal, and liver cell cords were arranged in neat rows. Cloudiness, swelling, inflammatory cell infiltration and spotty necrosis of liver cells were significantly reduced. Therefore, C-PC can significantly protect against ethanol-induced acute liver injury.

  13. [Special recommendations for lipid-lowering treatment: efficacy and safety].

    PubMed

    Martinez, Tania Leme da Rocha; Nascimento, Helena Maria do

    2005-10-01

    Pharmacologic lipid-lowering interventions should be monitored periodically to assess efficacy and safety parameters. Statins are usually well-tolerated drugs and major side effects include increased serum liver and muscle enzymes (AST, ALT, CK). Treatment should be stopped or diminished in case of significant increase of AST or ALT (> 3x ULN), or CK (> 10x ULN). Other lipid lowering agents may also produce hepatotoxicity or myositis, especially in association with statins (fibrates and nicotinic acid) or in presence of metabolic abnormalities (thyroid, liver or renal disorders). Nicotinic acid can also increase glucose and uric acid plasma levels. Laboratory tests might be performed prior to hypolipidemic drug treatment and should be repeated every three months during the first year and then at 6-mo intervals. Shorter intervals should be recommended in individual cases.

  14. TISSUE ENZYME ACTIVITIES IN KEMP'S RIDLEY TURTLES (LEPIDOCHELYS KEMPII).

    PubMed

    Petrosky, Keiko Y; Knoll, Joyce S; Innis, Charles

    2015-09-01

    This study determined the tissue distribution and activities of eight enzymes in 13 juvenile Kemp's ridley turtles (Lepidochelys kempii) that died after stranding. Samples from the liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, pancreas, lung, small intestine, and spleen were evaluated for activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), amylase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and lipase. AST, CK, and LDH activities were highest in cardiac and skeletal muscle but were also found in all other tissues. Amylase and lipase activities were highest in the pancreas and low in all other tissues. ALP activity was highest in the lung. ALT activity was highest in liver, kidney, and cardiac muscle, and GGT activity was highest in the kidney, but activities of these enzymes were low in all tissues. These data may assist clinicians in interpretation of plasma enzyme activities of Kemp's ridley turtles.

  15. Antioxidant and androgenic effects of dietary ginger on reproductive function of male diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ghlissi, Zohra; Atheymen, Rim; Boujbiha, Mouhamed Ali; Sahnoun, Zouheir; Makni Ayedi, Fatma; Zeghal, Khaled; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Hakim, Ahmed

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluated the antioxidant and androgenic properties of ginger roots on the reproductive function of male diabetic rats. Animals were divided into three groups; the control (Control), diabetic (Diab) and diabetic fed with dietary ginger for 30 d (Diab + Z). Thereafter, blood samples were collected and reproductive organs (testis, epididymis, prostate and seminal vesicle) were removed for determination of sperm parameters, malondialdehyde (MDA) level, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate and lactate aminotransferase (AST and ALT) activities. Dietary ginger decreased blood glucose and MDA level, increased reproductive organ weights and testosterone level, improved semen quantity and motility, and ameliorated the SOD, CAT and GPx activities as well as testis AST, ALT, LDH and ALP activities. Intake of ginger roots improves the antioxidant and androgenic reproductive function of male diabetic rats in addition to its antidiabetic property.

  16. Clinical Features of Drug-induced Liver Injury According to Etiology

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byoung Moo; Lee, Woong Cheul; Ahn, Pyoung; Kim, Jin Nyoung; Jeong, Soung Won; Park, Eui Ju; Lee, Sae Hwan; Kim, Sang Gyune; Cha, Sang-Woo; Kim, Young Seok; Cho, Young Deok; Kim, Hong Soo; Kim, Boo Sung

    2015-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an increasingly common cause of acute hepatitis. We examined clinical features and types of liver injury of 65 affected patients who underwent liver biopsy according DILI etiology. The major causes of DILI were the use of herbal medications (43.2%), prescribed medications (21.6%), and traditional therapeutic preparations and dietary supplements (35%). DILI from herbal medications, traditional therapeutic preparations, and dietary supplements was associated with higher elevations in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels than was DILI from prescription medications. The types of liver injury based on the R ratio were hepatocellular (67.7%), mixed (10.8%), and cholestatic (21.5%). Herbal medications and traditional therapeutic preparations were more commonly associated with hepatocellular liver injury than were prescription medications (P = 0.002). Herbal medications and traditional therapeutic preparations induce more hepatocellular DILI and increased elevations in AST and ALT than prescribed medications. PMID:26713057

  17. Effects of clomazone herbicide on hematological and some parameters of protein and carbohydrate metabolism of silver catfish Rhamdia quelen.

    PubMed

    Crestani, Márcia; Menezes, Charlene; Glusczak, Lissandra; Dos Santos Miron, Denise; Lazzari, Rafael; Duarte, Marta F; Morsch, Vera Maria; Pippi, Amy Lee; Vieira, Vânia Pimentel

    2006-09-01

    The effects of clomazone (0.5 and 1.0 mg/L) according to nominal concentrations used in paddy rice fields (0.4-0.7 mg/L) on protein and carbohydrate metabolism and haematological parameters were evaluated in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) after 12, 24, 48, 96 and 192 h of exposure with a recovery period of 96 and 192 h. Liver glycogen increased significantly (P<0.05) in all periods and concentrations tested. The maximum glycogen increase reaches 250% after 12h of exposure. Muscle glycogen reduced significantly after 24, 48, 96 and 192 h for both clomazone concentrations (P<0.05). Significantly elevated plasma glucose values (P<0.05) and variation in glucose in the liver and muscle of exposed fish were observed. Muscle lactate levels increased after 12, 24 and 48 h of clomazone exposure (22-67%), but reduced in the liver (P<0.05). Protein levels were enhanced in the liver and white muscle, except at 96 and 192 h of exposure, whereas it increased in the plasma in the period from 48 to 96 h (P<0.05). Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were significantly elevated in the plasma (P<0.05). In the liver, ALT increased after 24 h, while AST activity was enhanced only after 12 h of exposure. Hematocrit contents were reduced after 96 and 192 h of exposure. Most of the metabolic disorders observed did not persist after the recovery period, except for the liver AST and ALT activity. Clomazone concentrations used in this study appear safe to fish, Rhamdia quelen, because overall parameters can be recovered after 96 and 192 h in clean water. ALT and AST activity may be an early biomarker of clomazone toxicity.

  18. The Protective Action of the Aqueous Extract of Auricularia polytricha in Paracetamol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Chellappan, Dinesh K; Ganasen, Sivamalar; Batumalai, Shaminiswary; Candasamy, Mayuren; Krishnappa, Purushotham; Dua, Kamal; Chellian, Jestin; Gupta, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    Natural antioxidant products are increasingly being used to treat various pathological liver injuries considering the role of oxidative stress in their pathogenesis. Auricularia polytricha has been used as food or medicine due to its antioxidant activity. The aim of the study was to evaluate the protective effect of the aqueous extract of the fruiting bodies of A. polytricha against paracetamol-induced liver toxicity in rats. Liver toxicity was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by oral administration of 2g/kg paracetamol on the 15th day after the administration of aqueous extract and silymarin 100 mg/kg. Aqueous extract of A. polytricha was administered orally at 250 and 500 mg/kg doses, daily for a period of 14 days. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine transaminase (ALT) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Total bilirubin (TB), Total protein (TP), Triglycerides (TG) and cholesterol were measured to assess the effect of the extract on paracetamol-induced hepatic damage. The patent on Auricularia Polytricha (EP0413052A1) assisted in selecting the extraction procedure. The study also included histopathological examination of liver sections to assess hepatoprotective activity. Paracetamol significantly (P<0.001) increased the serum AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, TB, TG and cholesterol and decreased TP levels. Extract treatment significantly (P<0.001 to P<0.05) attenuated the paracetamol induced increase in AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, TB, TG and cholesterol and increased the diminished TP in a dose dependent manner. The standard drug, silymarin produced significant (P<0.001) decrease in AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, TB, TG and cholesterol and increase in TP. Histopathological examination of animals treated with paracetamol showed large areas of centrilobular necrosis with congestion and dilatation in both central and portal veins. These results indicate that the aqueous extract of A. polytricha has significant protective effect against paracetamol-induced liver toxicity

  19. Correlation analysis between four serum biomarkers of liver fibrosis and liver function in infants with cholestasis

    PubMed Central

    TANG, NING; ZHANG, YAPING; LIU, ZEYU; FU, TAO; LIANG, QINGHONG; AI, XUEMEI

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between four serum biomarkers of liver fibrosis and liver function in infants with cholestasis. A total of 30 infants with cholestasis and 20 healthy infants were included in the study. Biochemical assays based on the initial rate method and colorimetric assays were conducted to determine the levels of liver function markers in the serum [such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TBIL), direct bilirubin (DBIL), indirect bilirubin (IBIL), γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT), cholinesterase (CHE) and total bile acids (TBA)] and four serum biomarkers of liver fibrosis were measured using radioimmunoassays [hyaluronic acid (HA), procollagen type III (PCIII), laminin (LN) and collagen type IV (cIV)]. The serum levels of ALT, AST, TBIL, DBIL, IBIL, γ-GT and TBA in the infants with cholestasis were significantly higher compared to the healthy infants (P<0.01); the serum levels of CHE in the infants with cholestasis were significantly lower compared to the healthy infants (P<0.01). The serum levels of HA, PCIII, and cIV in the infants with cholestasis were significantly higher compared to the healthy infants (P<0.01). Correlation analyses between liver function and the four biomarkers of liver fibrosis showed that HA was positively correlated with AST and γ-GT (P<0.05) and negatively correlated with ALT, CHE and TBA (P<0.05). cIV was positively correlated with γ-GT (P<0.05) and negatively correlated with CHE (P<0.05). In conclusion, statistically significant differences were identified for the liver function markers (ALT, AST, TBIL, DBIL, IBIL, γ-GT and TBA) and the biomarkers HA, PCIII and cIV of liver fibrosis between infants with cholestasis and healthy infants. Thus, the serum levels of HA, cIV, γ-GT and CHE are sensitive markers for cholestatic liver fibrosis in infants. PMID:27347413

  20. Estimation of Specific Salivary Enzymatic Biomarkers in Individuals with Gingivitis and Chronic Periodontitis: A Clinical and Biochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Luke, Roji; Khan, S Nubesh; Iqbal, P Safar; Soman, Rino Roopak; Chakkarayan, Jithesh; Krishnan, V

    2015-01-01

    Background: Host response to periodontal disease includes the release of different enzymes from stromal, epithelial or inflammatory cells. The enzymes which are produced from these cells are associated with cell injury and cell death like: Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Normal enzymatic activity of these enzymes is necessary for healthy functioning of gingiva and periodontium. The aim of the study is to estimate the levels of enzymes AST, ALT, ALP and BUN and to correlate the level of estimated enzymes with that of clinical parameters in the saliva of Healthy subjects, Gingivitis patients and patients with chronic periodontitis. Methods: The study included a total of 40 male subjects within the age group of 21 to 50 years, and examined the activity of enzymes AST, ALT, ALP and BUN in saliva spectrophotometrically and compared their values between healthy subjects, gingivitis and chronic periodontitis patients. Clinical parameters like OHI – S (Oral hygiene index - Simplified, SBI (Sulcus Bleeding Index), PPD (Probing Pocket Depth), CAL (Clinical Attachment Level), and PI (Periodontal Index) were recorded. Results: Obtained results showed statistically significant increases of activity of AST, ALT, ALP, and BUN in saliva from patients with periodontal disease (p<0.001) in relation to gingivitis and control groups. There was also an increase in periodontal parameters with an increase in salivary enzymes. Conclusion: The present study shows that the salivary enzyme activity can be used as biomarkers to determine periodontal tissue damage, which may be useful in diagnosis, prognosis and evaluation of post therapy effects in periodontal disease. PMID:26435618

  1. Doxorubicine-congestive heart failure-increased big endothelin-1 plasma concentration: reversal by amlodipine, losartan, and gastric pentadecapeptide BPC157 in rat and mouse.

    PubMed

    Lovric-Bencic, Martina; Sikiric, Predrag; Hanzevacki, Jadranka S; Seiwerth, Sven; Rogic, Dunja; Kusec, Vesna; Aralica, Gorana; Konjevoda, Pasko; Batelja, Lovorka; Blagaic, Alenka B

    2004-05-01

    Overall, doxorubicine-congestive heart failure (CHF) (male Wistar rats and NMRI mice; 6 challenges with doxorubicine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) throughout 15 days and then a 4-week-rest period) is consistently deteriorating throughout next 14 days, if not reversed or ameliorated by therapy (/kg per day): a stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC157 (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, MW 1419, promisingly studied for inflammatory bowel disease (Pliva; PL 10, PLD-116, PL 14736)) (10 microg, 10 ng), losartan (0.7 mg), amlodipine (0.07 mg), given intragastrically (i.g.) (once daily, rats) or in drinking water (mice). Assessed were big endothelin-1 (BET-1) and plasma enzyme levels (CK, MBCK, LDH, AST, ALT) before and after 14 days of therapy and clinical status (hypotension, increased heart rate and respiratory rate, and ascites) every 2 days. Controls (distilled water (5 ml/kg, i.g., once daily) or drinking water (2 ml/mouse per day) given throughout 14 days) exhibited additionally increased BET-1 and aggravated clinical status, while enzyme values maintained their initial increase. BPC157 (10 microg/kg) and amlodipine treatment reversed the increased BET-1 (rats, mice), AST, ALT, CK (rats, mice), and LDH (mice) values. BPC157 (10 ng/kg) and losartan opposed further increase of BET-1 (rats, mice). Losartan reduces AST, ALT, CK, and LDH serum values. BPC157 (10 ng/kg) reduces AST and ALT serum values. Clinical status of CHF-rats and -mice is accordingly improved by the BPC157 regimens and amlodipine. PMID:15153646

  2. Effect of dried fruits of Carica papaya Linn on hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Rajkapoor, Balasubramanian; Jayakar, Balasundaram; Kavimani, Subramanian; Murugesh, Narayanan

    2002-12-01

    Ethanol and aqueous extracts of Carica papaya has been evaluated for its anti hepatotoxic activity. The ethanol and aqueous extracts of Carica papaya showed remarkable hepatoprotective activity against CCl(4) induced hepatotoxicity. The activity was evaluated by using biochemical parameters such as serum aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin and gamma glutamate transpeptidase (GGTP). The histopathological changes of liver sample was compared with respect to control.

  3. Sex hormone affects the severity of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis through the MyD88-dependent IL-6 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Guangda; Qin, Shaoyou; Wang, Song; Wang, Xu; Zhang, Yonggui

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has shown that the occurrence of gender disparity in liver cancer associated with sex differences in MyD88-dependent IL-6 production, but the role of this signaling pathway in sex differences of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remains unknown. To investigate the effects of sex hormone-specific intervention on pathology and progression of NASH, and on the inflammatory TLR-MyD88-IL-6 signaling pathway NASH was modeled in C57/BL6 mice by feeding a methionine and choline-deficient (MCD) diet for 4 weeks. Male mice were subjected to sex hormone-related interventions such as orchidectomy, and orchidectomy combined with administration of either testosterone propionate or estradiol benzoate. Next, the degree of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity score (NAS), serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and the expression level of MyD88 and IL-6, were compared between these groups. Males developed more serious inflammatory problems and had a higher NAS than the females. Sex-specific intervention in male mice by orchidectomy reduced NAS, ALT, and AST, and the expression level of MyD88 and IL-6. But administration of exogenous androgen had no influence on either NAS or the expression of ALT, AST, MyD88, and IL-6. On the other hand, exogenous estrogen could alleviate the pathological damage caused by NASH, as well as reduce NAS, ALT and AST, and the expression of MyD88 and IL-6. The result show different sex hormone-related interventions affected the severity of NASH, possibly by modulating the level of sex hormones and regulating the TLR-MyD88-IL-6 signaling pathway. PMID:25790822

  4. Circulating microRNA 122 in the Methionine and Choline Deficient Mouse Model of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, John D.; Sharapova, Tatiana; Lake, April D.; Blomme, Eric; Maher, Jonathan; Cherrington, Nathan J.

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a progressive form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and is a major cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatic failure. The methionine choline-deficient diet (MCD) is a frequently used hepatotoxicity animal model of NASH that induces hepatic transaminase (ALT, AST) elevations and hepatobiliary histological changes similar to those observed in human NASH. Liver-specific microRNA-122 (miR-122) has been shown as a key regulator of cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism in adult liver, and has recently been proposed as a sensitive and specific circulating biomarker of hepatic injury. The purpose of this study was to assess miR-122 serum levels in mice receiving an MCD diet for 0, 3, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days and compare the performance versus routine clinical chemistry when benchmarked against the histopathological liver findings. MiR-122 levels were quantified in serum using RT-qPCR. Both miR-122 and ALT/AST levels were significantly elevated in serum at all timepoints. MiR-122 levels increased on average by 40-fold after 3 days of initiating the MCD diet, while ALT and AST changes were 4.8- and 3.3-fold, respectively. In general, miR-122 levels remained elevated across all timepoints, whereas the ALT/AST increases were less robust but correlated with the progressive severity of NASH as assessed by histopathology. In conclusion, serum levels of miR-122 can potentially be used as a sensitive biomarker for early detection of hepatotoxicity and can aid in monitoring the extent of NAFLD-associated liver injury in mouse efficacy models. PMID:24217942

  5. Evaluation of the Olympus AU 400 clinical chemistry analyzer.

    PubMed

    Bilić, A; Alpeza, I; Rukavina, A S

    2000-01-01

    The performance of the Olympus AU 400 clinical chemistry analyzer was evaluated according to the guidelines of the European Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. The following analytes were tested: glucose, urea, creatinine, calcium, AST, ALT, CK, LDH, ALP and amylase. The Olympus AU 400 was compared with the Olympus AU 800. Coefficients of correlation showed high correlation between the compared analyzers. Other performances (intra- and inter-assay variation, carry-over and interferences) of the analyzer were satisfactory.

  6. The Effect of Green Tea Extract Supplementation on Liver Enzymes in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pezeshki, Ali; Safi, Sara; Feizi, Awat; Askari, Gholamreza; Karami, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Green tea is one of the most popular beverages in the world. It is believed to have beneficial effects in the prevention and treatment of many diseases, one of which is nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The present study investigated the effects of consumption of green tea in NAFLD patients. Methods: This study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Ultrasonography was used to diagnose fatty liver in patients with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) >31 mg/dl and 41 mg/dl and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) >31 mg/dl and 47 g/dl in women and men, respectively and without other hepatic diseases. A total of 80 participants (20–50 years) with NAFLD were randomly allocated into two groups to receive either green tea extract (GTE) supplement (500 mg GTE tablet per day) or placebo for 90 days. At baseline and at the end of the intervention weight, serum ALT, AST, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured in fasting state, and dietary data were collected at baseline and end of the study. Results: Green tea group showed significant reductions in ALT and AST levels after 12 weeks period (P < 0.001). The placebo group showed a reduction in ALT and AST levels at the end of the study, but it was no significant. ALP levels showed significant reductions in both groups after 12 weeks period (P < 0.001). Conclusions: According to the findings of this study, GTE supplementation decrease liver enzymes in patients with NAFLD. It can be claimed that GTE prescribed can be considered as a treatment to improve serum levels of liver enzymes in NAFLD patients. PMID:26955458

  7. Association of the Nonalcoholic Hepatic Steatosis and Its Degrees With the Values of Liver Enzymes and Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance Index

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Mario Augusto Ferreira; Cruz, Josilda Ferreira; Macena, Larissa Baracho; de Santana, Demetrius Silva; Oliveira, Cristiane Costa da Cunha; Lima, Sonia Oliveira; Franca, Alex Vianey Callado

    2015-01-01

    Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is among the most common chronic diseases of the modern world with a wide variety of factors including genetic, environmental and metabolic. The aim of this study was to verify the association between the degrees of hepatic steatosis at the abdominal ultrasound and the values of aminotransferases (aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transferase (ALT)), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. Methods A prospective, descriptive survey study, using a quantitative analytical examination, was conducted from July 2013 to July 2014. In the statistical analysis, values were expressed as median, first and third quartiles. We used the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test to compare the medians between the degrees of steatosis, adopted a statistical significance of 5% (P ≤ 0.05) and used the statistical program SPSS 22.0. Results We diagnosed 233/800 (29.1%) patients with hepatic steatosis on routine ultrasound, and 65.7% were female. Regarding degrees, 119 had grade 1 (51.0%), 94 grade 2 (40.4%) and 20 grade 3 (8.6%). The median age of the patients with grade 1, 2 or 3 did not vary significantly (P > 0.05). The median body mass index (BMI), although clinically important because of its elevation, did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). ALT levels increased as the degree of hepatic steatosis has advanced as well as the levels of AST, GGT and HOMA-IR. AST values showed a greater association with the severity of fatty liver (P = 0.0001) than the ALT (P = 0.001). Conclusions ALT, AST, GGT and HOMA-IR are associated to the degrees of hepatic steatosis on ultrasound and can help in the selection of patients for the liver histological evaluation. PMID:27785306

  8. Association between liver enzymes and incident type 2 diabetes in Singapore Chinese men and women

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ye-Li; Koh, Woon-Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min; Pan, An

    2016-01-01

    Aims To assess the association between liver enzymes and the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in a Chinese population. Methods A nested case–control study comprising 571 T2D cases and 571 matched controls was conducted within the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were quantified in baseline plasma collected from them, while γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) was assayed among 255 T2D cases with baseline hemoglobin A1c <6.5% and 255 matched controls. Participants were free of diagnosed diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at blood collections (1999–2004). Incident self-reported T2D cases were identified at follow-up II interview (2006–2010). Controls were matched to cases on age, sex, dialect group, and date of blood collection. Results Higher levels of ALT and GGT were significantly associated with increased risk of T2D (p for trend <0.001 for ALT, p for trend=0.03 for GGT), and the ORs (95% CIs) comparing highest versus lowest tertiles of ALT and GGT were 2.00 (1.01 to 3.96) and 2.38 (1.21 to 4.66), respectively. A null association was observed for AST, ALP, and LDH with T2D risk. Adding GGT (<23 vs ≥23 IU/L) or ALT (<21 vs ≥21 IU/L) to a prediction model resulted in significant gain in net reclassification improvement and integrated discrimination improvement of T2D prediction (all p<0.001). Conclusions Higher levels of GGT and ALT are associated with increased T2D risk. GGT ≥23 IU/L and ALT ≥21 IU/L may identify people at higher risk of developing T2D in this Chinese population. PMID:27738514

  9. Associations between polymorphisms of interleukin-6 and related cytokine genes and serum liver damage markers: a cross-sectional study in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Yuka; Wakai, Kenji; Nakagawa, Hiroko; Suma, Shino; Sasakabe, Tae; Sakamoto, Tatsuhiko; Takashima, Naoyuki; Suzuki, Sadao; Ogawa, Shin; Ohnaka, Keizo; Kuriyama, Nagato; Arisawa, Kokichi; Mikami, Haruo; Kubo, Michiaki; Hosono, Satoyo; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Hideo

    2015-02-25

    Cytokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), play an important role in the liver. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between common polymorphisms in potential functional promoters of cytokine genes and liver damage markers among enrollees of a large Japanese cohort study. Subjects included 3257 Japanese individuals (1608 men and 1649 women, aged 35-69 years). Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter regions of five cytokine genes, IL1B (T-31C), IL6 (C-634G), IL8 (T-251A), IL10 (T-819C), tumor necrosis factor-A (TNFA) (T-1031C), and TNFA (C-857T), were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction. Information regarding alcohol intake, smoking habits, height, and weight was collected by a self-administered questionnaire. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were measured during a routine health check-up. Of the six SNPs genotyped, an IL6 polymorphism (rs1800796, C-634G) was most strongly associated with a liver damage marker, AST. Mean serum AST was significantly different among the three genotypes (mean ± SD, 22.7 ± 7.3 IU/L for CC, 22.8 ± 7.7 IU/L for CG, and 24.3 ± 8.6 IU/L for GG, p=0.011 by analysis of variance). The differences remained significant after adjustment for potential confounders by general linear models. The variations in mean serum AST and ALT levels were marked especially among men. Thus, the functional polymorphism IL6 C-634G may affect serum AST and ALT levels, possibly through different IL-6 production.

  10. SILVER NANOPARTICLE INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS-DEPENDENT TOXICITY IN SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS

    PubMed Central

    Patlolla, Anita K.; Hackett, Diahanna; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the intensive commercial application of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), their health risk assessment is of great importance. For acute toxicity evaluation of orally administered Ag-NPs, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), activity of liver function enzymes [(Alanine (ALT/GPT), Aspartate (AST/GOT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP)], concentration of lipid hydroperoxide (LHP), comet assay and histopathology of liver in the rat model were performed. Four groups of five male rats were orally administered Ag-NPs, once a day for five days with doses of 5, 25, 50, 100, mg/Kg, body weight. A control group was also made of five rats. Blood and liver were collected 24 hours after the last treatment following standard protocols. Ag-NPs exposure increased the induction of ROS, activities of the liver enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP), concentration of Lipid hydroperoxide (LHP), tail migration and morphological alterations of the liver tissue in exposed groups compared to control. The highest two doses, 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg showed statistically significant (p<0.05) increases in ROS induction, ALT, AST, ALP activity, LHP concentration, DNA damage and morphological alterations of liver compared to control. Based on these results, it is suggested that short-term administration of high doses of Ag-NP may cause organ toxicity and oxidative stress. PMID:25355157

  11. Cytoprotective effects of carvedilol against oxygen free radical generation in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Ronsein, Graziella Eliza; Guidi, Débora Bonelli; Benassi, Jean Carlo; Filho, Danilo Wilhelm; Pedrosa, Roberto Coury; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi

    2005-01-01

    The protective effects of carvedilol, an antihypertensive agent, against oxidative injury caused by acetaminophen were studied in rat liver. Male Wistar rats (250 +/- 30 g) were pre-treated with carvedilol (3.6 mg/kg, p.o.) for 10 days and on the 11th day received an overdose of acetaminophen (800 mg/kg, p.o.). Four hours after acetaminophen administration, blood was collected to determine serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). After that, rats were killed and the livers were excised to determine reduced glutathione (GSH), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and carbonyl protein contents, and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione S-transferase (GST), and also the DNA damage index. Acetaminophen significantly increased the levels of TBARS, the DNA damage and SOD, AST and ALT activities. Carvedilol was able to prevent lipid peroxidation, protein carbonilation and DNA fragmentation caused by acetaminophen. Moreover, this drug prevented increases in SOD, AST and ALT activities. These results show that carvedilol exerts cytoprotective effects against oxidative injury caused by acetaminophen in rat liver. These effects are probably related to the O2*- scavenging property of carvedilol or its metabolites. PMID:16156951

  12. Hepatoprotective Effect of Silymarin (Silybum marianum) on Hepatotoxicity Induced by Acetaminophen in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Freitag, Abel Felipe; Cardia, Gabriel Fernando Esteves; da Rocha, Bruno Ambrósio; Aguiar, Rafael Pazzinatto; Silva-Comar, Francielli Maria de Souza; Spironello, Ricardo Alexandre; Grespan, Renata; Caparroz-Assef, Silvana Martins; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effect of Silymarin (SLM) on the hypertension state and the liver function changes induced by acetaminophen (APAP) in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Animals normotensive (N) or hypertensive (SHR) were treated or not with APAP (3 g/kg, oral) or previously treated with SLM. Twelve hours after APAP administration, plasmatic levels of liver function markers: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glucose (GLU), gamma glutamyl transferase (γ-GT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) of all groups, were determined. Liver injury was assessed using histological studies. Samples of their livers were then used to determine the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and nitric oxide (NO) production and were also sectioned for histological analysis. No differences were observed for ALT, γ-GT, and GLU levels between SHR and normotensive rats groups. However, AST and ALP levels were increased in hypertensive animals. APAP treatment promoted an increase in ALT and AST in both SHR and N. However, only for SHR, γ-GT levels were increased. The inflammatory response evaluated by MPO activity and NO production showed that SHR was more susceptible to APAP effect, by increasing leucocyte infiltration. Silymarin treatment (Legalon) restored the hepatocyte functional and histopathological alterations induced by APAP in normotensive and hypertensive animals.

  13. Targeting BuChE-inflammatory pathway by SK0506 to manage type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Kamal, M A; Tan, Y; Seale, J P; Qu, X

    2009-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) affect a large percent of the population worldwide. Experimental studies have revealed that T2DM and AD share several molecular processes that underlie their respective degenerative pathology. Based on this information, we quantified TNF-α, IL-6 levels, serum glucose, serum triglyceride, hepatic triglyceride, serum AST, serum ALT and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) in various rat tissues. HFD was fed to rats resulting in increased body weight, fasting blood glucose, IL-6, TNF-α levels, hepatic triglyceride, serum AST, serum ALT and BuChE. SK0506 treatment significantly prevented weight gain induced by HFD feeding. SK0506, but not Rosiglitazone, significantly reduced serum and hepatic triglycerides levels. Treatment with SK0506 also ameliorated elevated levels of both inflammatory markers (TNF-α and IL-6) and serum liver enzymes (ALT and AST) significantly in HFD fed rats. BuChE activity also reduced in skeletal muscle and adipose tissues of rats treated by SK0506. In conclusion, current study has opened new potential avenues towards research for management of T2DM and AD by Chinese herbal extracts, ‘‘SK0506’’.

  14. Evaluation of Antidiabetic and Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Peganum harmala Seeds in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Komeili, Gholamreza; Hashemi, Mohammad; Bameri-Niafar, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic properties of hydroalcoholic extract of Peganum harmala in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats. In an experimental study, 64 normal Wistar albino male rats (200–230 g) were randomly divided into 8 groups. Control and diabetic rats were treated with normal saline and three different doses (30, 60, and 120 mg/kg) of hydroalcoholic extract of Peganum harmala seeds for 4 weeks orally. At the end of treatment, blood samples were taken and glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-c, HDL-c, malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TCA), ALT, AST, GGT, bilirubin, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) were determined. STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significant changes in the values of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-c, MDA, TAC, ALT, AST, GGT, bilirubin, and HbA1C in comparison with normal rats. Administration of the extract to diabetic rats resulted in a remarkable decrease in glucose, lipid profiles, MDA, ALT, AST, GGT, bilirubin, and HbA1C levels and increase in TAC relative to diabetic group. The results of this study indicated that hydroalcoholic extract of Peganum harmala seeds possesses antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities and could be useful in treatment of diabetes. PMID:27190643

  15. Blood biochemical profiles of thai indigenous and Simmental x Brahman crossbred cattle in the Central Thailand.

    PubMed

    Boonprong, S; Sribhen, C; Choothesa, A; Parvizi, N; Vajrabukka, C

    2007-03-01

    Plasma biochemical profiles were studied in 112 mature (3 to 5-year-old) healthy cattle comprised of 61 Thai indigenous and 51 Simmental x Brahman crossbred male and cyclic female cattle at Nongkwang (Central Thailand) Livestock Research and Breeding Center, Thailand. Data were analysed for the effect of breed and sex. The results showed that the plasma glucose and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the two breeds were significantly (P < 0.05) different. Furthermore, the urea, creatinine, albumin, total protein, aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels in Thai indigenous were significantly (P < 0.01) higher than in crossbred cattle. However, creatine kinase did not significantly differ in crossbred and indigenous animals. A sex difference was found in glucose level with male Thai indigenous having significantly higher levels (P < 0.05) than the other three groups. Plasma urea concentration in male crossbred cattle was lower than in the other groups (P < 0.05). Female crossbred cattle had significantly (P < 0.05) lower plasma creatinine levels than the other animals. Furthermore, levels of albumin in male and total protein in female crossbred were the lowest (P < 0.05) among the groups. The AST, ALT, ALP and GGT levels were significantly (P < 0.05) different between male and female. Female crossbred cattle had the lowest (P < 0.05) AST and GGT levels, whereas lowest (P < 0.05) ALT and ALP concentration was determined in male individuals of these breeds. PMID:17305967

  16. Influence of nandrolone decanoate administration on serum lipids and liver enzymes in rats

    PubMed Central

    Samieinasab, Mohammad Reza; Shahraki, Mohammad Reza; Samieinasab, Fatemah; Najafi, Somayeh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Anabolic-androgenic steroids have been associated with several side effects range. This experimental study was conducted to evaluate the effects of nandrolone decanoate (ND, an anabolic steroid) on lipid profile and liver enzymes in rats in Iran. METHODS Forty adult male and female of Wistar strain rats were randomly assigned to four groups of 10 animals each: male control, female control, ND-male treated (15 mg/kg b.w./day), and ND-female treated (15 mg/kg b.w./day). Serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were measured in all studied groups. RESULTS Treating rats with ND (case group) resulted in a significant elevation of TC (69.4 ± 8.7), TG (101.6 ± 32.9) and ALT (72.2 ± 13.8) and significant reduction of LDL (6.4 ± 2.6) and AST (138.7 ± 19.4) as compared to control group in female rats. ND supplementation (case group) significantly increased TC (64.4 ± 6.2), AST (255.0 ± 32.0), and ALT (84.3 ± 3.8) in comparison with the control group in male rats. CONCLUSION Overall, our result indicated that the ND use can cause a negative effect on lipid profile and liver enzyme in rats. PMID:26478734

  17. [Comparative analysis of the effects of alcoholism and opium addiction on liver function].

    PubMed

    Kharchenko, N K; Synyts'kyĭ, V N; Kovtun, T V

    2001-01-01

    Groups of patients suffering alcoholism and narcomania were examined for the effect of intoxication on the blood serum enzymes of mainly liver origin: alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), as well as on thymol test. It has been shown that in patients with the first stage of alcoholism one could observe only functional disturbances in the liver: the increase of ADH activity which evidences for the induction of its synthesis. In patients with the first stage of opium narcomania one can record total hyperenzymenia, decrease of de-Rimis coefficient at the expense of more considerable increase of ALT activity than that of AST, as well as the sharp increase of thymol test--these are the signs of destructive and metabolic disturbances in the liver. In patients with the second stage of alcoholism one can observe the decrease of ALDH activity under the increase of ADH, AST, ALT activity and high thymol test-these are the signs of toxical hepatitis. Destructive and metabolic changes increase in the liver in the patients with the second stage of narcomania.

