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Sample records for enzyme membrane reactor

  1. Covalent enzyme immobilization onto carbon nanotubes using a membrane reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voicu, Stefan Ioan; Nechifor, Aurelia Cristina; Gales, Ovidiu; Nechifor, Gheorghe

    2011-05-01

    Composite porous polysulfone-carbon nanotubes membranes were prepared by dispersing carbon nanotubes into a polysulfone solution followed by the membrane formation by phase inversion-immersion precipitation technique. The carbon nanotubes with amino groups on surface were functionalized with different enzymes (carbonic anhydrase, invertase, diastase) using cyanuric chloride as linker between enzyme and carbon nanotube. The composite membrane was used as a membrane reactor for a better dispersion of carbon nanotubes and access to reaction centers. The membrane also facilitates the transport of enzymes to active carbon nanotubes centers for functionalization (amino groups). The functionalized carbon nanotubes are isolated by dissolving the membranes after the end of reaction. Carbon nanotubes with covalent immobilized enzymes are used for biosensors fabrications. The obtained membranes were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Thermal analysis, FT-IR Spectroscopy, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, and functionalized carbon nanotubes were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy.

  2. Alcohol fermentation of sweet potato. Membrane reactor in enzymic hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Azhar, A.; Hamdy, M.K.

    1981-01-01

    Use of ultrafiltration membrane systems in stirred cell and in thin-channel systems for immobilizing enzyme (sweet potato intrinsic and crystalline beta-amylase) in hydrolysis of sweet potato through a continuous operation mode were studied. Both the filtration rate and reducing sugars, produced as the result of enzymic hydrolysis, decreased with the filtration time. The immobilized enzymes in the thin-channel system showed a much better performance compared to that in the stirred cell system. Addition of crystalline sweet potato beta-amylase to the sweet potato increased both the filtration rate and reducing-sugars content. Alcohol fermentation of the filtrate resulted in an alcohol content of 4.2%. This represented fermentation of 95% of the sugars with an efficiency of 88%.

  3. Membrane reactors at Degussa.

    PubMed

    Wöltinger, Jens; Karau, Andreas; Leuchtenberger, Wolfgang; Drauz, Karlheinz

    2005-01-01

    The review covers the development of membrane reactor technologies at Degussa for the synthesis of fine chemicals. The operation of fed-batch or continuous biocatalytic processes in the enzyme membrane reactor (EMR) is well established at Degussa. Degussa has experience of running EMRs from laboratory gram scale up to a production scale of several hundreds of tons per year. The transfer of the enzyme membrane reactor from biocatalysis to chemical catalysis in the chemzyme membrane reactor (CMR) is discussed. Various homogeneous catalysts have been investigated in the CMR, and the scope and limitation of this new technique is discussed.

  4. Study and comparison of two enzyme membrane reactors for fatty acids and glycerol production

    SciTech Connect

    Molinari, R.; Santoro, M.E.; Drioli, E. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Inst. on Membranes and Chemical Reactors-CNR, Arcavacata di Rende )

    1994-11-01

    Two enzyme membrane reactors (EMR), (1) with one substrate (olive oil) in an oil-in-water emulsion (E-EMR) and (2) with two separated liquid phases (oil and water) (TSLP-EMR), have been studied for the conversion of the triglycerides to fatty acids and glycerol. The enzyme was Candida cylindracea lipase confined on the pressurized face or entrapped in the sponge side of capillary ultrafiltration membranes. Two methods for immobilizing the enzyme in the TSLP-EMR were used: ultrafiltration on a virgin membrane and ultrafiltration on glutaraldehyde pretreated membranes. A multiple use of the reactor was obtained immobilizing the enzyme on the membrane preactivated with glutaraldehyde. The TSLP-EMR showed a specific activity of 0.529 mmol/(mg[center dot]h) versus a specific activity of 0.170 mmol/(mg[center dot]h) of the E-EMR. The rate of fatty acid production in the TSLP-EMR was linear with time showing no enzyme deactivation in an operating time of 80 h. The kinetics observed in the two reactors was different: an equilibrium reaction product-inhibited for the E-EMR and an apparent irreversible reaction of zero order for the TSLP-EMR. Taking into account that in the TSLP-EMR, compared to the E-EMR, (1) the specific activity was higher, (2) the specific rate was constant with the time, and (3) the two products were already separated after the reaction, the TSLP-EMR configuration seems the more convenient.

  5. Fabrication of enzyme reactor utilizing magnetic porous polymer membrane for screening D-Amino acid oxidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jun Fang; Qiao, Juan; Mu, Xiao Yu; Moon, Myeong Hee; Qi, Li

    2017-04-01

    In this work, a unique D-amino acid oxidase reactor for enhanced enzymolysis efficiency is presented. A kind of magnetic polymer matrices, composed of iron oxide nanoparticles and porous polymer membrane (poly styrene-co-maleic anhydride), was prepared. With covalent bonding D-Amino acid oxidase on the surface of the matrices and characterization of scanning electron microscope and vibrating sample magnetometer, it demonstrated that the membrane enzyme reactor was successfully constructed. The enzymolysis efficiency of the enzyme reactor was evaluated and the apparent Michaelis-Menten constants of D-Amino acid oxidase were determined (Km was 1.10mM, Vmax was 23.8mMmin(-1)) by a chiral ligand exchange capillary electrophoresis protocol with methionine as the substrate. The results indicated that the enzyme reactor could exhibit good stability and excellent reusability. Importantly, because the enzyme and the substrate could be confined into the pores of the matrices, the enzyme reactor displayed the improved enzymolysis efficiency due to the confinement effect. Further, the prepared enzyme reactor was applied for D-Amino acid oxidase inhibitors screening. It has displayed that the proposed protocol could pave a new way for fabrication of novel porous polymer membrane based enzyme reactors to screen enzyme inhibitors.

  6. Development of an enzyme membrane reactor for treatment of cyanide-containing wastewaters from the food industry

    SciTech Connect

    Basheer, S.; Kut, O.M.; Prenosil, J.E.; Bourne, J.R. )

    1993-02-20

    Cyanidase, an immobilized enzyme preparation for hydrolyzing cyanide to ammonia and formate, was applied for the treatment of cyanide-containing waste-waters from the food industry. Apricot seed extract was chosen as a model effluent. The enzymatic hydrolysis of pure amygdalin, the main cyanogenic glycoside in the extract, and the degradation of the cyanide formed was investigated and compared with the behavior of the real extract in a batch slurry reactor. A diffusional-type, flat-membrane reactor with immobilized cyanidase was developed, where the enzyme is effectively protected from adverse effects of high molecular components contained in the extract. For monitoring continuous-membrane reactor operation, a new unsegmented ammonia measurement system was developed and applied. In continuous operation the cyanidase retained its original activity for more than 400 hours on stream.

  7. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  8. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  9. Immobilization of catalase on electrospun PVA/PA6-Cu(II) nanofibrous membrane for the development of efficient and reusable enzyme membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Feng, Quan; Zhao, Yong; Wei, Anfang; Li, Changlong; Wei, Qufu; Fong, Hao

    2014-09-02

    In this study, a mat/membrane consisting of overlaid PVA/PA6-Cu(II) composite nanofibers was prepared via the electrospinning technique followed by coordination/chelation with Cu(II) ions; an enzyme of catalase (CAT) was then immobilized onto the PVA/PA6-Cu(II) nanofibrous membrane. The amount of immobilized catalase reached a high value of 64 ± 4.6 mg/g, while the kinetic parameters (Vmax and Km) of enzyme were 3774 μmol/mg·min and 41.13 mM, respectively. Furthermore, the thermal stability and storage stability of immobilized catalase were improved significantly. Thereafter, a plug-flow type of immobilized enzyme membrane reactor (IEMR) was assembled from the PVA/PA6-Cu(II)-CAT membrane. With the increase of operational pressure from 0.02 to 0.2 MPa, the flux value of IEMR increased from 0.20 ± 0.02 to 0.76 ± 0.04 L/m(2)·min, whereas the conversion ratio of H2O2 decreased slightly from 92 ± 2.5% to 87 ± 2.1%. After 5 repeating cycles, the production capacity of IEMR was merely decreased from 0.144 ± 0.006 to 0.102 ± 0.004 mol/m(2)·min. These results indicated that the assembled IEMR possessed high productivity and excellent reusability, suggesting that the IEMR based on electrospun PVA/PA6-Cu(II) nanofibrous membrane might have great potential for various applications, particularly those related to environmental protection.

  10. Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart Nemser, PhD

    2010-10-01

    There are many industrial catalytic organic reversible reactions with amines or alcohols that have water as one of the products. Many of these reactions are homogeneously catalyzed. In all cases removal of water facilitates the reaction and produces more of the desired chemical product. By shifting the reaction to right we produce more chemical product with little or no additional capital investment. Many of these reactions can also relate to bioprocesses. Given the large number of water-organic compound separations achievable and the ability of the Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. (CMS) perfluoro membranes to withstand these harsh operating conditions, this is an ideal demonstration system for the water-of-reaction removal using a membrane reactor. Enhanced reaction synthesis is consistent with the DOE objective to lower the energy intensity of U.S. industry 25% by 2017 in accord with the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and to improve the United States manufacturing competitiveness. The objective of this program is to develop the platform technology for enhancing homogeneous catalytic chemical syntheses.

  11. High temperature catalytic membrane reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    Current state-of-the-art inorganic oxide membranes offer the potential of being modified to yield catalytic properties. The resulting modules may be configured to simultaneously induce catalytic reactions with product concentration and separation in a single processing step. Processes utilizing such catalytically active membrane reactors have the potential for dramatically increasing yield reactions which are currently limited by either thermodynamic equilibria, product inhibition, or kinetic selectivity. Examples of commercial interest include hydrogenation, dehydrogenation, partial and selective oxidation, hydrations, hydrocarbon cracking, olefin metathesis, hydroformylation, and olefin polymerization. A large portion of the most significant reactions fall into the category of high temperature, gas phase chemical and petrochemical processes. Microporous oxide membranes are well suited for these applications. A program is proposed to investigate selected model reactions of commercial interest (i.e. dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene and dehydrogenation of butane to butadiene) using a high temperature catalytic membrane reactor. Membranes will be developed, reaction dynamics characterized, and production processes developed, culminating in laboratory-scale demonstration of technical and economic feasibility. As a result, the anticipated increased yield per reactor pass economic incentives are envisioned. First, a large decrease in the temperature required to obtain high yield should be possible because of the reduced driving force requirement. Significantly higher conversion per pass implies a reduced recycle ratio, as well as reduced reactor size. Both factors result in reduced capital costs, as well as savings in cost of reactants and energy.

  12. Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    2009-02-01

    This factsheet describes a research project that will focus on the development and application of nonporous high gas flux perfluoro membranes with high temperature rating and excellent chemical resistance.

  13. Advanced development of immobilized enzyme reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolly, Clifford D.; Schussel, Leonard J.; Carter, Layne

    1991-01-01

    Fixed-bed reactors have been used at NASA-Marshall to purify wastewater generated by an end-use equipment facility, on the basis of a combination of multifiltration unibeds and enzyme unibeds. The enzyme beds were found to effectively remove such targeted organics as urea, alcohols, and aldehydes, down to levels lying below detection limits. The enzyme beds were also found to remove organic contaminants not specifically targeted.

  14. Composite polymeric/ceramic pervaporation membrane reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Y.; Tsotsis, T.T.

    1995-12-01

    We have investigated the preparation of composite polymeric/ceramic membranes. We have studied the effect of the preparation techniques on the properties of these composite membranes. A model has been developed to describe the transport characteristics. We have used these membranes in pervaporation membrane reactor applications. Our experimental data and modeling results will be presented.

  15. DNA-Based Enzyme Reactors and Systems

    PubMed Central

    Linko, Veikko; Nummelin, Sami; Aarnos, Laura; Tapio, Kosti; Toppari, J. Jussi; Kostiainen, Mauri A.

    2016-01-01

    During recent years, the possibility to create custom biocompatible nanoshapes using DNA as a building material has rapidly emerged. Further, these rationally designed DNA structures could be exploited in positioning pivotal molecules, such as enzymes, with nanometer-level precision. This feature could be used in the fabrication of artificial biochemical machinery that is able to mimic the complex reactions found in living cells. Currently, DNA-enzyme hybrids can be used to control (multi-enzyme) cascade reactions and to regulate the enzyme functions and the reaction pathways. Moreover, sophisticated DNA structures can be utilized in encapsulating active enzymes and delivering the molecular cargo into cells. In this review, we focus on the latest enzyme systems based on novel DNA nanostructures: enzyme reactors, regulatory devices and carriers that can find uses in various biotechnological and nanomedical applications. PMID:28335267

  16. Silica-Immobilized Enzyme Reactors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    relief from the symptoms of inflammation and pain Silica-IMERs 10 and is the mode of action of drugs such as aspirin and ibuprofen .[61] Serotonin...supports and using the enantiomeric selectivity of the enzyme to resolve racemic mixtures.[100] Immobilization onto supports with various pore sizes and...activity (~37%) and used as a packed- bed IMER to catalyze the racemic resolution of (S)-ketoprofen from its constituent enantiomers . The optically pure (S

  17. Ceramic oxygen transport membrane array reactor and reforming method

    DOEpatents

    Kelly, Sean M.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Robinson, Charles; Wilson, Jamie R.; Gonzalez, Javier E.; Doraswami, Uttam R.

    2016-11-08

    The invention relates to a commercially viable modular ceramic oxygen transport membrane reforming reactor configured using repeating assemblies of oxygen transport membrane tubes and catalytic reforming reactors.

  18. Recent Advances in Pd-Based Membranes for Membrane Reactors.

    PubMed

    Arratibel Plazaola, Alba; Pacheco Tanaka, David Alfredo; Van Sint Annaland, Martin; Gallucci, Fausto

    2017-01-01

    Palladium-based membranes for hydrogen separation have been studied by several research groups during the last 40 years. Much effort has been dedicated to improving the hydrogen flux of these membranes employing different alloys, supports, deposition/production techniques, etc. High flux and cheap membranes, yet stable at different operating conditions are required for their exploitation at industrial scale. The integration of membranes in multifunctional reactors (membrane reactors) poses additional demands on the membranes as interactions at different levels between the catalyst and the membrane surface can occur. Particularly, when employing the membranes in fluidized bed reactors, the selective layer should be resistant to or protected against erosion. In this review we will also describe a novel kind of membranes, the pore-filled type membranes prepared by Pacheco Tanaka and coworkers that represent a possible solution to integrate thin selective membranes into membrane reactors while protecting the selective layer. This work is focused on recent advances on metallic supports, materials used as an intermetallic diffusion layer when metallic supports are used and the most recent advances on Pd-based composite membranes. Particular attention is paid to improvements on sulfur resistance of Pd based membranes, resistance to hydrogen embrittlement and stability at high temperature.

  19. Reactor design for minimizing product inhibition during enzymatic lignocellulose hydrolysis: II. Quantification of inhibition and suitability of membrane reactors.

    PubMed

    Andrić, Pavle; Meyer, Anne S; Jensen, Peter A; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Product inhibition of cellulolytic enzymes affects the efficiency of the biocatalytic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol and other valuable products. New strategies that focus on reactor designs encompassing product removal, notably glucose removal, during enzymatic cellulose conversion are required for alleviation of glucose product inhibition. Supported by numerous calculations this review assesses the quantitative aspects of glucose product inhibition on enzyme-catalyzed cellulose degradation rates. The significance of glucose product inhibition on dimensioning of different ideal reactor types, i.e. batch, continuous stirred, and plug-flow, is illustrated quantitatively by modeling different extents of cellulose conversion at different reaction conditions. The main operational challenges of membrane reactors for lignocellulose conversion are highlighted. Key membrane reactor features, including system set-up, dilution rate, glucose output profile, and the problem of cellobiose are examined to illustrate the quantitative significance of the glucose product inhibition and the total glucose concentration on the cellulolytic conversion rate. Comprehensive overviews of the available literature data for glucose removal by membranes and for cellulose enzyme stability in membrane reactors are given. The treatise clearly shows that membrane reactors allowing continuous, complete, glucose removal during enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis, can provide for both higher cellulose hydrolysis rates and higher enzyme usage efficiency (kg(product)/kg(enzyme)). Current membrane reactor designs are however not feasible for large scale operations. The report emphasizes that the industrial realization of cellulosic ethanol requires more focus on the operational feasibility within the different hydrolysis reactor designs, notably for membrane reactors, to achieve efficient enzyme-catalyzed cellulose degradation.

  20. Investigation of a submerged membrane reactor for continuous biomass hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Malmali, Mohammadmahdi; Stickel, Jonathan; Wickramasinghe, S. Ranil

    2015-10-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose is one of the most costly steps in the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass. Use of a submerged membrane reactor has been investigated for continuous enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose thus allowing for greater use of the enzyme compared to a batch process. Moreover, the submerged 0.65 μm polyethersulfone microfiltration membrane avoids the need to pump a cellulose slurry through an external loop. Permeate containing glucose is withdrawn at pressures slightly below atmospheric pressure. The membrane rejects cellulose particles and cellulase enzyme bound to cellulose. Our proof-of-concept experiments have been conducted using a modified, commercially available membrane filtration cell under low fluxes around 75 L/(m2 h). The operating flux is determined by the rate of glucose production. Maximizing the rate of glucose production involves optimizing mixing, reactor holding time, and the time the feed is held in the reactor prior to commencement of membrane filtration and continuous operation. When we maximize glucose production rates it will require that we operate it at low glucose concentration in order to minimize the adverse effects of product inhibition. Consequently practical submerged membrane systems will require a combined sugar concentration step in order to concentrate the product sugar stream prior to fermentation.

  1. Rapid and Enhanced Proteolytic Digestion using Electric-Field-oriented Enzyme Reactor

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yu; Yi, Tie; Park, Sung-Soo; Chadwick, Wayne; Shen, Rong-Fong; Wu, Wells W.; Martin, Bronwen; Maudsley, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    We have created a novel enzyme reactor using electric field-mediated orientation and immobilization of proteolytic enzymes (trypsin/chymotrypsin) on biocompatible PVDF membranes in a continuous flow-through chamber. Using less than 5 minutes, this reactor in various enzyme combinations can produce enhanced rapid digestion for standardized prototypic proteins, hydrophilic proteins and hydrophobic transmembrane proteins when compared to in-solution techniques. With improved digestive efficiency, our reactor improved the overall functional analysis of lipid raft proteomes by identifying more closely functionally linked proteins and elucidated a richer set of biological processes and pathways linked to the proteins than traditional in-solution methods. PMID:21338726

  2. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2014-05-20

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  3. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2013-04-16

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  4. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2012-09-11

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  5. High Flux Metallic Membranes for Hydrogen Recovery and Membrane Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Buxbaum, Robert

    2010-06-30

    We made and tested over 250 new alloys for use as lower cost, higher flux hydrogen extraction membrane materials. Most of these were intermetallic, or contained significant intermetallic content, particularly based on B2 alloy compositions with at least one refractory component; B2 intermetallics resemble BCC alloys, in structure, but the atoms have relatively fixed positions, with one atom at the corners of the cube, the other at the centers. The target materals we were looking for would contain little or no expensive elements, no strongly toxic or radioactive elements, would have high flux to hydrogen, while being fabricable, brazable, and relatively immune to hydrogen embrittlement and corrosion in operation. The best combination of properties of the membrane materials we developed was, in my opinion, a Pd-coated membrane consisting of V -9 atomic % Pd. This material was relatively cheap, had 5 times the flux of Pd under the same pressure differential, was reasonably easy to fabricate and braze, and not bad in terms of embrittlement. Based on all these factors we project, about 1/3 the cost of Pd, on an area basis for a membrane designed to last 20 years, or 1/15 the cost on a flux basis. Alternatives to this membrane replaced significant fractions of the Pd with Ni and or Co. The cost for these membranes was lower, but so was the flux. We produced successful brazed products from the membrane materials, and made them into flat sheets. We tested, unsuccessfully, several means of fabricating thematerials into tubes, and eventually built a membrane reactor using a new, flat-plate design: a disc and doughnut arrangement, a design that seems well- suited to clean hydrogen production from coal. The membranes and reactor were tested successfully at Western Research. A larger equipment company (Chart Industries) produced similar results using a different flat-plate reactor design. Cost projections of the membrane are shown to be attractive.

  6. Electrochemical Membrane Reactors for Sustainable Chlorine Recycling

    PubMed Central

    Vidakovic-Koch, Tanja; Martinez, Isai Gonzalez; Kuwertz, Rafael; Kunz, Ulrich; Turek, Thomas; Sundmacher, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Polymer electrolyte membranes have found broad application in a number of processes, being fuel cells, due to energy concerns, the main focus of the scientific community worldwide. Relatively little attention has been paid to the use of these materials in electrochemical production and separation processes. In this review, we put emphasis upon the application of Nafion membranes in electrochemical membrane reactors for chlorine recycling. The performance of such electrochemical reactors can be influenced by a number of factors including the properties of the membrane, which play an important role in reactor optimization. This review discusses the role of Nafion as a membrane, as well as its importance in the catalyst layer for the formation of the so-called three-phase boundary. The influence of an equilibrated medium on the Nafion proton conductivity and Cl− crossover, as well as the influence of the catalyst ink dispersion medium on the Nafion/catalyst self-assembly and its importance for the formation of an ionic conducting network in the catalyst layer are summarized. PMID:24958294

  7. [Development of preparation of immobilized enzyme reactors in proteomics].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lingyi; Wang, Bingbing; Shangguan, Lulu; Zhang, Runsheng; Chen, Jianhu; Zhang, Weibing

    2015-11-01

    As an important part in "bottom-up" strategy of proteomics, immobilized enzyme reactors have great significance in the development of fast and more efficient protein analytical method, owing to its advantages of high speed and enzymatic efficiency, good stability and activity, easy operation, and the possibility of hyphenating with multiple detection instruments. In this paper, the preparation methods of immobilized enzyme reactors and their applications in proteomic investigation are introduced, focusing on the nature of enzymes, the immobilization methods and the carrier materials used for immobilizing enzyme. In recent years, the investigations are focused on increasing the immobilization amounts of enzyme, keeping enzymatic activity, improving enzymatic efficiency and decreasing nonspecific adsorption. The investigation results showed that by using novel carriers such as nanomaterial and monolith, increasing of hydrophilicity of carrier and tandem hydrolysis with multiple enzymes can greatly improve the performance of immobilized enzyme reactors and increase protein identification efficiencies.

  8. Enzymatic membrane reactor for full saccharification of ionic liquid-pretreated microcrystalline cellulose.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Pedro; Bernal, Berenice; Jara, Antonio G; Belleville, Marie-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Ultrafiltration reactors based on polymeric or ceramic membranes were shown to be suitable catalytic systems for fast enzymatic saccharification of cellulose, allowing the full recovery and reuse of enzymes. By pre-treating cellulose with the IL 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, the suitability of this substrate for enzymatic saccharification in a reactor based on polymeric ultrafiltration membranes was demonstrated, leading to 95% cellulose hydrolysis in 4h at 50°C. The filtration process gave a clear glucose solution (up to 113 mM) at constant permeate flow (24.7 L h(-1) m(-2)), allowing the enzyme to be reused for 9 operation cycles under semi-continuous operation, without any loss of enzyme activity. Under continuous operation mode and using ceramic ultrafiltration membranes at different residence times, the enzymatic reactor showed constant profiles in both the permeate flow rate and the glucose concentration, demonstrating the excellent suitability of the proposed approach for the saccharification of cellulose.

  9. Dense ceramic catalytic membranes and membrane reactors for energy and environmental applications.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xueliang; Jin, Wanqin; Xu, Nanping; Li, Kang

    2011-10-21

    Catalytic membrane reactors which carry out separation and reaction in a single unit are expected to be a promising approach to achieve green and sustainable chemistry with less energy consumption and lower pollution. This article presents a review of the recent progress of dense ceramic catalytic membranes and membrane reactors, and their potential applications in energy and environmental areas. A basic knowledge of catalytic membranes and membrane reactors is first introduced briefly, followed by a short discussion on the membrane materials including their structures, composition and strategies for material development. The configuration of catalytic membranes, the design of membrane reaction processes and the high temperature sealing are also discussed. The performance of catalytic membrane reactors for energy and environmental applications are summarized and typical catalytic membrane reaction processes are presented and discussed. Finally, current challenges and difficulties related to the industrialization of dense ceramic membrane reactors are addressed and possible future research is also outlined.

  10. Ceramic oxygen transport membrane array reactor and reforming method

    DOEpatents

    Kelly, Sean M.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Rosen, Lee J.; Robinson, Charles; Wilson, Jamie R.; Gonzalez, Javier E.; Doraswami, Uttam R.

    2016-09-27

    A commercially viable modular ceramic oxygen transport membrane reforming reactor for producing a synthesis gas that improves the thermal coupling of reactively-driven oxygen transport membrane tubes and catalyst reforming tubes required to efficiently and effectively produce synthesis gas.

  11. Process Intensification with Integrated Water-Gas-Shift Membrane Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    2009-11-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose objective is to develop hydrogen-selective membranes for an innovative gas-separation process based on a water-gas-shift membrane reactor (WGS-MR) for the production of hydrogen.

  12. Adsorption of amylase enzyme on ultrafiltration membranes.

    PubMed

    Beier, Søren Prip; Enevoldsen, Ann Dorrit; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M; Hansen, Ernst B; Jonsson, Gunnar

    2007-08-28

    A method to measure the static adsorption on membrane surfaces has been developed and described. The static adsorption of amylase-F has been measured on two different ultrafiltration membranes, both with a cutoff value of 10 kDa (a PES membrane and the ETNA10PP membrane, which is a surface-modified PVDF membrane). The adsorption follows the Langmuir adsorption theory. Thus, the static adsorption consists of monolayer coverage and is expressed both as a permeability drop and an adsorption resistance. From the adsorption isotherms, the maximum static permeability drops and the maximum static adsorption resistances are determined. The maximum static permeability drop for the hydrophobic PES membrane is 75%, and the maximum static adsorption resistance is 0.014 m2.h.bar/L. The maximum static permeability drop for the hydrophilic surface-modified PVDF membrane (ETNA10PP) is 23%, and the maximum static adsorption resistance is 0.0046 m2.h.bar/L. The difference in maximum static adsorption, by a factor of around 3, affects the performance during the filtration of a 5 g/L amylase-F solution at 2 bar. The two membranes behave very similarly during filtration with almost equal fluxes and retentions even though the initial water permeability of the PES membrane is around 3 times larger than the initial water permeability of the ETNA10PP membrane. This is mainly attributed to the larger maximum static adsorption of the PES membrane. The permeability drop during filtration exceeds the maximum static permeability drop, indicating that the buildup layer on the membranes during filtration exceeds monolayer coverage, which is also seen by the increase in fouling resistance during filtration. The accumulated layer on the membrane surface can be described as a continually increasing cake-layer thickness, which is independent of the membrane type. At higher concentrations of enzyme, concentration polarization effects cannot be neglected. Therefore, stagnant film theory and the osmotic

  13. OXIDATIVE COUPLING OF METHANE USING INORGANIC MEMBRANE REACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Y.H. Ma; Dr. W.R. Moser; Dr. A.G. Dixon; Dr. A.M. Ramachandra; Dr. Y. Lu; C. Binkerd

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this research is to study the oxidative coupling of methane in catalytic inorganic membrane reactors. A specific target is to achieve conversion of methane to C{sub 2} hydrocarbons at very high selectivity and higher yields than in conventional non-porous, co-feed, fixed bed reactors by controlling the oxygen supply through the membrane. A membrane reactor has the advantage of precisely controlling the rate of delivery of oxygen to the catalyst. This facility permits balancing the rate of oxidation and reduction of the catalyst. In addition, membrane reactors minimize the concentration of gas phase oxygen thus reducing non selective gas phase reactions, which are believed to be a main route for the formation of CO{sub x} products. Such gas phase reactions are a cause of decreased selectivity in the oxidative coupling of methane in conventional flow reactors. Membrane reactors could also produce higher product yields by providing better distribution of the reactant gases over the catalyst than the conventional plug flow reactors. Membrane reactor technology also offers the potential for modifying the membranes both to improve catalytic properties as well as to regulate the rate of the permeation/diffusion of reactants through the membrane to minimize by-product generation. Other benefits also exist with membrane reactors, such as the mitigation of thermal hot-spots for highly exothermic reactions such as the oxidative coupling of methane. The application of catalytically active inorganic membranes has potential for drastically increasing the yield of reactions which are currently limited by either thermodynamic equilibria, product inhibition, or kinetic selectivity.

  14. High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, T.T.

    1992-06-19

    In this project we well evaluate the performance of Sel-Gel alumina membranes in coal liquid upgrading processes under realistic temperature and pressure conditions and investigate the feasibility of using such membranes in a membrane reactor based coal liquid upgrading process. In addition, the development of novel ceramic membranes with enhanced catalytic activity for coal-liquid upgrading applications, such as carbon-coated alumina membranes, will be also investigated. (VC)

  15. Oxidative coupling of methane using inorganic membrane reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Y.H.; Moser, W.R.; Dixon, A.G.

    1995-12-31

    The goal of this research is to improve the oxidative coupling of methane in a catalytic inorganic membrane reactor. A specific target is to achieve conversion of methane to C{sub 2} hydrocarbons at very high selectivity and relatively higher yields than in fixed bed reactors by controlling the oxygen supply through the membrane. A membrane reactor has the advantage of precisely controlling the rate of delivery of oxygen to the catalyst. This facility permits balancing the rate of oxidation and reduction of the catalyst. In addition, membrane reactors minimize the concentration of gas phase oxygen thus reducing non selective gas phase reactions, which are believed to be a main route for formation of CO{sub x} products. Such gas phase reactions are a cause for decreased selectivity in oxidative coupling of methane in conventional flow reactors. Membrane reactors could also produce higher product yields by providing better distribution of the reactant gases over the catalyst than the conventional plug flow reactors. Modeling work which aimed at predicting the observed experimental trends in porous membrane reactors was also undertaken in this research program.

  16. Structure Biology of Membrane Bound Enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Dax

    2016-11-30

    The overall goal of the proposed research is to understand the membrane-associated active processes catalyzed by an alkane $\\square$-hydroxylase (AlkB) from eubacterium Pseudomonase oleovorans. AlkB performs oxygenation of unactivated hydrocarbons found in crude oils. The enzymatic reaction involves energy-demanding steps in the membrane with the uses of structurally unknown metal active sites featuring a diiron [FeFe] center. At present, a critical barrier to understanding the membrane-associated reaction mechanism is the lack of structural information. The structural biology efforts have been challenged by technical difficulties commonly encountered in crystallization and structural determination of membrane proteins. The specific aims of the current budget cycle are to crystalize AlkB and initiate X-ray analysis to set the stage for structural determination. The long-term goals of our structural biology efforts are to provide an atomic description of AlkB structure, and to uncover the mechanisms of selective modification of hydrocarbons. The structural information will help elucidating how the unactivated C-H bonds of saturated hydrocarbons are oxidized to initiate biodegradation and biotransformation processes. The knowledge gained will be fundamental to biotechnological applications to biofuel transformation of non-edible oil feedstock. Renewable biodiesel is a promising energy carry that can be used to reduce fossil fuel dependency. The proposed research capitalizes on prior BES-supported efforts on over-expression and purification of AlkB to explore the inner workings of a bioenergy-relevant membrane-bound enzyme.

  17. Steam reforming of heptane in a fluidized bed membrane reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakib, Mohammad A.; Grace, John R.; Lim, C. Jim; Elnashaie, Said S. E. H.

    n-Heptane served as a model compound to study steam reforming of naphtha as an alternative feedstock to natural gas for production of pure hydrogen in a fluidized bed membrane reactor. Selective removal of hydrogen using Pd 77Ag 23 membrane panels shifted the equilibrium-limited reactions to greater conversion of the hydrocarbons and lower yields of methane, an intermediate product. Experiments were conducted with no membranes, with one membrane panel, and with six panels along the height of the reactor to understand the performance improvement due to hydrogen removal in a reactor where catalyst particles were fluidized. Results indicate that a fluidized bed membrane reactor (FBMR) can provide a compact reformer for pure hydrogen production from a liquid hydrocarbon feedstock at moderate temperatures (475-550 °C). Under the experimental conditions investigated, the maximum achieved yield of pure hydrogen was 14.7 moles of pure hydrogen per mole of heptane fed.

  18. Silica-Immobilized Enzyme Reactors (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    mode of action of drugs such as aspirin and ibuprofen .[61] Serotonin reuptake inhibitors and monoamine oxidase inhibitors can function as...immobilizing PGA onto chromatography supports and using the enantiomeric selectivity of the enzyme to resolve racemic mixtures.[100] Immobilization onto...column. J. Chroma- togr. B. Biomed. Sci. Appl. 2001, 753, 375–383. 37. Jadaud, P.; Wainer, I.W. The stereochemical resolution of the enantiomers of

  19. Operation of staged membrane oxidation reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Repasky, John Michael

    2012-10-16

    A method of operating a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system. The method comprises providing a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system with at least a first membrane oxidation stage and a second membrane oxidation stage, operating the ion transport membrane oxidation system at operating conditions including a characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and a characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage; and controlling the production capacity and/or the product quality by changing the characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and/or changing the characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage.

  20. Enzymatic modification of vegetable protein: immobilization of penicillium duponti enzyme on reconstituted collagen and the use of the immobilized-enzyme complex for solubilizing vegetable protein in a recycle reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Adu-amankwa, B.; Constantinides, A.; Vieth, W.R.

    1981-11-01

    Penicillium duponti enzyme was immobilized on reconstituted collagen by macromolecular complexation, impregnation, and covalent crosslinking techniques. The immobilization of the enzyme on collagen has a twofold purpose: 1) providing a protein microenvironment for the proteolytic enzyme; and 2) extending the useful life of the enzyme once immobilized on the collagen matrix. Two types of collagen were used, one produced by the United States Department of Agriculture and the other produced by FMC. The USDA collagen contained unhydrolyzed telopeptide linkages and required pretreatment to reduce collagenaselike activity of the enzyme. Activity analysis of the immobilized enzyme complex showed that membranes with enzyme loading less than 10 mg enzyme/gram of wet membrane in the reactor were dimensionally stable. The degree of crosslinking was an important parameter. Membranes with structural openings up to three times the initial dry thickness were found to be the maximum limit for controlled release of enzyme from the collagen membrane during enzymatic reaction. Higher activities and better stability of the enzyme in collagen membrane were found for covalent crosslinking of the enzyme to treated collagen films. The hydrolysis of soybean vegetable protein with the immobilized enzyme in a recycle reactor at enzyme loading of 7 mg/gram of wet membrane at 40 degrees Celcius, pH 3.4, produced 56.5% of soluble protein in 10 hours. The production is equivalent to 1.84 hours total contact time between the substrate and the immobilized enzyme. The average productivity based on a stable enzyme activity and 20 grams of dry membrane was 329 mg of protein/h/mg of active enzyme immobilized. The productivity of the free enzyme in a batch reactor was 62.5 mg protein/h/mg enzyme. (Refs. 14)

  1. Functionalized anodic aluminum oxide membrane-electrode system for enzyme immobilization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jianjun; Singh, Shanteri; Peltier-Pain, Pauline; Thorson, Jon S; Hinds, Bruce J

    2014-08-26

    A nanoporous membrane system with directed flow carrying reagents to sequentially attached enzymes to mimic nature’s enzyme complex system was demonstrated. Genetically modified glycosylation enzyme, OleD Loki variant, was immobilized onto nanometer-scale electrodes at the pore entrances/exits of anodic aluminum oxide membranes through His6-tag affinity binding. The enzyme activity was assessed in two reactions—a one-step “reverse” sugar nucleotide formation reaction (UDP-Glc) and a two-step sequential sugar nucleotide formation and sugar nucleotide-based glycosylation reaction. For the one-step reaction, enzyme specific activity of 6–20 min(–1) on membrane supports was seen to be comparable to solution enzyme specific activity of 10 min(–1). UDP-Glc production efficiencies as high as 98% were observed at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min, at which the substrate residence time over the electrode length down pore entrances was matched to the enzyme activity rate. This flow geometry also prevented an unwanted secondary product hydrolysis reaction, as observed in the test homogeneous solution. Enzyme utilization increased by a factor of 280 compared to test homogeneous conditions due to the continuous flow of fresh substrate over the enzyme. To mimic enzyme complex systems, a two-step sequential reaction using OleD Loki enzyme was performed at membrane pore entrances then exits. After UDP-Glc formation at the entrance electrode, aglycon 4-methylumbelliferone was supplied at the exit face of the reactor, affording overall 80% glycosylation efficiency. The membrane platform showed the ability to be regenerated with purified enzyme as well as directly from expression crude, thus demonstrating a single-step immobilization and purification process.

  2. Solid state oxygen anion and electron mediating membrane and catalytic membrane reactors containing them

    DOEpatents

    Schwartz, Michael; White, James H.; Sammels, Anthony F.

    2000-01-01

    This invention relates to gas-impermeable, solid state materials fabricated into membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors. This invention particularly relates to solid state oxygen anion- and electron-mediating membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors for promoting partial or full oxidation of different chemical species, for decomposition of oxygen-containing species, and for separation of oxygen from other gases. Solid state materials for use in the membranes of this invention include mixed metal oxide compounds having the brownmillerite crystal structure.

  3. Solid state oxygen anion and electron mediating membrane and catalytic membrane reactors containing them

    DOEpatents

    Schwartz, Michael; White, James H.; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2005-09-27

    This invention relates to gas-impermeable, solid state materials fabricated into membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors. This invention particularly relates to solid state oxygen anion- and electron-mediating membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors for promoting partial or full oxidation of different chemical species, for decomposition of oxygen-containing species, and for separation of oxygen from other gases. Solid state materials for use in the membranes of this invention include mixed metal oxide compounds having the brownmillerite crystal structure.

  4. High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, T.T.

    1992-01-01

    In this project we intend to study a novel process concept, i.e, the use of ceramic membranes reactors in upgrading of coal derived liquids. Membrane reactors have been used in a number of catalytic reaction processes in order to overcome the limitations on conversion imposed by thermodynamic equilibrium. They have, furthermore, the inherent capability for combining reaction and separation in a single step. Thus they offer promise for improving and optimizing yield, selectivity and performance of processes involving complex liquids, as those typically found in coal liquid upgrading. Ceramic membranes are a new class of materials, which have shown promise in a variety of industrial applications. Their mechanical and chemical stability coupled with a wide range of operating temperatures and pressures make them suitable for environments found in coal liquid upgrading. In this project we will evaluate the performance of Sol-Gel alumina membranes in coal liquid upgrading processes under realistic temperature and pressure conditions and investigate the feasibility of using such membranes in a membrane reactor based coal liquid upgrading process. In addition, the development of novel ceramic membranes with enhanced catalytic activity for coal-liquid upgrading applications, such as carbon-coated alumina membranes, will be also investigated.

  5. High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, T.T.

    1992-01-01

    In this project we intend to study a novel process concept, i.e.,the use of ceramic membranes reactors in upgrading of coal derived liquids. Membrane reactors have been used in a number of catalytic reaction processes in order to overcome the limitations on conversion imposed by thermodynamic equilibrium. They have, furthermore, the inherent capability for combining reaction and separation in a single step. Thus they offer promise for improving and optimizing yield, selectivity and performance of processes involving complex liquids, as those typically found in coal liquid upgrading. Ceramic membranes are a new class of materials, which have shown promise in a variety of industrial applications. Their mechanical and chemical stability coupled with a wide range of operating temperatures and pressures make them suitable for environments found in coal liquid upgrading. In this project we wig evaluate the performance of Sel-Gel alumina membranes in coal liquid upgrading processes under realistic temperature and pressure conditions and investigate the feasibility of using such membranes in a membrane reactor based coal liquid upgrading process. In addition, the development of novel ceramic membranes with enhanced catalytic activity for coal-liquid upgrading applications, such as carbon-coated alumina membranes, will be also investigated.

  6. Hybrid Adsorption-Membrane Biological Reactors for Improved Performance and Reliability of Perchlorate Removal Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    carbon supply for the autotrophic perchlorate reducing bacteria. The membrane used in the reactor is a hollow-fiber microfiltration membrane made from...1 HYBRID ADSORPTION- MEMBRANE BIOLOGICAL REACTORS FOR IMPROVED PERFORMANCE AND RELIABILITY OF PERCHLORATE REMOVAL PROCESSES L.C. Schideman...Center Champaign, IL 61826, USA ABSTRACT This study introduces the novel HAMBgR process (Hybrid Adsorption Membrane Biological Reactor) and

  7. Reactor process using metal oxide ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Marc A.

    1994-01-01

    A reaction vessel for use in photoelectrochemical reactions includes as its reactive surface a metal oxide porous ceramic membrane of a catalytic metal such as titanium. The reaction vessel includes a light source and a counter electrode. A provision for applying an electrical bias between the membrane and the counter electrode permits the Fermi levels of potential reaction to be favored so that certain reactions may be favored in the vessel. The electrical biasing is also useful for the cleaning of the catalytic membrane. Also disclosed is a method regenerating a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane used in a photoelectrochemical catalytic process by periodically removing the reactants and regenerating the membrane using a variety of chemical, thermal, and electrical techniques.

  8. Reactor process using metal oxide ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, M.A.

    1994-05-03

    A reaction vessel for use in photoelectrochemical reactions includes as its reactive surface a metal oxide porous ceramic membrane of a catalytic metal such as titanium. The reaction vessel includes a light source and a counter electrode. A provision for applying an electrical bias between the membrane and the counter electrode permits the Fermi levels of potential reaction to be favored so that certain reactions may be favored in the vessel. The electrical biasing is also useful for the cleaning of the catalytic membrane. Also disclosed is a method regenerating a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane used in a photoelectrochemical catalytic process by periodically removing the reactants and regenerating the membrane using a variety of chemical, thermal, and electrical techniques. 2 figures.

  9. Hydrogen Production via a Commercially Ready Inorganic membrane Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Paul K.T. Liu

    2005-08-23

    Single stage low-temperature-shift water-gas-shift (WGS-LTS) via a membrane reactor (MR) process was studied through both mathematical simulation and experimental verification in this quarter. Our proposed MR yields a reactor size that is 10 to >55% smaller than the comparable conventional reactor for a CO conversion of 80 to 90%. In addition, the CO contaminant level in the hydrogen produced via MR ranges from 1,000 to 4,000 ppm vs 40,000 to >70,000 ppm via the conventional reactor. The advantages of the reduced WGS reactor size and the reduced CO contaminant level provide an excellent opportunity for intensification of the hydrogen production process by the proposed MR. To prepare for the field test planned in Yr III, a significant number (i.e., 98) of full-scale membrane tubes have been produced with an on-spec ratio of >76% during this first production trial. In addition, an innovative full-scale membrane module has been designed, which can potentially deliver >20 to 30 m{sup 2}/module making it suitable for large-scale applications, such as power generation. Finally, we have verified our membrane performance and stability in a refinery pilot testing facility on a hydrocracker purge gas. No change in membrane performance was noted over the >100 hrs of testing conducted in the presence of >30% H{sub 2}S, >5,000 ppm NH{sub 3} (estimated), and heavy hydrocarbons on the order of 25%. The high stability of these membranes opens the door for the use of our membrane in the WGS environment with significantly reduced pretreatment burden.

  10. [Hydrolyzed lactose contained in the ultrafiltrate of milk or milk products in an enzymatic membrane reactor].

    PubMed

    Roger, L; Maubois, J L; Thapon, J L; Brule, G

    1978-01-01

    Milk and milk by-products with a low lactose content, very interesting from a nutritional and technological point of view, were obtained by the application of the enzymatic membrane reactor technique. A previous separation of the aqueous phase of milk or ultrafiltrate was necessary and realized by ultrafiltration. The enzyme, a commercial beta-galactosidase, was maintained in solution in the retentate part of the membrane reactor. The optimal conditions of the lactose hydrolysis in milk and whey ultrafiltrates were determined. The behaviour of the aqueous phase of milk in membrane reactor, specially of mineral salts, was studied. Three possibilities were proposed to avoid a calcium-phosphate deposit on the surface of (and in) the reactor membranes: a precipitation of calcium salts by heating, a partial demineralization by electrodialysis or ion exchange, a calcium complexation by addition of sodium citrate. A continuous process for the lactose hydrolysis of milk and demineralized whey or milk ultrafiltrate was proposed. The organoleptic quality of low lactose milk, before and after heat treatment, was evaluated by a tasting panel. High sweeting syrup, were obtained by concentration of lactose hydrolyzed and demineralized ultrafiltrates. Nutritional aspects of these products are discussed specially from the toxicological point of view of galactose.

  11. A NOVEL MEMBRANE REACTOR FOR DIRECT HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM COAL

    SciTech Connect

    Shain Doong; Estela Ong; Mike Atroshenko; Francis Lau; Mike Roberts

    2004-01-22

    Gas Technology Institute is developing a novel concept of membrane gasifier for high efficiency, clean and low cost production of hydrogen from coal. The concept incorporates a hydrogen-selective membrane within a gasification reactor for direct extraction of hydrogen from coal synthesis gases. The objective of this project is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of this concept by screening, testing and identifying the potential candidate membranes under high temperature, high pressure, and harsh environments of the coal gasification conditions. The best performing membranes will be selected for preliminary reactor design and cost estimates. To evaluate the candidate membrane performance under the gasification conditions, a high temperature/high pressure hydrogen permeation unit will be constructed in this project. During this reporting period, the design of this unit was completed. The unit will be capable of operating at temperatures up to 1100 C and pressures to 60 atm for evaluation of ceramic membranes such as mixed ionic conducting membrane. The membranes to be tested will be in disc form with a diameter of about 3 cm. By operating at higher temperatures and higher hydrogen partial pressures, we expect to demonstrate commercially relevant hydrogen flux, 10 {approx} 50 cc/min/cm{sup 2}, from the membranes made of the perovskite type of ceramic material. The construction of the unit is planned to be completed by the end of the next reporting period.

  12. Reactor vessel using metal oxide ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Marc A.; Zeltner, Walter A.

    1992-08-11

    A reaction vessel for use in photoelectrochemical reactions includes as its reactive surface a metal oxide porous ceramic membrane of a catalytic metal such as titanium. The reaction vessel includes a light source and a counter electrode. A provision for applying an electrical bias between the membrane and the counter electrode permits the Fermi levels of potential reaction to be favored so that certain reactions may be favored in the vessel. The electrical biasing is also useful for the cleaning of the catalytic membrane.

  13. Enzyme-Embedded, Microstructural Reactors for Industrial Biocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Sarah E.; Knipe, J. M.; Oakdale, J.; Stolaroff, J.

    2016-10-04

    In this project we explored enzyme-catalyzed methane conversion to methanol. Industrial biological approaches to methane conversion using whole organisms are predicted to be more energy efficient than chemical approaches, but are limited by mass transfer of the gas phase reactants, methane and oxygen, to the organisms. We demonstrated that 3D printing the enzyme particulate Methane Mono Oxygenase (pMMO) embedded in a polymer can improve the kinetics of methane to methanol conversion. This improvement was likely due to the ability to increase the surface area of the catalytic material using 3D printing. We also demonstrated the first continuous use of pMMO in a flow-through reactor. In order to understand the fundamental kinetic properties of pMMO, we conducted an in-depth study of pMMO kinetics using analytical tools developed in our lab. Finally, we developed a new copolymer system that allowed tuning of the gas permeability of the biocatalytic material.

  14. High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, T.T.

    1992-01-01

    In this project we will study a novel process concept, i.e., the use of ceramic membrane reactors in upgrading of coal model compounds and coal derived liquids. In general terms, the USC research team is responsible for constructing and operating the membrane reactor apparatus and for testing various inorganic membranes for the upgrading of coal derived asphaltenes and coal model compounds. The USC effort will involve the principal investigator of this project and two graduate research assistants. The ALCOA team is responsible for the preparation of the inorganic membranes, for construction and testing of the ceramic membrane modules, and for measurement of their transport properties. The ALCOA research effort will involve Dr. Paul K. T. Liu, who is the project manager of the ALCOA research team, an engineer and a technician. UNOCAL's contribution will be limited to overall technical assistance in catalyst preparation and the operation of the laboratory upgrading membrane reactor and for analytical back-up and expertise in oil analysis and materials characterization. UNOCAL is a no-cost contractor but will be involved in all aspects of the project, as deemed appropriate.

  15. High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, T.T.

    1992-06-19

    Ceramic membranes are a new class of materials, which have shown promise in a variety of industrial applications. Their mechanical and chemical stability coupled with a wide range of operating temperatures and pressures make them suitable for environments found in coal liquid upgrading. In this project we will evaluate the performance of Sel-Gel alumina membranes in coal liquid upgrading processes under realistic temperature and pressure conditions and investigate the feasibility of using such membranes in a membrane reactor based coal liquid upgrading process. In addition, the development of novel ceramic membranes with enhanced catalytic activity for coal-liquid upgrading applications, such as carbon-coated alumina membranes, will be also investigated.

  16. High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, T.T.

    1992-06-19

    Ceramic membranes are a new class of materials, which have shown promise in a variety of industrial applications. Their mechanical and chemical stability coupled with a wide range of operating temperatures and pressures make them suitable for environments found in coal liquid upgrading. In this project we will evaluate the performance of Sel-Gel alumina membranes in coal liquid upgrading processes under realistic temperature and pressure conditions and investigate the feasibility of using such membranes in a membrane reactor based coal liquid upgrading process. In addition, the development of novel ceramic membranes with enhanced catalytic activity for coal-liquid upgrading applications, such as carbon-coated alumina membranes, will also be investigated.

  17. System and method for air temperature control in an oxygen transport membrane based reactor

    DOEpatents

    Kelly, Sean M

    2016-09-27

    A system and method for air temperature control in an oxygen transport membrane based reactor is provided. The system and method involves introducing a specific quantity of cooling air or trim air in between stages in a multistage oxygen transport membrane based reactor or furnace to maintain generally consistent surface temperatures of the oxygen transport membrane elements and associated reactors. The associated reactors may include reforming reactors, boilers or process gas heaters.

  18. System and method for temperature control in an oxygen transport membrane based reactor

    DOEpatents

    Kelly, Sean M.

    2017-02-21

    A system and method for temperature control in an oxygen transport membrane based reactor is provided. The system and method involves introducing a specific quantity of cooling air or trim air in between stages in a multistage oxygen transport membrane based reactor or furnace to maintain generally consistent surface temperatures of the oxygen transport membrane elements and associated reactors. The associated reactors may include reforming reactors, boilers or process gas heaters.

  19. Biocatalytic membrane reactors: applications and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Giorno, L; Drioli, E

    2000-08-01

    Membranes and biotechnological tools can be used for improving traditional production systems to maintain the sustainable growth of society. Typical examples include: new and improved foodstuffs, in which the desired nutrients are not lost during thermal treatment; novel pharmaceutical products with well-defined enantiomeric compositions; and the treatment of waste-water, wherein pollution by traditional processes is a problem.

  20. Lipase immobilized catalytically active membrane for synthesis of lauryl stearate in a pervaporation membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weidong; Qing, Weihua; Ren, Zhongqi; Li, Wei; Chen, Jiangrong

    2014-11-01

    A composite catalytically active membrane immobilized with Candida rugosa lipase has been prepared by immersion phase inversion technique for enzymatic synthesis of lauryl stearate in a pervaporation membrane reactor. SEM images showed that a "sandwich-like" membrane structure with a porous lipase-PVA catalytic layer uniformly coated on a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/polyethersulfone (PES) bilayer was obtained. Optimum conditions for lipase immobilization in the catalytic layer were determined. The membrane was proved to exhibit superior thermal stability, pH stability and reusability than free lipase under similar conditions. In the case of pervaporation coupled synthesis of lauryl stearate, benefited from in-situ water removal by the membrane, a conversion enhancement of approximately 40% was achieved in comparison to the equilibrium conversion obtained in batch reactors. In addition to conversion enhancement, it was also found that excess water removal by the catalytically active membrane appears to improve activity of the lipase immobilized.

  1. High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, T.T.

    1992-01-01

    Membrane reactors have been used in a number of catalytic reaction processes in order to overcome the limitations on conversion imposed by thermodynamic equilibrium. Having the inherent capability for combining reaction and separation in a single step, they offer promise for improving and optimizing yield, selectivity and performance of processes involving complex liquids, such as these typically found in coal liquid upgrading. Ceramic membranes are a new class of materials, which have shown promise in a variety of industrial applications. Their mechanical and chemical stability coupled with a wide range of operating temperatures and pressures make them suitable for environments found in coal liquid upgrading. This project will evaluate the performance of Sol-Gel alumina membranes in coal liquid upgrading processes under realistic temperature and pressure conditions and investigate the feasibility of using such membranes in a membrane reactor based coal liquid upgrading process. Development of novel ceramic membranes with enhanced catalytic activity for coal-liquid upgrading applications, such as carbon-coated alumina membranes, will be also investigated.

  2. One Step Biomass Gas Reforming-Shift Separation Membrane Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Michael J.; Souleimanova, Razima

    2012-12-28

    GTI developed a plan where efforts were concentrated in 4 major areas: membrane material development, membrane module development, membrane process development, and membrane gasifier scale-up. GTI assembled a team of researchers to work in each area. Task 1.1 Ceramic Membrane Synthesis and Testing was conducted by Arizona State University (ASU), Task 1.2 Metallic Membrane Synthesis and Testing was conducted by the U.S. National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Task 1.3 was conducted by SCHOTT, and GTI was to test all membranes that showed potential. The initial focus of the project was concentrated on membrane material development. Metallic and glass-based membranes were identified as hydrogen selective membranes under the conditions of the biomass gasification, temperatures above 700C and pressures up to 30 atmospheres. Membranes were synthesized by arc-rolling for metallic type membranes and incorporating Pd into a glass matrix for glass membranes. Testing for hydrogen permeability properties were completed and the effects of hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide were investigated for perspective membranes. The initial candidate membrane of Pd80Cu20 chosen in 2008 was selected for preliminary reactor design and cost estimates. Although the H2A analysis results indicated a $1.96 cost per gge H2 based on a 5A (micron) thick PdCu membrane, there was not long-term operation at the required flux to satisfy the go/no go decision. Since the future PSA case yielded a $2.00/gge H2, DOE decided that there was insufficient savings compared with the already proven PSA technology to further pursue the membrane reactor design. All ceramic membranes synthesized by ASU during the project showed low hydrogen flux as compared with metallic membranes. The best ceramic membrane showed hydrogen permeation flux of 0.03 SCFH/ft2 at the required process conditions while the metallic membrane, Pd80Cu20 showed a flux of 47.2 SCFH/ft2 (3 orders of magnitude difference). Results from

  3. Advanced Water-Gas Shift Membrane Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sean Emerson; Thomas Vanderspurt; Susanne Opalka; Rakesh Radhakrishnan; Rhonda Willigan

    2009-01-07

    The overall objectives for this project were: (1) to identify a suitable PdCu tri-metallic alloy membrane with high stability and commercially relevant hydrogen permeation in the presence of trace amounts of carbon monoxide and sulfur; and (2) to identify and synthesize a water gas shift catalyst with a high operating life that is sulfur and chlorine tolerant at low concentrations of these impurities. This work successfully achieved the first project objective to identify a suitable PdCu tri-metallic alloy membrane composition, Pd{sub 0.47}Cu{sub 0.52}G5{sub 0.01}, that was selected based on atomistic and thermodynamic modeling alone. The second objective was partially successful in that catalysts were identified and evaluated that can withstand sulfur in high concentrations and at high pressures, but a long operating life was not achieved at the end of the project. From the limited durability testing it appears that the best catalyst, Pt-Re/Ce{sub 0.333}Zr{sub 0.333}E4{sub 0.333}O{sub 2}, is unable to maintain a long operating life at space velocities of 200,000 h{sup -1}. The reasons for the low durability do not appear to be related to the high concentrations of H{sub 2}S, but rather due to the high operating pressure and the influence the pressure has on the WGS reaction at this space velocity.

  4. Synthesis of polyaluminum chloride with a membrane reactor: process characteristics and membrane fouling.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhiqian; He, Fei; Liu, Zhongzhou

    2011-01-01

    Polyaluminum chloride was synthesized with a membrane reactor, in which NaOH was added into AlCl3 solution through the membrane's micropores to reduce the NaOH droplets size. The content of the most efficient species increased to about 80%. The process characteristics in the reaction (i.e., flow velocity, pressure drop), and membrane fouling and cleaning were investigated. The evolution of both flow velocity and pressure drop during the reaction were related to changes in species distribution and solution viscosity. The process characteristics were well interpreted in terms of the Bernoulli equation. After reaction, the membranes were recovered by cleaning with diluted hydrochloride acid. This study is crucial for process design and scale-up of membrane reactors.

  5. Membrane contactor/separator for an advanced ozone membrane reactor for treatment of recalcitrant organic pollutants in water

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Wai Kit; Joueet, Justine; Heng, Samuel; Yeung, King Lun; Schrotter, Jean-Christophe

    2012-05-15

    An advanced ozone membrane reactor that synergistically combines membrane distributor for ozone gas, membrane contactor for pollutant adsorption and reaction, and membrane separator for clean water production is described. The membrane reactor represents an order of magnitude improvement over traditional semibatch reactor design and is capable of complete conversion of recalcitrant endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in water at less than three minutes residence time. Coating the membrane contactor with alumina and hydrotalcite (Mg/Al=3) adsorbs and traps the organics in the reaction zone resulting in 30% increase of total organic carbon (TOC) removal. Large surface area coating that diffuses surface charges from adsorbed polar organic molecules is preferred as it reduces membrane polarization that is detrimental to separation. - Graphical abstract: Advanced ozone membrane reactor synergistically combines membrane distributor for ozone, membrane contactor for sorption and reaction and membrane separator for clean water production to achieve an order of magnitude enhancement in treatment performance compared to traditional ozone reactor. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel reactor using membranes for ozone distributor, reaction contactor and water separator. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Designed to achieve an order of magnitude enhancement over traditional reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and hydrotalcite coatings capture and trap pollutants giving additional 30% TOC removal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High surface area coating prevents polarization and improves membrane separation and life.

  6. APPLICATION OF MEMBRANE SORPTION REACTOR TECHNOLOGY FOR LRW MANAGEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Glagolenko, Yuri; Dzekun, Evgeny; Myasoedovg, Boris; Gelis, Vladimir; Kozlitin, Evgeny; Milyutin, Vitaly; Trusov, Lev; Rengel, Mike; Mackay, Stewart M.; Johnson, Michael E.

    2003-02-27

    A new membrane-sorption technology has been recently developed and industrially implemented in Russia for the treatment of the Liquid (Low-Level) Radioactive Waste (LRW). The first step of the technology is a precipitation of the radionuclides and/or their adsorption onto sorbents of small particle size. The second step is filtration of the precipitate/sorbent through the metal-ceramic membrane, Trumem.. The unique feature of the technology is a Membrane-Sorption Reactor (MSR), in which the precipitation / sorption and the filtration of the radionuclides occur simultaneously, in one stage. This results in high efficiency, high productivity and compactness of the equipment, which are the obvious advantages of the developed technology. Two types of MSR based on Flat Membranes device and Centrifugal Membrane device were developed. The advantages and disadvantages of application of each type of the reactors are discussed. The MSR technology has been extensively tested and efficiently implemented at ''Mayak '' nuclear facility near Chelyabinsk, Russia as well as at other Russian sites. The results of this and other applications of the MSR technology at the different Russian nuclear facilities are discussed. The results of the first industrial applications of the MSR technology for radioactive waste treatment in Russia and analysis of the available information about LRW accumulated in other countries imply that this technology can be successfully used for the Low Level Radioactive Waste treatment in the USA and in other nuclear countries.

  7. Effectiveness Factors and Conversion in a Biocatalytic Membrane Reactor.

    PubMed

    Godongwana, Buntu

    2016-01-01

    Analytical expressions of the effectiveness factor of a biocatalytic membrane reactor, and its asymptote as the Thiele modulus becomes large, are presented. The evaluation of the effectiveness factor is based on the solution of the governing equations for solute transport in the two regions of the reactor, i.e. the lumen and the matrix (with the biofilm immobilized in the matrix). The lumen solution accounts for both axial diffusion and radial convective flow, while the matrix solution is based on Robin-type boundary conditions. The effectiveness factor is shown to be a function of the Thiele modulus, the partition coefficient, the Sherwood number, the Peclet number, and membrane thickness. Three regions of Thiele moduli are defined in the effectiveness factor graphs. These correspond with reaction rate limited, internal-diffusion limited, and external mass transfer limited solute transport. Radial convective flows were shown to only improve the effectiveness factor in the region of internal diffusion limitation. The assumption of first order kinetics is shown to be applicable only in the Thiele modulus regions of internal and external mass transfer limitation. An iteration scheme is also presented for estimating the effectiveness factor when the solute fractional conversion is known. The model is validated with experimental data from a membrane gradostat reactor immobilised with Phanerochaete chrysosporium for the production of lignin and manganese peroxidases. The developed model and experimental data allow for the determination of the Thiele modulus at which the effectiveness factor and fractional conversion are optimal.

  8. Effectiveness Factors and Conversion in a Biocatalytic Membrane Reactor

    PubMed Central

    Godongwana, Buntu

    2016-01-01

    Analytical expressions of the effectiveness factor of a biocatalytic membrane reactor, and its asymptote as the Thiele modulus becomes large, are presented. The evaluation of the effectiveness factor is based on the solution of the governing equations for solute transport in the two regions of the reactor, i.e. the lumen and the matrix (with the biofilm immobilized in the matrix). The lumen solution accounts for both axial diffusion and radial convective flow, while the matrix solution is based on Robin-type boundary conditions. The effectiveness factor is shown to be a function of the Thiele modulus, the partition coefficient, the Sherwood number, the Peclet number, and membrane thickness. Three regions of Thiele moduli are defined in the effectiveness factor graphs. These correspond with reaction rate limited, internal-diffusion limited, and external mass transfer limited solute transport. Radial convective flows were shown to only improve the effectiveness factor in the region of internal diffusion limitation. The assumption of first order kinetics is shown to be applicable only in the Thiele modulus regions of internal and external mass transfer limitation. An iteration scheme is also presented for estimating the effectiveness factor when the solute fractional conversion is known. The model is validated with experimental data from a membrane gradostat reactor immobilised with Phanerochaete chrysosporium for the production of lignin and manganese peroxidases. The developed model and experimental data allow for the determination of the Thiele modulus at which the effectiveness factor and fractional conversion are optimal. PMID:27104954

  9. Development of Novel Water-Gas Shift Membrane Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, W. S. Winston

    2004-12-29

    This report summarizes the objectives, technical barrier, approach, and accomplishments for the development of a novel water-gas-shift (WGS) membrane reactor for hydrogen enhancement and CO reduction. We have synthesized novel CO{sub 2}-selective membranes with high CO{sub 2} permeabilities and high CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}/CO selectivities by incorporating amino groups in polymer networks. We have also developed a one-dimensional non-isothermal model for the countercurrent WGS membrane reactor. The modeling results have shown that H{sub 2} enhancement (>99.6% H{sub 2} for the steam reforming of methane and >54% H{sub 2} for the autothermal reforming of gasoline with air on a dry basis) via CO{sub 2} removal and CO reduction to 10 ppm or lower are achievable for synthesis gases. With this model, we have elucidated the effects of system parameters, including CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} selectivity, CO{sub 2} permeability, sweep/feed flow rate ratio, feed temperature, sweep temperature, feed pressure, catalyst activity, and feed CO concentration, on the membrane reactor performance. Based on the modeling study using the membrane data obtained, we showed the feasibility of achieving H{sub 2} enhancement via CO{sub 2} removal, CO reduction to {le} 10 ppm, and high H{sub 2} recovery. Using the membrane synthesized, we have obtained <10 ppm CO in the H{sub 2} product in WGS membrane reactor experiments. From the experiments, we verified the model developed. In addition, we removed CO{sub 2} from a syngas containing 17% CO{sub 2} to about 30 ppm. The CO{sub 2} removal data agreed well with the model developed. The syngas with about 0.1% CO{sub 2} and 1% CO was processed to convert the carbon oxides to methane via methanation to obtain <5 ppm CO in the H{sub 2} product.

  10. High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, T.T. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Liu, P.K.T. ); Webster, I.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Membrane reactors are today finding extensive applications for gas and vapor phase catalytic reactions (see discussion in the introduction and recent reviews by Armor [92], Hsieh [93] and Tsotsis et al. [941]). There have not been any published reports, however, of their use in high pressure and temperature liquid-phase applications. The idea to apply membrane reactor technology to coal liquid upgrading has resulted from a series of experimental investigations by our group of petroleum and coal asphaltene transport through model membranes. Coal liquids contain polycyclic aromatic compounds, which not only present potential difficulties in upgrading, storage and coprocessing, but are also bioactive. Direct coal liquefaction is perceived today as a two-stage process, which involves a first stage of thermal (or catalytic) dissolution of coal, followed by a second stage, in which the resulting products of the first stage are catalytically upgraded. Even in the presence of hydrogen, the oil products of the second stage are thought to equilibrate with the heavier (asphaltenic and preasphaltenic) components found in the feedstream. The possibility exists for this smaller molecular fraction to recondense with the unreacted heavy components and form even heavier undesirable components like char and coke. One way to diminish these regressive reactions is to selectively remove these smaller molecular weight fractions once they are formed and prior to recondensation. This can, at least in principle, be accomplished through the use of high temperature membrane reactors, using ceramic membranes which are permselective for the desired products of the coal liquid upgrading process. An additional incentive to do so is in order to eliminate the further hydrogenation and hydrocracking of liquid products to undesirable light gases.

  11. Controlled exogenous enzyme imbibition and activation in whole chickpea seed enzyme reactor (SER).

    PubMed

    Kliger, Eynav; Fischer, Lutz; Lutz-Wahl, Sabine; Saguy, I Sam

    2011-05-01

    Chickpeas are of excellent quality (protein, vitamins, minerals, unsaturated fatty acids) and very low in phytoestrogen, making them a potentially promising source for vegetarian-based infant formula (VBIF). However, their high starch and fiber concentration could hinder their utilization for infants. To overcome this natural shortcoming, a solid-state "enzymation" (SSE) process was developed in which imbibition of exogenous enzyme facilitates hydrolysis within the intact chickpea seed. The process was termed seed enzyme reactor (SER). Liquid imbibition data of dry chickpeas during soaking were fitted with the Weibull distribution model. The derived Weibull shape parameter, β, value (0.77 ± 0.11) indicated that the imbibition mechanism followed Fickian diffusion. Imbibition occurred through the coat and external layers. The process was tested using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as an exogenous marker, and involved soaking, thermal treatment, peeling, microwave partial drying, rehydration in enzyme solution, and SSE at an adjusted pH, time, and temperature. Amylases, or a combination of amylases and cellulases, resulted in significant carbohydrate hydrolysis (23% and 47% of the available starch, respectively). In addition, chickpea initial raffinose and stachyose concentration was significantly reduced (91% and 92%, respectively). The process could serve as a proof of concept, requiring additional development and optimization to become a full industrial application.

  12. Supported Pd-Au Membrane Reactor for Hydrogen Production: Membrane Preparation, Characterization and Testing.

    PubMed

    Iulianelli, Adolfo; Alavi, Marjan; Bagnato, Giuseppe; Liguori, Simona; Wilcox, Jennifer; Rahimpour, Mohammad Reza; Eslamlouyan, Reza; Anzelmo, Bryce; Basile, Angelo

    2016-05-09

    A supported Pd-Au (Au 7wt%) membrane was produced by electroless plating deposition. Permeation tests were performed with pure gas (H₂, H₂, N₂, CO₂, CH₄) for long time operation. After around 400 h under testing, the composite Pd-Au membrane achieved steady state condition, with an H₂/N₂ ideal selectivity of around 500 at 420 °C and 50 kPa as transmembrane pressure, remaining stable up to 1100 h under operation. Afterwards, the membrane was allocated in a membrane reactor module for methane steam reforming reaction tests. As a preliminary application, at 420 °C, 300 kPa of reaction pressure, space velocity of 4100 h(-1), 40% methane conversion and 35% hydrogen recovery were reached using a commercial Ni/Al₂O₃ catalyst. Unfortunately, a severe coke deposition affected irreversibly the composite membrane, determining the loss of the hydrogen permeation characteristics of the supported Pd-Au membrane.

