Science.gov

Sample records for enzyme membrane reactor

  1. Covalent enzyme immobilization onto carbon nanotubes using a membrane reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voicu, Stefan Ioan; Nechifor, Aurelia Cristina; Gales, Ovidiu; Nechifor, Gheorghe

    2011-05-01

    Composite porous polysulfone-carbon nanotubes membranes were prepared by dispersing carbon nanotubes into a polysulfone solution followed by the membrane formation by phase inversion-immersion precipitation technique. The carbon nanotubes with amino groups on surface were functionalized with different enzymes (carbonic anhydrase, invertase, diastase) using cyanuric chloride as linker between enzyme and carbon nanotube. The composite membrane was used as a membrane reactor for a better dispersion of carbon nanotubes and access to reaction centers. The membrane also facilitates the transport of enzymes to active carbon nanotubes centers for functionalization (amino groups). The functionalized carbon nanotubes are isolated by dissolving the membranes after the end of reaction. Carbon nanotubes with covalent immobilized enzymes are used for biosensors fabrications. The obtained membranes were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Thermal analysis, FT-IR Spectroscopy, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, and functionalized carbon nanotubes were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy.

  2. Alcohol fermentation of sweet potato. Membrane reactor in enzymic hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Azhar, A.; Hamdy, M.K.

    1981-01-01

    Use of ultrafiltration membrane systems in stirred cell and in thin-channel systems for immobilizing enzyme (sweet potato intrinsic and crystalline beta-amylase) in hydrolysis of sweet potato through a continuous operation mode were studied. Both the filtration rate and reducing sugars, produced as the result of enzymic hydrolysis, decreased with the filtration time. The immobilized enzymes in the thin-channel system showed a much better performance compared to that in the stirred cell system. Addition of crystalline sweet potato beta-amylase to the sweet potato increased both the filtration rate and reducing-sugars content. Alcohol fermentation of the filtrate resulted in an alcohol content of 4.2%. This represented fermentation of 95% of the sugars with an efficiency of 88%.

  3. Membrane reactors at Degussa.

    PubMed

    Wöltinger, Jens; Karau, Andreas; Leuchtenberger, Wolfgang; Drauz, Karlheinz

    2005-01-01

    The review covers the development of membrane reactor technologies at Degussa for the synthesis of fine chemicals. The operation of fed-batch or continuous biocatalytic processes in the enzyme membrane reactor (EMR) is well established at Degussa. Degussa has experience of running EMRs from laboratory gram scale up to a production scale of several hundreds of tons per year. The transfer of the enzyme membrane reactor from biocatalysis to chemical catalysis in the chemzyme membrane reactor (CMR) is discussed. Various homogeneous catalysts have been investigated in the CMR, and the scope and limitation of this new technique is discussed.

  4. Sandwich-structured enzyme membrane reactor for efficient conversion of maltose into isomaltooligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Su, Yanlei; Zheng, Yang; Jiang, Zhongyi; Shi, Jiafu; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Yanjun

    2010-12-01

    A novel enzyme membrane reactor with sandwich structure has been developed by confining glucosidase between two sheets of ultrafiltration membranes to effectively convert maltose to isomaltooligosaccharides (IMOs). The hydrophilic ultrafiltration membranes, which were prepared by phase inversion method using PES as bulk polymer and Pluronic F127 as both surface modification and pore formation agent, exhibited the desirable enzyme adsorption-resistant property. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photographs showed that two sheets of PES/Pluronic F127 membranes were packed tightly and glucosidase was kept in a free state within a nanoscale space. When the weight ratio of Pluronic F127 to PES was 30%, glucosidase could be completely rejected by the membranes. Due to the sandwich structuring of the membrane reactor and the high hydrophilicity of the PES/Pluronic F127 membrane surface, maltose conversion and yield reached 100% and 58% under the optimum experimental conditions (pH 6.0, 50 degrees C), respectively. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Study and comparison of two enzyme membrane reactors for fatty acids and glycerol production

    SciTech Connect

    Molinari, R.; Santoro, M.E.; Drioli, E. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Inst. on Membranes and Chemical Reactors-CNR, Arcavacata di Rende )

    1994-11-01

    Two enzyme membrane reactors (EMR), (1) with one substrate (olive oil) in an oil-in-water emulsion (E-EMR) and (2) with two separated liquid phases (oil and water) (TSLP-EMR), have been studied for the conversion of the triglycerides to fatty acids and glycerol. The enzyme was Candida cylindracea lipase confined on the pressurized face or entrapped in the sponge side of capillary ultrafiltration membranes. Two methods for immobilizing the enzyme in the TSLP-EMR were used: ultrafiltration on a virgin membrane and ultrafiltration on glutaraldehyde pretreated membranes. A multiple use of the reactor was obtained immobilizing the enzyme on the membrane preactivated with glutaraldehyde. The TSLP-EMR showed a specific activity of 0.529 mmol/(mg[center dot]h) versus a specific activity of 0.170 mmol/(mg[center dot]h) of the E-EMR. The rate of fatty acid production in the TSLP-EMR was linear with time showing no enzyme deactivation in an operating time of 80 h. The kinetics observed in the two reactors was different: an equilibrium reaction product-inhibited for the E-EMR and an apparent irreversible reaction of zero order for the TSLP-EMR. Taking into account that in the TSLP-EMR, compared to the E-EMR, (1) the specific activity was higher, (2) the specific rate was constant with the time, and (3) the two products were already separated after the reaction, the TSLP-EMR configuration seems the more convenient.

  6. Continuous Decolorization of Acid Blue 62 Solution in an Enzyme Membrane Reactor.

    PubMed

    Lewańczuk, Marcin; Bryjak, Jolanta

    2015-09-01

    This paper focuses on using an enzyme membrane reactor (EMR) for the effective continuous decolorization of Acid Blue 62 (AB62). The following factors were considered for the effective use of Cerrena unicolor laccase immobilized in the EMR volume: the enzyme was stable in six successive runs in a batch reactor; no aeration was necessary; AB62 and the oxidized products were sorbed onto the membrane but were not rejected; and the enzyme was stable in the EMR system. It is obvious that any continuous process must be predictable, and thus, the objective was to verify the process model experimentally. For this reason, a proper isoenzyme kinetic equation was selected and the parameters were evaluated. The obtained kinetic parameters were used to plan processes and to verify their applicability to long-term AB62 decolorization, and a very good agreement between the calculated and the measured data was obtained. In the main designed continuous decolorization process, the conversion reached 98 % and was stable for 4 days. The membrane reactor with C. unicolor laccase appears to be very promising for AB62 decolorization.

  7. Fabrication of enzyme reactor utilizing magnetic porous polymer membrane for screening D-Amino acid oxidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jun Fang; Qiao, Juan; Mu, Xiao Yu; Moon, Myeong Hee; Qi, Li

    2017-04-01

    In this work, a unique D-amino acid oxidase reactor for enhanced enzymolysis efficiency is presented. A kind of magnetic polymer matrices, composed of iron oxide nanoparticles and porous polymer membrane (poly styrene-co-maleic anhydride), was prepared. With covalent bonding D-Amino acid oxidase on the surface of the matrices and characterization of scanning electron microscope and vibrating sample magnetometer, it demonstrated that the membrane enzyme reactor was successfully constructed. The enzymolysis efficiency of the enzyme reactor was evaluated and the apparent Michaelis-Menten constants of D-Amino acid oxidase were determined (Km was 1.10mM, Vmax was 23.8mMmin(-1)) by a chiral ligand exchange capillary electrophoresis protocol with methionine as the substrate. The results indicated that the enzyme reactor could exhibit good stability and excellent reusability. Importantly, because the enzyme and the substrate could be confined into the pores of the matrices, the enzyme reactor displayed the improved enzymolysis efficiency due to the confinement effect. Further, the prepared enzyme reactor was applied for D-Amino acid oxidase inhibitors screening. It has displayed that the proposed protocol could pave a new way for fabrication of novel porous polymer membrane based enzyme reactors to screen enzyme inhibitors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Ion-exchange-membrane-based enzyme micro-reactor coupled online with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for protein analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhigui; Yang, Youyou; Zhang, Jialing; Zhang, Zhengxiang; Bai, Yu; Liao, Yiping; Liu, Huwei

    2012-04-01

    In this article, we developed a membrane-based enzyme micro-reactor by directly using commercial polystyrene-divinylbenzene cation-exchange membrane as the support for trypsin immobilization via electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions and successfully applied it for protein digestion. The construction of the reactor can be simply achieved by continuously pumping trypsin solution through the reactor for only 2 min, which was much faster than the other enzyme immobilization methods. In addition, the membrane reactor could be rapidly regenerated within 35 min, resulting in a "new" reactor for the digestion of every protein sample, completely eliminating the cross-interference of different protein samples. The amount and the activity of immobilized trypsin were measured, and the repeatability of the reactor was tested, with an RSD of 3.2% for the sequence coverage of cytochrome c in ten digestion replicates. An integrated platform for protein analysis, including online protein digestion and peptide separation and detection, was established by coupling the membrane enzyme reactor with liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The performance of the platform was evaluated using cytochrome c, myoglobin, and bovine serum albumin, showing that even in the short digestion time of several seconds the obtained sequence coverages was comparable to or higher than that with in-solution digestion. The system was also successfully used for the analysis of proteins from yeast cell lysate.

  9. Development of an enzyme membrane reactor for treatment of cyanide-containing wastewaters from the food industry

    SciTech Connect

    Basheer, S.; Kut, O.M.; Prenosil, J.E.; Bourne, J.R. )

    1993-02-20

    Cyanidase, an immobilized enzyme preparation for hydrolyzing cyanide to ammonia and formate, was applied for the treatment of cyanide-containing waste-waters from the food industry. Apricot seed extract was chosen as a model effluent. The enzymatic hydrolysis of pure amygdalin, the main cyanogenic glycoside in the extract, and the degradation of the cyanide formed was investigated and compared with the behavior of the real extract in a batch slurry reactor. A diffusional-type, flat-membrane reactor with immobilized cyanidase was developed, where the enzyme is effectively protected from adverse effects of high molecular components contained in the extract. For monitoring continuous-membrane reactor operation, a new unsegmented ammonia measurement system was developed and applied. In continuous operation the cyanidase retained its original activity for more than 400 hours on stream.

  10. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  11. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    DOEpatents

    Tsotsis, Theodore T [Huntington Beach, CA; Sahimi, Muhammad [Altadena, CA; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak [Richmond, CA; Harale, Aadesh [Los Angeles, CA; Park, Byoung-Gi [Yeosu, KR; Liu, Paul K. T. [Lafayette Hill, PA

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  12. Azo dye decolorization by a laccase/mediator system in a membrane reactor: enzyme and mediator reusability.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Laura; Jonstrup, Maria; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni; Mattiasson, Bo

    2011-10-10

    This paper presents the use of a membrane-integrated reactor system with recycling of laccase and mediator for azo dye decolorization. From initial screening of different laccases and mediators, Trametes versicolor laccase and syringaldehyde provided the best system for decolorization. Decolorization yields of 98, 88, 80 and 78% were obtained for Red FN-2BL, Red BWS, Remazol Blue RR and Blue 4BL, respectively. The reaction parameters were optimized and a membrane reactor was set up for dye decolorization in batch mode with reuse of the enzyme. Between 10 and 20 batches could be run with decolorization yields from 95 to 52% depending on the dye type. To study the possibility of reusing both enzyme and mediator, the reactor was run using 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl (TEMPO) coupled to polyethylene glycol (PEG). Nine batches were run for the treatment of Remazol Blue RR, providing decolorization yields of 96-78%. Cost analysis of the processes showed that the costs of laccase/syringaldehyde or laccase/TEMPO were almost equal when running 20 batches, but the cost for the PEG-TEMPO was higher. However, the advantages associated with reuse of the mediator should motivate further development of the concept. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Immobilization of catalase on electrospun PVA/PA6-Cu(II) nanofibrous membrane for the development of efficient and reusable enzyme membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Feng, Quan; Zhao, Yong; Wei, Anfang; Li, Changlong; Wei, Qufu; Fong, Hao

    2014-09-02

    In this study, a mat/membrane consisting of overlaid PVA/PA6-Cu(II) composite nanofibers was prepared via the electrospinning technique followed by coordination/chelation with Cu(II) ions; an enzyme of catalase (CAT) was then immobilized onto the PVA/PA6-Cu(II) nanofibrous membrane. The amount of immobilized catalase reached a high value of 64 ± 4.6 mg/g, while the kinetic parameters (Vmax and Km) of enzyme were 3774 μmol/mg·min and 41.13 mM, respectively. Furthermore, the thermal stability and storage stability of immobilized catalase were improved significantly. Thereafter, a plug-flow type of immobilized enzyme membrane reactor (IEMR) was assembled from the PVA/PA6-Cu(II)-CAT membrane. With the increase of operational pressure from 0.02 to 0.2 MPa, the flux value of IEMR increased from 0.20 ± 0.02 to 0.76 ± 0.04 L/m(2)·min, whereas the conversion ratio of H2O2 decreased slightly from 92 ± 2.5% to 87 ± 2.1%. After 5 repeating cycles, the production capacity of IEMR was merely decreased from 0.144 ± 0.006 to 0.102 ± 0.004 mol/m(2)·min. These results indicated that the assembled IEMR possessed high productivity and excellent reusability, suggesting that the IEMR based on electrospun PVA/PA6-Cu(II) nanofibrous membrane might have great potential for various applications, particularly those related to environmental protection.

  14. Performance of membrane fixed biocatalyst reactors. I: Membrane reactor systems and modelling.

    PubMed

    Prenosil, J E; Hediger, T

    1988-06-05

    Enzymatic membrane reactors are discussed according to the state of biocatalyst and driving force of reaction. Particular attention is given to the Capillary Membrane Fixed Enzyme Reactor (CAMFER) for its favorable characteristics. It is shown that, for a practical range of operation conditions, both kinetic and mass transfer effects must be considered simultaneously. Three modes of operation were investigated in detail using enzymatic lactose hydrolysis as a model reaction: Diffusional reactor, Recycle reactor, and Backflush reactor. In the comparison, superior performance of the CAMFER in diffusional mode was clearly demonstrated.

  15. Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart Nemser, PhD

    2010-10-01

    There are many industrial catalytic organic reversible reactions with amines or alcohols that have water as one of the products. Many of these reactions are homogeneously catalyzed. In all cases removal of water facilitates the reaction and produces more of the desired chemical product. By shifting the reaction to right we produce more chemical product with little or no additional capital investment. Many of these reactions can also relate to bioprocesses. Given the large number of water-organic compound separations achievable and the ability of the Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. (CMS) perfluoro membranes to withstand these harsh operating conditions, this is an ideal demonstration system for the water-of-reaction removal using a membrane reactor. Enhanced reaction synthesis is consistent with the DOE objective to lower the energy intensity of U.S. industry 25% by 2017 in accord with the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and to improve the United States manufacturing competitiveness. The objective of this program is to develop the platform technology for enhancing homogeneous catalytic chemical syntheses.

  16. Supported ionic liquid membrane in membrane reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makertihartha, I. G. B. N.; Zunita, M.; Dharmawijaya, P. T.; Wenten, I. G.

    2017-01-01

    Membrane reactor is a device that integrates membrane based separation and (catalytic) chemical reaction vessel in a single device. Ionic liquids, considered to be a relatively recent magical chemical due to their unique properties, have a large variety of applications in all areas of chemical industries. Moreover, the ionic liquid can be used as membrane separation layer and/or catalytically active site. This paper will review utilization of ionic liquid in membrane reactor related applications especially Fischer-Tropsch, hydrogenation, and dehydrogenation reaction. This paper also reviews about the capability of ionic liquid in equilibrium reaction that produces CO2 product so that the reaction will move towards the product. Water gas shift reaction in ammonia production also direct Dimethyl Ether (DME) synthesis that produces CO2 product will be discussed. Based on a review of numerous articles on supported ionic liquid membrane (SILM) indicate that ionic liquids have the potential to support the process of chemical reaction and separation in a membrane reactor.

  17. High temperature catalytic membrane reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    Current state-of-the-art inorganic oxide membranes offer the potential of being modified to yield catalytic properties. The resulting modules may be configured to simultaneously induce catalytic reactions with product concentration and separation in a single processing step. Processes utilizing such catalytically active membrane reactors have the potential for dramatically increasing yield reactions which are currently limited by either thermodynamic equilibria, product inhibition, or kinetic selectivity. Examples of commercial interest include hydrogenation, dehydrogenation, partial and selective oxidation, hydrations, hydrocarbon cracking, olefin metathesis, hydroformylation, and olefin polymerization. A large portion of the most significant reactions fall into the category of high temperature, gas phase chemical and petrochemical processes. Microporous oxide membranes are well suited for these applications. A program is proposed to investigate selected model reactions of commercial interest (i.e. dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene and dehydrogenation of butane to butadiene) using a high temperature catalytic membrane reactor. Membranes will be developed, reaction dynamics characterized, and production processes developed, culminating in laboratory-scale demonstration of technical and economic feasibility. As a result, the anticipated increased yield per reactor pass economic incentives are envisioned. First, a large decrease in the temperature required to obtain high yield should be possible because of the reduced driving force requirement. Significantly higher conversion per pass implies a reduced recycle ratio, as well as reduced reactor size. Both factors result in reduced capital costs, as well as savings in cost of reactants and energy.

  18. Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    2009-02-01

    This factsheet describes a research project that will focus on the development and application of nonporous high gas flux perfluoro membranes with high temperature rating and excellent chemical resistance.

  19. Development of a microfluidic immobilised enzyme reactor.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Malene S; Pölt, Peter; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2007-06-28

    A microfluidic immobilised enzyme reactor consisting of a catalytically functionalised microstructure fabricated from silicone rubber material was used for steady-state kinetic characterisation of a thermophilic beta-glycosidase under pressure-driven flow conditions and continuous conversion of lactose by this enzyme at 80 degrees C.

  20. Advanced development of immobilized enzyme reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolly, Clifford D.; Schussel, Leonard J.; Carter, Layne

    1991-01-01

    Fixed-bed reactors have been used at NASA-Marshall to purify wastewater generated by an end-use equipment facility, on the basis of a combination of multifiltration unibeds and enzyme unibeds. The enzyme beds were found to effectively remove such targeted organics as urea, alcohols, and aldehydes, down to levels lying below detection limits. The enzyme beds were also found to remove organic contaminants not specifically targeted.

  1. Composite polymeric/ceramic pervaporation membrane reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Y.; Tsotsis, T.T.

    1995-12-01

    We have investigated the preparation of composite polymeric/ceramic membranes. We have studied the effect of the preparation techniques on the properties of these composite membranes. A model has been developed to describe the transport characteristics. We have used these membranes in pervaporation membrane reactor applications. Our experimental data and modeling results will be presented.

  2. DNA-Based Enzyme Reactors and Systems.

    PubMed

    Linko, Veikko; Nummelin, Sami; Aarnos, Laura; Tapio, Kosti; Toppari, J Jussi; Kostiainen, Mauri A

    2016-07-27

    During recent years, the possibility to create custom biocompatible nanoshapes using DNA as a building material has rapidly emerged. Further, these rationally designed DNA structures could be exploited in positioning pivotal molecules, such as enzymes, with nanometer-level precision. This feature could be used in the fabrication of artificial biochemical machinery that is able to mimic the complex reactions found in living cells. Currently, DNA-enzyme hybrids can be used to control (multi-enzyme) cascade reactions and to regulate the enzyme functions and the reaction pathways. Moreover, sophisticated DNA structures can be utilized in encapsulating active enzymes and delivering the molecular cargo into cells. In this review, we focus on the latest enzyme systems based on novel DNA nanostructures: enzyme reactors, regulatory devices and carriers that can find uses in various biotechnological and nanomedical applications.

  3. DNA-Based Enzyme Reactors and Systems

    PubMed Central

    Linko, Veikko; Nummelin, Sami; Aarnos, Laura; Tapio, Kosti; Toppari, J. Jussi; Kostiainen, Mauri A.

    2016-01-01

    During recent years, the possibility to create custom biocompatible nanoshapes using DNA as a building material has rapidly emerged. Further, these rationally designed DNA structures could be exploited in positioning pivotal molecules, such as enzymes, with nanometer-level precision. This feature could be used in the fabrication of artificial biochemical machinery that is able to mimic the complex reactions found in living cells. Currently, DNA-enzyme hybrids can be used to control (multi-enzyme) cascade reactions and to regulate the enzyme functions and the reaction pathways. Moreover, sophisticated DNA structures can be utilized in encapsulating active enzymes and delivering the molecular cargo into cells. In this review, we focus on the latest enzyme systems based on novel DNA nanostructures: enzyme reactors, regulatory devices and carriers that can find uses in various biotechnological and nanomedical applications. PMID:28335267

  4. Ceramic oxygen transport membrane array reactor and reforming method

    DOEpatents

    Kelly, Sean M.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Robinson, Charles; Wilson, Jamie R.; Gonzalez, Javier E.; Doraswami, Uttam R.

    2016-11-08

    The invention relates to a commercially viable modular ceramic oxygen transport membrane reforming reactor configured using repeating assemblies of oxygen transport membrane tubes and catalytic reforming reactors.

  5. Silica-Immobilized Enzyme Reactors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    relief from the symptoms of inflammation and pain Silica-IMERs 10 and is the mode of action of drugs such as aspirin and ibuprofen .[61] Serotonin...supports and using the enantiomeric selectivity of the enzyme to resolve racemic mixtures.[100] Immobilization onto supports with various pore sizes and...activity (~37%) and used as a packed- bed IMER to catalyze the racemic resolution of (S)-ketoprofen from its constituent enantiomers . The optically pure (S

  6. Recent Advances in Pd-Based Membranes for Membrane Reactors.

    PubMed

    Arratibel Plazaola, Alba; Pacheco Tanaka, David Alfredo; Van Sint Annaland, Martin; Gallucci, Fausto

    2017-01-01

    Palladium-based membranes for hydrogen separation have been studied by several research groups during the last 40 years. Much effort has been dedicated to improving the hydrogen flux of these membranes employing different alloys, supports, deposition/production techniques, etc. High flux and cheap membranes, yet stable at different operating conditions are required for their exploitation at industrial scale. The integration of membranes in multifunctional reactors (membrane reactors) poses additional demands on the membranes as interactions at different levels between the catalyst and the membrane surface can occur. Particularly, when employing the membranes in fluidized bed reactors, the selective layer should be resistant to or protected against erosion. In this review we will also describe a novel kind of membranes, the pore-filled type membranes prepared by Pacheco Tanaka and coworkers that represent a possible solution to integrate thin selective membranes into membrane reactors while protecting the selective layer. This work is focused on recent advances on metallic supports, materials used as an intermetallic diffusion layer when metallic supports are used and the most recent advances on Pd-based composite membranes. Particular attention is paid to improvements on sulfur resistance of Pd based membranes, resistance to hydrogen embrittlement and stability at high temperature.

  7. Reactor design for minimizing product inhibition during enzymatic lignocellulose hydrolysis: II. Quantification of inhibition and suitability of membrane reactors.

    PubMed

    Andrić, Pavle; Meyer, Anne S; Jensen, Peter A; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Product inhibition of cellulolytic enzymes affects the efficiency of the biocatalytic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol and other valuable products. New strategies that focus on reactor designs encompassing product removal, notably glucose removal, during enzymatic cellulose conversion are required for alleviation of glucose product inhibition. Supported by numerous calculations this review assesses the quantitative aspects of glucose product inhibition on enzyme-catalyzed cellulose degradation rates. The significance of glucose product inhibition on dimensioning of different ideal reactor types, i.e. batch, continuous stirred, and plug-flow, is illustrated quantitatively by modeling different extents of cellulose conversion at different reaction conditions. The main operational challenges of membrane reactors for lignocellulose conversion are highlighted. Key membrane reactor features, including system set-up, dilution rate, glucose output profile, and the problem of cellobiose are examined to illustrate the quantitative significance of the glucose product inhibition and the total glucose concentration on the cellulolytic conversion rate. Comprehensive overviews of the available literature data for glucose removal by membranes and for cellulose enzyme stability in membrane reactors are given. The treatise clearly shows that membrane reactors allowing continuous, complete, glucose removal during enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis, can provide for both higher cellulose hydrolysis rates and higher enzyme usage efficiency (kg(product)/kg(enzyme)). Current membrane reactor designs are however not feasible for large scale operations. The report emphasizes that the industrial realization of cellulosic ethanol requires more focus on the operational feasibility within the different hydrolysis reactor designs, notably for membrane reactors, to achieve efficient enzyme-catalyzed cellulose degradation.

  8. Investigation of a submerged membrane reactor for continuous biomass hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Malmali, Mohammadmahdi; Stickel, Jonathan; Wickramasinghe, S. Ranil

    2015-10-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose is one of the most costly steps in the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass. Use of a submerged membrane reactor has been investigated for continuous enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose thus allowing for greater use of the enzyme compared to a batch process. Moreover, the submerged 0.65 μm polyethersulfone microfiltration membrane avoids the need to pump a cellulose slurry through an external loop. Permeate containing glucose is withdrawn at pressures slightly below atmospheric pressure. The membrane rejects cellulose particles and cellulase enzyme bound to cellulose. Our proof-of-concept experiments have been conducted using a modified, commercially available membrane filtration cell under low fluxes around 75 L/(m2 h). The operating flux is determined by the rate of glucose production. Maximizing the rate of glucose production involves optimizing mixing, reactor holding time, and the time the feed is held in the reactor prior to commencement of membrane filtration and continuous operation. When we maximize glucose production rates it will require that we operate it at low glucose concentration in order to minimize the adverse effects of product inhibition. Consequently practical submerged membrane systems will require a combined sugar concentration step in order to concentrate the product sugar stream prior to fermentation.

  9. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2014-05-20

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  10. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2013-04-16

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  11. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2012-09-11

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  12. [Coupling anaerobic baffled reactor and membrane-aerated biofilm reactor].

    PubMed

    Hu, Shao-wei; Xu, Xiao-lian; Yang, Chun-yu; Yang, Feng-lin

    2010-03-01

    Based on the consistent anaerobic status of outer layer of membrane-aerated biofilm reactor (MABR) and internal anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR), MABR and ABR were started up separately. The aerating membrane module was installed into a compartment of anaerobic baffled bioreactor to form the Hybrid MAB-ABR (HMABR). After the installation of membrane module, total COD and VFA concentrations in the HMABR effluent were deceased by 59.5% and 68.1% respectively, with increased nitrogenous pollutant remove efficiency by 83.5%, at influent COD concentration of 1600 mg/L and NH4+ -N concentration of 80 mg/L. When organic loading rate was increased by 50%, the effluent COD concentration was still below the level of 60 mg/L, indicating its good capability of counteracting influent organic loading fluctuation. Due to the decreased COD concentration and increased nitrate concentration in the third compartment after installing the membrane module, the biogas volume and methane contents in the third compartment were decreased, resulting in the steady and excellent effluent quality. In this hybrid process, the improved simultaneous removal of carbon and nitrogen for high-strength nitrogenous organic pollutants was realized in a single reactor.

  13. Hollow-fiber enzyme reactor operating under nonisothermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Diano, Nadia; Grano, Valentina; Rossi, Sergio; Bencivenga, Umberto; Portaccio, Marianna; Amato, Umberto; Carfora, Francesca; Lepore, Maria; Gaeta, Francesco Saverio; Mita, Damiano Gustavo

    2004-01-01

    A hollow-fiber enzyme reactor, operating under isothermal and nonisothermal conditions, was built employing a polypropylene hollow fiber onto which beta-galactosidase was immobilized. Hexamethylenediamine and glutaraldehyde were used as spacer and coupling agent, respectively. Glucose production was studied as a function of temperature, substrate concentration, and size of the transmembrane temperature gradient. The actual average temperature differences across the polypropylene fiber, to which reference was done to evaluate the effect of the nonisothermal conditions, were calculated by means of a mathematical approach, which made it possible to know, using computer simulation, the radial and axial temperature profiles inside the bioreactor and across the membrane. Percent activity increases, proportional to the size of the temperature gradients, were found when the enzyme activities under nonisothermal conditions were compared to those measured under comparable isothermal conditions. Percent reductions of the production times, proportional to the applied temperature gradients, were also calculated. The advantage of employing nonisothermal bioreactors in biotechnological industrial process was discussed.

  14. Electrochemical Membrane Reactors for Sustainable Chlorine Recycling

    PubMed Central

    Vidakovic-Koch, Tanja; Martinez, Isai Gonzalez; Kuwertz, Rafael; Kunz, Ulrich; Turek, Thomas; Sundmacher, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Polymer electrolyte membranes have found broad application in a number of processes, being fuel cells, due to energy concerns, the main focus of the scientific community worldwide. Relatively little attention has been paid to the use of these materials in electrochemical production and separation processes. In this review, we put emphasis upon the application of Nafion membranes in electrochemical membrane reactors for chlorine recycling. The performance of such electrochemical reactors can be influenced by a number of factors including the properties of the membrane, which play an important role in reactor optimization. This review discusses the role of Nafion as a membrane, as well as its importance in the catalyst layer for the formation of the so-called three-phase boundary. The influence of an equilibrated medium on the Nafion proton conductivity and Cl− crossover, as well as the influence of the catalyst ink dispersion medium on the Nafion/catalyst self-assembly and its importance for the formation of an ionic conducting network in the catalyst layer are summarized. PMID:24958294

  15. High Flux Metallic Membranes for Hydrogen Recovery and Membrane Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Buxbaum, Robert

    2010-06-30

    We made and tested over 250 new alloys for use as lower cost, higher flux hydrogen extraction membrane materials. Most of these were intermetallic, or contained significant intermetallic content, particularly based on B2 alloy compositions with at least one refractory component; B2 intermetallics resemble BCC alloys, in structure, but the atoms have relatively fixed positions, with one atom at the corners of the cube, the other at the centers. The target materals we were looking for would contain little or no expensive elements, no strongly toxic or radioactive elements, would have high flux to hydrogen, while being fabricable, brazable, and relatively immune to hydrogen embrittlement and corrosion in operation. The best combination of properties of the membrane materials we developed was, in my opinion, a Pd-coated membrane consisting of V -9 atomic % Pd. This material was relatively cheap, had 5 times the flux of Pd under the same pressure differential, was reasonably easy to fabricate and braze, and not bad in terms of embrittlement. Based on all these factors we project, about 1/3 the cost of Pd, on an area basis for a membrane designed to last 20 years, or 1/15 the cost on a flux basis. Alternatives to this membrane replaced significant fractions of the Pd with Ni and or Co. The cost for these membranes was lower, but so was the flux. We produced successful brazed products from the membrane materials, and made them into flat sheets. We tested, unsuccessfully, several means of fabricating thematerials into tubes, and eventually built a membrane reactor using a new, flat-plate design: a disc and doughnut arrangement, a design that seems well- suited to clean hydrogen production from coal. The membranes and reactor were tested successfully at Western Research. A larger equipment company (Chart Industries) produced similar results using a different flat-plate reactor design. Cost projections of the membrane are shown to be attractive.

  16. [Development of preparation of immobilized enzyme reactors in proteomics].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lingyi; Wang, Bingbing; Shangguan, Lulu; Zhang, Runsheng; Chen, Jianhu; Zhang, Weibing

    2015-11-01

    As an important part in "bottom-up" strategy of proteomics, immobilized enzyme reactors have great significance in the development of fast and more efficient protein analytical method, owing to its advantages of high speed and enzymatic efficiency, good stability and activity, easy operation, and the possibility of hyphenating with multiple detection instruments. In this paper, the preparation methods of immobilized enzyme reactors and their applications in proteomic investigation are introduced, focusing on the nature of enzymes, the immobilization methods and the carrier materials used for immobilizing enzyme. In recent years, the investigations are focused on increasing the immobilization amounts of enzyme, keeping enzymatic activity, improving enzymatic efficiency and decreasing nonspecific adsorption. The investigation results showed that by using novel carriers such as nanomaterial and monolith, increasing of hydrophilicity of carrier and tandem hydrolysis with multiple enzymes can greatly improve the performance of immobilized enzyme reactors and increase protein identification efficiencies.

  17. Enzymatic membrane reactor for full saccharification of ionic liquid-pretreated microcrystalline cellulose.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Pedro; Bernal, Berenice; Jara, Antonio G; Belleville, Marie-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Ultrafiltration reactors based on polymeric or ceramic membranes were shown to be suitable catalytic systems for fast enzymatic saccharification of cellulose, allowing the full recovery and reuse of enzymes. By pre-treating cellulose with the IL 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, the suitability of this substrate for enzymatic saccharification in a reactor based on polymeric ultrafiltration membranes was demonstrated, leading to 95% cellulose hydrolysis in 4h at 50°C. The filtration process gave a clear glucose solution (up to 113 mM) at constant permeate flow (24.7 L h(-1) m(-2)), allowing the enzyme to be reused for 9 operation cycles under semi-continuous operation, without any loss of enzyme activity. Under continuous operation mode and using ceramic ultrafiltration membranes at different residence times, the enzymatic reactor showed constant profiles in both the permeate flow rate and the glucose concentration, demonstrating the excellent suitability of the proposed approach for the saccharification of cellulose.

  18. Improved recovery and identification of membrane proteins from rat hepatic cells using a centrifugal proteomic reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hu; Wang, Fangjun; Wang, Yuwei; Ning, Zhibin; Hou, Weimin; Wright, Theodore G; Sundaram, Meenakshi; Zhong, Shumei; Yao, Zemin; Figeys, Daniel

    2011-10-01

    Despite their importance in many biological processes, membrane proteins are underrepresented in proteomic analysis because of their poor solubility (hydrophobicity) and often low abundance. We describe a novel approach for the identification of plasma membrane proteins and intracellular microsomal proteins that combines membrane fractionation, a centrifugal proteomic reactor for streamlined protein extraction, protein digestion and fractionation by centrifugation, and high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem MS. The performance of this approach was illustrated for the study of the proteome of ER and Golgi microsomal membranes in rat hepatic cells. The centrifugal proteomic reactor identified 945 plasma membrane proteins and 955 microsomal membrane proteins, of which 63 and 47% were predicted as bona fide membrane proteins, respectively. Among these proteins, >800 proteins were undetectable by the conventional in-gel digestion approach. The majority of the membrane proteins only identified by the centrifugal proteomic reactor were proteins with ≥ 2 transmembrane segments or proteins with high molecular mass (e.g. >150 kDa) and hydrophobicity. The improved proteomic reactor allowed the detection of a group of endocytic and/or signaling receptor proteins on the plasma membrane, as well as apolipoproteins and glycerolipid synthesis enzymes that play a role in the assembly and secretion of apolipoprotein B100-containing very low density lipoproteins. Thus, the centrifugal proteomic reactor offers a new analytical tool for structure and function studies of membrane proteins involved in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism.

  19. Improved Recovery and Identification of Membrane Proteins from Rat Hepatic Cells using a Centrifugal Proteomic Reactor*

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hu; Wang, Fangjun; Wang, Yuwei; Ning, Zhibin; Hou, Weimin; Wright, Theodore G.; Sundaram, Meenakshi; Zhong, Shumei; Yao, Zemin; Figeys, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Despite their importance in many biological processes, membrane proteins are underrepresented in proteomic analysis because of their poor solubility (hydrophobicity) and often low abundance. We describe a novel approach for the identification of plasma membrane proteins and intracellular microsomal proteins that combines membrane fractionation, a centrifugal proteomic reactor for streamlined protein extraction, protein digestion and fractionation by centrifugation, and high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem MS. The performance of this approach was illustrated for the study of the proteome of ER and Golgi microsomal membranes in rat hepatic cells. The centrifugal proteomic reactor identified 945 plasma membrane proteins and 955 microsomal membrane proteins, of which 63 and 47% were predicted as bona fide membrane proteins, respectively. Among these proteins, >800 proteins were undetectable by the conventional in-gel digestion approach. The majority of the membrane proteins only identified by the centrifugal proteomic reactor were proteins with ≥2 transmembrane segments or proteins with high molecular mass (e.g. >150 kDa) and hydrophobicity. The improved proteomic reactor allowed the detection of a group of endocytic and/or signaling receptor proteins on the plasma membrane, as well as apolipoproteins and glycerolipid synthesis enzymes that play a role in the assembly and secretion of apolipoprotein B100-containing very low density lipoproteins. Thus, the centrifugal proteomic reactor offers a new analytical tool for structure and function studies of membrane proteins involved in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. PMID:21749988

  20. Dense ceramic catalytic membranes and membrane reactors for energy and environmental applications.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xueliang; Jin, Wanqin; Xu, Nanping; Li, Kang

    2011-10-21

    Catalytic membrane reactors which carry out separation and reaction in a single unit are expected to be a promising approach to achieve green and sustainable chemistry with less energy consumption and lower pollution. This article presents a review of the recent progress of dense ceramic catalytic membranes and membrane reactors, and their potential applications in energy and environmental areas. A basic knowledge of catalytic membranes and membrane reactors is first introduced briefly, followed by a short discussion on the membrane materials including their structures, composition and strategies for material development. The configuration of catalytic membranes, the design of membrane reaction processes and the high temperature sealing are also discussed. The performance of catalytic membrane reactors for energy and environmental applications are summarized and typical catalytic membrane reaction processes are presented and discussed. Finally, current challenges and difficulties related to the industrialization of dense ceramic membrane reactors are addressed and possible future research is also outlined.

  1. Process Intensification with Integrated Water-Gas-Shift Membrane Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    2009-11-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose objective is to develop hydrogen-selective membranes for an innovative gas-separation process based on a water-gas-shift membrane reactor (WGS-MR) for the production of hydrogen.

  2. Ceramic oxygen transport membrane array reactor and reforming method

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Sean M.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Rosen, Lee J.; Robinson, Charles; Wilson, Jamie R.; Gonzalez, Javier E.; Doraswami, Uttam R.

    2016-09-27

    A commercially viable modular ceramic oxygen transport membrane reforming reactor for producing a synthesis gas that improves the thermal coupling of reactively-driven oxygen transport membrane tubes and catalyst reforming tubes required to efficiently and effectively produce synthesis gas.

  3. Esterification of fatty acids by Penicillium crustosum lipase in a membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Possebom, Gessica; Nyari, Nádia L D; Zeni, Jamile; Steffens, Juliana; Rigo, Elisandra; Di Luccio, Marco

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the performance of a membrane reactor system for esterification of oleic acid and butyric acid with ethanol by Penicillium crustosum lipase using polyethersulfone membranes with molecular weight cut-offs of 30, 60 and 100 kDa at pressures up to 200 kPa. The confinement of lipase with 60 and 100 kDa membranes showed the best results. The esterification of butyric acid in the membrane reactor and with free lipase showed higher conversions than those obtained with oleic acid, since the system operated with oleic acid was more subject to fouling and thus could not be run for repeated cycles. The confinement of lipase from P. crustosum in a membrane reactor was possible, resulting in the satisfactory conversion of butyric acid to ethyl butyrate with the possibility of reuse of the immobilized enzyme. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Mathematical modeling of diffusion and reaction in the hydrolysis of vegetable protein in an immobilized enzyme recycle reactor.

    PubMed

    Adu-Amankwa, B; Constantinides, A

    1984-02-01

    Experimental investigation is by far the most effective approach for studying the behavior of physical systems. However, an enzymatic solubilization of vegetable protein is a complex combination of intrinsic problems, of which many are not easily adaptable to experimental investigation. Experimental designs to study enzyme vegetable protein reactions yield data which describe the extramembraneous activity of the immobilized enzyme. In a continuous recycle immobilized enzyme reactor, the microenvironment concentration of the substrate or product in the membrane phase, or the concentrations along the reactor axial length in the bulk phase are not discernible to the experimenter. However, the knowledge of such concentration profiles is important in weighing the significance of such factors as intermembrane diffusion, enzyme loading, wet membrane size, and the mode of operation of the reactor. The simulation of mathematical models, which describe the physical system within the constraints imposed, yields information which is vital to the understanding of the process occurring in the reactor. The kinetics and diffusion of an immobilized thermophilic Penicillium duponti enzyme at pH 3.4-3.7 and 50 degrees C was modeled mathematically. The kinetic parameters were evaluated by fitting a model to experimental data using nonlinear regression analysis. Simulation profiles of the effects of reactor geometry, substrate concentration, membrane thickness, and enzyme leading on the hydrolysis rate are presented. From the profiles generated by the mathematical model, the best operational reactor strategy is recommended.

  5. Adsorption of amylase enzyme on ultrafiltration membranes.

    PubMed

    Beier, Søren Prip; Enevoldsen, Ann Dorrit; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M; Hansen, Ernst B; Jonsson, Gunnar

    2007-08-28

    A method to measure the static adsorption on membrane surfaces has been developed and described. The static adsorption of amylase-F has been measured on two different ultrafiltration membranes, both with a cutoff value of 10 kDa (a PES membrane and the ETNA10PP membrane, which is a surface-modified PVDF membrane). The adsorption follows the Langmuir adsorption theory. Thus, the static adsorption consists of monolayer coverage and is expressed both as a permeability drop and an adsorption resistance. From the adsorption isotherms, the maximum static permeability drops and the maximum static adsorption resistances are determined. The maximum static permeability drop for the hydrophobic PES membrane is 75%, and the maximum static adsorption resistance is 0.014 m2.h.bar/L. The maximum static permeability drop for the hydrophilic surface-modified PVDF membrane (ETNA10PP) is 23%, and the maximum static adsorption resistance is 0.0046 m2.h.bar/L. The difference in maximum static adsorption, by a factor of around 3, affects the performance during the filtration of a 5 g/L amylase-F solution at 2 bar. The two membranes behave very similarly during filtration with almost equal fluxes and retentions even though the initial water permeability of the PES membrane is around 3 times larger than the initial water permeability of the ETNA10PP membrane. This is mainly attributed to the larger maximum static adsorption of the PES membrane. The permeability drop during filtration exceeds the maximum static permeability drop, indicating that the buildup layer on the membranes during filtration exceeds monolayer coverage, which is also seen by the increase in fouling resistance during filtration. The accumulated layer on the membrane surface can be described as a continually increasing cake-layer thickness, which is independent of the membrane type. At higher concentrations of enzyme, concentration polarization effects cannot be neglected. Therefore, stagnant film theory and the osmotic

  6. OXIDATIVE COUPLING OF METHANE USING INORGANIC MEMBRANE REACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Y.H. Ma; Dr. W.R. Moser; Dr. A.G. Dixon; Dr. A.M. Ramachandra; Dr. Y. Lu; C. Binkerd

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this research is to study the oxidative coupling of methane in catalytic inorganic membrane reactors. A specific target is to achieve conversion of methane to C{sub 2} hydrocarbons at very high selectivity and higher yields than in conventional non-porous, co-feed, fixed bed reactors by controlling the oxygen supply through the membrane. A membrane reactor has the advantage of precisely controlling the rate of delivery of oxygen to the catalyst. This facility permits balancing the rate of oxidation and reduction of the catalyst. In addition, membrane reactors minimize the concentration of gas phase oxygen thus reducing non selective gas phase reactions, which are believed to be a main route for the formation of CO{sub x} products. Such gas phase reactions are a cause of decreased selectivity in the oxidative coupling of methane in conventional flow reactors. Membrane reactors could also produce higher product yields by providing better distribution of the reactant gases over the catalyst than the conventional plug flow reactors. Membrane reactor technology also offers the potential for modifying the membranes both to improve catalytic properties as well as to regulate the rate of the permeation/diffusion of reactants through the membrane to minimize by-product generation. Other benefits also exist with membrane reactors, such as the mitigation of thermal hot-spots for highly exothermic reactions such as the oxidative coupling of methane. The application of catalytically active inorganic membranes has potential for drastically increasing the yield of reactions which are currently limited by either thermodynamic equilibria, product inhibition, or kinetic selectivity.

  7. Oxidative coupling of methane using inorganic membrane reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Y.H.; Moser, W.R.; Dixon, A.G.

    1995-12-31

    The goal of this research is to improve the oxidative coupling of methane in a catalytic inorganic membrane reactor. A specific target is to achieve conversion of methane to C{sub 2} hydrocarbons at very high selectivity and relatively higher yields than in fixed bed reactors by controlling the oxygen supply through the membrane. A membrane reactor has the advantage of precisely controlling the rate of delivery of oxygen to the catalyst. This facility permits balancing the rate of oxidation and reduction of the catalyst. In addition, membrane reactors minimize the concentration of gas phase oxygen thus reducing non selective gas phase reactions, which are believed to be a main route for formation of CO{sub x} products. Such gas phase reactions are a cause for decreased selectivity in oxidative coupling of methane in conventional flow reactors. Membrane reactors could also produce higher product yields by providing better distribution of the reactant gases over the catalyst than the conventional plug flow reactors. Modeling work which aimed at predicting the observed experimental trends in porous membrane reactors was also undertaken in this research program.

  8. High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, T.T.

    1992-06-19

    In this project we well evaluate the performance of Sel-Gel alumina membranes in coal liquid upgrading processes under realistic temperature and pressure conditions and investigate the feasibility of using such membranes in a membrane reactor based coal liquid upgrading process. In addition, the development of novel ceramic membranes with enhanced catalytic activity for coal-liquid upgrading applications, such as carbon-coated alumina membranes, will be also investigated. (VC)

  9. Current progress on zeolite membrane reactor for CO2 hydrogenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makertiharta, I. G. B. N.; Dharmawijaya, P. T.; Wenten, I. G.

    2017-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage via catalytic hydrogenation into methanol have been recognized as the most promising solution to not only global warming issue but also high fuel and methanol demand worldwide. However, methanol synthesis from CO2 involves equilibrium limited reaction that can be optimized using membrane reactor (MR). Among all selective membrane layer, the zeolite is the most promising material because it can selectively remove water and methanol from reaction mixture component, especially H2. To present a clear background of zeolite membrane reactor, this paper will bring the brief discussion on the recent progress towards utilization of zeolite membrane reactor for CO2 hydrogenation. The progress of selective layer used in said MR will be examined in detail. Critical issues related to zeolite membrane reactor will also be discussed to develop it further.

  10. Steam reforming of heptane in a fluidized bed membrane reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakib, Mohammad A.; Grace, John R.; Lim, C. Jim; Elnashaie, Said S. E. H.

    n-Heptane served as a model compound to study steam reforming of naphtha as an alternative feedstock to natural gas for production of pure hydrogen in a fluidized bed membrane reactor. Selective removal of hydrogen using Pd 77Ag 23 membrane panels shifted the equilibrium-limited reactions to greater conversion of the hydrocarbons and lower yields of methane, an intermediate product. Experiments were conducted with no membranes, with one membrane panel, and with six panels along the height of the reactor to understand the performance improvement due to hydrogen removal in a reactor where catalyst particles were fluidized. Results indicate that a fluidized bed membrane reactor (FBMR) can provide a compact reformer for pure hydrogen production from a liquid hydrocarbon feedstock at moderate temperatures (475-550 °C). Under the experimental conditions investigated, the maximum achieved yield of pure hydrogen was 14.7 moles of pure hydrogen per mole of heptane fed.

  11. Microchannel enzyme reactors and their applications for processing.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Masaya; Maeda, Hideaki

    2006-10-01

    Microreaction technology is an interdisciplinary field combining science and engineering. It has attracted the attention of researchers from different fields for the past few years, resulting in the development of several microreactors. Enzymes are one of the catalysts used in microreactors: they are useful for substance production in an environmentally friendly way and have high potential for analytical applications. However, few enzymatic processes have been commercialized because of problems with stability and the cost and efficiency of the reactions. Thus, there have been demands for innovation in process engineering, particularly for enzymatic reactions, and microreaction devices can serve as efficient tools for the development of enzyme processes. In this review, we summarize the recent advances of enzyme-immobilized microchannel reactors; fundamental techniques for micro enzyme-reactor design and important applications of this multidisciplinary technology in chemical processing are also included in our topics.

  12. Silica-Immobilized Enzyme Reactors (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    mode of action of drugs such as aspirin and ibuprofen .[61] Serotonin reuptake inhibitors and monoamine oxidase inhibitors can function as...immobilizing PGA onto chromatography supports and using the enantiomeric selectivity of the enzyme to resolve racemic mixtures.[100] Immobilization onto...column. J. Chroma- togr. B. Biomed. Sci. Appl. 2001, 753, 375–383. 37. Jadaud, P.; Wainer, I.W. The stereochemical resolution of the enantiomers of

  13. Enzymatic membrane reactors for biodegradation of recalcitrant compounds. Application to dye decolourisation.

    PubMed

    López, C; Mielgo, I; Moreira, M T; Feijoo, G; Lema, J M

    2002-11-13

    Membrane bioreactors are being increasingly used in enzymatic catalysed transformations. However, the application of enzymatic-based treatment systems in the environmental field is rather unusual. The aim of this paper is to overview the application of enzymatic membrane reactors to wastewater treatment, more specifically to dye decolourisation. Firstly, the basic aspects such as different configurations of enzymatic reactors, advantages and disadvantages associated to their utilisation are revised as well as the application of this technology to wastewater treatment. Secondly, dye decolourisation by white-rot fungi and their oxidative enzymes are discussed, presenting an overall view from for in vivo and in vitro systems. Finally, dye decolourisation by manganese peroxidase in an enzymatic membrane reactor in continuous operation is presented.

  14. Operation of staged membrane oxidation reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Repasky, John Michael

    2012-10-16

    A method of operating a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system. The method comprises providing a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system with at least a first membrane oxidation stage and a second membrane oxidation stage, operating the ion transport membrane oxidation system at operating conditions including a characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and a characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage; and controlling the production capacity and/or the product quality by changing the characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and/or changing the characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage.

  15. Structure Biology of Membrane Bound Enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Dax

    2016-11-30

    The overall goal of the proposed research is to understand the membrane-associated active processes catalyzed by an alkane $\\square$-hydroxylase (AlkB) from eubacterium Pseudomonase oleovorans. AlkB performs oxygenation of unactivated hydrocarbons found in crude oils. The enzymatic reaction involves energy-demanding steps in the membrane with the uses of structurally unknown metal active sites featuring a diiron [FeFe] center. At present, a critical barrier to understanding the membrane-associated reaction mechanism is the lack of structural information. The structural biology efforts have been challenged by technical difficulties commonly encountered in crystallization and structural determination of membrane proteins. The specific aims of the current budget cycle are to crystalize AlkB and initiate X-ray analysis to set the stage for structural determination. The long-term goals of our structural biology efforts are to provide an atomic description of AlkB structure, and to uncover the mechanisms of selective modification of hydrocarbons. The structural information will help elucidating how the unactivated C-H bonds of saturated hydrocarbons are oxidized to initiate biodegradation and biotransformation processes. The knowledge gained will be fundamental to biotechnological applications to biofuel transformation of non-edible oil feedstock. Renewable biodiesel is a promising energy carry that can be used to reduce fossil fuel dependency. The proposed research capitalizes on prior BES-supported efforts on over-expression and purification of AlkB to explore the inner workings of a bioenergy-relevant membrane-bound enzyme.

  16. Recovery of hydrogen from impurities using a palladium membrane reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Willms, R.S.; Okuno, K.

    1993-12-01

    One of the important steps in processing the exhaust from a fusion reactor is recovering tritium which is incorporated into molecules such as water and methane. One device which may prove to be very effective for this purpose is a palladium membrane reactor. This is a reactor which incorporates a Pd/Ag membrane in the reactor geometry. Reactions such as water gas shift, steam reforming and methane cracking can be carried out over the reactor catalyst, and the product hydrogen can be simultaneously removed from the reacting mixture. Because product is removed, greater than usual conversions can be obtained. In addition ultrapure hydrogen is produced, eliminating the need for an additional processing step. A palladium membrane reactor has been built and tested with three different catalysts. Initial results with a Ni-based catalyst show that it is very effective at promoting all three reactions listed above. Under the proper conditions, hydrogen recoveries approaching 100% have been observed. This study serves to experimentally validate the palladium membrane reactor as potentially important tool for fusion fuel processing.

  17. Large-scale enzymatic membrane reactors for tetracycline degradation in WWTP effluents.

    PubMed

    Abejón, R; De Cazes, M; Belleville, M P; Sanchez-Marcano, J

    2015-04-15

    A mathematical model to simulate the performance of enzymatic membrane reactors was developed. It was applied to investigate the effectiveness of laccase immobilized over ceramic membranes for the degradation of tetracycline, a common antibiotic appearing as micropollutant in effluents of WWTPs. A process based on large-scale enzymatic membrane reactors in series was proposed for the treatment of the effluents from municipal, hospital and industrial wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The obtained results demonstrated the need for high improvements in the amount of enzyme grafted on the membranes or on enzymatic kinetics to afford the technical and economic competitiveness of the investigated designs and the possibility to be implemented within existing installations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Enzymatic modification of vegetable protein: immobilization of penicillium duponti enzyme on reconstituted collagen and the use of the immobilized-enzyme complex for solubilizing vegetable protein in a recycle reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Adu-amankwa, B.; Constantinides, A.; Vieth, W.R.

    1981-11-01

    Penicillium duponti enzyme was immobilized on reconstituted collagen by macromolecular complexation, impregnation, and covalent crosslinking techniques. The immobilization of the enzyme on collagen has a twofold purpose: 1) providing a protein microenvironment for the proteolytic enzyme; and 2) extending the useful life of the enzyme once immobilized on the collagen matrix. Two types of collagen were used, one produced by the United States Department of Agriculture and the other produced by FMC. The USDA collagen contained unhydrolyzed telopeptide linkages and required pretreatment to reduce collagenaselike activity of the enzyme. Activity analysis of the immobilized enzyme complex showed that membranes with enzyme loading less than 10 mg enzyme/gram of wet membrane in the reactor were dimensionally stable. The degree of crosslinking was an important parameter. Membranes with structural openings up to three times the initial dry thickness were found to be the maximum limit for controlled release of enzyme from the collagen membrane during enzymatic reaction. Higher activities and better stability of the enzyme in collagen membrane were found for covalent crosslinking of the enzyme to treated collagen films. The hydrolysis of soybean vegetable protein with the immobilized enzyme in a recycle reactor at enzyme loading of 7 mg/gram of wet membrane at 40 degrees Celcius, pH 3.4, produced 56.5% of soluble protein in 10 hours. The production is equivalent to 1.84 hours total contact time between the substrate and the immobilized enzyme. The average productivity based on a stable enzyme activity and 20 grams of dry membrane was 329 mg of protein/h/mg of active enzyme immobilized. The productivity of the free enzyme in a batch reactor was 62.5 mg protein/h/mg enzyme. (Refs. 14)

  19. Membrane reactor technology for C5/C6 hydroisomerization.

    PubMed

    McLeary, E E; Buijsse, E J W; Gora, L; Jansen, J C; Maschmeyer, Th

    2005-04-15

    In this paper, we propose an improved hydroisomerization process, making use of membrane reactor technology. Linear alkanes are selectively supplied from a hydrocarbon feed (consisting of branched and linear alkanes) through an inert tubular membrane to a packed bed of catalyst. The results indicate that n-, mono- and di-branched components in a gas mixture can be separated with a selectivity factor of greater than 20 with a zeolite membrane under dedicated parameter settings. The RON-value of the product was calculated to be as high as 90 in a single pass reactor, which is 50 points higher than the feed value. The flux through the membrane could be optimized to give a STY/ATY ratio for the reactor of 877 m-1, which falls within the limits of technical feasibility.

  20. Solid state oxygen anion and electron mediating membrane and catalytic membrane reactors containing them

    DOEpatents

    Schwartz, Michael; White, James H.; Sammels, Anthony F.

    2000-01-01

    This invention relates to gas-impermeable, solid state materials fabricated into membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors. This invention particularly relates to solid state oxygen anion- and electron-mediating membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors for promoting partial or full oxidation of different chemical species, for decomposition of oxygen-containing species, and for separation of oxygen from other gases. Solid state materials for use in the membranes of this invention include mixed metal oxide compounds having the brownmillerite crystal structure.

  1. Solid state oxygen anion and electron mediating membrane and catalytic membrane reactors containing them

    DOEpatents

    Schwartz, Michael; White, James H.; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2005-09-27

    This invention relates to gas-impermeable, solid state materials fabricated into membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors. This invention particularly relates to solid state oxygen anion- and electron-mediating membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors for promoting partial or full oxidation of different chemical species, for decomposition of oxygen-containing species, and for separation of oxygen from other gases. Solid state materials for use in the membranes of this invention include mixed metal oxide compounds having the brownmillerite crystal structure.

  2. High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, T.T.

    1992-01-01

    In this project we intend to study a novel process concept, i.e, the use of ceramic membranes reactors in upgrading of coal derived liquids. Membrane reactors have been used in a number of catalytic reaction processes in order to overcome the limitations on conversion imposed by thermodynamic equilibrium. They have, furthermore, the inherent capability for combining reaction and separation in a single step. Thus they offer promise for improving and optimizing yield, selectivity and performance of processes involving complex liquids, as those typically found in coal liquid upgrading. Ceramic membranes are a new class of materials, which have shown promise in a variety of industrial applications. Their mechanical and chemical stability coupled with a wide range of operating temperatures and pressures make them suitable for environments found in coal liquid upgrading. In this project we will evaluate the performance of Sol-Gel alumina membranes in coal liquid upgrading processes under realistic temperature and pressure conditions and investigate the feasibility of using such membranes in a membrane reactor based coal liquid upgrading process. In addition, the development of novel ceramic membranes with enhanced catalytic activity for coal-liquid upgrading applications, such as carbon-coated alumina membranes, will be also investigated.

  3. High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, T.T.

    1992-01-01

    In this project we intend to study a novel process concept, i.e.,the use of ceramic membranes reactors in upgrading of coal derived liquids. Membrane reactors have been used in a number of catalytic reaction processes in order to overcome the limitations on conversion imposed by thermodynamic equilibrium. They have, furthermore, the inherent capability for combining reaction and separation in a single step. Thus they offer promise for improving and optimizing yield, selectivity and performance of processes involving complex liquids, as those typically found in coal liquid upgrading. Ceramic membranes are a new class of materials, which have shown promise in a variety of industrial applications. Their mechanical and chemical stability coupled with a wide range of operating temperatures and pressures make them suitable for environments found in coal liquid upgrading. In this project we wig evaluate the performance of Sel-Gel alumina membranes in coal liquid upgrading processes under realistic temperature and pressure conditions and investigate the feasibility of using such membranes in a membrane reactor based coal liquid upgrading process. In addition, the development of novel ceramic membranes with enhanced catalytic activity for coal-liquid upgrading applications, such as carbon-coated alumina membranes, will be also investigated.

  4. Hybrid Adsorption-Membrane Biological Reactors for Improved Performance and Reliability of Perchlorate Removal Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    carbon supply for the autotrophic perchlorate reducing bacteria. The membrane used in the reactor is a hollow-fiber microfiltration membrane made from...1 HYBRID ADSORPTION- MEMBRANE BIOLOGICAL REACTORS FOR IMPROVED PERFORMANCE AND RELIABILITY OF PERCHLORATE REMOVAL PROCESSES L.C. Schideman...Center Champaign, IL 61826, USA ABSTRACT This study introduces the novel HAMBgR process (Hybrid Adsorption Membrane Biological Reactor) and

  5. Ceramic membrane reactor with two reactant gases at different pressures

    DOEpatents

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Mieville, Rodney L.

    2001-01-01

    The invention is a ceramic membrane reactor for syngas production having a reaction chamber, an inlet in the reactor for natural gas intake, a plurality of oxygen permeating ceramic slabs inside the reaction chamber with each slab having a plurality of passages paralleling the gas flow for transporting air through the reaction chamber, a manifold affixed to one end of the reaction chamber for intake of air connected to the slabs, a second manifold affixed to the reactor for removing the oxygen depleted air, and an outlet in the reaction chamber for removing syngas.

  6. Functionalized anodic aluminum oxide membrane-electrode system for enzyme immobilization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jianjun; Singh, Shanteri; Peltier-Pain, Pauline; Thorson, Jon S; Hinds, Bruce J

    2014-08-26

    A nanoporous membrane system with directed flow carrying reagents to sequentially attached enzymes to mimic nature’s enzyme complex system was demonstrated. Genetically modified glycosylation enzyme, OleD Loki variant, was immobilized onto nanometer-scale electrodes at the pore entrances/exits of anodic aluminum oxide membranes through His6-tag affinity binding. The enzyme activity was assessed in two reactions—a one-step “reverse” sugar nucleotide formation reaction (UDP-Glc) and a two-step sequential sugar nucleotide formation and sugar nucleotide-based glycosylation reaction. For the one-step reaction, enzyme specific activity of 6–20 min(–1) on membrane supports was seen to be comparable to solution enzyme specific activity of 10 min(–1). UDP-Glc production efficiencies as high as 98% were observed at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min, at which the substrate residence time over the electrode length down pore entrances was matched to the enzyme activity rate. This flow geometry also prevented an unwanted secondary product hydrolysis reaction, as observed in the test homogeneous solution. Enzyme utilization increased by a factor of 280 compared to test homogeneous conditions due to the continuous flow of fresh substrate over the enzyme. To mimic enzyme complex systems, a two-step sequential reaction using OleD Loki enzyme was performed at membrane pore entrances then exits. After UDP-Glc formation at the entrance electrode, aglycon 4-methylumbelliferone was supplied at the exit face of the reactor, affording overall 80% glycosylation efficiency. The membrane platform showed the ability to be regenerated with purified enzyme as well as directly from expression crude, thus demonstrating a single-step immobilization and purification process.

  7. Reactor process using metal oxide ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Marc A.

    1994-01-01

    A reaction vessel for use in photoelectrochemical reactions includes as its reactive surface a metal oxide porous ceramic membrane of a catalytic metal such as titanium. The reaction vessel includes a light source and a counter electrode. A provision for applying an electrical bias between the membrane and the counter electrode permits the Fermi levels of potential reaction to be favored so that certain reactions may be favored in the vessel. The electrical biasing is also useful for the cleaning of the catalytic membrane. Also disclosed is a method regenerating a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane used in a photoelectrochemical catalytic process by periodically removing the reactants and regenerating the membrane using a variety of chemical, thermal, and electrical techniques.

  8. Reactor process using metal oxide ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, M.A.

    1994-05-03

    A reaction vessel for use in photoelectrochemical reactions includes as its reactive surface a metal oxide porous ceramic membrane of a catalytic metal such as titanium. The reaction vessel includes a light source and a counter electrode. A provision for applying an electrical bias between the membrane and the counter electrode permits the Fermi levels of potential reaction to be favored so that certain reactions may be favored in the vessel. The electrical biasing is also useful for the cleaning of the catalytic membrane. Also disclosed is a method regenerating a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane used in a photoelectrochemical catalytic process by periodically removing the reactants and regenerating the membrane using a variety of chemical, thermal, and electrical techniques. 2 figures.

  9. Hydrogen Production via a Commercially Ready Inorganic membrane Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Paul K.T. Liu

    2005-08-23

    Single stage low-temperature-shift water-gas-shift (WGS-LTS) via a membrane reactor (MR) process was studied through both mathematical simulation and experimental verification in this quarter. Our proposed MR yields a reactor size that is 10 to >55% smaller than the comparable conventional reactor for a CO conversion of 80 to 90%. In addition, the CO contaminant level in the hydrogen produced via MR ranges from 1,000 to 4,000 ppm vs 40,000 to >70,000 ppm via the conventional reactor. The advantages of the reduced WGS reactor size and the reduced CO contaminant level provide an excellent opportunity for intensification of the hydrogen production process by the proposed MR. To prepare for the field test planned in Yr III, a significant number (i.e., 98) of full-scale membrane tubes have been produced with an on-spec ratio of >76% during this first production trial. In addition, an innovative full-scale membrane module has been designed, which can potentially deliver >20 to 30 m{sup 2}/module making it suitable for large-scale applications, such as power generation. Finally, we have verified our membrane performance and stability in a refinery pilot testing facility on a hydrocracker purge gas. No change in membrane performance was noted over the >100 hrs of testing conducted in the presence of >30% H{sub 2}S, >5,000 ppm NH{sub 3} (estimated), and heavy hydrocarbons on the order of 25%. The high stability of these membranes opens the door for the use of our membrane in the WGS environment with significantly reduced pretreatment burden.

  10. [Hydrolyzed lactose contained in the ultrafiltrate of milk or milk products in an enzymatic membrane reactor].

    PubMed

    Roger, L; Maubois, J L; Thapon, J L; Brule, G

    1978-01-01

    Milk and milk by-products with a low lactose content, very interesting from a nutritional and technological point of view, were obtained by the application of the enzymatic membrane reactor technique. A previous separation of the aqueous phase of milk or ultrafiltrate was necessary and realized by ultrafiltration. The enzyme, a commercial beta-galactosidase, was maintained in solution in the retentate part of the membrane reactor. The optimal conditions of the lactose hydrolysis in milk and whey ultrafiltrates were determined. The behaviour of the aqueous phase of milk in membrane reactor, specially of mineral salts, was studied. Three possibilities were proposed to avoid a calcium-phosphate deposit on the surface of (and in) the reactor membranes: a precipitation of calcium salts by heating, a partial demineralization by electrodialysis or ion exchange, a calcium complexation by addition of sodium citrate. A continuous process for the lactose hydrolysis of milk and demineralized whey or milk ultrafiltrate was proposed. The organoleptic quality of low lactose milk, before and after heat treatment, was evaluated by a tasting panel. High sweeting syrup, were obtained by concentration of lactose hydrolyzed and demineralized ultrafiltrates. Nutritional aspects of these products are discussed specially from the toxicological point of view of galactose.

  11. Reactor vessel using metal oxide ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Marc A.; Zeltner, Walter A.

    1992-08-11

    A reaction vessel for use in photoelectrochemical reactions includes as its reactive surface a metal oxide porous ceramic membrane of a catalytic metal such as titanium. The reaction vessel includes a light source and a counter electrode. A provision for applying an electrical bias between the membrane and the counter electrode permits the Fermi levels of potential reaction to be favored so that certain reactions may be favored in the vessel. The electrical biasing is also useful for the cleaning of the catalytic membrane.

  12. Potentiality of a ceramic membrane reactor for the laccase-catalyzed removal of bisphenol A from secondary effluents.

    PubMed

    Arca-Ramos, A; Eibes, G; Feijoo, G; Lema, J M; Moreira, M T

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the removal of bisphenol A (BPA) by laccase in a continuous enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR) was investigated. The effects of key parameters, namely, type of laccase, pH, and enzyme activity, were initially evaluated. Once optimal conditions were determined, the continuous removal of the pollutant in an EMR was assessed in synthetic and real biologically treated wastewaters. The reactor configuration consisted of a stirred tank reactor coupled to a ceramic membrane, which prevented the sorption of the pollutant and allowed the recovery and recycling of laccase. Nearly complete removal of BPA was attained under both operation regimes with removal yields above 94.5 %. In experiments with real wastewater, the removal of BPA remained high while the presence of colloids and certain ions and the formation of precipitates on the membrane potentially affected enzyme stability and made necessary the periodic addition of laccase. Polymerization and degradation were observed as probable mechanisms of BPA transformation by laccase.

  13. High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, T.T.

    1992-01-01

    In this project we will study a novel process concept, i.e., the use of ceramic membrane reactors in upgrading of coal model compounds and coal derived liquids. In general terms, the USC research team is responsible for constructing and operating the membrane reactor apparatus and for testing various inorganic membranes for the upgrading of coal derived asphaltenes and coal model compounds. The USC effort will involve the principal investigator of this project and two graduate research assistants. The ALCOA team is responsible for the preparation of the inorganic membranes, for construction and testing of the ceramic membrane modules, and for measurement of their transport properties. The ALCOA research effort will involve Dr. Paul K. T. Liu, who is the project manager of the ALCOA research team, an engineer and a technician. UNOCAL's contribution will be limited to overall technical assistance in catalyst preparation and the operation of the laboratory upgrading membrane reactor and for analytical back-up and expertise in oil analysis and materials characterization. UNOCAL is a no-cost contractor but will be involved in all aspects of the project, as deemed appropriate.