  18. Toxicity and oxidative stress induced by T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin in broilers and broiler hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lingchen; Yu, Zezhong; Hou, Jiafa; Deng, Yifeng; Zhou, Zhenlei; Zhao, Zhiyong; Cui, Jun

    2016-01-01

    T-2 and HT-2 toxins belong to mycotoxins which are found in human foods and animal chow. We investigated the toxicity and oxidative stress induced by T-2/HT-2 in broilers and chicken hepatocytes. Maize cultures of Fusarium poae was fed to broilers for 42 d, and the physiological index, biochemical index and expression of mRNAs related to oxidative stress were analyzed. Chicken hepatocytes were treated with different levels of T-2/HT-2, and the following parameters were detected: cell viability, GSH and MDA concentration, LDH leakage, activities of ALT/AST, ROS, GSH-PX, SOD and CAT, and expression of mRNA related to oxidative stress. In vivo, high levels of mycotoxins (4 mg/kg T-2 and 0.667 mg/kg HT-2) in feed caused significant reductions in body weight, weight gain, and serum total protein, and significant increases in feed conversion ratio, ALP, ALT/AST activities, and expression of mRNA related to oxidative stress. In vitro, cells treated with T-2/HT-2 showed reductions of GSH concentration and significant increases in LDH leakage, ALT/AST ROS, GSH-PX, SOD and CAT activities, MDA concentration, and expression of mRNA related to oxidative stress. Consequently, F. poae culture material and T-2/HT-2 induced toxicity and oxidative stress in vivo and in vitro, respectively. PMID:26683309

  19. Ameliorative effect of Phytocee™ Cool against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Joshua Allan; Ayyappan, Usha Parackal Thachappully; Sasidharan, Suja Rani; Mutyala, Sridhar; Goudar, Krishnagouda Shankargouda; Agarwal, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Background: Antioxidants from natural sources have a major role in reversing the effects of oxidative stress and promoting health, growth and productivity in animals. Objective: This study was undertaken to investigate the possible antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effects of Phytocee™ Cool on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced oxidative stress and liver damage in rats. Materials and Methods: Animals were pretreated with Phytocee™ Cool for 10 days and were challenged with CCl4 (1:1 v/v) in olive oil on the 10th day. After 24 h of CCl4 administration blood was collected and markers of hepatocellular damage aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were evaluated. Rats were sacrificed and oxidative stress in liver was estimated using malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. Results: CCl4 caused a significant increase in serum AST, ALT, hepatic MDA and GSH levels, whereas the SOD and catalase activities were decreased. Phytocee™ Cool pretreatment attenuated the MDA, AST ALT levels and increased the activities of SOD and catalase. Conclusion: Phytocee™ Cool demonstrated antioxidant potential and hepatoprotective effects and plausibly be used in the amelioration of oxidative stress. PMID:25276070

  20. Protective effect of allicin against glycidamide-induced toxicity in male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, En-Ting; Chen, Dong-Yan; Liu, Huang-You; Yan, Hai-Yang; Yuan, Yuan

    2015-04-01

    Acrylamide is known to be a neurotoxic, genotoxic, and carcinogenic compound. Glycidamide has a close relationship to the toxic mechanism of acrylamide. In order to explore the toxic mechanism of acrylamide, we further discussed the effects of oral administration of allicin on glycidamide-induced toxicity by determining the hematological parameters like AST, ALT, LDH, BUN, creatinine, ROS, and 8-OHdG, and biochemical parameters such as MDA, MPO, SOD, GST and GSH in the kidney, liver, brain and lung of male and female mice for the first time. We found that the same dose of glycidamide had more toxic effects and damage effects to the mice compared to the previous study of acrylamide. It could markedly increase the level of AST, ALT, LDH, BUN, ROS, 8-OHdG, MDA, MPO while decrease the SOD, GST and GSH. However, our data showed the oral administered allicin with a concentration of 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg b.w./day could significantly decrease the damage indexes of AST, ALT, LDH, BUN, ROS, 8-OHdG, MDA, and MPO, while increase the antioxidant indicators of SOD, GST and GSH. Thus allicin could be used as an effective dietary supplement for the chemoprevention of glycidamide genotoxicity internally, and to prevent the tissue damage and toxicity induced by glycidamide. PMID:25730897

  1. Standardization in Clinical Enzymology – Results of a Survey Performed in 2008 in Big Hospital Laboratories in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Pollak, Joanna

    2009-01-01

    The survey was performed in December 2008 in 21 big hospital laboratories in Poland. The purpose of this survey was to estimate how the IFCC standardization in clinical enzymology is recognized and followed in medical laboratories. Each participant received a short questionnaire in an electronic version consisting of 5 questions dealing with the main features for the Reference Procedures for measurement of catalytic activity concentrations of CK, LDH, GGTP, AST and ALT. Measurement temperature for all enzyme assays in question was 37°C and wavelenght was 340 nm for LDH, ALT, AST and CK in all but one lab. Most of laboratories (80%) performed GGTP assay according to the reference procedure. Surprisingly, the methods used for the LDH measurement were discordant with the IFCC reference procedure in respect to reaction principle in 50% of laboratories. On the other hand, methods for measurements of catalytic activity concentration of ALT and AST were incompatible with the IFCC reference procedures in respect to reaction mixture composition in 55% of laboratories.

  2. Studies on the alterations in haematological indices, micronuclei induction and pathological marker enzyme activities in Channa punctatus (spotted snakehead) perciformes, channidae exposed to thermal power plant effluent.

    PubMed

    Javed, Mehjbeen; Ahmad, Irshad; Ahmad, Ajaz; Usmani, Nazura; Ahmad, Masood

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the toxicity of thermal power plant effluent containing heavy metals (Fe > Cu > Zn > Mn > Ni > Co > Cr) on haematological indices, micronuclei, lobed nuclei and activity of pathological marker enzymes [alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate transferase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT) and creatine kinase (CK)] in Channa punctatus. Total erythrocyte count (-54.52 %), hemoglobin (-36.98 %), packed cell volume (-36.25 %), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (-1.41 %) and oxygen (O2) carrying capacity (-37.04 %) declined significantly over reference fish, however total leukocyte count (+25.43 %), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (+33.52 %) and mean corpuscular volume (+35.49 %) showed elevation. High frequency of micronuclei (1133.3 %) and lobed nuclei (150 %) were observed in exposed fish which may indicate mutagenesis. Activities of pathological marker enzymes ALP, AST, ALT and CK increased significantly in serum of exposed fish. The ratio of ALT: AST in exposed fish was beyond 1 which indicates manifestation of pathological processes. These biomarkers show that fish have macrocytic hypochromic anemia. Leukocytosis showed general defence response against heavy metal toxicity and marker enzymes showed tissue degeneration. In conclusion, thermal power plant effluent has strong potential to induce micronuclei, tissue pathology, making the fish anemic, weak, stressed and vulnerable to diseases. PMID:27386247

  3. Hepatoprotective Effect of Silymarin (Silybum marianum) on Hepatotoxicity Induced by Acetaminophen in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cardia, Gabriel Fernando Esteves; da Rocha, Bruno Ambrósio; Aguiar, Rafael Pazzinatto; Spironello, Ricardo Alexandre; Caparroz-Assef, Silvana Martins; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effect of Silymarin (SLM) on the hypertension state and the liver function changes induced by acetaminophen (APAP) in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Animals normotensive (N) or hypertensive (SHR) were treated or not with APAP (3 g/kg, oral) or previously treated with SLM. Twelve hours after APAP administration, plasmatic levels of liver function markers: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glucose (GLU), gamma glutamyl transferase (γ-GT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) of all groups, were determined. Liver injury was assessed using histological studies. Samples of their livers were then used to determine the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and nitric oxide (NO) production and were also sectioned for histological analysis. No differences were observed for ALT, γ-GT, and GLU levels between SHR and normotensive rats groups. However, AST and ALP levels were increased in hypertensive animals. APAP treatment promoted an increase in ALT and AST in both SHR and N. However, only for SHR, γ-GT levels were increased. The inflammatory response evaluated by MPO activity and NO production showed that SHR was more susceptible to APAP effect, by increasing leucocyte infiltration. Silymarin treatment (Legalon) restored the hepatocyte functional and histopathological alterations induced by APAP in normotensive and hypertensive animals. PMID:25821491

  4. Effect of infliximab on acute hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Pergel, Ahmet; Aydin, Ibrahim; Alacam, Hasan; Karabicak, Ilhan; Kesicioglu, Tugrul; Tumkaya, Levent; Kalkan, Yildiray; Ozer, Ender; Arslan, Zakir; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim; Sahin, Dursun Ali

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of infliximab (IFX) against liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. A total of 30 male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: sham, I/R, and I/R+IFX. IFX was given at a dose of 3 mg/kg for three days before I/R. Rat livers were subjected to 60 min of ischemia followed by 90 h of reperfusion. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), TNF-α, malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels were measured in the serum. The liver was removed to evaluate the histopathologic changes. The I/R group had a significant increase in AST, ALT, MDA, and TNF-α levels, and a decrease in GSH-Px activity compared with the sham group. The use of IFX significantly reduced the ALT, AST, MDA and TNF-α levels and significantly increased GSH-Px activity. IFX attenuated the histopathologic changes. IFX has a protective effect on liver I/R injury. This liver protective effect may be related to antioxidant and anti-TNF-α effects. We propose that, for the relief of liver injury subsequent to transplantation, liver resection, trauma, and shock, tentative treatments can be incorporated with IFX, which is already approved for clinical use. PMID:26885068

  5. Studies on the alterations in haematological indices, micronuclei induction and pathological marker enzyme activities in Channa punctatus (spotted snakehead) perciformes, channidae exposed to thermal power plant effluent.

    PubMed

    Javed, Mehjbeen; Ahmad, Irshad; Ahmad, Ajaz; Usmani, Nazura; Ahmad, Masood

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the toxicity of thermal power plant effluent containing heavy metals (Fe > Cu > Zn > Mn > Ni > Co > Cr) on haematological indices, micronuclei, lobed nuclei and activity of pathological marker enzymes [alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate transferase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT) and creatine kinase (CK)] in Channa punctatus. Total erythrocyte count (-54.52 %), hemoglobin (-36.98 %), packed cell volume (-36.25 %), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (-1.41 %) and oxygen (O2) carrying capacity (-37.04 %) declined significantly over reference fish, however total leukocyte count (+25.43 %), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (+33.52 %) and mean corpuscular volume (+35.49 %) showed elevation. High frequency of micronuclei (1133.3 %) and lobed nuclei (150 %) were observed in exposed fish which may indicate mutagenesis. Activities of pathological marker enzymes ALP, AST, ALT and CK increased significantly in serum of exposed fish. The ratio of ALT: AST in exposed fish was beyond 1 which indicates manifestation of pathological processes. These biomarkers show that fish have macrocytic hypochromic anemia. Leukocytosis showed general defence response against heavy metal toxicity and marker enzymes showed tissue degeneration. In conclusion, thermal power plant effluent has strong potential to induce micronuclei, tissue pathology, making the fish anemic, weak, stressed and vulnerable to diseases.

  6. Blood biochemical profiles of thai indigenous and Simmental x Brahman crossbred cattle in the Central Thailand.

    PubMed

    Boonprong, S; Sribhen, C; Choothesa, A; Parvizi, N; Vajrabukka, C

    2007-03-01

    Plasma biochemical profiles were studied in 112 mature (3 to 5-year-old) healthy cattle comprised of 61 Thai indigenous and 51 Simmental x Brahman crossbred male and cyclic female cattle at Nongkwang (Central Thailand) Livestock Research and Breeding Center, Thailand. Data were analysed for the effect of breed and sex. The results showed that the plasma glucose and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the two breeds were significantly (P < 0.05) different. Furthermore, the urea, creatinine, albumin, total protein, aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels in Thai indigenous were significantly (P < 0.01) higher than in crossbred cattle. However, creatine kinase did not significantly differ in crossbred and indigenous animals. A sex difference was found in glucose level with male Thai indigenous having significantly higher levels (P < 0.05) than the other three groups. Plasma urea concentration in male crossbred cattle was lower than in the other groups (P < 0.05). Female crossbred cattle had significantly (P < 0.05) lower plasma creatinine levels than the other animals. Furthermore, levels of albumin in male and total protein in female crossbred were the lowest (P < 0.05) among the groups. The AST, ALT, ALP and GGT levels were significantly (P < 0.05) different between male and female. Female crossbred cattle had the lowest (P < 0.05) AST and GGT levels, whereas lowest (P < 0.05) ALT and ALP concentration was determined in male individuals of these breeds.

  7. Evaluation of aminotransferase abnormality in dengue patients: A meta analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Jun; Wei, Hai-Xia; Jiang, Shi-Chen; He, Cheng; Xu, Xiu-Juan; Peng, Hong-Juan

    2016-04-01

    Dengue virus is a type of flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. The symptoms of infection by this virus range from asymptomatic or mild symptomatic dengue fever (DF) to dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Significant abnormality in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) has been shown in a large number of dengue infection cases and to be indicator for liver injury provided that there are no other combined infections or liver injury. This study aims to assess the abnormal levels of liver aminotransferase in dengue patients. The related literature was searched in multiple databases, including PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar and Cochrane Library. The literature was selected through strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, and the quantitative synthesis of the liver aminotransferase abnormality was performed with R software. The fixed or random effects model was employed based on the results of the statistical test for homogeneity. In total, 15 studies were included. The proportion of AST abnormality with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.56-0.92) in DHF patients and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.63-0.84) in DF patients; the proportion of ALT abnormality was 0.54 (95% CI: 0.34-0.73) in DHF patients and 0.52 (95% CI: 0.41-0.63) in DF patients. Serum ALT and AST levels may be indicators for evaluating liver injury in dengue infection and for diagnosis and treatment effect.

  8. Outcome of Severe Dengue Viral Infection-caused Acute Liver Failure in Thai Children.

    PubMed

    Laoprasopwattana, Kamolwish; Jundee, Puthachat; Pruekprasert, Pornpimol; Geater, Alan

    2016-06-01

    To determine clinical course and outcomes of liver functions in children with dengue viral infection-caused acute liver failure (ALF), the records of patients aged <15 years attending our institution during 1989-2011 were reviewed. Of the 41 ALF patients, 2, 6 and 33 patients had dengue hemorrhagic fever grade II, III and IV, respectively. Multiorgan failure including respiratory failure, massive bleeding and acute kidney injury occurred in 80.0%, 96.0% and 84.0% of the ALF cases, respectively, with an overall fatality rate of 68.3%. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were highest on the day that the patient developed ALF. Lactate dehydrogenase levels had positive correlations with AST (r = 0.95) and ALT (r = 0.87) (all p < 0.01). The median (interquartile range) days before the AST and ALT levels returned to lower than 200 U/L after the ALF were 10.5 (8.8, 12.8) and 10.5 (7.8, 14.0) days, respectively.

  9. Hepatic dysfunction in childhood dengue infection.

    PubMed

    Mohan, B; Patwari, A K; Anand, V K

    2000-02-01

    Hepatic functions of 61 children, diagnosed to have dengue infection (DI), aged 2 months to 12 years comprising 37 cases of dengue fever (DF), 16 with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and eight with dengue shock syndrome (DSS) were prospectively studied during the acute attack. Hepatomegaly (74 per cent), epistaxis (26 per cent), jaundice (25 per cent), and petechial rashes (18 per cent) were the common clinical manifestations of DI. On admission, levels of serum aspartate transaminase (AST), serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and serum alkaline phosphatase (AP) were raised in 80-87 per cent of children with hepatomegaly (group I) and 81 per cent of cases without hepatomegaly (group II). During the second week of hospitalization the proportion of cases with raised levels of AST, ALT, AP and serum bilirubin increased and the mean levels were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in both the groups. These levels gradually declined over the next 2-3 weeks. All the cases with DSS and DHF had raised AST, ALT and AP levels and the mean levels of these enzymes were significantly higher (p < 0.05) as compared to DF. Our results suggest a transient derangement of liver functions in childhood DI, more so in DSS and DHF, with or without hepatomegaly.

  10. The Efficacy of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skill Training (IPT-AST) in Preventing Depression: A Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerner, Sarah Shankman

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent depression is a prevalent and debilitating disorder that is associated with social and academic impairment, suicidality, comorbid psychiatric disorders, and high-risk behaviors (Horowitz, Garber, Ciesla, Young, & Mufson, 2007). Yet many adolescents experiencing depressive symptoms do not receive adequate services, and those that do…

  11. Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Separate-Flow High-Bypass Ratio Nozzle Noise Reduction Program Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, John K. C.; Schweiger, Paul S.; Premo, John W.; Barber, Thomas J.; Saiyed, Naseem (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA s model-scale nozzle noise tests show that it is possible to achieve a 3 EPNdB jet noise reduction with inwardfacing chevrons and flipper-tabs installed on the primary nozzle and fan nozzle chevrons. These chevrons and tabs are simple devices and are easy to be incorporated into existing short duct separate-flow nonmixed nozzle exhaust systems. However, these devices are expected to cause some small amount of thrust loss relative to the axisymmetric baseline nozzle system. Thus, it is important to have these devices further tested in a calibrated nozzle performance test facility to quantify the thrust performances of these devices. The choice of chevrons or tabs for jet noise suppression would most likely be based on the results of thrust loss performance tests to be conducted by Aero System Engineering (ASE) Inc. It is anticipated that the most promising concepts identified from this program will be validated in full scale engine tests at both Pratt & Whitney and Allied-Signal, under funding from NASA s Engine Validation of Noise Reduction Concepts (EVNRC) programs. This will bring the technology readiness level to the point where the jet noise suppression concepts could be incorporated with high confidence into either new or existing turbofan engines having short-duct, separate-flow nacelles.

  12. AST to Platelet Ratio Index Predicts Mortality in Hospitalized Patients With Hepatitis B-Related Decompensated Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Mao, Weilin; Sun, Qinqin; Fan, Jian; Lin, Sha; Ye, Bo

    2016-03-01

    Aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI) has originally been considered as a noninvasive marker for detecting hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B and C. APRI has been used for predicting liver-related mortality in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection or alcoholic liver disease. However, whether APRI could be useful for predicting mortality in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains unevaluated. This study aims to address this knowledge gap. A total of 193 hospitalized chronic HBV-infected patients (cirrhosis, n = 100; noncirrhosis, n = 93) and 88 healthy subjects were retrospectively enrolled. All patients were followed up for 4 months. Mortality that occurred within 90 days of hospital stay was compared among patients with different APRI. APRI predictive value was evaluated by univariate and multivariate regression embedded in a Cox proportional hazards model. APRI varied significantly in our cohort (range, 0.16-10.00). Elevated APRI was associated with increased severity of liver disease and 3-month mortality in hospitalized patients with HBV-related cirrhosis. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that APRI (odds ratio: 1.456, P < 0.001) and the model for end-stage liver disease score (odds ratio: 1.194, P < 0.001) were 2 independent markers for predicting mortality. APRI is a simple marker that may serve as an additional predictor of 3-month mortality in hospitalized patients with HBV-related decompensated cirrhosis.

  13. Macroencapsulation of mixed waste debris at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation -- Final project report by AST Environmental Services, LLC

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, T.L.

    1998-02-25

    This report summarizes the results of a full-scale demonstration of a high density polyethylene (HDPE) package, manufactured by Arrow Construction, Inc. of Montgomery, Alabama. The HDPE package, called ARROW-PAK, was designed and patented by Arrow as both a method to macroencapsulation of radioactively contaminated lead and as an improved form of waste package for treatment and interim and final storage and/or disposal of drums of mixed waste. Mixed waste is waste that is radioactive, and meets the criteria established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for a hazardous material. Results from previous testing conducted for the Department of Energy (DOE) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in 1994 found that the ARROW-PAK fabrication process produces an HDPE package that passes all helium leak tests and drop tests, and is fabricated with materials impervious to the types of environmental factors encountered during the lifetime of the ARROW-PAK, estimated to be from 100 to 300 years. Arrow Construction, Inc. has successfully completed full-scale demonstration of its ARROW-PAK mixed waste macroencapsulation treatment unit at the DOE Hanford Site. This testing was conducted in accordance with Radiological Work Permit No. T-860, applicable project plans and procedures, and in close consultation with Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc.`s project management, health and safety, and quality assurance representatives. The ARROW-PAK field demonstration successfully treated 880 drums of mixed waste debris feedstock which were compacted and placed in 149 70-gallon overpack drums prior to macroencapsulation in accordance with the US EPA Alternate Debris Treatment Standards, 40 CFR 268.45. Based on all of the results, the ARROW-PAK process provides an effective treatment, storage and/or disposal option that compares favorably with current mixed waste management practices.

  14. 76 FR 51459 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability of the Finding of No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... five solid-propellant strap-on rocket motors to the Atlas V launch vehicle and larger solid- propellant strap-on rocket motors on the Delta IV vehicle. The FAA participated as a cooperating agency...

  15. 76 FR 51459 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ..., combined. The 2000 SEIS analyzed the environmental impacts of up to five solid-propellant strap-on rocket... government. Under the Proposed Action in the 2000 SEIS, up to five solid- propellant strap-on rocket...

  16. Free jet feasibility study of a thermal acoustic shield concept for AST/VCE application: Dual stream nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janardan, B. A.; Brausch, J. F.; Majjigi, R. K.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of selected geometric and aerodynamic flow variables of an unsuppressed coannular plug nozzle and a coannular plug nozzle with a 20-chute outer stream suppressor were experimentally determined. A total of 136 static and simulated flight acoustic test points were conducted with 9 scale model nozzles. Also, aerodynamic measurements of four selected plumes were made with a laser velocimeter. The presence of the 180 deg shield produced different mixing characteristics on the shield side compared to the unshield side because of the reduced mixing with ambient air on the shielded side. This resulted in a stretching of the jet, yielding a higher peak mean velocity up to a length of 10 equivalent diameters from the nozzle exit. The 180 deg shield in community orientation around the suppressed coannular plug nozzle yielded acoustic benefit at all observer angles for a simulated takeoff. While the effect of shield-to-outer stream velocity ratio was small at angles up to 120 deg, beyond this angle significant acoustic benefit was realized with a shield-to-outer stream velocity ratio of 0.64.

  17. AST to Platelet Ratio Index Predicts Mortality in Hospitalized Patients With Hepatitis B-Related Decompensated Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Weilin; Sun, Qinqin; Fan, Jian; Lin, Sha; Ye, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI) has originally been considered as a noninvasive marker for detecting hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B and C. APRI has been used for predicting liver-related mortality in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection or alcoholic liver disease. However, whether APRI could be useful for predicting mortality in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains unevaluated. This study aims to address this knowledge gap. A total of 193 hospitalized chronic HBV-infected patients (cirrhosis, n = 100; noncirrhosis, n = 93) and 88 healthy subjects were retrospectively enrolled. All patients were followed up for 4 months. Mortality that occurred within 90 days of hospital stay was compared among patients with different APRI. APRI predictive value was evaluated by univariate and multivariate regression embedded in a Cox proportional hazards model. APRI varied significantly in our cohort (range, 0.16–10.00). Elevated APRI was associated with increased severity of liver disease and 3-month mortality in hospitalized patients with HBV-related cirrhosis. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that APRI (odds ratio: 1.456, P < 0.001) and the model for end-stage liver disease score (odds ratio: 1.194, P < 0.001) were 2 independent markers for predicting mortality. APRI is a simple marker that may serve as an additional predictor of 3-month mortality in hospitalized patients with HBV-related decompensated cirrhosis. PMID:26945406

  18. Free jet feasibility study of a thermal acoustic shield concept for AST/VCE application: Single stream nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majjigi, R. K.; Brausch, J. F.; Janardan, B. A.; Balsa, T. F.; Knott, P. R.; Pickup, N.

    1984-01-01

    A technology base for the thermal acoustic shield concept as a noise suppression device for single stream exhaust nozzles was developed. Acoustic data for 314 test points for 9 scale model nozzle configurations were obtained. Five of these configurations employed an unsuppressed annular plug core jet and the remaining four nozzles employed a 32 chute suppressor core nozzle. Influence of simulated flight and selected geometric and aerodynamic flow variables on the acoustic behavior of the thermal acoustic shield was determined. Laser velocimeter and aerodynamic measurements were employed to yield valuable diagnostic information regarding the flow field characteristics of these nozzles. An existing theoretical aeroacoustic prediction method was modified to predict the acoustic characteristics of partial thermal acoustic shields.

  19. Associations of White Blood Cell Count,Alanine Aminotransferase,and Aspartate Aminotransferase in the First Trimester withGestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    2016-06-10

    Objective To explore the associations of white blood cell (WBC) count,alanine aminotransferase (ALT),and aspartate aminotransferase(AST) in the first trimester of pregnancy with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods Totally 725 GDM women and 935 women who remained euglycemic throughout pregnancy were enrolled in this study. Pre-pregnancy weight/height were recorded. WBC,ALT,and AST levels were detected between 8 and 12 weeks of pregnancy.At 24 to 28 weeks of pregnancy,the glucose and insulin levels were measured. The WBC,ALT,and AST levels were compared between two groups,and the associations of WBC,ALT,and AST levels with the blood glucose and insulin levels were retrospectively analyzed. Meanwhile,the potential associations of those factors with the occurrence of GDM were analzyed. Results WBC count [9.41(8.15,10.84)?10(9)/L vs. 9.04 (7.64,10.37)?10(9)/L,P=1.0?10(-5)] and ALT levels [18.00(12.00,30.00)U/L vs. 16.00 (11.00,26.00)U/L,P=0.004] in the first trimester of pregnancy were significantly increased in GDM subjects than in normal glucose tolerance(NGT)subjects;however,the AST level showed no significant difference between these two groups [41.00 (26.00,43.00)U/L vs. 41.00 (23.00,43.00)U/L,P=0.588]. Logistic regression analysis illustrated that elevated WBC count was an independent risk factor for GDM after adjustment for age,pre-pregnancy body mass index,blood pressure,and family history of diabetes(OR=1.119,P=0.001). The ROC curve revealed that threshold of WBC count was 7.965?10(9)/L(AUC=0.566,P=1?10(-5)),which had a sensitivity of 79.4% and a specificity of 31.3%. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was positively correlated with WBC count(B=0.051,P=0.022,R(2)=0.083);1-hour blood glucose after oral 50 grams of sugar (B=0.044,P=0.001,R(2)=0.044) and fasting plasma true insulin(B=0.214,P=0.032,R(2)=0.066) were positively correlated

  20. Dimethylformamide-induced liver damage among synthetic leather workers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.D.; Lai, M.Y.; Chen, J.S.; Lin, J.M.; Chiang, J.R.; Shiau, S.J.; Chang, W.S. )

    1991-05-01

    Prevalence of liver injury associated with dimethylformamide (DMF) exposure was determined. Medical examinations, liver function tests, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) determinations were performed on 183 of 204 (76%) employees of a synthetic leather factory. Air concentrations of solvents were measured with personal samplers and gas chromatography. The concentration of DMF in air to which each worker was exposed was categorized. High exposure concentrations of DMF (i.e., 25-60 ppm) were significantly associated with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (ALT greater than or equal to 35 IU/l), a result that did not change even after stratification by hepatitis B carrier status. Modeling by logistic regression demonstrated that exposure to high concentrations of DMF was associated with an elevated ALT (p = .01), whereas hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was slightly but independently associated with an elevated ALT (p = .07). In those workers who had normal ALT values, there occurred still significantly higher mean ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, especially among those who were not HBsAg carriers. A significant association existed between elevated CPK levels and exposure to DMF. However, an analysis of the CPK isoenzyme among 143 workers did not reveal any specific damage to muscles. This outbreak of liver injury among synthetic leather workers is ascribed to DMF. It is recommended that the occupational standard for DMF and its toxicity among HBsAg carriers be evaluated further.

  1. Evaluation of fatty liver by using in-phase and opposed-phase MR images and in-vivo proton MR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Seung; Im, In-Chul; Goo, Eun-Hoe; Park, Hyong-Hu; Kwak, Byung-Joon

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the necessity of in-phase and opposed-phase MR images and their correlations with weight, the aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) value, and age. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used as a reference in this study. We selected 68 people as subjects, among which 14 were volunteers with normal AST/ALT values ( <40/35 U/L) on a liver function study and 54 were non-alcoholic fatty liver patients for whom ultrasonic images had been obtained within 3 months of the study. In this study, the liver was more enhanced than the spleen or kidney. When the Eq. (3) formula was applied to normal volunteers, the difference between the in-phase and the opposed-phase images was -3.54 ± 12.56. The MRS study result showed a high sensitivity of 96.6% and a specificity of 100% ( p = 0.000) when the cutoff value was 20%. Furthermore, this result showed a high sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 80% with a similar cutoff when the Eq. (2) formula was applied to non-alcoholic fatty liver patients ( p = 0.000). The MRS study revealed a strong correlation between normal volunteers and non-alcoholic fatty liver patients (r = 0.59, p = 0.04). The correlations between AST/ALT and Eq. (3) (r = 0.45, p = 0.004), age and Eq. (3) (r = 0.73, p = 0.03), and weight and Eq. (3) (r = 0.77, p = 0.000) values were all statistically significant. In the case of non-alcoholic liver disease, MRS was found to be significantly correlated with Eq. (1) (r = 0.39, p = 0.002), Eq. (2) (r = 0.68, p = 0.04), Eq. (3) (r = 0.67, p = 0.04), and AST/ALT (r = 0.77, p = 0.000). In conclusion, in-phase and opposed-phase images can help to distinguish a normal liver from a fatty liver in order to identify non-alcoholic fatty liver patients. The intensity difference between the in-phase and opposed-phase MR signals showed valuable correlations with respect to weight, AST/ALT value, and age, with all values being above the mild lipid value (r = 0.3).

  2. Molecular Detection, Quantification, and Toxigenicity Profiling of Aeromonas spp. in Source- and Drinking-Water

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Boakai K; Harden, Carol; Selvaraju, Suresh B; Pradhan, Suman; Yadav, Jagjit S

    2014-01-01

    Aeromonas is ubiquitous in aquatic environments and has been associated with a number of extra-gastrointestinal and gastrointestinal illnesses. This warrants monitoring of raw and processed water sources for pathogenic and toxigenic species of this human pathogen. In this study, a total of 17 different water samples [9 raw and 8 treated samples including 4 basin water (partial sand filtration) and 4 finished water samples] were screened for Aeromonas using selective culturing and a genus-specific real-time quantitative PCR assay. The selective culturing yielded Aeromonas counts ranging 0 – 2 x 103CFU/ml and 15 Aeromonas isolates from both raw and treated water samples. The qPCR analysis indicated presence of a considerable nonculturable population (3.4 x 101 – 2.4 x 104 cells/ml) of Aeromonas in drinking water samples. Virulence potential of the Aeromonas isolates was assessed by multiplex/singleplex PCR-based profiling of the hemolysin and enterotoxin genes viz cytotoxic heat-labile enterotoxin (act), heat-labile cytotonic enterotoxin (alt), heat-stable cytotonic enterotoxin (ast), and aerolysin (aerA) genes. The water isolates yielded five distinct toxigenicity profiles, viz. act, alt, act+alt, aerA+alt, and aerA+alt+act. The alt gene showed the highest frequency of occurrence (40%), followed by the aerA (20%), act (13%), and ast (0%) genes. Taken together, the study demonstrated the occurrence of a considerable population of nonculturable Aeromonads in water and prevalence of toxigenic Aeromonas spp. potentially pathogenic to humans. This emphasizes the importance of routine monitoring of both source and drinking water for this human pathogen and role of the developed molecular approaches in improving the Aeromonas monitoring scheme for water. PMID:24949108

  3. Molecular Detection, Quantification, and Toxigenicity Profiling of Aeromonas spp. in Source- and Drinking-Water.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Boakai K; Harden, Carol; Selvaraju, Suresh B; Pradhan, Suman; Yadav, Jagjit S

    2014-01-01

    Aeromonas is ubiquitous in aquatic environments and has been associated with a number of extra-gastrointestinal and gastrointestinal illnesses. This warrants monitoring of raw and processed water sources for pathogenic and toxigenic species of this human pathogen. In this study, a total of 17 different water samples [9 raw and 8 treated samples including 4 basin water (partial sand filtration) and 4 finished water samples] were screened for Aeromonas using selective culturing and a genus-specific real-time quantitative PCR assay. The selective culturing yielded Aeromonas counts ranging 0 - 2 x 10(3)CFU/ml and 15 Aeromonas isolates from both raw and treated water samples. The qPCR analysis indicated presence of a considerable nonculturable population (3.4 x 10(1) - 2.4 x 10(4) cells/ml) of Aeromonas in drinking water samples. Virulence potential of the Aeromonas isolates was assessed by multiplex/singleplex PCR-based profiling of the hemolysin and enterotoxin genes viz cytotoxic heat-labile enterotoxin (act), heat-labile cytotonic enterotoxin (alt), heat-stable cytotonic enterotoxin (ast), and aerolysin (aerA) genes. The water isolates yielded five distinct toxigenicity profiles, viz. act, alt, act+alt, aerA+alt, and aerA+alt+act. The alt gene showed the highest frequency of occurrence (40%), followed by the aerA (20%), act (13%), and ast (0%) genes. Taken together, the study demonstrated the occurrence of a considerable population of nonculturable Aeromonads in water and prevalence of toxigenic Aeromonas spp. potentially pathogenic to humans. This emphasizes the importance of routine monitoring of both source and drinking water for this human pathogen and role of the developed molecular approaches in improving the Aeromonas monitoring scheme for water.