  13. Hydrogen Production via a Commerically Ready Inorganic membrane Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Liu

    2007-06-30

    It has been known that use of the hydrogen selective membrane as a reactor (MR) could potentially improve the efficiency of the water shift reaction (WGS), one of the least efficient unit operations for production of high purity hydrogen from syngas. However, no membrane reactor technology has been reduced to industrial practice thus far, in particular for a large-scale operation. This implementation and commercialization barrier is attributed to the lack of a commercially viable hydrogen selective membrane with (1) material stability under the application environment and (2) suitability for large-scale operation. Thus, in this project, we have focused on (1) the deposition of the hydrogen selective carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membrane we have developed on commercially available membranes as substrate, and (2) the demonstration of the economic viability of the proposed WGS-MR for hydrogen production from coal-based syngas. The commercial stainless steel (SS) porous substrate (i.e., ZrO{sub 2}/SS from Pall Corp.) was evaluated comprehensively as the 1st choice for the deposition of the CMS membrane for hydrogen separation. The CMS membrane synthesis protocol we developed previously for the ceramic substrate was adapted here for the stainless steel substrate. Unfortunately no successful hydrogen selective membranes had been prepared during Yr I of this project. The characterization results indicated two major sources of defect present in the SS substrate, which may have contributed to the poor CMS membrane quality. Near the end of the project period, an improved batch of the SS substrate (as the 2nd generation product) was received from the supplier. Our characterization results confirm that leaking of the crimp boundary no longer exists. However, the thermal stability of the ZrO{sub 2}/SS substrate through the CMS membrane preparation condition must be re-evaluated in the future. In parallel with the SS membrane activity, the preparation of the CMS membranes

  14. Heterogeneous distribution of enzymes in submicrosomal membrane fragments.

    PubMed

    Dallman, P R; Dallner, G; Bergstrand, A; Ernster, L

    1969-05-01

    Microsomal membranes are postulated to contain either a homogeneous arrangement of individual enzymes or groupings of functionally related enzymes. In the present study we attempt to distinguish between these hypotheses in subfractions of rough microsomes from rat liver. After sonication, the individual vesicles that make up the rough-membrane fraction average less than 1/100 of their previous mass. The vesicles in the sonicated suspension are fractionated roughly according to size on a continuous sucrose gradient. Enzyme activity or concentration in fractions of the gradient is expressed on a phospholipid basis. Fractions containing primarily small vesicles differ from those containing larger vesicles in a manner suggesting a certain degree of separation of NADH-linked from NADPH-linked enzymes. NADH-ferricyanide reductase, NADH-cytochrome c reductase and cytochrome b(5) are most concentrated within the large vesicles in the lowest third of the gradient. In contrast, NADPH-cytochrome c reductase and cytochrome P-450 are found in highest concentration in the small vesicles that make up the upper third of the gradient. The results suggest a nonrandom distribution of these two enzyme groups in the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum.

  15. Enzyme-immobilized reactors for rapid and efficient sample preparation in MS-based proteomic studies.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Masaya

    2013-02-01

    Proteolysis is a key step in proteomic studies integrated with MS analysis but the conventional method of in-solution digestion is limited by time-consuming procedures and low sensitivity. Furthermore, obtaining reliable peptide maps and meaningful sequence data using MS analysis requires not only the separation of the digested peptides but also strictly defined proteolysis conditions. Recently, various immobilized-enzyme reactors have been developed for highly efficient proteolysis in MS-based proteomic analysis. This review focuses on the proteolysis step using protease-immobilized reactors and rapid analysis of protein sequences. We describe the preparation of enzyme reactors by several techniques and protein digestion under unusual conditions. Analysis of posttranslational modifications by enzyme reactors prepared using our immobilization method is presented as a model application. Analysis systems using immobilized-enzyme reactors are expected to become useful tools for proteomic studies and diverse applications in biotechnology.

  16. Immobilization of enzyme into poly(vinyl alcohol) membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Imai, K.; Shiomi, T.; Uchida, K.; Miya, M.

    1986-11-01

    Glucoamylase, invertase, and cellulase were entrapped within poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) membrane cross-linked by means of irradiation of ultraviolet light. The conditions for immobilization of glucoamylase were examined with respect to enzyme concentration in PVA, sensitizer (sodium benzoate) concentration in PVA, irradiation time, and membrane thickness. Various characteristics of immobilized glucoamylase were evaluated. Among them, the pH activity curve for the immobilized enzyme was superior to that for the native one, and thermal stability was improved by immobilization with bovine albumin. The apparent Km was larger for immobilized glucoamylase than for the native one, while Vmax was smaller for the immobilized enzyme. Also, the apparent Km appeared to be affected by the molecular size of the substrate. Further, immobilized invertase and cellulase showed good stabilities in repeating usage. 9 references.

  17. Membrane bio-reactor for textile wastewater treatment plant upgrading.

    PubMed

    Lubello, C; Gori, R

    2005-01-01

    Textile industries carry out several fiber treatments using variable quantities of water, from five to forty times the fiber weight, and consequently generate large volumes of wastewater to be disposed of. Membrane Bio-reactors (MBRs) combine membrane technology with biological reactors for the treatment of wastewater: micro or ultrafiltration membranes are used for solid-liquid separation replacing the secondary settling of the traditional activated sludge system. This paper deals with the possibility of realizing a new section of one existing WWTP (activated sludge + clariflocculation + ozonation) for the treatment of treating textile wastewater to be recycled, equipped with an MBR (76 l/s as design capacity) and running in parallel with the existing one. During a 4-month experimental period, a pilot-scale MBR proved to be very effective for wastewater reclamation. On average, removal efficiency of the pilot plant (93% for COD, and over 99% for total suspended solids) was higher than the WWTP ones. Color was removed as in the WWTP. Anionic surfactants removal of pilot plant was lower than that of the WWTP (90.5 and 93.2% respectively), while the BiAS removal was higher in the pilot plant (98.2 vs. 97.1). At the end cost analysis of the proposed upgrade is reported.

  18. Silica-Immobilized Enzyme Reactors; Application to Cholinesterase-Inhibition Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    AFRL-ML-TY-TP-2006-4575 PREPRINT SILICA-IMMOBILIZED ENZYME REACTORS; APPLICATON TO CHOLINESTERASE- INHIBITION STUDIES Heather R...P K 1 g i ( u a i a i e v b c a m p l 1 d Journal of Chromatography B, 843 (2006) 310–316 Silica-immobilized enzyme reactors; application to...method is reported for the preparation of an immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER) using silica-encapsulated equine utyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) as a model

  19. Preparation and application of immobilized enzymatic reactors for consecutive digestion with two enzymes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bingbing; Shangguan, Lulu; Wang, Shulei; Zhang, Lingyi; Zhang, Weibing; Liu, Fan

    2016-12-16

    The bottom up strategy has drawn much attention due to the high accuracy, reliability, and reproducibility in protein identification in which proteins are digested into peptides. However, conventional solution-based digestion and enzymatic reactor with one protease immobilized cannot satisfy high throughput proteolysis of complex samples. Application of consecutive hydrolysis by enzymatic reactor can be a new strategy for high throughput proteolysis of complex samples by adjusting immobilization amount of the enzymes, enzyme ratio, as well as hydrolysis order of two enzymes. In this work, we propose immobilized enzymatic reactor for consecutive digestion with two enzymes by combining two enzyme reactors with trypsin and chymotrypsin immobilized, respectively. Each reactor was prepared individually by immobilizing only one protease (trypsin or chymotrypsin) to hybrid monolith with SBA-15 particles embedded. Proteolysis conditions including hydrolysis order and trypsin to chymotrypsin ratio etc. were studied using standard proteins. Best digestion performance was obtained when the proteins were digested by trypsin first with trypsin to chymotrypsin ratio of 1:1. When applying them to digestion of rat liver proteins, total 1651 proteins and 11011 peptides were identified by combining four enzymolysis strategies with two enzymes including proteolytic digestion in two consecutive enzymatic reactors, synergy enzymolysis with two enzymes in one immobilized enzymatic reactor and consecutive hydrolysis with two enzymes in-solution digestion respectively, in which consecutive enzymolysis in enzymatic reactors gave the best results with 1091 proteins and 5071 peptides identified. The reactors showed good digestion capability for proteins with different hydrophobicity and molecular weights, and will play an important role in high efficient and high throughput proteomics research.

  20. Combined nitrification/denitrification in a membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Walter, B; Haase, C; Räbiger, N

    2005-08-01

    An ever stricter legislation regulating wastewater leads to an increasing demand for biological treatment plants which are able to selectively eliminate nitrogen from wastewaters with a high influent concentration, even when operating in partial influent mode. A membrane-tube-module (MSM) reactor (Membran-Schlauch-Modul-Reaktor) was constructed and realized in the IUV at the University of Bremen. The present approach makes use of all the various layers of the whole biofilm, enabling nitrification and denitrification processes to run simultaneously in one and the same biofilm under optimized conditions. The biological degradation capacity of the system was first successfully tested with synthetic wastewater, and subsequently in a real application with effluents from a recycling of animal carcasses plant and from a coke-oven plant. A mathematical model was devised which describes this biofilm system. The resulting equations were solved by means of the simulation software AQUASIM.

  1. Catalytic membrane reactor for conversion of syngas to liquid hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Khassin, A.A.

    2005-07-01

    Plug-through catalytically-active contractor membranes can combine high permeability ({gt} 20 m Darcy), high mechanical strength ({gt} 20 kg cm{sup -2}) and high heat-conductivity ({gt} 4 W(mK){sup -1}). Therefore, it provides isothermicity and low pressure drop. The intense mass-transfer within transport pores, high specific area of these pores and small distances between two adjacent transport pores weaken the mass-transfer constraints. Using the PCM one can achieve high space time yield of hydrocarbons and high selectivity towards heavy hydrocarbons and olefins. These advantages allow supposing the effective usage of the PCM catalytic membrane reactors in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Also the same approach could be efficient for some other multiphase catalytic processes, like hydrogenation of the unsaturated fatty acids. 5 figs.

  2. Membrane biofouling mechanism in an aerobic granular reactor degrading 4-chlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Buitrón, Germán; Moreno-Andrade, Iván; Arellano-Badillo, Víctor M; Ramírez-Amaya, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    The membrane fouling of an aerobic granular reactor coupled with a submerged membrane in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was evaluated. The fouling analysis was performed by applying microscopy techniques to determine the morphology and structure of the fouling layer on a polyvinylidene fluoride membrane. It was found that the main cause of fouling was the polysaccharide adsorption on the membrane surface, followed by the growth of microorganisms to form a biofilm.

  3. Water Gas Shift Reaction with A Single Stage Low Temperature Membrane Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ciora, Richard J; Liu, Paul KT

    2013-12-31

    Palladium membrane and Palladium membrane reactor were developed under this project for hydrogen separation and purification for fuel cell applications. A full-scale membrane reactor was designed, constructed and evaluated for the reformate produced from a commercial scale methanol reformer. In addition, the Pd membrane and module developed from this project was successfully evaluated in the field for hydrogen purification for commercial fuel cell applications.

  4. Rabies virus binding to cellular membranes measured by enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Lentz, T L; Chester, J; Benson, R J; Hawrot, E; Tignor, G H; Smith, A L

    1985-05-01

    The binding of rabies virus to cellular membranes was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Virus binding to membranes adsorbed to the wells of microtiter plates was detected with rabies virus antibody and alkaline phosphatase-linked second antibody. The greatest degree of binding was to myotube, neuroblastoma, and salivary gland membranes; intermediate levels occurred in striated muscle and nerve membranes; and low levels of binding were found in other membranes, including those of most parenchymal organs. Binding of rabies virus to myotube membranes was saturable, dependent on pH (with an optimum of pH 6.0), facilitated by the divalent cations Ca++, Mn++, and Mg++, and was temperature dependent. Binding was greatly reduced by inactivation of virus with beta-propiolactone or treatment of virus with trypsin. In embryonic chick myotubes, total acetylcholine receptor content and acetylcholinesterase activity undergo marked changes during development, first increasing and then decreasing at the time of hatching. Binding of rabies virus followed a similar pattern, indicating that the virus may interact with the acetylcholine receptor or other surface molecules undergoing similar developmental changes.

  5. Membrane Remodeling by a Bacterial Phospholipid-Methylating Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Danne, Linna; Aktas, Meriyem; Unger, Andreas; Linke, Wolfgang A.; Erdmann, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Membrane deformation by proteins is a universal phenomenon that has been studied extensively in eukaryotes but much less in prokaryotes. In this study, we discovered a membrane-deforming activity of the phospholipid N-methyltransferase PmtA from the plant-pathogenic bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens. PmtA catalyzes the successive three-step N-methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine to phosphatidylcholine. Here, we defined the lipid and protein requirements for the membrane-remodeling activity of PmtA by a combination of transmission electron microscopy and liposome interaction studies. Dependent on the lipid composition, PmtA changes the shape of spherical liposomes either into filaments or small vesicles. Upon overproduction of PmtA in A. tumefaciens, vesicle-like structures occur in the cytoplasm, dependent on the presence of the anionic lipid cardiolipin. The N-terminal lipid-binding α-helix (αA) is involved in membrane deformation by PmtA. Two functionally distinct and spatially separated regions in αA can be distinguished. Anionic interactions by positively charged amino acids on one face of the helix are responsible for membrane recruitment of the enzyme. The opposite hydrophobic face of the helix is required for membrane remodeling, presumably by shallow insertion into the lipid bilayer. PMID:28196959

  6. Membrane contactor/separator for an advanced ozone membrane reactor for treatment of recalcitrant organic pollutants in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kit Chan, Wai; Jouët, Justine; Heng, Samuel; Lun Yeung, King; Schrotter, Jean-Christophe

    2012-05-01

    An advanced ozone membrane reactor that synergistically combines membrane distributor for ozone gas, membrane contactor for pollutant adsorption and reaction, and membrane separator for clean water production is described. The membrane reactor represents an order of magnitude improvement over traditional semibatch reactor design and is capable of complete conversion of recalcitrant endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in water at less than three minutes residence time. Coating the membrane contactor with alumina and hydrotalcite (Mg/Al=3) adsorbs and traps the organics in the reaction zone resulting in 30% increase of total organic carbon (TOC) removal. Large surface area coating that diffuses surface charges from adsorbed polar organic molecules is preferred as it reduces membrane polarization that is detrimental to separation.

  7. CO2 capture by means of an enzyme-based reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowan, R. M.; Ge, J-J; Qin, Y-J; McGregor, M. L.; Trachtenberg, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    We report a means for efficient and selective extraction of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) at low to medium concentration from mixed gas streams. CO(2) capture was accomplished by use of a novel enzyme-based, facilitated transport contained liquid membrane (EBCLM) reactor. The parametric studies we report explore both structural and operational parameters of this design. The structural parameters include carbonic anhydrase (CA) concentration, buffer concentration and pH, and liquid membrane thickness. The operational parameters are temperature, humidity of the inlet gas stream, and CO(2) concentration in the feed stream. The data show that this system effectively captures CO(2) over the range 400 ppm to at least 100,000 ppm, at or around ambient temperature and pressure. In a single pass across this homogeneous catalyst design, given a feed of 0.1% CO(2), the selectivity of CO(2) versus N(2) is 1,090 : 1 and CO(2) versus O(2) is 790 :1. CO(2) permeance is 4.71 x 10(-8) molm(-2) Pa(-1) sec(-1). The CLM design results in a system that is very stable even in the presence of dry feed and sweep gases.

  8. Application of capillary enzyme micro-reactor in enzyme activity and inhibitors studies of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Camara, Mohamed Amara; Tian, Miaomiao; Guo, Liping; Yang, Li

    2015-05-15

    In this study, we present an on-line measurement of enzyme activity and inhibition of Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) enzyme using capillary electrophoresis based immobilized enzyme micro-reactor (CE-based IMER). The IMER was prepared using a two-step protocol based on electrostatic assembly. The micro-reactor exhibited good stability and reproducibility for on-line assay of G6PDH enzyme. Both the activity as well as the inhibition of the G6PDH enzyme by six inhibitors, including three metals (Cu(2+), Pb(2+), Cd(2+)), vancomycin, urea and KMnO4, were investigated using on-line assay of the CE-based IMERs. The enzyme activity and inhibition kinetic constants were measured using the IMERs which were found to be consistent with those using traditional off-line enzyme assays. The kinetic mechanism of each inhibitor was also determined. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of using CE-based IMERs for rapid and efficient on-line assay of G6PDH, an important enzyme in the pentosephosphate pathway of human metabolism.

  9. Alcohol fermentation of sweet potato. Membrane reactor in enzymatic hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Azhar, A.; Hamdy, M.K.

    1981-06-01

    Use of ultrafiltration membrane systems in stirred cell and in thin-channel systems for immobilizing enzyme (sweet potato intrinsic and crystalline /beta/-amylase) in hydrolysis of sweet potato through a continuous operation mode were studied. Both the filtration rate and reducing sugars, produced as the result of enzymatic hydrolysis, decreased with the filtration time. THe immobilized enzymes in the thin-channel system showed a much better performance compared to that in the stirred cell system. Addition of crystalline sweet potato /beta/-amylase to the sweet potato increased both the filtration rate and reducing-sugars content. Alcoholic fermentation of the filtrate resulted in an alcohol content of 4.2%. This represented fermentation of 95% of the sugars with an efficiency of 88%. 17 refs.

  10. Use of a Ceramic Membrane to Improve the Performance of Two-Separate-Phase Biocatalytic Membrane Reactor.

    PubMed

    Ranieri, Giuseppe; Mazzei, Rosalinda; Wu, Zhentao; Li, Kang; Giorno, Lidietta

    2016-03-14

    Biocatalytic membrane reactors (BMR) combining reaction and separation within the same unit have many advantages over conventional reactor designs. Ceramic membranes are an attractive alternative to polymeric membranes in membrane biotechnology due to their high chemical, thermal and mechanical resistance. Another important use is their potential application in a biphasic membrane system, where support solvent resistance is highly needed. In this work, the preparation of asymmetric ceramic hollow fibre membranes and their use in a two-separate-phase biocatalytic membrane reactor will be described. The asymmetric ceramic hollow fibre membranes were prepared using a combined phase inversion and sintering technique. The prepared fibres were then used as support for lipase covalent immobilization in order to develop a two-separate-phase biocatalytic membrane reactor. A functionalization method was proposed in order to increase the density of the reactive hydroxyl groups on the surface of ceramic membranes, which were then amino-activated and treated with a crosslinker. The performance and the stability of the immobilized lipase were investigated as a function of the amount of the immobilized biocatalytst. Results showed that it is possible to immobilize lipase on a ceramic membrane without altering its catalytic performance (initial residual specific activity 93%), which remains constant after 6 reaction cycles.

  11. Flow-through immobilized enzyme reactors based on monoliths: II. Kinetics study and application.

    PubMed

    Vlakh, Evgenia G; Tennikova, Tatiana B

    2013-03-01

    In the last decade, the application of monolithic materials has rapidly expanded to the realization of flow-through bioconversion processes. Up to these days, different classes of enzymes such as hydrolases, lyases, and oxidoreductases have been immobilized on organic, inorganic, or hybrid monolithic materials to prepare the effective flow-through enzymes reactors for application in proteomics, biotechnology, pharmaceutics, organic synthesis, and biosensoring. Current review describes the results of kinetic study and specialties of flow-through immobilized enzyme reactors based on the existing monolithic materials.

  12. An enzyme derivatized polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane for use in membrane introduction mass spectrometry (MIMS).

    PubMed

    Creba, A Skye; Weissfloch, Alexandra N E; Krogh, Erik T; Gill, Chris G

    2007-06-01

    Membrane introduction mass spectrometry (MIMS) provides direct measurement of volatile and semivolatile analytes in condensed and gas-phase samples without sample preparation steps. Although MIMS has numerous advantages that include direct, on-line, real-time analysis with low detection limits, current applications of MIMS are predominantly limited to volatile and semivolatile analytes that permeate hydrophobic membranes (e.g., polydimethylsiloxane; PDMS). We report the first enzyme modified PDMS membrane for use with MIMS. This was achieved by immobilizing Candida rugosa lipase directly onto the surface of oxidized PDMS. These surface immobilized enzymes catalyze ester hydrolysis, releasing an alcohol product at the membrane interface that is readily detected. We have successfully used an enzyme modified membrane for the analysis and quantification of low-volatility and hydrophilic esters. We report the quantification of several carboxylic acid esters in dilute aqueous solutions, including a phthalate monoester carboxylate that is not readily detected by conventional MIMS. This new interface demonstrates the potential for extending the range and versatility of MIMS.

  13. Zeolite Membrane Reactor for Water Gas Shift Reaction for Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry Y.S.

    2013-01-29

    Gasification of biomass or heavy feedstock to produce hydrogen fuel gas using current technology is costly and energy-intensive. The technology includes water gas shift reaction in two or more reactor stages with inter-cooling to maximize conversion for a given catalyst volume. This project is focused on developing a membrane reactor for efficient conversion of water gas shift reaction to produce a hydrogen stream as a fuel and a carbon dioxide stream suitable for sequestration. The project was focused on synthesizing stable, hydrogen perm-selective MFI zeolite membranes for high temperature hydrogen separation; fabricating tubular MFI zeolite membrane reactor and stable water gas shift catalyst for membrane reactor applications, and identifying experimental conditions for water gas shift reaction in the zeolite membrane reactor that will produce a high purity hydrogen stream. The project has improved understanding of zeolite membrane synthesis, high temperature gas diffusion and separation mechanisms for zeolite membranes, synthesis and properties of sulfur resistant catalysts, fabrication and structure optimization of membrane supports, and fundamentals of coupling reaction with separation in zeolite membrane reactor for water gas shift reaction. Through the fundamental study, the research teams have developed MFI zeolite membranes with good perm-selectivity for hydrogen over carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and water vapor, and high stability for operation in syngas mixture containing 500 part per million hydrogen sulfide at high temperatures around 500°C. The research teams also developed a sulfur resistant catalyst for water gas shift reaction. Modeling and experimental studies on the zeolite membrane reactor for water gas shift reaction have demonstrated the effective use of the zeolite membrane reactor for production of high purity hydrogen stream.

  14. Solid state proton and electron mediating membrane and use in catalytic membrane reactors

    DOEpatents

    White, James H.; Schwartz, Michael; Sammells, Anthony F.

    1998-01-01

    This invention provides catalytic proton and electron mediating membranes useful in catalytic reactors. The membranes have an oxidation and a reduction surface and comprise a single-phase mixed metal oxide material of the formula: AB.sub.1-x B'.sub.x O.sub.3-y wherein A is selected from Ca, Sr or Ba ions; B is selected from Ce, Tb, Pr, or Th ions; B' is selected from Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Al, Ga, or In ions, or combinations thereof; and x is greater than or equal to 0.02 and less than or equal to 0.5. The membranes can further comprise a catalyst on either the oxidation or reduction surface, or both. Membranes include those which are fabricated-by combining powders of metal oxides or metal carbonates of metal A ion, metal B ion and metal B' ion such that the stoichiometric ratio A:B:B' is 1:1-x:x where 0.2.ltoreq..times.0.5, repeatedly calcining and milling the combined powders until a single-phase material is obtained and pressing and sintering the singlephase material to obtain a membrane.

  15. Solid state proton and electron mediating membrane and use in catalytic membrane reactors

    DOEpatents

    White, J.H.; Schwartz, M.; Sammells, A.F.

    1998-10-13

    This invention provides catalytic proton and electron mediating membranes useful in catalytic reactors. The membranes have an oxidation and a reduction surface and comprise a single-phase mixed metal oxide material of the formula: AB{sub 1{minus}x}B{prime}{sub x}O{sub 3{minus}y} wherein A is selected from Ca, Sr or Ba ions; B is selected from Ce, Tb, Pr, or Th ions; B{prime} is selected from Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Al, Ga, or In ions, or combinations thereof; and x is greater than or equal to 0.02 and less than or equal to 0.5. The membranes can further comprise a catalyst on either the oxidation or reduction surface, or both. Membranes include those which are fabricated by combining powders of metal oxides or metal carbonates of metal A ion, metal B ion and metal B{prime} ion such that the stoichiometric ratio A:B:B{prime} is 1:1{minus}x:x where 0.2{<=}{times}0.5, repeatedly calcining and milling the combined powders until a single-phase material is obtained and pressing and sintering the single phase material to obtain a membrane. 6 figs.

  16. Carbon dioxide (hydrogen sulfide) membrane separations and WGS membrane reactor modeling for fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jin

    Acid-gas removal is of great importance in many environmental or energy-related processes. Compared to current commercial technologies, membrane-based CO2 and H2S capture has the advantages of low energy consumption, low weight and space requirement, simplicity of installation/operation, and high process flexibility. However, the large-scale application of the membrane separation technology is limited by the relatively low transport properties. In this study, CO2 (H2S)-selective polymeric membranes with high permeability and high selectivity have been studied based on the facilitated transport mechanism. The membrane showed facilitated effect for both CO2 and H2S. A CO2 permeability of above 2000 Barrers, a CO2/H2 selectivity of greater than 40, and a CO2/N2 selectivity of greater than 200 at 100--150°C were observed. As a result of higher reaction rate and smaller diffusing compound, the H2S permeability and H2S/H2 selectivity were about three times higher than those properties for CO2. The novel CO2-selective membrane has been applied to capture CO 2 from flue gas and natural gas. In the CO2 capture experiments from a gas mixture with N2 and H2, a permeate CO 2 dry concentration of greater than 98% was obtained by using steam as the sweep gas. In CO2/CH4 separation, decent CO 2 transport properties were obtained with a feed pressure up to 500 psia. With the thin-film composite membrane structure, significant increase on the CO2 flux was achieved with the decrease of the selective layer thickness. With the continuous removal of CO2, CO2-selective water-gas-shift (WGS) membrane reactor is a promising approach to enhance CO conversion and increase the purity of H2 at process pressure under relatively low temperature. The simultaneous reaction and transport process in the countercurrent WGS membrane reactor was simulated by using a one-dimensional non-isothermal model. The modeling results show that a CO concentration of less than 10 ppm and a H2 recovery of greater

  17. Ceramic membranes for catalytic membrane reactors with high ionic conductivities and low expansion properties

    DOEpatents

    Mackay, Richard; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2000-01-01

    Ceramics of the composition: Ln.sub.x Sr.sub.2-x-y Ca.sub.y B.sub.z M.sub.2-z O.sub.5+.delta. where Ln is an element selected from the fblock lanthanide elements and yttrium or mixtures thereof; B is an element selected from Al, Ga, In or mixtures thereof; M is a d-block transition element of mixtures thereof; 0.01.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1.0; 0.01.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.0.7; 0.01.ltoreq.z.ltoreq.1.0 and .delta. is a number that varies to maintain charge neutrality are provided. These ceramics are useful in ceramic membranes and exhibit high ionic conductivity, high chemical stability under catalytic membrane reactor conditions and low coefficients of expansion. The materials of the invention are particularly useful in producing synthesis gas.

  18. Oxygen transport membrane system and method for transferring heat to catalytic/process reactors

    DOEpatents

    Kelly, Sean M; Kromer, Brian R; Litwin, Michael M; Rosen, Lee J; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie R; Kosowski, Lawrence W; Robinson, Charles

    2014-01-07

    A method and apparatus for producing heat used in a synthesis gas production is provided. The disclosed method and apparatus include a plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements adapted to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing stream contacting the retentate side of the membrane elements. The permeated oxygen is combusted with a hydrogen containing synthesis gas stream contacting the permeate side of the tubular oxygen transport membrane elements thereby generating a reaction product stream and radiant heat. The present method and apparatus also includes at least one catalytic reactor containing a catalyst to promote the stream reforming reaction wherein the catalytic reactor is surrounded by the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements. The view factor between the catalytic reactor and the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements radiating heat to the catalytic reactor is greater than or equal to 0.5.

  19. Oxygen transport membrane system and method for transferring heat to catalytic/process reactors

    DOEpatents

    Kelly, Sean M.; Kromer, Brian R.; Litwin, Michael M.; Rosen, Lee J.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie R.; Kosowski, Lawrence W.; Robinson, Charles

    2016-01-19

    A method and apparatus for producing heat used in a synthesis gas production process is provided. The disclosed method and apparatus include a plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements adapted to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing stream contacting the retentate side of the membrane elements. The permeated oxygen is combusted with a hydrogen containing synthesis gas stream contacting the permeate side of the tubular oxygen transport membrane elements thereby generating a reaction product stream and radiant heat. The present method and apparatus also includes at least one catalytic reactor containing a catalyst to promote the steam reforming reaction wherein the catalytic reactor is surrounded by the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements. The view factor between the catalytic reactor and the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements radiating heat to the catalytic reactor is greater than or equal to 0.5

  20. Reverse-Bumpy-Ball-Type-Nanoreactor-Loaded Nylon Membranes as Peroxidase-Mimic Membrane Reactors for a Colorimetric Assay for H2O2

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Ying; Jiao, Xiangyu; Yang, Hankun; Wen, Yongqiang; Su, Lei; Zhang, Xueji

    2016-01-01

    Herein we report for the first time fabrication of reverse bumpy ball (RBB)-type-nanoreactor-based flexible peroxidase-mimic membrane reactors (MRs). The RBB-type nanoreactors with gold nanoparticles embedded in the inner walls of carbon shells were loaded on nylon membranes through a facile filtration approach. The as-prepared flexible catalytic membrane was studied as a peroxidase-mimic MR. It was found that the obtained peroxidase-mimic MR could exhibit several advantages over natural enzymes, such as facile and good recyclability, long-term stability and easy storage. Moreover, the RBB NS-modified nylon MRs as a peroxidase mimic provide a useful colorimetric assay for H2O2. PMID:27043575

  1. Pre-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture by a New Dual Phase Ceramic-Carbonate Membrane Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry Y. S.

    2015-01-31

    This report documents synthesis, characterization and carbon dioxide permeation and separation properties of a new group of ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membranes and results of a laboratory study on their application for water gas shift reaction with carbon dioxide separation. A series of ceramic-carbonate dual phase membranes with various oxygen ionic or mixed ionic and electronic conducting metal oxide materials in disk, tube, symmetric, and asymmetric geometric configurations was developed. These membranes, with the thickness of 10 μm to 1.5 mm, show CO2 permeance in the range of 0.5-5×10-7 mol·m-2·s-1·Pa-1 in 500-900°C and measured CO2/N2 selectivity of up to 3000. CO2 permeation mechanism and factors that affect CO2 permeation through the dual-phase membranes have been identified. A reliable CO2 permeation model was developed. A robust method was established for the optimization of the microstructures of ceramic-carbonate membranes. The ceramic-carbonate membranes exhibit high stability for high temperature CO2 separations and water gas shift reaction. Water gas shift reaction in the dual-phase membrane reactors was studied by both modeling and experiments. It is found that high temperature syngas water gas shift reaction in tubular ceramic-carbonate dual phase membrane reactor is feasible even without catalyst. The membrane reactor exhibits good CO2 permeation flux, high thermal and chemical stability and high thermal shock resistance. Reaction and separation conditions in the membrane reactor to produce hydrogen of 93% purity and CO2 stream of >95% purity, with 90% CO2 capture have been identified. Integration of the ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membrane reactor with IGCC process for carbon dioxide capture was analyzed. A methodology was developed to identify optimum operation conditions for a

  2. An integrated process: ester synthesis in an enzymatic membrane reactor and water sorption.

    PubMed

    Trusek-Holownia, Anna; Noworyta, Andrzej

    2007-05-31

    In the case of such reactions as ester synthesis, water is produced during the reaction. Because these reactions are carried out in hydrophobic solvents an additional (water) phase in the system must not be allowed, i.e. the concentration of water saturation in the organic solvent should not be exceeded. In such a case, the reaction kinetics and product equilibrium concentration undergo undesirable changes because of the partition coefficient of the components and hampered process of product separation. Hence, removal of the water produced in the reaction determines whether the process is successful or not. For this purpose, the integrated process with water sorption in the column with molecular sieves was applied. Integration of the process of synthesis and dehydration of a reaction phase, in which a biocatalyst is suspended and not dissolved as in water solutions, requires holding up of the catalyst in the reactor before directing the stream of reaction mixture to dehydration process. This hold-up and a possibility of multiple use of the catalyst may be accomplished by using a separating barrier, e.g. an ultrafiltration membrane or by permanent fixing of the catalyst to the matrix, e.g. a polymeric membrane. The efficiency and activity of a biocatalyst (lipase CAL-B) immobilized on a polymer membrane by sorption and chemical binding, were determined. A subject of study was the synthesis of geranyl acetate, one of the most known aromatic compound. A hydrophobic (polypropylene) matrix was shown to be a much better carrier in the reactions performed in an organic solvent than a hydrophilic (polyamide) membrane being tested. The reaction kinetics of geranyl acetate synthesis with the use of geraniol and acetic acid as substrates, was described by the equation defining the "Ping-Pong Bi Bi" mechanism that was related additionally to the inhibition of a substrate (acetic acid). The following constants of kinetic equation were obtained k(3)(')=0.344 mol g(-1)h(-1), K

  3. Highly Selective H2 Separation Zeolite Membranes for Coal Gasification Membrane Reactor Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mei Hong; Richard D. Noble; John L. Falconer

    2006-09-24

    Zeolite membranes are thermally, chemically, and mechanically stable. They also have tunable molecular sieving and catalytic ability. These unique properties make zeolite membrane an excellent candidate for use in catalytic membrane reactor applications related to coal conversion and gasification, which need high temperature and high pressure range separation in chemically challenging environment where existing technologies are inefficient or unable to operate. Small pore, good quality, and thin zeolite membranes are needed for highly selective H{sub 2} separation from other light gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO). However, zeolite membranes have not been successful for H{sub 2} separation from light gases because the zeolite pores are either too big or the membranes have a large number of defects. The objective of this study is to develop zeolite membranes that are more suitable for H{sub 2} separation. In an effort to tune the size of zeolite pores and/or to decrease the number of defects, medium-pore zeolite B-ZSM-5 (MFI) membranes were synthesized and silylated. Silylation on B-ZSM-5 crystals reduced MFI-zeolite pore volume, but had little effect on CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption. Silylation on B-ZSM-5 membranes increased H{sub 2} selectivity both in single component and in mixtures with CO{sub 2}CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, or N2. Single gas and binary mixtures of H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} were separated through silylated B-ZSM-5 membranes at feed pressures up to 1.7 MPa and temperatures up to 773 K. For one BZSM-5 membrane after silylation, the H2/CO{sub 2} separation selectivity at 473 K increased from 1.4 to 37, whereas the H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} separation selectivity increased from 1.6 to 33. Hydrogen permeance through a silylated B-ZSM-5 membrane was activated, but the CO{sub 2} and CH4 permeances decreased slightly with temperature in both single gas and in mixtures. Therefore, the H{sub 2} permeance and H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and H{sup 2} /CH{sub 4

  4. A packed bed membrane reactor for production of biodiesel using activated carbon supported catalyst.

    PubMed

    Baroutian, Saeid; Aroua, Mohamed K; Raman, Abdul Aziz A; Sulaiman, Nik M N

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a novel continuous reactor has been developed to produce high quality methyl esters (biodiesel) from palm oil. A microporous TiO2/Al2O3 membrane was packed with potassium hydroxide catalyst supported on palm shell activated carbon. The central composite design (CCD) of response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to investigate the effects of reaction temperature, catalyst amount and cross flow circulation velocity on the production of biodiesel in the packed bed membrane reactor. The highest conversion of palm oil to biodiesel in the reactor was obtained at 70 °C employing 157.04 g catalyst per unit volume of the reactor and 0.21 cm/s cross flow circulation velocity. The physical and chemical properties of the produced biodiesel were determined and compared with the standard specifications. High quality palm oil biodiesel was produced by combination of heterogeneous alkali transesterification and separation processes in the packed bed membrane reactor.

  5. Immobilization of enzyme onto poly(ethylene-vinyl alcohol) membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Imai, K.; Shiomi, T.; Uchida, K.; Miya, M.

    1986-02-01

    Invertase was ionically bound to the poly(ethylene-vinyl alcohol) membrane surface modified with two aminoacetals with different molecular length, 2-dimethyl-aminoacetoaldehyde dimethylacetal (AAA) and 3-(N,N-dimethylamino-n-propanediamine) propionaldehyde dimethylacetal (APA). Immobilization conditions were determined with respect to enzyme concentration in solution, pH value, ionic strength in immobilization solution, and immobilization time. Various properties of immobilized invertase were evaluated, and thermal stability was found especially to be improved by immobilization. The apparent Michaelis constant, Km, was smaller for invertase bound by APA with longer molecular lengths than for invertase bound by AAA. We attempted to bind glucoamylase of Rhizopus delemarorigin in the same way. The amount and activity of immobilized glucoamylase were much less than those of invertase. 16 references.

  6. Integrated Water Gas Shift Membrane Reactors Utilizing Novel, Non Precious Metal Mixed Matrix Membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Ferraris, John

    2013-09-30

    Nanoparticles of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks and other related hybrid materials were prepared by modifying published synthesis procedures by introducing bases, changing stoichiometric ratios, or adjusting reaction conditions. These materials were stable at temperatures >300 °C and were compatible with the polymer matrices used to prepare mixed- matrix membranes (MMMs). MMMs tested at 300 °C exhibited a >30 fold increase in permeability, compared to those measured at 35 °C, while maintaining H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity. Measurements at high pressure (up to 30 atm) and high temperature (up to 300 °C) resulted in an increase in gas flux across the membrane with retention of selectivity. No variations in permeability were observed at high pressures at either 35 or 300 °C. CO{sub 2}-induced plasticization was not observed for Matrimid®, VTEC, and PBI polymers or their MMMs at 30 atm and 300 °C. Membrane surface modification by cross-linking with ethanol diamine resulted in an increase in H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity at 35 °C. Spectrometric analysis showed that the cross-linking was effective to temperatures <150 °C. At higher temperatures, the cross-linked membranes exhibit a H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity similar to the uncross-linked polymer. Performance of the polybenzimidazole (PBI) hollow fibers prepared at Santa Fe Science and Technology (SFST, Inc.) showed increased flux o to a flat PBI membrane. A water-gas shift reactor has been built and currently being optimized for testing under DOE conditions.

  7. Catalytic membrane program novation: High temperature catalytic membrane reactors. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kleiner, R.N.

    1998-08-28

    The original objective was to develop an energy-efficient hydrocarbon dehydrogenation process based on catalytic membrane reactors. Golden Technologies determined that the goals of this contract would be best served by novating the contract to an end user or other interested party which is better informed on the economic justification aspects of petrochemical refining processes to carry out the remaining work. In light of the Chevron results, the program objective was broadened to include development of inorganic membranes for applications in the chemical industry. The proposed membrane technologies shall offer the potential to improve chemical production processes via conversion increase and energy savings. The objective of this subcontract is to seek a party that would serve as a prime contractor to carry out the remaining tasks on the agreement and bring the agreement to a successful conclusion. Four tasks were defined to select the prime contractor. They were (1) prepare a request for proposal, (2) solicit companies as potential prime contractors as well as team members, (3) discuss modifications requested by the potential prime contractors, and (4) obtain, review and rank the proposals. The accomplishments on the tasks is described in detail in the following sections.

  8. Highly Selective H2 Separation Zeolite Membranes for Coal Gasification Membrane Reactor Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mei Hong; Richard Noble; John Falconer

    2007-09-24

    Zeolite membranes are thermally, chemically, and mechanically stable. They also have tunable molecular sieving and catalytic ability. These unique properties make zeolite membrane an excellent candidate for use in catalytic membrane reactor applications related to coal conversion and gasification, which need high temperature and high pressure range separation in chemically challenging environment where existing technologies are inefficient or unable to operate. Small pore, good quality, and thin zeolite membranes are needed for highly selective H2 separation from other light gases (CO2, CH4, CO). However, current zeolite membranes have either too big zeolite pores or a large number of defects and have not been successful for H2 separation from light gases. The objective of this study is to develop zeolite membranes that are more suitable for H2 separation. In an effort to tune the size of zeolite pores and/or to decrease the number of defects, medium-pore zeolite B-ZSM-5 (MFI) membranes were synthesized and silylated. Silylation on B-ZSM-5 crystals reduced MFI-zeolite pore volume, but had little effect on CO2 and CH4 adsorption. Silylation on B-ZSM-5 membranes increased H2 selectivity both in single component and in mixtures with CO2, CH4, or N2. Single gas and binary mixtures of H2/CO2 and H2/CH4 were permeated through silylated B-ZSM-5 membranes at feed pressures up to 1.7 MPa and temperatures up to 773 K. For one B-ZSM-5 membrane after silylation, the H2/CO2 separation selectivity at 473 K increased from 1.4 to 37, whereas the H2/CH4 separation selectivity increased from 1.6 to 33. Hydrogen permeance through a silylated BZSM-5 membrane was activated with activation energy of {approx}10 kJ/mol, but the CO2 and CH4 permeances decreased slightly with temperature in both single gas and in mixtures. Therefore, the H2 permeance and H2/CO2 and H2/CH4 separation selectivities increased with temperature. At 673 K, the H2 permeance was 1.0x10-7 mol{center_dot}m-2{center

  9. Modeling fixed and fluidized reactors for cassava starch Saccharification with immobilized enzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Zanin, G.M.; De Moraes, F.F.

    1997-12-31

    Cassava starch saccharification in fixed-and fluidized-bed reactors using immobilized enzyme was modeled in a previous paper using a simple model in which all dextrins were grouped in a single substrate. In that case, although good fit of the model to experimental data was obtained, physical inconsistency appeared as negative kinetic constants. In this work, a multisubstrate model, developed earlier for saccharification with free enzyme, is adapted for immobilized enzyme. This latter model takes into account the formation of intermediate substrates, which are dextrins competing for the catalytic site of the enzyme, reversibility of some reactions, inhibition by substrate and product, and the formation of isomaltose. Kinetic parameters to be used with this model were obtained from initial velocity saccharification tests using the immobilized enzyme and different liquefied starch concentrations. The new model was found to be valid for modeling both fixed- and fluidized-bed reactors. It did not present inconsistencies as the earlier one had and has shown that apparent glucose inhibition is about seven times higher in the fixed-bed than in fluidized-bed reactor. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Analytical potential of enzyme-coated capillary reactors in capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Simonet, Bartolomé M; Ríos, Angel; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2004-01-01

    Enzymes immobilized on the inner surface of an electrophoretic capillary were used to increase sensitivity and resolution in capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). Sensitivity is enhanced by inserting a piece of capillary containing the immobilized enzyme into the main capillary, located before the detector, in order to transform the analyte into a product with a higher absorptivity. This approach was used to determine ethanol. In order to improve resolution, capillary pieces containing immobilized enzymes were inserted at various strategic positions along the electrophoretic capillary. On reaching the enzyme, the analyte was converted into a product with a high electrophoretic mobility, the migration time for which was a function of the position of the enzyme reactor. This approach was applied to the separation and determination of acetaldehyde and pyruvate. Finally, the proposed method was validated with the determination of ethanol, acetaldehyde, and pyruvate in beer and wine samples.

  11. Analysis of the key enzymes of butyric and acetic acid fermentation in biogas reactors

    PubMed Central

    Gabris, Christina; Bengelsdorf, Frank R; Dürre, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of the mechanisms of acidogenesis, which is a key process during anaerobic digestion. To expose possible bottlenecks, specific activities of the key enzymes of acidification, such as acetate kinase (Ack, 0.23–0.99 U mg−1 protein), butyrate kinase (Buk, < 0.03 U mg−1 protein) and butyryl-CoA:acetate-CoA transferase (But, 3.24–7.64 U mg−1 protein), were determined in cell free extracts of biogas reactor content from three different biogas reactors. Furthermore, the detection of Ack was successful via Western blot analysis. Quantification of corresponding functional genes encoding Buk (buk) and But (but) was not feasible, although an amplification was possible. Thus, phylogenetic trees were constructed based on respective gene fragments. Four new clades of possible butyrate-producing bacteria were postulated, as well as bacteria of the genera Roseburia or Clostridium identified. The low Buk activity was in contrast to the high specific But activity in the analysed samples. Butyrate formation via Buk activity does barely occur in the investigated biogas reactor. Specific enzyme activities (Ack, Buk and But) in samples drawn from three different biogas reactors correlated with ammonia and ammonium concentrations (NH3 and NH4+-N), and a negative dependency can be postulated. Thus, high concentrations of NH3 and NH4+-N may lead to a bottleneck in acidogenesis due to decreased specific acidogenic enzyme activities. PMID:26086956

  12. ENHANCEMENT OF EQUILIBRIUMSHIFT IN DEHYDROGENATION REACTIONS USING A NOVEL MEMBRANE REACTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Shamsuddin Ilias, Ph.d., P.E.; Franklin G. King, D.Sc.

    2001-02-13

    With the advances in new inorganic materials and processing techniques, there has been renewed interest in exploiting the benefits of membranes in many industrial applications. Inorganic and composite membranes are being considered as potential candidates for use in membrane-reactor configuration for effectively increasing reaction rate, selectivity and yield of equilibrium limited reactions. To investigate the usefulness of a palladium-ceramic composite membrane in a membrane reactor-separator configuration, we investigated the dehydrogenation of cyclohexane by equilibrium shift. A two-dimensional pseudo-homogeneous reactor model was developed to study the dehydrogenation of cyclohexane by equilibrium shift in a tubular membrane reactor. Radial diffusion was considered to account for the concentration gradient in the radial direction due to permeation through the membrane. For a dehydrogenation reaction, the feed stream to the reaction side contained cyclohexane and argon, while the separation side used argon as the sweep gas. Equilibrium conversion for dehydrogenation of cyclohexane is 18.7%. The present study showed that 100% conversion could be achieved by equilibrium shift using Pd-ceramic membrane reactor. For a feed containing cyclohexane and argon of 1.64 x 10{sup -6} and 1.0 x 10{sup -3} mol/s, over 98% conversion could be readily achieved. The dehydrogenation of cyclohexane was also experimentally investigated in a palladium-ceramic membrane reactor. The Pd-ceramic membrane was fabricated by electroless deposition of palladium on ceramic substrate. The performance of Pd-ceramic membrane was compared with a commercially available hydrogen-selective ceramic membrane. From limited experimental data it was observed that by appropriate choice of feed flow rate and sweep gas rate, the conversion of cyclohexane to benzene and hydrogen can increased to 56% at atmospheric pressure and 200 C in a Pd-ceramic membrane reactor. In the commercial ceramic membrane

  13. The application of membrane biological reactors for the treatment of wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Brindle, K.; Stephenson, T.

    1996-03-20

    Combining membrane technology with biological reactors for the treatment of municipal and industrial wastewaters has led to the development of three generic membrane processes within bioreactors: for separation and recycle of solids; for bubbleless aeration of the bioreactor; and for extraction of priority organic pollutants from hostile industrial wastewaters. Commercial aerobic and anaerobic membrane separation bioreactors already provides a small footprint alternative to conventional biological treatment methods, producing a high-quality effluent at high organic loading rates. Both the bubbleless aeration and extractive membrane bioreactors are in the development stages. The former uses gas-permeable membranes to improve the mass transfer of oxygen to the bioreactor by providing bubbleless oxygen. By using a silicon membrane process, extractive membrane bioreactors transfer organic pollutants from chemically hostile wastewaters to a nutrient medium for subsequent biodegradation. All three membrane bioreactor (MBR) processes are comparatively and critically reviewed.

  14. Nanostructured Membranes for Green Synthesis of Nanoparticles and Enzyme Catalysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Macroporous membranes functionalized with ionizable macromolecules provide promising applications in toxic metal capture at high capacity, nanoparticle synthesis, and catalysis. Our low‐pressure membrane approach is marked by reaction and separation selectivity and their tunabili...

  15. Nanostructured Membranes for Enzyme Catalysis and Green Synthesis of Nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Macroporous membranes functionalized with ionizable macromolecules provide promising applications in toxic metal capture at high capacity, nanoparticle synthesis, and catalysis. Our low-pressure membrane approach is marked by reaction and separation selectivity and their tunabil...

  16. Improvement of Membrane Performances to Enhance the Yield of Vanillin in a Pervaporation Reactor

    PubMed Central

    Camera-Roda, Giovanni; Cardillo, Antonio; Loddo, Vittorio; Palmisano, Leonardo; Parrino, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    In membrane reactors, the interaction of reaction and membrane separation can be exploited to achieve a “process intensification”, a key objective of sustainable development. In the present work, the properties that the membrane must have to obtain this result in a pervaporation reactor are analyzed and discussed. Then, the methods to enhance these properties are investigated for the photocatalytic synthesis of vanillin, which represents a case where the recovery from the reactor of vanillin by means of pervaporation while it is produced allows a substantial improvement of the yield, since its further oxidation is thus prevented. To this end, the phenomena that control the permeation of both vanillin and the reactant (ferulic acid) are analyzed, since they ultimately affect the performances of the membrane reactor. The results show that diffusion of the aromatic compounds takes place in the presence of low concentration gradients, so that the process is controlled by other phenomena, in particular by the equilibrium with the vapor at the membrane-permeate interface. On this basis, it is demonstrated that the performances are enhanced by increasing the membrane thickness and/or the temperature, whereas the pH begins to limit the process only at values higher than 6.5. PMID:24957123

  17. Improvement of membrane performances to enhance the yield of vanillin in a pervaporation reactor.

    PubMed

    Camera-Roda, Giovanni; Cardillo, Antonio; Loddo, Vittorio; Palmisano, Leonardo; Parrino, Francesco

    2014-02-28

    In membrane reactors, the interaction of reaction and membrane separation can be exploited to achieve a "process intensification", a key objective of sustainable development. In the present work, the properties that the membrane must have to obtain this result in a pervaporation reactor are analyzed and discussed. Then, the methods to enhance these properties are investigated for the photocatalytic synthesis of vanillin, which represents a case where the recovery from the reactor of vanillin by means of pervaporation while it is produced allows a substantial improvement of the yield, since its further oxidation is thus prevented. To this end, the phenomena that control the permeation of both vanillin and the reactant (ferulic acid) are analyzed, since they ultimately affect the performances of the membrane reactor. The results show that diffusion of the aromatic compounds takes place in the presence of low concentration gradients, so that the process is controlled by other phenomena, in particular by the equilibrium with the vapor at the membrane-permeate interface. On this basis, it is demonstrated that the performances are enhanced by increasing the membrane thickness and/or the temperature, whereas the pH begins to limit the process only at values higher than 6.5.

  18. Highly hydrophilic poly(vinylidene fluoride)/meso-titania hybrid mesoporous membrane for photocatalytic membrane reactor in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meng; Yang, Guang; Jin, Peng; Tang, Hao; Wang, Huanhuan; Chen, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The high hydrophobicity of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane remains an obstacle to be applied in some purification processes of water or wastewater. Herein, a highly hydrophilic hybrid mesoporous titania membrane composed of mesoporous anatase titania (meso-TiO2) materials inside the three-dimensional (3D) macropores of PVDF membrane was successfully prepared by using the dual-templated synthesis method combined with solvent extraction and applied as the photocatalytic membrane reactor for the photodegredation of organic dye in water. The structure and the properties of as-prepared hybrid membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption–desorption and contact angle measurements. It was found that the hydrophilicity of PVDF membrane can be significantly improved by filling mesoporous TiO2 inside the 3D macropores of PVDF membrane. Moreover, such a PVDF/meso-TiO2 hybrid membrane exhibits promising photocatalytic degradation of dye in water due to the existence of mesoporous anatase TiO2 materials inside PVDF membrane. This study provides a new strategy to simultaneously introduce hydrophilicity and some desirable properties into PVDF and other hydrophobic membranes.

  19. Highly hydrophilic poly(vinylidene fluoride)/meso-titania hybrid mesoporous membrane for photocatalytic membrane reactor in water

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Yang, Guang; Jin, Peng; Tang, Hao; Wang, Huanhuan; Chen, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The high hydrophobicity of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane remains an obstacle to be applied in some purification processes of water or wastewater. Herein, a highly hydrophilic hybrid mesoporous titania membrane composed of mesoporous anatase titania (meso-TiO2) materials inside the three-dimensional (3D) macropores of PVDF membrane was successfully prepared by using the dual-templated synthesis method combined with solvent extraction and applied as the photocatalytic membrane reactor for the photodegredation of organic dye in water. The structure and the properties of as-prepared hybrid membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption–desorption and contact angle measurements. It was found that the hydrophilicity of PVDF membrane can be significantly improved by filling mesoporous TiO2 inside the 3D macropores of PVDF membrane. Moreover, such a PVDF/meso-TiO2 hybrid membrane exhibits promising photocatalytic degradation of dye in water due to the existence of mesoporous anatase TiO2 materials inside PVDF membrane. This study provides a new strategy to simultaneously introduce hydrophilicity and some desirable properties into PVDF and other hydrophobic membranes. PMID:26754440

  20. Nuclear track membranes: Production in nuclear reactors and prospects of application

    SciTech Connect

    Fursov, B.I.; Kryuchkov, E.A.; Mironov, N.N.

    1993-12-31

    Nuclear track membranes are produced by a physico-chemical treatment of polymeric films exposed to fission fragments in nuclear reactors or to heavy ion beams. Heavy charged particles form in the solids along their trajectories regions of high ionization density where polymer destruction takes place. Selective dissolution of damaged material converts the initial film into a microfiltration membrane with cylindrical through pores. The main feature of nuclear membranes are a small thickness and uniformity of pore size. The qualities of the nuclear membranes promise good prospects for applications in many areas.

  1. A pilot-scale photocatalyst-membrane hybrid reactor: performance and characterization.

    PubMed

    Ryu, J; Choi, W; Choo, K H

    2005-01-01

    We developed and tested a pilot-scale photocatalyst-membrane hybrid reactor for water treatment. The performance of the pilot-scale reactor was evaluated by monitoring the degradation efficiency of several organic pollutants and the membrane suction pressure at different operating conditions. The concentration of humic acids rather increased in the initial period of UV illumination and then decreased gradually, which could be ascribed to the photoinduced desorption of humic acids from the TiO2 surface. The decoloring rate of methylene blue was faster than that of rhodamine B, whereas the order of mineralization rates of the dyes was reversed. 4-chlorophenol of 100 ppb was fully degraded under UV irradiation in 2 hours, which suggests that this hybrid reactor would be more suitable in removing micropollutants in water. The reactor was operated with either continuous or intermittent suction mode. In a continuous suction mode, the formation of TiO2 cake layers on the membrane surface occurred and caused a substantial increase in suction pressure. However, no further fouling (or suction pressure build-up) took place with an intermittent suction mode with the 9-min suction and 3-min pause period. The photocatalyst-membrane hybrid reactor system developed in this study could be an attractive option for controlling micropollutants in water.

  2. Laccase/mediator assisted degradation of triarylmethane dyes in a continuous membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Meenu; Mishra, Saroj; Sreekrishnan, Trichur Ramaswamy

    2009-08-10

    Laccase/mediator systems are important bioremediation agents as the rates of reactions can be enhanced in the presence of the mediators. The decolorization mechanism of two triarylmethane dyes, namely, Basic Green 4 and Acid Violet 17 is reported using Cyathus bulleri laccase. Basic Green 4 was decolorized through N-demethylation by laccase alone, while in mediator assisted reactions, dye breakdown was initiated from oxidation of carbinol form of the dye. Benzaldehyde and N,N-dimethyl aniline were the major end products. With Acid Violet 17, laccase carried out N-deethylation and in mediator assisted reactions, oxidation of the carbinol form of the dye occurred resulting in formation of formyl benzene sulfonic acid, carboxy benzene sulfonic acid and benzene sulfonic acid. Toxicity analysis revealed that Basic Green 4 was toxic and treatment with laccase/mediators resulted in 80-100% detoxification. The treatment of the textile dye solution using laccase and 2,2'-azino-di-(-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) was demonstrated in an enzyme membrane reactor. At a hydraulic retention time of 6h, the process was operated for a period of 15 days with nearly 95% decolorization, 10% reduction in flux and 70% recovery of active ABTS.

  3. Biological denitrification of brines from membrane treatment processes using an upflow sludge blanket (USB) reactor.

    PubMed

    Beliavski, M; Meerovich, I; Tarre, S; Green, M

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates denitrification of brines originating from membrane treatment of groundwater in an upflow sludge blanket (USB) reactor, a biofilm reactor without carrier. A simulated brine wastewater was prepared from tap water and contained a nitrate concentration of 125 mg/l as N and a total salt concentration of about 1%. In order to select for a suitable energy source for denitrification, two electron donors were compared: one promoting precipitation of calcium compounds (ethanol), while the other (acetic acid), no precipitation was expected. After extended operation to reach steady state, the sludge from the two reactors showed very different mineral contents. The VSS/TSS ratio in the ethanol fed reactor was 0.2, i.e., 80% mineral content, while the VSS/TSS ratio in the acetic acid fed reactor was 0.9, i.e., 10% mineral content. In spite of the low mineral content, the sludge from the acetic acid fed reactor showed remarkably excellent granulation and settling characteristics. Although the denitrification performance of the acetic acid fed reactor was similar to that of the ethanol fed reactor, there was a huge difference in the sludge production due to mineral precipitation, with the corresponding negative aspects including increased costs of sludge treatment and disposal and moreover, instability and difficulties in reactor operation (channeling). These arguments make acetic acid a much more suitable candidate for brine denitrification, despite previous findings observed in groundwater denitrification regarding the essential role of a relatively high sludge mineral fraction for stable and effective USB reactor operation. Based on a comparison between two denitrification reactors with and without salt addition and using acetic acid as the electron donor, it was concluded that the reason for the excellent sludge settling characteristics found in the acetic acid fed reactor is the positive effects of higher salinity on granular sludge formation.

  4. A self-catalytic mixed-conducting membrane reactor for effective production of hydrogen from methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xueliang; Liu, Zhengkun; Jin, Wanqin; Xu, Nanping

    A supported mixed-conducting LNCO membrane with a pore-gradient structure LNO support was successfully prepared via a dry pressing and co-sintering route. The match of sintering behaviors between membrane and support was realized by the preparation of an ABB‧B‧‧B‧BA-type membrane. A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) test demonstrated that the surface of the supported membrane was dense and crack-free and the pore-gradient structure of the support can be observed clearly. The oxygen flux of the supported membrane was about 5.6 times that of the symmetric LNCO membrane. A self-catalytic mixed-conducting membrane reactor was constructed using the prepared membrane for hydrogen production from methane. It was found that this membrane reactor exhibited high performance and good stability for hydrogen production. At 1123 K, the CH 4 conversion, hydrogen selectivity and hydrogen production remained at about 60%, 89% and 8.0 ml(STP) cm -2 min -1, respectively, for more than 120 h.

  5. Ion transport membrane reactor systems and methods for producing synthesis gas

    DOEpatents

    Repasky, John Michael

    2015-05-12

    Embodiments of the present invention provide cost-effective systems and methods for producing a synthesis gas product using a steam reformer system and an ion transport membrane (ITM) reactor having multiple stages, without requiring inter-stage reactant injections. Embodiments of the present invention also provide techniques for compensating for membrane performance degradation and other changes in system operating conditions that negatively affect synthesis gas production.

  6. Reconstitution studies on the involvement of radiation-induced lipid peroxidation in damage to membrane enzymes.

    PubMed

    Yukawa, O; Nagatsuka, S; Nakazawa, T

    1983-04-01

    The effect of radiation on the drug-metabolizing enzyme system of microsomes, reconstituted with liposomes of microsomal phospholipids, NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase and cytochrome P-450, was examined to elucidate the role of lipid peroxidation of membranes in radiation-induced damage to membrane-bound enzymes. The reconstituted system of non-irradiated enzymes with irradiated liposomes showed a low activity of hexobarbital hydroxylation, whereas irradiated enzymes combined with non-irradiated liposomes exhibited an activity equal to that of unirradiated controls. Irradiation of liposomes caused a decrease in cytochrome P-450 content by destruction of the haem of cytochrome P-450 and also inhibited the binding capacity of cytochrome P-450 for hexobarbital. The relationship between radiation-induced lipid peroxidation and membrane-bound enzymes is discussed.

  7. Enzyme-immobilized nanofiltration membrane to mitigate biofouling based on quorum quenching.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hyuk; Choi, Dong-Chan; Yeon, Kyung-Min; Kim, Sang-Ryong; Lee, Chung-Hak

    2011-02-15

    Recently, enzymatic quorum quenching (in the form of a free enzyme or an immobilized form on a bead) was successfully applied to a submerged membrane bioreactor with a microfiltration membrane for wastewater treatment as a novel approach to control membrane biofouling. In this study, a quorum quenching enzyme (acylase) was directly immobilized onto a nanofiltration membrane to mitigate biofouling in a nanofiltration process. In a flow cell experiment, the acylase-immobilized membrane with quorum quenching activity prohibited the formation of mushroom-shaped mature biofilm due to the reduced secretion of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The acylase-immobilized membrane maintained more than 90% of its initial enzyme activity for more than 20 iterative cycles of reaction and washing procedure. In the lab-scale continuous crossflow nanofiltration system operated at a constant pressure of 2 bar, the flux with the acylase-immobilized nanofiltration (NF) membrane was maintained at more than 90% of its initial flux after a 38-h operation, whereas that with the raw NF membrane decreased to 60% accompanied with severe biofouling. The quorum quenching activity of the acylase-immobilized membrane was also confirmed by visualizing the spatial distribution of cells and polysaccharides on the surface of each membrane using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) image analysis technique.

  8. Enrichment and biofilm formation of Anammox bacteria in a non-woven membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Ni, Shou-Qing; Lee, Po-Heng; Fessehaie, Anania; Gao, Bao-Yu; Sung, Shihwu

    2010-03-01

    An innovative reactor configuration for Anammox enrichment by connecting a non-woven membrane module with an anaerobic reactor was developed in this study. The Anammox non-woven membrane reactor (ANMR) exhibited high biomass retention ability through the formation of aggregates in the reactor and biofilm on the interior surface of the non-woven membrane. No fouling problems occurred on the membrane after the development of mature biofilms. After 8 months of operation, the nitrogen loading rate (NLR) and nitrogen removal rate (NRR) reached 1263 mg N/l/d and 1047.5 mg N/l/d, respectively, with a maximum specific ammonium consumption (SAC) of 51 nmol/mg protein/min. At steady state, the average ammonium and nitrite removal efficiencies were 90.9% and 95.0%, respectively. Morphological observation of Anammox aggregates and biofilm showed a high degree of compactness. Also, enrichment of Anammox bacteria was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis as 97.7%.

  9. High-speed pectic enzyme fractionation by immobilised metal ion affinity membranes.

    PubMed

    Camperi, S A; Grasselli, M; Cascone, O

    2000-01-01

    Immobilised metal ion affinity polysulfone hollow-fibre membranes, with a high capacity for protein adsorption, were prepared and their utilisation for commercial pectic enzyme fractionation was studied. The pass-through fraction containing pectinlyase is useful for fruit-juice clarification without methanol production on account of pectinesterase being retained by the IDA-Cu2+ membrane.

  10. Student Collaboration in a Series of Integrated Experiments to Study Enzyme Reactor Modeling with Immobilized Cell-Based Invertase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taipa, M. A^ngela; Azevedo, Ana M.; Grilo, Anto´nio L.; Couto, Pedro T.; Ferreira, Filipe A. G.; Fortuna, Ana R. M.; Pinto, Ine^s F.; Santos, Rafael M.; Santos, Susana B.

    2015-01-01

    An integrative laboratory study addressing fundamentals of enzyme catalysis and their application to reactors operation and modeling is presented. Invertase, a ß-fructofuranosidase that catalyses the hydrolysis of sucrose, is used as the model enzyme at optimal conditions (pH 4.5 and 45 °C). The experimental work involves 3 h of laboratory time…

  11. Fluidized Bed Membrane Reactors for Ultra Pure H₂ Production--A Step forward towards Commercialization.

    PubMed

    Helmi, Arash; Fernandez, Ekain; Melendez, Jon; Pacheco Tanaka, David Alfredo; Gallucci, Fausto; van Sint Annaland, Martin

    2016-03-19

    In this research the performance of a fluidized bed membrane reactor for high temperature water gas shift and its long term stability was investigated to provide a proof-of-concept of the new system at lab scale. A demonstration unit with a capacity of 1 Nm³/h of ultra-pure H₂ was designed, built and operated over 900 h of continuous work. Firstly, the performance of the membranes were investigated at different inlet gas compositions and at different temperatures and H₂ partial pressure differences. The membranes showed very high H₂ fluxes (3.89 × 10(-6) mol·m(-2)·Pa(-1)·s(-1) at 400 °C and 1 atm pressure difference) with a H₂/N₂ ideal perm-selectivity (up to 21,000 when integrating five membranes in the module) beyond the DOE 2015 targets. Monitoring the performance of the membranes and the reactor confirmed a very stable performance of the unit for continuous high temperature water gas shift under bubbling fluidization conditions. Several experiments were carried out at different temperatures, pressures and various inlet compositions to determine the optimum operating window for the reactor. The obtained results showed high hydrogen recovery factors, and very low CO concentrations at the permeate side (in average <10 ppm), so that the produced hydrogen can be directly fed to a low temperature PEM fuel cell.

  12. Novel Composite Hydrogen-Permeable Membranes for Nonthermal Plasma Reactors for the Decomposition of Hydrogen Sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Morris Argyle; John Ackerman; Suresh Muknahallipatna; Jerry Hamann; Stanislaw Legowski; Gui-Bing Zhao; Sanil John; Ji-Jun Zhang; Linna Wang

    2007-09-30

    The goal of this experimental project was to design and fabricate a reactor and membrane test cell to dissociate hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in a nonthermal plasma and to recover hydrogen (H{sub 2}) through a superpermeable multi-layer membrane. Superpermeability of hydrogen atoms (H) has been reported by some researchers using membranes made of Group V transition metals (niobium, tantalum, vanadium, and their alloys), but it was not achieved at the moderate pressure conditions used in this study. However, H{sub 2}S was successfully decomposed at energy efficiencies higher than any other reports for the high H{sub 2}S concentration and moderate pressures (corresponding to high reactor throughputs) used in this study.

  13. Anodized Aluminum Oxide Templated Synthesis of Metal-Organic Frameworks Used as Membrane Reactors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yifu; Wu, Xue-Jun; Zhao, Meiting; Ma, Qinglang; Chen, Junze; Chen, Bo; Sindoro, Melinda; Yang, Jian; Han, Shikui; Lu, Qipeng; Zhang, Hua

    2017-01-09

    The incorporation of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) into membrane-shaped architectures is of great importance for practical applications. The currently synthesized MOF-based membranes show many disadvantages, such as poor compatibility, low dispersity, and instability, which severely limit their utility. Herein, we present a general, facile, and robust approach for the synthesis of MOF-based composite membranes through the in situ growth of MOF plates in the channels of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. After being used as catalysis reactors, they exhibit high catalytic performance and stability in the Knoevenagel condensation reaction. The high catalytic performance might be attributed to the intrinsic structure of MOF-based composite membranes, which can remove the products from the reaction zone quickly, and prevent the aggregation and loss of catalysts during reaction and recycling process.

  14. High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading. Quarterly report No. 1, September 21, 1989--December 20, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, T.T.

    1992-06-19

    In this project we well evaluate the performance of Sel-Gel alumina membranes in coal liquid upgrading processes under realistic temperature and pressure conditions and investigate the feasibility of using such membranes in a membrane reactor based coal liquid upgrading process. In addition, the development of novel ceramic membranes with enhanced catalytic activity for coal-liquid upgrading applications, such as carbon-coated alumina membranes, will be also investigated. (VC)

  15. Potentialities of a Membrane Reactor with Laccase Grafted Membranes for the Enzymatic Degradation of Phenolic Compounds in Water

    PubMed Central

    Chea, Vorleak; Paolucci-Jeanjean, Delphine; Sanchez, José; Belleville, Marie-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the degradation of phenolic compounds by laccases from Trametes versicolor in an enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR). The enzymatic membranes were prepared by grafting laccase on a gelatine layer previously deposited onto α-alumina tubular membranes. The 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (DMP) was selected  from among the three different phenolic compounds tested (guaiacol, 4-chlorophenol and DMP) to study the performance of the EMR in dead end configuration. At the lowest feed substrate concentration tested (100 mg·L−1), consumption increased with flux (up to 7.9 × 103 mg·h−1·m−2 at 128 L·h−1·m−2), whereas at the highest substrate concentration (500 mg·L−1), it was shown that the reaction was limited by the oxygen content. PMID:25295628

  16. Potentialities of a membrane reactor with laccase grafted membranes for the enzymatic degradation of phenolic compounds in water.

    PubMed

    Chea, Vorleak; Paolucci-Jeanjean, Delphine; Sanchez, José; Belleville, Marie-Pierre

    2014-10-06

    This paper describes the degradation of phenolic compounds by laccases from Trametes versicolor in an enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR). The enzymatic membranes were prepared by grafting laccase on a gelatine layer previously deposited onto α-alumina tubular membranes. The 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (DMP) was selected  from among the three different phenolic compounds tested (guaiacol, 4-chlorophenol and DMP) to study the performance of the EMR in dead end configuration. At the lowest feed substrate concentration tested (100 mg·L-1), consumption increased with flux (up to 7.9 × 103 mg·h-1·m-2 at 128 L·h-1·m-2), whereas at the highest substrate concentration (500 mg·L-1), it was shown that the reaction was limited by the oxygen content.

  17. Characterization of glycolytic enzyme interactions with murine erythrocyte membranes in wild-type and membrane protein knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Campanella, M Estela; Chu, Haiyan; Wandersee, Nancy J; Peters, Luanne L; Mohandas, Narla; Gilligan, Diana M; Low, Philip S

    2008-11-01

    Previous research has shown that glycolytic enzymes (GEs) exist as multienzyme complexes on the inner surface of human erythrocyte membranes. Because GE binding sites have been mapped to sequences on the membrane protein, band 3, that are not conserved in other mammalian homologs, the question arose whether GEs can organize into complexes on other mammalian erythrocyte membranes. To address this, murine erythrocytes were stained with antibodies to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, aldolase, phosphofructokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and pyruvate kinase and analyzed by confocal microscopy. GEs were found to localize to the membrane in oxygenated erythrocytes but redistributed to the cytoplasm upon deoxygenation, as seen in human erythrocytes. To identify membrane proteins involved in GE assembly, erythrocytes from mice lacking each of the major erythrocyte membrane proteins were examined for GE localization. GEs from band 3 knockout mice were not membrane associated but distributed throughout the cytoplasm, regardless of erythrocyte oxygenation state. In contrast, erythrocytes from mice lacking alpha-spectrin, ankyrin, protein 4.2, protein 4.1, beta-adducin, or dematin headpiece exhibited GEs bound to the membrane. These data suggest that oxygenation-dependent assembly of GEs on the membrane could be a general phenomenon of mammalian erythrocytes and that stability of these interactions depends primarily on band 3.