  14. Enzymatic cleaning of biofouled thin-film composite reverse osmosis (RO) membrane operated in a biofilm membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohiuddin; Danielsen, Steffen; Johansen, Katja; Lorenz, Lindsey; Nelson, Sara; Camper, Anne

    2014-02-01

    Application of environmentally friendly enzymes to remove thin-film composite (TFC) reverse osmosis (RO) membrane biofoulants without changing the physico-chemical properties of the RO surface is a challenging and new concept. Eight enzymes from Novozyme A/S were tested using a commercially available biofouling-resistant TFC polyamide RO membrane (BW30, FilmTech Corporation, Dow Chemical Co.) without filtration in a rotating disk reactor system operated for 58 days. At the end of the operation, the accumulated biofoulants on the TFC RO surfaces were treated with the three best enzymes, Subtilisin protease and lipase; dextranase; and polygalacturonase (PG) based enzymes, at neutral pH (~7) and doses of 50, 100, and 150 ppm. Contact times were 18 and 36 h. Live/dead staining, epifluorescence microscopy measurements, and 5 μm thick cryo-sections of enzyme and physically treated biofouled membranes revealed that Subtilisin protease- and lipase-based enzymes at 100 ppm and 18 h contact time were optimal for removing most of the cells and proteins from the RO surface. Culturable cells inside the biofilm declined by more than five logs even at the lower dose (50 ppm) and shorter incubation period (18 h). Subtilisin protease- and lipase-based enzyme cleaning at 100 ppm and for 18 h contact time restored the hydrophobicity of the TFC RO surface to its virgin condition while physical cleaning alone resulted in a 50° increase in hydrophobicity. Moreover, at this optimum working condition, the Subtilisin protease- and lipase-based enzyme treatment of biofouled RO surface also restored the surface roughness measured with atomic force microscopy and the mass percentage of the chemical compositions on the TFC surface estimated with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to its virgin condition. This novel study will encourage the further development and application of enzymes to remove biofoulants on the RO surface without changing its surface properties.

  15. System and method for air temperature control in an oxygen transport membrane based reactor

    DOEpatents

    Kelly, Sean M

    2016-09-27

    A system and method for air temperature control in an oxygen transport membrane based reactor is provided. The system and method involves introducing a specific quantity of cooling air or trim air in between stages in a multistage oxygen transport membrane based reactor or furnace to maintain generally consistent surface temperatures of the oxygen transport membrane elements and associated reactors. The associated reactors may include reforming reactors, boilers or process gas heaters.

  16. System and method for temperature control in an oxygen transport membrane based reactor

    DOEpatents

    Kelly, Sean M.

    2017-02-21

    A system and method for temperature control in an oxygen transport membrane based reactor is provided. The system and method involves introducing a specific quantity of cooling air or trim air in between stages in a multistage oxygen transport membrane based reactor or furnace to maintain generally consistent surface temperatures of the oxygen transport membrane elements and associated reactors. The associated reactors may include reforming reactors, boilers or process gas heaters.

  17. Enzyme-Embedded, Microstructural Reactors for Industrial Biocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Sarah E.; Knipe, J. M.; Oakdale, J.; Stolaroff, J.

    2016-10-04

    In this project we explored enzyme-catalyzed methane conversion to methanol. Industrial biological approaches to methane conversion using whole organisms are predicted to be more energy efficient than chemical approaches, but are limited by mass transfer of the gas phase reactants, methane and oxygen, to the organisms. We demonstrated that 3D printing the enzyme particulate Methane Mono Oxygenase (pMMO) embedded in a polymer can improve the kinetics of methane to methanol conversion. This improvement was likely due to the ability to increase the surface area of the catalytic material using 3D printing. We also demonstrated the first continuous use of pMMO in a flow-through reactor. In order to understand the fundamental kinetic properties of pMMO, we conducted an in-depth study of pMMO kinetics using analytical tools developed in our lab. Finally, we developed a new copolymer system that allowed tuning of the gas permeability of the biocatalytic material.

  18. High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, T.T.

    1992-06-19

    Ceramic membranes are a new class of materials, which have shown promise in a variety of industrial applications. Their mechanical and chemical stability coupled with a wide range of operating temperatures and pressures make them suitable for environments found in coal liquid upgrading. In this project we will evaluate the performance of Sel-Gel alumina membranes in coal liquid upgrading processes under realistic temperature and pressure conditions and investigate the feasibility of using such membranes in a membrane reactor based coal liquid upgrading process. In addition, the development of novel ceramic membranes with enhanced catalytic activity for coal-liquid upgrading applications, such as carbon-coated alumina membranes, will be also investigated.

  19. High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, T.T.

    1992-06-19

    Ceramic membranes are a new class of materials, which have shown promise in a variety of industrial applications. Their mechanical and chemical stability coupled with a wide range of operating temperatures and pressures make them suitable for environments found in coal liquid upgrading. In this project we will evaluate the performance of Sel-Gel alumina membranes in coal liquid upgrading processes under realistic temperature and pressure conditions and investigate the feasibility of using such membranes in a membrane reactor based coal liquid upgrading process. In addition, the development of novel ceramic membranes with enhanced catalytic activity for coal-liquid upgrading applications, such as carbon-coated alumina membranes, will be also investigated.

  20. High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, T.T.

    1992-06-19

    Ceramic membranes are a new class of materials, which have shown promise in a variety of industrial applications. Their mechanical and chemical stability coupled with a wide range of operating temperatures and pressures make them suitable for environments found in coal liquid upgrading. In this project we will evaluate the performance of Sel-Gel alumina membranes in coal liquid upgrading processes under realistic temperature and pressure conditions and investigate the feasibility of using such membranes in a membrane reactor based coal liquid upgrading process. In addition, the development of novel ceramic membranes with enhanced catalytic activity for coal-liquid upgrading applications, such as carbon-coated alumina membranes, will also be investigated.

  1. Biocatalytic membrane reactors: applications and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Giorno, L; Drioli, E

    2000-08-01

    Membranes and biotechnological tools can be used for improving traditional production systems to maintain the sustainable growth of society. Typical examples include: new and improved foodstuffs, in which the desired nutrients are not lost during thermal treatment; novel pharmaceutical products with well-defined enantiomeric compositions; and the treatment of waste-water, wherein pollution by traditional processes is a problem.

  2. Simulation of Water Gas Shift Zeolite Membrane Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makertiharta, I. G. B. N.; Rizki, Z.; Zunita, Megawati; Dharmawijaya, P. T.

    2017-07-01

    The search of alternative energy sources keeps growing from time to time. Various alternatives have been introduced to reduce the use of fossil fuel, including hydrogen. Many pathways can be used to produce hydrogen. Among all of those, the Water Gas Shift (WGS) reaction is the most common pathway to produce high purity hydrogen. The WGS technique faces a downstream processing challenge due to the removal hydrogen from the product stream itself since it contains a mixture of hydrogen, carbon dioxide and also the excess reactants. An integrated process using zeolite membrane reactor has been introduced to improve the performance of the process by selectively separate the hydrogen whilst boosting the conversion. Furthermore, the zeolite membrane reactor can be further improved via optimizing the process condition. This paper discusses the simulation of Zeolite Membrane Water Gas Shift Reactor (ZMWGSR) with variation of process condition to achieve an optimum performance. The simulation can be simulated into two consecutive mechanisms, the reaction prior to the permeation of gases through the zeolite membrane. This paper is focused on the optimization of the process parameters (e.g. temperature, initial concentration) and also membrane properties (e.g. pore size) to achieve an optimum product specification (concentration, purity).

  3. High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, T.T.

    1992-01-01

    Membrane reactors have been used in a number of catalytic reaction processes in order to overcome the limitations on conversion imposed by thermodynamic equilibrium. Having the inherent capability for combining reaction and separation in a single step, they offer promise for improving and optimizing yield, selectivity and performance of processes involving complex liquids, such as these typically found in coal liquid upgrading. Ceramic membranes are a new class of materials, which have shown promise in a variety of industrial applications. Their mechanical and chemical stability coupled with a wide range of operating temperatures and pressures make them suitable for environments found in coal liquid upgrading. This project will evaluate the performance of Sol-Gel alumina membranes in coal liquid upgrading processes under realistic temperature and pressure conditions and investigate the feasibility of using such membranes in a membrane reactor based coal liquid upgrading process. Development of novel ceramic membranes with enhanced catalytic activity for coal-liquid upgrading applications, such as carbon-coated alumina membranes, will be also investigated.

  4. Enzyme catalytic membrane based on a hybrid mesoporous membrane.

    PubMed

    Fu, Wensheng; Yamaguchi, Akira; Kaneda, Hideaki; Teramae, Norio

    2008-02-21

    Immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOD) within a hybrid mesoporous membrane with 12 nm pore diameter was successfully achieved, resulting in catalytically high efficiency during flow of a glucose solution across the membrane.

  5. Lipase immobilized catalytically active membrane for synthesis of lauryl stearate in a pervaporation membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weidong; Qing, Weihua; Ren, Zhongqi; Li, Wei; Chen, Jiangrong

    2014-11-01

    A composite catalytically active membrane immobilized with Candida rugosa lipase has been prepared by immersion phase inversion technique for enzymatic synthesis of lauryl stearate in a pervaporation membrane reactor. SEM images showed that a "sandwich-like" membrane structure with a porous lipase-PVA catalytic layer uniformly coated on a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/polyethersulfone (PES) bilayer was obtained. Optimum conditions for lipase immobilization in the catalytic layer were determined. The membrane was proved to exhibit superior thermal stability, pH stability and reusability than free lipase under similar conditions. In the case of pervaporation coupled synthesis of lauryl stearate, benefited from in-situ water removal by the membrane, a conversion enhancement of approximately 40% was achieved in comparison to the equilibrium conversion obtained in batch reactors. In addition to conversion enhancement, it was also found that excess water removal by the catalytically active membrane appears to improve activity of the lipase immobilized.

  6. Catalytic membrane reactor for water and wastewater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heng, Samuel

    A double membrane reactor was fabricated and assessed for continuous treatment of water containing organic contaminants by ozonation. This innovative reactor consisted of a zeolite membrane prepared on the inner surface of a porous a-alumina support, which served as water selective extractor and active contactor, and a porous stainless membrane which was the ozone gas diffuser. The coupling of membrane separation and chemical oxidation was found to be highly beneficial to both processes. The total organic carbon (TOC) removal rate at the retentate was enhanced by up to 2.2 times, as compared to membrane ozonation. Simultaneously, clean water (< 2 mg C.L-1 ) was consistently produced on the permeate side, using a feed solution containing up to 1000 mg C.L-1, while the retentate was concentrated and treated. Most significantly, the addition of an adsorbing material, as a bed or a coated layer, onto the pores of the membrane support, was shown to further enhance TOC degradation, permeated TOC concentration, permeate flux, and moreover, ozone yield. The achievements of this project included: (1) The development of a novel low-temperature zeolite membrane activation method that generates consistently high quality membranes (i.e. high reproducibility and fewer defects). (2) The demonstration that gamma-alumina and gamma-alumina supported catalysts do not have significant activity and that the TOC removal enhancement usually observed during catalytic ozonation was due primarily to the contribution of adsorption and metal leaching. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and elemental analysis (EA) of the spent catalyst showed that, during catalytic ozonation, oxygenated by-products of increased adsorbability were concentrated onto the gamma-alumina contactor, and were subsequently degraded. (3) The development of a method for coating high surface area gamma-alumina layers onto the grains of zeolite membrane support used as the active membrane contactor.

  7. One Step Biomass Gas Reforming-Shift Separation Membrane Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Michael J.; Souleimanova, Razima

    2012-12-28

    GTI developed a plan where efforts were concentrated in 4 major areas: membrane material development, membrane module development, membrane process development, and membrane gasifier scale-up. GTI assembled a team of researchers to work in each area. Task 1.1 Ceramic Membrane Synthesis and Testing was conducted by Arizona State University (ASU), Task 1.2 Metallic Membrane Synthesis and Testing was conducted by the U.S. National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Task 1.3 was conducted by SCHOTT, and GTI was to test all membranes that showed potential. The initial focus of the project was concentrated on membrane material development. Metallic and glass-based membranes were identified as hydrogen selective membranes under the conditions of the biomass gasification, temperatures above 700C and pressures up to 30 atmospheres. Membranes were synthesized by arc-rolling for metallic type membranes and incorporating Pd into a glass matrix for glass membranes. Testing for hydrogen permeability properties were completed and the effects of hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide were investigated for perspective membranes. The initial candidate membrane of Pd80Cu20 chosen in 2008 was selected for preliminary reactor design and cost estimates. Although the H2A analysis results indicated a $1.96 cost per gge H2 based on a 5A (micron) thick PdCu membrane, there was not long-term operation at the required flux to satisfy the go/no go decision. Since the future PSA case yielded a $2.00/gge H2, DOE decided that there was insufficient savings compared with the already proven PSA technology to further pursue the membrane reactor design. All ceramic membranes synthesized by ASU during the project showed low hydrogen flux as compared with metallic membranes. The best ceramic membrane showed hydrogen permeation flux of 0.03 SCFH/ft2 at the required process conditions while the metallic membrane, Pd80Cu20 showed a flux of 47.2 SCFH/ft2 (3 orders of magnitude difference). Results from

  8. Advanced Water-Gas Shift Membrane Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sean Emerson; Thomas Vanderspurt; Susanne Opalka; Rakesh Radhakrishnan; Rhonda Willigan

    2009-01-07

    The overall objectives for this project were: (1) to identify a suitable PdCu tri-metallic alloy membrane with high stability and commercially relevant hydrogen permeation in the presence of trace amounts of carbon monoxide and sulfur; and (2) to identify and synthesize a water gas shift catalyst with a high operating life that is sulfur and chlorine tolerant at low concentrations of these impurities. This work successfully achieved the first project objective to identify a suitable PdCu tri-metallic alloy membrane composition, Pd{sub 0.47}Cu{sub 0.52}G5{sub 0.01}, that was selected based on atomistic and thermodynamic modeling alone. The second objective was partially successful in that catalysts were identified and evaluated that can withstand sulfur in high concentrations and at high pressures, but a long operating life was not achieved at the end of the project. From the limited durability testing it appears that the best catalyst, Pt-Re/Ce{sub 0.333}Zr{sub 0.333}E4{sub 0.333}O{sub 2}, is unable to maintain a long operating life at space velocities of 200,000 h{sup -1}. The reasons for the low durability do not appear to be related to the high concentrations of H{sub 2}S, but rather due to the high operating pressure and the influence the pressure has on the WGS reaction at this space velocity.

  9. Synthesis of polyaluminum chloride with a membrane reactor: process characteristics and membrane fouling.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhiqian; He, Fei; Liu, Zhongzhou

    2011-01-01

    Polyaluminum chloride was synthesized with a membrane reactor, in which NaOH was added into AlCl3 solution through the membrane's micropores to reduce the NaOH droplets size. The content of the most efficient species increased to about 80%. The process characteristics in the reaction (i.e., flow velocity, pressure drop), and membrane fouling and cleaning were investigated. The evolution of both flow velocity and pressure drop during the reaction were related to changes in species distribution and solution viscosity. The process characteristics were well interpreted in terms of the Bernoulli equation. After reaction, the membranes were recovered by cleaning with diluted hydrochloride acid. This study is crucial for process design and scale-up of membrane reactors.

  10. APPLICATION OF MEMBRANE SORPTION REACTOR TECHNOLOGY FOR LRW MANAGEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Glagolenko, Yuri; Dzekun, Evgeny; Myasoedovg, Boris; Gelis, Vladimir; Kozlitin, Evgeny; Milyutin, Vitaly; Trusov, Lev; Rengel, Mike; Mackay, Stewart M.; Johnson, Michael E.

    2003-02-27

    A new membrane-sorption technology has been recently developed and industrially implemented in Russia for the treatment of the Liquid (Low-Level) Radioactive Waste (LRW). The first step of the technology is a precipitation of the radionuclides and/or their adsorption onto sorbents of small particle size. The second step is filtration of the precipitate/sorbent through the metal-ceramic membrane, Trumem.. The unique feature of the technology is a Membrane-Sorption Reactor (MSR), in which the precipitation / sorption and the filtration of the radionuclides occur simultaneously, in one stage. This results in high efficiency, high productivity and compactness of the equipment, which are the obvious advantages of the developed technology. Two types of MSR based on Flat Membranes device and Centrifugal Membrane device were developed. The advantages and disadvantages of application of each type of the reactors are discussed. The MSR technology has been extensively tested and efficiently implemented at ''Mayak '' nuclear facility near Chelyabinsk, Russia as well as at other Russian sites. The results of this and other applications of the MSR technology at the different Russian nuclear facilities are discussed. The results of the first industrial applications of the MSR technology for radioactive waste treatment in Russia and analysis of the available information about LRW accumulated in other countries imply that this technology can be successfully used for the Low Level Radioactive Waste treatment in the USA and in other nuclear countries.

  11. Membrane reactor/separator: A design for bimolecular reactant addition

    SciTech Connect

    Tonkovich, A.L.Y.; Secker, R.B.; Reed, E.L.

    1995-04-01

    A membrane reactor (MBR) is used to investigate the effect of selective reactant addition on series-parallel reaction networks, such as the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane to ethylene. Ethylene is favored in an oxygen-lean environment, while excess oxygen favors the formation of combustion products. Control of the reactant ratio (ethane to oxygen) is crucial to both the overall selectivity and the hydrocarbon conversion. Traditional reactor designs co-feed the biomolecular reactants at the top of the reactor at some preset feed ratio. The MBR uses a tube (porous alumina membrane) and shell configuration. One reactant is fed at the top of the MBR, which leads to high selectivities; as the oxygen is consumed, it is replenished via downstream permeation to improve the ethane conversion. The MBR and a plug flow reactor (PFR) are evaluated at 600{degrees}C, with identical space velocities, and using a magnesium oxide catalyst doped with samarium oxide. At low to moderate reactant feed ratios, the ethylene yield in the MBR exceeds the PFR by a factor of three, under some conditions. At higher feed ratios, the performance of the PFR nears or exceeds the performance of the MBR.

  12. Membrane contactor/separator for an advanced ozone membrane reactor for treatment of recalcitrant organic pollutants in water

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Wai Kit; Joueet, Justine; Heng, Samuel; Yeung, King Lun; Schrotter, Jean-Christophe

    2012-05-15

    An advanced ozone membrane reactor that synergistically combines membrane distributor for ozone gas, membrane contactor for pollutant adsorption and reaction, and membrane separator for clean water production is described. The membrane reactor represents an order of magnitude improvement over traditional semibatch reactor design and is capable of complete conversion of recalcitrant endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in water at less than three minutes residence time. Coating the membrane contactor with alumina and hydrotalcite (Mg/Al=3) adsorbs and traps the organics in the reaction zone resulting in 30% increase of total organic carbon (TOC) removal. Large surface area coating that diffuses surface charges from adsorbed polar organic molecules is preferred as it reduces membrane polarization that is detrimental to separation. - Graphical abstract: Advanced ozone membrane reactor synergistically combines membrane distributor for ozone, membrane contactor for sorption and reaction and membrane separator for clean water production to achieve an order of magnitude enhancement in treatment performance compared to traditional ozone reactor. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel reactor using membranes for ozone distributor, reaction contactor and water separator. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Designed to achieve an order of magnitude enhancement over traditional reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and hydrotalcite coatings capture and trap pollutants giving additional 30% TOC removal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High surface area coating prevents polarization and improves membrane separation and life.

  13. Effectiveness Factors and Conversion in a Biocatalytic Membrane Reactor.

    PubMed

    Godongwana, Buntu

    2016-01-01

    Analytical expressions of the effectiveness factor of a biocatalytic membrane reactor, and its asymptote as the Thiele modulus becomes large, are presented. The evaluation of the effectiveness factor is based on the solution of the governing equations for solute transport in the two regions of the reactor, i.e. the lumen and the matrix (with the biofilm immobilized in the matrix). The lumen solution accounts for both axial diffusion and radial convective flow, while the matrix solution is based on Robin-type boundary conditions. The effectiveness factor is shown to be a function of the Thiele modulus, the partition coefficient, the Sherwood number, the Peclet number, and membrane thickness. Three regions of Thiele moduli are defined in the effectiveness factor graphs. These correspond with reaction rate limited, internal-diffusion limited, and external mass transfer limited solute transport. Radial convective flows were shown to only improve the effectiveness factor in the region of internal diffusion limitation. The assumption of first order kinetics is shown to be applicable only in the Thiele modulus regions of internal and external mass transfer limitation. An iteration scheme is also presented for estimating the effectiveness factor when the solute fractional conversion is known. The model is validated with experimental data from a membrane gradostat reactor immobilised with Phanerochaete chrysosporium for the production of lignin and manganese peroxidases. The developed model and experimental data allow for the determination of the Thiele modulus at which the effectiveness factor and fractional conversion are optimal.

  14. Effectiveness Factors and Conversion in a Biocatalytic Membrane Reactor

    PubMed Central

    Godongwana, Buntu

    2016-01-01

    Analytical expressions of the effectiveness factor of a biocatalytic membrane reactor, and its asymptote as the Thiele modulus becomes large, are presented. The evaluation of the effectiveness factor is based on the solution of the governing equations for solute transport in the two regions of the reactor, i.e. the lumen and the matrix (with the biofilm immobilized in the matrix). The lumen solution accounts for both axial diffusion and radial convective flow, while the matrix solution is based on Robin-type boundary conditions. The effectiveness factor is shown to be a function of the Thiele modulus, the partition coefficient, the Sherwood number, the Peclet number, and membrane thickness. Three regions of Thiele moduli are defined in the effectiveness factor graphs. These correspond with reaction rate limited, internal-diffusion limited, and external mass transfer limited solute transport. Radial convective flows were shown to only improve the effectiveness factor in the region of internal diffusion limitation. The assumption of first order kinetics is shown to be applicable only in the Thiele modulus regions of internal and external mass transfer limitation. An iteration scheme is also presented for estimating the effectiveness factor when the solute fractional conversion is known. The model is validated with experimental data from a membrane gradostat reactor immobilised with Phanerochaete chrysosporium for the production of lignin and manganese peroxidases. The developed model and experimental data allow for the determination of the Thiele modulus at which the effectiveness factor and fractional conversion are optimal. PMID:27104954

  15. Development of Novel Water-Gas Shift Membrane Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, W. S. Winston

    2004-12-29

    This report summarizes the objectives, technical barrier, approach, and accomplishments for the development of a novel water-gas-shift (WGS) membrane reactor for hydrogen enhancement and CO reduction. We have synthesized novel CO{sub 2}-selective membranes with high CO{sub 2} permeabilities and high CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}/CO selectivities by incorporating amino groups in polymer networks. We have also developed a one-dimensional non-isothermal model for the countercurrent WGS membrane reactor. The modeling results have shown that H{sub 2} enhancement (>99.6% H{sub 2} for the steam reforming of methane and >54% H{sub 2} for the autothermal reforming of gasoline with air on a dry basis) via CO{sub 2} removal and CO reduction to 10 ppm or lower are achievable for synthesis gases. With this model, we have elucidated the effects of system parameters, including CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} selectivity, CO{sub 2} permeability, sweep/feed flow rate ratio, feed temperature, sweep temperature, feed pressure, catalyst activity, and feed CO concentration, on the membrane reactor performance. Based on the modeling study using the membrane data obtained, we showed the feasibility of achieving H{sub 2} enhancement via CO{sub 2} removal, CO reduction to {le} 10 ppm, and high H{sub 2} recovery. Using the membrane synthesized, we have obtained <10 ppm CO in the H{sub 2} product in WGS membrane reactor experiments. From the experiments, we verified the model developed. In addition, we removed CO{sub 2} from a syngas containing 17% CO{sub 2} to about 30 ppm. The CO{sub 2} removal data agreed well with the model developed. The syngas with about 0.1% CO{sub 2} and 1% CO was processed to convert the carbon oxides to methane via methanation to obtain <5 ppm CO in the H{sub 2} product.

  16. Drinking water denitrification by a membrane bio-reactor.

    PubMed

    Nuhogl, Alper; Pekdemir, Turgay; Yildiz, Ergun; Keskinler, Bulent; Akay, Galip

    2002-03-01

    Drinking water denitrification performance of a bench scale membrane bio-reactor (MBR) was investigated as function of hydraulic and biological parameters. The reactor was a stirred tank and operated both in batch and continuous mode. The mixed denitrifying culture used in the batch mode tests was derived from the mixed liquor of a wastewater treatment plant in Erzincan province in Turkey. But the culture used in the continuous mode tests was that obtained from the batch mode tests at the end of the denitrification process. The nitrate contaminated water treated was separated from the mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) containing active mixed denitrifying culture and other organic substances by a membrane of 0.2 microm average pore diameter. The results indicated that the use of a membrane module eliminated the need for additional post treatment processes for the removal of MLSS from the product water. Concentration of nitrite and that of MLSS in the membrane effluent was below the detectable limits. Optimum carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio was found to be 2.2 in batch mode tests. Depending on the process conditions, it was possible to obtain denitrification capacities based on the reactor effluent and membrane effluent up to 0.18kgm(-3)day(-1) and 2.44 kg m(-2) day2(-1) NO(3-)-N, respectively. The variation of the removal capacity with reactor dilution rate and membrane permeate flux was the same for two different degrees of [MLSS]0/[NO3-N]0 (mass) ratios of 25.15 and 49.33. The present MBR was able to produce a drinking water with NO(3-)-N concentration of less than 4 ppm from a water with NO3-N contamination level of 367 ppm equivalent to a NO(3-)-N load of 0.310 kgm(-3) day(-1). The results showed that MBR system used was able to offer NO(3-)-N removals of up to 98.5%. It was found that the membrane limiting permeate flux increased with increasing MLSS concentration.

  17. High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, T.T. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Liu, P.K.T. ); Webster, I.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Membrane reactors are today finding extensive applications for gas and vapor phase catalytic reactions (see discussion in the introduction and recent reviews by Armor [92], Hsieh [93] and Tsotsis et al. [941]). There have not been any published reports, however, of their use in high pressure and temperature liquid-phase applications. The idea to apply membrane reactor technology to coal liquid upgrading has resulted from a series of experimental investigations by our group of petroleum and coal asphaltene transport through model membranes. Coal liquids contain polycyclic aromatic compounds, which not only present potential difficulties in upgrading, storage and coprocessing, but are also bioactive. Direct coal liquefaction is perceived today as a two-stage process, which involves a first stage of thermal (or catalytic) dissolution of coal, followed by a second stage, in which the resulting products of the first stage are catalytically upgraded. Even in the presence of hydrogen, the oil products of the second stage are thought to equilibrate with the heavier (asphaltenic and preasphaltenic) components found in the feedstream. The possibility exists for this smaller molecular fraction to recondense with the unreacted heavy components and form even heavier undesirable components like char and coke. One way to diminish these regressive reactions is to selectively remove these smaller molecular weight fractions once they are formed and prior to recondensation. This can, at least in principle, be accomplished through the use of high temperature membrane reactors, using ceramic membranes which are permselective for the desired products of the coal liquid upgrading process. An additional incentive to do so is in order to eliminate the further hydrogenation and hydrocracking of liquid products to undesirable light gases.

  18. Nanostructured membranes for enzyme catalysis and green synthesis of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Smuleac, Vasile; Varma, Rajender; Baruwati, Babita; Sikdar, Subhas; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar

    2011-12-16

    Macroporous membranes functionalized with ionizable macromolecules provide promising applications in high capacity toxic metal capture, nanoparticle syntheses, and catalysis. Our low-pressure membrane approach has good reaction and separation selectivities, which are tunable by varying pH, ionic strength, or pressure. The sustainable green chemistry approach under ambient conditions and the evaluation of a reactive poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)-modified polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane is described. Two distinct membrane types were obtained through different methods: 1) a stacked membrane through layer-by-layer assembly for the incorporation of enzymes (catalase and glucose oxidase), providing tunable product yields and 2) Fe/Pd nanoparticles for degradation of pollutants, obtained through an in situ green synthesis. Bioreactor-nanodomain interactions and mixed matrix nanocomposite membranes provide remarkable versatility compared to conventional membranes. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Controlled exogenous enzyme imbibition and activation in whole chickpea seed enzyme reactor (SER).

    PubMed

    Kliger, Eynav; Fischer, Lutz; Lutz-Wahl, Sabine; Saguy, I Sam

    2011-05-01

    Chickpeas are of excellent quality (protein, vitamins, minerals, unsaturated fatty acids) and very low in phytoestrogen, making them a potentially promising source for vegetarian-based infant formula (VBIF). However, their high starch and fiber concentration could hinder their utilization for infants. To overcome this natural shortcoming, a solid-state "enzymation" (SSE) process was developed in which imbibition of exogenous enzyme facilitates hydrolysis within the intact chickpea seed. The process was termed seed enzyme reactor (SER). Liquid imbibition data of dry chickpeas during soaking were fitted with the Weibull distribution model. The derived Weibull shape parameter, β, value (0.77 ± 0.11) indicated that the imbibition mechanism followed Fickian diffusion. Imbibition occurred through the coat and external layers. The process was tested using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as an exogenous marker, and involved soaking, thermal treatment, peeling, microwave partial drying, rehydration in enzyme solution, and SSE at an adjusted pH, time, and temperature. Amylases, or a combination of amylases and cellulases, resulted in significant carbohydrate hydrolysis (23% and 47% of the available starch, respectively). In addition, chickpea initial raffinose and stachyose concentration was significantly reduced (91% and 92%, respectively). The process could serve as a proof of concept, requiring additional development and optimization to become a full industrial application.

  20. Supported Pd-Au Membrane Reactor for Hydrogen Production: Membrane Preparation, Characterization and Testing.

    PubMed

    Iulianelli, Adolfo; Alavi, Marjan; Bagnato, Giuseppe; Liguori, Simona; Wilcox, Jennifer; Rahimpour, Mohammad Reza; Eslamlouyan, Reza; Anzelmo, Bryce; Basile, Angelo

    2016-05-09

    A supported Pd-Au (Au 7wt%) membrane was produced by electroless plating deposition. Permeation tests were performed with pure gas (H₂, H₂, N₂, CO₂, CH₄) for long time operation. After around 400 h under testing, the composite Pd-Au membrane achieved steady state condition, with an H₂/N₂ ideal selectivity of around 500 at 420 °C and 50 kPa as transmembrane pressure, remaining stable up to 1100 h under operation. Afterwards, the membrane was allocated in a membrane reactor module for methane steam reforming reaction tests. As a preliminary application, at 420 °C, 300 kPa of reaction pressure, space velocity of 4100 h(-1), 40% methane conversion and 35% hydrogen recovery were reached using a commercial Ni/Al₂O₃ catalyst. Unfortunately, a severe coke deposition affected irreversibly the composite membrane, determining the loss of the hydrogen permeation characteristics of the supported Pd-Au membrane.

  1. Hydrogen Production via a Commerically Ready Inorganic membrane Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Liu

    2007-06-30

    It has been known that use of the hydrogen selective membrane as a reactor (MR) could potentially improve the efficiency of the water shift reaction (WGS), one of the least efficient unit operations for production of high purity hydrogen from syngas. However, no membrane reactor technology has been reduced to industrial practice thus far, in particular for a large-scale operation. This implementation and commercialization barrier is attributed to the lack of a commercially viable hydrogen selective membrane with (1) material stability under the application environment and (2) suitability for large-scale operation. Thus, in this project, we have focused on (1) the deposition of the hydrogen selective carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membrane we have developed on commercially available membranes as substrate, and (2) the demonstration of the economic viability of the proposed WGS-MR for hydrogen production from coal-based syngas. The commercial stainless steel (SS) porous substrate (i.e., ZrO{sub 2}/SS from Pall Corp.) was evaluated comprehensively as the 1st choice for the deposition of the CMS membrane for hydrogen separation. The CMS membrane synthesis protocol we developed previously for the ceramic substrate was adapted here for the stainless steel substrate. Unfortunately no successful hydrogen selective membranes had been prepared during Yr I of this project. The characterization results indicated two major sources of defect present in the SS substrate, which may have contributed to the poor CMS membrane quality. Near the end of the project period, an improved batch of the SS substrate (as the 2nd generation product) was received from the supplier. Our characterization results confirm that leaking of the crimp boundary no longer exists. However, the thermal stability of the ZrO{sub 2}/SS substrate through the CMS membrane preparation condition must be re-evaluated in the future. In parallel with the SS membrane activity, the preparation of the CMS membranes

  2. Enzyme-immobilized reactors for rapid and efficient sample preparation in MS-based proteomic studies.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Masaya

    2013-02-01

    Proteolysis is a key step in proteomic studies integrated with MS analysis but the conventional method of in-solution digestion is limited by time-consuming procedures and low sensitivity. Furthermore, obtaining reliable peptide maps and meaningful sequence data using MS analysis requires not only the separation of the digested peptides but also strictly defined proteolysis conditions. Recently, various immobilized-enzyme reactors have been developed for highly efficient proteolysis in MS-based proteomic analysis. This review focuses on the proteolysis step using protease-immobilized reactors and rapid analysis of protein sequences. We describe the preparation of enzyme reactors by several techniques and protein digestion under unusual conditions. Analysis of posttranslational modifications by enzyme reactors prepared using our immobilization method is presented as a model application. Analysis systems using immobilized-enzyme reactors are expected to become useful tools for proteomic studies and diverse applications in biotechnology.

  3. Membrane bio-reactor for textile wastewater treatment plant upgrading.

    PubMed

    Lubello, C; Gori, R

    2005-01-01

    Textile industries carry out several fiber treatments using variable quantities of water, from five to forty times the fiber weight, and consequently generate large volumes of wastewater to be disposed of. Membrane Bio-reactors (MBRs) combine membrane technology with biological reactors for the treatment of wastewater: micro or ultrafiltration membranes are used for solid-liquid separation replacing the secondary settling of the traditional activated sludge system. This paper deals with the possibility of realizing a new section of one existing WWTP (activated sludge + clariflocculation + ozonation) for the treatment of treating textile wastewater to be recycled, equipped with an MBR (76 l/s as design capacity) and running in parallel with the existing one. During a 4-month experimental period, a pilot-scale MBR proved to be very effective for wastewater reclamation. On average, removal efficiency of the pilot plant (93% for COD, and over 99% for total suspended solids) was higher than the WWTP ones. Color was removed as in the WWTP. Anionic surfactants removal of pilot plant was lower than that of the WWTP (90.5 and 93.2% respectively), while the BiAS removal was higher in the pilot plant (98.2 vs. 97.1). At the end cost analysis of the proposed upgrade is reported.

  4. Development of ceramic membrane reactors for high temperature gas cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.L.; Way, J.D.

    1992-11-01

    The more difficult part of developing a membrane reactor was making a membrane with suitable permselectivity. Since both the ammonia and H{sub 2}S decomposition reactions produce H{sub 2}, we want a membrane that selectively permeates hydrogen. We have taken the approach of coating a substrate that has fine pores (a microfilter or ultrafilter) with a completely dense layer and then (except for palladium coatings) malting super fine pores in the dense layer by leaching or pyrolysis. We used four different substrates (Norton 0.2 alumina monolith, Refractron alumina microfilters, Vycor glass, Alcoa ultrafilter) and five different coating materials (Poly N-methyl silazane, Aremco 617 alumina-based glaze, Polycyclohydridomethyl silazane, Aluminum phosphorus oxides, palladium). Only the palladium films on an alumina ultrafilter could be made regularly with a negligible defect population. The other approaches were plagued with cracks and poor reproducibility. We made palladium films on a tubular alumina ultrafilter (US Filter, Warrendale, PA) by electroless plating from a platinum amine complex solution in hydrazine (Rhoda, 1959). The best results were achieved with an ultrafilter pore size of 100 angstroms and with pretreatment of the surface in a stannic/stannous chloride solution. The films were about 5 microns thick and appeared defect free under electron microscopy. Because defect-free palladium films are infinitely selective to hydrogen with respect to the other components of gasifier product gas, we expect that the selectivity of our palladium films will exceed 1000 even with the inevitable defects that accompany real membranes. We have analyzed the performance and economics of membrane reactors for H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} decomposition using the reaction rates determined experimentally in our catalyst development work and using the permeation behavior of palladium films reported in the literature.

  5. Development of ceramic membrane reactors for high temperature gas cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.L.; Way, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The more difficult part of developing a membrane reactor was making a membrane with suitable permselectivity. Since both the ammonia and H[sub 2]S decomposition reactions produce H[sub 2], we want a membrane that selectively permeates hydrogen. We have taken the approach of coating a substrate that has fine pores (a microfilter or ultrafilter) with a completely dense layer and then (except for palladium coatings) malting super fine pores in the dense layer by leaching or pyrolysis. We used four different substrates (Norton 0.2 alumina monolith, Refractron alumina microfilters, Vycor glass, Alcoa ultrafilter) and five different coating materials (Poly N-methyl silazane, Aremco 617 alumina-based glaze, Polycyclohydridomethyl silazane, Aluminum phosphorus oxides, palladium). Only the palladium films on an alumina ultrafilter could be made regularly with a negligible defect population. The other approaches were plagued with cracks and poor reproducibility. We made palladium films on a tubular alumina ultrafilter (US Filter, Warrendale, PA) by electroless plating from a platinum amine complex solution in hydrazine (Rhoda, 1959). The best results were achieved with an ultrafilter pore size of 100 angstroms and with pretreatment of the surface in a stannic/stannous chloride solution. The films were about 5 microns thick and appeared defect free under electron microscopy. Because defect-free palladium films are infinitely selective to hydrogen with respect to the other components of gasifier product gas, we expect that the selectivity of our palladium films will exceed 1000 even with the inevitable defects that accompany real membranes. We have analyzed the performance and economics of membrane reactors for H[sub 2]S and NH[sub 3] decomposition using the reaction rates determined experimentally in our catalyst development work and using the permeation behavior of palladium films reported in the literature.

  6. Silica-Immobilized Enzyme Reactors; Application to Cholinesterase-Inhibition Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    AFRL-ML-TY-TP-2006-4575 PREPRINT SILICA-IMMOBILIZED ENZYME REACTORS; APPLICATON TO CHOLINESTERASE- INHIBITION STUDIES Heather R...P K 1 g i ( u a i a i e v b c a m p l 1 d Journal of Chromatography B, 843 (2006) 310–316 Silica-immobilized enzyme reactors; application to...method is reported for the preparation of an immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER) using silica-encapsulated equine utyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) as a model

  7. Development of ceramic membrane reactors for high temperature gas cleanup. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.L.; Abraham, I.C.; Blum, Y.; Gottschlich, D.E.; Hirschon, A.; Way, J.D.; Collins, J.

    1993-06-01

    The objective of this project was to develop high temperature, high pressure catalytic ceramic membrane reactors and to demonstrate the feasibility of using these membrane reactors to control gaseous contaminants (hydrogen sulfide and ammonia) in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems. Our strategy was to first develop catalysts and membranes suitable for the IGCC application and then combine these two components as a complete membrane reactor system. We also developed a computer model of the membrane reactor and used it, along with experimental data, to perform an economic analysis of the IGCC application. Our results have demonstrated the concept of using a membrane reactor to remove trace contaminants from an IGCC process. Experiments showed that NH{sub 3} decomposition efficiencies of 95% can be achieved. Our economic evaluation predicts ammonia decomposition costs of less than 1% of the total cost of electricity; improved membranes would give even higher conversions and lower costs.

  8. Combined nitrification/denitrification in a membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Walter, B; Haase, C; Räbiger, N

    2005-08-01

    An ever stricter legislation regulating wastewater leads to an increasing demand for biological treatment plants which are able to selectively eliminate nitrogen from wastewaters with a high influent concentration, even when operating in partial influent mode. A membrane-tube-module (MSM) reactor (Membran-Schlauch-Modul-Reaktor) was constructed and realized in the IUV at the University of Bremen. The present approach makes use of all the various layers of the whole biofilm, enabling nitrification and denitrification processes to run simultaneously in one and the same biofilm under optimized conditions. The biological degradation capacity of the system was first successfully tested with synthetic wastewater, and subsequently in a real application with effluents from a recycling of animal carcasses plant and from a coke-oven plant. A mathematical model was devised which describes this biofilm system. The resulting equations were solved by means of the simulation software AQUASIM.

  9. Catalytic membrane reactor for conversion of syngas to liquid hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Khassin, A.A.

    2005-07-01

    Plug-through catalytically-active contractor membranes can combine high permeability ({gt} 20 m Darcy), high mechanical strength ({gt} 20 kg cm{sup -2}) and high heat-conductivity ({gt} 4 W(mK){sup -1}). Therefore, it provides isothermicity and low pressure drop. The intense mass-transfer within transport pores, high specific area of these pores and small distances between two adjacent transport pores weaken the mass-transfer constraints. Using the PCM one can achieve high space time yield of hydrocarbons and high selectivity towards heavy hydrocarbons and olefins. These advantages allow supposing the effective usage of the PCM catalytic membrane reactors in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Also the same approach could be efficient for some other multiphase catalytic processes, like hydrogenation of the unsaturated fatty acids. 5 figs.

  10. Preparation and application of immobilized enzymatic reactors for consecutive digestion with two enzymes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bingbing; Shangguan, Lulu; Wang, Shulei; Zhang, Lingyi; Zhang, Weibing; Liu, Fan

    2016-12-16

    The bottom up strategy has drawn much attention due to the high accuracy, reliability, and reproducibility in protein identification in which proteins are digested into peptides. However, conventional solution-based digestion and enzymatic reactor with one protease immobilized cannot satisfy high throughput proteolysis of complex samples. Application of consecutive hydrolysis by enzymatic reactor can be a new strategy for high throughput proteolysis of complex samples by adjusting immobilization amount of the enzymes, enzyme ratio, as well as hydrolysis order of two enzymes. In this work, we propose immobilized enzymatic reactor for consecutive digestion with two enzymes by combining two enzyme reactors with trypsin and chymotrypsin immobilized, respectively. Each reactor was prepared individually by immobilizing only one protease (trypsin or chymotrypsin) to hybrid monolith with SBA-15 particles embedded. Proteolysis conditions including hydrolysis order and trypsin to chymotrypsin ratio etc. were studied using standard proteins. Best digestion performance was obtained when the proteins were digested by trypsin first with trypsin to chymotrypsin ratio of 1:1. When applying them to digestion of rat liver proteins, total 1651 proteins and 11011 peptides were identified by combining four enzymolysis strategies with two enzymes including proteolytic digestion in two consecutive enzymatic reactors, synergy enzymolysis with two enzymes in one immobilized enzymatic reactor and consecutive hydrolysis with two enzymes in-solution digestion respectively, in which consecutive enzymolysis in enzymatic reactors gave the best results with 1091 proteins and 5071 peptides identified. The reactors showed good digestion capability for proteins with different hydrophobicity and molecular weights, and will play an important role in high efficient and high throughput proteomics research.

  11. Heterogeneous distribution of enzymes in submicrosomal membrane fragments.

    PubMed

    Dallman, P R; Dallner, G; Bergstrand, A; Ernster, L

    1969-05-01

    Microsomal membranes are postulated to contain either a homogeneous arrangement of individual enzymes or groupings of functionally related enzymes. In the present study we attempt to distinguish between these hypotheses in subfractions of rough microsomes from rat liver. After sonication, the individual vesicles that make up the rough-membrane fraction average less than 1/100 of their previous mass. The vesicles in the sonicated suspension are fractionated roughly according to size on a continuous sucrose gradient. Enzyme activity or concentration in fractions of the gradient is expressed on a phospholipid basis. Fractions containing primarily small vesicles differ from those containing larger vesicles in a manner suggesting a certain degree of separation of NADH-linked from NADPH-linked enzymes. NADH-ferricyanide reductase, NADH-cytochrome c reductase and cytochrome b(5) are most concentrated within the large vesicles in the lowest third of the gradient. In contrast, NADPH-cytochrome c reductase and cytochrome P-450 are found in highest concentration in the small vesicles that make up the upper third of the gradient. The results suggest a nonrandom distribution of these two enzyme groups in the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum.

  12. Immobilization of enzyme into poly(vinyl alcohol) membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Imai, K.; Shiomi, T.; Uchida, K.; Miya, M.

    1986-11-01

    Glucoamylase, invertase, and cellulase were entrapped within poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) membrane cross-linked by means of irradiation of ultraviolet light. The conditions for immobilization of glucoamylase were examined with respect to enzyme concentration in PVA, sensitizer (sodium benzoate) concentration in PVA, irradiation time, and membrane thickness. Various characteristics of immobilized glucoamylase were evaluated. Among them, the pH activity curve for the immobilized enzyme was superior to that for the native one, and thermal stability was improved by immobilization with bovine albumin. The apparent Km was larger for immobilized glucoamylase than for the native one, while Vmax was smaller for the immobilized enzyme. Also, the apparent Km appeared to be affected by the molecular size of the substrate. Further, immobilized invertase and cellulase showed good stabilities in repeating usage. 9 references.

  13. The membrane biofilm reactor: the natural partnership of membranes and biofilm.

    PubMed

    Rittmann, B E

    2006-01-01

    Many exciting new technologies for water-quality control combine microbiological processes with adsorption, advanced oxidation, a membrane or an electrode to improve performance, address emerging contaminants or capture renewable energy. An excellent example is the H2-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR), which delivers H2 gas to a biofilm that naturally accumulates on the outer surface of a bubbleless membrane. Autotrophic bacteria in the biofilm oxidise the H2 and use the electrons to reduce NO3-, CIO4- and other oxidised contaminants. This natural partnership of membranes and biofilm makes it possible to gain many cost, performance and simplicity advantages from using H2 as the electron donor for microbially catalysed reductions. The MBfR has been demonstrated for denitrification in drinking water; reduction of perchlorate in groundwater; reduction of selenate, chromate, trichloroethene and other emerging contaminants; advanced N removal in wastewater treatment and autotrophic total-N removal.

  14. Membrane biofouling mechanism in an aerobic granular reactor degrading 4-chlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Buitrón, Germán; Moreno-Andrade, Iván; Arellano-Badillo, Víctor M; Ramírez-Amaya, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    The membrane fouling of an aerobic granular reactor coupled with a submerged membrane in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was evaluated. The fouling analysis was performed by applying microscopy techniques to determine the morphology and structure of the fouling layer on a polyvinylidene fluoride membrane. It was found that the main cause of fouling was the polysaccharide adsorption on the membrane surface, followed by the growth of microorganisms to form a biofilm.

  15. Water Gas Shift Reaction with A Single Stage Low Temperature Membrane Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ciora, Richard J; Liu, Paul KT

    2013-12-31

    Palladium membrane and Palladium membrane reactor were developed under this project for hydrogen separation and purification for fuel cell applications. A full-scale membrane reactor was designed, constructed and evaluated for the reformate produced from a commercial scale methanol reformer. In addition, the Pd membrane and module developed from this project was successfully evaluated in the field for hydrogen purification for commercial fuel cell applications.

  16. An easily regenerable enzyme reactor prepared from polymerized high internal phase emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Ruan, Guihua; Wu, Zhenwei; Huang, Yipeng; Wei, Meiping; Su, Rihui; Du, Fuyou

    2016-04-22

    A large-scale high-efficient enzyme reactor based on polymerized high internal phase emulsion monolith (polyHIPE) was prepared. First, a porous cross-linked polyHIPE monolith was prepared by in-situ thermal polymerization of a high internal phase emulsion containing styrene, divinylbenzene and polyglutaraldehyde. The enzyme of TPCK-Trypsin was then immobilized on the monolithic polyHIPE. The performance of the resultant enzyme reactor was assessed according to the conversion ability of N{sub α}-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester to N{sub α}-benzoyl-L-arginine, and the protein digestibility of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and cytochrome (Cyt-C). The results showed that the prepared enzyme reactor exhibited high enzyme immobilization efficiency and fast and easy-control protein digestibility. BSA and Cyt-C could be digested in 10 min with sequence coverage of 59% and 78%, respectively. The peptides and residual protein could be easily rinsed out from reactor and the reactor could be regenerated easily with 4 M HCl without any structure destruction. Properties of multiple interconnected chambers with good permeability, fast digestion facility and easily reproducibility indicated that the polyHIPE enzyme reactor was a good selector potentially applied in proteomics and catalysis areas. - Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of preparation of hypercrosslinking polyHIPE immobilized enzyme reactor for on-column protein digestion. - Highlights: • A reactor was prepared and used for enzyme immobilization and continuous on-column protein digestion. • The new polyHIPE IMER was quite suit for protein digestion with good properties. • On-column digestion revealed that the IMER was easy regenerated by HCl without any structure destruction.

  17. An easily regenerable enzyme reactor prepared from polymerized high internal phase emulsions.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Guihua; Wu, Zhenwei; Huang, Yipeng; Wei, Meiping; Su, Rihui; Du, Fuyou

    2016-04-22

    A large-scale high-efficient enzyme reactor based on polymerized high internal phase emulsion monolith (polyHIPE) was prepared. First, a porous cross-linked polyHIPE monolith was prepared by in-situ thermal polymerization of a high internal phase emulsion containing styrene, divinylbenzene and polyglutaraldehyde. The enzyme of TPCK-Trypsin was then immobilized on the monolithic polyHIPE. The performance of the resultant enzyme reactor was assessed according to the conversion ability of Nα-benzoyl-l-arginine ethyl ester to Nα-benzoyl-l-arginine, and the protein digestibility of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and cytochrome (Cyt-C). The results showed that the prepared enzyme reactor exhibited high enzyme immobilization efficiency and fast and easy-control protein digestibility. BSA and Cyt-C could be digested in 10 min with sequence coverage of 59% and 78%, respectively. The peptides and residual protein could be easily rinsed out from reactor and the reactor could be regenerated easily with 4 M HCl without any structure destruction. Properties of multiple interconnected chambers with good permeability, fast digestion facility and easily reproducibility indicated that the polyHIPE enzyme reactor was a good selector potentially applied in proteomics and catalysis areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Membrane contactor/separator for an advanced ozone membrane reactor for treatment of recalcitrant organic pollutants in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kit Chan, Wai; Jouët, Justine; Heng, Samuel; Lun Yeung, King; Schrotter, Jean-Christophe

    2012-05-01

    An advanced ozone membrane reactor that synergistically combines membrane distributor for ozone gas, membrane contactor for pollutant adsorption and reaction, and membrane separator for clean water production is described. The membrane reactor represents an order of magnitude improvement over traditional semibatch reactor design and is capable of complete conversion of recalcitrant endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in water at less than three minutes residence time. Coating the membrane contactor with alumina and hydrotalcite (Mg/Al=3) adsorbs and traps the organics in the reaction zone resulting in 30% increase of total organic carbon (TOC) removal. Large surface area coating that diffuses surface charges from adsorbed polar organic molecules is preferred as it reduces membrane polarization that is detrimental to separation.

  19. Reduced membrane fouling in a novel bio-entrapped membrane reactor for treatment of food and beverage processing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kok-Kwang; Lin, Cheng-Fang; Panchangam, Sri Chandana; Andy Hong, Pui-Kwan; Yang, Ping-Yi

    2011-08-01

    A novel Bio-Entrapped Membrane Reactor (BEMR) packed with bio-ball carriers was constructed and investigated for organics removal and membrane fouling by soluble microbial products (SMP). An objective was to evaluate the stability of the filtration process in membrane bioreactors through backwashing and chemical cleaning. The novel BEMR was compared to a conventional membrane bioreactor (CMBR) on performance, with both treating identical wastewater from a food and beverage processing plant. The new reactor has a longer sludge retention time (SRT) and lower mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) content than does the conventional. Three different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 6, 9, and 12 h were studied. The results show faster rise of the transmembrane pressure (TMP) with decreasing hydraulic retention time (HRT) in both reactors, where most significant membrane fouling was associated with high SMP (consisting of carbohydrate and protein) contents that were prevalent at the shortest HRT of 6 h. Membrane fouling was improved in the new reactor, which led to a longer membrane service period with the new reactor. Rapid membrane fouling was attributed to increased production of biomass and SMP, as in the conventional reactor. SMP of 10-100 kDa from both MBRs were predominant with more than 70% of the SMP <100 kDa. Protein was the major component of SMP rather than carbohydrate in both reactors. The new reactor sustained operation at constant permeate flux that required seven times less frequent chemical cleaning than did the conventional reactor. The new BEMR offers effective organics removal while reducing membrane fouling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Construction of a large scale membrane reactor system with different compartments for cells, medium and product.

    PubMed

    Klement, G; Scheirer, W; Katinger, H W

    1987-01-01

    A flat membrane reactor system has been designed where different membranes separate cells from medium and cells from product, respectively. By the use of this system the product can be enriched and partially purified within the reactor. Like other membrane systems perfect protection from mechanical stress of surface adherent as well as suspension type-cells is achieved. The scale up of the design is possible in a wide range. The prototype construction corresponds to a conventional reactor of appr. 300 l and contains a membrane area of 25 m2. Beside the three chamber operation mode it is possible to operate the system as a two chamber reactor. With slightly modified gaskets the reactor resembles a new type of tube reactor, where the cells can be refed on their way through the 50 m long tube.

  1. CO2 capture by means of an enzyme-based reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowan, R. M.; Ge, J-J; Qin, Y-J; McGregor, M. L.; Trachtenberg, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    We report a means for efficient and selective extraction of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) at low to medium concentration from mixed gas streams. CO(2) capture was accomplished by use of a novel enzyme-based, facilitated transport contained liquid membrane (EBCLM) reactor. The parametric studies we report explore both structural and operational parameters of this design. The structural parameters include carbonic anhydrase (CA) concentration, buffer concentration and pH, and liquid membrane thickness. The operational parameters are temperature, humidity of the inlet gas stream, and CO(2) concentration in the feed stream. The data show that this system effectively captures CO(2) over the range 400 ppm to at least 100,000 ppm, at or around ambient temperature and pressure. In a single pass across this homogeneous catalyst design, given a feed of 0.1% CO(2), the selectivity of CO(2) versus N(2) is 1,090 : 1 and CO(2) versus O(2) is 790 :1. CO(2) permeance is 4.71 x 10(-8) molm(-2) Pa(-1) sec(-1). The CLM design results in a system that is very stable even in the presence of dry feed and sweep gases.

  2. CO2 capture by means of an enzyme-based reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowan, R. M.; Ge, J-J; Qin, Y-J; McGregor, M. L.; Trachtenberg, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    We report a means for efficient and selective extraction of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) at low to medium concentration from mixed gas streams. CO(2) capture was accomplished by use of a novel enzyme-based, facilitated transport contained liquid membrane (EBCLM) reactor. The parametric studies we report explore both structural and operational parameters of this design. The structural parameters include carbonic anhydrase (CA) concentration, buffer concentration and pH, and liquid membrane thickness. The operational parameters are temperature, humidity of the inlet gas stream, and CO(2) concentration in the feed stream. The data show that this system effectively captures CO(2) over the range 400 ppm to at least 100,000 ppm, at or around ambient temperature and pressure. In a single pass across this homogeneous catalyst design, given a feed of 0.1% CO(2), the selectivity of CO(2) versus N(2) is 1,090 : 1 and CO(2) versus O(2) is 790 :1. CO(2) permeance is 4.71 x 10(-8) molm(-2) Pa(-1) sec(-1). The CLM design results in a system that is very stable even in the presence of dry feed and sweep gases.

  3. Role of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) in membrane fouling of membrane bioreactor coupled with worm reactor.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu; Li, Zhipeng; Chen, Lin; Lu, Yaobin

    2012-11-01

    This study focused on the effect of worm reactor on the fouling behaviors of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) in the MBR coupled with Static Sequencing Batch Worm Reactor (SSBWR-MBR). The filtration tests showed that the C-EPS (EPS in Control-MBR) and S-EPS (EPS in SSBWR-MBR) resulted in 76% and 67% of flux decrement, respectively. On both fouling layers, the preferential accumulation was protein, but the adsorption efficiency for protein in C-EPS was 20% higher than that in S-EPS. In comparison with the membrane fouled by C-EPS, the bio-volume of protein on the membrane fouled by S-EPS reduced 33%, and the protein porosity increased 20%. Meanwhile, the S-EPS approaching the membrane had to overcome×2.4 stronger repulsive interaction energy than C-EPS, and the membrane fouled by S-EPS exhibited relatively smoother compared to that fouled by C-EPS. As a result, the fouling potential of S-EPS was lower than that of C-EPS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Refolding of a membrane protein in a microfluidics reactor.

    PubMed

    Zaccai, Nathan R; Yunus, Kamran; Matthews, S M; Fisher, Adrian C; Falconer, Robert J

    2007-07-01

    Membrane protein production for structural studies is often hindered by the formation of non-specific aggregates from which the protein has to be denatured and then refolded to a functional state. We developed a new approach, which uses microfluidics channels, to refold protein correctly in quantities sufficient for structural studies. Green fluorescent protein (GFP), a soluble protein, and bacteriorhodopsin (BR), a transmembrane protein, were used to demonstrate the efficiency of the process. Urea-denatured GFP refolded as the urea diffused away from the protein, forming in the channel a uniform fluorescent band when observed by confocal microscopy. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-denatured BR refolded within the channel on mixing with detergent-lipid mixed micelles. The refolding, monitored by absorbance spectroscopy, was found to be flow rate dependent. This potential of microfluidic reactors for screening protein-folding conditions and producing protein would be particularly amenable for high-throughput applications required in structural genomics.

  5. Use of a Ceramic Membrane to Improve the Performance of Two-Separate-Phase Biocatalytic Membrane Reactor.

    PubMed

    Ranieri, Giuseppe; Mazzei, Rosalinda; Wu, Zhentao; Li, Kang; Giorno, Lidietta

    2016-03-14

    Biocatalytic membrane reactors (BMR) combining reaction and separation within the same unit have many advantages over conventional reactor designs. Ceramic membranes are an attractive alternative to polymeric membranes in membrane biotechnology due to their high chemical, thermal and mechanical resistance. Another important use is their potential application in a biphasic membrane system, where support solvent resistance is highly needed. In this work, the preparation of asymmetric ceramic hollow fibre membranes and their use in a two-separate-phase biocatalytic membrane reactor will be described. The asymmetric ceramic hollow fibre membranes were prepared using a combined phase inversion and sintering technique. The prepared fibres were then used as support for lipase covalent immobilization in order to develop a two-separate-phase biocatalytic membrane reactor. A functionalization method was proposed in order to increase the density of the reactive hydroxyl groups on the surface of ceramic membranes, which were then amino-activated and treated with a crosslinker. The performance and the stability of the immobilized lipase were investigated as a function of the amount of the immobilized biocatalytst. Results showed that it is possible to immobilize lipase on a ceramic membrane without altering its catalytic performance (initial residual specific activity 93%), which remains constant after 6 reaction cycles.

  6. Alcohol fermentation of sweet potato. Membrane reactor in enzymatic hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Azhar, A.; Hamdy, M.K.

    1981-06-01

    Use of ultrafiltration membrane systems in stirred cell and in thin-channel systems for immobilizing enzyme (sweet potato intrinsic and crystalline /beta/-amylase) in hydrolysis of sweet potato through a continuous operation mode were studied. Both the filtration rate and reducing sugars, produced as the result of enzymatic hydrolysis, decreased with the filtration time. THe immobilized enzymes in the thin-channel system showed a much better performance compared to that in the stirred cell system. Addition of crystalline sweet potato /beta/-amylase to the sweet potato increased both the filtration rate and reducing-sugars content. Alcoholic fermentation of the filtrate resulted in an alcohol content of 4.2%. This represented fermentation of 95% of the sugars with an efficiency of 88%. 17 refs.

  7. Application of capillary enzyme micro-reactor in enzyme activity and inhibitors studies of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Camara, Mohamed Amara; Tian, Miaomiao; Guo, Liping; Yang, Li

    2015-05-15

    In this study, we present an on-line measurement of enzyme activity and inhibition of Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) enzyme using capillary electrophoresis based immobilized enzyme micro-reactor (CE-based IMER). The IMER was prepared using a two-step protocol based on electrostatic assembly. The micro-reactor exhibited good stability and reproducibility for on-line assay of G6PDH enzyme. Both the activity as well as the inhibition of the G6PDH enzyme by six inhibitors, including three metals (Cu(2+), Pb(2+), Cd(2+)), vancomycin, urea and KMnO4, were investigated using on-line assay of the CE-based IMERs. The enzyme activity and inhibition kinetic constants were measured using the IMERs which were found to be consistent with those using traditional off-line enzyme assays. The kinetic mechanism of each inhibitor was also determined. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of using CE-based IMERs for rapid and efficient on-line assay of G6PDH, an important enzyme in the pentosephosphate pathway of human metabolism.

  8. Flow-through immobilized enzyme reactors based on monoliths: II. Kinetics study and application.

    PubMed

    Vlakh, Evgenia G; Tennikova, Tatiana B

    2013-03-01

    In the last decade, the application of monolithic materials has rapidly expanded to the realization of flow-through bioconversion processes. Up to these days, different classes of enzymes such as hydrolases, lyases, and oxidoreductases have been immobilized on organic, inorganic, or hybrid monolithic materials to prepare the effective flow-through enzymes reactors for application in proteomics, biotechnology, pharmaceutics, organic synthesis, and biosensoring. Current review describes the results of kinetic study and specialties of flow-through immobilized enzyme reactors based on the existing monolithic materials.

  9. Regulation of a muralytic enzyme by dynamic membrane topology

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Qingan; Kuty, Gabriel F.; Arockiasamy, Arulandu; Xu, Min; Young, Ry; Sacchettini, James C.

    2010-08-16

    R{sup 21}, the lysozyme of coliphage 21, has an N-terminal signal-anchor-release (SAR) domain that directs its secretion in a membrane-tethered, inactive form and then its release and activation in the periplasm. Both genetic and crystallographic studies show that the SAR domain, once extracted from the bilayer, refolds into the body of the enzyme and effects muralytic activation by repositioning one residue of the canonical lysozyme catalytic triad.

  10. Continuous synthesis of lactulose in an enzymatic membrane reactor reduces lactulose secondary hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Sitanggang, Azis Boing; Drews, Anja; Kraume, Matthias

    2014-09-01

    Newly developed parallel small-scale enzymatic membrane reactors (EMRs) were used to enhance the synthesis of lactulose using β-galactosidase. Under batch operation, the productivity of lactulose decreased abruptly from 2.72 down to 0.04 mg lactulose/(Uenzymeh) over 35 h of reaction. This was presumably caused by the action of β-galactosidase which performed secondary hydrolysis upon the produced lactulose. The continuous operations of an EMR system led to continuous removal of lactulose in the reactors restricting lactulose degradation caused by secondary hydrolysis. Therefore, continuous lactulose syntheses in the EMRs yielded significantly higher specific productivities under "steady state" conditions. Approximately 0.70 and 0.50 mg lactulose/(U enzyme h) for hydraulic residence times of 5 and 7h were reached, respectively. Continuous lactulose synthesis performed in an EMR system conclusively can circumvent the drawbacks (e.g., secondary hydrolysis) of lactulose synthesis encountered in batch operation. It is, therefore, beneficial in terms of enhanced lactulose productivity and reduced enzyme consumption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Rabies virus binding to cellular membranes measured by enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Lentz, T L; Chester, J; Benson, R J; Hawrot, E; Tignor, G H; Smith, A L

    1985-05-01

    The binding of rabies virus to cellular membranes was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Virus binding to membranes adsorbed to the wells of microtiter plates was detected with rabies virus antibody and alkaline phosphatase-linked second antibody. The greatest degree of binding was to myotube, neuroblastoma, and salivary gland membranes; intermediate levels occurred in striated muscle and nerve membranes; and low levels of binding were found in other membranes, including those of most parenchymal organs. Binding of rabies virus to myotube membranes was saturable, dependent on pH (with an optimum of pH 6.0), facilitated by the divalent cations Ca++, Mn++, and Mg++, and was temperature dependent. Binding was greatly reduced by inactivation of virus with beta-propiolactone or treatment of virus with trypsin. In embryonic chick myotubes, total acetylcholine receptor content and acetylcholinesterase activity undergo marked changes during development, first increasing and then decreasing at the time of hatching. Binding of rabies virus followed a similar pattern, indicating that the virus may interact with the acetylcholine receptor or other surface molecules undergoing similar developmental changes.

  12. Membrane Remodeling by a Bacterial Phospholipid-Methylating Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Danne, Linna; Aktas, Meriyem; Unger, Andreas; Linke, Wolfgang A.; Erdmann, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Membrane deformation by proteins is a universal phenomenon that has been studied extensively in eukaryotes but much less in prokaryotes. In this study, we discovered a membrane-deforming activity of the phospholipid N-methyltransferase PmtA from the plant-pathogenic bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens. PmtA catalyzes the successive three-step N-methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine to phosphatidylcholine. Here, we defined the lipid and protein requirements for the membrane-remodeling activity of PmtA by a combination of transmission electron microscopy and liposome interaction studies. Dependent on the lipid composition, PmtA changes the shape of spherical liposomes either into filaments or small vesicles. Upon overproduction of PmtA in A. tumefaciens, vesicle-like structures occur in the cytoplasm, dependent on the presence of the anionic lipid cardiolipin. The N-terminal lipid-binding α-helix (αA) is involved in membrane deformation by PmtA. Two functionally distinct and spatially separated regions in αA can be distinguished. Anionic interactions by positively charged amino acids on one face of the helix are responsible for membrane recruitment of the enzyme. The opposite hydrophobic face of the helix is required for membrane remodeling, presumably by shallow insertion into the lipid bilayer. PMID:28196959

  13. Zeolite Membrane Reactor for Water Gas Shift Reaction for Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry Y.S.

    2013-01-29

    Gasification of biomass or heavy feedstock to produce hydrogen fuel gas using current technology is costly and energy-intensive. The technology includes water gas shift reaction in two or more reactor stages with inter-cooling to maximize conversion for a given catalyst volume. This project is focused on developing a membrane reactor for efficient conversion of water gas shift reaction to produce a hydrogen stream as a fuel and a carbon dioxide stream suitable for sequestration. The project was focused on synthesizing stable, hydrogen perm-selective MFI zeolite membranes for high temperature hydrogen separation; fabricating tubular MFI zeolite membrane reactor and stable water gas shift catalyst for membrane reactor applications, and identifying experimental conditions for water gas shift reaction in the zeolite membrane reactor that will produce a high purity hydrogen stream. The project has improved understanding of zeolite membrane synthesis, high temperature gas diffusion and separation mechanisms for zeolite membranes, synthesis and properties of sulfur resistant catalysts, fabrication and structure optimization of membrane supports, and fundamentals of coupling reaction with separation in zeolite membrane reactor for water gas shift reaction. Through the fundamental study, the research teams have developed MFI zeolite membranes with good perm-selectivity for hydrogen over carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and water vapor, and high stability for operation in syngas mixture containing 500 part per million hydrogen sulfide at high temperatures around 500°C. The research teams also developed a sulfur resistant catalyst for water gas shift reaction. Modeling and experimental studies on the zeolite membrane reactor for water gas shift reaction have demonstrated the effective use of the zeolite membrane reactor for production of high purity hydrogen stream.

  14. Chlortetracycline removal by using hydrogen based membrane biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Aydın, Ekrem; Şahin, Mehmet; Taşkan, Ergin; Hasar, Halil; Erdem, Mehmet

    2016-12-15

    In the last years, increasing attention has been paid on the presence of antibiotics in aqueous environments due to their ecological damage and potential adverse effects on organisms. Membrane biofilm reactors (MBfR) have been gained a significant popularity as an advanced wastewater treatment technology in removing of organic micro-pollutants. In this study, the performance of H2-MBfR for simultaneous removal of nitrate and chlortetracycline, formation of transformation products and community analysis of the biofilm grown on the gas permeable hollow fiber membranes was evaluated by considering effect of the hydraulic retention time, surface loadings of target pollutants and H2 pressure. The results showed that the simultaneous chlortetracycline (96%) and nitrate removal (99%) took placed successfully under the conditions of 5h HRT and 2psi H2 pressure. It has been determined that the main elimination process was biodegradation and Betaproteobacteria species was responsible for chlortetracycline degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Plant lipid environment and membrane enzymes: the case of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Morales-Cedillo, Francisco; González-Solís, Ariadna; Gutiérrez-Angoa, Lizbeth; Cano-Ramírez, Dora Luz; Gavilanes-Ruiz, Marina

    2015-04-01

    Several lipid classes constitute the universal matrix of the biological membranes. With their amphipathic nature, lipids not only build the continuous barrier that confers identity to every cell and organelle, but they are also active actors that modulate the activity of the proteins immersed in the lipid bilayer. The plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, an enzyme from plant cells, is an excellent example of a transmembrane protein whose activity is influenced by the hydrophilic compartments at both sides of the membrane and by the hydrophobic domains of the lipid bilayer. As a result, an extensive documentation of the effect of numerous amphiphiles in the enzyme activity can be found. Detergents, membrane glycerolipids, and sterols can produce activation or inhibition of the enzyme activity. In some cases, these effects are associated with the lipids of the membrane bulk, but in others, a direct interaction of the lipid with the protein is involved. This review gives an account of reports related to the action of the membrane lipids on the H(+)-ATPase activity.