  4. Comparison of blood aminotransferase methods for assessment of myopathy and hepatopathy in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    PubMed

    Harr, Kendal E; Allison, Kathryn; Bonde, Robert K; Murphy, David; Harvey, John W

    2008-06-01

    Muscle injury is common in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) is frequently used to assess muscular damage in capture myopathy and traumatic injury. Therefore, accurate measurement of AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is important in managed, free-ranging animals, as well as in those rehabilitating from injury. Activities of these enzymes, however, are usually not increased in manatees with either acute or chronic muscle damage, despite marked increases in plasma creatine kinase activity. It is hypothesized that this absence of response is due to apoenzymes in the blood not detected by commonly used veterinary assays. Addition of coenzyme pyridoxal-5-phosphate (P5P or vitamin B6) should, therefore, result in higher measured enzyme activities. The objective of this study was to determine the most accurate, precise, and diagnostically useful method for aminotransferase measurement in manatees that can be used in veterinary practices and diagnostic laboratories. Additionally, appropriate collection and storage techniques were assessed. The use of an optimized commercial wet chemical assay with 100 micromol P5P resulted in a positive bias of measured enzyme activities in a healthy population of animals. However, AST and ALT were still much lower than that typically observed in domestic animals and should not be used alone in the assessment of capture myopathy and muscular trauma. Additionally, the dry chemistry analyzer, typically used in clinics, reported significantly higher and less precise AST and ALT activities with poor correlation to those measured with wet chemical methods found in diagnostic laboratories. Therefore, these results cannot be clinically compared. Overall, the optimized wet chemical method was the most precise and diagnostically useful measurement of aminotransferase in samples. Additionally, there was a statistically significant difference between paired serum and plasma measurement

  5. Acetyl-L-carnitine and lipoic acid improve mitochondrial abnormalities and serum levels of liver enzymes in a mouse model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Kathirvel, Elango; Morgan, Kengathevy; French, Samuel W; Morgan, Timothy R

    2013-11-01

    Mitochondrial abnormalities are suggested to be associated with the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver. Liver mitochondrial content and function have been shown to improve in oral feeding of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) to rodents. Carnitine is involved in the transport of acyl-coenzyme A across the mitochondrial membrane to be used in mitochondrial β-oxidation. We hypothesized that oral administration ALC with the antioxidant lipoic acid (ALC + LA) would benefit nonalcoholic fatty liver. To test our hypothesis, we fed Balb/C mice a standard diet (SF) or SF with ALC + LA or high-fat diet (HF) or HF with ALC + LA for 6 months. Acetyl-L-carnitine and LA were dissolved at 0.2:0.1% (wt/vol) in drinking water, and mice were allowed free access to food and water. Along with physical parameters, insulin resistance (blood glucose, insulin, glucose tolerance), liver function (alanine transaminase [ALT], aspartate transaminase [AST]), liver histology (hematoxylin and eosin), oxidative stress (malondialdehyde), and mitochondrial abnormalities (carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 and electron microscopy) were done. Compared with SF, HF had higher body, liver, liver-to-body weight ratio, white adipose tissue, ALT, AST, liver fat, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance. Coadministration of ALC + LA to HF animals significantly improved the mitochondrial marker carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 and the size of the mitochondria in liver. Alanine transaminase and AST levels were decreased. In a nonalcoholic fatty liver mice model, ALC + LA combination improved liver mitochondrial content, size, serum ALT, and AST without significant changes in oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and liver fat accumulation. PMID:24176233

  6. Comparison of blood aminotransferase methods for assessment of myopathy and hepatopathy in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    PubMed

    Harr, Kendal E; Allison, Kathryn; Bonde, Robert K; Murphy, David; Harvey, John W

    2008-06-01

    Muscle injury is common in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) is frequently used to assess muscular damage in capture myopathy and traumatic injury. Therefore, accurate measurement of AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is important in managed, free-ranging animals, as well as in those rehabilitating from injury. Activities of these enzymes, however, are usually not increased in manatees with either acute or chronic muscle damage, despite marked increases in plasma creatine kinase activity. It is hypothesized that this absence of response is due to apoenzymes in the blood not detected by commonly used veterinary assays. Addition of coenzyme pyridoxal-5-phosphate (P5P or vitamin B6) should, therefore, result in higher measured enzyme activities. The objective of this study was to determine the most accurate, precise, and diagnostically useful method for aminotransferase measurement in manatees that can be used in veterinary practices and diagnostic laboratories. Additionally, appropriate collection and storage techniques were assessed. The use of an optimized commercial wet chemical assay with 100 micromol P5P resulted in a positive bias of measured enzyme activities in a healthy population of animals. However, AST and ALT were still much lower than that typically observed in domestic animals and should not be used alone in the assessment of capture myopathy and muscular trauma. Additionally, the dry chemistry analyzer, typically used in clinics, reported significantly higher and less precise AST and ALT activities with poor correlation to those measured with wet chemical methods found in diagnostic laboratories. Therefore, these results cannot be clinically compared. Overall, the optimized wet chemical method was the most precise and diagnostically useful measurement of aminotransferase in samples. Additionally, there was a statistically significant difference between paired serum and plasma measurement

  7. The Association between Non-Invasive Hepatic Fibrosis Markers and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in the Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Pedley, Alison; Massaro, Joseph M.; Hoffmann, Udo; Fox, Caroline S.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular related death, particularly in those with hepatic fibrosis. We determined the prevalence of predicted fibrosis based on non-invasive fibrosis markers and the association of hepatic fibrosis with cardiovascular risk factors. Methods Cross-sectional study of 575 Framingham Heart Study participants with NAFLD based on computed tomography. We determined the prevalence of predicted fibrosis based on the aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratio, AST to platelet ratio index (APRI), the Fibrosis-4 score (FIB4), and the NAFLD Fibrosis Score (NFS). Using multivariable logistic regression models, we examined the association between low, indeterminate, or high risk for fibrosis according to the NFS and various cardiometabolic risk factors. Results The predicted risk of fibrosis was 12%, 4%, 5%, and 32% for the NFS, FIB4, APRI, and AST/ALT ratio, respectively. In multivariable models, participants with a high risk for advanced fibrosis by the NFS had a wider pulse pressure (adjusted mean difference = 6.87 mm Hg; p = 0.0002) and an increased odds of hypertension (OR 2.92; p = 0.007) compared to those with low risk of fibrosis. There were no statistically significant differences between other cardiovascular risk factors for those with a high versus low risk of fibrosis. Conclusions The AST/ALT ratio, APRI, and NFS give widely disparate predictions of liver fibrosis. Participants with a high risk for fibrosis based on NFS had wider pulse pressure and increased odds of hypertension. Whether modifying these risk factors impacts cardiovascular endpoints in NAFLD patients remains unknown. PMID:27341207

  8. Inverse associations of total and decaffeinated coffee with liver enzyme levels in NHANES 1999–2010

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Qian; Sinha, Rashmi; Graubard, Barry I.; Freedman, Neal D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Coffee may have hepatoprotective effects and higher coffee consumption has been associated inversely with levels of liver enzymatic markers. However, it is unclear whether decaffeinated coffee is also associated with liver enzymes. Methods The study population included 27,793 participants, age 20 or older, in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2010). Coffee intake was evaluated by 24-hour dietary recall. Serum levels of aminotransferase (ALT), aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transaminase (GGT) were measured. We examined the relationship between coffee intake and enzymatic levels using weighted multiple variable logistic (abnormally elevated levels of enzymes) and linear regression (continuous enzymatic levels). Results Total coffee consumption was inversely associated with abnormal levels of all four liver enzymes and continuous levels of AST, ALP and GGT. Compared to those reporting no coffee consumption, participants reporting ≥3 cups per day had an odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) of 0.75 (0.63, 0.89)), 0.82 (0.68, 0.98), 0.73 (0.55, 0.95) and 0.69 (0.57, 0.83) for abnormal levels of ALT, AST, ALP and GGT, respectively. Similar inverse associations were found with decaffeinated coffee intake and abnormal levels of ALT (OR≥2 vs 0 cup/d: 0.62 (0.41, 0.94)), AST (0.74 (0.49, 1.11)), and GGT (0.70, 0.49–1.00). Conclusion Higher intakes of coffee, regardless of its caffeine content, were associated with lower levels of liver enzymes. PMID:25124935

  9. Results of the TOP Study: Prospectively Randomized Multicenter Trial of an Ex Vivo Tacrolimus Rinse Before Transplantation in EDC Livers

    PubMed Central

    Pratschke, Sebastian; Arnold, Hannah; Zollner, Alfred; Heise, Michael; Pascher, Andreas; Schemmer, Peter; Scherer, Marcus N.; Bauer, Andreas; Jauch, Karl-Walter; Werner, Jens; Guba, Markus; Angele, Martin K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Organ shortage results in the transplantation of extended donor criteria (EDC) livers which is associated with increased ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Experimental studies indicate that an organ rinse with the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus before implantation protects against IRI. The tacrolimus organ perfusion study was initiated to examine the effects of ex vivo tacrolimus perfusion on IRI in transplantation of EDC livers. Methods A prospective randomized multicenter trial comparing ex vivo perfusion of marginal liver grafts (≥2 EDC according to Eurotransplant manual) with tacrolimus (20 ng/mL) or histidine-tryptophane-ketoglutarate solution (control) was carried out at 5 German liver transplant centers (Munich Ludwig-Maximilians University, Berlin, Heidelberg, Mainz, Regensburg) between October 2011 and July 2013. Primary endpoint was the maximum alanine transaminase (ALT) level within 48 hours after transplantation. Secondary endpoints were aspartate transaminase (AST), prothrombine ratio, and graft-patient survival within an observation period of 1 week. After an interim analysis, the study was terminated by the scientific committee after the treatment of 24 patients (tacrolimus n = 11, Control n = 13). Results Tacrolimus rinse did not reduce postoperative ALT peaks compared with control (P = 0.207; tacrolimus: median, 812; range, 362-3403 vs control: median, 652; range, 147-2034). Moreover, ALT (P = 0.100), prothrombine ratio (P = 0.553), and bilirubin (P = 0.815) did not differ between the groups. AST was higher in patients treated with tacrolimus (P = 0.011). Survival was comparable in both groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions Contrary to experimental findings, tacrolimus rinse failed to improve the primary endpoint of the study (ALT). Because 1 secondary endpoint (AST) was even higher in the intervention group, the study was terminated prematurely. Thus, tacrolimus rinse cannot be recommended in transplantation of EDC livers. PMID:27500266

  10. Differences in Liver Impairment Between Adults and Children with Dengue Infection.

    PubMed

    Martínez Vega, Rosario; Phumratanaprapin, Weerapong; Phonrat, Benjaluck; Dhitavat, Jittima; Sutherat, Maleerat; Choovichian, Vorada

    2016-05-01

    Dengue infection (DI) is a major vector-borne disease in southeast Asia and an important cause of morbidity. The complications such as hepatic impairment are common, and because the physiology of the liver differs between children and adults, the DI-associated liver impairments might be expected to differ as well. This study aims to compare the differences in liver impairment between adults and children with DI. We retrospectively studied 158 adults and 79 children with serologically confirmed DI admitted to the Bangkok Hospital for Tropical Diseases from 2008 to 2012. In total, 93% of adults and 87% of children exhibited abnormal liver enzyme levels during hospitalization. Overall, 76 (42.4%) adults and 16 (20.3%) children had dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Compared with children, adults with dengue fever (DF) presented a significantly higher incidence of liver function impairment (alanine transaminase [ALT] > 2 × upper limit of normal [ULN]) (47.1% versus 25.5%), hepatitis (ALT > 4 × ULN) (29.4% versus 12.8%), and severe hepatitis (aspartate transaminase [AST]/ALT > 10 × ULN) (16.5% versus 4.3%). Children with DHF showed a significantly higher incidence of liver function impairment due to AST derangement than did adults (100% versus 73%). There were no differences in the total bilirubin, albumin, or total protein levels between adults and children. Liver enzymes normalized significantly more slowly in adults, and AST recovery was faster than ALT. In conclusion, liver function impairment was more common among adults than children with DF. As the severity progressed to DHF, liver injury became more common in children.

  11. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves Schemitt, Elizângela; Raskopf Colares, Josieli; Minuzzo Hartmann, Renata; Morgan-Martins, María Isabel; Marroni, Cláudio Augusto; Tuñón, M Jesús; Possa Marroni, Norma

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la insuficiencia hepática fulminante (IHF) es un síndrome clínico poco frecuente, que se caracteriza por una disfunción hepática severa y repentina. La tioacetamida (TAA) es una hepatotoxina cuya administración puede inducir necrosis centrolobulillar en las células hepáticas y aumentar la formación de especies reactivas de oxígeno y la peroxidación lipídica en ratas. La glutamina es un precursor para la síntesis de glutatión. Objetivo: el objetivo del estudio es evaluar los efectos antioxidantes de la glutamina en un modelo de rata de IHF inducida por TAA. Métodos: ratas macho Wistar se dividieron en cuatro grupos de acuerdo con el tratamiento y el tiempo de evaluación: control, glutamina (25 mg/kg), tioacetamida (400 mg/kg) y tioacetamida más glutamina. Los animales se evaluaron después de 24, 36 y 48 horas. Se recogieron muestras de sangre para el análisis de los niveles de aspartato aminotransferasa (AST), alanina aminotransferasa (ALT), fosfatasa alcalina (AP), bilirrubina total (TB) y creatinina (CRE), y muestras de hígado para evaluar la peroxidación lipídica, las sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS), la actividad de las enzimas antioxidantes superóxido dismutasa (SOD), glutatión peroxidasa (GPx), catalasa (CAT) y glutatión S-transferasa (GST). Además se midieron mediante inmunohistoquímica el factor nuclear kappa N (NF-κB), el fator de necrosis tumoral (TNF-α) y la óxido nítrico sintasa inducible (iNOS). Resultados: la TAA causó alteraciones en los parámetros bioquímicos e histológicos, y el aumento de los marcadores del proceso inflamatorio. Los niveles de TBARS y la actividad de SOD y GST fueron significativamente inferiores en los grupos de glutamina en comparación con TAA. La actividad de CAT se incrementó en los animales tratados con glutamina en comparación con la TAA. La actividad GPx también fue menor a las 36 y 48 h en los animales tratados com glutamina. El daño tisular y

  12. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves Schemitt, Elizângela; Raskopf Colares, Josieli; Minuzzo Hartmann, Renata; Morgan-Martins, María Isabel; Marroni, Cláudio Augusto; Tuñón, M Jesús; Possa Marroni, Norma

    2016-03-25

    Introducción: la insuficiencia hepática fulminante (IHF) es un síndrome clínico poco frecuente, que se caracteriza por una disfunción hepática severa y repentina. La tioacetamida (TAA) es una hepatotoxina cuya administración puede inducir necrosis centrolobulillar en las células hepáticas y aumentar la formación de especies reactivas de oxígeno y la peroxidación lipídica en ratas. La glutamina es un precursor para la síntesis de glutatión. Objetivo: el objetivo del estudio es evaluar los efectos antioxidantes de la glutamina en un modelo de rata de IHF inducida por TAA. Métodos: ratas macho Wistar se dividieron en cuatro grupos de acuerdo con el tratamiento y el tiempo de evaluación: control, glutamina (25 mg/kg), tioacetamida (400 mg/kg) y tioacetamida más glutamina. Los animales se evaluaron después de 24, 36 y 48 horas. Se recogieron muestras de sangre para el análisis de los niveles de aspartato aminotransferasa (AST), alanina aminotransferasa (ALT), fosfatasa alcalina (AP), bilirrubina total (TB) y creatinina (CRE), y muestras de hígado para evaluar la peroxidación lipídica, las sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS), la actividad de las enzimas antioxidantes superóxido dismutasa (SOD), glutatión peroxidasa (GPx), catalasa (CAT) y glutatión S-transferasa (GST). Además se midieron mediante inmunohistoquímica el factor nuclear kappa N (NF-κB), el fator de necrosis tumoral (TNF-α) y la óxido nítrico sintasa inducible (iNOS). Resultados: la TAA causó alteraciones en los parámetros bioquímicos e histológicos, y el aumento de los marcadores del proceso inflamatorio. Los niveles de TBARS y la actividad de SOD y GST fueron significativamente inferiores en los grupos de glutamina en comparación con TAA. La actividad de CAT se incrementó en los animales tratados con glutamina en comparación con la TAA. La actividad GPx también fue menor a las 36 y 48 h en los animales tratados com glutamina. El daño tisular y

  13. Resveratrol and fenofibrate ameliorate fructose-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis by modulation of genes expression

    PubMed Central

    Abd El-Haleim, Enas A; Bahgat, Ashraf K; Saleh, Samira

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of resveratrol, alone and in combination with fenofibrate, on fructose-induced metabolic genes abnormalities in rats. METHODS: Giving a fructose-enriched diet (FED) to rats for 12 wk was used as a model for inducing hepatic dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. Adult male albino rats (150-200 g) were divided into a control group and a FED group which was subdivided into 4 groups, a control FED, fenofibrate (FENO) (100 mg/kg), resveratrol (RES) (70 mg/kg) and combined treatment (FENO + RES) (half the doses). All treatments were given orally from the 9th week till the end of experimental period. Body weight, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), liver index, glucose, insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA), serum and liver triglycerides (TGs), oxidative stress (liver MDA, GSH and SOD), serum AST, ALT, AST/ALT ratio and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured. Additionally, hepatic gene expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS-3), sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), fatty acid synthase (FAS), malonyl CoA decarboxylase (MCD), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and adipose tissue genes expression of leptin and adiponectin were investigated. Liver sections were taken for histopathological examination and steatosis area were determined. RESULTS: Rats fed FED showed damaged liver, impairment of glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, oxidative stress and dyslipidemia. As for gene expression, there was a change in favor of dyslipidemia and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) development. All treatment regimens showed some benefit in reversing the described deviations. Fructose caused deterioration in hepatic gene expression of SOCS-3, SREBP-1c, FAS, MDA and TGF-β1 and in adipose tissue gene expression of leptin and adiponectin. Fructose showed also an increase in body weight, insulin resistance (OGTT, HOMA), serum and liver TGs, hepatic MDA, serum AST, AST/ALT ratio and TNF-α compared to control. All

  14. In Acute Myocardial Infarction Liver Parameters Are Associated With Stenosis Diameter

    PubMed Central

    Baars, Theodor; Neumann, Ursula; Jinawy, Mona; Hendricks, Stefanie; Sowa, Jan-Peter; Kälsch, Julia; Riemenschneider, Mona; Gerken, Guido; Erbel, Raimund; Heider, Dominik; Canbay, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Detection of high-risk subjects in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by noninvasive means would reduce the need for intracardiac catheterization and associated complications. Liver enzymes are associated with cardiovascular disease risk. A potential predictive value for liver serum markers for the severity of stenosis in AMI was analyzed. Patients with AMI undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI; n = 437) were retrospectively evaluated. Minimal lumen diameter (MLD) and percent stenosis diameter (SD) were determined from quantitative coronary angiography. Patients were classified according to the severity of stenosis (SD ≥ 50%, n = 357; SD < 50%, n = 80). Routine heart and liver parameters were associated with SD using random forests (RF). A prediction model (M10) was developed based on parameter importance analysis in RF. Age, alkaline phosphatase (AP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and MLD differed significantly between SD ≥ 50 and SD < 50. Age, AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and troponin correlated significantly with SD, whereas MLD correlated inversely with SD. M10 (age, BMI, AP, AST, ALT, gamma-glutamyltransferase, creatinine, troponin) reached an AUC of 69.7% (CI 63.8–75.5%, P < 0.0001). Routine liver parameters are associated with SD in AMI. A small set of noninvasively determined parameters can identify SD in AMI, and might avoid unnecessary coronary angiography in patients with low risk. The model can be accessed via http://stenosis.heiderlab.de. PMID:26871849

  15. Hemihepatic versus total hepatic inflow occlusion during hepatectomy: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hai-Qing; Yang, Jia-Yin; Yan, Lu-Nan

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients undergoing hepatectomy with hemihepatic vascular occlusion (HHO) compared with total hepatic inflow occlusion (THO). METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing hemihepatic vascular occlusion and total hepatic inflow occlusion were included by a systematic literature search. Two authors independently assessed the trials for inclusion and extracted the data. A meta-analysis was conducted to estimate blood loss, transfusion requirement, and liver injury based on the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Either the fixed effects model or random effects model was used. RESULTS: Four RCTs including 338 patients met the predefined inclusion criteria. A total of 167 patients were treated with THO and 171 with HHO. Meta-analysis of AST levels on postoperative day 1 indicated higher levels in the THO group with weighted mean difference (WMD) 342.27; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 217.28-467.26; P = 0.00 001; I2 = 16%. Meta-analysis showed no significant difference between THO group and HHO group on blood loss, transfusion requirement, mortality, morbidity, operating time, ischemic duration, hospital stay, ALT levels on postoperative day 1, 3 and 7 and AST levels on postoperative day 3 and 7. CONCLUSION: Hemihepatic vascular occlusion does not offer satisfying benefit to the patients undergoing hepatic resection. However, they have less liver injury after liver resections. PMID:21912460

  16. Association mapping provides insights into the origin and the fine structure of the sorghum aluminum tolerance locus, AltSB

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root damage caused by aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major cause of grain yield reduction on acid soils, which are prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions of the world where food security is most tenuous. In sorghum, Al tolerance is conferred by SbMATE, an Al-activated root citrate efflux transpo...

  17. Measurement of global oceanic winds from Seasat-SMMR and its comparison with Seasat-SASS and ALT derived winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandey, Prem C.

    1987-01-01

    The retrieval of ocean-surface wind speed from different channel combinations of Seasat SMMR measurements is demonstrated. Wind speeds derived using the best two channel subsets (10.6 H and 18.0 V) were compared with in situ data collected during the Joint Air-Sea Interaction (JASIN) experiment and an rms difference of 1.5 m/s was found. Global maps of wind speed generated with the present algorithm show that the averaged winds are arranged in well-ordered belts.

  18. STS Approach and Landing Test (ALT): Flight 5 - Slow Motion video of pilot-induced oscillation (PIO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    During 1977 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, hosted the Approach and Landing Tests for the space shuttle prototype Enterprise. Since the shuttles would land initially on Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to Dryden on Edwards Air Force Base, NASA had already modified a Boeing 747 to carry them back to their launch site at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Computer calculations and simulations had predicted the mated shuttle and 747 could fly together safely, but NASA wanted to verify that prediction in a controlled flight-test environment before the shuttles went into operation. The agency also wanted to glide test the orbiter to ensure it could land safely before sending it into space with human beings aboard. So NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, developed a three-phase test program. First, an unpiloted-captive phase tested the shuttle/747 combination without a crew on the Enterprise in case of a problem that required jettisoning the prototype. There were three taxi tests and five flight tests without a crew in the shuttle. That phase ended on March 2, 1977. The second or captive-active phase-completed on July 26, 1977, flew the orbiter mated to the 747 with a two-person crew inside. Finally there were five flights-completed on October 26, 1977, in which the orbiter separated from the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA, as the 747 was designated) and landed. Beginning on August 12, 1977, the first four landings took place uneventfully on lakebed runways, but the fifth occurred on the concrete, 15,000-foot runway at Edwards. For the first three flights, a tail cone was placed around the dummy main engines to reduce buffeting. The tail-cone fairing was removed for the last two flights. This movie clip begins with the Enterprise just prior to touchdown on the main runway at Edwards AFB after it's fifth and final unpowered free flight. Shuttle pilots Gordon Fullerton and Fred Haise were attempting a couple of firsts on this flight--a precision 'spot' landing on the concrete runway and flying the orbiter without it's tail-cone fairing, since the previous lakebed landing without the fairing had been made by Joe Engle and Richard Truly. Both Haise and Fullerton had prepared as well as possible for the variables of this mission by flying simulated approach profiles in NASA's shuttle training aircraft. However, as with most simulations, the performance wasn't completely identical to that of the real vehicle. Consequently Haise, the mission commander in the left seat, was too fast on the orbiter's landing approach. Deploying the speed brakes, he tried vainly to hit the assigned landing mark but in the stress of the moment, began to overcorrect the vehicle. The orbiter entered a pilot-induced oscillation or PIO along both it's roll and pitch axis causing the vehicle to begin to 'porpoise' down the runway. As it settled down to land it began to bounce from one main landing gear to the next before being brought under control and finally landed by the crew. Engineers at Dryden later determined that a roughly 270-millisecond time delay in the space shuttle's fly-by-wire system had been the cause of the problem, which was then explored with NASA Dryden's F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire aircraft and corrected with a suppression filter integrated into the orbiter's flight control system.

  19. Poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic acid)-functionalized porous silicon nanoparticles for enhanced stability and cellular internalization.

    PubMed

    Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Almeida, Patrick V; Mäkilä, Ermei; Correia, Alexandra; Ferreira, Mónica P A; Kaasalainen, Martti; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni; Santos, Hélder A

    2014-03-01

    Currently, developing a stable nanocarrier with high cellular internalization and low toxicity is a key bottleneck in nanomedicine. Here, we have developed a successful method to covalently conjugate poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic acid) (PMVE-MA) copolymer on the surface of (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane-functionalized thermally carbonized porous silicon nanoparticles (APSTCPSi NPs), forming a surface negatively charged nanovehicle with unique properties. This polymer conjugated NPs could modify surface smoothness, charge, and hydrophilicity of the developed NPs, leading to considerable improvement in the colloidal and plasma stabilities via enhanced suspensibility and charge repulsion. Furthermore, despite the surface negative charge of the polymer-conjugated NPs, the cellular internalization was increased in both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells. These results provide a proof-of-concept evidence that such polymer-based PSi nanocomposite can be extensively used as a promising candidate for intracellular drug delivery.

  20. Women's labour and economic globalisation: a participatory workshop created by Alternative Women in Development (Alt-WID).

    PubMed

    Barton, C; Nazombei, E

    2000-03-01

    This article describes the aims, methods, materials and topics used in a participatory workshop created by Alternative Women in Development. The organization aims to bridge the gaps in analyzing human rights and economic justice in both North and South from a feminist perspective through a workshop. This workshop considers the varied roles that women play in the global economy and features a series of anecdotes to illustrate the diverse ways in which globalization affects women in all regions worldwide. The workshop runs for a minimum of 3 hours and is structured as follows: introduction; plenary: identifying the human rights of the women; small-group work, plenary: building a group analysis and discussion of alternatives to the existing policies; and individual and plenary evaluations. Furthermore, four anecdotes used at the workshop are presented. Among the outcomes of the workshop included the identification of the problem causes and development of strategies for action.

  1. Poly(isobutylene-alt-maleic anhydride) binders containing lithium for high-performance Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Jun-Hwan; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Ham, Dong-Jin; Song, Min-Sang; Shon, Jeong-Kuk; Ji, Sang-Min; Choi, Jae-Man; Doo, Seok-Gwang

    2015-08-01

    Anode materials including graphite are known to be thermodynamically unstable toward organic solvents and salts and become covered by a passivating film (Solid electrolyte interphase, SEI) which retards the kinetics because of the high electronic resistivity. To achieve high performance in lithium ion batteries (LIBs), the SEIs are required to be mechanically stable during repeated cycling and possess highly ion-conductive. In this work, we have investigated an artificial pre-SEI on graphite electrode using a polymer binder containing lithium (i.e., a Li-copolymer of isobutylene and maleic anhydride, Li-PIMA) and its effect on the anode performances. During charging, the polymer binder with the functional group (-COOLi) acts as a SEI component, reducing the electrolyte decomposition and providing a stable passivating layer for the favorable penetration of lithium ions. Hence, by using the binder containing lithium, we have been able to obtain the first Coulombic efficiency of 84.2% (compared to 77.2% obtained using polyvinylidene fluoride as the binder) and a capacity retention of 99% after 100 cycles. The results of our study demonstrate that binder containing lithium we have used is a favorable candidate for the development of high-performance LIBs.

  2. Cement Dust Exposure and Perturbations in Some Elements and Lung and Liver Functions of Cement Factory Workers

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Egbe Edmund; Augusta Chinyere, Nsonwu-Anyanwu; Jeremaiah, Offor Sunday; Opara, Usoro Chinyere Adanna; Henrieta, Etukudo Maise; Ifunanya, Egbe Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cement dust inhalation is associated with deleterious health effects. The impact of cement dust exposure on the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), liver function, and some serum elements in workers and residents near cement factory were assessed. Methods. Two hundred and ten subjects (50 workers, 60 residents, and 100 controls) aged 18–60 years were studied. PEFR, liver function {aspartate and alanine transaminases (AST and ALT) and total and conjugated bilirubin (TB and CB)}, and serum elements {lead (Pb), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), and arsenic (As)} were determined using peak flow meter, colorimetry, and atomic absorption spectrometry, respectively. Data were analysed using ANOVA and correlation at p = 0.05. Results. The ALT, TB, CB, Pb, As, Cd, Cr, Se, Mn, and Cu were significantly higher and PEFR, Fe, and Zn lower in workers and residents compared to controls (p < 0.05). Higher levels of ALT, AST, and Fe and lower levels of Pb, Cd, Cr, Se, Mn, and Cu were seen in cement workers compared to residents (p < 0.05). Negative correlation was observed between duration of exposure and PEFR (r = −0.416, p = 0.016) in cement workers. Conclusions. Cement dust inhalation may be associated with alterations in serum elements levels and lung and liver functions while long term exposure lowers peak expiratory flow rate. PMID:26981118

  3. Comparison of two dry chemistry analyzers and a wet chemistry analyzer using canine serum.

    PubMed

    Lanevschi, Anne; Kramer, John W.

    1996-01-01

    Canine serum was used to compare seven chemistry analytes on two tabletop clinical dry chemistry analyzers, Boehringer's Reflotron and Kodak's Ektachem. Results were compared to those obtained on a wet chemistry reference analyzer, Roche Diagnostic's Cobas Mira. Analytes measured were urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), cholesterol and bilirubin. Nine to 12 canine sera with values in the low, normal, and high range were evaluated. The correlations were acceptable for all comparisons with correlation coefficients greater than 0.98 for all analytes. Regression analysis resulted in significant differences for both tabletop analyzers when compared to the reference analyzer for cholesterol and bilirubin, and for glucose and AST on the Kodak Ektachem. Differences appeared to result from proportional systematic error occurring at high analyte concentrations.

  4. Pioglitazone, quercetin and hydroxy citric acid effect on hepatic biomarkers in Non Alcoholic Steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Surapaneni, Krishna Mohan; Jainu, Mallika

    2014-01-01

    Background: Non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), severe form of diseases belonging to the spectrum of the Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It is an asymptomatic disease which leads to fibrosis and finally to cirrhosis, an end stage liver disease. Objective: To study the effect of pioglitazone, quercetin and hydroxy citric acid on hepatic biomarkers and various biochemical parameters in experimentally induced non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Materials and Methods: Male Wister rats were divided into 8 groups. The activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and γ-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT) were assayed in serum. The levels of various other biochemical parameters such as serum albumin, total bilirubin, creatinine, urea, uric acid and glucose were also estimated in experimental NASH. Results: The NASH group produced severe liver injury by significantly increasing the serum levels of ALT, AST, GGT and LDH compared with that of the control. However, the experimental NASH rats treated with pioglitazone, with quercetin and with hydroxy citric acid showed an obvious decrease in ALT, AST, GGT and LDH levels when compared with that of NASH induced group. A significant increase in the levels of albumin, creatinine, urea, uric acid, glucose and total bilirubin was noticed in experimentally induced NASH group (group 2) when compared to rats in control group (group 1). Conclusion: It could be inferred from this study that, pioglitazone, quercetin and hydroxy citric acid may afford protection to the liver against NASH, as evidenced by the results of this study on the levels of various biochemical parameters such as glucose, urea, uric acid, creatinine and bilirubin. Whereas from the results of hepatic marker enzymes, it is evident that optimal protection was observed after quercetin treatment against experimental NASH whereas pioglitazone and hydroxy citric acid also confers

  5. Protective Role of Crocin Against Nicotine-induced Damages on Male Mice Liver

    PubMed Central

    Jalili, Cyrus; Tabatabaei, Hadis; Kakaberiei, Seyran; Roshankhah, Shiva; Salahshoor, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nicotine is a major pharmacologically active substance in cigarette smoke. It is mainly metabolized in liver and causes devastating effects. Crocin is the chemical ingredient primarily responsible for the color of saffron. It has different pharmacological effects such as antioxidant and anticancer. This study was designed to evaluate the protective role of crocin against nicotine on the liver of mice. Methods: Forty-eight mice were equally divided into 8 groups; control (normal saline), nicotine (2.5 mg/kg), crocin (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) and crocin plus nicotine treated groups. Saline, crocin, nicotine and crocin/nicotine (once a day) were intraperitoneally injected for 4 weeks. The liver weight and histology, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and serum nitric oxide levels have been studied. Results: The results indicated that nicotine administration significantly decreased liver weight (48.37%) and increased the mean diameter of hepatocyte (239%), central hepatic vein (28.45%), liver enzymes level (ALP 29.43%, AST 21.81%, ALT 21.55%), and blood serum nitric oxide level (57.18%) compared to saline group (P < 0.05). However, crocin and crocin plus nicotine administration significantly boosted liver weight (49.54%) and decreased the mean diameter of hepatocyte (40.48%), central hepatic vein (15.44%), liver enzymes (ALP 22.02%, AST 19.05%, ALT 23.11%), and nitric oxide levels (35.80%) in all groups compared to nicotine group (percentages represent the maximum dose) (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Crocin showed its partly protective effect against nicotine-induced liver toxicity. PMID:26442615

  6. Elevated Liver Enzymes in Cases of Preeclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Dacaj, Ramadan; Izetbegovic, Sebija; Stojkanovic, Goran; Dreshaj, Skender

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate biochemical parameters in serum of women with preeclampsia and IUGR. Material and methods: A clinical prospective study was conducted and included 120 pregnant women divided in two groups: non IUGR group included healthy pregnant women (n=60) and IUGR group included pregnant women with preeclampsia and IUGR (n=60). Outcome measures were following values of biochemical parameters in serum of mother and fetuses: aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), bilirubin (indirect and direct) and cholesterol. A blood for analysis was drawn from the cubital vein of mothers and the umbilical vein of the fetuses during delivery period. Results: The mean of maternal age was 30.0±6.1 years in women with preeclampsia and IUGR and 28.1±5.1 years in healthy pregnant women, p > 0.05. The most of women with preeclampsia and IUGR had grade III of placental maturation (48.3%). There is a significant association between the placental maturation and the diagnosis, p < 0.001. There was a statistically significant difference in body mass of newborns between IUGR and non IUGR groups, p < 0.001. There was a significant statistically difference in serum value of AST, ALT, LDH and total cholesterol between women with preeclampsia and IUGR and healthy pregnant women (all p < 0.001). Conclusion: Measurement of AST, ALT, LDH, and total cholesterol in serum of pregnant women and newborns with IUGR allows the differentiation and threatening risk of perinatal complications due to hypoxia. PMID:26980931

  7. Assessment of selected biochemical parameters and humoral immune response of Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) experimentally infected with Trichinella zimbabwensis.