  18. Mechanism of the lysosomal membrane enzyme acetyl coenzyme A: alpha-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Bame, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA:..cap alpha..-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase is a lysosomal membrane enzyme, deficient in the genetic disease Sanfilippo C syndrome. The enzyme catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA to terminal ..cap alpha..-glucosamine residues of heparan sulfate within the organelle. The reaction mechanism was examined using high purified lysosomal membranes from rat liver and human fibroblasts. The N-acetyltransferase reaction is optimal above pH 5.5 and a 2-3 fold stimulation of activity is observed in the presence of 0.1% taurodeoxycholate. Double reciprocal analysis and product inhibition studies indicate that the enzyme works by a Di-Iso Ping Pong Bi Bi mechanism. The binding of acetyl-CoA to the enzyme is measured by exchange label from (/sup 3/H)CoA to acetyl-CoA, and is optimal at pH's above 7.0. The acetyl-enzyme intermediate is formed by incubating membranes with (/sup 3/H)acetyl-CoA. The acetyl group can be transferred to glucosamine, forming (/sup 3/H)N-acetylglucosamine; the transfer is optimal between pH 4 and 5. Lysosomal membranes from Sanfilippo C fibroblasts confirm that these half reactions carried out by the N-acetyltransferase. The enzyme is inactivated by N-bromosuccinimide and diethylpyrocarbonate, indicating that a histidine is involved in the reaction. These results suggest that the histidine residue is at the active site of the enzyme. The properties of the N-acetyltransferase in the membrane, the characterization of the enzyme kinetics, the chemistry of a histidine mediated acetylation and the pH difference across the lysosomal membrane all support a transmembrane acetylation mechanism.

  19. Integration of Nine Steps into One Membrane Reactor To Produce Synthesis Gases for Ammonia and Liquid Fuel.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenping; Zhu, Xuefeng; Chen, Shuguang; Yang, Weishen

    2016-07-18

    The synthesis of ammonia and liquid fuel are two important chemical processes in which most of the energy is consumed in the production of H2 /N2 and H2 /CO synthesis gases from natural gas (methane). Here, we report a membrane reactor with a mixed ionic-electronic conducting membrane, in which the nine steps for the production of the two types of synthesis gases are shortened to one step by using water, air, and methane as feeds. In the membrane reactor, there is no direct CO2 emission and no CO or H2 S present in the ammonia synthesis gas. The energy consumption for the production of the two synthesis gases can be reduced by 63 % by using this membrane reactor. This promising membrane reactor process has been successfully demonstrated by experiment.

  20. SEPARATION OF HYDROGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE USING A NOVEL MEMBRANE REACTOR IN ADVANCED FOSSIL ENERGY CONVERSION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Shamsuddin Ilias

    2001-06-25

    Inorganic membrane reactors offer the possibility of combining reaction and separation in a single operation at high temperatures to overcome the equilibrium limitations experienced in conventional reactor configurations. Such attractive features can be advantageously utilized in a number of potential commercial opportunities, which include dehydrogenation, hydrogenation, oxidative dehydrogenation, oxidation and catalytic decomposition reactions. However, to be cost effective, significant technological advances and improvements will be required to solve several key issues which include: (a) permselective thin solid film, (b) thermal, chemical and mechanical stability of the film at high temperatures, and (c) reactor engineering and module development in relation to the development of effective seals at high temperature and high pressure. In this project, we are working on the development and application of palladium and palladium-silver alloy thin-film composite membranes in membrane reactor-separator configuration for simultaneous production and separation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide at high temperature. From our research on Pd-composite membrane, we have demonstrated that the new membrane has significantly higher hydrogen flux with very high perm-selectivity than any of the membranes commercially available. The steam reforming of methane by equilibrium shift in Pd-composite membrane reactor is being studied to demonstrate the potential application this new development. To have better understanding of the membrane reactor, during this reporting period, we developed a two-dimensional pseudo-homogeneous reactor model for steam reforming of methane by equilibrium shift in a tubular membrane reactor. In numerical solution of the reactor model equations, numerical difficulties were encountered and we seeking alternative solution techniques to overcome the problem.

  1. Factors affecting filtration characteristics in membrane-coupled moving bed biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woo-Nyoung; Kang, In-Joong; Lee, Chung-Hak

    2006-05-01

    Factors affecting filtration characteristics in submerged hollow fiber membrane were investigated in membrane-coupled moving bed biofilm reactor (M-CMBBR). The trend of membrane biofouling in M-CMBBR was quite different from that in a conventional membrane bioreactor (MBR). The M-CMBBR showed much lower biofouling rate than a conventional MBR. Whereas the membrane biofouling in conventional MBR system is known to be dependent mostly on biochemical effects of mixed liquor (soluble COD, EPS, etc.), the extent of biofouling in M-CMBBR was largely dependent on the potential collision energy of biofilm carriers (media) moving freely and colliding with surfaces of submerged hollow fibers. The collisions between circulating media and hollow fiber membranes gave rise to frictional forces which mitigated the formation of biofilms on the outer surface of hollow fibers. Consequently, the membrane permeability was greatly enhanced. The potential collision energy of moving media was dependent on the media volume fraction as well as the air flow rate. The membrane permeability was found to be proportional to the relative potential collision energy of the biofilm carriers. The frictional effect on the morphology of biofilms formed on the surface of organic membrane under various operating condition was also examined and identified through their visualization with SEM and AFM.

  2. Membrane reactor microstructure for polymer grade olefin production and hydrogen cogeneration.

    PubMed

    Ziaka, Zoe D; Navrozidou, Anna; Paraschopoulou, Louisa; Vasileiadis, Savvas P

    2010-09-01

    The current communication describes research work on effective membrane reactor nanostructures and nanoreaction-nanoseparation technology for polymer grade olefin production via catalytic paraffin dehydrogenation reactions. Emphasis is given in systems of permreactors and permeators to perform the described reactive and separative operations. We elaborate on new membrane microstructure designs for paraffin dehydrogenations including the design of experiments, operation, and best parameter selection and optimization of such systems. The described processes are of current significance in the area of new microreactor design and operation including hydrocarbon processing and conversion to valuable fuels and chemicals such as hydrogen, olefins, and polyolefins. These improved results are because of the unique design characteristics of the examined microreactor systems to perform accurate multiphase and heterogeneous functions into one unit operation. A number of membrane reactor configurations were made and tested on stream for the catalytic propane dehydrogenation reaction to propylene with successful results. Some of the results are discussed below which show the better performance of nanostructured membrane reactors for the specific dehydrogenation.

  3. Single Membrane Reactor Configuration for Separation of Hydrogen, Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen Sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Micheal Roberts; Robert Zabransky; Shain Doong; Jerry Lin

    2008-05-31

    The objective of the project was to develop a novel complementary membrane reactor process that can consolidate two or more downstream unit operations of a coal gasification system into a single module for production of a pure stream of hydrogen and a pure stream of carbon dioxide. The overall goals were to achieve higher hydrogen production efficiencies, lower capital costs and a smaller overall footprint than what could be achieved by utilizing separate components for each required unit process/operation in conventional coal-to-hydrogen systems. Specifically, this project was to develop a novel membrane reactor process that combines hydrogen sulfide removal, hydrogen separation, carbon dioxide separation and water-gas shift reaction into a single membrane configuration. The carbon monoxide conversion of the water-gas-shift reaction from the coal-derived syngas stream is enhanced by the complementary use of two membranes within a single reactor to separate hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Consequently, hydrogen production efficiency is increased. The single membrane reactor configuration produces a pure H{sub 2} product and a pure CO{sub 2} permeate stream that is ready for sequestration. This project focused on developing a new class of CO{sub 2}-selective membranes for this new process concept. Several approaches to make CO{sub 2}-selective membranes for high-temperature applications have been tested. Membrane disks using the technique of powder pressing and high temperature sintering were successfully fabricated. The powders were either metal oxide or metal carbonate materials. Experiments on CO{sub 2} permeation testing were also performed in the temperature range of 790 to 940 C for the metal carbonate membrane disks. However, no CO{sub 2} permeation rate could be measured, probably due to very slow CO{sub 2} diffusion in the solid state carbonates. To improve the permeation of CO{sub 2}, one approach is to make membranes containing liquid or molten carbonates

  4. Cell-Culture Reactor Having a Porous Organic Polymer Membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A method for making a biocompatible polymer article using a uniform atomic oxygen treatment is disclosed. The substrate may be subsequently optionally grated with a compatibilizing compound. Compatibilizing compounds may include proteins, phosphory1choline groups, platelet adhesion preventing polymers, albumin adhesion promoters, and the like. The compatibilized substrate may also have a living cell layer adhered thereto. The atomic oxygen is preferably produced by a flowing afterglow microwave discharge, wherein the substrate resides in a sidearm out of the plasma. Also, methods for culturing cells for various purposes using the various membranes are disclosed as well. Also disclosed are porous organic polymers having a distributed pore chemistry (DPC) comprising hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions, and a method for making the DPC by exposing the polymer to atomic oxygen wherein the rate of hydrophilization is greater than the rate of mass loss.

  5. Planar ceramic membrane assembly and oxidation reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Dyer, legal representative, Kathryn Beverly; Wilson, Merrill Anderson; Ohm, Ted R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Peterson, David; Chen, Christopher M.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Dyer, deceased, Paul Nigel

    2007-10-09

    Planar ceramic membrane assembly comprising a dense layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material, wherein the dense layer has a first side and a second side, a porous layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material in contact with the first side of the dense layer, and a ceramic channeled support layer in contact with the second side of the dense layer. The planar ceramic membrane assembly can be used in a ceramic wafer assembly comprising a planar ceramic channeled support layer having a first side and a second side; a first dense layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the first side of the ceramic channeled support layer; a first outer support layer comprising porous mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material and having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the outer side of the first dense layer; a second dense layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the second side of the ceramic channeled layer; and a second outer support layer comprising porous mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material and having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the outer side of the second dense layer.

  6. Planar ceramic membrane assembly and oxidation reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Dyer, legal representative, Kathryn Beverly; Wilson, Merrill Anderson; Ohrn, Ted R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Peterson, David; Chen, Christopher M.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Dyer, Paul Nigel

    2009-04-07

    Planar ceramic membrane assembly comprising a dense layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material, wherein the dense layer has a first side and a second side, a porous layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material in contact with the first side of the dense layer, and a ceramic channeled support layer in contact with the second side of the dense layer. The planar ceramic membrane assembly can be used in a ceramic wafer assembly comprising a planar ceramic channeled support layer having a first side and a second side; a first dense layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the first side of the ceramic channeled support layer; a first outer support layer comprising porous mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material and having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the outer side of the first dense layer; a second dense layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the second side of the ceramic channeled layer; and a second outer support layer comprising porous mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material and having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the outer side of the second dense layer.

  7. Power output and load following in a fuel cell fueled by membrane reactor hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxbaum, Robert; Lei, Hanwei

    Hydrogen for current polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) and alkaline fuel cells must be supplied with not more than a few tens of ppm of CO or CO 2, respectively. If the hydrogen is generated, as it is used, it must be produced efficiently over a broad fuel cell demand range, and follow load changes on the order of seconds. We generated hydrogen for a broad variety of demands from a 1.09/1 molar mix of methanol/water using a commercial water-gas shift catalyst and a membrane reactor. The reactor output hydrogen was fed directly into a PEM fuel cell. Demand was varied between 0 and 0.9 A/cm 2, both in flow through operation and in dead-end operation. We found power densities virtually identical to those with bottled gas. We also demonstrated inherent load following on a time scale ≤2000 μs.

  8. Apparatus and process to eliminate diffusional limitations in a membrane biological reactor by pressure cycling

    DOEpatents

    Efthymiou, George S.; Shuler, Michael L.

    1989-08-29

    An improved multilayer continuous biological membrane reactor and a process to eliminate diffusional limitations in membrane reactors in achieved by causing a convective flux of nutrient to move into and out of an immobilized biocatalyst cell layer. In a pressure cycled mode, by increasing and decreasing the pressure in the respective layers, the differential pressure between the gaseous layer and the nutrient layer is alternately changed from positive to negative. The intermittent change in pressure differential accelerates the transfer of nutrient from the nutrient layers to the biocatalyst cell layer, the transfer of product from the cell layer to the nutrient layer and the transfer of byproduct gas from the cell layer to the gaseous layer. Such intermittent cycling substantially eliminates mass transfer gradients in diffusion inhibited systems and greatly increases product yield and throughput in both inhibited and noninhibited systems.

  9. Methane steam reforming analysis in a palladium-based catalytic membrane reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Barbieri, G.; Violante, V.; Maio, F.P. di; Criscuoli, A.; Drioli, E. |

    1997-08-01

    The methane steam reforming in a catalytic membrane reactor has been studied. A previous theoretical study of this reaction has been carried out. In the model a global kinetic rate as a function of three reactions over nickel catalyst as proposed by Xu and Froment has been considered. It has been shown that the counterflow configuration has, at high temperature (500 C), a marginal advantage on parallel flow and, also, that the space velocity cannot be considered a design variable for membrane reactors. A laboratory plant was realized utilizing membranes of Pd and Pd/Ag supported on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The Pd membranes utilized have been prepared using the co-condensation technique and the electroless plating method. A comparison of the overall membrane performance has also been carried out. The experiments were aimed to study the effects of several parameters such as temperature, feed flow rate, and feed molar ratio on the methane conversion. The experimental results have been compared with the data predicted by the previously developed theoretical model.

  10. Testing of a 7-tube palladium membrane reactor for potential use in TEP

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Bryan J; Trujillo, Stephen; Willms, R. Scott

    2010-01-01

    A Palladium Membrane Reactor (PMR) consists of a palladium/silver membrane permeator filled with catalyst (catalyst may be inside or outside the membrane tubes). The PMR is designed to recover tritium from the methane, water, and other impurities present in fusion reactor effluent. A key feature of a PMR is that the total hydrogen isotope content of a stream is significantly reduced as (1) methane-steam reforming and/or water-gas shift reactions proceed on the catalyst bed and (2) hydrogen isotopes are removed via permeation through the membrane. With a PMR design matched to processing requirements, nearly complete hydrogen isotope removals can be achieved. A 3-tube PMR study was recently completed. From the results presented in this study, it was possible to conclude that a PMR is appropriate for TEP, perforated metal tube protectors function well, platinum on aluminum (PtA) catalyst performs the best, conditioning with air is probably required to properly condition the Pd/Ag tubes, and that CO/CO{sub 2} ratios maybe an indicator of coking. The 3-tube PMR had a permeator membrane area of 0.0247 m{sup 2} and a catalyst volume to membrane area ratio of 4.63 cc/cm{sup 2} (with the catalyst on the outside of the membrane tubes and the catalyst only covering the membrane tube length). A PMR for TEP will require a larger membrane area (perhaps 0.35 m{sup 2}). With this in mind, an intermediate sized PMR was constructed. This PMR has 7 permeator tubes and a total membrane area of 0.0851 m{sup 2}. The catalyst volume to membrane area ratio for the 7-tube PMR was 5.18 cc/cm{sup 2}. The total membrane area of the 7-tube PMR (0.0851 m{sup 2}) is 3.45 times larger than total membrane area of the 3-tube PMR (0.0247 m{sup 2}). The following objectives were identified for the 7-tube PMR tests: (1) Refine test measurements, especially humidity and flow; (2) Refine maintenance procedures for Pd/Ag tube conditioning; (3) Evaluate baseline PMR operating conditions; (4) Determine PMR

  11. Experimental evidence for a kinetic and electrochemical memory in enzyme membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, D; Barbotin, J N; David, A; Hervagault, J F; Romette, J L

    1977-01-01

    The existence of hysteresis phenomena in artificial enzyme membranes due to the coupling of simple kinetic enzyme properties with diffusion transport processes is reported. The intramembrane pH of a urease coating on the surface of a glass pH electrode exhibits a hysteresis loop when the pH of the bulk solution varies cyclically. The steady-state potential of a urease membrane, as a function of the substrate concentration in the bulk solution, also exhibits a memory effect. The influence of the membrane's history on its overall behavior is visualized by electron microscopy. We interpret the results in terms of a coupling between the enzyme reactions and diffusion processes, without taking into account molecular effects. Images PMID:23533

  12. WATER-GAS SHIFT KINETICS OVER IRON OXIDE CATALYSTS AT MEMBRANE REACTOR CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Carl R.F. Lund

    2002-08-02

    The kinetics of water-gas shift were studied over ferrochrome catalysts under conditions with high carbon dioxide partial pressures, such as would be expected in a membrane reactor. The catalyst activity is inhibited by increasing carbon dioxide partial pressure. A microkinetic model of the reaction kinetics was developed. The model indicated that catalyst performance could be improved by decreasing the strength of surface oxygen bonds. Literature data indicated that adding either ceria or copper to the catalyst as a promoter might impart this desired effect. Ceria-promoted ferrochrome catalysts did not perform any better than unpromoted catalyst at the conditions tested, but copper-promoted ferrochrome catalysts did offer an improvement over the base ferrochrome material. A different class of water-gas shift catalyst, sulfided CoMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is not affected by carbon dioxide and may be a good alternative to the ferrochrome system, provided other constraints, notably the requisite sulfur level and maximum temperature, are not too limiting. A model was developed for an adiabatic, high-temperature water-gas shift membrane reactor. Simulation results indicate that an excess of steam in the feed (three moles of water per mole of CO) is beneficial even in a membrane reactor as it reduces the rate of adiabatic temperature rise. The simulations also indicate that much greater improvement can be attained by improving the catalyst as opposed to improving the membrane. Further, eliminating the inhibition by carbon dioxide will have a greater impact than will increasing the catalyst activity (assuming inhibition is still operative). Follow-up research into the use of sulfide catalysts with continued kinetic and reactor modeling is suggested.

  13. Biological removal of antiandrogenic activity in gray wastewater and coking wastewater by membrane reactor process.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dehua; Chen, Lujun; Liu, Cong; Bao, Chenjun; Liu, Rui

    2015-07-01

    A recombinant human androgen receptor yeast assay was applied to investigate the occurrence of antiandrogens as well as the mechanism for their removal during gray wastewater and coking wastewater treatment. The membrane reactor (MBR) system for gray wastewater treatment could remove 88.0% of antiandrogenic activity exerted by weakly polar extracts and 97.3% of that by moderately strong polar extracts, but only 32.5% of that contributed by strong polar extracts. Biodegradation by microorganisms in the MBR contributed to 95.9% of the total removal. After the treatment, the concentration of antiandrogenic activity in the effluent was still 1.05 μg flutamide equivalence (FEQ)/L, 36.2% of which was due to strong polar extracts. In the anaerobic reactor, anoxic reactor, and membrane reactor system for coking wastewater treatment, the antiandrogenic activity of raw coking wastewater was 78.6 mg FEQ/L, and the effluent of the treatment system had only 0.34 mg FEQ/L. The antiandrogenic activity mainly existed in the medium strong polar and strong polar extracts. Biodegradation by microorganisms contributed to at least 89.2% of the total antiandrogenic activity removal in the system. Biodegradation was the main removal mechanism of antiandrogenic activity in both the wastewater treatment systems.

  14. Oxygen transport membrane reactor based method and system for generating electric power

    DOEpatents

    Kelly, Sean M.; Chakravarti, Shrikar; Li, Juan

    2017-02-07

    A carbon capture enabled system and method for generating electric power and/or fuel from methane containing sources using oxygen transport membranes by first converting the methane containing feed gas into a high pressure synthesis gas. Then, in one configuration the synthesis gas is combusted in oxy-combustion mode in oxygen transport membranes based boiler reactor operating at a pressure at least twice that of ambient pressure and the heat generated heats steam in thermally coupled steam generation tubes within the boiler reactor; the steam is expanded in steam turbine to generate power; and the carbon dioxide rich effluent leaving the boiler reactor is processed to isolate carbon. In another configuration the synthesis gas is further treated in a gas conditioning system configured for carbon capture in a pre-combustion mode using water gas shift reactors and acid gas removal units to produce hydrogen or hydrogen-rich fuel gas that fuels an integrated gas turbine and steam turbine system to generate power. The disclosed method and system can also be adapted to integrate with coal gasification systems to produce power from both coal and methane containing sources with greater than 90% carbon isolation.

  15. Solid state proton and electron mediating membrane and use in catalytic membrane reactors

    DOEpatents

    White, James H.; Schwartz, Michael; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2000-01-01

    Mixed electron- and proton-conducting metal oxide materials are provided. These materials are useful in fabrication of membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactions, particularly for promoting dehydrogenation of hydrocarbons, oligomerization of hydrocarbons and for the decomposition of hydrogen-containing gases. Membrane materials are perovskite compounds of the formula: AB.sub.1-x B'.sub.x O.sub.3-y where A=Ca, Sr, or Ba; B=Ce, Tb, Pr or Th; B'=Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni or Cu; 0.2

  16. Membrane distillation combined with an anaerobic moving bed biofilm reactor for treating municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Chul; Shin, Jaewon; Won, Seyeon; Lee, Jung-Yeol; Maeng, Sung Kyu; Song, Kyung Guen

    2015-03-15

    A fermentative strategy with an anaerobic moving bed biofilm reactor (AMBBR) was used for the treatment of domestic wastewater. The feasibility of using a membrane separation technique for post-treatment of anaerobic bio-effluent was evaluated with emphasis on employing a membrane distillation (MD). Three different hydrophobic 0.2 μm membranes made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), and polypropylene (PP) were examined in this study. The initial permeate flux of the membranes ranged from 2.5 to 6.3 L m(-2) h(-1) when treating AMBBR effluent at a temperature difference between the feed and permeate streams of 20 °C, with the permeate flux increasing in the order PP < PVDF < PTFE. The permeate flux of the PTFE membrane gradually decreased to 84% of the initial flux after the 45 h run for distillation, while a flux decline in MD with either the PVDF or PP membrane was not found under the identical distillation conditions. During long-term distillation with the PVDF membrane, total phosphorus was completely rejected and >98% rejection of dissolved organic carbon was also achieved. The characterization of wastewater effluent organic matter (EfOM) using an innovative suite of analytical tools verified that almost all of the EfOM was rejected via the PVDF MD treatment.

  17. LBM for cyclic voltammetry of electrochemically mediated enzyme reactions and Rayleigh-Bénard convection in electrochemical reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaya-Ventura, G. A.; Rodríguez-Romo, S.

    2012-02-01

    A few of the applications of the Lattice Boltzmann Method have been used to model the complex bioelectrochemical phenomena presented here; cyclic voltammetry of electrically assisted enzyme reactions for one instance, and complex chemical reactions with simultaneous momentum, heat and mass transfer as another example. In the first case, we reproduce experimental data and predict new results (not feasible of being obtained by other numerical methods); the evolution of the diffusion boundary layer, which is important information from the numerical viewpoint to design reactors. As second, our model of non isothermal electrochemical enzyme reactor with a complex chemical-thermohydrodynamics involves an enzyme reaction taking place over two parallel rectangular enzyme immobilized electrodes, within a Rayleigh-Bénard convection system, a multifaceted subject not yet studied simultaneously. Realistic velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles as well as the corresponding Faradaic currents for different geometries and heating settings are provided, showing the goodness of our approach.

  18. Modeling and simulation of ammonia removal from purge gases of ammonia plants using a catalytic Pd-Ag membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Rahimpour, M R; Asgari, A

    2008-05-01

    In this work, the removal of ammonia from synthesis purge gas of an ammonia plant has been investigated. Since the ammonia decomposition is thermodynamically limited, a membrane reactor is used for complete decomposition. A double pipe catalytic membrane reactor is used to remove ammonia from purge gas. The purge gas is flowing in the reaction side and is converted to hydrogen and nitrogen over nickel-alumina catalyst. The hydrogen is transferred through the Pd-Ag membrane of tube side to the shell side. A mathematical model including conservation of mass in the tube and shell side of reactor is proposed. The proposed model was solved numerically and the effects of different parameters on the rector performance were investigated. The effects of pressure, temperature, flow rate (sweep ratio), membrane thickness and reactor diameter have been investigated in the present study. Increasing ammonia conversion was observed by raising the temperature, sweep ratio and reducing membrane thickness. When the pressure increases, the decomposition is gone toward completion but, at low pressure the ammonia conversion in the outset of reactor is higher than other pressures, but complete destruction of the ammonia cannot be achieved. The proposed model can be used for design of an industrial catalytic membrane reactor for removal of ammonia from ammonia plant and reducing NO(x) emissions.

  19. Efficient Synthesis of Dimethyl Ether from Methanol in a Bifunctional Zeolite Membrane Reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chen; Wang, Nanyi; Qian, Yanan; Liu, Xiaoxing; Caro, Jürgen; Huang, Aisheng

    2016-10-04

    A sandwich FAU-LTA zeolite dual-layer membrane has been developed and used as a catalytic membrane reactor for the synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME). In the top H-FAU layer with mild acidity, methanol is dehydrated to DME. The other reaction product, water, is removed in situ through a hydrophilic Na-LTA layer, which is located between the porous alumina support and the H-FAU top layer. The combination of mild acidity with the continuous removal of water results in high methanol conversion (90.9 % at 310 °C) and essentially 100 % DME selectivity. Furthermore, owing to the selective and continuous removal of water through the Na-LTA membrane, catalyst deactivation can be effectively suppressed.

  20. Estradiol Modulates Membrane-Linked ATPases, Antioxidant Enzymes, Membrane Fluidity, Lipid Peroxidation, and Lipofuscin in Aged Rat Liver

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pardeep; Kale, R. K.; Baquer, Najma Zaheer

    2011-01-01

    Free radical production and oxidative stress are known to increase in liver during aging, and may contribute to the oxidative damage. These changes increase during menopausal condition in females when the level of estradiol is decreased. The objective of this study was to observe the changes in activities of membrane linked ATPases (Na+K+ ATPase, Ca2+ ATPase), antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase), lipid peroxidation levels, lipofuscin content and membrane fluidity occurring in livers of female rats of 3, 12 and 24 months age groups, and to see whether these changes are restored to 3 months control levels rats after exogenous administration of 17-β-estradiol (E2). The aged rats (12 and 24 months) were given subcutaneous injection of E2 (0.1 μg/g body weight) daily for one month. The results obtained in the present work revealed that normal aging was associated with significant decrease in the activities of membrane linked ATPases, antioxidant enzymes, membrane fluidity and an increase in lipid peroxidation and lipofuscin content in livers of aging female rats. The present study showed that E2 treatment reversed the changes to normal levels. E2 treatment may be beneficial in preventing some of the age related changes in the liver by increasing antioxidant defenses. PMID:22007298

  1. Use of new membrane-reactor saccharification assay to evaluate the performance of cellulases under simulated SSF conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, J.O.; Vinzant, T.B.; Ehrman, C.I.

    1997-12-31

    A new saccharification assay has been devised, in which a continuously buffer-swept membrane reactor is used to remove the solubilized saccharification products, thus allowing high extents of substrate conversion without significant inhibitory effects from the buildup of either cellobiose or glucose. This diafiltration saccharification assay (DSA) can, therefore, be used to obtain direct measurements of the performance of combinations of cellulose and substrate under simulated SSF conditions, without the saccharification results being complicated by factors that may influence the subsequent fermentation step. This assay has been used to compare the effectiveness of commercial and special in-house-produced Trichoderma reesei cellulose preparations in the saccharification of a standardized microcrystalline (Sigmacell) substrate and a dilute-acid pretreated lignocellulosic substrate. Initial results strongly suggest that enzyme preparations produced in the presence of the targeted lignocellulosic substrate will saccharify that substrate more effectively. These results call into question the widespread use of the {open_quotes}filter paper assay{close_quotes} as a reliable predictor of enzyme performance in the extensive hydrolysis of substrates that are quite different from filter paper in both physical properties and chemical composition. 14 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Solid state proton and electron mediating membrane and use in catalytic membrane reactors

    DOEpatents

    White, James H.; Schwartz, Michael; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2001-01-01

    Mixed electron- and proton-conducting metal oxide materials are provided. These materials are useful in fabrication of membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactions, particularly for promoting dehydrogenation of hydrocarbons, oligomerization of hydrocarbons and for the decomposition of hydrogen-containing gases. Membrane materials are perovskite compounds of the formula: AB.sub.1-x B'.sub.x O.sub.3-y where A=Ca, Sr, or Ba; B=Ce, Tb, Pr or Th; B'=Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni or Cu; 0.2.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5, and y is a number sufficient to neutralize the charge in the mixed metal oxide material.

  3. Influence of microcystin-LR on the activity of membrane enzymes in rat intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Moreno, I M; Mate, A; Repetto, G; Vázquez, C M; Cameán, A M

    2003-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of microcystin-LR (MCLR) on the activity of membrane enzymes from intestinal mucosa. In addition, serum chemistry and peroxidative status of both serum and intestinal homogenate were evaluated after treatment with MCLR. Wistar rats were treated with intraperitoneal injection of either 100 microg pure MCLR/Kg body weight or saline solution. A significant increase in liver weight and altered serum enzyme activities were found in MCLR-treated rats, indicating damage to the liver in these rats, as previously suggested. A higher specific activity of sucrase (1.5-fold) was observed after the administration of MCLR, whereas other intestinal apical membrane enzymes, such as lactase, maltase and alkaline phosphatase were not modified by the treatment. The specific activities of acid phosphatase and succinate dehydrogenase, markers for lysosomal and mitochondrial membranes, respectively, were also increased (32% and 60%, respectively) in treated rats. The analysis of lipid peroxidation showed that the peroxidative status was increased in both serum and intestinal mucosa from MCLR-treated rats, reflecting an excess production of oxygen free radicals induced by this cyanobacterial toxin. In conclusion, this study shows that acute exposure to MCLR affects the intestinal physiology by modifying the intestinal peroxidation status as well as the activity of membrane enzymes.

  4. Biofilm development in a membrane-aerated biofilm reactor: effect of flow velocity on performance.

    PubMed

    Casey, E; Glennon, B; Hamer, G

    2000-02-20

    The effect of liquid flow velocity on biofilm development in a membrane-aerated biofilm reactor was investigated both by mathematical modeling and by experiment, using Vibrio natriegens as a test organism and acetate as carbon substrate. It was shown that velocity influenced mass transfer in the diffusion boundary layer, the biomass detachment rate from the biofilm, and the maximum biofilm thickness attained. Values of the overall mass transfer coefficient of a tracer through the diffusion boundary layer, the biofilm, and the membrane were shown to be identical during different experiments at the maximum biofilm thickness. Comparison of the results with published values of this parameter in membrane attached biofilms showed a similar trend. Therefore, it was postulated that this result might indicate the mechanism that determines the maximum biofilm thickness in membrane attached biofilms. In a series of experiments, where conditions were set so that the active layer of the membrane attached biofilm was located close to the membrane biofilm interface, it was shown that the most critical effect on process performance was the effect of velocity on biofilm structure. Biofilm thickness and effective diffusivity influenced reaction and diffusion in a complex manner such that the yield of biomass on acetate was highly variable. Consideration of endogenous respiration in the mathematical model was validated by direct experimental measurements of yield coefficients. Good agreement between experimental measurements of acetate and oxygen uptake rates and their prediction by the mathematical model was achieved.

  5. Effects of geometrical confinement in membrane pores on enzyme-based layer-by-layer assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Wong, Diana G.; Coelho-Diogo, Cristina; Aimé, Carole; Bonhomme, Christian; Jonas, Alain M.; Demoustier-Champagne, Sophie

    2015-05-01

    Micro- and nanoporous systems incorporating bioactive molecules, such as enzymes, are very promising supports for biocatalysis. Here, we investigate the influence of geometrical confinement on the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of enzyme-based thin films, using the polyionic couple (chitosan/β-lactamase)n. Thin films with different number of layers were prepared on flat silicon wafers and within cylindrical submicron pores of polycarbonate membranes to determine the impact of the confinement of macromolecules on: (i) the LbL film growth, (ii) the enzyme loading, and (iii) the biocatalytic efficiency. Solid-state NMR is employed to estimate the amount of enzyme loaded in the different types of LbL films, and the enzyme activity is determined by the study of the kinetics of nitrocefin hydrolysis. Film growth and loading of enzyme occur faster in the confined medium, until pores reach saturation. Moreover, when LbL films are grown within nanopores, the weight fraction of enzyme is very high and remains constant along the build-up. Conversely, the relative amount of enzyme in flat films significantly decreases with the number of layers due to the partial exchange during the growth. Finally, our study emphasizes that the immobilization of enzymes through LbL assembly in confined media can lead to very active surfaces with a restricted number of LbL cycles.

  6. Kinetics of the enzyme-vesicle interaction including the formation of rafts and membrane strain.

    PubMed

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P; Höök, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    In cells, an appreciable part of enzymes is associated with lipid membranes. Academic experimental studies of the function of membrane enzymes (e.g., PLA(2) representing a prototype for interfacial enzymology) are often focused on the enzyme-vesicle interaction or, more specifically, on conversion of lipid forming the external leaflet of the vesicle membrane. The corresponding kinetics are complicated by many factors inherent to the interfacial physics and chemistry. The understanding of the relative role of such factors and how they should be quantitatively described is still limited. Here, we present the mean-field kinetic equations, taking the formation of rafts in the membrane and the product-induced membrane strain into account, and analyze various scenarios of lipid conversion. In particular, we scrutinize the conditions when the kinetics may exhibit a transition from a relatively long latency period to a steady-state regime with fast nearly constant reaction rate. Specifically, we discuss the likely role of the pore formation in the external lipid layer in this transition. The latter effect may be caused by the product-induced tensile strain in this layer.

  7. Removal of typical endocrine disrupting chemicals by membrane bioreactor: in comparison with sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yingjun; Huang, Xia; Zhou, Haidong; Chen, Jianhua; Xue, Wenchao

    2011-01-01

    The removal of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) by a laboratory-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) fed with synthetic sewage was evaluated and moreover, compared with that by a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) operated under same conditions in parallel. Eight kinds of typical EDCs, including 17β-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), estriol (E3), 17α-ethynilestradiol (EE2), 4-octylphenol (4-OP), 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), bisphenol A (BPA) and nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPnEO), were spiked into the feed. Their concentrations in influent, effluent and supernatant were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. The overall estrogenecity was evaluated as 17β-estradiol equivalent quantity (EEQ), determined via yeast estrogen screen (YES) assay. E2, E3, BPA and 4-OP were well removed by both MBR and SBR, with removal rates more than 95% and no significant differences between the two reactors. However, with regard to the other four EDCs, of which the removal rates were lower, MBR performed better. Comparison between supernatant and effluent of the two reactors indicated that membrane separation of sludge and effluent, compared with sedimentation, can relatively improve elimination of target EDCs and total estrogenecity. By applying different solids retention times (SRTs) (5, 10, 20 and 40 d) to the MBR, 10 and 5 d were found to be the lower critical SRTs for efficient target EDCs and EEQ removal, respectively.

  8. Hydrodynamic effects of air sparging on hollow fiber membranes in a bubble column reactor.

    PubMed

    Xia, Lijun; Law, Adrian Wing-Keung; Fane, Anthony G

    2013-07-01

    Air sparging is now a standard approach to reduce concentration polarization and fouling of membrane modules in membrane bioreactors (MBRs). The hydrodynamic shear stresses, bubble-induced turbulence and cross flows scour the membrane surfaces and help reduce the deposit of foulants onto the membrane surface. However, the detailed quantitative knowledge on the effect of air sparging remains lacking in the literature due to the complex hydrodynamics generated by the gas-liquid flows. To date, there is no valid model that describes the relationship between the membrane fouling performance and the flow hydrodynamics. The present study aims to examine the impact of hydrodynamics induced by air sparging on the membrane fouling mitigation in a quantitative manner. A modelled hollow fiber module was placed in a cylindrical bubble column reactor at different axial heights with the trans-membrane pressure (TMP) monitored under constant flux conditions. The configuration of bubble column without the membrane module immersed was identical to that studied by Gan et al. (2011) using Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA), to ensure a good quantitative understanding of turbulent flow conditions along the column height. The experimental results showed that the meandering flow regime which exhibits high flow instability at the 0.3 m is more beneficial to fouling alleviation compared with the steady flow circulation regime at the 0.6 m. The filtration tests also confirmed the existence of an optimal superficial air velocity beyond which a further increase is of no significant benefit on the membrane fouling reduction. In addition, the alternate aeration provided by two air stones mounted at the opposite end of the diameter of the bubble column was also studied to investigate the associated flow dynamics and its influence on the membrane filtration performance. It was found that with a proper switching interval and membrane module orientation, the membrane fouling can be effectively

  9. A Multiscale Approach to Modelling Drug Metabolism by Membrane-Bound Cytochrome P450 Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Sansom, Mark S. P.; Mulholland, Adrian J.

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes are found in all life forms. P450s play an important role in drug metabolism, and have potential uses as biocatalysts. Human P450s are membrane-bound proteins. However, the interactions between P450s and their membrane environment are not well-understood. To date, all P450 crystal structures have been obtained from engineered proteins, from which the transmembrane helix was absent. A significant number of computational studies have been performed on P450s, but the majority of these have been performed on the solubilised forms of P450s. Here we present a multiscale approach for modelling P450s, spanning from coarse-grained and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to reaction modelling using hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods. To our knowledge, this is the first application of such an integrated multiscale approach to modelling of a membrane-bound enzyme. We have applied this protocol to a key human P450 involved in drug metabolism: CYP3A4. A biologically realistic model of CYP3A4, complete with its transmembrane helix and a membrane, has been constructed and characterised. The dynamics of this complex have been studied, and the oxidation of the anticoagulant R-warfarin has been modelled in the active site. Calculations have also been performed on the soluble form of the enzyme in aqueous solution. Important differences are observed between the membrane and solution systems, most notably for the gating residues and channels that control access to the active site. The protocol that we describe here is applicable to other membrane-bound enzymes. PMID:25033460

  10. Identification of the components of a glycolytic enzyme metabolon on the human red blood cell membrane.

    PubMed

    Puchulu-Campanella, Estela; Chu, Haiyan; Anstee, David J; Galan, Jacob A; Tao, W Andy; Low, Philip S

    2013-01-11

    Glycolytic enzymes (GEs) have been shown to exist in multienzyme complexes on the inner surface of the human erythrocyte membrane. Because no protein other than band 3 has been found to interact with GEs, and because several GEs do not bind band 3, we decided to identify the additional membrane proteins that serve as docking sites for GE on the membrane. For this purpose, a method known as "label transfer" that employs a photoactivatable trifunctional cross-linking reagent to deliver a biotin from a derivatized GE to its binding partner on the membrane was used. Mass spectrometry analysis of membrane proteins that were biotinylated following rebinding and photoactivation of labeled GAPDH, aldolase, lactate dehydrogenase, and pyruvate kinase revealed not only the anticipated binding partner, band 3, but also the association of GEs with specific peptides in α- and β-spectrin, ankyrin, actin, p55, and protein 4.2. More importantly, the labeled GEs were also found to transfer biotin to other GEs in the complex, demonstrating for the first time that GEs also associate with each other in their membrane complexes. Surprisingly, a new GE binding site was repeatedly identified near the junction of the membrane-spanning and cytoplasmic domains of band 3, and this binding site was confirmed by direct binding studies. These results not only identify new components of the membrane-associated GE complexes but also provide molecular details on the specific peptides that form the interfacial contacts within each interaction.

  11. Fatty acids production from hydrogen and carbon dioxide by mixed culture in the membrane biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Ding, Jing; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Man; Ding, Zhao-Wei; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Zeng, Raymond J

    2013-10-15

    Gasification of waste to syngas (H2/CO2) is seen as a promising route to a circular economy. Biological conversion of the gaseous compounds into a liquid fuel or chemical, preferably medium chain fatty acids (caproate and caprylate) is an attractive concept. This study for the first time demonstrated in-situ production of medium chain fatty acids from H2 and CO2 in a hollow-fiber membrane biofilm reactor by mixed microbial culture. The hydrogen was for 100% utilized within the biofilms attached on the outer surface of the hollow-fiber membrane. The obtained concentrations of acetate, butyrate, caproate and caprylate were 7.4, 1.8, 0.98 and 0.42 g/L, respectively. The biomass specific production rate of caproate (31.4 mmol-C/(L day g-biomass)) was similar to literature reports for suspended cell cultures while for caprylate the rate (19.1 mmol-C/(L day g-biomass)) was more than 6 times higher. Microbial community analysis showed the biofilms were dominated by Clostridium spp., such as Clostridium ljungdahlii and Clostridium kluyveri. This study demonstrates a potential technology for syngas fermentation in the hollow-fiber membrane biofilm reactors.

  12. Membrane chemical reactor (MCR) combining photocatalysis and microfiltration for grey water treatment.

    PubMed

    Rivero, M J; Parsons, S A; Jeffrey, P; Pidou, M; Jefferson, B

    2006-01-01

    Urban water recycling is now becoming an important issue where water resources are becoming scarce. This paper looks at reusing grey water; the preference is treatment processes based on biological systems to remove the dissolved organic content. Here, an alternative process, photocatalysis is discussed as it is an attractive technology that could be well-suited for treating the recalcitrant organic compounds found in grey water. The photocatalytic process oxidises organic reactants at a catalyst surface in the presence of ultraviolet light. Given enough exposure time, organic compounds will be oxidized into CO2 and water. The best contact is achieved in a slurry reactor but a second step to separate and recover the catalyst is need. This paper discusses a new membrane chemical reactor (MCR) combining photocatalysis and microfiltration for grey water treatment.

  13. Impact of operating conditions on the removal of endocrine disrupting chemicals by membrane photocatalytic reactor.

    PubMed

    López Fernández, Raquel; Coleman, Heather M; Le-Clech, Pierre

    2014-08-01

    This study focuses on the performance of a submerged membrane photocatalytic reactor for the removal of 17beta-oestradiol (E2) in the presence of humic acid (HA). In addition to the impact of operating parameters, such as membrane pore size, ultraviolet (UV) intensity and hydraulic retention time (HRT), the influence of long-term operation was also assessed by advanced characterization of the fouling layer formed on the membrane. The tighter (0.04 microm) hollow fibre polyvinylydene fluoride (PVDF) membrane was found to exhibit not only higher HA removal than the (0.2 microm) module (85% and 75%, respectively), but also greater transmembrane pressure (TMP) values and higher irreversible fouling. Long-term operation conditions have been simulated by conducting an ageing catalyst process and demonstrated a decrease in performance obtained with time. The artificially aged TiO2 resulted in higher TMP values and lower HA removals (about 10-20% decrease) compared with the non-aged catalyst. For E2 removal in the presence of HA, the passive adsorption of the oestrogen onto the organic matter was found to be significant (40% of the E2 adsorbed after I h), demonstrating the importance of the nature of the water matrix for this type of treatment process. An increase in the UV light intensity was observed to favour the E2 elimination, leading to more than 90% removal when using 64 W combined with PVDF membrane and an HRT of 3 h.

  14. Ultra-thin-polysiloxane-film-composite membranes for the optimisation of amperometric oxidase enzyme electrodes.

    PubMed

    Myler, S; Collyer, S D; Bridge, K A; Higson, S P J

    2002-01-01

    An outer ultra-thin-polydimethyldichlorosiloxane film composite membrane has been used as the outer covering barrier in an amperometric glucose oxidase enzyme electrode biosensor. The composite membrane was formed via the condensation polymerisation of dimethyldichlorosilane at the surface of a host porous alumina membrane. Homogeneous polydimethyldichlorosiloxane films of <100 nm thickness acted as effective substrate diffusional barriers and were supported by the underlying porous alumina surface. Glucose and oxygen permeability coefficients were determined using diffusion chamber apparatus. Polysiloxane composite membranes were found to offer some screening functionality towards anionic biological interferents such as ascorbate. On exposure to blood an approximate 25% signal drift was observed during the first 2 h exposure to blood; after this time responses remained almost stable. Whole blood glucose determinations showed a close correlation (r(2)=0.98) to analyses performed via standard hospital analyses.

  15. Microbial responses to membrane cleaning using sodium hypochlorite in membrane bioreactors: Cell integrity, key enzymes and intracellular reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaomeng; Wang, Zhiwei; Wang, Xueye; Zheng, Xiang; Ma, Jinxing; Wu, Zhichao

    2016-01-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) is a commonly used reagent for membrane cleaning in membrane bioreactors (MBRs), while it, being a kind of disinfectant (oxidant), may impair viability of microbes or even totally inactivate them upon its diffusion into mixed liquor during membrane cleaning. In this study, we systematically examine the effects of NaClO on microorganisms in terms of microbial cell integrity, metabolism behaviours (key enzymes), and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) under various NaClO concentrations. Different proportions of microbial cells in activated sludge were damaged within several minutes dependent on NaClO dosages (5-50 mg/g-SS), and correspondingly organic matters were released to bulk solution. Inhibition of key enzymes involved in organic matter biodegradation, nitrification and denitrification was observed in the presence of NaClO above 1 mg/g-SS, and thus organic matter and nitrogen removal efficiencies were decreased. It was also demonstrated that intracellular ROS production was increased with the NaClO dosage higher than 1 mg/g-SS, which likely induced further damage to microbial cells.

  16. Electrochemical sensing of membrane potential and enzyme function using gallium arsenide electrodes functionalized with supported membranes.

    PubMed

    Gassull, Daniel; Ulman, Abraham; Grunze, Michael; Tanaka, Motomu

    2008-05-08

    We deposit phospholipid monolayers on highly doped p-GaAs electrodes that are precoated with methyl-mercaptobiphenyl monolayers and operate such a biofunctional electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) setup as an analogue of a metal-oxide-semiconductor setup. Electrochemical impedance spectra measured over a wide frequency range demonstrate that the presence of a lipid monolayer remarkably slows down the diffusion of ions so that the membrane-functionalized GaAs can be subjected to electrochemical investigations for more than 3 days with no sign of degradation. The biofunctional EIS setup enables us to translate changes in the surface charge density Q and bias potentials Ubias into the change in the interface capacitance Cp. Since Cp is governed by the capacitance of semiconductor space charge region CSC, the linear relationships obtained for 1/Cp2 vs Q and 1/Cp2 vs Ubias suggests that Cp can be used to detect the surface charges with a high sensitivity (1 charge per 18 nm2). Furthermore, the kinetics of phospholipids degradation by phospholipase A2 can also be monitored by a significant decrease in diffusion coefficients through the membrane by a factor of 104. Thus, the operation of GaAs membrane composites established here allows for electrochemical sensing of surface potential and barrier capability of biological membranes in a quantitative manner.

  17. Development of fragment-based n-FABS NMR screening applied to the membrane enzyme FAAH.

    PubMed

    Lambruschini, Chiara; Veronesi, Marina; Romeo, Elisa; Garau, Gianpiero; Bandiera, Tiziano; Piomelli, Daniele; Scarpelli, Rita; Dalvit, Claudio

    2013-09-02

    Despite the recognized importance of membrane proteins as pharmaceutical targets, the reliable identification of fragment hits that are able to bind these proteins is still a major challenge. Among different ¹⁹F NMR spectroscopic methods, n-fluorine atoms for biochemical screening (n-FABS) is a highly sensitive technique that has been used efficiently for fragment screening, but its application for membrane enzymes has not been reported yet. Herein, we present the first successful application of n-FABS to the discovery of novel fragment hits, targeting the membrane-bound enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), using a library of fluorinated fragments generated based on the different local environment of fluorine concept. The use of the recombinant fusion protein MBP-FAAH and the design of compound 11 as a suitable novel fluorinated substrate analogue allowed n-FABS screening to be efficiently performed using a very small amount of enzyme. Notably, we have identified 19 novel fragment hits that inhibit FAAH with a median effective concentration (IC₅₀) in the low mM-μM range. To the best of our knowledge, these results represent the first application of a ¹⁹F NMR fragment-based functional assay to a membrane protein.

  18. Functionally gradient material for membrane reactors to convert methane gas into value-added products

    DOEpatents

    Balachandran, U.; Dusek, J.T.; Kleefisch, M.S.; Kobylinski, T.P.

    1996-11-12

    A functionally gradient material for a membrane reactor for converting methane gas into value-added-products includes an outer tube of perovskite, which contacts air; an inner tube which contacts methane gas, of zirconium oxide, and a bonding layer between the perovskite and zirconium oxide layers. The bonding layer has one or more layers of a mixture of perovskite and zirconium oxide, with the layers transitioning from an excess of perovskite to an excess of zirconium oxide. The transition layers match thermal expansion coefficients and other physical properties between the two different materials. 7 figs.

  19. Functionally gradient material for membrane reactors to convert methane gas into value-added products

    DOEpatents

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Dusek, Joseph T.; Kleefisch, Mark S.; Kobylinski, Thadeus P.

    1996-01-01

    A functionally gradient material for a membrane reactor for converting methane gas into value-added-products includes an outer tube of perovskite, which contacts air; an inner tube which contacts methane gas, of zirconium oxide, and a bonding layer between the perovskite and zirconium oxide layers. The bonding layer has one or more layers of a mixture of perovskite and zirconium oxide, with the layers transitioning from an excess of perovskite to an excess of zirconium oxide. The transition layers match thermal expansion coefficients and other physical properties between the two different materials.

  20. Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell grade hydrogen production by methanol steam reforming: A comparative multiple reactor modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katiyar, Nisha; Kumar, Shashi; Kumar, Surendra

    2013-12-01

    Analysis of a fuel processor based on methanol steam reforming has been carried out to produce fuel cell grade H2. Six reactor configurations namely FBR1 (fixed bed reactor), MR1 (H2 selective membrane reactor with one reaction tube), MR2 (H2 selective membrane reactor with two reaction tubes), FBR2 (FBR1 + preferential CO oxidation (PROX) reactor), MR3 (MR1 + PROX), and MR4 (MR2 + PROX) are evaluated by simulation to identify the suitable processing scheme. The yield of H2 is significantly affected by H2 selective membrane, residence time, temperature, and pressure conditions at complete methanol conversion. The enhancement in residence time in MR2 by using two identical reaction tubes provides H2 yield of 2.96 with 91.25 mol% recovery at steam/methanol ratio of 1.5, pressure of 2 bar and 560 K temperature. The exit retentate gases from MR2 are further treated in PROX reactor of MR4 to reduce CO concentration to 4.1 ppm to ensure the safe discharge to the environment. The risk of carbon deposition on reforming catalyst is highly reduced in MR4, and MR4 reactor configuration generates 7.4 NL min-1 of CO free H2 from 0.12 mol min-1 of methanol which can provide 470 W PEMFC feedstock requirement. Hence, process scheme in MR4 provides a compact and innovative fuel cell grade H2 generating unit.

  1. Membrane reactor for water detritiation: a parametric study on operating parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Mascarade, J.; Liger, K.; Troulay, M.; Perrais, C.

    2015-03-15

    This paper presents the results of a parametric study done on a single stage finger-type packed-bed membrane reactor (PBMR) used for heavy water vapor de-deuteration. Parametric studies have been done on 3 operating parameters which are: the membrane temperature, the total feed flow rate and the feed composition through D{sub 2}O content variations. Thanks to mass spectrometer analysis of streams leaving the PBMR, speciation of deuterated species was achieved. Measurement of the amounts of each molecular component allowed the calculation of reaction quotient at the packed-bed outlet. While temperature variation mainly influences permeation efficiency, feed flow rate perturbation reveals dependence of conversion and permeation properties to contact time between catalyst and reacting mixture. The study shows that isotopic exchange reactions occurring on the catalyst particles surface are not thermodynamically balanced. Moreover, the variation of the heavy water content in the feed exhibits competition between permeation and conversion kinetics.

  2. A fluidized bed membrane bioelectrochemical reactor for energy-efficient wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Ge, Zheng; He, Zhen

    2014-09-01

    A fluidized bed membrane bioelectrochemical reactor (MBER) was investigated using fluidized granular activated carbon (GAC) as a mean of membrane fouling control. During the 150-day operation, the MBER generated electricity with contaminant removal from either synthetic solution or actual wastewater, as a standalone or a coupled system. It was found that fluidized GAC could significantly reduce transmembrane pressure (TMP), although its function as a part of the anode electrode was minor. When the MBER was linked to a regular microbial fuel cell (MFC) for treating a wastewater from a cheese factory, the MFC acted as a major process for energy recovery and contaminant removal, and the coupled system removed more than 90% of chemical oxygen demand and >80% of suspended solids. The analysis showed that the ratio of energy recovery and consumption was slightly larger than one, indicating that the coupled system could be theoretically energy neutral.

  3. Semicontinuous Production of Lactic Acid From Cheese Whey Using Integrated Membrane Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yebo; Shahbazi, Abolghasem; Coulibaly, Sekou; Mims, Michele M.

    Semicontinuous production of lactic acid from cheese whey using free cells of Bifidobacterium longum with and without nanofiltration was studied. For the semicontinuous fermentation without membrane separation, the lactic acid productivity of the second and third runs is much lower than the first run. The semicontinuous fermentation with nanoseparation was run semicontinuously for 72 h with lactic acid to be harvested every 24 h using a nanofiltration membrane unit. The cells and unutilized lactose were kept in the reactor and mixed with newly added cheese whey in the subsequent runs. Slight increase in the lactic acid productivity was observed in the second and third runs during the semicontinuous fermentation with nanofiltration. It can be concluded that nanoseparation could improve the lactic acid productivity of the semicontinuous fermentation process.

  4. Enzyme logic AND-Reset and OR-Reset gates based on a field-effect electronic transducer modified with multi-enzyme membrane.

    PubMed

    Poghossian, A; Katz, E; Schöning, M J

    2015-04-18

    Capacitive field-effect sensors modified with a multi-enzyme membrane have been applied for an electronic transduction of biochemical signals processed by enzyme-based AND-Reset and OR-Reset logic gates. The local pH change at the sensor surface induced by the enzymatic reaction was used for the activation of the Reset function for the first time.

  5. High throughput tryptic digestion via poly (acrylamide-co-methylenebisacrylamide) monolith based immobilized enzyme reactor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shuaibin; Sun, Liangliang; Ma, Junfeng; Yang, Kaiguang; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2011-02-15

    A poly (acrylamide-co-methylenebisacrylamide) (poly (AAm-co-MBA)) monolith was prepared by thermal polymerization in the 100 or 250 μm i.d. capillary. The monolithic support was activated by ethylenediamine followed by glutaraldehyde. Trypsin was then introduced to form an immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER). The prepared IMER showed a reliable mechanical stability and permeability (permeability constant K=2.65×10(-13) m(2)). With BSA as the model protein, efficient digestion was completed within 20s, yielding the sequence coverage of 57%, better than that obtained from the traditional in-solution digestion (42%), which took about 12h. Moreover, BSA down to femtomole was efficiently digested by the IMER and positively identified by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). To test the applicability of IMER for complex sample profiling, proteins extracted from Escherichia coli were digested by the IMER and further analyzed by nanoreversed phase liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (nanoRPLC-ESI-MS/MS). In comparison to in-solution digestion, despite slightly fewer proteins were positively identified at a false discovery rate (FDR) of ∼1% (333 vs 411), the digestion time used was largely shortened (20s vs 24 h), implying superior digestion performance for the high throughput analysis of complex samples.

  6. High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading. Quarterly report No. 12, June 21, 1992--September 20, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, T.T.

    1992-12-31

    In this project we intend to study a novel process concept, i.e.,the use of ceramic membranes reactors in upgrading of coal derived liquids. Membrane reactors have been used in a number of catalytic reaction processes in order to overcome the limitations on conversion imposed by thermodynamic equilibrium. They have, furthermore, the inherent capability for combining reaction and separation in a single step. Thus they offer promise for improving and optimizing yield, selectivity and performance of processes involving complex liquids, as those typically found in coal liquid upgrading. Ceramic membranes are a new class of materials, which have shown promise in a variety of industrial applications. Their mechanical and chemical stability coupled with a wide range of operating temperatures and pressures make them suitable for environments found in coal liquid upgrading. In this project we wig evaluate the performance of Sel-Gel alumina membranes in coal liquid upgrading processes under realistic temperature and pressure conditions and investigate the feasibility of using such membranes in a membrane reactor based coal liquid upgrading process. In addition, the development of novel ceramic membranes with enhanced catalytic activity for coal-liquid upgrading applications, such as carbon-coated alumina membranes, will be also investigated.

  7. High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading. Quarter report No. 9, September 21, 1991--December 20, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, T.T.

    1992-07-01

    In this project we intend to study a novel process concept, i.e, the use of ceramic membranes reactors in upgrading of coal derived liquids. Membrane reactors have been used in a number of catalytic reaction processes in order to overcome the limitations on conversion imposed by thermodynamic equilibrium. They have, furthermore, the inherent capability for combining reaction and separation in a single step. Thus they offer promise for improving and optimizing yield, selectivity and performance of processes involving complex liquids, as those typically found in coal liquid upgrading. Ceramic membranes are a new class of materials, which have shown promise in a variety of industrial applications. Their mechanical and chemical stability coupled with a wide range of operating temperatures and pressures make them suitable for environments found in coal liquid upgrading. In this project we will evaluate the performance of Sol-Gel alumina membranes in coal liquid upgrading processes under realistic temperature and pressure conditions and investigate the feasibility of using such membranes in a membrane reactor based coal liquid upgrading process. In addition, the development of novel ceramic membranes with enhanced catalytic activity for coal-liquid upgrading applications, such as carbon-coated alumina membranes, will be also investigated.

  8. SEPARATION OF HYDROGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE USING A NOVEL MEMBRANE REACTOR IN ADVANCED FOSSIL ENERGY CONVERSION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Shamsuddin Ilias

    2005-02-03

    Inorganic membrane reactors offer the possibility of combining reaction and separation in a single operation at high temperatures to overcome the equilibrium limitations experienced in conventional reactor configurations. Such attractive features can be advantageously utilized in a number of potential commercial opportunities, which include dehydrogenation, hydrogenation, oxidative dehydrogenation, oxidation and catalytic decomposition reactions. However, to be cost effective, significant technological advances and improvements will be required to solve several key issues which include: (a) permselective thin solid film, (b) thermal, chemical and mechanical stability of the film at high temperatures, and (c) reactor engineering and module development in relation to the development of effective seals at high temperature and high pressure. In this project, we are working on the development and application of palladium and palladium-silver alloy thin-film composite membranes in membrane reactor-separator configuration for simultaneous production and separation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide at high temperature. From our research on Pd-composite membrane, we have demonstrated that the new membrane has significantly higher hydrogen flux with very high perm-selectivity than any of the membranes commercially available. The steam reforming of methane by equilibrium shift in Pd-composite membrane reactor is being studied to demonstrate the potential application of this new development. A two-dimensional, pseudo-homogeneous membrane-reactor model was developed to investigate the steam-methane reforming (SMR) reactions in a Pd-based membrane reactor. Radial diffusion was taken into consideration to account for the concentration gradient in the radial direction due to hydrogen permeation through the membrane. With appropriate reaction rate expressions, a set of partial differential equations was derived using the continuity equation for the reaction system. The equations were

  9. Simultaneous removal of nitrate and pesticides from groundwater using a methane-fed membrane biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Modin, O; Fukushi, K; Yamamoto, K

    2008-01-01

    Nitrate and pesticide contaminated ground- and surface-waters have been found around the world as a result of the use of these compounds in agricultural activities. In this study we investigated a biological treatment method to simultaneously remove nitrate and pesticides from contaminated water. Methane was supplied as the sole source of carbon to the microbial culture. A methane-fed membrane biofilm reactor (M-MBfR) was developed in which the methane was supplied through hollow-fiber membranes to a biofilm growing on the membrane surface. A methane-oxidizing culture enriched from activated sludge was used as inoculum for the experiments. Removal of nitrate and the four pesticides atrazine, aldicarb, alachlor, and malathion was examined both in suspended culture and in the M-MBfR. The maximum denitrification rate with suspended culture was 36.8 mg N gVSS(-1) d(-1). With the M-MBfR setup, a hydraulic retention time of approximately one hour was required to completely remove an incoming nitrate concentration of about 20 mg NO3-N l(-1). The microbial culture could remove three of the pesticides (aldicarb, alachlor, and malathion). However, no atrazine removal was observed. The removal rates of both nitrate and pesticides were similar in suspended culture and in membrane-attached biofilm.

  10. Membrane-aerated biofilm reactor for the treatment of acetonitrile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, Tinggang; Liu, Junxin; Bai, Renbi; Wong, F S

    2008-03-15

    A membrane-aerated biofilm reactor (MABR) was studied for the treatment of wastewater containing acetonitrile, a typical organonitrile compound. The MABR used hydrophobic hollow fiber membranes as the diffusers for bubbleless aeration as well as the carriers for biofilm growth. The objectives were to prevent the stripping-loss of acetonitrile during aeration and to achieve acetonitrile biodegradation plus nitrogen removal simultaneously in a single biolfilm on the membranes. In the MABR, oxygen and substrates were supplied to the biofilm from opposite sides, in contrast to those from the same side in conventional biofilm bioreactors. Operational factors, including surface loading rate and upflow fluid velocity in the bioreactor, on the effect of acetonitrile biodegradation performance were examined. The profiles of dissolved oxygen concentration and microbial activities and populations in the biofilm were investigated. Experimental results showed that, with the adapted microorganisms, removal of acetonitrile at approximately 98.6 and 83.3%, in terms of total organic carbon and total nitrogen, were achieved at a surface loading rate (in terms of membrane surface) of up to 11.29 g acetonitrile/ m2 x d with an upflow fluid velocity of 12 cm/s and a hydraulic retention time of 30 h. The biofilm on the membranes developed an average thickness of about 1.6 mm in the steady state and consisted of oxic/anoxic/anaerobic zones that provided different functions for acetonitrile degradation, nitrification, and denitrification. The acetonitrile-degrading bacteria in the MABR appeared to secrete more extracellular polymeric substances that enhanced the attachment and development of the biofilm on the membranes. The study demonstrated the potential of using the MABR for the treatment of organonitrile wastewater.

  11. Use of Glucose Oxidase in a Membrane Reactor for Gluconic Acid Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das Neves, Luiz Carlos Martins; Vitolo, Michele

    This article aims at the evaluation of the catalytic performance of glucose oxidase (GO) (EC.1.1.3.4) for the glucose/gluconic acid conversion in the ultrafiltration cell type membrane reactor (MB-CSTR). The reactor was coupled with a Millipore ultrafiltration-membrane (cutoff of 100 kDa) and operated for 24 h under agitation of 100 rpm, pH 5.5, and 30°C. The experimental conditions varied were the glucose concentration (2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0, and 40.0 mM), the feeding rate (0.5, 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0/h), dissolved oxygen (8.0 and 16.0 mg/L), GO concentration (2.5, 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 UGO/mL), and the glucose oxidase/catalase activity ratio (UGO/UCAT)(1∶0, 1∶10, 1∶20, and 1∶30). A conversion yield of 80% and specific reaction rate of 40×10-4 mmol/h·UGO were attained when the process was carried out under the following conditions: D=3.0/h, dissolved oxygen=16.0 mg/L, [G]=40 mM, and (UGO/UCAT)=1∶20. A simplified model for explaining the inhibition of GO activity by hydrogen peroxide, formed during the glucose/gluconic acid conversion, was presented.

  12. The recovery of zinc from hot galvanizing slag in an anion-exchange membrane electrolysis reactor.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiulian; Wei, Qifeng; Hu, Surong; Wei, Sijie

    2010-09-15

    This paper reports the optimization of the process parameters for recovery of zinc from hot galvanizing slag in an anion-exchange membrane electrolysis reactor. The experiments were carried out in an ammoniacal ammonium chloride system. The influence of composition of electrolytes, pH, stirring rate, current density and temperature, on cathodic current efficiency, specific power consumption and anodic dissolution of Zn were investigated. The results indicate that the cathode current efficiency increases and the hydrogen evolution decreased with increasing the cathode current density. The partial current for electrodeposition of Zn has liner relationship with omega(1/2) (omega: rotation rate). The highest current efficiency for dissolving zinc was obtained when NH(4)Cl concentration was 53.46 g L(-1) and the anodic dissolution of zinc was determined by mass transfer rate at stirring rate 0-300 r min(-1). Increase in temperature benefits to improve CE and dissolution of Zn, and reduce cell voltage. Initial pH of electrolytes plays an important role in the deposition and anodic dissolution of Zn. The results of single factor experiment show that about 50% energy consumption was saved for electrodeposition of Zn in the anion-exchange membrane electrolysis reactor.

  13. Membrane-bound α-synuclein interacts with glucocerebrosidase and inhibits enzyme activity

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Thai Leong; Velayati, Arash; Sidransky, Ellen; Lee, Jennifer C.

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in GBA, the gene encoding glucocerebrosidase, the lysosomal enzyme deficient in Gaucher disease increase the risk for developing Parkinson disease. Recent research suggests a relationship between glucocerebrosidase and the Parkinson disease-related amyloid-forming protein, α-synuclein; however, the specific molecular mechanisms responsible for association remain elusive. Previously, we showed that α-synuclein and glucocerebrosidase interact selectively under lysosomal conditions, and proposed that this newly identified interaction might influence cellular levels of α-synuclein by either promoting protein degradation and/or preventing aggregation. Here, we demonstrate that membrane-bound α-synuclein interacts with glucocerebrosidase, and that this complex formation inhibits enzyme function. Using site-specific fluorescence and Förster energy transfer probes, we mapped the protein-enzyme interacting regions on unilamellar vesicles. Our data suggest that on the membrane surface, the glucocerebrosidase-α-synuclein interaction involves a larger α-synuclein region compared to that found in solution. In addition, α-synuclein acts as a mixed inhibitor with an apparent IC50 in the submicromolar range. Importantly, the membrane-bound, α-helical form of α-synuclein is necessary for inhibition. This glucocerebrosidase interaction and inhibition likely contribute to the mechanism underlying GBA-associated parkinsonism. PMID:23266198

  14. "Active surfaces" formed by immobilization of enzymes on solid-supported polymer membranes.

    PubMed

    Draghici, Camelia; Kowal, Justyna; Darjan, Alina; Meier, Wolfgang; Palivan, Cornelia G

    2014-10-07

    In various domains ranging from catalysis to medical and environmental sciences, there is currently much focus on the design of surfaces that present active compounds at the interface with their environments. Here, we describe the design of "active surfaces" based on solid-supported monolayers of asymmetric triblock copolymers, which serve as templates for the attachment of enzymes. A group of poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(γ-methyl-ε-caprolactone)-block-poly[(2-dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate] amphiphilic copolymers, with different hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains (PEG45-b-PMCLx-b-PDMAEMAy) was selected to generate solid-supported polymer membranes. The behavior of the copolymers in terms of their molecular arrangements at the air-water interface was established by a combination of Langmuir isotherms and Brewster angle microscopy. Uniform thin layers of copolymers were obtained by transferring films onto silica solid supports at optimal surface pressure. These solid-supported polymer membranes were characterized by assessing various properties, such as monolayer thickness, hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance, topography, and roughness. Laccase, used as an enzyme model, was successfully attached to copolymer membranes by stable interactions as followed by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation measurements, and its activity was preserved, as indicated by activity assays. The interaction between the amphiphilic triblock copolymer films and immobilized enzymes represents a straightforward approach to engineer "active surfaces", with biomolecules playing the active role by their intrinsic bioactivity.

  15. Graphene immobilized enzyme/polyethersulfone mixed matrix membrane: Enhanced antibacterial, permeable and mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Linlin; Wang, Yuanming; Zhang, Yatao; Liu, Jindun

    2015-11-01

    Enzyme immobilization has been developed to address lots of issues of free enzyme, such as instability, low activity and difficult to retain. In this study, graphene was used as an ideal carrier for lysozyme immobilization, including graphene oxide (GO) immobilized lysozyme (GO-Ly) and chemically reduced graphene oxide (CRGO) immobilized lysozyme (CRGO-Ly). Herein, lysozyme as a bio-antibacterial agent has excellent antibacterial performance and the products of its catalysis are safety and nontoxic. Then the immobilized lysozyme materials were blended into polyethersulfone (PES) casting solution to prepare PES ultrafiltration membrane via phase inversion method. GO and CRGO were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Ultraviolet-visible spectrum (UV), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the immobilized lysozyme composites were observed by fluorescent microscopy. The results revealed that GO and CRGO were successfully synthesized and lysozyme was immobilized on their surfaces. The morphology, hydrophilicity, mechanical properties, separation properties and antibacterial activity of the hybrid membranes were characterized in detail. The hydrophilicity, water flux and mechanical strength of the hybrid membranes were significantly enhanced after adding the immobilized lysozyme. In the antibacterial experiment, the hybrid membranes exhibited an effective antibacterial performance against Escherichia coli (E. coli).

  16. [Optimization of the conditions of immobilization of enzymes in a photopolymeric membrane].

    PubMed

    Rebriev, A V; Starodub, N F; Masliuk, A F

    2002-01-01

    The residual activity of enzymes immobilized in the membrane on the basis on 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone as photopolymerizable composition is studied. It is established, that under conditions of the immobilization at 20 degrees C the residual activity glucoseoxidase is about 35% from a initial level, horseredish peroxidase and urease from Jeack beans--42% and 20%, respectively. In case of an immobilization of beta-glucoseoxidase -50 degrees C it reaches almost 50% from a initial level. It was investigated the influence of different sources of UV-radiation and different substances on stability of the enzymes in the composition and in the immobilization matrix at storage. Dynamic of changes of enzyme activity at the photoimmobilization was characterized, and also the requirements for providing of its maximal storage was selected.