  16. Development of anammox reactor equipped with a degassing membrane to improve biomass retention.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Kosuke; Kindaichi, Tomonori; Ozaki, Noriatsu; Ohashi, Akiyoshi; Nakahara, Yoshihito; Sasakawa, Manabu

    2012-01-01

    In up-flow anammox reactors, one of the contributing factors to biomass wash-out is the adherence of nitrogen gas produced by the anammox reaction to biomass. In this study, we operated an up-flow anammox reactor equipped with a degassing membrane to minimize the biomass wash-out from the reactor by separating the produced gas from the biomass. In addition, both the effect of degassing on the anammox reactor performance and the durability of the membrane submerged in the anammox reactor were investigated. The results show that the use of the degassing membrane in the anammox reactor could (1) improve the biomass retention ability (by separating the produced gas from the biomass), and (2) increase the component ratio of anammox bacteria in the reactor. In addition, degassing could reduce the N(2)O emission produced in the reactor (for the gas selectivity of the degassing membrane). No membrane fouling was observed even after 2 months of operation without washing, indicating an advantage to the use of the degassing membrane.

  17. Solid state proton and electron mediating membrane and use in catalytic membrane reactors

    DOEpatents

    White, James H.; Schwartz, Michael; Sammells, Anthony F.

    1998-01-01

    This invention provides catalytic proton and electron mediating membranes useful in catalytic reactors. The membranes have an oxidation and a reduction surface and comprise a single-phase mixed metal oxide material of the formula: AB.sub.1-x B'.sub.x O.sub.3-y wherein A is selected from Ca, Sr or Ba ions; B is selected from Ce, Tb, Pr, or Th ions; B' is selected from Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Al, Ga, or In ions, or combinations thereof; and x is greater than or equal to 0.02 and less than or equal to 0.5. The membranes can further comprise a catalyst on either the oxidation or reduction surface, or both. Membranes include those which are fabricated-by combining powders of metal oxides or metal carbonates of metal A ion, metal B ion and metal B' ion such that the stoichiometric ratio A:B:B' is 1:1-x:x where 0.2.ltoreq..times.0.5, repeatedly calcining and milling the combined powders until a single-phase material is obtained and pressing and sintering the singlephase material to obtain a membrane.

  18. Solid state proton and electron mediating membrane and use in catalytic membrane reactors

    DOEpatents

    White, J.H.; Schwartz, M.; Sammells, A.F.

    1998-10-13

    This invention provides catalytic proton and electron mediating membranes useful in catalytic reactors. The membranes have an oxidation and a reduction surface and comprise a single-phase mixed metal oxide material of the formula: AB{sub 1{minus}x}B{prime}{sub x}O{sub 3{minus}y} wherein A is selected from Ca, Sr or Ba ions; B is selected from Ce, Tb, Pr, or Th ions; B{prime} is selected from Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Al, Ga, or In ions, or combinations thereof; and x is greater than or equal to 0.02 and less than or equal to 0.5. The membranes can further comprise a catalyst on either the oxidation or reduction surface, or both. Membranes include those which are fabricated by combining powders of metal oxides or metal carbonates of metal A ion, metal B ion and metal B{prime} ion such that the stoichiometric ratio A:B:B{prime} is 1:1{minus}x:x where 0.2{<=}{times}0.5, repeatedly calcining and milling the combined powders until a single-phase material is obtained and pressing and sintering the single phase material to obtain a membrane. 6 figs.

  19. Continuous hydrolysis of modified wheat gluten in an enzymatic membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jie; Kong, Xiangzhen; Hua, Yufei; Zhou, Huiming; Liu, Qing

    2011-12-01

    The low solubility of wheat gluten is one of the major limitations to its use in food processing, and enzymatic hydrolysis has been found to be an effective way to prepare more soluble bioactive peptides from gluten. The aim of this study was to prepare bioactive peptides from modified wheat gluten (MWG) in a continuous enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR) that allowed rapid separation of low-molecular-weight peptides from hydrolysates, thus avoiding the disadvantages of batch reaction such as inefficient use of enzymes, inconsistent products due to batch-to-batch variation, substrate-product inhibition, low productivity and excessive hydrolysis. Wheat gluten was modified to decrease its lipid and starch contents in order to prevent membrane fouling. The optimal working conditions for Alcalase to hydrolyse MWG in the EMR were a substrate concentration of 20 g L(-1) , an enzyme/substrate ratio of 0.03, an operating pressure of 0.04 MPa, a temperature of 40 °C and a pH of 9. The operating stability of the EMR (including residual enzyme activity, productivity and capacity) was high. The permeate fractions showed antioxidant activities that were mostly due to low-molecular-weight peptides. A simple theoretical kinetic model was successfully applied to the enzymatic hydrolysis of MWG in the EMR. Modification of wheat gluten made the continuous enzymatic membrane reaction more efficient and the EMR proved to be an effective means of producing peptides with particular properties and bioactivities. The permeate fractions (mainly < 1000 Da) were homogeneous and stable and also showed strong antioxidant activities. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Carbon dioxide (hydrogen sulfide) membrane separations and WGS membrane reactor modeling for fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jin

    Acid-gas removal is of great importance in many environmental or energy-related processes. Compared to current commercial technologies, membrane-based CO2 and H2S capture has the advantages of low energy consumption, low weight and space requirement, simplicity of installation/operation, and high process flexibility. However, the large-scale application of the membrane separation technology is limited by the relatively low transport properties. In this study, CO2 (H2S)-selective polymeric membranes with high permeability and high selectivity have been studied based on the facilitated transport mechanism. The membrane showed facilitated effect for both CO2 and H2S. A CO2 permeability of above 2000 Barrers, a CO2/H2 selectivity of greater than 40, and a CO2/N2 selectivity of greater than 200 at 100--150°C were observed. As a result of higher reaction rate and smaller diffusing compound, the H2S permeability and H2S/H2 selectivity were about three times higher than those properties for CO2. The novel CO2-selective membrane has been applied to capture CO 2 from flue gas and natural gas. In the CO2 capture experiments from a gas mixture with N2 and H2, a permeate CO 2 dry concentration of greater than 98% was obtained by using steam as the sweep gas. In CO2/CH4 separation, decent CO 2 transport properties were obtained with a feed pressure up to 500 psia. With the thin-film composite membrane structure, significant increase on the CO2 flux was achieved with the decrease of the selective layer thickness. With the continuous removal of CO2, CO2-selective water-gas-shift (WGS) membrane reactor is a promising approach to enhance CO conversion and increase the purity of H2 at process pressure under relatively low temperature. The simultaneous reaction and transport process in the countercurrent WGS membrane reactor was simulated by using a one-dimensional non-isothermal model. The modeling results show that a CO concentration of less than 10 ppm and a H2 recovery of greater

  1. Oxygen transport membrane system and method for transferring heat to catalytic/process reactors

    DOEpatents

    Kelly, Sean M.; Kromer, Brian R.; Litwin, Michael M.; Rosen, Lee J.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie R.; Kosowski, Lawrence W.; Robinson, Charles

    2016-01-19

    A method and apparatus for producing heat used in a synthesis gas production process is provided. The disclosed method and apparatus include a plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements adapted to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing stream contacting the retentate side of the membrane elements. The permeated oxygen is combusted with a hydrogen containing synthesis gas stream contacting the permeate side of the tubular oxygen transport membrane elements thereby generating a reaction product stream and radiant heat. The present method and apparatus also includes at least one catalytic reactor containing a catalyst to promote the steam reforming reaction wherein the catalytic reactor is surrounded by the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements. The view factor between the catalytic reactor and the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements radiating heat to the catalytic reactor is greater than or equal to 0.5

  2. Oxygen transport membrane system and method for transferring heat to catalytic/process reactors

    DOEpatents

    Kelly, Sean M; Kromer, Brian R; Litwin, Michael M; Rosen, Lee J; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie R; Kosowski, Lawrence W; Robinson, Charles

    2014-01-07

    A method and apparatus for producing heat used in a synthesis gas production is provided. The disclosed method and apparatus include a plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements adapted to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing stream contacting the retentate side of the membrane elements. The permeated oxygen is combusted with a hydrogen containing synthesis gas stream contacting the permeate side of the tubular oxygen transport membrane elements thereby generating a reaction product stream and radiant heat. The present method and apparatus also includes at least one catalytic reactor containing a catalyst to promote the stream reforming reaction wherein the catalytic reactor is surrounded by the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements. The view factor between the catalytic reactor and the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements radiating heat to the catalytic reactor is greater than or equal to 0.5.

  3. Ceramic membranes for catalytic membrane reactors with high ionic conductivities and low expansion properties

    DOEpatents

    Mackay, Richard; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2000-01-01

    Ceramics of the composition: Ln.sub.x Sr.sub.2-x-y Ca.sub.y B.sub.z M.sub.2-z O.sub.5+.delta. where Ln is an element selected from the fblock lanthanide elements and yttrium or mixtures thereof; B is an element selected from Al, Ga, In or mixtures thereof; M is a d-block transition element of mixtures thereof; 0.01.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1.0; 0.01.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.0.7; 0.01.ltoreq.z.ltoreq.1.0 and .delta. is a number that varies to maintain charge neutrality are provided. These ceramics are useful in ceramic membranes and exhibit high ionic conductivity, high chemical stability under catalytic membrane reactor conditions and low coefficients of expansion. The materials of the invention are particularly useful in producing synthesis gas.

  4. Modeling and Design Optimization of Multifunctional Membrane Reactors for Direct Methane Aromatization.

    PubMed

    Fouty, Nicholas J; Carrasco, Juan C; Lima, Fernando V

    2017-08-29

    Due to the recent increase of natural gas production in the U.S., utilizing natural gas for higher-value chemicals has become imperative. Direct methane aromatization (DMA) is a promising process used to convert methane to benzene, but it is limited by low conversion of methane and rapid catalyst deactivation by coking. Past work has shown that membrane separation of the hydrogen produced in the DMA reactions can dramatically increase the methane conversion by shifting the equilibrium toward the products, but it also increases coke production. Oxygen introduction into the system has been shown to inhibit this coke production while not inhibiting the benzene production. This paper introduces a novel mathematical model and design to employ both methods in a multifunctional membrane reactor to push the DMA process into further viability. Multifunctional membrane reactors, in this case, are reactors where two different separations occur using two differently selective membranes, on which no systems studies have been found. The proposed multifunctional membrane design incorporates a hydrogen-selective membrane on the outer wall of the reaction zone, and an inner tube filled with airflow surrounded by an oxygen-selective membrane in the middle of the reactor. The design is shown to increase conversion via hydrogen removal by around 100%, and decrease coke production via oxygen addition by 10% when compared to a tubular reactor without any membranes. Optimization studies are performed to determine the best reactor design based on methane conversion, along with coke and benzene production. The obtained optimal design considers a small reactor (length = 25 cm, diameter of reaction tube = 0.7 cm) to subvert coke production and consumption of the product benzene as well as a high permeance (0.01 mol/s·m²·atm(1/4)) through the hydrogen-permeable membrane. This modeling and design approach sets the stage for guiding further development of multifunctional membrane reactor

  5. An enzyme derivatized polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane for use in membrane introduction mass spectrometry (MIMS).

    PubMed

    Creba, A Skye; Weissfloch, Alexandra N E; Krogh, Erik T; Gill, Chris G

    2007-06-01

    Membrane introduction mass spectrometry (MIMS) provides direct measurement of volatile and semivolatile analytes in condensed and gas-phase samples without sample preparation steps. Although MIMS has numerous advantages that include direct, on-line, real-time analysis with low detection limits, current applications of MIMS are predominantly limited to volatile and semivolatile analytes that permeate hydrophobic membranes (e.g., polydimethylsiloxane; PDMS). We report the first enzyme modified PDMS membrane for use with MIMS. This was achieved by immobilizing Candida rugosa lipase directly onto the surface of oxidized PDMS. These surface immobilized enzymes catalyze ester hydrolysis, releasing an alcohol product at the membrane interface that is readily detected. We have successfully used an enzyme modified membrane for the analysis and quantification of low-volatility and hydrophilic esters. We report the quantification of several carboxylic acid esters in dilute aqueous solutions, including a phthalate monoester carboxylate that is not readily detected by conventional MIMS. This new interface demonstrates the potential for extending the range and versatility of MIMS.

  6. Pre-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture by a New Dual Phase Ceramic-Carbonate Membrane Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry Y. S.

    2015-01-31

    This report documents synthesis, characterization and carbon dioxide permeation and separation properties of a new group of ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membranes and results of a laboratory study on their application for water gas shift reaction with carbon dioxide separation. A series of ceramic-carbonate dual phase membranes with various oxygen ionic or mixed ionic and electronic conducting metal oxide materials in disk, tube, symmetric, and asymmetric geometric configurations was developed. These membranes, with the thickness of 10 μm to 1.5 mm, show CO2 permeance in the range of 0.5-5×10-7 mol·m-2·s-1·Pa-1 in 500-900°C and measured CO2/N2 selectivity of up to 3000. CO2 permeation mechanism and factors that affect CO2 permeation through the dual-phase membranes have been identified. A reliable CO2 permeation model was developed. A robust method was established for the optimization of the microstructures of ceramic-carbonate membranes. The ceramic-carbonate membranes exhibit high stability for high temperature CO2 separations and water gas shift reaction. Water gas shift reaction in the dual-phase membrane reactors was studied by both modeling and experiments. It is found that high temperature syngas water gas shift reaction in tubular ceramic-carbonate dual phase membrane reactor is feasible even without catalyst. The membrane reactor exhibits good CO2 permeation flux, high thermal and chemical stability and high thermal shock resistance. Reaction and separation conditions in the membrane reactor to produce hydrogen of 93% purity and CO2 stream of >95% purity, with 90% CO2 capture have been identified. Integration of the ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membrane reactor with IGCC process for carbon dioxide capture was analyzed. A methodology was developed to identify optimum operation conditions for a

  7. Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification in a novel membrane bioelectrochemical reactor with low membrane fouling tendency.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Zuo, Wei; Tian, Yu; Zhang, Jun; Di, Shijing; Li, Lipin; Su, Xinying

    2017-02-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can use nitrate as a cathodic electron acceptor for electrochemical denitrification, yet there is little knowledge about how to apply them into current wastewater treatment process to achieve efficient nitrogen removal. In this study, two dual-chamber MFCs were integrated with an aerobic membrane bioreactor to construct a novel membrane bioelectrochemical reactor (MBER) for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification under specific aeration. The effects of chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading rate, COD/N ratio, hydraulic retention time (HRT), and external resistance on the system performance were investigated. High effluent quality was obtained in the MBER in terms of COD and ammonium. During the operation, denitrification simultaneously occurred with nitrification at the bio-cathode of the MBER, achieving a maximal nitrogen removal efficiency of 84.3 %. A maximum power density of 1.8 W/m(3) and a current density of 8.5 A/m(3) were achieved with a coulombic efficiency of 12.1 %. Furthermore, compared to the control system, the MBER exhibited lower membrane fouling tendency due to mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSSs) and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) reductions, EPSp/EPSc ratio decrease, and particle size increase of the sludge. These results suggest that the MBER holds potential for efficient nitrogen removal, electricity production, and membrane fouling mitigation.

  8. Determination of serum triglyceride by enzyme electrode using covalently immobilized enzyme on egg shell membrane.

    PubMed

    Narang, Jagriti; Minakshi; Bhambi, Manu; Pundir, C S

    2010-12-01

    A mixture of commercial lipase, glycerol kinase and glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase was co-immobilized onto egg shell membrane through covalent coupling. A method is described for fabrication of a triglyceride (TG) biosensor using egg shell membrane bound enzymes. The biosensor measured current, i.e. flow of electrons generated from H(2)O(2), maximally when polarized at 0.4V. The biosensor showed optimum response within 10 sec at pH 7.0 and 35°C. The current was in proportion to concentration of TG in the range 0.56-2.25 mM. An amperometric method was developed for determination of TG employing this enzyme electrode. The minimum detection limit of the method was 0.28 mM. The analytic recovery of added TG was 95.00% and 96.50%. Within batch and between batch coefficients of variations (CV) were <2.14% and <3.48% respectively. A good correlation (r=0.985) was obtained between serum TG level by standard enzymic colorimetric method and the present method. Serum substances such as urea, uric acid, glucose, cholesterol, ascorbic acid and pyruvic acid had no interference. The enzyme electrode was used 200 times over a period of 70 days without any considerable loss of activity, when stored at 4°C. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Reverse-Bumpy-Ball-Type-Nanoreactor-Loaded Nylon Membranes as Peroxidase-Mimic Membrane Reactors for a Colorimetric Assay for H2O2

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Ying; Jiao, Xiangyu; Yang, Hankun; Wen, Yongqiang; Su, Lei; Zhang, Xueji

    2016-01-01

    Herein we report for the first time fabrication of reverse bumpy ball (RBB)-type-nanoreactor-based flexible peroxidase-mimic membrane reactors (MRs). The RBB-type nanoreactors with gold nanoparticles embedded in the inner walls of carbon shells were loaded on nylon membranes through a facile filtration approach. The as-prepared flexible catalytic membrane was studied as a peroxidase-mimic MR. It was found that the obtained peroxidase-mimic MR could exhibit several advantages over natural enzymes, such as facile and good recyclability, long-term stability and easy storage. Moreover, the RBB NS-modified nylon MRs as a peroxidase mimic provide a useful colorimetric assay for H2O2. PMID:27043575

  10. Reverse-Bumpy-Ball-Type-Nanoreactor-Loaded Nylon Membranes as Peroxidase-Mimic Membrane Reactors for a Colorimetric Assay for H₂O₂.

    PubMed

    Tong, Ying; Jiao, Xiangyu; Yang, Hankun; Wen, Yongqiang; Su, Lei; Zhang, Xueji

    2016-04-01

    Herein we report for the first time fabrication of reverse bumpy ball (RBB)-type-nanoreactor-based flexible peroxidase-mimic membrane reactors (MRs). The RBB-type nanoreactors with gold nanoparticles embedded in the inner walls of carbon shells were loaded on nylon membranes through a facile filtration approach. The as-prepared flexible catalytic membrane was studied as a peroxidase-mimic MR. It was found that the obtained peroxidase-mimic MR could exhibit several advantages over natural enzymes, such as facile and good recyclability, long-term stability and easy storage. Moreover, the RBB NS-modified nylon MRs as a peroxidase mimic provide a useful colorimetric assay for H₂O₂.

  11. An integrated process: ester synthesis in an enzymatic membrane reactor and water sorption.

    PubMed

    Trusek-Holownia, Anna; Noworyta, Andrzej

    2007-05-31

    In the case of such reactions as ester synthesis, water is produced during the reaction. Because these reactions are carried out in hydrophobic solvents an additional (water) phase in the system must not be allowed, i.e. the concentration of water saturation in the organic solvent should not be exceeded. In such a case, the reaction kinetics and product equilibrium concentration undergo undesirable changes because of the partition coefficient of the components and hampered process of product separation. Hence, removal of the water produced in the reaction determines whether the process is successful or not. For this purpose, the integrated process with water sorption in the column with molecular sieves was applied. Integration of the process of synthesis and dehydration of a reaction phase, in which a biocatalyst is suspended and not dissolved as in water solutions, requires holding up of the catalyst in the reactor before directing the stream of reaction mixture to dehydration process. This hold-up and a possibility of multiple use of the catalyst may be accomplished by using a separating barrier, e.g. an ultrafiltration membrane or by permanent fixing of the catalyst to the matrix, e.g. a polymeric membrane. The efficiency and activity of a biocatalyst (lipase CAL-B) immobilized on a polymer membrane by sorption and chemical binding, were determined. A subject of study was the synthesis of geranyl acetate, one of the most known aromatic compound. A hydrophobic (polypropylene) matrix was shown to be a much better carrier in the reactions performed in an organic solvent than a hydrophilic (polyamide) membrane being tested. The reaction kinetics of geranyl acetate synthesis with the use of geraniol and acetic acid as substrates, was described by the equation defining the "Ping-Pong Bi Bi" mechanism that was related additionally to the inhibition of a substrate (acetic acid). The following constants of kinetic equation were obtained k(3)(')=0.344 mol g(-1)h(-1), K

  12. Highly Selective H2 Separation Zeolite Membranes for Coal Gasification Membrane Reactor Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mei Hong; Richard D. Noble; John L. Falconer

    2006-09-24

    Zeolite membranes are thermally, chemically, and mechanically stable. They also have tunable molecular sieving and catalytic ability. These unique properties make zeolite membrane an excellent candidate for use in catalytic membrane reactor applications related to coal conversion and gasification, which need high temperature and high pressure range separation in chemically challenging environment where existing technologies are inefficient or unable to operate. Small pore, good quality, and thin zeolite membranes are needed for highly selective H{sub 2} separation from other light gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO). However, zeolite membranes have not been successful for H{sub 2} separation from light gases because the zeolite pores are either too big or the membranes have a large number of defects. The objective of this study is to develop zeolite membranes that are more suitable for H{sub 2} separation. In an effort to tune the size of zeolite pores and/or to decrease the number of defects, medium-pore zeolite B-ZSM-5 (MFI) membranes were synthesized and silylated. Silylation on B-ZSM-5 crystals reduced MFI-zeolite pore volume, but had little effect on CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption. Silylation on B-ZSM-5 membranes increased H{sub 2} selectivity both in single component and in mixtures with CO{sub 2}CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, or N2. Single gas and binary mixtures of H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} were separated through silylated B-ZSM-5 membranes at feed pressures up to 1.7 MPa and temperatures up to 773 K. For one BZSM-5 membrane after silylation, the H2/CO{sub 2} separation selectivity at 473 K increased from 1.4 to 37, whereas the H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} separation selectivity increased from 1.6 to 33. Hydrogen permeance through a silylated B-ZSM-5 membrane was activated, but the CO{sub 2} and CH4 permeances decreased slightly with temperature in both single gas and in mixtures. Therefore, the H{sub 2} permeance and H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and H{sup 2} /CH{sub 4

  13. Mathematical modeling of methyl ester concentration distribution in a continuous membrane tubular reactor and comparison with conventional tubular reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talaghat, M. R.; Jokar, S. M.; Modarres, E.

    2017-10-01

    The reduction of fossil fuel resources and environmental issues made researchers find alternative fuels include biodiesels. One of the most widely used methods for production of biodiesel on a commercial scale is transesterification method. In this work, the biodiesel production by a transesterification method was modeled. Sodium hydroxide was considered as a catalyst to produce biodiesel from canola oil and methanol in a continuous tubular ceramic membranes reactor. As the Biodiesel production reaction from triglycerides is an equilibrium reaction, the reaction rate constants depend on temperature and related linearly to catalyst concentration. By using the mass balance for a membrane tubular reactor and considering the variation of raw materials and products concentration with time, the set of governing equations were solved by numerical methods. The results clearly show the superiority of membrane reactor than conventional tubular reactors. Afterward, the influences of molar ratio of alcohol to oil, weight percentage of the catalyst, and residence time on the performance of biodiesel production reactor were investigated.

  14. Mathematical modeling of methyl ester concentration distribution in a continuous membrane tubular reactor and comparison with conventional tubular reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talaghat, M. R.; Jokar, S. M.; Modarres, E.

    2017-04-01

    The reduction of fossil fuel resources and environmental issues made researchers find alternative fuels include biodiesels. One of the most widely used methods for production of biodiesel on a commercial scale is transesterification method. In this work, the biodiesel production by a transesterification method was modeled. Sodium hydroxide was considered as a catalyst to produce biodiesel from canola oil and methanol in a continuous tubular ceramic membranes reactor. As the Biodiesel production reaction from triglycerides is an equilibrium reaction, the reaction rate constants depend on temperature and related linearly to catalyst concentration. By using the mass balance for a membrane tubular reactor and considering the variation of raw materials and products concentration with time, the set of governing equations were solved by numerical methods. The results clearly show the superiority of membrane reactor than conventional tubular reactors. Afterward, the influences of molar ratio of alcohol to oil, weight percentage of the catalyst, and residence time on the performance of biodiesel production reactor were investigated.

  15. Hydrolases in supercritical CO2 and their use in a high-pressure membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Knez, Z; Habulin, M; Primozic, M

    2003-03-01

    The thermal stability and activity of enzymes in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO(2)) and near-critical propane were studied at a pressure of 300 bar in the temperature range 20-90 degrees C. Proteinase from Carica papaya was incubated in microaqueous SC CO(2) at atmospheric pressure in a nonaqueous system. Lipase stability in an aqueous medium at atmospheric pressure and in SC CO(2) as well as near-critical propane at 100 bar and 40 degrees C was studied. In order to investigate the impact of solvent on lipases, these were chosen from different sources: Pseudomonas fluorescences, Rhizpous javanicus, Rhizopus niveus and porcine pancreas. On the basis of our previous study on lipase activities in dense gases, a high-pressure continuous flat-shape membrane reactor was designed. The hydrolysis of sunflower oil in SC CO(2) was performed as a model reaction in this reactor. The reaction was catalyzed by the lipase preparation Lipolase 100T and was performed at 50 degrees C and 200 bar.

  16. Integrated Water Gas Shift Membrane Reactors Utilizing Novel, Non Precious Metal Mixed Matrix Membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Ferraris, John

    2013-09-30

    Nanoparticles of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks and other related hybrid materials were prepared by modifying published synthesis procedures by introducing bases, changing stoichiometric ratios, or adjusting reaction conditions. These materials were stable at temperatures >300 °C and were compatible with the polymer matrices used to prepare mixed- matrix membranes (MMMs). MMMs tested at 300 °C exhibited a >30 fold increase in permeability, compared to those measured at 35 °C, while maintaining H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity. Measurements at high pressure (up to 30 atm) and high temperature (up to 300 °C) resulted in an increase in gas flux across the membrane with retention of selectivity. No variations in permeability were observed at high pressures at either 35 or 300 °C. CO{sub 2}-induced plasticization was not observed for Matrimid®, VTEC, and PBI polymers or their MMMs at 30 atm and 300 °C. Membrane surface modification by cross-linking with ethanol diamine resulted in an increase in H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity at 35 °C. Spectrometric analysis showed that the cross-linking was effective to temperatures <150 °C. At higher temperatures, the cross-linked membranes exhibit a H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity similar to the uncross-linked polymer. Performance of the polybenzimidazole (PBI) hollow fibers prepared at Santa Fe Science and Technology (SFST, Inc.) showed increased flux o to a flat PBI membrane. A water-gas shift reactor has been built and currently being optimized for testing under DOE conditions.

  17. Development of hollow fiber catalytic membrane reactors for high temperature gas cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Y.H.; Moser, W.R.; Pien, S.; Shelekhin, A.B.

    1994-10-01

    The technology employed in the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) permits burning coals with a wide range of sulfur concentrations. Emissions from the process should be reduced by an order of magnitude below stringent federal air quality regulations for coal-fired plants. The maximum thermal efficiency of this type of process can be achieved by removing sulfur and particulates from the high temperature gas. The objective of this project was to develop economically and technically viable catalytic membrane reactors for high temperature, high pressure gaseous contaminant control in IGCC systems. These catalytic membrane reactors were used to decompose H{sub 2}S and separate the reaction products. The reactors were designed to operate in the hostile process environment of the IGCC systems, and at temperatures ranging from 500 to 1,000. Feasibility of the membrane reactor process for decomposition of hydrogen sulfide was demonstrated; permeability and selectivity of molecular-sieve and Vycor glass membranes were studied at temperatures up to 1,000 C; experimental study of hydrogen sulfide in the membrane reactor was completed; and a generalized mathematical model was developed for the simulation of the high temperature membrane reactor.

  18. Catalytic membrane program novation: High temperature catalytic membrane reactors. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kleiner, R.N.

    1998-08-28

    The original objective was to develop an energy-efficient hydrocarbon dehydrogenation process based on catalytic membrane reactors. Golden Technologies determined that the goals of this contract would be best served by novating the contract to an end user or other interested party which is better informed on the economic justification aspects of petrochemical refining processes to carry out the remaining work. In light of the Chevron results, the program objective was broadened to include development of inorganic membranes for applications in the chemical industry. The proposed membrane technologies shall offer the potential to improve chemical production processes via conversion increase and energy savings. The objective of this subcontract is to seek a party that would serve as a prime contractor to carry out the remaining tasks on the agreement and bring the agreement to a successful conclusion. Four tasks were defined to select the prime contractor. They were (1) prepare a request for proposal, (2) solicit companies as potential prime contractors as well as team members, (3) discuss modifications requested by the potential prime contractors, and (4) obtain, review and rank the proposals. The accomplishments on the tasks is described in detail in the following sections.

  19. Methane coupling by membrane reactor, Quarterly technical progress report, September 1994--December 24, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Yi Hua

    1995-04-14

    Experimental studies presented in this report discuss the performance of porous VYCOR membrane reactors in which the oxidative coupling of methane was carried out in an excess of oxygen. This was accomplished by shortening the porous section of the membrane reactor and operating at lower W/F ratios. Results are also discussed from experiments in which methane gas flow was metered in from the high pressure shell side into the oxygen stream on the tube side of the membrane reactor. These studies indicated that the presence of gas phase oxygen downstream to the catalyst bed was detrimental for the C{sub 2} selectivity in the methane coupling reaction. Dense membrane synthesis and characterization results are presented which describe new approaches to dense membrane synthesis. Modifications to the 40 Angstrom pore diameter gamma alumina membranes to enhance their stability and pore filling of micron size pores on alpha alumina supports are discussed. Sr{sub 0.8}La{sub 0.2}FeO{sub 3}, an oxygen conducting perovslcite synthesized in the Microfluidizer showed interesting DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) and TGA (Thermo Gravimetric Analysis) spectra that indicated a change in the crystal structure at relatively moderate temperatures of 150{degrees}C and 350{degrees}C. This report also presents details of the design and experimental set-up of a catalytic membrane reactor in which the porous membrane is doped with the active catalyst and methane coupling occurs as the reactant gases pass through the membrane pores.

  20. Highly Selective H2 Separation Zeolite Membranes for Coal Gasification Membrane Reactor Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mei Hong; Richard Noble; John Falconer

    2007-09-24

    Zeolite membranes are thermally, chemically, and mechanically stable. They also have tunable molecular sieving and catalytic ability. These unique properties make zeolite membrane an excellent candidate for use in catalytic membrane reactor applications related to coal conversion and gasification, which need high temperature and high pressure range separation in chemically challenging environment where existing technologies are inefficient or unable to operate. Small pore, good quality, and thin zeolite membranes are needed for highly selective H2 separation from other light gases (CO2, CH4, CO). However, current zeolite membranes have either too big zeolite pores or a large number of defects and have not been successful for H2 separation from light gases. The objective of this study is to develop zeolite membranes that are more suitable for H2 separation. In an effort to tune the size of zeolite pores and/or to decrease the number of defects, medium-pore zeolite B-ZSM-5 (MFI) membranes were synthesized and silylated. Silylation on B-ZSM-5 crystals reduced MFI-zeolite pore volume, but had little effect on CO2 and CH4 adsorption. Silylation on B-ZSM-5 membranes increased H2 selectivity both in single component and in mixtures with CO2, CH4, or N2. Single gas and binary mixtures of H2/CO2 and H2/CH4 were permeated through silylated B-ZSM-5 membranes at feed pressures up to 1.7 MPa and temperatures up to 773 K. For one B-ZSM-5 membrane after silylation, the H2/CO2 separation selectivity at 473 K increased from 1.4 to 37, whereas the H2/CH4 separation selectivity increased from 1.6 to 33. Hydrogen permeance through a silylated BZSM-5 membrane was activated with activation energy of {approx}10 kJ/mol, but the CO2 and CH4 permeances decreased slightly with temperature in both single gas and in mixtures. Therefore, the H2 permeance and H2/CO2 and H2/CH4 separation selectivities increased with temperature. At 673 K, the H2 permeance was 1.0x10-7 mol{center_dot}m-2{center

  1. Fabrication of a microfluidic enzyme reactor utilizing magnetic beads.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaojun; Lo, Roger C; Gomez, Frank A

    2009-06-01

    An enzyme-catalyzed microfluidic assay using magnetic micro-beads is described. Here, diaphorase (DI) (E.C. 1.6.99) is covalently attached to the magnetic micro-beads (2.7 mum) and integrated into a short section of a microchip fabricated from PDMS. DI converts non-fluorescent resazurin to fluorescent resorufin in the presence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADH). In this work, an embedded magnet holds the micro-beads in place within the microchannel while a solution of resazurin and NADH in buffer is flowed through the beads. Incorporation of the micro-beads into the microchannel requires only a few minutes and offers well-defined spatial resolution and reproducibility. At a flow rate of 41.2 microL/h, a stable state for the enzyme reaction in the microfluidic format was achieved within 50 s. The maximum conversion of the reaction was obtained at a concentration of 1.25 mM NADH. The reaction yield is affected by ZnCl(2) and at concentrations in excess of 90.0 mM, the activity of DI was almost double without ZnCl(2). At 5.2 mM potassium chloride, the activity of DI reached its maximum value. Overall, the conversion of resazurin in microfluidic format was more than twice than that in a batch assay.

  2. Modeling fixed and fluidized reactors for cassava starch Saccharification with immobilized enzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Zanin, G.M.; De Moraes, F.F.

    1997-12-31

    Cassava starch saccharification in fixed-and fluidized-bed reactors using immobilized enzyme was modeled in a previous paper using a simple model in which all dextrins were grouped in a single substrate. In that case, although good fit of the model to experimental data was obtained, physical inconsistency appeared as negative kinetic constants. In this work, a multisubstrate model, developed earlier for saccharification with free enzyme, is adapted for immobilized enzyme. This latter model takes into account the formation of intermediate substrates, which are dextrins competing for the catalytic site of the enzyme, reversibility of some reactions, inhibition by substrate and product, and the formation of isomaltose. Kinetic parameters to be used with this model were obtained from initial velocity saccharification tests using the immobilized enzyme and different liquefied starch concentrations. The new model was found to be valid for modeling both fixed- and fluidized-bed reactors. It did not present inconsistencies as the earlier one had and has shown that apparent glucose inhibition is about seven times higher in the fixed-bed than in fluidized-bed reactor. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Membrane bioreactors: Engineering aspects.

    PubMed

    Chang, H N

    1987-01-01

    Membrane bioreactors have in-situ separation capability lacking in other types of immobilized cell reactors. This makes them very useful for certain systems. Enzyme reactions utilizing cofactors and hydrolysis of macromolecules are advantageous in membrane reactors. Anaerobic cell culture may be efficiently carried out in membrane cell recycle systems, while aerobic cultures work well in dual hollow fiber reactors. Animal and plant cells have much a better chance of success in membrane reactors because of the protective environment of the reactor and the small oxygen uptake rate of these cells.

  4. Immobilization of enzyme onto poly(ethylene-vinyl alcohol) membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Imai, K.; Shiomi, T.; Uchida, K.; Miya, M.

    1986-02-01

    Invertase was ionically bound to the poly(ethylene-vinyl alcohol) membrane surface modified with two aminoacetals with different molecular length, 2-dimethyl-aminoacetoaldehyde dimethylacetal (AAA) and 3-(N,N-dimethylamino-n-propanediamine) propionaldehyde dimethylacetal (APA). Immobilization conditions were determined with respect to enzyme concentration in solution, pH value, ionic strength in immobilization solution, and immobilization time. Various properties of immobilized invertase were evaluated, and thermal stability was found especially to be improved by immobilization. The apparent Michaelis constant, Km, was smaller for invertase bound by APA with longer molecular lengths than for invertase bound by AAA. We attempted to bind glucoamylase of Rhizopus delemarorigin in the same way. The amount and activity of immobilized glucoamylase were much less than those of invertase. 16 references.

  5. Analysis of the key enzymes of butyric and acetic acid fermentation in biogas reactors

    PubMed Central

    Gabris, Christina; Bengelsdorf, Frank R; Dürre, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of the mechanisms of acidogenesis, which is a key process during anaerobic digestion. To expose possible bottlenecks, specific activities of the key enzymes of acidification, such as acetate kinase (Ack, 0.23–0.99 U mg−1 protein), butyrate kinase (Buk, < 0.03 U mg−1 protein) and butyryl-CoA:acetate-CoA transferase (But, 3.24–7.64 U mg−1 protein), were determined in cell free extracts of biogas reactor content from three different biogas reactors. Furthermore, the detection of Ack was successful via Western blot analysis. Quantification of corresponding functional genes encoding Buk (buk) and But (but) was not feasible, although an amplification was possible. Thus, phylogenetic trees were constructed based on respective gene fragments. Four new clades of possible butyrate-producing bacteria were postulated, as well as bacteria of the genera Roseburia or Clostridium identified. The low Buk activity was in contrast to the high specific But activity in the analysed samples. Butyrate formation via Buk activity does barely occur in the investigated biogas reactor. Specific enzyme activities (Ack, Buk and But) in samples drawn from three different biogas reactors correlated with ammonia and ammonium concentrations (NH3 and NH4+-N), and a negative dependency can be postulated. Thus, high concentrations of NH3 and NH4+-N may lead to a bottleneck in acidogenesis due to decreased specific acidogenic enzyme activities. PMID:26086956

  6. ENHANCEMENT OF EQUILIBRIUMSHIFT IN DEHYDROGENATION REACTIONS USING A NOVEL MEMBRANE REACTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Shamsuddin Ilias, Ph.d., P.E.; Franklin G. King, D.Sc.

    2001-02-13

    With the advances in new inorganic materials and processing techniques, there has been renewed interest in exploiting the benefits of membranes in many industrial applications. Inorganic and composite membranes are being considered as potential candidates for use in membrane-reactor configuration for effectively increasing reaction rate, selectivity and yield of equilibrium limited reactions. To investigate the usefulness of a palladium-ceramic composite membrane in a membrane reactor-separator configuration, we investigated the dehydrogenation of cyclohexane by equilibrium shift. A two-dimensional pseudo-homogeneous reactor model was developed to study the dehydrogenation of cyclohexane by equilibrium shift in a tubular membrane reactor. Radial diffusion was considered to account for the concentration gradient in the radial direction due to permeation through the membrane. For a dehydrogenation reaction, the feed stream to the reaction side contained cyclohexane and argon, while the separation side used argon as the sweep gas. Equilibrium conversion for dehydrogenation of cyclohexane is 18.7%. The present study showed that 100% conversion could be achieved by equilibrium shift using Pd-ceramic membrane reactor. For a feed containing cyclohexane and argon of 1.64 x 10{sup -6} and 1.0 x 10{sup -3} mol/s, over 98% conversion could be readily achieved. The dehydrogenation of cyclohexane was also experimentally investigated in a palladium-ceramic membrane reactor. The Pd-ceramic membrane was fabricated by electroless deposition of palladium on ceramic substrate. The performance of Pd-ceramic membrane was compared with a commercially available hydrogen-selective ceramic membrane. From limited experimental data it was observed that by appropriate choice of feed flow rate and sweep gas rate, the conversion of cyclohexane to benzene and hydrogen can increased to 56% at atmospheric pressure and 200 C in a Pd-ceramic membrane reactor. In the commercial ceramic membrane

  7. Analytical potential of enzyme-coated capillary reactors in capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Simonet, Bartolomé M; Ríos, Angel; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2004-01-01

    Enzymes immobilized on the inner surface of an electrophoretic capillary were used to increase sensitivity and resolution in capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). Sensitivity is enhanced by inserting a piece of capillary containing the immobilized enzyme into the main capillary, located before the detector, in order to transform the analyte into a product with a higher absorptivity. This approach was used to determine ethanol. In order to improve resolution, capillary pieces containing immobilized enzymes were inserted at various strategic positions along the electrophoretic capillary. On reaching the enzyme, the analyte was converted into a product with a high electrophoretic mobility, the migration time for which was a function of the position of the enzyme reactor. This approach was applied to the separation and determination of acetaldehyde and pyruvate. Finally, the proposed method was validated with the determination of ethanol, acetaldehyde, and pyruvate in beer and wine samples.

  8. Evaluation of Thermostabilities of Enzymes, Mediators and Immobilizing Membranes for Enzyme Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Yohei; Ohnishi, Yuki; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Isobe, Yoshifumi; Yabutani, Tomoki

    The stability of the constituents of electrochemical measurement, electron mediators, enzymes and enzyme-immobilizing membranes was evaluated under high temperature (maximum 75°C) by electrochemical analysis, UV-Vis spectrometry (UV-Vis) and UV circular dichroism (CD). As a result of stability evaluation of mediators at 75°C, electrochemical activity of 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid ammonium salt (ABTS), potassium ferricyanide (K3[Fe(CN)6]) and ferrocenemethanol (FcOH) were not changed, but 2,6-dichloroindophenol (DCIP), p-benzoquinone (p-BQ), vitaminK3 (VK3) were greatly decreased. The stability of diaphorase from Bacillus stearothermophilus (DI) were compared between in-solution and in several types of membranes, Agarose H, Poly-L-lysine (PLL) and poly-ion-complex (PIC) by electrochemical analysis. In solution, activity and secondary structure of DI were changed at 65°C or higher. This tendency of activity was not much different in Agarose H but in PLL, the activity was almost kept until 70°C. It was suggested that DI was fixed on the electrodes in high concentration and the elimination of DI seldom arise in PLL from the magnitude of the current response and the results of prolonged stability evaluation.

  9. Inorganic membrane reactors: A distributed feed approach for partial oxidation reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Tonkovich, A.L.Y.; Zilka, J.L.; Jimenez, D.M.

    1995-12-01

    Inorganic membrane reactors have been investigated for the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane to ethylene. The production of ethylene competes with complete ethane combustion when the oxygen feed nears stoichiometric levels with ethane. High selectivity is achieved when the feed is oxygen-lean, but this results in a low ethane conversion per pass. A membrane reactor (MBR) has been experimentally demonstrated to improve ethylene yields per pass. A tube and shell reactor configuration is used and compared to a traditional tubular reactor (PFR). The oxygen feed is distributed along the length of the reactor through a porous alumina membrane. The distributed feed increases local ethane to oxygen feed ratios within the reactor, while introducing a low overall feed ratio into the MBR. Thus high ethylene selectivities can be obtained along with high ethane conversions. The MBR outperforms the PFR at low overall feed ratios. The performance of the two reactors merge as the feed ratio nears the stoichiometric point of two, and in some cases the PFR outperforms the MBR at higher feed ratios.

  10. Development of hollow-fiber catalytic-membrane reactors for high-temperature gas cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Yi H.; Moser, M.R.; Pien, S.M.

    1992-12-01

    The project consist of the following main activities: (1) Design of catalytic hollow fiber membrane reactors. Single and multiple hollow-fiber membranes were studied in reactor/permeation cells made from stainless steel or quartz tubes. Modification of the hollow fiber membrane with catalysts was performed by aqueous impregnation, vapor deposition, and utilization of packed-bed reactors. (2) Investigation of gas separations and catalytic reactions in membrane reactors. Permeation of pure gases and gas mixtures was studied as a function of temperature. Pure component catalytic studies on the decomposition of H{sub 2}S was typically studied using 10% H{sub 2}S diluted in He. The H{sub 2}S and H{sub 2} concentrations were measured in both the tube and shell sides of the membrane reactor to determine the degree of chemical equilibrium shift. (3) Process development of the cleanup system using a simulated gas stream with a composition similar to that from an IGCC system. Catalytic studies using the IGCC gas composition will be performed according to the procedure used in the H{sub 2}S experiments. The conditions for optimum conversion in a gas mixture will be investigated.

  11. Development of hollow-fiber catalytic-membrane reactors for high-temperature gas cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Yi H.; Moser, M.R.; Pien, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    The project consist of the following main activities: (1) Design of catalytic hollow fiber membrane reactors. Single and multiple hollow-fiber membranes were studied in reactor/permeation cells made from stainless steel or quartz tubes. Modification of the hollow fiber membrane with catalysts was performed by aqueous impregnation, vapor deposition, and utilization of packed-bed reactors. (2) Investigation of gas separations and catalytic reactions in membrane reactors. Permeation of pure gases and gas mixtures was studied as a function of temperature. Pure component catalytic studies on the decomposition of H[sub 2]S was typically studied using 10% H[sub 2]S diluted in He. The H[sub 2]S and H[sub 2] concentrations were measured in both the tube and shell sides of the membrane reactor to determine the degree of chemical equilibrium shift. (3) Process development of the cleanup system using a simulated gas stream with a composition similar to that from an IGCC system. Catalytic studies using the IGCC gas composition will be performed according to the procedure used in the H[sub 2]S experiments. The conditions for optimum conversion in a gas mixture will be investigated.

  12. Alkylation of Benzene with Propylene in a Flow-Through Membrane Reactor and Fixed-Bed Reactor: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Rodríguez, Miguel; Gutiérrez-Arzaluz, Mirella; Mugica-Álvarez, Violeta; Aguilar-Pliego, Julia; Pergher, Sibele

    2012-01-01

    Benzene alkylation with propylene was studied in the gas phase using a catalytic membrane reactor and a fixed-bed reactor in the temperature range of 200–300 °C and with a weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) of 51 h−1. β-zeolite was prepared by hydrothermal synthesis using silica, aluminum metal and TEAOH as precursors. The membrane’s XRD patterns showed good crystallinity for the β-zeolite film, while scanning electron microscopy SEM results indicated that its random polycrystalline film was approximately 1 μm thick. The powders’ specific area was determined to be 400 m2·g−1 by N2 adsorption/desorption, and the TPD results indicated an overall acidity of 3.4 mmol NH3·g−1. Relative to the powdered catalyst, the catalytic membrane showed good activity and product selectivity for cumene. PMID:28817013

  13. Modeling and Design Optimization of Multifunctional Membrane Reactors for Direct Methane Aromatization

    PubMed Central

    Fouty, Nicholas J.; Carrasco, Juan C.; Lima, Fernando V.

    2017-01-01

    Due to the recent increase of natural gas production in the U.S., utilizing natural gas for higher-value chemicals has become imperative. Direct methane aromatization (DMA) is a promising process used to convert methane to benzene, but it is limited by low conversion of methane and rapid catalyst deactivation by coking. Past work has shown that membrane separation of the hydrogen produced in the DMA reactions can dramatically increase the methane conversion by shifting the equilibrium toward the products, but it also increases coke production. Oxygen introduction into the system has been shown to inhibit this coke production while not inhibiting the benzene production. This paper introduces a novel mathematical model and design to employ both methods in a multifunctional membrane reactor to push the DMA process into further viability. Multifunctional membrane reactors, in this case, are reactors where two different separations occur using two differently selective membranes, on which no systems studies have been found. The proposed multifunctional membrane design incorporates a hydrogen-selective membrane on the outer wall of the reaction zone, and an inner tube filled with airflow surrounded by an oxygen-selective membrane in the middle of the reactor. The design is shown to increase conversion via hydrogen removal by around 100%, and decrease coke production via oxygen addition by 10% when compared to a tubular reactor without any membranes. Optimization studies are performed to determine the best reactor design based on methane conversion, along with coke and benzene production. The obtained optimal design considers a small reactor (length = 25 cm, diameter of reaction tube = 0.7 cm) to subvert coke production and consumption of the product benzene as well as a high permeance (0.01 mol/s·m2·atm1/4) through the hydrogen-permeable membrane. This modeling and design approach sets the stage for guiding further development of multifunctional membrane reactor models

  14. Development of hollow fiber catalytic membrane reactors for high temperature gas cleanup. Final report, September 1989--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Yi Hua; Moser, W.R.; Pien, S.; Shelekhin, A.B.

    1994-07-01

    The objective of this project was to develop economically and technically viable catalytic membrane reactors for high temperature, high pressure gaseous contaminant control in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. These catalytic membrane reactors decompose H{sub 2}S and separate the reaction products. The reactors were designed to operate in the hostile process environment of the IGCC systems, and at temperatures ranging from 500 to 1000{degrees}C. Severe conditions encountered in the IGCC process (e.g., 900{degrees}C, containing of H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O) make it impossible to use polymeric membranes in the process. A list of inorganic membranes that can be employed in the membrane reactor includes Pd metallic membranes, molecular-sieve glass membranes (PPG Industries), porous Vycor glass membranes and porous sol-gel derived membranes such as alumina, zirconia. Alumina and zirconia membranes, however, cannot withstand for a long time at high temperatures in the presence of water vapors. Palladium membranes are a very promising class of inorganic membranes for gas separations that is currently under development. In this project two different types of membranes were used in the design of the membrane reactor -- molecular-sieve glass membrane and Vycor glass porous membrane.

  15. The application of membrane biological reactors for the treatment of wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Brindle, K.; Stephenson, T.

    1996-03-20

    Combining membrane technology with biological reactors for the treatment of municipal and industrial wastewaters has led to the development of three generic membrane processes within bioreactors: for separation and recycle of solids; for bubbleless aeration of the bioreactor; and for extraction of priority organic pollutants from hostile industrial wastewaters. Commercial aerobic and anaerobic membrane separation bioreactors already provides a small footprint alternative to conventional biological treatment methods, producing a high-quality effluent at high organic loading rates. Both the bubbleless aeration and extractive membrane bioreactors are in the development stages. The former uses gas-permeable membranes to improve the mass transfer of oxygen to the bioreactor by providing bubbleless oxygen. By using a silicon membrane process, extractive membrane bioreactors transfer organic pollutants from chemically hostile wastewaters to a nutrient medium for subsequent biodegradation. All three membrane bioreactor (MBR) processes are comparatively and critically reviewed.

  16. A new extracorporeal reactor-dialyzer for enzyme therapy using immobilized L-asparaginase.

    PubMed

    Jackson, J A; Halvorson, H R; Furlong, J W; Lucast, K D; Shore, J D

    1979-05-01

    Depletion of circulating L-asparagine has proved beneficial in the treatment of some acute lymphoyctic leukemias. To avoid the immunologic sequelae of administering L-asparaginase parenterally, we have covalently attached the enzyme to the outside of the fibers of a conventional hollow fiber hemodialyzer. This provides ready access of the substrate to the enzyme, while simultaneously isolating the foreign protein from the immune system. Such reactor-dialyzers perform well, both in vitro and in vivo. Circulating L-asparagine in the healthy dog is reduced from about 50 micrometer to less than 2 micrometer within 30 min of connecting the reactor-dialyzer and the reduction persists for at least 4 hr after cessation of treatment.

  17. Improvement of membrane performances to enhance the yield of vanillin in a pervaporation reactor.

    PubMed

    Camera-Roda, Giovanni; Cardillo, Antonio; Loddo, Vittorio; Palmisano, Leonardo; Parrino, Francesco

    2014-02-28

    In membrane reactors, the interaction of reaction and membrane separation can be exploited to achieve a "process intensification", a key objective of sustainable development. In the present work, the properties that the membrane must have to obtain this result in a pervaporation reactor are analyzed and discussed. Then, the methods to enhance these properties are investigated for the photocatalytic synthesis of vanillin, which represents a case where the recovery from the reactor of vanillin by means of pervaporation while it is produced allows a substantial improvement of the yield, since its further oxidation is thus prevented. To this end, the phenomena that control the permeation of both vanillin and the reactant (ferulic acid) are analyzed, since they ultimately affect the performances of the membrane reactor. The results show that diffusion of the aromatic compounds takes place in the presence of low concentration gradients, so that the process is controlled by other phenomena, in particular by the equilibrium with the vapor at the membrane-permeate interface. On this basis, it is demonstrated that the performances are enhanced by increasing the membrane thickness and/or the temperature, whereas the pH begins to limit the process only at values higher than 6.5.

  18. Improvement of Membrane Performances to Enhance the Yield of Vanillin in a Pervaporation Reactor

    PubMed Central

    Camera-Roda, Giovanni; Cardillo, Antonio; Loddo, Vittorio; Palmisano, Leonardo; Parrino, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    In membrane reactors, the interaction of reaction and membrane separation can be exploited to achieve a “process intensification”, a key objective of sustainable development. In the present work, the properties that the membrane must have to obtain this result in a pervaporation reactor are analyzed and discussed. Then, the methods to enhance these properties are investigated for the photocatalytic synthesis of vanillin, which represents a case where the recovery from the reactor of vanillin by means of pervaporation while it is produced allows a substantial improvement of the yield, since its further oxidation is thus prevented. To this end, the phenomena that control the permeation of both vanillin and the reactant (ferulic acid) are analyzed, since they ultimately affect the performances of the membrane reactor. The results show that diffusion of the aromatic compounds takes place in the presence of low concentration gradients, so that the process is controlled by other phenomena, in particular by the equilibrium with the vapor at the membrane-permeate interface. On this basis, it is demonstrated that the performances are enhanced by increasing the membrane thickness and/or the temperature, whereas the pH begins to limit the process only at values higher than 6.5. PMID:24957123

  19. Effect of extracellular enzyme activity on digestion performance of mesophilic UASB reactor treating high-strength municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Turkdogan-Aydinol, F Ilter; Yetilmezsoy, Kaan; Comez, Sezen

    2011-05-01

    Effect of extracellular enzyme activity on digestion performance of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was investigated for enhancement of anaerobic treatability of municipal wastewater. Two identical UASB reactors (9 L), namely Reactor-A (without enzyme addition) and Reactor-B (with enzyme addition),were simultaneously operated at mesophilic conditions (32 ± 2°C) with a hydraulic retention time of 24 h. Preliminary test results showed that the highest total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal were achieved with an extracellular enzyme dosage of 0.2 mL/L. In the activation period of the extracellular enzyme (on days 186-212), while Reactor-A removed up to 69.3% of TCOD and 55.9% of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), Reactor-B effectively removed up to 81.9% of TCOD and 72.2% of SCOD. The average VFA/alkalinity ratios were determined to be about 0.40 (±0.03) and 0.28 (±0.08) for Reactor-A and Reactor-B, respectively.

  20. Comparative study on membrane fouling between membrane-coupled moving bed biofilm reactor and conventional membrane bioreactor for municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Yang, W; Syed, W; Zhou, H

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the performance between membrane-coupled moving bed biofilm reactor (M-MBBR) and a conventional membrane bioreactor (MBR) in parallel. Extensive tests were conducted in three pilot-scale experimental units over 6 months. Emphasis was placed on the factors that would affect the performance of membrane filtration. The results showed that the concentrations of soluble microbial product (SMP), colloidal total organic carbon and transparent exopolymer particles in the M-MBBR systems were not significantly different from those in the control MBR system. However, the fouling rates were much higher in the M-MBBR systems as compared to the conventional MBR systems. This indicates membrane fouling potential was related not only to the concentration of SMP, but also to their sources and characteristics. The addition of polyaluminum chloride could reduce the fouling rate of the moving bed biofilm reactor unit by 56.4-84.5% at various membrane fluxes.

  1. Development of a Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Heterogeneous Catalysis in Supercritical CO2

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Nazrul M.; Chatterjee, Maya; Ikushima, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Toshiro; Kawanami, Hajime

    2010-01-01

    A novel type of high-pressure membrane reactor has been developed for hydrogenation in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). The main objectives of the design of the reactor are the separate feeding of hydrogen and substrate in scCO2 for safe reactions in a continuous flow process, and to reduce the reaction time. By using this new reactor, hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde into hydrocinnamaldehyde has been successfully carried out with 100% selectivity at 50 °C in 10 MPa (H2: 1 MPa, CO2: 9 MPa) with a flow rate of substrate ranging from 0.05 to 1.0 mL/min. PMID:20162008

  2. Design for Ceramic Membrane Reactor with two Reactant Gases at Different Pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Mieville, Rodney L.

    1998-11-18

    The invention is a ceramic membrane reactor for syngas production having a reaction chamber, an inlet in the reactor for natural gas intake, a plurality of oxygen permeating ceramic slabs inside the reaction chamber with each slab having a plurality of passages paralleling the gas flow for transporting air through the reaction chamber, a manifold affixed to one end of the reaction chamber for intake of air connected to the slabs, a second manifold affixed to the reactor for removing the oxygen depleted air, and an outlet in the reaction chamber for removing syngas.

  3. Development of a novel catalytic membrane reactor for heterogeneous catalysis in supercritical CO₂.

    PubMed

    Islam, Nazrul M; Chatterjee, Maya; Ikushima, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Toshiro; Kawanami, Hajime

    2010-01-13

    A novel type of high-pressure membrane reactor has been developed for hydrogenation in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO(2)). The main objectives of the design of the reactor are the separate feeding of hydrogen and substrate in scCO(2) for safe reactions in a continuous flow process, and to reduce the reaction time. By using this new reactor, hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde into hydrocinnamaldehyde has been successfully carried out with 100% selectivity at 50 degrees C in 10 MPa (H(2): 1 MPa, CO(2): 9 MPa) with a flow rate of substrate ranging from 0.05 to 1.0 mL/min.

  4. A pilot-scale photocatalyst-membrane hybrid reactor: performance and characterization.

    PubMed

    Ryu, J; Choi, W; Choo, K H

    2005-01-01

    We developed and tested a pilot-scale photocatalyst-membrane hybrid reactor for water treatment. The performance of the pilot-scale reactor was evaluated by monitoring the degradation efficiency of several organic pollutants and the membrane suction pressure at different operating conditions. The concentration of humic acids rather increased in the initial period of UV illumination and then decreased gradually, which could be ascribed to the photoinduced desorption of humic acids from the TiO2 surface. The decoloring rate of methylene blue was faster than that of rhodamine B, whereas the order of mineralization rates of the dyes was reversed. 4-chlorophenol of 100 ppb was fully degraded under UV irradiation in 2 hours, which suggests that this hybrid reactor would be more suitable in removing micropollutants in water. The reactor was operated with either continuous or intermittent suction mode. In a continuous suction mode, the formation of TiO2 cake layers on the membrane surface occurred and caused a substantial increase in suction pressure. However, no further fouling (or suction pressure build-up) took place with an intermittent suction mode with the 9-min suction and 3-min pause period. The photocatalyst-membrane hybrid reactor system developed in this study could be an attractive option for controlling micropollutants in water.

  5. SEPARATION OF HYDROGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE USING A NOVEL MEMBRANE REACTOR IN ADVANCED FOSSIL ENERGY CONVERSION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Shamsuddin Illias

    2002-06-10

    Inorganic membrane reactors offer the possibility of combining reaction and separation in a single operation at high temperatures to overcome the equilibrium limitations experienced in conventional reactor configurations. Such attractive features can be advantageously utilized in a number of potential commercial opportunities, which include dehydrogenation, hydrogenation, oxidative dehydrogenation, oxidation and catalytic decomposition reactions. However, to be cost effective, significant technological advances and improvements will be required to solve several key issues which include: (a) permselective thin solid film, (b) thermal, chemical and mechanical stability of the film at high temperatures, and (c) reactor engineering and module development in relation to the development of effective seals at high temperature and high pressure. In this project, we are working on the development and application of palladium and palladium-silver alloy thin-film composite membranes in membrane reactor-separator configuration for simultaneous production and separation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide at high temperature. From our research on Pd-composite membrane, we have demonstrated that the new membrane has significantly higher hydrogen flux with very high perm-selectivity than any of the membranes commercially available. The steam reforming of methane by equilibrium shift in Pd-composite membrane reactor is being studied to demonstrate the potential application this new development. We designed and built a membrane reactor to study the reforming reaction. A two-dimensional pseudo-homogeneous reactor model was developed to study the performance of the membrane reactor parametrically. The important results are presented in this report.

  6. Highly hydrophilic poly(vinylidene fluoride)/meso-titania hybrid mesoporous membrane for photocatalytic membrane reactor in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meng; Yang, Guang; Jin, Peng; Tang, Hao; Wang, Huanhuan; Chen, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The high hydrophobicity of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane remains an obstacle to be applied in some purification processes of water or wastewater. Herein, a highly hydrophilic hybrid mesoporous titania membrane composed of mesoporous anatase titania (meso-TiO2) materials inside the three-dimensional (3D) macropores of PVDF membrane was successfully prepared by using the dual-templated synthesis method combined with solvent extraction and applied as the photocatalytic membrane reactor for the photodegredation of organic dye in water. The structure and the properties of as-prepared hybrid membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption-desorption and contact angle measurements. It was found that the hydrophilicity of PVDF membrane can be significantly improved by filling mesoporous TiO2 inside the 3D macropores of PVDF membrane. Moreover, such a PVDF/meso-TiO2 hybrid membrane exhibits promising photocatalytic degradation of dye in water due to the existence of mesoporous anatase TiO2 materials inside PVDF membrane. This study provides a new strategy to simultaneously introduce hydrophilicity and some desirable properties into PVDF and other hydrophobic membranes.

  7. Highly hydrophilic poly(vinylidene fluoride)/meso-titania hybrid mesoporous membrane for photocatalytic membrane reactor in water

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Yang, Guang; Jin, Peng; Tang, Hao; Wang, Huanhuan; Chen, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The high hydrophobicity of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane remains an obstacle to be applied in some purification processes of water or wastewater. Herein, a highly hydrophilic hybrid mesoporous titania membrane composed of mesoporous anatase titania (meso-TiO2) materials inside the three-dimensional (3D) macropores of PVDF membrane was successfully prepared by using the dual-templated synthesis method combined with solvent extraction and applied as the photocatalytic membrane reactor for the photodegredation of organic dye in water. The structure and the properties of as-prepared hybrid membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption–desorption and contact angle measurements. It was found that the hydrophilicity of PVDF membrane can be significantly improved by filling mesoporous TiO2 inside the 3D macropores of PVDF membrane. Moreover, such a PVDF/meso-TiO2 hybrid membrane exhibits promising photocatalytic degradation of dye in water due to the existence of mesoporous anatase TiO2 materials inside PVDF membrane. This study provides a new strategy to simultaneously introduce hydrophilicity and some desirable properties into PVDF and other hydrophobic membranes. PMID:26754440

  8. Highly hydrophilic poly(vinylidene fluoride)/meso-titania hybrid mesoporous membrane for photocatalytic membrane reactor in water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Yang, Guang; Jin, Peng; Tang, Hao; Wang, Huanhuan; Chen, Yong

    2016-01-12

    The high hydrophobicity of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane remains an obstacle to be applied in some purification processes of water or wastewater. Herein, a highly hydrophilic hybrid mesoporous titania membrane composed of mesoporous anatase titania (meso-TiO2) materials inside the three-dimensional (3D) macropores of PVDF membrane was successfully prepared by using the dual-templated synthesis method combined with solvent extraction and applied as the photocatalytic membrane reactor for the photodegredation of organic dye in water. The structure and the properties of as-prepared hybrid membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption-desorption and contact angle measurements. It was found that the hydrophilicity of PVDF membrane can be significantly improved by filling mesoporous TiO2 inside the 3D macropores of PVDF membrane. Moreover, such a PVDF/meso-TiO2 hybrid membrane exhibits promising photocatalytic degradation of dye in water due to the existence of mesoporous anatase TiO2 materials inside PVDF membrane. This study provides a new strategy to simultaneously introduce hydrophilicity and some desirable properties into PVDF and other hydrophobic membranes.

  9. Biological denitrification of brines from membrane treatment processes using an upflow sludge blanket (USB) reactor.

    PubMed

    Beliavski, M; Meerovich, I; Tarre, S; Green, M

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates denitrification of brines originating from membrane treatment of groundwater in an upflow sludge blanket (USB) reactor, a biofilm reactor without carrier. A simulated brine wastewater was prepared from tap water and contained a nitrate concentration of 125 mg/l as N and a total salt concentration of about 1%. In order to select for a suitable energy source for denitrification, two electron donors were compared: one promoting precipitation of calcium compounds (ethanol), while the other (acetic acid), no precipitation was expected. After extended operation to reach steady state, the sludge from the two reactors showed very different mineral contents. The VSS/TSS ratio in the ethanol fed reactor was 0.2, i.e., 80% mineral content, while the VSS/TSS ratio in the acetic acid fed reactor was 0.9, i.e., 10% mineral content. In spite of the low mineral content, the sludge from the acetic acid fed reactor showed remarkably excellent granulation and settling characteristics. Although the denitrification performance of the acetic acid fed reactor was similar to that of the ethanol fed reactor, there was a huge difference in the sludge production due to mineral precipitation, with the corresponding negative aspects including increased costs of sludge treatment and disposal and moreover, instability and difficulties in reactor operation (channeling). These arguments make acetic acid a much more suitable candidate for brine denitrification, despite previous findings observed in groundwater denitrification regarding the essential role of a relatively high sludge mineral fraction for stable and effective USB reactor operation. Based on a comparison between two denitrification reactors with and without salt addition and using acetic acid as the electron donor, it was concluded that the reason for the excellent sludge settling characteristics found in the acetic acid fed reactor is the positive effects of higher salinity on granular sludge formation.

  10. Nuclear track membranes: Production in nuclear reactors and prospects of application

    SciTech Connect

    Fursov, B.I.; Kryuchkov, E.A.; Mironov, N.N.

    1993-12-31

    Nuclear track membranes are produced by a physico-chemical treatment of polymeric films exposed to fission fragments in nuclear reactors or to heavy ion beams. Heavy charged particles form in the solids along their trajectories regions of high ionization density where polymer destruction takes place. Selective dissolution of damaged material converts the initial film into a microfiltration membrane with cylindrical through pores. The main feature of nuclear membranes are a small thickness and uniformity of pore size. The qualities of the nuclear membranes promise good prospects for applications in many areas.

  11. Membrane reactor coupled with electrophoresis for enzymatic production of aspartic acid.

    PubMed

    Lee, C K; Hong, J

    1988-08-20

    Aspartic acid production by aspartase reaction on ammonium fumarate was carried out in a membrane reactor coupled with electrophoresis. A pressurized, stirred vessel attached with an ultrafiltration membrane was used as a membrane reactor. An electric field was applied across the membrane to preferentially remove the product aspartate from the reactor into the permeate stream. The charged molecule, aspartate, is much smaller than the molecular-weight cutoff of the membrane (10(4)) so that the ions would move freely through pores of the membrane. The concentration of aspartate in the permeate stream is determined by the electromigration velocity of the ions and the permeation rate of solvent (water) through the membrane. The permeation rate of solvent could be controlled by the applied pressure, and the migration velocity of the ions could be controlled by the electric field strength applied. The equilibrium conversion of ammonium fumarate to the aspartate was 70%. In the presence of electric field, the aspartase activity was not disturbed. Also, it is shown that the aspartate concentration in the permeate stream was 20% higher than that in the reaction solution with the permeate flow rate of 0.7 mL/min. The steady-state conversion was 60%. Instead of aspartate, aspartic acid can be recovered directly from the permeate stream by controlling the circulation of buffer electrolyte in the anode compartment.

  12. Laccase/mediator assisted degradation of triarylmethane dyes in a continuous membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Meenu; Mishra, Saroj; Sreekrishnan, Trichur Ramaswamy

    2009-08-10

    Laccase/mediator systems are important bioremediation agents as the rates of reactions can be enhanced in the presence of the mediators. The decolorization mechanism of two triarylmethane dyes, namely, Basic Green 4 and Acid Violet 17 is reported using Cyathus bulleri laccase. Basic Green 4 was decolorized through N-demethylation by laccase alone, while in mediator assisted reactions, dye breakdown was initiated from oxidation of carbinol form of the dye. Benzaldehyde and N,N-dimethyl aniline were the major end products. With Acid Violet 17, laccase carried out N-deethylation and in mediator assisted reactions, oxidation of the carbinol form of the dye occurred resulting in formation of formyl benzene sulfonic acid, carboxy benzene sulfonic acid and benzene sulfonic acid. Toxicity analysis revealed that Basic Green 4 was toxic and treatment with laccase/mediators resulted in 80-100% detoxification. The treatment of the textile dye solution using laccase and 2,2'-azino-di-(-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) was demonstrated in an enzyme membrane reactor. At a hydraulic retention time of 6h, the process was operated for a period of 15 days with nearly 95% decolorization, 10% reduction in flux and 70% recovery of active ABTS.