    PubMed

    La Grange, Louis J; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2014-08-21

    Fifteen crocodiles were randomly divided into three groups of five animals. They represented high-infection, medium-infection and low-infection groups of 642 larvae/kg, 414 larvae/kg and 134 larvae/kg bodyweight, respectively. The parameters assessed were blood glucose, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT). The humoral immune response to Trichinella zimbabwensis infection was evaluated in all three groups by an indirect ELISA method. The results showed deviations from normal parameters of blood glucose, CPK, LDH, AST and ALT when compared with reported levels in uninfected reptiles. Contrary to studies involving mammals, hypoglycaemia was not observed in the infected groups in this study. Peak values of blood glucose were reached on post-infection (PI) Day 49, Day 42 and Day 35 in the high-infection, medium-infection and low-infection groups, respectively. Peak values of LDH and AST were observed on PI Day 56, Day 49 and Day 42 in the high-infection, medium-infection and low-infection groups, respectively. Peak values of CPK were observed on Day 35 PI in all three groups. Peak ALT values were reached on Day 56 in the high-infection group and on Day 28 PI in both the medium-infection and low-infection groups. No correlations between the biochemical parameters and infection intensity were observed. Peak antibody titres were reached on Day 49 PI in the medium-infection group, and on Day 42 PI in both the high-infection and low-infection groups. Infection intensity could not be correlated with the magnitude of the humoral immune response or time to sero-conversion. Results from this study were in agreement with results reported in mammals infected with other Trichinella species and showed that antibody titres could not be detected indefinitely.

  8. Effect of glycyrrhizic acid on titanium dioxide nanoparticles-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Orazizadeh, Mahmoud; Fakhredini, Fereshtesadat; Mansouri, Esrafil; Khorsandi, Layasadat

    2014-09-01

    Many recent studies demonstrate that most nanoparticles (NPs) have an adverse or toxic action on liver. The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) against hepatic injury induced by titanium dioxide nanoparticles (NTiO2) in rats. Thirty-two Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. NTiO2-intoxicated rats received 300 mg/kg of NTiO2 for 14 days by gavage method. Protection group pretreated with GA for 7 days before NTiO2 administration. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were detected as biomarkers in the blood to indicate hepatic injury. Product of lipid peroxidation (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were evaluated for oxidative stress in hepatic injury. Light microscopy for histopathological studies and TUNEL assay was also done. Administration of NTiO2 induced a significant elevation in plasma AST, ALT and ALP. In the liver, NTiO2 increased oxidative stress through the increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in SOD and GPx enzymes. Histopathological studies showed that treatment with NTiO2 caused liver damage including centrilobular necrosis, which was accompanied by congestion and accumulation of inflammatory cells. Apoptotic index was also significantly increased in this group. Pretreatment of GA significantly decreased ALT, AST and ALP, attenuated the histopathology of hepatic injury, decreased apoptotic index, ameliorated oxidative stress in hepatic tissue, and increased the activities of SOD and GPx. These findings indicate that GA effectively protects against NTiO2-induced hepatotoxicity. GA has a potent protective effect against the NPs induced hepatotoxicity and might be clinically useful.

  9. Hepatoprotective effect of Rosa canina fruit extract against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rat

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Heibatollah; Hosseinzadeh, Saleh; Akbartabar Touri, Mehdi; Ghavamzadeh, Mehdi; Jafari Barmak, Mehrzad; sayahi, Moslem; Sadeghi, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study was conducted to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of hydro-ethanolic fruit extract of Rosa canina (R. canina) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into six groups of 8 animals of each, including control, toxic (CCl4), R. canina 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg + CCl4 and R. canina 750 mg/kg alone. R. canina (p.o., daily) and CCl4 (1 ml/kg twice a week, 50% v/v in olive oil, i.p.) were administered to animals for six weeks. Serum analysis was performed to assay the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine amino transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin (ALB), total protein (TP) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Biochemical observations were also supplemented with histopathological examination (haematoxylin and eosin staining) of liver section. Results: Hepatotoxicity was evidenced by considerable increase in serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP, and lipid peroxidation (MDA) and decrease in levels of ALB and TP. Injection of CCL4 also induced congestion in central vein, and lymphocyte infiltration. Treatment with hydro-alcoholic fruit extract of R. canina at doses of 500 and 750 mg/kg significantly reduced CCl4-elevated levels of ALT, AST, ALP and MDA (p<0.01). The extract also increased the serum levels of ALB and TP compared to CCl4 group (p<0.01) at the indicated dose Histopathological studies supported the biochemical finding. Conclusion: Our finding indicated hepatoprotective effects of the hydro-alcoholic fruit extract of R. canina on CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats and suggested that these effects may be produced through reducing oxidative stress. PMID:27222831

  10. Is montelukast as effective as N-acetylcysteine in hepatic injury due to acetaminophen intoxication in rats?

    PubMed

    İçer, Mustafa; Zengin, Yilmaz; Gunduz, Ercan; Dursun, Recep; Durgun, Hasan Mansur; Turkcu, Gul; Yuksel, Hatice; Üstündağ, Mehmet; Guloglu, Cahfer

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the acute protective effect of montelukast sodium in hepatic injury secondary to acetaminophen (APAP) intoxication. This study used 60 rats. The rats were grouped into 6 groups. The control group was administered oral distilled water 10 ml/kg, the APAP group oral APAP 1 g/kg, the montelukast sodium (MK) group oral MK 30 mg/kg, the acetaminophen+N-acetylcysteine (APAP+NAC) group oral APAP 1 g/kg, followed by a single dose of intraperitoneal NAC 1.5 g/kg three hours later, the acetaminophen+montelukast sodium (APAP+MK) group oral APAP 1 g/kg, followed by oral MK 30 mg/kg 3 h later, the acetaminophen+N-acetylcysteine+montelukast sodium (APAP+NAC+MK) group oral APAP 1 g/kg, followed by a single intraperitoneal NAC 1.5 g/kg plus oral MK 30 mg/kg 3 h later. Blood and liver tissue samples were taken 24h after drug administration. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin were studied from the blood samples. Liver tissue samples were used for histopathological examination. Compared with the control group, serum AST and ALT activities were higher in the APAP and APAP+NAC groups. APAP+NAC, APAP+MK, and APAP+NAC+MK groups had reduced serum ALT and AST activities than the group administered APAP alone. APAP+MK and APAP+NAC+MK groups had a lower serum ALP activity than the control group. Histopathologically, there was a difference between the group administered APAP alone and the APAP+MK and APAP+NAC+MK groups. MK is as protective as NAC in liver tissue in APAP intoxication in rats.

  11. Correlation between HIV viral load and aminotransferases as liver damage markers in HIV infected naive patients: a concordance cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Mata-Marín, José Antonio; Gaytán-Martínez, Jesús; Grados-Chavarría, Bernardo Horacio; Fuentes-Allen, José Luis; Arroyo-Anduiza, Carla Ileana; Alfaro-Mejía, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    Abnormalities in liver function tests could be produced exclusively by direct inflammation in hepatocytes, caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Mechanisms by which HIV causes hepatic damage are still unknown. Our aim was to determine the correlation between HIV viral load, and serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) as markers of hepatic damage in HIV naive infected patients. We performed a concordance cross-sectional study. Patients with antiviral treatment experience, hepatotoxic drugs use or co-infection were excluded. We used a Pearson's correlation coefficient to calculate the correlation between aminotransferases serum levels with HIV viral load. We enrolled 59 patients, 50 men and 9 women seen from 2006 to 2008. The mean (± SD) age of our subjects was 34.24 ± 9.5, AST 37.73 ± 29.94 IU/mL, ALT 43.34 ± 42.41 IU/mL, HIV viral load 199,243 ± 292,905 copies/mL, and CD4+ cells count 361 ± 289 cells/mm3. There was a moderately strong, positive correlation between AST serum levels and HIV viral load (r = 0.439, P < 0.001); and a weak correlation between ALT serum levels and HIV viral load (r = 0.276, P = 0.034); after adjusting the confounders in lineal regression model the correlation remained significant. Our results suggest that there is an association between HIV viral load and aminotransferases as markers of hepatic damage; we should improved recognition, diagnosis and potential therapy of hepatic damage in HIV infected patients. PMID:19878552

  12. A case of moderate liver enzyme elevation after acute acetaminophen overdose despite undetectable acetaminophen level and normal initial liver enzymes.

    PubMed

    Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Shiner, Drew C; Varney, Shawn M

    2014-01-01

    Liver function test (LFT) increase is an early sign of acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity. Typically, when an acute overdose patient is evaluated and has an initial undetectable APAP level and normal liver enzymes, the patient is not treated with N-acetylcysteine, and liver enzymes are not expected to increase later. We report a case of moderate LFT increase despite normal LFTs and an undetectable APAP level after delayed presentation of an APAP ingestion. A 22-year-old male with no medical history ingested 15-25 hydrocodone/APAP tablets (5 mg/500 mg). His suicide note and his bunkmate corroborated the overdose time. He arrived at the emergency department 16 hours after ingestion. At that time, his APAP level was <10 μg/mL, and his liver enzymes were normal [aspartate transaminase (AST) 31 U/L and alanine transaminase (ALT) 34 U/L]. Twenty-nine hours after ingestion, the psychiatry team obtained LFTs (AST 45, ALT 61). He had persistent nausea and diffuse abdominal pain. On repeat analysis, the APAP level at 36 hours was found to be <10 μg/mL, AST 150, and ALT 204. After 2 more days of increasing LFTs and persistent abdominal pain and nausea, the toxicology department was consulted, the patient was transferred to the medicine department, and intravenous N-acetylcysteine was started 66 hours after ingestion. He was treated for 16 hours and had a significant decline in LFTs and symptom resolution. His prothrombin time, bilirubin, lactate, creatinine, and mental status were normal throughout the admission. Other cases of LFT increase were excluded. Our case report illustrates that a moderate increase in liver transaminase may occur despite an initial undetectable APAP level and normal transaminases after a delayed presentation. In our case, no serious clinical effects were reported.

  13. Supplementation with l-arginine stabilizes plasma arginine and nitric oxide metabolites, suppresses elevated liver enzymes and peroxidation in sickle cell anaemia.

    PubMed

    Jaja, S I; Ogungbemi, S O; Kehinde, M O; Anigbogu, C N

    2016-06-01

    The effect of l-arginine on liver function in SCD has received little or no attention. The effect of a chronic, oral, low-dose supplementation with l-arginine (1gm/day for 6 weeks) on some liver enzymes, lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide metabolites was studied in 20 normal (non-sickle cell anaemia; NSCA) subjects and 20 sickle cell anaemia (SCA) subjects. Ten milliliters of blood was withdrawn from an ante-cubital vein for the estimation of plasma arginine concentration ([R]), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), plasma total bilirubin concentration [TB], malondialdehyde concentration [MDA] and nitric oxide metabolites concentration [NOx]. Before supplementation, ALT, AST, ALP (p<0.05 respectively) and TB (p<0.001) were higher in SCA subjects than in NSCA subjects. [R] and [NOx] were higher in NSCA subjects (p<0.001 and p<0.05 respectively). Supplementation caused greater percent increases in [R], and [NOX] in SCA than in NSCA subjects (p<0.001 in each case). l-Arginine caused greater percent reductions in ALT and AST in SCA subjects but greater percent reduction in ALP in NSCA subjects (p<0.001 in each case). Changes in [MDA] and [TB] in the two groups were similar. Study shows that chronic, oral, low-dose supplementation with l-arginine improved liver function, oxidative stress, plasma arginine concentration and nitric oxide metabolites levels in NSCA and SCA subjects. Responses in SCA subjects to l-arginine were more sensitive than in NSCA subjects.

  14. Carnosine and taurine treatments decreased oxidative stress and tissue damage induced by D-galactose in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Kalaz, Esra Betül; Çoban, Jale; Aydın, A Fatih; Doğan-Ekici, Işın; Doğru-Abbasoğlu, Semra; Öztezcan, Serdar; Uysal, Müjdat

    2014-03-01

    D-galactose (GAL) causes aging-related changes and oxidative stress in the organism. We investigated the effect of carnosine (CAR) or taurine (TAU), having antioxidant effects, on hepatic injury and oxidative stress in GAL-treated rats. Rats received GAL (300 mg/kg; s.c.; 5 days/week) alone or together with CAR (250 mg/kg/daily; i.p.; 5 days/week) or TAU (2.5 % w/w; in rat chow) for 2 months. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC) and glutathione (GSH) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-0050x), and glutathione transferase (GST) activities were determined. Hepatic expressions of B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bax and Ki-67 were evaluated. Serum ALT, AST, hepatic MDA, and PC levels were observed to increase in GAL-treated rats. Hepatic Bax expression, but not Bcl-2, increased, Ki-67 expression decreased. GAL treatment caused decreases in GSH levels, SOD and GSH-Px activities in the liver. Hepatic mRNA expressions of SOD, but not GSH-Px, also diminished. CAR or TAU treatments caused significant decreases in serum ALT and AST activities. These treatments decreased apoptosis and increased proliferation and ameliorated histopathological findings in the livers of GAL-treated rats. Both CAR and TAU reduced MDA and PC levels and elevated GSH levels, SOD and GSH-Px (non significant in TAU + GAL group) activities. These treatments did not alter hepatic mRNA expressions of SOD and GSH-Px enzymes. Our results indicate that CAR and TAU restored liver prooxidant status together with histopathological amelioration in GAL-induced liver damage.

  15. The effect of Morus alba leaves extract and powder on resistin levels and liver transaminase enzymes activities in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Salemi, Z; Barzin Tond, S; Fallah, S; Shojaii, A; Seifi, M

    2016-01-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the changes of the resistin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels of diabetic rats after treatment with Morus alba leaves flavonoid extract (MLE) and Morus alba leaves powder (MLP). Thirty male wistar rats in five groups including control and diabetic groups were included. Diabetic groups consisted of diabetic control, sham and treated group with MLE and MLP. Type 2 diabetes was induced in rats by administration of streptozotocin (STZ) and - nicotinamide. The serum concentrations of resistin and insulin in the study groups were identified by ELISA. ALT and AST activities were assayed by spectrophotometer. For the first time, it was shown that the uptake of MLE and MLP by diabetic rats could significantly decrease the serum fasting blood sugar (FBS), resistin levels and enzymes activity of ALT and AST and increases the concentration of serum insulin significantly (P<0.05). in comparison with the sham group and diabetic control. The results showed that there was no significant difference between the anti-diabetic and inflammatory properties of MLE and MLP. In this study, the possible protective effect of MLE and MLP administration was evaluated against destructive effect of STZ on liver and pancreas function in diabetic rats. The results showed that these effects may play an important role in the regulating of adipokines secretion such as resistin and insulin secretion which are involved in the control of diabetes and obesity. MLE and MLP treatment could be useful agents in combination with other therapies in diabetes improvement. PMID:27262814

  16. Protective effect of some vitamins against the toxic action of ethanol on liver regeneration induced by partial hepatectomy in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Farías, Carlett; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; Gutiérrez-Salinas, José; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Nidia; Martínez-Cruz, Maricela; Valle-Jones, Ilse; Gramlich-Martínez, Ingrid; Hernández-Ceruelos, Alejandra; Morales-González, José A

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of vitamins (A, C and E) on liver injury induced by ethanol administration during liver regeneration in rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats subjected to 70% partial hepatectomy were divided into five groups (groups 1-5). During the experiment, animals of Group 1 drank only water. The other four groups (2-5) drank 30 mL of ethanol/L of water. Group 3 additionally received vitamin A, those of group 4 vitamin C and those of group 5 received vitamin E. Subsequently serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin and bilirubin were measured colorimetrically. Lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric-acid reactive substances, TBARS) both in plasma and liver was measured, as well as liver mass gain assessment and total DNA. RESULTS: Compared with sham group, serum AST and ALT increased significantly under ethanol treatment (43% and 93%, respectively, with P < 0.05). Vitamin C and vitamin E treatment attenuated the ethanol-induced increases in ALT and AST activity. Ethanol treatment also decreased serum albumin concentration compared to sham group (3.1 ± 0.4 g/dL vs 4.5 ± 0.2 g/dL; P < 0.05). During liver regeneration vitamins C and E significantly ameliorated liver injury for ethanol administration in hepatic lipid peroxidation (4.92 nmol/mg and 4.25 nmol/mg vs 14.78 nmol/mg, respectively, with P < 0.05). In association with hepatic injury, ethanol administration caused a significant increase in both hepatic and plasma lipid peroxidation. Vitamins (C and E) treatment attenuated hepatic and plasma lipid peroxidation. CONCLUSION: Vitamins C and E protect against liver injury and dysfunction, attenuate lipid peroxidation, and thus appear to be significantly more effective than vitamin A against ethanol-mediated toxic effects during liver regeneration. PMID:18240347

  17. Oxidative markers, nitric oxide and homocysteine alteration in hypercholesterolimic rats: role of atorvastatine and cinnamon.

    PubMed

    Amin, Kamal A; Abd El-Twab, Thanaa M

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the effects of atorvastatin and cinnamon on serum lipid profile, oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, hepatic enzymes activities, nitric oxide (NO) as well as homocysteine (Hcy) in hypercholesterolemic rats, 48 male albino rats, weighing 130-190 gm were divided into 2 groups, normal group fed on basal rat chow diet (n=12) and high cholesterol group (HCD) were fed on 1% cholesterol-enriched diet for 15 day (n=36). Hypercholesterolemic rats were divided into 3 subgroups (n=12 for each) fed the same diet and treated with atorvastatine (HCD+Atorvastatin) or cinnamon extract (HCD+cinnamon) or none treated (HCD) for 3&6 weeks. Serum triglycerides (TG), Total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), ALT, AST, NO, Hcy, hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH), Malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzymes, Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity were measured. Results showed that HCD increased significantly TG, TC, LDL-C, ALT, AST, Hcy and hepatic MDA, while lowered significantly antioxidant enzyme activities and NO levels. Atorvastatin therapy significantly increased HDL-C, NO and antioxidant activity while decreased LDL-C, MDA and Hcy concentrations. Serum TG, TC, LDL-C, ALT, AST and hepatic MDA levels were significantly lowered meanwhile, serum HDL, NO values and hepatic antioxidant activities were significantly, higher in cinnamon-treated than untreated group. These results indicate that lipid abnormalities, oxidative injury and hyperhomocystienemia were induced by HCD and this study recommend that administration of atorvastatine or cinnamon provided protection against the lipemic-oxidative disorder and act as hypocholesterolemic, hepatoprotective agent and improve cardiovascular function through modulation of oxidative stress, NO and Hcy. PMID:19918318

  18. Efficacy of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS) and diphenyl diselenide on cadmium induced testicular damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Santos, Francielli W; Zeni, Gilson; Rocha, Joao B T; do Nascimento, Paulo C; Marques, Marieli S; Nogueira, Cristina W

    2005-12-01

    The deleterious effect of acute cadmium-intoxication in mice testes was evaluated. Animals received a single dose of CdCl2 (2.5 or 5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) and a number of toxicological parameters in mice testes were examined, such as delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (delta-ALA-D) activity, lipid peroxidation, hemoglobin and ascorbic acid contents. Furthermore, the parameters that indicate tissue damage such as plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were also determined. Thus, a possible protective effect of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propane-sulfonic acid (DMPS) and diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2 were studied. The results demonstrated an inhibition of delta-ALA-D activity, a reduction of ascorbic acid and an increase of lipid peroxidation induced by cadmium, indicating testes damage. Furthermore, we observed an increase of plasma LDH, AST and ALT activities. DMPS (400 mol/kg) and (PhSe)2 (100 micromol/kg) partially protected from the inhibitory effect of 2.5 mg/kg CdCl2 on delta-ALA-D and from the increase of TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive species) levels. (PhSe)2 therapy was effective in ameliorate ascorbic acid content when the cadmium dose was 2.5 mg/kg. Treatment with DMPS and (PhSe)2, individually or combined, was inefficient in reducing cadmium-induced plasma LDH and ALT activity increase. The use of combined therapy (DMPS plus (PhSe)2) proved to be efficient in decreasing cadmium levels in testes and in ameliorating plasma AST activity from animals that received the highest dose of cadmium. PMID:16000234

  19. Hepatoprotective effect of commercial herbal extracts on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Cordero-Pérez, Paula; Torres-González, Liliana; Aguirre-Garza, Marcelino; Camara-Lemarroy, Carlos; Guzmán-de la Garza, Francisco; Alarcón-Galván, Gabriela; Zapata-Chavira, Homero; de Jesús Sotelo-Gallegos, Ma.; Nadjedja Torres-Esquivel, Cipactli; Sánchez-Fresno, Ethel; Cantú-Sepúlveda, Daniel; González-Saldivar, Gerardo; Bernal-Ramirez, Judith; E. Muñoz-Espinosa, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Background: Various hepatoprotective herbal products from plants are available in Mexico, where up to 85% of patients with liver disease use some form of complementary and alternative medicine. However, only few studies have reported on the biological evaluation of these products. Objective: Using a model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats, we evaluated the effects of commercial herbal extracts used most commonly in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Mexico. Materials and Methods: The commercial products were identified through surveys in public areas. The effect of these products given with or without CCl4 in rats was evaluated by measuring the serum concentrations of aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alanine amino transferase (ALT), and histopathological analysis. Legalon® was used as the standard drug. Results: The most commonly used herbal products were Hepatisan® capsules, Boldo capsules, Hepavida® capsules, Boldo infusion, and milk thistle herbal supplement (80% silymarin). None of the products tested was hepatotoxic according to transaminase and histological analyses. AST and ALT activities were significantly lower in the Hepavida+CCl4-treated group as compared with the CCl4-only group. AST and ALT activities in the silymarin, Hepatisan, and Boldo tea groups were similar to those in the CCl4 group. The CCl4 group displayed submassive confluent necrosis and mixed inflammatory infiltration. Both the Hepatisan+CCl4 and Boldo tea+CCl4 groups exhibited ballooning degeneration, inflammatory infiltration, and lytic necrosis. The silymarin+CCl4 group exhibited microvesicular steatosis. The Hepavida+CCl4- and Legalon+CCL4-treated groups had lower percentages of necrotic cells as compared with the CCl4-treated group; this treatment was hepatoprotective against necrosis. Conclusion: Only Hepavida had a hepatoprotective effect. PMID:23900881

  20. Is montelukast as effective as N-acetylcysteine in hepatic injury due to acetaminophen intoxication in rats?

    PubMed

    İçer, Mustafa; Zengin, Yilmaz; Gunduz, Ercan; Dursun, Recep; Durgun, Hasan Mansur; Turkcu, Gul; Yuksel, Hatice; Üstündağ, Mehmet; Guloglu, Cahfer

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the acute protective effect of montelukast sodium in hepatic injury secondary to acetaminophen (APAP) intoxication. This study used 60 rats. The rats were grouped into 6 groups. The control group was administered oral distilled water 10 ml/kg, the APAP group oral APAP 1 g/kg, the montelukast sodium (MK) group oral MK 30 mg/kg, the acetaminophen+N-acetylcysteine (APAP+NAC) group oral APAP 1 g/kg, followed by a single dose of intraperitoneal NAC 1.5 g/kg three hours later, the acetaminophen+montelukast sodium (APAP+MK) group oral APAP 1 g/kg, followed by oral MK 30 mg/kg 3 h later, the acetaminophen+N-acetylcysteine+montelukast sodium (APAP+NAC+MK) group oral APAP 1 g/kg, followed by a single intraperitoneal NAC 1.5 g/kg plus oral MK 30 mg/kg 3 h later. Blood and liver tissue samples were taken 24h after drug administration. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin were studied from the blood samples. Liver tissue samples were used for histopathological examination. Compared with the control group, serum AST and ALT activities were higher in the APAP and APAP+NAC groups. APAP+NAC, APAP+MK, and APAP+NAC+MK groups had reduced serum ALT and AST activities than the group administered APAP alone. APAP+MK and APAP+NAC+MK groups had a lower serum ALP activity than the control group. Histopathologically, there was a difference between the group administered APAP alone and the APAP+MK and APAP+NAC+MK groups. MK is as protective as NAC in liver tissue in APAP intoxication in rats. PMID:26462568

  1. Hepatoprotective effects of allyl isothiocyanate against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rat.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Meejung; Kim, Jeongtae; Bang, Hyojin; Moon, Jihwan; Kim, Gi Ok; Shin, Taekyun

    2016-07-25

    We evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in rats. Sprague Dawley rats were orally administered AITC at doses of 5 (AITC 5) and 50 (AITC 50) mg/kg body weight once daily for 3 days, with or without intraperitoneal injection of CCl4. Serum chemistry was assessed for changes in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). The enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were examined in liver tissues, while pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) mRNA expression were analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. And heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and ionized calcium binding protein-1 (Iba-1) immunoreactivities were evaluated by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry, respectively. In serum chemistry, the oral administration of AITC itself did not affect the serum levels of ALT or AST, furthermore pretreatment with AITC 5 and AITC 50 significantly reduced the ALT and AST activity levels that were elevated in CCl4-intoxicated rats. In addition, AITC significantly suppressed the reduction of SOD and CAT, and the elevation of MDA, TNF-α mRNA expression, on the other hands, induced the expression of HO-1 compared with those of the vehicle-treated CCl4 group. The histopathological evaluation and Iba-1 immunoreactivity also supported the hepatoprotective effects of AITC against CCl4-induced liver injury. These results suggest that AITC ameliorates oxidative liver injury, possibly through reducing lipid peroxidation, enhancing antioxidant enzymes, and suppressing Kupffer cells and macrophages. PMID:27241356

  2. Study on changes of clinical indicators and key proteins from fluoride exposure.

    PubMed

    He, Hong; Wang, Hongmei; Han, Mei; Jiao, Yuguo; Ma, Congli; Zhang, Han; Zhou, Zhou

    2014-07-01

    Few studies have evaluated the biomarker changes of fluoride exposure. In order to explore early and sensitive indicators, animal experiment was designed. Ninety-six healthy SD rats (48 males and 48 females) weighing approximately 60 g were randomly divided into six groups of 16 animals each by gender average. Control animals were supplied with distilled water only as group 1. Exposure groups' animals were treated with 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 mg NaF/kg bw, respectively, as groups 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. Our study found that contents of white blood cell (WBC), lymphocyte percentage (LYMPH%), lymphocyte (LYM), mean platelet volume (MPV), and platelet distribution width (PDW) increased significantly in high-fluoride-exposure groups (p < 0.05), which revealed that immune system may be interfered by high fluoride. Meanwhile, levels of alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), and ALT/AST in groups 5 and 6 decreased significantly compared to those in control group (p < 0.05), as well as the concentration of uric acid (UA) in groups 3, 4, 5, and 6 exhibited the same trends (p < 0.05). On the contrary, the level of blood B2 microglobulin (BB2MG) increased significantly (p < 0.05) in groups 4, 5, and 6. Changes of ALT, AST, UA, and BB2MG suggested the functions of the liver and kidney be altered by fluoride exposure. At the same time, the ATF4 content decreased gradually with the increase of fluoride concentration; furthermore, a highly significant (r = -0.586, p < 0.01) negative relationship between ATF4 content and fluoride exposure level was found. Results meant that clinical indicators cannot act as indicators of high fluoride exposure, and it also suggested that protein ATF4 might be the early and sensitive indicator in epidemiologic study of high fluoride exposure.

  3. Protective effect of curcumin in fructose-induced metabolic syndrome and in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats

    PubMed Central

    Bulboacă, Adriana; D Bolboacă, Sorana; Suci, Soimiţa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pre-treatment with curcumin on metabolic changes induced by two different pathophysiological mechanisms in rats (fructose diet and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus). Materials and Methods: Five groups with 10 rats per group were investigated: control group (healthy rats), fructose diet groups without any pre-treatment (FD), fructose diet groups with curcumin pre-treatment (FDC), STZ-induced diabetes mellitus without any pre-treatment (SID) and STZ-induced diabetes mellitus with curcumin pre-treatment (SIDC). Systolic blood pressure, and several metabolic and oxidative stress parameters were assessed. Results: Systolic blood pressure significantly increased in all groups compared with control group (P<0.001), with significantly lower values on groups with curcumin pre-treatment compared with the group without any pre-treatment and same inducement (FDS vs. FD P<0.0001, SIDC vs. SID P<0.0001). High-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol was significantly lower in all groups compared with control group (P<0.05) while triglycerides (P<0.05), aspartate aminotransferase (AST, P<0.0001) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT, P<0.0001) were significantly higher. Within the group with same induction, curcumin pre-treatment significantly improved metabolic (total cholesterol, glycaemia, triglycerides, AST, ALT; P<0.05) and oxidative stress parameters (total oxidative status (NOx), Thiol, and malondialdehyde (MDA), P<0.02) compared to untreated groups. Conclusion: The pre-treatment with curcumin in our experimental models significantly improved metabolic (total cholesterol, triglycerides, AST and ALT) as well as oxidative stress parameters (MDA, NOx, and Thiol) in both fructose diet and in STZ-induced diabetes in rats. These properties of curcumin may serve to improve the metabolic and oxidative stress conditions in patients with these pathological features. PMID:27482338

  4. Efficacy of aqueous extract of Hippophae rhamnoides and its bio-active flavonoids against hypoxia-induced cell death

    PubMed Central

    Tulsawani, Rajkumar; Gupta, Rashmi; Misra, Kshipra

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the protective efficacy of aqueous extract of Hippophae rhamnoides against chronic hypoxic injury using primary rat hepatocytes. Materials and Methods: The extract was prepared using maceration method and characterized by its phenolic and flavonoid content and chemical antioxidant capacity using ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Hepatocytes were maintained in hypoxia chamber (3% and 1% oxygen) for 72 h. The cells kept under normoxic condition served as control. The cells were treated with the extract and flavonoids; isorhamentin, kaempferol or qurecetin-3-galactoside. After the end of exposure period; cell survival, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were measured. Results: The extract showed presence of high phenolic and flavonoid content with significant antioxidant activity in chemical assay. The cell exposed to hypoxia showed concentration dependent cell death and harbored higher reactive oxygen species. In addition, these cells showed significant leakage of intracellular LDH, ALT, and AST accompanied by the diminished levels/activities of GSH, GPx, and SOD. The treatment of cells with aqueous extract of H. rhamnoides reduced hypoxia-induced cell death and prevented increase in ROS levels and leakage of intracellular LDH, ALT, and AST from cells. Moreover, these cells maintained better levels/activities of GSH, GPx, and SOD in comparison to the respective controls. The major flavonoids present in aqueous extract of H. rhamnoides; quercetin-3-galactoside, kaempferol, and isorhamentin also prevented hypoxia induced cell injury individually or in combination, however, the protection offered by these compounds taken together could not match to that of the extract. Conclusions: Overall the findings reveal significance of aqueous extract of

  5. The Effect of Follow up (Telenursing) on Liver Enzymes in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fard, Sorur Javanmardi; Ghodsbin, Fariba; Kaviani, Mohammad Javad; Jahanbin, Iran; Bagheri, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by macro vesicular steatosis in the absence of alcohol. Patients with (NAFLD)need extensive education and support in their treatment. Our aim was to investigate the effect of telenursing on liver enzymes (ALT and AST) in patients with NAFLD. Methods: Our study is a randomized controlled clinical trial. In this study, 60 patients were enrolled from patients who referred to subspecialty gastrointestinal clinics affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Specialists confirmed their diseases by ultrasound and laboratory test. Simple randomization, based on random number table, was used to randomize the participants into intervention (N=30) and control (N=30) groups. Patients in both groups received dietary advice from a nutritionist and were trained to perform physical activities. Telephone intervention in the intervention group lasted for 12 weeks, in order to see the effect of follow up on the recommended diet and physical activities given by the specialist, while; the control group subjects were only followed up as usual by their physician. Results: The result of an independent t-test showed that the mean difference of liver Enzymes between the two groups was statistically significant (P<0.001). The difference of AST and ALT in the intervention and control groups was 18.03, -1.27 and 40.70, 1.52, respectively. Conclusion: We found out that; telenursing could have a positive effect on reduction of liver enzymes (ALT, AST) in patients with NAFLD. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2015040411691N5 PMID:27382590

  6. [Evaluation of miR-122 level in the plasma of chronically HCV infected patients].

    PubMed

    Gholami, M; Ravanshad, M; Alavian, S-M; Baesi, K; Moallemi, S

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules, which have an important function in regulating RNA stability and gene expression. They also can circulate in a cell-free form in the blood thatmakes them potential disease markers. The liver contains various classes of miRNAs in which miR-122 accounts for about 70% of all miRNAs and it has been proved that its level increases in case of liver damage. Here, we investigated plasma levels of miR-122 as a useful disease parameter in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection. Thirty five hemophilia and thalassemia patients with CHC were studied. The total RNA was extracted from plasma samples, and miR-122 levels were measured by qPCR and then compared with the specific liver markers. The plasma levels of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase(AST) were correlated with plasma miR-122 level in CHC patients, and the level of circulating miR-122 in healthy individual groups were rarely lower than those of patients with CHC. In our study, miR-122 levels correlated well with markers of liver inflammatory activity. Plasma miR-122 can be assumed to be another marker in liver similar to the currently used specific markers such as ALT and AST for evaluation of liver damage in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected patients. Moreover, the correlation between miR-122 and ALT was shown to be higher than between miR-122 and AST. PMID:27239848

  7. The etiology of hypertransaminasemia in Turkish children

    PubMed Central

    Serdaroglu, Filiz; Koca, Tugba; Dereci, Selim; Akcam, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the causes of elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in children. We analyzed the medical records for children aged 3 months to 18 years who presented to the hospital with ALT >45 IU/L and/or AST >50 IU/L, between 2012 and 2014, for various reasons, including those not related to liver disease. In total, 281 children met the study criteria. This group comprised of 125 (44.5%) females and 156 (55.5%) males. At the presentation, the most common patient complaint was fatigue (53.4%), while 15.7% of the patients reported no symptoms. The most common findings on the physical examination were jaundice and hepatomegaly. In 15% of the cases, the findings were normal. According to the diagnosis, the most common cause of the elevated transaminases were infections (34%), with hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection as the leading cause (18.9%). Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) was the cause in 18.1% of the cases and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in 11.1%. The highest transaminase levels were associated with HAV infection, while DILI and NAFLD caused only slightly elevated transaminases. Overall, our results show that the elevated transaminases in children are most often caused by infections, DILI, and NAFLD. In a majority of cases, elevated ALT and AST indicate liver disease, however, they could also be associated with conditions other than liver damage. Additionally, the elevated enzymes can be detected in completely healthy individuals. PMID:26894285

  8. Endoplasmic reticulum stress involved in heart and liver injury in iron-loaded rats.

    PubMed

    Lou, Li-Xia; Geng, Bin; Chen, Yu; Yu, Fang; Zhao, Jing; Tang, Chao-Shu

    2009-07-01

    1. Iron overload contributes to the pathogenesis of various diseases and directly induces tissue injury. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between heart and liver injury induced by iron overload and cellular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress to explore the molecular mechanism of iron overload-induced cellular injury. 2. Iron overload in rats was generated by intraperitoneal injection of iron-dextran chronically (30 mg/kg per day for 9 weeks) or acutely (300 mg/kg once). Tissue injury was assessed by determining serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity, as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the heart and liver. The ER stress response was analysed by expression of glucose-response protein 78 (GRP78) and activation of caspase 12. 3. In chronic iron-loaded rats, iron levels in the heart and liver were higher, by approximately 2- and 7.8-fold, respectively (P < 0.01), compared with control. Serum LDH, ALT and AST activity, as well as MDA content, GRP78 expression and caspase 12 activity in the heart and liver, were upregulated in chronically iron-loaded rats. In acute iron-loaded rats, iron content in the heart and liver was 51% and 63% higher than in controls (both P < 0.01). Serum LDH, ALT and AST activity, MDA content in the heart and liver and levels of ER stress markers were all increased in acute iron-loaded rats. N-Acetylcysteine (150 mg/kg, s.c.) lowered the levels of these parameters in acute iron-loaded rats. 4. The results of the present study indicate that ER stress may play an important role in iron-induced tissue injury and that reactive oxygen species may mediate the ER stress response in the pathogenesis of iron-overload cellular injury. PMID:19594550

  9. Supplementation with l-arginine stabilizes plasma arginine and nitric oxide metabolites, suppresses elevated liver enzymes and peroxidation in sickle cell anaemia.