  17. SEPARATION OF HYDROGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE USING A NOVEL MEMBRANE REACTOR IN ADVANCED FOSSIL ENERGY CONVERSION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Shamsuddin Ilias

    2004-02-17

    Inorganic membrane reactors offer the possibility of combining reaction and separation in a single operation at high temperatures to overcome the equilibrium limitations experienced in conventional reactor configurations. Such attractive features can be advantageously utilized in a number of potential commercial opportunities, which include dehydrogenation, hydrogenation, oxidative dehydrogenation, oxidation and catalytic decomposition reactions. However, to be cost effective, significant technological advances and improvements will be required to solve several key issues which include: (a) permselective thin solid film, (b) thermal, chemical and mechanical stability of the film at high temperatures, and (c) reactor engineering and module development in relation to the development of effective seals at high temperature and high pressure. In this project, we are working on the development and application of palladium and palladium-silver alloy thin-film composite membranes in membrane reactor-separator configuration for simultaneous production and separation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide at high temperature. From our research on Pd-composite membrane, we have demonstrated that the new membrane has significantly higher hydrogen flux with very high perm-selectivity than any of the membranes commercially available. The steam reforming of methane by equilibrium shift in Pd-composite membrane reactor is being studied to demonstrate the potential application of this new development. A two-dimensional, pseudo-homogeneous membrane-reactor model was developed to investigate the steam-methane reforming (SMR) reactions in a Pd-based membrane reactor. Radial diffusion was taken into consideration to account for the concentration gradient in the radial direction due to hydrogen permeation through the membrane. With appropriate reaction rate expressions, a set of partial differential equations was derived using the continuity equation for the reaction system. The equations were

  18. Dietary fat effects on brush border membrane composition and enzyme activities in rat intestine.

    PubMed

    Kaur, M; Kaur, J; Ojha, S; Mahmood, A

    1996-01-01

    The effect of dietary fats on the chemical composition and enzyme activities has been studied in intestinal brush border membranes (BBM) or rats. Animals were given commercial rat pellet diet (RP) or semisynthetic diet rich in either saturated [coconut oil (CCO))] or polyunsaturated [n-6, corn oil (CO) or n-3, fish oil (FO)] fat at the 10% level for 5 weeks. The membrane cholesterol/phospholipid ratio was augmented in CO- or RP-fed rats. There was an increase in level of saturated fatty acids in BBM from CCO- or FO-fed animals. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content was raised in FO-fed rats, while the proportion of linoleic acid and arachidonic acid was enhanced in animals given a CO diet. Membrane fluidity was in the order of CCO < RP = CO < FO. The membrane hexose content was high (p < 0.05) in the CCO group. Hexosamines were elevated (p < 0.05) in CCO- or FO-fed rat brush borders. Membrane fucose was unaltered, while sialic acid content was elevated in CO- (p < 0.05) and FO- (p < 0.01) fed vs. CCO-fed rats. Lectin binding to brush borders corroborated these findings. The activities of alkaline phosphatase, sucrase and lactase were augmented (p < 0.001) in CCO-fed animals. Leucine-aminopeptidase and sucrase activities were depressed by FO feeding. The activities of PNP-beta-glycosidases were the highest in FO-fed rats. These results indicate that dietary fat quality markedly affects microvillus membrane lipid composition, glycosylation and enzyme functions in rat intestine.

  19. Laccase-syringaldehyde-mediated degradation of trace organic contaminants in an enzymatic membrane reactor: Removal efficiency and effluent toxicity.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Luong N; van de Merwe, Jason P; Hai, Faisal I; Leusch, Frederic D L; Kang, Jinguo; Price, William E; Roddick, Felicity; Magram, Saleh F; Nghiem, Long D

    2016-01-01

    Redox-mediators such as syringaldehyde (SA) can improve laccase-catalyzed degradation of trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) but may increase effluent toxicity. The degradation performance of 14 phenolic and 17 non-phenolic TrOCs by a continuous flow enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR) at different TrOC and SA loadings was assessed. A specific emphasis was placed on the investigation of the toxicity of the enzyme (laccase), SA, TrOCs and the treated effluent. Batch tests demonstrated significant individual and interactive toxicity of the laccase and SA preparations. Reduced removal of resistant TrOCs by the EMR was observed for dosages over 50μg/L. SA addition at a concentration of 10μM significantly improved TrOC removal, but no removal improvement was observed at the elevated SA concentrations of 50 and 100μM. The treated effluent showed significant toxicity at SA concentrations beyond 10μM, providing further evidence that higher dosage of SA must be avoided.

  20. Biodegradation of acetonitrile by adapted biofilm in a membrane-aerated biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Li, Tinggang; Bai, Renbi; Ohandja, Dieudonné-Guy; Liu, Junxin

    2009-07-01

    A membrane-aerated biofilm reactor (MABR) was developed to degrade acetonitrile (ACN) in aqueous solutions. The reactor was seeded with an adapted activated sludge consortium as the inoculum and operated under step increases in ACN loading rate through increasing ACN concentrations in the influent. Initially, the MABR started at a moderate selection pressure, with a hydraulic retention time of 16 h, a recirculation rate of 8 cm/s and a starting ACN concentration of 250 mg/l to boost the growth of the biofilm mass on the membrane and to avoid its loss by hydraulic washout. The step increase in the influent ACN concentration was implemented once ACN concentration in the effluent showed almost complete removal in each stage. The specific ACN degradation rate achieved the highest at the loading rate of 101.1 mg ACN/g-VSS h (VSS, volatile suspended solids) and then declined with the further increases in the influent ACN concentration, attributed to the substrate inhibition effect. The adapted membrane-aerated biofilm was capable of completely removing ACN at the removal capacity of up to 21.1 g ACN/m(2) day, and generated negligible amount of suspended sludge in the effluent. Batch incubation experiments also demonstrated that the ACN-degrading biofilm can degrade other organonitriles, such as acrylonitrile and benzonitrile as well. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis studies showed that the ACN-degrading biofilms contained a stable microbial population with a low diversity of sequence of community 16S rRNA gene fragments. Specific oxygen utilization rates were found to increase with the increases in the biofilm thickness, suggesting that the biofilm formation process can enhance the metabolic degradation efficiency towards ACN in the MABR. The study contributes to a better understanding in microbial adaptation in a MABR for biodegradation of ACN. It also highlights the potential benefits in using MABRs for biodegradation of organonitrile contaminants in industrial

  1. Micro-scale H2–CO2 Dynamics in a Hydrogenotrophic Methanogenic Membrane Reactor

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Robledo, Emilio; Ottosen, Lars D. M.; Voigt, Niels V.; Kofoed, M. W.; Revsbech, Niels P.

    2016-01-01

    Biogas production is a key factor in a sustainable energy supply. It is possible to get biogas with very high methane content if the biogas reactors are supplied with exogenous hydrogen, and one of the technologies for supplying hydrogen is through gas permeable membranes. In this study the activity and stratification of hydrogen consumption above such a membrane was investigated by use of microsensors for hydrogen and pH. A hydrogenotrophic methanogenic community that was able to consume the hydrogen flux within 0.5 mm of the membrane with specific rates of up to 30 m3 H2 m-3 day-1 developed within 3 days in fresh manure and was already established at time zero when analyzing slurry from a biogas plant. The hydrogen consumption was dependent on a simultaneous carbon dioxide supply and was inhibited when carbon dioxide depletion elevated the pH to 9.2. The activity was only partially restored when the carbon dioxide supply was resumed. Bioreactors supplied with hydrogen gas should thus be carefully monitored and either have the hydrogen supply disrupted or be supplemented with carbon dioxide when the pH rises to values about 9. PMID:27582736

  2. Pyrosequencing reveals microbial community profile in anaerobic bio-entrapped membrane reactor for pharmaceutical wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kok Kwang; Shi, Xueqing; Ong, Say Leong; Ng, How Yong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, pharmaceutical wastewater with high salinity and total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) was treated by an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) and an anaerobic bio-entrapped membrane reactor (AnBEMR). The microbial populations and communities were analyzed using the 454 pyrosequencing method. The hydraulic retention time (HRT), membrane flux and mean cell residence time (MCRT) were controlled at 30.6h, 6L/m(2)h and 100d, respectively. The results showed that the AnBEMR achieved higher TCOD removal efficiency and greater biogas production compared to the AnMBR. Through DNA pyrosequencing analysis, both the anaerobic MBRs showed similar dominant groups of bacteria and archaea. However, phylum Elusimicrobia of bacteria was only detected in the AnBEMR; the higher abundance of dominant archaeal genus Methanimicrococcus found in the AnBEMR could play an important role in degradation of the major organic pollutant (i.e., trimethylamine) present in the pharmaceutical wastewater.

  3. Novel Composite Hydrogen-Permeable Membranes for Non-Thermal Plasma Reactors for the Decomposition of Hydrogen Sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Morris D. Argyle; John F. Ackerman; Suresh Muknahallipatna; Jerry C. Hamann; Stanislaw Legowski; Guibing Zhao; Sanil John

    2006-09-30

    The goal of this experimental project is to design and fabricate a reactor and membrane test cell to dissociate hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in a non-thermal plasma and recover hydrogen (H{sub 2}) through a superpermeable multi-layer membrane. Superpermeability of hydrogen atoms (H) has been reported by some researchers using membranes made of Group V transition metals (niobium, tantalum, vanadium, and their alloys), although it has yet to be confirmed in this study. Several pulsed corona discharge (PCD) reactors have been fabricated and used to dissociate H{sub 2}S into hydrogen and sulfur. Visual observation shows that the corona is not uniform throughout the reactor. The corona is stronger near the top of the reactor in argon, while nitrogen and mixtures of argon or nitrogen with H{sub 2}S produce stronger coronas near the bottom of the reactor. Both of these effects appear to be explainable base on the different electron collision interactions with monatomic versus polyatomic gases. A series of experiments varying reactor operating parameters, including discharge capacitance, pulse frequency, and discharge voltage were performed while maintaining constant power input to the reactor. At constant reactor power input, low capacitance, high pulse frequency, and high voltage operation appear to provide the highest conversion and the highest energy efficiency for H{sub 2}S decomposition. Reaction rates and energy efficiency per H{sub 2}S molecule increase with increasing flow rate, although overall H{sub 2}S conversion decreases at constant power input. Voltage and current waveform analysis is ongoing to determine the fundamental operating characteristics of the reactors. A metal infiltrated porous ceramic membrane was prepared using vanadium as the metal and an alumina tube. Experiments with this type of membrane are continuing, but the results thus far have been consistent with those obtained in previous project years: plasma driven permeation or superpermeability

  4. Enzyme

    MedlinePlus

    Enzymes are complex proteins that cause a specific chemical change in all parts of the body. For ... use them. Blood clotting is another example of enzymes at work. Enzymes are needed for all body ...

  5. Unraveling Entropic Rate Acceleration Induced by Solvent Dynamics in Membrane Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Kürten, Charlotte; Syrén, Per-Olof

    2016-01-01

    Enzyme catalysis evolved in an aqueous environment. The influence of solvent dynamics on catalysis is, however, currently poorly understood and usually neglected. The study of water dynamics in enzymes and the associated thermodynamical consequences is highly complex and has involved computer simulations, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments, and calorimetry. Water tunnels that connect the active site with the surrounding solvent are key to solvent displacement and dynamics. The protocol herein allows for the engineering of these motifs for water transport, which affects specificity, activity and thermodynamics. By providing a biophysical framework founded on theory and experiments, the method presented herein can be used by researchers without previous expertise in computer modeling or biophysical chemistry. The method will advance our understanding of enzyme catalysis on the molecular level by measuring the enthalpic and entropic changes associated with catalysis by enzyme variants with obstructed water tunnels. The protocol can be used for the study of membrane-bound enzymes and other complex systems. This will enhance our understanding of the importance of solvent reorganization in catalysis as well as provide new catalytic strategies in protein design and engineering. PMID:26862836

  6. Unraveling Entropic Rate Acceleration Induced by Solvent Dynamics in Membrane Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kürten, Charlotte; Syrén, Per-Olof

    2016-01-16

    Enzyme catalysis evolved in an aqueous environment. The influence of solvent dynamics on catalysis is, however, currently poorly understood and usually neglected. The study of water dynamics in enzymes and the associated thermodynamical consequences is highly complex and has involved computer simulations, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments, and calorimetry. Water tunnels that connect the active site with the surrounding solvent are key to solvent displacement and dynamics. The protocol herein allows for the engineering of these motifs for water transport, which affects specificity, activity and thermodynamics. By providing a biophysical framework founded on theory and experiments, the method presented herein can be used by researchers without previous expertise in computer modeling or biophysical chemistry. The method will advance our understanding of enzyme catalysis on the molecular level by measuring the enthalpic and entropic changes associated with catalysis by enzyme variants with obstructed water tunnels. The protocol can be used for the study of membrane-bound enzymes and other complex systems. This will enhance our understanding of the importance of solvent reorganization in catalysis as well as provide new catalytic strategies in protein design and engineering.

  7. Three-dimensional numerical approach to investigate the substrate transport and conversion in an immobilized enzyme reactor.

    PubMed

    Esterl, Stefan; Ozmutlu, Ozlem; Hartmann, Christoph; Delgado, Antonio

    2003-09-30

    This numerical study evaluates the momentum and mass transfer in an immobilized enzyme reactor. The simulation is based on the solution of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equation and a scalar transport equation with a sink term for the transport and the conversion of substrate to product. The reactor consists of a container filled with 20 spherical enzyme carriers. Each of these carriers is covered with an active enzyme layer where the conversion takes place. To account for the biochemical activity, the sink term in the scalar transport equation is represented by a standard Michaelis-Menten approach. The simulation gives detailed information of the local substrate and product concentrations with respect to external and internal transport limitations. A major focus is set on the influence of the substrate transport velocity on the catalytic process. For reactor performance analysis the overall and the local transport processes are described by a complete set of dimensionless variables. The interaction between substrate concentration, velocity, and efficiency of the process can be studied with the help of these variables. The effect of different substrate inflow concentrations on the process can be seen in relation to velocity variations. The flow field characterization of the system makes it possible to understand fluid mechanical properties and its importance to transport processes. The distribution of fluid motion through the void volume has different properties in different parts of the reactor. This phenomenon has strong effects on the arrangement of significantly different mass transport areas as well as on process effectiveness. With the given data it is also possible to detect zones of high, low, and latent enzymatic activity and to determine whether the conversion is limited due to mass transfer or reaction resistances.

  8. High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading. Quarterly report No. 10, December 21, 1991--March 20, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, T.T.

    1992-07-01

    In this project we will study a novel process concept, i.e., the use of ceramic membrane reactors in upgrading of coal model compounds and coal derived liquids. In general terms, the USC research team is responsible for constructing and operating the membrane reactor apparatus and for testing various inorganic membranes for the upgrading of coal derived asphaltenes and coal model compounds. The USC effort will involve the principal investigator of this project and two graduate research assistants. The ALCOA team is responsible for the preparation of the inorganic membranes, for construction and testing of the ceramic membrane modules, and for measurement of their transport properties. The ALCOA research effort will involve Dr. Paul K. T. Liu, who is the project manager of the ALCOA research team, an engineer and a technician. UNOCAL`s contribution will be limited to overall technical assistance in catalyst preparation and the operation of the laboratory upgrading membrane reactor and for analytical back-up and expertise in oil analysis and materials characterization. UNOCAL is a no-cost contractor but will be involved in all aspects of the project, as deemed appropriate.

  9. Fouling potential evaluation of soluble microbial products (SMP) with different membrane surfaces in a hybrid membrane bioreactor using worm reactor for sludge reduction.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhipeng; Tian, Yu; Ding, Yi; Chen, Lin; Wang, Haoyu

    2013-07-01

    The fouling characteristics of soluble microbial products (SMP) in the membrane bioreactor coupled with Static Sequencing Batch Worm Reactor (SSBWR-MBR) were tested with different types of membranes. It was noted that the flux decrements of S-SMP (SMP in SSBWR-MBR) with cellulose acetate (CA), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and polyether sulfones (PES) membranes were respectively 6.7%, 8.5% and 9.5% lower compared to those of C-SMP (SMP in Control-MBR) with corresponding membranes. However, for both the filtration of the C-SMP and S-SMP, the CA membrane exhibited the fastest diminishing rate of flux among the three types of membranes. The surface morphology analysis showed that the CA membrane exhibited more but smaller protuberances compared to the PVDF and PES. The second minimums surrounding each protruding asperity on CA membrane were more than those on the PVDF and PES membranes, enhancing the attachment of SMP onto the membrane surface.

  10. High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading. Quarterly report No. 2, December 21, 1989--March 20, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, T.T.

    1992-06-19

    Ceramic membranes are a new class of materials, which have shown promise in a variety of industrial applications. Their mechanical and chemical stability coupled with a wide range of operating temperatures and pressures make them suitable for environments found in coal liquid upgrading. In this project we will evaluate the performance of Sel-Gel alumina membranes in coal liquid upgrading processes under realistic temperature and pressure conditions and investigate the feasibility of using such membranes in a membrane reactor based coal liquid upgrading process. In addition, the development of novel ceramic membranes with enhanced catalytic activity for coal-liquid upgrading applications, such as carbon-coated alumina membranes, will be also investigated.

  11. High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading. Quarterly report No. 8, June 21, 1991--September 20, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, T.T.

    1992-06-19

    Ceramic membranes are a new class of materials, which have shown promise in a variety of industrial applications. Their mechanical and chemical stability coupled with a wide range of operating temperatures and pressures make them suitable for environments found in coal liquid upgrading. In this project we will evaluate the performance of Sel-Gel alumina membranes in coal liquid upgrading processes under realistic temperature and pressure conditions and investigate the feasibility of using such membranes in a membrane reactor based coal liquid upgrading process. In addition, the development of novel ceramic membranes with enhanced catalytic activity for coal-liquid upgrading applications, such as carbon-coated alumina membranes, will also be investigated.

  12. High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading. Quarterly report No. 7, March 21, 1991--June 20, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, T.T.

    1992-06-19

    Ceramic membranes are a new class of materials, which have shown promise in a variety of industrial applications. Their mechanical and chemical stability coupled with a wide range of operating temperatures and pressures make them suitable for environments found in coal liquid upgrading. In this project we will evaluate the performance of Sel-Gel alumina membranes in coal liquid upgrading processes under realistic temperature and pressure conditions and investigate the feasibility of using such membranes in a membrane reactor based coal liquid upgrading process. In addition, the development of novel ceramic membranes with enhanced catalytic activity for coal-liquid upgrading applications, such as carbon-coated alumina membranes, will be also investigated.

  13. Integrated stereological and biochemical studies on hepatocytic membranes. I.V. Heterogeneous distribution of marker enzymes on endoplasmic reticulum membranes in fractions

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to consider quantitatively the relationships between the surface area of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and constituent marker enzyme activities, as they occur in fractions collected from rat liver homogenates. The ER surface area was estimated in five membrane-containing fractions by use of a combined cytochemical-stereological technique (5), while, at the same time, ER marker enzymes were assayed biochemically. Fraction/homogenate recoveries for the ER enzymes averaged 100%, total membrane surface area 98%, and ER surface area 96%. Relative specific activities, which compare the relative amounts of ER marker enzyme activities to the relative ER surface area in the membrane-containing fractions, indicate variable distributions for glucose-6-phosphatase and NADPH cytochrome c reductase, but not for esterase. PMID:6248565

  14. Why use a thermophilic aerobic membrane reactor for the treatment of industrial wastewater/liquid waste?

    PubMed

    Collivignarelli, Maria Cristina; Abbà, Alessandro; Bertanza, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the advantages of thermophilic aerobic membrane reactor (TAMR) for the treatment of high strength wastewaters. The results were obtained from the monitoring of an industrial and a pilot scale plant. The average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal yield was equal to 78% with an organic loading rate (OLR) up to 8-10 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1) despite significant scattering of the influent wastewater composition. Total phosphorus (TP) was removed with a rate of 90%, the most important removal mechanism being chemical precipitation (as hydroxyapatite, especially), which is improved by the continuous aeration that promotes phosphorus crystallization. Moreover, surfactants were removed with efficiency between 93% and 97%. Finally, the experimental work showed that thermophilic processes (TPPs) are complementary with respect to mesophilic treatments.

  15. Evaluation of Miniaturized Infrared Sensors for Process Control of the Palladium Membrane Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Lascola, R. J.; Howard, D. W.

    2005-07-31

    We have tested the suitability of a miniaturized infrared sensor for measurements of CO and H{sub 2}O in the inlet stream to the Palladium Membrane Reactor (PMR). We demonstrated that both analytes can be measured with absolute accuracies of 2-4% at the process inlet conditions of 120-140 C and approximately 1 atm of each gas. This accuracy must be improved to 1-1.5% for effective PMR process control. The use of a reference detector and independent temperature and pressure measurements to correct the raw signals will improve the accuracy to a level that will approach, if not meet, this goal. With appropriate bandpass filters, the infrared sensors may be used for other gas analysis applications.

  16. REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Szilard, L.

    1963-09-10

    A breeder reactor is described, including a mass of fissionable material that is less than critical with respect to unmoderated neutrons and greater than critical with respect to neutrons of average energies substantially greater than thermal, a coolant selected from sodium or sodium--potassium alloys, a control liquid selected from lead or lead--bismuth alloys, and means for varying the quantity of control liquid in the reactor. (AEC)

  17. Treatment of Spacecraft Wastewater Using a Hollow Fiber Membrane Biofilm Redox Control Reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Daniel P.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop and evaluate design concepts for biological treatment reactors for the purification of spacecraft wastewater prior to reverse osmosis treatment. The motivating factor is that wastewater recovery represents the greatest single potential reduction in the resupply requirements for crewed space missions. Spacecraft wastewater composition was estimated from the characteristics of the three major component streams: urine/flush water, hygiene water, and atmospheric condensate. The key characteristics of composite spacecraft wastewater are a theoretical oxygen demand of 4519 mg/L, of which 65% is nitrogenous oxygen demand, in a volume of 11.5 liter/crew-day. The organic carbon to nitrogen ratio of composite wastewater is 0.86. Urine represents 93% of nitrogen and 49% of the organic carbon in the composite wastestream. Various bioreaction scenarios were evaluated to project stoichiometric oxygen demands and the ability of wastewater carbon to support denitrification. Ammonia nitrification to the nitrite oxidation state reduced the oxygen requirement and enabled wastewater carbon to provide nearly complete denitrification. A conceptual bioreactor design was established using hollow fiber membranes for bubbleless oxygen transfer in a gravity-free environment, in close spatial juxtaposition to a second interspaced hollow fiber array for supplying molecular hydrogen. Highly versatile redox control and an enhanced ability to engineer syntrophic associations are stated advantages. A prototype reactor was constructed using a microporous hollow fiber membrane module for aeration. Maintaining inlet gas pressure within 0.25 psi of the external water pressure resulted in bubble free operation with no water ingress into hollow fiber lumens. Recommendations include the design and operational testing of hollow fiber bioreactors using: 1) Partial nitrification/nitrite predenitrification; 2) Limited aeration for simultaneous nitrification

  18. The kinetics of nitrogen removal and biogas production in an anammox non-woven membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Ni, Shou-Qing; Lee, Po-Heng; Sung, Shihwu

    2010-08-01

    The anammox non-woven membrane reactor (ANMR) is a novel reactor configuration to culture the slowly growing anammox bacteria. Different mathematical models were used to study the process kinetics of the nitrogen removal in the ANMR. The kinetics of nitrogen gas production of anammox process was first evaluated in this paper. For substrate removal kinetics, the modified Stover-Kincannon model and the Grau second-order model were more applicable to the ANMR than the first-order model and the Monod model. For nitrogen gas production kinetics, the Van der Meer and Heertjes model was more appropriate than the modified Stover-Kincannon model. Model evaluation was carried out by comparing experimental data with predicted values calculated from suitable models. Both model kinetics study and model testing showed that the Grau second-order model and the Van der Meer and Heertjes model seemed to be the best models to describe the nitrogen removal and nitrogen gas production in the ANMR, respectively.

  19. Sulfide-oxidizing bacteria establishment in an innovative microaerobic reactor with an internal silicone membrane for sulfur recovery from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Valdés, F; Camiloti, P R; Rodriguez, R P; Delforno, T P; Carrillo-Reyes, J; Zaiat, M; Jeison, D

    2016-06-01

    A novel bioreactor, employing a silicone membrane for microaeration, was studied for partial sulfide oxidation to elemental sulfur. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of using an internal silicone membrane reactor (ISMR) to treat dissolved sulfide and to characterize its microbial community. The ISMR is an effective system to eliminate sulfide produced in anaerobic reactors. Sulfide removal efficiencies reached 96 % in a combined anaerobic/microaerobic reactor and significant sulfate production did not occur. The oxygen transfer was strongly influenced by air pressure and flow. Pyrosequencing analysis indicated various sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) affiliated to the species Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, Sulfuricurvum kujiense and Pseudomonas stutzeri attached to the membrane and also indicated similarity between the biomass deposited on the membrane wall and the biomass drawn from the material support, supported the establishment of SOB in an anaerobic sludge under microaerobic conditions. Furthermore, these results showed that the reactor configuration can develop SOB under microaerobic conditions and can improve and reestablish the sulfide conversion to elemental sulfur.

  20. Kinetics of nitrate and perchlorate reduction in ion exchange brine using the membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several sources of bacterial inocula were tested for their ability to reduce nitrate and perchlorate in synthetic ion-exchange spent brine (3-4.5% salinity) using a hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR). Nitrate and perchlorate removal fluxes reached as high as 5.4 g N ...

  1. Structure of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, an essential monotopic membrane enzyme involved in respiration and metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, Joanne I.; Chinte, Unmesh; Du, Shoucheng

    2008-04-02

    Sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GlpD) is an essential membrane enzyme, functioning at the central junction of respiration, glycolysis, and phospholipid biosynthesis. Its critical role is indicated by the multitiered regulatory mechanisms that stringently controls its expression and function. Once expressed, GlpD activity is regulated through lipid-enzyme interactions in Escherichia coli. Here, we report seven previously undescribed structures of the fully active E. coli GlpD, up to 1.75 {angstrom} resolution. In addition to elucidating the structure of the native enzyme, we have determined the structures of GlpD complexed with substrate analogues phosphoenolpyruvate, glyceric acid 2-phosphate, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, and product, dihydroxyacetone phosphate. These structural results reveal conformational states of the enzyme, delineating the residues involved in substrate binding and catalysis at the glycerol-3-phosphate site. Two probable mechanisms for catalyzing the dehydrogenation of glycerol-3-phosphate are envisioned, based on the conformational states of the complexes. To further correlate catalytic dehydrogenation to respiration, we have additionally determined the structures of GlpD bound with ubiquinone analogues menadione and 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide, identifying a hydrophobic plateau that is likely the ubiquinone-binding site. These structures illuminate probable mechanisms of catalysis and suggest how GlpD shuttles electrons into the respiratory pathway. Glycerol metabolism has been implicated in insulin signaling and perturbations in glycerol uptake and catabolism are linked to obesity in humans. Homologs of GlpD are found in practically all organisms, from prokaryotes to humans, with >45% consensus protein sequences, signifying that these structural results on the prokaryotic enzyme may be readily applied to the eukaryotic GlpD enzymes.

  2. Charged anaesthetics alter LM-fibroblast plasma-membrane enzymes by selective fluidization of inner or outer membrane leaflets.

    PubMed

    Sweet, W D; Schroeder, F

    1986-10-15

    The functional consequences of the differences in lipid composition and structure between the two leaflets of the plasma membrane were investigated. Fluorescence of 1,6-diphenylhexa-1,3,5-triene(DPH), quenching, and differential polarized phase fluorimetry demonstrated selective fluidization by local anaesthetics of individual leaflets in isolated LM-cell plasma membranes. As measured by decreased limiting anisotropy of DPH fluorescence, cationic (prilocaine) and anionic (phenobarbital and pentobarbital) amphipaths preferentially fluidized the cytofacial and exofacial leaflets respectively. Unlike prilocaine, procaine, also a cation, fluidized both leaflets of these membranes equally. Pentobarbital stimulated 5'-nucleotidase between 0.1 and 5 mM and inhibited at higher concentrations, whereas phenobarbital only inhibited, at higher concentrations. Cationic drugs were ineffective. Two maxima of (Na+ + K+)-ATPase activation were obtained with both anionic drugs. Only one activation maximum was obtained with both cationic drugs. The maximum in activity below 1 mM for all four drugs clustered about a single limiting anisotropy value in the cytofacial leaflet, whereas there was no correlation between activity and limiting anisotropy in the exofacial leaflets. Therefore, although phenobarbital and pentobarbital below 1 mM fluidized the exofacial leaflet more than the cytofacial leaflet, the smaller fluidization in the cytofacial leaflet was functionally significant for (Na+ + K+)-ATPase. Mg2+-ATPase was stimulated at 1 mM-phenobarbital, unaffected by pentobarbital and slightly stimulated by both cationic drugs at concentrations fluidizing both leaflets. Thus the activity of (Na+ + K+)-ATPase was highly sensitive to selective fluidization of the leaflet containing its active site, whereas the other enzymes examined were little affected by fluidization of either leaflet.

  3. Interactions of dendritic glycopolymer with erythrocytes, red blood cell ghosts and membrane enzymes.

    PubMed

    Wrobel, Dominika; Janaszewska, Anna; Appelhans, Dietmar; Voit, Brigitte; Bryszewska, Maria; Maly, Jan

    2015-12-30

    Interactions between maltose functionalized hyperbranched poly(ethylene imine)s (95% maltose decoration denoted as Mal-PEI A; 33% maltose decoration denoted as Mal-PEI B) and red blood cells (RBCs) and between red blood cell membranes were investigated. We monitored the degree of hemolysis, the change in cell shape, the influence of polymers on the fluidity of the cell membrane and some cell membrane enzymes to determine their possible cytotoxic impact on them. To observe the extent of hemolysis, the RBCs were incubated with different concentrations of Mal-PEIs. The first significant lysis of RBCs was observed after 6h of incubation. Prolongation of the incubation time increased the number of ruptured cells. Moreover, we observed that Mal-PEI B was more hemolytic than Mal-PEI A in buffer solution. In contrast, an incubation of RBCs with Mal-PEIs in human plasma significantly decreased the hemolytic process and showed higher hemolytic property of Mal-PEI A compared to Mal-PEI B. Also several changes in the shape of the RBCs occurred after incubation with Mal-PEIs. Some of the erythrocytes shrank (echinocytes), but their morphology generally remained unchanged during the incubation. As shown by fluorescence experiments, both polymers induced the increase of fluidity of RBCs membranes. In summary, both types of hyperbranched poly(ethylene imine)s were practically non-hemolytic even at high polymer concentrations. Mal-PEI B was slightly more noxious than the Mal-PEI A in a buffer solution, while in blood plasma, the situation was opposite. Decrease of Na+/K+ ATPase and total ATPase enzymes activity was related with molecule size and number of maltose groups on the surface of molecule. The low hemolytic properties only observed at higher concentration (100μM and 400μM) indicated that Mal-PEIs are promising macromolecules in the area of drug delivery systems.

  4. A novel method to synthesize polyaluminum chloride with a membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    He, Fei; Jia, Zhi-qian; Peng, Yue-lian; Wang, Pei-jing; Liu, Zhong-zhou

    2004-01-01

    Al13 or Alb is usually regarded as the most efficient species of polyaluminum chloride (PAC), the performance flocculant for water treatment. This paper was intended to report a new method to synthesize PAC with high content Alb, by using the membrane reactor. NaOH solutions were managed to permeate slowly through the micropores of ultrafiltration membrane into AICl3 solutions under the suitable transmembrane pressure(TMP). Meanwhile NaOH drops size was limited to nano-scale, resulting in dramatical reduction of the characteristic diffusion time and great increment of contact interface between the strong base and Al ions in solution to favor the formation of Al(OH)4-, the precursor of Al13, so few precipitates and much Alb are produced. When the initial concentration of AlCl3/NaOH is 0.40/2.0 (mol/L), MWCO = 10000, TMP = 0.0085 MPa, T = 305 K and B (molar ratio of OH-/Al3+) = 2.25, the quantity of Alb attains about 80%. The results of 27Al-NMR determination showed that the Al13 content is equal to Alb content. And our PAC product has shown better flocculation effects than the commercial product.

  5. New nanosized catalytic membrane reactors for hydrogenation with stored hydrogen: Prerequisites and the experimental basis for their creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldatov, A. P.; Tsodikov, M. V.; Parenago, O. P.; Teplyakov, V. V.

    2010-12-01

    The prerequisites and prospects for creating a new generation of nanosized membrane reactors are considered. For the first time, hydrogenation reactions take place in ceramic membrane pores with hydrogen adsorbed beforehand in mono- and multilayered oriented carbon nanotubes with graphene walls (OCNTGs) formed on the internal pore surface. It is shown for Trumem microfiltration membranes with D avg ˜130 nm that oxidation reactions of CO on a Cu0.03Ti0.97O2 ± δ catalyst and the oxidative conversion of methane into synthesis gas and light hydrocarbons on La + Ce/MgO are considerably enhanced when they occur in membranes. Regularities of hydrogen adsorption, storage, and desorption in nanosized membrane reactors are investigated through OCNTG formation in Trumem ultrafiltration membrane pores with D avg = 50 and 90 nm and their saturation with hydrogen at a pressure of 10-13 MPa. It is shown that the amount of adsorbed hydrogen reaches 14.0% of OCNTG mass. Using thermogravimetric analysis in combination with mass-spectrometric analysis, hydrogen adsorption in OCNTG is first determined and its desorption is found to proceed at atmospheric pressure at a temperature of ˜175°C. It is shown that adsorbed hydrogen affects the transport properties of the membranes, reducing their efficiency with respect to liquids by 4-26 times. This is indirect confirmation of its high activity, due apparently the dissociative mechanism of adsorption.

  6. High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading. Quarterly report No. 11, March 21, 1992--June 20, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, T.T.

    1992-12-31

    Membrane reactors have been used in a number of catalytic reaction processes in order to overcome the limitations on conversion imposed by thermodynamic equilibrium. Having the inherent capability for combining reaction and separation in a single step, they offer promise for improving and optimizing yield, selectivity and performance of processes involving complex liquids, such as these typically found in coal liquid upgrading. Ceramic membranes are a new class of materials, which have shown promise in a variety of industrial applications. Their mechanical and chemical stability coupled with a wide range of operating temperatures and pressures make them suitable for environments found in coal liquid upgrading. This project will evaluate the performance of Sol-Gel alumina membranes in coal liquid upgrading processes under realistic temperature and pressure conditions and investigate the feasibility of using such membranes in a membrane reactor based coal liquid upgrading process. Development of novel ceramic membranes with enhanced catalytic activity for coal-liquid upgrading applications, such as carbon-coated alumina membranes, will be also investigated.

  7. A study of the relationship among sludge retention time, bacterial communities, and hydrolytic enzyme activities in inclined plate membrane bioreactors for the treatment of municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ittisupornrat, Suda; Tobino, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2014-11-01

    Inclined plate membrane bioreactors (ip-MBRs) have been proposed as a highly effective method in wastewater treatment. With the help of settling enhancer inclined plates, dense excess sludge can be kept in the mainstream of the process, and consequently, suitable sludge mass can be maintained in the membrane tank. In this study, the relationship among sludge retention time (SRT), bacterial communities, and hydrolytic enzyme activities was investigated. Two identical bench-scale ip-MBRs were operated 1 year in real municipal wastewater treatment. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) plots of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) fingerprints showed similar changes in the bacterial communities in terms of bacterial members and abundance over time in both the reactors, which was primarily caused by the changes of wastewater composition. However, the impact of SRT revealed significant differences in the dominant bacterial communities when both the reactors were operated with a largely different SRT (infinite SRT and SRT of 20 days). The sequences of bacterial 16S rRNA gene were classified into six libraries of A-F. The largest group of sequences belonged to the phylum Proteobacteria. The phylum Bacteroidetes was dominant in the seed sludge retrieved from the conventional activated sludge (CAS) as Flavobacterium-like bacterium was dominantly observed. Under the MBR operation (libraries B-F), bacterial communities belonging to the phyla Proteobacteria and Chloroflexi were dominant. Most of them may be responsible for protein degradation because aminopeptidase activity increased in proportion with the abundance of these bacteria.

  8. REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Roman, W.G.

    1961-06-27

    A pressurized water reactor in which automatic control is achieved by varying the average density of the liquid moderator-cooiant is patented. Density is controlled by the temperature and power level of the reactor ftself. This control can be effected by the use of either plate, pellet, or tubular fuel elements. The fuel elements are disposed between upper and lower coolant plenum chambers and are designed to permit unrestricted coolant flow. The control chamber has an inlet opening communicating with the lower coolant plenum chamber and a restricted vapor vent communicating with the upper coolant plenum chamber. Thus, a variation in temperature of the fuel elements will cause a variation in the average moderator density in the chamber which directly affects the power level of the reactor.

  9. Retaining activity of enzymes after capture and extraction within a single-drop of biological fluid using immunoaffinity membranes.

    PubMed

    Shimazaki, Youji; Sato, Yuki

    2016-05-15

    The purpose of this study was the measurement of enzyme activity within a single-drop of biological fluid after micropurification. Esterase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) retained their enzymatic activities after being captured by membrane-immobilized antibodies, which were prepared by non-denaturing two-dimensional electrophoresis, transferred to polyvinylidene difluoride and then stained by Ponceau S. The activities of both enzymes were also measured after being captured by antibodies and biotinylated antibodies bound to membrane-immobilized protein A or avidin, respectively. After esterase and LDH were captured from biological samples by membrane-immobilized protein A or avidin, their activities were semi-quantitatively measured on the surface of the membrane using fluorescence determination. More than 51% of enzyme activities were retained even after the enzymes were captured by biotinylated antibody bound to membrane-immobilized avidin and eluted by rinsing with 5μL of 1% Triton X-100, compared with the activities of the enzyme on the immunoaffinity membrane.

  10. REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Spitzer, L. Jr.

    1961-10-01

    Thermonuclear reactors, methods, and apparatus are described for controlling and confining high temperature plasma. Main axial confining coils in combination with helical windings provide a rotational transform that avoids the necessity of a figure-eight shaped reactor tube. The helical windings provide a multipolar helical magnetic field transverse to the axis of the main axial confining coils so as to improve the effectiveness of the confining field by counteracting the tendency of the more central lines of force in the stellarator tube to exchange positions with the magnetic lines of force nearer the walls of the tube. (AEC)

  11. Molecular commonality detection using an artificial enzyme membrane for in situ one-stop biosurveillance.

    PubMed

    Ikeno, Shinya; Asakawa, Hitoshi; Haruyama, Tetsuya

    2007-08-01

    Biodetection and biosensing have been developed based on the concept of sensitivity toward specific molecules. However, current demand may require more levelheaded or far-sighted methods, especially in the field of biological safety and security. In the fields of hygiene, public safety, and security including fighting bioterrorism, the detection of biological contaminants, e.g., microorganisms, spores, and viruses, is a constant challenge. However, there is as yet no sophisticated method of detecting such contaminants in situ without oversight. The authors focused their attention on diphosphoric acid anhydride, which is a structure common to all biological phosphoric substances. Interestingly, biological phosphoric substances are peculiar substances present in all living things and include many different substances, e.g., ATP, ADP, dNTP, pyrophosphate, and so forth, all of which have a diphosphoric acid anhydride structure. The authors took this common structure as the basis of their development of an artificial enzyme membrane with selectivity for the structure common to all biological phosphoric substances and studied the possibility of its application to in situ biosurveillance sensors. The artificial enzyme membrane-based amperometric biosensor developed by the authors can detect various biological phosphoric substances, because it has a comprehensive molecular selectivity for the structure of these biological phosphoric substances. This in situ detection method of the common diphosphoric acid anhydride structure brings a unique advantage to the fabrication of in situ biosurveillance sensors for monitoring biological contaminants, e.g., microorganism, spores, and viruses, without an oversight, even if they were transformed.

  12. Microbial community distribution and extracellular enzyme activities in leach bed reactor treating food waste: effect of different leachate recirculation practices.

    PubMed

    Xu, Su Yun; Karthikeyan, Obuli P; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed at understanding the relationship between microbial community and extracellular enzyme activities of leach bed reactor (LBR) treating food waste under different leachate recirculation practices (once per day and continuous) and liquid to solid (L/S) ratios (1:1 and 0.5:1). Microbial community analysis using PCR-DGGE revealed that Lactobacillus sp., Bifidobacter sp., and Proteobacteria were the most abundant species. Number of phylotypes was higher in LBRs with intermittent recirculation; whereas, lower number of phylotypes dominated by the key players of degradation was observed with continuous recirculation. The L/S ratio of 1:1 significantly enhanced the volatile solids removal compared with 0.5:1; however, this effect was insignificant under once a day leachate recirculation. Continuous leachate recirculation with 1:1 L/S ratio significantly improved the organic leaching (240 g COD/kgvolatile solid) and showed distinct extracellular enzyme activities suitable for food waste acidogenesis.

  13. Simultaneous Bioreduction of Multiple Oxidized Contaminants Using a Membrane Biofilm Reactor.

    PubMed

    Li, Haixiang; Lin, Hua; Xu, Xiaoyin; Jiang, Minmin; Chang, Chein-Chi; Xia, Siqing

    2017-02-01

      This study tests a hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) to investigate simultaneous bioreduction of selected oxidized contaminants, including nitrate (-N), sulfate (), bromate (), chromate (Cr(VI)) and para-chloronitrobenzene (p-CNB). The experiments demonstrate that MBfR can achieve high performance for contaminants bioreduction to harmless or immobile forms in 240 days, with a maximum reduction fluxes of 0.901 g -N/m2·d, 1.573 g /m2·d, 0.009 g /m2·d, 0.022 g Cr(VI)/m2·d, and 0.043 g p-CNB/m2·d. Increasing H2 pressure and decreasing influent surface loading enhanced removal efficiency of the reactor. Flux analysis indicates that nitrate and sulfate reductions competed more strongly than , Cr(VI) and p-CNB reduction. The average H2 utilization rate, H2 flux, and H2 utilization efficiency of the reactor were 0.026 to 0.052 mg H2/cm3·d, 0.024 to 0.046 mg H2/cm2·d, and 97.5% to 99.3% (nearly 100%). Results show the hydrogen-based MBfR may be suitable for removing multiple oxidized contaminants in drinking water or groundwater.

  14. Conversion of olive pomace oil to cocoa butter-like fat in a packed-bed enzyme reactor.

    PubMed

    Ciftçi, Ozan Nazim; Fadiloğlu, Sibel; Göğüş, Fahrettin

    2009-01-01

    Refined olive pomace oil (ROPO) was utilized as a source oil for production of cocoa butter-like fat. Immobilized sn-1,3 specific lipase catalyzed acidolysis of ROPO with palmitic (PA) and stearic (SA) acids was performed in a laboratory scale packed-bed reactor. Effect of reactor conditions on product formation was studied at various substrate mole ratios (ROPO:PA:SA; 1:1:1, 1:1:3, 1:3:3, 1:2:6), enzyme loads (10%, 20%, 40%), substrate flow rates (1.5, 4.5, 7.5, 15 ml/min) and solvent amounts (150, 400 ml). The highest yield (10.9% POP, 19.7% POS and 11.2% SOS) was obtained at 40% enzyme load, 1:2:6 substrate mole ratio, 45 degrees C, 7.5 ml/min substrate flow rate, 150 ml solvent and 3h reaction time. The melting profile and SFC of the product were comparable to those of CB. Polarized light microscope (PLM) images showed no drastic changes in polymorphic behavior between CB and product.

  15. Hydrogen production by reforming of liquid hydrocarbons in a membrane reactor for portable power generation-Experimental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damle, Ashok S.

    One of the most promising technologies for lightweight, compact, portable power generation is proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. PEM fuel cells, however, require a source of pure hydrogen. Steam reforming of hydrocarbons in an integrated membrane reactor has potential to provide pure hydrogen in a compact system. Continuous separation of product hydrogen from the reforming gas mixture is expected to increase the yield of hydrogen significantly as predicted by model simulations. In the laboratory-scale experimental studies reported here steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbon fuels, butane, methanol and Clearlite ® was conducted to produce pure hydrogen in a single step membrane reformer using commercially available Pd-Ag foil membranes and reforming/WGS catalysts. All of the experimental results demonstrated increase in hydrocarbon conversion due to hydrogen separation when compared with the hydrocarbon conversion without any hydrogen separation. Increase in hydrogen recovery was also shown to result in corresponding increase in hydrocarbon conversion in these studies demonstrating the basic concept. The experiments also provided insight into the effect of individual variables such as pressure, temperature, gas space velocity, and steam to carbon ratio. Steam reforming of butane was found to be limited by reaction kinetics for the experimental conditions used: catalysts used, average gas space velocity, and the reactor characteristics of surface area to volume ratio. Steam reforming of methanol in the presence of only WGS catalyst on the other hand indicated that the membrane reactor performance was limited by membrane permeation, especially at lower temperatures and lower feed pressures due to slower reconstitution of CO and H 2 into methane thus maintaining high hydrogen partial pressures in the reacting gas mixture. The limited amount of data collected with steam reforming of Clearlite ® indicated very good match between theoretical predictions and

  16. A facile and efficient method of enzyme immobilization on silica particles via Michael acceptor film coatings: immobilized catalase in a plug flow reactor.

    PubMed

    Bayramoglu, Gulay; Arica, M Yakup; Genc, Aysenur; Ozalp, V Cengiz; Ince, Ahmet; Bicak, Niyazi

    2016-06-01

    A novel method was developed for facile immobilization of enzymes on silica surfaces. Herein, we describe a single-step strategy for generating of reactive double bonds capable of Michael addition on the surfaces of silica particles. This method was based on reactive thin film generation on the surfaces by heating of impregnated self-curable polymer, alpha-morpholine substituted poly(vinyl methyl ketone) p(VMK). The generated double bonds were demonstrated to be an efficient way for rapid incorporation of enzymes via Michael addition. Catalase was used as model enzyme in order to test the effect of immobilization methodology by the reactive film surface through Michael addition reaction. Finally, a plug flow type immobilized enzyme reactor was employed to estimate decomposition rate of hydrogen peroxide. The highly stable enzyme reactor could operate continuously for 120 h at 30 °C with only a loss of about 36 % of its initial activity.

  17. Development and application of a membrane cyclone reactor for in vivo NMR spectroscopy with high microbial cell densities.

    PubMed

    Hartbrich, A; Schmitz, G; Weuster-Botz, D; de Graaf, A A; Wandrey, C

    1996-09-20

    A new bioreactor system has been developed for in vivo NMR spectroscopy of microorganisms under defined physiological conditions. This cyclone reactor with an integrated NMR flow cell is continuously operated in the magnet of a 400-MHz wide-bore NMR spectrometer system. The residence times of medium and cells are decoupled by a circulation-integrated cross-flow microfiltration module to achieve higher cell densities as compared to continuous fermentations without cell retention (increase in cell density up to a factor of 10 in steady state). Volumetric mass transfer coefficients k(L)a of more than 1.0 s(-1) are possible in the membrane cyclone reactor, ensuring adequate oxygen supply [oxygen transfer rate >15,000 mg O(2) .(L h)(-1)] of high cell densities. With the aid of the membrane cyclone reactor we were able to show, using continuous in vivo (31)P NMR spectroscopy of anaerobic glucose fermentation by Zymomonas mobilis, that the NMR signal intensity was directly proportional to the cell concentration in the reactor. The concentration profiles of intracellular inorganic phosphate, NAD(H), NDP, NTP, UDP-sugar, a cyclic pyrophosphate, two sugar phosphate pools, and extracellular inorganic phosphate were recorded after a shift from one steady state to another. The intracellular cyclic pyrophosphate had not been detected before in in vitro measurements of Zymomonas mobilis extracts due to the high instability of this compound. Using continuous in vivo (13)C NMR spectroscopy of aerobic glucose utilization by Corynebacterium glutamicum at a density of 25 g(cell dry weight) . L(-1), the membrane cyclone reactor served to measure the different dynamics of labeling in the carbon atoms of L-lactate, L-glutamate, succinate, and L-lysine with a time resolution of 10 min after impressing a [1-(13)C]-glucose pulse.

  18. Uranium removal and microbial community in a H2-based membrane biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chen; Ontiveros-Valencia, Aura; Cornette de Saint Cyr, Louis; Zevin, Alexander S; Carey, Sara E; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated a hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) for its capacity to reduce and remove hexavalent uranium [U(VI)] from water. After a startup period that allowed slow-growing U(VI) reducers to form biofilms, the MBfR successfully achieved and maintained 94-95% U(VI) removal over 8 months when the U surface loading was 6-11 e(-) mEq/m(2)-day. The MBfR biofilm was capable of self-recovery after a disturbance due to oxygen exposure. Nanocrystalline UO2 aggregates and amorphous U precipitates were associated with vegetative cells and apparently mature spores that accumulated in the biofilm matrix. Despite inoculation with a concentrated suspension of Desulfovibrio vulgaris, this bacterium was not present in the U(VI)-reducing biofilm. Instead, the most abundant group in the biofilm community contained U(VI) reducers in the Rhodocyclaceae family when U(VI) was the only electron acceptor. When sulfate was present, the community dramatically shifted to the Clostridiaceae family, which included spores that were potentially involved in U(VI) reduction.

  19. A biofilm model to understand the onset of sulfate reduction in denitrifying membrane biofilm reactors.

    PubMed

    Tang, Youneng; Ontiveros-Valencia, Aura; Feng, Liang; Zhou, Chen; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2013-03-01

    This work presents a multispecies biofilm model that describes the co-existence of nitrate- and sulfate-reducing bacteria in the H(2)-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR). The new model adapts the framework of a biofilm model for simultaneous nitrate and perchlorate removal by considering the unique metabolic and physiological characteristics of autotrophic sulfate-reducing bacteria that use H(2) as their electron donor. To evaluate the model, the simulated effluent H(2), UAP (substrate-utilization-associated products), and BAP (biomass-associated products) concentrations are compared to experimental results, and the simulated biomass distributions are compared to real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) data in the experiments for parameter optimization. Model outputs and experimental results match for all major trends and explain when sulfate reduction does or does not occur in parallel with denitrification. The onset of sulfate reduction occurs only when the nitrate concentration at the fiber's outer surface is low enough so that the growth rate of the denitrifying bacteria is equal to that of the sulfate-reducing bacteria. An example shows how to use the model to design an MBfR that achieves satisfactory nitrate reduction, but suppresses sulfate reduction.

  20. Efficient production of lactulose from whey powder by cellobiose 2-epimerase in an enzymatic membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lingtian; Xu, Cen; Li, Sha; Liang, Jinfeng; Xu, Hong; Xu, Zheng

    2017-06-01

    In this study, the gene encoding cellobiose 2-epimerase from Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus (CsCE) was successfully expressed in Bacillus subtilis WB800. After the fermentation medium optimization, the activity of recombinant strain was 4.5-fold higher than the original medium in a 7.5L fermentor. The optimal catalytic pH and temperature of crude CsCE were 7.0 and 80°C, respectively. An enzymatic synthesis of lactulose was developed using cheese-whey lactose as its substrate. The maximum conversion rate of whey powder obtained was 58.5% using 7.5 U/mL CsCE. The enzymatic membrane reactor system exhibited a great operational stability, confirmed with the higher lactose conversion (42.4%) after 10 batches. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of lactulose synthesis in food grade strain, which improve the food safety, and we not only realize the biological production of lactulose, but also make good use of industrial waste, which have positive impact on environment.

  1. Sewage sludge treatment in a thermophilic membrane reactor (TMR): factors affecting foam formation.

    PubMed

    Collivignarelli, Maria Cristina; Castagnola, Federico; Sordi, Marco; Bertanza, Giorgio

    2016-11-04

    Foam formation in the excess sludge treatment facilities of biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) may represent a critical issue as it could lead to several operative problems and reduce the overall plant performance. This trouble also affects a novel technology recently proposed for sludge minimization, the thermophilic membrane reactor (TMR), operating with alternate aeration/non-aeration cycles. This technology, which has proven to be extremely resilient and suitable for treating industrial wastewater of different nature, demonstrated a high potential also as a solution for integrating existing WWTPs, aiming at the "zero sludge production." In this work, an experimental study was conducted with a TMR pilot plant (fed daily with thickened sewage sludge) by adjusting the duration of aeration/non-aeration alternate cycles. Extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) concentration (and its soluble and bound fractions) has been monitored along with foaming power indices. The results highlight that foaming can be correlated to the presence of soluble protein fraction of EPS. Moreover, EPS production seems to be reduced by increasing the duration of the non-aeration cycles: optimal operating conditions resulted 2 h of aeration followed by 6 h of non-aeration. These conditions allow to obtain an EPS concentration of 500 mg L(-1) with respect to 2300 mg L(-1) measured at the beginning of experimental work.

  2. Degradation of pharmaceuticals from membrane biological reactor sludge with Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Llorens-Blanch, Guillem; Badia-Fabregat, Marina; Lucas, Daniel; Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; Barceló, Damià; Pennanen, Taina; Caminal, Gloria; Blánquez, Paqui

    2015-02-01

    Emerging contaminants are a wide group of chemical products that are found at low concentrations in the environment. These contaminants can be either natural, e.g., estrogens, or synthetics, such as pesticides and pharmaceuticals, which can enter the environment through the water and sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). The growth of Trametes versicolor on membrane biological reactor (MBR) sludge in bioslurry systems at the Erlenmeyer scale was assessed and its capacity for removing pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) was evaluated. The ability of the fungus to remove hydrochlorothiazide (HZT) from liquid media cultures was initially assessed. Consequently, different bioslurry media (complete nutrient, glucose and no-nutrient addition) and conditions (sterile and non-sterile) were tested, and the removal of spiked HZT was monitored under each condition. The highest spiked HZT removal was assessed under non-sterile conditions without nutrient addition (93.2%). Finally, the removal assessment of a broad set of pharmaceuticals was performed in non-spiked bioslurry. Under non-sterile conditions, the fungus was able to completely degrade 12 out of the 28 drugs initially detected in the MBR sludge, achieving an overall degradation of 66.9%. Subsequent microbial analysis showed that the microbial diversity increased after 15 days of treatment, but there was still some T. versicolor in the bioslurry. Results showed that T. versicolor can be used to remove PPCPs in bioslurry systems under non-sterile conditions, without extra nutrients in the media, and in matrices as complex as an MBR sludge.

  3. Treatment of swine wastewater using MLE process and membrane bio-reactor.

    PubMed

    Chung, Y J; Choi, H N; Cho, J B; Park, S K

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop the optimum integrated treatment system for slurry type swine wastewater through field testing. Although composting and liquid composting are the most desirable processes to treat swine wastewater, inadequate composting has been blamed as critical non-point source pollutants. In the area with limited crop land and grass land, the most feasible method to handle slurry type swine wastewater would be that the solids portion from the solids/liquid separation process is treated by composting and then the liquid portion is treated by a series of wastewater treatment processes, including physicochemical treatment system and biological nutrient removal systems such as the modified Ludzack Ettinger (MLE) process and MLE process coupled with a membrane, to satisfy the different effluent criteria. When using the appropriate solids/liquid separation system, the removal efficiency of SS, COD(Cr), and TKN was 92.4%, 73.6%, and 46.0%, respectively and the amount of bulking agent required for composting and organic loading rate for the following wastewater treatment system can be reduced by 94.8% and 84.7%, respectively. When treating the effluent from solids/liquid separation process by MLE process, the optimal volume fraction for denitrification was 20% of total reactor volume and the optimum ratio of F/M and F(N)/M were increased with increase of C/N ratio. Since the effluent quality of MLE process is not enough to discharge, the DAF process was operated with addition of FeCl3 and cationic polyelectrolyte. The effluent from the DAF process was treated in the MLE process coupled with a crossflow ultrafiltration membrane to satisfy more stringent effluent criteria. When external carbon source is added to keep 6.0 of C/N ratio, the efficiency of denitrification is best. The optimum linear velocity and transmembrane pressure for MBR process was 1.8 m/sec and 2.1 atm, respectively. By addition of external carbon source, nitrogen compounds

  4. Catalytic Conversion of Lipophilic Substrates by Phase constrained Enzymes in the Aqueous or in the Membrane Phase

    PubMed Central

    Cebula, Marcus; Turan, Ilke Simsek; Sjödin, Birgitta; Thulasingam, Madhuranayaki; Brock, Joseph; Chmyrov, Volodymyr; Widengren, Jerker; Abe, Hiroshi; Mannervik, Bengt; Haeggström, Jesper Z.; Rinaldo-Matthis, Agnes; Akkaya, Engin U.; Morgenstern, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Both soluble and membrane-bound enzymes can catalyze the conversion of lipophilic substrates. The precise substrate access path, with regard to phase, has however, until now relied on conjecture from enzyme structural data only (certainly giving credible and valuable hypotheses). Alternative methods have been missing. To obtain the first experimental evidence directly determining the access paths (of lipophilic substrates) to phase constrained enzymes we here describe the application of a BODIPY-derived substrate (PS1). Using this tool, which is not accessible to cytosolic enzymes in the presence of detergent and, by contrast, not accessible to membrane embedded enzymes in the absence of detergent, we demonstrate that cytosolic and microsomal glutathione transferases (GSTs), both catalyzing the activation of PS1, do so only within their respective phases. This approach can serve as a guideline to experimentally validate substrate access paths, a fundamental property of phase restricted enzymes. Examples of other enzyme classes with members in both phases are xenobiotic-metabolizing sulphotransferases/UDP-glucuronosyl transferases or epoxide hydrolases. Since specific GSTs have been suggested to contribute to tumor drug resistance, PS1 can also be utilized as a tool to discriminate between phase constrained members of these enzymes by analyzing samples in the absence and presence of Triton X-100. PMID:27917951

  5. High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading. Final report, September 21, 1989--November 20, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, T.T.; Liu, P.K.T.; Webster, I.A.

    1992-12-31

    Membrane reactors are today finding extensive applications for gas and vapor phase catalytic reactions (see discussion in the introduction and recent reviews by Armor [92], Hsieh [93] and Tsotsis et al. [941]). There have not been any published reports, however, of their use in high pressure and temperature liquid-phase applications. The idea to apply membrane reactor technology to coal liquid upgrading has resulted from a series of experimental investigations by our group of petroleum and coal asphaltene transport through model membranes. Coal liquids contain polycyclic aromatic compounds, which not only present potential difficulties in upgrading, storage and coprocessing, but are also bioactive. Direct coal liquefaction is perceived today as a two-stage process, which involves a first stage of thermal (or catalytic) dissolution of coal, followed by a second stage, in which the resulting products of the first stage are catalytically upgraded. Even in the presence of hydrogen, the oil products of the second stage are thought to equilibrate with the heavier (asphaltenic and preasphaltenic) components found in the feedstream. The possibility exists for this smaller molecular fraction to recondense with the unreacted heavy components and form even heavier undesirable components like char and coke. One way to diminish these regressive reactions is to selectively remove these smaller molecular weight fractions once they are formed and prior to recondensation. This can, at least in principle, be accomplished through the use of high temperature membrane reactors, using ceramic membranes which are permselective for the desired products of the coal liquid upgrading process. An additional incentive to do so is in order to eliminate the further hydrogenation and hydrocracking of liquid products to undesirable light gases.

  6. NOVEL COMPOSITE HYDROGEN-PERMEABLE MEMBRANES FOR NON-THERMAL PLASMA REACTORS FOR THE DECOMPOSITION OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE

    SciTech Connect

    Morris D. Argyle; John F. Ackerman; Suresh Muknahallipatna; Jerry C. Hamann; Stanislaw Legowski; Ji-Jun Zhang; Guibing Zhao; Robyn J. Alcanzare; Linna Wang; Ovid A. Plumb

    2004-07-01

    The goal of this experimental project is to design and fabricate a reactor and membrane test cell to dissociate hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in a non-thermal plasma and recover hydrogen (H{sub 2}) through a superpermeable multi-layer membrane. Superpermeability of hydrogen atoms (H) has been reported by some researchers using membranes made of Group V transition metals (niobium, tantalum, vanadium, and their alloys), although it has yet to be confirmed in this study. Experiments involving methane conversion reactions were conducted with a preliminary pulsed corona discharge reactor design in order to test and improve the reactor and membrane designs using a non-toxic reactant. This report details the direct methane conversion experiments to produce hydrogen, acetylene, and higher hydrocarbons utilizing a co-axial cylinder (CAC) corona discharge reactor, pulsed with a thyratron switch. The reactor was designed to accommodate relatively high flow rates (655 x 10{sup -6} m{sup 3}/s) representing a pilot scale easily converted to commercial scale. Parameters expected to influence methane conversion including pulse frequency, charge voltage, capacitance, residence time, and electrode material were investigated. Conversion, selectivity and energy consumption were measured or estimated. C{sub 2} and C{sub 3} hydrocarbon products were analyzed with a residual gas analyzer (RGA). In order to obtain quantitative results, the complex sample spectra were de-convoluted via a linear least squares method. Methane conversion as high as 51% was achieved. The products are typically 50%-60% acetylene, 20% propane, 10% ethane and ethylene, and 5% propylene. First Law thermodynamic energy efficiencies for the system (electrical and reactor) were estimated to range from 38% to 6%, with the highest efficiencies occurring at short residence time and low power input (low specific energy) where conversion is the lowest (less than 5%). The highest methane conversion of 51% occurred at a

  7. Reactor

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Robert M.

    1976-10-05

    1. A neutronic reactor having a moderator, coolant tubes traversing the moderator from an inlet end to an outlet end, bodies of material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy disposed within the coolant tubes, and means for circulating water through said coolant tubes characterized by the improved construction wherein the coolant tubes are constructed of aluminum having an outer diameter of 1.729 inches and a wall thickness of 0.059 inch, and the means for circulating a liquid coolant through the tubes includes a source of water at a pressure of approximately 350 pounds per square inch connected to the inlet end of the tubes, and said construction including a pressure reducing orifice disposed at the inlet ends of the tubes reducing the pressure of the water by approximately 150 pounds per square inch.

  8. Noncatalytic hydrogenation of decene-1 with hydrogen accumulated in a hybrid carbon nanostructure in nanosized membrane reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldatov, A. P.

    2014-08-01

    Studies on the creation of nanosized membrane reactors (NMRs) of a new generation with accumulated hydrogen and a regulated volume of reaction zone were continued at the next stage. Hydrogenation was performed in the pores of ceramic membranes with hydrogen preliminarily adsorbed in mono- and multilayered orientated carbon nanotubes with graphene walls (OCNTGs)—a new hybrid carbon nanostructure formed on the inner pore surface. Quantitative determination of hydrogen adsorption in OCNTGs was performed using TRUMEM ultrafiltration membranes with D av = 50 and 90 nm and showed that hydrogen adsorption was up to ˜1.5% of the mass of OCNTG. The instrumentation and procedure for noncatalytic hydrogenation of decene-1 at 250-350°C using hydrogen accumulated and stored in OCNTG were developed. The conversion of decene-1 into decane was ˜0.2-1.8% at hydrogenation temperatures of 250 and 350°C, respectively. The rate constants and activation energy of hydrogenation were determined. The latter was found to be 94.5 kJ/mol, which is much smaller than the values typical for noncatalytic hydrogenations and very close to the values characteristic for catalytic reactions. The quantitative distribution of the reacting compounds in each pore regarded as a nanosized membrane reactor was determined. The activity of hydrogen adsorbed in a 2D carbon nanostructure was evaluated. Possible mechanisms of noncatalytic hydrogenation were discussed.

  9. [Analysis of Microbial Community in the Membrane Bio-Reactor (MBR) Rural Sewage Treatment System].

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiao; Cui, Bing-jian; Jin, De-cai; Wu, Shang-hua; Yang, Bo; Deng, Ye; Zhuang, Guo-qiang; Zhuang, Xu-liang

    2015-09-01

    Uncontrolled release and arbitrary irrigation reuse of rural wastewater may lead to water pollution, and the microbial pathogens could threaten the safety of freshwater resources and public health. To understand the microbial community structure of rural wastewater and provide the theory for microbial risk assessment of wastewater irrigation, microbial community diversities in the Membrane Bio-Reactor (MBR) process for rural wastewater treatment was studied by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and 16S rDNA gene clone library. Meanwhile, changes of Arcobacter spp. and total bacteria before and after treatment were detected through real-time quantitative PCR. The clone library results showed that there were 73 positive clones included Proteobacteria (91. 80%), Firmicutes (2. 70%), Bacteroidetes (1. 40%), and uncultured bacteria (4. 10%) in the untreated wastewater. The typical pathogenic genus Arcobacter belonging to e-Proteobacteria was the dominant component of the library, accounting for 68. 5% of all clones. The main groups and their abundance in different treatments were significantly distinct. The highest values of species abundance (S), Shannon-Wiener (H) and Evenness (E) were observed in the adjusting tank, which were 43. 0, 3. 56 and 0. 95, respectively. The real-time quantitative PCR results showed that the copy number of Arcobacter spp. was (1. 09 ± 0. 064 0) x 10(11) copies.L-1 in the untreated sewage, which was consistent with the result of 16S rDNA gene clone library. Compared to untreated wastewater, bacterial copy number in the treated effluent decreased 100 to 1 000 times, respectively, suggesting that MBR treatment system could remove the microbial quantity in such scale. In the recycled water, the physicochemical parameters and indicator bacteria met the water quality standard of farmland irrigation. However, further research is needed to estimate the potential health risks caused by residual pathogenic microorganisms in

  10. Metabolic Toxicity Screening Using Electrochemiluminescence Arrays Coupled with Enzyme-DNA Biocolloid Reactors and Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Hvastkovs, Eli G.; Schenkman, John B.; Rusling, James F.

    2012-01-01

    New chemicals or drugs must be guaranteed safe before they can be marketed. Despite widespread use of bioassay panels for toxicity prediction, products that are toxic to a subset of the population often are not identified until clinical trials. This article reviews new array methodologies based on enzyme/DNA films that form and identify DNA-reactive metabolites that are indicators of potentially genotoxic species. This molecularly based methodology is designed in a rapid screening array that utilizes electrochemiluminescence (ECL) to detect metabolite-DNA reactions, as well as biocolloid reactors that provide the DNA adducts and metabolites for liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. ECL arrays provide rapid toxicity screening, and the biocolloid reactor LC-MS approach provides a valuable follow-up on structure, identification, and formation rates of DNA adducts for toxicity hits from the ECL array screening. Specific examples using this strategy are discussed. Integration of high-throughput versions of these toxicity-screening methods with existing drug toxicity bioassays should allow for better human toxicity prediction as well as more informed decision making regarding new chemical and drug candidates. PMID:22482786

  11. Metabolic Toxicity Screening Using Electrochemiluminescence Arrays Coupled with Enzyme-DNA Biocolloid Reactors and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hvastkovs, Eli, G.; Schenkman, John B.; Rusling, James, F.

    2012-07-01

    New chemicals or drugs must be guaranteed safe before they can be marketed. Despite widespread use of bioassay panels for toxicity prediction, products that are toxic to a subset of the population often are not identified until clinical trials. This article reviews new array methodologies based on enzyme/DNA films that form and identify DNA-reactive metabolites that are indicators of potentially genotoxic species. This molecularly based methodology is designed in a rapid screening array that utilizes electrochemiluminescence (ECL) to detect metabolite-DNA reactions, as well as biocolloid reactors that provide the DNA adducts and metabolites for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. ECL arrays provide rapid toxicity screening, and the biocolloid reactor LC-MS approach provides a valuable follow-up on structure, identification, and formation rates of DNA adducts for toxicity hits from the ECL array screening. Specific examples using this strategy are discussed. Integration of high-throughput versions of these toxicity-screening methods with existing drug toxicity bioassays should allow for better human toxicity prediction as well as more informed decision making regarding new chemical and drug candidates.

  12. Preparation of whey protein hydrolysates using a single- and two-stage enzymatic membrane reactor and their immunological and antioxidant properties: characterization by multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheison, Seronei Chelulei; Wang, Zhang; Xu, Shi-Ying

    2007-05-16

    An initial 5% (w/v), followed thereafter with replacement aliquots of 3% (w/v), whey protein isolate (WPI) (ca. 86.98% Kjeldahl N x 6.38), was hydrolyzed using Protease N Amano G (IUB 3.4.24.28, Bacillus subtilis) in an enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR) fitted with either a 10 or 3 kDa nominal molecular weight cutoff (NMWCO) tangential flow filter (TFF) membrane. The hydrolysates were desalted by adsorption onto a styrene-based macroporous adsorption resin (MAR) and washed with deionized water to remove the alkali, and the peptides were desorbed with 25, 50, and 95% (v/v) ethyl alcohol. The desalted hydrolysates were analyzed for antibody binding, free radical scavenging, and molecular mass analysis as well as total and free amino acids (FAA). For the first time a quantity called IC50, the concentration of peptides causing 50% inhibition of the available antibody, is introduced to quantify inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) properties. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used for data reduction. The hydrolysate molecular mass provided the most prominent influence (PC1 = 57.35%), followed by inhibition ELISA (PC2 = 18.90%) and the antioxidant properties (PC3 = 10.43%). Ash was significantly reduced in the desalted fractions; the protein adsorption recoveries were high, whereas desorption with alcohol was prominently influenced by the hydrophobic/ hydrophilic amino acid balance. After hydrolysis, some hydrolysates showed increased ELISA reactivity compared with the native WPI.