  13. Analysis of the key enzymes of butyric and acetic acid fermentation in biogas reactors.

    PubMed

    Gabris, Christina; Bengelsdorf, Frank R; Dürre, Peter

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of the mechanisms of acidogenesis, which is a key process during anaerobic digestion. To expose possible bottlenecks, specific activities of the key enzymes of acidification, such as acetate kinase (Ack, 0.23-0.99 U mg(-1) protein), butyrate kinase (Buk, < 0.03 U mg(-1) protein) and butyryl-CoA:acetate-CoA transferase (But, 3.24-7.64 U mg(-1) protein), were determined in cell free extracts of biogas reactor content from three different biogas reactors. Furthermore, the detection of Ack was successful via Western blot analysis. Quantification of corresponding functional genes encoding Buk (buk) and But (but) was not feasible, although an amplification was possible. Thus, phylogenetic trees were constructed based on respective gene fragments. Four new clades of possible butyrate-producing bacteria were postulated, as well as bacteria of the genera Roseburia or Clostridium identified. The low Buk activity was in contrast to the high specific But activity in the analysed samples. Butyrate formation via Buk activity does barely occur in the investigated biogas reactor. Specific enzyme activities (Ack, Buk and But) in samples drawn from three different biogas reactors correlated with ammonia and ammonium concentrations (NH₃ and NH₄(+)-N), and a negative dependency can be postulated. Thus, high concentrations of NH₃ and NH₄(+)-N may lead to a bottleneck in acidogenesis due to decreased specific acidogenic enzyme activities. © 2015 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. A self-catalytic mixed-conducting membrane reactor for effective production of hydrogen from methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xueliang; Liu, Zhengkun; Jin, Wanqin; Xu, Nanping

    A supported mixed-conducting LNCO membrane with a pore-gradient structure LNO support was successfully prepared via a dry pressing and co-sintering route. The match of sintering behaviors between membrane and support was realized by the preparation of an ABB‧B‧‧B‧BA-type membrane. A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) test demonstrated that the surface of the supported membrane was dense and crack-free and the pore-gradient structure of the support can be observed clearly. The oxygen flux of the supported membrane was about 5.6 times that of the symmetric LNCO membrane. A self-catalytic mixed-conducting membrane reactor was constructed using the prepared membrane for hydrogen production from methane. It was found that this membrane reactor exhibited high performance and good stability for hydrogen production. At 1123 K, the CH 4 conversion, hydrogen selectivity and hydrogen production remained at about 60%, 89% and 8.0 ml(STP) cm -2 min -1, respectively, for more than 120 h.

  15. Less common applications of monoliths: IV. Recent developments in immobilized enzyme reactors for proteomics and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Krenkova, Jana; Svec, Frantisek

    2009-03-01

    Use of monolithic supports for enzyme immobilization has rapidly expanded since we published the preceding paper in the series of articles concerned with this topic almost three years ago. Many groups worldwide have realized the benefits of applying monoliths as support structures and used a variety of techniques to immobilize many different enzymes. Although some of these new developments are just refinements of the methods developed previously, some notable new approaches have also been reported. This review summarizes the literature published since 2006 and demonstrates the broad variability of reactive monoliths prepared from silica as well as from organic polymers in the form of disks, columns, and capillaries. All these monoliths were prepared by direct formation from reactive precursors or activation of preformed inactive structures. Interestingly, most of the applications of monolithic enzyme reactors target proteolytic digestion of proteins for proteomic analysis.

  16. Ion transport membrane reactor systems and methods for producing synthesis gas

    DOEpatents

    Repasky, John Michael

    2015-05-12

    Embodiments of the present invention provide cost-effective systems and methods for producing a synthesis gas product using a steam reformer system and an ion transport membrane (ITM) reactor having multiple stages, without requiring inter-stage reactant injections. Embodiments of the present invention also provide techniques for compensating for membrane performance degradation and other changes in system operating conditions that negatively affect synthesis gas production.

  17. Integrated microfluidic enzyme reactor mass spectrometry platform for detection of anthrax lethal factor.

    PubMed

    Aravamudhan, Shyam; Joseph, Paul J; Kuklenyik, Zsuzsanna; Boyer, Anne E; Barr, John R

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we have developed a coupled microfluidic enzyme reactor mass spectrometry platform for the detection of protein toxins such as anthrax lethal factor. The lethal toxin produced during Bacillus anthracis infection is a complex protective antigen, which localizes the toxin to the cell receptor and lethal factor (LF). We have demonstrated, in this work, the applicability of a microfluidic reactor for the capture and concentration of enzyme reaction solid-phase. The reaction solid-phase consists of anti-LF monoclonal antibodies immobilized on magnetic protein G beads for the capture of LF. The captured LF, on exposure to optimized peptide substrate, hydrolyzes into two smaller peptide products. These cleavage products were then analyzed by mass spectrometer coupled to the microfluidic reactor. This resulted in efficient sample preparation, high sensitivity, larger reaction sites, less reagents consumption and shorter analysis time. We have showed here reproducible detection of anthrax lethal factor in concentration range of 40 to 0.5 ng/mL with a detection limit of 1 ng/mL. The enzymatic reaction and the analysis were performed in less than 15 minutes, indicating a rapid diagnostic tool for early anthrax prognosis.

  18. Nanostructured Membranes for Green Synthesis of Nanoparticles and Enzyme Catalysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Macroporous membranes functionalized with ionizable macromolecules provide promising applications in toxic metal capture at high capacity, nanoparticle synthesis, and catalysis. Our low‐pressure membrane approach is marked by reaction and separation selectivity and their tunabili...

  19. Nanostructured Membranes for Green Synthesis of Nanoparticles and Enzyme Catalysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Macroporous membranes functionalized with ionizable macromolecules provide promising applications in toxic metal capture at high capacity, nanoparticle synthesis, and catalysis. Our low‐pressure membrane approach is marked by reaction and separation selectivity and their tunabili...

  20. Nanostructured Membranes for Enzyme Catalysis and Green Synthesis of Nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Macroporous membranes functionalized with ionizable macromolecules provide promising applications in toxic metal capture at high capacity, nanoparticle synthesis, and catalysis. Our low-pressure membrane approach is marked by reaction and separation selectivity and their tunabil...

  1. Nanostructured Membranes for Enzyme Catalysis and Green Synthesis of Nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Macroporous membranes functionalized with ionizable macromolecules provide promising applications in toxic metal capture at high capacity, nanoparticle synthesis, and catalysis. Our low-pressure membrane approach is marked by reaction and separation selectivity and their tunabil...

  2. A packed bed membrane reactor for production of biodiesel using activated carbon supported catalyst.

    PubMed

    Baroutian, Saeid; Aroua, Mohamed K; Raman, Abdul Aziz A; Sulaiman, Nik M N

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a novel continuous reactor has been developed to produce high quality methyl esters (biodiesel) from palm oil. A microporous TiO2/Al2O3 membrane was packed with potassium hydroxide catalyst supported on palm shell activated carbon. The central composite design (CCD) of response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to investigate the effects of reaction temperature, catalyst amount and cross flow circulation velocity on the production of biodiesel in the packed bed membrane reactor. The highest conversion of palm oil to biodiesel in the reactor was obtained at 70 °C employing 157.04 g catalyst per unit volume of the reactor and 0.21 cm/s cross flow circulation velocity. The physical and chemical properties of the produced biodiesel were determined and compared with the standard specifications. High quality palm oil biodiesel was produced by combination of heterogeneous alkali transesterification and separation processes in the packed bed membrane reactor. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Enrichment and biofilm formation of Anammox bacteria in a non-woven membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Ni, Shou-Qing; Lee, Po-Heng; Fessehaie, Anania; Gao, Bao-Yu; Sung, Shihwu

    2010-03-01

    An innovative reactor configuration for Anammox enrichment by connecting a non-woven membrane module with an anaerobic reactor was developed in this study. The Anammox non-woven membrane reactor (ANMR) exhibited high biomass retention ability through the formation of aggregates in the reactor and biofilm on the interior surface of the non-woven membrane. No fouling problems occurred on the membrane after the development of mature biofilms. After 8 months of operation, the nitrogen loading rate (NLR) and nitrogen removal rate (NRR) reached 1263 mg N/l/d and 1047.5 mg N/l/d, respectively, with a maximum specific ammonium consumption (SAC) of 51 nmol/mg protein/min. At steady state, the average ammonium and nitrite removal efficiencies were 90.9% and 95.0%, respectively. Morphological observation of Anammox aggregates and biofilm showed a high degree of compactness. Also, enrichment of Anammox bacteria was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis as 97.7%.

  4. Long life catalytic membrane reactors for spontaneous conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, M., White, J., Deych, S., Millard, J., Myers, M., Sammells, A.

    1997-10-01

    This program is focusing on the development of mixed ionic and electronic conducting materials based on the brown millerite structure for use in catalytic membrane reactors (CMRs). These CMRs are being evaluated for promoting the spontaneous and highly selective oxidative reforming of carbon dioxide / natural gas mixtures to synthesis gas.

  5. Direct conversion of methane to aromatics in a catalytic co-ionic membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Morejudo, S H; Zanón, R; Escolástico, S; Yuste-Tirados, I; Malerød-Fjeld, H; Vestre, P K; Coors, W G; Martínez, A; Norby, T; Serra, J M; Kjølseth, C

    2016-08-05

    Nonoxidative methane dehydroaromatization (MDA: 6CH4 ↔ C6H6 + 9H2) using shape-selective Mo/zeolite catalysts is a key technology for exploitation of stranded natural gas reserves by direct conversion into transportable liquids. However, this reaction faces two major issues: The one-pass conversion is limited by thermodynamics, and the catalyst deactivates quickly through kinetically favored formation of coke. We show that integration of an electrochemical BaZrO3-based membrane exhibiting both proton and oxide ion conductivity into an MDA reactor gives rise to high aromatic yields and improved catalyst stability. These effects originate from the simultaneous extraction of hydrogen and distributed injection of oxide ions along the reactor length. Further, we demonstrate that the electrochemical co-ionic membrane reactor enables high carbon efficiencies (up to 80%) that improve the technoeconomic process viability. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. Inner- and outer-membrane enzymes of mitochondria during liver regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gear, A. R. L.

    1970-01-01

    1. Marker enzymes for the mitochondrial matrix, inner membrane, inter-membrane space and outer membrane were measured in mitochondria isolated from control and regenerating rat liver. The specific activity of these enzymes was then followed for up to 30 days after operation. 2. The specific activity of marker enzymes for the matrix, inner membrane and inter-membrane space remained constant during liver regeneration. 3. However, the specific activities of monoamine oxidase and kynurenine hydroxylase, both outer-membrane markers, fell by 67% and 49% respectively from their control values at 4 days after operation, and returned to normal by about 3 weeks. 4. The repression of kynurenine hydroxylase activity was shown to be unrelated to any independent variation in tryptophan catabolism, based on tryptophan pyrrolase assays. 5. These results are considered to indicate that enzymes of the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes are synthesized asynchronously during morphogenesis. 6. The enzyme complement of purified outer membrane at 4 days after operation was about 50% of that of the appropriate control. Thus the composition of the outer membrane itself may vary dramatically, and supports the concept that constitutive enzymes may turn over independently of a membrane's existence. 7. The behaviour of the rotenone-insensitive, NADH cytochrome c reductase did not parallel the other outer-membrane enzymes for intact mitochondria, but did so when assayed in highly purified fractions of outer membrane. This suggests a labile binding to the outer membrane during the early stages of morphogenesis. 8. Electrophoresis of inner- and outer-membrane proteins revealed little difference between control and experimental mitochondria at 4 days, except for an increase in several, high-molecular-weight components of the outer membrane. These bands closely correspond to similar bands derived from smooth endoplasmic reticulum. 9. The results are discussed in relation to the biogenesis and

  7. Student Collaboration in a Series of Integrated Experiments to Study Enzyme Reactor Modeling with Immobilized Cell-Based Invertase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taipa, M. A^ngela; Azevedo, Ana M.; Grilo, Anto´nio L.; Couto, Pedro T.; Ferreira, Filipe A. G.; Fortuna, Ana R. M.; Pinto, Ine^s F.; Santos, Rafael M.; Santos, Susana B.

    2015-01-01

    An integrative laboratory study addressing fundamentals of enzyme catalysis and their application to reactors operation and modeling is presented. Invertase, a ß-fructofuranosidase that catalyses the hydrolysis of sucrose, is used as the model enzyme at optimal conditions (pH 4.5 and 45 °C). The experimental work involves 3 h of laboratory time…

  8. Student Collaboration in a Series of Integrated Experiments to Study Enzyme Reactor Modeling with Immobilized Cell-Based Invertase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taipa, M. A^ngela; Azevedo, Ana M.; Grilo, Anto´nio L.; Couto, Pedro T.; Ferreira, Filipe A. G.; Fortuna, Ana R. M.; Pinto, Ine^s F.; Santos, Rafael M.; Santos, Susana B.

    2015-01-01

    An integrative laboratory study addressing fundamentals of enzyme catalysis and their application to reactors operation and modeling is presented. Invertase, a ß-fructofuranosidase that catalyses the hydrolysis of sucrose, is used as the model enzyme at optimal conditions (pH 4.5 and 45 °C). The experimental work involves 3 h of laboratory time…

  9. Fluidized Bed Membrane Reactors for Ultra Pure H₂ Production--A Step forward towards Commercialization.

    PubMed

    Helmi, Arash; Fernandez, Ekain; Melendez, Jon; Pacheco Tanaka, David Alfredo; Gallucci, Fausto; van Sint Annaland, Martin

    2016-03-19

    In this research the performance of a fluidized bed membrane reactor for high temperature water gas shift and its long term stability was investigated to provide a proof-of-concept of the new system at lab scale. A demonstration unit with a capacity of 1 Nm³/h of ultra-pure H₂ was designed, built and operated over 900 h of continuous work. Firstly, the performance of the membranes were investigated at different inlet gas compositions and at different temperatures and H₂ partial pressure differences. The membranes showed very high H₂ fluxes (3.89 × 10(-6) mol·m(-2)·Pa(-1)·s(-1) at 400 °C and 1 atm pressure difference) with a H₂/N₂ ideal perm-selectivity (up to 21,000 when integrating five membranes in the module) beyond the DOE 2015 targets. Monitoring the performance of the membranes and the reactor confirmed a very stable performance of the unit for continuous high temperature water gas shift under bubbling fluidization conditions. Several experiments were carried out at different temperatures, pressures and various inlet compositions to determine the optimum operating window for the reactor. The obtained results showed high hydrogen recovery factors, and very low CO concentrations at the permeate side (in average <10 ppm), so that the produced hydrogen can be directly fed to a low temperature PEM fuel cell.

  10. Novel Composite Hydrogen-Permeable Membranes for Nonthermal Plasma Reactors for the Decomposition of Hydrogen Sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Morris Argyle; John Ackerman; Suresh Muknahallipatna; Jerry Hamann; Stanislaw Legowski; Gui-Bing Zhao; Sanil John; Ji-Jun Zhang; Linna Wang

    2007-09-30

    The goal of this experimental project was to design and fabricate a reactor and membrane test cell to dissociate hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in a nonthermal plasma and to recover hydrogen (H{sub 2}) through a superpermeable multi-layer membrane. Superpermeability of hydrogen atoms (H) has been reported by some researchers using membranes made of Group V transition metals (niobium, tantalum, vanadium, and their alloys), but it was not achieved at the moderate pressure conditions used in this study. However, H{sub 2}S was successfully decomposed at energy efficiencies higher than any other reports for the high H{sub 2}S concentration and moderate pressures (corresponding to high reactor throughputs) used in this study.

  11. Application of immobilized enzyme reactor in on-line high performance liquid chromatography: a review.

    PubMed

    Girelli, Anna Maria; Mattei, Enrico

    2005-05-05

    This review summarizes all the research efforts in the last decade (1994-2003) that have been spent to the various application of immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER) in on-line high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All immobilization procedures including supports, kind of assembly into chromatographic system and methods are described. The effect of immobilization on enzymatic properties and stability of biocatalysts is considered. A brief survey of the main applications of IMER both as pre-column, post-column or column in the chemical, pharmaceutical, clinical and commodities fields is also reported.

  12. Anodized Aluminum Oxide Templated Synthesis of Metal-Organic Frameworks Used as Membrane Reactors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yifu; Wu, Xue-Jun; Zhao, Meiting; Ma, Qinglang; Chen, Junze; Chen, Bo; Sindoro, Melinda; Yang, Jian; Han, Shikui; Lu, Qipeng; Zhang, Hua

    2017-01-09

    The incorporation of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) into membrane-shaped architectures is of great importance for practical applications. The currently synthesized MOF-based membranes show many disadvantages, such as poor compatibility, low dispersity, and instability, which severely limit their utility. Herein, we present a general, facile, and robust approach for the synthesis of MOF-based composite membranes through the in situ growth of MOF plates in the channels of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. After being used as catalysis reactors, they exhibit high catalytic performance and stability in the Knoevenagel condensation reaction. The high catalytic performance might be attributed to the intrinsic structure of MOF-based composite membranes, which can remove the products from the reaction zone quickly, and prevent the aggregation and loss of catalysts during reaction and recycling process.

  13. High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading. Quarterly report No. 1, September 21, 1989--December 20, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, T.T.

    1992-06-19

    In this project we well evaluate the performance of Sel-Gel alumina membranes in coal liquid upgrading processes under realistic temperature and pressure conditions and investigate the feasibility of using such membranes in a membrane reactor based coal liquid upgrading process. In addition, the development of novel ceramic membranes with enhanced catalytic activity for coal-liquid upgrading applications, such as carbon-coated alumina membranes, will be also investigated. (VC)

  14. Electrochemical enhancement of glucose oxidase kinetics : gluconic acid production with anion exchange membrane reactor.

    SciTech Connect

    Hestekin, J.A.; Lin, Y. P.; Frank, J.; Snyder, S.; St. Martin, E.; Energy Systems

    2002-09-01

    Enzyme-catalysed reactions provide a means to perform many industrial processes because they enhance chemical reactions specifically and avoid the formation of by-products and the use of toxic organic solvents. Current enzyme applications range from laundry detergent supplements to the destruction of nerve gas agents. Although enzyme specificity is attractive there are also significant disadvantages to enzymatic catalysis. One of the principal disadvantages being relatively short lifetimes, ranging from a few hours to several days. However, literature has shown that by immobilizing an enzyme on a support matrix, the lifetime of the enzyme is increased since the rigidity of the support matrix helps prevent unfolding. Microfiltration membranes are often a good choice for enzyme attachment. The high surface area in the pores allows for enzyme attachment and reduction of mass transfer limitations.

  15. Potentialities of a membrane reactor with laccase grafted membranes for the enzymatic degradation of phenolic compounds in water.

    PubMed

    Chea, Vorleak; Paolucci-Jeanjean, Delphine; Sanchez, José; Belleville, Marie-Pierre

    2014-10-06

    This paper describes the degradation of phenolic compounds by laccases from Trametes versicolor in an enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR). The enzymatic membranes were prepared by grafting laccase on a gelatine layer previously deposited onto α-alumina tubular membranes. The 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (DMP) was selected  from among the three different phenolic compounds tested (guaiacol, 4-chlorophenol and DMP) to study the performance of the EMR in dead end configuration. At the lowest feed substrate concentration tested (100 mg·L-1), consumption increased with flux (up to 7.9 × 103 mg·h-1·m-2 at 128 L·h-1·m-2), whereas at the highest substrate concentration (500 mg·L-1), it was shown that the reaction was limited by the oxygen content.

  16. Potentialities of a Membrane Reactor with Laccase Grafted Membranes for the Enzymatic Degradation of Phenolic Compounds in Water

    PubMed Central

    Chea, Vorleak; Paolucci-Jeanjean, Delphine; Sanchez, José; Belleville, Marie-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the degradation of phenolic compounds by laccases from Trametes versicolor in an enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR). The enzymatic membranes were prepared by grafting laccase on a gelatine layer previously deposited onto α-alumina tubular membranes. The 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (DMP) was selected  from among the three different phenolic compounds tested (guaiacol, 4-chlorophenol and DMP) to study the performance of the EMR in dead end configuration. At the lowest feed substrate concentration tested (100 mg·L−1), consumption increased with flux (up to 7.9 × 103 mg·h−1·m−2 at 128 L·h−1·m−2), whereas at the highest substrate concentration (500 mg·L−1), it was shown that the reaction was limited by the oxygen content. PMID:25295628

  17. SEPARATION OF HYDROGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE USING A NOVEL MEMBRANE REACTOR IN ADVANCED FOSSIL ENERGY CONVERSION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Shamsuddin Ilias

    2001-06-25

    Inorganic membrane reactors offer the possibility of combining reaction and separation in a single operation at high temperatures to overcome the equilibrium limitations experienced in conventional reactor configurations. Such attractive features can be advantageously utilized in a number of potential commercial opportunities, which include dehydrogenation, hydrogenation, oxidative dehydrogenation, oxidation and catalytic decomposition reactions. However, to be cost effective, significant technological advances and improvements will be required to solve several key issues which include: (a) permselective thin solid film, (b) thermal, chemical and mechanical stability of the film at high temperatures, and (c) reactor engineering and module development in relation to the development of effective seals at high temperature and high pressure. In this project, we are working on the development and application of palladium and palladium-silver alloy thin-film composite membranes in membrane reactor-separator configuration for simultaneous production and separation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide at high temperature. From our research on Pd-composite membrane, we have demonstrated that the new membrane has significantly higher hydrogen flux with very high perm-selectivity than any of the membranes commercially available. The steam reforming of methane by equilibrium shift in Pd-composite membrane reactor is being studied to demonstrate the potential application this new development. To have better understanding of the membrane reactor, during this reporting period, we developed a two-dimensional pseudo-homogeneous reactor model for steam reforming of methane by equilibrium shift in a tubular membrane reactor. In numerical solution of the reactor model equations, numerical difficulties were encountered and we seeking alternative solution techniques to overcome the problem.

  18. Integration of Nine Steps into One Membrane Reactor To Produce Synthesis Gases for Ammonia and Liquid Fuel.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenping; Zhu, Xuefeng; Chen, Shuguang; Yang, Weishen

    2016-07-18

    The synthesis of ammonia and liquid fuel are two important chemical processes in which most of the energy is consumed in the production of H2 /N2 and H2 /CO synthesis gases from natural gas (methane). Here, we report a membrane reactor with a mixed ionic-electronic conducting membrane, in which the nine steps for the production of the two types of synthesis gases are shortened to one step by using water, air, and methane as feeds. In the membrane reactor, there is no direct CO2 emission and no CO or H2 S present in the ammonia synthesis gas. The energy consumption for the production of the two synthesis gases can be reduced by 63 % by using this membrane reactor. This promising membrane reactor process has been successfully demonstrated by experiment. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Reconstitution studies on the involvement of radiation-induced lipid peroxidation in damage to membrane enzymes.

    PubMed

    Yukawa, O; Nagatsuka, S; Nakazawa, T

    1983-04-01

    The effect of radiation on the drug-metabolizing enzyme system of microsomes, reconstituted with liposomes of microsomal phospholipids, NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase and cytochrome P-450, was examined to elucidate the role of lipid peroxidation of membranes in radiation-induced damage to membrane-bound enzymes. The reconstituted system of non-irradiated enzymes with irradiated liposomes showed a low activity of hexobarbital hydroxylation, whereas irradiated enzymes combined with non-irradiated liposomes exhibited an activity equal to that of unirradiated controls. Irradiation of liposomes caused a decrease in cytochrome P-450 content by destruction of the haem of cytochrome P-450 and also inhibited the binding capacity of cytochrome P-450 for hexobarbital. The relationship between radiation-induced lipid peroxidation and membrane-bound enzymes is discussed.

  20. Anoxic gas recirculation system for fouling control in anoxic membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hansaem; Lee, Daeju; Hong, Seongwan; Yun, Geum Hee; Kim, Sungpyo; Hwang, Jung Ki; Lee, Woojae; Yun, Zuwhan

    2014-06-01

    Anoxic gas recirculation system was applied to control the membrane fouling in pilot-scale 4-stage anoxic membrane bioreactor (MBR). In the anaerobic-anoxic-anoxic-aerobic flow scheme, hydrophilic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane (0.2 μm, 7.2 m(2)/module) was submerged in the second anoxic zone. During 8 months operation, the average flux of the membrane was 21.3 L/(m(2)·hr). Chemical cleaning of the membrane was conducted only once with sodium hydroxide and sodium hypochlorite. Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in the second anoxic zone was maintained with an average of 0.19 ± 0.05 mg/L. Gas chromatography analysis showed that the headspace gas in the second anoxic reactor was mainly consisted of N2 (93.0% ± 2.5%), O2 (3.8% ± 0.6%), and CO2 (3.0% ± 0.5%), where the saturation DO concentration in liquid phase was 1.57 mg/L. Atmospheric O2 content (20.5% ± 0.8%) was significantly reduced in the anoxic gas. The average pH in the reactor was 7.2 ± 0.4. As a result, the recirculation of the anoxic gas was successfully applied to control the membrane fouling in the anoxic MBR. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The membrane-biofilm reactor (MBfR) as a counter-diffusional biofilm process.

    PubMed

    Nerenberg, Robert

    2016-04-01

    The membrane-biofilm reactor (MBfR), sometimes known as the membrane-aerated biofilm reactor (MABR), is an emerging treatment technology based on gas-transferring membranes. The membranes typically supply a gaseous electron donor or acceptor substrate, such as oxygen, hydrogen, and methane. The substrate diffuses through the membrane to a biofilm naturally forming on the membrane outer surface. The complementary substrate (electron donor or acceptor) typically diffuses from the bulk liquid into the biofilm, making MBfR counter diffusional. This paper reviews the unique behavior of counter-diffusional biofilms and highlights recent research on the MBfR. Key advances include insights into the microbial community structure of MBfRs, applying the MBfR to novel contaminants, providing a better understanding of biofilm morphology and its effects on MBfR behavior, and the development of methane-based MBfR applications. These advances are likely to further the development of the MBfR for environmental applications, such as energy-efficient wastewater treatment and advanced water treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Catalysts with Cerium in a Membrane Reactor for the Removal of Formaldehyde Pollutant from Water Effluents.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Arzaluz, Mirella; Noreña-Franco, Luis; Ángel-Cuevas, Saúl; Mugica-Álvarez, Violeta; Torres-Rodríguez, Miguel

    2016-05-24

    We report the synthesis of cerium oxide, cobalt oxide, mixed cerium, and cobalt oxides and a Ce-Co/Al₂O₃ membrane, which are employed as catalysts for the catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) reaction process and the removal of formaldehyde from industrial effluents. Formaldehyde is present in numerous waste streams from the chemical industry in a concentration low enough to make its recovery not economically justified but high enough to create an environmental hazard. Common biological degradation methods do not work for formaldehyde, a highly toxic but refractory, low biodegradability substance. The CWO reaction is a recent, promising alternative that also permits much lower temperature and pressure conditions than other oxidation processes, resulting in economic benefits. The CWO reaction employing Ce- and Co-containing catalysts was carried out inside a slurry batch reactor and a membrane reactor. Experimental results are reported. Next, a mixed Ce-Co oxide film was supported on an γ-alumina membrane used in a catalytic membrane reactor to compare formaldehyde removal between both types of systems. Catalytic materials with cerium and with a relatively large amount of cerium favored the transformation of formaldehyde. Cerium was present as cerianite in the catalytic materials, as indicated by X-ray diffraction patterns.

  3. Membrane reactor microstructure for polymer grade olefin production and hydrogen cogeneration.

    PubMed

    Ziaka, Zoe D; Navrozidou, Anna; Paraschopoulou, Louisa; Vasileiadis, Savvas P

    2010-09-01

    The current communication describes research work on effective membrane reactor nanostructures and nanoreaction-nanoseparation technology for polymer grade olefin production via catalytic paraffin dehydrogenation reactions. Emphasis is given in systems of permreactors and permeators to perform the described reactive and separative operations. We elaborate on new membrane microstructure designs for paraffin dehydrogenations including the design of experiments, operation, and best parameter selection and optimization of such systems. The described processes are of current significance in the area of new microreactor design and operation including hydrocarbon processing and conversion to valuable fuels and chemicals such as hydrogen, olefins, and polyolefins. These improved results are because of the unique design characteristics of the examined microreactor systems to perform accurate multiphase and heterogeneous functions into one unit operation. A number of membrane reactor configurations were made and tested on stream for the catalytic propane dehydrogenation reaction to propylene with successful results. Some of the results are discussed below which show the better performance of nanostructured membrane reactors for the specific dehydrogenation.

  4. Enzyme-immobilized nanofiltration membrane to mitigate biofouling based on quorum quenching.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hyuk; Choi, Dong-Chan; Yeon, Kyung-Min; Kim, Sang-Ryong; Lee, Chung-Hak

    2011-02-15

    Recently, enzymatic quorum quenching (in the form of a free enzyme or an immobilized form on a bead) was successfully applied to a submerged membrane bioreactor with a microfiltration membrane for wastewater treatment as a novel approach to control membrane biofouling. In this study, a quorum quenching enzyme (acylase) was directly immobilized onto a nanofiltration membrane to mitigate biofouling in a nanofiltration process. In a flow cell experiment, the acylase-immobilized membrane with quorum quenching activity prohibited the formation of mushroom-shaped mature biofilm due to the reduced secretion of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The acylase-immobilized membrane maintained more than 90% of its initial enzyme activity for more than 20 iterative cycles of reaction and washing procedure. In the lab-scale continuous crossflow nanofiltration system operated at a constant pressure of 2 bar, the flux with the acylase-immobilized nanofiltration (NF) membrane was maintained at more than 90% of its initial flux after a 38-h operation, whereas that with the raw NF membrane decreased to 60% accompanied with severe biofouling. The quorum quenching activity of the acylase-immobilized membrane was also confirmed by visualizing the spatial distribution of cells and polysaccharides on the surface of each membrane using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) image analysis technique.

  5. Factors affecting filtration characteristics in membrane-coupled moving bed biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woo-Nyoung; Kang, In-Joong; Lee, Chung-Hak

    2006-05-01

    Factors affecting filtration characteristics in submerged hollow fiber membrane were investigated in membrane-coupled moving bed biofilm reactor (M-CMBBR). The trend of membrane biofouling in M-CMBBR was quite different from that in a conventional membrane bioreactor (MBR). The M-CMBBR showed much lower biofouling rate than a conventional MBR. Whereas the membrane biofouling in conventional MBR system is known to be dependent mostly on biochemical effects of mixed liquor (soluble COD, EPS, etc.), the extent of biofouling in M-CMBBR was largely dependent on the potential collision energy of biofilm carriers (media) moving freely and colliding with surfaces of submerged hollow fibers. The collisions between circulating media and hollow fiber membranes gave rise to frictional forces which mitigated the formation of biofilms on the outer surface of hollow fibers. Consequently, the membrane permeability was greatly enhanced. The potential collision energy of moving media was dependent on the media volume fraction as well as the air flow rate. The membrane permeability was found to be proportional to the relative potential collision energy of the biofilm carriers. The frictional effect on the morphology of biofilms formed on the surface of organic membrane under various operating condition was also examined and identified through their visualization with SEM and AFM.

  6. Unusual behavior of membrane somatic angiotensin-converting enzyme in a reversed micelle system.

    PubMed

    Grinshtein, S V; Levashov, A V; Kost, O A

    2001-01-01

    Properties of the membrane and soluble forms of somatic angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) were studied in the system of hydrated reversed micelles of aerosol OT (AOT) in octane. The membrane enzyme with a hydrophobic peptide anchor was more sensitive to anions and to changes in pH and composition of the medium than the soluble enzyme without anchor. The activity of both forms of the enzyme in the reversed micelles significantly depended on the molarity of the buffer added to the medium (Mes-Tris-buffer, 50 mM NaCl). The maximum activity of the soluble ACE was recorded at buffer concentration of 20-50 mM, whereas the membrane enzyme was most active at 2-10 mM buffer. At buffer concentrations above 20 mM, the rate of hydrolysis of the substrate furylacryloyl-L-phenylalanyl-glycylglycine by both ACE forms was maximal at pH 7.5 both in the reversed micelles and in aqueous solutions. However, at lower concentrations of the buffer (2-10 mM), the membrane enzyme had activity optimum at pH 5.5. Therefore, it is suggested that two conformers of the membrane ACE with differing pH optima for activity and limiting values of catalytic constants should exist in the reversed micelle system with various medium compositions. The data suggest that the activity of the membrane-bound somatic ACE can be regulated by changes in the microenvironment.

  7. Single Membrane Reactor Configuration for Separation of Hydrogen, Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen Sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Micheal Roberts; Robert Zabransky; Shain Doong; Jerry Lin

    2008-05-31

    The objective of the project was to develop a novel complementary membrane reactor process that can consolidate two or more downstream unit operations of a coal gasification system into a single module for production of a pure stream of hydrogen and a pure stream of carbon dioxide. The overall goals were to achieve higher hydrogen production efficiencies, lower capital costs and a smaller overall footprint than what could be achieved by utilizing separate components for each required unit process/operation in conventional coal-to-hydrogen systems. Specifically, this project was to develop a novel membrane reactor process that combines hydrogen sulfide removal, hydrogen separation, carbon dioxide separation and water-gas shift reaction into a single membrane configuration. The carbon monoxide conversion of the water-gas-shift reaction from the coal-derived syngas stream is enhanced by the complementary use of two membranes within a single reactor to separate hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Consequently, hydrogen production efficiency is increased. The single membrane reactor configuration produces a pure H{sub 2} product and a pure CO{sub 2} permeate stream that is ready for sequestration. This project focused on developing a new class of CO{sub 2}-selective membranes for this new process concept. Several approaches to make CO{sub 2}-selective membranes for high-temperature applications have been tested. Membrane disks using the technique of powder pressing and high temperature sintering were successfully fabricated. The powders were either metal oxide or metal carbonate materials. Experiments on CO{sub 2} permeation testing were also performed in the temperature range of 790 to 940 C for the metal carbonate membrane disks. However, no CO{sub 2} permeation rate could be measured, probably due to very slow CO{sub 2} diffusion in the solid state carbonates. To improve the permeation of CO{sub 2}, one approach is to make membranes containing liquid or molten carbonates

  8. High-speed pectic enzyme fractionation by immobilised metal ion affinity membranes.

    PubMed

    Camperi, S A; Grasselli, M; Cascone, O

    2000-01-01

    Immobilised metal ion affinity polysulfone hollow-fibre membranes, with a high capacity for protein adsorption, were prepared and their utilisation for commercial pectic enzyme fractionation was studied. The pass-through fraction containing pectinlyase is useful for fruit-juice clarification without methanol production on account of pectinesterase being retained by the IDA-Cu2+ membrane.

  9. Cell-Culture Reactor Having a Porous Organic Polymer Membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A method for making a biocompatible polymer article using a uniform atomic oxygen treatment is disclosed. The substrate may be subsequently optionally grated with a compatibilizing compound. Compatibilizing compounds may include proteins, phosphory1choline groups, platelet adhesion preventing polymers, albumin adhesion promoters, and the like. The compatibilized substrate may also have a living cell layer adhered thereto. The atomic oxygen is preferably produced by a flowing afterglow microwave discharge, wherein the substrate resides in a sidearm out of the plasma. Also, methods for culturing cells for various purposes using the various membranes are disclosed as well. Also disclosed are porous organic polymers having a distributed pore chemistry (DPC) comprising hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions, and a method for making the DPC by exposing the polymer to atomic oxygen wherein the rate of hydrophilization is greater than the rate of mass loss.

  10. Membrane bio-reactors for decentralized wastewater treatment and reuse.

    PubMed

    Meuler, S; Paris, S; Hackner, T

    2008-01-01

    Decentralized wastewater treatment is the key to sustainable water management because it facilitates effluent (and nutrient) reuse for irrigation or as service water in households. Membrane bioreactors (MBR) can produce effluents of bathing water quality. Septic tanks can be retrofitted to MBR units. Package MBR plants for wastewater or grey water treatment are also available. Systems for decentralized treatment and reuse of domestic wastewater or grey water are also feasible for hotels, condominiums and apartment or office complexes. This paper presents the effluent qualities of different decentralized MBR applications. The high effluent quality allows infiltration even in sensitive areas or reuse for irrigation, toilet flushing and cleaning proposes in households. Due to the reusability of treated water and the possibility to design the systems for carbon reduction only, these systems can ideally and easily serve to close water and nutrient loops. IWA Publishing 2008.

  11. Planar ceramic membrane assembly and oxidation reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Dyer, legal representative, Kathryn Beverly; Wilson, Merrill Anderson; Ohm, Ted R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Peterson, David; Chen, Christopher M.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Dyer, deceased, Paul Nigel

    2007-10-09

    Planar ceramic membrane assembly comprising a dense layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material, wherein the dense layer has a first side and a second side, a porous layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material in contact with the first side of the dense layer, and a ceramic channeled support layer in contact with the second side of the dense layer. The planar ceramic membrane assembly can be used in a ceramic wafer assembly comprising a planar ceramic channeled support layer having a first side and a second side; a first dense layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the first side of the ceramic channeled support layer; a first outer support layer comprising porous mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material and having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the outer side of the first dense layer; a second dense layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the second side of the ceramic channeled layer; and a second outer support layer comprising porous mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material and having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the outer side of the second dense layer.

  12. Planar ceramic membrane assembly and oxidation reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Dyer, legal representative, Kathryn Beverly; Wilson, Merrill Anderson; Ohrn, Ted R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Peterson, David; Chen, Christopher M.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Dyer, Paul Nigel

    2009-04-07

    Planar ceramic membrane assembly comprising a dense layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material, wherein the dense layer has a first side and a second side, a porous layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material in contact with the first side of the dense layer, and a ceramic channeled support layer in contact with the second side of the dense layer. The planar ceramic membrane assembly can be used in a ceramic wafer assembly comprising a planar ceramic channeled support layer having a first side and a second side; a first dense layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the first side of the ceramic channeled support layer; a first outer support layer comprising porous mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material and having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the outer side of the first dense layer; a second dense layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the second side of the ceramic channeled layer; and a second outer support layer comprising porous mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material and having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the outer side of the second dense layer.

  13. Apparatus and process to eliminate diffusional limitations in a membrane biological reactor by pressure cycling

    DOEpatents

    Efthymiou, George S.; Shuler, Michael L.

    1989-08-29

    An improved multilayer continuous biological membrane reactor and a process to eliminate diffusional limitations in membrane reactors in achieved by causing a convective flux of nutrient to move into and out of an immobilized biocatalyst cell layer. In a pressure cycled mode, by increasing and decreasing the pressure in the respective layers, the differential pressure between the gaseous layer and the nutrient layer is alternately changed from positive to negative. The intermittent change in pressure differential accelerates the transfer of nutrient from the nutrient layers to the biocatalyst cell layer, the transfer of product from the cell layer to the nutrient layer and the transfer of byproduct gas from the cell layer to the gaseous layer. Such intermittent cycling substantially eliminates mass transfer gradients in diffusion inhibited systems and greatly increases product yield and throughput in both inhibited and noninhibited systems.

  14. Power output and load following in a fuel cell fueled by membrane reactor hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxbaum, Robert; Lei, Hanwei

    Hydrogen for current polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) and alkaline fuel cells must be supplied with not more than a few tens of ppm of CO or CO 2, respectively. If the hydrogen is generated, as it is used, it must be produced efficiently over a broad fuel cell demand range, and follow load changes on the order of seconds. We generated hydrogen for a broad variety of demands from a 1.09/1 molar mix of methanol/water using a commercial water-gas shift catalyst and a membrane reactor. The reactor output hydrogen was fed directly into a PEM fuel cell. Demand was varied between 0 and 0.9 A/cm 2, both in flow through operation and in dead-end operation. We found power densities virtually identical to those with bottled gas. We also demonstrated inherent load following on a time scale ≤2000 μs.

  15. Modeling and data analysis of a palladium membrane reactor for tritiated impurities cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Birdsell, S.A.; Willms, R.S.

    1995-07-01

    A Palladium Membrane Reactor (PMR) is under consideration for the tritium plant for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The ITER reactor exhaust will contain tritiated impurities such as water and methane. Tritium will need to be recovered from these impurities for environmental and economic reasons. For this purpose a promising device, PMR, has been proposed. The PMR is a combined permeator and catalytic reactor. Shift catalysts are used to foster reactions such as water-gas shift, H{sub 2}O + CO {yields} H{sub 2} + CO{sub 2}, and methane steam reforming, CH{sub 4} + H{sub 2}O {yields} 3H{sub 2} + CO. Due to thermodynamic limitations these reactions only proceed to partial completion. Thus, a Pd/Ag membrane, which is exclusively permeable to hydrogen isotopes, is incorporated into the reactor. By maintaining a vacuum on the permeate, product hydrogen isotopes are removed, enabling the reactions to proceed to completion. A model has been developed to study the complex interactions in a PMR so that the optimal design can be determined. The model accounts for the coupled effects of transport-limited permeation of hydrogen isotopes and chemical reactions. The permeation model is an extension of previous models that include the effects of temperature, wall thickness, reaction-side pressure, and permeate-side pressure. Reaction rates for methane steam reforming and the water-gas shift reaction are incorporated into the model along with the respective reverse reactions. The model is compared to PMR data and used to investigate the concentration and pressure profiles in the reactor. Due to the interactions of permeation and reaction complex profiles can be produced in a PMR. For example, the water concentration often increases after the inlet to the PMR to a maximum value, and then decreases to the low values expected with a PMR. Detailed information like this is required for the design and optimization of PMRs for the ITER tritium plant.

  16. Methane steam reforming analysis in a palladium-based catalytic membrane reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Barbieri, G.; Violante, V.; Maio, F.P. di; Criscuoli, A.; Drioli, E. |

    1997-08-01

    The methane steam reforming in a catalytic membrane reactor has been studied. A previous theoretical study of this reaction has been carried out. In the model a global kinetic rate as a function of three reactions over nickel catalyst as proposed by Xu and Froment has been considered. It has been shown that the counterflow configuration has, at high temperature (500 C), a marginal advantage on parallel flow and, also, that the space velocity cannot be considered a design variable for membrane reactors. A laboratory plant was realized utilizing membranes of Pd and Pd/Ag supported on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The Pd membranes utilized have been prepared using the co-condensation technique and the electroless plating method. A comparison of the overall membrane performance has also been carried out. The experiments were aimed to study the effects of several parameters such as temperature, feed flow rate, and feed molar ratio on the methane conversion. The experimental results have been compared with the data predicted by the previously developed theoretical model.

  17. Biological removal of antiandrogenic activity in gray wastewater and coking wastewater by membrane reactor process.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dehua; Chen, Lujun; Liu, Cong; Bao, Chenjun; Liu, Rui

    2015-07-01

    A recombinant human androgen receptor yeast assay was applied to investigate the occurrence of antiandrogens as well as the mechanism for their removal during gray wastewater and coking wastewater treatment. The membrane reactor (MBR) system for gray wastewater treatment could remove 88.0% of antiandrogenic activity exerted by weakly polar extracts and 97.3% of that by moderately strong polar extracts, but only 32.5% of that contributed by strong polar extracts. Biodegradation by microorganisms in the MBR contributed to 95.9% of the total removal. After the treatment, the concentration of antiandrogenic activity in the effluent was still 1.05 μg flutamide equivalence (FEQ)/L, 36.2% of which was due to strong polar extracts. In the anaerobic reactor, anoxic reactor, and membrane reactor system for coking wastewater treatment, the antiandrogenic activity of raw coking wastewater was 78.6 mg FEQ/L, and the effluent of the treatment system had only 0.34 mg FEQ/L. The antiandrogenic activity mainly existed in the medium strong polar and strong polar extracts. Biodegradation by microorganisms contributed to at least 89.2% of the total antiandrogenic activity removal in the system. Biodegradation was the main removal mechanism of antiandrogenic activity in both the wastewater treatment systems. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Oxygen transport membrane reactor based method and system for generating electric power

    DOEpatents

    Kelly, Sean M.; Chakravarti, Shrikar; Li, Juan

    2017-02-07

    A carbon capture enabled system and method for generating electric power and/or fuel from methane containing sources using oxygen transport membranes by first converting the methane containing feed gas into a high pressure synthesis gas. Then, in one configuration the synthesis gas is combusted in oxy-combustion mode in oxygen transport membranes based boiler reactor operating at a pressure at least twice that of ambient pressure and the heat generated heats steam in thermally coupled steam generation tubes within the boiler reactor; the steam is expanded in steam turbine to generate power; and the carbon dioxide rich effluent leaving the boiler reactor is processed to isolate carbon. In another configuration the synthesis gas is further treated in a gas conditioning system configured for carbon capture in a pre-combustion mode using water gas shift reactors and acid gas removal units to produce hydrogen or hydrogen-rich fuel gas that fuels an integrated gas turbine and steam turbine system to generate power. The disclosed method and system can also be adapted to integrate with coal gasification systems to produce power from both coal and methane containing sources with greater than 90% carbon isolation.

  19. WATER-GAS SHIFT KINETICS OVER IRON OXIDE CATALYSTS AT MEMBRANE REACTOR CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Carl R.F. Lund

    2002-08-02

    The kinetics of water-gas shift were studied over ferrochrome catalysts under conditions with high carbon dioxide partial pressures, such as would be expected in a membrane reactor. The catalyst activity is inhibited by increasing carbon dioxide partial pressure. A microkinetic model of the reaction kinetics was developed. The model indicated that catalyst performance could be improved by decreasing the strength of surface oxygen bonds. Literature data indicated that adding either ceria or copper to the catalyst as a promoter might impart this desired effect. Ceria-promoted ferrochrome catalysts did not perform any better than unpromoted catalyst at the conditions tested, but copper-promoted ferrochrome catalysts did offer an improvement over the base ferrochrome material. A different class of water-gas shift catalyst, sulfided CoMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is not affected by carbon dioxide and may be a good alternative to the ferrochrome system, provided other constraints, notably the requisite sulfur level and maximum temperature, are not too limiting. A model was developed for an adiabatic, high-temperature water-gas shift membrane reactor. Simulation results indicate that an excess of steam in the feed (three moles of water per mole of CO) is beneficial even in a membrane reactor as it reduces the rate of adiabatic temperature rise. The simulations also indicate that much greater improvement can be attained by improving the catalyst as opposed to improving the membrane. Further, eliminating the inhibition by carbon dioxide will have a greater impact than will increasing the catalyst activity (assuming inhibition is still operative). Follow-up research into the use of sulfide catalysts with continued kinetic and reactor modeling is suggested.

  20. Molecule Channels Directed by Cation-Decorated Graphene Oxide Nanosheets and Their Application as Membrane Reactors.

    PubMed

    Long, Yong; Wang, Kai; Xiang, Guolei; Song, Kai; Zhou, Gang; Wang, Xun

    2017-04-01

    Highly selective macromembranes, fabricated by cation-decorated graphene oxide, exhibit an excellent selectivity toward a wide range of solvents. Mixed solvents are successfully separated, based on which a membrane reactor is designed to promote a series of chemical reactions. The cations bonding to the graphene oxide nanosheets are found to be responsible for this selectivity by cation-π, electrostatic interactions, and hydrogen bonding. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Testing of a 7-tube palladium membrane reactor for potential use in TEP

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Bryan J; Trujillo, Stephen; Willms, R. Scott

    2010-01-01

    A Palladium Membrane Reactor (PMR) consists of a palladium/silver membrane permeator filled with catalyst (catalyst may be inside or outside the membrane tubes). The PMR is designed to recover tritium from the methane, water, and other impurities present in fusion reactor effluent. A key feature of a PMR is that the total hydrogen isotope content of a stream is significantly reduced as (1) methane-steam reforming and/or water-gas shift reactions proceed on the catalyst bed and (2) hydrogen isotopes are removed via permeation through the membrane. With a PMR design matched to processing requirements, nearly complete hydrogen isotope removals can be achieved. A 3-tube PMR study was recently completed. From the results presented in this study, it was possible to conclude that a PMR is appropriate for TEP, perforated metal tube protectors function well, platinum on aluminum (PtA) catalyst performs the best, conditioning with air is probably required to properly condition the Pd/Ag tubes, and that CO/CO{sub 2} ratios maybe an indicator of coking. The 3-tube PMR had a permeator membrane area of 0.0247 m{sup 2} and a catalyst volume to membrane area ratio of 4.63 cc/cm{sup 2} (with the catalyst on the outside of the membrane tubes and the catalyst only covering the membrane tube length). A PMR for TEP will require a larger membrane area (perhaps 0.35 m{sup 2}). With this in mind, an intermediate sized PMR was constructed. This PMR has 7 permeator tubes and a total membrane area of 0.0851 m{sup 2}. The catalyst volume to membrane area ratio for the 7-tube PMR was 5.18 cc/cm{sup 2}. The total membrane area of the 7-tube PMR (0.0851 m{sup 2}) is 3.45 times larger than total membrane area of the 3-tube PMR (0.0247 m{sup 2}). The following objectives were identified for the 7-tube PMR tests: (1) Refine test measurements, especially humidity and flow; (2) Refine maintenance procedures for Pd/Ag tube conditioning; (3) Evaluate baseline PMR operating conditions; (4) Determine PMR

  2. Optimization of the Enhanced Membrane Coagulation Reactor for Sewage Concentration Efficiency and Energy Recovery.

    PubMed

    Alepu, Odey Emmanuel; Wang, Kaijun; Li, Zifu; Gao, Ruiling; Uduak, Etokidem Esther; Jin, Zhengyu

    2017-09-01

    The application of an enhanced membrane coagulation reactor (E-MCR) for sewage concentration and energy recovery through anaerobic digestion (AD) was investigated. The results show that the addition of powder-activated carbon (PAC) and polyaluminum chloride (PACl) enhanced the sewage concentration efficiency and minimized the membrane fouling. The reactor was operated for 100 d with 70 d without severe fouling. The flux of 6 L/(m(2)·h) with sludge retention time of 2 d recorded a long-term stable performance and recovered concentrates with about 6000mg/L to 9800mg/L of chemical oxygen demand (COD) values. The concentrate was used as feed for AD using a continuous stirred tank reactor. The results show that at a thermophilic temperature of 35°C, a high biogas yield was achieved at 20 d and 30 d hydraulic retention time (HRT). Meanwhile, biogas yields of 10, 220, and 295mL/(gCOD) were achieved at 10, 20, and 30 d HRT, respectively. The addition of PAC/PACl and the low flux condition enhanced the concentration efficiency and minimized the membrane fouling during the long-term operation. Thus, with the optimization of the operation, E-MCR becomes a promising option for sewage concentration and energy recovery.

  3. Surface modification of PVDF hollow fiber membrane and its application in membrane aerated biofilm reactor (MABR).

    PubMed

    Hou, Feifei; Li, Baoan; Xing, Minghao; Wang, Qin; Hu, Liang; Wang, Shichang

    2013-07-01

    A novel composite hollow fiber membrane for membrane aerated biofilm rector (MABR) was prepared by coating L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) on the surface of PVDF membrane. MABR process study was conducted to test the performances of the original and modified membranes for 166 days. The results indicate that coated membrane showed 2 times higher gas flux, lower water contact angle (declined from 86.5° to 52°), and significantly improved surface roughness. The modified membrane displayed an excellent MABR performance. Its COD, NH4(+)-N and TN removal efficiencies were kept above 90%, 98.8% and 84.2% during the first 4-month experiment. By tracking experiment at 0.01 MPa, to achieve COD removal efficiency of 85.9%, half an hour is required with the modified membrane, instead of 6h using the original one. Besides, faster NH4(+)-N and TN removal at 0.01 MPa were also achieved with DOPA composite membrane. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Optical resolution of racemic 2-hydroxy octanoic acid by lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis in a biphasic membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Sakaki, Keiji; Itoh, Naotsugu

    2003-10-01

    Racemic 2-hydroxy octanoic acid methyl ester was optically resolved by lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis in a biphasic membrane reactor using hydrophilic/hydrophobic capillary membranes. In a buffer/hexane biphasic membrane reactor using hydrophilic ultrafiltration membranes, (S)-2-hydroxy octanoic acid was recovered from the aqueous phase at 59-67% yield and 0.9-0.92 enantiomeric excess (ee), and the ester of (R)-isomer was recovered from the organic phase at 73-75% yield and 0.92-0.99 ee.

  5. Characterization of glycolytic enzyme interactions with murine erythrocyte membranes in wild-type and membrane protein knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Campanella, M Estela; Chu, Haiyan; Wandersee, Nancy J; Peters, Luanne L; Mohandas, Narla; Gilligan, Diana M; Low, Philip S

    2008-11-01

    Previous research has shown that glycolytic enzymes (GEs) exist as multienzyme complexes on the inner surface of human erythrocyte membranes. Because GE binding sites have been mapped to sequences on the membrane protein, band 3, that are not conserved in other mammalian homologs, the question arose whether GEs can organize into complexes on other mammalian erythrocyte membranes. To address this, murine erythrocytes were stained with antibodies to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, aldolase, phosphofructokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and pyruvate kinase and analyzed by confocal microscopy. GEs were found to localize to the membrane in oxygenated erythrocytes but redistributed to the cytoplasm upon deoxygenation, as seen in human erythrocytes. To identify membrane proteins involved in GE assembly, erythrocytes from mice lacking each of the major erythrocyte membrane proteins were examined for GE localization. GEs from band 3 knockout mice were not membrane associated but distributed throughout the cytoplasm, regardless of erythrocyte oxygenation state. In contrast, erythrocytes from mice lacking alpha-spectrin, ankyrin, protein 4.2, protein 4.1, beta-adducin, or dematin headpiece exhibited GEs bound to the membrane. These data suggest that oxygenation-dependent assembly of GEs on the membrane could be a general phenomenon of mammalian erythrocytes and that stability of these interactions depends primarily on band 3.

  6. Characterization of glycolytic enzyme interactions with murine erythrocyte membranes in wild-type and membrane protein knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Campanella, M. Estela; Chu, Haiyan; Wandersee, Nancy J.; Peters, Luanne L.; Mohandas, Narla; Gilligan, Diana M.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has shown that glycolytic enzymes (GEs) exist as multienzyme complexes on the inner surface of human erythrocyte membranes. Because GE binding sites have been mapped to sequences on the membrane protein, band 3, that are not conserved in other mammalian homologs, the question arose whether GEs can organize into complexes on other mammalian erythrocyte membranes. To address this, murine erythrocytes were stained with antibodies to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, aldolase, phosphofructokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and pyruvate kinase and analyzed by confocal microscopy. GEs were found to localize to the membrane in oxygenated erythrocytes but redistributed to the cytoplasm upon deoxygenation, as seen in human erythrocytes. To identify membrane proteins involved in GE assembly, erythrocytes from mice lacking each of the major erythrocyte membrane proteins were examined for GE localization. GEs from band 3 knockout mice were not membrane associated but distributed throughout the cytoplasm, regardless of erythrocyte oxygenation state. In contrast, erythrocytes from mice lacking α-spectrin, ankyrin, protein 4.2, protein 4.1, β-adducin, or dematin headpiece exhibited GEs bound to the membrane. These data suggest that oxygenation-dependent assembly of GEs on the membrane could be a general phenomenon of mammalian erythrocytes and that stability of these interactions depends primarily on band 3. PMID:18698006

  7. Mechanism of the lysosomal membrane enzyme acetyl coenzyme A: alpha-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Bame, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA:..cap alpha..-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase is a lysosomal membrane enzyme, deficient in the genetic disease Sanfilippo C syndrome. The enzyme catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA to terminal ..cap alpha..-glucosamine residues of heparan sulfate within the organelle. The reaction mechanism was examined using high purified lysosomal membranes from rat liver and human fibroblasts. The N-acetyltransferase reaction is optimal above pH 5.5 and a 2-3 fold stimulation of activity is observed in the presence of 0.1% taurodeoxycholate. Double reciprocal analysis and product inhibition studies indicate that the enzyme works by a Di-Iso Ping Pong Bi Bi mechanism. The binding of acetyl-CoA to the enzyme is measured by exchange label from (/sup 3/H)CoA to acetyl-CoA, and is optimal at pH's above 7.0. The acetyl-enzyme intermediate is formed by incubating membranes with (/sup 3/H)acetyl-CoA. The acetyl group can be transferred to glucosamine, forming (/sup 3/H)N-acetylglucosamine; the transfer is optimal between pH 4 and 5. Lysosomal membranes from Sanfilippo C fibroblasts confirm that these half reactions carried out by the N-acetyltransferase. The enzyme is inactivated by N-bromosuccinimide and diethylpyrocarbonate, indicating that a histidine is involved in the reaction. These results suggest that the histidine residue is at the active site of the enzyme. The properties of the N-acetyltransferase in the membrane, the characterization of the enzyme kinetics, the chemistry of a histidine mediated acetylation and the pH difference across the lysosomal membrane all support a transmembrane acetylation mechanism.

  8. [Influencing factors for operational performance of a biofilm reactor with microbubble aeration using SPG membrane].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Ming; Liu, Chun; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Jun-Liang

    2014-08-01

    The microbubble-aerated biofilm reactor provides a feasibility to apply microbubble aeration in aerobic wastewater treatment processes. In this study, Shirasu porous glass (SPG) membranes were used for microbubble aeration in a fixed bed biofilm reactor treating synthetic municipal wastewater. The influencing factors for operational performance of the bioreactor were investigated, including operating parameters, SPG membrane fouling and its structural changes. The results indicated that there was no significant influences of air flux, organic loading rate and packed bed on COD removal and an average COD removal efficiency of 80% -90% could be achieved under different operating conditions. On the other hand, the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations decreased significantly along with reducing air flux or increasing organic loading rate. As a result, the ammonia removal deteriorated gradually and the average ammonia removal efficiency decreased from 80% -90% to 20% -30% At the same time, the total nitrogen (TN) removal achieved in the simultaneous nitrification and denitrification process was also reduced from 30% -40% to about 20% , due to nitrification inhibition. Higher available porosity could be obtained when ring packing was used in the fixed bed, resulting in improvement of contaminant removal performance. An oxygen utilization efficiency of close to 100% could be achieved at low air fluxes or high organic loading rates during microbubble aeration. Both biofilm growth and organic foulant accumulation on SPC, membrane surface contributed to membrane fouling after long-term operation. The average pore size and porosity of SPG membrane increased significantly due to the chemical corrosion caused by alkali NaClO solution used for online cleaning. Then the air permeation of SPG membrane was affected by membrane fouling and destroyed pore structure.

  9. Membrane distillation combined with an anaerobic moving bed biofilm reactor for treating municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Chul; Shin, Jaewon; Won, Seyeon; Lee, Jung-Yeol; Maeng, Sung Kyu; Song, Kyung Guen

    2015-03-15

    A fermentative strategy with an anaerobic moving bed biofilm reactor (AMBBR) was used for the treatment of domestic wastewater. The feasibility of using a membrane separation technique for post-treatment of anaerobic bio-effluent was evaluated with emphasis on employing a membrane distillation (MD). Three different hydrophobic 0.2 μm membranes made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), and polypropylene (PP) were examined in this study. The initial permeate flux of the membranes ranged from 2.5 to 6.3 L m(-2) h(-1) when treating AMBBR effluent at a temperature difference between the feed and permeate streams of 20 °C, with the permeate flux increasing in the order PP < PVDF < PTFE. The permeate flux of the PTFE membrane gradually decreased to 84% of the initial flux after the 45 h run for distillation, while a flux decline in MD with either the PVDF or PP membrane was not found under the identical distillation conditions. During long-term distillation with the PVDF membrane, total phosphorus was completely rejected and >98% rejection of dissolved organic carbon was also achieved. The characterization of wastewater effluent organic matter (EfOM) using an innovative suite of analytical tools verified that almost all of the EfOM was rejected via the PVDF MD treatment.

  10. Modeling and simulation of ammonia removal from purge gases of ammonia plants using a catalytic Pd-Ag membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Rahimpour, M R; Asgari, A

    2008-05-01

    In this work, the removal of ammonia from synthesis purge gas of an ammonia plant has been investigated. Since the ammonia decomposition is thermodynamically limited, a membrane reactor is used for complete decomposition. A double pipe catalytic membrane reactor is used to remove ammonia from purge gas. The purge gas is flowing in the reaction side and is converted to hydrogen and nitrogen over nickel-alumina catalyst. The hydrogen is transferred through the Pd-Ag membrane of tube side to the shell side. A mathematical model including conservation of mass in the tube and shell side of reactor is proposed. The proposed model was solved numerically and the effects of different parameters on the rector performance were investigated. The effects of pressure, temperature, flow rate (sweep ratio), membrane thickness and reactor diameter have been investigated in the present study. Increasing ammonia conversion was observed by raising the temperature, sweep ratio and reducing membrane thickness. When the pressure increases, the decomposition is gone toward completion but, at low pressure the ammonia conversion in the outset of reactor is higher than other pressures, but complete destruction of the ammonia cannot be achieved. The proposed model can be used for design of an industrial catalytic membrane reactor for removal of ammonia from ammonia plant and reducing NO(x) emissions.

  11. New ammunition for the proteomic reactor: strong anion exchange beads and multiple enzymes enhance protein identification and sequence coverage.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hu; Hou, Weimin; Lambert, Jean-Philippe; Figeys, Daniel

    2010-08-01

    The enrichment and processing of proteomic samples prior to multi-dimensional chromatography remain a challenge in 'gel-free' proteomics. We previously reported the development of a microfluidic device called the "proteomic reactor" that relied on enriching proteins by using strong cation exchange (SCX) followed by trypsin digestion in an interstitial volume as little as 50 nL. Here, we report a novel proteomic reactor that is based on polymeric strong anion exchange (SAX) material to analyse proteomic samples. We also compare the performance of the SAX proteomic reactor to our previously reported SCX proteomic reactor for analysing complex yeast proteomes. Our results indicate that the SAX protein reactor preferentially identifies more acidic peptides and proteins compared to the SCX reactor. We show that the SAX and SCX reactors are complementary and that their combination increases the number of unique peptides and proteins identified by 50%. Furthermore, we show that the number of protein identified can be increased further by up to 40% using different proteolytic enzymes on the proteomic reactor.

  12. Solid state proton and electron mediating membrane and use in catalytic membrane reactors

    DOEpatents

    White, James H.; Schwartz, Michael; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2000-01-01

    Mixed electron- and proton-conducting metal oxide materials are provided. These materials are useful in fabrication of membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactions, particularly for promoting dehydrogenation of hydrocarbons, oligomerization of hydrocarbons and for the decomposition of hydrogen-containing gases. Membrane materials are perovskite compounds of the formula: AB.sub.1-x B'.sub.x O.sub.3-y where A=Ca, Sr, or Ba; B=Ce, Tb, Pr or Th; B'=Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni or Cu; 0.2

  13. LBM for cyclic voltammetry of electrochemically mediated enzyme reactions and Rayleigh-Bénard convection in electrochemical reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaya-Ventura, G. A.; Rodríguez-Romo, S.

    2012-02-01

    A few of the applications of the Lattice Boltzmann Method have been used to model the complex bioelectrochemical phenomena presented here; cyclic voltammetry of electrically assisted enzyme reactions for one instance, and complex chemical reactions with simultaneous momentum, heat and mass transfer as another example. In the first case, we reproduce experimental data and predict new results (not feasible of being obtained by other numerical methods); the evolution of the diffusion boundary layer, which is important information from the numerical viewpoint to design reactors. As second, our model of non isothermal electrochemical enzyme reactor with a complex chemical-thermohydrodynamics involves an enzyme reaction taking place over two parallel rectangular enzyme immobilized electrodes, within a Rayleigh-Bénard convection system, a multifaceted subject not yet studied simultaneously. Realistic velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles as well as the corresponding Faradaic currents for different geometries and heating settings are provided, showing the goodness of our approach.

  14. Start-up of membrane bioreactor and hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor: kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Leyva-Díaz, J C; Poyatos, J M

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor (hybrid MBBR-MBR) system was studied as an alternative solution to conventional activated sludge processes and membrane bioreactors. This paper shows the results obtained from three laboratory-scale wastewater treatment plants working in parallel in the start-up and steady states. The first wastewater treatment plant was a MBR, the second one was a hybrid MBBR-MBR system containing carriers both in anoxic and aerobic zones of the bioreactor (hybrid MBBR-MBRa), and the last one was a hybrid MBBR-MBR system which contained carriers only in the aerobic zone (hybrid MBBR-MBRb). The reactors operated with a hydraulic retention time of 30.40 h. A kinetic study for characterizing heterotrophic biomass was carried out and organic matter and nutrients removals were evaluated. The heterotrophic biomass of the hybrid MBBR-MBRb showed the best kinetic performance in the steady state, with yield coefficient for heterotrophic biomass=0.30246 mg volatile suspended solids per mg chemical oxygen demand, maximum specific growth rate for heterotrophic biomass=0.00308 h(-1) and half-saturation coefficient for organic matter=3.54908 mg O2 L(-1). The removal of organic matter was supported by the kinetic study of heterotrophic biomass.

  15. Efficient Synthesis of Dimethyl Ether from Methanol in a Bifunctional Zeolite Membrane Reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chen; Wang, Nanyi; Qian, Yanan; Liu, Xiaoxing; Caro, Jürgen; Huang, Aisheng

    2016-10-04

    A sandwich FAU-LTA zeolite dual-layer membrane has been developed and used as a catalytic membrane reactor for the synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME). In the top H-FAU layer with mild acidity, methanol is dehydrated to DME. The other reaction product, water, is removed in situ through a hydrophilic Na-LTA layer, which is located between the porous alumina support and the H-FAU top layer. The combination of mild acidity with the continuous removal of water results in high methanol conversion (90.9 % at 310 °C) and essentially 100 % DME selectivity. Furthermore, owing to the selective and continuous removal of water through the Na-LTA membrane, catalyst deactivation can be effectively suppressed.

  16. Biofilm development in a membrane-aerated biofilm reactor: effect of flow velocity on performance.

    PubMed

    Casey, E; Glennon, B; Hamer, G

    2000-02-20

    The effect of liquid flow velocity on biofilm development in a membrane-aerated biofilm reactor was investigated both by mathematical modeling and by experiment, using Vibrio natriegens as a test organism and acetate as carbon substrate. It was shown that velocity influenced mass transfer in the diffusion boundary layer, the biomass detachment rate from the biofilm, and the maximum biofilm thickness attained. Values of the overall mass transfer coefficient of a tracer through the diffusion boundary layer, the biofilm, and the membrane were shown to be identical during different experiments at the maximum biofilm thickness. Comparison of the results with published values of this parameter in membrane attached biofilms showed a similar trend. Therefore, it was postulated that this result might indicate the mechanism that determines the maximum biofilm thickness in membrane attached biofilms. In a series of experiments, where conditions were set so that the active layer of the membrane attached biofilm was located close to the membrane biofilm interface, it was shown that the most critical effect on process performance was the effect of velocity on biofilm structure. Biofilm thickness and effective diffusivity influenced reaction and diffusion in a complex manner such that the yield of biomass on acetate was highly variable. Consideration of endogenous respiration in the mathematical model was validated by direct experimental measurements of yield coefficients. Good agreement between experimental measurements of acetate and oxygen uptake rates and their prediction by the mathematical model was achieved.

  17. Pellet reactor pretreatment: a feasible method to reduce scaling in bipolar membrane electrodialysis.

    PubMed

    Tran, Anh T K; Jullok, Nora; Meesschaert, Boudewijn; Pinoy, Luc; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2013-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the feasibility of a pellet reactor in reducing the scaling potential in electrodialysis with bipolar membranes for water containing a high concentration of calcium by adding sodium carbonate to precipitate carbonate as calcium carbonate on granular seed material. The optimized operating condition obtained at pH 11.1, and a ratio of [CO3(2-)]:[Ca(2+)]=1.2:1 enabled to obtain 90% efficiency of calcium removal from real water. The efficiency of scaling potential removal was validated by comparing the scaling level on the membrane surface of two electrodialysis batches of a washing water, with and without pretreatment. For the latter, scalants were found at both sides of the cation exchange membrane (FKB), diluate and base sides, identified as calcium and magnesium precipitates. Furthermore, there was also a severe scaling effect at the base side of the bipolar membrane (FBM). However, a different observation was found for the pretreated water. SEM and elemental analysis for both FKB and FBM membranes demonstrated less scaling on both membrane surfaces. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of new membrane-reactor saccharification assay to evaluate the performance of cellulases under simulated SSF conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, J.O.; Vinzant, T.B.; Ehrman, C.I.