    PubMed

    Jaja, S I; Ogungbemi, S O; Kehinde, M O; Anigbogu, C N

    2016-06-01

    The effect of l-arginine on liver function in SCD has received little or no attention. The effect of a chronic, oral, low-dose supplementation with l-arginine (1gm/day for 6 weeks) on some liver enzymes, lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide metabolites was studied in 20 normal (non-sickle cell anaemia; NSCA) subjects and 20 sickle cell anaemia (SCA) subjects. Ten milliliters of blood was withdrawn from an ante-cubital vein for the estimation of plasma arginine concentration ([R]), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), plasma total bilirubin concentration [TB], malondialdehyde concentration [MDA] and nitric oxide metabolites concentration [NOx]. Before supplementation, ALT, AST, ALP (p<0.05 respectively) and TB (p<0.001) were higher in SCA subjects than in NSCA subjects. [R] and [NOx] were higher in NSCA subjects (p<0.001 and p<0.05 respectively). Supplementation caused greater percent increases in [R], and [NOX] in SCA than in NSCA subjects (p<0.001 in each case). l-Arginine caused greater percent reductions in ALT and AST in SCA subjects but greater percent reduction in ALP in NSCA subjects (p<0.001 in each case). Changes in [MDA] and [TB] in the two groups were similar. Study shows that chronic, oral, low-dose supplementation with l-arginine improved liver function, oxidative stress, plasma arginine concentration and nitric oxide metabolites levels in NSCA and SCA subjects. Responses in SCA subjects to l-arginine were more sensitive than in NSCA subjects. PMID:27156372

  10. Hepatoprotective effects of licochalcone B on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver toxicity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Haifeng; Chen, Meng; Zou, Ansheng; Jiang, Haili; Han, Jichun; Sun, Long; Feng, Chao; Liu, Ju

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): The objective of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of licochalcone B (LCB) in a mice model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver toxicity. Materials and Methods: Hepatotoxicity was induced in mice by a single subcutaneous injection (SC) of CCl4. The LCB was administered orally once a day for seven days (PO) as pretreatment at three doses of 1, 5, and 25 mg/kg/day. The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulfide (GSSG), C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were analyzed by ELISA. The protein expression degrees of p38 mitogen activated protein kinases (p38) and nuclear factor-k-gene binding (NF-κB) were assayed by western blotting. Results: CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity was manifested by an increase in the levels of ALT, AST, MDA, IL-6, CRP, and TNF-ɑ, and a decrease in the SOD level and GSH/GSSG ratio in the serum. The histopathological examination of the liver sections revealed necrosis and inflammatory reactions. Pretreatment with LCB decreased the levels of ALT, AST, MDA, GSSG, IL-6, CRP, TNF-ɑ, and the protein expression of p38 and NF-κB, increased the level of SOD and GSH, and normalized the hepatic histo-architecture. Conclusion: LCB protected the liver from CCl4-induced injury. Protection may be due to inhibition of p38 and NFκB signaling, which subsequently reduced inflammation in the liver. PMID:27746874

  11. Biochemical and Immunological Modifications in Saliva of SFINCSS Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volozhin, A. I.; Kuznetsov, P. A.; Ilyin, V. K.; Kuzmina, E. M.; Sashkina, T. I.

    of Russian and foreign volunteers and was divided onto 3 parts, 4 persons per each depending on isolation time. All the individuals were isolated days in confined habitat.: 1st group - 240 days; 2nd and 3rd - 110 days each. 1 group members were individually orally instructed on perfect dental care, 2nd group members were given an instruction how to use means for mouth and dental care. 3rd group was only studied but was not given any instruction. Biochemical studies of non-stimulated mixed saliva were done before and after the experiment. protein concentration increased due to increasing of it's density. The urea concentration did not changed. The glucose concentration changes were flexible within norm values before experiment and sufficiently increased after the experiment only in two individuals. Natrium and potassium level was stable and did not differed from normal value before and after the experiment. There was a tendency of decreasing of calcium concentration in volunteers saliva as a result of their long-term isolation. Concentration of non-organic phosphor did not changed. Alanintranspherase (ALT) activity increased 2-3 times in 3 volunteers, aspartataminotranspherase (AST) activity increased in three people. No changes were revealed for alpha-amilase. Content of IgG increased which fact indirectly suggest bacterial overgrowth. No changes in IgA and SIgA were estimated. of urea and glucose didn't changed. The concentration of calcium had a tendency to decrease, no changes for non-organic phosphor, potassium and natrium. However ALT and AST values sufficiently increased as well as IgG concentration. isolation, despite of individual measures of mouth and dental care, and in group of 110-day isolation with no hygienic measures. Significant indices of mouth and dental state in long-term isolation are levels of: protein ALT, AST (cytoplasmatic enzymes), and IgG.

  12. Biochemical study on the protective role of folic acid in rabbits treated with chromium (VI).

    PubMed

    El-Demerdash, Fatma M; Yousef, Mokhtar I; Elaswad, Fathia A M

    2006-01-01

    Deleterious effects of chromium (VI) compounds are diversified affecting almost all the organ systems in a wide variety of animals. Therefore, the present study was carried out to determine the effectiveness of folic acid (FA) in alleviating the toxicity of chromium (VI) on certain biochemical parameters, lipid peroxidation, and enzyme activities of male New Zealand white rabbits. Six rabbits per group were assigned to one of four treatment groups: 0 mg FA and 0 mg Cr(VI)/kg BW (control); 8.3 microg FA/kg BW; 5 mg Cr(VI)/kg BW; 5 mg Cr(VI) plus 8.3 microg FA/kg BW, respectively. Rabbits were orally administered their respective doses every day for 10 weeks. Results obtained showed that Cr(VI) significantly (P < 0.05) increased the levels of free radicals and the activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST), and decreased the content of sulfhydryl groups (SH groups) in liver, testes, brain, kidney, and lung. The activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (AlP), acid phosphatase (AcP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were significantly decreased in liver and testes due to Cr(VI) administration. Also, AlP and AcP activities were significantly decreased in kidney and lung. The activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was significantly decreased in brain and plasma. Contrariwise, the activities of AST and ALT were significantly increased in plasma, while AlP and AcP decreased. Chromium (VI) treatment caused a significant decrease in plasma total protein (TP) and globulin, and increased total lipids (TL), cholesterol, glucose, urea, creatinine, and bilirubin concentrations. Folic acid alone significantly decreased the levels of free radicals in liver, brain, and kidney, and increased the content of SH-group. The activities of AST, ALT, and LDH in liver; AST, ALT, AlP, AcP, and LDH in testes; AcP in kidney; AlP and AcP in lung, and LDH in brain were significantly increased. Plasma TP and albumin were increased, while

  13. Short-term bioeffects of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Akdaş, A; Türkeri, L N; Ilker, Y; Simşek, F; Emerk, K

    1994-06-01

    Safety guidelines for shockwave delivery during extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) are not yet clear. Renal functions were assessed by using urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT; EC.2.6.1.2), aspartate aminotransferase (AST; EC. 2.6.1.1), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) as well as sodium, potassium, and calcium concentrations in respect to tubular functions after SWL with the Dornier MFL 5000 unit in 32 patients. In order to monitor glomerular function, we determined microalbuminuria. Transient glomerular and tubular damage occurs in SWL-treated kidneys. The minimum interval between two shockwave treatments should be at least 7 days.

  14. Effect of short-term exposure to three chemicals on the blood chemistry of the pinfish lagodon rhomboides

    SciTech Connect

    Folmar, L.C.; Bonomelli, S.; Moody, T.; Gibson, J.

    1993-01-01

    Injections of 3 ml/kg CCl4 caused significant elevations in the serum enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LD-L). Serum lipids and total protein were significantly lower, while serum glucose was significantly greater. Serum protein electrophoresis showed disassociation of albumin. Seawater species appear more tolerant of nitrite intoxication than freshwater species. Concentrations of fenthion as high as 30% of the 48-hr LC50 did not inhibit serum cholinesterase or alter serum chemistry.

  15. Comparative study of the hepatotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic effects of praziquantel distocide & the natural myrrh extract Mirazid on adult male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Omar, Ahmed; Elmesallamy, Ghada El-Said; Eassa, Shereen

    2005-04-01

    Praziquantel (PZQ) is widely and effectively used in the control of bilharziasis which constitutes a major endemic health problem in Egypt. However, recent studies recommended that the drug must be re-evaluated because of its potential carcinogenicity and genotoxicity. Mirazid is a new natural anti-schistosomal drug formed of myrrh extract and considered to be a safe drug. This work was conducted to evaluate and compare hepatotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic effects of PZQ and Mirazid on adult male albino rats by assessment of serum levels of ALT, AST and bilirubin, histopathological study of the liver and cytogenetic study of bone marrow cells. 100 adult male albino rats were equally divided into 4 groups: (I): negative control, (II): control rats received distilled water, (III): received weekly single oral dose of PZQ (1500 mg/kg) for 6 weeks, (IV): received daily oral dose of Mirazid (500 mg/kg) for 6 weeks. At the end of the study 10 rats of each group were investigated by assessment of the levels of AST, ALT, & Bilirubin. After scarification, liver sections were examined by light microscopy. Another 10 rats of each group were submitted to cytogenetic examination. It was found that praziquantel induced a significant increase in the mean values of AST, ALT and bilirubin with areas of hyaline degeneration, fatty changes, dysplasia and necrosis in the liver sections. It also induced a significant increase in the incidence of chromosomal aberrations as polyploidy, fragment, deletion and ring chromosome as compared with control group. Mirazid induced a non significant increase in the mean values of AST, ALT and bilirubin, with a normal hepatic tissue, and a non significant increase in the incidence of chromosomal aberrations, as compared with the control group. On comparing both drugs, praziquantel induced a significant hepatotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic effects. It was concluded that, Praziquantel is considered to be a hepatotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic

  16. Combined biomarker testing for the prediction of left ventricular remodelling in ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Reinstadler, Sebastian Johannes; Feistritzer, Hans-Josef; Reindl, Martin; Klug, Gert; Mayr, Agnes; Mair, Johannes; Jaschke, Werner; Metzler, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Objective The utility of different biomarkers for the prediction of left ventricular remodelling (LVR) following ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has been evaluated in several studies. However, very few data exist on the prognostic value of combined biomarkers. The aim of this study was to comprehensively investigate the prognostic value for LVR of routinely available biomarkers measured after reperfused STEMI. Methods Serial measurements of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP) were performed in 123 patients with STEMI treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention in this prospective observational study. Patients underwent cardiac MRI at 2 (1–4) and 125 (121–146) days after infarction. An increase in end-diastolic volume of ≥20% was defined as LVR. Results LVR occurred in 16 (13%) patients. Peak concentrations of the following biomarkers showed significant areas under the curves (AUCs) for the prediction of LVR—NT-proBNP: 0.68 (95% CI 0.59 to 0.76, p=0.03), hs-cTnT: 0.75 (95% CI 0.66 to 0.82, p<0.01), AST: 0.72 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.79, p<0.01), ALT: 0.66 (95% CI 0.57 to 0.75, p=0.03), LDH: 0.78 (95% CI 0.70 to 0.85, p<0.01) and hs-CRP: 0.63 (95% CI 0.54 to 0.72, p=0.05). The combination of all biomarkers yielded a significant increase in AUC to 0.85 (95% CI 0.77 to 0.91) (all vs NT-proBNP: p=0.02, all vs hs-cTnT: p=0.02, all vs AST: p<0.01, all vs ALT: p<0.01, all vs hs-CRP: p<0.01 and all vs LDH: p=0.04). Conclusions In patients with reperfused STEMI, the combined assessment of peak NT-proBNP, hs-cTnT, AST, ALT, hs-CRP and LDH provide incremental prognostic information for the prediction of LVR when compared with single-biomarker measurement. PMID:27738517

  17. Effect of aspartame on oxidative stress and monoamine neurotransmitter levels in lipopolysaccharide-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Salam, Omar M E; Salem, Neveen A; Hussein, Jihan Seid

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of the sweetener aspartame on oxidative stress and brain monoamines in normal circumstances and after intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 μg/kg) in mice. Aspartame (0.625-45 mg/kg) was given via subcutaneous route at the time of endotoxin administration. Mice were euthanized 4 h later. Reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances; TBARS), and nitrite concentrations were measured in brain and liver. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and glucose were determined in brain. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured in liver. The administration of only aspartame (22.5 and 45 mg/kg) increased brain TBARS by 17.7-32.8%, decreased GSH by 25.6-31.6%, and increased TNF-α by 16.7-44%. Aspartame caused dose-dependent inhibition of brain serotonin, noradrenaline, and dopamine. Aspartame did not alter liver TBARS, nitrite, GSH, AST, ALT, or ALP. The administration of LPS increased nitrite in brain and liver by 26.8 and 37.1%, respectively; decreased GSH in brain and liver by 21.6 and 31.1%, respectively; increased brain TNF-α by 340.4%, and glucose by 39.9%, and caused marked increase in brain monoamines. LPS increased AST, ALT, and ALP in liver tissue by 84.4, 173.7, and 258.9%, respectively. Aspartame given to LPS-treated mice at 11.25 and 22.5 mg/kg increased brain TBARS by 15.5-16.9%, nitrite by 12.6-20.1%, and mitigated the increase in monoamines. Aspartame did not alter liver TBARS, nitrite, GSH, ALT, AST, or ALP. Thus, the administration of aspartame alone or in the presence of mild systemic inflammatory response increases oxidative stress and inflammation in the brain, but not in the liver.

  18. Prothrombin time as an index of mortality in kwashiorkor.

    PubMed

    Akinyinka, O O; Falade, A G; Ogbechie, C O

    1990-03-01

    Prothrombin time, serum albumin, aminotransferases and liver size were evaluated in 40 consecutive cases of kwashiorkor. Eleven (27.5%) of the 40 patients died. Eight out of the 11 patients who died had a prolonged prothrombin time of more than 3 s above the control compared to only 4 out of the 29 who survived (p = 0.005). Mean serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) albumin, globulin and liver size were abnormal but similar in both groups. These results may indicate a predictive mortality value of prothrombin time in kwashiorkor.

  19. A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Effects of an Almond-enriched, Hypocaloric Diet on Liver Function Tests in Overweight/Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Abazarfard, Zohreh; Eslamian, Ghazaleh; Salehi, Mousa; Keshavarzi, Sareh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gradual weight reduction has been shown to be associated with improvements in liver enzymes. However, some evidence demonstrated that liver enzymes may transiently increase immediately after a diet-induced weight loss. Objectives: This study was designed to assess the effects of a hypocaloric, almond-enriched diet (AED) compared with a hypocaloric nut-free diet (NFD) on liver function tests in the context of a three-month weight reduction program in overweight/obese women. Patients and Methods: This randomized controlled clinical trial was registered at Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials with ID number of IRCT2013062313751N1. Overweight and obese Iranian women [n = 108; age = 42.7 y, body mass index = 29.6 kg/m2] were randomly assigned to consume an AED or NFD. The carefully planned hypocaloric diets were identical for both groups except for the AED group who consumed 50 grams of almonds daily for three months. Anthropometric measurements and laboratory measurements including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) were assessed before and immediately after the intervention. Results: Of 108 participants, 50 women in AED group and 50 women in NFD group completed the protocol of the study (response rate: 92.6 %). The AED led to a median weight loss of 3.79 kg (interquartile range: 4.4 kg). Significant decreases within AED and NFD were observed in ALT (-16.6 ± 16.3 and -11.7 ± 16.8, P < 0.001, respectively). Similar significant decreases were observed in AST (-13.6 ± 15.7 and -7.7 ± 16.1; P < 0.001, respectively). The decrease in GGT was also significant in both groups (-11.4 ± 21.6 and -6.2 ± 19.8; P < 0.001 respectively). ALT, AST and GGT decreased significantly in the AED group compared to the NFD group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: AED improved liver enzymes in obese women. However, mild, transient increases in ALT and AST values can be observed immediately after

  20. [Changes in the biochemical, chemical and toxicological characteristics of pericardial fluid in the case of fatal narcotic intoxication].

    PubMed

    Altaeva, A Zh; Zhunisov, S S; Aĭdarkulov, A Sh; Selivokhina, N V; Kidraliev, R R; Darikulova, B U; Zagumennikova, A A

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the biochemical and chemical-toxicological investigations into the properties of the pericardial fluid designed to improve the effectiveness of forensic medical examination of the cases of fatal drug poisoning. The objectives of the study were the detection and determination of the type of narcotic substances in the pericardial fluid, evaluation of the quantitative changes in enzyme activities (AST, ALT and CPK) in the pericardial fluid, and the development of the criteria for the forensic medical diagnostics of fatal drug poisoning. The materials used in the study were the pericardial fluid and blood taken during forensic medical examination of 247 corpses of men (87.04%) and women (12.96%) at the age from 13 to 35 years who died from different causes. They were divided into two groups. The study group was comprised of 142 subjects who died from drug poisoning, the control group consisted of 105 subjects who died from other causes. The methods used to study the pericardial fluid included gas-liquid chromatography to detect the presence and the type of the poisonous drugs, as well as biochemical and colorimetric methods to determine the amount of enzymes AST, ALT, and CPK. The study revealed no traces of drugs or their metabolites in the pericardial fluid from the 105 control corpses. Positive results of the forensic drug tests were obtained in all the 142 cases of the study group. The changes in the parameters and the biochemical composition of pericardial fluid and blood in fatal drug poisoning were reliably established including the alteration of the enzyme levels, such as AST, ALT, and CPK. In the control group, the quantitative parameters of the enzyme activities did not exceed the normal values whereas in the study group a significant increase of AST, ALT, and CPK levels in the pericardial fluid and blood in comparison with the normal values was documented. Conclusion: the results obtained in the studies of both groups provide a basis

  1. Radiology case of the month. Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea in a patient with hepatitis C and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Diffuse, severe gastric-wall thickening, consistent with edema.

    PubMed

    Mabry, Christian; Hutchings, John; Sanders, Charles; Neitzschman, Harold

    2012-01-01

    The patient is a 42-year-old male with a past medical history of HIV/AIDS (his most recent CD4 count, four months before admission, was 19) and hepatitis C who presented to the Emergency Department complaining of one week of persistent nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. His admit labs were as follows: hemoglobin of 11.8, hematocrit of 35, total protein of 6.0, albumin of 1.6, total bilirubin of 2.3, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) of 141, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) of 146, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of 31. Computed tomography (CT) images of the abdomen and pelvis with contrast were obtained (Figures 1 - 4).

  2. Association of Abnormal Liver Function Parameters with HIV Serostatus and CD4 Count in Antiretroviral-Naive Rwandan Women

    PubMed Central

    Hoover, Donald R.; Shi, Qiuhu; Mutimura, Eugene; Rudakemwa, Emmanuel; Ndacyayisenga, Victorien; Gakindi, Léonard; Mulvihill, Michael; Sinayobye, Jean D'Amour; Musabeyezu, Emmanuel; Anastos, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We determined the associations of HIV infection/CD4 count with markers of hepatocellular damage [elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)] and liver synthetic function (decreased albumin) in HIV-infected (HIV+) antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive and uninfected (HIV−) Rwandan women. In 2005, 710 HIV+ ART-naive and 226 HIV− women enrolled in the Rwanda Women's Interassociation Study and Assessment. Liver enzymes were measured with abnormality defined as either AST or ALT ≥1.25 times the upper limit of normal. Low serum albumin level was defined as <3.5 g/dl. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified independent predictors of elevated AST/ALT and low serum albumin. HIV− women had the lowest prevalence (6.6%) of abnormal AST/ALT, with the highest prevalence (16.4%) in HIV+ women with CD4 <200 cells/μl (p=0.01). The odds of having serum albumin <3.5 g/dl was 5.7-fold higher in HIV+ than HIV− women (OR=5.68, 95% CI: 3.32–9.71). The risk of low albumin decreased from low to high CD4 count, with OR=2.62, 95% CI: 1.66, 4.14 and OR=1.57, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.43 in HIV+ women with a CD4 count <200 and 200–350 cells/μl, respectively vs. HIV+ with CD4 >350 (p<0.001 and p<0.05 for all comparisons). Our findings suggest that HIV-associated liver damage may occur in ART-naive patients. Although liver abnormality prevalences in this cohort of HIV-infected Rwandan women are less than reported in developed countries, caution is needed for risk assessment measures to monitor and screen HIV-infected patients pre- and post-ART initiation in African clinical settings to curtail potential risks associated with HIV infection. PMID:25924728

  3. Effects of anthraquinone extract from Rheum officinale Bail on the growth performance and physiological responses of Macrobrachium rosenbergii under high temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Xie, Jun; Ge, Xianping; Xu, Pao; Wang, Aiming; He, Yijin; Zhou, Qunlan; Pan, Liangkun; Chen, Ruli

    2010-07-01

    In order to study the effects of anthraquinone extract from Rheum officinale Bail on Macrobrachium rosenbergii under high temperature stress, freshwater prawns were randomly divided into five groups: a control group was fed with basal diet, and four treatment groups fed with basal diet supplemented with 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4% anthraquinone extracts for 10 weeks, respectively. Then, freshwater prawns were exposed to high temperature stress at 35 degrees C for 48h. The growth, changes in haemolymph total protein, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lysozyme, nitrogen monoxide (NO) and hepatic catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were investigated. The results showed that compared the control group, the specific growth rates, feed conversion efficiency, haemolymph ALP and lysozyme activities, total protein contents, hepatic CAT and SOD activities increased while haemolymph AST, ALT and hepatic MDA contents decreased in treatment groups before the stress, but their levels did not correlate with the doses of anthraquinone extracts. The specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion efficiency and haemolymph lysozyme activity significantly increased but haemolymph AST activity decreased in 0.1% dose group; whereas haemolymph ALP activity and feed conversion efficiency increased but ALT activity and hepatic MDA contents significantly decreased in 0.2% dose group before the stress compared with the control. After high temperature stress, 0.1-0.2% anthraquinone extract also could improve the haemolymph total proteins, lysozyme and ALP activities, hepatic catalase, and superoxide dismutase, and reduce haemolymph ALT and AST activities, hepatic malondialdehyde contents. The cumulative mortality in the control was about 100% at 48h after high temperature stress while the cumulative mortality in the treatment groups supplemented with 0.1-0.2% anthraquinone extract were about 48-65%. The

  4. Hepatoprotective effects of polyprenols from Ginkgo biloba L. leaves on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lan; Wang, Cheng-zhang; Ye, Jian-zhong; Li, Hai-tao

    2011-09-01

    The hepatoprotective effects of polyprenols from Ginkgo biloba L. leaves were evaluated against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage in Sprague-Dawley rats. The elevated levels of serum ALT, AST, ALP, ALB, TP, HA, LN, TG, and CHO were restored towards normalization significantly by GBP in a dose dependent manner. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. Meanwhile, GBP also produced a significant and dose-dependent reversal of CCl(4)-diminished activity of the antioxidant enzymes and reduced CCl(4)-elevated level of MDA. In general, the effects of GBP were not significantly different from those of the standard drug Essentiale.

  5. Study on blood biochemical diagnostic indices for hepatic function biomarkers in endemic skeletal fluorosis.

    PubMed

    Shashi, Aggarwal; Bhardwaj, Monika

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the relationship of fluoride in drinking water to liver function in individuals living in normal and seven endemic fluorosis areas of Punjab, India. The concentration of fluoride in drinking water of different areas varied from 5.9 to 24.5 mg/L. Study group consisted of 705 patients in the age group between 20 and 60 years (mean age of 39.35±11.27) affected with osteodental fluorosis were compared with 300 age- and sex-matched controls (with mean age of 35.28±8.25 years). Biochemical data was analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post hoc Tukey-Kramer and Bonferroni multiple comparison tests. The relationship between hepatic enzymes was calculated by Pearson's correlation and linear regression. The results revealed significantly (P<0.001) higher concentration of serum fluoride in patients when compared to control. The mean activities of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP), alkaline phosphatase (ALKP), acid phosphatase (ACP), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), and alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) were significantly (P<0.05-0.001) elevated in patients from all fluoride areas. ANOVA with post hoc Turkey-Kramer and Bonferroni multiple comparison test demonstrated a significant (P<0.0001) variance in the activities of cAMP, ALKP, ACP, AST, and ALT in fluorotic patients, with elevation in water fluoride levels. Maximum elevation of 196.14% (ACP), 99.31% (cyclic adenosine monophosphate; cAMP), 72.08% (ALT), 60.14% (AST), and least 21.35% (ALKP) was recorded in patients exposed to 24.5 mg/L fluoride in drinking water. There was positive correlation between water fluoride, serum fluoride and AST (r=0.77, 0.91), ALT (r=0.82, 0.90), ALKP (r=0.88, 0.97), and ACP (r=0.74, 0.85). Pearson's correlation demonstrated highly significant (P<0.05) positive relationship between water fluoride and cAMP (regression equation: Y=0.9807×+22:081, =0.84; r=0.92, P<0.05). The increased levels of transaminases in fluorotic patients

  6. The Effects of Syzygium samarangense, Passiflora edulis and Solanum muricatum on Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-Jie; Zhou, Tong; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Zheng, Jie; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that fruits have different effects on alcohol metabolism and alcohol-induced liver injury. The present work selected three fruits and aimed at studying the effects of Syzygium samarangense, Passiflora edulis and Solanum muricatum on alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. The animals were treated daily with alcohol and fruit juices for fifteen days. Chronic treatment with alcohol increased the levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), total bilirubin (TBIL), triglyceride (TG), malondialdehyde (MDA), and decreased total protein (TP). Histopathological evaluation also showed that ethanol induced extensive fat droplets in hepatocyte cytoplasm. Syzygium samarangense and Passiflora edulis normalized various biochemical parameters. Solanum muricatum increased the level of ALT and induced infiltration of inflammatory cells in the liver. These results strongly suggest that treatment with Syzygium samarangense and Passiflora edulis could protect liver from the injury of alcohol, while Solanum muricatum could aggravate the damage. PMID:27681723

  7. Effect of age and gender on some blood biochemical parameters of apparently healthy small ruminants from Southern Punjab in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Kiran, Shumaila; Bhutta, Arif Mahmood; Khan, Bakhtyawar Ali; Durrani, Sobia; Ali, Muhammad; Ali, Muhammad; Iqbal, Furhan

    2012-01-01

    Objective To report and compare the hematological and serum biochemical profile of goat and sheep from Rahim Yar Khan district in Southern Punjab. Methods One hundred and twenty blood samples (98 goat and 22 sheep) were collected and their blood glucose, hemoglobin and serum biochemical parameters, cholesterol, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined by using spectrophotometer. Parameters were compared between goat and sheep. Results It was observed that glucose (P=0.001), LDH (P=0.001) and ALT (P=0.001) concentrations differed significantly between sheep and goats. The studied parameters were compared between buck and goats and also between young goats (less than 12 months old) and adults (more than 12 months old). It was found that age and gender did not affect these hematological and serum biochemical parameters. Conclusions It can be concluded that sheep have overall higher values than goats for studied hematological and serum biochemical parameters. PMID:23569919

  8. Serum chemistry profiles for Lechwe waterbucks (Kobus leche): variations with age and sex.

    PubMed

    Váhala, J; Kase, F

    1993-09-01

    1. Over an 8-year period, 19 biochemical parameters have been determined at various ages in the blood serum of 92 clinically healthy Lechwe waterbucks (Kobus leche), 33 males and 59 females. 2. Significant differences have been noted with age. In neonates, the lowest values of total proteins, glucose, creatinine, urea, AST, ALT and iron have been noted; the highest ones have been seen for cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, calcium and phosphorus. 3. With regard to sex, raised values of glucose, urea, alkaline phosphatase and ALT, and lowered values of cholesterol, have been noted in juvenile females compared with males of the same age. 4. In adult females, higher levels of urea and cholesterol and lower levels of glucose, triglycerides and natrium have been recorded compared with males. 5. With sex and age, no significant changes have been found in the levels of GGT, magnesium, chlorides and copper. 6. Our findings are discussed with those abstracted from the literature for related species.

  9. Effects of lixisenatide on elevated liver transaminases: systematic review with individual patient data meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials on patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Gluud, Lise L; Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist lixisenatide on elevated liver blood tests in patients with type 2 diabetes. Design Systematic review. Data sources Electronic and manual searches were combined. Study selection Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on lixisenatide versus placebo or active comparators for type 2 diabetes were included. Participants Individual patient data were retrieved to calculate outcomes for patients with elevated liver blood tests. Main outcome measures Normalisation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Data synthesis The results of included trials were combined in meta-analyses. Sequential, subgroup and regression analyses were performed to evaluate heterogeneity and bias. Results We included 12 RCTs on lixisenatide versus placebo and 3 RCTs with the active comparators liraglutide, exenatide or sitagliptin. The mean treatment duration was 29 weeks. Lixisenatide increased the proportion of patients with normalisation of ALT (risk difference: 0.07; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.14; number needed to treat: 14 patients, p=0.042). The effect was not confirmed in sequential analysis. No effects of lixisenatide were identified on AST, alkaline phosphatase or bilirubin. No evidence of bias was identified. Mixed effect multilevel meta-regression analyses suggest that the benefit of lixisenatide on ALT was limited to patients who were overweight or obese. Conclusions This review suggests that lixisenatide increases the proportion of obese or overweight patients with type 2 diabetes who achieve normalisation of ALT. Additional research is needed to determine if the findings translate to clinical outcome measures. Trial registration number PROSPERO; CRD42013005779. PMID:25526792

  10. AST-to-platelet ratio index in non-invasive assessment of long-term graft fibrosis following pediatric liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Rashmi S; Neves Souza, Lara; Isted, Alexander; Fitzpatrick, Emer; Vimalesvaran, Sunitha; Cotoi, Corina; Amin, Saista; Heaton, Nigel; Quaglia, Alberto; Dhawan, Anil

    2016-03-01

    Long-term graft fibrosis occurs in the majority of pediatric liver transplant recipients. Serial biopsies to monitor graft health are impractical and invasive. The APRI has been evaluated in pediatric liver disease, but not in the context of post-transplantation fibrosis. We aimed to investigate the validity of APRI as a predictor of long-term graft fibrosis in pediatric liver transplant recipients. This was a retrospective, observational study of a cohort of children who underwent liver transplantation at King's College Hospital between 1989 and 2003, with a relevant dataset available. Protocol liver biopsies were performed at 10-yr follow-up and fibrosis was graded using the Ishak scoring system, with S3-6 denoting "significant fibrosis." APRI was calculated concurrently with biopsy. A total of 39 asymptomatic patients (20 males; median age at transplant, 1.43 yr) underwent protocol liver biopsies at a median of 10.39 yr post-transplantation. APRI was associated with significant fibrosis (p = 0.012). AUROC for APRI as a predictor of significant fibrosis was 0.74 (p = 0.013). The optimal cutoff APRI value for significant fibrosis was 0.45 (sensitivity = 0.67; specificity = 0.79; PPV = 0.67; NPV = 0.79). APRI appears to be a useful non-invasive adjunct in the assessment of significant graft fibrosis in the long-term follow-up of pediatric liver transplant survivors. PMID:26806646

  11. AST-to-platelet ratio index in non-invasive assessment of long-term graft fibrosis following pediatric liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Rashmi S; Neves Souza, Lara; Isted, Alexander; Fitzpatrick, Emer; Vimalesvaran, Sunitha; Cotoi, Corina; Amin, Saista; Heaton, Nigel; Quaglia, Alberto; Dhawan, Anil

    2016-03-01

    Long-term graft fibrosis occurs in the majority of pediatric liver transplant recipients. Serial biopsies to monitor graft health are impractical and invasive. The APRI has been evaluated in pediatric liver disease, but not in the context of post-transplantation fibrosis. We aimed to investigate the validity of APRI as a predictor of long-term graft fibrosis in pediatric liver transplant recipients. This was a retrospective, observational study of a cohort of children who underwent liver transplantation at King's College Hospital between 1989 and 2003, with a relevant dataset available. Protocol liver biopsies were performed at 10-yr follow-up and fibrosis was graded using the Ishak scoring system, with S3-6 denoting "significant fibrosis." APRI was calculated concurrently with biopsy. A total of 39 asymptomatic patients (20 males; median age at transplant, 1.43 yr) underwent protocol liver biopsies at a median of 10.39 yr post-transplantation. APRI was associated with significant fibrosis (p = 0.012). AUROC for APRI as a predictor of significant fibrosis was 0.74 (p = 0.013). The optimal cutoff APRI value for significant fibrosis was 0.45 (sensitivity = 0.67; specificity = 0.79; PPV = 0.67; NPV = 0.79). APRI appears to be a useful non-invasive adjunct in the assessment of significant graft fibrosis in the long-term follow-up of pediatric liver transplant survivors.