  13. Double-side active TiO2-modified nanofiltration membranes in continuous flow photocatalytic reactors for effective water purification.

    PubMed

    Romanos, G Em; Athanasekou, C P; Katsaros, F K; Kanellopoulos, N K; Dionysiou, D D; Likodimos, V; Falaras, P

    2012-04-15

    A chemical vapour deposition (CVD) based innovative approach was applied with the purpose to develop composite TiO(2) photocatalytic nanofiltration (NF) membranes. The method involved pyrolytic decomposition of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) vapor and formation of TiO(2) nanoparticles through homogeneous gas phase reactions and aggregation of the produced intermediate species. The grown nanoparticles diffused and deposited on the surface of γ-alumina NF membrane tubes. The CVD reactor allowed for online monitoring of the carrier gas permeability during the treatment, providing a first insight on the pore efficiency and thickness of the formed photocatalytic layers. In addition, the thin TiO(2) deposits were developed on both membrane sides without sacrificing the high yield rates. Important innovation was also introduced in what concerns the photocatalytic performance evaluation. The membrane efficiency to photo degrade typical water pollutants, was evaluated in a continuous flow water purification device, applying UV irradiation on both membrane sides. The developed composite NF membranes were highly efficient in the decomposition of methyl orange exhibiting low adsorption-fouling tendency and high water permeability.

  14. Specific determination of myo-inositol in multivitamin pharmaceutical preparations by a flow injection system using a myo-inositol dehydrogenase reactor coupled with a glucose eliminating enzyme reactor.

    PubMed

    Ono, Masaki; Nakajima, Toshiaki; Itoh, Yuji; Shimada, Kenji; Yamato, Susumu

    2003-12-04

    A flow injection system for myo-inositol determination in multivitamin pharmaceutical preparations using two enzyme reactors was developed. Myo-inositol was detected using a fluorophotometer, to measure the fluorescence of NADH produced from NAD+ by a myo-inositol dehydrogenase reactor (IDR) containing myo-inositol dehydrogenase immobilized on porous glass. Enhanced interference due to excess glucose included in a multivitamin pharmaceutical preparation as a sweetener was eliminated by a glucose eliminating reactor (GER) co-immobilized with three enzymes (glucose oxidase, mutarotase and catalase). The calibration coefficient for the standard curve was 0.9993 for myo-inositol detection in the range of 1-5 microg/ml. Myo-inositol was determined even in the presence of glucose concentrations of 140-420 microg/ml. The recovery of myo-inositol added to the multivitamin pharmaceutical preparation was 99.6% (n=9).

  15. Covalent conjugation of tetrameric bovine liver catalase to liposome membranes for stabilization of the enzyme tertiary and quaternary structures.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Makoto; Sakamoto, Hideyuki; Shirakami, Hiroshi

    2009-03-01

    Tetrameric bovine liver catalase (BLC) is unstable because of its dissociation into subunits at low enzyme concentrations and the conformational change of the subunits at high temperatures. In this work, for stabilization of BLC, the enzyme was covalently conjugated with liposome membranes composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), cholesterol and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-glutaryl (NGPE). The NGPE, which was responsible for the BLC/membrane coupling, was altered from 0.05 to 0.2 in its liposomal mole fraction f(G). The catalase-conjugated liposome (CCL) with f(G) of 0.15 showed the maximum number of the conjugated BLC molecules of 28 per liposome. The reactivity of CCLs to H(2)O(2) was as high as that of free BLC at 25 degrees C in Tris-HCl buffer of pH 7.4. Among the CCLs, the catalyst with f(G) of 0.15 was the most stable at 55 degrees C in its enzyme activity in the buffer because the appropriate number of BLC/liposome covalent bonding prevented the dissociation-induced enzyme deactivation. Furthermore, the CCL showed much higher stability at 55 degrees C than the free BLC/enzyme-free liposome mixture and free BLC at the low BLC concentration of 340ng/mL. This was because BLC in the CCL was located in the vicinity of the host membrane regardless of the catalyst concentration, which could induce the effective stabilization effect of the membrane on the enzyme tertiary structure as indicated by the intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence analysis. The results obtained demonstrate the high structural stability of BLC in the CCL system, which was derived from the covalent bonding and interaction between BLC and liposomes.

  16. Development of a "membrane cloaking" method for amperometric enzyme immunoassay and surface plasmon resonance analysis of proteins in serum samples.

    PubMed

    Phillips, K Scott; Han, Jong Ho; Cheng, Quan

    2007-02-01

    Detection of trace amounts of target proteins in the presence of high concentrations of matrix proteins (e.g., serum samples) without separation steps is of great significance to biomedical research but remains technically challenging. Here we report a "membrane cloaking" method to overcome nonspecific protein adsorption and fouling problems for label-free surface plasmon resonance detection and heterogeneous immunosensing. A thin, hybrid, self-assembled monolayer on gold was formed with 70 mol % mercaptopropanol and 30 mol % cysteamine/propanedithiol to facilitate membrane fusion and covalent attachment of antibodies. After antibody immobilization, the surface was incubated with lipid vesicles, which fused to form a supported membrane. The analyte spiked in serum was introduced for binding, and the membrane and nonspecifically adsorbed proteins on the membrane were subsequently removed using a nonionic surfactant before the final measurement was carried out. Selection of a suitable surfactant can preserve antibody/antigen binding and selectively remove the membrane, allowing accurate measurement of the captured proteins without interference from nonspecifically adsorbed species. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) quantification of IgG spiked in undiluted serum ( approximately 75 mg/mL protein) was achieved with the membrane cloaking method, whereas direct measurement without membrane removal resulted in a significantly large error. The cloaking method was also used to develop an enzyme amplified amperometric assay using HRP-conjugated IgG. Detection of concentrations as low as 5 fM proteins was obtained. Finally, a membrane cloaking assay combining SPR and in situ electrochemical measurement was demonstrated on a gold substrate. Similar sensitivity was observed using a continuous flow injection measurement. The method opens new avenues to develop direct assay methods with ultrahigh sensitivity for protein samples using SPR and enzyme-linked amplification mechanisms.

  17. Cascade catalysis in membranes with enzyme immobilization for multi-enzymatic conversion of CO2 to methanol.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jianquan; Meyer, Anne S; Mateiu, R V; Pinelo, Manuel

    2015-05-25

    Facile co-immobilization of enzymes is highly desirable for bioconversion methods involving multi-enzymatic cascade reactions. Here we show for the first time that three enzymes can be immobilized in flat-sheet polymeric membranes simultaneously or separately by simple pressure-driven filtration (i.e. by directing membrane fouling formation), without any addition of organic solvent. Such co-immobilization and sequential immobilization systems were examined for the production of methanol from CO2 with formate dehydrogenase (FDH), formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FaldDH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Enzyme activity was fully retained by this non-covalent immobilization strategy. The two immobilization systems had similar catalytic efficiencies because the second reaction (formic acid→formaldehyde) catalyzed by FaldDH was found to be the cascade bottleneck (a threshold substrate concentration was required). Moreover, the trade-off between the mitigation of product inhibition and low substrate concentration for the adjacent enzymes probably made the co-immobilization meaningless. Thus, sequential immobilization could be used for multi-enzymatic cascade reactions, as it allowed the operational conditions for each single step to be optimized, not only during the enzyme immobilization but also during the reaction process, and the pressure-driven mass transfer (flow-through mode) could overcome the diffusion resistance between enzymes. This study not only offers a green and facile immobilization method for multi-enzymatic cascade systems, but also reveals the reaction bottleneck and provides possible solutions for the bioconversion of CO2 to methanol.

  18. Improvement of an integrated system of membrane bioreactor and worm reactor by phosphorus removal using additional post-chemical treatment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Zuo, Wei; Tian, Yu; Zhang, Jun; Li, Hui; Li, Lipin

    2016-11-01

    A membrane bioreactor (MBR) coupled with a worm reactor (SSBWR) was designed as SSBWR-MBR for sewage treatment and excess sludge reduction. However, total phosphorus (TP) release caused by worm predation in the SSBWR could increase the effluent TP concentration in the SSBWR-MBR. To decrease the amount of TP excreted, chemical treatment reactor was connected after the SSBWR-MBR to remove the excess phosphorus (P). The effects of chemical treatment at different time intervals on the performance of the SSBWR-MBR were assessed. The results showed that a maximum TP removal efficiency of 21.5 ± 1.0% was achieved in the SSBWR-MBR after chemical treatment. More importantly, a higher sulfate concentration induced by chemical treatment could promote TP release in the SSBWR, which provided further TP removal from the SSBWR-MBR. Additionally, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of the SSBWR-MBR was increased by 1.3% after effective chemical treatment. In the SSBWR-MBR, the chemical treatment had little effects on NH3-N removal and sludge production. Eventually, chemical treatment also alleviated the membrane fouling in the SSBWR-MBR. In this work, the improvement on TP, COD removal and membrane fouling alleviation was achieved in the SSBWR-MBR using additional chemical treatment.

  19. Application of membrane-coupled sequencing batch reactor for oilfield produced water recycle and beneficial re-use.

    PubMed

    Fakhru'l-Razi, A; Pendashteh, Alireza; Abidin, Zurina Zainal; Abdullah, Luqman Chuah; Biak, Dayang Radiah Awang; Madaeni, Sayed Siavash

    2010-09-01

    Oil and gas field wastewater or produced water is a significant waste stream in the oil and gas industries. In this study, the performance of a membrane sequencing batch reactor (MSBR) and membrane sequencing batch reactor/reverse osmosis (MSBR/RO) process treating produced wastewater were investigated and compared. The MSBR was operated in different hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 8, 20 and 44 h. Operation results showed that for a HRT of 20 h, the combined process effluent chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC) and oil and grease (O&G) removal efficiencies were 90.9%, 92% and 91.5%, respectively. The MSBR effluent concentration levels met the required standard for oil well re-injection. The RO treatment reduced the salt and organic contents to acceptable levels for irrigation and different industrial re-use. Foulant biopsy demonstrated that the fouling on the membrane surface was mainly due to inorganic (salts) and organic (microorganisms and their products, hydrocarbon constituents) matters.

  20. Electrocatalytic reduction of acetone in a proton-exchange-membrane reactor: a model reaction for the electrocatalytic reduction of biomass.

    PubMed

    Green, Sara K; Tompsett, Geoffrey A; Kim, Hyung Ju; Bae Kim, Won; Huber, George W

    2012-12-01

    Acetone was electrocatalytically reduced to isopropanol in a proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) reactor on an unsupported platinum cathode. Protons needed for the reduction were produced on the unsupported Pt-Ru anode from either hydrogen gas or electrolysis of water. The current efficiency (the ratio of current contributing to the desired chemical reaction to the overall current) and reaction rate for acetone conversion increased with increasing temperature or applied voltage for the electrocatalytic acetone/water system. The reaction rate and current efficiency went through a maximum with respect to acetone concentration. The reaction rate for acetone conversion increased with increasing temperature for the electrocatalytic acetone/hydrogen system. Increasing the applied voltage for the electrocatalytic acetone/hydrogen system decreased the current efficiency due to production of hydrogen gas. Results from this study demonstrate the commercial feasibility of using PEM reactors to electrocatalytically reduce biomass-derived oxygenates into renewable fuels and chemicals.

  1. Energy-efficient wastewater treatment via the air-based, hybrid membrane biofilm reactor (hybrid MfBR).

    PubMed

    Aybar, M; Pizarro, G; Boltz, J P; Downing, L; Nerenberg, R

    2014-01-01

    We used modeling to predict the energy and cost savings associated with the air-based, hybrid membrane-biofilm reactor (hybrid MfBR). This process is obtained by replacing fine-bubble diffusers in conventional activated sludge with air-supplying, hollow-fiber membrane modules. Evaluated processes included removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), combined COD and total nitrogen (TN) removal, and hybrid growth (biofilm and suspended). Target concentrations of COD and TN were based on high-stringency water reuse scenarios. Results showed reductions in power requirements as high as 86%. The decrease mainly resulted from the dramatically lower air flows for the MBfR, resulting from its higher oxygen-transfer efficiencies. When the MBfR was used for COD and TN removal, savings up to US$200/1,000 m(3) of treated water were predicted. Cost savings were highly sensitive to the costs of the membrane modules and electrical power. The costs were also very sensitive to membrane oxidation flux for ammonia, and the membrane life. These results suggest the hybrid MBfR may provide significant savings in energy and costs. Further research on the identified key parameters can help confirm these modeling predictions and facilitate scale-up.

  2. Organization of the Escherichia coli aerobic enzyme complexes of oxidative phosphorylation in dynamic domains within the cytoplasmic membrane

    PubMed Central

    Erhardt, Heiko; Dempwolff, Felix; Pfreundschuh, Moritz; Riehle, Marc; Schäfer, Caspar; Pohl, Thomas; Graumann, Peter; Friedrich, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    The Escherichia coli cytoplasmic membrane contains the enzyme complexes of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Not much is known about their supramolecular organization and their dynamics within the membrane in this model organism. In mitochondria and other bacteria, it was demonstrated by nondenaturing electrophoretic methods and electron microscopy that the OXPHOS complexes are organized in so-called supercomplexes, stable assemblies with a defined number of the individual enzyme complexes. To investigate the organization of the E. coli enzyme complexes of aerobic OXPHOS in vivo, we established fluorescent protein fusions of the NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, the succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, the cytochrome bd-I, and the cytochrome bo3 terminal oxidases, and the FoF1 ATP-synthase. The fusions were integrated in the chromosome to prevent artifacts caused by protein overproduction. Biochemical analysis revealed that all modified complexes were fully assembled, active, and stable. The distribution of the OXPHOS complexes in living cells was determined using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. The dynamics within the membrane were detected by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. All aerobic OXPHOS complexes showed an uneven distribution in large mobile patches within the E. coli cytoplasmic membrane. It is discussed whether the individual OXPHOS complexes are organized as clustered individual complexes, here called “segrazones.” PMID:24729508

  3. Engineering development of ceramic membrane reactor system for converting natural gas to hydrogen and synthesis gas for liquid transportation fuels

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through June 1998.

  4. A cyclic-olefin-copolymer microfluidic immobilized-enzyme reactor for rapid digestion of proteins from dried blood spots.

    PubMed

    Wouters, Bert; Dapic, Irena; Valkenburg, Thalassa S E; Wouters, Sam; Niezen, Leon; Eeltink, Sebastiaan; Corthals, Garry L; Schoenmakers, Peter J

    2017-03-31

    A critical step in the bottom-up characterization of proteomes is the conversion of proteins to peptides, by means of endoprotease digestion. Nowadays this method typically uses overnight digestion and as such represents a considerable bottleneck for high-throughput analysis. This report describes protein digestion using an immobilized-enzyme reactor (IMER), which enables accelerated digestion times that are completed within seconds to minutes. For rapid digestion to occur, a cyclic-olefin-copolymer microfluidic reactor was constructed containing trypsin immobilized on a polymer monolithic material through a 2-vinyl-4,4-dimethylazlactone linker. The IMER was applied for the rapid offline digestion of both singular protein standards and a complex protein mixture prior to liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) analysis. The effects of protein concentration and residence time in the IMER were assessed for protein standards of varying molecular weight between 11 and 240kDa. Compared to traditional in-solution digestion, IMER-facilitated protein digestion at room temperature for 5min yielded similar results in terms of sequence coverage and number of identified peptides. Good repeatability was demonstrated with a relative standard deviation of 6% for protein-sequence coverage. The potential of the IMER was also demonstrated for a complex protein mixture in the analysis of dried blood spots. Compared to a traditional workflow a similar number of proteins could be identified, while reducing the total analysis time from 22.5h to 4h and importantly omitting the sample-pre-treatment steps (denaturation, reduction, and alkylation). The identified proteins from two workflows showed similar distributions in terms of molecular weight and hydrophobic character.

  5. The Potential For Efficient Biological Pre-Treatment Of Exploration Based Waste Streams For Potable Water Production Using A Membrane Reactor Capable Of Simultaneous Nitrification-Denitrification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, William; Morse, Audra; Landes, Nick

    Long term space habitation and exploration require high efficiency water recycling systems. Waste streams from space habitation contain high concentrations of both organic nitrogen and ammonium and high ratios of N to organic C compared to terrestrial wastewater. As with terrestrial systems wastewater must be highly treated to remove organic carbon, nitrogen compounds, salts, and trace constituents. In general, either some type of reverse osmosis or distillation step is required as the final treatment prior to disinfection. However, the high waste strength of the waste can seriously impact the efficiency of these post-processors. Biological pre-treatment is one process capable of significant reductions in organic carbon and nitrogen. Biological systems are self sustaining and require minimal inputs of energy or consumables. Research in our lab has been conducted to evaluate a number of micro-gravity compatible biological reactor systems. Both nitrification-denitrification coupled systems, in which oxygen consumption is reduced by using nitrate as an electron acceptor, and single reactor systems for organic removal and nitrification have been extensively investigated. Reactor types include tubular pulsed flow reactors, packed bed reactors, and membrane reactors. Recently a single vessel membrane reactor capable of simultaneous nitrification-denitrification (sNDN) has been developed and evaluated for its ability to potentially replace other proposed systems. Results to be presented include a review of past system performance and limitations with comparison to the performance of the new sNDN reactor system. Conversion efficiency, stability, and volumetric reaction rates will be discussed.

  6. The on-line synthesis of enzyme functionalized silica nanoparticles in a microfluidic reactor using polyethylenimine polymer and R5 peptide.

    PubMed

    He, Ping; Greenway, Gillian; Haswell, Stephen J

    2008-08-06

    A simple microfluidic reactor system is described for the effective synthesis of enzyme functionalized nanoparticles which offers many advantages over batch reactions, including excellent enzyme efficiencies. Better control of the process parameters in the microfluidic reactor system over batch based methodology enables the production of silica nanoparticles with the optimum size for efficient enzyme immobilization with long-term stability. The synthetic approach is demonstrated with glucose oxidase (GOD) and two different nucleation catalysts of similar molecular mass: the natural R5 peptide, and polyethylenimine (PEI) polymer. Near-quantitative immobilization of GOD in the nanoparticles is obtained using PEI; the immobilization is attributed to electrostatic interaction between PEI and GOD. This interaction, however, limits the mobility of the immobilized enzyme, producing orientation hindrance of the enzyme's active sites as compared to free GOD in solution. In contrast, when the GOD is immobilized inside the silica nanoparticles using R5, lower enzyme immobilization efficiencies are obtained compared to using PEI polymers; however, similar Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters (i.e. Michaelis constant and turnover number) to those of free GOD are observed. Reactions were monitored in situ using simple, rapid, separation-free amperometric detection.

  7. Construction of a D-amino acid oxidase reactor based on magnetic nanoparticles modified by a reactive polymer and its application in screening enzyme inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mu, Xiaoyu; Qiao, Juan; Qi, Li; Liu, Ying; Ma, Huimin

    2014-08-13

    Developing facile and high-throughput methods for exploring pharmacological inhibitors of D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) has triggered increasing interest. In this work, DAAO was immobilized on the magnetic nanoparticles, which were modified by a biocompatible reactive polymer, poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) via an atom transfer radical polymerization technique. Interestingly, the enzyme immobilization process was greatly promoted with the assistance of a lithium perchlorate catalyst. Meanwhile, a new amino acid ionic liquid (AAIL) was successfully synthesized and employed as the efficient chiral ligand in a chiral ligand exchange capillary electrophoresis (CLE-CE) system for chiral separation of amino acids (AAs) and quantitation of methionine, which was selected as the substrate of DAAO. Then, the apparent Michaelis-Menten constants in the enzyme system were determined with the proposed CLE-CE method. The prepared DAAO-PGMA-Fe3O4 nanoparticles exhibited excellent reusability and good stability. Moreover, the enzyme reactor was successfully applied in screening DAAO inhibitors. These results demonstrated that the enzyme could be efficiently immobilized on the polymer-grafted magnetic nanoparticles and that the obtained enzyme reactor has great potential in screening enzyme inhibitors, further offering new insight into monitoring the relevant diseases.

  8. GO-PROMTO illuminates protein membrane topologies of glycan biosynthetic enzymes in the Golgi apparatus of living tissues.

    PubMed

    Søgaard, Casper; Stenbæk, Anne; Bernard, Sophie; Hadi, Masood; Driouich, Azeddine; Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Sakuragi, Yumiko

    2012-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus is the main site of glycan biosynthesis in eukaryotes. Better understanding of the membrane topology of the proteins and enzymes involved can impart new mechanistic insights into these processes. Publically available bioinformatic tools provide highly variable predictions of membrane topologies for given proteins. Therefore we devised a non-invasive experimental method by which the membrane topologies of Golgi-resident proteins can be determined in the Golgi apparatus in living tissues. A Golgi marker was used to construct a series of reporters based on the principle of bimolecular fluorescence complementation. The reporters and proteins of interest were recombinantly fused to split halves of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and transiently co-expressed with the reporters in the Nicotiana benthamiana leaf tissue. Output signals were binary, showing either the presence or absence of fluorescence with signal morphologies characteristic of the Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The method allows prompt and robust determinations of membrane topologies of Golgi-resident proteins and is termed GO-PROMTO (for GOlgi PROtein Membrane TOpology). We applied GO-PROMTO to examine the topologies of proteins involved in the biosynthesis of plant cell wall polysaccharides including xyloglucan and arabinan. The results suggest the existence of novel biosynthetic mechanisms involving transports of intermediates across Golgi membranes.

  9. Human recombinant beta-secretase immobilized enzyme reactor for fast hits' selection and characterization from a virtual screening library.

    PubMed

    De Simone, Angela; Mancini, Francesca; Cosconati, Sandro; Marinelli, Luciana; La Pietra, Valeria; Novellino, Ettore; Andrisano, Vincenza

    2013-01-25

    In the present work, a human recombinant BACE1 immobilized enzyme reactor (hrBACE1-IMER) has been applied for the sensitive fast screening of 38 compounds selected through a virtual screening approach. HrBACE1-IMER was inserted into a liquid chromatograph coupled with a fluorescent detector. A fluorogenic peptide substrate (M-2420), containing the β-secretase site of the Swedish mutation of APP, was injected and cleaved in the on-line HPLC-hrBACE1-IMER system, giving rise to the fluorescent product. The compounds of the library were tested for their ability to inhibit BACE1 in the immobilized format and to reduce the area related to the chromatographic peak of the fluorescent enzymatic product. The results were validated in solution by using two different FRET methods. Due to the efficient virtual screening methodology, more than fifty percent of the selected compounds showed a measurable inhibitory activity. One of the most active compound (a bis-indanone derivative) was characterized in terms of IC(50) and K(i) determination on the hrBACE1-IMER. Thus, the hrBACE1-IMER has been confirmed as a valid tool for the throughput screening of different chemical entities with potency lower than 30μM for the fast hits' selection and for mode of action determination.

  10. Physical properties, lipid composition and enzyme activities of hepatic subcellular membranes from chick embryo after ethanol treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Amate, M.C.; Marco, C.; Segovia, J.L. )

    1992-01-01

    Exposure of chick embryos to ethanol resulted in significant alterations to the lipid composition of various different hepatic subcellular membranes. A marked decrease in cholesterol levels and an increase in the phospholipid content of microsomes and mitochondria was observed. Ethanol also affected the fatty acid profiles, mainly by decreasing the percentage of oleic acid in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine in the mitochondria and phosphatidylethanolamine in the microsomes. In spite of these changes ethanol only induced alterations in the fluidity of the mitochondrial membranes, which showed a more rigid core, in contrast to the phospholipid-head region, which was not affected. In accordance with the changes observed in the physical state of the membrane, the enzymes involved in the microsomal electron-transport systems were not modified by ethanol, while cytochrome oxidase activity decreased by 50% compared to the activity in the mitochondria from control chick embryos.

  11. Optical enzyme sensor for urea determination via immobilized pH indicator and urease onto transparent membranes.

    PubMed

    Krysteva, Milka; Al Hallak, Mohamed

    2003-07-01

    Transparent triacetylcellulose membranes with immobilized pH indicator (neutral red) as well as with simultaneously immobilized urease and neutral red were used as optical sensors for determination of urea concentrations in model solutions. Decomposition of urea with the enzyme urease is accompanied by evolution of ammonia. This leads to the changes of the neutral red absorption, which is proportional to the substrate (urea) within certain concentration limits in model solution. As a result of the investigation, standard curves were plotted for determination of urea over the range of 1 to 500 mM using immobilized indicator and free urease. Simultaneous immobilization of indicator and urease permitted determination of urea in the interval 50 to 500 mM. The membrane used contained 0.169 U urease activity on an area of 1.7 cm2. The standard curves were plotted using the linear region of the kinetic curves for the corresponding substrate concentrations. A possible scheme of the interaction between the activated triacetylcellulose membrane and the indicator and enzyme is proposed. The membranes obtained are suitable for repeated ecological applications where urea is to be determined.

  12. Artificial-enzyme gel membrane-based biosurveillance sensor with high reproducibility and long-term storage stability.

    PubMed

    Ikeno, Shinya; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Haruyama, Tetsuya

    2009-02-01

    We propose that the most sophisticated strategy for primary biosurveillance is to exploit structural commonality through the detection of biologically relevant phosphoric substances. A novel assay, an artificial-enzyme membrane was designed and synthesized for sensor fabrication. This artificial-enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of the diphosphoric acid anhydride structure. This structure-selective, albeit not molecule-selective, catalytic hydrolysis was successfully coupled with amperometric detection. Since the catalytic reaction produces a dephosphorylation product (PO(4)(3-)), it can be reduced by an electrode potential of -250 mV vs. Ag/AgCl. Owing to the structural selectivity of the artificial-enzyme membrane, the sensor can detect biological phosphoric substances comprehensively that have the diphosphoric acid anhydride structure. The sensor successfully determined various biological phosphoric substances at concentrations in the micromolar (microM) to millimolar (mM) range, and it showed good functional stability and reproducibility in terms of sensor responses. This sensor was used to detect Escherichia coli lysed by heat treatment, and the response increased with increasing bacterial numbers. This unique technique for analyzing molecular commonality can be applied to the surveillance of biocontaminants, e.g. microorganisms, spores and viruses. Artificial-enzyme-based detection is a novel strategy for practical biosurveillance in the front line.

  13. Pd-Ag Membrane Coupled to a Two-Zone Fluidized Bed Reactor (TZFBR) for Propane Dehydrogenation on a Pt-Sn/MgAl2O4 Catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Medrano, José-Antonio; Julián, Ignacio; Herguido, Javier; Menéndez, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Several reactor configurations have been tested for catalytic propane dehydrogenation employing Pt-Sn/MgAl2O4 as a catalyst. Pd-Ag alloy membranes coupled to the multifunctional Two-Zone Fluidized Bed Reactor (TZFBR) provide an improvement in propane conversion by hydrogen removal from the reaction bed through the inorganic membrane in addition to in situ catalyst regeneration. Twofold process intensification is thereby achieved when compared to the use of traditional fluidized bed reactors (FBR), where coke formation and thermodynamic equilibrium represent important process limitations. Experiments were carried out at 500–575 °C and with catalyst mass to molar flow of fed propane ratios between 15.1 and 35.2 g min mmol−1, employing three different reactor configurations: FBR, TZFBR and TZFBR + Membrane (TZFBR + MB). The results in the FBR showed catalyst deactivation, which was faster at high temperatures. In contrast, by employing the TZFBR with the optimum regenerative agent flow (diluted oxygen), the process activity was sustained throughout the time on stream. The TZFBR + MB showed promising results in catalytic propane dehydrogenation, displacing the reaction towards higher propylene production and giving the best results among the different reactor configurations studied. Furthermore, the results obtained in this study were better than those reported on conventional reactors. PMID:24958620

  14. Purge gas recovery of ammonia synthesis plant by integrated configuration of catalytic hydrogen-permselective membrane reactor and solid oxide fuel cell as a novel technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siavashi, Fakhteh; Saidi, Majid; Rahimpour, Mohammad Reza

    2014-12-01

    The purge gas emission of ammonia synthesis plant which contains hazardous components is one of the major sources of environmental pollution. Using integrated configuration of catalytic hydrogen-permselective membrane reactor and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system is a new approach which has a great impact to reduce the pollutant emission. By application of this method, not only emission of ammonia and methane in the atmosphere is prevented, hydrogen is produced through the methane steam reforming and ammonia decomposition reactions that take place simultaneously in a catalytic membrane reactor. The pure generated hydrogen by recovery of the purge gas in the Pd-Ag membrane reactor is used as a feed of SOFC. Since water is the only byproduct of the electrochemical reaction in the SOFC, it is recycled to the reactor for providing the required water of the reforming reaction. Performance investigation of the reactor represents that the rate of hydrogen permeation increases with enhancing the reactor temperature and pressure. Also modeling results indicate that the SOFC performance improves with increasing the temperature and fuel utilization ratio. The generated power by recovery of the purging gas stream of ammonia synthesis plant in the Razi petrochemical complex is about 8 MW.

  15. Assessing microbial competition in a hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) using multidimensional modeling.

    PubMed

    Martin, Kelly J; Picioreanu, Cristian; Nerenberg, Robert

    2015-09-01

    The membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) is a novel technology that safely delivers hydrogen to the base of a denitrifying biofilm via gas-supplying membranes. While hydrogen is an effective electron donor for denitrifying bacteria (DNB), it also supports sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and methanogens (MET), which consume hydrogen and create undesirable by-products. SRB and MET are only competitive for hydrogen when local nitrate concentrations are low, therefore SRB and MET primarily grow near the base of the biofilm. In an MBfR, hydrogen concentrations are greatest at the base of the biofilm, making SRB and MET more likely to proliferate in an MBfR system than a conventional biofilm reactor. Modeling results showed that because of this, control of the hydrogen concentration via the intramembrane pressure was a key tool for limiting SRB and MET development. Another means is biofilm management, which supported both sloughing and erosive detachment. For the conditions simulated, maintaining thinner biofilms promoted higher denitrification fluxes and limited the presence of SRB and MET. The 2-d modeling showed that periodic biofilm sloughing helped control slow-growing SRB and MET. Moreover, the rough (non-flat) membrane assembly in the 2-d model provided a special niche for SRB and MET that was not represented in the 1-d model. This study compared 1-d and 2-d biofilm model applicability for simulating competition in counter-diffusional biofilms. Although more computationally expensive, the 2-d model captured important mechanisms unseen in the 1-d model.

  16. Effects of mass-transfer resistance on apparent stability and performance of fixed-bed immobilized enzyme reactors: theory and experiments with immobilized invertase

    SciTech Connect

    Ooshima, H.; Harano, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Taking the hydrolysis of sucrose by invertase immobilized on anion-exchange resin as an example, the effects of mass-transfer resistance on the apparent stability of immobilized enzyme (IME) and the optimal policy for an IME reaction in a fixed-bed reactor have been studied theoretically and experimentally. The following results were obtained: 1) The effect of mass-transfer resistance on the effective deactivation rate of IME is summarized in two parameters concerning the intraparticle diffusion alphap and the interparticle alphaf. 2) At a constant processed amount of raw materials, there exists an optimal flow rate of reaction fluid to enhance the reactor performance while the mass-transfer resistance shifts the optimal point. 3) The intrinsic deactivation rate of IME has been estimated from the relationship between the fractional conversion at the reactor outlet and the operation time. (Refs. 12).

  17. Long term operation of high concentration powdered activated carbon membrane bio-reactor for advanced water treatment.

    PubMed

    Seo, G T; Moon, C D; Chang, S W; Lee, S H

    2004-01-01

    A pilot scale experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of a membrane bioreactor filled with high concentration powdered activated carbon. This hybrid system has great potential to substitute for existing GAC or O3/BAC processes in the drinking water treatment train. The system was installed at a water treatment plant located downstream of the Nakdong river basin, Korea. Effluent of rapid sand filter was used as influent of the system which consists of PAC bio-reactor, submerged MF membrane module and air supply facility. PAC concentration of 20 g/L was maintained at the beginning of the experiment and it was increased to 40 g/L. The PAC has not been changed during the operational periods. The membrane was a hollow fiber type with pore sizes of 0.1 and 0.4 microm. It was apparent that the high PAC concentration could prevent membrane fouling. 40 g/L PAC was more effective to reduce the filtration resistance than 20 g/L. At the flux of 0.36 m/d, TMP was maintained less than 40 kPa for about 3 months by intermittent suction type operation (12 min suction/3 min idling). Adsorption was the dominant role to remove DOC at the initial operational period. However the biological effect was gradually increased after around 3 months operation. Constant DOC removal could be maintained at about 40% without any trouble and then a tremendous reduction of DBPs (HAA5 and THM) higher than 85% was achieved. Full nitrification was observed at the controlled influent ammonia nitrogen concentration of 3 and 7 mg/L. pH was an important parameter to keep stable ammonia oxidation. From almost two years of operation, it is clear that the PAC membrane bioreactor is highly applicable for advanced water treatment under the recent situation of more stringent DBPs regulation in Korea.

  18. Comparative study between chemostat and batch reactors to quantify membrane permeability changes on bacteria exposed to silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Anaya, Nelson M; Faghihzadeh, Fatemeh; Ganji, Nasim; Bothun, Geoff; Oyanedel-Craver, Vinka

    2016-09-15

    Continuous and batch reactors were used to assess the effect of the exposure of casein-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on Escherichia coli (E. coli). Additionally, E. coli membrane extracts, membrane permeability and Langmuir film balance assays were used to determine integrity and changes in lipid composition in response to AgNPs exposure. Results showed that batch conditions were not appropriate for the tests due to the production of exopolymeric substances (EPS) during the growth phase. After 5h of contact between AgNPs and the used growth media containing EPS, the nanoparticles increased in size from 86nm to 282nm reducing the stability and thus limiting cell-nanoparticle interactions. AgNPs reduced E. coli growth by 20% at 1mg/L, in terms of Optical Density 670 (OD670), while no effect was detected at 15mg/L. At 50mg/L of AgNPs was not possible to perform the test due to aggregation and sedimentation of the nanoparticles. Membrane extract assays showed that at 1mg/L AgNPs had a greater change in area (-4.4cm(2)) on bacteria compared to 15mg/L (-4.0cm(2)). This area increment suggested that membrane disruption caused by AgNPs had a stabilizing/rigidifying effect where the cells responded by shifting their lipid composition to more unsaturated lipids to counteract membrane rigidification. In chemostats, the constant inflow of fresh media and aeration resulted in less AgNPs aggregation, thus increased the AgNPs-bacteria interactions, in comparison to batch conditions. AgNPs at 1mg/L, 15mg/L, and 50mg/L inhibited the growth (OD670 reduction) by 0%, 11% and 16.3%, respectively. Membrane extracts exposed to 1mg/L, 15mg/L, and 50mg/L of AgNPs required greater changes in area by -0.5cm(2), 2.7cm(2) and 3.6cm(2), respectively, indicating that the bacterial membranes were disrupted and bacteria responded by synthesizing lipids that stabilize or strengthen membranes. This study showed that the chemostat is more appropriate for the testing of nanotoxicological effects

  19. The binding of cyanide to cytochrome d in intact cells, spheroplasts, membrane fragments and solubilized enzyme from Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Keyhani, E; Minai-Tehrani, D

    2001-07-02

    This investigation focused on the kinetics of cyanide binding to oxidized and reduced cytochrome d in Salmonella typhimurium intact cells, spheroplasts, membrane fragments and solubilized enzyme, and on the effect of pH on this binding. Cyanide bound to the oxidized form of cytochrome d under all experimental conditions, inducing a trough at 649 nm in the oxidized-cyanide-minus-oxidized difference absorption spectra. V(max) of cyanide binding to oxidized cytochrome d at pH 7.0 was 14.0+/-2.0 pmol/min/mg protein (prot.) in intact cells, 37.0+/-3.5 pmol/min/mg prot. in spheroplasts, 125.0+/-6.0 pmol/min/mg prot. in membrane fragments, and 538.0+/-8.5 pmol/min/mg prot. in solubilized cytochrome d. The pseudo-first order rate constants were 0.004 s(-1) for intact cells, 0.005 s(-1) for spheroplasts, 0.007 s(-1) for membrane fragments and 0.025 s(-1) for the solubilized enzyme. The V(max) value was highest at pH 7.0 for intact cells and solubilized cytochrome d and at pH 8.0 for both spheroplasts and membrane fragments. The K(s) of binding at pH 7.0 was around 4 mM in intact cells, spheroplasts and membrane fragments, but was 10.5 mM in solubilized cytochrome d. This difference between the K(s) values suggested a change in conformation, upon solubilization, leading to a decrease in the affinity of cyanide for the solubilized enzyme. The K(s) value was nearly the same at all pH investigated (pH 5-10). Cyanide was found to also bind to the reduced form of cytochrome d in membrane fragments (K(s)=18+/-3 mM, V(max)=377+/-28 pmol/min/mg prot. at pH 7) and the solubilized enzyme (K(s)=18+/-1.2 mM, V(max)=649+/-45 pmol/min/mg prot. at pH 7) with a lower affinity of cyanide for the reduced cytochrome d than for the oxidized enzyme. Pseudo-first order rate constants were 0.025 s(-1) and 0.042 s(-1) respectively for membrane fragments and solubilized enzyme. The value of V(max) for cyanide binding to the reduced cytochrome d, whether membrane-bound or solubilized, increased

  20. Novel Composite Hydrogen-Permeable Membranes for Non-Thermal Plasma Reactors for the Decomposition of Hydrogen Sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Morris D. Argyle; John F. Ackerman; Suresh Muknahallipatna; Jerry C. Hamann; Stanislaw Legowski; Guibling Zhao; Ji-Jun Zhang; Sanil John

    2005-10-01

    The goal of this experimental project is to design and fabricate a reactor and membrane test cell to dissociate hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in a non-thermal plasma and recover hydrogen (H{sub 2}) through a superpermeable multi-layer membrane. Superpermeability of hydrogen atoms (H) has been reported by some researchers using membranes made of Group V transition metals (niobium, tantalum, vanadium, and their alloys), although it has yet to be confirmed in this study. A pulsed corona discharge (PCD) reactor has been fabricated and used to dissociate H{sub 2}S into hydrogen and sulfur. A nonthermal plasma cannot be produced in pure H{sub 2}S with our reactor geometry, even at discharge voltages of up to 30 kV, because of the high dielectric strength of pure H{sub 2}S ({approx}2.9 times higher than air). Therefore, H{sub 2}S was diluted in another gas with lower breakdown voltage (or dielectric strength). Breakdown voltages of H{sub 2}S in four balance gases (Ar, He, N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}) have been measured at different H{sub 2}S concentrations and pressures. Breakdown voltages are proportional to the partial pressure of H{sub 2}S and the balance gas. H{sub 2}S conversion and the reaction energy efficiency depend on the balance gas and H{sub 2}S inlet concentrations. With increasing H{sub 2}S concentrations, H{sub 2}S conversion initially increases, reaches a maximum, and then decreases. H{sub 2}S conversion in atomic balance gases, such as Ar and He, is more efficient than that in diatomic balance gases, such as N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}. These observations can be explained by the proposed reaction mechanism of H{sub 2}S dissociation in different balance gases. The results show that nonthermal plasmas are effective for dissociating H{sub 2}S into hydrogen and sulfur.

  1. Measuring potential denitrification enzyme activity rates using the membrane inlet mass spectrometer

    EPA Science Inventory

    The denitrification enzyme activity (DEA) assay, provides a quantitative assessment of the multi enzyme, biological process of reactive nitrogen removal via the reduction of N03 to N2. Measured in soil, usually under non limiting carbon and nitrate concentrations, this short ter...

  2. Effects of hydrophobicity of diffusion layer on the electroreduction of biomass derivatives in polymer electrolyte membrane reactors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; He, Gaohong; Ge, Feilong; Xiao, Wu; Benziger, Jay; Wu, Xuemei

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, the hydrophobicity design of a diffusion layer based on the volatility of hydrogenation reactants in aqueous solutions is reported. The hydrophobicity of the diffusion layer greatly influences the hydrogenation performance of two model biomass derivatives, namely, butanone and maleic acid, in polymer electrolyte membrane reactors operated at atmospheric pressure. Hydrophobic carbon paper repels aqueous solutions, but highly volatile butanone can permeate in vapor form and achieve a high hydrogenation rate, whereas, for nonvolatile maleic acid, great mass transfer resistance prevents hydrogenation. With a hydrophilic stainless-steel welded mesh diffusion layer, aqueous solutions of both butanone and maleic acid permeate in liquid form. Hydrogenation of maleic acid reaches a similar level as that of butanone. The maximum reaction rate is 340 nmol cm(-2)  s(-1) for both hydrogenation systems and the current efficiency reaches 70 %. These results are better than those reported in the literature.

  3. Effects of salinity on simultaneous reduction of perchlorate and nitrate in a methane-based membrane biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yin; Chen, Jia-Xian; Wen, Li-Lian; Tang, Youneng; Zhao, He-Ping

    2016-12-01

    This study builds upon prior work showing that methane (CH4) could be utilized as the sole electron donor and carbon source in a membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) for complete perchlorate (ClO4(-)) and nitrate (NO3(-)) removal. Here, we further investigated the effects of salinity on the simultaneous removal of the two contaminants in the reactor. By testing ClO4(-) and NO3(-) at different salinities, we found that the reactor performance was very sensitive to salinity. While 0.2 % salinity did not significantly affect the hydrogen-based MBfR for ClO4(-) and NO3(-) removals, 1 % salinity completely inhibited ClO4(-) reduction and significantly lowered NO3(-) reduction in the CH4-based MBfR. In salinity-free conditions, NO3(-) and ClO4(-) removal fluxes were 0.171 g N/m(2)-day and 0.091 g/m(2)-day, respectively, but NO3(-) removal fluxes dropped to 0.0085 g N/m(2)-day and ClO4(-) reduction was completely inhibited when the medium changed to 1 % salinity. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the salinity dramatically changed the microbial morphology, which led to the development of wire-like cell structures. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) indicated that the total number of microorganisms and abundances of functional genes significantly declined in the presence of NaCl. The relative abundances of Methylomonas (methanogens) decreased from 31.3 to 5.9 % and Denitratisoma (denitrifiers) decreased from 10.6 to 4.4 % when 1 % salinity was introduced.

  4. A continuous stirred hydrogen-based polyvinyl chloride membrane biofilm reactor for the treatment of nitrate contaminated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Xia, Siqing; Zhang, YanHao; Zhong, FoHua

    2009-12-01

    A continuous stirred hydrogen-based polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) was investigated to remove nitrate from the drinking water. The reactor was operated over 100 days, and the result showed that the average nitrate denitrification rate of 1.2 g NO(3)(-)-N/m(2) d and the total nitrogen (TN) removal of 95.1% were achieved with the influent nitrate concentration of 50 mg NO(3)(-)-N/L and the hydrogen pressure of 0.05 MPa. Under the same conditions, the average rate of hydrogen utilization by biofilm was 0.031 mg H(2)/cm(2) d, which was sufficient to remove 50 mg NO(3)(-)-N/L from the contaminated water with the effluent nitrate and nitrite concentrations below drinking water limit values. The average hydrogen utilization efficiency was achieved as high as 99.5%. Flux analysis demonstrated that, compared to sulfate reduction, nitrate reduction competed more strongly for hydrogen electron, and obtained more electrons in high influent nitrate loading.

  5. Evaluation of a Membrane Biological Reactor for Reclaiming Water, Alkalinity, Salts, Phosphorus, and Protein Contained in a High-Strength Aquacultural Wastewater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The capacity of a membrane biological reactor to provide nitrification, denitrification, and enhanced biological phosphorus removal of a high-strength aquaculture backwash flow (control condition), or the same flow amended with 100 mg/L of NO3-N and 3 mg/L of dissolved P (test condition), was assess...

  6. Effect of defoliant (butiphose) on morpho-physiological properties and enzyme systems of natural membranes.

    PubMed

    Mirakhmedov, A K; Ochilov, K R; Sagatova, G A; Khan, M Z; Khole, V

    1989-03-01

    Butiphose (Tributyltritiophosphate, (C4H9S)3PO) a commonly used defoliant in cotton growing regions of USSR, caused extensive alterations in morphological features of erythrocyte and nuclear membranes and affected the permeability properties of rat liver mitochondrial membrane. It disrupted Ca2+ transport system and other energy dependent processes in mitochondria. A reduction in the activity of cytochrome-c-oxidase and NAD.H-oxidase was also observed.

  7. Influence of low-power laser radiation on the activity of some membraneous and mitochondrial enzymes of hepatocytes in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieslar, Grzegorz; Adamek, Mariusz; Sieron, Aleksander; Kaminski, Marcin

    1995-01-01

    It was observed in some experiments that visible laser radiation activates the enzymatic function of mitochondria, while infrared laser radiation affects the enzymatic activity of cellular membranes. The aim of the study was to estimate the activity of some membranous as well as mitochondrial enzymes of hepatocytes in rats irradiated with infrared laser. Experimental material consisted of 38 Wistar rats divided into 2 groups -- a studied group exposed to infrared laser radiation and a control group, in which no irradiation was made. A semiconductive infrared laser (wavelength -- 904 nm, mean power -- 8.9 mW) was used. The clean-shaven skin of the right infracostal region of animals was irradiated 5 minutes daily for 15 consecutive days. After finishing the experiment in the preparations from obtained segments of the left liver lobe, the enzymatic activity of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH, EC 1.3.99.1), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH, EC 1.1.1.27), Mg2+ dependent ATP-ase (ATP-ase Mg2+, EC 3.1.3.2.) and acid phosphatase (AcP, EC 3.6.1.8.) was estimated with the use of histochemical methods. In the case of SDH and LDH the increase of enzymatic activity was observed in all 3 zones of liver cluster, especially in male rats. In the case of ATP-ase Mg2+ and AcP the increase of enzymatic activity in biliary canaliculi of hepatocytes in all zones of the liver cluster was observed. On the basis of the obtained results it was proved that infrared laser radiation activates significantly the enzymatic activity of most of the analyzed enzymes, which means that it affects not only properties of biological membranes but also activates the oxidoreductive processes of organism, as it has been observed for visible laser radiation. On the basis of the spectrum of energetic levels in macromolecules (Jablonski's diagram) the mechanisms of availed results are discussed both for enzymes possessing and not possessing chromatophores.

  8. Angiotensin-converting enzyme of the human small intestine. Subunit and quaternary structure, biosynthesis and membrane association.

    PubMed Central

    Naim, H Y

    1992-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) was isolated from detergent-derived extracts of human intestinal brush-border membranes (BBMs) by immunoprecipitation using a monoclonal antibody. Analysis of the immunoprecipitates by SDS/PAGE revealed a polypeptide of apparent M(r) 184,000 under reducing and non-reducing conditions, indicating that ACE does not contain intermolecular disulphide bridges. The quaternary structure of ACE was examined using cross-linking experiments with dithiobis[succinimidylpropionate] (DSP) and density gradient centrifugation on sucrose gradients. Both approaches demonstrated that ACE is assembled in the membrane as a monomer. By contrast, the control glycoprotein aminopeptidase N (ApN) exists as a dimer. Biosynthetic labelling experiments in intestinal tissue explants demonstrated that the 184,000-M(r) protein is generated from a single-polypeptide, mannose-rich precursor of ACE (M(r) 175,000) by modification of the carbohydrate side-chains in the Golgi apparatus. The mode of association of the mature form of the enzyme with BBMs was investigated by hydrophobic labelling of right-side-out brush-border vesicles with the photoactivatable carbene-generating reagent 125I-labelled 3-(trifluoromethyl)-3-(m[formylamino]phenyl)diazirine (125I-labelled TID), followed by treatment with trypsin at dilutions that do not cause substantial degradation of ACE. These studies demonstrated that ACE is associated with the membrane via a hydrophobic segment. Furthermore, treatment of 35S-labelled inside-out membrane vesicles with trypsin revealed that ACE possesses a cytoplasmic tail, and therefore has a transmembraneous orientation. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:1326943

  9. Inhibition of free radical scavenging enzymes affects mitochondrial membrane permeability transition during growth and aging of yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Deryabina, Yulia; Isakova, Elena; Sekova, Varvara; Antipov, Alexey; Saris, Nils-Erik L

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the change in the antioxidant enzymes activity, cell respiration, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and impairment of membrane mitochondria permeability in the Endomyces magnusii yeasts during culture growth and aging. We showed that the transition into stationary phase is the key tool to understanding interaction of these processes. This growth stage is distinguished by two-fold increase in ROS production and respiration rate as compared to those in the logarithmic phase. It results in induction of alternative oxidase (AO) in the stationary phase, decline of the main antioxidant enzymes activities, ROS-production, and mitochondria membrane permeability. Significant increase in the share of mitochondrial isoform of superoxide dismutase (SOD2) occurred in the stationary phase from 51.8% (24 h of cultivation) to 68.6% (48 h of cultivation). Upon blocking the essential ROS-scavenging enzymes, SODs and catalases (CATs) some heterogeneity of cell population was observed: 80-90% of cells displayed evident signs of early apoptosis (such as disorientation of mitochondria cristae, mitochondrial fragmentation and deformation of nuclear chromatine). However, 10-20% of the population were definitely healthy. It allowed to draw the conclusion that a complete system of cell antioxidant protection underlies normal mitochondria functioning while the E. magnusii yeasts grow and age. Moreover, this system provides unimpaired cell physiology under oxidative stress during culture aging in the stationary phase. Failures in mitochondria functions due to inhibition of ROS-scavenging enzymes of CATs and SODs could lead to damage of the cells and some signs of early apoptosis.

  10. Robust Low-Cost Water-Gas Shift Membrane Reactor for High-Purity Hydrogen Production form Coal-Derived Syngas

    SciTech Connect

    James Torkelson; Neng Ye; Zhijiang Li; Decio Coutinho; Mark Fokema

    2008-05-31

    This report details work performed in an effort to develop a low-cost, robust water gas shift membrane reactor to convert coal-derived syngas into high purity hydrogen. A sulfur- and halide-tolerant water gas shift catalyst and a sulfur-tolerant dense metallic hydrogen-permeable membrane were developed. The materials were integrated into a water gas shift membrane reactor in order to demonstrate the production of >99.97% pure hydrogen from a simulated coal-derived syngas stream containing 2000 ppm hydrogen sulfide. The objectives of the program were to (1) develop a contaminant-tolerant water gas shift catalyst that is able to achieve equilibrium carbon monoxide conversion at high space velocity and low steam to carbon monoxide ratio, (2) develop a contaminant-tolerant hydrogen-permeable membrane with a higher permeability than palladium, (3) demonstrate 1 L/h purified hydrogen production from coal-derived syngas in an integrated catalytic membrane reactor, and (4) conduct a cost analysis of the developed technology.

  11. High efficiency removal of 2-chlorophenol from drinking water by a hydrogen-based polyvinyl chloride membrane biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Xia, Siqing; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Zhong, Fohua; Zhang, Jiao

    2011-02-28

    A continuously stirred hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) hollow fiber membrane was investigated for removing 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) from contaminated drinking water. The bioreactor startup was achieved by acclimating the microorganisms from a denitrifying and sulfate-reducing MBfR to the drinking water contaminated by 2-CP. The effects of some major factors, including 2-CP loading, H(2) pressure, nitrate loading, and sulfate loading, on the removal of 2-CP by the MBfR were systematically investigated. Although the effluent 2-CP concentration increased with its increasing influent loading, the removing efficiency of 2-CP by the MBfR could be up to 94.7% under a high influent loading (25.71 mg/L d). The removing efficiency of 2-CP by the MBfR could be improved by higher H(2) pressure, and lower influent nitrate concentration and sulfate concentration. A high H(2) pressure can assure enough available H(2) as the electron donor for 2-CP degradation. The competition in the electron donor made nitrate and sulfate inhibit the degradation of 2-CP in the MBfR. The electron flux analyses indicated that the degradation of 2-CP only accounted for a small part of electron flux, and the autohydrogenotrophic bacteria in the MBfR were highly efficient for the 2-CP removal.

  12. Design and startup of a membrane-biological-reactor system at a Ford-engine plant for treating oily wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kim, B R; Anderson, J E; Mueller, S A; Gaines, W A; Szafranski, M J; Bremmer, A L; Yarema, G J; Guciardo, C D; Linden, S; Doherty, T E

    2006-04-01

    A wastewater-treatment facility at Ford (Dearborn, Michigan) was recently upgraded from chemical de-emulsification to ultrafiltration (UF) followed by a membrane-biological reactor (MBR). This paper describes the design, startup, and initial operational performance of the facility. Primary findings are as follows: (1) the MBR proved resilient; (2) the MBR removed approximately 90% of chemical-oxygen demand (COD) after primary UF; (3) the removal of total Kjeldahl nitrogen by MBR appeared to be more sensitive to operating conditions than COD removal; (4) nitrification and denitrification were established in one month; (5) the MBR removed oil and grease and phenolics to below detection levels consistently, in contrast to widely fluctuating concentrations in the past; (6) permeate fluxes of the primary and MBR UF were adversely affected by inadvertent use of a silicone-based defoamer; and (7) zinc concentrations in the effluent increased, which might have been a result of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid used in membrane washing solutions and/or might have been within typical concentration ranges.

  13. Limitations encountered for the treatment of a low C:N waste using a modified membrane-aerated biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Landes, Nicholas C; Jackson, W Andrew; Morse, Audra N

    2011-02-01

    A modified membrane-aerated biofilm reactor (mMABR) that combined oxygen permeable membranes and inert attachment media to support both nitrification and denitrification was used to treat a carbon-limited (COD:N = 1.8) and ammonium-rich (NH4+ = 650 g-N/m3) space habitation waste stream. An eight-fold increase in intramembrane air pressure did not affect process performance; however, for an air pressure of 11 kPa (gauge), lower and upper hydraulic loading limits for the mMABR were identified at 30 g-N/m3 x d and 123 g-N/m3 x d, respectively. Oxygen limitation occurred at the highest loading rate and alkalinity limitation occurred at the lowest loading rate. Partial nitrification was noted at both limitations. Additionally, increased recirculation ratios were shown to decrease denitrification efficiency. Mean carbon and nitrogen removal rates were as high as 75.3 g-C/m3 x d (0.26 g-C/m2d) and 63.8 g-N/m3 x d (0.22 g-N/m2 x d), respectively. The mMABR achieved maximal nitrification and denitrification performance given the stoichiometric nature of the waste.

  14. Prostaglandin F2alpha receptors in bovine corpus luteum cell membranes. Effect of enzymes and protein reagents.

    PubMed

    Rao, C V

    1976-06-04

    Various enzymes and protein reagents inhibited [3H]prostaglandin F2alpha binding to bovine corpus luteum cell membranes. Studies were undertaken (a) to explore further on the dose response relationships with the above agents, (b) to investigate the mechanism of inhibition of binding with respect to receptor affinities and number and (c) to assess whether decreased binding reflected changes in receptors and/or other membrane components. Preincubation of membranes with phospholipase A, trypsin, pronase, lipase, tetranitromethane, dinitrofluorobenzene, acetic anhydride and N-ethylmaleimide resulted in moderate to drastic inhibitions of [3H]prostaglandin F2alpha binding. The dose-dependent inhibition of binding by enzymes, but not by protein reagents (except for N-ethylmaleimide), exhibited a biphasic pattern: at lower concentrations, the loss of binding was low and relatively plateaued, but at higher concentrations, the losses were dramatic. The drastic reduction in binding by trypsin was due to destruction rather than solubilization of receptors from membranes. Phospholipase A was intrinsically more effective than phospholipases C and Ca2+ was not required for its inhibition of [3H]prostaglandin F2alpha binding. Protein reagents inhibition of binding was differently influenced by added Ca2+ i.e., loss of binding increased with some (N-ethylmaleimide), decreased with others (tetranitromethane, dinitrofluorobenzene and azobenzene sulfenylbromide). These results are interpreted to indicate that Ca2+ induced conformational changes in membranes which may result in exposure of new groups and burying of already exposed modifiable groups. Treatment of membranes with trypsin and N-ethylmaleimide selectively abolished high affinity prostaglandin F2alpha receptors. The low affinity receptors were present but their numbers as well as their affinity were decreased. Lipase, phospholipase A, acetic anhydride, dinitrofluorobenzene and tetranitromethane appear to decrease binding by

  15. Instantaneous Click Chemistry by a Copper-Containing Polymeric-Membrane-Installed Microflow Catalytic Reactor.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yoichi M A; Ohno, Aya; Sato, Takuma; Uozumi, Yasuhiro

    2015-11-23

    The copper(I)-catalyzed Huisgen cycloaddition (azide-alkyne cycloaddition) is an important reaction in click chemistry that ideally proceeds instantaneously. An instantaneous Huisgen cycloaddition has been developed that uses a novel catalytic dinuclear copper complex-containing polymeric membrane-installed microflow device. A polymeric membranous copper catalyst was prepared from poly(4-vinylpyridine), copper(II) sulfate, sodium chloride, and sodium ascorbate at the interface of two laminar flows inside microchannels. Elucidation of the structure by XANES, EXAFS, and elemental analysis, as well as second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) calculations and density functional theory (DFT) calculations assigned the local structure near Cu as a μ-chloro dinuclear Cu(I) complex. The microflow device promotes the instantaneous click reaction of a variety of alkynes and organic azides to afford the corresponding triazoles in quantitative yield.

  16. Membrane biofouling in a wastewater nitrification reactor: Microbial succession from autotrophic colonization to heterotrophic domination.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huijie; Xue, Zheng; Saikaly, Pascal; Nunes, Suzana P; Bluver, Ted R; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2016-01-01

    Membrane biofouling is a complex process that involves bacterial adhesion, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) excretion and utilization, and species interactions. To obtain a better understanding of the microbial ecology of biofouling process, this study conducted rigorous, time-course analyses on the structure, EPS and microbial composition of the fouling layer developed on ultrafiltration membranes in a nitrification bioreactor. During a 14-day fouling event, three phases were determined according to the flux decline and microbial succession patterns. In Phase I (0-2 days), small sludge flocs in the bulk liquid were selectively attached on membrane surfaces, leading to the formation of similar EPS and microbial community composition as the early biofilms. Dominant populations in small flocs, e.g., Nitrosomonas, Nitrobacter, and Acinetobacter spp., were also the major initial colonizers on membranes. In Phase II (2-4 d), fouling layer structure, EPS composition, and bacterial community went through significant changes. Initial colonizers were replaced by fast-growing and metabolically versatile heterotrophs (e.g., unclassified Sphingobacteria). The declining EPS polysaccharide to protein (PS:PN) ratios could be correlated well with the increase in microbial community diversity. In Phase III (5-14 d), heterotrophs comprised over 90% of the community, whereas biofilm structure and EPS composition remained relatively stable. In all phases, AOB and NOB were constantly found within the top 40% of the fouling layer, with the maximum concentrations around 15% from the top. The overall microbial succession pattern from autotrophic colonization to heterotrophic domination implied that MBR biofouling could be alleviated by forming larger bacterial flocs in bioreactor suspension (reducing autotrophic colonization), and by designing more specific cleaning procedures targeting dominant heterotrophs during typical filtration cycles.

  17. Protective Effect of Prosopis cineraria Against N-Nitrosodiethylamine Induced Liver Tumor by Modulating Membrane Bound Enzymes and Glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Pakkir Maideen, Naina Mohamed; Velayutham, Ravichandiran; Manavalan, Gobinath

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of methanol extract of Prosopis cineraria (MPC) against N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN, 200mg/kg) induced Phenobarbital promoted experimental liver tumors in male Wistar rats. Methods: The rats were divided into four groups, each group consisting of six animals. Group 1 served as control animals. Liver tumor was induced in group 2, 3, and 4 and Group 3 animals received MPC 200mg/kg and Group 4 animals received MPC 400mg/kg. Results: Administration of DEN has brought down the levels of membrane bound enzymes like Na+/ K+ ATPase, Mg2+ ATPase and Ca2+ATPase which were later found to be increased by the administration of Prosopis cineraria (200 and 400mg/kg) in dose dependent manner. The MPC extract also suppressed the levels of glycoproteins like Hexose, Hexosamine and Sialic acid when compared to liver tumor bearing animals. Conclusion: Our study suggests that MPC may extend its protective role by modulating the levels of membrane bound enzymes and suppressing glycoprotein levels. PMID:24312790

  18. Monoclonal antibodies for structure-function studies of (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, a lipid-dependent membrane-bound enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Adami, P; Duncan, T M; McIntyre, J O; Carter, C E; Fu, C; Melin, M; Latruffe, N; Fleischer, S

    1993-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been used to study structure-function relationships of (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (BDH) (EC 1.1.1.30), a lipid-requiring mitochondrial membrane enzyme with an absolute and specific requirement for phosphatidylcholine (PC) for enzymic activity. The purified enzyme (apoBDH, devoid of phospholipid and thereby inactive) can be re-activated with preformed phospholipid vesicles containing PC or by short-chain soluble PC. Five of six mAbs cross-react with BDH from bovine heart and rat liver, including two mAbs to conformational epitopes. One mAb was found to be specific for the C-terminal sequence of BDH and served to: (1) map endopeptidase cleavage and epitope sites on BDH; and (2) demonstrate that the C-terminus is essential for the activity of BDH. Carboxypeptidase cleavage of only a few (< or = 14) C-terminal amino acids from apoBDH (as detected by the loss of C-terminal epitope for mAb 3-10A) prevents activation by either bilayer or soluble PC. Further, for BDH in bilayers containing PC, the C-terminus is protected from carboxy-peptidase cleavage, whereas in bilayers devoid of PC the C-terminus is cleaved, and subsequent activation by PC is precluded. We conclude that: (1) the C-terminus of BDH is essential for enzymic activity, consistent with the prediction, from primary sequence analysis, that the PC-binding site is in the C-terminal domain of BDH; and (2) the allosteric activation of BDH by PC in bilayers protects the C-terminus from carboxypeptidase cleavage, indicative of a PC-induced conformational change in the enzyme. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:7686368

  19. An Application of Microcapsules Having Enzyme-degradable Gel Membrane to Cell Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobashi, Toshiaki; Koike, Michiru; Kobayashi, Kentaro; Maki, Yasuyuki; Yamamoto, Takao; Tanaka, Susumu

    Newly developed microcapsules having gelatin wall membrane was applied as a scaffold for suspension cell culture. The optimum preparation condition was determined, and the stability of the cultured human fibroblast cells using the microcapsules was examined at both protein and gene levels.

  20. The ESCRT-III-interacting deubiquitinating enzyme AMSH3 is essential for degradation of ubiquitinated membrane proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Katsiarimpa, Anthi; Muñoz, Alfonso; Kalinowska, Kamila; Uemura, Tomohiro; Rojo, Enrique; Isono, Erika

    2014-04-01

    Post-translational modification by ubiquitin plays a key role in the regulation of endocytic degradation in which ubiquitinated plasma membrane cargos are transported to the vacuole for degradation dependent on the ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport) machinery. Arabidopsis AMSH3 (ASSOCIATED MOLECULE WITH THE SH3 DOMAIN OF STAM 3) is a deubiquitinating enzyme that interacts with at least two subunits of the ESCRT-III machinery, VPS2.1 and VPS24.1. amsh3 null mutation causes seedling lethality, and amsh3 null mutants show defects in multiple intracellular trafficking pathways. In this study, we further analyzed the amsh3 mutant phenotype and showed that amsh3 accumulates membrane-associated ubiquitinated proteins, supporting the indication that AMSH3 functions in ubiquitin-mediated endocytic degradation. In accordance with this, an enzymatic inactive variant of AMSH3 inhibits the AvrPtoB-dependent endocytic degradation of CERK1 (CHITIN ELICITOR RECEPTOR KINASE 1). Furthermore, we showed that the interaction of AMSH3 with ESCRT-III is important for its function in planta. Together, our data indicate the importance of AMSH3 and the AMSH3-ESCRT-III interaction for deubiquitination and degradation of ubiquitinated membrane substrates in plants.

  1. Sequential batch membrane bio-reactor for wastewater treatment: The effect of increased salinity.

    PubMed

    Mannina, Giorgio; Capodici, Marco; Cosenza, Alida; Di Trapani, Daniele; Viviani, Gaspare

    2016-06-01

    In this work, a sequential batch membrane bioreactor pilot plant is investigated to analyze the effect of a gradual increase in salinity on carbon and nutrient removal, membrane fouling and biomass kinetic parameters. The salinity was increased by 2gNaClL(-1) per week up to 10gNaClL(-1). The total COD removal efficiency was quite high (93%) throughout the experiment. A gradual biomass acclimation to the salinity level was observed during the experiment, highlighting the good recovery capabilities of the system. Nitrification was also influenced by the increase in salinity, with a slight decrease in nitrification efficiency (the lowest value was obtained at 10gNaClL(-1) due to lower nitrifier activity). Irreversible cake deposition was the predominant fouling mechanism observed during the experiment. Respirometric tests exhibited a stress effect due to salinity, with a reduction in the respiration rates observed (from 8.85mgO2L(-1)h(-1) to 4mgO2L(-1)h(-1)).

  2. Effects of porogen and cross-linking agents on improved properties of silica-supported macroporous chitosan membranes for enzyme immobilization.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen-Yi; Thirumavalavan, Munusamy; Lee, Jiunn-Fwu

    2015-04-01

    A series of silica-supported macroporous chitosan membranes (CM15, CM20, and CM25) was prepared by varying the ratio of 70-230-μm-sized silica particles. These synthesized membranes were further cross-linked using different cross-linking agents for covalent immobilization of biological macromolecules especially enzymes and in this study, Bovine serum albumin and laccase. Effects of silica particle and cross-linking agents on their flow rates, surface properties, and chemical and biological properties were explored. Pore size of as-synthesized membranes was 0.1192, 0.1268, and 0.1623 μm, respectively, for CM15, CM20, and CM25. The effect of various parameters such as temperature and pH on the relative activity of both free and immobilized enzymes was studied in details. The relative enzyme activity upon immobilization was greatly enhanced several folds of its original activity. The stability of enzymes over a range of temperature and pH was significantly improved by immobilization. The optimum temperature and pH were determined to be 50 °C and pH 3, respectively, for both the free and the immobilized enzymes. The immobilized enzyme possessed good operational stability and reusability properties that support its potentiality for practical applications. Among three membranes, CM25 is confirmed to be efficient candidate due to its improved characteristics.

  3. Enhanced electricity generation by triclosan and iron anodes in the three-chambered membrane bio-chemical reactor (TC-MBCR).

    PubMed

    Song, Jing; Liu, Lifen; Yang, Fenglin; Ren, Nanqi; Crittenden, John

    2013-11-01

    A three-chambered membrane bio-chemical reactor (TC-MBCR) was developed. The stainless steel membrane modules were used as cathodes and iron plates in the middle chamber served as the anode. The TC-MBCR was able to reduce fouling, remove triclosan (TCS) from a synthetic wastewater treatment and enhance electricity generation by ~60% compared with the cell voltage before TCS addition. The TC-MBCR system generated a relatively stable power output (cell voltage ~0.2V) and the corrosion of iron plates contributed to electricity generation together with microbes on iron anode. The permeation flow from anode to cathode chamber was considered important in electricity generation. In addition, the negatively charged cathode membrane and Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) released by iron plates mitigated membrane fouling by approximately 30%, as compared with the control. The removal of COD and total phosphorus was approximately 99% and 90%. The highest triclosan removal rate reached 97.9%.

  4. A membrane-free, continuously feeding, single chamber up-flow biocatalyzed electrolysis reactor for nitrobenzene reduction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ai-Jie; Cui, Dan; Cheng, Hao-Yi; Guo, Yu-Qi; Kong, Fan-Ying; Ren, Nan-Qi; Wu, Wei-Min

    2012-01-15

    A new bioelectrochemical system (BES), a membrane-free, continuous feeding up-flow biocatalyzed electrolysis reactor (UBER) was developed to reduce oxidative toxic chemicals to less- or non-toxic reduced form in cathode zone with oxidation of electron donor in anode zone. Influent was fed from the bottom of UBER and passed through cathode zone and then anode zone. External power source (0.5 V) was provided between anode and cathode to enhance electrochemical reactions. Granular graphite and carbon brush were used as cathode and anode, respectively. This system was tested for the reduction of nitrobenzene (NB) using acetate as electron donor and carbon source. The influent contained NB (50-200 mg L(-1)) and acetate (1000 mg L(-1)). NB was removed by up to 98% mainly in cathode zone. The anode potential maintained under -480 mV. The maximum NB removal rate was up to 3.5 mol m(-3) TV d(-1) (TV=total empty volume) and the maximum aniline (AN) formation rate was 3.06 mol m(-3) TV d(-1). Additional energy required was less than 0.075 kWh mol(-1)NB. The molar ratio of NB removed vs acetate consumed varied from 4.3 ± 0.4 to 2.3 ± 0.1 mol mol(-1). Higher influent phosphate or acetate concentration helped NB removal rate. NB could be efficiently reduced to AN as the power supplied of 0.3 V.