    1997-12-31

    A new saccharification assay has been devised, in which a continuously buffer-swept membrane reactor is used to remove the solubilized saccharification products, thus allowing high extents of substrate conversion without significant inhibitory effects from the buildup of either cellobiose or glucose. This diafiltration saccharification assay (DSA) can, therefore, be used to obtain direct measurements of the performance of combinations of cellulose and substrate under simulated SSF conditions, without the saccharification results being complicated by factors that may influence the subsequent fermentation step. This assay has been used to compare the effectiveness of commercial and special in-house-produced Trichoderma reesei cellulose preparations in the saccharification of a standardized microcrystalline (Sigmacell) substrate and a dilute-acid pretreated lignocellulosic substrate. Initial results strongly suggest that enzyme preparations produced in the presence of the targeted lignocellulosic substrate will saccharify that substrate more effectively. These results call into question the widespread use of the {open_quotes}filter paper assay{close_quotes} as a reliable predictor of enzyme performance in the extensive hydrolysis of substrates that are quite different from filter paper in both physical properties and chemical composition. 14 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Simultaneous removal of COD and nitrogen using a novel carbon-membrane aerated biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shaowei; Yang, Fenglin; Sun, Cui; Zhang, Jianye; Wang, Tonghua

    2008-01-01

    A membrane aerated biofilm reactor is a promising technology for wastewater treatment. In this study, a carbon-membrane aerated biofilm reactor (CMABR) has been developed, to remove carbon organics and nitrogen simultaneously from one reactor. The results showed that CMABR has a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen removal efficiency, as it is operated with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20 h, and it also showed a perfect performance, even if the HRT was shortened to 12 h. In this period, the removal efficiencies of COD, ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N), and total nitrogen (TN) reached 86%, 94%, and 84%, respectively. However, the removal efficiencies of NH4(+)-N and TN declined rapidly as the HRT was shortened to 8 h. This is because of the excessive growth of biomass on the nonwoven fiber and very high organic loading rate. The fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis indicated that the ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were mainly distributed in the inner layer of the biofilm. The coexistence of AOB and eubacteria in one biofilm can enhance the simultaneous removal of COD and nitrogen.

  20. Removal of typical endocrine disrupting chemicals by membrane bioreactor: in comparison with sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yingjun; Huang, Xia; Zhou, Haidong; Chen, Jianhua; Xue, Wenchao

    2011-01-01

    The removal of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) by a laboratory-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) fed with synthetic sewage was evaluated and moreover, compared with that by a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) operated under same conditions in parallel. Eight kinds of typical EDCs, including 17β-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), estriol (E3), 17α-ethynilestradiol (EE2), 4-octylphenol (4-OP), 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), bisphenol A (BPA) and nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPnEO), were spiked into the feed. Their concentrations in influent, effluent and supernatant were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. The overall estrogenecity was evaluated as 17β-estradiol equivalent quantity (EEQ), determined via yeast estrogen screen (YES) assay. E2, E3, BPA and 4-OP were well removed by both MBR and SBR, with removal rates more than 95% and no significant differences between the two reactors. However, with regard to the other four EDCs, of which the removal rates were lower, MBR performed better. Comparison between supernatant and effluent of the two reactors indicated that membrane separation of sludge and effluent, compared with sedimentation, can relatively improve elimination of target EDCs and total estrogenecity. By applying different solids retention times (SRTs) (5, 10, 20 and 40 d) to the MBR, 10 and 5 d were found to be the lower critical SRTs for efficient target EDCs and EEQ removal, respectively.

  1. Experimental evidence for a kinetic and electrochemical memory in enzyme membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, D; Barbotin, J N; David, A; Hervagault, J F; Romette, J L

    1977-01-01

    The existence of hysteresis phenomena in artificial enzyme membranes due to the coupling of simple kinetic enzyme properties with diffusion transport processes is reported. The intramembrane pH of a urease coating on the surface of a glass pH electrode exhibits a hysteresis loop when the pH of the bulk solution varies cyclically. The steady-state potential of a urease membrane, as a function of the substrate concentration in the bulk solution, also exhibits a memory effect. The influence of the membrane's history on its overall behavior is visualized by electron microscopy. We interpret the results in terms of a coupling between the enzyme reactions and diffusion processes, without taking into account molecular effects. Images PMID:23533

  2. Solid state proton and electron mediating membrane and use in catalytic membrane reactors

    DOEpatents

    White, James H.; Schwartz, Michael; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2001-01-01

    Mixed electron- and proton-conducting metal oxide materials are provided. These materials are useful in fabrication of membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactions, particularly for promoting dehydrogenation of hydrocarbons, oligomerization of hydrocarbons and for the decomposition of hydrogen-containing gases. Membrane materials are perovskite compounds of the formula: AB.sub.1-x B'.sub.x O.sub.3-y where A=Ca, Sr, or Ba; B=Ce, Tb, Pr or Th; B'=Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni or Cu; 0.2.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5, and y is a number sufficient to neutralize the charge in the mixed metal oxide material.

  3. Hydrodynamic effects of air sparging on hollow fiber membranes in a bubble column reactor.

    PubMed

    Xia, Lijun; Law, Adrian Wing-Keung; Fane, Anthony G

    2013-07-01

    Air sparging is now a standard approach to reduce concentration polarization and fouling of membrane modules in membrane bioreactors (MBRs). The hydrodynamic shear stresses, bubble-induced turbulence and cross flows scour the membrane surfaces and help reduce the deposit of foulants onto the membrane surface. However, the detailed quantitative knowledge on the effect of air sparging remains lacking in the literature due to the complex hydrodynamics generated by the gas-liquid flows. To date, there is no valid model that describes the relationship between the membrane fouling performance and the flow hydrodynamics. The present study aims to examine the impact of hydrodynamics induced by air sparging on the membrane fouling mitigation in a quantitative manner. A modelled hollow fiber module was placed in a cylindrical bubble column reactor at different axial heights with the trans-membrane pressure (TMP) monitored under constant flux conditions. The configuration of bubble column without the membrane module immersed was identical to that studied by Gan et al. (2011) using Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA), to ensure a good quantitative understanding of turbulent flow conditions along the column height. The experimental results showed that the meandering flow regime which exhibits high flow instability at the 0.3 m is more beneficial to fouling alleviation compared with the steady flow circulation regime at the 0.6 m. The filtration tests also confirmed the existence of an optimal superficial air velocity beyond which a further increase is of no significant benefit on the membrane fouling reduction. In addition, the alternate aeration provided by two air stones mounted at the opposite end of the diameter of the bubble column was also studied to investigate the associated flow dynamics and its influence on the membrane filtration performance. It was found that with a proper switching interval and membrane module orientation, the membrane fouling can be effectively

  4. Membrane chemical reactor (MCR) combining photocatalysis and microfiltration for grey water treatment.

    PubMed

    Rivero, M J; Parsons, S A; Jeffrey, P; Pidou, M; Jefferson, B

    2006-01-01

    Urban water recycling is now becoming an important issue where water resources are becoming scarce. This paper looks at reusing grey water; the preference is treatment processes based on biological systems to remove the dissolved organic content. Here, an alternative process, photocatalysis is discussed as it is an attractive technology that could be well-suited for treating the recalcitrant organic compounds found in grey water. The photocatalytic process oxidises organic reactants at a catalyst surface in the presence of ultraviolet light. Given enough exposure time, organic compounds will be oxidized into CO2 and water. The best contact is achieved in a slurry reactor but a second step to separate and recover the catalyst is need. This paper discusses a new membrane chemical reactor (MCR) combining photocatalysis and microfiltration for grey water treatment.

  5. Effect of inlet conditions on the performance of a palladium membrane reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Birdsell, S.A.; Willms, R.S.; Arzu, P.; Costello, A.

    1997-10-01

    Palladium membrane reactors (PMR) will be used to remove tritium and other hydrogen isotopes from impurities, such as tritiated methane and tritiated water, in the exhaust of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. In addition to fusion-fuel processing, the PMR system can be used to recover tritium from tritiated waste water. This paper investigates the effect of inlet conditions on the performance of a PMR. A set of experiments were run to determine, independently, the effect of inlet compositions and residence time on performance. Also, the experiments were designed to determine if the injected form of hydrogen (CH{sub 4} or H{sub 2}O) effects performance. Results show that the PMR operates at optimal hydrogen recovery with a broad range of inlet compositions and performance is shown to increase with increased residence time. PMR performance is shown to be independent of whether hydrogen is injected in the form of CH{sub 4} or H{sub 2}O.

  6. Fatty acids production from hydrogen and carbon dioxide by mixed culture in the membrane biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Ding, Jing; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Man; Ding, Zhao-Wei; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Zeng, Raymond J

    2013-10-15

    Gasification of waste to syngas (H2/CO2) is seen as a promising route to a circular economy. Biological conversion of the gaseous compounds into a liquid fuel or chemical, preferably medium chain fatty acids (caproate and caprylate) is an attractive concept. This study for the first time demonstrated in-situ production of medium chain fatty acids from H2 and CO2 in a hollow-fiber membrane biofilm reactor by mixed microbial culture. The hydrogen was for 100% utilized within the biofilms attached on the outer surface of the hollow-fiber membrane. The obtained concentrations of acetate, butyrate, caproate and caprylate were 7.4, 1.8, 0.98 and 0.42 g/L, respectively. The biomass specific production rate of caproate (31.4 mmol-C/(L day g-biomass)) was similar to literature reports for suspended cell cultures while for caprylate the rate (19.1 mmol-C/(L day g-biomass)) was more than 6 times higher. Microbial community analysis showed the biofilms were dominated by Clostridium spp., such as Clostridium ljungdahlii and Clostridium kluyveri. This study demonstrates a potential technology for syngas fermentation in the hollow-fiber membrane biofilm reactors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Production of Biodiesel Using a Membrane Reactor to Minimize Separation Cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olagunju, O. A.; Musonge, P.

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates the performance of a packed bed membrane reactor in the transesterification process of triglycerides to methyl ester using soyabean oil as feedstock. A TiO2/Al2O3 ceramic microporous membrane was selected due to its chemical inert nature and thermal stability to selectively remove the product from the reaction medium. CaO impregnated on the surface of activated carbon was packed into the membrane and acted as catalyst. The synthesized catalyst had a total loading of 40.50 % and was characterized by XRD and temperature-programmed desorption of CO2 (CO2-TPD). The crude biodiesel produced was micro-filtered by the ceramic membrane with a pore size of 0.02 μm to retain the unreacted oil and free glycerol, at the transmembrane pressure of 100 KPa. The best condition was achieved with a temperature of 65 °C, methanol/oil molar ratio of 6:1 for 150 minutes, which resulted in the highest FAME yield of 94 %. Methyl ester produced met the ASTM D6751 and SANS 1935 specifications. The product obtained was mainly composed of methyl esters. Glycerol was not detected in the product stream due to the ability of the membrane to retain the glycerol and the unreacted oil in the medium, which solved the issue of glycerol separation from biodiesel.

  8. Impact of operating conditions on the removal of endocrine disrupting chemicals by membrane photocatalytic reactor.

    PubMed

    López Fernández, Raquel; Coleman, Heather M; Le-Clech, Pierre

    2014-08-01

    This study focuses on the performance of a submerged membrane photocatalytic reactor for the removal of 17beta-oestradiol (E2) in the presence of humic acid (HA). In addition to the impact of operating parameters, such as membrane pore size, ultraviolet (UV) intensity and hydraulic retention time (HRT), the influence of long-term operation was also assessed by advanced characterization of the fouling layer formed on the membrane. The tighter (0.04 microm) hollow fibre polyvinylydene fluoride (PVDF) membrane was found to exhibit not only higher HA removal than the (0.2 microm) module (85% and 75%, respectively), but also greater transmembrane pressure (TMP) values and higher irreversible fouling. Long-term operation conditions have been simulated by conducting an ageing catalyst process and demonstrated a decrease in performance obtained with time. The artificially aged TiO2 resulted in higher TMP values and lower HA removals (about 10-20% decrease) compared with the non-aged catalyst. For E2 removal in the presence of HA, the passive adsorption of the oestrogen onto the organic matter was found to be significant (40% of the E2 adsorbed after I h), demonstrating the importance of the nature of the water matrix for this type of treatment process. An increase in the UV light intensity was observed to favour the E2 elimination, leading to more than 90% removal when using 64 W combined with PVDF membrane and an HRT of 3 h.

  9. Functionally gradient material for membrane reactors to convert methane gas into value-added products

    DOEpatents

    Balachandran, U.; Dusek, J.T.; Kleefisch, M.S.; Kobylinski, T.P.

    1996-11-12

    A functionally gradient material for a membrane reactor for converting methane gas into value-added-products includes an outer tube of perovskite, which contacts air; an inner tube which contacts methane gas, of zirconium oxide, and a bonding layer between the perovskite and zirconium oxide layers. The bonding layer has one or more layers of a mixture of perovskite and zirconium oxide, with the layers transitioning from an excess of perovskite to an excess of zirconium oxide. The transition layers match thermal expansion coefficients and other physical properties between the two different materials. 7 figs.

  10. Functionally gradient material for membrane reactors to convert methane gas into value-added products

    DOEpatents

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Dusek, Joseph T.; Kleefisch, Mark S.; Kobylinski, Thadeus P.

    1996-01-01

    A functionally gradient material for a membrane reactor for converting methane gas into value-added-products includes an outer tube of perovskite, which contacts air; an inner tube which contacts methane gas, of zirconium oxide, and a bonding layer between the perovskite and zirconium oxide layers. The bonding layer has one or more layers of a mixture of perovskite and zirconium oxide, with the layers transitioning from an excess of perovskite to an excess of zirconium oxide. The transition layers match thermal expansion coefficients and other physical properties between the two different materials.

  11. Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell grade hydrogen production by methanol steam reforming: A comparative multiple reactor modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katiyar, Nisha; Kumar, Shashi; Kumar, Surendra

    2013-12-01

    Analysis of a fuel processor based on methanol steam reforming has been carried out to produce fuel cell grade H2. Six reactor configurations namely FBR1 (fixed bed reactor), MR1 (H2 selective membrane reactor with one reaction tube), MR2 (H2 selective membrane reactor with two reaction tubes), FBR2 (FBR1 + preferential CO oxidation (PROX) reactor), MR3 (MR1 + PROX), and MR4 (MR2 + PROX) are evaluated by simulation to identify the suitable processing scheme. The yield of H2 is significantly affected by H2 selective membrane, residence time, temperature, and pressure conditions at complete methanol conversion. The enhancement in residence time in MR2 by using two identical reaction tubes provides H2 yield of 2.96 with 91.25 mol% recovery at steam/methanol ratio of 1.5, pressure of 2 bar and 560 K temperature. The exit retentate gases from MR2 are further treated in PROX reactor of MR4 to reduce CO concentration to 4.1 ppm to ensure the safe discharge to the environment. The risk of carbon deposition on reforming catalyst is highly reduced in MR4, and MR4 reactor configuration generates 7.4 NL min-1 of CO free H2 from 0.12 mol min-1 of methanol which can provide 470 W PEMFC feedstock requirement. Hence, process scheme in MR4 provides a compact and innovative fuel cell grade H2 generating unit.

  12. Mimicked translocation of glucose and glucose 6-phosphate with artificial enzyme membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Maïsterrena, B; Coulet, P R

    1989-01-01

    An approach to the mechanism which may govern the behaviour of biological compartmentalized systems is presented. Artificial enzyme membranes with immobilized glucose oxidase, invertase or hexokinase were used to separate two compartments of a specially designed diffusion cell. Asymmetry in volume, hydrodynamic conditions and enzyme location was purposely chosen in order to create situations which could not be obtained with an enzyme free in solution, and was then used to tentatively mimic situations existing in vivo. Experiments were conducted and a translocation effect of H2O2, glucose and glucose 6-phosphate was obtained. A theoretical analysis taking into account the different identified parameters of the system was elaborated. PMID:2764883

  13. Saline sewage treatment using a submerged anaerobic membrane reactor (SAMBR): effects of activated carbon addition and biogas-sparging time.

    PubMed

    Vyrides, I; Stuckey, D C

    2009-03-01

    This study investigated the performance of a submerged anaerobic membrane reactor (SAMBR) treating saline sewage under fluctuating concentrations of salinity (0-35g NaCl/L), at 8 and 20h HRT, with fluxes ranging from 5-8litres per square metre per hour (LMH). The SAMBRs attained a 99% removal of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) with 35g NaCl/L, while removal inside the reactor was significantly lower (40-60% DOC). Even with a sudden drop in salinity overall removal recovered quickly, while the recovery inside the reactor took place at a slower rate. This highlights the positive effect of the membrane in preventing the presence of high molecular weight organics in the effluent while also retaining biomass inside the reactor so that they can rapidly acclimatize to salinity. The reduction of continuous biogas sparging to intervals of 10min ON and 5min OFF resulted in a slight increase in transmembrane pressure (TMP) by 0.025bar, but also resulted in an increase in effluent DOC removal and inside the SAMBR by 10% and 20%, respectively. The addition of powdered activated carbon (PAC) resulted in a decrease in the TMP by 0.070bar, and an increase in DOC removal in the reactor and effluent by 30% and 5%, respectively. The PAC dramatically decreased the high molecular weight organics in the reactor over a period of 72h. SEM pictures of the membrane and biomass before and after addition of PAC revealed a remarkable reduction of flocks on the membrane surface, and a reduction inside the reactor of soluble microbial products (SMPs). Finally, Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis of the membranes pores and biofilm highlighted the absence of organic matter in the inner pores of the membrane.

  14. Drinking water treatment using a submerged internal-circulation membrane coagulation reactor coupled with permanganate oxidation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongguo; Liu, Dan; Qian, Yu; Wu, Yue; He, Peiran; Liang, Shuang; Fu, Xiaozheng; Li, Jiding; Ye, Changqing

    2017-06-01

    A submerged internal circulating membrane coagulation reactor (MCR) was used to treat surface water to produce drinking water. Polyaluminum chloride (PACl) was used as coagulant, and a hydrophilic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) submerged hollow fiber microfiltration membrane was employed. The influences of trans-membrane pressure (TMP), zeta potential (ZP) of the suspended particles in raw water, and KMnO4 dosing on water flux and the removal of turbidity and organic matter were systematically investigated. Continuous bench-scale experiments showed that the permeate quality of the MCR satisfied the requirement for a centralized water supply, according to the Standards for Drinking Water Quality of China (GB 5749-2006), as evaluated by turbidity (<1 NTU) and total organic carbon (TOC) (<5mg/L) measurements. Besides water flux, the removal of turbidity, TOC and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the raw water also increased with increasing TMP in the range of 0.01-0.05MPa. High ZP induced by PACl, such as 5-9mV, led to an increase in the number of fine and total particles in the MCR, and consequently caused serious membrane fouling and high permeate turbidity. However, the removal of TOC and DOC increased with increasing ZP. A slightly positive ZP, such as 1-2mV, corresponding to charge neutralization coagulation, was favorable for membrane fouling control. Moreover, dosing with KMnO4 could further improve the removal of turbidity and DOC, thereby mitigating membrane fouling. The results are helpful for the application of the MCR in producing drinking water and also beneficial to the research and application of other coagulation and membrane separation hybrid processes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Estradiol Modulates Membrane-Linked ATPases, Antioxidant Enzymes, Membrane Fluidity, Lipid Peroxidation, and Lipofuscin in Aged Rat Liver

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pardeep; Kale, R. K.; Baquer, Najma Zaheer

    2011-01-01

    Free radical production and oxidative stress are known to increase in liver during aging, and may contribute to the oxidative damage. These changes increase during menopausal condition in females when the level of estradiol is decreased. The objective of this study was to observe the changes in activities of membrane linked ATPases (Na+K+ ATPase, Ca2+ ATPase), antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase), lipid peroxidation levels, lipofuscin content and membrane fluidity occurring in livers of female rats of 3, 12 and 24 months age groups, and to see whether these changes are restored to 3 months control levels rats after exogenous administration of 17-β-estradiol (E2). The aged rats (12 and 24 months) were given subcutaneous injection of E2 (0.1 μg/g body weight) daily for one month. The results obtained in the present work revealed that normal aging was associated with significant decrease in the activities of membrane linked ATPases, antioxidant enzymes, membrane fluidity and an increase in lipid peroxidation and lipofuscin content in livers of aging female rats. The present study showed that E2 treatment reversed the changes to normal levels. E2 treatment may be beneficial in preventing some of the age related changes in the liver by increasing antioxidant defenses. PMID:22007298

  16. Crystal structure of MraY, an essential membrane enzyme for bacterial cell wall synthesis.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ben C; Zhao, Jinshi; Gillespie, Robert A; Kwon, Do-Yeon; Guan, Ziqiang; Hong, Jiyong; Zhou, Pei; Lee, Seok-Yong

    2013-08-30

    MraY (phospho-MurNAc-pentapeptide translocase) is an integral membrane enzyme that catalyzes an essential step of bacterial cell wall biosynthesis: the transfer of the peptidoglycan precursor phospho-MurNAc-pentapeptide to the lipid carrier undecaprenyl phosphate. MraY has long been considered a promising target for the development of antibiotics, but the lack of a structure has hindered mechanistic understanding of this critical enzyme and the enzyme superfamily in general. The superfamily includes enzymes involved in bacterial lipopolysaccharide/teichoic acid formation and eukaryotic N-linked glycosylation, modifications that are central in many biological processes. We present the crystal structure of MraY from Aquifex aeolicus (MraYAA) at 3.3 Å resolution, which allows us to visualize the overall architecture, locate Mg(2+) within the active site, and provide a structural basis of catalysis for this class of enzyme.

  17. Crystal Structure of MraY, an Essential Membrane Enzyme for Bacterial Cell Wall Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Ben C.; Kwon, Do-Yeon; Guan, Ziqiang; Hong, Jiyong; Zhou, Pei; Lee, Seok-Yong

    2013-01-01

    MraY (phospho-MurNAc-pentapeptide translocase) is an integral membrane enzyme that catalyzes an essential step of bacterial cell wall biosynthesis: the transfer of the peptidoglycan precursor phospho-MurNAc-pentapeptide to the lipid carrier undecaprenyl phosphate. MraY has long been considered a promising target for the development of antibiotics, but the lack of a structure has hindered mechanistic understanding of this critical enzyme and the enzyme superfamily in general. The superfamily includes enzymes involved in bacterial lipopolysaccharide/teichoic acid formation and eukaryotic N-linked glycosylation, modifications that are central in many biological processes. We present the crystal structure of MraY from Aquifex aeolicus (MraYAA) at 3.3 Å resolution, which allows us to visualize the overall architecture, locate Mg2+ within the active site, and provide a structural basis of catalysis for this class of enzyme. PMID:23990562

  18. Membrane reactor for water detritiation: a parametric study on operating parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Mascarade, J.; Liger, K.; Troulay, M.; Perrais, C.

    2015-03-15

    This paper presents the results of a parametric study done on a single stage finger-type packed-bed membrane reactor (PBMR) used for heavy water vapor de-deuteration. Parametric studies have been done on 3 operating parameters which are: the membrane temperature, the total feed flow rate and the feed composition through D{sub 2}O content variations. Thanks to mass spectrometer analysis of streams leaving the PBMR, speciation of deuterated species was achieved. Measurement of the amounts of each molecular component allowed the calculation of reaction quotient at the packed-bed outlet. While temperature variation mainly influences permeation efficiency, feed flow rate perturbation reveals dependence of conversion and permeation properties to contact time between catalyst and reacting mixture. The study shows that isotopic exchange reactions occurring on the catalyst particles surface are not thermodynamically balanced. Moreover, the variation of the heavy water content in the feed exhibits competition between permeation and conversion kinetics.

  19. A fluidized bed membrane bioelectrochemical reactor for energy-efficient wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Ge, Zheng; He, Zhen

    2014-09-01

    A fluidized bed membrane bioelectrochemical reactor (MBER) was investigated using fluidized granular activated carbon (GAC) as a mean of membrane fouling control. During the 150-day operation, the MBER generated electricity with contaminant removal from either synthetic solution or actual wastewater, as a standalone or a coupled system. It was found that fluidized GAC could significantly reduce transmembrane pressure (TMP), although its function as a part of the anode electrode was minor. When the MBER was linked to a regular microbial fuel cell (MFC) for treating a wastewater from a cheese factory, the MFC acted as a major process for energy recovery and contaminant removal, and the coupled system removed more than 90% of chemical oxygen demand and >80% of suspended solids. The analysis showed that the ratio of energy recovery and consumption was slightly larger than one, indicating that the coupled system could be theoretically energy neutral.

  20. Biodiesel production in a membrane reactor using MCM-41 supported solid acid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Gao, Lijing; Wang, Songcheng; Xiao, Guomin

    2014-05-01

    Production of biodiesel from the transesterification between soybean oil and methanol was conducted in this study by a membrane reactor, in which ceramic membrane was packed with MCM-41 supported p-toluenesulfonic acid (PTSA). Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology (RSM) were used to investigate the effects of reaction temperature, catalyst amount and circulation velocity on the yield of biodiesel. A reduced cubic model was developed to navigate the design space. Reaction temperature was found to have most significant effect on the biodiesel yield while the interaction of catalyst amount and circulation velocity have minor effect on it. 80°C of reaction temperature, 0.27 g/cm(3) of catalyst amount and 4.15 mL/min of circulation velocity were proved to be the optimum conditions to achieve the highest biodiesel yield. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Semicontinuous Production of Lactic Acid From Cheese Whey Using Integrated Membrane Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yebo; Shahbazi, Abolghasem; Coulibaly, Sekou; Mims, Michele M.

    Semicontinuous production of lactic acid from cheese whey using free cells of Bifidobacterium longum with and without nanofiltration was studied. For the semicontinuous fermentation without membrane separation, the lactic acid productivity of the second and third runs is much lower than the first run. The semicontinuous fermentation with nanoseparation was run semicontinuously for 72 h with lactic acid to be harvested every 24 h using a nanofiltration membrane unit. The cells and unutilized lactose were kept in the reactor and mixed with newly added cheese whey in the subsequent runs. Slight increase in the lactic acid productivity was observed in the second and third runs during the semicontinuous fermentation with nanofiltration. It can be concluded that nanoseparation could improve the lactic acid productivity of the semicontinuous fermentation process.

  2. Influence of microcystin-LR on the activity of membrane enzymes in rat intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Moreno, I M; Mate, A; Repetto, G; Vázquez, C M; Cameán, A M

    2003-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of microcystin-LR (MCLR) on the activity of membrane enzymes from intestinal mucosa. In addition, serum chemistry and peroxidative status of both serum and intestinal homogenate were evaluated after treatment with MCLR. Wistar rats were treated with intraperitoneal injection of either 100 microg pure MCLR/Kg body weight or saline solution. A significant increase in liver weight and altered serum enzyme activities were found in MCLR-treated rats, indicating damage to the liver in these rats, as previously suggested. A higher specific activity of sucrase (1.5-fold) was observed after the administration of MCLR, whereas other intestinal apical membrane enzymes, such as lactase, maltase and alkaline phosphatase were not modified by the treatment. The specific activities of acid phosphatase and succinate dehydrogenase, markers for lysosomal and mitochondrial membranes, respectively, were also increased (32% and 60%, respectively) in treated rats. The analysis of lipid peroxidation showed that the peroxidative status was increased in both serum and intestinal mucosa from MCLR-treated rats, reflecting an excess production of oxygen free radicals induced by this cyanobacterial toxin. In conclusion, this study shows that acute exposure to MCLR affects the intestinal physiology by modifying the intestinal peroxidation status as well as the activity of membrane enzymes.

  3. Effects of geometrical confinement in membrane pores on enzyme-based layer-by-layer assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Wong, Diana G.; Coelho-Diogo, Cristina; Aimé, Carole; Bonhomme, Christian; Jonas, Alain M.; Demoustier-Champagne, Sophie

    2015-05-01

    Micro- and nanoporous systems incorporating bioactive molecules, such as enzymes, are very promising supports for biocatalysis. Here, we investigate the influence of geometrical confinement on the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of enzyme-based thin films, using the polyionic couple (chitosan/β-lactamase)n. Thin films with different number of layers were prepared on flat silicon wafers and within cylindrical submicron pores of polycarbonate membranes to determine the impact of the confinement of macromolecules on: (i) the LbL film growth, (ii) the enzyme loading, and (iii) the biocatalytic efficiency. Solid-state NMR is employed to estimate the amount of enzyme loaded in the different types of LbL films, and the enzyme activity is determined by the study of the kinetics of nitrocefin hydrolysis. Film growth and loading of enzyme occur faster in the confined medium, until pores reach saturation. Moreover, when LbL films are grown within nanopores, the weight fraction of enzyme is very high and remains constant along the build-up. Conversely, the relative amount of enzyme in flat films significantly decreases with the number of layers due to the partial exchange during the growth. Finally, our study emphasizes that the immobilization of enzymes through LbL assembly in confined media can lead to very active surfaces with a restricted number of LbL cycles.

  4. [Atrazine wastewater treatment in a SPG membrane-aerated genetically engineered microorganism biofilm reactor].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun; Gong, Peng-Fei; Xiao, Tai-Min; Zhang, Ming; Nian, Yong-Jia; Yang, Jing-Liang; Zhang, Jing

    2014-08-01

    Membrane-aerated biofilm reactor (MABR) represent a novel membrane-biological wastewater treatment technology. In addition, bioaugmented treatment using genetically engineered microorganism (GEM) biofilm in MABR is proposed to improve refractory pollutant removal. In the present study, a SPG membrane aerated-biofilm reactor (SPG-MABR) with GEM biofilm formed on the SPG membrane surface was applied to treat atrazine wastewater. The influences of air pressure, biofilm biomass and liquid velocity on the performance of the SPG-MABR were investigated. The variation of GEM biofilm during the SPG-MABR operation was observed. The results indicated that the increased air pressure could promote atrazine and COD removal as well as re-oxygenation by increasing oxygen permeability coefficient. A higher biofilm biomass could also enhance atrazine and COD removal, but simultaneously reduce the re-oxygenation rate because biofilm thickness and oxygen transfer resistance increased. When liquid velocity in the SPG-MABR was decreased under laminar flow condition, atrazine and COD removal was improved due to the facilitated contaminant diffusion from wastewater to biofilm. The atrazine removal efficiency reached to 98.6% in the SPG-MABR after 5d treatment at air pressure of 300 kPa, biofilm biomass of 25 g x m(-2) and liquid velocity of 0.05 m x s(-1). The microbial polymorphism of GEM biofilm was observed during the SPG-MABR operation. The surface of GEM biofilm was gradually covered by other microbial cells and the distribution of GEM cells reduced, but inside the GEM biofilm, the GEM cells were still dominant.

  5. Kinetics of the enzyme-vesicle interaction including the formation of rafts and membrane strain.

    PubMed

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P; Höök, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    In cells, an appreciable part of enzymes is associated with lipid membranes. Academic experimental studies of the function of membrane enzymes (e.g., PLA(2) representing a prototype for interfacial enzymology) are often focused on the enzyme-vesicle interaction or, more specifically, on conversion of lipid forming the external leaflet of the vesicle membrane. The corresponding kinetics are complicated by many factors inherent to the interfacial physics and chemistry. The understanding of the relative role of such factors and how they should be quantitatively described is still limited. Here, we present the mean-field kinetic equations, taking the formation of rafts in the membrane and the product-induced membrane strain into account, and analyze various scenarios of lipid conversion. In particular, we scrutinize the conditions when the kinetics may exhibit a transition from a relatively long latency period to a steady-state regime with fast nearly constant reaction rate. Specifically, we discuss the likely role of the pore formation in the external lipid layer in this transition. The latter effect may be caused by the product-induced tensile strain in this layer.

  6. High throughput tryptic digestion via poly (acrylamide-co-methylenebisacrylamide) monolith based immobilized enzyme reactor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shuaibin; Sun, Liangliang; Ma, Junfeng; Yang, Kaiguang; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2011-02-15

    A poly (acrylamide-co-methylenebisacrylamide) (poly (AAm-co-MBA)) monolith was prepared by thermal polymerization in the 100 or 250 μm i.d. capillary. The monolithic support was activated by ethylenediamine followed by glutaraldehyde. Trypsin was then introduced to form an immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER). The prepared IMER showed a reliable mechanical stability and permeability (permeability constant K=2.65×10(-13) m(2)). With BSA as the model protein, efficient digestion was completed within 20s, yielding the sequence coverage of 57%, better than that obtained from the traditional in-solution digestion (42%), which took about 12h. Moreover, BSA down to femtomole was efficiently digested by the IMER and positively identified by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). To test the applicability of IMER for complex sample profiling, proteins extracted from Escherichia coli were digested by the IMER and further analyzed by nanoreversed phase liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (nanoRPLC-ESI-MS/MS). In comparison to in-solution digestion, despite slightly fewer proteins were positively identified at a false discovery rate (FDR) of ∼1% (333 vs 411), the digestion time used was largely shortened (20s vs 24 h), implying superior digestion performance for the high throughput analysis of complex samples.

  7. On the activation of plasma membrane ecto-enzymes by treatment with neuraminidase.

    PubMed

    Trams, E G; Lauter, C J; Banfield, W G

    1976-11-01

    It had been proposed that sialyl-residues on the surface of the cell control the activity of certain plasma membrane ecto-enzymes. We have tested the effects of several established (or presumptive) ecto-enzymes in tissue cultures of CNS-derived cells. Application of neuraminidases to cultured mouse neuroblastoma (N-18), neonatal Syrian hamster astrocytes (NN), human astrocytoma (Cox clone) and two lines of primary mouse astroblasts failed to change the activity of ecto-ATPase and 5'-nucleotidase. Only two of the seven neuraminidase preparations produced marked or moderate increases in inorganic pyrophosphatase, p-nitrophenylphosphatase and cholinesterase. We have concluded that the stimulation of these enzymes was not due to removal of sialyl-residues. We suggest that contaminants (haemolysins?) in neuraminidase preparations of Clostridium perfringens increased membrane permeability and facilitated substrate-product translocation.

  8. SEPARATION OF HYDROGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE USING A NOVEL MEMBRANE REACTOR IN ADVANCED FOSSIL ENERGY CONVERSION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Shamsuddin Ilias

    2005-02-03

    Inorganic membrane reactors offer the possibility of combining reaction and separation in a single operation at high temperatures to overcome the equilibrium limitations experienced in conventional reactor configurations. Such attractive features can be advantageously utilized in a number of potential commercial opportunities, which include dehydrogenation, hydrogenation, oxidative dehydrogenation, oxidation and catalytic decomposition reactions. However, to be cost effective, significant technological advances and improvements will be required to solve several key issues which include: (a) permselective thin solid film, (b) thermal, chemical and mechanical stability of the film at high temperatures, and (c) reactor engineering and module development in relation to the development of effective seals at high temperature and high pressure. In this project, we are working on the development and application of palladium and palladium-silver alloy thin-film composite membranes in membrane reactor-separator configuration for simultaneous production and separation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide at high temperature. From our research on Pd-composite membrane, we have demonstrated that the new membrane has significantly higher hydrogen flux with very high perm-selectivity than any of the membranes commercially available. The steam reforming of methane by equilibrium shift in Pd-composite membrane reactor is being studied to demonstrate the potential application of this new development. A two-dimensional, pseudo-homogeneous membrane-reactor model was developed to investigate the steam-methane reforming (SMR) reactions in a Pd-based membrane reactor. Radial diffusion was taken into consideration to account for the concentration gradient in the radial direction due to hydrogen permeation through the membrane. With appropriate reaction rate expressions, a set of partial differential equations was derived using the continuity equation for the reaction system. The equations were

  9. Tritium recovery from tritiated water with a two-stage palladium membrane reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Birdsell, S.A.; Willms, R.S.

    1997-04-01

    A process to recover tritium from tritiated water has been successfully demonstrated at TSTA. The 2-stage palladium membrane reactor (PMR) is capable of recovering tritium from water without generating additional waste. This device can be used to recover tritium from the substantial amount of tritiated water that is expected to be generated in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor both from torus exhaust and auxiliary operations. A large quantity of tritiated waste water exists world wide because the predominant method of cleaning up tritiated streams is to oxidize tritium to tritiated water. The latter can be collected with high efficiency for subsequent disposal. The PMR is a combined catalytic reactor/permeator. Cold (non-tritium) water processing experiments were run in preparation for the tritiated water processing tests. Tritium was recovered from a container of molecular sieve loaded with 2,050 g (2,550 std. L) of water and 4.5 g of tritium. During this experiment, 27% (694 std. L) of the water was processed resulting in recovery of 1.2 g of tritium. The maximum water processing rate for the PMR system used was determined to be 0.5 slpm. This correlates well with the maximum processing rate determined from the smaller PMR system on the cold test bench and has resulted in valuable scale-up and design information.

  10. High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading. Quarterly report No. 12, June 21, 1992--September 20, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, T.T.

    1992-12-31

    In this project we intend to study a novel process concept, i.e.,the use of ceramic membranes reactors in upgrading of coal derived liquids. Membrane reactors have been used in a number of catalytic reaction processes in order to overcome the limitations on conversion imposed by thermodynamic equilibrium. They have, furthermore, the inherent capability for combining reaction and separation in a single step. Thus they offer promise for improving and optimizing yield, selectivity and performance of processes involving complex liquids, as those typically found in coal liquid upgrading. Ceramic membranes are a new class of materials, which have shown promise in a variety of industrial applications. Their mechanical and chemical stability coupled with a wide range of operating temperatures and pressures make them suitable for environments found in coal liquid upgrading. In this project we wig evaluate the performance of Sel-Gel alumina membranes in coal liquid upgrading processes under realistic temperature and pressure conditions and investigate the feasibility of using such membranes in a membrane reactor based coal liquid upgrading process. In addition, the development of novel ceramic membranes with enhanced catalytic activity for coal-liquid upgrading applications, such as carbon-coated alumina membranes, will be also investigated.

  11. High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading. Quarter report No. 9, September 21, 1991--December 20, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, T.T.

    1992-07-01

    In this project we intend to study a novel process concept, i.e, the use of ceramic membranes reactors in upgrading of coal derived liquids. Membrane reactors have been used in a number of catalytic reaction processes in order to overcome the limitations on conversion imposed by thermodynamic equilibrium. They have, furthermore, the inherent capability for combining reaction and separation in a single step. Thus they offer promise for improving and optimizing yield, selectivity and performance of processes involving complex liquids, as those typically found in coal liquid upgrading. Ceramic membranes are a new class of materials, which have shown promise in a variety of industrial applications. Their mechanical and chemical stability coupled with a wide range of operating temperatures and pressures make them suitable for environments found in coal liquid upgrading. In this project we will evaluate the performance of Sol-Gel alumina membranes in coal liquid upgrading processes under realistic temperature and pressure conditions and investigate the feasibility of using such membranes in a membrane reactor based coal liquid upgrading process. In addition, the development of novel ceramic membranes with enhanced catalytic activity for coal-liquid upgrading applications, such as carbon-coated alumina membranes, will be also investigated.

  12. A Multiscale Approach to Modelling Drug Metabolism by Membrane-Bound Cytochrome P450 Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Sansom, Mark S. P.; Mulholland, Adrian J.

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes are found in all life forms. P450s play an important role in drug metabolism, and have potential uses as biocatalysts. Human P450s are membrane-bound proteins. However, the interactions between P450s and their membrane environment are not well-understood. To date, all P450 crystal structures have been obtained from engineered proteins, from which the transmembrane helix was absent. A significant number of computational studies have been performed on P450s, but the majority of these have been performed on the solubilised forms of P450s. Here we present a multiscale approach for modelling P450s, spanning from coarse-grained and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to reaction modelling using hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods. To our knowledge, this is the first application of such an integrated multiscale approach to modelling of a membrane-bound enzyme. We have applied this protocol to a key human P450 involved in drug metabolism: CYP3A4. A biologically realistic model of CYP3A4, complete with its transmembrane helix and a membrane, has been constructed and characterised. The dynamics of this complex have been studied, and the oxidation of the anticoagulant R-warfarin has been modelled in the active site. Calculations have also been performed on the soluble form of the enzyme in aqueous solution. Important differences are observed between the membrane and solution systems, most notably for the gating residues and channels that control access to the active site. The protocol that we describe here is applicable to other membrane-bound enzymes. PMID:25033460

  13. Simultaneous removal of nitrate and pesticides from groundwater using a methane-fed membrane biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Modin, O; Fukushi, K; Yamamoto, K

    2008-01-01

    Nitrate and pesticide contaminated ground- and surface-waters have been found around the world as a result of the use of these compounds in agricultural activities. In this study we investigated a biological treatment method to simultaneously remove nitrate and pesticides from contaminated water. Methane was supplied as the sole source of carbon to the microbial culture. A methane-fed membrane biofilm reactor (M-MBfR) was developed in which the methane was supplied through hollow-fiber membranes to a biofilm growing on the membrane surface. A methane-oxidizing culture enriched from activated sludge was used as inoculum for the experiments. Removal of nitrate and the four pesticides atrazine, aldicarb, alachlor, and malathion was examined both in suspended culture and in the M-MBfR. The maximum denitrification rate with suspended culture was 36.8 mg N gVSS(-1) d(-1). With the M-MBfR setup, a hydraulic retention time of approximately one hour was required to completely remove an incoming nitrate concentration of about 20 mg NO3-N l(-1). The microbial culture could remove three of the pesticides (aldicarb, alachlor, and malathion). However, no atrazine removal was observed. The removal rates of both nitrate and pesticides were similar in suspended culture and in membrane-attached biofilm.

  14. The recovery of zinc from hot galvanizing slag in an anion-exchange membrane electrolysis reactor.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiulian; Wei, Qifeng; Hu, Surong; Wei, Sijie

    2010-09-15

    This paper reports the optimization of the process parameters for recovery of zinc from hot galvanizing slag in an anion-exchange membrane electrolysis reactor. The experiments were carried out in an ammoniacal ammonium chloride system. The influence of composition of electrolytes, pH, stirring rate, current density and temperature, on cathodic current efficiency, specific power consumption and anodic dissolution of Zn were investigated. The results indicate that the cathode current efficiency increases and the hydrogen evolution decreased with increasing the cathode current density. The partial current for electrodeposition of Zn has liner relationship with omega(1/2) (omega: rotation rate). The highest current efficiency for dissolving zinc was obtained when NH(4)Cl concentration was 53.46 g L(-1) and the anodic dissolution of zinc was determined by mass transfer rate at stirring rate 0-300 r min(-1). Increase in temperature benefits to improve CE and dissolution of Zn, and reduce cell voltage. Initial pH of electrolytes plays an important role in the deposition and anodic dissolution of Zn. The results of single factor experiment show that about 50% energy consumption was saved for electrodeposition of Zn in the anion-exchange membrane electrolysis reactor.

  15. Performance of a palladium membrane reactor using a Ni catalyst for fusion fuel impurities processing

    SciTech Connect

    Willms, R.S.; Wilhelm, R.; Okuno, K.

    1994-07-01

    The palladium membrane reactor (PNM) provides a means to recover hydrogen isotopes from impurities expected to be present in fusion reactor exhaust. This recovery is based on reactions such as water-gas shift and steam reforming for which conversion is equilibrium limited. By including a selectively permeable membrane such as Pd/Ag in the catalyst bed, hydrogen isotopes can be removed from the reacting environment, thus promoting the reaction to complete conversion. Such a device has been built and operated at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). For the reactions listed above, earlier study with this unit has shown that hydrogen single-pass recoveries approaching 100% can be achieved. It was also determined that a nickel catalyst is a feasible choice for use with a PMR appropriate for fusion fuel impurities processing. The purpose of this study was to systematically assess the performance of the PMR using a nickel catalyst over a range of temperatures, feed compositions and flowrates. Reactions which were studied are the water-gas shift reaction and steam reforming.

  16. Bio-reduction of tetrachloroethen using a H2-based membrane biofilm reactor and community fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Karataş, Serdar; Hasar, Halil; Taşkan, Ergin; Özkaya, Bestamin; Şahinkaya, Erkan

    2014-07-01

    Chlorinated ethenes in drinking water could be reductively dechlorinated to non-toxic ethene by using a hydrogen based membrane biofilm reactor (H2-MBfR) under denitrifying conditions as it provides an appropriate environment for dechlorinating bacteria in biofilm communities. This study evaluates the reductive dechlorination of perchloroethene (PCE) to non-toxic ethene (ETH) and comparative community analysis of the biofilm grown on the gas permeable membrane fibers. For these purposes, three H2-MBfRs receiving three different chlorinated ethenes (PCE, TCE and DCE) were operated under different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) and H2 pressures. Among these reactors, the H2-MBfR fed with PCE (H2-MBfR 1) accomplished a complete dechlorination, whereas cis-DCE accumulated in the TCE receiving H2-MBfR 2 and no dechlorination was detected in the DCE receiving H2-MBfR 3. The results showed that 95% of PCE dechlorinated to ETH together with over 99.8% dechlorination efficiency. Nitrate was the preferred electron acceptor as the most of electrons generated from H2 oxidation used for denitrification and dechlorination started under nitrate deficient conditions at increased H2 pressures. PCR-DGGE analysis showed that Dehalococcoides were present in autotrophic biofilm community dechlorinating PCE to ethene, and RDase genes analysis revealed that pceA, tceA, bvcA and vcrA, responsible for complete dechlorination step, were available in Dehalococcoides strains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Applying a novel autohydrogenotrophic hollow-fiber membrane biofilm reactor for denitrification of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuan-Chun; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2002-04-01

    We conducted a series of pseudo-steady-state experiments on a novel hollow-fiber membrane biofilm reactor used for denitrification of oligotrophic waters, such as drinking water. We applied a range of nitrate loadings and hydrogen pressures to establish under what conditions the system could attain three goodness-of-performance criteria: partial nitrate removal, minimization of hydrogen wasting, and low nitrite accumulation. The hollow-fiber membrane biofilm reactor could meet drinking-water standards for nitrate and nitrite while minimizing the amount of hydrogen wasted in the effluent when it was operated under hydrogen-limited conditions. For example, the system could achieve partial nitrate removals between 39% and 92%, effluent nitrate between 0.4 and 9.1 mg N/l, effluent nitrite less than 1 mg N/l, and effluent hydrogen below 0.1 mg H2/l. High fluxes of nitrate and hydrogen made it possible to have a short liquid retention time (42 min), compared with 1-13 h in other studies with hydrogen used as the electron donor for denitrification. The fluxes and concentrations for hydrogen, nitrate, and nitrite obtained in this study can be used as practical guidelines for system design.

  18. Treatment of sewage sludge in a thermophilic membrane reactor (TMR) with alternate aeration cycles.

    PubMed

    Collivignarelli, Maria Cristina; Castagnola, Federico; Sordi, Marco; Bertanza, Giorgio

    2015-10-01

    The management of sewage sludge is becoming a more and more important issue, both at national and international level, in particular due to the uncertain recovery/disposal future options. Therefore, it is clear that the development of new technologies that can mitigate the problem at the source by reducing sludge production is necessary, such as the European Directive 2008/98/EC prescribes. This work shows the results obtained with a thermophilic membrane reactor, for processing a biological sludge derived from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) that treats urban and industrial wastewater. Sewage sludge was treated in a thermophilic membrane reactor (TMR), at pilot-scale (1 m(3) volume), with alternate aeration cycles. The experimentation was divided into two phases: a "startup phase" during which, starting with a psychrophilic/mesophilic biomass, thermophilic conditions were progressively reached, while feeding a highly biodegradable substrate; the obtained thermophilic biomass was then used, in the "regime phase", to digest biological sludge which was fed to the plant. Good removal yields were observed: 64% and 57% for volatile solids (VS) and total COD (CODtot), respectively, with an average hydraulic retention time (HRT) equal to 20 d, an organic loading rate (OLR) of about 1.4-1.8 kg COD m(-3) d(-1) and aeration/non aeration cycles alternated every 4 h. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of Glucose Oxidase in a Membrane Reactor for Gluconic Acid Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das Neves, Luiz Carlos Martins; Vitolo, Michele

    This article aims at the evaluation of the catalytic performance of glucose oxidase (GO) (EC.1.1.3.4) for the glucose/gluconic acid conversion in the ultrafiltration cell type membrane reactor (MB-CSTR). The reactor was coupled with a Millipore ultrafiltration-membrane (cutoff of 100 kDa) and operated for 24 h under agitation of 100 rpm, pH 5.5, and 30°C. The experimental conditions varied were the glucose concentration (2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0, and 40.0 mM), the feeding rate (0.5, 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0/h), dissolved oxygen (8.0 and 16.0 mg/L), GO concentration (2.5, 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 UGO/mL), and the glucose oxidase/catalase activity ratio (UGO/UCAT)(1∶0, 1∶10, 1∶20, and 1∶30). A conversion yield of 80% and specific reaction rate of 40×10-4 mmol/h·UGO were attained when the process was carried out under the following conditions: D=3.0/h, dissolved oxygen=16.0 mg/L, [G]=40 mM, and (UGO/UCAT)=1∶20. A simplified model for explaining the inhibition of GO activity by hydrogen peroxide, formed during the glucose/gluconic acid conversion, was presented.

  20. Flow-through membrane-based enzyme immunoassay for rapid detection of ochratoxin A in wheat.

    PubMed

    De Saeger, S; Van Peteghem, C

    1999-01-01

    A flow-through membrane-based enzyme immunoassay for the rapid detection of ochratoxin A in wheat was developed (patent pending). An Immunodyne ABC membrane was coated with rabbit anti-mouse immunoglobulins and free protein binding sites were blocked. After these antibody-coated membranes were placed on an absorbent layer in a plastic test device, a sequential competitive enzyme immunoassay was performed. The following reactants were successively dropped onto the membrane: wash solution, a dilution of monoclonal anti-ochratoxin A immunoglobulins, wash solution, ochratoxin A standard solution or sample extract solution, a dilution of ochratoxin A-horseradish peroxidase conjugate, and wash solution. Finally, substrate solution (H2O2-3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine) was added for color reaction. The dot color intensity on the membrane was visually compared with that of the negative control, which showed the most intense blue color because of the inverse relationship between toxin concentration and color development. A portable colorimeter was used to confirm and quantify the visual observations. An ochratoxin A concentration of 0.4 ng/ml in buffer solution suppressed the color development completely. With the use of a simple sample preparation procedure it was possible to eliminate matrix interference. A wheat sample spiked with 4 microg/kg resulted in a complete color suppression. With coated membranes, the immunoassay could be performed in less than 15 min.

  1. Membrane-aerated biofilm reactor for the treatment of acetonitrile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, Tinggang; Liu, Junxin; Bai, Renbi; Wong, F S

    2008-03-15

    A membrane-aerated biofilm reactor (MABR) was studied for the treatment of wastewater containing acetonitrile, a typical organonitrile compound. The MABR used hydrophobic hollow fiber membranes as the diffusers for bubbleless aeration as well as the carriers for biofilm growth. The objectives were to prevent the stripping-loss of acetonitrile during aeration and to achieve acetonitrile biodegradation plus nitrogen removal simultaneously in a single biolfilm on the membranes. In the MABR, oxygen and substrates were supplied to the biofilm from opposite sides, in contrast to those from the same side in conventional biofilm bioreactors. Operational factors, including surface loading rate and upflow fluid velocity in the bioreactor, on the effect of acetonitrile biodegradation performance were examined. The profiles of dissolved oxygen concentration and microbial activities and populations in the biofilm were investigated. Experimental results showed that, with the adapted microorganisms, removal of acetonitrile at approximately 98.6 and 83.3%, in terms of total organic carbon and total nitrogen, were achieved at a surface loading rate (in terms of membrane surface) of up to 11.29 g acetonitrile/ m2 x d with an upflow fluid velocity of 12 cm/s and a hydraulic retention time of 30 h. The biofilm on the membranes developed an average thickness of about 1.6 mm in the steady state and consisted of oxic/anoxic/anaerobic zones that provided different functions for acetonitrile degradation, nitrification, and denitrification. The acetonitrile-degrading bacteria in the MABR appeared to secrete more extracellular polymeric substances that enhanced the attachment and development of the biofilm on the membranes. The study demonstrated the potential of using the MABR for the treatment of organonitrile wastewater.

  2. Removal of estrogenic compounds from filtered secondary wastewater effluent in a continuous enzymatic membrane reactor. Identification of biotransformation products.

    PubMed

    Lloret, Lucia; Eibes, Gemma; Moreira, M Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Lema, Juan M

    2013-05-07

    In the present study, a novel and efficient technology based on the use of an oxidative enzyme was developed to perform the continuous removal of estrogenic compounds from polluted wastewaters. A 2 L enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR) was successfully operated for 100 h with minimal requirements of laccase for the transformation of estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2)from both buffer solution and real wastewater (filtered secondary effluent). When the experiments were performed at high and low concentrations of the target compounds, 4 mg/L and 100 μg/L, not only high removal yields (80-100%) but also outstanding reduction of estrogenicity (about 84-95%) were attained. When the EMR was applied for the treatment of municipal wastewaters with real environmental concentrations of the different compounds (0.29-1.52 ng/L), excellent results were also achieved indicating the high efficiency and potential of the enzymatic reactor system. A second goal of this study relied on the identification of the transformation products to elucidate the catalytic mechanism of estrogens' transformation by laccase. The formation of dimers and trimers of E1, E2, and EE2, as well as the decomposition of E2 into E1 by laccase-catalyzed treatment, has been demonstrated by liquid chromatography atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (LC-APCI) analysis and confirmed by determination of accurate masses through liquid chromatography electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-TOF). Dimeric products of E2 and EE2 were found even when operating at environmental concentrations. Moreover, the reaction pathways of laccase-catalyzed transformation of E2 were proposed.

  3. Identification of the components of a glycolytic enzyme metabolon on the human red blood cell membrane.

    PubMed

    Puchulu-Campanella, Estela; Chu, Haiyan; Anstee, David J; Galan, Jacob A; Tao, W Andy; Low, Philip S

    2013-01-11

    Glycolytic enzymes (GEs) have been shown to exist in multienzyme complexes on the inner surface of the human erythrocyte membrane. Because no protein other than band 3 has been found to interact with GEs, and because several GEs do not bind band 3, we decided to identify the additional membrane proteins that serve as docking sites for GE on the membrane. For this purpose, a method known as "label transfer" that employs a photoactivatable trifunctional cross-linking reagent to deliver a biotin from a derivatized GE to its binding partner on the membrane was used. Mass spectrometry analysis of membrane proteins that were biotinylated following rebinding and photoactivation of labeled GAPDH, aldolase, lactate dehydrogenase, and pyruvate kinase revealed not only the anticipated binding partner, band 3, but also the association of GEs with specific peptides in α- and β-spectrin, ankyrin, actin, p55, and protein 4.2. More importantly, the labeled GEs were also found to transfer biotin to other GEs in the complex, demonstrating for the first time that GEs also associate with each other in their membrane complexes. Surprisingly, a new GE binding site was repeatedly identified near the junction of the membrane-spanning and cytoplasmic domains of band 3, and this binding site was confirmed by direct binding studies. These results not only identify new components of the membrane-associated GE complexes but also provide molecular details on the specific peptides that form the interfacial contacts within each interaction.

  4. Identification of the Components of a Glycolytic Enzyme Metabolon on the Human Red Blood Cell Membrane*

    PubMed Central

    Puchulu-Campanella, Estela; Chu, Haiyan; Anstee, David J.; Galan, Jacob A.; Tao, W. Andy; Low, Philip S.

    2013-01-01

    Glycolytic enzymes (GEs) have been shown to exist in multienzyme complexes on the inner surface of the human erythrocyte membrane. Because no protein other than band 3 has been found to interact with GEs, and because several GEs do not bind band 3, we decided to identify the additional membrane proteins that serve as docking sites for GE on the membrane. For this purpose, a method known as “label transfer” that employs a photoactivatable trifunctional cross-linking reagent to deliver a biotin from a derivatized GE to its binding partner on the membrane was used. Mass spectrometry analysis of membrane proteins that were biotinylated following rebinding and photoactivation of labeled GAPDH, aldolase, lactate dehydrogenase, and pyruvate kinase revealed not only the anticipated binding partner, band 3, but also the association of GEs with specific peptides in α- and β-spectrin, ankyrin, actin, p55, and protein 4.2. More importantly, the labeled GEs were also found to transfer biotin to other GEs in the complex, demonstrating for the first time that GEs also associate with each other in their membrane complexes. Surprisingly, a new GE binding site was repeatedly identified near the junction of the membrane-spanning and cytoplasmic domains of band 3, and this binding site was confirmed by direct binding studies. These results not only identify new components of the membrane-associated GE complexes but also provide molecular details on the specific peptides that form the interfacial contacts within each interaction. PMID:23150667

  5. SEPARATION OF HYDROGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE USING A NOVEL MEMBRANE REACTOR IN ADVANCED FOSSIL ENERGY CONVERSION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Shamsuddin Ilias

    2004-02-17

    Inorganic membrane reactors offer the possibility of combining reaction and separation in a single operation at high temperatures to overcome the equilibrium limitations experienced in conventional reactor configurations. Such attractive features can be advantageously utilized in a number of potential commercial opportunities, which include dehydrogenation, hydrogenation, oxidative dehydrogenation, oxidation and catalytic decomposition reactions. However, to be cost effective, significant technological advances and improvements will be required to solve several key issues which include: (a) permselective thin solid film, (b) thermal, chemical and mechanical stability of the film at high temperatures, and (c) reactor engineering and module development in relation to the development of effective seals at high temperature and high pressure. In this project, we are working on the development and application of palladium and palladium-silver alloy thin-film composite membranes in membrane reactor-separator configuration for simultaneous production and separation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide at high temperature. From our research on Pd-composite membrane, we have demonstrated that the new membrane has significantly higher hydrogen flux with very high perm-selectivity than any of the membranes commercially available. The steam reforming of methane by equilibrium shift in Pd-composite membrane reactor is being studied to demonstrate the potential application of this new development. A two-dimensional, pseudo-homogeneous membrane-reactor model was developed to investigate the steam-methane reforming (SMR) reactions in a Pd-based membrane reactor. Radial diffusion was taken into consideration to account for the concentration gradient in the radial direction due to hydrogen permeation through the membrane. With appropriate reaction rate expressions, a set of partial differential equations was derived using the continuity equation for the reaction system. The equations were

  6. Ultra-thin-polysiloxane-film-composite membranes for the optimisation of amperometric oxidase enzyme electrodes.

    PubMed

    Myler, S; Collyer, S D; Bridge, K A; Higson, S P J

    2002-01-01

    An outer ultra-thin-polydimethyldichlorosiloxane film composite membrane has been used as the outer covering barrier in an amperometric glucose oxidase enzyme electrode biosensor. The composite membrane was formed via the condensation polymerisation of dimethyldichlorosilane at the surface of a host porous alumina membrane. Homogeneous polydimethyldichlorosiloxane films of <100 nm thickness acted as effective substrate diffusional barriers and were supported by the underlying porous alumina surface. Glucose and oxygen permeability coefficients were determined using diffusion chamber apparatus. Polysiloxane composite membranes were found to offer some screening functionality towards anionic biological interferents such as ascorbate. On exposure to blood an approximate 25% signal drift was observed during the first 2 h exposure to blood; after this time responses remained almost stable. Whole blood glucose determinations showed a close correlation (r(2)=0.98) to analyses performed via standard hospital analyses.

  7. Microbial responses to membrane cleaning using sodium hypochlorite in membrane bioreactors: Cell integrity, key enzymes and intracellular reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaomeng; Wang, Zhiwei; Wang, Xueye; Zheng, Xiang; Ma, Jinxing; Wu, Zhichao

    2016-01-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) is a commonly used reagent for membrane cleaning in membrane bioreactors (MBRs), while it, being a kind of disinfectant (oxidant), may impair viability of microbes or even totally inactivate them upon its diffusion into mixed liquor during membrane cleaning. In this study, we systematically examine the effects of NaClO on microorganisms in terms of microbial cell integrity, metabolism behaviours (key enzymes), and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) under various NaClO concentrations. Different proportions of microbial cells in activated sludge were damaged within several minutes dependent on NaClO dosages (5-50 mg/g-SS), and correspondingly organic matters were released to bulk solution. Inhibition of key enzymes involved in organic matter biodegradation, nitrification and denitrification was observed in the presence of NaClO above 1 mg/g-SS, and thus organic matter and nitrogen removal efficiencies were decreased. It was also demonstrated that intracellular ROS production was increased with the NaClO dosage higher than 1 mg/g-SS, which likely induced further damage to microbial cells.

  8. Electrochemical sensing of membrane potential and enzyme function using gallium arsenide electrodes functionalized with supported membranes.

    PubMed

    Gassull, Daniel; Ulman, Abraham; Grunze, Michael; Tanaka, Motomu

    2008-05-08

    We deposit phospholipid monolayers on highly doped p-GaAs electrodes that are precoated with methyl-mercaptobiphenyl monolayers and operate such a biofunctional electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) setup as an analogue of a metal-oxide-semiconductor setup. Electrochemical impedance spectra measured over a wide frequency range demonstrate that the presence of a lipid monolayer remarkably slows down the diffusion of ions so that the membrane-functionalized GaAs can be subjected to electrochemical investigations for more than 3 days with no sign of degradation. The biofunctional EIS setup enables us to translate changes in the surface charge density Q and bias potentials Ubias into the change in the interface capacitance Cp. Since Cp is governed by the capacitance of semiconductor space charge region CSC, the linear relationships obtained for 1/Cp2 vs Q and 1/Cp2 vs Ubias suggests that Cp can be used to detect the surface charges with a high sensitivity (1 charge per 18 nm2). Furthermore, the kinetics of phospholipids degradation by phospholipase A2 can also be monitored by a significant decrease in diffusion coefficients through the membrane by a factor of 104. Thus, the operation of GaAs membrane composites established here allows for electrochemical sensing of surface potential and barrier capability of biological membranes in a quantitative manner.

  9. REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Szilard, L.

    1963-09-10

    A breeder reactor is described, including a mass of fissionable material that is less than critical with respect to unmoderated neutrons and greater than critical with respect to neutrons of average energies substantially greater than thermal, a coolant selected from sodium or sodium--potassium alloys, a control liquid selected from lead or lead--bismuth alloys, and means for varying the quantity of control liquid in the reactor. (AEC)

  10. REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Christy, R.F.

    1961-07-25

    A means is described for co-relating the essential physical requirements of a fission chain reaction in order that practical, compact, and easily controllable reactors can be built. These objects are obtained by employing a composition of fissionsble isotope and moderator in fluid form in which the amount of fissionsble isotcpe present governs the reaction. The size of the reactor is no longer a critical factor, the new criterion being the concentration of the fissionable isotope.

  11. Biodegradation of acetonitrile by adapted biofilm in a membrane-aerated biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Li, Tinggang; Bai, Renbi; Ohandja, Dieudonné-Guy; Liu, Junxin

    2009-07-01

    A membrane-aerated biofilm reactor (MABR) was developed to degrade acetonitrile (ACN) in aqueous solutions. The reactor was seeded with an adapted activated sludge consortium as the inoculum and operated under step increases in ACN loading rate through increasing ACN concentrations in the influent. Initially, the MABR started at a moderate selection pressure, with a hydraulic retention time of 16 h, a recirculation rate of 8 cm/s and a starting ACN concentration of 250 mg/l to boost the growth of the biofilm mass on the membrane and to avoid its loss by hydraulic washout. The step increase in the influent ACN concentration was implemented once ACN concentration in the effluent showed almost complete removal in each stage. The specific ACN degradation rate achieved the highest at the loading rate of 101.1 mg ACN/g-VSS h (VSS, volatile suspended solids) and then declined with the further increases in the influent ACN concentration, attributed to the substrate inhibition effect. The adapted membrane-aerated biofilm was capable of completely removing ACN at the removal capacity of up to 21.1 g ACN/m(2) day, and generated negligible amount of suspended sludge in the effluent. Batch incubation experiments also demonstrated that the ACN-degrading biofilm can degrade other organonitriles, such as acrylonitrile and benzonitrile as well. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis studies showed that the ACN-degrading biofilms contained a stable microbial population with a low diversity of sequence of community 16S rRNA gene fragments. Specific oxygen utilization rates were found to increase with the increases in the biofilm thickness, suggesting that the biofilm formation process can enhance the metabolic degradation efficiency towards ACN in the MABR. The study contributes to a better understanding in microbial adaptation in a MABR for biodegradation of ACN. It also highlights the potential benefits in using MABRs for biodegradation of organonitrile contaminants in industrial

  12. Oxygen mass transfer characteristics in a membrane-aerated biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Casey, E; Glennon, B; Hamer, G

    1999-01-20

    Immobilization of pollutant-degrading microorganisms on oxygen-permeable membranes provides a novel method of increasing the oxidation capacity of wastewater treatment bioreactors. Oxygen mass transfer characteristics during continuous-flow steady-state experiments were investigated for biofilms supported on tubular silicone membranes. An analysis of oxygen mass transport and reaction using an established mathematical model for dual-substrate limitation supported the experimental results reported. In thick biofilms, an active layer of biomass where both carbon substrate and oxygen are available was found to exist. The location of this active layer varies depending on the ratio of the carbon substrate loading rate to the intramembrane oxygen pressure. The thickness of a carbon-substrate-starved layer was found to greatly influence the mass transport of oxygen into the active biomass layer, which was located close to, but not in contact with, the biofilm-liquid interface. The experimental results demonstrated that oxygen uptake rates as high as 20 g m-2 d-1 bar-1 can be achieved, and the model predicts that, for an optimized biofilm thickness, oxygen uptake rates of more than 30 g m-2 d-1 bar-1 should be possible. This would allow membrane-aerated biofilm reactors to operate with much greater thicknesses of active biomass than can conventional biofilm reactors as well as offering the further advantage of close to 100% oxygen conversion efficiencies for the treatment of high-strength wastewaters. In the case of dual- substrate-limited biofilms, the potential to increase the oxygen flux does not necessarily increase the substrate (acetate) removal rate. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. Conversion of dextran to cycloisomaltooligosaccharides using an enzyme-immobilized porous hollow-fiber membrane.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Tomomi; Kawakita, Hidetaka; Sugita, Kazuyuki; Saito, Kyoichi; Tamada, Masao; Sugo, Takanobu; Kawamoto, Hiroshi

    2002-02-27

    This paper describes a cycloisomaltooligosaccharide glucanotransferase (CITase)-multilayer-immobilized porous hollow-fiber membrane used as an enzyme bioreactor. Dextran, a substrate with an average molecular mass of 43000, is converted into seven- to nine-glucose-membered cycloisomaltooligosaccharides, effective as a preventive for dental caries, aided by convective transport of the substrate to the vicinity of the enzyme through the pores. Epoxy-group-containing graft chains were uniformly appended onto the surface of pores throughout a porous hollow-fiber membrane by radiation-induced graft polymerization. Subsequently, a diethylamino group was introduced, as an anion-exchange moiety, to the graft chains, which caused the chains to expand toward the interior of the pores due to mutual electrostatic repulsion. The expanding graft chain provided multilayer binding sites for CITase. Fifty-five milligrams of adsorbed CITase per gram of membrane is equivalent to the degree of multilayer binding of 5. Finally, 80% of the multilayer-adsorbed CITase was immobilized via enzymatic cross-linking with transglutaminase to prevent the leakage of enzymes. CITase, with a degree of multilayer immobilization of 4, produced the target cycloisomaltooligosaccharides at a conversion yield of 55% in weight at 310 K during permeation by the dextran solution at a space velocity defined as the permeation rate divided by membrane volume of 6 per hour.

  14. Enzyme-containing liposomes can endogenously produce membrane-constituting lipids.

    PubMed

    Wick, R; Luisi, P L

    1996-04-01

    'Giant vesicles' are liposomes that have diameters of several micrometers. It is possible to microinject biochemicals into a single vesicle and follow the progress of a chemical reaction in real time by light microscopy. We have previously used this technique to inject phospholipase A2 into giant vesicles; the vesicles disappeared as their components were hydrolyzed. Here we investigate whether the lipid components of a vesicle can be synthesized inside it. Giant vesicles composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine (POPC) and palmitoyl-CoA were prepared in a solution containing sn-glycerol-3-phosphate. Microinjection of the enzyme sn-glycerol-3-phosphate-acyltransferase into the vesicle catalyzes the in situ production of the lipid membrane precursor 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate, which remains incorporated in the membrane. The altered membrane chemistry causes shrinkage of the vesicle and formation of smaller liposomes on the inner surface at the site of injection. Similar transformations were seen when the enzyme was added to the outside of the vesicle. We have used the first step of the 'salvage pathway' for synthesis of POPC to demonstrate that it is possible to localize the synthesis of a lipid membrane precursor inside a giant vesicle. In the future it may be possible to combine the necessary enzymes and substrates to carry out the reactions for a complete metabolic pathway within a liposome.