  12. Metal interferences and their removal prior to the determination of As(T) and As(III) in acid mine waters by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Ball, James W.

    2003-01-01

    Hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS) is a sensitive and selective method for the determination of total arsenic (arsenic(III) plus arsenic(V)) and arsenic(III); however, it is subject to metal interferences for acid mine waters. Sodium borohydride is used to produce arsine gas, but high metal concentrations can suppress arsine production. This report investigates interferences of sixteen metal species including aluminum, antimony(III), antimony(V), cadmium, chromium(III), chromium(IV), cobalt, copper(II), iron(III), iron(II), lead, manganese, nickel, selenium(IV), selenium(VI), and zinc ranging in concentration from 0 to 1,000 milligrams per liter and offers a method for removing interfering metal cations with cation exchange resin. The degree of interference for each metal without cation-exchange on the determination of total arsenic and arsenic(III) was evaluated by spiking synthetic samples containing arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) with the potential interfering metal. Total arsenic recoveries ranged from 92 to 102 percent for all metals tested except antimony(III) and antimony(V) which suppressed arsine formation when the antimony(III)/total arsenic molar ratio exceeded 4 or the antimony(V)/total arsenic molar ratio exceeded 2. Arsenic(III) recoveries for samples spiked with aluminum, chromium(III), cobalt, iron(II), lead, manganese, nickel, selenium(VI), and zinc ranged from 84 to 107 percent over the entire concentration range tested. Low arsenic(III) recoveries occurred when the molar ratios of metals to arsenic(III) were copper greater than 120, iron(III) greater than 70, chromium(VI) greater than 2, cadmium greater than 800, antimony(III) greater than 3, antimony(V) greater than 12, or selenium(IV) greater than 1. Low recoveries result when interfering metals compete for available sodium borohydride, causing incomplete arsine production, or when the interfering metal oxidizes arsenic(III). Separation of interfering metal cations using cation-exchange prior to hydridegeneration permits accurate arsenic(III) determinations in acid mine waters containing high concentrations of interfering metals. Stabilization of the arsenic redox species for as many as 15 months is demonstrated for samples that have been properly filtered and acidified with HCl in the field. The detection limits for the method described in this report are 0.1 micrograms per liter for total arsenic and 0.8 micrograms per liter for arsenic(III).

  13. ASTE CO (3-2) MAPPING TOWARD THE WHOLE OPTICAL DISK OF M 83: PROPERTIES OF INTER-ARM GIANT MOLECULAR-CLOUD ASSOCIATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Muraoka, Kazuyuki; Tosaki, Tomoka; Kuno, Nario; Fukuhara, Masayuki; Kawabe, Ryohei; Kohno, Kotaro; Handa, Toshihiro; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Sawada, Tsuyoshi; Ezawa, Hajime; Sorai, Kazuo; Tanaka, Kunihiko

    2009-12-01

    We present a new on-the-fly mapping of CO (J = 3-2) line emission with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment toward the 8' x 8' (or 10.5 x 10.5 kpc at the distance of 4.5 Mpc) region of the nearby barred spiral galaxy M 83 at an effective resolution of 25''. Due to its very high sensitivity, our CO (J = 3 - 2) map can depict not only spiral arm structures but also spur-like substructures extended in inter-arm regions. This spur-like substructures in CO (J = 3-2) emission are well coincident with the distribution of massive star-forming regions traced by Halpha luminosity and Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera 8 mum emission. We have identified 54 CO (J = 3-2) clumps as Giant Molecular-cloud Associations (GMAs) employing the CLUMPFIND algorithm, and have obtained their sizes, velocity dispersions, virial masses, and CO luminosity masses. We found that the virial parameter alpha, which is defined as the ratio of the virial mass to the CO luminosity mass, is almost unity for GMAs in spiral arms, whereas there exist some GMAs whose alpha are 3-10 in the inter-arm region. We found that GMAs with higher alpha tend not to be associated with massive star-forming regions, while other virialized GMAs are. Since alpha mainly depends on velocity dispersion of the GMA, we suppose that the onset of star formation in these unvirialized GMAs with higher alpha are suppressed by an increase in internal velocity dispersions of giant molecular clouds within these GMAs due to shear motion.

  14. AST Critical Propulsion and Noise Reduction Technologies for Future Commercial Subsonic Engines: Separate-Flow Exhaust System Noise Reduction Concept Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janardan, B. A.; Hoff, G. E.; Barter, J. W.; Martens, S.; Gliebe, P. R.; Mengle, V.; Dalton, W. N.; Saiyed, Naseem (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the work performed by General Electric Aircraft Engines (GEAE) and Allison Engine Company (AEC) on NASA Contract NAS3-27720 AoI 14.3. The objective of this contract was to generate quality jet noise acoustic data for separate-flow nozzle models and to design and verify new jet-noise-reduction concepts over a range of simulated engine cycles and flight conditions. Five baseline axisymmetric separate-flow nozzle models having bypass ratios of five and eight with internal and external plugs and 11 different mixing-enhancer model nozzles (including chevrons, vortex-generator doublets, and a tongue mixer) were designed and tested in model scale. Using available core and fan nozzle hardware in various combinations, 28 GEAE/AEC separate-flow nozzle/mixing-enhancer configurations were acoustically evaluated in the NASA Glenn Research Center Aeroacoustic and Propulsion Laboratory. This report describes model nozzle features, facility and data acquisition/reduction procedures, the test matrix, and measured acoustic data analyses. A number of tested core and fan mixing enhancer devices and combinations of devices gave significant jet noise reduction relative to separate-flow baseline nozzles. Inward-flip and alternating-flip core chevrons combined with a straight-chevron fan nozzle exceeded the NASA stretch goal of 3 EPNdB jet noise reduction at typical sideline certification conditions.

  15. Free jet feasibility study of a thermal acoustic shield concept for AST/VCE application-dual flow. Comprehensive data report. Volume 1: Test nozzles and acoustic data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janardan, B. A.; Brausch, J. F.; Price, A. O.

    1984-01-01

    Acoustic and diagnostic data that were obtained to determine the influence of selected geometric and aerodynamic flow variables of coannular nozzles with thermal acoustic shields are summarized in this comprehensive data report. A total of 136 static and simulated flight acoustic test points were conducted with 9 scale-model nozzles The tested nozzles included baseline (unshielded), 180 deg shielded, and 360 deg shielded dual flow coannular plug configurations. The baseline configurations include a high radius ratio unsuppressed coannular plug nozzle and a coanuular plug nozzle and a coannular plug nozzle with a 20-chute outer stream suppressor. The tests were conducted at nozzle temperatures and pressure typical of operating conditions of variable cycle engine.

  16. AST/R BASED WATER REUSE AS A PART OF THE TOTAL WATER SOLUTION FOR WATER-STRESSED REGIONS: AN OVERVIEW OF ENGINEERING PRACTICE AND REGULATORY PROSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water supply and demand are increasingly unbalanced in many parts of the world. To address the imbalance, the total water solution methodology simultaneously considers regulatory, engineering, environmental and economic factors to optimize risk management solutions for an entire ...

  17. AST/R–BASED WATER REUSE AS A PART OF THE TOTAL WATER SOLUTION FOR WATER-STRESSED REGIONS: AN OVERVIEW OF ENGINEERING PRACTICE AND REGULATORY PROSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water supply and demand are increasingly unbalanced in many parts of the world. To address the imbalance, the total water solution methodology simultaneously considers regulatory, engineering, environmental and economic factors to optimize risk management solutions for an entire...

  18. Attenuation of Biochemical Parameters in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats by Oral Administration of Extracts and Fractions of Cephalotaxus sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Muhammad K.; Deng, Yulin; Dai, Rongji

    2008-01-01

    Cephalotaxus sinensis (C. sinensis) large size, evergreen tree common in China and utilized for numerous effective pharmacological applications in Chinese traditional medicine. The hepato-renal effects of C. sinensis were evaluated in vivo using Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats as an tentative model. Animals were orally treated with 80% EtOH extract (aq.EE), H2O extract (WtE) and ethylacetate (EaF)/butanol fractions (BtF) of C. sinensis (200 mg/kg, b.w.) for 28 days whereas control received vehicle merely. The degree of fortification was measured by using biochemical parameters like serum transaminases (ALT and AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine, urea and urine sugar. Meanwhile, the histopathological studies were conducted out to support the above parameters. Administration of C. sinensis aq.EE/BtF (p<0.05) and EaF (p<0.01) patently prevented STZ-induced elevation levels of serum ALT, AST, ALP, creatinine, urea, urine sugar and increase body weight respectively, which were comparable with the standard drug tolbutamide, while WtE did not show any significant effect (p>0.05). Phytochemical studies revealed the presence of saponins, terpenes, sterols and flavonoids in C. sinensis which could be responsible for the possible hepato-renal protective action. The results sustain the fact that the extract/fractions of C. sinensis have an immense potential to be developed further into a phytomedicine. PMID:18231626

  19. Acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lagarto, Alicia; Bueno, Viviana; Guerra, Isbel; Valdés, Odalys; Vega, Yamile; Torres, Leonid

    2011-05-01

    We have studied the acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in male and female Wistar rats. A single acute C. officinalis extract dose of 2000 mg/kg dissolved in distilled water was administered by oral gavage for acute toxicity. Subchronic doses of 50, 250 and 1000 mg/kg/day were administered in drinking water. The major toxicological endpoints examined included animal body weight, water and food intake, selected tissue weights, and histopathological examinations. In addition, we examined blood elements: hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte count, total and differential leukocyte count and blood clotting time and blood chemistry: glucose, total cholesterol, urea, total proteins, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). In the acute study, there were no mortality and signs of toxicity. In the subchronic study, several of the blood elements were significantly affected in males and females after 90 days; hemoglobin, erythrocytes, leukocytes and blood clotting time. For blood chemistry parameters, ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase were affected. Histopathological examination of tissues showed slight abnormalities in hepatic parenchyma that were consistent with biochemical variations observed. These studies indicate that the acute and subchronic toxicities of C. officinalis extract are low. PMID:20335011

  20. Protective Effect of Acacia nilotica (L.) against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatocellular Damage in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Narayanan; Sakthivel, Kunnathur Murugesan; Guruvayoorappan, Chandrasekaran

    2013-01-01

    The potential biological functions of A. nilotica have long been described in traditional system of medicine. However, the protective effect of A. nilotica on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity is still unknown. The present study attempted to investigate the protective effect of A. nilotica against acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in Wistar rats. The biochemical liver functional tests Alanine transaminase (ALT), Aspartate transaminase (AST), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, total protein, oxidative stress test (Lipid peroxidation), antioxidant parameter glutathione (GSH), and histopathological changes were examined. Our results show that the pretreatment with A. nilotica (250 mg/kg·bw) orally revealed attenuation of serum activities of ALT, AST, ALP, liver weight, and total bilirubin levels that were enhanced by administration of acetaminophen. Further, pretreatment with extract elevated the total protein and GSH level and decreased the level of LPO. Histopathological analysis confirmed the alleviation of liver damage and reduced lesions caused by acetaminophen. The present study undoubtedly provides a proof that hepatoprotective action of A. nilotica extract may rely on its effect on reducing the oxidative stress in acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in rat model. PMID:23864853

  1. Acute pseudohepatitis in a chronic substance abuser secondary to occult seat belt injury.

    PubMed

    Lam, E C; Janzen, R M; Meloche, R M; Trepanier, P J; Yoshida, E M

    1999-03-01

    Causes of a massive elevation in serum aminotransferases (aspartate aminotransferase [AST] and alanine aminotransferase [ALT]) in the substance-abusing patient include viral hepatitis and drug hepatotoxicity. A patient chronically addicted to injection heroin and cocaine presented to the emergency room in a confused state and was admitted to a medical ward with an AST of 4120 U/L, ALT 3820 U/L and right upper quadrant discomfort. Investigations for viral and hepatotoxic causes for the liver dysfunction revealed only hepatitis C seropositivity. A computed tomogram of the abdomen, however, revealed a significant contusion to the right lobe of the liver consistent with traumatic injury. A motor vehicle accident, in which the patient was wearing a seat belt, and which had occurred a few days before admission and had been thought to be minor, was the cause of the liver dysfunction. Significant blunt abdominal traumatic injuries are usually managed exclusively by surgical trauma units. This case underlines the need for medical specialists to be aware of hepatic contusion injuries and to have a high index of suspicion when investigating unexplained hepatocellular dysfunction in chronic substance abusers who have been in motor vehicle accidents. PMID:10203436

  2. [Prevalence change of HGV(GBV-C) infection and its coinfection with HBV a HCV infections in haemodialysis patients].

    PubMed

    Klusonová, Hana; Stepánová, Vlasta; Plísková, Lenka; Stilec, Roman

    2003-01-01

    Prevalence of HGV(GBV-C) infection and its coinfection with HBV a HCV infections were studied in group of 82 haemodialysis patients. This study was realized 20 months latter again -- 16 patients from 82 were running in dialysis, 17 patients were transplanted and 49 patients died (non of this viruses was cause of their death). HGV(GBV-C) RNA was detected in serum of 22 patients, 20 months latter it was detected in serum of 3 patients; one positive was new. 20 months latter any HGV(GBV-C) RNA was not detected in serum of 4 originally positive patients. Three of ten HBsAg positive patients were coinfected by HGV(GBV-C) RNA; 20 months latter any coinfection was found. In the first we found HGV(GBV-C) RNA in serum of 5 anti-HCV positive patients and in serum of 1 HCV RNA positive patient; 20 months latter it was in serum of 1 and 1 respectively. Elevation of ALT and AST levels were found in serum of 3 from 82 patients; two patients were coinfected with HBV or HCV. Any from 2 running dialysis patients with elevation of ALT and AST levels was not HGV(GBV-C) RNA positive. This virus is not probably frequent cause of liver disease in dialysis patients and it is not necessary to routinely screen for HGV(GBV-C) infection in this group of patients. PMID:19569590

  3. [Reperfusion injury in the isolated rat liver after hypothermic preservation].

    PubMed

    Kopecký, M; Balás, P; Semecký, V; Tilser, I; Rouchalová, E

    2002-03-01

    Histological changes which appear as a result of reperfusion injury of cold-preserved rat liver were studied at intervals of 0 hr, 3 hr, 24 hr and 48 hr of cold storage. The isolated livers were stored in a UW solution (University of Wisconsin), which is used in human liver transplantations. Computer image analysis of light microscopic sections (methyl green-pyronin stained) was used for the study and quantification of injured cells. The method of TUNEL was performed to prove possible apoptosis of sinusoidal endothelial cells and heptocytes. Bile production during reperfusion and ALT, AST, LDH and ACP were measured in the reperfusion medium at the end of the 90 min reperfusion. It has been confirmed that prolongation of the cold storage of liver results in extensive changes in the liver structure and increased injury of liver cells. Sinusoidal endothelial cells were damaged more and earlier than hepatocytes. It has been shown that methyl green-pyronin stained sections are advantageous for the study of these morphological changes, allowing the strongest view of these changes. The appearance of TUNEL positive cells and an increase in the levels of biochemical parameters, e.g. AST or ALT, indicate earlier cell injury. The methodology described in this article can be used for the study of reperfusion injury of the liver and for the study of this phenomenon in other experiments. PMID:11928282

  4. Physiological changes in Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) experimentally infected with entomopathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Angelo, Isabele C; Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius M; Tunholi, Victor M; Perinotto, Wendell M S; Gôlo, Patrícia S; Camargo, Mariana G; Quinelato, Simone; Pinheiro, Jairo; Bittencourt, Vânia R E P

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrate metabolism plays an important role in the physiology and maintenance of energy stores within living organisms. However, when organisms are exposed to adverse physiological conditions, such as during pathogenic infection, these organisms begin to use alternative substrates (proteins and lipids) for energy production. This paper studied the carbohydrate metabolism of Rhipicephalus microplus after infection with Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. The parameters evaluated were glucose concentration, enzymatic activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminostransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminostransferase (AST), amounts of uric acid and urea in the hemolymph, and amount of glycogen in the fat body. The results showed changes in nitrogenous products, including an increase in the amount of urea detected 48 h after infection with both fungi. The enzymatic activities of LDH, ALT, and AST were increased after infection. The amount of glucose was increased 24 h after infection with B. bassiana and was reduced 48 h after infection with both fungi. The amount of glycogen in the fat body was reduced at different times of infection with both fungi. These results demonstrate, for the first time, the changes in carbohydrate metabolism of R. microplus after infection with M. anisopliae and B. bassiana and contribute to a better understanding of this host-parasite relationship. Together with knowledge of diseases that affect these ticks and their susceptibility to entomopathogens, an understanding of tick physiology will be necessary for the effective implementation of current biological control methods and will assist in the discovery of new methods to control this ectoparasite. PMID:25346195

  5. [Effects of Hemerocallis citrine baroni flavonids on CCl4-induced liver fibrosis of rats].

    PubMed

    Shen, Nan; Huang, Xiao-dong; Li, Zhi-wei; Wang, Yan-chun; Qi, Ling; An, Ying; Liu, Ting-ting

    2015-05-01

    This study is designed to explore the possible effects of Hemerocallis citrina baroni flavonids (HCBF) on liver fibrosis induced by CCl4 in rats. The liver fibrosis model was induced by CCl4, and HCBF were administered by gastric perfusion at 25 and 50 mg x kg(-1) qd for 50 days, while the contents of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), superoxide dismutase (SOD), maleic dialdehyde (MDA) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) were measured and the contents of PINP were measured in liver tissue, and the expression of TGF-β1 were observed by immunohistochemisty and Western blot. The pathological changes of liver tissue were examined by HE. The results showed that HCBF (25, 50 mg x kg(-1)) improved the liver function significantly through reducing the level of ALT, AST, GGT and ALP (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), and increasing the content of SOD (P < 0.01), while reducing the content of MDA (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), the expression of TGF-β1 (P < 0.05) and the content of PINP (P < 0.05). The results suggest that HCBF (25, 50 mg x kg(-1)) may inhibit the liver injury induced by CCl4 by decreasing the oxidative stress. PMID:26234134

  6. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Properties of Tofu (Curdle Soymilk) against Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Damage in Rats.

    PubMed

    Yakubu, Ndatsu; Oboh, Ganiyu; Olalekan, Amuzat Aliyu

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties of tofu using acetaminophen to induce liver damage in albino rats were evaluated. Tofus were prepared using calcium chloride, alum, and steep water as coagulants. The polyphenols of tofu were extracted and their antioxidant properties were determined. The weight gain and feed intake of the rats were measured. The analysis of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities and the concentrations of albumin, total protein, cholesterol, and bilirubin were analyzed. The result reveals that the antioxidant property of both soluble and bound polyphenolic extracts was significantly higher in all tofus, but the steep water coagulated tofu was recorded higher. Rats fed with various tofus and acetaminophen had their serum ALP, ALT, AST, and LDH activities; total cholesterol; and bilirubin levels significantly (P < 0.05) reduced, and total protein and albumin concentrations increased when compared with basal diet and acetaminophen administered group. Therefore, all tofus curdled with various coagulants could be used to prevent liver damage caused by oxidative stress. PMID:23533782

  7. Antioxidant and protective effects of Phytocee™ against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Joshua Allan; Radhakrishnan, Uma; Mutyala, Sridhar; Goudar, Krishnagouda Shankargouda; Ayyappan, Usha Parackal Thachappully; Agarwal, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study evaluated the antioxidant potential of a polyherbal formulation (Phytocee™) in the rodent model. Materials and Methods: Four groups of rats (n = 6) were pretreated with Vitamin C (20 mg/kg) or Phytocee™ (20, 100, and 200 mg/kg), respectively for 10 days. Oxidative stress in rat liver was induced by administration of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) at 2 ml/kg as a single dose orally to all groups except the vehicle control group. After 24 h of administration of CCl4, hepatic levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were evaluated. Results: Phytocee™ administered groups at all the dose levels significantly reduced the hepatic MDA, serum ALT and AST levels with a marked increase in hepatic SOD and catalase as compared with CCl4 treated group. Conclusion: The findings suggest that Phytocee™ markedly reversed the effects of CCl4 induced oxidative stress and can be used as an antioxidant feed supplement. PMID:25810658

  8. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acid in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wenxia; Li, Sainan; Li, Jingjing; Wang, Jianrong; Zhang, Rong; Zhou, Yuqing; Yin, Qin; Wang, Fan; Xia, Yujing; Liu, Tong; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun

    2016-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation (n-3 PUFAs) in lowering liver fat, liver enzyme (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) levels), and blood lipids (triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL), and low density lipoprotein (LDL)) in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Methods. MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, Science Citation Index (ISI Web of Science), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials on the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in patients with NAFLD from inception to May 2015. Ten studies were included in this meta-analysis. Results. 577 cases of NAFLD/NASH in ten randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. The results of the meta-analysis showed that benefit changes in liver fat favored PUFA treatment, and it was also beneficial for GGT, but it was not significant on ALT, AST, TC, and LDL. Conclusions. In this meta-analysis, omega-3 PUFAs improved liver fat, GGT, TG, and HDL in patients with NAFLD/NASH. Therefore, n-3 PUFAs may be a new treatment option for NAFLD. PMID:27651787

  9. Chemical Composition of Golden Berry Leaves Against Hepato-renal Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Khalaf-Allah, Abd El-Rahman M; El-Gengaihi, Souad E; Hamed, Manal A; Zahran, Hanan G; Mohammed, Mona A

    2016-01-01

    The role of Physalis peruviana (golden berry) as functional food against hepato-renal fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was evaluated. The chemical composition of leaves referred the presence of withanolides and flavonoids. Two compounds, ursolic acid and lupeol, were isolated and their structures were elucidated by different spectral analysis techniques. The biological evaluation was conducted on different animal groups; control rats, control orally treated with plant extract (500 mg/kg body weight twice a week for six consecutive weeks), CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg body weight diluted to 1:9 (v/v) in olive oil and injected intraperitoneally) group, CCl4 treated with plant extract and CCl4 treated with silymarin as a reference herbal drug. The evaluation was done through measuring oxidative stress markers; malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and nitric oxide (NO). Liver function indices; aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST & ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), bilirubin and total hepatic protein were also estimated. Kidney disorder biomarkers; creatinine, urea and serum protein were also evaluated. The results revealed plant safety and decrease in NO, MDA, IgG, ALP, tissue protein, bilirubin, creatinine and urea levels. Increase in SOD, AST, ALT, GGT and serum protein levels were observed. Improvement in liver and kidney histopathological architectures were also seen. In conclusion, Physalis peruviana recorded a significant protective role in liver and kidney against fibrosis. Further studies are needed to evaluate its isolated compounds and its use in pharmacological applications and clinical uses. PMID:26634867

  10. Ameliorative effect of Partysmart in rat model of alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Gopumadhavan, S; Rafiq, Mohammed; Azeemuddin, M; Mitra, S K

    2008-02-01

    Present study was designed to investigate the effect of polyherbal formulation PartySmart in experimental model of alcoholic liver disease in male Wistar strain rats. Alcohol plus fish oil were administered to animals for 8 weeks to induce liver injury. PartySmart was administered at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight. After 8 weeks, parameters such as liver weight, liver function serum markers alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lipid peroxidation were studied. Livers from all the groups were subjected for histological evaluation. Treatment with PartySmart at the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight showed significant reduction in the levels of serum ALT, AST and ALP with a decrease in liver weight as compared to ethanol-fed rats. A significant decrease was also observed in malondialdehyde levels following treatment with PartySmart at 500 mg/kg body weight. Histological profile of liver tissue in PartySmart-treated animals showed lesser vacuolar degeneration and intactness of hepatic architecture along with improved glycogen deposition as demonstrated by PAS staining. PartySmart ameliorated alcohol-induced liver injury by preventing cell membrane disturbances, reduction of oxidative stress by free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity and normalization of altered intracellular redox status. Thus, PartySmart can be beneficial in the treatment of alcohol-induced liver damage. PMID:18335812

  11. Phenolic-rich lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) pulp extracts offer hepatoprotection against restraint stress-induced liver injury in mice by modulating mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Su, Dongxiao; Zhang, Ruifen; Zhang, Cuilan; Huang, Fei; Xiao, Juan; Deng, Yuanyuan; Wei, Zhencheng; Zhang, Yan; Chi, Jianwei; Zhang, Mingwei

    2016-01-01

    The pulp from lychee, a tropical to subtropical fruit, contains large quantities of phenolic compounds and exhibits antioxidant activities both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the hepatoprotective effects of lychee pulp phenolics (LPPs) against restraint stress-induced liver injury in mice. After 18 h of restraint stress, increased levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were observed. High levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were also found. Restraint stress causes liver damage, which was protected against by LPP pretreatment at a dosage of 200 mg (kg d)(-1) for 21 consecutive days. This treatment remarkably decreased the serum ALT, AST and TBARS levels, elevated the liver glutathione (GSH) content, and the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Furthermore, respiratory chain complex and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activities were enhanced in liver mitochondria, while mitochondrial membrane potential levels and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production decreased. Thus, treatment with LPPs ameliorated restraint stress-induced liver mitochondrial dysfunction. These results suggest that LPPs protect the liver against restraint stress-induced damage by scavenging free radicals and modulating mitochondrial dysfunction. Thus, lychee pulp may be a functional biofactor to mitigate oxidative stress. PMID:26569420

  12. Different doses of partial liver irradiation promotes hepatic regeneration in rat.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Shi, Changzheng; Cui, Meng; Yang, Zhenhua; Gan, Danhui; Wang, Yiming

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether partial liver irradiation promotes hepatic regeneration in rat. Left-half liver of rat was irradiated to 10 Gy, and the Right-half to 0, 5, 10 and 15 Gy, respectively. Then, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were evaluated on 0 day, 15-day, 30-day, 45-day and 60-day after liver irradiation. Next, the serum HGF, NF-κB and TGF-β1 levels were also analyzed on 60-day after liver irradiation. Lastly, the cyclinD1 protein expression was appraised by western blots on 60-day after liver irradiation. ALT, AST and ALP levels were reduced compared with that of controls. The serum HGF, NF-κB and TGF-β1 levels, and the cyclinD1 protein expression in liver irradiation group were increased compared with that of controls group. However, hepatic regeneration of higher dose-irradiated cirrhotic liver was triggered a more enhanced regeneration, compared with that of higher doses group. In summary, these results suggest that different doses of partial liver irradiation promotes hepatic regeneration in rat.

  13. Tetrachloro-p-benzoquinone induces hepatic oxidative damage and inflammatory response, but not apoptosis in mouse: The prevention of curcumin

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Demei; Hu, Lihua; Su, Chuanyang; Xia, Xiaomin; Zhang, Pu; Fu, Juanli; Wang, Wenchao; Xu, Duo; Du, Hong; Hu, Qiuling; Song, Erqun; Song, Yang

    2014-10-15

    This study investigated the protective effects of curcumin on tetrachloro-p-benzoquinone (TCBQ)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. TCBQ-treatment causes significant liver injury (the elevation of serum AST and ALT activities, histopathological changes in liver section including centrilobular necrosis and inflammatory cells), oxidative stress (the elevation of TBAR level and the inhibition of SOD and catalase activities) and inflammation (up-regulation of iNOS, COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and NF-κB). However, these changes were alleviated upon pretreatment with curcumin. Interestingly, TCBQ has no effect on caspase family genes or B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)/Bcl-2 associated X (Bax) protein expressions, which implied that TCBQ-induced hepatotoxicity is independent of apoptosis. Moreover, curcumin was shown to induce phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes HO-1 and NQO1 through the activation of nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2). In summary, the protective mechanisms of curcumin against TCBQ-induced hepatoxicity may be related to the attenuation of oxidative stress, along with the inhibition of inflammatory response via the activation of Nrf2 signaling. - Highlights: • TCBQ-intoxication significantly increased AST and ALT activities. • TCBQ-intoxication induced oxidative stress in mice liver. • TCBQ-intoxication induced inflammatory response in mice liver. • TCBQ-intoxication induced hepatotoxicity is independent of apoptosis. • Curcumin relieved TCBQ-induced liver damage remarkably.

  14. Efficacy of Citrus reticulata and Mirazid in treatment of Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Manal A; Hetta, Mona H

    2005-11-01

    This work has been carried out to investigate the effect of Schistosoma mansoni infection on mice livers after treatment with the ethanolic extract of Citrus reticulata root or the oleo-resin extract from Myrrh of Commiphora molmol tree (Mirazid), as a new antishistosomal drug. Marker enzymes for different cell organelles were measured; succinate dehydrogenase (SDH); lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and its isoenzymes; glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase); acid phosphatase (AP) and 5'- nucleotidase. Liver function enzymes; aspartate aminotransferase (AST); alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were also estimated. Parasitological studies through ova count and worm burden will also be taken into consideration. The results showed a marked reduction in SDH, LDH, AST, and ALT enzyme activities and a significant increase in G-6-Pase, AP, 5'- nucleotidase, and ALP after S. mansoni infection. A noticeable alteration in LDH subunits were also noticed. Treatment with C. reticulata or Mirazid improved all the previous enzyme activities with a noticeable reduction in ova count and worm burden. PMID:16410968

  15. Effects of Methanol Extract of Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) on Atherogenic Indices and Redox Status of Cellular System of Hypercholesterolemic Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Akanni, Olubukola Oyebimpe

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of methanol extract of Artocarpus altilis (AA) on atherogenic indices and redox status of cellular system of rats fed with dietary cholesterol while Questran (QUE) served as standard. Biochemical indices such as total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low- and high-density lipoproteins-cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C), aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), reduced glutathione, glutathione-s-transferase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were assessed. Hypercholesterolemic (HC) rats had significantly increased relative weight of liver and heart. Dietary cholesterol caused a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the levels of serum, hepatic, and cardiac TC by 110%, 70%, and 85%, LDL-C by 79%, 82%, and 176%, and TG by 68%, 96%, and 62%, respectively. Treatment with AA significantly reduced the relative weight of the organs and lipid parameters. There were beneficial increases in serum and cardiac HDL-C levels in HC rats treated with AA. In HC rats, serum LDH, ALT, and AST activities and levels of LPO were increased, whereas hepatic and cardiac SOD, CAT, and GPx were reduced. All biochemical and histological alterations were ameliorated upon treatment with AA. Extract of AA had protective effects against dietary cholesterol-induced hypercholesterolemia.

  16. Contribution and Mobilization of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a mouse model of carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Yang, Xue; Jing, Yingying; Zhang, Shanshan; Zong, Chen; Jiang, Jinghua; Sun, Kai; Li, Rong; Gao, Lu; Zhao, Xue; Wu, Dong; Shi, Yufang; Han, Zhipeng; Wei, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is associated with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). In this study, we aimed to determine what role MSCs play in the process and how they mobilize from bone marrow (BM). We employed a mouse model of carbon tetrachloride(CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis. Frozen section was used to detect MSCs recruited to mice and human fibrotic liver. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was detected to assess liver function. It was found that MSCs of both exogenous and endogenous origin could aggravate liver fibrosis and attenuate liver damage as indicated by lower serum ALT and AST levels. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1α)/ CXCR4 was the most important chemotactic axis regulating MSCs migration from BM to fibrotic liver. Frozen section results showed that the migration did not start from the beginning of liver injury but occurred when the expression balance of SDF-1α between liver and BM was disrupted, where SDF-1α expression in liver was higher than that in BM. Our findings provide further evidence to show the role of BM-MSCs in liver fibrosis and to elucidate the mechanism underlying MSCs mobilization in our early liver fibrosis mice model induced by CCl4. PMID:26643997

  17. Gemfibrozil attenuates the inflammatory response and protects rats from abdominal sepsis

    PubMed Central

    CÁMARA-LEMARROY, CARLOS R.; GUZMAN-DE LA GARZA, FRANCISCO J.; CORDERO-PEREZ, PAULA; IBARRA-HERNANDEZ, JUAN M.; MUÑOZ-ESPINOSA, LINDA E.; FERNANDEZ-GARZA, NANCY E.

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis is a serious condition characterized by an infectious process that induces a severe systemic inflammatory response. In this study, the effects of gemfibrozil (GFZ) on the inflammatory response associated with abdominal sepsis were investigated using a rat model of cecal-ligation and puncture (CLP). Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: Sham-operated group (sham), where laparotomy was performed, the intestines were manipulated, and the cecum was ligated but not punctured; control group, subjected to CLP; and GFZ group, which received GFZ prior to undergoing CLP. The groups were then subdivided into three different time-points: 2, 4 and 24 h, indicating the time at which blood samples were obtained for analysis. Serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1), malondialdehyde (MDA), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined. The LDH, AST and ALT values were significantly elevated following CLP compared with those in the sham group, and GFZ treatment was able to reduce these elevations. GFZ also reduced the sepsis-induced elevations of TNF-α and IL-1. In conclusion, GFZ treatment was able to attenuate the inflammatory response associated with CLP-induced sepsis, by diminishing the release of inflammatory cytokines, thereby reducing tissue injury and oxidative stress. PMID:25667670

  18. Parasitaemia and Its Relation to Hematological Parameters and Liver Function among Patients Malaria in Abs, Hajjah, Northwest Yemen.