  5. Simultaneous enrichment of denitrifying anaerobic methane-oxidizing microorganisms and anammox bacteria in a hollow-fiber membrane biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhao-Wei; Lu, Yong-Ze; Fu, Liang; Ding, Jing; Zeng, Raymond J

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the coculture system of denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) microbes and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria was successfully enriched in a hollow-fiber membrane biofilm reactor (HfMBR) using freshwater sediment as the inoculum. The maximal removal rates of nitrate and ammonium were 78 mg N/L/day (131 mg N/m(2)/day) and 26 mg N/L/day (43 mg N/m(2)/day), respectively. Due to the high rate of methane mass transfer in HfMBR, the activity of DAMO archaea continued to increase during the enrichment period, indicating that HfMBR could be a powerful tool to enrich DAMO microorganisms. Effects of partial methane pressure, temperature, and pH on the cocultures were obvious. However, the microbial activity in HfMBR could be recovered quickly after the shock change of environmental factors. Furthermore, the result also found that DAMO bacteria likely had a stronger competitive advantage than anammox bacteria under the operating conditions in this study. High-throughput sequencing 16S rRNA genes illustrated that the dominant microbes were NC10, Euryarchaeota, Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Chlorobi with relative abundance of 38.8, 26.2, 13.78, 6.2, and 3.6 %, respectively.

  6. Palladium Recovery in a H2-Based Membrane Biofilm Reactor: Formation of Pd(0) Nanoparticles through Enzymatic and Autocatalytic Reductions.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chen; Ontiveros-Valencia, Aura; Wang, Zhaocheng; Maldonado, Juan; Zhao, He-Ping; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2016-03-01

    Recovering palladium (Pd) from waste streams opens up the possibility of augmenting the supply of this important catalyst. We evaluated Pd reduction and recovery as a novel application of a H2-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR). At steady states, over 99% of the input soluble Pd(II) was reduced through concomitant enzymatic and autocatalytic processes at acidic or near neutral pHs. Nanoparticulate Pd(0), at an average crystallite size of 10 nm, was recovered with minimal leaching and heterogeneously associated with microbial cells and extracellular polymeric substances in the biofilm. The dominant phylotypes potentially responsible for Pd(II) reduction at circumneutral pH were denitrifying β-proteobacteria mainly consisting of the family Rhodocyclaceae. Though greatly shifted by acidic pH, the biofilm microbial community largely bounced back when the pH was returned to 7 within 2 weeks. These discoveries infer that the biofilm was capable of rapid adaptive evolution to stressed environmental change, and facilitated Pd recovery in versatile ways. This study demonstrates the promise of effective microbially driven Pd recovery in a single MBfR system that could be applied for the treatment of the waste streams, and it documents the role of biofilms in this reduction and recovery process.

  7. Evaluation of a photocatalytic reactor membrane pilot system for the removal of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds from water.

    PubMed

    Benotti, Mark J; Stanford, Benjamin D; Wert, Eric C; Snyder, Shane A

    2009-04-01

    A photocatalytic reactor membrane pilot system, employing UV/TiO(2) photocatalysis, was evaluated for its ability to remove thirty-two pharmaceuticals, endocrine disrupting compounds, and estrogenic activity from water. Concentrations of all compounds decreased following treatment, and removal followed pseudo-first-order kinetics as a function of the amount of treatment. Twenty-nine of the targeted compounds in addition to total estrogenic activity were greater than 70% removed while only three compounds were less than 50% removed following the highest level of treatment (4.24 kW h/m(3)). No estrogenically active transformation products were formed during treatment. Additionally, the unit was operated in photolytic mode (UV only) and photolytic plus H(2)O(2) mode (UV/H(2)O(2)) to determine the relative amount of energy required. Based on the electrical energy per order (EEO), the unit achieved the greatest efficiency when operated in photolytic plus H(2)O(2) mode for the conditions tested.

  8. Rapid enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in foods by direct demonstration of enterotoxigenic colonies on membrane filters by enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed Central

    Peterkin, P I; Sharpe, A N

    1984-01-01

    Based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, a convenient method has been devised for the direct demonstration of enterotoxin B production by Staphylococcus aureus colonies grown for 24 h on membrane filters. The problem of false-positive reactions due to binding of immunoglobulin G to protein A was turned to advantage by conjugating horseradish peroxidase directly to protein A, which then mediated the labeling of the antitoxin. The test requires 3 h to complete and yields a purple stain at the site of enterotoxin B-producing colonies, thus allowing direct enumeration of confirmed S. aureus in foods within 27 h. The method should be applicable to other enterotoxins of S. aureus. Images PMID:6742823

  9. Interaction of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) with membrane-bound carboxypeptidase M (CPM) - a new function of ACE.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoou; Wiesner, Burkhard; Lorenz, Dorothea; Papsdorf, Gisela; Pankow, Kristin; Wang, Po; Dietrich, Nils; Siems, Wolf-Eberhard; Maul, Björn

    2008-12-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) demonstrates, besides its typical dipeptidyl-carboxypeptidase activity, several unusual functions. Here, we demonstrate with molecular, biochemical, and cellular techniques that the somatic wild-type murine ACE (mACE), stably transfected in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) or Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells, interacts with endogenous membranal co-localized carboxypeptidase M (CPM). CPM belongs to the group of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins. Here we report that ACE, completely independent of its known dipeptidase activities, has GPI-targeted properties. Our results indicate that the spatial proximity between mACE and the endogenous CPM enables an ACE-evoked release of CPM. These results are discussed with respect to the recently proposed GPI-ase activity and function of sperm-bound ACE.

  10. Enzyme activities and membrane lipids in artemia cysts after a long duration space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaubin, Y.; Prévost, M. C.; Cariven, C.; Pianezzi, B.; Planel, H.; Soleilhavoup, J. P.

    1996-01-01

    In the Free Flyer Biostack Experiment (L.D.E.F. mission) investigations have shown that biological objects in a resting state can survive more than 5.5 years of exposure to the space factors in particular microgravity and cosmic rays. We have measured enzyme activities involved in metabolic pathways of sugar and lipid degradation and determined phospholipid composition. Pyruvate kinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities in space-exposed cysts were higher than in earth controls after 1 hour incubation. In controls, total phospholipids remained unchanged, on the contrary they increased significantly in space-exposed cysts. The rate of metabolism of various phospholipid components was unchanged in controls allowing the development while the level of most of them decreased in space-exposed cysts except for phosphatidylcholine. Enzyme activities (acetylhydrolase, phospholipase A_2 and lyso phospholipase) involved in phospholipid degradation increased ; however, activities were much higher in space-exposed cysts. In conclusion, the long duration space flight resulted in an increase of the metabolic activity correlated with a faster development within the first 20 hours of post flight incubation.

  11. Continuous gas fermentation by Acetobacterium woodii in a submerged membrane reactor with full cell retention.

    PubMed

    Kantzow, Christina; Mayer, Alexander; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2015-10-20

    Acetogenic bacteria like Acetobacterium woodii represent an ancient group of anaerobic microorganisms which use hydrogen and carbon dioxide to produce acetate. Cell concentrations and space-time yields are usually low in gas fermentations. A standard stirred‑tank bioreactor with continuous gas supply was equipped with a customized submerged microfiltration unit. A. woodii showed similar growth behavior with an initial maximal growth rate of 1.2 d(-1) in continuous gas fermentations with full cell retention and varying dilution rates. A steady increase of cell mass concentrations was observed with the highest biomass formation at the highest dilution rate. By contrast the final acetate concentrations were lowest at the highest dilution rate. The highest final acetate space-time yield of 148 g l(-1) d(-1) was measured at the highest dilution rate (increase by factor 8 compared to a standard batch process or by factor 37 compared to published data). The highest reported cell concentration of A. woodii in gas fermentations of nearly 14 g l(-1) cell dry weight was achieved in the submerged membrane bioreactor with increased yeast extract concentrations in the feed medium. Product inhibition was observed when acetate concentrations exceeded 8-12 g l(-1) causing a steady decrease in cell mass specific acetate production rates.

  12. Protective effect of Lagenaria siceraria (Mol) against membrane-bound enzyme alterations in isoproterenol-induced cardiac damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, M; Selvi, V; Krishnakumari, S

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the preventive role of the ethanolic extract of Lagenaria siceraria (Mol) fruit on membrane-bound enzymes, such as sodium potassium-dependent adenosine triphosphatase (Na(+)/K(+) ATPase), calcium-dependent adenosine triphosphatase (Ca(2+) ATPase) and magnesium-dependent adenosine triphosphatase (Mg(2+) ATPase) on isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. Male albino Wistar rats were pretreated with the ethanolic extract of L. siceraria (Mol) fruit (125, 250 and 500 mg kg(-1) body weight) for a period of 30 days. After the treatment period, ISO (85mg kg(-1) body weight) was subcutaneously injected into rats at 24-h intervals for 2 days. ISO-induced rats showed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the activity of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase and an increase in the activities of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ATPases in the heart tissues. Pre-treatment with the ethanolic extract of L. siceraria (Mol) fruit for a period of 30 days exhibited a significant (p < 0.05) effect in ISO-induced rats. Thus, our study shows that the ethanolic extract of L. siceraria (Mol) fruit has membrane-stabilising role in ISO-induced MI in rats.

  13. Electrochemical Properties of a Thiol Monolayers Coated Gold Electrode Modified with Osmium Gel Membrane as Enzyme Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabutani, Tomoki; Okada, Nobuyuki; Maruyama, Kenichi; Motonaka, Junko

    The electrochemical behavior of an enzyme sensor for glucose using a gold electrode modified with thiol self-assembled membrane and osmium complex gel as an electron transferring mediator has further been investigated by electrochemical analysis. The gold electrode was initially coated with aminomethanethiol self assembling mono layer membrane(thiol-SAM) and then immobilized with glucose oxidase using poly(vinylpyridine-co-allylamine) (PVP-co-AA), gel coordinated with osmium bipyridine complexes (GOD/Os-PVP-co-AA gel). The cleaning condition of the surface of the Au electrode prior to coating thiol SAM was optimized for reduction of interference caused by concomitant compounds. It was found that interfering influence was most efficiently reduced in the case of use of the Au electrode immersed into nitric acid. The current ratio with a thiol coated gold electrode modified with Os-PVP-co-AA gel in glucose solution in the presence to absence of ascorbic acid, acetaminophen, and uric acid (ID+I/II) was 1.006, 1.014, and 1.018, respectively. The peak current response of glucose in the electrode modified with thiol SAM was dropped to 60 98% as compared with that without thiol SAM.

  14. A plasma membrane-bound enzyme of tobacco roots catalyses the formation of nitric oxide from nitrite.

    PubMed

    Stöhr, C; Strube, F; Marx, G; Ullrich, W R; Rockel, P

    2001-04-01

    Purified plasma membranes (PMs) of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Samsun) roots exhibited a nitrite-reducing enzyme activity that resulted in nitric oxide (NO) formation. This enzyme activity was not detected in soluble protein fractions or in PM vesicles of leaves. At the pH optimum of pH 6.0, nitrite was reduced to NO with reduced cytochrome c as electron donor at a rate comparable to the nitrate-reducing activity of root-specific succinate-dependent PM-bound nitrate reductase (PM-NR). The hitherto unknown PM-bound nitrite: NO-reductase (NI-NOR) was insensitive to cyanide and anti-NR IgG and thereby proven to be different from PM-NR. Furthermore, PM-NR and NI-NOR were separated by gel-filtration chromatography and apparent molecular masses of 310 kDa for NI-NOR and 200 kDa for PM-NR were estimated. The PM-associated NI-NOR may reduce the apoplastic nitrite produced by PM-NR in vivo and may play a role in nitrate signalling via NO formation.

  15. Asthenozoospermia and membrane remodeling enzymes: a new role for phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Anfuso, C D; Olivieri, M; Bellanca, S; Salmeri, M; Motta, C; Scalia, M; Satriano, C; La Vignera, S; Burrello, N; Caporarello, N; Lupo, G; Calogero, A E

    2015-11-01

    Phosholipase A2 (PLA2 ) activity in the seminal plasma and in sperm heads is closely related to sperm motility and male fertility. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the possible involvement of different isoforms of phospholipase in asthenozoospermia. To accomplish this, cPLA2 , phospho-cPLA2 , iPLA2 , and sPLA2 were evaluated by immunofluorescence and immunoblot analyses in spermatozoa obtained from 22 normozoospermic men and 28 asthenozoospermic patients. We found significant differences in cPLA2 and its phosphorylated/activated form, iPLA2 , and sPLA2 content and distribution in normal and asthenozoospermic patients. cPLA2 was localized in heads, midpieces, and tails of all spermatozoa as constitutive enzyme, less expressed in the tail of spermatozoa with low progressive motility. While active phospho-cPLA2 distribution was homogeneous throughout the cell body of control-donor spermatozoa, lower levels were detected in the tails of asthenozoospermic patients, as opposed to its strong presence in heads. Low immunofluorescence signal for iPLA2 was found in astenozoospermic patients, whereas sPLA2 was significantly lower in the heads of asthenozoospermic patients. Spermatozoa with low progressive motility showed differences both in terms of total specific activity and of intracellular distribution. cPLA2 , iPLA2 , and sPLA2 specific activities correlated positively and in a significantly manner with sperm progressive motility both in normozoospermic men and asthenozoospermic patients. In conclusion, PLA2 s are expressed in different areas of human spermatozoa. Spermatozoa with low motility showed differences in total specific activity and enzyme distributions. We speculated that PLA2 expression and/or different distribution could be potential biomarkers of asthenozoospermia, one of the major causes of male factor infertility.

  16. Changes of antioxidative enzymes and cell membrane osmosis in tomato colonized by arbuscular Mycorrhizae under NaCl stress.

    PubMed

    He, Zhongqun; He, Chaoxing; Zhang, Zhibin; Zou, Zhirong; Wang, Huaisong

    2007-10-01

    Salinity toxicity is a worldwide agricultural and eco-environmental problem. Many literatures show that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can enhance salt tolerance of many plants and some physiological changes occurred in AM symbiosis under salt stress. However, the role of ROS-scavenging enzymes in AM tomato is still unknown in continuous salt stress. This study investigated the effect of Glomus mosseae on tomato growth, cell membrane osmosis and examined the antioxidants (superoxide-dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; ascorbate peroxidase, APX; peroxidase, POD) responses in roots of mycorrhizal tomato and control under different NaCl stress for 40 days in potted culture. NaCl solution (0, 0.5 and 1%) was added to organic soil in the irrigation water after 45 days inoculated by AMF (Glomus mosseae). (1) AMF inoculation improved tomato growth under salt or saltless condition and reduced cell membrane osmosis, MDA (malonaldehyde) content in salinity. So the salt tolerance of tomato was enhanced by AMF; (2) SOD, APX and POD activity in roots of AM symbiosis were significantly higher than corresponding non-AM plants in salinity or saltless condition. However, CAT activity was transiently induced by AMF and then suppressed to a level similar with non-AM seedlings; (3) higher salinity (1% level) and long stress time suppressed the effect of AMF on SOD, APX, POD and CAT activity; (4) this research suggested that the enhanced salt tolerance in AM symbiosis was mainly related with the elevated SOD, POD and APX activity by AMF which degraded more reactive oxygen species and so alleviated the cell membrane damages under salt stress. Whereas, the elevated SOD, POD and APX activity due to AMF depended on salinity environment.

  17. The Antioxidant Profiles, Lysosomal and Membrane Enzymes Activity in Patients with Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Milnerowicz, Halina; Bukowski, Radosław; Jabłonowska, Monika; Ściskalska, Milena; Milnerowicz, Stanisław

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators, such as IL-6, play an important role in the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis. The study was aimed to assess the degree of the pro/antioxidative imbalance and estimate which antioxidant plays a role in the maintenance of pro/antioxidative balance during acute pancreatitis. The study was investigated in the blood of 32 patients with acute pancreatitis and 37 healthy subjects. IL-6 concentration as early marker of inflammation was determinated. The intensity of oxidative stress was assessed by TBARS concentration. To investigate antioxidative status, the GPx and Cu/Zn SOD activities and the levels of GSH, MT, SH groups, and TRAP were measured. The concentrations of Cu and Zn as ions participating in the maintenance of antioxidant enzymes stability and playing a role in the course of disease were determinated. The activities of GGT, AAP, NAG, and β-GD as markers of tissue damage were also measured. An increase in IL-6 concentration, which correlated with Ranson criteria, and an increase in GPx activity, levels of MT, TBARS, or GGT, and NAG activities in patients group compared to healthy subjects were demonstrated. A decrease in GSH level in patients group compared to control group was noted. The studies suggest that GPx/GSH and MT play the role of the first line of defence against oxidative stress and pro/antioxidant imbalance in the course of acute pancreatitis. PMID:25298618

  18. Analysis of Microbial Communities in Biofilms from CSTR-Type Hollow Fiber Membrane Biofilm Reactors for Autotrophic Nitrification and Hydrogenotrophic Denitrification.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung-Hun; Kim, Byung-Chun; Choi, Okkyoung; Kim, Hyunook; Sang, Byoung-In

    2015-10-01

    Two hollow fiber membrane biofilm reactors (HF-MBfRs) were operated for autotrophic nitrification and hydrogenotrophic denitrification for over 300 days. Oxygen and hydrogen were supplied through the hollow fiber membrane for nitrification and denitrification, respectively. During the period, the nitrogen was removed with the efficiency of 82-97% for ammonium and 87-97% for nitrate and with the nitrogen removal load of 0.09-0.26 kg NH4(+)-N/m(3)/d and 0.10-0.21 kg NO3(-)-N/m(3)/d, depending on hydraulic retention time variation by the two HF-MBfRs for autotrophic nitrification and hydrogenotrophic denitrification, respectively. Biofilms were collected from diverse topological positions in the reactors, each at different nitrogen loading rates, and the microbial communities were analyzed with partial 16S rRNA gene sequences in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Detected DGGE band sequences in the reactors were correlated with nitrification or denitrification. The profile of the DGGE bands depended on the NH4(+) or NO3(-) loading rate, but it was hard to find a major strain affecting the nitrogen removal efficiency. Nitrospira-related phylum was detected in all biofilm samples from the nitrification reactors. Paracoccus sp. and Aquaspirillum sp., which are an autohydrogenotrophic bacterium and an oligotrophic denitrifier, respectively, were observed in the denitrification reactors. The distribution of microbial communities was relatively stable at different nitrogen loading rates, and DGGE analysis based on 16S rRNA (341f /534r) could successfully detect nitrate-oxidizing and hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria but not ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in the HF-MBfRs.

  19. Enhanced cell adhesion on bioinert ceramics mediated by the osteogenic cell membrane enzyme alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Aminian, Alieh; Shirzadi, Bahareh; Azizi, Zahra; Maedler, Kathrin; Volkmann, Eike; Hildebrand, Nils; Maas, Michael; Treccani, Laura; Rezwan, Kurosch

    2016-12-01

    Functional bone and dental implant materials are required to guide cell response, offering cues that provide specific instructions to cells at the implant/tissue interface while maintaining full biocompatibility as well as the desired structural requirements and functions. In this work we investigate the influence of covalently immobilized alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an enzyme involved in bone mineralization, on the first contact and initial cell adhesion. To this end, ALP is covalently immobilized by carbodiimide-mediated chemoligation on two highly bioinert ceramics, alpha-alumina (Al2O3) and yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP) that are well-established for load-bearing applications. The physicochemical surface properties are evaluated by profilometry, zeta potential and water contact angle measurements. The initial cell adhesion of human osteoblasts (HOBs), human osteoblast-like cells (MG-63) and mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) was investigated. Cell adhesion was assessed at serum free condition via quantification of percentage of adherent cells, adhesion area and staining of the focal adhesion protein vinculin. Our findings show that after ALP immobilization, the Al2O3 and Y-TZP surfaces gained a negative charge and their hydrophilicity was increased. In the presence of surface-immobilized ALP, a higher cell adhesion, more pronounced cell spreading and a higher number of focal contact points were found. Thereby, this work gives evidence that surface functionalization with ALP can be utilized to modify inert materials for biological conversion and faster bone regeneration on inert and potentially load-bearing implant materials.

  20. Removal of steroid estrogens from municipal wastewater in a pilot scale expanded granular sludge blanket reactor and anaerobic membrane bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Ayumi; Mensah, Lawson; Cartmell, Elise; Lester, John N.

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment of municipal wastewater offers the prospect of a new paradigm by reducing aeration costs and minimizing sludge production. It has been successfully applied in warm climates, but does not always achieve the desired outcomes in temperate climates at the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) values of municipal crude wastewater. Recently the concept of ‘fortification' has been proposed to increase organic strength and has been demonstrated at the laboratory and pilot scale treating municipal wastewater at temperatures of 10–17°C. The process treats a proportion of the flow anaerobically by combining it with primary sludge from the residual flow and then polishing it to a high effluent standard aerobically. Energy consumption is reduced as is sludge production. However, no new treatment process is viable if it only addresses the problems of traditional pollutants (suspended solids – SS, BOD, nitrogen – N and phosphorus – P); it must also treat hazardous substances. This study compared three potential municipal anaerobic treatment regimes, crude wastewater in an expanded granular sludge blanket (EGSB) reactor, fortified crude wastewater in an EGSB and crude wastewater in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor. The benefits of fortification were demonstrated for the removal of SS, BOD, N and P. These three systems were further challenged with the removal of steroid estrogens at environmental concentrations from natural indigenous sources. All three systems removed these compounds to a significant degree, confirming that estrogen removal is not restricted to highly aerobic autotrophs, or aerobic heterotrophs, but is also a faculty of anaerobic bacteria. PMID:26212345

  1. Estimating rates of denitrification enzyme activity in wetland soils and direct simultaneous quantification of nitrogen and nitrous oxide by membrane inlet mass spectrometry

    EPA Science Inventory

    Denitrification enzyme activity (DEA) was measured in short-term (4 h) anaerobic assays using Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometry (MIMS) and electron capture gas chromatography (GC-ECD). Using MIMS, modifications of the instrument and sample handling allowed for the simultaneous me...

  2. NADH electrochemical sensor coupled with dehydrogenase enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Yamanaka, Hideko; Mascini, Marco )

    1992-06-01

    A graphite electrode assembled in a flow cell has shown to be a good detector for NADH. Current is linearly dependent on concentration in the range 10{sup {minus}7}-10{sup {minus}3} M without any mediator at the potential applied of 300 mV vs Ag/AgCl. Lactate and alcohol dehydrogenases were immobilized near to the electrode surface or in a reactor to obtain an NADH-based biosensor for lactate or ethanol. With lactate the authors succeeded to obtain a response only if the reactor was used and for alcohol a current proportional to the concentration was obtained either if the enzyme was immobilized in a membrane and placed near the electrode surface or when the enzyme was immobilized in a reactor form. By FIA procedures fast responses and recoveries were obtained, but with a short linear range.

  3. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with major outer membrane proteins of Brucella melitensis to measure immune response to Brucella species.

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, S B; Bibb, W F; Shih, C N; Kaufmann, A F; Mitchell, J R; McKinney, R M

    1986-01-01

    We developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system to measure human immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM response to the major outer membrane proteins of Brucella melitensis. The ELISA was more sensitive in detecting antibody than a standard microagglutination (MA) test with B. abortus antigen. Of 101 sera from persons with suspected brucellosis, 79 (78.2%) gave ELISA IgM titers greater than or equal to the B. abortus MA titer without 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME), which measures both IgM and IgG. Of the 101 sera, 97% gave ELISA IgG titers greater than or equal to the MA with 2ME titer. A total of 58 sera, drawn from 11 human patients from 1 to 29 weeks after onset of brucellosis, gave higher geometric mean titers for the ELISA IgG test than for the MA with 2ME test. These 58 sera also gave ELISA IgM geometric mean titers that were greater than or within one doubling dilution of the geometric mean titers of MA without 2ME. In addition to detecting antibody response to B. abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis, the ELISA was sensitive to antibody response to human and canine infections with B. canis. The B. canis antibody response is not detected by the MA test with B. abortus antigen. The ELISA, with a standard preparation of major outer membrane proteins of B. melitensis as antigen, appears to be useful in measuring antibody response in humans to infections by all species of Brucella known to infect humans. PMID:3095364

  4. Magnesium-dependent adenosine triphosphatase as a marker enzyme for the plasma membrane of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Harlan, J; DeChatelet, L R; Iverson, D B; McCall, C E

    1977-02-01

    The adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activities of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) were studied with an assay that monitored the release of 32P-labeled inorganic pyrophosphate (32P1) from gamma-[32P]adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). In cell homogenates, (Na+ + K+)-sensitive, ouabain-inhibitable ATPase comprised an insignificant fraction of the total ATPase activity. Additions of p-nitrophenyl phosphate and beta-glycerophosphate (substrates for nonspecific acid and alkaline phosphatases) and of tartrate (inhibitor of acid phosphatase) gave no indication of inhibition. This suggested that the assay was relatively specific for ATP hydrolysis. The activity was found to have a pH optimum of 8.7 and a Km for ATP of 0.6 mM. There was an absolute requirement for Mg2+, with other divalent cations substituting less efficiently. When the Mg2+-dependent ATPase activity of intact cells was compared with that in homogenized cells, no significant difference was observed. The activity in intact cells was linear with respect to incubation time up to at least l0 min. Trypan blue staining and lactate dehydrogenase assays revealed that greater than 92% of the PMNL remained intact and viable during the assay. No soluble ATPase was released from the cells under assay conditions. In following the distribution of gamma[32P]ATP and 32P2 counts became cell associated. Since the experimental evidence supports the observation that PMNL remain intact and viable and that ATP does not penetrate the cell under assay conditions, it is proposed that greater than 90% of the Mg2+-dependent ATPase of the human PMNL is associated with a plasma membrnae enzyme. This would qualify the enzyme for the role of a plasma membrane marker for future fractionation and isolation attempts.

  5. Analysis of the Microbial Community in an Acidic Hollow-Fiber Membrane Biofilm Reactor (Hf-MBfR) Used for the Biological Conversion of Carbon Dioxide to Methane

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Byoung Seung; Choi, Okkyoung; Kim, Hyun Wook; Um, Youngsoon; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Sang, Byoung-In

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogenotrophic methanogens can use gaseous substrates, such as H2 and CO2, in CH4 production. H2 gas is used to reduce CO2. We have successfully operated a hollow-fiber membrane biofilm reactor (Hf-MBfR) for stable and continuous CH4 production from CO2 and H2. CO2 and H2 were diffused into the culture medium through the membrane without bubble formation in the Hf-MBfR, which was operated at pH 4.5–5.5 over 70 days. Focusing on the presence of hydrogenotrophic methanogens, we analyzed the structure of the microbial community in the reactor. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was conducted with bacterial and archaeal 16S rDNA primers. Real-time qPCR was used to track changes in the community composition of methanogens over the course of operation. Finally, the microbial community and its diversity at the time of maximum CH4 production were analyzed by pyrosequencing methods. Genus Methanobacterium, related to hydrogenotrophic methanogens, dominated the microbial community, but acetate consumption by bacteria, such as unclassified Clostridium sp., restricted the development of acetoclastic methanogens in the acidic CH4 production process. The results show that acidic operation of a CH4 production reactor without any pH adjustment inhibited acetogenic growth and enriched the hydrogenotrophic methanogens, decreasing the growth of acetoclastic methanogens. PMID:26694756

  6. Development of a liquid chromatographic system with fluorescent detection for beta-secretase immobilized enzyme reactor on-line enzymatic studies.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Francesca; Andrisano, Vincenza

    2010-07-08

    A novel liquid chromatographic method has been developed for use in throughput screening of new inhibitors of human recombinant beta-amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme (hrBACE1). The approach is based on the use of an immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER) containing the target enzyme (hrBACE1-IMER) and uses fluorescence detection. The bioreactor was prepared by immobilizing hrBACE1 on an ethylendiamine (EDA) monolithic disk (CIM) and a fluorogenic peptide (M-2420) containing the beta-secretase site of the Swedish mutation of amyloid precursor protein (APP) was used as substrate. After injection into the hrBACE1-IMER system, M-2420 was enzymatically cleaved, giving rise to a fluorescent methoxycoumaryl-fragment (Rt=1.6min), which was separated from the substrate and selectively detected at lambda(exc)=320 and lambda(em)=420nm. Product and substrate were characterized by using a post monolithic C18 stationary phase coupled to an ion trap mass analyser. A calibration curve was constructed to determine the immobilized hrBACE1-IMER rate of catalysis and kinetic constants. Specificity of the enzymatic cleavage was confirmed by injecting the substrate on a blank CIM-EDA. The proposed method was validated by the determination of the inhibitory potency of five reference compounds with activities ranked over four order of magnitude (four peptidic inhibitors and a green tea polyphenol, (-)gallocatechin gallate). The obtained results were found in agreement with the data reported in literature, confirming the validity and the applicability of the hrBACE1-IMER as a tool for the fast screening of unknown inhibitors (more than 6 compounds per hour). Moreover, the hrBACE1-IMER showed high stability during the analysis, permitting its use for more than three months without affecting enzyme activity.

  7. Integrated enzyme reactor and high resolving chromatography in “sub-chip” dimensions for sensitive protein mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Hustoft, Hanne Kolsrud; Brandtzaeg, Ole Kristian; Rogeberg, Magnus; Misaghian, Dorna; Torsetnes, Silje Bøen; Greibrokk, Tyge; Reubsaet, Léon; Wilson, Steven Ray; Lundanes, Elsa

    2013-01-01

    Reliable, sensitive and automatable analytical methodology is of great value in e.g. cancer diagnostics. In this context, an on-line system for enzymatic cleavage of proteins, subsequent peptide separation by liquid chromatography (LC) with mass spectrometric detection has been developed using “sub-chip” columns (10–20 μm inner diameter, ID). The system could detect attomole amounts of isolated cancer biomarker progastrin-releasing peptide (ProGRP), in a more automatable fashion compared to previous methods. The workflow combines protein digestion using an 20 μm ID immobilized trypsin reactor with a polymeric layer of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-vinyl azlactone (HEMA-VDM), desalting on a polystyrene-divinylbenzene (PS-DVB) monolithic trap column, and subsequent separation of resulting peptides on a 10 μm ID (PS-DVB) porous layer open tubular (PLOT) column. The high resolution of the PLOT columns was maintained in the on-line system, resulting in narrow chromatographic peaks of 3–5 seconds. The trypsin reactors provided repeatable performance and were compatible with long-term storage. PMID:24336509

  8. Modulatory Effect of Taurine on 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)Anthracene-Induced Alterations in Detoxification Enzyme System, Membrane Bound Enzymes, Glycoprotein Profile and Proliferative Cell Nuclear Antigen in Rat Breast Tissue.

    PubMed

    Vanitha, Manickam Kalappan; Baskaran, Kuppusamy; Periyasamy, Kuppusamy; Selvaraj, Sundaramoorthy; Ilakkia, Aruldoss; Saravanan, Dhiravidamani; Venkateswari, Ramachandran; Revathi Mani, Balasundaram; Anandakumar, Pandi; Sakthisekaran, Dhanapal

    2016-08-01

    The modulatory effect of taurine on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced breast cancer in rats was studied. DMBA (25 mg/kg body weight) was administered to induce breast cancer in rats. Protein carbonyl levels, activities of membrane bound enzymes (Na(+) /K(+) ATPase, Ca(2+) ATPase, and Mg(2+) ATPase), phase I drug metabolizing enzymes (cytochrome P450, cytochrome b5, NADPH cytochrome c reductase), phase II drug metabolizing enzymes (glutathione-S-transferase and UDP-glucuronyl transferase), glycoprotein levels, and proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were studied. DMBA-induced breast tumor bearing rats showed abnormal alterations in the levels of protein carbonyls, activities of membrane bound enzymes, drug metabolizing enzymes, glycoprotein levels, and PCNA protein expression levels. Taurine treatment (100 mg/kg body weight) appreciably counteracted all the above changes induced by DMBA. Histological examination of breast tissue further supported our biochemical findings. The results of the present study clearly demonstrated the chemotherapeutic effect of taurine in DMBA-induced breast cancer.

  9. Functionalizing Microporous Membranes for Protein Purification and Protein Digestion.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jinlan; Bruening, Merlin L

    2015-01-01

    This review examines advances in the functionalization of microporous membranes for protein purification and the development of protease-containing membranes for controlled protein digestion prior to mass spectrometry analysis. Recent studies confirm that membranes are superior to bead-based columns for rapid protein capture, presumably because convective mass transport in membrane pores rapidly brings proteins to binding sites. Modification of porous membranes with functional polymeric films or TiO₂ nanoparticles yields materials that selectively capture species ranging from phosphopeptides to His-tagged proteins, and protein-binding capacities often exceed those of commercial beads. Thin membranes also provide a convenient framework for creating enzyme-containing reactors that afford control over residence times. With millisecond residence times, reactors with immobilized proteases limit protein digestion to increase sequence coverage in mass spectrometry analysis and facilitate elucidation of protein structures. This review emphasizes the advantages of membrane-based techniques and concludes with some challenges for their practical application.

  10. Functionalizing Microporous Membranes for Protein Purification and Protein Digestion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jinlan; Bruening, Merlin L.

    2015-07-01

    This review examines advances in the functionalization of microporous membranes for protein purification and the development of protease-containing membranes for controlled protein digestion prior to mass spectrometry analysis. Recent studies confirm that membranes are superior to bead-based columns for rapid protein capture, presumably because convective mass transport in membrane pores rapidly brings proteins to binding sites. Modification of porous membranes with functional polymeric films or TiO2 nanoparticles yields materials that selectively capture species ranging from phosphopeptides to His-tagged proteins, and protein-binding capacities often exceed those of commercial beads. Thin membranes also provide a convenient framework for creating enzyme-containing reactors that afford control over residence times. With millisecond residence times, reactors with immobilized proteases limit protein digestion to increase sequence coverage in mass spectrometry analysis and facilitate elucidation of protein structures. This review emphasizes the advantages of membrane-based techniques and concludes with some challenges for their practical application.

  11. Influence of air scouring on the performance of a Self Forming Dynamic Membrane BioReactor (SFD MBR) for municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Carlo; Vergine, Pompilio; Berardi, Giovanni; Pollice, Alfieri

    2017-01-01

    The Membrane BioReactor (MBR) is a well-established filtration-based technology for wastewater treatment. Despite the high quality of the effluent produced, one of the main drawbacks of the MBR is membrane fouling. In this context, a possible evolution towards systems having potentially lower installation and operating costs is the Self Forming Dynamic Membrane BioReactor (SFD MBR). Key of this technology is the self-formation of a biological filtering layer on a support of inert material. In this work, a lab-scale aerobic SFD MBR equipped with a nylon mesh was operated at approximately 95Lm(-2)h(-1). Two mesh pore sizes (20 and 50μm) and three air scouring flow rates (150, 250, and 500mLairmin(-1)) were tested at steady state. Under all the tested conditions, the SFD MBR effectively treated real municipal wastewater. The quality of the produced effluent increased for lower mesh size and lower air scouring intensity.

  12. The succinate:menaquinone reductase of Bacillus cereus: characterization of the membrane-bound and purified enzyme.

    PubMed

    García, L M; Contreras-Zentella, M L; Jaramillo, R; Benito-Mercadé, M C; Mendoza-Hernández, G; del Arenal, I P; Membrillo-Hernández, J; Escamilla, J E

    2008-06-01

    Utilization of external succinate by Bacillus cereus and the properties of the purified succinate:menaquinone-7 reductase (SQR) were studied. Bacillus cereus cells showed a poor ability for the uptake of and respiratory utilization of exogenous succinate, thus suggesting that B. cereus lacks a specific succinate uptake system. Indeed, the genes coding for a succinate-fumarate transport system were missing from the genome database of B. cereus. Kinetic studies of membranes indicated that the reduction of menaquinone-7 is the rate-limiting step in succinate respiration. In accordance with its molecular characteristics, the purified SQR of B. cereus belongs to the type-B group of SQR enzymes, consisting of a 65-kDa flavoprotein (SdhA), a 29-kDa iron-sulphur protein (SdhB), and a 19-kDa subunit containing 2 b-type cytochromes (SdhC). In agreement with this, we could identify the 4 conserved histidines in the SdhC subunit predicted by the B. cereus genome database. Succinate reduced half of the cytochrome b content. Redox titrations of SQR-cytochrome b-557 detected 2 components with apparent midpoint potential values at pH 7.6 of 79 and -68 mV, respectively; the components were not spectrally distinguishable by their maximal absorption bands as those of Bacillus subtilis. The physiological properties and genome database analyses of B. cereus are consistent with the cereus group ancestor being an opportunistic pathogen.

  13. Outer membrane protein profiles and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis analysis for differentiation of clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Kappos, T; John, M A; Hussain, Z; Valvano, M A

    1992-10-01

    Outer membrane protein (MP) profiles and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE) analysis were used as tools for differentiating clinical isolates of Proteus spp. Fourteen distinct MP profiles were established by sodium dodecyl sulfate-urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in 54 clinical isolates of Proteus spp. (44 strains identified as P. mirabilis and 10 strains identified as P. vulgaris). Forty-one isolates of P. mirabilis and eight isolates of P. vulgaris were grouped within six and three MP profiles, respectively. The remaining P. mirabilis and P. vulgaris isolates had unique profiles. MEE analysis was used to further discriminate among the strains belonging to the same MP groups. Thirty-five distinct electrophoretic types (ETs) were identified among P. mirabilis isolates. The isolates of P. mirabilis from the four most common MP groups were subgrouped into 30 ETs. All of the P. vulgaris strains had unique ETs. The results suggest that upon biochemical classification of Proteus isolates as P. mirabilis or P. vulgaris, further differentiation among strains of the same species can be obtained by the initial determination of MP profiles followed by MEE analysis of strains with identical MPs.

  14. Photocatalytic reactor

    DOEpatents

    Bischoff, B.L.; Fain, D.E.; Stockdale, J.A.D.

    1999-01-19

    A photocatalytic reactor is described for processing selected reactants from a fluid medium comprising at least one permeable photocatalytic membrane having a photocatalytic material. The material forms an area of chemically active sites when illuminated by light at selected wavelengths. When the fluid medium is passed through the illuminated membrane, the reactants are processed at these sites separating the processed fluid from the unprocessed fluid. A light source is provided and a light transmitting means, including an optical fiber, for transmitting light from the light source to the membrane. 4 figs.

  15. Removal of residual dissolved methane gas in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating low-strength wastewater at low temperature with degassing membrane.

    PubMed

    Bandara, Wasala M K R T W; Satoh, Hisashi; Sasakawa, Manabu; Nakahara, Yoshihito; Takahashi, Masahiro; Okabe, Satoshi

    2011-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the efficiency of dissolved methane (D-CH(4)) collection by degasification from the effluent of a bench-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating synthetic wastewater. A hollow-fiber degassing membrane module was used for degasification. This module was connected to the liquid outlet of the UASB reactor. After chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of the UASB reactor became stable, D-CH(4) discharged from the UASB reactor was collected. Under 35 °C and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10 h, average D-CH(4) concentration could be reduced from 63 mg COD L(-1) to 15 mg COD L(-1); this, in turn, resulted in an increase in total methane (CH(4)) recovery efficiency from 89% to 97%. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of temperature and HRT of the UASB reactor on degasification efficiency. Average D-CH(4) concentration was as high as 104 mg COD L(-1) at 15 °C because of the higher solubility of CH(4) gas in liquid; the average D-CH(4) concentration was reduced to 14 mg COD L(-1) by degasification. Accordingly, total CH(4) recovery efficiency increased from 71% to 97% at 15 °C as a result of degasification. Moreover, degasification tended to cause an increase in particulate COD removal efficiency. The UASB reactor was operated at the same COD loading rate, but different wastewater feed rates and HRTs. Although average D-CH(4) concentration in the UASB reactor was almost unchanged (ca. 70 mg COD L(-1)) regardless of the HRT value, the CH(4) discharge rate from the UASB reactor increased because of an increase in the wastewater feed rate. Because the D-CH(4) concentration could be reduced down to 12 ± 1 mg COD L(-1) by degasification at an HRT of 6.7 h, the CH(4) recovery rate was 1.5 times higher under degasification than under normal operation.

  16. Integration of Methane Steam Reforming and Water Gas Shift Reaction in a Pd/Au/Pd-Based Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Process Intensification

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Dominguez, Bernardo; Mardilovich, Ivan P.; Ma, Liang-Chih; Ma, Rui; Dixon, Anthony G.; Kazantzis, Nikolaos K.; Ma, Yi Hua

    2016-01-01

    Palladium-based catalytic membrane reactors (CMRs) effectively remove H2 to induce higher conversions in methane steam reforming (MSR) and water-gas-shift reactions (WGS). Within such a context, this work evaluates the technical performance of a novel CMR, which utilizes two catalysts in series, rather than one. In the process system under consideration, the first catalyst, confined within the shell side of the reactor, reforms methane with water yielding H2, CO and CO2. After reforming is completed, a second catalyst, positioned in series, reacts with CO and water through the WGS reaction yielding pure H2O, CO2 and H2. A tubular composite asymmetric Pd/Au/Pd membrane is situated throughout the reactor to continuously remove the produced H2 and induce higher methane and CO conversions while yielding ultrapure H2 and compressed CO2 ready for dehydration. Experimental results involving (i) a conventional packed bed reactor packed (PBR) for MSR, (ii) a PBR with five layers of two catalysts in series and (iii) a CMR with two layers of two catalysts in series are comparatively assessed and thoroughly characterized. Furthermore, a comprehensive 2D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to explore further the features of the proposed configuration. The reaction was studied at different process intensification-relevant conditions, such as space velocities, temperatures, pressures and initial feed gas composition. Finally, it is demonstrated that the above CMR module, which was operated for 600 h, displays quite high H2 permeance and purity, high CH4 conversion levels and reduced CO yields. PMID:27657143

  17. Disordered Cold Regulated15 Proteins Protect Chloroplast Membranes during Freezing through Binding and Folding, But Do Not Stabilize Chloroplast Enzymes in Vivo1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Thalhammer, Anja; Bryant, Gary; Sulpice, Ronan; Hincha, Dirk K.

    2014-01-01

    Freezing can severely damage plants, limiting geographical distribution of natural populations and leading to major agronomical losses. Plants native to cold climates acquire increased freezing tolerance during exposure to low nonfreezing temperatures in a process termed cold acclimation. This involves many adaptative responses, including global changes in metabolite content and gene expression, and the accumulation of cold-regulated (COR) proteins, whose functions are largely unknown. Here we report that the chloroplast proteins COR15A and COR15B are necessary for full cold acclimation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). They protect cell membranes, as indicated by electrolyte leakage and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. Recombinant COR15 proteins stabilize lactate dehydrogenase during freezing in vitro. However, a transgenic approach shows that they have no influence on the stability of selected plastidic enzymes in vivo, although cold acclimation results in increased enzyme stability. This indicates that enzymes are stabilized by other mechanisms. Recombinant COR15 proteins are disordered in water, but fold into amphipathic α-helices at high osmolyte concentrations in the presence of membranes, a condition mimicking molecular crowding induced by dehydration during freezing. X-ray scattering experiments indicate protein-membrane interactions specifically under such crowding conditions. The COR15-membrane interactions lead to liposome stabilization during freezing. Collectively, our data demonstrate the requirement for COR15 accumulation for full cold acclimation of Arabidopsis. The function of these intrinsically disordered proteins is the stabilization of chloroplast membranes during freezing through a folding and binding mechanism, but not the stabilization of chloroplastic enzymes. This indicates a high functional specificity of these disordered plant proteins. PMID:25096979

  18. A one-step preparation method of monolithic enzyme reactor for highly efficient sample preparation coupled to mass spectrometry-based proteomics studies.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shan; Zhang, Zichuan; Li, Lingjun

    2015-09-18

    Mass spectrometry (MS) coupled to sample preparation and separation techniques has become a primary tool for proteomics studies. However, due to sample complexity, it is often challenging to achieve fast and efficient sample preparation prior to MS analysis. In recent decades, monolithic materials have been developed not only as chromatographic media, but also as efficient solid supports for immobilizing multiple types of affinity reagents. Herein, the N-acryloxysuccinimide-co-acrylamide-co-N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (NAS-AAm-Bis) monolith was fabricated within silanized 200 μm i.d. fused-silica capillaries and was used as an immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER). The column was conjugated with trypsin/Lys-C and Lys-N enzymes to allow enzymatic digestions to occur while protein mixture was loaded onto the IMER column followed by MS-based proteomics analysis. Similar MS signal and protein sequence coverage were observed using protein standard bovine serum albumin (BSA) compared to in-solution digestion. Furthermore, mouse serum, yeast, and human cell lysate samples were also subjected to enzymatic digestion by both IMER (in seconds to minutes) and conventional in solution digestion (overnight) for comparison in large-scale proteomics studies. Comparable protein identification results obtained by the two methods highlighted the potential of employing NAS-based IMER column for fast and highly efficient sample preparation for MS analysis in proteomics studies.

  19. A One-Step Preparation Method of Monolithic Enzyme Reactor for Highly Efficient Sample Preparation Coupled to Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics Studies

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shan; Zhang, Zichuan; Li, Lingjun

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) coupled to sample preparation and separation techniques has become a primary tool for proteomics studies. However, due to sample complexity, it is often challenging to achieve fast and efficient sample preparation prior to MS analysis. In recent decades, monolithic materials have been developed not only as chromatographic media, but also as efficient solid supports for immobilizing multiple types of affinity reagents. Herein, the N-acryloxysuccinimide-co-acrylamide-co-N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (NAS-AAm-Bis) monolith was fabricated within silanized 200 μm i.d. fused-silica capillaries and was used as an immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER). The column was conjugated with trypsin/Lys-C and Lys-N enzymes to allow enzymatic digestions to occur while protein mixture was loaded onto the IMER column followed by MS-based proteomics analysis. Similar MS signal and protein sequence coverage were observed using protein standard bovine serum albumin (BSA) compared to in-solution digestion. Furthermore, mouse serum, yeast, and human cell lysate samples were also subjected to enzymatic digestion by both IMER (in seconds to minutes) and conventional in solution digestion (overnight) for comparison in large-scale proteomics studies. Comparable protein identification results obtained by the two methods highlighted the potential of employing NAS-based IMER column for fast and highly efficient sample preparation for MS analysis in proteomics studies. PMID:26300481

  20. Application of BACE1 immobilized enzyme reactor for the characterization of multifunctional alkaloids from Corydalis cava (Fumariaceae) as Alzheimer's disease targets.

    PubMed

    Chlebek, Jakub; De Simone, Angela; Hošťálková, Anna; Opletal, Lubomír; Pérez, Concepción; Pérez, Daniel I; Havlíková, Lucie; Cahlíková, Lucie; Andrisano, Vincenza

    2016-03-01

    In our ongoing study focused on Corydalis cava (Fumariaceae), used in folk medicine in the treatment of memory dysfunctions, we have investigated fifteen previously isolated alkaloids for their potential multifunctional activity on Alzheimer's disease (AD) targets. Determination of ß-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) inhibition was carried out using a BACE1-Immobilized Enzyme Reactor (IMER) by validating the assay with a multi-well plate format Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) assay. Seven alkaloids out of fifteen were found to be active, with (-)-corycavamine (3) and (+)-corynoline (5) demonstrating the highest BACE1 inhibition activity, in the micromolar range, in a concentration dependent manner. BACE1-IMER was found to be a valid device for the fast screening of inhibitors and the determination of their potency. In a permeation assay (PAMPA) for the prediction of blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration, the most active compounds, (-)-corycavamine (3) and (+)-corynoline (5), were found to be able to cross the BBB. Not all compounds showed activity against glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and casein kinase-1δ (CK-1δ). On the basis of the reported results, we found that some C. cava alkaloids have multifunctional activity against AD targets (prolyl oligopeptidase, cholinesterases and BACE1). Moreover, we tried to elucidate the treatment effectivity (rational use) of its extract in memory dysfunction in folk medicine.

  1. Disposable, enzymatically modified printed film carbon electrodes for use in the high-performance liquid chromatographic-electrochemical detection of glucose or hydrogen peroxide from immobilized enzyme reactors.

    PubMed

    Osborne, P G; Yamamoto, K

    1998-04-10

    Disposable screen-printed, film carbon electrodes (PFCE) were modified with cast-coated Osmium-polyvinylpyrridine-wired horse radish peroxidase gel polymer (Os-gel-HRP) to enable the detection of the reduction at 0 mV of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) derived from a post-column immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER) containing acetylcholinesterase and choline oxidase. In another series of experiments PFCE were initially modified with cast-coated Os-gel-HRP and then treated with glucose oxidase in bovine serum albumin (BSA) and cross-linked with glutaraldehyde to form a bi-layer glucose-Os-gel-HRP PFCE. This bi-layer glucose-Os-gel-HRP PFCE generated a reduction current at 0 mV to H2O2 derived from the reaction of glucose oxidase and glucose in solution. These enzyme-modified PFCE were housed in a radial flow cell and coupled with cation-exchange liquid chromatographic methods to temporally separate substrates in solution for the determination of acetylcholine (ACh) and choline (Ch) in the first experimental series, or glucose in the second experimental series. These two disposable enzyme-modified PFCE exhibited linear current vs. substrate relations, were durable, being usable for approximately 40 determinations, and were sufficiently sensitive to be employed in biological sampling. Both assays utilized the same HPLC equipment. The limit of detection for ACh was 16 fmol/10 microl and that for glucose was 12 micromol/7.5 microl. ACh and Ch were measured from a microdialysate from the frontal cortex of a rat. Glucose in human urine was determined using the bi-layer glucose oxidase-Os-gel-HRP PFCE.

  2. A modified CDC biofilm reactor to produce mature biofilms on the surface of peek membranes for an in vivo animal model application.

    PubMed

    Williams, Dustin L; Woodbury, Kassie L; Haymond, Bryan S; Parker, Albert E; Bloebaum, Roy D

    2011-06-01

    Biofilm-related infections have become a major clinical concern. Typically, animal models that involve inoculation with planktonic bacteria have been used to create positive infection signals and examine antimicrobial strategies for eradicating or preventing biofilm-related infection. However, it is estimated that 99.9% of bacteria in nature dwell in established biofilms. As such, open wounds have significant potential to become contaminated with bacteria that reside in a well-established biofilm. In this study, a modified CDC biofilm reactor was developed to repeatably grow mature biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus on the surface of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) membranes for inoculation in a future animal model of orthopaedic implant biofilm-related infection. Results indicated that uniform, mature biofilms repeatably grew on the surface of the PEEK membranes.

  3. Immunological evidence for eight spans in the membrane domain of 3- hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase: implications for enzyme degradation in the endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    We have raised two monospecific antibodies against synthetic peptides derived from the membrane domain of the ER glycoprotein 3-hydroxy-3- methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, the rate limiting enzyme in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. This domain, which was proposed to span the ER membrane seven times (Liscum, L., J. Finer- Moore, R. M. Stroud, K. L. Luskey, M. S. Brown, and J. L. Goldstein. 1985. J. Biol. Chem. 260:522-538), plays a critical role in the regulated degradation of the enzyme in the ER in response to sterols. The antibodies stain the ER of cells and immunoprecipitate HMG-CoA reductase and HMGal, a chimeric protein composed of the membrane domain of the reductase fused to Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase, the degradation of which is also accelerated by sterols. We show that the sequence Arg224 through Leu242 of HMG-CoA reductase (peptide G) faces the cytoplasm both in cultured cells and in rat liver, whereas the sequence Thr284 through Glu302 (peptide H) faces the lumen of the ER. This indicates that a sequence between peptide G and peptide H spans the membrane of the ER. Moreover, by epitope tagging with peptide H, we show that the loop segment connecting membrane spans 3 and 4 is sequestered in the lumen of the ER. These results demonstrate that the membrane domain of HMG-CoA reductase spans the ER eight times and are inconsistent with the seven membrane spans topological model. The approximate boundaries of the proposed additional transmembrane segment are between Lys248 and Asp276. Replacement of this 7th span in HMGal with the first transmembrane helix of bacteriorhodopsin abolishes the sterol-enhanced degradation of the protein, indicating its role in the regulated turnover of HMG-CoA reductase within the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:1374417

  4. Survival, mobility, and membrane-bound enzyme activities of freshwater planarian, Dugesia japonica, exposed to synthetic and natural surfactants.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei-Hui

    2012-04-01

    Surfactants are a major class of emerging pollutants widely used in large quantities in everyday life and commonly found in surface waters worldwide. Freshwater planarian was selected to examine the effects of different surfactants by measuring mortality, mobility, and membrane-bound enzyme activities. Among the 10 surfactants tested, the acute toxicities of betaine and polyethylene glycol (PEG-200) to planarians were relatively low, with a median lethal concentration (LC50) greater than 10,000 mg/L. The toxicity to planarians of the other eight surfactants based on 48-h LC50 could be arranged in the descending order of cetylpyridinum chloride (CPC) > 4-tert-octylphenol (4-tert-OP) > ammonium lauryl sulfate > benzalkonium chloride > saponin > sodium lauroylsarcosinate > dioctyl sulfosuccinate > dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB). Both CPC and 4-tert-OP were very toxic to planarians, with 48-h LC50 values <1 mg/L. The median effective concentrations (EC50s) of planarian mobility were in the 0.1 to 50 mg/L range and were in the same range as the 24-h LC50 of planarians exposed to different surfactants, except for DTAB. In addition, significant inhibition of cholinesterase activity activities was found in planarians exposed to 4-tert-OP at 2.5 and 5 mg/L and to saponin at 10 mg/L after 2-h treatments. This result suggests that planarian mobility responses can be used as an alternative indicator for acute toxicity of surfactants after a very short exposure period.

  5. Enhancement of acetate productivity in a thermophilic (55 °C) hollow-fiber membrane biofilm reactor with mixed culture syngas (H2/CO2) fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun-Qi; Yu, Shi-Jin; Zhang, Fang; Xia, Xiu-Yang; Zeng, Raymond J

    2017-03-01

    Conversion of organic wastes to syngas is an attractive way to utilize wastes. The produced syngas can be further used to produce a variety of chemicals. In this study, a hollow-fiber membrane biofilm reactor with mix cultures was operated at 55 °C to convert syngas (H2/CO2) into acetate. A high concentration of acetate (42.4 g/L) was reached in batch experiment while a maximum acetate production rate of 10.5 g/L/day was achieved in the continuous-flow mode at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1 day. Acetate was the main product in both batch and continuous-flow experiments. n-Butyrate was the other byproduct in the reactor. Acetate accounted for more than 98.5 and 99.1% of total volatile fatty acids in batch and continuous modes, respectively. Illumina Miseq high-throughput sequencing results showed that microorganisms were highly purified and enriched in the reactor. The main genus was Thermoanaerobacterium (66% of relative abundance), which was usually considered as H2 producer in the literature, however, likely played a role as a H2 consumer in this study. This study provides a new method to generate the high producing rate and purity of acetate from syngas.

  6. Ultrasound exposure in the presence of hematoporphyrin induced loss of membrane integral proteins and inactivity of cell proliferation associated enzymes in sarcoma 180 cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wei; Liu, Quanhong; Wang, Xiaobing; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Pan; Mi, Na

    2008-07-01

    Ultrasonically induced effects of hematoporphyrin (HPD) on cell damage and membrane protein alteration of S180 isolated tumor cells in vitro were investigated, and the potential mechanisms of sonodynamic therapy (SDT) inhibiting tumor growth were discussed. Tumor cells suspended in air-saturated PBS (pH 7.2) were exposed to ultrasound at 1.8 MHz for up to 180s in the presence and absence of HPD. The viability of cells was determined by a trypan blue exclusion test. To estimate the damage effects of SDT on plasma membrane of tumor cells primarily, membrane integral proteins (EGFR, Ras, Fas, FasL) and cell proliferation associated enzymes (adenylate cyclase and guanylate cyclase) were checked with immunochemical methods. The results indicated that the intensity threshold for ultrasonically induced cell damage at 1.8 MHz was 3 W/cm2. At this condition, the expression of the integral proteins was obviously inhibited and the activity of the enzymes was decreased post ultrasound treatment in the presence of 20 microg/ml HPD. Loss of the membrane proteins and inactivity of AC and GC post SDT was time-dependent. This paper reveals SDT can cause the loss of tumor cell membrane integral proteins and inactivity of the enzymes associated with cell proliferation which might be attributed to a sonochemical activation mechanism. The mechanisms by that tumor growth is inhibited by SDT can be understood as that the growth signaling pathway is partially interdicted and the resistance of tumor cells to the specifically activated immune cells is weakened.

  7. The energy-saving anaerobic baffled reactor membrane bioreactor (EABR-MBR) system for recycling wastewater from a high-rise building.

    PubMed

    Ratanatamskul, Chavalit; Charoenphol, Chakraphan

    2015-01-01

    A novel energy-saving anaerobic baffled reactor-membrane bioreactor (EABR-MBR) system has been developed as a compact biological treatment system for reuse of water from a high-rise building. The anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) compartment had five baffles and served as the anaerobic degradation zone, followed by the aerobic MBR compartment. The total operating hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the EABR-MBR system was 3 hours (2 hours for ABR compartment and very short HRT of 1 hour for aerobic MBR compartment). The wastewater came from the Charoen Wisawakam building. The results showed that treated effluent quality was quite good and highly promising for water reuse purposes. The average flux of the membrane was kept at 30 l/(m2h). The EABR-MBR system could remove chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen and total phosphorus from building wastewater by more than 90%. Moreover, it was found that phosphorus concentration was rising in the ABR compartment due to the phosphorus release phenomenon, and then the concentration decreased rapidly in the aerobic MBR compartment due to the phosphorus uptake phenomenon. This implies that phosphorus-accumulating organisms inside the EABR-MBR system are responsible for biological phosphorus removal. The research suggests that the EABR-MBR system can be a promising system for water reuse and reclamation for high-rise building application in the near future.

  8. A membrane-integrated fermentation reactor system: its effects in reducing the amount of sub-raw materials for D-lactic acid continuous fermentation by Sporolactobacillus laevolacticus.

    PubMed

    Mimitsuka, Takashi; Na, Kyungsu; Morita, Ken; Sawai, Hideki; Minegishi, Shinichi; Henmi, Masahiro; Yamada, Katsushige; Shimizu, Sakayu; Yonehara, Tetsu

    2012-01-01

    Continuous fermentation by retaining cells with a membrane-integrated fermentation reactor (MFR) system was found to reduce the amount of supplied sub-raw material. If the amount of sub-raw material can be reduced, continuous fermentation with the MFR system should become a more attractive process for industrialization, due to decreased material costs and loads during the refinement process. Our findings indicate that the production rate decreased when the amount of the sub-raw material was reduced in batch fermentation, but did not decrease during continuous fermentation with Sporolactobacillus laevolacticus. Moreover, continuous fermentation with a reduced amount of sub-raw material resulted in a productivity of 11.2 g/L/h over 800 h. In addition, the index of industrial process applicability used in the MFR system increased by 6.3-fold as compared with the conventional membrane-based fermentation reactor previously reported, suggesting a potential for the industrialization of this D-lactic acid continuous fermentation process.

  9. Differential cumene hydroperoxide sensitivity of cytochrome P-450 enzymes IA1 and IIB1 determined by their way of membrane incorporation.

    PubMed

    Balvers, W G; Boersma, M G; Veeger, C; Rietjens, I M

    1992-09-15

    The cytochrome P-450-dependent O-dealkylation of alkoxyresorufins was used to study the effect of cumene hydroperoxide on cytochrome P-450 IIB1 and IA1 in microsomal and reconstituted systems. In liver microsomal systems from respectively phenobarbital and 3-methylcholanthrene pretreated male Wistar rats, cytochrome P-450 IIB1-dependent pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylation appeared to be more sensitive to cumene hydroperoxide treatment than cytochrome P-450 IA1-dependent ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylation. This phenomenon was also observed when the cumene hydroperoxide sensitivity of P-450 IIB1 and IA1 was studied in an isosafrole pretreated rat liver microsomal system. The decrease in alkoxy-O-dealkylating activities appeared to proceed by destruction of the cytochrome P-450 component of the enzyme system. Purification and reconstitution of the enzyme system components in a system in which the isolated proteins were not incorporated into a membrane resulted in the disappearance of the difference in sensitivity between the two P-450 enzymes. However, in a reconstituted system with membrane incorporated proteins, again cytochrome P-450 IIB1 expressed a higher sensitivity towards cumene hydroperoxide than cytochrome P-450 IA1. From this it was concluded that the differential cumene hydroperoxide sensitivity of cytochrome P-450 IIB1 and IA1 is not caused by an intrinsic difference in their sensitivity but by a differential effect of membrane incorporation on their cumene hydroperoxide sensitivity.

  10. Proton slippage in cytochrome c oxidase of Paracoccus denitrificans. Membrane-potential measurements with the two-subunit and three-subunit enzyme.

    PubMed

    Steverding, D; Köhnke, D; Ludwig, B; Kadenbach, B

    1993-03-15

    Isolated cytochrome c oxidase from Paracoccus denitrificans, containing either two or three subunits, was reconstituted into liposomes and the membrane potential was measured at different rates of respiration using a triphenylmethylphosponium bromide electrode. Both enzymes revealed a non-linear increase of the membrane potential with increasing respiratory rates. The ratios of the respiratory rates of the two proton pumps decreased with increasing membrane potential, suggesting slippage of proton pumping, as has been shown before with two cytochrome c oxidases from bovine heart, differing in H+/e- stoichiometries due to chemical modification [Steverding, D. & Kadenbach, B. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 8097-8101]. The data suggest that slippage of proton pumping represents an intrinsic property of cytochrome c oxidase associated with the two catalytic subunits, I and II.

  11. Effects of in vitro UVA irradiation and PUVA treatment on membrane fatty acids and activities of antioxidant enzymes in human keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Punnonen, K.; Jansen, C.T.; Puntala, A.; Ahotupa, M. )

    1991-02-01

    Human Keratinocytes (NCTC 2544) in culture were exposed to either plain ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation or to 8-methoxypsoralen plus UVA (PUVA) treatment. Lipid peroxidation, activities of antioxidant enzymes, and percentage amounts of 14C-arachidonic acid in various cellular lipid subclasses and in the culture medium were measured. Both UVA irradiation and PUVA treatment induced significant changes in the distribution of arachidonic acid and increased the liberation of arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids. At 24 h after either UVA irradiation or PUVA treatment the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive material was significantly increased, whereas the amount of conjugated dienes was unaffected. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase, were already significantly decreased at 0.5 h after UVA irradiation or PUVA treatment. The enzyme activities were partially restored during the following 24 h incubation. From the present study, we suggest that in keratinocytes both plain UVA irradiation and PUVA treatment induce changes in the distribution of membrane fatty acids and cause an impairment in the enzymic defense system against oxidative stress.

  12. Water-Gas-Shift Membrane Reactor for High-Pressure Hydrogen Production. A comprehensive project report (FY2010 - FY2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Klaehn, John; Peterson, Eric; Orme, Christopher; Bhandari, Dhaval; Miller, Scott; Ku, Anthony; Polishchuk, Kimberly; Narang, Kristi; Singh, Surinder; Wei, Wei; Shisler, Roger; Wickersham, Paul; McEvoy, Kevin; Alberts, William; Howson, Paul; Barton, Thomas; Sethi, Vijay

    2013-01-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL), GE Global Research (GEGR), and Western Research Institute (WRI) have successfully produced hydrogen-selective membranes for water-gas-shift (WGS) modules that enable high-pressure hydrogen product streams. Several high performance (HP) polymer membranes were investigated for their gas separation performance under simulated (mixed gas) and actual syngas conditions. To enable optimal module performance, membranes with high hydrogen (H2) selectivity, permeance, and stability under WGS conditions are required. The team determined that the VTEC PI 80-051 and VTEC PI 1388 (polyimide from Richard Blaine International, Inc.) are prime candidates for the H2 gas separations at operating temperatures (~200°C). VTEC PI 80-051 was thoroughly analyzed for its H2 separations under syngas processing conditions using more-complex membrane configurations, such as tube modules and hollow fibers. These membrane formats have demonstrated that the selected VTEC membrane is capable of providing highly selective H2/CO2 separation (α = 7-9) and H2/CO separation (α = 40-80) in humidified syngas streams. In addition, the VTEC polymer membranes are resilient within the syngas environment (WRI coal gasification) at 200°C for over 1000 hours. The information within this report conveys current developments of VTEC PI 80-051 as an effective H2 gas separations membrane for high-temperature syngas streams.

  13. Carbamazepine degradation using a N-doped TiO2 coated photocatalytic membrane reactor: Influence of physical parameters.

    PubMed

    Horovitz, Inna; Avisar, Dror; Baker, Mark A; Grilli, Rossana; Lozzi, Luca; Di Camillo, Daniela; Mamane, Hadas

    2016-06-05

    Commercial α-Al2O3 photocatalytic membranes with a pore size of 200 and 800-nm were coated with N-doped TiO2 photocatalytic film using a sol-gel technique for concurrent bottom-up filtration and photocatalytic oxidation. X-ray diffraction confirmed that the deposited N-doped TiO2 films are in the form of anatase with 78-84% coverage of the membrane surface. The concentration of N found by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was in the range of 0.3-0.9 atomic percentage. Membrane permeability after coating decreased by 50% and 12% for the 200- and 800-nm membrane substrates, respectively. The impact of operational parameters on the photocatalytic activity (PCA) of the N-doped TiO2-coated membranes was examined in a laboratory flow cell based on degradation of the model micropollutant carbamazepine, using a solar simulator as the light source. The significant gap in degradation rate between flow through the membrane and flow on the surface of the membrane was attributed both to the hydraulic effect and in-pore PCA. N-doped TiO2-coated membranes showed enhanced activity for UV wavelengths, in addition to activity under visible light. Experiments of PCA under varying flow rates concluded that the process is in the mass-transfer control regime. Carbamazepine removal rate increased with temperature, despite the decrease in dissolved oxygen concentration.

  14. Heterogeneous distribution of enzymes among plasma-membrane fragments sedimenting with the microsomal fraction of rat liver

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Kenneth A.; Dobrota, Miloslav; Issa, Faiz S.; Hinton, Richard H.; Reid, Eric

    1974-01-01

    Plasma-membrane fragments recovered in the microsomal fraction of rat liver homogenates were shown to be heterogeneous in density. It was demonstrated that 5′-nucleotidase, the most commonly used plasma-membrane marker, is concentrated in the lightest subfraction. Two of the published procedures for the isolation of plasma-membrane fragments from the microsomal fraction (Touster et al., 1970; Hinton et al., 1971) are shown to give products which are not representative of all the plasma-membrane fragments of microsomal size, and it is argued that a third procedure (House & Weidemann, 1970) is likely to give a similar product. PMID:4377214

  15. Preparing a metal-ion chelated immobilized enzyme reactor based on the polyacrylamide monolith grafted with polyethylenimine for a facile regeneration and high throughput tryptic digestion in proteomics.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shuaibin; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Kaiguang; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2012-01-01

    Initially, a poly (glycidyl methacrylate-co-acrylamide-co-methylenebisacrylamide) monolith was prepared in the 100 μm i.d. capillary, and then was grafted with polyethylenimine (Mw, ~25,000) for adsorbing Cu(2+), followed by chelating trypsin. As a result, efficient digestion for BSA (100 ng/μL) was completed within 50 s via such immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER); yielding 47% sequence coverage by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis. Compared with the conventional method for preparing the metal-ion chelated IMER, the regeneration of such IMER can be achieved facilely by the respective 30 min desorption and re-adsorption of trypsin, and 51% sequence coverage was obtained for 50 s BSA digestion after regeneration. BSA down to femtomole was also efficiently digested by the prepared regenerable IMER. Meanwhile, after the consecutive digestion of myoglobin and BSA, there was not any mutual interference for both during MALDI-TOF MS identification, indicating the low nonspecific adsorption of such regenerable IMER. To test the applicability of regenerable IMER for complex sample profiling, proteins (150 ng) extracted from Escherichia coli were digested within 80 s by the regenerable IMER and further analyzed by nanoreversed phase liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry successfully, showing its practicability for the high throughput analysis of complex samples.

  16. Detection of pH and Enzyme-Free H2O2 Sensing Mechanism by Using GdO x Membrane in Electrolyte-Insulator-Semiconductor Structure.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pankaj; Maikap, Siddheswar; Qiu, Jian-Tai; Jana, Surajit; Roy, Anisha; Singh, Kanishk; Cheng, Hsin-Ming; Chang, Mu-Tung; Mahapatra, Rajat; Chiu, Hsien-Chin; Yang, Jer-Ren

    2016-12-01

    A 15-nm-thick GdO x membrane in an electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) structure shows a higher pH sensitivity of 54.2 mV/pH and enzyme-free hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection than those of the bare SiO2 and 3-nm-thick GdO x membranes for the first time. Polycrystalline grain and higher Gd content of the thicker GdO x films are confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. In a thicker GdO x membrane, polycrystalline grain has lower energy gap and Gd(2+) oxidation states lead to change Gd(3+) states in the presence of H2O2, which are confirmed by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). The oxidation/reduction (redox) properties of thicker GdO x membrane with higher Gd content are responsible for detecting H2O2 whereas both bare SiO2 and thinner GdO x membranes do not show sensing. A low detection limit of 1 μM is obtained due to strong catalytic activity of Gd. The reference voltage shift increases with increase of the H2O2 concentration from 1 to 200 μM owing to more generation of Gd(3+) ions, and the H2O2 sensing mechanism has been explained as well.