  15. Development of fragment-based n-FABS NMR screening applied to the membrane enzyme FAAH.

    PubMed

    Lambruschini, Chiara; Veronesi, Marina; Romeo, Elisa; Garau, Gianpiero; Bandiera, Tiziano; Piomelli, Daniele; Scarpelli, Rita; Dalvit, Claudio

    2013-09-02

    Despite the recognized importance of membrane proteins as pharmaceutical targets, the reliable identification of fragment hits that are able to bind these proteins is still a major challenge. Among different ¹⁹F NMR spectroscopic methods, n-fluorine atoms for biochemical screening (n-FABS) is a highly sensitive technique that has been used efficiently for fragment screening, but its application for membrane enzymes has not been reported yet. Herein, we present the first successful application of n-FABS to the discovery of novel fragment hits, targeting the membrane-bound enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), using a library of fluorinated fragments generated based on the different local environment of fluorine concept. The use of the recombinant fusion protein MBP-FAAH and the design of compound 11 as a suitable novel fluorinated substrate analogue allowed n-FABS screening to be efficiently performed using a very small amount of enzyme. Notably, we have identified 19 novel fragment hits that inhibit FAAH with a median effective concentration (IC₅₀) in the low mM-μM range. To the best of our knowledge, these results represent the first application of a ¹⁹F NMR fragment-based functional assay to a membrane protein.

  16. Laccase-syringaldehyde-mediated degradation of trace organic contaminants in an enzymatic membrane reactor: Removal efficiency and effluent toxicity.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Luong N; van de Merwe, Jason P; Hai, Faisal I; Leusch, Frederic D L; Kang, Jinguo; Price, William E; Roddick, Felicity; Magram, Saleh F; Nghiem, Long D

    2016-01-01

    Redox-mediators such as syringaldehyde (SA) can improve laccase-catalyzed degradation of trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) but may increase effluent toxicity. The degradation performance of 14 phenolic and 17 non-phenolic TrOCs by a continuous flow enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR) at different TrOC and SA loadings was assessed. A specific emphasis was placed on the investigation of the toxicity of the enzyme (laccase), SA, TrOCs and the treated effluent. Batch tests demonstrated significant individual and interactive toxicity of the laccase and SA preparations. Reduced removal of resistant TrOCs by the EMR was observed for dosages over 50μg/L. SA addition at a concentration of 10μM significantly improved TrOC removal, but no removal improvement was observed at the elevated SA concentrations of 50 and 100μM. The treated effluent showed significant toxicity at SA concentrations beyond 10μM, providing further evidence that higher dosage of SA must be avoided.

  17. Continuous production of cyclodextrins in an ultrafiltration membrane reactor, catalyzed by cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Bacillus circulans DF 9R.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Gastón, Jorgelina A; Costa, Hernán; Ferrarotti, Susana A

    2015-01-01

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) are cyclic oligosaccharides of wide industrial application, whose synthesis is catalyzed by Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) from starch. Here, CDs were produced using CGTase from Bacillus circulans DF 9R in continuous process and an ultrafiltration membrane reactor. The batch process was conducted as a control. This method allowed increasing the yield from 40 to 55.6% and the productivity from 26.1 to 99.5 mg of CD per unit of enzyme. The method also allowed obtaining a high-purity product. The flow rate remained at 50% of its initial value after 24 h of process, improving the results described in the literature for starch hydrolysis processes. CGTase remained active throughout the process, which could be explained by the protective effect of the substrate and reaction products on CGTase stability. In addition, batch processes were developed using starches from different sources. We concluded that any of the starches studied could be used as substrate for CD production with similar yields and product specificity. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  18. Optimal temperature policy for immobilized enzyme packed bed reactor performing reversible Michaelis-Menten kinetics using the disjoint policy.

    PubMed

    Faqir, Naim M; Attarakih, Menwer M

    2002-01-20

    The optimal temperature policy that maximizes the time-averaged productivity of a continuous immobilized enzyme packed bed reactor is determined. This optimization study takes into consideration the enzyme thermal deactivation with substrate protection during the reactor operation. The general case of reversible Michaelis-Menten kinetics under constant reactor feed flow rate is assumed. The corresponding nonlinear optimization problem is solved using the calculus of variations by applying the disjoint policy. This policy reduces the optimization problem into a differential-algebraic system, DAE. This DAE system defines completely the optimal temperature-time profiles. These profiles depend on the kinetic parameters, feed substrate concentration, operating period, and the residence time and are characterized by increasing form with time. Also, general analytical expressions for the slopes of the temperature and residual enzyme activity profiles are derived. An efficient solution algorithm is developed to solve the DAE system, which results into a one-dimensional optimization problem with simple bounds on the initial feed temperature. The enzymatic isomerization of glucose into fructose is selected as a case study. The computed productivities are very close to that obtained by numerical nonlinear optimization with simpler problem to solve. Moreover, the computed conversion profiles are almost constant over 90% of the operating periods, thus producing a homogeneous product. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. Differential effects of antipsychotics on expression of antioxidant enzymes and membrane lipid peroxidation in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Vinay; Khan, Mohammad M; Mahadik, Sahebarao P

    2003-01-01

    Typical and atypical antipsychotics significantly differ in their neurotransmitter receptor affinity profiles, and their efficacy and side effects in schizophrenic patients. Typical antipsychotics have been found to increase the oxidative (i.e. free radical-mediated) cellular injury in rats. Since schizophrenia also involves oxidative injury, the understanding of differential effects of these antipsychotics on expression of antioxidant enzymes and oxidative injury may be very critical. The effect of chronic exposure of haloperidol (HAL), a typical antipsychotic, was compared to effects of risperidone (RIS) or clozapine (CLZ) or olanzapine (OLZ), atypical antipsychotics on antioxidant defense enzymes and lipid peroxidation in the rat brain. The levels of antioxidant enzymes and hydroxyalkenals (HAEs) were measured in rat brain cytosol and fatty acids were measured in brain cell membranes. Chronic HAL treatment for both 45 and 90 days significantly decreased manganese-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) and catalase (CAT) activity with parallel marked increase in (HAEs), a marker of lipid peroxidation in rat brain. The levels of enzymatic activity very well correlated with the levels of enzyme proteins indicating that the changes were probably in the expression of net protein. However, RIS, CLZ and OLZ treatments did not produce any alterations in the levels of antioxidant enzymes and HAEs, both after 45 and 90 days. There were no alterations in the levels of saturated as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids in brain membranes. These findings indicate that chronic administration of HAL, but none of the studied atypicals induce oxidative stress by persistent changes in the levels of antioxidant enzymes and cause membrane lipid peroxidation.

  20. Novel Composite Hydrogen-Permeable Membranes for Non-Thermal Plasma Reactors for the Decomposition of Hydrogen Sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Morris D. Argyle; John F. Ackerman; Suresh Muknahallipatna; Jerry C. Hamann; Stanislaw Legowski; Guibing Zhao; Sanil John

    2006-09-30

    The goal of this experimental project is to design and fabricate a reactor and membrane test cell to dissociate hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in a non-thermal plasma and recover hydrogen (H{sub 2}) through a superpermeable multi-layer membrane. Superpermeability of hydrogen atoms (H) has been reported by some researchers using membranes made of Group V transition metals (niobium, tantalum, vanadium, and their alloys), although it has yet to be confirmed in this study. Several pulsed corona discharge (PCD) reactors have been fabricated and used to dissociate H{sub 2}S into hydrogen and sulfur. Visual observation shows that the corona is not uniform throughout the reactor. The corona is stronger near the top of the reactor in argon, while nitrogen and mixtures of argon or nitrogen with H{sub 2}S produce stronger coronas near the bottom of the reactor. Both of these effects appear to be explainable base on the different electron collision interactions with monatomic versus polyatomic gases. A series of experiments varying reactor operating parameters, including discharge capacitance, pulse frequency, and discharge voltage were performed while maintaining constant power input to the reactor. At constant reactor power input, low capacitance, high pulse frequency, and high voltage operation appear to provide the highest conversion and the highest energy efficiency for H{sub 2}S decomposition. Reaction rates and energy efficiency per H{sub 2}S molecule increase with increasing flow rate, although overall H{sub 2}S conversion decreases at constant power input. Voltage and current waveform analysis is ongoing to determine the fundamental operating characteristics of the reactors. A metal infiltrated porous ceramic membrane was prepared using vanadium as the metal and an alumina tube. Experiments with this type of membrane are continuing, but the results thus far have been consistent with those obtained in previous project years: plasma driven permeation or superpermeability

  1. Enzyme logic AND-Reset and OR-Reset gates based on a field-effect electronic transducer modified with multi-enzyme membrane.

    PubMed

    Poghossian, A; Katz, E; Schöning, M J

    2015-04-18

    Capacitive field-effect sensors modified with a multi-enzyme membrane have been applied for an electronic transduction of biochemical signals processed by enzyme-based AND-Reset and OR-Reset logic gates. The local pH change at the sensor surface induced by the enzymatic reaction was used for the activation of the Reset function for the first time.

  2. Micro-scale H2–CO2 Dynamics in a Hydrogenotrophic Methanogenic Membrane Reactor

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Robledo, Emilio; Ottosen, Lars D. M.; Voigt, Niels V.; Kofoed, M. W.; Revsbech, Niels P.

    2016-01-01

    Biogas production is a key factor in a sustainable energy supply. It is possible to get biogas with very high methane content if the biogas reactors are supplied with exogenous hydrogen, and one of the technologies for supplying hydrogen is through gas permeable membranes. In this study the activity and stratification of hydrogen consumption above such a membrane was investigated by use of microsensors for hydrogen and pH. A hydrogenotrophic methanogenic community that was able to consume the hydrogen flux within 0.5 mm of the membrane with specific rates of up to 30 m3 H2 m-3 day-1 developed within 3 days in fresh manure and was already established at time zero when analyzing slurry from a biogas plant. The hydrogen consumption was dependent on a simultaneous carbon dioxide supply and was inhibited when carbon dioxide depletion elevated the pH to 9.2. The activity was only partially restored when the carbon dioxide supply was resumed. Bioreactors supplied with hydrogen gas should thus be carefully monitored and either have the hydrogen supply disrupted or be supplemented with carbon dioxide when the pH rises to values about 9. PMID:27582736

  3. Micro-scale H2-CO2 Dynamics in a Hydrogenotrophic Methanogenic Membrane Reactor.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Robledo, Emilio; Ottosen, Lars D M; Voigt, Niels V; Kofoed, M W; Revsbech, Niels P

    2016-01-01

    Biogas production is a key factor in a sustainable energy supply. It is possible to get biogas with very high methane content if the biogas reactors are supplied with exogenous hydrogen, and one of the technologies for supplying hydrogen is through gas permeable membranes. In this study the activity and stratification of hydrogen consumption above such a membrane was investigated by use of microsensors for hydrogen and pH. A hydrogenotrophic methanogenic community that was able to consume the hydrogen flux within 0.5 mm of the membrane with specific rates of up to 30 m(3) H2 m(-3) day(-1) developed within 3 days in fresh manure and was already established at time zero when analyzing slurry from a biogas plant. The hydrogen consumption was dependent on a simultaneous carbon dioxide supply and was inhibited when carbon dioxide depletion elevated the pH to 9.2. The activity was only partially restored when the carbon dioxide supply was resumed. Bioreactors supplied with hydrogen gas should thus be carefully monitored and either have the hydrogen supply disrupted or be supplemented with carbon dioxide when the pH rises to values about 9.

  4. Pyrosequencing reveals microbial community profile in anaerobic bio-entrapped membrane reactor for pharmaceutical wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kok Kwang; Shi, Xueqing; Ong, Say Leong; Ng, How Yong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, pharmaceutical wastewater with high salinity and total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) was treated by an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) and an anaerobic bio-entrapped membrane reactor (AnBEMR). The microbial populations and communities were analyzed using the 454 pyrosequencing method. The hydraulic retention time (HRT), membrane flux and mean cell residence time (MCRT) were controlled at 30.6h, 6L/m(2)h and 100d, respectively. The results showed that the AnBEMR achieved higher TCOD removal efficiency and greater biogas production compared to the AnMBR. Through DNA pyrosequencing analysis, both the anaerobic MBRs showed similar dominant groups of bacteria and archaea. However, phylum Elusimicrobia of bacteria was only detected in the AnBEMR; the higher abundance of dominant archaeal genus Methanimicrococcus found in the AnBEMR could play an important role in degradation of the major organic pollutant (i.e., trimethylamine) present in the pharmaceutical wastewater.

  5. A novel fixed-bed reactor design incorporating an electrospun PVA/chitosan nanofiber membrane.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili, Akbar; Beni, Ali Aghababai

    2014-09-15

    In this research, a novel fixed-bed reactor was designed with a nanofiber membrane composed of a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/chitosan nanofiber blend prepared using an electrospinning technique. The applied voltage, tip-collector distance, and solution flow rate of the electrospinning process were 18 kV, 14.5 cm, and 0.5 mL h(-1), respectively. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) theory, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were employed to characterize and analyze the nanofiber membranes. Homogeneous electrospun nanofibers with an average diameter of 99.47 nm and surface area of 214.12 m(2)g(-1) were obtained. Adsorption experiments were carried out in a batch system to investigate the effect of different adsorption parameters such as pH, adsorbent dose, biomass dose, contact time, and temperature. The kinetic data, obtained at the optimal pH of 6, were analyzed by pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order kinetic models. Three isotherm models and thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔH°, and ΔS°) were applied to describe the equilibrium data of the metal ions adsorbed onto the PVA/chitosan nanofiber membrane. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Batch reactor performance for the enzymatic synthesis of cephalexin: influence of catalyst enzyme loading and particle size.

    PubMed

    Valencia, Pedro; Flores, Sebastián; Wilson, Lorena; Illanes, Andrés

    2012-01-15

    A mathematical model is presented for the kinetically controlled synthesis of cephalexin that describes the heterogeneous reaction-diffusion process involved in a batch reactor with glyoxyl-agarose immobilized penicillin acylase. The model is based on equations considering reaction and diffusion components. Reaction kinetics was considered according to the mechanism proposed by Schroën, while diffusion of the reacting species was described according to Fick's law. Intrinsic kinetic and diffusion parameters were experimentally determined in independent experiments. It was found that from the four kinetic constants, the one corresponding to the acyl-enzyme complex hydrolysis step had the greatest value, as previously reported by other authors. The effective diffusion coefficients of all substances were about 5×10(-10)m(2)/s, being 10% lower than free diffusion coefficients and therefore agreed with the highly porous structure of glyoxyl-agarose particles. Simulations made from the reaction-diffusion model equations were used to evaluate and analyze the impact of internal diffusional restrictions in function of catalyst enzyme loading and particle size. Increasing internal diffusional restrictions decreases the Cex synthesis/hydrolysis ratio, the conversion yield and the specific productivity. A nonlinear relationship between catalyst enzyme loading and specific productivity of Cex was obtained with the implication that an increase in catalyst enzyme loading will not increase the volumetric productivity by the same magnitude as it occurs with the free enzyme. Optimization of catalyst and reactor design should be done considering catalyst enzyme loading and particle size as the most important variables. The approach presented can be extended to other processes catalyzed by immobilized enzymes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Spatial distance effect of bienzymes on the efficiency of sequential reactions in a microfluidic reactor packed with enzyme-immobilized microbeads.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jinseok

    2014-01-01

    Three different configurations of microfluidic reactors packed with enzyme-bearing microbeads were examined to show that the overall efficiency of coupled enzyme-catalyzed reactions depends on the spatial relationship of two enzymes immobilized on the bead surfaces. The spatial distances of glucose oxidase (GOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzymes were controlled by using microbeads as a supporting matrix for immobilizing the two enzymes and packing them in two microfluidic chambers. A microreactor packed with microbeads coimmobilized with the two enzymes showed a better overall reaction efficiency than the other two reactors, where the two enzymes were spatially distant, under a flow condition. These results are ascribed to the reduced diffusional loss of an intermediate product in the bienzyme-coimmobilized microreactor. Furthermore, the inhibition of the GOx enzyme by H2O2, an intermediate product, can be eliminated by quickly converting H2O2 to a final non-inhibiting product in the bienzyme-coimmobilized microreactor.

  8. REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Roman, W.G.

    1961-06-27

    A pressurized water reactor in which automatic control is achieved by varying the average density of the liquid moderator-cooiant is patented. Density is controlled by the temperature and power level of the reactor ftself. This control can be effected by the use of either plate, pellet, or tubular fuel elements. The fuel elements are disposed between upper and lower coolant plenum chambers and are designed to permit unrestricted coolant flow. The control chamber has an inlet opening communicating with the lower coolant plenum chamber and a restricted vapor vent communicating with the upper coolant plenum chamber. Thus, a variation in temperature of the fuel elements will cause a variation in the average moderator density in the chamber which directly affects the power level of the reactor.

  9. High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading. Quarterly report No. 10, December 21, 1991--March 20, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, T.T.

    1992-07-01

    In this project we will study a novel process concept, i.e., the use of ceramic membrane reactors in upgrading of coal model compounds and coal derived liquids. In general terms, the USC research team is responsible for constructing and operating the membrane reactor apparatus and for testing various inorganic membranes for the upgrading of coal derived asphaltenes and coal model compounds. The USC effort will involve the principal investigator of this project and two graduate research assistants. The ALCOA team is responsible for the preparation of the inorganic membranes, for construction and testing of the ceramic membrane modules, and for measurement of their transport properties. The ALCOA research effort will involve Dr. Paul K. T. Liu, who is the project manager of the ALCOA research team, an engineer and a technician. UNOCAL`s contribution will be limited to overall technical assistance in catalyst preparation and the operation of the laboratory upgrading membrane reactor and for analytical back-up and expertise in oil analysis and materials characterization. UNOCAL is a no-cost contractor but will be involved in all aspects of the project, as deemed appropriate.

  10. Three-dimensional numerical approach to investigate the substrate transport and conversion in an immobilized enzyme reactor.

    PubMed

    Esterl, Stefan; Ozmutlu, Ozlem; Hartmann, Christoph; Delgado, Antonio

    2003-09-30

    This numerical study evaluates the momentum and mass transfer in an immobilized enzyme reactor. The simulation is based on the solution of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equation and a scalar transport equation with a sink term for the transport and the conversion of substrate to product. The reactor consists of a container filled with 20 spherical enzyme carriers. Each of these carriers is covered with an active enzyme layer where the conversion takes place. To account for the biochemical activity, the sink term in the scalar transport equation is represented by a standard Michaelis-Menten approach. The simulation gives detailed information of the local substrate and product concentrations with respect to external and internal transport limitations. A major focus is set on the influence of the substrate transport velocity on the catalytic process. For reactor performance analysis the overall and the local transport processes are described by a complete set of dimensionless variables. The interaction between substrate concentration, velocity, and efficiency of the process can be studied with the help of these variables. The effect of different substrate inflow concentrations on the process can be seen in relation to velocity variations. The flow field characterization of the system makes it possible to understand fluid mechanical properties and its importance to transport processes. The distribution of fluid motion through the void volume has different properties in different parts of the reactor. This phenomenon has strong effects on the arrangement of significantly different mass transport areas as well as on process effectiveness. With the given data it is also possible to detect zones of high, low, and latent enzymatic activity and to determine whether the conversion is limited due to mass transfer or reaction resistances.

  11. REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Spitzer, L. Jr.

    1961-10-01

    Thermonuclear reactors, methods, and apparatus are described for controlling and confining high temperature plasma. Main axial confining coils in combination with helical windings provide a rotational transform that avoids the necessity of a figure-eight shaped reactor tube. The helical windings provide a multipolar helical magnetic field transverse to the axis of the main axial confining coils so as to improve the effectiveness of the confining field by counteracting the tendency of the more central lines of force in the stellarator tube to exchange positions with the magnetic lines of force nearer the walls of the tube. (AEC)

  12. Functional Reconstitution of the Integral Membrane Enzyme, Isoprenylcysteine Carboxyl Methyltransferase, in Synthetic Bolalipid Membrane Vesicles†

    PubMed Central

    Febo-Ayala, Wilma; Morera-Félix, Shakira L.

    2008-01-01

    Three bipolar archaeal-type diglycerophosphocholine tetraether lipids (a.k.a., bolalipids) have been prepared to determine 1) the influence of molecular structure on the physical properties of bolalipid membranes and 2) their impact on the functional reconstitution of Ste14p, a membrane-associated isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methyltransferase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The three bolalipids synthesized were: C20BAS, C32BAS, and C32phytBAS. These bolalipid structures differ in that the C20BAS derivative has a short sn-1 glyceryl diether C20H40 transmembrane alkyl chain and two ether-linked sn-2 n-decyl chains, whereas the C32BAS and C32phytBAS derivatives have a longer sn-1 diether C32H64 membrane-spanning chain and two ether-linked sn-2 n-hexadecyl or phytanyl chains, respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry and temperature-dependent 31P NMR was used to determine the gel-to-liquid crystalline phase transition temperatures of the bolalipids (C32BAS Tm > 85 °C; C32phytBAS Tm = 14 °C; C20BAS Tm = 17°C). The bolalipid lateral diffusion coefficients, determined by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching at 20 °C, were 1.5 × 10−8 and 1.8 × 10−9 cm2/s for C20BAS and C32phytBAS, respectively. The mobility of C32BAS could not be measured at this temperature. Ste14p activity was monitored by an in vitro methyltransferase assay in reconstituted vesicle dispersions composed of DMPC, C20BAS:E. coli polar lipid, C20BAS:POPC, C32phytBAS:E. coli polar lipid, and C32phytBAS:POPC. Ste14p activity was lost in vesicles composed of 75–100 mol% C20BAS and 0–100 mol% C32BAS, but retained in vesicles with 0–50 mol% C20BAS and 0–100 mol% C32phytBAS. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed the presence of Ste14p in 100 mol% C20BAS and 100 mol% C32phytBAS vesicle dispersions, even though the lamellar liquid crystalline phase thickness of C20BAS is only 32 Å. Since Ste14p activity was not affected by either the gel to liquid-crystal phase transition

  13. Light-Addressed Electrodeposition of Enzyme-Entrapped Chitosan Membranes for Multiplexed Enzyme-Based Bioassays Using a Digital Micromirror Device

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shih-Hao; Wei, Lu-Shiuan; Chu, Hsiao-Tzu; Jiang, Yeu-Long

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a light-addressed electrolytic system used to perform an electrodeposition of enzyme-entrapped chitosan membranes for multiplexed enzyme-based bioassays using a digital micromirror device (DMD). In this system, a patterned light illumination is projected onto a photoconductive substrate serving as a photo-cathode to electrolytically produce hydroxide ions, which leads to an increased pH gradient. The high pH generated at the cathode can cause a local gelation of chitosan through sol-gel transition. By controlling the illumination pattern on the DMD, a light-addressed electrodeposition of chitosan membranes with different shapes and sizes, as well as multiplexed micropatterning, was performed. The effect of the illumination time of the light pattern on the dimensional resolution of chitosan membrane formation was examined experimentally. Moreover, multiplexed enzyme-based bioassay of enzyme-entrapped chitosan membranes was also successfully demonstrated through the electrodeposition of the chitosan membranes with various shapes/sizes and entrapping different enzymes. As a model experiment, glucose and ethanol were simultaneously detected in a single detection chamber without cross-talk using shape-coded chitosan membranes entrapped with glucose oxidase (GOX), peroxidase (POD), and Amplex Red (AmR) or alcohol oxidase (AOX), POD, and AmR by using same fluorescence indicator (AmR). PMID:23959236

  14. Light-addressed electrodeposition of enzyme-entrapped chitosan membranes for multiplexed enzyme-based bioassays using a digital micromirror device.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Hao; Wei, Lu-Shiuan; Chu, Hsiao-Tzu; Jiang, Yeu-Long

    2013-08-16

    This paper describes a light-addressed electrolytic system used to perform an electrodeposition of enzyme-entrapped chitosan membranes for multiplexed enzyme-based bioassays using a digital micromirror device (DMD). In this system, a patterned light illumination is projected onto a photoconductive substrate serving as a photo-cathode to electrolytically produce hydroxide ions, which leads to an increased pH gradient. The high pH generated at the cathode can cause a local gelation of chitosan through sol-gel transition. By controlling the illumination pattern on the DMD, a light-addressed electrodeposition of chitosan membranes with different shapes and sizes, as well as multiplexed micropatterning, was performed. The effect of the illumination time of the light pattern on the dimensional resolution of chitosan membrane formation was examined experimentally. Moreover, multiplexed enzyme-based bioassay of enzyme-entrapped chitosan membranes was also successfully demonstrated through the electrodeposition of the chitosan membranes with various shapes/sizes and entrapping different enzymes. As a model experiment, glucose and ethanol were simultaneously detected in a single detection chamber without cross-talk using shape-coded chitosan membranes entrapped with glucose oxidase (GOX), peroxidase (POD), and Amplex Red (AmR) or alcohol oxidase (AOX), POD, and AmR by using same fluorescence indicator (AmR).

  15. Why use a thermophilic aerobic membrane reactor for the treatment of industrial wastewater/liquid waste?

    PubMed

    Collivignarelli, Maria Cristina; Abbà, Alessandro; Bertanza, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the advantages of thermophilic aerobic membrane reactor (TAMR) for the treatment of high strength wastewaters. The results were obtained from the monitoring of an industrial and a pilot scale plant. The average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal yield was equal to 78% with an organic loading rate (OLR) up to 8-10 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1) despite significant scattering of the influent wastewater composition. Total phosphorus (TP) was removed with a rate of 90%, the most important removal mechanism being chemical precipitation (as hydroxyapatite, especially), which is improved by the continuous aeration that promotes phosphorus crystallization. Moreover, surfactants were removed with efficiency between 93% and 97%. Finally, the experimental work showed that thermophilic processes (TPPs) are complementary with respect to mesophilic treatments.

  16. Membrane bio reactors (MBR) in waste water treatment: a review of the recent patents.

    PubMed

    Hussain, A; Al-Rawajfeh, Aiman Eid; Alsaraierh, Hassan

    2010-01-01

    Effluent standards have become more and more stringent due to an increase in awareness about environmental impacts on both continuous and intermittent polluting discharge. For that, a high efficient waste water treatment plants are needed to be designed. Membrane bioreactor (MBR) can be good solution to cope with such issues. MBR systems respects the conventional activated sludge process which use microorganisms for degradation of organic pollutants and requires aeration as well as reduced foot print and sludge production through maintaining a high biomass concentration in the bio reactor. The present work elucidates the recent patents and critically reviews the advancement in MBR process, which can be helpful to designer. It was found that the behavior of aeration device, mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentration, flux enhancer and handling of sludge plays an important role in the performance of MBR process.

  17. Evaluation of Miniaturized Infrared Sensors for Process Control of the Palladium Membrane Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Lascola, R. J.; Howard, D. W.

    2005-07-31

    We have tested the suitability of a miniaturized infrared sensor for measurements of CO and H{sub 2}O in the inlet stream to the Palladium Membrane Reactor (PMR). We demonstrated that both analytes can be measured with absolute accuracies of 2-4% at the process inlet conditions of 120-140 C and approximately 1 atm of each gas. This accuracy must be improved to 1-1.5% for effective PMR process control. The use of a reference detector and independent temperature and pressure measurements to correct the raw signals will improve the accuracy to a level that will approach, if not meet, this goal. With appropriate bandpass filters, the infrared sensors may be used for other gas analysis applications.

  18. Modelling of moving bed biofilm membrane reactors (MBBMR) for on-site greywater treatment.

    PubMed

    Jabornig, Simon; Rauch, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluates with a mechanistic model the pilot plant results of a combined moving bed biofilm process and membrane filtration (MBBMR) treating single household greywater. It mainly includes the simulation of reactor hydraulics, degradation of pollutants, development of biomass and settlement of sludge. Iterative calibration was made with steady-state results of a 10-month pilot test. The model shows good predictions of readily biodegradable chemical oxygen demand and ammonium removal, as well as biomass concentration on carriers and in suspension. Also, a sensitivity analysis was made which calculates the relative significance factor of each model coefficient and by this provides comparability with other studies. Simulation data and actually measured parameters show that the suggested process was rather independent of ambient temperatures and short-term load fluctuations. Obtained datasets and model structure could be of use for future designers, as well as sellers and users of this process for on-site greywater reclamation.

  19. High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading. Quarterly report No. 2, December 21, 1989--March 20, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, T.T.

    1992-06-19

    Ceramic membranes are a new class of materials, which have shown promise in a variety of industrial applications. Their mechanical and chemical stability coupled with a wide range of operating temperatures and pressures make them suitable for environments found in coal liquid upgrading. In this project we will evaluate the performance of Sel-Gel alumina membranes in coal liquid upgrading processes under realistic temperature and pressure conditions and investigate the feasibility of using such membranes in a membrane reactor based coal liquid upgrading process. In addition, the development of novel ceramic membranes with enhanced catalytic activity for coal-liquid upgrading applications, such as carbon-coated alumina membranes, will be also investigated.

  20. High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading. Quarterly report No. 8, June 21, 1991--September 20, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, T.T.

    1992-06-19

    Ceramic membranes are a new class of materials, which have shown promise in a variety of industrial applications. Their mechanical and chemical stability coupled with a wide range of operating temperatures and pressures make them suitable for environments found in coal liquid upgrading. In this project we will evaluate the performance of Sel-Gel alumina membranes in coal liquid upgrading processes under realistic temperature and pressure conditions and investigate the feasibility of using such membranes in a membrane reactor based coal liquid upgrading process. In addition, the development of novel ceramic membranes with enhanced catalytic activity for coal-liquid upgrading applications, such as carbon-coated alumina membranes, will also be investigated.

  1. High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading. Quarterly report No. 7, March 21, 1991--June 20, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, T.T.

    1992-06-19

    Ceramic membranes are a new class of materials, which have shown promise in a variety of industrial applications. Their mechanical and chemical stability coupled with a wide range of operating temperatures and pressures make them suitable for environments found in coal liquid upgrading. In this project we will evaluate the performance of Sel-Gel alumina membranes in coal liquid upgrading processes under realistic temperature and pressure conditions and investigate the feasibility of using such membranes in a membrane reactor based coal liquid upgrading process. In addition, the development of novel ceramic membranes with enhanced catalytic activity for coal-liquid upgrading applications, such as carbon-coated alumina membranes, will be also investigated.

  2. Evidence of specialized bromate-reducing bacteria in a hollow fiber membrane biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Martin, K J; Downing, L S; Nerenberg, R

    2009-01-01

    Bromate is a carcinogenic disinfection by-product formed from bromide during ozonation or advanced oxidation. We previously observed bromate reduction in a hydrogen-based, denitrifying hollow fiber membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR). In this research, we investigated the potential existence of specialized bromate-reducing bacteria. Using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), we compared the microbial ecology of two denitrifying MBfRs, one amended with nitrate as the electron acceptor and the other with nitrate plus bromate. The DGGE results showed that bromate exerted a selective pressure for a putative, specialized bromate-reducing bacterium, which developed a strong presence only in the reactor with bromate. To gain further insight into the capabilities of specialized, bromate-reducing bacteria, we explored bromate reduction in a control MBfR without any primary electron acceptors. A grown biofilm in the control MBfR reduced bromate without previous exposure, but the rate of reduction decreased over time, especially after perturbations resulting in biomass loss. The decrease in bromate reduction may have been the result of the toxic effects of bromate. We also used batch tests of the perchlorate-reducing pure culture, Dechloromonas sp. PC1 to test bromate reduction and growth. Bromate was reduced without measurable growth. Based on these results, we speculate bromate's selective pressure for the putative, specialized BRB observed in the DGGE was not growth related, but possibly based on resistance to bromate toxicity.

  3. Toxicity removal efficiency of decentralised sequencing batch reactor and ultra-filtration membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Libralato, Giovanni; Volpi Ghirardini, Annamaria; Avezzù, Francesco

    2010-08-01

    As a consequence of the Water Framework Directive and Marine Strategy Framework Directive, there is now more focus on discharges from wastewater treatment plants both to transitional and marine-coastal waters. The constraint to encourage sustainable water policy to prevent water deterioration and reduce or stop discharges has entailed new requirements for existing wastewater treatment plants in the form of advanced wastewater treatment technologies as further suggested by the Integrated Pollution and Prevention Control Bureau. A whole toolbox of physico-chemical and ecotoxicological parameters to investigate commercial and mixed domestic and industrial discharges was considered to check the efficiency of an Activated-Sludge Sequencing Batch Reactor (AS-SBR) and two Ultra-Filtration Membrane Biological Reactors (UF-MBRs) on a small scale decentralised basis. All discharges were conveyed into Venice lagoon (Italy), one of the widest impacted Mediterranean transitional environment. The UF-MBRs were able to provide good quality effluents potentially suitable for non-potable reuse, as well as reducing specific inorganic micro-pollutants concentration (e.g. metals). Conversely, the AS-SBR showed unpredictable and discontinuous removal abilities. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The kinetics of nitrogen removal and biogas production in an anammox non-woven membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Ni, Shou-Qing; Lee, Po-Heng; Sung, Shihwu

    2010-08-01

    The anammox non-woven membrane reactor (ANMR) is a novel reactor configuration to culture the slowly growing anammox bacteria. Different mathematical models were used to study the process kinetics of the nitrogen removal in the ANMR. The kinetics of nitrogen gas production of anammox process was first evaluated in this paper. For substrate removal kinetics, the modified Stover-Kincannon model and the Grau second-order model were more applicable to the ANMR than the first-order model and the Monod model. For nitrogen gas production kinetics, the Van der Meer and Heertjes model was more appropriate than the modified Stover-Kincannon model. Model evaluation was carried out by comparing experimental data with predicted values calculated from suitable models. Both model kinetics study and model testing showed that the Grau second-order model and the Van der Meer and Heertjes model seemed to be the best models to describe the nitrogen removal and nitrogen gas production in the ANMR, respectively.

  5. Oxygen transfer in membrane-ceramic composite materials for immobilized-cell monolithic reactors.

    PubMed

    Kornfield, J; Stephanopoulos, G; Voecks, G E

    1986-06-01

    A novel bioreactor concept is described for facilitated gas-liquid mass transfer, specifically oxygen supply, at low shear rates and low power input. The cross flow monolithic reactor is a single piece of ceramic consisting of continuous flow passages manifolded in a cross flow arrangement. Liquid medium circulates through the passages in one direction and gas circulates through the passages in an orthogonal direction; thus, the two streams are contacted across a large area of a porous ceramic, gas permeable membrane composite.A test cell was designed and used to measure the rate of oxygen transfer across such a composite. High oxygen transfer rates (6.62g O(2) x l(-1) x hr(-1)), with minimal power requirements (estimated below 5 x 10(-3) watts/l reactor volume), were found. This corresponds to a transfer efficiency of greater than 1000 kg O(2)/kW . hr, orders of magnitude greater than the values reported by Serieys, et al.(14) due to the low flow rates and low pressure drops required in a cross flow monolith. This contacting configuration could be employed with highly aerobic, immobilized-cell fermentations to enhance oxygen transfer rates with a parallel decrease of process power requirements.

  6. Domestic wastewater treatment by a submerged MBR (membrane bio-reactor) with enhanced air sparging.

    PubMed

    Chang, I S; Judd, S J

    2003-01-01

    The air sparging technique has been recognised as an effective way to control membrane fouling. However, its application to a submerged MBR (Membrane Bio-Reactor) has not yet been reported. This paper deals with the performances of air sparging on a submerged MBR for wastewater treatment. Two kinds of air sparging techniques were used respectively. First, air is injected into the membrane tube channels so that mixed liquor can circulate in the bioreactor (air-lift mode). Second, a periodic air-jet into the membrane tube is introduced (air-jet mode). Their applicability was evaluated with a series of lab-scale experiments using domestic wastewater. The flux increased from 23 to 33 l m(-2) h(-1) (43% enhancement) when air was injected for the air-lift module. But further increase of flux was not observed as the gas flow increased. The Rc/(Rc+Rf), ratio of cake resistance (Rc) to sum of Rc and Rf (internal fouling resistance), was 23%, indicating that the Rc is not the predominant resistance unlike other MBR studies. It showed that the cake layer was removed sufficiently due to the air injection. Thus, an increase of airflow could not affect the flux performance. The air-jet module suffered from a clogging problem with accumulated sludge inside the lumen. Because the air-jet module has characteristics of dead end filtration, a periodic air-jet was not enough to blast all the accumulated sludge out. But flux was greater than in the air-lift module if the clogging was prevented by an appropriate cleaning regime such as periodical backwashing.

  7. A novel, post-column micro-membrane reactor for fluorescent analysis of protein in capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fan; Zhang, Lingyi; Qian, Junhong; Ren, Jun; Gao, Fangyuan; Zhang, Weibing

    2013-11-07

    Based on the semipermeability of hollow fiber membranes, a post-column membrane reactor was developed for capillary electrophoresis (CE)-laser induced fluorescence (LIF) analysis of proteins by using a hollow fiber membrane to connect the separation and detection capillaries. The membrane length between the separation and detection capillaries was 1 mm. Driven by the chemical potential difference between the separation buffer inside the membrane and the fluorescence derivatization solution outside the membrane, the derivatization reagent can be easily drawn into hollow fiber membrane to react with proteins. Also, the separation buffer can be adjusted by the derivatization solution to match the conditions of derivatization without sample loss. The effect of the separation buffer on the derivatization reaction was investigated and the results showed that even a strong acidic solution and multiple additives can be adopted in the separation buffer without destroying the post-column derivatization of proteins. Under the optimized conditions, the highly sensitive detection of BSA was achieved with a detection limit of 3.3 nmol L(-1) and a linear calibration range from 0.007 to 0.1 mg mL(-1). The proposed CE-LIF system with a post-column membrane reactor was also successfully applied to the separation and detection of proteins in rat liver and loach muscle.

  8. "Active surfaces" formed by immobilization of enzymes on solid-supported polymer membranes.

    PubMed

    Draghici, Camelia; Kowal, Justyna; Darjan, Alina; Meier, Wolfgang; Palivan, Cornelia G

    2014-10-07

    In various domains ranging from catalysis to medical and environmental sciences, there is currently much focus on the design of surfaces that present active compounds at the interface with their environments. Here, we describe the design of "active surfaces" based on solid-supported monolayers of asymmetric triblock copolymers, which serve as templates for the attachment of enzymes. A group of poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(γ-methyl-ε-caprolactone)-block-poly[(2-dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate] amphiphilic copolymers, with different hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains (PEG45-b-PMCLx-b-PDMAEMAy) was selected to generate solid-supported polymer membranes. The behavior of the copolymers in terms of their molecular arrangements at the air-water interface was established by a combination of Langmuir isotherms and Brewster angle microscopy. Uniform thin layers of copolymers were obtained by transferring films onto silica solid supports at optimal surface pressure. These solid-supported polymer membranes were characterized by assessing various properties, such as monolayer thickness, hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance, topography, and roughness. Laccase, used as an enzyme model, was successfully attached to copolymer membranes by stable interactions as followed by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation measurements, and its activity was preserved, as indicated by activity assays. The interaction between the amphiphilic triblock copolymer films and immobilized enzymes represents a straightforward approach to engineer "active surfaces", with biomolecules playing the active role by their intrinsic bioactivity.

  9. Membrane-bound α-synuclein interacts with glucocerebrosidase and inhibits enzyme activity

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Thai Leong; Velayati, Arash; Sidransky, Ellen; Lee, Jennifer C.

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in GBA, the gene encoding glucocerebrosidase, the lysosomal enzyme deficient in Gaucher disease increase the risk for developing Parkinson disease. Recent research suggests a relationship between glucocerebrosidase and the Parkinson disease-related amyloid-forming protein, α-synuclein; however, the specific molecular mechanisms responsible for association remain elusive. Previously, we showed that α-synuclein and glucocerebrosidase interact selectively under lysosomal conditions, and proposed that this newly identified interaction might influence cellular levels of α-synuclein by either promoting protein degradation and/or preventing aggregation. Here, we demonstrate that membrane-bound α-synuclein interacts with glucocerebrosidase, and that this complex formation inhibits enzyme function. Using site-specific fluorescence and Förster energy transfer probes, we mapped the protein-enzyme interacting regions on unilamellar vesicles. Our data suggest that on the membrane surface, the glucocerebrosidase-α-synuclein interaction involves a larger α-synuclein region compared to that found in solution. In addition, α-synuclein acts as a mixed inhibitor with an apparent IC50 in the submicromolar range. Importantly, the membrane-bound, α-helical form of α-synuclein is necessary for inhibition. This glucocerebrosidase interaction and inhibition likely contribute to the mechanism underlying GBA-associated parkinsonism. PMID:23266198

  10. Treatment of Spacecraft Wastewater Using a Hollow Fiber Membrane Biofilm Redox Control Reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Daniel P.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop and evaluate design concepts for biological treatment reactors for the purification of spacecraft wastewater prior to reverse osmosis treatment. The motivating factor is that wastewater recovery represents the greatest single potential reduction in the resupply requirements for crewed space missions. Spacecraft wastewater composition was estimated from the characteristics of the three major component streams: urine/flush water, hygiene water, and atmospheric condensate. The key characteristics of composite spacecraft wastewater are a theoretical oxygen demand of 4519 mg/L, of which 65% is nitrogenous oxygen demand, in a volume of 11.5 liter/crew-day. The organic carbon to nitrogen ratio of composite wastewater is 0.86. Urine represents 93% of nitrogen and 49% of the organic carbon in the composite wastestream. Various bioreaction scenarios were evaluated to project stoichiometric oxygen demands and the ability of wastewater carbon to support denitrification. Ammonia nitrification to the nitrite oxidation state reduced the oxygen requirement and enabled wastewater carbon to provide nearly complete denitrification. A conceptual bioreactor design was established using hollow fiber membranes for bubbleless oxygen transfer in a gravity-free environment, in close spatial juxtaposition to a second interspaced hollow fiber array for supplying molecular hydrogen. Highly versatile redox control and an enhanced ability to engineer syntrophic associations are stated advantages. A prototype reactor was constructed using a microporous hollow fiber membrane module for aeration. Maintaining inlet gas pressure within 0.25 psi of the external water pressure resulted in bubble free operation with no water ingress into hollow fiber lumens. Recommendations include the design and operational testing of hollow fiber bioreactors using: 1) Partial nitrification/nitrite predenitrification; 2) Limited aeration for simultaneous nitrification

  11. Kinetics of nitrate and perchlorate reduction in ion exchange brine using the membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several sources of bacterial inocula were tested for their ability to reduce nitrate and perchlorate in synthetic ion-exchange spent brine (3-4.5% salinity) using a hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR). Nitrate and perchlorate removal fluxes reached as high as 5.4 g N ...

  12. Kinetics of nitrate and perchlorate reduction in ion exchange brine using the membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several sources of bacterial inocula were tested for their ability to reduce nitrate and perchlorate in synthetic ion-exchange spent brine (3-4.5% salinity) using a hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR). Nitrate and perchlorate removal fluxes reached as high as 5.4 g N ...

  13. Sulfide-oxidizing bacteria establishment in an innovative microaerobic reactor with an internal silicone membrane for sulfur recovery from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Valdés, F; Camiloti, P R; Rodriguez, R P; Delforno, T P; Carrillo-Reyes, J; Zaiat, M; Jeison, D

    2016-06-01

    A novel bioreactor, employing a silicone membrane for microaeration, was studied for partial sulfide oxidation to elemental sulfur. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of using an internal silicone membrane reactor (ISMR) to treat dissolved sulfide and to characterize its microbial community. The ISMR is an effective system to eliminate sulfide produced in anaerobic reactors. Sulfide removal efficiencies reached 96 % in a combined anaerobic/microaerobic reactor and significant sulfate production did not occur. The oxygen transfer was strongly influenced by air pressure and flow. Pyrosequencing analysis indicated various sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) affiliated to the species Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, Sulfuricurvum kujiense and Pseudomonas stutzeri attached to the membrane and also indicated similarity between the biomass deposited on the membrane wall and the biomass drawn from the material support, supported the establishment of SOB in an anaerobic sludge under microaerobic conditions. Furthermore, these results showed that the reactor configuration can develop SOB under microaerobic conditions and can improve and reestablish the sulfide conversion to elemental sulfur.

  14. Fouling potential evaluation of soluble microbial products (SMP) with different membrane surfaces in a hybrid membrane bioreactor using worm reactor for sludge reduction.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhipeng; Tian, Yu; Ding, Yi; Chen, Lin; Wang, Haoyu

    2013-07-01

    The fouling characteristics of soluble microbial products (SMP) in the membrane bioreactor coupled with Static Sequencing Batch Worm Reactor (SSBWR-MBR) were tested with different types of membranes. It was noted that the flux decrements of S-SMP (SMP in SSBWR-MBR) with cellulose acetate (CA), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and polyether sulfones (PES) membranes were respectively 6.7%, 8.5% and 9.5% lower compared to those of C-SMP (SMP in Control-MBR) with corresponding membranes. However, for both the filtration of the C-SMP and S-SMP, the CA membrane exhibited the fastest diminishing rate of flux among the three types of membranes. The surface morphology analysis showed that the CA membrane exhibited more but smaller protuberances compared to the PVDF and PES. The second minimums surrounding each protruding asperity on CA membrane were more than those on the PVDF and PES membranes, enhancing the attachment of SMP onto the membrane surface.

  15. Graphene immobilized enzyme/polyethersulfone mixed matrix membrane: Enhanced antibacterial, permeable and mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Linlin; Wang, Yuanming; Zhang, Yatao; Liu, Jindun

    2015-11-01

    Enzyme immobilization has been developed to address lots of issues of free enzyme, such as instability, low activity and difficult to retain. In this study, graphene was used as an ideal carrier for lysozyme immobilization, including graphene oxide (GO) immobilized lysozyme (GO-Ly) and chemically reduced graphene oxide (CRGO) immobilized lysozyme (CRGO-Ly). Herein, lysozyme as a bio-antibacterial agent has excellent antibacterial performance and the products of its catalysis are safety and nontoxic. Then the immobilized lysozyme materials were blended into polyethersulfone (PES) casting solution to prepare PES ultrafiltration membrane via phase inversion method. GO and CRGO were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Ultraviolet-visible spectrum (UV), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the immobilized lysozyme composites were observed by fluorescent microscopy. The results revealed that GO and CRGO were successfully synthesized and lysozyme was immobilized on their surfaces. The morphology, hydrophilicity, mechanical properties, separation properties and antibacterial activity of the hybrid membranes were characterized in detail. The hydrophilicity, water flux and mechanical strength of the hybrid membranes were significantly enhanced after adding the immobilized lysozyme. In the antibacterial experiment, the hybrid membranes exhibited an effective antibacterial performance against Escherichia coli (E. coli).

  16. [Optimization of the conditions of immobilization of enzymes in a photopolymeric membrane].

    PubMed

    Rebriev, A V; Starodub, N F; Masliuk, A F

    2002-01-01

    The residual activity of enzymes immobilized in the membrane on the basis on 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone as photopolymerizable composition is studied. It is established, that under conditions of the immobilization at 20 degrees C the residual activity glucoseoxidase is about 35% from a initial level, horseredish peroxidase and urease from Jeack beans--42% and 20%, respectively. In case of an immobilization of beta-glucoseoxidase -50 degrees C it reaches almost 50% from a initial level. It was investigated the influence of different sources of UV-radiation and different substances on stability of the enzymes in the composition and in the immobilization matrix at storage. Dynamic of changes of enzyme activity at the photoimmobilization was characterized, and also the requirements for providing of its maximal storage was selected.

  17. Dietary fat effects on brush border membrane composition and enzyme activities in rat intestine.

    PubMed

    Kaur, M; Kaur, J; Ojha, S; Mahmood, A

    1996-01-01

    The effect of dietary fats on the chemical composition and enzyme activities has been studied in intestinal brush border membranes (BBM) or rats. Animals were given commercial rat pellet diet (RP) or semisynthetic diet rich in either saturated [coconut oil (CCO))] or polyunsaturated [n-6, corn oil (CO) or n-3, fish oil (FO)] fat at the 10% level for 5 weeks. The membrane cholesterol/phospholipid ratio was augmented in CO- or RP-fed rats. There was an increase in level of saturated fatty acids in BBM from CCO- or FO-fed animals. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content was raised in FO-fed rats, while the proportion of linoleic acid and arachidonic acid was enhanced in animals given a CO diet. Membrane fluidity was in the order of CCO < RP = CO < FO. The membrane hexose content was high (p < 0.05) in the CCO group. Hexosamines were elevated (p < 0.05) in CCO- or FO-fed rat brush borders. Membrane fucose was unaltered, while sialic acid content was elevated in CO- (p < 0.05) and FO- (p < 0.01) fed vs. CCO-fed rats. Lectin binding to brush borders corroborated these findings. The activities of alkaline phosphatase, sucrase and lactase were augmented (p < 0.001) in CCO-fed animals. Leucine-aminopeptidase and sucrase activities were depressed by FO feeding. The activities of PNP-beta-glycosidases were the highest in FO-fed rats. These results indicate that dietary fat quality markedly affects microvillus membrane lipid composition, glycosylation and enzyme functions in rat intestine.

  18. Influences of operating conditions on continuous lactulose synthesis in an enzymatic membrane reactor system: A basis prior to long-term operation.

    PubMed

    Sitanggang, Azis Boing; Drews, Anja; Kraume, Matthias

    2015-06-10

    Lactulose synthesis was performed in a continuous stirred enzymatic membrane reactor. Each investigated operating condition (agitation, pH, feed molar ratio of lactose to fructose (mL/mF ratio), hydraulic residence time (HRT)) had an influence on reaction performances, in terms of lactulose concentration, productivity and selectivity. Lactulose concentration was maximum at an mL/mF ratio of 1/2. Higher than this ratio, synthesis of galactooligosaccharides was promoted rather than lactulose. At mL/mF ratios lower than 1/2, enzyme inhibition was pronounced to the detriment of lactulose production. At 7 or 9h HRT, higher lactulose concentrations were obtained than at shorter HRTs. Applying an mL/mF ratio of 1/2 and an HRT of 9h in a long-term operation, nearly constant lactulose concentration was reached after 23h and lasted up to 32h with a mean concentration of 14.51±0.07g/L and a reaction selectivity of 0.075-0.080mollactulose/molcons.lactose. After 7d, lactulose concentration reduced by 31%. A continuous synthesis of lactulose at lab-scale was shown to be amenable using a membrane reactor process. Moreover, for process evaluation, this study can bridge the gap between batch laboratory scale and continuous full-scale operation regarding lactulose synthesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Catalytic Membrane Reactor Immobilized with Alloy Nanoparticle-Loaded Protein Fibrils for Continuous Reduction of 4-Nitrophenol.

    PubMed

    Huang, Renliang; Zhu, Hongxiu; Su, Rongxin; Qi, Wei; He, Zhimin

    2016-10-18

    A catalytic membrane reactor, which contains a membrane matrix and a catalytic film of alloy nanoparticle-loaded β-lactoglobulin fibrils (NPs@β-LGF), was developed for the continuous-flow reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP). The Cu-Ag and Cu-Ag-Au alloy NPs were synthesized using β-LGF as a scaffold and stabilizing agent. In this process, the Cu nanoclusters were formed in the initial stage and were able to promote the synthesis of Ag(0), which acts as a reducing agent for the rapid formation of Au(0). Furthermore, a catalytic membrane reactor was constructed by depositing the NPs@β-LGFs on a membrane matrix. The catalytic activity of the Cu-Ag-Au alloy NPs was higher than that of the Cu-Ag alloy NPs, using the reduction of 4-NP to 4-AP as a model reaction. The observed rate constant in the continuous-flow system is also higher than that in the batch system. In addition, these catalytic membrane reactors had good operating stability and antibacterial activity.

  20. A novel method to synthesize polyaluminum chloride with a membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    He, Fei; Jia, Zhi-qian; Peng, Yue-lian; Wang, Pei-jing; Liu, Zhong-zhou

    2004-01-01

    Al13 or Alb is usually regarded as the most efficient species of polyaluminum chloride (PAC), the performance flocculant for water treatment. This paper was intended to report a new method to synthesize PAC with high content Alb, by using the membrane reactor. NaOH solutions were managed to permeate slowly through the micropores of ultrafiltration membrane into AICl3 solutions under the suitable transmembrane pressure(TMP). Meanwhile NaOH drops size was limited to nano-scale, resulting in dramatical reduction of the characteristic diffusion time and great increment of contact interface between the strong base and Al ions in solution to favor the formation of Al(OH)4-, the precursor of Al13, so few precipitates and much Alb are produced. When the initial concentration of AlCl3/NaOH is 0.40/2.0 (mol/L), MWCO = 10000, TMP = 0.0085 MPa, T = 305 K and B (molar ratio of OH-/Al3+) = 2.25, the quantity of Alb attains about 80%. The results of 27Al-NMR determination showed that the Al13 content is equal to Alb content. And our PAC product has shown better flocculation effects than the commercial product.

  1. Sequentially aerated membrane biofilm reactors for autotrophic nitrogen removal: microbial community composition and dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Pellicer-Nàcher, Carles; Franck, Stéphanie; Gülay, Arda; Ruscalleda, Maël; Terada, Akihiko; Al-Soud, Waleed Abu; Hansen, Martin Asser; Sørensen, Søren J; Smets, Barth F

    2014-01-01

    Membrane-aerated biofilm reactors performing autotrophic nitrogen removal can be successfully applied to treat concentrated nitrogen streams. However, their process performance is seriously hampered by the growth of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB). In this work we document how sequential aeration can bring the rapid and long-term suppression of NOB and the onset of the activity of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AnAOB). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses confirmed that such shift in performance was mirrored by a change in population densities, with a very drastic reduction of the NOB Nitrospira and Nitrobacter and a 10-fold increase in AnAOB numbers. The study of biofilm sections with relevant 16S rRNA fluorescent probes revealed strongly stratified biofilm structures fostering aerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in biofilm areas close to the membrane surface (rich in oxygen) and AnAOB in regions neighbouring the liquid phase. Both communities were separated by a transition region potentially populated by denitrifying heterotrophic bacteria. AOB and AnAOB bacterial groups were more abundant and diverse than NOB, and dominated by the r-strategists Nitrosomonas europaea and Ca. Brocadia anammoxidans, respectively. Taken together, the present work presents tools to better engineer, monitor and control the microbial communities that support robust, sustainable and efficient nitrogen removal. PMID:24112350

  2. Slurry photocatalytic membrane reactor technology for removal of pharmaceutical compounds from wastewater: Towards cytostatic drug elimination.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Raphael; Mandal, Mrinal Kanti; Dubey, Kashyap Kumar; Luis, Patricia

    2017-12-01

    The potential of photocatalytic membrane reactors (PMR) to degrade cytostatic drugs is presented in this work as an emerging technology for wastewater treatment. Cytostatic drugs are pharmaceutical compounds (PhCs) commonly used in cancer treatment. Such compounds and their metabolites, as well as their degraded by-products have genotoxic and mutagenic effects. A major challenge of cytostatic removal stands in the fact that most drugs are delivered to ambulant patients leading to diluted concentration in the municipal waste. Therefore safe strategies should be developed in order to collect and degrade the micro-pollutants using appropriate treatment technologies. Degradation of cytostatic compounds can be achieved with different conventional processes such as chemical oxidation, photolysis or photocatalysis but the treatment performances obtained are lower than the ones observed with slurry PMRs. Therefore the reasons why slurry PMRs may be considered as the next generation technology will be discussed in this work together with the limitations related to the mechanical abrasion of polymeric and ceramic membranes, catalyst suspension and interferences with the water matrix. Furthermore key recommendations are presented in order to develop a renewable energy powered water treatment based on long lifetime materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Bio-diatomite dynamic membrane reactor for micro-polluted surface water treatment.

    PubMed

    Chu, Huaqiang; Cao, Dawen; Dong, Bingzhi; Qiang, Zhimin

    2010-03-01

    This work investigated the feasibility of treating micro-polluted surface water for drinking water production with a bio-diatomite dynamic membrane reactor (BDDMR) at lab-scale in continuous-flow mode. Results indicate that the BDDMR was effective in removing COD(Mn), DOC, UV(254), NH(3)-N and trihalomethanes' formation potential (THMFP) at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3.5h due to its high concentrations of mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) and mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS). The removal of pollutants was mainly ascribed to microbial degradation in BDDMR because the dynamic membrane alone was much less effective in pollutant removal. Though the diatomite particles (5-20microm) were much smaller in size than the aperture of the stainless steel support mesh (74microm), microorganisms and their extracellular polymer substances could bind these particles tightly to form bio-diatomite particles which were completely retained by the support mesh. The analysis of molecular weight (MW) distribution by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) shows that the BDDMR could effectively remove the hydrophilic fraction of dissolved organic materials present in the raw water. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Immobilized enzymes in organic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Mosbach, K

    1985-01-01

    The immobilization of enzymes and cells by different methods and the possible stabilization of immobilized preparations are discussed. An outlook on 'second generation enzyme technology', which involves immobilized multi-enzyme systems and coenzymes, is given with examples: the immobilization of dehydrogenases with their active sites facing one another, and systems containing NAD(H) coenzymes immobilized by coupling to dextran (in an enzyme electrode), to polyethylene glycol (in a membrane reactor), or to enzymes themselves. The use of immobilized enzymes to synthesize peptides and disaccharides is described.

  5. Performance and Mechanisms of Ultrafiltration Membrane Fouling Mitigation by Coupling Coagulation and Applied Electric Field in a Novel Electrocoagulation Membrane Reactor.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jingqiu; Hu, Chengzhi; Tong, Tiezheng; Zhao, Kai; Qu, Jiuhui; Liu, Huijuan; Elimelech, Menachem

    2017-08-01

    A novel electrocoagulation membrane reactor (ECMR) was developed, in which ultrafiltration (UF) membrane modules are placed between electrodes to improve effluent water quality and reduce membrane fouling. Experiments with feedwater containing clays (kaolinite) and natural organic matter (humic acid) revealed that the combined effect of coagulation and electric field mitigated membrane fouling in the ECMR, resulting in higher water flux than the conventional combination of electrocoagulation and UF in separate units (EC-UF). Higher current densities and weakly acidic pH in the EMCR favored faster generation of large flocs and effectively reduced membrane pore blocking. The hydraulic resistance of the formed cake layers on the membrane surface in ECMR was reduced due to an increase in cake layer porosity and polarity, induced by both coagulation and the applied electric field. The formation of a polarized cake layer was controlled by the applied current density and voltage, with cake layers formed under higher electric field strengths showing higher porosity and hydrophilicity. Compared to EC-UF, ECMR has a smaller footprint and could achieve significant energy savings due to improved fouling resistance and a more compact reactor design.

  6. New nanosized catalytic membrane reactors for hydrogenation with stored hydrogen: Prerequisites and the experimental basis for their creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldatov, A. P.; Tsodikov, M. V.; Parenago, O. P.; Teplyakov, V. V.

    2010-12-01

    The prerequisites and prospects for creating a new generation of nanosized membrane reactors are considered. For the first time, hydrogenation reactions take place in ceramic membrane pores with hydrogen adsorbed beforehand in mono- and multilayered oriented carbon nanotubes with graphene walls (OCNTGs) formed on the internal pore surface. It is shown for Trumem microfiltration membranes with D avg ˜130 nm that oxidation reactions of CO on a Cu0.03Ti0.97O2 ± δ catalyst and the oxidative conversion of methane into synthesis gas and light hydrocarbons on La + Ce/MgO are considerably enhanced when they occur in membranes. Regularities of hydrogen adsorption, storage, and desorption in nanosized membrane reactors are investigated through OCNTG formation in Trumem ultrafiltration membrane pores with D avg = 50 and 90 nm and their saturation with hydrogen at a pressure of 10-13 MPa. It is shown that the amount of adsorbed hydrogen reaches 14.0% of OCNTG mass. Using thermogravimetric analysis in combination with mass-spectrometric analysis, hydrogen adsorption in OCNTG is first determined and its desorption is found to proceed at atmospheric pressure at a temperature of ˜175°C. It is shown that adsorbed hydrogen affects the transport properties of the membranes, reducing their efficiency with respect to liquids by 4-26 times. This is indirect confirmation of its high activity, due apparently the dissociative mechanism of adsorption.

  7. High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading. Quarterly report No. 11, March 21, 1992--June 20, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, T.T.

    1992-12-31

    Membrane reactors have been used in a number of catalytic reaction processes in order to overcome the limitations on conversion imposed by thermodynamic equilibrium. Having the inherent capability for combining reaction and separation in a single step, they offer promise for improving and optimizing yield, selectivity and performance of processes involving complex liquids, such as these typically found in coal liquid upgrading. Ceramic membranes are a new class of materials, which have shown promise in a variety of industrial applications. Their mechanical and chemical stability coupled with a wide range of operating temperatures and pressures make them suitable for environments found in coal liquid upgrading. This project will evaluate the performance of Sol-Gel alumina membranes in coal liquid upgrading processes under realistic temperature and pressure conditions and investigate the feasibility of using such membranes in a membrane reactor based coal liquid upgrading process. Development of novel ceramic membranes with enhanced catalytic activity for coal-liquid upgrading applications, such as carbon-coated alumina membranes, will be also investigated.

  8. Enzyme

    MedlinePlus

    Enzymes are complex proteins that cause a specific chemical change in all parts of the body. For ... use them. Blood clotting is another example of enzymes at work. Enzymes are needed for all body ...

  9. Unraveling Entropic Rate Acceleration Induced by Solvent Dynamics in Membrane Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Kürten, Charlotte; Syrén, Per-Olof

    2016-01-01

    Enzyme catalysis evolved in an aqueous environment. The influence of solvent dynamics on catalysis is, however, currently poorly understood and usually neglected. The study of water dynamics in enzymes and the associated thermodynamical consequences is highly complex and has involved computer simulations, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments, and calorimetry. Water tunnels that connect the active site with the surrounding solvent are key to solvent displacement and dynamics. The protocol herein allows for the engineering of these motifs for water transport, which affects specificity, activity and thermodynamics. By providing a biophysical framework founded on theory and experiments, the method presented herein can be used by researchers without previous expertise in computer modeling or biophysical chemistry. The method will advance our understanding of enzyme catalysis on the molecular level by measuring the enthalpic and entropic changes associated with catalysis by enzyme variants with obstructed water tunnels. The protocol can be used for the study of membrane-bound enzymes and other complex systems. This will enhance our understanding of the importance of solvent reorganization in catalysis as well as provide new catalytic strategies in protein design and engineering. PMID:26862836

  10. Bacterial Nanobioreactors--Directing Enzyme Packaging into Bacterial Outer Membrane Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Alves, Nathan J; Turner, Kendrick B; Daniele, Michael A; Oh, Eunkeu; Medintz, Igor L; Walper, Scott A

    2015-11-11

    All bacteria shed outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) loaded with a diverse array of small molecules, proteins, and genetic cargo. In this study we sought to hijack the bacterial cell export pathway to simultaneously produce, package, and release an active enzyme, phosphotriesterase (PTE). To accomplish this goal the SpyCatcher/SpyTag (SC/ST) bioconjugation system was utilized to produce a PTE-SpyCatcher (PTE-SC) fusion protein and a SpyTagged transmembrane porin protein (OmpA-ST), known to be abundant in OMVs. Under a range of physiological conditions the SpyTag and SpyCatcher domains interact with one another and form a covalent isopeptide bond driving packaging of PTE into forming OMVs. The PTE-SC loaded OMVs are characterized for size distribution, number of vesicles produced, cell viability, packaged PTE enzyme kinetics, OMV loading efficiency, and enzyme stability following iterative cycles of freezing and thawing. The PTE-loaded OMVs exhibit native-like enzyme kinetics when assayed with paraoxon as a substrate. PTE is often toxic to expression cultures and has a tendency to lose activity with improper handling. The coexpression of OmpA-ST with PTE-SC, however, greatly improved the overall PTE production levels by mitigating toxicity through exporting of the PTE-SC and greatly enhanced packaged enzyme stability against iterative cycles of freezing and thawing.

  11. Structural organization of membrane and soluble forms of somatic angiotensin-converting enzyme.

    PubMed

    Grinshtein, S V; Nikolskaya, I I; Klyachko, N L; Levashov, A V; Kost, O A

    1999-05-01

    The catalytic activity and quaternary structure of soluble (s) and membrane (m) forms of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) were studied in reversed micelles of ternary system Aerosol OT--water--octane. The profile of the dependence of the catalytic activity of the two enzyme forms on the degree of surfactant hydration (micellar size) had several optima corresponding to the function of various active oligomeric enzyme forms; the curves for the s- and m-forms of ACE were different. Data of sedimentation analysis prove that in reversed micelles, s-ACE can exist as monomers, dimers, or tetramers depending on the hydration degree, and the m-form is present as dimers and tetramers only. The values of the kinetic parameters for the hydrolysis of the substrate furylacryloyl-Phe-Gly-Gly by all the enzyme forms were determined, and the data indicate that the activity of the m-form is enhanced by oligomerization. The ACE activity strongly depends on the medium; it is higher when ACE is in contact with matrix or other enzyme molecules.

  12. Unraveling Entropic Rate Acceleration Induced by Solvent Dynamics in Membrane Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kürten, Charlotte; Syrén, Per-Olof

    2016-01-16

    Enzyme catalysis evolved in an aqueous environment. The influence of solvent dynamics on catalysis is, however, currently poorly understood and usually neglected. The study of water dynamics in enzymes and the associated thermodynamical consequences is highly complex and has involved computer simulations, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments, and calorimetry. Water tunnels that connect the active site with the surrounding solvent are key to solvent displacement and dynamics. The protocol herein allows for the engineering of these motifs for water transport, which affects specificity, activity and thermodynamics. By providing a biophysical framework founded on theory and experiments, the method presented herein can be used by researchers without previous expertise in computer modeling or biophysical chemistry. The method will advance our understanding of enzyme catalysis on the molecular level by measuring the enthalpic and entropic changes associated with catalysis by enzyme variants with obstructed water tunnels. The protocol can be used for the study of membrane-bound enzymes and other complex systems. This will enhance our understanding of the importance of solvent reorganization in catalysis as well as provide new catalytic strategies in protein design and engineering.

  13. Application of a novel type impinging streams reactor in solid-liquid enzyme reactions and modeling of residence time distribution using GDB model.

    PubMed

    Fatourehchi, Niloufar; Sohrabi, Morteza; Dabir, Bahram; Royaee, Sayed Javid; Haji Malayeri, Adel

    2014-02-05

    Solid-liquid enzyme reactions constitute important processes in biochemical industries. The isomerization of d-glucose to d-fructose, using the immobilized glucose isomerase (Sweetzyme T), as a typical example of solid-liquid catalyzed reactions has been carried out in one stage and multi-stage novel type of impinging streams reactors. Response surface methodology was applied to determine the effects of certain pertinent parameters of the process namely axial velocity (A), feed concentration (B), nozzles' flow rates (C) and enzyme loading (D) on the performance of the apparatus. The results obtained from the conversion of glucose in this reactor were much higher than those expected in conventional reactors, while residence time was decreased dramatically. Residence time distribution (RTD) in a one-stage impinging streams reactor was investigated using colored solution as the tracer. The results showed that the flow pattern in the reactor was close to that in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Based on the analysis of flow region in the reactor, gamma distribution model with bypass (GDB) was applied to study the RTD of the reactor. The results indicated that RTD in the impinging streams reactor could be described by the latter model. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 2-Bromopalmitoyl-CoA and 2-bromopalmitate: promiscuous inhibitors of membrane-bound enzymes.

    PubMed

    Coleman, R A; Rao, P; Fogelsong, R J; Bardes, E S

    1992-04-23

    2-Bromopalmitate and 2-bromopalmitoyl-CoA have been shown to inhibit a variety of enzymes and proteins associated with lipid metabolism. We found that both of the brominated compounds were non-competitive inhibitors of two microsomal activities of triacylglycerol biosynthesis, the mono- and diacylglycerol acyltransferases. With both compounds, the calculated Ki values were lower than the Km value for the palmitoyl-CoA substrate. In addition to inhibiting two other lipid synthetic activities, fatty acid CoA ligase and glycerol-3-P acyltransferase, 2-bromopalmitate and 2-bromopalmitoyl-CoA also inhibited two microsomal enzyme activities that are not related to lipid metabolism, NADPH cytochrome-c reductase and glucose-6-phosphatase. Inhibition of the three acyltransferases and fatty acid CoA ligase could be overcome by the addition of phospholipid vesicles, and 2-bromo[14C]palmitate readily labeled a large number of membrane-bound proteins as well as cytosolic proteins that had been solubilized in SDS. Thus, it appears likely that the inhibitory properties of the brominated compounds strongly depend on the effective concentration of the inhibitor within membranes rather than on any specific affinity for an acyl-chain binding region of the enzyme.