    PubMed

    Al-Salahy, Mohamed; Shnawa, Bushra; Abed, Gamal; Mandour, Ahmed; Al-Ezzi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria is the most common infection in Yemen. The present study aims to investigate changes in hematological and hepatic function indices of P. falciparum infected individuals. This study included 67 suspected falciparum malarial patients attended in clinics and rural Abs Hospital (Tehama, Hajjah), Yemen, from October 2013 to April 2014. The diagnosis of malaria was confirmed by thick and thin film with Giemsa staining of malaria parasite. Hematological parameters and serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and bilirubin (total and direct) as test indicators of liver function were studied. Patients with parasitaemia tended to have significantly lower hemoglobin, hematocrit, white blood cell count, lymphocytes, and platelets, compared with healthy normal subjects. Neutrophils levels were significantly higher in cases of falciparum malaria in comparison to healthy normal subjects. Serums AST, ALT, ALP, and bilirubin (total and direct) in falciparum malaria patients were significantly higher (p < 0.0001) than those of falciparum malaria of free individuals. Hematological and liver dysfunctions measured parameters were seen associated with moderate and severe parasitaemia infection. This study concludes that hematological and hepatic dysfunction parameters could be indicator of malaria in endemic regions. PMID:27051422

  19. Hepatoprotective Effect of Pretreatment with Thymus vulgaris Essential Oil in Experimental Model of Acetaminophen-Induced Injury

    PubMed Central

    Grespan, Renata; Aguiar, Rafael Pazinatto; Giubilei, Frederico Nunes; Fuso, Rafael Rocco; Damião, Marcio José; Silva, Expedito Leite; Mikcha, Jane Graton; Hernandes, Luzmarina; Bersani Amado, Ciomar; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

    2014-01-01

    Acute liver damage caused by acetaminophen overdose is a significant clinical problem and could benefit from new therapeutic strategies. Objective. This study investigated the hepatoprotective effect of Thymus vulgaris essential oil (TEO), which is used popularly for various beneficial effects, such as its antiseptic, carminative, and antimicrobial effects. The hepatoprotective activity of TEO was determined by assessing serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in mice. Their livers were then used to determine myeloperoxidase (MPO) enzyme activity and subjected to histological analysis. In vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by assessing the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•)-scavenging effects of TEO and TEO-induced lipid peroxidation. TEO reduced the levels of the serum marker enzymes AST, ALT, and ALP and MPO activity. The histopathological analysis indicated that TEO prevented acetaminophen-induced necrosis. The essential oil also exhibited antioxidant activity, reflected by its DPPH radical-scavenging effects and in the lipid peroxidation assay. These results suggest that TEO has hepatoprotective effects on acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in mice. PMID:24639884

  20. LPS pretreatment ameliorates D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced acute liver failure in rat.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jin-Zhong; Wang, Li-Ping; Zhang, Sai-Nan; Shi, Ke-Qing; Chen, Shao-Long; Yang, Nai-Bin; Ni, Shun-Lan; Zhu, Jian-Hua; Lu, Ming-Qin

    2014-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) remains an extremely poor prognosis and high mortality; with no effective treatments. The endotoxin tolerance (ET) phenotype has been reported to exhibit protective activities in several sepsis models. We now investigated the effects and underlying intraperitoneal injection of the same volume of pyrogen-free 0.9% sodium chloride instead of LPS for five consecutive days before D-GalN/LPS injection in rats. The serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, ALT, AST and TBiL from ET + ALF group and ALF group were measured at different time points. Our results showed that ET + ALF group markedly reduced the serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, ALT, AST and TBiL and histological features in the ET + ALF group were improved significantly. Furthermore, LPS pre-treatment inhibited D-GalN/LPS-induced NF-κB activation, Bax activation, signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT1) and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) activities. LPS pre-treatment also significantly enhance the expression of suppressors of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) and suppressors of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3). Our experimental data indicated that ET might alleviate D-GalN/LPS-induced ALF by inhibiting the inflammatory response, inactivation of STAT1 and STAT3 and up-regulation of SOCS1 and SOCS3.

  1. Effects of gentiopicrooside injections on experimental hepatic injury.

    PubMed

    Tong, Li; Chen, Yu-Yao; Liu, Huan-Huan; Li, Ji-Lai; Luo, Jia-Bo

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protective and jaundice-relieving effects of gentiopicrooside (GPS) injections in mouse and rat models of chemical-induced and immune-mediated hepatic injury. METHODS: Mouse models of chemical-induced liver injury were established by CCl4 injections into the abdominal cavity, mouse models of immune-mediated liver damage by bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and rat models of jaundice by oral alpha-naphthyliso-thiocyanate (ANIT). Treatment with GPS injections was administered and both of enzyme activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in the Serum were measured in the models. The serum level of total bilirubin was determined in the jaundice models. RESULTS: Compared with those of the untreated models, the enzyme activities of ALT and AST were significantly reduced in groups with a 10 day GPS treatment (P<0.001, P<0.05). Higher dosage of GPS showed more conspicuous effects in relieving the jaundice. CONCLUSION: GPS can be administered as the antagonist against CC14-induced liver injury and offers protection against immune-mediated liver damage.

  2. Subacute intramuscular toxicity of the acetylcholinesterase reactivating agent Hi-6 in rats and dogs. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, B.S.; Tomlinson, M.J.

    1993-12-31

    Studies herein describe the toxicity of HI-6 in Sprague-Dawley rats and Beagle dogs following i.m. injection for 14 days. Dose levels were 0, 50, 150, and 450 mg/kg/day for 10 rats/sex/dose and 0, 35, 70, and 140 mg/kg/day for 4 dogs/sex/dose. Three rats at the high dose, 2 males and 1 female, died prior to scheduled sacrifice. Reduced weight gain, decreased activity, tremors, hunched posture,and poor grooming were seen in high dose survivors. Increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities at the mid and high doses suggested hepatotoxicity, although liver weights and histology were normal. Hematology parameters were unaffected except for slight, dose-related increases of platelets in both sexes. Injection site inflammation was seen; however, serum creatine kinase activity was not altered. In dogs, slight weight loss, vomiting, salivation, and diarrhea occurred at the high dose, but no deaths were observed at any of the doses. As with rats, dose-related increases in ALT and AST activities occurred at the mid and high doses, and were, in this case, accompanied at the high dose by hepatomegaly and hepatocellular vacuolization. Cardiotoxicity was evidenced by increased relative heart weights and subtle ECG changes, the latter of which occurred almost exclusively at the highest dose. Injection site inflammation, which was accompanied by dose-related elevations in serum CK-MM2 activity, was also observed.

  3. Low G preconditioning reduces liver injury induced by high +Gz exposure in rats

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Bin; Feng, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Wen-Bing; Zhang, Hong-Yi

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of repeated lower +Gz exposure on liver injury induced by high +Gz exposure in rats. METHODS: Sixty male Wister rats were randomly divided into a blank control group, a low G preconditioning group (LG) (exposed to +4 Gz/5 min per day for 3 d before +10 Gz/5 min exposure), and a +10 Gz/5 min group (10G) (n = 20 in each group). Blood specimens and liver tissue were harvested at 0 h and 6 h after +10 Gz/5 min exposure. Liver function was analyzed by measuring serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, and liver injury was further assessed by histopathological observation. Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Na+-K+-ATPase were determined in hepatic tissue. RESULTS: The group LG had lower ALT, AST, and MDA values at 0 h after exposure than those in group 10G. SOD values and Na+-K+-ATPase activity in the LG group were higher than in group 10G 0 h post-exposure. Hepatocyte injury was significantly less in group LG than in group 10G on histopathological evaluation. CONCLUSION: It is suggested that repeated low +Gz exposure shows a protective effect on liver injury induced by high +Gz exposure in rats. PMID:26074692

  4. Hypoglycemic activity and acute oral toxicity of chromium methionine complexes in mice.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hai-yan; Xiao, Qing-gui; Xu, Hong-bin; Zhang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    The hypoglycemic activity of chromium methionine (CrMet) in alloxan-induced diabetic (AID) mice was investigated and compared with those of chromium trichloride hexahydrate (CrCl3·6H2O) and chromium nicotinate (CrNic) through a 15-day feeding experiment. The acute oral toxicity of CrMet was also investigated in ICR (Institute for Cancer Research) mice by a single oral gavage. The anti-diabetic activity of CrMet was explored in detail from the aspects of body weight (BW), blood glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, liver glycogen levels, aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels. The obtained results showed that CrMet had beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism, and might possess hepatoprotective efficacy for diabetes. Daily treatment with 500 and 1000μg Cr/kg BW of CrMet in AID mice for 15 days indicated that this low-molecular-weight organic chromium complex had better bioavailability and more beneficial effects on diabetics than CrCl3·6H2O. CrMet also had advantage over CrNic in the control of AST and ALT activities. Acute toxicity studies revealed that CrMet had low toxicity potential and relatively high safety margins in mice with the LD50 value higher than 10.0g/kg BW. These findings suggest that CrMet might be of potential value in the therapy and protection of diabetes.

  5. Chronic arsenic toxicity in sheep of Kurdistan province, western Iran.

    PubMed

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Seradj, Afsaneh; Akbari, Zahra; Moore, Farid; Shahraki, Alireza Rahmani; Pourjafar, Mehrdad

    2015-07-01

    After the detection of arsenic (As) toxicity in sheep from Ebrahim-abad and Babanazar villages in Kurdistan province, the concentration of this element in drinking water, cultivated soil, alfalfa hay, wool, and blood samples was evaluated. Total As concentrations ranged from 119 to 310 μg/L in drinking water, 46.70-819.20 mg/kg in soil 1.90-6.90 mg/kg in vegetation 1.56-10.79 mg/kg in sheep's wool, and 86.30-656 μg/L in blood samples. These very high As contents, in all parts of the biogeochemical cycle, exceed the recommended normal range for this element compared with a control area. Results indicate that As has moved through all compartments of the biogeochemical cycle by way of direct or indirect pathways. The present investigation illustrated decreased packed cell volume and hemoglobin in sheep from the As-contaminated zone. It was concluded that sheep from the contaminated areas suffer from anemia. Chronic As exposure of the liver was determined by liver function tests. For this purpose, blood aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were measured. The results show that serum ALT and AST activities are increased significantly (p < 0.01) in the sheep population exposed to As in the contaminated zone. Moreover, chronic As exposure causes injury to hepatocytes and damages the liver.

  6. Effect of Curcumin Supplementation on Physiological Fatigue and Physical Performance in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wen-Ching; Chiu, Wan-Chun; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Tang, Deh-Wei; Lee, Zon-Min; Wei, Li; Chen, Fu-An; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin (CCM) is a well-known phytocompound and food component found in the spice turmeric and has multifunctional bioactivities. However, few studies have examined its effects on exercise performance and physical fatigue. We aimed to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of CCM supplementation on fatigue and ergogenic function following physical challenge in mice. Male ICR mice were divided into four groups to receive vehicle or CCM (180 μg/mL) by oral gavage at 0, 12.3, 24.6, or 61.5 mL/kg/day for four weeks. Exercise performance and anti-fatigue function were evaluated after physical challenge by forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of physical fatigue-associated biomarkers serum lactate, ammonia, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and glucose and tissue damage markers such as aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and creatine kinase (CK). CCM supplementation dose-dependently increased grip strength and endurance performance and significantly decreased lactate, ammonia, BUN, AST, ALT, and CK levels after physical challenge. Muscular glycogen content, an important energy source for exercise, was significantly increased. CCM supplementation had few subchronic toxic effects. CCM supplementation may have a wide spectrum of bioactivities for promoting health, improving exercise performance and preventing fatigue. PMID:25647661

  7. Comparison of biochemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared in two different trout farms'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karatas, Tayfun

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare biochemical parameters of cultured rainbow trouts (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum, 1972) reared in two different trout farms' (Agri and Erzurum). The average weights of fish were 150±10gr for first station (Agri), 230±10gr for second station (Erzurum). Fishes used in research were randomly caught from pools, and fifteen pieces were used for each group. Fishes were fed with commercial trout feed with 45-50% crude protein twice a day. The levels of AST, ALT, LDL, total cholesterol and triglyceride in the second station (Erzurum) were found to be higher (p<0.05) than that of first station (Agri). Whereas, the levels of HDL in the second station (Erzurum) were found to be lower (p<0.05) than that of first station (Agri). Differences in the levels of total cholesterol and AST, ALT, HDL, LDL, triglyceride may be associated with size, sex, sexual maturity and environmental conditions (temperature, pH, hardness and dissolved oxygen).

  8. Should an Aberrant Left Hepatic Artery Arising from the Left Gastric Artery Be Preserved during Laparoscopic Gastrectomy for Early Gastric Cancer Treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jieun; Kim, Su Mi; Seo, Jeong Eun; Ha, Man Ho; An, Ji Yeong; Choi, Min Gew; Lee, Jun Ho; Bae, Jae Moon; Kim, Sung; Jeong, Woo Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose During laparoscopic gastrectomy, an aberrant left hepatic artery (ALHA) arising from the left gastric artery (LGA) is occasionally encountered. The aim of this study was to define when an ALHA should be preserved during laparoscopic gastrectomy. Materials and Methods From August 2009 to December 2014, 1,340 patients with early gastric cancer underwent laparoscopic distal gastrectomy. One hundred fifty patients presented with an ALHA; of the ALHA was ligated in 116 patients and preserved in 34 patients. Patient characteristics, postoperative outcomes and perioperative liver function tests were reviewed retrospectively. Correlations between the diameter of the LGA measured on preoperative abdominal computed tomography and postoperative liver enzyme levels were analyzed. Results Pearson's correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between the diameter of the LGA and serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels on postoperative day 1 in the ALHA-ligated group (P=0.039, P=0.026, respectively). Linear regression analysis estimated the diameter of the LGA to be 5.1 mm and 4.9 mm when AST and ALT levels were twice the normal limit on postoperative day 1. Conclusions We suggest preserving the ALHA arising from a large LGA, having diameter greater than 5 mm, during laparoscopic gastrectomy to prevent immediate postoperative hepatic dysfunction. PMID:27433391

  9. Hepatoprotective Effects of Berberis vulgaris L. Extract/β Cyclodextrin on Carbon Tetrachloride–Induced Acute Toxicity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hermenean, Anca; Popescu, Cristina; Ardelean, Aurel; Stan, Miruna; Hadaruga, Nicoleta; Mihali, Ciprian-Valentin; Costache, Marieta; Dinischiotu, Anca

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the capacity of formulated Berberis vulgaris extract/β-cyclodextrin to protect liver against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Formulated and non-formulated extracts were given orally (50 mg/kg/day) to mice for 7 days and were then intra-peritoneally injected with 1.0 mL/kg CCl4 on the 8th day. After 24 h of CCl4 administration, an increase in the levels of apartate-amino-transferase (AST), alanine-amino-transferase (ALT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) was found and a significant decrease in superoxide-dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione-peroxidase (GPx) levels could be detected. This was accompanied by extended centrilobular necrosis, steatosis, fibrosis and an altered ultrastructure of hepatocytes. Pre-treatment with formulated or non-formulated extract suppressed the increase in ALT, AST and MDA levels and restored the level of antioxidant enzymes at normal values. Histopathological and electron-microscopic examination showed milder liver damage in both pre-treated groups and the protective effect was more pronounced after the formulated extract was administered. Internucleosomal DNA fragmentation induced by CCl4 was reduced in the group which received non-formulated extract and absent in the group which received formulated extract. Taken together, our results suggest that Berberis vulgaris/β-cyclodextrin treatment prevents hepatic injury induced by CCl4 and can be considered for further nutraceutical studies. PMID:22942749

  10. Effects of Lawsonia inermis L. (Henna) leaves’ methanolic extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Musab Awad; Eldin, Imad Mohamed Taj; Mohammed, Abd-Elwahab Hassan; Hassan, Hozeifa Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Background: Natural products with therapeutic properties such as plants, minerals, and animal products, for many years, were the main sources of drugs for the treatment of numerous diseases; hence selection of Lawsonia inermis L. (Henna) to study its hepatoprotective activity was considered. Objectives: This was an attempt to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of L. inermis leaves’ methanolic extract on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: The L. inermis leaves’ methanolic extract, which obtained by maceration, was orally administered in doses of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg to the tested animals to assess its effects on serum levels of hepatotoxicity parameters, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, and total proteins along with histopathological liver sections examination, while silymarin (25 mg/kg), a potent hepatoprotective drug, was used as standard control. Results: The two doses of the plant extract showed dose-dependent hepatoprotective effect, as evident by the significant reduction (P < 0.05) in serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP, and bilirubin along with the improvement in histopathological liver sections compared to CCl4-only treated animals. Conclusion: As experimentally evident, it could be concluded that this plant material could provide a hepatoprotective effect that could be attributed to its antioxidant properties. PMID:27069719

  11. Caffeine protects against alcohol-induced liver fibrosis by dampening the cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway in rat hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Dai, Xuefei; Yang, Wanzhi; Wang, He; Zhao, Han; Yang, Feng; Yang, Yan; Li, Jun; Lv, Xiongwen

    2015-04-01

    Alcoholic liver fibrosis (ALF) is characterized by hyperplasia of extracellular matrix under long-term alcohol stimulation. Hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation plays an important role in promoting hepatic fibrogenesis. Caffeine, as the main active component of coffee and tea, was widely consumed in daily life. It was always a thought that caffeine can reduce the probability of suffering from liver diseases. In this study, we attempt to validate the hypothesis that caffeine inhibits activation of HSCs which were isolated from rat ALF model. The rats were gavaged by ethanol to establish ALF model and then treated with different concentrations of caffeine or colchicine. Serum was collected to measure the contents of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN), N-terminal peptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) and type IV collagen (CIV). Then liver tissues were obtained for hematoxylin-eosin staining and Sirius-red staining. Others were treated through liver perfusion to isolate primary rat HSCs. Interestingly, we found that caffeine significantly decreased ALT, AST, HA, LN, PIIINP and CIV levels and reversed liver fibrosis in rat ALF models. Results of immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR and western blot indicated that caffeine could reduce fibrosis and inhibit cAMP/PKA/CREB signal pathway in HSC. Caffeine has a preventive effect on ALF. The mechanism may be interpreted that caffeine inhibits the cAMP/PKA/CREB signal pathway through adenosine A2A receptors in HSC.

  12. Effect of Chronic Administration of Methanol Extract of Moringa Oleifera on Some Biochemical Indices in Female Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Omobowale, T O; Oyagbemi, A A; Abiola, J O; Azeez, I O; Adedokun, R A M; Nottidge, H O

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate safety associated with prolonged consumption of Moringa oleifera leaves as beverage. Fourteen rats were used in this study. They were divided into 2 groups each containing 7 rats. Rats in group I received 2ml/kg of corn oil (standard vehicle drug). Animals in groups II were administered with 400mg/kg body of methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera (MEMO) for five weeks respectively. Serum collected was analyzed for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total protein, albumin, globulin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine. There was significant (P<0.05) decrease in serum total protein, albumin, globulin and AST activity. The activity of ALT decreased but not significant. Similarly, 400mg/kg body of MEMO led to significant (P<0.05) decrease in serum BUN and creatinine. All experimental animals that received 400mg/kb of MEMO had significant (P<0.05) decrease in body weight from week to week 4 of the experiment. Taken together, 400mg/kg body of MEMO seemed to be toxic to the liver with apparently no toxicity in the kidney. Hence, prolonged exposure is not advisable as such could portend danger to the liver. PMID:26196575

  13. Effect of caffeine-coconut products interactions on induction of microsomal drug-metabolizing enzymes in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Abara, A E; Obochi, G O; Malu, S P; Obi-Abang, M; Ekam, V S; Uboh, F E

    2007-01-01

    Effect of caffeine-coconut products interactions on induction of drug-metabolizing enzyme in Wistar albino rats was studied. Twenty rats were randomly divided into four groups: The control group (1) received via oral route a placebo (4.0 ml of distilled water). Groups 2 to 4 were treated for a 14-day period with 50 mg/kg body weight of caffeine, 50 mg/kg body weight of caffeine and 50 mg/kg body weight of coconut water, and 50 mg/kg body weight of caffeine and 50 mg/kg body weight of coconut milk in 4.0 ml of the vehicle via gastric intubation respectively. One day after the final exposure, the animals were anaesthetized by inhalation of an overdose of chloroform. The blood of each rat was collected by cardiac puncture while the liver of each rat was harvested and processed to examine several biochemical parameters, i.e., total protein and RNA levels, protein/RNA ratios, and activities of alanine and aspartate amino transferase (ALT and AST, respectively). The results showed that while ingestion of coconut milk and coconut water increased the values of protein and protein/RNA ratios, it decreased alanine and aspartate amino transferase (ALT and AST) activities. These effects, in turn, enhanced the induction of the metabolizing enzymes and a resultant faster clearance and elimination of the caffeine from the body, there by reducing the toxic effect on the liver. PMID:18379623

  14. Body Composition, Hemodynamic and Biochemical Parameters in Young Female Normal-Weight Oligo-amenorrheic and Eumenorrheic Athletes and Non-athletes

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Vibha; de Lourdes Eguiguren, Maria; Eysenbach, Lindsey; Clarke, Hannah; Slattery, Meghan; Eddy, Kamryn; Ackerman, Kathryn E.; Misra, Madhusmita

    2014-01-01

    Aims Low-weight hypogonadal conditions such as anorexia nervosa are associated with marked changes in body composition, hemodynamic and hematological parameters, and liver enzymes. The impact of athletic activity in normal-weight adolescents with/without amenorrhea on these parameters has not been assessed. Our aim was to examine these parameters in normal-weight athletes and non-athletes and determine any associations of body composition, oligo-amenorrhea and exercise intensity. Methods We assessed vital signs, complete blood counts, liver enzymes, and regional body composition in 43 oligo-amenorrheic athletes (OAA), 24 eumenorrheic athletes (EA) and 23 non-athletes 14-21 years of age. Results BMI was lower in OAA than EA. Systolic and pulse pressure, and temperature were lowest in OAA. Blood counts did not differ among groups. AST was higher in both groups of athletes, while ALT was higher in OAA than EA and non-athletes. Total and regional fat was lower in OAA than other groups, positively associated with heart rate and inversely with liver enzymes. Conclusions Athletic activity is associated with higher AST, whereas menstrual dysfunction is associated with lower total and regional fat and higher ALT. Higher liver enzymes are associated with reductions in total and regional fat. PMID:25376841

  15. Chemopreventive potential of fungal taxol against 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene induced mammary gland carcinogenesis in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Gokul Raj, Kathamuthu; Chidambaram, Ranganathan; Varunkumar, Krishnamoorthy; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan; Pandi, Mohan

    2015-11-15

    Breast cancer is the second most prevalent cancer and foremost global public health problem. The present study was designed to appraise the chemopreventive potential of fungal taxol against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced mammary gland carcinogenesis in Sprague Dawley rats. After 90 days of tumor induction, fungal and authentic taxol were given intraperitoneally once in a week for four weeks. Infrared thermal imaging analysis, serum biochemical parameters such as lipid peroxidase (LPO), creatinine, enzymic and non enzymic antioxidants, liver markers tests such as alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and lipoproteins was analysed. In addition, histopathological observation (breast, kidney and liver), immunohistochemical analysis (p53 and Her2/neu) and western blotting experiments (bcl-2, bax and caspase-9) were performed both in control and experimental animals. In thermal imaging, decreased temperature was observed in rat treated with fungal and authentic taxol when compared to tumor induced rats. The significant decrease in LPO, creatinine, ALT, AST, TC, TG, lipoproteins and increase in enzymic, non-enzymic antioxidants were exemplified in serum of treated groups. Further histopathology, immunohistochemical and western blot analysis (bax, cas-9 and bcl-2) of apoptotic markers in breast tissues clearly showed the anti-carcinogenic property of fungal taxol. Our findings implement that fungal taxol is a potential chemo preventive agent against DMBA induced mammary gland carcinogenesis.

  16. Xuebijing injection alleviates cytokine-induced inflammatory liver injury in CLP-induced septic rats through induction of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ailin; Li, Jing; Bao, Yuhua; Yuan, Dingshan; Huang, Zhongwei

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of inflammatory cytokines and liver injury are associated with the pathogenesis of sepsis. Xuebijing injection, a Chinese herbal medicine, has been used in the treatment of sepsis and can contribute to the improvement of patients' health. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not yet clearly illuminated. In the present study, a septic rat model with liver injury was established by the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) method. Histological alterations to the liver, activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), levels of inflammatory cytokine secretion and the expression of suppressors of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS-1) in the CLP model rats with and without Xuebijing treatment were determined. The results showed that Xuebijing injection ameliorated the pathological changes in liver tissues caused by sepsis, and reduced the sepsis-induced elevation in serum ALT and AST levels. Furthermore, Xuebijing injection markedly downregulated the expression of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin (IL)-6, and upregulated the expression of IL-10. More importantly, SOCS1 expression levels at the protein and mRNA levels were further increased by Xuebijing. These findings demonstrate that Xuebijing injection can significantly alleviate liver injury in CLP-induced septic rats via the regulation of inflammatory cytokine secretion and the promotion of SOCS1 expression. The protective effects of Xuebijing injection suggest its therapeutic potential in the treatment of CLP-induced liver injury. PMID:27602076

  17. Hepatoprotective effect of trimethylgallic acid esters against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Mamta; Chadha, Renu; Kumar, Anil; Karan, Maninder; Singh, Tejvir; Dhingra, Sameer

    2015-12-01

    Gallic acid and its derivatives are potential therapeutic agents for treating various oxidative stress mediated disorders. In the present study, we investigated the hepatoprotective effects of newly synthesized conjugated trimethylgallic acid (TMGA) esters against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Animals were pre-treated with TMGA esters at their respective doses for 7 days against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. The histopathological changes were evaluated to find out degenerative fatty changes including vacuole formation, inflammation and tissue necrosis. Various biomarkers of oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation, glutathione levels, and endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities), liver enzymes (AST and ALT), triacylglycerol and cholesterol were evaluated. Pre-treatment with TMGA esters (MRG, MGG, MSG, and MUG at the dose of 28.71, 30.03, 31.35, 33.62 mg/kg/day), respectively reversed the CCl4-induced liver injury scores (reduced vacuole formation, inflammation and necrosis), biochemical parameters of plasma (increased AST, ALT, TG, and cholesterol), antioxidant enzymes (increased lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels; decreased glutathione levels, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities) in liver tissues and inflammatory surge (serum TNF-α) significantly. The study revealed that TMGA esters exerted hepatoprotective effects in CCl4-induced rats, specifically by modulating oxidative-nitrosative stress and inflammation.

  18. Tissue enzyme activities in the loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta).

    PubMed

    Anderson, Eric T; Socha, Victoria L; Gardner, Jennifer; Byrd, Lynne; Manire, Charles A

    2013-03-01

    The loggerhead sea turtle, Caretta caretta, one of the seven species of threatened or endangered sea turtles worldwide, is one of the most commonly encountered marine turtles off the eastern coast of the United States and Gulf of Mexico. Although biochemical reference ranges have been evaluated for several species of sea turtles, tissue specificity of the commonly used plasma enzymes is lacking. This study evaluated the tissue specificity of eight enzymes, including amylase, lipase, creatine kinase (CK), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), in 30 tissues from five stranded loggerhead sea turtles with no evidence of infectious disease. Amylase and lipase showed the greatest tissue specificity, with activity found only in pancreatic samples. Creatine kinase had high levels present in skeletal and cardiac muscle, and moderate levels in central nervous system and gastrointestinal samples. Gamma-glutamyl transferase was found in kidney samples, but only in very low levels. Creatine kinase, ALP, AST, and LDH were found in all tissues evaluated and ALT was found in most, indicating low tissue specificity for these enzymes in the loggerhead.

  19. Hematological and liver toxicity of anti-tuberculosis drugs

    PubMed Central

    Mirlohi, Maryam-Sadat; Ekrami, Alireza; Shirali, Saeed; Ghobeishavi, Mehdi; Pourmotahari, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health problem, and anti-tuberculosis drugs can cause severe adverse reactions. The aim of this study was to determine hematological and biochemical changes and associated risk factors in smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients undergoing treatment with standard protocols. Methods In a descriptive study, a total of 40 tuberculosis patients aged between 15–60 years were collected from hospitals in Khuzestan Province (Iran) from March 2013 to March 2014. The patients were treated with drugs (isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide) during the initial two months, followed by isoniazid and rifampicin for the next four to six months. Activities of liver enzymes (ALT, AST, and ALP) and hematological parameters were recorded before and after treatment. Data were analyzed using paired samples t-test and Wilcoxon test by SPSS 16. Results After using drug treatments, hematological parameters (RBC, Hb, HCT, MCV, MCH, and MCHC), except platelet count, were changed significantly (p ≤ 0.001). Liver enzyme activities (ALT, AST, and ALP) were decreased significantly (p ≤ 0.001) after treatment. Conclusion In this study, changes of hematological and biochemical parameters have been observed in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. It can be concluded that the anti-tuberculosis treatment is associated with changes of hematological parameters and liver enzymes. PMID:27790357

  20. Antagonistic activity of dietary allicin against deltamethrin-induced oxidative damage in freshwater Nile tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M; Abdelkhalek, Nevien K M; Hassan, Ahmed M

    2015-01-01

    Allicin, the main biologically active component of garlic clove extracts, has been evaluated for its' efficacy in preventing deltamethrin-induced oxidative damage in Nile tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus. Fish were fed on 2 different doses of 0.5 g and 1 g of allicin/kg diet for 28 days. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), cholesterol, urea, uric acid, creatinine, total protein, albumin and globulin were estimated. Moreover, the level of malonaldehyde (MDA) was analyzed as a lipid peroxidation marker. In addition, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were analyzed as antioxidant biomarkers in liver, kidney and gills. Results show that deltamethrin subacute intoxication (1.46 µg/L for 28 days) increased serum AST, ALT, ALP, cholesterol, urea, uric acid, creatinine and tissue MDA. At the same time, serum total protein and albumin as well as tissue level of GSH, GSH-Px, SOD and CAT were reduced. Allicin supplemented diets enhanced all the altered serum biochemical parameters as well as tissues' lipid peroxidation and antioxidant biomarkers in a dose-dependent manner. The results suggest that feeding allicin can ameliorate deltamethrin-induced oxidative stress and might have some therapeutic properties to protect Nile tilapia on subacute deltamethrin toxicity. PMID:25450927

  1. Redox Nanoparticle Therapeutics for Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Boonruamkaew, Phetcharat; Chonpathompikunlert, Pennapa; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of an antioxidative nanoparticle (RNPN) recently developed against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. The effects of oral administration of RNPN to APAP-treated mice were assessed for various biochemical liver function parameters: alanine transaminase (ALT) activity, aspartate transaminase (AST) activity, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, prothrombin time, and serum albumin (ALB) level. The treatment effects were assessed in terms of free radical parameters: malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, % inhibition of superoxide anion (O2−∙), and histopathological examination. The N-acetylcysteine (NAC)-treated group exhibited an enhanced prothrombin time relative to the control group, while RNPN did not prolong prothrombin time. The RNPN-treated animals exhibited lower levels of ALT, AST, and ALP, while increased ALB levels were measured in these animals compared to those in the other groups. The RNPN-treated animals furthermore exhibited improved MDA levels, GPx activity, and % inhibition of O2−∙, which relate to oxidative damage. Histological staining of liver tissues from RNPN-treated animals did not reveal any microscopic changes relative to the other groups. The findings of this study suggest that RNPN possesses effective hepatoprotective properties and does not exhibit the notable adverse effects associated with NAC treatment. PMID:27073589

  2. Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of Colocasia esculenta (L. Schott) leaves on thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Chinonyelum, Azubike Nkiruka; Uwadiegwu, Achukwu Peter; Nwachukwu, Okwuosa Chukwugozie; Emmanuel, Oduah

    2015-11-01

    The hepatoprotective effect of orally administered leaf aqueous extract of Colocasia esculenta (CCLE) in thioacetamide-induced liver toxicity in rats was investigated in this study. Adult male Wistar rats (weight range: 120-150g) were divided into 5 groups (n=5) and received no treatment (normal control), distilled water (negative control), 50mg/kg silymarin (positive control) and CCLE (250 and 500mg/kg) respectively once daily for 3 consecutive days. Thioacetamide (TAA) (150mg/kg b.w.) was administered intraperitoneally on the 4th day to rats in all groups except the normal control. Evaluations were made for serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphate (ALP) and serum albumin. Histopathological examination was performed on the excised liver tissues. TAA-induced hepatotoxicity increased ALT, AST, ALP and decreased serum albumin. Histopathological results revealed extensive disruption of the liver histoarchitecture when compared to the normal control liver sections. Pre-treatment with CCLE showed protective effects by normalizing the liver enzymes markers. These results were supported by the histopathological observations. The activity of the CCLE was comparable to that of the standard hepatoprotective drug, silymarin (50mg/kg). Overall findings suggest that CCLE possesses in vivo hepatoprotective activity against thioacetamide in rats.

  3. Improvement of Liver Cell Therapy in Rats by Dietary Stearic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Goradel, Nasser Hashemi; Eghbal, Mohammad Ali; Darabi, Masoud; Roshangar, Leila; Asadi, Maryam; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Nouri, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stearic acid is known as a potent anti-inflammatory lipid. This fatty acid has profound and diverse effects on liver metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of stearic acid on markers of hepatocyte transplantation in rats with acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver damage. Methods: Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 10-day treatment. Stearic acid was administered to the rats with APAP-induced liver damage. The isolated liver cells were infused intraperitoneally into rats. Blood samples were obtained to evaluate the changes in the serum liver enzymes, including activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and the level of serum albumin. To assess the engraftment of infused hepatocytes, rats were euthanized, and the liver DNA was used for PCR using sex-determining region Y (SRY) primers. Results: The levels of AST, ALT and ALP in the serum of rats with APAP-induced liver injury were significantly increased and returned to the levels in control group by day six. The APAP-induced decrease in albumin was significantly improved in rats through cell therapy, when compared with that in the APAP-alone treated rats. SRY PCR analysis showed the presence of the transplanted cells in the liver of transplanted rats. Conclusion: Stearic acid-rich diet in combination with cell therapy accelerates the recovering of hepatic dysfunction in a rat model of liver injury. PMID:27090202

  4. Protective Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM8246 against Copper Toxicity in Mice.

    PubMed

    Tian, Fengwei; Xiao, Yue; Li, Xiaoxiao; Zhai, Qixiao; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM8246, which has a relatively strong copper binding capacity and tolerance to copper ions, was obtained by screening from 16 lactic acid bacteria in vitro. The selected strain was then applied to a mouse model to evaluate its protective function against copper intoxication in vivo. The experimental mice were divided into an intervention group and a therapy group; mice in the intervention group received co-administration of CCFM8246 and a copper ion solution by gavage, while mice in the therapy group were treated with CCFM8246 after 4 weeks of copper exposure. In both two groups, mice treated with copper alone and that treated with neither CCFM8246 nor copper served as positive and negative controls, respectively. At the end of the experimental period, the copper content in feces and tissues, the activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in serum, and oxidation stress indices in liver and kidney tissue were determined. Learning and memory ability was evaluated by Morris water maze experiments. The results indicated that treatment with CCFM8246 significantly increased the copper content in feces to promote copper excretion, reduce the accumulation of copper in tissues, reverse oxidative stress induced by copper exposure, recover the ALT and AST in serum and improve the spatial memory of mice. PMID:26605944

  5. Protective effects of fish oil, allopurinol, and verapamil on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Messiha, Basim Anwar Shehata; Abo-Youssef, Amira M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The major aim of this work was to study the protective effects of fish oil (FO), allopurinol, and verapamil on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced injury in experimental rats. Materials and Methods: Sixty male Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned to six groups of 10 rats each. Group 1 served as a negative control. Group 2 served as hepatic IR control injury. Groups 3, 4, 5, and 6 received N-acetylcysteine (standard), FO, allopurinol, and verapamil, respectively, for 3 consecutive days prior to ischemia. All animals were fasted for 12 h, anesthetized and underwent midline laparotomy. The portal triads were clamped by mini-artery clamp for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 30 min. Blood samples were withdrawn for estimation of serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) activities as well as hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, reduced glutathione, myeloperoxidase, and total nitrate/nitrite levels, in addition to histopathological examination. Results: Fish oil, allopurinol, and verapamil reduced hepatic IR injury as evidenced by significant reduction in serum ALT and AST enzyme activities. FO and verapamil markedly reduced oxidative stress as compared to control IR injury. Levels of inflammatory biomarkers in liver were also reduced after treatment with FO, allopurinol, or verapamil. In accordance, a marked improvement of histopathological findings was observed with all of the three treatments. Conclusion: The findings of this study prove the benefits of FO, allopurinol, and verapamil on hepatic IR-induced liver injury and are promising for further clinical trials. PMID:26283828

  6. Protective effects of DL-alpha-tocopherol acetate and sodium selenate on the liver of rats exposed to gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Yanardağ, R; Bolkent, S; Kizir, A

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether vitamin E (as DL-alpha-tocopherol acetate) and selenium (as sodium selenate) exert a protective effect against radiation damage. The liver tissue of rats irradiated with a single dose of 1,000 cGy 60Co-gamma-irradiation was examined for morphological changes after the intraperitoneal (ip) administration DL-alpha-tocopherol acetate and sodium selenate as compared to controls. Also, the amounts of blood glutathione and serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and total protein were determined by spectrophotometric methods. Degenerative changes were observed under light and electron microscopy in the liver tissue of the control (radiation only) group. In the group receiving radiation and ip doses of DL-alpha-tocopherol acetate and sodium selenate, the damage to the liver tissue was minimal or absent. In the radiation-only group, a reduction of the blood glutathione level and increases in serum values of AST, ALT, ALP, and LDH activity were observed, whereas in the irradiation-treated group, the reverse was found to occur. Based on these morphological and biochemical observations, it was concluded that the ip administration of DL-alpha-tocopherol acetate and sodium selenate exerts a protective effect against liver radiation damage.