  17. Detection of pH and Enzyme-Free H2O2 Sensing Mechanism by Using GdO x Membrane in Electrolyte-Insulator-Semiconductor Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Maikap, Siddheswar; Qiu, Jian-Tai; Jana, Surajit; Roy, Anisha; Singh, Kanishk; Cheng, Hsin-Ming; Chang, Mu-Tung; Mahapatra, Rajat; Chiu, Hsien-Chin; Yang, Jer-Ren

    2016-09-01

    A 15-nm-thick GdO x membrane in an electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) structure shows a higher pH sensitivity of 54.2 mV/pH and enzyme-free hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection than those of the bare SiO2 and 3-nm-thick GdO x membranes for the first time. Polycrystalline grain and higher Gd content of the thicker GdO x films are confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. In a thicker GdO x membrane, polycrystalline grain has lower energy gap and Gd2+ oxidation states lead to change Gd3+ states in the presence of H2O2, which are confirmed by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). The oxidation/reduction (redox) properties of thicker GdO x membrane with higher Gd content are responsible for detecting H2O2 whereas both bare SiO2 and thinner GdO x membranes do not show sensing. A low detection limit of 1 μM is obtained due to strong catalytic activity of Gd. The reference voltage shift increases with increase of the H2O2 concentration from 1 to 200 μM owing to more generation of Gd3+ ions, and the H2O2 sensing mechanism has been explained as well.

  18. Cell Wall-Degrading Enzymes Enlarge the Pore Size of Intervessel Pit Membranes in Healthy and Xylella fastidiosa-Infected Grapevines1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Donoso, Alonso G.; Sun, Qiang; Roper, M. Caroline; Greve, L. Carl; Kirkpatrick, Bruce; Labavitch, John M.

    2010-01-01

    The pit membrane (PM) is a primary cell wall barrier that separates adjacent xylem water conduits, limiting the spread of xylem-localized pathogens and air embolisms from one conduit to the next. This paper provides a characterization of the size of the pores in the PMs of grapevine (Vitis vinifera). The PM porosity (PMP) of stems infected with the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa was compared with the PMP of healthy stems. Stems were infused with pressurized water and flow rates were determined; gold particles of known size were introduced with the water to assist in determining the size of PM pores. The effect of introducing trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid (CDTA), oligogalacturonides, and polygalacturonic acid into stems on water flux via the xylem was also measured. The possibility that cell wall-degrading enzymes could alter the pore sizes, thus facilitating the ability of X. fastidiosa to cross the PMs, was tested. Two cell wall-degrading enzymes likely to be produced by X. fastidiosa (polygalactuoronase and endo-1,4- β -glucanase) were infused into stems, and particle passage tests were performed to check for changes in PMP. Scanning electron microscopy of control and enzyme-infused stem segments revealed that the combination of enzymes opened holes in PMs, probably explaining enzyme impacts on PMP and how a small X. fastidiosa population, introduced into grapevines by insect vectors, can multiply and spread throughout the vine and cause Pierce's disease. PMID:20107028

  19. Cell wall-degrading enzymes enlarge the pore size of intervessel pit membranes in healthy and Xylella fastidiosa-infected grapevines.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Donoso, Alonso G; Sun, Qiang; Roper, M Caroline; Greve, L Carl; Kirkpatrick, Bruce; Labavitch, John M

    2010-03-01

    The pit membrane (PM) is a primary cell wall barrier that separates adjacent xylem water conduits, limiting the spread of xylem-localized pathogens and air embolisms from one conduit to the next. This paper provides a characterization of the size of the pores in the PMs of grapevine (Vitis vinifera). The PM porosity (PMP) of stems infected with the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa was compared with the PMP of healthy stems. Stems were infused with pressurized water and flow rates were determined; gold particles of known size were introduced with the water to assist in determining the size of PM pores. The effect of introducing trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (CDTA), oligogalacturonides, and polygalacturonic acid into stems on water flux via the xylem was also measured. The possibility that cell wall-degrading enzymes could alter the pore sizes, thus facilitating the ability of X. fastidiosa to cross the PMs, was tested. Two cell wall-degrading enzymes likely to be produced by X. fastidiosa (polygalactuoronase and endo-1,4- beta -glucanase) were infused into stems, and particle passage tests were performed to check for changes in PMP. Scanning electron microscopy of control and enzyme-infused stem segments revealed that the combination of enzymes opened holes in PMs, probably explaining enzyme impacts on PMP and how a small X. fastidiosa population, introduced into grapevines by insect vectors, can multiply and spread throughout the vine and cause Pierce's disease.

  20. High-κ GdTixOy sensing membrane-based electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor with magnetic nanoparticles as enzyme carriers for protein contamination-free glucose biosensing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Min-Hsien; Yang, Hung-Wei; Hua, Mu-Yi; Peng, Yen-Bo; Pan, Tung-Ming

    2013-09-15

    This paper reports an electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) device featuring a novel high-κ GdTixOy sensing membrane for high-performance pH sensing and glucose biosensing. The effect of the annealing temperature (700, 800, or 900°C) on the sensing properties of the GdTixOy membranes was investigated. The GdTixOy EIS device annealed at 900°C exhibited the greatest pH sensing performance, including the highest sensitivity (62.12mV/pH), the smallest hysteresis voltage (5mV), and the lowest drift rate (0.4mV/h), presumably because of its well-crystallized GdTixOy structure. To overcome the problems typically encountered during the practical application of biosensors (e.g., protein adsorption; preservation of enzymatic activity), we employed Fe3O4-based magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as enzyme carriers. The adsorption of serum protein on the unmodified sensing membrane led to poor EIS-based pH sensing (r(2)=0.71); the performance was greatly improved, however, after attaching the MNPs to the sensing membrane, thereby blocking protein adsorption significantly (by 98%) and allowing excellent pH sensing (r(2)=0.99). Moreover, we prepared a hybrid configuration of the proposed GdTixOy membrane-EIS, with magnetically attached glucose oxidase-immobilized MNPs, for glucose biosensing. The use of MNPs as enzyme carriers effectively preserved the enzymatic activity of glucose oxidase, with 45.3% of the original enzymatic activity retained after 120h of storage at 4°C (compared with complete loss of the free enzyme's activity under the same storage conditions). In addition, the proposed biosensor exhibited superior detection sensitivity of 11.03mV/mM relative to that (8.17mV/mM) obtained using the conventional enzyme immobilization method. Finally, we established the accuracy of the proposed method for blood glucose measurement; gratifyingly, blood glucose detection was comparable with the high-sensitivity glucose quantification obtained using a commercial glucose assay

  1. Lysosomal integral membrane protein 2 (LIMP-2) restricts the invasion of Trypanosoma cruzi extracellular amastigotes through the activity of the lysosomal enzyme β-glucocerebrosidase.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Viviane Martinelli; D'Almeida, Vânia; Müller, Karen Barbosa; Real, Fernando; Mortara, Renato Arruda

    2014-03-01

    Lysosomal integral membrane protein 2 (LIMP-2, SCARB2) is directly linked to β-glucocerebrosidase enzyme (βGC) and mediates the transport of this enzyme from the Golgi complex to lysosomes. Active βGC cleaves the β-glycosidic linkages of glucosylceramide, an intermediate in the metabolism of sphingoglycolipids, generating ceramide. In this study we used mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) deficient for LIMP-2 and observed that these cells were more susceptible to infection by extracellular amastigotes of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi when compared to wild-type (WT) fibroblasts. The absence of LIMP-2 decreases the activity of βGC measured in fibroblast extracts. Replacement of βGC enzyme in LIMP-2 deficient fibroblasts restores the infectivity indices to those of WT cells in T. cruzi invasion assays. Considering the participation of βGC in the production of host cell ceramide, we propose that T. cruzi extracellular amastigotes are more invasive to cells deficient in this membrane component. These results contribute to our understanding of the role of host cell lysosomal components in T. cruzi invasion.

  2. The removal of selenate to low ppb levels from flue gas desulfurization brine using the H2-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR).

    PubMed

    Van Ginkel, Steven W; Yang, Ziming; Kim, Bi-o; Sholin, Mark; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2011-05-01

    The H(2)-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) was shown to consistently remove nitrate, nitrite, and selenate at high efficiencies from flue-gas desulfurization brine. Selenate was removed to <50 ppb which is the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) criteria for the brine to be released into the environment. When selenate was removed to <50 ppb, nitrate and nitrite were still present in the mg/L range which suggests that selenate is able to be secondarily reduced to low levels when nitrate and nitrite serve as the main electron acceptors for bacterial growth. SO(4)(2-) was not removed and therefore did not compete with nitrate and selenate reduction for the available H(2).

  3. Enhanced simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of pretreated beech wood by in situ treatment with the white rot fungus Irpex lacteus in a membrane aerated biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Brethauer, Simone; Robert Lawrence, Shahab; Michael Hans-Peter, Studer

    2017-03-18

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the combination of steam pretreatment and biological treatment with lignin degrading fungal strains in order to enable efficient bioprocessing of beech wood to ethanol. In a sequential process of steam and fungal pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis, Irpex lacteus almost doubled the glucose yield for mildly pretreated beech wood, but could not improve yields for more severely pretreated substrates. However, when simultaneous saccharification and fermentation is combined with in situ I. lacteus treatment, which is enabled by the application of a membrane aerated biofilm reactor, ethanol yields of optimally steam pretreated beech could be improved from 65 to 80%. Generally, in situ fungal treatment during bioprocessing of lignocellulose is an interesting method to harness the versatile abilities of white rot fungi.

  4. Simultaneous determination of ampicillin and sulbactam by liquid chromatography: post-column reaction with sodium hydroxide and sodium hypochlorite using an active hollow-fibre membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Haginaka, J; Nishimura, Y

    1990-10-26

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of ampicillin (ABPC) and sulbactam (SBT) in serum and urine. The method involves separation of ABPC and SBT from the background components of serum and urine on a C18 column, post-column reaction with sodium hydroxide and sodium hypochlorite using an active hollow-fibre membrane reactor, and detection at 270 nm. At ABPC and SBT concentrations of 10 and 5 micrograms/ml in urine and serum samples, the precisions (relative standard deviations) were 0.9-2.5% (n = 8). The detection limits were 20 and 5 ng for ABPC and SBT, respectively, at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3.

  5. Continuous esterification to produce biodiesel by SPES/PES/NWF composite catalytic membrane in flow-through membrane reactor: experimental and kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wenying; He, Benqiao; Cao, Yuping; Li, Jianxin; Yan, Feng; Cui, Zhenyu; Zou, Zhiqun; Guo, Shiwei; Qian, Xiaomin

    2013-02-01

    A novel composite catalytic membrane (CCM) was prepared from sulfonated polyethersulfone (SPES) and polyethersulfone (PES) blend supported by non-woven fabrics, as a heterogeneous catalyst to produce biodiesel from continuous esterification of oleic acid with methanol in a flow-through mode. A kinetic model of esterification was established based on a plug-flow assumption. The effects of the CCM structure (thickness, area, porosity, etc.), reaction temperature and the external and internal mass transfer resistances on esterification were investigated. The results showed that the CCM structure had a significant effect on the acid conversion. The external mass transfer resistance could be neglected when the flow rate was over 1.2 ml min(-1). The internal mass transfer resistance impacted on the conversion when membrane thickness was over 1.779 mm. An oleic acid conversion kept over 98.0% for 500 h of continuous running. The conversions obtained from the model are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  6. Engineering Development of Ceramic Membrane Reactor System for Converting Natural Gas to Hydrogen and Synthesis Gas for Liquid Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Air Products and Chemicals

    2008-09-30

    An Air Products-led team successfully developed ITM Syngas technology from the concept stage to a stage where a small-scale engineering prototype was about to be built. This technology produces syngas, a gas containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen, by reacting feed gas, primarily methane and steam, with oxygen that is supplied through an ion transport membrane. An ion transport membrane operates at high temperature and oxygen ions are transported through the dense membrane's crystal lattice when an oxygen partial pressure driving force is applied. This development effort solved many significant technical challenges and successfully scaled-up key aspects of the technology to prototype scale. Throughout the project life, the technology showed significant economic benefits over conventional technologies. While there are still on-going technical challenges to overcome, the progress made under the DOE-funded development project proved that the technology was viable and continued development post the DOE agreement would be warranted.

  7. Confining a bi-enzyme inside the nanochannels of a porous aluminum oxide membrane for accelerating the enzymatic reactions.

    PubMed

    Shangguan, Li; Wei, Yuanqing; Liu, Xu; Yu, Jiachao; Liu, Songqin

    2017-02-28

    An artificial metabolon with high conversion efficiency was constructed by confining a bi-enzyme into porous aluminum oxide nanochannels, which accelerated enzymatic reactions by minimizing the diffusion loss of intermediate species.

  8. A simple-potentiometric method for determination of acid and alkaline phosphatase enzymes in biological fluids and dairy products using a nitrophenylphosphate plastic membrane sensor.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Saad S M; Sayour, Hossam E M; Kamel, Ayman H

    2009-04-27

    A novel poly(vinyl chloride) matrix membrane sensor responsive to 4-nitrophenylphosphate (4-NPP) substrate is described, characterized and used for the potentiometric assay of acid (ACP) and alkaline (ALP) phosphatase enzymes. The sensor is based on the use of the ion-association complex of 4-NPP anion with nickel(II)-bathophenanthroline cation as an electroactive material and nitrophenyloctyl ether (NPOE) as a solvent mediator. The sensor displays good selectivity and stability and demonstrates a near-Nernstian response for 4-NPP over the concentration range 9.6x10(-6) to 1.0x10(-2) M with an anionic slope of 28.6+/-0.3 mV decade(-1) and a detection limit of 6.3x10(-6) M over the pH range 4.5-10. The sensor is used to measure the decrease of a fixed concentration of 4-NPP substrate as a function of acid and alkaline phosphatase enzyme activities at optimized conditions of pH and temperature. A linear relationship between the initial rate of 4-NPP substrate hydrolysis and enzyme activity holds over 0.05-3.0 and 0.03-3.4 IU L(-1) of ACP and ALP enzymes, respectively. Validation of the method by measuring the lower detection limit, range, accuracy, precision, within-day repeatability and between-day-variability reveals good performance characteristics of the proposed sensor. The sensor is used for the determination of acid and alkaline phosphatase enzyme activities in biological fluids of some patients suffering from alcoholic cirrhosis, acute myelocytic leukemia, pre-eclampsia and prostatic cancer. The sensor is also utilized for assessment of alkaline phosphatase enzyme in milk and dairy products. The results obtained agree fairly well with data obtained by the standard spectrophotometric methods.

  9. Developmental increase in ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity overlaps with appearance of two immunologically distinct enzyme isoforms in rat hippocampal synaptic plasma membranes.

    PubMed

    Grkovic, Ivana; Bjelobaba, Ivana; Nedeljkovic, Nadezda; Mitrovic, Natasa; Drakulic, Dunja; Stanojlovic, Milos; Horvat, Anica

    2014-09-01

    Ecto-5'-nucleotidase (e-5NT), a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked membrane protein, catalyzes a conversion of AMP to adenosine, which influences nearly every aspect of brain physiology, including embryonic and postnatal brain development. The present study aimed to investigate a pattern of expression, activity and kinetic properties of e-5NT in the hippocampal formation and synaptic plasma membrane (SPM) preparations in rats at postnatal days (PDs) 7, 15, 20, 30 and 90. By combining gene expression analysis and enzyme histochemistry, we observed that e-5NT mRNA reached the adult level at PD20, while the enzyme activity continued to increase beyond this age. Further analysis revealed that hippocampal layers rich in synapses expressed the highest levels of e-5NT activity, while in layers populated with neuronal cell bodies, the enzyme activity was weak or absent. Therefore, activity and expression of e-5NT were analyzed in SPM preparations isolated from rats at different ages. The presence of two protein bands of about 65 and 68 kDa was determined by immunoblot analysis. The 65-kDa band was present at all ages, and its abundance increased from PD7 to PD20. The 68-kDa band appeared at PD15 and increased until PD30, coinciding with the increase of e-5NT activity, substrate affinity and enzymatic efficiency. Since distinct e-5NT isoforms may derive from different patterns of the enzyme protein N-glycosylation, we speculate that long-term regulation of e-5NT activity in adulthood may be effectuated at posttranslational level and without overall change in the gene and protein expression.

  10. Urease immobilized on modified polysulphone membrane: preparation and properties.

    PubMed

    Poźniak, G; Krajewska, B; Trochimczuk, W

    1995-01-01

    Porous asymmetric membranes were formed by the phase inversion method from one-to-one blends of polysulphone and its aminated derivative. Amino groups were introduced into polysulphone UDEL P 1700 by chlorosulphonation followed by amination. Urease was immobilized on the modified polysulphone membranes. The properties of the immobilized urease were investigated and related to the free enzyme. The Michaelis constant was 4.4 times higher for the immobilized than for the free urease. Immobilization improved the pH stability of the enzyme at pH < 6.5 as well as its temperature stability. However, the immobilization did not protect the enzyme against heat inactivation at 70 degrees C; the half-times for the activity decay were equal to 120 and 50 min for the free and immobilized enzymes, respectively. The immobilized urease exhibited good storage and operational stability, and good reusability, properties that prove the applicability of the obtained system in enzymatic-membrane reactors.

  11. Model-Based Feasibility Assessment of Membrane Biofilm Reactor to Achieve Simultaneous Ammonium, Dissolved Methane, and Sulfide Removal from Anaerobic Digestion Liquor

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xueming; Liu, Yiwen; Peng, Lai; Yuan, Zhiguo; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) is proposed to achieve simultaneous removal of ammonium, dissolved methane, and sulfide from main-stream and side-stream anaerobic digestion liquors. To avoid dissolved methane stripping, oxygen is introduced through gas-permeable membranes, which also from the substratum for the growth of a biofilm likely comprising ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB), anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) bacteria, denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) microorganisms, aerobic methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB), and sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB). A mathematical model is developed and applied to assess the feasibility of such a system and the associated microbial community structure under different operational conditions. The simulation studies demonstrate the feasibility of achieving high-level (>97.0%), simultaneous removal of ammonium, dissolved methane, and sulfide in the MBfRs from both main-stream and side-stream anaerobic digestion liquors through adjusting the influent surface loading (or hydraulic retention time (HRT)) and the oxygen surface loading. The optimal HRT was found to be inversely proportional to the corresponding oxygen surface loading. Under the optimal operational conditions, AOB, DAMO bacteria, MOB, and SOB dominate the biofilm of the main-stream MBfR, while AOB, Anammox bacteria, DAMO bacteria, and SOB coexist in the side-stream MBfR to remove ammonium, dissolved methane, and sulfide simultaneously. PMID:27112502

  12. Model-Based Feasibility Assessment of Membrane Biofilm Reactor to Achieve Simultaneous Ammonium, Dissolved Methane, and Sulfide Removal from Anaerobic Digestion Liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xueming; Liu, Yiwen; Peng, Lai; Yuan, Zhiguo; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) is proposed to achieve simultaneous removal of ammonium, dissolved methane, and sulfide from main-stream and side-stream anaerobic digestion liquors. To avoid dissolved methane stripping, oxygen is introduced through gas-permeable membranes, which also from the substratum for the growth of a biofilm likely comprising ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB), anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) bacteria, denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) microorganisms, aerobic methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB), and sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB). A mathematical model is developed and applied to assess the feasibility of such a system and the associated microbial community structure under different operational conditions. The simulation studies demonstrate the feasibility of achieving high-level (>97.0%), simultaneous removal of ammonium, dissolved methane, and sulfide in the MBfRs from both main-stream and side-stream anaerobic digestion liquors through adjusting the influent surface loading (or hydraulic retention time (HRT)) and the oxygen surface loading. The optimal HRT was found to be inversely proportional to the corresponding oxygen surface loading. Under the optimal operational conditions, AOB, DAMO bacteria, MOB, and SOB dominate the biofilm of the main-stream MBfR, while AOB, Anammox bacteria, DAMO bacteria, and SOB coexist in the side-stream MBfR to remove ammonium, dissolved methane, and sulfide simultaneously.

  13. Complete Nitrogen Removal from Synthetic Anaerobic Sludge Digestion Liquor through Integrating Anammox and Denitrifying Anaerobic Methane Oxidation in a Membrane Biofilm Reactor.

    PubMed

    Xie, Guo-Jun; Cai, Chen; Hu, Shihu; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2017-01-17

    Partial nitritation and Anammox processes are increasingly used for nitrogen removal from anaerobic sludge digestion liquor. However, their nitrogen removal efficiency is often limited due to the production of nitrate by the Anammox reaction and the sensitivity to the nitrite to ammonium ratio. This work develops and demonstrates an innovative process that achieves complete nitrogen removal from partially nitrified anaerobic sludge digestion liquor through the use of a membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR), with methane supplied through hollow fiber membranes. When steady state with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1 day was reached, the process achieved complete nitrite and ammonium removal at rates of 560 mg N/L/d and 470 mg N/L/d, respectively, without any nitrate accumulation. The process is relatively insensitive to the nitrite to ammonium ratio, achieving complete nitrogen removal when their ratio in influent varied in the range of 1.125-1.32. Pyrosequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed that denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) archaea, Anammox bacteria and DAMO bacteria jointly dominated the microbial community. Mass balance analysis showed that nitrate produced by Anammox (122.2 mg N/L/d) was entirely converted to nitrite by DAMO archaea, while nitrite in the feed and produced by DAMO archaea was jointly removed by Anammox (90%) and DAMO bacteria (10%). The nitrogen removal rate of over 1 kg N/m(3)/d is comparable to the practical rates reported for side-stream nitrogen removal processes.

  14. [Effect of extra-cellular polymeric substances on filtration of modified non-woven fabric in membrane bio-reactor].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun-hua; Yang, Feng-lin; Wang, Wen-jun; An, Xiao-wen; Zhang, Feng-jie

    2008-06-01

    The effect of extra-cellular polymeric substances (EPS) on filtration of polyvinyl alcohol modified polypropylene non-woven in submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) was investigated by statistical method. The results show that soluble extra-cellular polymeric substances (EPSs) of activated sludge on the non-woven modules surface, components (protein/carbohydrate, P/C) of EPSs and relative hydrophobicity (RH) have a significant influence on filtration performance of module B, the Pearson's correlation coefficient (r(p)) related to membrane fouling resistance are 0.868, 0.840, 0.890, respectively. Modified module can effectively restrict the adsorption of EPSs, can reduce the ratio of P/C in EPSs and can decrease the accumulation of activated sludge. After hydrophilic modification of non-woven, the filtration performance is improved obviously and the un-fouling performance is increased.

  15. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors

    DOEpatents

    Nuzzo, Ralph G [Champaign, IL; Mitrovski, Svetlana M [Urbana, IL

    2011-03-22

    A microfluidic electrochemical reactor includes an electrode and one or more microfluidic channels on the electrode, where the microfluidic channels are covered with a membrane containing a gas permeable polymer. The distance between the electrode and the membrane is less than 500 micrometers. The microfluidic electrochemical reactor can provide for increased reaction rates in electrochemical reactions using a gaseous reactant, as compared to conventional electrochemical cells. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors can be incorporated into devices for applications such as fuel cells, electrochemical analysis, microfluidic actuation, pH gradient formation.

  16. Copper effects on key metabolic enzymes and mitochondrial membrane potential in gills of the estuarine crab Neohelice granulata at different salinities.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Mariana Machado; de Oliveira, Camila Bento; Yano, Natalia Lie Inocencio; Bianchini, Adalto

    2012-11-01

    The estuarine crab Neohelice granulata was exposed (96 h) to a sublethal copper concentration under two different physiological conditions (hyperosmoregulating crabs: 2 ppt salinity, 1 mg Cu/L; isosmotic crabs: 30 ppt salinity, 5 mg Cu/L). After exposure, gills (anterior and posterior) were dissected and activities of enzymes involved in glycolysis (hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase), Krebs cycle (citrate synthase), and mitochondrial electron transport chain (cytochrome c oxidase) were analyzed. Membrane potential of mitochondria isolated from anterior and posterior gill cells was also evaluated. In anterior gills of crabs acclimated to 2 ppt salinity, copper exposure inhibited hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and citrate synthase activity, increased lactate dehydrogenase activity, and reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential. In posterior gills, copper inhibited hexokinase and pyruvate kinase activity, and increased citrate synthase activity. In anterior gills of crabs acclimated to 30 ppt salinity, copper exposure inhibited phosphofructokinase and citrate synthase activity, and increased hexokinase activity. In posterior gills, copper inhibited phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase activity, and increased hexokinase and lactate dehydrogenase activity. Copper did not affect cytochrome c oxidase activity in either anterior or posterior gills of crabs acclimated to 2 and 30 ppt salinity. These findings indicate that exposure to a sublethal copper concentration affects the activity of enzymes involved in glycolysis and Krebs cycle, especially in anterior (respiratory) gills of hyperosmoregulating crabs. Changes observed indicate a switch from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism, characterizing a situation of functional hypoxia. In this case, reduced mitochondrial membrane potential would suggest a decrease in ATP production. Although gills of isosmotic crabs were also affected by copper exposure, changes

  17. Phospholipid:Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase Is a Multifunctional Enzyme Involved in Membrane Lipid Turnover and Degradation While Synthesizing Triacylglycerol in the Unicellular Green Microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Kangsup; Han, Danxiang; Li, Yantao; Sommerfeld, Milton; Hu, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Many unicellular microalgae produce large amounts (∼20 to 50% of cell dry weight) of triacylglycerols (TAGs) under stress (e.g., nutrient starvation and high light), but the synthesis and physiological role of TAG are poorly understood. We present detailed genetic, biochemical, functional, and physiological analyses of phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT) in the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which catalyzes TAG synthesis via two pathways: transacylation of diacylglycerol (DAG) with acyl groups from phospholipids and galactolipids and DAG:DAG transacylation. We demonstrate that PDAT also possesses acyl hydrolase activities using TAG, phospholipids, galactolipids, and cholesteryl esters as substrates. Artificial microRNA silencing of PDAT in C. reinhardtii alters the membrane lipid composition, reducing the maximum specific growth rate. The data suggest that PDAT-mediated membrane lipid turnover and TAG synthesis is essential for vigorous growth under favorable culture conditions and for membrane lipid degradation with concomitant production of TAG for survival under stress. The strong lipase activity of PDAT with broad substrate specificity suggests that this enzyme could be a potential biocatalyst for industrial lipid hydrolysis and conversion, particularly for biofuel production. PMID:23012436

  18. Phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase is a multifunctional enzyme involved in membrane lipid turnover and degradation while synthesizing triacylglycerol in the unicellular green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Kangsup; Han, Danxiang; Li, Yantao; Sommerfeld, Milton; Hu, Qiang

    2012-09-01

    Many unicellular microalgae produce large amounts (∼20 to 50% of cell dry weight) of triacylglycerols (TAGs) under stress (e.g., nutrient starvation and high light), but the synthesis and physiological role of TAG are poorly understood. We present detailed genetic, biochemical, functional, and physiological analyses of phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT) in the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which catalyzes TAG synthesis via two pathways: transacylation of diacylglycerol (DAG) with acyl groups from phospholipids and galactolipids and DAG:DAG transacylation. We demonstrate that PDAT also possesses acyl hydrolase activities using TAG, phospholipids, galactolipids, and cholesteryl esters as substrates. Artificial microRNA silencing of PDAT in C. reinhardtii alters the membrane lipid composition, reducing the maximum specific growth rate. The data suggest that PDAT-mediated membrane lipid turnover and TAG synthesis is essential for vigorous growth under favorable culture conditions and for membrane lipid degradation with concomitant production of TAG for survival under stress. The strong lipase activity of PDAT with broad substrate specificity suggests that this enzyme could be a potential biocatalyst for industrial lipid hydrolysis and conversion, particularly for biofuel production.

  19. Negatively charged residues of the segment linking the enzyme and cytolysin moieties restrict the membrane-permeabilizing capacity of adenylate cyclase toxin

    PubMed Central

    Masin, Jiri; Osickova, Adriana; Sukova, Anna; Fiser, Radovan; Halada, Petr; Bumba, Ladislav; Linhartova, Irena; Osicka, Radim; Sebo, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The whooping cough agent, Bordetella pertussis, secretes an adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin (CyaA) that plays a crucial role in host respiratory tract colonization. CyaA targets CR3-expressing cells and disrupts their bactericidal functions by delivering into their cytosol an adenylate cyclase enzyme that converts intracellular ATP to cAMP. In parallel, the hydrophobic domain of CyaA forms cation-selective pores that permeabilize cell membrane. The invasive AC and pore-forming domains of CyaA are linked by a segment that is unique in the RTX cytolysin family. We used mass spectrometry and circular dichroism to show that the linker segment forms α-helical structures that penetrate into lipid bilayer. Replacement of the positively charged arginine residues, proposed to be involved in target membrane destabilization by the linker segment, reduced the capacity of the toxin to translocate the AC domain across cell membrane. Substitutions of negatively charged residues then revealed that two clusters of negative charges within the linker segment control the size and the propensity of CyaA pore formation, thereby restricting the cell-permeabilizing capacity of CyaA. The ‘AC to Hly-linking segment’ thus appears to account for the smaller size and modest cell-permeabilizing capacity of CyaA pores, as compared to typical RTX hemolysins. PMID:27581058

  20. Influence of Ramadan-type fasting on carbohydrate metabolism, brush border membrane enzymes and phosphate transport in rat kidney used as a model.

    PubMed

    Salim, Samina; Farooq, Neelam; Priyamvada, Shubha; Asghar, Mohammad; Khundmiri, Syed Jalal; Khan, Samia; Khan, Farah; Yusufi, Ahad Noor Khan

    2007-11-01

    Ramadan fasting is a unique model of fasting in which Muslims the world over abstain from food and water from dawn to sunset for 1 month. We hypothesized that this model of prolonged intermittent fasting would result in specific adaptive alterations in rat kidney to keep a positive balance of metabolites and inorganic phosphate (Pi). The effect of Ramadan-type fasting was studied on enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism and brush border membrane (BBM) and BBM uptake of 32Pi in different renal tissue zones in the rat model. Rats were fasted (12 h) and then re-fed (12 h) daily for 30 d similar to human Ramadan fasting. Ramadan-type fasting resulted in increased serum Pi and phospholipids, whereas Pi clearance decreased. Serum creatinine and its clearance were not affected. Fasting caused a significant decrease in the activities of lactate and malate dehydrogenases, glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, both in the renal cortex and medulla. However, the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase profoundly increased but that of malic enzyme decreased. The activities of alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase in BBM decreased, whereas transport of 32Pi significantly increased. The decrease in enzyme activities and increase in 32Pi transport were due to alterations of both maximal velocities and relative affinities. The results indicate that Ramadan-type fasting caused specific metabolic alterations with enhanced Pi conservation in different kidney tissues in a rat model used for Ramadan fasting in man.

  1. Isotope-coded carbamidomethylation for quantification of N-glycoproteins with online microbore hollow fiber enzyme reactor-nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Yong; Oh, Donggeun; Kim, Sook-Kyung; Kang, Dukjin; Moon, Myeong Hee

    2014-08-05

    This paper introduces a simple, inexpensive, and robust quantitative proteomic method for quantifying N-linked glycoproteins based on isotope-coded carbamidomethylation (iCCM) incorporated into an online microbore hollow fiber enzyme reactor and nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (mHFER-nLC-MS/MS). The iCCM quantitation uses carbamidomethylation (CM; a routine protection of thiol groups before proteolysis) of the Cys residue of proteins with iodoacetamide (IAA) or its isotope (IAA-(13)C2,D2: 4 Da difference). CM-/iCCM-labeled proteome samples are mixed for proteolysis; then, online enrichment of N-glycopeptides using lectin affinity is carried out in an mHFER before nLC-MS/MS for quantification using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Initial evaluation of the iCCM method varying the mixing ratio of CM-/iCCM-labeled bovine serum albumin (BSA) standards yielded successful quantification of 18 peptides with less than 2% variation in the calculated ratio of light/heavy-labeled peptides. The iCCM quantitation with mHFER-nLC-MS/MS was evaluated with three standard glycoproteins (α-1-acid glycoproteins, fetuin and transferrin) and then applied to serum glycoproteins from liver cancer patients and controls, resulting in successful quantification of 73 N-glycopeptides (from 49 N-glycoproteins), among which 19 N-glycopeptides from 14 N-glycoproteins showed more than a 2.5-fold aberrant change in liver cancer patients' sera compared with the pooled control. Although iCCM quantitation with mHFER-nLC-MS/MS applies only to glycopeptides with Cys residue, the method can offer several advantages over other labeling methods when applied to targeted glycoproteins: The iCCM method does not require an additional labeling reaction under special conditions nor complicated procedures to purify labeled products using additional columns. Isotope labeling at the protein level can minimize potential uncertainty originating from unequal efficiencies in protein

  2. The membrane topology of vitamin K epoxide reductase is conserved between human isoforms and the bacterial enzyme.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhenbo; van Lith, Marcel; Mitchell, Lorna J; Pringle, Marie Anne; Inaba, Kenji; Bulleid, Neil J

    2016-04-01

    The membrane topology of vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) is controversial with data supporting both a three transmembrane and a four transmembrane model. The positioning of the transmembrane domains and the loops between these domains is critical if we are to understand the mechanism of vitamin K oxidation and its recycling by members of the thioredoxin family of proteins and the mechanism of action of warfarin, an inhibitor of VKOR. Here we show that both mammalian VKOR isoforms adopt the same topology, with the large loop between transmembrane one and two facing the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We used a redox sensitive green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to the N- or C-terminus to show that these regions face the cytosol, and introduction of glycosylation sites along with mixed disulfide formation with thioredoxin-like transmembrane protein (TMX) to demonstrate ER localization of the major loop. The topology is identical with the bacterial homologue from Synechococcussp., for which the structure and mechanism of recycling has been characterized. Our results provide a resolution to the membrane topology controversy and support previous results suggesting a role for members of the ER protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family in recycling VKOR.

  3. Presenilin-like GxGD membrane proteases have dual roles as proteolytic enzymes and ion channels.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ivana Y; Hu, Jian; Ha, Ya; Ehrlich, Barbara E

    2015-03-06

    The GxGD proteases function to cleave protein substrates within the membrane. As these proteases contain multiple transmembrane domains typical of ion channels, we examined if GxGD proteases also function as ion channels. We tested the putative dual function by examining two archeobacterial GxGD proteases (PSH and FlaK), with known three-dimensional structures. Both are in the same GxGD family as presenilin, a protein mutated in Alzheimer Disease. Here, we demonstrate that PSH and FlaK form cation channels in lipid bilayers. A mutation that affected the enzymatic activity of FlaK rendered the channel catalytically inactive and altered the ion selectivity, indicating that the ion channel and the catalytic activities are linked. We report that the GxGD proteases, PSH and FlaK, are true "chanzymes" with interdependent ion channel and protease activity conferred by a single structural domain embedded in the membrane, supporting the proposal that higher-order proteases, including presenilin, have channel function.

  4. Rapid hydrophobic grid membrane filter-enzyme-labeled antibody procedure for identification and enumeration of Escherichia coli O157 in foods.

    PubMed Central

    Todd, E C; Szabo, R A; Peterkin, P; Sharpe, A N; Parrington, L; Bundle, D; Gidney, M A; Perry, M B

    1988-01-01

    An O-antigen-specific monoclonal antibody, labeled by horseradish peroxidase-protein A, was used in a hydrophobic grid membrane filter-enzyme-labeled antibody method for rapid detection of Escherichia coli O157 in foods. The method yielded presumptive identification within 24 h and recovered, on average, 95% of E. coli O157:H7 artificially inoculated into comminuted beef, veal, pork, chicken giblets, and chicken carcass washings. In food samples from two outbreaks involving E. coli O157:H7, the organism was isolated at levels of up to 10(3)/g. The lower limit of sensitivity was 10 E. coli O157 per g of meat. Specific typing for E. coli O157:H7 can be achieved through staining with labeled H7 antiserum or tube agglutination. Images PMID:3060018

  5. Evaluation of the impact of organic material on the anaerobic methane and ammonium removal in a membrane aerated biofilm reactor (MABR) based on the multispecies biofilm modeling.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Zhang, Yue

    2017-01-01

    The simultaneous nitrogen and methane removal by the combined nitritation, anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), and nitrite dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-damo) processes in the membrane aerated biofilm reactor (MABR) offers clear advantages in term of energy saving and greenhouse gas emission mitigation. The rejected water from sludge digestion usually contained high ammonium, COD, and dissolved methane. The impact of influent COD on the anaerobic methane and ammonium removal in an MABR was evaluated in the model based study. The results indicated that the influent COD did not reduce the methane and ammonium removal efficiency at C/N ratio (influent COD/NH4(+)-N) less than 0.1. At high C/N ratio, the oxygen transfer coefficient needed to be increased to achieve high methane and nitrogen removal. Substrate flux analysis indicated that heterotrophic denitrification in the outside layer of biofilm reduced the impact of influent COD. Heterotrophic growth needed to be limited at the outside layer by using NO3(-) as electron acceptor; otherwise, the heterotrophic bacteria would compete NO2(-) and space with anammox and n-damo bacteria in the inner layers and reduce the nitrogen and methane removal efficiency.

  6. Evaluation of a membrane biological reactor for reclaiming water, alkalinity, salts, phosphorus, and protein contained in a high-strength aquacultural wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sharrer, Mark J; Rishel, Kata; Summerfelt, Steven T

    2010-06-01

    The capacity of a membrane biological reactor to provide nitrification, denitrification, and enhanced biological phosphorus removal of a high-strength aquaculture backwash flow (control condition), or the same flow amended with 100mg/L of NO(3)-N and 3mg/L of dissolved P (test condition), was assessed using only endogenous carbon. Permeate TSS and cBOD(5) concentrations were <1mg/L under control and test conditions, achieving 99.97-100% removal efficiencies, respectively. Permeate TN concentrations were 1.8+/-0.5mg/L and 2.1+/-1.4 mg/L, while permeate TP concentrations were 0.05+/-0.01 mg/L and 0.10+/-0.03 mg/L, respectively, under control and test conditions. Our findings suggest that permeate flow could be reclaimed to recycle alkalinity, salts, and heat for fish culture and that the waste activated sludge does not produce metals concentrations that would prevent its land application (reclaiming phosphorus) or prevent its use as a protein source in animal feeds.

  7. Identification of seven surface-exposed Brucella outer membrane proteins by use of monoclonal antibodies: immunogold labeling for electron microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed Central

    Cloeckaert, A; de Wergifosse, P; Dubray, G; Limet, J N

    1990-01-01

    A panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to seven Brucella outer membrane proteins were characterized. These antibodies were obtained by immunizing mice with sodium dodecyl sulfate-insoluble (SDS-I) fractions, cell walls, or whole bacterial cells of Brucella abortus or B. melitensis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to screen the hybridoma supernatants and to determine their binding at the surface of rough and smooth B. abortus and B. melitensis cells. The outer membrane proteins (OMPs) recognized by these antibodies were the proteins with molecular masses of 25 to 27 kDa and 36 to 38 kDa (porin) (major proteins) and the proteins with molecular masses of 10, 16.5, 19, 31 to 34, and 89 kDa (minor proteins). Surface exposure of these OMPs was visualized by electron microscopy by using the MAbs and immunogold labeling. Binding of the MAbs on whole rough bacterial cells indicates that the 10-, 16.5-, 19-, 25- to 27-, 31- to 34-, 36- to 38-, and 89-kDa OMPs are exposed at the cell surface. However, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results indicate a much better binding of the anti-OMP MAbs on rough strains than on the corresponding smooth strains except for the anti-19-kDa MAb. Immunoelectron microscopy showed that on smooth B. abortus cells only the 89- and 31- to 34-kDa OMPs were not accessible to the MAbs tested. Binding of the anti-31- to 34-kDa MAb at the cell surface was observed for the rough B. abortus cells and for the rough and smooth B. melitensis cells. These results indicate the importance of steric hindrance due to the presence of the long lipopolysaccharide O side chains in the accessibility of OMPs on smooth Brucella strains and should be considered when undertaking vaccine development. Images PMID:1701417

  8. Insights into substrate specificity of geranylgeranyl reductases revealed by the structure of digeranylgeranylglycerophospholipid reductase from Thermoplasma acidophilum, an essential enzyme in the biosynthesis of archaeal membrane lipids

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qingping; Eguchi, Tadashi; Mathews, Irimpan I.; Rife, Christopher L.; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Farr, Carol L.; Feuerhelm, Julie; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Miller, Mitchell D.; Weekes, Dana; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    Archaeal membrane lipids consist of branched, saturated hydrocarbons distinct from those found in bacteria and eukaryotes. Digeranylgeranylglycerophospholipid reductase (DGGR) catalyzes the hydrogenation process that converts unsaturated 2,3-di-O-geranylgeranylglyceryl phosphate to saturated 2,3-di-O-phytanylglyceryl phosphate as a critical step in the biosynthesis of archaeal membrane lipids. The saturation of hydrocarbon chains confers the ability to resist hydrolysis and oxidation and helps archaea withstand extreme conditions. DGGR is a member of the geranylgeranyl reductase (GGR) family that is also widely distributed in bacteria and plants, where the family members are involved in the biosynthesis of photosynthetic pigments. We have determined the crystal structure of DGGR from the thermophilic heterotrophic archaea Thermoplasma acidophilum at 1.6 Å resolution, in complex with FAD and a bacterial lipid. The DGGR structure can be assigned to the well-studied, para-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase (PHBH) SCOP superfamily of flavoproteins that include many aromatic hydroxylases and other enzymes with diverse functions. In the DGGR complex, FAD adopts the IN conformation (closed) previously observed in other PHBH flavoproteins. DGGR contains a large substrate-binding site that extends across the entire ligand-binding domain. Electron density corresponding to a bacterial lipid was found within this cavity. The cavity consists of a large opening that tapers down to two narrow curved tunnels that closely mimic the shape of the preferred substrate. We identified a sequence motif, PxxYxWxFP, that defines a specificity pocket in the structure and precisely aligns the double bond of the geranyl group with respect to the FAD cofactor, thus providing a structural basis for the substrate specificity of GGRs. DGGR is likely to share a common mechanism with other PHBH enzymes in which FAD switches between two conformations that correspond to the reductive and oxidative half

  9. Quantifying contribution of synthrophic acetate oxidation to methane production in thermophilic anaerobic reactors by membrane inlet mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mulat, Daniel Girma; Ward, Alastair James; Adamsen, Anders Peter S; Voigt, Niels Vinther; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Feilberg, Anders

    2014-02-18

    A unique method was developed and applied for monitoring methanogenesis pathways based on isotope labeled substrates combined with online membrane inlet quadrupole mass spectrometry (MIMS). In our study, a fermentation sample from a full-scale biogas plant fed with pig and cattle manure, maize silage, and deep litter was incubated with 100 mM of [2-(13)C] sodium acetate under thermophilic anaerobic conditions. MIMS was used to measure the isotopic distribution of dissolved CO2 and CH4 during the degradation of acetate, while excluding interference from water by applying a cold trap. After 6 days of incubation, the proportion of methane derived from reduction of CO2 had increased significantly and reached up to 87% of total methane, suggesting that synthrophic acetate oxidation coupled to hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis (SAO-HM) played an important role in the degradation of acetate. This study provided a new approach for online quantification of the relative contribution of methanogenesis pathways to methane production with a time resolution shorter than one minute. The observed contribution of SAO-HM to methane production under the tested conditions challenges the current widely accepted anaerobic digestion model (ADM1), which strongly emphasizes the importance of the acetoclastic methanogenesis.

  10. Effects of glucomannan-enriched, aronia juice-based supplement on cellular antioxidant enzymes and membrane lipid status in subjects with abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Kardum, Nevena; Petrović-Oggiano, Gordana; Takic, Marija; Glibetić, Natalija; Zec, Manja; Debeljak-Martacic, Jasmina; Konić-Ristić, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of a 4-week-long consumption of glucomannan-enriched, aronia juice-based supplement on anthropometric parameters, membrane fatty acid profile, and status of antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes obtained from postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity. Twenty women aged 45-65 with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 36.1 ± 4.4 kg/m(2) and waist circumference of 104.8 ± 10.1 cm were enrolled. Participants were instructed to consume 100 mL of supplement per day as part of their regular diet. A significant increase in the content of n-3 (P < 0.05) polyunsaturated fatty acids in membrane phospholipids was observed, with a marked increase in the level of docosahexaenoic fatty acid (P < 0.05). Accordingly, a decrease in the n-6 and n-3 fatty acids ratio was observed (P < 0.05). The observed effects were accompanied with an increase in glutathione peroxidase activity (P < 0.05). Values for BMI (P < 0.001), waist circumference (P < 0.001), and systolic blood pressure (P < 0.05) were significantly lower after the intervention. The obtained results indicate a positive impact of tested supplement on cellular oxidative damage, blood pressure, and anthropometric indices of obesity.

  11. Electroosmotic perfusion of tissue: sampling the extracellular space and quantitative assessment of membrane-bound enzyme activity in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Yangguang; Wu, Juanfang; Sandberg, Mats

    2014-01-01

    This review covers recent advances in sampling fluid from the extracellular space of brain tissue by electroosmosis (EO). Two techniques, EO sampling with a single fused-silica capillary and EO push–pull perfusion, have been developed. These tools were used to investigate the function of membrane-bound enzymes with outward-facing active sites, or ectoenzymes, in modulating the activity of the neuropeptides leu-enkephalin and galanin in organotypic-hippocampal-slice cultures (OHSCs). In addition, the approach was used to determine the endogenous concentration of a thiol, cysteamine, in OHSCs. We have also investigated the degradation of coenzyme A in the extracellular space. The approach provides information on ectoenzyme activity, including Michaelis constants, in tissue, which, as far as we are aware, has not been done before. On the basis of computational evidence, EO push–pull perfusion can distinguish ectoenzyme activity with a ~100 µm spatial resolution, which is important for studies of enzyme kinetics in adjacent regions of the rat hippocampus. PMID:25168111

  12. Increased sensitivity of the rapid hydrophobic grid membrane filter enzyme-labeled antibody procedure for Escherichia coli O157 detection in foods and bovine feces.

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, R; Todd, E; MacKenzie, J; Parrington, L; Armstrong, A

    1990-01-01

    Several strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 artificially inoculated into vegetables and dairy products were recovered on hydrophobic grid membrane filters and enumerated by an enzyme-labeled antibody assay. The mean of the recoveries from 12 fresh vegetables was 108.8%, whereas that from 10 dairy products was 93.2%. Modified tryptic soy broth at 43 degrees C with shaking at 100 rpm provided optimum recovery of the organism from meat, with a sensitivity of less than or equal to 1 CFU/g, which is 10 times more sensitive than direct plating. The method performed equally well with vegetable and dairy products. Tryptic soy broth, however, under the same conditions gave the best results for fecal samples. Of 22 asymptomatic dairy cattle, reported as having positive Brucella titers when assayed with polyclonal antibodies, eight were found to contain E. coli O157 in their feces as demonstrated by the enzyme-labeled antibody assay by using monoclonal antibodies. This finding may explain some of the false-positive Brucella tests. PMID:2268161

  13. Requirements for distinct steps of phospholipase Cgamma2 regulation, membrane-raft-dependent targeting and subsequent enzyme activation in B-cell signalling.

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Rosie; Matsuda, Miho; Storey, Amy; Katan, Matilda

    2003-01-01

    Studies of PLCgamma (phospholipase Cgamma) have identified a number of regulatory components required for signalling; however, molecular mechanisms and the relationship between events leading to translocation and an increase of substrate hydrolysis have not been well defined. The addition of a membrane-targeting tag to many signal transducers results in constitutive activation, suggesting that these processes could be closely linked and difficult to dissect. The present study of PLCgamma2 regulation by cross-linking of the BCR (B-cell antigen receptor) or H2O2 stress in DT40 B-cells, demonstrated that the membrane targeting is a separate step from further changes that result in enzyme activation and substrate hydrolysis. Furthermore, we have defined the roles of different domains of PLCgamma2 and, using a panel of cell lines deficient in components linked to PLCgamma2 regulation, the involvement of signalling molecules with respect to each of the steps. We have found that only the lipid-raft-targeted Lyn-PLCgamma2 construct, unlike non-specific membrane targeting, overcame the requirement for the adapter protein BLNK (B-cell linker). The stable expression of Lyn-PLCgamma2 was not accompanied by an increase in substrate hydrolysis in resting cells, which followed stimulation and specifically required the presence and/or activation of Syk, Btk, phosphoinositide 3-kinase but not BLNK, as established using deficient cell lines or specific inhibitors. Based on mutational analysis of the specific tyrosine residues [Tyr753-->Phe (Y753F)/Y759F] and SH2 (Src homology 2) domains (R564A/R672A) in the context of Lyn-PLCgamma2, we found that Tyr753/Tyr759 were essential, whereas the PLCgamma2 SH2 domains did not have an important role in the transient activation of Lyn-PLCgamma2 but may serve to stabilize an activated form in sustained activation. PMID:12780340

  14. Functionalized Anodic Aluminum Oxide Membrane–Electrode System for Enzyme Immobilization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A nanoporous membrane system with directed flow carrying reagents to sequentially attached enzymes to mimic nature’s enzyme complex system was demonstrated. Genetically modified glycosylation enzyme, OleD Loki variant, was immobilized onto nanometer-scale electrodes at the pore entrances/exits of anodic aluminum oxide membranes through His6-tag affinity binding. The enzyme activity was assessed in two reactions—a one-step “reverse” sugar nucleotide formation reaction (UDP-Glc) and a two-step sequential sugar nucleotide formation and sugar nucleotide-based glycosylation reaction. For the one-step reaction, enzyme specific activity of 6–20 min–1 on membrane supports was seen to be comparable to solution enzyme specific activity of 10 min–1. UDP-Glc production efficiencies as high as 98% were observed at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min, at which the substrate residence time over the electrode length down pore entrances was matched to the enzyme activity rate. This flow geometry also prevented an unwanted secondary product hydrolysis reaction, as observed in the test homogeneous solution. Enzyme utilization increased by a factor of 280 compared to test homogeneous conditions due to the continuous flow of fresh substrate over the enzyme. To mimic enzyme complex systems, a two-step sequential reaction using OleD Loki enzyme was performed at membrane pore entrances then exits. After UDP-Glc formation at the entrance electrode, aglycon 4-methylumbelliferone was supplied at the exit face of the reactor, affording overall 80% glycosylation efficiency. The membrane platform showed the ability to be regenerated with purified enzyme as well as directly from expression crude, thus demonstrating a single-step immobilization and purification process. PMID:25025628

  15. Analysis of diazinon pesticide using potentiometric biosensor based on enzyme immobilized cellulose acetate membrane in gold electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashuni; Ramadhan, L. O. A. N.; Jahiding, M.; Herniati

    2016-02-01

    Biosensor for analysis of diazinon pesticide using Potentiometric transducer has been developed. The basic element of this biosensor was a gold electrode modified with an immobilized acetylcholinesterase enzyme layer formed by entrapment with glutaraldehyde crosslinked-cellulose acetate. The aim of the research is to determine the composition of glutaraldehyde crosslinked-cellulose acetate in the gold electrode which provide optimum performance of biosensors of diazinon pesticide analysis on characterization include a range of working concentration, sensitivity, and detection limit. The results showed the composition of the cellulose acetate 15% and glutaraldehyde 25% that obtain optimum performance in the measurement of diazinon pesticide with a range of working concentration of 10-6 ppm to 1 ppm, the value of sensitivity 20.275 mV/decade and detection limit 10-6 ppm. The use of cellulose acetate provides highly sensitive devices allowing the efficient analysis of pesticides. The response time of electrode is on the measurement of pesticide diazinon with concentration variation of 10-6 ppm to 1 ppm with response time is about 5 minutes.

  16. Production of D-lactic acid in a continuous membrane integrated fermentation reactor by genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae: enhancement in D-lactic acid carbon yield.

    PubMed

    Mimitsuka, Takashi; Sawai, Kenji; Kobayashi, Koji; Tsukada, Takeshi; Takeuchi, Norihiro; Yamada, Katsushige; Ogino, Hiroyasu; Yonehara, Tetsu

    2015-01-01

    Poly d-lactic acid is an important polymer because it improves the thermostability of poly l-lactic acid by stereo complex formation. To demonstrate potency of continuous fermentation using a membrane-integrated fermentation reactor (MFR) system, continuous fermentation using genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae which produces d-lactic acid was performed at the low pH and microaerobic conditions. d-Lactic acid continuous fermentation using the MFR system by genetically modified yeast increased production rate by 11-fold compared with batch fermentation. In addition, the carbon yield of d-lactic acid in continuous fermentation was improved to 74.6 ± 2.3% compared to 39.0 ± 1.7% with batch fermentation. This dramatic improvement in carbon yield could not be explained by a reduction in carbon consumption to form cells compared to batch fermentation. Further detailed analysis at batch fermentation revealed that the carbon yield increased to 76.8% at late stationary phase. S. cerevisiae, which exhibits the Crabtree-positive effect, demonstrated significant changes in metabolic activities at low sugar concentrations (Rossignol et al., Yeast, 20, 1369-1385, 2003). Moreover, lactate-producing S. cerevisiae requires ATP supplied not only from the glycolytic pathway but also from the TCA cycle (van Maris et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 70, 2898-2905, 2004). Our finding was revealed that continuous fermentation, which can maintain the conditions of both a low sugar concentration and air supply, results in Crabtree-positive and lactate-producing S. cerevisiae for suitable conditions of d-lactic acid production with respect to redox balance and ATP generation because of releasing the yeast from the Crabtree effect.

  17. Exercise affects memory acquisition, anxiety-like symptoms and activity of membrane-bound enzyme in brain of rats fed with different dietary fats: impairments of trans fat.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, A M; Pase, C S; Boufleur, N; Roversi, K; Barcelos, R C S; Benvegnú, D M; Segat, H J; Dias, V T; Reckziegel, P; Trevizol, F; Dolci, G S; Carvalho, N R; Soares, F A A; Rocha, J B T; Emanuelli, T; Bürger, M E

    2011-11-10

    Here we evaluated the influence of physical exercise on behavior parameters and enzymatic status of rats supplemented with different dietary fatty acids (FA). Male Wistar rats fed diets enriched with soybean oil (SO), lard (L), or hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF) for 48 weeks were submitted to swimming (30 min/d, five times per week) for 90 days. Dietary FA per se did not cause anxiety-like symptoms in the animals, but after physical exercise, SO group showed a better behavioral performance than L and the HVF groups in elevated plus maze (EPM). In Barnes maze, HVF group showed impaired memory acquisition as compared to L group, and exercise reversed this effect. SO-fed rats showed an improvement in memory acquisition after 1 day of training, whereas lard caused an improvement of memory only from day 4. HVF-fed rats showed no improvement of memory acquisition, but this effect was reversed by exercise in all training days. A lower activity of the Na(+)K(+)-ATPase in brain cortex of rats fed lard and HVF was observed, and this effect was maintained after exercise. Similarly, the HVF diet was related to lower activity of hippocampal Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, and exercise reduced activity of this enzyme in the SO and L groups. Our findings show influences of dietary FA on memory acquisition, whereas regular exercise improved this function and was beneficial on anxiety-like symptoms. As FA are present in neuronal membrane phospholipids and play a critical role in brain function, our results suggest that low incorporation of trans FA in neuronal membranes may act on cortical and hippocampal Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity, but this change appears to be unrelated to the behavioral parameters primarily harmed by consumption of trans and less so by saturated FA, which were reversed by exercise.

  18. Systematic cyanobacterial membrane proteome analysis by combining acid hydrolysis and digestive enzymes with nano-liquid chromatography-Fourier transform mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Joseph; Oh, Jeehyun; Park, Chiyoul; Cho, Kun; Kim, Seung Il; Kim, Soohyun; Lee, Sunghoon; Bhak, Jong; Norling, Birgitta; Choi, Jong-Soon

    2010-01-15

    The identification of membrane proteins is currently under-represented since the trans-membrane domains of membrane proteins have a hydrophobic property. Membrane proteins have mainly been analyzed by cleaving and identifying exposed hydrophilic domains. We developed the membrane proteomics method for targeting integral membrane proteins by the following sequential process: in-solution acid hydrolysis, reverse phase chromatographic separation, trypsin or chymotrypsin digestion and nano-liquid chromatography-Fourier transform mass spectrometry. When we employed total membrane proteins of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, 155 integral membrane proteins out of a predictable 706 were identified in a single application, corresponding to 22% of a genome. The combined methods of acid hydrolysis-trypsin (AT) and acid hydrolysis-chymotrypsin (AC) identified both hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains of integral membrane proteins, respectively. The systematic approach revealed a more concrete data in mapping the repertoire of cyanobacterial membrane and membrane-linked proteome.

  19. Comparison of the membrane-filtration fluorescent antibody test, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the polymerase chain reaction to detect Renibacterium salmoninarum in salmon ovarian fluid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pascho, Ronald J.; Chase, Dorothy M.; McKibben, Constance L.

    1998-01-01

    Ovarian fluid samples from naturally infected chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were examined for the presence of Renibacterium salmoninarum by the membrane-filtration fluorescent antibody test (MF-FAT), an antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). On the basis of the MF-FAT, 64% (66/103) samples contained detectable levels of R. salmoninarum cells. Among the positive fish, the R. salmoninarum concentrations ranged from 25 cells/ml to 4.3 × 109cells/ml. A soluble antigenic fraction of R. salmoninarum was detected in 39% of the fish (40/103) by the ELISA. The ELISA is considered one of the most sensitive detection methods for bacterial kidney disease in tissues, yet it did not detect R. salmoninarum antigen consistently at bacterial cell concentrations below about 1.3 × 104cells/ml according to the MF-FAT counts. When total DNA was extracted and tested in a nested PCR designed to amplify a 320-base-pair region of the gene encoding a soluble 57-kD protein of R. salmoninarum, 100% of the 100 samples tested were positive. The results provided strong evidence that R. salmoninarum may be present in ovarian fluids thought to be free of the bacterium on the basis of standard diagnostic methods.

  20. An Application of Outer Membrane Protein P6-Specific Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detection of Haemophilus influenzae in Middle Ear Fluids and Nasopharyngeal Secretions

    PubMed Central

    Hotomi, Muneki; Togawa, Akihisa; Kono, Masamitsu; Sugita, Gen; Sugita, Rinya; Fujimaki, Yutaka; Kamide, Yosuke; Uchizono, Akihiro; Kanesada, Keiko; Sawada, Shoichi; Okitsu, Naohiro; Masuda, Hisayo; Tanaka, Hideaki; Tanaka, Yumi; Yamanaka, Noboru

    2013-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay specific to outer membrane protein P6 (P6-ELISA) was applied for detecting Haemophilus influenzae in middle ear fluids (MEFs) from acute otitis media (AOM) patients and in nasopharyngeal secretions (NPSs) from acute rhinosinusitis patients. P6-ELISA had a sensitivity of 83.3% for MEFs and 71.5% for NPSs and a specificity of 85.6% for MEFs and 92.5% for NPSs, respectively. Real-time PCR exhibited significant differences in the number of ompP1 gene copies among samples determined by P6-ELISA to be positive and negative for H. influenzae. However, because the P6-ELISA test has the reactivity in Haemophilus species include two commensals H. haemolyticus and H. parainfluenzae, it is thus a weak method in order to detect only NTHi correctly. Consequently, diagnosis using the P6-ELISA should be based on an overall evaluation, including the results of other related examinations and clinical symptoms to prevent misleading conclusions in clinical setting. PMID:24015192

  1. Fast Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, S.; Pisanti, O.

    The following sections are included: * Elementary Considerations * The Integral Equation to the Neutron Distribution * The Critical Size for a Fast Reactor * Supercritical Reactors * Problems and Exercises

  2. Developments in Analytical Chemistry: Acoustically Levitated Drop Reactors for Enzyme Reaction Kinetics and Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Based Sensors for Detection of Toxic Organic Phosphonates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Christopher Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Developments in analytical chemistry were made using acoustically levitated small volumes of liquid to study enzyme reaction kinetics and by detecting volatile organic compounds in the gas phase using single-walled carbon nanotubes. Experience gained in engineering, electronics, automation, and software development from the design and…

  3. Investigation of bi-enzymatic reactor based on hybrid monolith with nanoparticles embedded and its proteolytic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Shangguan, Lulu; Zhang, Lingyi; Xiong, Zhichao; Ren, Jun; Zhang, Runsheng; Gao, Fangyuan; Zhang, Weibing

    2015-04-03

    The bottom-up strategy of proteomic profiling study based on mass spectrometer (MS) has drawn high attention. However, conventional solution-based digestion could not satisfy the demands of highly efficient and complete high throughput proteolysis of complex samples. We proposed a novel bi-enzymatic reactor by immobilizing two different enzymes (trypsin/chymotrypsin) onto a mixed support of hybrid organic-inorganic monolith with SBA-15 nanoparticles embedded. Typsin and chymotrypsin were crossly immobilized onto the mixed support by covalent bonding onto the monolith with glutaraldehyde as bridge reagent and chelation via copper ion onto the nanoparticles, respectively. Compared with single enzymatic reactors, the bi-enzymatic reactor improved the overall functional analysis of membrane proteins of rat liver by doubling the number of identified peptides (from 1184/1010 with trypsin/chymotrypsin enzymatic reactors to 2891 with bi-enzymatic reactor), which led to more proteins identified with deep coverage (from 452/336 to 620); the efficiency of the bi-enzymatic reactor is also better than that of solution-based tandem digestion, greatly shorting the digestion time from 24h to 50s. Moreover, more transmembrane proteins were identified by bi-enzymatic reactor (106) compared with solution-based tandem digestion (95) with the same two enzymes and enzymatic reactors with single enzyme immobilized (75 with trypsin and 66 with chymotrypsin). The proteolytic characteristics of the bi-enzymatic reactors were evaluated by applying them to digestion of rat liver proteins. The reactors showed good digestion capability for proteins with different hydrophobicity and molecular weight.

  4. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fermi, E.; Zinn, W.H.; Anderson, H.L.

    1958-09-16

    Means are presenied for increasing the reproduction ratio of a gaphite- moderated neutronic reactor by diminishing the neutron loss due to absorption or capture by gaseous impurities within the reactor. This means comprised of a fluid-tight casing or envelope completely enclosing the reactor and provided with a valve through which the casing, and thereby the reactor, may be evacuated of atmospheric air.

  5. Comparison of clinical performance of antigen based-enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and major outer membrane protein (MOMP)-PCR for detection of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection

    PubMed Central

    Nateghi Rostami, Mahmoud; Hossein Rashidi, Batool; Aghsaghloo, Fatemeh; Nazari, Razieh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial pathogen worldwide. Early detection and treatment of C.trachomatis genital infection prevent serious reproductive complications. Objective: Performances of enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and major outer membrane protein (MOMP)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for diagnosis of genital C.trachomatis infection in women were compared. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study a total of 518 women volunteers were included (33.67±8.3 yrs) who had been referred to Gynecology clinics of Qom province, Iran, were included. Endocervical swab specimens were collected to detect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigen in EIA and to amplify MOMP gene of C.trachomatis in PCR. Results were confirmed using ompI nested-PCR. Sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were calculated for performance of the tests. Odds ratios were determined using binary logistic regression analysis. Results: In total, 37 (7.14%) cases were positive by EIA and/or MOMP-PCR. All discrepant results were confirmed by nested-PCR. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV values of EIA were 59.46%, 100%, 100% and 96.98%, and those of MOMP-PCR were 97.30%, 100%, 100%, 99.79%, respectively. Reproductive complications including 2.7% ectopic pregnancy, 5.4% stillbirth, 5.4% infertility, and 10.8% PROM were recorded. The risk of developing chlamydiosis was increased 4.8-fold in volunteers with cervicitis (p<0.05; OR 4.80; 95% CI 1.25-18.48). Conclusion: C.trachomatis infection should be regarded in women of reproductive ages especially those with cervicitis. Primary screening of women by using the low cost antigen-EIA is recommended; however, due to the low sensitivity of Ag-EIA, verification of the negative results by a DNA amplification method is needed. PMID:27525325

  6. Development and comparative evaluation of a plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on recombinant outer membrane antigens Omp28 and Omp31 for diagnosis of human brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Sapana; Kumar, Ashu; Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Mangalgi, Smita; Rathod, Vedika; Prakash, Archana; Barua, Anita; Arora, Sonia; Sathyaseelan, Kannusamy

    2013-08-01

    Brucellosis is an important zoonotic infectious disease of humans and livestock with worldwide distribution and is caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella. The diagnosis of brucellosis always requires laboratory confirmation by either isolation of pathogens or detection of specific antibodies. The conventional serological tests available for the diagnosis of brucellosis are less specific and show cross-reactivity with other closely related organisms. These tests also necessitate the handling of Brucella species for antigen preparation. Therefore, there is a need to develop reliable, rapid, and user-friendly systems for disease diagnosis and alternatives to vaccine approaches. Keeping in mind the importance of brucellosis as an emerging infection and the prevalence in India, we carried out the present study to compare the recombinant antigens with the native antigens (cell envelope and sonicated antigen) of Brucella for diagnosis of human brucellosis by an indirect plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Recombinant outer membrane protein 28 (rOmp28) and rOmp31 antigens were cloned, expressed, and purified in the bacterial expression system, and the purified proteins were used as antigens. Indirect plate ELISAs were then performed and standardized for comparison of the reactivities of recombinant and native antigens against the 433 clinical samples submitted for brucellosis testing, 15 culture-positive samples, and 20 healthy donor samples. The samples were separated into four groups based on their positivity to rose bengal plate agglutination tests (RBPTs), standard tube agglutination tests (STATs), and 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME) tests. The sensitivities and specificities of all the antigens were calculated, and the rOmp28 antigen was found to be more suitable for the clinical diagnosis of brucellosis than the rOmp31 antigen and native antigens. The rOmp28-based ELISA showed a very high degree of agreement with the conventional agglutination tests and

  7. In vitro assay of the chlorophyll biosynthetic enzyme Mg-chelatase: Resolution of the activity into soluble and membrane-bound fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, C.J.; Weinstein, J.D. )

    1991-07-01

    The first committed step in chlorophyll synthesis is the Mg-chelatase-catalyzed insertion of magnesium into protoporphyrin IX. Since iron insertion into protoporphyrin leads to heme formation, Mg-chelatase lies at the branch point of heme and chlorophyll synthesis in chloroplasts. Little is known about the enzymology or regulation of Mg-chelatase, as it has been assayed only in intact cucumber chloroplasts. In this report we describe an in vitro assay for Mg-chelatase. Mg-chelatase activity in intact pea chloroplasts was 3- to 4-fold higher than in cucumber chloroplasts. This activity survived chloroplast lysis and could be fractionated by centrifugation into supernatant and pellet components. Both of these fractions were required to reconstitute Mg-chelatase activity, and both were inactivated by boiling indicating that the enzyme is composed of soluble and membrane-bound protein(s). The product of the reaction was confirmed fluorometrically as the magnesium chelate of the porphyrin substrate. The specific activity of the reconstituted system was typically 1 nmol of Mg-deuteroporphyrin per h per mg of protein, and activity was linear for at least 60 min under our assay conditions. ATP and magnesium were required for Mg-chelatase activity and the enzymen was sensitive to the sulfhydryl reagent N-ethylmaleimide (I{sub 50}, 20 {mu}M). Broken and reconstituted cucumber chloroplasts were unable to maintain Mg-chelatase activity. However, the cucumber supernatant fraction was active when combined with the pellet fraction of peas; the converse was not true, which suggested that the cucumber pellet was the component that lost activity during lysis.

  8. Utilizing a one-dimensional multispecies model to simulate the nutrient reduction and biomass structure in two types of H2-based membrane-aeration biofilm reactors (H2-MBfR): model development and parametric analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zuowei; Xia, Siqing; Xu, Xiaoyin; Wang, Chenhui

    2016-02-01

    In this study, a one-dimensional multispecies model (ODMSM) was utilized to simulate NO3(-)-N and ClO4(-) reduction performances in two kinds of H2-based membrane-aeration biofilm reactors (H2-MBfR) within different operating conditions (e.g., NO3(-)-N/ClO4(-) loading rates, H2 partial pressure, etc.). Before the simulation process, we conducted the sensitivity analysis of some key parameters which would fluctuate in different environmental conditions, then we used the experimental data to calibrate the more sensitive parameters μ1 and μ2 (maximum specific growth rates of denitrification bacteria and perchlorate reduction bacteria) in two H2-MBfRs, and the diversity of the two key parameters' values in two types of reactors may be resulted from the different carbon source fed in the reactors. From the simulation results of six different operating conditions (four in H2-MBfR 1 and two in H2-MBfR 2), the applicability of the model was approved, and the variation of the removal tendency in different operating conditions could be well simulated. Besides, the rationality of operating parameters (H2 partial pressure, etc.) could be judged especially in condition of high nutrients' loading rates. To a certain degree, the model could provide theoretical guidance to determine the operating parameters on some specific conditions in practical application.

  9. Dense, layered membranes for hydrogen separation

    DOEpatents

    Roark, Shane E.; MacKay, Richard; Mundschau, Michael V.

    2006-02-21

    This invention provides hydrogen-permeable membranes for separation of hydrogen from hydrogen-containing gases. The membranes are multi-layer having a central hydrogen-permeable layer with one or more catalyst layers, barrier layers, and/or protective layers. The invention also relates to membrane reactors employing the hydrogen-permeable membranes of the invention and to methods for separation of hydrogen from a hydrogen-containing gas using the membranes and reactors. The reactors of this invention can be combined with additional reactor systems for direct use of the separated hydrogen.

  10. Lignocellulose-degrading enzymes, free-radical transformations during composting of lignocellulosic waste and biothermal phases in small-scale reactors.