  15. Integrated stereological and biochemical studies on hepatocytic membranes. I.V. Heterogeneous distribution of marker enzymes on endoplasmic reticulum membranes in fractions

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to consider quantitatively the relationships between the surface area of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and constituent marker enzyme activities, as they occur in fractions collected from rat liver homogenates. The ER surface area was estimated in five membrane-containing fractions by use of a combined cytochemical-stereological technique (5), while, at the same time, ER marker enzymes were assayed biochemically. Fraction/homogenate recoveries for the ER enzymes averaged 100%, total membrane surface area 98%, and ER surface area 96%. Relative specific activities, which compare the relative amounts of ER marker enzyme activities to the relative ER surface area in the membrane-containing fractions, indicate variable distributions for glucose-6-phosphatase and NADPH cytochrome c reductase, but not for esterase. PMID:6248565

  16. Isolation of cellular membranes from lignin-producing tissues of Norway spruce and analysis of redox enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kärkönen, Anna; Meisrimler, Claudia-Nicole; Takahashi, Junko; Väisänen, Enni; Laitinen, Teresa; Jiménez Barboza, Luis Alexis; Holmström, Sami; Salonvaara, Sadette; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Fagerstedt, Kurt V; Lüthje, Sabine

    2014-12-01

    There are no earlier reports with successful isolation of plasma membranes from lignin-forming tissues of conifers. A method to isolate cellular membranes from extracellular lignin-producing tissue-cultured cells and developing xylem of Norway spruce was optimized. Modifications to the homogenization buffer were needed to obtain membranes from these phenolics-rich tissues. Membranes were separated by aqueous polymer two-phase partitioning. Chlorophyll a determination, marker enzyme assays and western blot analyses using antibodies for each membrane type showed that mitochondrial, chloroplastic and to a certain extent also ER and Golgi membranes were efficiently diminished from the upper phase, but tonoplast and plasma membranes distributed evenly between the upper and lower phases. Redox enzymes present in the partially purified membrane fractions were assayed in order to reveal the origin of H(2)O(2) needed for lignification. The membranes of spruce contained enzymes able to generate superoxide in the presence of NAD(P)H. Besides members of the flavodoxin and flavodoxin-like family proteins, cytochrome b5, cytochrome P450 and several stress responsive proteins were identified by nitroblue tetrazolium staining of isoelectric focusing gels and by mass spectrometry. Naphthoquinones juglone and menadione increased superoxide production in activity-stained gels. Some juglone-activated enzymes were preferentially using NADH. With NADH, menadione activated only some of the enzymes that juglone did, whereas with NADPH the activation patterns were identical. Duroquinone, a benzoquinone, did not affect superoxide production. Superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and an acidic class III peroxidase isoenzyme were detected in partially purified spruce membranes. The possible locations and functions of these enzymes are discussed. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  17. Microbial ecology of a perchlorate-reducing, hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Nerenberg, Robert; Kawagoshi, Yasunori; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2008-02-01

    The hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) has been shown to reduce perchlorate to below 4 microg/L, but little is known about the microbial ecology of this or other hydrogen-based reactors, especially when influent perchlorate concentrations are much lower than the influent oxygen and nitrate concentrations. Dissimilatory (per)chlorate-reducing bacteria (PCRB) can use oxygen as an electron acceptor, and most can also use nitrate. Since oxygen and nitrate can be reduced concurrently with perchlorate, they may serve as primary electron acceptors, sustaining PCRB when the perchlorate concentrations are very low. We studied five identical MBfRs, all seeded with the same inoculum and initially supplied with oxygen, or oxygen plus nitrate, in the influent. After 20 days, perchlorate was added to four MBfRs at influent concentrations of 100-10,000 microg/L, while the fifth was maintained as a control. One day after perchlorate addition, the MBfRs displayed limited perchlorate reduction, suggesting a low initial abundance of PCRB. However, perchlorate reduction improved significantly over time, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses suggested an increasing abundance of a single Dechloromonas species. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) tests showed that the Dechloromonas species accounted for 14% of the bacterial count in the control MBfR, and 22%, 31%, and 49% in the MBfRs receiving nitrate plus 100, 1000, and 10,000 microg/L perchlorate, respectively. The abundance was 34% in the MBfR receiving oxygen plus 1000 microg/L perchlorate. These results suggest that oxygen is more favorable than nitrate as a primary electron acceptor for PCRB, that PCRB are present at low levels even without perchlorate, and that the presence of perchlorate, even at low levels relative to nitrate or oxygen, significantly enhances selection for PCRB.

  18. Carbon-coated ceramic membrane reactor for the production of hydrogen by aqueous-phase reforming of sorbitol.

    PubMed

    Neira D'Angelo, M F; Ordomsky, V; Schouten, J C; van der Schaaf, J; Nijhuis, T A

    2014-07-01

    Hydrogen was produced by aqueous-phase reforming (APR) of sorbitol in a carbon-on-alumina tubular membrane reactor (4 nm pore size, 7 cm long, 3 mm internal diameter) that allows the hydrogen gas to permeate to the shell side, whereas the liquid remains in the tube side. The hydrophobic nature of the membrane serves to avoid water loss and to minimize the interaction between the ceramic support and water, thus reducing the risks of membrane degradation upon operation. The permeation of hydrogen is dominated by the diffusivity of the hydrogen in water. Thus, higher operation temperatures result in an increase of the flux of hydrogen. The differential pressure has a negative effect on the flux of hydrogen due to the presence of liquid in the larger pores. The membrane was suitable for use in APR, and yielded 2.5 times more hydrogen than a reference reactor (with no membrane). Removal of hydrogen through the membrane assists in the reaction by preventing its consumption in undesired reactions. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. The membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) for water and wastewater treatment: principles, applications, and recent developments.

    PubMed

    Martin, Kelly J; Nerenberg, Robert

    2012-10-01

    The membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR), an emerging technology for water and wastewater treatment, is based on pressurized membranes that supply a gaseous substrate to a biofilm formed on the membrane's exterior. MBfR biofilms behave differently from conventional biofilms due to the counter-diffusion of substrates. MBfRs are uniquely suited for numerous treatment applications, including the removal of carbon and nitrogen when oxygen is supplied, and reduction of oxidized contaminants when hydrogen is supplied. Major benefits include high gas utilization efficiency, low energy consumption, and small reactor footprints. The first commercial MBfR was recently released, and its success may lead to the scale-up of other applications. MBfR development still faces challenges, including biofilm management, the design of scalable reactor configurations, and the identification of cost-effective membranes. If future research and development continue to address these issues, the MBfR may play a key role in the next generation of sustainable treatment systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Simultaneous Bioreduction of Multiple Oxidized Contaminants Using a Membrane Biofilm Reactor.

    PubMed

    Li, Haixiang; Lin, Hua; Xu, Xiaoyin; Jiang, Minmin; Chang, Chein-Chi; Xia, Siqing

    2017-02-01

      This study tests a hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) to investigate simultaneous bioreduction of selected oxidized contaminants, including nitrate (-N), sulfate (), bromate (), chromate (Cr(VI)) and para-chloronitrobenzene (p-CNB). The experiments demonstrate that MBfR can achieve high performance for contaminants bioreduction to harmless or immobile forms in 240 days, with a maximum reduction fluxes of 0.901 g -N/m2·d, 1.573 g /m2·d, 0.009 g /m2·d, 0.022 g Cr(VI)/m2·d, and 0.043 g p-CNB/m2·d. Increasing H2 pressure and decreasing influent surface loading enhanced removal efficiency of the reactor. Flux analysis indicates that nitrate and sulfate reductions competed more strongly than , Cr(VI) and p-CNB reduction. The average H2 utilization rate, H2 flux, and H2 utilization efficiency of the reactor were 0.026 to 0.052 mg H2/cm3·d, 0.024 to 0.046 mg H2/cm2·d, and 97.5% to 99.3% (nearly 100%). Results show the hydrogen-based MBfR may be suitable for removing multiple oxidized contaminants in drinking water or groundwater.

  1. A study of the relationship among sludge retention time, bacterial communities, and hydrolytic enzyme activities in inclined plate membrane bioreactors for the treatment of municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ittisupornrat, Suda; Tobino, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2014-11-01

    Inclined plate membrane bioreactors (ip-MBRs) have been proposed as a highly effective method in wastewater treatment. With the help of settling enhancer inclined plates, dense excess sludge can be kept in the mainstream of the process, and consequently, suitable sludge mass can be maintained in the membrane tank. In this study, the relationship among sludge retention time (SRT), bacterial communities, and hydrolytic enzyme activities was investigated. Two identical bench-scale ip-MBRs were operated 1 year in real municipal wastewater treatment. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) plots of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) fingerprints showed similar changes in the bacterial communities in terms of bacterial members and abundance over time in both the reactors, which was primarily caused by the changes of wastewater composition. However, the impact of SRT revealed significant differences in the dominant bacterial communities when both the reactors were operated with a largely different SRT (infinite SRT and SRT of 20 days). The sequences of bacterial 16S rRNA gene were classified into six libraries of A-F. The largest group of sequences belonged to the phylum Proteobacteria. The phylum Bacteroidetes was dominant in the seed sludge retrieved from the conventional activated sludge (CAS) as Flavobacterium-like bacterium was dominantly observed. Under the MBR operation (libraries B-F), bacterial communities belonging to the phyla Proteobacteria and Chloroflexi were dominant. Most of them may be responsible for protein degradation because aminopeptidase activity increased in proportion with the abundance of these bacteria.

  2. Involvement of thylakoid membranes in supramolecular organisation of Calvin cycle enzymes in Anacystis nidulans.

    PubMed

    Sainis, Jayashree Krishna; Dani, Diksha Narhar; Dey, Gautam Kumar

    2003-01-01

    The cells of unicellular photosynthetic cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans were permeated with lysozyme, toluene, toluene-triton, toluene-triton-lysozyme. Transmission electron microscopy of semi-thin sections (500 nm) using TEM at 160 kV showed that cells permeated with only lysozyme or toluene showed the typical concentric arrangement of thylakoid membranes. However, when toluene-treated cells were further treated with triton and lysozyme the thylakoid membranes were disrupted. Sequential reactions of Calvin cycle were studied in the differentially permeated cells in vivo, using various intermediates such as 3-PGA, GA-3-P, FDP, SDP, R-5-P, RuBP and cofactors like ATP, NADPH depending on the requirement. RuBP and R-5-P + ATP dependent activities could be observed in all types of permeated cells. Sequential reactions of the entire Calvin cycle using 3-PGA could be detected in the cells that had retained the internal organisation of the thylakoid membranes after permeation and were lost on disruption of this organisation. Light dependent CO2 fixation could be detected only in the cells permeated with lysozyme. This activity was abolished in the cells after treatment with toluene. The results suggested that the integrity of thylakoid membranes may be essential for the organisation of sequential enzymes of the Calvin cycle in vivo and facilitate their functioning.

  3. Charged anaesthetics alter LM-fibroblast plasma-membrane enzymes by selective fluidization of inner or outer membrane leaflets.

    PubMed

    Sweet, W D; Schroeder, F

    1986-10-15

    The functional consequences of the differences in lipid composition and structure between the two leaflets of the plasma membrane were investigated. Fluorescence of 1,6-diphenylhexa-1,3,5-triene(DPH), quenching, and differential polarized phase fluorimetry demonstrated selective fluidization by local anaesthetics of individual leaflets in isolated LM-cell plasma membranes. As measured by decreased limiting anisotropy of DPH fluorescence, cationic (prilocaine) and anionic (phenobarbital and pentobarbital) amphipaths preferentially fluidized the cytofacial and exofacial leaflets respectively. Unlike prilocaine, procaine, also a cation, fluidized both leaflets of these membranes equally. Pentobarbital stimulated 5'-nucleotidase between 0.1 and 5 mM and inhibited at higher concentrations, whereas phenobarbital only inhibited, at higher concentrations. Cationic drugs were ineffective. Two maxima of (Na+ + K+)-ATPase activation were obtained with both anionic drugs. Only one activation maximum was obtained with both cationic drugs. The maximum in activity below 1 mM for all four drugs clustered about a single limiting anisotropy value in the cytofacial leaflet, whereas there was no correlation between activity and limiting anisotropy in the exofacial leaflets. Therefore, although phenobarbital and pentobarbital below 1 mM fluidized the exofacial leaflet more than the cytofacial leaflet, the smaller fluidization in the cytofacial leaflet was functionally significant for (Na+ + K+)-ATPase. Mg2+-ATPase was stimulated at 1 mM-phenobarbital, unaffected by pentobarbital and slightly stimulated by both cationic drugs at concentrations fluidizing both leaflets. Thus the activity of (Na+ + K+)-ATPase was highly sensitive to selective fluidization of the leaflet containing its active site, whereas the other enzymes examined were little affected by fluidization of either leaflet.

  4. Structure of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, an essential monotopic membrane enzyme involved in respiration and metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, Joanne I.; Chinte, Unmesh; Du, Shoucheng

    2008-04-02

    Sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GlpD) is an essential membrane enzyme, functioning at the central junction of respiration, glycolysis, and phospholipid biosynthesis. Its critical role is indicated by the multitiered regulatory mechanisms that stringently controls its expression and function. Once expressed, GlpD activity is regulated through lipid-enzyme interactions in Escherichia coli. Here, we report seven previously undescribed structures of the fully active E. coli GlpD, up to 1.75 {angstrom} resolution. In addition to elucidating the structure of the native enzyme, we have determined the structures of GlpD complexed with substrate analogues phosphoenolpyruvate, glyceric acid 2-phosphate, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, and product, dihydroxyacetone phosphate. These structural results reveal conformational states of the enzyme, delineating the residues involved in substrate binding and catalysis at the glycerol-3-phosphate site. Two probable mechanisms for catalyzing the dehydrogenation of glycerol-3-phosphate are envisioned, based on the conformational states of the complexes. To further correlate catalytic dehydrogenation to respiration, we have additionally determined the structures of GlpD bound with ubiquinone analogues menadione and 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide, identifying a hydrophobic plateau that is likely the ubiquinone-binding site. These structures illuminate probable mechanisms of catalysis and suggest how GlpD shuttles electrons into the respiratory pathway. Glycerol metabolism has been implicated in insulin signaling and perturbations in glycerol uptake and catabolism are linked to obesity in humans. Homologs of GlpD are found in practically all organisms, from prokaryotes to humans, with >45% consensus protein sequences, signifying that these structural results on the prokaryotic enzyme may be readily applied to the eukaryotic GlpD enzymes.

  5. Interactions of dendritic glycopolymer with erythrocytes, red blood cell ghosts and membrane enzymes.

    PubMed

    Wrobel, Dominika; Janaszewska, Anna; Appelhans, Dietmar; Voit, Brigitte; Bryszewska, Maria; Maly, Jan

    2015-12-30

    Interactions between maltose functionalized hyperbranched poly(ethylene imine)s (95% maltose decoration denoted as Mal-PEI A; 33% maltose decoration denoted as Mal-PEI B) and red blood cells (RBCs) and between red blood cell membranes were investigated. We monitored the degree of hemolysis, the change in cell shape, the influence of polymers on the fluidity of the cell membrane and some cell membrane enzymes to determine their possible cytotoxic impact on them. To observe the extent of hemolysis, the RBCs were incubated with different concentrations of Mal-PEIs. The first significant lysis of RBCs was observed after 6h of incubation. Prolongation of the incubation time increased the number of ruptured cells. Moreover, we observed that Mal-PEI B was more hemolytic than Mal-PEI A in buffer solution. In contrast, an incubation of RBCs with Mal-PEIs in human plasma significantly decreased the hemolytic process and showed higher hemolytic property of Mal-PEI A compared to Mal-PEI B. Also several changes in the shape of the RBCs occurred after incubation with Mal-PEIs. Some of the erythrocytes shrank (echinocytes), but their morphology generally remained unchanged during the incubation. As shown by fluorescence experiments, both polymers induced the increase of fluidity of RBCs membranes. In summary, both types of hyperbranched poly(ethylene imine)s were practically non-hemolytic even at high polymer concentrations. Mal-PEI B was slightly more noxious than the Mal-PEI A in a buffer solution, while in blood plasma, the situation was opposite. Decrease of Na+/K+ ATPase and total ATPase enzymes activity was related with molecule size and number of maltose groups on the surface of molecule. The low hemolytic properties only observed at higher concentration (100μM and 400μM) indicated that Mal-PEIs are promising macromolecules in the area of drug delivery systems.

  6. Conversion of olive pomace oil to cocoa butter-like fat in a packed-bed enzyme reactor.

    PubMed

    Ciftçi, Ozan Nazim; Fadiloğlu, Sibel; Göğüş, Fahrettin

    2009-01-01

    Refined olive pomace oil (ROPO) was utilized as a source oil for production of cocoa butter-like fat. Immobilized sn-1,3 specific lipase catalyzed acidolysis of ROPO with palmitic (PA) and stearic (SA) acids was performed in a laboratory scale packed-bed reactor. Effect of reactor conditions on product formation was studied at various substrate mole ratios (ROPO:PA:SA; 1:1:1, 1:1:3, 1:3:3, 1:2:6), enzyme loads (10%, 20%, 40%), substrate flow rates (1.5, 4.5, 7.5, 15 ml/min) and solvent amounts (150, 400 ml). The highest yield (10.9% POP, 19.7% POS and 11.2% SOS) was obtained at 40% enzyme load, 1:2:6 substrate mole ratio, 45 degrees C, 7.5 ml/min substrate flow rate, 150 ml solvent and 3h reaction time. The melting profile and SFC of the product were comparable to those of CB. Polarized light microscope (PLM) images showed no drastic changes in polymorphic behavior between CB and product.

  7. Hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactor for tetracycline removal: biodegradation, transformation products, and microbial community.

    PubMed

    Taşkan, Banu; Hanay, Özge; Taşkan, Ergin; Erdem, Mehmet; Hasar, Halil

    2016-11-01

    Tetracycline (TC) in aqueous environment could be reductively degraded by using a hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactor (H2-MBfR) under denitrifying conditions as it provides an appropriate environment for the antibiotic-degrading bacteria in biofilm communities. This study evaluates the performance of H2-MBfR for simultaneous removal of nitrate and TC, formation of degradation products of TC, and community analysis of the biofilm grown on the gas-permeable hollow fiber membranes. Hence, a H2-MBfR receiving approximately 20 mg N/l nitrate and 0.5 mg/l TC was operated under different H2 pressures, hydraulic retention times (HRTs), and influent TC concentrations in order to provide various nitrate and TC loadings. The results showed that H2-MBfR accomplished successfully the degradation of TC, and it reached TC removal of 80-95 % at 10 h of HRT and 6 psi (0.41 atm) of H2 gas pressure. TC degradation took placed at increased HRT and H2 pressures while nitrate was the preferred electron acceptor for most of the electrons generated from H2 oxidation used for denitrification. The transformation products of TC were found at part per billion levels through all the experiments, and the concentrations decreased with the increasing HRT regardless of H2 pressure. Analyses from clone library showed that the microbial diversity at the optimal conditions was higher than that at the other periods. The dominant species were revealed to be Betaproteobacteria, Acidovorax caeni, and Alicycliphilus denitrificans.

  8. Hydrogen production by reforming of liquid hydrocarbons in a membrane reactor for portable power generation-Experimental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damle, Ashok S.

    One of the most promising technologies for lightweight, compact, portable power generation is proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. PEM fuel cells, however, require a source of pure hydrogen. Steam reforming of hydrocarbons in an integrated membrane reactor has potential to provide pure hydrogen in a compact system. Continuous separation of product hydrogen from the reforming gas mixture is expected to increase the yield of hydrogen significantly as predicted by model simulations. In the laboratory-scale experimental studies reported here steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbon fuels, butane, methanol and Clearlite ® was conducted to produce pure hydrogen in a single step membrane reformer using commercially available Pd-Ag foil membranes and reforming/WGS catalysts. All of the experimental results demonstrated increase in hydrocarbon conversion due to hydrogen separation when compared with the hydrocarbon conversion without any hydrogen separation. Increase in hydrogen recovery was also shown to result in corresponding increase in hydrocarbon conversion in these studies demonstrating the basic concept. The experiments also provided insight into the effect of individual variables such as pressure, temperature, gas space velocity, and steam to carbon ratio. Steam reforming of butane was found to be limited by reaction kinetics for the experimental conditions used: catalysts used, average gas space velocity, and the reactor characteristics of surface area to volume ratio. Steam reforming of methanol in the presence of only WGS catalyst on the other hand indicated that the membrane reactor performance was limited by membrane permeation, especially at lower temperatures and lower feed pressures due to slower reconstitution of CO and H 2 into methane thus maintaining high hydrogen partial pressures in the reacting gas mixture. The limited amount of data collected with steam reforming of Clearlite ® indicated very good match between theoretical predictions and

  9. Development and application of a membrane cyclone reactor for in vivo NMR spectroscopy with high microbial cell densities.

    PubMed

    Hartbrich, A; Schmitz, G; Weuster-Botz, D; de Graaf, A A; Wandrey, C

    1996-09-20

    A new bioreactor system has been developed for in vivo NMR spectroscopy of microorganisms under defined physiological conditions. This cyclone reactor with an integrated NMR flow cell is continuously operated in the magnet of a 400-MHz wide-bore NMR spectrometer system. The residence times of medium and cells are decoupled by a circulation-integrated cross-flow microfiltration module to achieve higher cell densities as compared to continuous fermentations without cell retention (increase in cell density up to a factor of 10 in steady state). Volumetric mass transfer coefficients k(L)a of more than 1.0 s(-1) are possible in the membrane cyclone reactor, ensuring adequate oxygen supply [oxygen transfer rate >15,000 mg O(2) .(L h)(-1)] of high cell densities. With the aid of the membrane cyclone reactor we were able to show, using continuous in vivo (31)P NMR spectroscopy of anaerobic glucose fermentation by Zymomonas mobilis, that the NMR signal intensity was directly proportional to the cell concentration in the reactor. The concentration profiles of intracellular inorganic phosphate, NAD(H), NDP, NTP, UDP-sugar, a cyclic pyrophosphate, two sugar phosphate pools, and extracellular inorganic phosphate were recorded after a shift from one steady state to another. The intracellular cyclic pyrophosphate had not been detected before in in vitro measurements of Zymomonas mobilis extracts due to the high instability of this compound. Using continuous in vivo (13)C NMR spectroscopy of aerobic glucose utilization by Corynebacterium glutamicum at a density of 25 g(cell dry weight) . L(-1), the membrane cyclone reactor served to measure the different dynamics of labeling in the carbon atoms of L-lactate, L-glutamate, succinate, and L-lysine with a time resolution of 10 min after impressing a [1-(13)C]-glucose pulse.

  10. Retaining activity of enzymes after capture and extraction within a single-drop of biological fluid using immunoaffinity membranes.

    PubMed

    Shimazaki, Youji; Sato, Yuki

    2016-05-15

    The purpose of this study was the measurement of enzyme activity within a single-drop of biological fluid after micropurification. Esterase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) retained their enzymatic activities after being captured by membrane-immobilized antibodies, which were prepared by non-denaturing two-dimensional electrophoresis, transferred to polyvinylidene difluoride and then stained by Ponceau S. The activities of both enzymes were also measured after being captured by antibodies and biotinylated antibodies bound to membrane-immobilized protein A or avidin, respectively. After esterase and LDH were captured from biological samples by membrane-immobilized protein A or avidin, their activities were semi-quantitatively measured on the surface of the membrane using fluorescence determination. More than 51% of enzyme activities were retained even after the enzymes were captured by biotinylated antibody bound to membrane-immobilized avidin and eluted by rinsing with 5μL of 1% Triton X-100, compared with the activities of the enzyme on the immunoaffinity membrane.

  11. Reactor

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Robert M.

    1976-10-05

    1. A neutronic reactor having a moderator, coolant tubes traversing the moderator from an inlet end to an outlet end, bodies of material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy disposed within the coolant tubes, and means for circulating water through said coolant tubes characterized by the improved construction wherein the coolant tubes are constructed of aluminum having an outer diameter of 1.729 inches and a wall thickness of 0.059 inch, and the means for circulating a liquid coolant through the tubes includes a source of water at a pressure of approximately 350 pounds per square inch connected to the inlet end of the tubes, and said construction including a pressure reducing orifice disposed at the inlet ends of the tubes reducing the pressure of the water by approximately 150 pounds per square inch.

  12. Autohydrogenotrophic denitrification of drinking water using a polyvinyl chloride hollow fiber membrane biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanhao; Zhong, Fohua; Xia, Siqing; Wang, Xuejiang; Li, Jixiang

    2009-10-15

    A hollow fiber membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) using polyvinyl chloride (PVC) hollow fiber was evaluated in removing nitrate form contaminated drinking water. During a 279-day operation period, the denitrification rate increased gradually with the increase of influent nitrate loading. The denitrification rate reached a maximum value of 414.72 g N/m(3)d (1.50 g N/m(2)d) at an influent NO(3)(-)-N concentration of 10mg/L and a hydraulic residence time of 37.5 min, and the influent nitrate was completely reduced. At the same time, the effluent quality analysis showed the headspace hydrogen content (3.0%) was lower enough to preclude having an explosive air. Under the condition of the influent nitrate surface loading of 1.04 g N/m(2)d, over 90% removal efficiencies of the total nitrogen and nitrate were achieved at the hydrogen pressure above 0.04 MPa. The results of denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE), 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis, and hierarchical cluster analysis showed that the microbial community structures in MBfR were of low diversity, simple and stable at mature stages; and the beta-Proteobacteria, including Rhodocyclus, Hydrogenophaga, and beta-Proteobacteria HTCC379, probably play an important role in autohydrogenotrophic denitrification.

  13. Sewage sludge treatment in a thermophilic membrane reactor (TMR): factors affecting foam formation.

    PubMed

    Collivignarelli, Maria Cristina; Castagnola, Federico; Sordi, Marco; Bertanza, Giorgio

    2016-11-04

    Foam formation in the excess sludge treatment facilities of biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) may represent a critical issue as it could lead to several operative problems and reduce the overall plant performance. This trouble also affects a novel technology recently proposed for sludge minimization, the thermophilic membrane reactor (TMR), operating with alternate aeration/non-aeration cycles. This technology, which has proven to be extremely resilient and suitable for treating industrial wastewater of different nature, demonstrated a high potential also as a solution for integrating existing WWTPs, aiming at the "zero sludge production." In this work, an experimental study was conducted with a TMR pilot plant (fed daily with thickened sewage sludge) by adjusting the duration of aeration/non-aeration alternate cycles. Extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) concentration (and its soluble and bound fractions) has been monitored along with foaming power indices. The results highlight that foaming can be correlated to the presence of soluble protein fraction of EPS. Moreover, EPS production seems to be reduced by increasing the duration of the non-aeration cycles: optimal operating conditions resulted 2 h of aeration followed by 6 h of non-aeration. These conditions allow to obtain an EPS concentration of 500 mg L(-1) with respect to 2300 mg L(-1) measured at the beginning of experimental work.

  14. Recent palladium membrane reactor development at the tritium systems test assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Willms, R.S.; Birdsell, S.A.; Wilhelm, R.C.

    1995-07-01

    The palladium membrane reactor (PMR) is proving to be a simple and effective means for recovering hydrogen isotopes from fusion fuel impurities such as methane and water. This device directly combines two techniques which have long been utilized for hydrogen processing, namely catalytic shift reactions and palladium/silver permeators. A proof-of-principle (PMR) has been constructed and tested at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly of Los Alamos National Laboratory. The first tests with this device showed that is was effective for the proposed purpose. Initial work concluded that a nickel catalyst was an appropriate choice for use in a PMR. More detailed testing of the PMR with such a catalyst was performed and reported in other works. It was shown that a nickel catalyst-packed PMR did, indeed, recover hydrogen from water and methane with efficiencies approaching 100% in a single processing pass. These experiments were conducted over an extended period of time and no failure or need for regeneration was encountered. These positive results have prompted further PMR development. Topics addressed include alternate PMR geometries and initial testing of the PMR with tritium. These are the subjects of this paper.

  15. A biofilm model to understand the onset of sulfate reduction in denitrifying membrane biofilm reactors.

    PubMed

    Tang, Youneng; Ontiveros-Valencia, Aura; Feng, Liang; Zhou, Chen; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2013-03-01

    This work presents a multispecies biofilm model that describes the co-existence of nitrate- and sulfate-reducing bacteria in the H(2)-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR). The new model adapts the framework of a biofilm model for simultaneous nitrate and perchlorate removal by considering the unique metabolic and physiological characteristics of autotrophic sulfate-reducing bacteria that use H(2) as their electron donor. To evaluate the model, the simulated effluent H(2), UAP (substrate-utilization-associated products), and BAP (biomass-associated products) concentrations are compared to experimental results, and the simulated biomass distributions are compared to real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) data in the experiments for parameter optimization. Model outputs and experimental results match for all major trends and explain when sulfate reduction does or does not occur in parallel with denitrification. The onset of sulfate reduction occurs only when the nitrate concentration at the fiber's outer surface is low enough so that the growth rate of the denitrifying bacteria is equal to that of the sulfate-reducing bacteria. An example shows how to use the model to design an MBfR that achieves satisfactory nitrate reduction, but suppresses sulfate reduction. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Enhancing denitrification using a novel in situ membrane biofilm reactor (isMBfR).

    PubMed

    Wu, Yonghong; Li, Yizhou; Ontiveros-Valencia, Aura; Ordaz-Díaz, Luis; Liu, Junzhuo; Zhou, Chen; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2017-08-01

    The insufficient supply of electron donor in surface water contaminated with nitrate leads to its incomplete reduction in natural or constructed wetlands. Although the addition of organic matter (represented as chemical oxygen demand, COD) can stimulate N removal by denitrification, direct supplementation of COD creates unacceptable risks to effluent quality. An alternative for stimulating denitrification is supplying hydrogen gas (H2) as an inorganic electron donor. We evaluate an innovative means to do H2-based denitrification of surface waters in a wetland setting: the in-situ membrane biofilm reactor (isMBfR), in which H2 is delivered to a biofilm of denitrifying bacteria on demand based on the presence of nitrate. We carried out a proof-of-concept study in which an upper "photo zone" and a lower "MBfR root zone" were combined to remove nitrate and COD from simulated surface water. Employing mass-balances for H2, COD, nitrate, and oxygen, we documented nearly complete removals of nitrate and COD, except when the H2 supply was intentionally shut off. All nitrate removal was accomplished in the "MBfR root zone," where H2 delivery supplemented the COD supply (as needed) and provided the large majority of electron equivalents to reduce nitrate to N2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficient production of lactulose from whey powder by cellobiose 2-epimerase in an enzymatic membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lingtian; Xu, Cen; Li, Sha; Liang, Jinfeng; Xu, Hong; Xu, Zheng

    2017-06-01

    In this study, the gene encoding cellobiose 2-epimerase from Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus (CsCE) was successfully expressed in Bacillus subtilis WB800. After the fermentation medium optimization, the activity of recombinant strain was 4.5-fold higher than the original medium in a 7.5L fermentor. The optimal catalytic pH and temperature of crude CsCE were 7.0 and 80°C, respectively. An enzymatic synthesis of lactulose was developed using cheese-whey lactose as its substrate. The maximum conversion rate of whey powder obtained was 58.5% using 7.5 U/mL CsCE. The enzymatic membrane reactor system exhibited a great operational stability, confirmed with the higher lactose conversion (42.4%) after 10 batches. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of lactulose synthesis in food grade strain, which improve the food safety, and we not only realize the biological production of lactulose, but also make good use of industrial waste, which have positive impact on environment.

  18. Uranium removal and microbial community in a H2-based membrane biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chen; Ontiveros-Valencia, Aura; Cornette de Saint Cyr, Louis; Zevin, Alexander S; Carey, Sara E; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated a hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) for its capacity to reduce and remove hexavalent uranium [U(VI)] from water. After a startup period that allowed slow-growing U(VI) reducers to form biofilms, the MBfR successfully achieved and maintained 94-95% U(VI) removal over 8 months when the U surface loading was 6-11 e(-) mEq/m(2)-day. The MBfR biofilm was capable of self-recovery after a disturbance due to oxygen exposure. Nanocrystalline UO2 aggregates and amorphous U precipitates were associated with vegetative cells and apparently mature spores that accumulated in the biofilm matrix. Despite inoculation with a concentrated suspension of Desulfovibrio vulgaris, this bacterium was not present in the U(VI)-reducing biofilm. Instead, the most abundant group in the biofilm community contained U(VI) reducers in the Rhodocyclaceae family when U(VI) was the only electron acceptor. When sulfate was present, the community dramatically shifted to the Clostridiaceae family, which included spores that were potentially involved in U(VI) reduction.

  19. Bio-reduction of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) using a hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jinwook; Ahn, Chang-Hoon; Chen, Zhuo; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2008-01-01

    N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is a disinfection by-product shown to be carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic. A feasible detoxification pathway for NDMA is a three-step bio-reduction that leads to ammonia and dimethylamine. This study examines the bio-reduction of NDMA in a H2-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) that also is active in nitrate and sulfate reductions. In particular, the study investigates the effects of H2 availability and the relative loadings of NDMA, nitrate, and sulfate, which potentially are competing electron acceptors. The results demonstrate that NDMA was bio-reduced to a major extent (i.e., at least 96%) in a H2-based MBfR in which the electron-equivalent fluxes from H2 oxidation were dominated by nitrate and sulfate reductions. NDMA reduction kinetics responded to NDMA concentration, H2 pressure, and the presence of competing acceptors. The most important factor controlling NDMA-reduction kinetics was the H2 availability, controlled primarily by the H2 pressure, and secondarily by competition from nitrate reduction.

  20. Bio-reduction of soluble chromate using a hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jinwook; Nerenberg, Robert; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2006-05-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a mutagen and carcinogen that is a significant concern in water and wastewater. A simple and non-hazardous means to remove Cr(VI) is bioreduction to Cr(III), which should precipitate as Cr(OH)3(s). Since Cr(VI)-reducing bacteria can use hydrogen (H2) as an electron donor, we tested the potential of the H2-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) for chromate reduction and removal from water and wastewater. When Cr(VI) was added to a denitrifying MBfR, Cr(VI) reduction was immediate and increased over 11 days. Short-term experiments investigated the effects of Cr(VI) loading, H2 pressure, and nitrate loading on Cr(VI) reduction. Increasing the H2 pressure improved Cr(VI) reduction. Cr(VI) reduction also was sensitive to pH, with an optimum near 7.0, a sharp drop off below 7.0, and a gradual decline to 8.2. Cr(III) precipitated after a small upward adjustment of the pH. These experiments confirm that a denitrifying, H2-based MBfR can be used to reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III) and remove Cr from water. The research shows that critical operational parameters include the H2 concentration, nitrate concentration, and pH.

  1. Bioreduction of trichloroethene using a hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jinwook; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2008-01-15

    A H2-based, denitrifying membrane-biofilm reactor (MBfR) was effective for removing trichloroethene (TCE) by reductive dechlorination. When TCE was first added to the MBfR, reductive dechlorination took place immediately and then increased over 18 weeks, and TCE was completely dechlorinated to ethene by about 120 days. These results indicate that TCE-dechlorinating bacteria were present naturally in the H2-based biofilm, and that enrichment for TCE-dechlorinating bacteria occurred. Dehalococcoides were documented in the MBfR biofilm before and after TCE feeding. Their proportion, quantified using the 16S rRNA gene, increased from 2.9 to 12% after TCE addition. This is the first report in which Dehalococcoides are proven to be present as part of an autotrophic biofilm community active in reductive dechlorination of TCE to ethene in a laboratory controlled experiment. Based on the complete reduction of TCE to ethene, the 16S rRNA clone libraries results, and the amount of tceA and bvcA, it appears that at least two Dehalococcoides strains were present in the enriched biofilm. One of them seems to be a new strain that is unique for having tceA and bvcA reductive dehalogenases.

  2. Degradation of pharmaceuticals from membrane biological reactor sludge with Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Llorens-Blanch, Guillem; Badia-Fabregat, Marina; Lucas, Daniel; Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; Barceló, Damià; Pennanen, Taina; Caminal, Gloria; Blánquez, Paqui

    2015-02-01

    Emerging contaminants are a wide group of chemical products that are found at low concentrations in the environment. These contaminants can be either natural, e.g., estrogens, or synthetics, such as pesticides and pharmaceuticals, which can enter the environment through the water and sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). The growth of Trametes versicolor on membrane biological reactor (MBR) sludge in bioslurry systems at the Erlenmeyer scale was assessed and its capacity for removing pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) was evaluated. The ability of the fungus to remove hydrochlorothiazide (HZT) from liquid media cultures was initially assessed. Consequently, different bioslurry media (complete nutrient, glucose and no-nutrient addition) and conditions (sterile and non-sterile) were tested, and the removal of spiked HZT was monitored under each condition. The highest spiked HZT removal was assessed under non-sterile conditions without nutrient addition (93.2%). Finally, the removal assessment of a broad set of pharmaceuticals was performed in non-spiked bioslurry. Under non-sterile conditions, the fungus was able to completely degrade 12 out of the 28 drugs initially detected in the MBR sludge, achieving an overall degradation of 66.9%. Subsequent microbial analysis showed that the microbial diversity increased after 15 days of treatment, but there was still some T. versicolor in the bioslurry. Results showed that T. versicolor can be used to remove PPCPs in bioslurry systems under non-sterile conditions, without extra nutrients in the media, and in matrices as complex as an MBR sludge.

  3. Treatment of swine wastewater using MLE process and membrane bio-reactor.

    PubMed

    Chung, Y J; Choi, H N; Cho, J B; Park, S K

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop the optimum integrated treatment system for slurry type swine wastewater through field testing. Although composting and liquid composting are the most desirable processes to treat swine wastewater, inadequate composting has been blamed as critical non-point source pollutants. In the area with limited crop land and grass land, the most feasible method to handle slurry type swine wastewater would be that the solids portion from the solids/liquid separation process is treated by composting and then the liquid portion is treated by a series of wastewater treatment processes, including physicochemical treatment system and biological nutrient removal systems such as the modified Ludzack Ettinger (MLE) process and MLE process coupled with a membrane, to satisfy the different effluent criteria. When using the appropriate solids/liquid separation system, the removal efficiency of SS, COD(Cr), and TKN was 92.4%, 73.6%, and 46.0%, respectively and the amount of bulking agent required for composting and organic loading rate for the following wastewater treatment system can be reduced by 94.8% and 84.7%, respectively. When treating the effluent from solids/liquid separation process by MLE process, the optimal volume fraction for denitrification was 20% of total reactor volume and the optimum ratio of F/M and F(N)/M were increased with increase of C/N ratio. Since the effluent quality of MLE process is not enough to discharge, the DAF process was operated with addition of FeCl3 and cationic polyelectrolyte. The effluent from the DAF process was treated in the MLE process coupled with a crossflow ultrafiltration membrane to satisfy more stringent effluent criteria. When external carbon source is added to keep 6.0 of C/N ratio, the efficiency of denitrification is best. The optimum linear velocity and transmembrane pressure for MBR process was 1.8 m/sec and 2.1 atm, respectively. By addition of external carbon source, nitrogen compounds

  4. A facile and efficient method of enzyme immobilization on silica particles via Michael acceptor film coatings: immobilized catalase in a plug flow reactor.

    PubMed

    Bayramoglu, Gulay; Arica, M Yakup; Genc, Aysenur; Ozalp, V Cengiz; Ince, Ahmet; Bicak, Niyazi

    2016-06-01

    A novel method was developed for facile immobilization of enzymes on silica surfaces. Herein, we describe a single-step strategy for generating of reactive double bonds capable of Michael addition on the surfaces of silica particles. This method was based on reactive thin film generation on the surfaces by heating of impregnated self-curable polymer, alpha-morpholine substituted poly(vinyl methyl ketone) p(VMK). The generated double bonds were demonstrated to be an efficient way for rapid incorporation of enzymes via Michael addition. Catalase was used as model enzyme in order to test the effect of immobilization methodology by the reactive film surface through Michael addition reaction. Finally, a plug flow type immobilized enzyme reactor was employed to estimate decomposition rate of hydrogen peroxide. The highly stable enzyme reactor could operate continuously for 120 h at 30 °C with only a loss of about 36 % of its initial activity.

  5. Molecular commonality detection using an artificial enzyme membrane for in situ one-stop biosurveillance.

    PubMed

    Ikeno, Shinya; Asakawa, Hitoshi; Haruyama, Tetsuya

    2007-08-01

    Biodetection and biosensing have been developed based on the concept of sensitivity toward specific molecules. However, current demand may require more levelheaded or far-sighted methods, especially in the field of biological safety and security. In the fields of hygiene, public safety, and security including fighting bioterrorism, the detection of biological contaminants, e.g., microorganisms, spores, and viruses, is a constant challenge. However, there is as yet no sophisticated method of detecting such contaminants in situ without oversight. The authors focused their attention on diphosphoric acid anhydride, which is a structure common to all biological phosphoric substances. Interestingly, biological phosphoric substances are peculiar substances present in all living things and include many different substances, e.g., ATP, ADP, dNTP, pyrophosphate, and so forth, all of which have a diphosphoric acid anhydride structure. The authors took this common structure as the basis of their development of an artificial enzyme membrane with selectivity for the structure common to all biological phosphoric substances and studied the possibility of its application to in situ biosurveillance sensors. The artificial enzyme membrane-based amperometric biosensor developed by the authors can detect various biological phosphoric substances, because it has a comprehensive molecular selectivity for the structure of these biological phosphoric substances. This in situ detection method of the common diphosphoric acid anhydride structure brings a unique advantage to the fabrication of in situ biosurveillance sensors for monitoring biological contaminants, e.g., microorganism, spores, and viruses, without an oversight, even if they were transformed.

  6. Layer-by-Layer-Assembled Laccase Enzyme on Stimuli-Responsive Membranes for Chloro-Organics Degradation.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Rupam; Islam, Md Saiful; Miller, Anne-Frances; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar

    2017-05-03

    Functionalized membranes provide versatile platforms for the incorporation of biocatalysts and nanostructured materials for efficient and benign environmental remediation. The existing techniques for remediating chloro-organics in water consist of both physical and chemical means mostly using metal oxide-based catalysts, despite associated environmental concerns. To offer bioinspired remediation as an alternative, we herein demonstrate a layer-by-layer approach to immobilize laccase enzyme onto pH-responsive functionalized membranes for the degradation of chloro-organics in water. The efficacy of these bioinspired membranes toward dechlorination of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) is demonstrated under a pressure-driven continuous flow mode (convective flow) for the first time to the best of our knowledge. Over 80% of the initial TCP was degraded at an optimum flow rate under an applied air pressure of about 0.7 bar or lower. This corresponds to degradation of a substantial amount of the initial substrate in only 36 s residence time, whereas it takes hours for degradation in a batch reaction. This, in fact, demonstrates an energy efficient flow-through system with potentially large-scale applications. Comparison of the stability of the enzyme in the solution phase versus immobilized on the membrane phase showed a loss of some 65% of enzyme activity in the solution phase after 22 d, whereas the membrane-bound enzyme lost only a negligible percentage of the activity in a comparable time span. Finally, the membrane was exposed to rigorous cycles of TCP degradation trials to study its reusability. The primary results reveal a loss of only 14% of the initial activity after 4 cycles of use in a period of 25 d, demonstrating its potential to be reused. Regeneration of the functionalized membrane was also validated by dislodging the immobilized enzyme, followed by immobilization of fresh enzyme onto the membrane.

  7. The characteristics of extracellular polymeric substances and soluble microbial products in moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Duan, Liang; Jiang, Wei; Song, Yonghui; Xia, Siqing; Hermanowicz, Slawomir W

    2013-11-01

    The characteristics of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and soluble microbial products (SMP) in conventional membrane bioreactor (MBR) and in moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactors (MBBR-MBR) were investigated in long-term (170 days) experiments. The results showed that all reactors had high removal efficiency of ammonium and COD, despite very different fouling conditions. The MBBR-MBR with media fill ratio of 26.7% had much lower total membrane resistance and no obvious fouling were detected during the whole operation. In contrast, MBR and MBBR-MBR with lower and higher media fill experienced more significant fouling. Low fouling at optimum fill ratio may be due to the higher percentage of small molecular size (<1 kDa) and lower percentage of large molecular size (>100 kDa) of EPS and SMP in the reactor. The composition of EPS and SMP affected fouling due to different O-H bonds in hydroxyl functional groups, and less polysaccharides and lipids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [An enzyme reactor based on aptamer modified microfluidic chip for protein analysis].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Peng; Li, Dalei; Man, Yan; Geng, Lina; Lü, Xuefei; Deng, Yulin

    2012-11-01

    As a kind of recognition molecule, aptamer has been studied and applied widely in numerous science fields in recent years. Immobilized enzymatic reactor has drawn much attention because of its striking advantages, such as high digestion efficiency and ease in coupling with the separation and detection systems. In this study, a novel microfluidic enzymatic chip, which immobilized trypsin based on aptamer, was prepared and proposed. An online analysis platform, which consisted of an aptamer-based chip and high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, was established by using a 6-port valve and applied to protein analysis. The enzymatic capacity and stability performance of chip reactor were characterized by using mixed protein sample, which consisted of bovine serum albumin (BSA), myoglobin (Mb) and cytochrome c (Cyt. c). The sample digestion time of the chip reactor was about 5.76 s while 1 microL/min of flow rate was adopted; and moreover, 5 ng of Mb was identified successfully with the sequence coverage of 37%. Furthermore, the sequence coverages and the relative standard deviations were 44.3% and 6.5% for BSA, 65.0% and 2.7% for Mb, 62.0% and 5.6% for Cyt. c respectively when 500 ng digest of mixed proteins were analyzed in three runs. According to experimental results, the online analysis platform possesses the ability of high sensitivity and good stability, which can provide a promising tool for rapid and high-throughput proteomics study in the near future.

  9. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantification of insoluble membrane and scaffold proteins.

    PubMed

    Geumann, Constanze; Grønborg, Mads; Hellwig, Michaela; Martens, Henrik; Jahn, Reinhard

    2010-07-15

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are applied for the quantification of a vast diversity of small molecules. However, ELISAs require that the antigen is present in a soluble form in the sample. Accordingly, the few ELISAs described so far targeting insoluble proteins such as integral membrane and scaffold proteins have been restricted by limited extraction efficiencies and the need to establish an individual solubilization protocol for each protein. Here we describe a sandwich ELISA that allows the quantification of a diverse array of synaptic membrane and scaffold proteins such as munc13-1, gephyrin, NMDA R1 (N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit 1), synaptic vesicle membrane proteins, and SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors). The assay is based on initial solubilization by the denaturing detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), followed by partial SDS removal using the detergent Triton X-100, which restores antigenicity while keeping the proteins in solution. Using recombinant standard proteins, we determined assay sensitivities of 78ng/ml to 77pg/ml (or 74-0.1fmol). Calibration of the assay using both immunoblotting and mass spectroscopy revealed that in some cases correction factors need to be included for absolute quantification. The assay is versatile, allows parallel processing and automation, and should be applicable to a wide range of hitherto inaccessible proteins.

  10. Fabrication of an on-line enzyme micro-reactor coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the digestion of recombinant human erythropoietin.

    PubMed

    Foo, Hsiao Ching; Smith, Norman W; Stanley, Shawn M R

    2015-04-01

    Our aim was to develop a fast and efficient on-line method using micro-reactors for the digestion and deglycosylation of recombinant human erythropoietin extracted from equine plasma. The trypsin digestion micro reactors were fabricated using fused silica capillaries with either a dextran-modified coating or a porous monolith that was able to immobilise the enzyme. These were both found to be reasonably robust and durable, with the trypsin immobilised on dextran-modified fused silica capillaries offering better reproducibility than the micro-reactor based upon covalent attachment of this enzyme to the polymer. It is also evident that the enzyme attached micro reactors produced some tryptic peptides in a greater yield than in-solution digestion. A peptide-N-glycosidase F reactor was also fabricated and, when coupled with the trypsin reactor, the deaminated peptides T5 DAM and T9 DAM from recombinant human erythropoietin could also be detected by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. These results were better than those achieved using off-line digestion plus deglycosylation reactions and the analysis required far less time and effort to complete. The use of this on-line approach improved the sensitivity, efficiency and speed of our confirmation methodology that is based upon detecting the unique peptide segments of recombinant human erythropoietin that has been affinity extracted from positive equine plasma samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading. Final report, September 21, 1989--November 20, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, T.T.; Liu, P.K.T.; Webster, I.A.

    1992-12-31

    Membrane reactors are today finding extensive applications for gas and vapor phase catalytic reactions (see discussion in the introduction and recent reviews by Armor [92], Hsieh [93] and Tsotsis et al. [941]). There have not been any published reports, however, of their use in high pressure and temperature liquid-phase applications. The idea to apply membrane reactor technology to coal liquid upgrading has resulted from a series of experimental investigations by our group of petroleum and coal asphaltene transport through model membranes. Coal liquids contain polycyclic aromatic compounds, which not only present potential difficulties in upgrading, storage and coprocessing, but are also bioactive. Direct coal liquefaction is perceived today as a two-stage process, which involves a first stage of thermal (or catalytic) dissolution of coal, followed by a second stage, in which the resulting products of the first stage are catalytically upgraded. Even in the presence of hydrogen, the oil products of the second stage are thought to equilibrate with the heavier (asphaltenic and preasphaltenic) components found in the feedstream. The possibility exists for this smaller molecular fraction to recondense with the unreacted heavy components and form even heavier undesirable components like char and coke. One way to diminish these regressive reactions is to selectively remove these smaller molecular weight fractions once they are formed and prior to recondensation. This can, at least in principle, be accomplished through the use of high temperature membrane reactors, using ceramic membranes which are permselective for the desired products of the coal liquid upgrading process. An additional incentive to do so is in order to eliminate the further hydrogenation and hydrocracking of liquid products to undesirable light gases.

  12. Modulation of microsomal membrane associated detoxication enzymes activity by methyl isocyanate (MIC) exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, A.; Dwivedi, P.D.; Verma, A.S.; Mishra, J.; Sinha, M.; Dutta, K.K.; Ray, P.K. )

    1991-11-01

    In the industrial disaster at Bhopal, India in 1984 the leakage of 40 tons of methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas from a pesticide plant claimed over 2,500 lives and left an estimated population of 15,000 people suffering from a variety of ailments. MIC induced changes in respiratory functions including bronchial asthma, pulmonary oedema, necrosis of alveoli, hypersensitivity, pneumonities and incapacitated pulmonary functions. Reports have also indicated changes in the respiratory tract of animals as a result of exposure to MIC, the lung being the main target organ attacked by MIC. The authors earlier report of the high dose single exposure toxicity to methyl isocyanate leads to alterations in biotransformation enzymes and their isoenzymic pattern. Recently, a drastic decrease in Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, and Mg{sup ++} ATPase enzyme levels by repeated MIC exposure has been shown. The present study further explores the biochemical basis of MIC intoxication with reference to consecutive dose dependent toxicity in terms of alteration in phase 1 and phase 2 membrane bound detoxication enzymes.

  13. NOVEL COMPOSITE HYDROGEN-PERMEABLE MEMBRANES FOR NON-THERMAL PLASMA REACTORS FOR THE DECOMPOSITION OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE

    SciTech Connect

    Morris D. Argyle; John F. Ackerman; Suresh Muknahallipatna; Jerry C. Hamann; Stanislaw Legowski; Ji-Jun Zhang; Guibing Zhao; Robyn J. Alcanzare; Linna Wang; Ovid A. Plumb

    2004-07-01

    The goal of this experimental project is to design and fabricate a reactor and membrane test cell to dissociate hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in a non-thermal plasma and recover hydrogen (H{sub 2}) through a superpermeable multi-layer membrane. Superpermeability of hydrogen atoms (H) has been reported by some researchers using membranes made of Group V transition metals (niobium, tantalum, vanadium, and their alloys), although it has yet to be confirmed in this study. Experiments involving methane conversion reactions were conducted with a preliminary pulsed corona discharge reactor design in order to test and improve the reactor and membrane designs using a non-toxic reactant. This report details the direct methane conversion experiments to produce hydrogen, acetylene, and higher hydrocarbons utilizing a co-axial cylinder (CAC) corona discharge reactor, pulsed with a thyratron switch. The reactor was designed to accommodate relatively high flow rates (655 x 10{sup -6} m{sup 3}/s) representing a pilot scale easily converted to commercial scale. Parameters expected to influence methane conversion including pulse frequency, charge voltage, capacitance, residence time, and electrode material were investigated. Conversion, selectivity and energy consumption were measured or estimated. C{sub 2} and C{sub 3} hydrocarbon products were analyzed with a residual gas analyzer (RGA). In order to obtain quantitative results, the complex sample spectra were de-convoluted via a linear least squares method. Methane conversion as high as 51% was achieved. The products are typically 50%-60% acetylene, 20% propane, 10% ethane and ethylene, and 5% propylene. First Law thermodynamic energy efficiencies for the system (electrical and reactor) were estimated to range from 38% to 6%, with the highest efficiencies occurring at short residence time and low power input (low specific energy) where conversion is the lowest (less than 5%). The highest methane conversion of 51% occurred at a

  14. Arrhenius plots of membrane-bound enzymes of mitochondria and microsomes in the brain cortex of developing and old rats.

    PubMed

    Gorgani, M N; Pour-Rahimi, F; Meisami, E

    1986-06-01

    To study changes in lipid-protein-interaction and fluidity in mitochondrial and microsomal membranes of brain during development and aging, the Arrhenius plots of marker enzymes for mitochondrial inner and outer membranes as well as those of microsomal membranes were compared at different ages. The enzymes were, beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (BDH) for the inner mitochondrial membrane and rotenone-insensitive-NADH-cytochrome c reductase (Mit-NADH-CytR) for the outer membrane; also antimycin-insensitive-NADH-cytochrome c reductase (Micr-NADH-CytR) and NADPH-cytochrome c reductase for the microsomal membranes. The ages studied were, 1, 5, 30, 60 days postnatal and 2 years. In the microsomes, the plots of NADH-cytochrome c reductase were found to be biphasic at all ages except in the newborn where no break temperature was observed. The activation energy of this enzyme in the physiological range of temperature was found to be high in the newborn, declining with brain maturation. The plot of this enzyme in the old rat showed no difference when compared with the mature. The specific activity of the enzyme, however, was markedly reduced in the old brain microsomal fraction. In contrast, comparison of the plots of microsomal NADPH-cytochrome c reductase at the various ages revealed no break temperature and very similar energies of activation. For the inner mitochondrial membrane beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, the Arrhenius plots were generally biphasic at all ages studied with a break temperature of about 20 degrees C. However, the newborn plot was only barely biphasic showing a high energy of activation in the physiological range of temperature. In contrast, for the outer membrane NADH-cytochrome c reductase, the newborn plots were definitely biphasic, exhibiting low activation energy above the breaks. There was also a significant decline in the break temperature with brain development. No significant differences in the plots of this enzyme were found between the

  15. The effect of electronegativity and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition on the kinin-forming capacity of polyacrylonitrile dialysis membranes

    PubMed Central

    Désormeaux, Anik; Moreau, Marie Eve; Lepage, Yves; Chanard, Jacques; Adam, Albert

    2014-01-01

    The combination of negatively-charged membranes and angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) evokes hypersensitivity reactions (HSR) during hemodialysis and bradykinin (BK)-related peptides have been hypothesized as being responsible for these complications. In this study, we tested the effects of neutralizing the membrane electronegativity (zeta potential) of polyacrylonitrile AN69 membranes by coating a polyethyleneimine layer (AN69-ST membranes) over the generation of kinins induced by blood contact with synthetic membranes. We used minidialyzers with AN69 or AN69-ST membranes in an ex vivo model of plasma and we showed that plasma dialysis with AN69 membranes led to significant BK and des-Arg9-BK release, which was potentiated by ACEi. This kinin formation was dramatically decreased by AN69-ST membranes, even in the presence of an ACEi, and kinin recovery in the dialysates was also significantly lower with these membranes. High molecular weight kininogen and factor XII detection by immunoblotting of the protein layer coating both membranes corroborated the results: binding of these proteins and contact system activation on AN69-ST membranes were reduced. This ex vivo experimental model applied to the plasma, dialysate and dialysis membrane could be used for the characterization of the kinin-forming capacity of any biomaterial potentially used in vivo in combination with drugs which modulate the pharmacological activity of kinins. PMID:18078988

  16. Development of an online microbore hollow fiber enzyme reactor coupled with nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for global proteomics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Yong; Lee, Sun Young; Kim, Sook-Kyung; Park, Sang Ryoul; Kang, Dukjin; Moon, Myeong Hee

    2013-06-04

    In this study, we report the development of a microbore hollow fiber enzyme reactor (mHFER) coupled to nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-ESI-MS/MS) for the online digestion or selective enrichment of glycopeptides and analysis of proteins. With mHFER, enzymatic digestion of protein could be achieved by continuous flow within a very small volume (~10 μL) of mHF inserted in a PEEK tube. Digested peptides exited through the pores of the hollow fiber membrane wall to external single or multiplexed trap columns for nLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. Evaluation of online mHFER-nLC-ESI-MS/MS system was made with bovine serum albumin (BSA) by varying the temperature of digestion and the amount of protein injected. We evaluated the ability of the mHFER system to enrich glycopeptides by injecting a mixture of lectin (concanavalin A) and digested peptides from α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) into the mHFER, followed by delivery of PNGase F for endoglycosidic digestion. Nonglycosylated peptides unbound to lectins eluted at the first breakthrough run while N-linked glycopeptides eluted after the endoglycosidic digestion. The developed method was applied to urine samples from patients with prostate cancer and controls; 67 N-linked glycopeptides were identified and relative differences in glycopeptide content between patient and control samples were determined.

  17. Noncatalytic hydrogenation of decene-1 with hydrogen accumulated in a hybrid carbon nanostructure in nanosized membrane reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldatov, A. P.

    2014-08-01

    Studies on the creation of nanosized membrane reactors (NMRs) of a new generation with accumulated hydrogen and a regulated volume of reaction zone were continued at the next stage. Hydrogenation was performed in the pores of ceramic membranes with hydrogen preliminarily adsorbed in mono- and multilayered orientated carbon nanotubes with graphene walls (OCNTGs)—a new hybrid carbon nanostructure formed on the inner pore surface. Quantitative determination of hydrogen adsorption in OCNTGs was performed using TRUMEM ultrafiltration membranes with D av = 50 and 90 nm and showed that hydrogen adsorption was up to ˜1.5% of the mass of OCNTG. The instrumentation and procedure for noncatalytic hydrogenation of decene-1 at 250-350°C using hydrogen accumulated and stored in OCNTG were developed. The conversion of decene-1 into decane was ˜0.2-1.8% at hydrogenation temperatures of 250 and 350°C, respectively. The rate constants and activation energy of hydrogenation were determined. The latter was found to be 94.5 kJ/mol, which is much smaller than the values typical for noncatalytic hydrogenations and very close to the values characteristic for catalytic reactions. The quantitative distribution of the reacting compounds in each pore regarded as a nanosized membrane reactor was determined. The activity of hydrogen adsorbed in a 2D carbon nanostructure was evaluated. Possible mechanisms of noncatalytic hydrogenation were discussed.

  18. Model biogas steam reforming in a thin Pd-supported membrane reactor to generate clean hydrogen for fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iulianelli, A.; Liguori, S.; Huang, Y.; Basile, A.

    2015-01-01

    Steam reforming of a model biogas mixture is studied for generating clean hydrogen by using an inorganic membrane reactor, in which a composite Pd/Al2O3 membrane separates part of the produced hydrogen through its selective permeation. The characteristics of H2 perm-selectivity of the fresh membrane is expressed in terms of H2/N2 ideal selectivity, in this case equal to 4300. Concerning biogas steam reforming reaction, at 380 °C, 2.0 bar H2O:CH4 = 3:1, GHSV = 9000 h-1 the permeate purity of the recovered hydrogen is around 96%, although the conversion (15%) and hydrogen recovery (>20%) are relatively low; on the contrary, at 450 °C, 3.5 bar H2O:CH4 = 4:1, GHSV = 11000 h-1 the conversion is increased up to more than 30% and the recovery of hydrogen to about 70%. This novel work constitutes a reference study for new developments on biogas steam reforming reaction in membrane reactors.

  19. IN VITRO STIMULATION OF ENZYME SECRETION AND THE SYNTHESIS OF MICROSOMAL MEMBRANES IN THE PANCREAS OF THE GUINEA PIG

    PubMed Central

    Meldolesi, Jacopo; Cova, Dario

    1971-01-01

    Several mechanisms have been suggested to explain how secretory cells remove from the plasmalemma the excess membrane resulting from the insertion of granule membrane during exocytosis: intact patches of membrane may be internalized and then reutilized within the cell; alternatively these membranes may be either disassembled to subunits or degraded. In the latter case new membranes should be synthetized at other sites of the cell, probably in the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and the Golgi complex. In the present research, membrane subfractions were obtained from rough microsomes (derived from fragmented and resealed RER cisternae) and from smooth microsomes (primarily contributed by Golgi stacks and vesicles) of the guinea pig pancreas by incubation at 4°C for 4 hr in 0.0005 M puromycin at high ionic strength followed by mild (pH 7.8) alkaline extraction with 0.2 M NaHCO3. Such treatments release the majority of nonmembrane components of both microsomal fractions (i.e., contained secretory enzymes, ribosomes, and absorbed proteins of the cell sap) and allow the membranes to be recovered by centrifugation. The effect of in vitro stimulation of enzyme secretion (brought about in pancreas slices by 0.0001 M carbamoyl choline) on the rate of synthesis of the phospholipid (PLP) and protein of these membranes was then investigated. In agreement with previous data, we observed that in stimulated slices the synthesis of microsomal PLP was greatly increased. In contrast, the synthesis of microsomal membrane proteins was unchanged. These results suggest that exocytosis is not coupled with an increased rate of synthesis of complete ER and Golgi membranes and are, therefore, consistent with the view that excess plasma membrane is preserved and reutilized, either as discrete membrane patches or as membrane macromolecules, throughout the secretory cycle. PMID:4329615

  20. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtPAL2): A potent MIO-enzyme for the synthesis of non-canonical aromatic alpha-amino acids.: Part II: Application in different reactor concepts for the production of (S)-2-chloro-phenylalanine.

    PubMed

    Dreßen, Alana; Hilberath, Thomas; Mackfeld, Ursula; Rudat, Jens; Pohl, Martina

    2017-09-20

    Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtPAL2) is in general a very good catalyst for the amination of fluoro- and chloro-cinnamic acid derivatives yielding halogenated (S)-phenylalanine derivatives with ≥85% conversion and excellent ee values >99%. We have studied the application of this enzyme as whole cell biocatalyst and immobilized on the cellulose carrier Avicel(®) for the production of the hypertension drug precursor (S)-2-chloro-phenylalanine using batch, fed-batch, as well as continuous membrane reactor and plug-flow reactor. For immobilization, a C-terminal fusion of the enzyme with a carbohydrate binding module (CBM) was produced, which selectively binds to Avicel(®) directly from crude cell extracts, thus enabling a fast and cheap immobilization, stabilization and recycling of the enzyme. 1g Avicel was loaded with 10mg enzyme. Best results were obtained with whole cells using the continuous membrane reactor (47gproduct/gDryCellWeight) and using the immobilized enzyme in a repetitive fed-batch (274gproduct/gimmobilized enzyme) or in a continuous plug-flow reactor (288gproduct/gimmobilize enzyme). Therewith the productivity of AtPAL2 outperforms the established fed-batch process at DSM using PAL from Rhodotorula glutinis in E. coli as whole cell biocatalyst with a productivity of 0.14gproduct/gWetCellWeight (ca. 0.7gproduct/gDryCellWeight) (de Lange et al., 2011; doi:10.1002/cctc.201000435). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Nitrogen removal by granular nitritation-anammox in an upflow membrane-aerated biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojin; Sun, Shan; Badgley, Brian D; Sung, Shihwu; Zhang, Husen; He, Zhen

    2016-05-01

    The nitritation-anammox process has been a promising nitrogen removal technology towards sustainable wastewater treatment, but its application in treating domestic wastewater with relatively low ammonium concentrations (mainstream) remains a great challenge. In this study, an innovative lab-scale upflow membrane-aerated biofilm reactor (UMABR) was employed to treat a synthetic wastewater containing 70 mg N L(-1) ammonium. With a DO level at 0.6 ± 0.1 mg O2 L(-1) and HRT of 32 h, the effluent ammonium concentration was 4.8 ± 2.0 mg N L(-1). Increasing the nitrogen loading rate from 52.4 to 104.8 g N m(-3) d(-1) with stepwise decreasing HRT from 32 to 16 h resulted in an average TN removal efficiency of 81% without nitrite accumulation. The average observed NO3(-)-N (residue)/NH4(+)-N (consumed) ratio of 8% was below the "theoretical ratio" of 13% and further reduction of nitrate residue needs to be addressed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and high-throughput sequencing analyses showed the coexistence of anammox bacteria and ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in both biofilm and granular samples. Anammox bacteria accounted for up to 63.3% of the microbial community of the granules, with Candidatus Jettenia being the distinctly dominant anammox genus. In contrast, the biofilm contained abundant Nitrosomonadaceae (AOB, 33.1%). In addition, the brown-yellow granules exhibited a more balanced community structure with anammox bacteria and AOB accounting for 33.7% and 18.2%, respectively, which may contribute to the long-term operation of single-stage nitritation-anammox process. These results demonstrate that the nitritation-anammox UMABR could potentially be used for nitrogen removal from mainstream in some specific regions with relatively warm temperature.

  2. [Analysis of Microbial Community in the Membrane Bio-Reactor (MBR) Rural Sewage Treatment System].

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiao; Cui, Bing-jian; Jin, De-cai; Wu, Shang-hua; Yang, Bo; Deng, Ye; Zhuang, Guo-qiang; Zhuang, Xu-liang

    2015-09-01

    Uncontrolled release and arbitrary irrigation reuse of rural wastewater may lead to water pollution, and the microbial pathogens could threaten the safety of freshwater resources and public health. To understand the microbial community structure of rural wastewater and provide the theory for microbial risk assessment of wastewater irrigation, microbial community diversities in the Membrane Bio-Reactor (MBR) process for rural wastewater treatment was studied by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and 16S rDNA gene clone library. Meanwhile, changes of Arcobacter spp. and total bacteria before and after treatment were detected through real-time quantitative PCR. The clone library results showed that there were 73 positive clones included Proteobacteria (91. 80%), Firmicutes (2. 70%), Bacteroidetes (1. 40%), and uncultured bacteria (4. 10%) in the untreated wastewater. The typical pathogenic genus Arcobacter belonging to e-Proteobacteria was the dominant component of the library, accounting for 68. 5% of all clones. The main groups and their abundance in different treatments were significantly distinct. The highest values of species abundance (S), Shannon-Wiener (H) and Evenness (E) were observed in the adjusting tank, which were 43. 0, 3. 56 and 0. 95, respectively. The real-time quantitative PCR results showed that the copy number of Arcobacter spp. was (1. 09 ± 0. 064 0) x 10(11) copies.L-1 in the untreated sewage, which was consistent with the result of 16S rDNA gene clone library. Compared to untreated wastewater, bacterial copy number in the treated effluent decreased 100 to 1 000 times, respectively, suggesting that MBR treatment system could remove the microbial quantity in such scale. In the recycled water, the physicochemical parameters and indicator bacteria met the water quality standard of farmland irrigation. However, further research is needed to estimate the potential health risks caused by residual pathogenic microorganisms in

  3. Bio-reduction of arsenate using a hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jinwook; Li, Xiaohao; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2006-09-01

    Arsenate (As(V)) is a carcinogen and a significant problem in groundwater in many parts of the world. Since As(III) is generally more mobile and more toxic than As(V), the reduction of As(V) to As(III) is not a conventional treatment goal. However, reducing As(V) to As(III) may still be a means for decontamination, because As(III) can be removed from solution by precipitation or complexation with sulfide or by adsorption to Fe(II)-based solids. A promising approach for reducing oxidized contaminants is the H2-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR). In the case of arsenate, the MBfR allows bio-reduction of As(V) to As(III) and sulfate to sulfide, thereby giving the potential for As removal, such as by precipitation of As2S3(s) or formation of Fe(II)-based solids. When As(V) was added to a denitrifying MBfR, As(V) was reduced immediately to As(III). Decreasing the influent sulfate loading increased As(V) reduction for a fixed H2 pressure. A series of short-term experiments elaborated on how As(V) loading, nitrate and sulfate loadings, and H2 pressure controlled As(V) reduction. Lower nitrate loading and increased As(V) loading increased the extent of As(V) reduction, but increased H2 pressure did not increase As(V) reduction. As(V) reduction was sensitive to sulfate loading, with a maximum As(V)-removal percentage and flux with no addition of sulfate. As(III) could be precipitated with sulfide or adsorbed to Fe(II) solids, which was verified by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis.