  7. Development of PEGylated serum albumin with multiple reduced thiols as a long-circulating scavenger of reactive oxygen species for the treatment of fulminant hepatic failure in mice.

    PubMed

    Katsumi, Hidemasa; Nishikawa, Makiya; Nishiyama, Kazushi; Hirosaki, Rikiya; Nagamine, Narumi; Okamoto, Haruka; Mizuguchi, Hironori; Kusamori, Kosuke; Yasui, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Hashida, Mitsuru; Sakane, Toshiyasu; Yamamoto, Akira

    2014-04-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the pathophysiology of fulminant hepatic failure. Therefore, we developed polyethylene glycol-conjugated bovine serum albumin with multiple reduced thiols (PEG-BSA-SH) for the treatment of fulminant hepatic failure. As a long-circulating ROS scavenger, PEG-BSA-SH effectively scavenged highly reactive oxygen species and hydrogen peroxide in buffer solution. PEG-BSA-SH showed a long circulation time in the plasma after intravenous injection into mice. Fulminant hepatic failure was induced by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide and D-galactosamine (LPS/D-GalN) into mice. The LPS/D-GalN-induced elevation of plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels was significantly inhibited by a bolus intravenous injection of PEG-BSA-SH. Furthermore, the changes in hepatic lipid peroxide and hepatic blood flow were effectively suppressed by PEG-BSA-SH. In contrast, L-cysteine, glutathione, and dithiothreitol, three traditional reduced thiols, had no statistically significant effects on the serum levels of ALT or AST. These findings indicate that PEG-BSA-SH is a promising ROS scavenger and useful in the treatment of fulminant hepatic failure.

  8. Bio-sample detection on paper-based devices with inkjet printer-sprayed reagents.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wun-Hong; Chu, Chien-Hung; Yang, Ruey-Jen

    2015-12-01

    The reagent required for bio-sample detection on paper-based analytical devices is generally introduced manually using a pipette. Such an approach is time-consuming; particularly if a large number of devices are required. Automated methods provide a far more convenient solution for large-scale production, but incur a substantial cost. Accordingly, the present study proposes a low-cost method for the paper-based analytical devices in which the biochemical reagents are sprayed onto the device directly using a modified commercial inkjet printer. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated by performing aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) tests using simple two-dimensional (2D) paper-based devices. In both cases, the reaction process is analyzed using an image-processing-based colorimetric method. The experimental results show that for AST detection within the 0-105 U/l concentration range, the optimal observation time is around four minutes, while for ALT detection in the 0-125 U/l concentration range, the optimal observation time is approximately one minute. Finally, for both samples, the detection performance of the sprayed-reagent analytical devices is insensitive to the glucose concentration.

  9. Antihepatotoxic effect of marrubium vulgare and withania somnifera extracts on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Elberry, Ahmed A; Harraz, Fathalla M; Ghareib, Salah A; Nagy, Ayman A; Gabr, Salah A; Suliaman, Mansour I; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2010-09-01

    Marrubium vulgare and Withania somnifera are used in folk medicine of several countries. Many researches showed that they are used for the treatment of variety of diseases due to their antioxidant effects. The present aim of this study was to evaluate the antihepatotoxic and antioxidant activities of the both extracts against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic damage in rats. Both extracts were given orally in a dose of 500 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks along with CCl4 started at the 7th week of induction of hepatotoxicity. The antihepatotoxic activity was assessed by measuring aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH), tissue content and malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as histopathological examination. Both extracts showed a significant antihepatotoxic effect by reducing significantly the levels of AST, ALT and LDH. However, ALP levels were decreased non-significantly. Regarding the antioxidant activity, they exhibited significant effects by increasing the GPx, GR and GST activities with increased GSH tissue contents and decreased production of MDA level. Furthermore, both extracts alleviated histopathological changes in rats' liver treated with CCl4. M. vulgare and W. somnifera protect the rats' liver against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. This effect may be attributed, at least in part, to the antioxidant activities of these extracts.

  10. ANTIHEPATOTOXIC EFFECT OF MARRUBIUM VULGARE AND WITHANIA SOMNIFERA EXTRACTS ON CARBON TETRACHLORIDE-INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Elberry, Ahmed A.; Harraz, Fathalla M.; Ghareib, Salah A.; Nagy, Ayman A.; Gabr, Salah A.; Suliaman, Mansour I.; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2010-01-01

    Marrubium vulgare and Withania somnifera are used in folk medicine of several countries. Many researches showed that they are used for the treatment of variety of diseases due to their antioxidant effects. The present aim of this study was to evaluate the antihepatotoxic and antioxidant activities of the both extracts against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic damage in rats. Both extracts were given orally in a dose of 500 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks along with CCl4 started at the 7th week of induction of hepatotoxicity. The antihepatotoxic activity was assessed by measuring aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH), tissue content and malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as histopathological examination. Both extracts showed a significant antihepatotoxic effect by reducing significantly the levels of AST, ALT and LDH. However, ALP levels were decreased non-significantly. Regarding the antioxidant activity, they exhibited significant effects by increasing the GPx, GR and GST activities with increased GSH tissue contents and decreased production of MDA level. Furthermore, both extracts alleviated histopathological changes in rats’ liver treated with CCl4. M. vulgare and W. somnifera protect the rats’ liver against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. This effect may be attributed, at least in part, to the antioxidant activities of these extracts. PMID:24825994

  11. Effects of 20 Selected Fruits on Ethanol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Jie; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Sha; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-04-01

    The consumption of alcohol is often accompanied by other foods, such as fruits and vegetables. This study is aimed to investigate the effects of 20 selected fruits on ethanol metabolism to find out their potential health benefits and harmful impacts. The effects of the fruits on ethanol metabolism were characterized by the concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood, as well as activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase in liver of mice. Furthermore, potential health benefits and harmful impacts of the fruits were evaluated by biochemical parameters including aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase. Generally, effects of these fruits on ethanol metabolism were very different. Some fruits (such as Citrus limon (yellow), Averrhoa carambola, Pyrus spp., and Syzygium samarangense) could decrease the concentration of ethanol in blood. In addition, several fruits (such as Cucumis melo) showed hepatoprotective effects by significantly decreasing AST or ALT level in blood, while some fruits (such as Averrhoa carambola) showed adverse effects. The results suggested that the consumption of alcohol should not be accompanied by some fruits, and several fruits could be developed as functional foods for the prevention and treatment of hangover and alcohol use disorder.

  12. [Protection of Grateloupia filicina polysaccharide against hepatotoxicity induced by Dioscorea bulbifera L].

    PubMed

    Ma, Yi-Bo; Ji, Li-Li; Wang, Shun-Chun; Shi, Song-Shan; Wang, Zheng-Tao

    2013-08-01

    The present study was designed to observe the protection of Grateloupia filicina polysaccharide (GFP) against hepatotoxicity induced by Dioscorea bulbifera L in mice and its underlying mechanism. GFP was intragastrically (ig) given to mice at various doses. After 6 days, the mice were treated with ethyl acetate extract of Dioscorea bulbifera L (EF, ig). Serum levels of alanine/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin (TB) were measured, and liver histological evaluation was conducted. Furthermore, reductions of liver glutathione (GSH) amount and glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) activity were tested. The expressions of GCL-c, GCL-m, and HO-1 (heme oxygenase-1) in liver were observed by Western-blot. The results showed that GFP (600 mg x kg(-1)) decreased EF-induced the increase of serum ALT, AST and TB, and GFP (400, 600 mg x kg(-1)) inhibited EF-induced the increase of serum ALP. Liver histological evaluation showed that the liver injury induced by EF was relieved after treated with GFP. GFP further increased liver GSH amount and reversed EF-induced the decrease of GCL activity. The Western-blot result showed that GFP augmented EF-induced the increase of HO-1, and reversed EF-induced the decrease of GCL-c. In conclusion, GFP can act against the oxidative stress liver injury induced by Dioscorea bulbifera L in mice.

  13. [A case of systemic lupus erythematosus presenting with jaundice and lupus pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Kawai, Takako; Tominaga, Sizuo; Okouchi, Akiko; Kudo, Makoto; Katoh, Kiyoshi; Shoda, Masataka; Fujino, Masayuki A

    2005-02-01

    A 27-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our hospital for acute hepatitis in April 2002. She had been suffering from low grade fever and fatigue for a week. She also presented with dyspnea. On admission, ALT and AST were 857 U/l and 473 U/l respectively. Urine protein was 2 g/day. Chest radiograph showed bilateral infiltrative shadow and pleural effusion. She developed jaundice and her level of total bilirubin was increased to 9.6 mg/dl on May 9. Antibodies to hepatitis viruses were not detected. Testing for antimitochondrial antibodies, antismooth muscle antibodies, and antiribosomal P antibodies showed all negative. However, antinuclear antibodies were positive at titer 1:160 and anti-double stranded DNA antibodies were 130 U/ml. A diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus was made and oral administration of 60 mg/day prednisolon was started on May 10. Serum levels of ALT, AST and bilirubin were reduced to within normal range and pulmonary lesions were also improved. We conclude that this is a rare case of systemic lupus erythematosus presenting with acute hepatitis and jaundice.

  14. The effect of sub-acute and sub-chronic exposure of rats to the glyphosate-based herbicide Roundup.

    PubMed

    Cağlar, Sinan; Kolankaya, Dürdane

    2008-01-01

    Roundup is a glyphosate-based herbicide that includes 78.5% glyphosate and surfactant at lower toxic concentrations. Glyphosate is an organophosphorated non-selective agrochemical widely used in many countries including Turkey and acts after the sprout in a systemic way. The objective of this study was to analyze toxic effects of the herbicide Roundup in rat liver. Animals were treated with 56mg/kg (p.o.) and 560mg/kg (p.o.) of Roundup (78% glyphosate+surfactant) each day, during 5 and 13 weeks. Hepatotoxicity was monitored by quantitative analysis of the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities and measured amount of serum lipoprotein (LDL, HDL), total cholesterol and creatinine were used as the biochemical markers of liver damages. Besides the biochemical analysis, we also investigated liver tissues histopathologically. Sub-chronic treatment, starting from the low and high doses of Roundup, it was observed that there were mild effects on activity of ALT, AST and LDH enzymes indicating the hepatic toxicity induced by Roundup. It was found that the mild effects were different on the enzymes in male and female rats of treatment groups. Also it was found some difference in serum lipoprotein (LDL, HDL) and t-cholesterol. There was no difference creatinine value between control and treatment groups but it was observed that degenerative formation such as mononuclear cell infiltration and congestion of the liver tissues of treatment groups.

  15. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of Garcinia indica fruit rind in ethanol-induced hepatic damage in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Ashar, Hardik; Srinath, Sudhamani

    2012-01-01

    The protective effects of aqueous extracts of the fruit rind of Garcinia indica (GIE) on ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity and the probable mechanisms involved in this protection were investigated in rats. Liver damage was induced in rats by administering ethanol (5 g/kg, 20% w/v p.o.) once daily for 21 days. GIE at 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg and the reference drug silymarin (200 mg/kg) were administered orally for 28 days to ethanol treated rats, this treatment beginning 7 days prior to the commencement of ethanol administration. Levels of marker enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)), triglyceride (sTG), albumin (Alb) and total protein (TP) were evaluated in serum. Antioxidant parameters (reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR)), hepatic triglycerides (hTG) and the lipid peroxidation marker malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined in liver. GIE and silymarin elicited significant hepatoprotective activity by attenuating the ethanol–elevated levels of AST, ALT, ALP, sTG, hTG and MDA and restored the ethanol-depleted levels of GSH, SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, Alb and TP. GIE 800 mg/kg demonstrated greater hepatoprotection than GIE 400 mg/kg. The present findings indicate that hepatoprotective effects of GIE in ethanol-induced oxidative damage may be due to an augmentation of the endogenous antioxidants and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in liver. PMID:23554565

  16. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acid in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wenxia; Li, Sainan; Li, Jingjing; Wang, Jianrong; Zhang, Rong; Zhou, Yuqing; Yin, Qin; Wang, Fan; Xia, Yujing; Liu, Tong; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun

    2016-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation (n-3 PUFAs) in lowering liver fat, liver enzyme (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) levels), and blood lipids (triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL), and low density lipoprotein (LDL)) in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Methods. MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, Science Citation Index (ISI Web of Science), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials on the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in patients with NAFLD from inception to May 2015. Ten studies were included in this meta-analysis. Results. 577 cases of NAFLD/NASH in ten randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. The results of the meta-analysis showed that benefit changes in liver fat favored PUFA treatment, and it was also beneficial for GGT, but it was not significant on ALT, AST, TC, and LDL. Conclusions. In this meta-analysis, omega-3 PUFAs improved liver fat, GGT, TG, and HDL in patients with NAFLD/NASH. Therefore, n-3 PUFAs may be a new treatment option for NAFLD.

  17. Beneficial effects of mangiferin isolated from Salacia chinensis on biochemical and hematological parameters in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sellamuthu, Periyar Selvam; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Fakurazi, Sharida; Kandasamy, Murugesan

    2014-01-01

    Salacia chinensis L. is a traditional Southeast Asian herbal medicine and used in the treatment of diabetes. To investigate the antidiabetic properties of mangiferin from Salacia chinensis and its beneficial effect on toxicological and hematological parameters in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Mangiferin was orally treated with the dose of 40 mg/kg body weight/day for 30 days to diabetic rats. Biochemical (blood glucose, uric acid, urea and creatinine), toxicological (AST, ALT and ALP) and hematological parameters (red and white blood cells) and their functional indices were evaluated in diabetic treated groups with mangiferin and glibenclamide. Mangiferin treated diabetic rats significantly (p<0.05) lowered the level of blood glucose, in addition, altered the levels of biochemical parameters including urea, uric acid, and creatinine. Toxicological parameters including AST, ALT and ALP were also significantly reduced after treatment with mangiferin in diabetic rats. Similarly, the levels of red blood, white blood cells and their functional indices were significantly improved through the administration of mangiferin. Thus, our results indicate that mangiferin present in S. chinensis possesses antidiabetic properties and nontoxic nature against chemically induced diabetic rats. Further experimental investigations are warrant to make use of its relevant therapeutic effect to substantiate its ethno-medicinal usage. PMID:24374436

  18. Effects of selenium-enriched Agaricus blazei Murill on liver metabolic dysfunction in mice, a comparison with selenium-deficient Agaricus blazei Murill and sodium selenite.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lei; Yang, Shaolong; Sun, Lei; Jiang, Yan-Fang; Zhu, Li-Ying

    2014-07-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of Se-enriched Agaricus blazei Murill (Se-AbM) on liver injury in mice induced by acute alcohol administration. Mice received ethanol (5 g/kg body weight (BW)) by gavage every 12 h for a total of 3 doses. Se-AbM was administrated before ethanol administration. Subsequent serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level, aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) level, maleic dialdehyde (MDA) level, hepatic total antioxidant status (TAOS), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) level, polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) level, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) level, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) level, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) level, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were determined by ELISA and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Se-AbM administration markedly (p < 005) decreased serum ALT, AST, and MDA levels, hepatic IL-1β and TNF-α levels, as well as PMN infiltration and the expression of ICAM-1, COX-2, iNOS, and NF-κB compared with alcohol administration. In conclusion, we observed that Se-AbM supplementation could restrain the hepatic damage caused by acute alcohol exposure.

  19. Caffeine test in predicting flutamide-induced hepatic injury in patients with prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ozono, S; Yamaguchi, A; Mochizuki, H; Kawakami, T; Fujimoto, K; Otani, T; Yoshida, K; Ichinei, M; Yamashita, T; Hirao, Y

    2002-01-01

    The caffeine test measures the activity of cytochrome p450 (CYP1A2) which is a major enzyme involved in the activation of flutamide. The usefulness of this test in predicting flutamide-induced hepatic injury in patients with prostate cancer was examined. The subjects were: (1). five patients whose aspartate aminotransferase (AST) or alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level rose to 100 IU/l or higher following the start of flutamide (moderately injured group); (2). four patients whose AST and ALT levels were higher than normal but less than 100 IU/l (mildly injured group); and (3). two patients whose hepatic function remained normal (normal group). The subjects were each given canned coffee to drink. Urinary caffeine (137X), paraxanthine (17X) and 1, 7-dimethyluric acid (17U) levels were measured 4-5 h later. The metabolite ratio, (17U+17X)/137X, was calculated to serve as an indicator of CYP1A2 activity. The metabolite ratio for the moderately injured group (3.98+/-1.56) and the mildly injured group (5.55+/-1.42) were lower than that for the normal group (9.56). The results suggest that a decrease in CYP1A2 activity is involved in the onset of flutamide-induced hepatic injury, and that the caffeine test seems to provide a useful means of its prediction. PMID:12497002

  20. Butyrylcholinesterase as a marker of inflammation and liver injury in the acute and subclinical phases of canine ehrlichiosis.

    PubMed

    do Carmo, Guilherme M; Crivellenti, Leandro Z; Bottari, Nathieli B; Machado, Gustavo; Borin-Crivellenti, Sofia; Moresco, Rafael N; Duarte, Thiago; Duarte, Marta; Tinucci-Costa, Mirela; Morsch, Vera M; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C; Stefani, Lenita M; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) as a marker of inflammation and liver injury in the acute and subclinical phases of canine ehrlichiosis. Forty-two serum samples of dogs naturally infected with Ehrlichia canis were used, of which 24 were from animals with the acute phase of the disease and 18 with subclinical disease. In addition, sera from 17 healthy dogs were used as negative controls. The hematocrit, BChE activity, hepatic injury (alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)), nitric oxide, and cytokines levels were evaluated. The BChE activity was significantly elevated (P<0.05) in dogs with the acute phase of the disease when compared to healthy animals. However, there was a reduction on BChE activity on dogs with subclinical disease compared to the other two groups. AST and ALT levels were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the acute phase, as well as the inflammatory mediators (NOx, TNF-α, INF-γ, IL-4, IL-6) when compared to the control group. On the other hand, IL-10 levels were lower in the acute phase. Based on these results, we are able to conclude that the acute infection caused by E. canis in dogs leads to an increase on seric BChE activity and some inflammatory mediators. Therefore, this enzyme might be used as a marker of acute inflammatory response in dogs naturally infected by this bacterium. PMID:26616656

  1. Hepatoprotective activity of Achyrocline satureioides(Lam) D. C.

    PubMed

    Kadarian, C; Broussalis, A M; Miño, J; Lopez, P; Gorzalczany, S; Ferraro, G; Acevedo, C

    2002-01-01

    Aerial parts of Achyrocline satureioides(Lam) D. C. (Asteraceae) are used in folk medicine as infusions or decoctions for the management of several diseases including gastrointestinal and hepatic disorders. These data and the presence of flavonoids and caffeoyl derivatives have led us to study its hepatoprotective and choleretic activities. The hepatoprotective activity was evaluated in the bromobenzene- (BB-) induced hepatotoxicity model in mice through the measurement of the serum levels of alanine-aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST), thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) and glutathione levels. The aqueous extract of the aerial parts of A. satureioides administered before BB, at the dose of 300 mg kg(-1)p.o., demonstrated significant inhibition (P< 0.01) in the BB increase of liver ALT and AST and in the BB-induced increase of liver TBARS content. Also it was able to significantly increase (P< 0.05) the depleted levels of liver glutathione. In addition, at the same dose, a significant increase (P< 0.01) in the bile flow of rats was found. The results obtained with the aqueous extract of A. satureioides support its use in popular medicine as a hepatoprotective and digestive agent, and the effects might be mediated through the antioxidant and choleretic activities.

  2. Effects of maternal undernutrition during late pregnancy on the development and function of ovine fetal liver.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Liu, Yingchun; Li, Lingyao; Li, Ming; Zhang, Chongzhi; Ao, Changjin; Hou, Xianzhi

    2014-06-30

    This study investigated the effects of maternal undernutrition during late pregnancy on the development and function of ovine fetal liver. Eighteen ewes with singleton fetuses were allocated to three groups at d 90 of pregnancy: Restricted Group 1 (RG1, 0.175MJMEkgBW(-0.75)d(-1), n=6), Restricted Group 2 (RG2, 0.33MJMEkgBW(-0.75)d(-1), n=6) and a Control Group (CG, ad libitum, 0.67MJMEkgBW(-0.75)d(-1), n=6). Fetuses were recovered at slaughter on d 140. Fetuses in the RG1 group exhibited decreased (P<0.05) liver weight, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), cholinesterase (CHE), total protein (TP), globulin (GLB), and alanine transaminase (ALT). In addition, intermediate changes were found in the RG2 fetuses, including decreased liver weight, T-AOC and CHE (P<0.05). In contrast, increases in fetal hepatic collagen fibers and reticular fibers, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), nitric oxide synthase (NOs), monoamine oxidase (MAO), albumin (ALB)/GLB, aspartate transaminase (AST), and AST/ALT were found in the RG1 fetuses (P<0.05). The RG2 fetuses had increased fetal hepatic collagen fibers, NOs and MAO (P<0.05) relative to the control fetuses. These results indicate that impaired fetal hepatic growth, fibrosis, antioxidant imbalance and dysfunction were associated with maternal undernutrition.

  3. Protective Effect of Baccharis trimera Extract on Acute Hepatic Injury in a Model of Inflammation Induced by Acetaminophen

    PubMed Central

    Pádua, Bruno da Cruz; Rossoni Júnior, Joamyr Victor; de Brito Magalhães, Cíntia Lopes; Chaves, Míriam Martins; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lucia; de Souza, Gustavo Henrique Bianco; Brandão, Geraldo Célio; Rodrigues, Ivanildes Vasconcelos; Lima, Wanderson Geraldo; Costa, Daniela Caldeira

    2014-01-01

    Background. Acetaminophen (APAP) is a commonly used analgesic and antipyretic. When administered in high doses, APAP is a clinical problem in the US and Europe, often resulting in severe liver injury and potentially acute liver failure. Studies have demonstrated that antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents effectively protect against the acute hepatotoxicity induced by APAP overdose. Methods. The present study attempted to investigate the protective effect of B. trimera against APAP-induced hepatic damage in rats. The liver-function markers ALT and AST, biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant parameters, and histopathological changes were examined. Results. The pretreatment with B. trimera attenuated serum activities of ALT and AST that were enhanced by administration of APAP. Furthermore, pretreatment with the extract decreases the activity of the enzyme SOD and increases the activity of catalase and the concentration of total glutathione. Histopathological analysis confirmed the alleviation of liver damage and reduced lesions caused by APAP. Conclusions. The hepatoprotective action of B. trimera extract may rely on its effect on reducing the oxidative stress caused by APAP-induced hepatic damage in a rat model. General Significance. These results make the extract of B. trimera a potential candidate drug capable of protecting the liver against damage caused by APAP overdose. PMID:25435714

  4. Change of drug excretory pathway by CCl4-induced liver dysfunction in rat.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Hirotoshi; Katoh, Miki; Minami, Keiichi; Nakajima, Miki; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi

    2007-08-01

    Liver dysfunction affects the pharmacokinetics of drugs. The liver plays an important role in drug excretion as well as drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics. In the present study, the relationship between changes in the cefmetazole (CMZ) excretory pathway and the degree of liver dysfunction induced by CCl(4) treatment was investigated. CMZ is mainly excreted as an unchanged form in feces in control rats. Depending on the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), urinary CMZ excretion was increased, whereas fecal CMZ excretion was decreased in rat with liver dysfunction. The AUC of CMZ in rats with severe liver dysfunction was approximately 2-fold higher than that in control rats. Since drug transporters could be involved in drug excretion, changes in the expression of representative hepatic drug transporters in liver dysfunction were investigated by rat DNA microarray. Basolateral solute carrier transporters such as Ntcp, Oct1, and Oatp2 were decreased and basolateral ATP-binding cassette transporters such as Mrp3 and Mrp4 were increased by the CCl(4) treatment. On the other hand, canalicular Mrp2 and Bsep were decreased, but Mdr1 was increased. However, the transporter system for CMZ has not been identified yet. In conclusion, we clarified that the fecal and urinary excretory profiles of CMZ were changed clearly depending on the serum AST and ALT levels in liver dysfunction. The changes in the CMZ excretory pathway might be responsible for the changes in the expression of drug transporters.

  5. Hepatoprotective activity of Mammea africana ethanol stem bark extract

    PubMed Central

    Okokon, Jude Efiom; Bawo, Michael Burata; Mbagwu, Herbert Orji

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The stem bark of Mammea africana Sabine (Guttiferae), (M. africana) a common plant that has been traditionally used to treat various diseases and ailments was evaluated for hepatoprotective potentials against paracetamol-induced liver injury in rats. Materials and Methods: The hepatoprotective effect of the stem bark extract (30-90 mg/kg) was evaluated by the assay of liver function parameters, namely total and direct bilirubin, serum protein and albumin, total cholesterol, alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase activities (ALP), antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH) and histopathological study of the liver. Results: Administration of the stem bark extract caused a significant (p<0.05 – 0.001) dose-dependent reduction of high levels of liver enzymes (ALT, AST and ALP), total cholesterol, direct and total bilirubin as well as elevation of serum levels of total protein, albumin and antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH). Histology of the liver sections of extract and silymarin-treated animals showed reductions in the pathological features compared to the paracetamol-treated animals. The chemical pathological changes were consistent with histopathological observations suggesting marked hepatoprotective effect of the stem bark extract of M. africana. Conclusion: The results show that the stem bark extract of M. africana has hepatoprotective potential which may be due to its antioxidant activity. PMID:27222838

  6. Integrating multiple fish biomarkers and risk assessment as indicators of metal pollution along the Red Sea coast of Hodeida, Yemen Republic.

    PubMed

    Omar, Wael A; Saleh, Yousef S; Marie, Mohamed-Assem S

    2014-12-01

    The marine environment of the Red Sea coast of Yemen Republic is subjected to increasing anthropogenic activities. The present field study assesses the impacts of metal pollutants on two common marine fish species; Pomadasys hasta and Lutjanus russellii collected from a reference site in comparison to two polluted sites along the Red Sea coast of Hodeida, Yemen Republic. Concentrations of heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) in fish vital organs, metal pollution index (MPI), indicative biochemical parameters of liver functions (alanine aminotransferase [ALT] and aspartate aminotransferase [AST]) and kidney functions (urea and creatinine) as well as histopathological changes in gills, liver and kidney of both fish species are integrated as biomarkers of metal pollution. These biomarkers showed species-specific and/or site-specific response. The hazard index (HI) was used as an indicator of human health risks associated with fish consumption. The detected low HI values in most cases doesn't neglect the fact that the cumulative risk effects for metals together give an alarming sign and that the health of fish consumers is endangered around polluted sites. The levels of ALT, AST and urea in plasma of both fish species collected from the polluted sites showed significant increase in comparison to those of reference site. Histopathological alterations and evident damage were observed in tissues of fish collected from the polluted sites. The investigated set of biomarkers proved to be efficient and reliable in biomonitoring the pollution status along different pollution gradients.

  7. Effects of 20 Selected Fruits on Ethanol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-Jie; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Sha; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of alcohol is often accompanied by other foods, such as fruits and vegetables. This study is aimed to investigate the effects of 20 selected fruits on ethanol metabolism to find out their potential health benefits and harmful impacts. The effects of the fruits on ethanol metabolism were characterized by the concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood, as well as activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase in liver of mice. Furthermore, potential health benefits and harmful impacts of the fruits were evaluated by biochemical parameters including aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase. Generally, effects of these fruits on ethanol metabolism were very different. Some fruits (such as Citrus limon (yellow), Averrhoa carambola, Pyrus spp., and Syzygium samarangense) could decrease the concentration of ethanol in blood. In addition, several fruits (such as Cucumis melo) showed hepatoprotective effects by significantly decreasing AST or ALT level in blood, while some fruits (such as Averrhoa carambola) showed adverse effects. The results suggested that the consumption of alcohol should not be accompanied by some fruits, and several fruits could be developed as functional foods for the prevention and treatment of hangover and alcohol use disorder. PMID:27043608

  8. Effects of melatonin on liver function and lipid peroxidation in a rat model of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    DENG, WEN-SHENG; XU, QING; LIU, YE; JIANG, CHUN-HUI; ZHOU, HONG; GU, LEI

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of melatonin (MT) on liver function and lipid peroxidation following hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). A total of 66 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into three groups: Normal control (N) group, ischemia-reperfusion (IR) group and the MT-treated group. A hepatic IRI model was developed by blocking the first porta hepatis, and subsequently restoring hepatic blood inflow after 35 min. Following reperfusion, changes in the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) were detected by a chemical method at various time points. In the MT group, the MDA levels were significantly reduced (P<0.05) at all time points, as compared with the IR group. Furthermore, SOD activity was significantly increased (P<0.05) in the MT group, as compared with the IR group at all time points; and the levels of GSH in the MT group were significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of the IR group at 2, 4, and 8 h post-reperfusion. The levels of ALT, AST and LDH were significantly reduced in the MT group at each time point, as compared with that of the IR group (P<0.05). In conclusion, MT exhibits potent antioxidant properties that may create favorable conditions for the recovery of liver function following IRI. PMID:27168834

  9. Comparison of the chronic effects of ribavirin and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on pancreatic damage and hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Motor, Sedat; Alp, Harun; Şenol, Serkan; Pınar, Neslihan; Motor, Vicdan Köksaldı; Kaplan, İbrahim; Alp, Ayşe; Gökçe, Cumali

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to comparison of the effects of the chronic use of the Ribavirin and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on the pancreatic damage and hepatotoxicity in rats. Methods: The rats were given orally 30 mg/kg/day doses of Ribavirin for 30 days, and intraperitoneally 10 μmol/kg doses of CAPE. The 37 rats were divided into 4 groups: (I) Control (n=7), (II) Ribavirin (R) (n=10), (III) CAPE (n=10), and (IV) R+CAPE (n=10). Results: Ribavirin and CAPE yielded similar results in terms of Serum, total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), amylase, lipase, and insulin compared to the control group. However, while Ribavirin provided similar results with the control group in terms of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) enzymes, the CAPE group had elevated AST and ALT levels compared to the control group. Histopathologic evaluations revealed that CAPE or Ribavirin had no degenerative effects on both the pancreas and liver tissues. In this way, the biochemical results were confirmed by the histopathologic results. Conclusion: It can be concluded that Ribavirin does not lead to any pancreatic damage and hepatotoxicity, and has more beneficial effects than CAPE on especially liver tissue. PMID:24955174

  10. Influence of dietary zinc on semen traits and seminal plasma antioxidant enzymes and trace minerals of beetal bucks.

    PubMed

    Rahman, H U; Qureshi, M S; Khan, R U

    2014-12-01

    Zinc (Zn) is a potent antioxidant and plays a key role in scavenging free radicals. We hypothesized that supplementation of Zn would reduce the oxidative damage, which is linked with poor sperm quality. Sixteen bucks of similar average age (2 years) and body weight (41 kg) were randomly divided into four groups viz., 1, 2, 3 and 4 supplemented with zinc sulphate into the diet at the rate of 0, 50, 100 and 200 mg/buck/day, respectively, for 3 months. At the end of the experiment, semen samples were collected and assessed. Seminal plasma was separated to find the concentration of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and trace minerals (Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe). The results revealed that semen volume (1.85 ± 0.01 ml) and sperm motility (88.23 ± 5.77%) increased significantly (p < 0.05) in supplemented groups compared with the control specifically in group 3. SOD (10.66 ± 0.23 inhibition rate %) and GPx (23.55 ± 0.49 mU/ml) increased significantly (p < 0.05) in group 3 with no effect on AST and ALT. Among seminal plasma trace elements, no significant change (p > 0.05) was observed. From the present results, we concluded that zinc sulphate at the rate of 100 mg/buck/day improved semen traits and seminal plasma antioxidant capacity in Beetal bucks.

  11. [Effect of Low-Intensity 900 MHz Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation on Rat Brain Enzyme Activities Linked to Energy Metabolism].