  4. Bioreduction of selenate using a hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jinwook; Nerenberg, Robert; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2006-03-01

    A H2-based, denitrifying and sulfate-reducing membrane-biofilm reactor (MBfR) was shown to be effective for removing selenate (Se(VI)) from water or wastewater by reducing it to insoluble Se(0). When Se(VI) was first added to the MBfR, Se(VI) reduction--first to selenite (Se(IV)) and then mostly to Se(0)--took place immediately and then increased over three weeks, suggesting enrichment for dissimilatory selenium-reducing bacteria. Increasing the H2 pressure improved the Se(VI) reduction rate and total-Se removal, and lowering the influent Se(VI) concentration from 1000 to 260 microg Se/L increased the average Se removal to 94%, which corresponded to an effluent Se concentration of less than 12 microg Se/L, a value well below the standard of 50 microg Se/L. The fact that the effluent suspended solids contained reduced Se suggests that Se(0) was retained in the biofilm, which detached to form the effluent suspended solids. A series of short-term experiments elaborated on how decreased influent selenate loading and increased H2 pressure could systematically improve the reduction of Se(VI) and removal of total Se. Short-term experiments also demonstrated that selenate reduction improved with lower influent nitrate concentration, suggesting that H2 was more available for selenate reduction when the H2 demand for denitrification was smaller. Complete sulfate reduction, which occurred in parallel to nitrate reduction, dominated the electron-equivalent flux. Like selenate reduction, but unlike nitrate reduction, sulfate reduction was sensitive to H2 pressure and appeared to be inhibited by selenate. Finally, selenate reduction was relatively insensitive to pH in the range of 7.0 to 9.0. This research shows that the MBfR can be effective for removing Se(VI) in water or wastewater to below the 50 microg Se/L standard.

  5. Simultaneous removal of organic matter and nitrogen compounds by an aerobic/anoxic membrane biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Hasar, Halil; Xia, Siqing; Ahn, Chang Hoon; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2008-09-01

    The hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) has been well studied and applied for denitrification of nitrate-containing water and wastewater. Adding an oxygen-based MBfR allows total-nitrogen removal when the input nitrogen is ammonium. However, most wastewaters also contain a significant concentration or organic material, measured as chemical oxygen demand (COD). This study describes experiments to investigate the removal of organic and nitrogenous compounds in the combined Aerobic/Anoxic MBfR, in which an Aerobic MBfR (Aer MBfR) precedes an Anoxic MBfR (An MBfR). The experiments demonstrate that the Aer/An MBfR combination accomplished COD oxidation and nitrogen removal for a total oxygen demand flux (i.e., from COD and NH(4) oxidations) in the range of 1.2-7.2 g O(2)/m(2)-d for 4.5 psi (0.3 atm) oxygen pressure to the Aer MBfR, but was overloaded and did not accomplish nitrification for the total oxygen demand load higher than 14 g O(2)/m(2)-d. Total-nitrogen removal was controlled by nitrification in the Aer MBfR, because the An MBfR denitrified all NO(3)(-) provided to it by the Aer MBfR. The overload of total oxygen demand did not affect COD oxidation in the Aer MBfR, but caused a small increase of COD in the An MBfR due to net release of soluble microbial products (SMP).

  6. Systematic analysis of biomass characteristics associated membrane fouling during start-up of a hybrid membrane bioreactor using worm reactor for sludge reduction.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhipeng; Tian, Yu; Ding, Yi; Lu, Yaobin

    2013-05-01

    This study focused on the effect of predated sludge recycle on microbial community development in MBR coupled with Static Sequencing Batch Worm Reactor (SSBWR-MBR). The microbial activities and community were evaluated. The results indicated that the SSBWR-MBR fed with the predated sludge obtained excellent wastewater treatment performance and membrane permeability. In addition, the LIVE/DEAD staining analyses clearly showed that the viability of sludge in SSBWR-MBR was slightly lower than that in Control-MBR, indicating that SSBWR-MBR had a good ability to digest predated sludge. Changed EPS and SMP characteristics and low EPS production, as the major contributors for the mitigated membrane fouling, were closely associated with microbial community development. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis revealed that the bacterial communities in the two reactors were different. Further identification of the bacterial populations suggested that decrease of Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria and change in Alphaproteobacteria might be responsible for membrane fouling mitigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Metabolic toxicity screening using electrochemiluminescence arrays coupled with enzyme-DNA biocolloid reactors and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hvastkovs, Eli G; Schenkman, John B; Rusling, James F

    2012-01-01

    New chemicals or drugs must be guaranteed safe before they can be marketed. Despite widespread use of bioassay panels for toxicity prediction, products that are toxic to a subset of the population often are not identified until clinical trials. This article reviews new array methodologies based on enzyme/DNA films that form and identify DNA-reactive metabolites that are indicators of potentially genotoxic species. This molecularly based methodology is designed in a rapid screening array that utilizes electrochemiluminescence (ECL) to detect metabolite-DNA reactions, as well as biocolloid reactors that provide the DNA adducts and metabolites for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. ECL arrays provide rapid toxicity screening, and the biocolloid reactor LC-MS approach provides a valuable follow-up on structure, identification, and formation rates of DNA adducts for toxicity hits from the ECL array screening. Specific examples using this strategy are discussed. Integration of high-throughput versions of these toxicity-screening methods with existing drug toxicity bioassays should allow for better human toxicity prediction as well as more informed decision making regarding new chemical and drug candidates.

  8. Metabolic Toxicity Screening Using Electrochemiluminescence Arrays Coupled with Enzyme-DNA Biocolloid Reactors and Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Hvastkovs, Eli G.; Schenkman, John B.; Rusling, James F.

    2012-01-01

    New chemicals or drugs must be guaranteed safe before they can be marketed. Despite widespread use of bioassay panels for toxicity prediction, products that are toxic to a subset of the population often are not identified until clinical trials. This article reviews new array methodologies based on enzyme/DNA films that form and identify DNA-reactive metabolites that are indicators of potentially genotoxic species. This molecularly based methodology is designed in a rapid screening array that utilizes electrochemiluminescence (ECL) to detect metabolite-DNA reactions, as well as biocolloid reactors that provide the DNA adducts and metabolites for liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. ECL arrays provide rapid toxicity screening, and the biocolloid reactor LC-MS approach provides a valuable follow-up on structure, identification, and formation rates of DNA adducts for toxicity hits from the ECL array screening. Specific examples using this strategy are discussed. Integration of high-throughput versions of these toxicity-screening methods with existing drug toxicity bioassays should allow for better human toxicity prediction as well as more informed decision making regarding new chemical and drug candidates. PMID:22482786

  9. Metabolic Toxicity Screening Using Electrochemiluminescence Arrays Coupled with Enzyme-DNA Biocolloid Reactors and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hvastkovs, Eli, G.; Schenkman, John B.; Rusling, James, F.

    2012-07-01

    New chemicals or drugs must be guaranteed safe before they can be marketed. Despite widespread use of bioassay panels for toxicity prediction, products that are toxic to a subset of the population often are not identified until clinical trials. This article reviews new array methodologies based on enzyme/DNA films that form and identify DNA-reactive metabolites that are indicators of potentially genotoxic species. This molecularly based methodology is designed in a rapid screening array that utilizes electrochemiluminescence (ECL) to detect metabolite-DNA reactions, as well as biocolloid reactors that provide the DNA adducts and metabolites for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. ECL arrays provide rapid toxicity screening, and the biocolloid reactor LC-MS approach provides a valuable follow-up on structure, identification, and formation rates of DNA adducts for toxicity hits from the ECL array screening. Specific examples using this strategy are discussed. Integration of high-throughput versions of these toxicity-screening methods with existing drug toxicity bioassays should allow for better human toxicity prediction as well as more informed decision making regarding new chemical and drug candidates.

  10. Hydrogen production by reforming of liquid hydrocarbons in a membrane reactor for portable power generation-Model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damle, Ashok S.

    One of the most promising technologies for lightweight, compact, portable power generation is proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. PEM fuel cells, however, require a source of pure hydrogen. Steam reforming of hydrocarbons in an integrated membrane reactor has potential to provide pure hydrogen in a compact system. In a membrane reactor process, the thermal energy needed for the endothermic hydrocarbon reforming may be provided by combustion of the membrane reject gas. The energy efficiency of the overall hydrogen generation is maximized by controlling the hydrogen product yield such that the heat value of the membrane reject gas is sufficient to provide all of the heat necessary for the integrated process. Optimization of the system temperature, pressure and operating parameters such as net hydrogen recovery is necessary to realize an efficient integrated membrane reformer suitable for compact portable hydrogen generation. This paper presents results of theoretical model simulations of the integrated membrane reformer concept elucidating the effect of operating parameters on the extent of fuel conversion to hydrogen and hydrogen product yield. Model simulations indicate that the net possible hydrogen product yield is strongly influenced by the efficiency of heat recovery from the combustion of membrane reject gas and from the hot exhaust gases. When butane is used as a fuel, a net hydrogen recovery of 68% of that stoichiometrically possible may be achieved with membrane reformer operation at 600 °C (873 K) temperature and 100 psig (0.791 MPa) pressure provided 90% of available combustion and exhaust gas heat is recovered. Operation at a greater pressure or temperature provides a marginal improvement in the performance whereas operation at a significantly lower temperature or pressure will not be able to achieve the optimal hydrogen yield. Slightly higher, up to 76%, net hydrogen recovery is possible when methanol is used as a fuel due to the lower heat

  11. Specific determination of myo-inositol in multivitamin pharmaceutical preparations by a flow injection system using a myo-inositol dehydrogenase reactor coupled with a glucose eliminating enzyme reactor.

    PubMed

    Ono, Masaki; Nakajima, Toshiaki; Itoh, Yuji; Shimada, Kenji; Yamato, Susumu

    2003-12-04

    A flow injection system for myo-inositol determination in multivitamin pharmaceutical preparations using two enzyme reactors was developed. Myo-inositol was detected using a fluorophotometer, to measure the fluorescence of NADH produced from NAD+ by a myo-inositol dehydrogenase reactor (IDR) containing myo-inositol dehydrogenase immobilized on porous glass. Enhanced interference due to excess glucose included in a multivitamin pharmaceutical preparation as a sweetener was eliminated by a glucose eliminating reactor (GER) co-immobilized with three enzymes (glucose oxidase, mutarotase and catalase). The calibration coefficient for the standard curve was 0.9993 for myo-inositol detection in the range of 1-5 microg/ml. Myo-inositol was determined even in the presence of glucose concentrations of 140-420 microg/ml. The recovery of myo-inositol added to the multivitamin pharmaceutical preparation was 99.6% (n=9).

  12. Preparation of whey protein hydrolysates using a single- and two-stage enzymatic membrane reactor and their immunological and antioxidant properties: characterization by multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheison, Seronei Chelulei; Wang, Zhang; Xu, Shi-Ying

    2007-05-16

    An initial 5% (w/v), followed thereafter with replacement aliquots of 3% (w/v), whey protein isolate (WPI) (ca. 86.98% Kjeldahl N x 6.38), was hydrolyzed using Protease N Amano G (IUB 3.4.24.28, Bacillus subtilis) in an enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR) fitted with either a 10 or 3 kDa nominal molecular weight cutoff (NMWCO) tangential flow filter (TFF) membrane. The hydrolysates were desalted by adsorption onto a styrene-based macroporous adsorption resin (MAR) and washed with deionized water to remove the alkali, and the peptides were desorbed with 25, 50, and 95% (v/v) ethyl alcohol. The desalted hydrolysates were analyzed for antibody binding, free radical scavenging, and molecular mass analysis as well as total and free amino acids (FAA). For the first time a quantity called IC50, the concentration of peptides causing 50% inhibition of the available antibody, is introduced to quantify inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) properties. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used for data reduction. The hydrolysate molecular mass provided the most prominent influence (PC1 = 57.35%), followed by inhibition ELISA (PC2 = 18.90%) and the antioxidant properties (PC3 = 10.43%). Ash was significantly reduced in the desalted fractions; the protein adsorption recoveries were high, whereas desorption with alcohol was prominently influenced by the hydrophobic/ hydrophilic amino acid balance. After hydrolysis, some hydrolysates showed increased ELISA reactivity compared with the native WPI.

  13. [Effects of PCBs on Aegiceras corniculatum seedlings growth and membrane protective enzyme system].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya-yun; Sun, Hong-bin; Chen, Gui-zhu

    2007-01-01

    With pot experiment, this paper studied the effects of PCBs (0, 180, 900, 1800 and 2700 microg x kg(-1)) on the seedlings growth and the leaves chlorophyll content, MDA content, and membrane protective enzyme system of Aegiceras corniculatum. The results showed that PCBs had definite stimulative effects on the seedlings growth. The stem height, basal stem diameter, and stem volume were all increased with increasing PCBs concentration. Within the test range of PCBs, the chlorophyll content and chlorophyll a/b ratio maintained at a relatively stable and normal level. The decrement of chlorophyll content and the increment of chlorophyll a/b ratio were less than 25% and 10% of the control, respectively. With increasing PCBs concentration, SOD activity increased first and decreased then, while POD activity and MDA content were in adverse. It was suggested that A. corniculatum could endure and adapt definite concentrations of PCBs through physiological and biochemical mechanisms, being available to the phytoremediation of PCBs pollution.

  14. Multidimensional modeling of biofilm development and fluid dynamics in a hydrogen-based, membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR).

    PubMed

    Martin, Kelly J; Picioreanu, Cristian; Nerenberg, Robert

    2013-09-01

    A two-dimensional, particle-based biofilm model coupled with mass transport and computational fluid dynamics was developed to simulate autotrophic denitrification in a spiral-wound membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR), where hydrogen is supplied via hollow-fiber membrane fabric. The spiral-wound configuration consists of alternating layers of plastic spacer net and membrane fabric that create rows of flow channels, with the top and bottom walls comprised of membranes. The transversal filaments of the spacer partially obstruct the channel flow, producing complex mixing and shear patterns that require multidimensional representation. This study investigated the effect of hydrogen and nitrate concentrations, as well as spacer configuration, on biofilm development and denitrification fluxes. The model results indicate that the cavity spacer filaments, which rest on the bottom membranes, cause uneven biofilm growth. Most biofilm resided on the bottom membranes, only in the wake of the filaments where low shear zones formed. In this way, filament configuration may help achieve a desired biofilm thickness. For the conditions tested in this study, the highest nitrate fluxes were attained by minimizing the filament diameter and maximizing the filament spacing. This lowered the shear stress at the top membranes, allowing for more biofilm growth. For the scenarios studied, biomass limitation at the top membranes hindered performance more significantly than diffusion limitation in the thick biofilms at the bottom membranes. The results also highlighted the importance of two-dimensional modeling to capture uneven biofilm growth on a substratum with geometrical complexity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Double-side active TiO2-modified nanofiltration membranes in continuous flow photocatalytic reactors for effective water purification.

    PubMed

    Romanos, G Em; Athanasekou, C P; Katsaros, F K; Kanellopoulos, N K; Dionysiou, D D; Likodimos, V; Falaras, P

    2012-04-15

    A chemical vapour deposition (CVD) based innovative approach was applied with the purpose to develop composite TiO(2) photocatalytic nanofiltration (NF) membranes. The method involved pyrolytic decomposition of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) vapor and formation of TiO(2) nanoparticles through homogeneous gas phase reactions and aggregation of the produced intermediate species. The grown nanoparticles diffused and deposited on the surface of γ-alumina NF membrane tubes. The CVD reactor allowed for online monitoring of the carrier gas permeability during the treatment, providing a first insight on the pore efficiency and thickness of the formed photocatalytic layers. In addition, the thin TiO(2) deposits were developed on both membrane sides without sacrificing the high yield rates. Important innovation was also introduced in what concerns the photocatalytic performance evaluation. The membrane efficiency to photo degrade typical water pollutants, was evaluated in a continuous flow water purification device, applying UV irradiation on both membrane sides. The developed composite NF membranes were highly efficient in the decomposition of methyl orange exhibiting low adsorption-fouling tendency and high water permeability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. New functional biocarriers for enhancing the performance of a hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor system.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lijuan; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Huu Hao; Zhang, Xinbo; Wang, Xiaochang C; Zhang, Qionghua; Chen, Rong

    2016-05-01

    In this study, new sponge modified plastic carriers for moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) was developed. The performance and membrane fouling behavior of a hybrid MBBR-membrane bioreactor (MBBR-MBR) system were also evaluated. Comparing to the MBBR with plastic carriers (MBBR), the MBBR with sponge modified biocarriers (S-MBBR) showed better effluent quality and enhanced nutrient removal at HRTs of 12h and 6h. Regarding fouling issue of the hybrid systems, soluble microbial products (SMP) of the MBR unit greatly influenced membrane fouling. The sponge modified biocarriers could lower the levels of SMP in mixed liquor and extracellular polymeric substances in activated sludge, thereby mitigating cake layer and pore blocking resistances of the membrane. The reduced SMP and biopolymer clusters in membrane cake layer were also observed. The results demonstrated that the sponge modified biocarriers were capable of improving overall MBBR performance and substantially alleviated membrane fouling of the subsequent MBR unit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Processing Tritiated Water at the Savannah River Site: A Production-Scale Demonstration of a Palladium Membrane Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sessions, Kevin L.

    2005-07-15

    The Palladium Membrane Reactor (PMR) process was installed in the Tritium Facilities at the Savannah River Site to perform a production-scale demonstration for the recovery of tritium from tritiated water adsorbed on molecular sieve (zeolite). Unlike the current recovery process that utilizes magnesium, the PMR offers a means to process tritiated water in a more cost effective and environmentally friendly manner. The design and installation of the large-scale PMR process was part of a collaborative effort between the Savannah River Site and Los Alamos National Laboratory.The PMR process operated at the Savannah River Site between May 2001 and April 2003. During the initial phase of operation the PMR processed thirty-four kilograms of tritiated water from the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The water was processed in fifteen separate batches to yield approximately 34,400 liters (STP) of hydrogen isotopes. Each batch consisted of round-the-clock operations for approximately nine days. In April 2003 the reactor's palladium-silver membrane ruptured resulting in the shutdown of the PMR process. Reactor performance, process performance and operating experiences have been evaluated and documented. A performance comparison between PMR and current magnesium process is also documented.

  18. Hydrogen-Permeable Tubular Membrane Reactor: Promoting Conversion and Product Selectivity for Non-Oxidative Activation of Methane over an Fe©SiO2 Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Sakbodin, Mann; Wu, Yiqing; Oh, Su Cheun; Wachsman, Eric D; Liu, Dongxia

    2016-12-23

    Non-oxidative methane conversion over Fe©SiO2 catalyst was studied for the first time in a hydrogen (H2 ) permeable tubular membrane reactor. The membrane reactor is composed of a mixed ionic-electronic SrCe0.7 Zr0.2 Eu0.1 O3-δ thin film (≈20 μm) supported on the outer surface of a one-end capped porous SrCe0.8 Zr0.2 O3-δ tube. Significant improvement in CH4 conversion was achieved upon H2 removal from the membrane reactor compared to that in a fixed-bed reactor. The Fe©SiO2 catalyst in the H2 permeable membrane reactor demonstrated a stable ≈30 % C2+ single-pass yield, with up to 30 % CH4 conversion and 99 % selectivity to C2 (ethylene and acetylene) and aromatic (benzene and naphthalene) products, at the tested conditions. The selectivity towards C2 or aromatics was manipulated purposely by adding H2 into or removing H2 from the membrane reactor feed and permeate gas streams. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Association of canalicular membrane enzymes with bile acid micelles and lipid aggregates in human and rat bile.

    PubMed

    Accatino, L; Pizarro, M; Solís, N; Koenig, C S

    1995-01-18

    This study was undertaken to gain insights into the characteristics of the polymolecular association between canalicular membrane enzymes, bile acids, cholesterol and phospholipids in bile and into the celular mechanisms whereby the enzymes are secreted into bile. With this purpose, we studied the distribution of bile acids, cholesterol, phospholipids, proteins and representative canalicular membrane enzymes (alkaline phosphatase, 5'-nucleotidase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase), which can be considered specific marker constituents, in bile fractions enriched in phospholipid-cholesterol lamellar structures (multilamellar and unilamellar vesicles) and bile acid-mixed micelles. These fractions were isolated by ultracentrifugation from human hepatic bile, normal rat bile and bile of rats treated with diosgenin, a steroid that induces a marked increase in biliary cholesterol secretion, and were characterized by density, lipid composition and transmission electron microscopy. These studies demonstrate that alkaline phosphatase, 5'-nucleotidase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase are secreted into both human and rat bile where they are preferentially associated with bile acid-mixed micelles, suggesting a role for bile acids in both release of these enzymes and lipids from the canalicular membrane and solubilization in bile. In addition, heterogeneous association of these enzymes with nonmicellar, lamellar structures in human and rat bile is consistent with the hypothesis that processes independent of the detergent effects of bile acids might also result in the release of specific intrinsic membrane proteins into bile.

  20. Catalytic Conversion of Lipophilic Substrates by Phase constrained Enzymes in the Aqueous or in the Membrane Phase

    PubMed Central

    Cebula, Marcus; Turan, Ilke Simsek; Sjödin, Birgitta; Thulasingam, Madhuranayaki; Brock, Joseph; Chmyrov, Volodymyr; Widengren, Jerker; Abe, Hiroshi; Mannervik, Bengt; Haeggström, Jesper Z.; Rinaldo-Matthis, Agnes; Akkaya, Engin U.; Morgenstern, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Both soluble and membrane-bound enzymes can catalyze the conversion of lipophilic substrates. The precise substrate access path, with regard to phase, has however, until now relied on conjecture from enzyme structural data only (certainly giving credible and valuable hypotheses). Alternative methods have been missing. To obtain the first experimental evidence directly determining the access paths (of lipophilic substrates) to phase constrained enzymes we here describe the application of a BODIPY-derived substrate (PS1). Using this tool, which is not accessible to cytosolic enzymes in the presence of detergent and, by contrast, not accessible to membrane embedded enzymes in the absence of detergent, we demonstrate that cytosolic and microsomal glutathione transferases (GSTs), both catalyzing the activation of PS1, do so only within their respective phases. This approach can serve as a guideline to experimentally validate substrate access paths, a fundamental property of phase restricted enzymes. Examples of other enzyme classes with members in both phases are xenobiotic-metabolizing sulphotransferases/UDP-glucuronosyl transferases or epoxide hydrolases. Since specific GSTs have been suggested to contribute to tumor drug resistance, PS1 can also be utilized as a tool to discriminate between phase constrained members of these enzymes by analyzing samples in the absence and presence of Triton X-100. PMID:27917951

  1. Radiation inactivation probe of membrane-bound enzymes: gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, aminopeptidase N, and sucrase

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, B.R.; Kempner, E.S.; Wright, E.M.

    1986-11-01

    gamma-Glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), aminopeptidase N (AP-N), and sucrase in purified rabbit intestinal brush border membrane vesicles were irradiated in situ at -135 degrees C using high energy electrons. Surviving activities of the enzymes were measured as a function of radiation dose, and the functional unit target sizes (corresponding to carbohydrate-free polypeptides) were determined using target analysis. The in situ functional unit sizes were GGT 59 kDa, AP-N 59 kDa, and sucrase 63 kDa. Together with biochemical data determined previously, it is concluded that the noncovalently attached large (approximately 40 kDa) and small (approximately 25 kDa) subunits of GGT are both required for catalytic activity. Furthermore, these data suggest that (i) the membrane-bound form of AP-N consists of one or more noncovalently attached subunits of 59 kDa, each of which is enzymatically active; and (ii) in situ sucrase activity is associated with a subunit of 63 kDa which is noncovalently attached within the sucrase-isomaltase complex.

  2. Modification of erythrocyte membrane proteins, enzymes and transport mechanisms in chronic alcoholics: an in vivo and in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Maturu, Paramahamsa; Vaddi, Damodara Reddy; Pannuru, Padmavathi; Nallanchakravarthula, Varadacharyulu

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the alcohol perturbation leading to deleterious effects on erythrocyte membrane transport in chronic alcoholics. Membrane bound enzyme activities such as Na(+), K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+),Mg(2+)-ATPase and acetylcholine esterase and membrane transport analysis by in vitro and erythrocyte membrane profile analysis in controls and chronic alcoholic red cells were analyzed. It was observed that decreased Na(+), K(+)-ATPase enzyme activity and increased activities of Ca(2+),Mg(2+)-ATPase and acetylcholine esterase in chronic alcoholics compared to controls. The in vitro studies of erythrocytes suggested that there is an increased uptake of glucose through chronic alcoholic red cells. However, glucose utilization by chronic alcoholic red cells was decreased. An increased sensitivity of ouabain for its binding site on Na(+), K(+)-ATPase in chronic alcoholic erythrocyte membrane was evident from this study. Though there appears to be an increased Na(+) influx in chronic alcoholic cells, the status of Na(+) transport is not altered much. However, ouabain caused slight disturbances in the transport of sodium, similar disturbances in the potassium transport resulting in much accumulation of potassium in red cells. It was concluded that chronic alcohol consumption modified certain membrane bound proteins, enzymes and transport mechanisms in chronic alcoholics.

  3. Bio-entrapped membrane reactor and salt marsh sediment membrane bioreactor for the treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater: treatment performance and microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kok Kwang; Shi, Xueqing; Yao, Yinuo; Ng, How Yong

    2014-11-01

    In this study, a bio-entrapped membrane reactor (BEMR) and a salt marsh sediment membrane bioreactor (SMSMBR) were evaluated to study the organic treatment performance of pharmaceutical wastewater. The influences of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and salinity were also studied. The conventional biomass in the BEMR cannot tolerate well of the hypersaline conditions, resulting in total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal efficiency of 54.2-68.0%. On the other hand, microorganisms in the SMSMBR, which was seeded from coastal shore, strived and was able to degrade the complex organic in the presence of salt effectively, achieving 74.7-90.9% of TCOD removal efficiencies. Marine microorganisms able to degrade recalcitrant compounds and utilize hydrocarbon compounds were found in the SMSMBR, which resulted in higher organic removal efficiency than the BEMR. However, specific nitrifying activity decreased and inhibited due to the saline effect that led to poor ammonia nitrogen removal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Electrocatalytic reduction of acetone in a proton-exchange-membrane reactor: a model reaction for the electrocatalytic reduction of biomass.

    PubMed

    Green, Sara K; Tompsett, Geoffrey A; Kim, Hyung Ju; Bae Kim, Won; Huber, George W

    2012-12-01

    Acetone was electrocatalytically reduced to isopropanol in a proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) reactor on an unsupported platinum cathode. Protons needed for the reduction were produced on the unsupported Pt-Ru anode from either hydrogen gas or electrolysis of water. The current efficiency (the ratio of current contributing to the desired chemical reaction to the overall current) and reaction rate for acetone conversion increased with increasing temperature or applied voltage for the electrocatalytic acetone/water system. The reaction rate and current efficiency went through a maximum with respect to acetone concentration. The reaction rate for acetone conversion increased with increasing temperature for the electrocatalytic acetone/hydrogen system. Increasing the applied voltage for the electrocatalytic acetone/hydrogen system decreased the current efficiency due to production of hydrogen gas. Results from this study demonstrate the commercial feasibility of using PEM reactors to electrocatalytically reduce biomass-derived oxygenates into renewable fuels and chemicals.

  5. Community structure and function in a H(2)-based membrane biofilm reactor capable of bioreduction of selenate and chromate.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jinwook; Ryu, Hodon; Abbaszadegan, Morteza; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2006-10-01

    Two different H(2)-based, denitrifying membrane-biofilm reactors (MBfRs) initially reduced Se(VI) or Cr(VI) stably to Se(0) or Cr(III). When the oxidized contaminants in the influent were switched, each new oxidized contaminant was reduced immediately, and its reduction soon was approximately the same or greater than it had been in its original MBfR. The precipitation of reduced selenium and chromium in the biofilm was verified by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. These results on selenate and chromate reduction are consistent with the interpretation that the H(2)-based biofilm community had a high level of functional diversity. The communities' structures were assessed by cloning analysis. Dechloromonas spp., a known perchlorate-reducing bacteria, dominated the clones from both reactors during selenate and chromate reductions, which suggests that it may have functional diversity capable of reducing selenate and chromate as secondary and dissimilatory acceptors.

  6. Improvement of an integrated system of membrane bioreactor and worm reactor by phosphorus removal using additional post-chemical treatment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Zuo, Wei; Tian, Yu; Zhang, Jun; Li, Hui; Li, Lipin

    2016-11-01

    A membrane bioreactor (MBR) coupled with a worm reactor (SSBWR) was designed as SSBWR-MBR for sewage treatment and excess sludge reduction. However, total phosphorus (TP) release caused by worm predation in the SSBWR could increase the effluent TP concentration in the SSBWR-MBR. To decrease the amount of TP excreted, chemical treatment reactor was connected after the SSBWR-MBR to remove the excess phosphorus (P). The effects of chemical treatment at different time intervals on the performance of the SSBWR-MBR were assessed. The results showed that a maximum TP removal efficiency of 21.5 ± 1.0% was achieved in the SSBWR-MBR after chemical treatment. More importantly, a higher sulfate concentration induced by chemical treatment could promote TP release in the SSBWR, which provided further TP removal from the SSBWR-MBR. Additionally, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of the SSBWR-MBR was increased by 1.3% after effective chemical treatment. In the SSBWR-MBR, the chemical treatment had little effects on NH3-N removal and sludge production. Eventually, chemical treatment also alleviated the membrane fouling in the SSBWR-MBR. In this work, the improvement on TP, COD removal and membrane fouling alleviation was achieved in the SSBWR-MBR using additional chemical treatment.

  7. Application of membrane-coupled sequencing batch reactor for oilfield produced water recycle and beneficial re-use.

    PubMed

    Fakhru'l-Razi, A; Pendashteh, Alireza; Abidin, Zurina Zainal; Abdullah, Luqman Chuah; Biak, Dayang Radiah Awang; Madaeni, Sayed Siavash

    2010-09-01

    Oil and gas field wastewater or produced water is a significant waste stream in the oil and gas industries. In this study, the performance of a membrane sequencing batch reactor (MSBR) and membrane sequencing batch reactor/reverse osmosis (MSBR/RO) process treating produced wastewater were investigated and compared. The MSBR was operated in different hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 8, 20 and 44 h. Operation results showed that for a HRT of 20 h, the combined process effluent chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC) and oil and grease (O&G) removal efficiencies were 90.9%, 92% and 91.5%, respectively. The MSBR effluent concentration levels met the required standard for oil well re-injection. The RO treatment reduced the salt and organic contents to acceptable levels for irrigation and different industrial re-use. Foulant biopsy demonstrated that the fouling on the membrane surface was mainly due to inorganic (salts) and organic (microorganisms and their products, hydrocarbon constituents) matters.

  8. Energy-efficient wastewater treatment via the air-based, hybrid membrane biofilm reactor (hybrid MfBR).

    PubMed

    Aybar, M; Pizarro, G; Boltz, J P; Downing, L; Nerenberg, R

    2014-01-01

    We used modeling to predict the energy and cost savings associated with the air-based, hybrid membrane-biofilm reactor (hybrid MfBR). This process is obtained by replacing fine-bubble diffusers in conventional activated sludge with air-supplying, hollow-fiber membrane modules. Evaluated processes included removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), combined COD and total nitrogen (TN) removal, and hybrid growth (biofilm and suspended). Target concentrations of COD and TN were based on high-stringency water reuse scenarios. Results showed reductions in power requirements as high as 86%. The decrease mainly resulted from the dramatically lower air flows for the MBfR, resulting from its higher oxygen-transfer efficiencies. When the MBfR was used for COD and TN removal, savings up to US$200/1,000 m(3) of treated water were predicted. Cost savings were highly sensitive to the costs of the membrane modules and electrical power. The costs were also very sensitive to membrane oxidation flux for ammonia, and the membrane life. These results suggest the hybrid MBfR may provide significant savings in energy and costs. Further research on the identified key parameters can help confirm these modeling predictions and facilitate scale-up.

  9. Solid support membrane-aerated catalytic biofilm reactor for the continuous synthesis of (S)-styrene oxide at gram scale.

    PubMed

    Halan, Babu; Letzel, Thomas; Schmid, Andreas; Buehler, Katja

    2014-10-01

    Catalytic biofilms minimize reactant toxicity and maximize biocatalyst stability in selective transformations of chemicals to value-added products in continuous processes. The scaling up of such catalytic biofilm processes is challenging, due to fluidic and biological parameters affording a special reactor design affecting process performance. A solid support membrane-aerated biofilm reactor was optimized and scaled-up to yield gram amounts of (S)-styrene oxide, a toxic and instable high value chemical synthon. A sintered stainless steel membrane unit was identified as an optimal choice as biofilm substratum and for high oxygen mass transfer. A stable expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membrane was best suited for in situ substrate delivery and product extraction. For the verification of scalability, catalytic biofilms of Pseudomonas sp. strain VLB120ΔC produced (S)-styrene oxide to an average concentration of 390 mM in the organic phase per day (equivalent to 24.4 g Laq (-1) day(-1) ). This productivity was gained by efficiently using the catalyst with an excellent product yield on biomass of 13.6 gproduct gbiomass (-1) . This product yield on biomass is in the order of magnitude reported for other continuous systems based on artificially immobilized biocatalysts and is fulfilling the minimum requirements for industrial biocatalytic processes. Overall, 46 g of (S)-styrene oxide were produced and isolated (purity: 99%; enantiomeric excess [ee]: >99.8%. yield: 30%). The productivity is in a similar range as in comparable small-scale biofilm reactors highlighting the large potential of this methodology for continuous bioprocessing of bulk chemicals and biofuels. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Treatment of poultry slaughterhouse wastewater using a static granular bed reactor (SGBR) coupled with ultrafiltration (UF) membrane system.

    PubMed

    Basitere, M; Rinquest, Z; Njoya, M; Sheldon, M S; Ntwampe, S K O

    2017-07-01

    The South African poultry industry has grown exponentially in recent years due to an increased demand for their products. As a result, poultry plants consume large volumes of high quality water to ensure that hygienically safe poultry products are produced. Furthermore, poultry industries generate high strength wastewater, which can be treated successfully at low cost using anaerobic digesters. In this study, the performance of a bench-scale mesophilic static granular bed reactor (SGBR) containing fully anaerobic granules coupled with an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane system, as a post-treatment system, was investigated. The poultry slaughterhouse wastewater was characterized by a chemical oxygen demand (COD) range between 1,223 and 9,695mg/L, average biological oxygen demand of 2,375mg/L and average fats, oil and grease (FOG) of 554mg/L. The SGBR anaerobic reactor was operated for 9 weeks at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs), i.e. 55 and 40 h, with an average organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.01 and 3.14g COD/L.day. The SGBR results showed an average COD, total suspended solids (TSS) and FOG removal of 93%, 95% and 90% respectively, for both OLR. The UF post-treatment results showed an average of COD, TSS and FOG removal of 64%, 88% and 48%, respectively. The overall COD, TSS and FOG removal of the system (SGBR and UF membrane) was 98%, 99.8%, and 92.4%, respectively. The results of the combined SGBR reactor coupled with the UF membrane showed a potential to ensure environmentally friendly treatment of poultry slaughterhouse wastewater.

  11. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    1999-10-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through September 1999.

  12. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    1999-11-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through October 1999.

  13. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    2000-02-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through January 2000.

  14. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through July 1999.

  15. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through December 1999.

  16. Engineering development of ceramic membrane reactor system for converting natural gas to hydrogen and synthesis gas for liquid transportation fuels

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through April 1998.

  17. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    1999-12-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through November 1999.

  18. Engineering development of ceramic membrane reactor system for converting natural gas to hydrogen and synthesis gas for liquid transportation fuels

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through June 1998.

  19. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through February 1999.

  20. [Activities of enzymes from canine kidney plasma membranes under effects of polyene antibiotics in vivo and in vitro].

    PubMed

    Glubokovskaia, O I; Kravchenko, L S

    1979-01-01

    The effects of amphotericin B drug containing sodium deoxycholate (DOC) and those of DOC and nistatin on the activities of Na+, K+-ATPase and 5'-nucleotidase of canine kidney plasma membranes were studied. It was found that the activities of Na+, K+-ATPase and 5'-nucleotidase were markedly inhibited only after intravenous injection of amphotericin B, whereas the other agents tested caused no changes in the enzyme activities. Similar results were obtained in vitro. In the presence of amphotericin B the activity of Na+, K+-ATPase was noticeably inhibited already at the antibiotic concentration of 0,1 mkg per mg of membrane protein. It was found that the injection of amphotericin B, DOC and nistatin did not qualitatively or quantitatively affect the phospholipid composition of the plasma membranes. This is indicative of the lack of correlation between the enzyme activities and changes in the phospholipid composition of the plasma membranes under effects of amphotericin B. The pyrimidine derivative--amygluracyl--markedly removes the inhibiting effect of amphotericin B on the enzyme activity of plasma membranes.

  1. The Potential For Efficient Biological Pre-Treatment Of Exploration Based Waste Streams For Potable Water Production Using A Membrane Reactor Capable Of Simultaneous Nitrification-Denitrification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, William; Morse, Audra; Landes, Nick

    Long term space habitation and exploration require high efficiency water recycling systems. Waste streams from space habitation contain high concentrations of both organic nitrogen and ammonium and high ratios of N to organic C compared to terrestrial wastewater. As with terrestrial systems wastewater must be highly treated to remove organic carbon, nitrogen compounds, salts, and trace constituents. In general, either some type of reverse osmosis or distillation step is required as the final treatment prior to disinfection. However, the high waste strength of the waste can seriously impact the efficiency of these post-processors. Biological pre-treatment is one process capable of significant reductions in organic carbon and nitrogen. Biological systems are self sustaining and require minimal inputs of energy or consumables. Research in our lab has been conducted to evaluate a number of micro-gravity compatible biological reactor systems. Both nitrification-denitrification coupled systems, in which oxygen consumption is reduced by using nitrate as an electron acceptor, and single reactor systems for organic removal and nitrification have been extensively investigated. Reactor types include tubular pulsed flow reactors, packed bed reactors, and membrane reactors. Recently a single vessel membrane reactor capable of simultaneous nitrification-denitrification (sNDN) has been developed and evaluated for its ability to potentially replace other proposed systems. Results to be presented include a review of past system performance and limitations with comparison to the performance of the new sNDN reactor system. Conversion efficiency, stability, and volumetric reaction rates will be discussed.

  2. A cyclic-olefin-copolymer microfluidic immobilized-enzyme reactor for rapid digestion of proteins from dried blood spots.

    PubMed

    Wouters, Bert; Dapic, Irena; Valkenburg, Thalassa S E; Wouters, Sam; Niezen, Leon; Eeltink, Sebastiaan; Corthals, Garry L; Schoenmakers, Peter J

    2017-03-31

    A critical step in the bottom-up characterization of proteomes is the conversion of proteins to peptides, by means of endoprotease digestion. Nowadays this method typically uses overnight digestion and as such represents a considerable bottleneck for high-throughput analysis. This report describes protein digestion using an immobilized-enzyme reactor (IMER), which enables accelerated digestion times that are completed within seconds to minutes. For rapid digestion to occur, a cyclic-olefin-copolymer microfluidic reactor was constructed containing trypsin immobilized on a polymer monolithic material through a 2-vinyl-4,4-dimethylazlactone linker. The IMER was applied for the rapid offline digestion of both singular protein standards and a complex protein mixture prior to liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) analysis. The effects of protein concentration and residence time in the IMER were assessed for protein standards of varying molecular weight between 11 and 240kDa. Compared to traditional in-solution digestion, IMER-facilitated protein digestion at room temperature for 5min yielded similar results in terms of sequence coverage and number of identified peptides. Good repeatability was demonstrated with a relative standard deviation of 6% for protein-sequence coverage. The potential of the IMER was also demonstrated for a complex protein mixture in the analysis of dried blood spots. Compared to a traditional workflow a similar number of proteins could be identified, while reducing the total analysis time from 22.5h to 4h and importantly omitting the sample-pre-treatment steps (denaturation, reduction, and alkylation). The identified proteins from two workflows showed similar distributions in terms of molecular weight and hydrophobic character. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular organization of peroxisomal enzymes: protein-protein interactions in the membrane and in the matrix.

    PubMed

    Makkar, Randhir S; Contreras, Miguel A; Paintlia, Ajaib S; Smith, Brian T; Haq, Ehtishamul; Singh, Inderjit

    2006-07-15

    The beta-oxidation of fatty acids in peroxisomes produces hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a toxic metabolite, as a bi-product. Fatty acids beta-oxidation activity is deficient in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) because of mutation in ALD-gene resulting in loss of very long chain acyl-CoA synthetase (VLCS) activity. It is also affected in disease with catalase negative peroxisomes as a result of inactivation by H2O2. Therefore, the following studies were undertaken to delineate the molecular interactions between both the ALD-gene product (adrenoleukodystrophy protein, ALDP) and VLCS as well as H2O2 degrading enzyme catalase and proteins of peroxisomal beta-oxidation. Studies using a yeast two hybrid system and surface plasmon resonance techniques indicate that ALDP, a peroxisomal membrane protein, physically interacts with VLCS. Loss of these interactions in X-ALD cells may result in a deficiency in VLCS activity. The yeast two-hybrid system studies also indicated that catalase physically interacts with L-bifunctional enzyme (L-BFE). Interactions between catalase and L-BFE were further supported by affinity purification, using a catalase-linked resin. The affinity bound 74-kDa protein, was identified as L-BFE by Western blot with specific antibodies and by proteomic analysis. Additional support for their interaction comes from immunoprecipitation of L-BFE with antibodies against catalase as a catalase- L-BFE complex. siRNA for L-BFE decreased the specific activity and protein levels of catalase without changing its subcellular distribution. These observations indicate that L-BFE might help in oligomerization and possibly in the localization of catalase at the site of H2O2 production in the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway.

  4. Covalent conjugation of tetrameric bovine liver catalase to liposome membranes for stabilization of the enzyme tertiary and quaternary structures.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Makoto; Sakamoto, Hideyuki; Shirakami, Hiroshi

    2009-03-01

    Tetrameric bovine liver catalase (BLC) is unstable because of its dissociation into subunits at low enzyme concentrations and the conformational change of the subunits at high temperatures. In this work, for stabilization of BLC, the enzyme was covalently conjugated with liposome membranes composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), cholesterol and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-glutaryl (NGPE). The NGPE, which was responsible for the BLC/membrane coupling, was altered from 0.05 to 0.2 in its liposomal mole fraction f(G). The catalase-conjugated liposome (CCL) with f(G) of 0.15 showed the maximum number of the conjugated BLC molecules of 28 per liposome. The reactivity of CCLs to H(2)O(2) was as high as that of free BLC at 25 degrees C in Tris-HCl buffer of pH 7.4. Among the CCLs, the catalyst with f(G) of 0.15 was the most stable at 55 degrees C in its enzyme activity in the buffer because the appropriate number of BLC/liposome covalent bonding prevented the dissociation-induced enzyme deactivation. Furthermore, the CCL showed much higher stability at 55 degrees C than the free BLC/enzyme-free liposome mixture and free BLC at the low BLC concentration of 340ng/mL. This was because BLC in the CCL was located in the vicinity of the host membrane regardless of the catalyst concentration, which could induce the effective stabilization effect of the membrane on the enzyme tertiary structure as indicated by the intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence analysis. The results obtained demonstrate the high structural stability of BLC in the CCL system, which was derived from the covalent bonding and interaction between BLC and liposomes.

  5. Development of a "membrane cloaking" method for amperometric enzyme immunoassay and surface plasmon resonance analysis of proteins in serum samples.

    PubMed

    Phillips, K Scott; Han, Jong Ho; Cheng, Quan

    2007-02-01

    Detection of trace amounts of target proteins in the presence of high concentrations of matrix proteins (e.g., serum samples) without separation steps is of great significance to biomedical research but remains technically challenging. Here we report a "membrane cloaking" method to overcome nonspecific protein adsorption and fouling problems for label-free surface plasmon resonance detection and heterogeneous immunosensing. A thin, hybrid, self-assembled monolayer on gold was formed with 70 mol % mercaptopropanol and 30 mol % cysteamine/propanedithiol to facilitate membrane fusion and covalent attachment of antibodies. After antibody immobilization, the surface was incubated with lipid vesicles, which fused to form a supported membrane. The analyte spiked in serum was introduced for binding, and the membrane and nonspecifically adsorbed proteins on the membrane were subsequently removed using a nonionic surfactant before the final measurement was carried out. Selection of a suitable surfactant can preserve antibody/antigen binding and selectively remove the membrane, allowing accurate measurement of the captured proteins without interference from nonspecifically adsorbed species. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) quantification of IgG spiked in undiluted serum ( approximately 75 mg/mL protein) was achieved with the membrane cloaking method, whereas direct measurement without membrane removal resulted in a significantly large error. The cloaking method was also used to develop an enzyme amplified amperometric assay using HRP-conjugated IgG. Detection of concentrations as low as 5 fM proteins was obtained. Finally, a membrane cloaking assay combining SPR and in situ electrochemical measurement was demonstrated on a gold substrate. Similar sensitivity was observed using a continuous flow injection measurement. The method opens new avenues to develop direct assay methods with ultrahigh sensitivity for protein samples using SPR and enzyme-linked amplification mechanisms.

  6. A Highly Efficient Sandwich-Like Symmetrical Dual-Phase Oxygen-Transporting Membrane Reactor for Hydrogen Production by Water Splitting.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wei; Steinbach, Frank; Cao, Zhongwei; Zhu, Xuefeng; Feldhoff, Armin

    2016-07-18

    Water splitting coupled with partial oxidation of methane (POM) using an oxygen-transporting membrane (OTM) would be a potentially ideal way to produce high-purity hydrogen as well as syngas. Over the past decades, substantial efforts have been devoted to the development of supported membranes with appropriate configurations to achieve considerable performance improvements. Herein, we describe the design of a novel symmetrical membrane reactor with a sandwich-like structure, whereby a largescale production (>10 mL min(-1)  cm(-2) ) of hydrogen and syngas can be obtained simultaneously on opposite sides of the OTM. Furthermore, this special membrane reactor could regenerate the coke-deactivated catalyst in situ by water steam in a single unit. These results represent an important first step in the development of membrane separation technologies for the integration of multiple chemical processes. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Cascade catalysis in membranes with enzyme immobilization for multi-enzymatic conversion of CO2 to methanol.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jianquan; Meyer, Anne S; Mateiu, R V; Pinelo, Manuel

    2015-05-25

    Facile co-immobilization of enzymes is highly desirable for bioconversion methods involving multi-enzymatic cascade reactions. Here we show for the first time that three enzymes can be immobilized in flat-sheet polymeric membranes simultaneously or separately by simple pressure-driven filtration (i.e. by directing membrane fouling formation), without any addition of organic solvent. Such co-immobilization and sequential immobilization systems were examined for the production of methanol from CO2 with formate dehydrogenase (FDH), formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FaldDH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Enzyme activity was fully retained by this non-covalent immobilization strategy. The two immobilization systems had similar catalytic efficiencies because the second reaction (formic acid→formaldehyde) catalyzed by FaldDH was found to be the cascade bottleneck (a threshold substrate concentration was required). Moreover, the trade-off between the mitigation of product inhibition and low substrate concentration for the adjacent enzymes probably made the co-immobilization meaningless. Thus, sequential immobilization could be used for multi-enzymatic cascade reactions, as it allowed the operational conditions for each single step to be optimized, not only during the enzyme immobilization but also during the reaction process, and the pressure-driven mass transfer (flow-through mode) could overcome the diffusion resistance between enzymes. This study not only offers a green and facile immobilization method for multi-enzymatic cascade systems, but also reveals the reaction bottleneck and provides possible solutions for the bioconversion of CO2 to methanol.

  8. Membrane-aerated biofilm reactor for the removal of 1,2-dichloroethane by Pseudomonas sp. strain DCA1.

    PubMed

    Hage, J C; Van Houten, R T; Tramper, J; Hartmans, S

    2004-06-01

    A membrane-aerated biofilm reactor (MBR) with a biofilm of Pseudomonas sp. strain DCA1 was studied for the removal of 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA) from water. A hydrophobic membrane was used to create a barrier between the liquid and the gas phase. Inoculation of the MBR with cells of strain DCA1 grown in a continuous culture resulted in the formation of a stable and active DCA-degrading biofilm on the membrane. The maximum removal rate of the MBR was reached at a DCA concentration of approximately 80 micro M. Simulation of the DCA fluxes into the biofilm showed that the MBR performance at lower concentrations was limited by the DCA diffusion rate rather than by kinetic constraints of strain DCA1. Aerobic biodegradation of DCA present in anoxic water could be achieved by supplying oxygen solely from the gas phase to the biofilm grown on the liquid side of the membrane. As a result, direct aeration of the water, which leads to undesired coagulation of iron oxides, could be avoided.

  9. Enhancing biodegradation of C16-alkyl quaternary ammonium compounds using an oxygen-based membrane biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Lai, YenJung Sean; Ontiveros-Valencia, Aura; Ilhan, Zehra Esra; Zhou, Yun; Miranda, Evelyn; Maldonado, Juan; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2017-10-15

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) (e.g., hexadecyltrimethyl-ammonium bromide, CTAB) are emerging contaminants with widespread use as surfactants and disinfectants. Because the initial step of QAC biodegradation is mono-oxygenation, QAC degraders require O2, but normal aeration leads to serious foaming. Here, we developed and tested an oxygen-based membrane biofilm reactor (O2-MBfR) that delivers O2 by diffusion through the walls of hollow-membranes to a biofilm accumulating on the outer surface of membranes. The O2-MBfR sustained QAC biodegradation even with high and toxic QAC input concentrations, up to 400 mg/L CTAB. Bubbleless O2 transfer completely eliminated foaming, and biofilm accumulation helped the QAC biodegraders resist toxicity. Pseudomonas, Achromobacter, Stenotrophomonas, and members of the Xanthomonadaceae family were dominant in the biofilm communities degrading CTAB, and their proportions depended on the O2-delivery capacity of the membranes. Bacteria capable of biodegrading QACs often harbor antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) that help them avoid QAC toxicity. Gene copies of ARGs were detected in biofilms and liquid, but the levels of ARGs were 5- to 35-fold lower in the liquid than in the biofilm. In summary, the O2-MBfR achieved aerobic biodegradation of CTAB with neither foaming nor toxicity, and it also minimized the spread of ARGs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of micropollutant removal and fouling reduction in a hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor system.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yunlong; Jiang, Qi; Ngo, Huu H; Nghiem, Long D; Hai, Faisal I; Price, William E; Wang, Jie; Guo, Wenshan

    2015-09-01

    A hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor (MBBR-MBR) system and a conventional membrane bioreactor (CMBR) were compared in terms of micropollutant removal efficiency and membrane fouling propensity. The results show that the hybrid MBBR-MBR system could effectively remove most of the selected micropollutants. By contrast, the CMBR system showed lower removals of ketoprofen, carbamazepine, primidone, bisphenol A and estriol by 16.2%, 30.1%, 31.9%, 34.5%, and 39.9%, respectively. Mass balance calculations suggest that biological degradation was the primary removal mechanism in the MBBR-MBR system. During operation, the MBBR-MBR system exhibited significantly slower fouling development as compared to the CMBR system, which could be ascribed to the wide disparity in the soluble microbial products (SMP) levels between MBBR-MBR (4.02-6.32 mg/L) and CMBR (21.78 and 33.04 mg/L). It is evident that adding an MBBR process prior to MBR treatment can not only enhance micropollutant elimination but also mitigate membrane fouling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Enrichment of thermophilic syntrophic anaerobic glutamate-degrading consortia using a dialysis membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Plugge, C M; Stams, A J M

    2002-04-01

    A dialysis cultivation system was used to enrich slow-growing moderately thermophilic anaerobic bacteria at high cell densities. Bicarbonate buffered mineral salts medium with 5 mM glutamate as the sole carbon and energy source was used and the incubation temperature was 55 degrees C. The reactor inoculum originated from anaerobic methanogenic granular sludge bed reactors. The microbial population was monitored over a period of 2 years using the most probable number (MPN) technique. In the reactor glutamate was readily degraded to ammonium, methane, and carbon dioxide. Cell numbers of glutamate-degrading organisms increased 400-fold over the first year. In medium supplemented with bromoethane sulfonic acid (BES, an inhibitor of methanogenesis), tenfold lower cell numbers were counted, indicating the syntrophic nature of glutamate degradation. After 2 years of reactor operation the predominant organisms were isolated and characterized. Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum (strain R43) and a Methanosaeta thermophila strain (strain A) were the predominant hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic methanogens, respectively. The numbers in which the organisms were present in the reactor after 24 months of incubation were 8.6 x 10(9) and 3.8 x 10(7) mL(-1) sludge, respectively. The most predominant glutamate-degrading organism (8.6 x 10(7) mL(-1) sludge), strain Z, was identified as a new species, Caloramator coolhaasii. It converted glutamate to hydrogen, acetate, some propionate, ammonium, and carbon dioxide. Growth of this syntrophic organism on glutamate was strongly enhanced by the presence of methanogens.

  12. Amperometric flow system for blood glucose determination using an immobilized enzyme magnetic reactor.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Prisciliano; Rodriguez, Jose A; Galan, Carlos A; Castrillejo, Yolanda; Barrado, Enrique

    2013-03-15

    An amperometric flow system for glucose determination in blood serum samples after enzymatic reaction with glucose oxidase immobilized on magnetite covered with silica gel modified propylamine is described. The solid was magnetically retained on a mini-column and placed into the flow injection system preceding the amperometric detector using a modified screen printed electrode with [Fe(tris(3,5-dimetyl-1-pyrazolyl)borate)(2)](+)[FeCl(4)](-). The variables involved in the system such as flow rate, enzyme concentration, injection volume and reaction coil length were evaluated using a Taguchi parameter design. Under optimal conditions, the calibration curve of glucose sample was linear between 0.24 and 6.00 mM, and with a limit of detection of 0.08 mM. The repeatability for a 4.0mM glucose solution was 1.0%.The method was validated by comparing the obtained results to those provided by the enzymatic spectrophotometric method; no significant differences were observed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Characteristics of hydrogenotrophic denitrification in a combined system of gas-permeable membrane and a biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Lu, Caixia; Gu, Ping; He, Pan; Zhang, Guanghui; Song, Chao

    2009-09-15

    A double Monod form was employed to describe two-step hydrogenotrophic denitrification, and the saturation constants of nitrate, nitrite and hydrogen were determined by batch tests. A combined system of gas-permeable membrane and a biofilm reactor (GPM-BR) was employed to remove nitrate from drinking water. The gas-permeable membrane was tested to exclusively deliver hydrogen to an independent attached growth system. The denitrification performance of the GPM-BR was investigated with different nitrate loadings of 96.78, 163.16 and 342.58 mg N/(Ld). The nitrate removal rate (NRR) of the reactor could achieve 471.36 mg N/(Ld) with sufficient dissolved hydrogen (DH) in the batch tests. While in the continuous experiments, NRR ranged from 96.72 to 301.44 mg N/(Ld) under different nitrate loadings. Although low nitrate loading of 96.78 mg N/(Ld) led to better nitrate removal, the denitrification capacity of GPM-BR would be limited and sulfate reduction occurred.

  14. Non-oxidative coupling of methane catalysed by supported tungsten hydride onto alumina and silica-alumina in classical and H2 permeable membrane fixed-bed reactors.

    PubMed

    Szeto, K C; Norsic, S; Hardou, L; Le Roux, E; Chakka, S; Thivolle-Cazat, J; Baudouin, A; Papaioannou, C; Basset, J-M; Taoufik, M

    2010-06-14

    Non-oxidative coupling of methane with high selectivity into ethane (>99% among hydrocarbon) in a classical fixed-bed reactor catalysed by SiO(2)-Al(2)O(3) or gamma-Al(2)O(3) supported tungsten hydride is presented. Continuous hydrogen separation, using a Pd-Ag membrane in a fixed-bed reactor, led to methane coupling far beyond the thermodynamic equilibrium conversion.

  15. Determination of the distribution of catalyst activity across a permeable membrane containing an immobilized enzyme. Indeterminacy of a functional approach to a structural problem.

    PubMed Central

    Bunow, B; Caplan, S R

    1984-01-01

    Porous membranes were fabricated from collodion and impregnated with papain, inhomogeneously through the thickness of the membrane. These membranes were placed between reservoirs containing N-alpha-benzoyl arginineamide, a substrate for the enzyme papain. The progress of the reaction was monitored by sampling the reservoirs on each side for ammonia, a reaction product. From these data the diffusion coefficient, enzyme activity, and distribution of enzyme activity of the membrane were estimated. The limitations of this approach are discussed in the context of the analysis of biological transport systems. PMID:6743743

  16. Interaction of a lipid-membrane destabilizing enzyme with PEG-liposomes.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, K; Kiebler, T; Hylander, I; Vermehren, C

    1999-06-10

    Polymer grafted PEG-liposomes have come into use as drug-delivery systems with improved therapeutic profiles. However, very little is known about the morphological instability of PEG-liposomes due to enzymatic degradation. To gain further insight into the effect of PEG lipopolymer-concentration on the catalytic activity of a liposome-degrading enzyme, phospholipase A2 (PLA2)-catalyzed phospholipid hydrolysis of PEG-liposomes has been investigated. The temperature dependence of the PLA2 lag-time, denoting the time required before a sudden increase in enzymatic activity takes place, has been determined for submicellar amounts of dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolaminyl-poly-(ethylene glycol) (DPPE-PEG2000) incorporated into unilamellar dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)-liposomes. The measurements demonstrate a significant reduction in the lag-time over broad temperature ranges. The results suggest that a close relationship exists between PLA2 catalyzed lipid hydrolysis and lipid-membrane composition, which moreover is of major importance for the overall morphological stability and the release of encapsulated material from the polymer-grafted PEG-liposomes.

  17. Construction of a D-amino acid oxidase reactor based on magnetic nanoparticles modified by a reactive polymer and its application in screening enzyme inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mu, Xiaoyu; Qiao, Juan; Qi, Li; Liu, Ying; Ma, Huimin

    2014-08-13

    Developing facile and high-throughput methods for exploring pharmacological inhibitors of D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) has triggered increasing interest. In this work, DAAO was immobilized on the magnetic nanoparticles, which were modified by a biocompatible reactive polymer, poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) via an atom transfer radical polymerization technique. Interestingly, the enzyme immobilization process was greatly promoted with the assistance of a lithium perchlorate catalyst. Meanwhile, a new amino acid ionic liquid (AAIL) was successfully synthesized and employed as the efficient chiral ligand in a chiral ligand exchange capillary electrophoresis (CLE-CE) system for chiral separation of amino acids (AAs) and quantitation of methionine, which was selected as the substrate of DAAO. Then, the apparent Michaelis-Menten constants in the enzyme system were determined with the proposed CLE-CE method. The prepared DAAO-PGMA-Fe3O4 nanoparticles exhibited excellent reusability and good stability. Moreover, the enzyme reactor was successfully applied in screening DAAO inhibitors. These results demonstrated that the enzyme could be efficiently immobilized on the polymer-grafted magnetic nanoparticles and that the obtained enzyme reactor has great potential in screening enzyme inhibitors, further offering new insight into monitoring the relevant diseases.

  18. The on-line synthesis of enzyme functionalized silica nanoparticles in a microfluidic reactor using polyethylenimine polymer and R5 peptide.

    PubMed

    He, Ping; Greenway, Gillian; Haswell, Stephen J

    2008-08-06

    A simple microfluidic reactor system is described for the effective synthesis of enzyme functionalized nanoparticles which offers many advantages over batch reactions, including excellent enzyme efficiencies. Better control of the process parameters in the microfluidic reactor system over batch based methodology enables the production of silica nanoparticles with the optimum size for efficient enzyme immobilization with long-term stability. The synthetic approach is demonstrated with glucose oxidase (GOD) and two different nucleation catalysts of similar molecular mass: the natural R5 peptide, and polyethylenimine (PEI) polymer. Near-quantitative immobilization of GOD in the nanoparticles is obtained using PEI; the immobilization is attributed to electrostatic interaction between PEI and GOD. This interaction, however, limits the mobility of the immobilized enzyme, producing orientation hindrance of the enzyme's active sites as compared to free GOD in solution. In contrast, when the GOD is immobilized inside the silica nanoparticles using R5, lower enzyme immobilization efficiencies are obtained compared to using PEI polymers; however, similar Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters (i.e. Michaelis constant and turnover number) to those of free GOD are observed. Reactions were monitored in situ using simple, rapid, separation-free amperometric detection.

  19. The on-line synthesis of enzyme functionalized silica nanoparticles in a microfluidic reactor using polyethylenimine polymer and R5 peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ping; Greenway, Gillian; Haswell, Stephen J.

    2008-08-01

    A simple microfluidic reactor system is described for the effective synthesis of enzyme functionalized nanoparticles which offers many advantages over batch reactions, including excellent enzyme efficiencies. Better control of the process parameters in the microfluidic reactor system over batch based methodology enables the production of silica nanoparticles with the optimum size for efficient enzyme immobilization with long-term stability. The synthetic approach is demonstrated with glucose oxidase (GOD) and two different nucleation catalysts of similar molecular mass: the natural R5 peptide, and polyethylenimine (PEI) polymer. Near-quantitative immobilization of GOD in the nanoparticles is obtained using PEI; the immobilization is attributed to electrostatic interaction between PEI and GOD. This interaction, however, limits the mobility of the immobilized enzyme, producing orientation hindrance of the enzyme's active sites as compared to free GOD in solution. In contrast, when the GOD is immobilized inside the silica nanoparticles using R5, lower enzyme immobilization efficiencies are obtained compared to using PEI polymers; however, similar Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters (i.e. Michaelis constant and turnover number) to those of free GOD are observed. Reactions were monitored in situ using simple, rapid, separation-free amperometric detection.

  20. Pd-Ag Membrane Coupled to a Two-Zone Fluidized Bed Reactor (TZFBR) for Propane Dehydrogenation on a Pt-Sn/MgAl2O4 Catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Medrano, José-Antonio; Julián, Ignacio; Herguido, Javier; Menéndez, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Several reactor configurations have been tested for catalytic propane dehydrogenation employing Pt-Sn/MgAl2O4 as a catalyst. Pd-Ag alloy membranes coupled to the multifunctional Two-Zone Fluidized Bed Reactor (TZFBR) provide an improvement in propane conversion by hydrogen removal from the reaction bed through the inorganic membrane in addition to in situ catalyst regeneration. Twofold process intensification is thereby achieved when compared to the use of traditional fluidized bed reactors (FBR), where coke formation and thermodynamic equilibrium represent important process limitations. Experiments were carried out at 500–575 °C and with catalyst mass to molar flow of fed propane ratios between 15.1 and 35.2 g min mmol−1, employing three different reactor configurations: FBR, TZFBR and TZFBR + Membrane (TZFBR + MB). The results in the FBR showed catalyst deactivation, which was faster at high temperatures. In contrast, by employing the TZFBR with the optimum regenerative agent flow (diluted oxygen), the process activity was sustained throughout the time on stream. The TZFBR + MB showed promising results in catalytic propane dehydrogenation, displacing the reaction towards higher propylene production and giving the best results among the different reactor configurations studied. Furthermore, the results obtained in this study were better than those reported on conventional reactors. PMID:24958620

  1. Purge gas recovery of ammonia synthesis plant by integrated configuration of catalytic hydrogen-permselective membrane reactor and solid oxide fuel cell as a novel technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siavashi, Fakhteh; Saidi, Majid; Rahimpour, Mohammad Reza

    2014-12-01

    The purge gas emission of ammonia synthesis plant which contains hazardous components is one of the major sources of environmental pollution. Using integrated configuration of catalytic hydrogen-permselective membrane reactor and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system is a new approach which has a great impact to reduce the pollutant emission. By application of this method, not only emission of ammonia and methane in the atmosphere is prevented, hydrogen is produced through the methane steam reforming and ammonia decomposition reactions that take place simultaneously in a catalytic membrane reactor. The pure generated hydrogen by recovery of the purge gas in the Pd-Ag membrane reactor is used as a feed of SOFC. Since water is the only byproduct of the electrochemical reaction in the SOFC, it is recycled to the reactor for providing the required water of the reforming reaction. Performance investigation of the reactor represents that the rate of hydrogen permeation increases with enhancing the reactor temperature and pressure. Also modeling results indicate that the SOFC performance improves with increasing the temperature and fuel utilization ratio. The generated power by recovery of the purging gas stream of ammonia synthesis plant in the Razi petrochemical complex is about 8 MW.

  2. Pd-Ag Membrane Coupled to a Two-Zone Fluidized Bed Reactor (TZFBR) for Propane Dehydrogenation on a Pt-Sn/MgAl2O4 Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Medrano, José-Antonio; Julián, Ignacio; Herguido, Javier; Menéndez, Miguel

    2013-05-14

    Several reactor configurations have been tested for catalytic propane dehydrogenation employing Pt-Sn/MgAl2O4 as a catalyst. Pd-Ag alloy membranes coupled to the multifunctional Two-Zone Fluidized Bed Reactor (TZFBR) provide an improvement in propane conversion by hydrogen removal from the reaction bed through the inorganic membrane in addition to in situ catalyst regeneration. Twofold process intensification is thereby achieved when compared to the use of traditional fluidized bed reactors (FBR), where coke formation and thermodynamic equilibrium represent important process limitations. Experiments were carried out at 500-575 °C and with catalyst mass to molar flow of fed propane ratios between 15.1 and 35.2 g min mmol-1, employing three different reactor configurations: FBR, TZFBR and TZFBR + Membrane (TZFBR + MB). The results in the FBR showed catalyst deactivation, which was faster at high temperatures. In contrast, by employing the TZFBR with the optimum regenerative agent flow (diluted oxygen), the process activity was sustained throughout the time on stream. The TZFBR + MB showed promising results in catalytic propane dehydrogenation, displacing the reaction towards higher propylene production and giving the best results among the different reactor configurations studied. Furthermore, the results obtained in this study were better than those reported on conventional reactors.

  3. Human recombinant beta-secretase immobilized enzyme reactor for fast hits' selection and characterization from a virtual screening library.

    PubMed

    De Simone, Angela; Mancini, Francesca; Cosconati, Sandro; Marinelli, Luciana; La Pietra, Valeria; Novellino, Ettore; Andrisano, Vincenza

    2013-01-25

    In the present work, a human recombinant BACE1 immobilized enzyme reactor (hrBACE1-IMER) has been applied for the sensitive fast screening of 38 compounds selected through a virtual screening approach. HrBACE1-IMER was inserted into a liquid chromatograph coupled with a fluorescent detector. A fluorogenic peptide substrate (M-2420), containing the β-secretase site of the Swedish mutation of APP, was injected and cleaved in the on-line HPLC-hrBACE1-IMER system, giving rise to the fluorescent product. The compounds of the library were tested for their ability to inhibit BACE1 in the immobilized format and to reduce the area related to the chromatographic peak of the fluorescent enzymatic product. The results were validated in solution by using two different FRET methods. Due to the efficient virtual screening methodology, more than fifty percent of the selected compounds showed a measurable inhibitory activity. One of the most active compound (a bis-indanone derivative) was characterized in terms of IC(50) and K(i) determination on the hrBACE1-IMER. Thus, the hrBACE1-IMER has been confirmed as a valid tool for the throughput screening of different chemical entities with potency lower th