    PubMed

    Bohacz, Justyna

    2017-02-15

    Environmentally friendly strategies of waste management are both part of legal solutions currently in place and a focus of interest worldwide. Large-scale composting plants are set up across various regions while home composting is becoming increasingly popular. A variety of microbial groups are successively at work during composting and enzymatic activities detected in the composting mass fluctuate accordingly. Changes in the activities of oxidoreductases and hydrolases, i.e. glucose oxidase, horseradish peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, laccase, xylanase, superoxide dismutase and keratinase, low-molecular weight compounds, i.e. methoxyphenolic and hydroxyphenolic compounds, and the relative level of superoxide radicals and glucose were determined periodically in water extracts of composts to investigate the process of biochemical transformations of ligninocellulose in relation to biothermal phases and to identify a potential priming effect in two composts containing different ratios of lignocellulosic waste and chicken feathers. Composting was conducted for 30weeks. An important aim of the study was to demonstrate that a positive priming effect was induced during composting of a variety of lignocellulosic waste types using native keratin (chicken feathers) as a source of N. The effect was more evident in compost containing grass, which was related to a more rapid depletion of easily available sources of C and energy (glucose) during composting. Ligninolytic enzymes known to biodegrade recalcitrant organic matter were induced in subsequent biothermal phases of composting. Compost I enriched with grass (pine bark, grass, sawdust and chicken feathers) exhibited a higher enzymatic activity than compost II which did not contain any grass but which had a greater number of hardly-degradable components (pine bark, wheat straw, sawdust, chicken feathers). Similar observations were made for the concentrations of low-molecular weight compounds. The enzymes activities and

  11. Development of Low Cost Membranes (Ta, Nb & Cellulose Acetate) for H2/CO2 Separation in WGS Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Seetala, Naidu; Siriwardane, Upali

    2011-12-15

    The main aim of this work is to synthesize low temperature bimetallic nanocatalysts for Water Gas Shift reaction (WGS) for hydrogen production from CO and steam mixture; and develop low-cost metal (Nb/Ta)/ceramic membranes for H2 separation and Cellulose Acetate membranes for CO2 separation. .

  12. Target-induced nano-enzyme reactor mediated hole-trapping for high-throughput immunoassay based on a split-type photoelectrochemical detection strategy.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Junyang; Tang, Dianyong; Lai, Wenqiang; Xu, Mingdi; Tang, Dianping

    2015-09-15

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) detection is an emerging and promising analytical tool. However, its actual application still faces some challenges like potential damage of biomolecules (caused by itself system) and intrinsic low-throughput detection. To solve the problems, herein we design a novel split-type photoelectrochemical immunoassay (STPIA) for ultrasensitive detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA). Initially, the immunoreaction was performed on a microplate using a secondary antibody/primer-circular DNA-labeled gold nanoparticle as the detection tag. Then, numerously repeated oligonucleotide sequences with many biotin moieties were in situ synthesized on the nanogold tag via RCA reaction. The formed biotin concatamers acted as a powerful scaffold to bind with avidin-alkaline phosphatase (ALP) conjugates and construct a nanoenzyme reactor. By this means, enzymatic hydrolysate (ascorbic acid) was generated to capture the photogenerated holes in the CdS quantum dot-sensitized TiO2 nanotube arrays, resulting in amplification of the photocurrent signal. To elaborate, the microplate-based immunoassay and the high-throughput detection system, a semiautomatic detection cell (installed with a three-electrode system), was employed. Under optimal conditions, the photocurrent increased with the increasing PSA concentration in a dynamic working range from 0.001 to 3 ng mL(-1), with a low detection limit (LOD) of 0.32 pg mL(-1). Meanwhile, the developed split-type photoelectrochemical immunoassay exhibited high specificity and acceptable accuracy for analysis of human serum specimens in comparison with referenced electrochemiluminescence immunoassay method. Importantly, the system was not only suitable for the sandwich-type immunoassay mode, but also utilized for the detection of small molecules (e.g., aflatoxin B1) with a competitive-type assay format.

  13. Serological Diagnosis of Ovine Enzootic Abortion by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay with a Recombinant Protein Fragment of the Polymorphic Outer Membrane Protein POMP90 of Chlamydophila abortus

    PubMed Central

    Longbottom, David; Fairley, Susan; Chapman, Stephanie; Psarrou, Evgenia; Vretou, Evangelia; Livingstone, Morag

    2002-01-01

    Ovine enzootic abortion (OEA) resulting from infection of sheep and goats with Chlamydophila abortus is of major economic importance worldwide. Over the last 50 years the serological diagnosis of infection has been based mainly on the complement fixation test (CFT), which lacks both sensitivity and specificity because of cross-reactive antibodies to other gram-negative bacteria, including another common chlamydial pathogen of sheep, Chlamydophila pecorum. In the present study, a series of overlapping recombinant antigens representing the polymorphic outer membrane protein POMP90 of C. abortus was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with a panel of 143 serum samples from sheep experimentally infected with C. abortus, from sheep clinically free of OEA, and from specific-pathogen-free lambs experimentally infected with different subtypes of C. pecorum. The results were compared to those obtained by CFT and another recently described test, an indirect ELISA (iELISA) with the recombinant OMP91B (rOMP91B) fragment (rOMP91B iELISA) (D. Longbottom, E. Psarrou, M. Livingstone, and E. Vretou, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 195:157-161, 2001). The rOMP90-3 and rOMP90-4 ELISAs were identified as being more sensitive and specific than CFT. Assays with both fragments were evaluated further with a panel of 294 field serum samples from flocks with documented histories of abortion, from flocks with no clinical histories of abortion but which had a high proportion of samples seropositive by CFT, and from animals with no histories of abortion but from which various C. pecorum subtypes had been isolated. ELISAs with both POMP90 fragments outperformed CFT with serum samples from C. pecorum-infected animals, producing no false-positive results. However, the ELISA with the rOMP90-4 fragment appeared to be more sensitive than the one with rOMP90-3, as it identified more of the OEA-positive samples. The ELISA with the rOMP90-4 fragment was also able to identify apparently healthy

  14. BOILING REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Untermyer, S.

    1962-04-10

    A boiling reactor having a reactivity which is reduced by an increase in the volume of vaporized coolant therein is described. In this system unvaporized liquid coolant is extracted from the reactor, heat is extracted therefrom, and it is returned to the reactor as sub-cooled liquid coolant. This reduces a portion of the coolant which includes vaporized coolant within the core assembly thereby enhancing the power output of the assembly and rendering the reactor substantially self-regulating. (AEC)

  15. Functional redundancy of CDP-ethanolamine and CDP-choline pathway enzymes in phospholipid biosynthesis: ethanolamine-dependent effects on steady-state membrane phospholipid composition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    McGee, T P; Skinner, H B; Bankaitis, V A

    1994-01-01

    It has been established that yeast membrane phospholipid content is responsive to the inositol and choline content of the growth medium. Alterations in the levels of transcription of phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes contribute significantly to this response. We now describe conditions under which ethanolamine can exert significant influence on yeast membrane phospholipid composition. We demonstrate that mutations which block a defined subset of the reactions required for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) via the CDP-choline pathway cause ethanolamine-dependent effects on the steady-state levels of bulk PC in yeast membranes. Such an ethanolamine-dependent reduction in bulk membrane PC content was observed for both choline kinase (cki) and choline phosphotransferase (cpt1) mutants, but it was not observed for mutants defective in cholinephosphate cytidylyltransferase, the enzyme that catalyzes the penultimate reaction of the CDP-choline pathway for PC biosynthesis. Moreover, the ethanolamine effect observed for cki and cpt1 mutants was independent of the choline content of the growth medium. Finally, we found that haploid yeast strains defective in the activity of both the choline and ethanolamine phosphotransferases experienced an ethanolamine-insensitive reduction in steady-state PC content, an effect which was not observed in strains defective in either one of these activities alone. The collective data indicate that specific enzymes of the CDP-ethanolamine pathway for phosphatidylethanolamine biosynthesis, while able to contribute to PC synthesis when yeast cells are grown under conditions of ethanolamine deprivation, do not do so when yeast cells are presented with this phospholipid headgroup precursor. Images PMID:7961445

  16. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Daniels, F.

    1959-10-27

    A reactor in which at least a portion of the moderator is in the form of movable refractory balls is described. In addition to their moderating capacity, these balls may serve as carriers for fissionable material or fertile material, or may serve in a coolant capacity to remove heat from the reactor. A pneumatic system is used to circulate the balls through the reactor.

  17. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1961-09-01

    A boiling-water nuclear reactor is described wherein control is effected by varying the moderator-to-fuel ratio in the reactor core. This is accomplished by providing control tubes containing a liquid control moderator in the reactor core and providing means for varying the amount of control moderatcr within the control tubes.

  18. Microbial Community Structure during Nitrate and Perchlorate Reduction in Ion-exchange Brine Using the Hydrogen-based membrane Biofilm Reactor (MBIR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detoxification of perchlorate by microbial communities under denitrifying conditions has been recently reported, although the identity of the mixed populations involved in perchlorate reduction is not well understood. In order to address this, the bacterial diversity of membrane ...

  19. CONVECTION REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, R.P.; King, L.D.P.

    1960-03-22

    An homogeneous nuclear power reactor utilizing convection circulation of the liquid fuel is proposed. The reactor has an internal heat exchanger looated in the same pressure vessel as the critical assembly, thereby eliminating necessity for handling the hot liquid fuel outside the reactor pressure vessel during normal operation. The liquid fuel used in this reactor eliminates the necessity for extensive radiolytic gas rocombination apparatus, and the reactor is resiliently pressurized and, without any movable mechanical apparatus, automatically regulates itself to the condition of criticality during moderate variations in temperature snd pressure and shuts itself down as the pressure exceeds a predetermined safe operating value.

  20. Research reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Tonneson, L.C.; Fox, G.J.

    1996-04-01

    There are currently 284 research reactors in operation, and 12 under construction around the world. Of the operating reactors, nearly two-thirds are used exclusively for research, and the rest for a variety of purposes, including training, testing, and critical assembly. For more than 50 years, research reactor programs have contributed greatly to the scientific and educational communities. Today, six of the world`s research reactors are being shut down, three of which are in the USA. With government budget constraints and the growing proliferation concerns surrounding the use of highly enriched uranium in some of these reactors, the future of nuclear research could be impacted.

  1. Dynamic bed reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Stormo, K.E.

    1996-07-02

    A dynamic bed reactor is disclosed in which a compressible open cell foam matrix is periodically compressed and expanded to move a liquid or fluid through the matrix. In preferred embodiments, the matrix contains an active material such as an enzyme, biological cell, chelating agent, oligonucleotide, adsorbent or other material that acts upon the liquid or fluid passing through the matrix. The active material may be physically immobilized in the matrix, or attached by covalent or ionic bonds. Microbeads, substantially all of which have diameters less than 50 microns, can be used to immobilize the active material in the matrix and further improve reactor efficiency. A particularly preferred matrix is made of open cell polyurethane foam, which adsorbs pollutants such as polychlorophenol or o-nitrophenol. The reactors of the present invention allow unidirectional non-laminar flow through the matrix, and promote intimate exposure of liquid reactants to active agents such as microorganisms immobilized in the matrix. 27 figs.

  2. Dynamic bed reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Stormo, Keith E.

    1996-07-02

    A dynamic bed reactor is disclosed in which a compressible open cell foam matrix is periodically compressed and expanded to move a liquid or fluid through the matrix. In preferred embodiments, the matrix contains an active material such as an enzyme, biological cell, chelating agent, oligonucleotide, adsorbent or other material that acts upon the liquid or fluid passing through the matrix. The active material may be physically immobilized in the matrix, or attached by covalent or ionic bonds. Microbeads, substantially all of which have diameters less than 50 microns, can be used to immobilize the active material in the matrix and further improve reactor efficiency. A particularly preferred matrix is made of open cell polyurethane foam, which adsorbs pollutants such as polychlorophenol or o-nitrophenol. The reactors of the present invention allow unidirectional non-laminar flow through the matrix, and promote intimate exposure of liquid reactants to active agents such as microorganisms immobilized in the matrix.

  3. Catalyzed enzyme electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Zawodzinski, Thomas A.; Wilson, Mahlon S.; Rishpon, Judith; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    1993-01-01

    An enzyme electrode is prepared with a composite coating on an electrical conductor. The composite coating is formed from a casting solution of a perfluorosulfonic acid polymer, an enzyme, and a carbon supported catalyst. The solution may be cast directly on the conductor surface or may be formed as a membrane and applied to the surface. The perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer formed from the casting solution provides an insoluble biocompatible protective matrix for the enzyme and acts to retain the enzyme for long term availability in the electrode structure. The carbon supported catalyst provides catalytic sites throughout the layer for the oxidation of hydrogen peroxide from the enzyme reactions. The carbon support then provides a conductive path for establishing an electrical signal to the electrical conductor. In one embodiment, the electrical conductor is a carbon cloth that permits oxygen or other gas to be introduced to the perfluorosulfonic polymer to promote the enzyme reaction independent of oxygen in the solution being tested.

  4. Simplifying microbial electrosynthesis reactor design

    PubMed Central

    Giddings, Cloelle G. S.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Woodward, Trevor; Lovley, Derek R.; Butler, Caitlyn S.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial electrosynthesis, an artificial form of photosynthesis, can efficiently convert carbon dioxide into organic commodities; however, this process has only previously been demonstrated in reactors that have features likely to be a barrier to scale-up. Therefore, the possibility of simplifying reactor design by both eliminating potentiostatic control of the cathode and removing the membrane separating the anode and cathode was investigated with biofilms of Sporomusa ovata. S. ovata reduces carbon dioxide to acetate and acts as the microbial catalyst for plain graphite stick cathodes as the electron donor. In traditional ‘H-cell’ reactors, where the anode and cathode chambers were separated with a proton-selective membrane, the rates and columbic efficiencies of microbial electrosynthesis remained high when electron delivery at the cathode was powered with a direct current power source rather than with a potentiostat-poised cathode utilized in previous studies. A membrane-less reactor with a direct-current power source with the cathode and anode positioned to avoid oxygen exposure at the cathode, retained high rates of acetate production as well as high columbic and energetic efficiencies. The finding that microbial electrosynthesis is feasible without a membrane separating the anode from the cathode, coupled with a direct current power source supplying the energy for electron delivery, is expected to greatly simplify future reactor design and lower construction costs. PMID:26029199

  5. Reactor for making uniform capsules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor); Anikumar, Amrutur V. (Inventor); Lacik, Igor (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides a novel reactor for making capsules with uniform membrane. The reactor includes a source for providing a continuous flow of a first liquid through the reactor; a source for delivering a steady stream of drops of a second liquid to the entrance of the reactor; a main tube portion having at least one loop, and an exit opening, where the exit opening is at a height substantially equal to the entrance. In addition, a method for using the novel reactor is provided. This method involves providing a continuous stream of a first liquid; introducing uniformly-sized drops of the second liquid into the stream of the first liquid; allowing the drops to react in the stream for a pre-determined period of time; and collecting the capsules.

  6. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fraas, A.P.; Mills, C.B.

    1961-11-21

    A neutronic reactor in which neutron moderation is achieved primarily in its reflector is described. The reactor structure consists of a cylindrical central "island" of moderator and a spherical moderating reflector spaced therefrom, thereby providing an annular space. An essentially unmoderated liquid fuel is continuously passed through the annular space and undergoes fission while contained therein. The reactor, because of its small size, is particularly adapted for propulsion uses, including the propulsion of aircraft. (AEC)

  7. REACTOR COOLING

    DOEpatents

    Quackenbush, C.F.

    1959-09-29

    A nuclear reactor with provisions for selectively cooling the fuel elements is described. The reactor has a plurality of tubes extending throughout. Cylindrical fuel elements are disposed within the tubes and the coolant flows through the tubes and around the fuel elements. The fuel elements within the central portion of the reactor are provided with roughened surfaces of material. The fuel elements in the end portions of the tubes within the reactor are provlded with low conduction jackets and the fuel elements in the region between the central portion and the end portions are provided with smooth surfaces of high heat conduction material.

  8. A single membrane-bound enzyme catalyzes the conversion of 2,5-diketo-d-gluconate to 4-keto-d-arabonate in d-glucose oxidative fermentation by Gluconobacter oxydans NBRC 3292.

    PubMed

    Tazoe, Masaaki; Oishi, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Setsuko; Hoshino, Tatsuo

    2016-08-01

    4-Keto-d-arabonate synthase (4KAS), which converts 2,5-diketo-d-gluconate (DKGA) to 4-keto-d-arabonate (4KA) in d-glucose oxidative fermentation by some acetic acid bacteria, was solubilized from the Gluconobacter oxydans NBRC 3292 cytoplasmic membrane, and purified in an electrophoretically homogenous state. A single membrane-bound enzyme was found to catalyze the conversion from DKGA to 4KA. The 92-kDa 4KAS was a homodimeric protein not requiring O2 or a cofactor for the conversion, but was stimulated by Mn(2+). N-terminal amino acid sequencing of 4KAS, followed by gene homology search indicated a 1,197-bp open reading frame (ORF), corresponding to the GLS_c04240 locus, GenBank accession No. CP004373, encoding a 398-amino acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of 42,818 Da. An Escherichia coli transformant with the 4kas plasmid exhibited 4KAS activity. Furthermore, overexpressed recombinant 4KAS was purified in an electrophoretically homogenous state and had the same molecular size as the natural enzyme.

  9. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Metcalf, H.E.; Johnson, H.W.

    1961-04-01

    BS>A nuclear reactor incorporating fuel rods passing through a moderator and including tubes of a material of higher Thermal conductivity than the fuel in contact with the fuel is described. The tubes extend beyond the active portion of the reactor into contant with a fiuld coolant.

  10. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.

    1958-04-22

    A nuclear reactor for isotope production is described. This reactor is designed to provide a maximum thermal neutron flux in a region adjacent to the periphery of the reactor rather than in the center of the reactor. The core of the reactor is generally centrally located with respect tn a surrounding first reflector, constructed of beryllium. The beryllium reflector is surrounded by a second reflector, constructed of graphite, which, in tune, is surrounded by a conventional thermal shield. Water is circulated through the core and the reflector and functions both as a moderator and a coolant. In order to produce a greatsr maximum thermal neutron flux adjacent to the periphery of the reactor rather than in the core, the reactor is designed so tbat the ratio of neutron scattering cross section to neutron absorption cross section averaged over all of the materials in the reflector is approximately twice the ratio of neutron scattering cross section to neutron absorption cross section averaged over all of the material of the core of the reactor.

  11. Enzyme assays.

    PubMed

    Reymond, Jean-Louis; Fluxà, Viviana S; Maillard, Noélie

    2009-01-07

    Enzyme assays are analytical tools to visualize enzyme activities. In recent years a large variety of enzyme assays have been developed to assist the discovery and optimization of industrial enzymes, in particular for "white biotechnology" where selective enzymes are used with great success for economically viable, mild and environmentally benign production processes. The present article highlights the aspects of fluorogenic and chromogenic substrates, sensors, and enzyme fingerprinting, which are our particular areas of interest.

  12. Selective purge for hydrogenation reactor recycle loop

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Richard W.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2001-01-01

    Processes and apparatus for providing improved contaminant removal and hydrogen recovery in hydrogenation reactors, particularly in refineries and petrochemical plants. The improved contaminant removal is achieved by selective purging, by passing gases in the hydrogenation reactor recycle loop or purge stream across membranes selective in favor of the contaminant over hydrogen.

  13. Enzyme immobilisation in permselective microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Pachariyanon, Pavadee; Barth, Ekkehard; Agar, David W

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to study the permselective behaviour of calcium alginate membranes, including the modifying effects of silica additives, which were subsequently used as microcapsule shells. Diffusion experiments and HPLC were carried out to ascertain the size-exclusion property of the membranes for a mixed molecular-weight dextran solution. Hollow microcapsules containing the enzyme dextranase were prepared using double concentric nozzles and the encapsulation performance was evaluated based on an analysis of the enzyme reactivity and stability. To improve mass transport within the microcapsules, magnetic nanoparticles were introduced into the liquid core and agitated using an alternating external magnetic field. The modified membranes exhibited better size-exclusion behaviour than the unmodified membranes. The magnetic nanoparticles slightly improved mass transport inside the microcapsule. The encapsulated enzyme yielded nearly 80% of the free enzyme activity and retained about 80% of the initial catalytic activity even after being used for eight reaction cycles.

  14. Plant Defense Response to Fungal Pathogens (Activation of Host-Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase by Elicitor-Induced Enzyme Dephosphorylation).

    PubMed Central

    Vera-Estrella, R.; Barkla, B. J.; Higgins, V. J.; Blumwald, E.

    1994-01-01

    Elicitor preparations containing the avr5 gene products from race 4 of Cladosporium fulvum and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) cells near isogenic for the resistance gene Cf5 were used to investigate events following the treatment of host plasma membranes with elicitor. A 4-fold increase in H+-ATPase activity, coincident with the acidification of the extracellular medium, was detected immediately after elicitor treatment. The elicitor-induced stimulation of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase was inhibited by okadaic acid but not by staurosporine, suggesting that protein dephosphorylation was required for increased H+-ATPase activity. This observation was confirmed by [gamma]-32P labeling and immunodetection of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase. Effects of guanidine nucleotide analogs and mastoparan on the ATPase activity suggested the role of GTP-binding proteins in mediating the putative elicitor-receptor binding, resulting in activation of a phosphatase(s), which in turn stimulates the plasma membrane H+-ATPase by dephosphorylation. PMID:12232073

  15. A membrane-less enzymatic fuel cell with layer-by-layer assembly of redox polymer and enzyme over graphite electrodes.

    PubMed

    Rengaraj, Saravanan; Mani, Vigneshwaran; Kavanagh, Paul; Rusling, James; Leech, Dónal

    2011-11-21

    Layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of alternate osmium redox polymers and glucose oxidase, at anode, and laccase, at cathode, using graphite electrodes form a membrane-less glucose/O(2) enzymatic fuel cell providing a power density of 103 μW cm(-2) at pH 5.5.

  16. Isolation and metagenomic characterization of bacteria associated with calcium carbonate and struvite precipitation in a pure moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Martinez, A; Leyva-Díaz, J C; Rodriguez-Sanchez, A; Muñoz-Palazon, B; Rivadeneyra, A; Poyatos, J M; Rivadeneyra, M A; Martinez-Toledo, M V

    2015-01-01

    A bench-scale pure moving bed bioreactor-membrane bioreactor (MBBR-MBR) used for the treatment of urban wastewater was analyzed for the identification of bacterial strains with the potential capacity for calcium carbonate and struvite biomineral formation. Isolation of mineral-forming strains on calcium carbonate and struvite media revealed six major colonies with a carbonate or struvite precipitation capacity in the biofouling on the membrane surface and showed that heterotrophic bacteria with the ability to precipitate calcium carbonate and struvite constituted ~7.5% of the total platable bacteria. These belonged to the genera Lysinibacillus, Trichococcus, Comamomas and Bacillus. Pyrosequencing analysis of the microbial communities in the suspended cells and membrane biofouling showed a high degree of similarity in all the samples collected with respect to bacterial assemblage. The study of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified through pyrosequencing suggested that ~21% of the total bacterial community identified in the biofouling could potentially form calcium carbonate or struvite crystals in the pure MBBR-MBR system used for the treatment of urban wastewater.

  17. Purification of the enzyme NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Beer, N S; Griffiths, W T

    1981-04-01

    A procedure for the purification of the enzyme NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase is described. This involves fractionation of sonicated oat etioplast membranes by discontinuous-sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation, which gives membranes in which the enzyme is present at a high specific activity. The enzyme is solubilized from the membranes with Triton X-100, followed by gel filtration of the extract; enzyme activity is eluted in fractions corresponding to a mol.wt of approx. 35000. Sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of the enzyme-containing fractions from gel filtration shows two peptides, of mol.wts. approx. 35000 and 37000.

  18. Catalytic membranes beckon

    SciTech Connect

    Caruana, C.M.

    1994-11-01

    Chemical engineers here and abroad are finding that the marriage of catalysts and membranes holds promise for faster and more specific reactions, although commercialization of this technology is several years away. Catalytic membrane reactors (CMRs) combine a heterogeneous catalyst and a permselective membrane. Reactions performed by CMRs provide higher yields--sometimes as much as 50% higher--because of better reaction selectivity--as opposed to separation selectivity. CMRs also can work at very high temperatures, using ceramic materials that would not be possible with organic membranes. Although the use of CMRs is not widespread presently, the development of new membranes--particularly porous ceramic and zeolite membranes--will increase the potential to improve yields of many catalytic processes. The paper discusses ongoing studies, metal and advanced materials for membranes, the need for continued research, hydrogen recovery from coal-derived gases, catalytic oxidation of sulfides, CMRs for water purification, and oxidative coupling of methane.

  19. Compact Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Pharis E.

    2007-01-30

    Weyl's Gauge Principle of 1929 has been used to establish Weyl's Quantum Principle (WQP) that requires that the Weyl scale factor should be unity. It has been shown that the WQP requires the following: quantum mechanics must be used to determine system states; the electrostatic potential must be non-singular and quantified; interactions between particles with different electric charges (i.e. electron and proton) do not obey Newton's Third Law at sub-nuclear separations, and nuclear particles may be much different than expected using the standard model. The above WQP requirements lead to a potential fusion reactor wherein deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei. Because the deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei at temperatures and energies lower than specified by the standard model there is no harmful radiation as a byproduct of this fusion process. Therefore, a reactor using this reaction does not need any shielding to contain such radiation. The energy released from each reaction and the absence of shielding makes the deuterium-plus-deuterium-to-helium (DDH) reactor very compact when compared to other reactors, both fission and fusion types. Moreover, the potential energy output per reactor weight and the absence of harmful radiation makes the DDH reactor an ideal candidate for space power. The logic is summarized by which the WQP requires the above conditions that make the prediction of DDH possible. The details of the DDH reaction will be presented along with the specifics of why the DDH reactor may be made to cause two deuterium nuclei to preferentially fuse to a helium nucleus. The presentation will also indicate the calculations needed to predict the reactor temperature as a function of fuel loading, reactor size, and desired output and will include the progress achieved to date.

  20. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Moore, R.V.; Bowen, J.H.; Dent, K.H.

    1958-12-01

    A heterogeneous, natural uranium fueled, solid moderated, gas cooled reactor is described, in which the fuel elements are in the form of elongated rods and are dlsposed within vertical coolant channels ln the moderator symmetrically arranged as a regular lattice in groups. This reactor employs control rods which operate in vertical channels in the moderator so that each control rod is centered in one of the fuel element groups. The reactor is enclosed in a pressure vessel which ls provided with access holes at the top to facilitate loading and unloadlng of the fuel elements, control rods and control rod driving devices.

  1. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  2. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, H.L.

    1960-09-20

    A nuclear reactor is described comprising fissionable material dispersed in graphite blocks, helium filling the voids of the blocks and the spaces therebetween, and means other than the helium in thermal conductive contact with the graphite for removing heat.

  3. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Hurwitz, H. Jr.; Brooks, H.; Mannal, C.; Payne, J.H.; Luebke, E.A.

    1959-03-24

    A reactor of the heterogeneous, liquid cooled type is described. This reactor is comprised of a central region of a plurality of vertically disposed elongated tubes surrounded by a region of moderator material. The central region is comprised of a central core surrounded by a reflector region which is surrounded by a fast neutron absorber region, which in turn is surrounded by a slow neutron absorber region. Liquid sodium is used as the primary coolant and circulates through the core which contains the fuel elements. Control of the reactor is accomplished by varying the ability of the reflector region to reflect neutrons back into the core of the reactor. For this purpose the reflector is comprised of moderator and control elements having varying effects on reactivity, the control elements being arranged and actuated by groups to give regulation, shim, and safety control.

  4. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fermi, E.

    1960-04-01

    A nuclear reactor is described consisting of blocks of graphite arranged in layers, natural uranium bodies disposed in holes in alternate layers of graphite blocks, and coolant tubes disposed in the layers of graphite blocks which do not contain uranium.

  5. NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.

    1960-11-22

    A nuclear reactor is described wherein horizontal rods of thermal- neutron-fissionable material are disposed in a body of heavy water and extend through and are supported by spaced parallel walls of graphite.

  6. REACTOR SHIELD

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Ohlinger, L.E.; Young, G.J.; Weinberg, A.M.

    1959-02-17

    Radiation shield construction is described for a nuclear reactor. The shield is comprised of a plurality of steel plates arranged in parallel spaced relationship within a peripheral shell. Reactor coolant inlet tubes extend at right angles through the plates and baffles are arranged between the plates at right angles thereto and extend between the tubes to create a series of zigzag channels between the plates for the circulation of coolant fluid through the shield. The shield may be divided into two main sections; an inner section adjacent the reactor container and an outer section spaced therefrom. Coolant through the first section may be circulated at a faster rate than coolant circulated through the outer section since the area closest to the reactor container is at a higher temperature and is more radioactive. The two sections may have separate cooling systems to prevent the coolant in the outer section from mixing with the more contaminated coolant in the inner section.

  7. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Sherman, J.; Sharbaugh, J.E.; Fauth, W.L. Jr.; Palladino, N.J.; DeHuff, P.G.

    1962-10-23

    A nuclear reactor incorporating seed and blanket assemblies is designed. Means are provided for obtaining samples of the coolant from the blanket assemblies and for varying the flow of coolant through the blanket assemblies. (AEC)

  8. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Breden, C.R.; Dietrich, J.R.

    1961-06-20

    A water-soluble non-volatile poison may be introduced into a reactor to nullify excess reactivity. The poison is removed by passing a side stream of the water containing the soluble poison to an evaporation chamber. The vapor phase is returned to the reactor to decrease the concentration of soluble poison and the liquid phase is returned to increase the concentration of soluble poison.

  9. NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Vernon, H.C.

    1959-01-13

    A neutronic reactor of the heterogeneous, fluid cooled tvpe is described. The reactor is comprised of a pressure vessel containing the moderator and a plurality of vertically disposed channels extending in spaced relationship through the moderator. Fissionable fuel material is placed within the channels in spaced relationship thereto to permit circulation of the coolant fluid. Separate means are provided for cooling the moderator and for circulating a fluid coolant thru the channel elements to cool the fuel material.

  10. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, C.R.

    1962-07-24

    A fluidized bed nuclear reactor and a method of operating such a reactor are described. In the design means are provided for flowing a liquid moderator upwardly through the center of a bed of pellets of a nentron-fissionable material at such a rate as to obtain particulate fluidization while constraining the lower pontion of the bed into a conical shape. A smooth circulation of particles rising in the center and falling at the outside of the bed is thereby established. (AEC)

  11. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1959-07-14

    High temperature reactors which are uniquely adapted to serve as the heat source for nuclear pcwered rockets are described. The reactor is comprised essentially of an outer tubular heat resistant casing which provides the main coolant passageway to and away from the reactor core within the casing and in which the working fluid is preferably hydrogen or helium gas which is permitted to vaporize from a liquid storage tank. The reactor core has a generally spherical shape formed entirely of an active material comprised of fissile material and a moderator material which serves as a diluent. The active material is fabricated as a gas permeable porous material and is interlaced in a random manner with very small inter-connecting bores or capillary tubes through which the coolant gas may flow. The entire reactor is divided into successive sections along the direction of the temperature gradient or coolant flow, each section utilizing materials of construction which are most advantageous from a nuclear standpoint and which at the same time can withstand the operating temperature of that particular zone. This design results in a nuclear reactor characterized simultaneously by a minimum critiral size and mass and by the ability to heat a working fluid to an extremely high temperature.

  12. Bioelectricity generation in an integrated system combining microbial fuel cell and tubular membrane reactor: effects of operation parameters performing a microbial fuel cell-based biosensor for tubular membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Zheng, Yawen; Jia, Hui; Zhang, Hongwei

    2014-10-01

    A bio-cathode microbial fuel cell (MFC) with tubular membrane was integrated to construct a microbial fuel cell-tubular membrane bioreactor (MFC-TMBR) system, in which the bio-cathode MFC was developed as a biosensor for COD real-time monitoring in TMBR and the performance was analyzed in terms of its current variation caused by operation parameters. With a constant anode potential, the effect of HRT demonstrated that higher rate of mass transport increased the response of the system. The system was further explored an inverse relationship between TMP and current peak by using EPS concentration under the different MLSS concentration. The sensor output had a linear relationship with COD up to 1000mg/L (regression coefficient, R(2)=0.97) and MLSS (regression coefficient, R(2)=0.94). The simple and compact bio-cathode MFC biosensor for TMBR using MFC-TMBR integrated system showed promising potential for direct and economical COD online monitoring, and provided an opportunity to widen the application of MFC-based biosensor.

  13. Subcellular localization of pituitary enzymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. E.

    1970-01-01

    A cytochemical procedure is reported for identifying subcellular sites of enzymes hydrolyzing beta-naphthylamine substrates, and to study the sites of reaction product localization in cells of various tissues. Investigations using the substrate Leu 4-methoxy-8-naphthylamine, a capture with hexonium pararosaniline, and the final chelation of osmium have identified the hydrolyzing enzyme of rat liver cells; this enzyme localized on cell membranes with intense deposition in the areas of the parcanaliculi. The study of cells in the anterior pituitary of the rat showed the deposition of reaction product on cell membrane; and on the membranes of secretion granules contained within the cell. The deposition of reaction product on the cell membrane however showed no increase or decrease with changes in the physiological state of the gland and release of secretion granules from specific cells.

  14. Membrane-Associated Glucose-Methanol-Choline Oxidoreductase Family Enzymes PhcC and PhcD Are Essential for Enantioselective Catabolism of Dehydrodiconiferyl Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kenji; Hirose, Yusaku; Kamimura, Naofumi; Hishiyama, Shojiro; Hara, Hirofumi; Araki, Takuma; Kasai, Daisuke; Kajita, Shinya; Katayama, Yoshihiro; Fukuda, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Sphingobium sp. strain SYK-6 is able to degrade various lignin-derived biaryls, including a phenylcoumaran-type compound, dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (DCA). In SYK-6 cells, the alcohol group of the B-ring side chain of DCA is initially oxidized to the carboxyl group to generate 3-(2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-(hydroxymethyl)-7-methoxy-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-5-yl) acrylic acid (DCA-C). Next, the alcohol group of the A-ring side chain of DCA-C is oxidized to the carboxyl group, and then the resulting metabolite is catabolized through vanillin and 5-formylferulate. In this study, the genes involved in the conversion of DCA-C were identified and characterized. The DCA-C oxidation activities in SYK-6 were enhanced in the presence of flavin adenine dinucleotide and an artificial electron acceptor and were induced ca. 1.6-fold when the cells were grown with DCA. Based on these observations, SLG_09480 (phcC) and SLG_09500 (phcD), encoding glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase family proteins, were presumed to encode DCA-C oxidases. Analyses of phcC and phcD mutants indicated that PhcC and PhcD are essential for the conversion of (+)-DCA-C and (−)-DCA-C, respectively. When phcC and phcD were expressed in SYK-6 and Escherichia coli, the gene products were mainly observed in their membrane fractions. The membrane fractions of E. coli that expressed phcC and phcD catalyzed the specific conversion of DCA-C into the corresponding carboxyl derivatives. In the oxidation of DCA-C, PhcC and PhcD effectively utilized ubiquinone derivatives as electron acceptors. Furthermore, the transcription of a putative cytochrome c gene was significantly induced in SYK-6 grown with DCA. The DCA-C oxidation catalyzed by membrane-associated PhcC and PhcD appears to be coupled to the respiratory chain. PMID:26362985

  15. A quantitative evaluation of ethylene production in the recombinant cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 harboring the ethylene-forming enzyme by membrane inlet mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zavřel, Tomáš; Knoop, Henning; Steuer, Ralf; Jones, Patrik R; Červený, Jan; Trtílek, Martin

    2016-02-01

    The prediction of the world's future energy consumption and global climate change makes it desirable to identify new technologies to replace or augment fossil fuels by environmentally sustainable alternatives. One appealing sustainable energy concept is harvesting solar energy via photosynthesis coupled to conversion of CO2 into chemical feedstock and fuel. In this work, the production of ethylene, the most widely used petrochemical produced exclusively from fossil fuels, in the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is studied. A novel instrumentation setup for quantitative monitoring of ethylene production using a combination of flat-panel photobioreactor coupled to a membrane-inlet mass spectrometer is introduced. Carbon partitioning is estimated using a quantitative model of cyanobacterial metabolism. The results show that ethylene is produced under a wide range of light intensities with an optimum at modest irradiances. The results allow production conditions to be optimized in a highly controlled setup.

  16. Highly ordered crystals of channel-forming membrane proteins, of nucleoside-monophosphate kinases, of FAD-containing oxidoreductases and of sugar-processing enzymes and their mutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, G. E.; Dreyer, M.; Klein, C.; Kreusch, A.; Mittl, P.; Mu¨ller, C. W.; Mu¨ller-Dieckmann, J.; Muller, Y. A.; Proba, K.; Schlauderer, G.; Spu¨rgin, P.; Stehle, T.; Weiss, M. S.

    1992-08-01

    Preparation and crystallization procedures as well as crystal properties are reported for 12 proteins plus numerous site-directed mutants. The proteins are: the integral membrane protein porin from Rhodobacter capsulatus which diffracts to at least 1.8A˚resolution, porin from Rhodopseudomonas blastica which diffracts to at least 2.0A˚resolution, adenylate kinase from yeast and mutants, adenylate kinase from Escherichia coli and mutants, bovine liver mitochondrial adenylate kinase, guanylate kinase from yeast, uridylate kinase from yeast, glutathione reductase from E. coli and mutants, NADH peroxidase from Streptococcus faecalis containing a sulfenic acid as redox-center, pyruvate oxidase from Lactobacillus plantarum containing FAD and TPP, cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Bacillus circulans and mutants, and a fuculose aldolase from E. coli.

  17. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Ohlinger, L.A.; Wigner, E.P.; Weinberg, A.M.; Young, G.J.

    1958-09-01

    This patent relates to neutronic reactors of the heterogeneous water cooled type, and in particular to a fuel element charging and discharging means therefor. In the embodiment illustrated the reactor contains horizontal, parallel coolant tubes in which the fuel elements are disposed. A loading cart containing a magnzine for holding a plurality of fuel elements operates along the face of the reactor at the inlet ends of the coolant tubes. The loading cart is equipped with a ram device for feeding fuel elements from the magazine through the inlot ends of the coolant tubes. Operating along the face adjacent the discharge ends of the tubes there is provided another cart means adapted to receive irradiated fuel elements as they are forced out of the discharge ends of the coolant tubes by the incoming new fuel elements. This cart is equipped with a tank coataining a coolant, such as water, into which the fuel elements fall, and a hydraulically operated plunger to hold the end of the fuel element being discharged. This inveation provides an apparatus whereby the fuel elements may be loaded into the reactor, irradiated therein, and unloaded from the reactor without stopping the fiow of the coolant and without danger to the operating personnel.

  18. Enzyme Kinetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Owen; Cornelius, Richard

    1988-01-01

    Conveys an appreciation of enzyme kinetic analysis by using a practical and intuitive approach. Discusses enzyme assays, kinetic models and rate laws, the kinetic constants (V, velocity, and Km, Michaels constant), evaluation of V and Km from experimental data, and enzyme inhibition. (CW)

  19. POWER REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Zinn, W.H.

    1958-07-01

    A fast nuclear reactor system ls described for producing power and radioactive isotopes. The reactor core is of the heterogeneous, fluid sealed type comprised of vertically arranged elongated tubular fuel elements having vertical coolant passages. The active portion is surrounded by a neutron reflector and a shield. The system includes pumps and heat exchangers for the primary and secondary coolant circuits. The core, primary coolant pump and primary heat exchanger are disposed within an irapenforate tank which is filled with the primary coolant, in this case a liquid metal such as Na or NaK, to completely submerge these elements. The tank is completely surrounded by a thick walled concrete shield. This reactor system utilizes enriched uranium or plutonium as the fissionable material, uranium or thorium as a diluent and thorium or uranium containing less than 0 7% of the U/sup 235/ isotope as a fertile material.

  20. REACTOR CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Fortescue, P.; Nicoll, D.

    1962-04-24

    A control system employed with a high pressure gas cooled reactor in which a control rod is positioned for upward and downward movement into the neutron field from a position beneath the reactor is described. The control rod is positioned by a coupled piston cylinder releasably coupled to a power drive means and the pressurized coolant is directed against the lower side of the piston. The coolant pressure is offset by a higher fiuid pressure applied to the upper surface of the piston and means are provided for releasing the higher pressure on the upper side of the piston so that the pressure of the coolant drives the piston upwardly, forcing the coupled control rod into the ncutron field of the reactor. (AEC)

  1. Bioconversion reactor

    DOEpatents

    McCarty, Perry L.; Bachmann, Andre

    1992-01-01

    A bioconversion reactor for the anaerobic fermentation of organic material. The bioconversion reactor comprises a shell enclosing a predetermined volume, an inlet port through which a liquid stream containing organic materials enters the shell, and an outlet port through which the stream exits the shell. A series of vertical and spaced-apart baffles are positioned within the shell to force the stream to flow under and over them as it passes from the inlet to the outlet port. The baffles present a barrier to the microorganisms within the shell causing them to rise and fall within the reactor but to move horizontally at a very slow rate. Treatment detention times of one day or less are possible.

  2. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Christy, R.F.

    1958-07-15

    A nuclear reactor of the homogeneous liquid fuel type is described wherein the fissionable isotope is suspended or dissolved in a liquid moderator such as water. The reactor core is comprised essentially of a spherical vessel for containing the reactive composition surrounded by a reflector, preferably of beryllium oxide. The reactive composition may be an ordinary water solution of a soluble salt of uranium, the quantity of fissionable isotope in solution being sufficient to provide a critical mass in the vessel. The liquid fuel is stored in a tank of non-crtttcal geometry below the reactor vessel and outside of the reflector and is passed from the tank to the vessel through a pipe connecting the two by air pressure means. Neutron absorbing control and safety rods are operated within slots in the reflector adjacent to the vessel.

  3. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Metcalf, H.E.

    1957-10-01

    A reactor of the type which preferably uses plutonium as the fuel and a liquid moderator, preferably ordinary water, and which produces steam within the reactor core due to the heat of the chain reaction is described. In the reactor shown the fuel elements are essentially in the form of trays and are ventically stacked in spaced relationship. The water moderator is continuously supplied to the trays to maintain a constant level on the upper surfaces of the fuel element as it is continually evaporated by the heat. The steam passes out through the spaces between the fuel elements and is drawn off at the top of the core. The fuel elements are clad in aluminum to prevent deterioration thereof with consequent contamimation of the water.

  4. NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Young, G.J.

    1958-10-14

    A method is presented for loading and unloading rod type fuel elements of a neutronic reactor of the heterogeneous, solld moderator, liquid cooled type. In the embodiment illustrated, the fuel rods are disposed in vertical coolant channels in the reactor core. The fuel rods are loaded and unloaded through the upper openings of the channels which are immersed in the coolant liquid, such as water. Unloading is accomplished by means of a coffer dam assembly having an outer sleeve which is placed in sealing relation around the upper opening. A radiation shield sleeve is disposed in and reciprocable through the coffer dam sleeve. A fuel rod engaging member operates through the axial bore in the radiation shield sleeve to withdraw the fuel rod from its position in the reactor coolant channel into the shield, the shield snd rod then being removed. Loading is accomplished in the reverse procedure.

  5. Catalytic reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Aaron, Timothy Mark; Shah, Minish Mahendra; Jibb, Richard John

    2009-03-10

    A catalytic reactor is provided with one or more reaction zones each formed of set(s) of reaction tubes containing a catalyst to promote chemical reaction within a feed stream. The reaction tubes are of helical configuration and are arranged in a substantially coaxial relationship to form a coil-like structure. Heat exchangers and steam generators can be formed by similar tube arrangements. In such manner, the reaction zone(s) and hence, the reactor is compact and the pressure drop through components is minimized. The resultant compact form has improved heat transfer characteristics and is far easier to thermally insulate than prior art compact reactor designs. Various chemical reactions are contemplated within such coil-like structures such that as steam methane reforming followed by water-gas shift. The coil-like structures can be housed within annular chambers of a cylindrical housing that also provide flow paths for various heat exchange fluids to heat and cool components.

  6. Kinetic Measurements for Enzyme Immobilization.

    PubMed

    Cooney, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Enzyme kinetics is the study of the chemical reactions that are catalyzed by enzymes, with a focus on their reaction rates. The study of an enzyme's kinetics considers the various stages of activity, reveals the catalytic mechanism of this enzyme, correlates its value to assay conditions, and describes how a drug or a poison might inhibit the enzyme. Victor Henri initially reported that enzyme reactions were initiated by a bond between the enzyme and the substrate. By 1910, Michaelis and Menten were advancing their work by studying the kinetics of an enzyme saccharase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of sucrose into glucose and fructose. They published their analysis and ever since the Michaelis-Menten equation has been used as the standard to describe the kinetics of many enzymes. Unfortunately, soluble enzymes must generally be immobilized to be reused for long times in industrial reactors. In addition, other critical enzyme properties have to be improved like stability, activity, inhibition by reaction products, and selectivity towards nonnatural substrates. Immobilization is by far the chosen process to achieve these goals.Although the Michaelis-Menten approach has been regularly adapted to the analysis of immobilized enzyme activity, its applicability to the immobilized state is limited by the barriers the immobilization matrix places upon the measurement of compounds that are used to model enzyme kinetics. That being said, the estimated value of the Michaelis-Menten coefficients (e.g., V max, K M) can be used to evaluate effects of immobilization on enzyme activity in the immobilized state when applied in a controlled manner. In this review enzyme activity and kinetics are discussed in the context of the immobilized state, and a few novel protocols are presented that address some of the unique constraints imposed by the immobilization barrier.

  7. Kinetic measurements for enzyme immobilization.

    PubMed

    Cooney, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Enzyme kinetics is the study of the chemical reactions that are catalyzed by enzymes, with a focus on their reaction rates. The study of an enzyme's kinetics considers the various stages of activity, reveals the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme, correlates its value to assay conditions, and describes how a drug or a poison might inhibit the enzyme. Victor Henri initially reported that enzyme reactions were initiated by a bond between the enzyme and the substrate. By 1910, Michaelis and Menten had advanced this work by studying the kinetics of the enzyme saccharase, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of sucrose into glucose and fructose. They published their analysis, and ever since, the Michaelis-Menten equation has been used as the standard to describe the kinetics of many enzymes. Unfortunately, soluble enzymes must generally be immobilized to be reused for long times in industrial reactors. In addition, other critical enzyme properties have to be improved like stability, activity, inhibition by reaction products, selectivity toward nonnatural substrates. Immobilization is by far the chosen process to achieve these goals.Although the Michaelis-Menten approach has been regularly adopted for the analysis of immobilized enzyme activity, its applicability to the immobilized state is limited by the barriers the immobilization matrix places upon the measurement of compounds that are used to model enzyme kinetics. That being said, the estimated value of the Michaelis-Menten coefficients (e.g., V(max), K(M)) can be used to evaluate effects of immobilization on enzyme activity in the immobilized state when applied in a controlled manner. In this review, enzyme activity and kinetics are discussed in the context of the immobilized state, and a few novel protocols are presented that address some of the unique constraints imposed by the immobilization barrier.

  8. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fermi, E.; Szilard, L.

    1957-09-24

    Reactors of the type employing plates of natural uranium in a moderator are discussed wherein the plates are um-formly disposed in parallel relationship to each other thereby separating the moderator material into distinct and individual layers. Each plate has an uninterrupted sunface area substantially equal to the cross-sectional area of the active portion of the reactor, the particular size of the plates and the volume ratio of moderator to uranium required to sustain a chain reaction being determinable from the known purity of these materials and other characteristics such as the predictable neutron losses due to the formation of radioactive elements of extremely high neutron capture cross section.

  9. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Weinberg, A.W.; Young, G.J.

    1958-04-15

    A nuclear reactor which uses uranium in the form of elongated tubes as fuel elements and liquid as a coolant is described. Elongated tubular uranium bodies are vertically disposed in an efficient neutron slowing agent, such as graphite, for example, to form a lattice structure which is disposed between upper and lower coolant tanks. Fluid coolant tubes extend through the uranium bodies and communicate with the upper and lower tanks and serve to convey the coolant through the uranium body. The reactor is also provided with means for circulating the cooling fluid through the coolant tanks and coolant tubes, suitable neutron and gnmma ray shields, and control means.

  10. The loss of plasma membrane lysopip and an increase of PIP sub 2 result from treatment of carrot cells with fungal enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Q.; Boss, W.F. )

    1989-04-01

    The plasma membranes of carrot cells grown in suspension culture are enriched with PIP, lysoPIP, and PIP{sub 2}. To determine whether or not these lipids are involved in signal transduction, we have challenged the cells with a mixture of fungal cellulases, Driselase, and monitored the changes in the phosphoinositides and in the phosphoinositide kinase activity. With cell prelabeled with ({sup 3}H)inositol, two major changes are observed: (1) lysoPIP decreases 30% compared to the sorbitol control and (2) PIP{sub 2} doubles. There is no increase in IP, IP{sub 2}, or IP{sub 3}. In vitro phosphorylation studies using ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP indicate that the increase in PIP{sub 2} is due in part to activation of the PIP kinase. These data suggest that the role of the polyphosphoinositides in signal transduction in plants may involve activation of the PIP kinase and/or activation of A type phospholipases rather than C type phospholipases.

  11. Neutronic reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wende, Charles W. J.

    1976-08-17

    A safety rod for a nuclear reactor has an inner end portion having a gamma absorption coefficient and neutron capture cross section approximately equal to those of the adjacent shield, a central portion containing materials of high neutron capture cross section and an outer end portion having a gamma absorption coefficient at least equal to that of the adjacent shield.

  12. Neutronic reactor

    DOEpatents

    Carleton, John T.

    1977-01-25

    A graphite-moderated nuclear reactor includes channels between blocks of graphite and also includes spacer blocks between adjacent channeled blocks with an axis of extension normal to that of the axis of elongation of the channeled blocks to minimize changes in the physical properties of the graphite as a result of prolonged neutron bombardment.

  13. Sonochemical Reactors.

    PubMed

    Gogate, Parag R; Patil, Pankaj N

    2016-10-01

    Sonochemical reactors are based on the generation of cavitational events using ultrasound and offer immense potential for the intensification of physical and chemical processing applications. The present work presents a critical analysis of the underlying mechanisms for intensification, available reactor configurations and overview of the different applications exploited successfully, though mostly at laboratory scales. Guidelines have also been presented for optimum selection of the important operating parameters (frequency and intensity of irradiation, temperature and liquid physicochemical properties) as well as the geometric parameters (type of reactor configuration and the number/position of the transducers) so as to maximize the process intensification benefits. The key areas for future work so as to transform the successful technique at laboratory/pilot scale into commercial technology have also been discussed. Overall, it has been established that there is immense potential for sonochemical reactors for process intensification leading to greener processing and economic benefits. Combined efforts from a wide range of disciplines such as material science, physics, chemistry and chemical engineers are required to harness the benefits at commercial scale operation.

  14. NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, H.L.

    1958-10-01

    The design of control rods for nuclear reactors are described. In this design the control rod consists essentially of an elongated member constructed in part of a neutron absorbing material and having tube means extending therethrough for conducting a liquid to cool the rod when in use.

  15. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Creutz, E.C.; Ohlinger, L.A.; Weinberg, A.M.; Wigner, E.P.; Young, G.J.

    1959-10-27

    BS>A reactor cooled by water, biphenyl, helium, or other fluid with provision made for replacing the fuel rods with the highest plutonium and fission product content without disassembling the entire core and for promptly cooling the rods after their replacement in order to prevent build-up of heat from fission product activity is described.

  16. Comparison and Analysis of Membrane Fouling between Flocculent Sludge Membrane Bioreactor and Granular Sludge Membrane Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Zhi-Qiang, Chen; Jun-Wen, Li; Yi-Hong, Zhang; Xuan, Wang; Bin, Zhang

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate the effect of inoculating granules on reducing membrane fouling. In order to evaluate the differences in performance between flocculent sludge and aerobic granular sludge in membrane reactors (MBRs), two reactors were run in parallel and various parameters related to membrane fouling were measured. The results indicated that specific resistance to the fouling layer was five times greater than that of mixed liquor sludge in the granular MBR. The floc sludge more easily formed a compact layer on the membrane surface, and increased membrane resistance. Specifically, the floc sludge had a higher moisture content, extracellular polymeric substances concentration, and negative surface charge. In contrast, aerobic granules could improve structural integrity and strength, which contributed to the preferable permeate performance. Therefore, inoculating aerobic granules in a MBR presents an effective method of reducing the membrane fouling associated with floc sludge the perspective of from the morphological characteristics of microbial aggregates. PMID:22859954

  17. Short term exercise induces PGC-1α, ameliorates inflammation and increases mitochondrial membrane proteins but fails to increase respiratory enzymes in aging diabetic hearts.

    PubMed

    Botta, Amy; Laher, Ismail; Beam, Julianne; Decoffe, Daniella; Brown, Kirsty; Halder, Swagata; Devlin, Angela; Gibson, Deanna L; Ghosh, Sanjoy

    2013-01-01

    PGC-1α, a transcriptional coactivator, controls inflammation and mitochondrial gene expression in insulin-sensitive tissues following exercise intervention. However, attributing such effects to PGC-1α is counfounded by exercise-induced fluctuations in blood glucose, insulin or bodyweight in diabetic patients. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of PGC-1α on inflammation and mitochondrial protein expressions in aging db/db mice hearts, independent of changes in glycemic parameters. In 8-month-old db/db mice hearts with diabetes lasting over 22 weeks, short-term, moderate-intensity exercise upregulated PGC-1α without altering body weight or glycemic parameters. Nonetheless, such a regimen lowered both cardiac (macrophage infiltration, iNOS and TNFα) and systemic (circulating chemokines and cytokines) inflammation. Curiously, such an anti-inflammatory effect was also linked to attenuated expression of downstream transcription factors of PGC-1α such as NRF-1 and several respiratory genes. Such mismatch between PGC-1α and its downstream targets was associated with elevated mitochondrial membrane proteins like Tom70 but a concurrent reduction in oxidative phosphorylation protein expressions in exercised db/db hearts. As mitochondrial oxidative stress was predominant in these hearts, in support of our in vivo data, increasing concentrations of H2O2 dose-dependently increased PGC-1α expression while inhibiting expression of inflammatory genes and downstream transcription factors in H9c2 cardiomyocytes in vitro. We conclude that short-term exercise-induced oxidative stress may be key in attenuating cardiac inflammatory genes and impairing PGC-1α mediated gene transcription of downstream transcription factors in type 2 diabetic hearts at an advanced age.

  18. Marine enzymes.

    PubMed

    Debashish, Ghosh; Malay, Saha; Barindra, Sana; Joydeep, Mukherjee

    2005-01-01

    Marine enzyme biotechnology can offer novel biocatalysts with properties like high salt tolerance, hyperthermostability, barophilicity, cold adaptivity, and ease in large-scale cultivation. This review deals with the research and development work done on the occurrence, molecular biology, and bioprocessing of marine enzymes during the last decade. Exotic locations have been accessed for the search of novel enzymes. Scientists have isolated proteases and carbohydrases from deep sea hydrothermal vents. Cold active metabolic enzymes from psychrophilic marine microorganisms have received considerable research attention. Marine symbiont microorganisms growing in association with animals and plants were shown to produce enzymes of commercial interest. Microorganisms isolated from sediment and seawater have been the most widely studied, proteases, carbohydrases, and peroxidases being noteworthy. Enzymes from marine animals and plants were primarily studied for their metabolic roles, though proteases and peroxidases have found industrial applications. Novel techniques in molecular biology applied to assess the diversity of chitinases, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia-metabolizing, and pollutant-degrading enzymes are discussed. Genes encoding chitinases, proteases, and carbohydrases from microbial and animal sources have been cloned and characterized. Research on the bioprocessing of marine-derived enzymes, however, has been scanty, focusing mainly on the application of solid-state fermentation to the production of enzymes from microbial sources.

  19. Biological Fuel Cells and Membranes.

    PubMed

    Ghassemi, Zahra; Slaughter, Gymama

    2017-01-17

    Biofuel cells have been widely used to generate bioelectricity. Early biofuel cells employ a semi-permeable membrane to separate the anodic and cathodic compartments. The impact of different membrane materials and compositions has also been explored. Some membrane materials are employed strictly as membrane separators, while some have gained significant attention in the immobilization of enzymes or microorganisms within or behind the membrane at the electrode surface. The membrane material affects the transfer rate of the chemical species (e.g., fuel, oxygen molecules, and products) involved in the chemical reaction, which in turn has an impact on the performance of the biofuel cell. For enzymatic biofuel cells, Nafion, modified Nafion, and chitosan membranes have been used widely and continue to hold great promise in the long-term stability of enzymes and microorganisms encapsulated within them. This article provides a review of the most widely used membrane materials in the development of enzymatic and microbial biofuel cells.

  20. Biological Fuel Cells and Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Ghassemi, Zahra; Slaughter, Gymama

    2017-01-01

    Biofuel cells have been widely used to generate bioelectricity. Early biofuel cells employ a semi-permeable membrane to separate the anodic and cathodic compartments. The impact of different membrane materials and compositions has also been explored. Some membrane materials are employed strictly as membrane separators, while some have gained significant attention in the immobilization of enzymes or microorganisms within or behind the membrane at the electrode surface. The membrane material affects the transfer rate of the chemical species (e.g., fuel, oxygen molecules, and products) involved in the chemical reaction, which in turn has an impact on the performance of the biofuel cell. For enzymatic biofuel cells, Nafion, modified Nafion, and chitosan membranes have been used widely and continue to hold great promise in the long-term stability of enzymes and microorganisms encapsulated within them. This article provides a review of the most widely used membrane materials in the development of enzymatic and microbial biofuel cells. PMID:28106711

  1. A comparison of redox polymer and enzyme co-immobilization on carbon electrodes to provide membrane-less glucose/O2 enzymatic fuel cells with improved power output and stability.

    PubMed

    Rengaraj, Saravanan; Kavanagh, Paul; Leech, Dónal

    2011-12-15

    Glassy carbon and graphite electrodes modified with films of enzyme and osmium redox polymer, cross linked with poly (ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether, were used for elaboration of a glucose/O(2) enzymatic fuel cell. The redox polymers [Os(4,4'-dimethoxy-2,2'-bipyridine)(2)(polyvinylimidazole)(10)Cl](+) and [Os(4,4'-dichloro-2,2'-bipyridine)(2)(polyvinylimidazole)(10)Cl](+) were selected to facilitate transfer of electrons from the glucose oxidase (GOx) active site to the T1 Cu site of multicopper oxygenases of Trametes hirsuta laccase (ThLacc) and Myrothecium verrucaria bilirubin oxidase (MvBOD). Maximum power density at pH 5.5 of 3.5 μW cm(-2) at a cell voltage of 0.35 V was obtained for an assembled membrane-less fuel cell based on ThLacc on glassy carbon as cathode, in the presence of 0.1 M glucose, 37 °C, with lower power observed at pH 7.4 and 4.5. Replacement of the ThLacc cathode with that of MvBOD produced 10 μW cm(-2) at 0.25 V under pseudo-physiological conditions. Replacement of glassy carbon with graphite as base electrode material resulted in increased redox polymer loading, leading to an increase in power output to 43 μW cm(-2) at 0.25 V under similar conditions. Improved stabilization of biofilms was achieved through covalent anchoring of enzyme and redox polymer on graphite electrodes, derivatized via electrochemical reduction of the diazonium cation generated in situ from p-phenylenediamine. Enzymatic fuel cells using this approach retained 70% power at 24 h, whereas fuel cells prepared without chemical anchoring to graphite retained only 10% of power over the same interval.

  2. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1958-08-19

    A neuclear reactor is described of the heterogeneous type and employing replaceable tubular fuel elements and heavy water as a coolant and moderator. A pluraltty of fuel tubesa having their axes parallel, extend through a tank type pressure vessel which contatns the liquid moderator. The fuel elements are disposed within the fuel tubes in the reaetive portion of the pressure vessel during normal operation and the fuel tubes have removable plug members at each end to permit charging and discharging of the fuel elements. The fuel elements are cylindrical strands of jacketed fissionable material having helical exterior ribs. A bundle of fuel elements are held within each fuel tube with their longitudinal axes parallel, the ribs serving to space them apart along their lengths. Coolant liquid is circulated through the fuel tubes between the spaced fuel elements. Suitable control rod and monitoring means are provided for controlling the reactor.

  3. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wade, E.J.

    1958-09-16

    This patent relates to a reflector means for a neutronic reactor. A reflector comprised of a plurality of vertically movable beryllium control members is provided surrounding the sides of the reactor core. An absorber of fast neutrons comprised of natural uramum surrounds the reflector. An absorber of slow neutrons surrounds the absorber of fast neutrons and is formed of a plurality of beryllium blocks having natural uranium members distributcd therethrough. in addition, a movable body is positioned directly below the core and is comprised of a beryllium reflector and an absorbing member attached to the botiom thereof, the absorbing member containing a substance selected from the goup consisting of natural urantum and Th/sup 232/.

  4. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1959-12-15

    A reactor which is particularly adapted tu serve as a heat source for a nuclear powered alrcraft or rocket is described. The core of this reactor consists of a porous refractory modera;or body which is impregnated with fissionable nuclei. The core is designed so that its surface forms tapered inlet and outlet ducts which are separated by the porous moderator body. In operation a gaseous working fluid is circulated through the inlet ducts to the surface of the moderator, enters and passes through the porous body, and is heated therein. The hot gas emerges into the outlet ducts and is available to provide thrust. The principle advantage is that tremendous quantities of gas can be quickly heated without suffering an excessive pressure drop.

  5. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wade, Elman E.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear reactor including two rotatable plugs and a positive top core holddown structure. The top core holddown structure is divided into two parts: a small core cover, and a large core cover. The small core cover, and the upper internals associated therewith, are attached to the small rotating plug, and the large core cover, with its associated upper internals, is attached to the large rotating plug. By so splitting the core holddown structures, under-the-plug refueling is accomplished without the necessity of enlarging the reactor pressure vessel to provide a storage space for the core holddown structure during refueling. Additionally, the small and large rotating plugs, and their associated core covers, are arranged such that the separation of the two core covers to permit rotation is accomplished without the installation of complex lifting mechanisms.

  6. REACTOR UNLOADING

    DOEpatents

    Leverett, M.C.

    1958-02-18

    This patent is related to gas cooled reactors wherein the fuel elements are disposed in vertical channels extending through the reactor core, the cooling gas passing through the channels from the bottom to the top of the core. The invention is a means for unloading the fuel elements from the core and comprises dump values in the form of flat cars mounted on wheels at the bottom of the core structure which support vertical stacks of fuel elements. When the flat cars are moved, either manually or automatically, for normal unloading purposes, or due to a rapid rise in the reproduction ratio within the core, the fuel elements are permtted to fall by gravity out of the core structure thereby reducing the reproduction ratio or stopping the reaction as desired.

  7. Enzyme-based CO2 capture for advanced life support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ge, Jijun; Cowan, Robert M.; Tu, Chingkuang; McGregor, Martin L.; Trachtenberg, Michael C.

    2002-01-01

    Elevated CO2 levels in air can lead to impaired functioning and even death to humans. Control of CO2 is critical in confined spaces that have little physical or biological buffering capacity (e.g., spacecraft, submarines, or aircraft). A novel enzyme-based contained liquid membrane bioreactor was designed for CO2 capture and certain application cases are reported in this article. The results show that the liquid layer accounts for the major transport resistance. With addition of carbonic anhydrase, the transport resistance decreased by 71%. Volatile organic compounds of the type and concentration expected to be present in either the crew cabin or a plant growth chamber did not influence carbonic anhydrase activity or reactor operation during 1-day operation. Alternative sweep method studies, examined as a means of eliminating consumables, showed that the feed gas could be used successfully in a bypass mode when combined with medium vacuum pressure (-85 kPa) to achieve CO2 separation comparable to that with an inert sweep gas. The reactor exhibited a selectivity for CO2 versus N2 of 1400:1 and CO2 versus O2 is 866:1. The CO2 permeance was 1.44 x 10(-7) mol m-2 Pa-1 s-1 (4.3 x 10(-4) cm3 cm-2 s-1 cmHg-1) at a feed concentration of 0.1% CO2. These data show that the enzyme-based contained liquid membrane is a promising candidate technology that may be suitable for NASA applications to control CO2 in the crew or plant chambers.

  8. Enzymes, Industrial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enzymes serve key roles in numerous biotechnology processes and products that are commonly encountered in the forms of food and beverages, cleaning supplies, clothing, paper products, transportation fuels, pharmaceuticals, and monitoring devices. Enzymes can display regio- and stereo-specificity, p...

  9. NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Koch, L.J.; Rice, R.E. Jr.; Denst, A.A.; Rogers, A.J.; Novick, M.

    1961-12-01

    An active portion assembly for a fast neutron reactor is described wherein physical distortions resulting in adverse changes in the volume-to-mass ratio are minimized. A radially expandable locking device is disposed within a cylindrical tube within each fuel subassembly within the active portion assembly, and clamping devices expandable toward the center of the active portion assembly are disposed around the periphery thereof. (AEC)

  10. Neutronic reactor

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Warren R.

    1978-05-30

    A graphite-moderated, water-cooled nuclear reactor including a plurality of rectangular graphite blocks stacked in abutting relationship in layers, alternate layers having axes which are normal to one another, alternate rows of blocks in alternate layers being provided with a channel extending through the blocks, said channeled blocks being provided with concave sides and having smaller vertical dimensions than adjacent blocks in the same layer, there being nuclear fuel in the channels.

  11. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1961-01-24

    A core structure for neutronic reactors adapted for the propulsion of aircraft and rockets is offered. The core is designed for cooling by gaseous media, and comprises a plurality of hollow tapered tubular segments of a porous moderating material impregniated with fissionable fuel nested about a common axis. Alternate ends of the segments are joined. In operation a coolant gas passes through the porous structure and is heated.

  12. NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Long, E.; Ashby, J.W.

    1958-09-16

    ABS>A graphite moderator structure is presented for a nuclear reactor compriscd of an assembly of similarly orientated prismatic graphite blocks arranged on spaced longitudinal axes lying in common planes wherein the planes of the walls of the blocks are positioned so as to be twisted reintive to the planes of said axes so thatthe unlmpeded dtrect paths in direction wholly across the walls of the blocks are limited to the width of the blocks plus spacing between the blocks.

  13. REACTOR CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Ruano, W.J.

    1957-12-10

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which utilize elongited rod type fuel elements immersed in a liquid moderator and shows a design whereby control of the chain reaction is obtained by varying the amount of moderator or reflector material. A central tank for containing liquid moderator and fuel elements immersed therein is disposed within a surrounding outer tank providing an annular space between the two tanks. This annular space is filled with liquid moderator which functions as a reflector to reflect neutrons back into the central reactor tank to increase the reproduction ratio. Means are provided for circulating and cooling the moderator material in both tanks and additional means are provided for controlling separately the volume of moderator in each tank, which latter means may be operated automatically by a neutron density monitoring device. The patent also shows an arrangement for controlling the chain reaction by injecting and varying an amount of poisoning material in the moderator used in the reflector portion of the reactor.

  14. Array of planar membrane modules for producing hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Vencill, Thomas R [Albuquerque, NM; Chellappa, Anand S [Albuquerque, NM; Rathod, Shailendra B [Hillsboro, OR

    2012-05-08

    A shared or common environment membrane reactor containing a plurality of planar membrane modules with top and bottom thin foil membranes supported by both an intermediary porous support plate and a central base which has both solid extended members and hollow regions or a hollow region whereby the two sides of the base are in fluid communication. The membrane reactor operates at elevate temperatures for generating hydrogen from hydrogen rich feed fuels.

  15. Autolysis of Blakeslea trispora during carotene production from cheese whey in an airlift reactor.

    PubMed

    Varzakakou, Maria; Roukas, Triantafyllos; Papaioannou, Emmanuel; Kotzekidou, Parthena; Liakopoulou-Kyriakides, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The phenomenon of autolysis in Blakeslea trispora during carotene production from deproteinized hydrolyzed whey in an airlift reactor was investigated. The process of cellular autolysis was studied by measuring the changes in carotene concentration, dry biomass, residual sugars, pH, intracellular protein, specific activity of the hydrolytic enzymes (proteases, chitinase), and micromorphology of the fungus using a computerized image analysis system. All these parameters were useful indicators of autolysis, but image analysis was found to be the most useful indicator of the onset and progress of autolysis in the culture. Autolysis of B. trispora began early in the growth phase, continued during the stationary phase, and increased significantly in the decline phase. The morphological differentiation of the fungus was a result of the degradation of the cell membrane by hydrolytic enzymes. The biosynthesis of carotenes was carried out in the exponential phase, where the phenomenon of autolysis was not intense.

  16. Clinical and Immunological Studies of 332 Japanese Patients Tentatively Diagnosed as Anti-BP180-type Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid: A Novel BP180 C-terminal Domain Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay.

    PubMed

    Yasukochi, Atsushi; Teye, Kwesi; Ishii, Norito; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2016-08-23

    Diagnosis of anti-BP180-type mucous membrane pemphigoid (BP180-MMP) is frustrated by the difficulty of detecting BP180 reactivity. A total of 721 patients with suspected MMP, selected from a cohort of 4,698 patients with autoimmune bullous disease (AIBD), were included in this study. Of these, 332 patients were tentatively diagnosed as BP180-MMP if they showed IgG/IgA reactivity with the epidermal side of 1M NaCl-split-skin and/or positive reactivity with BP180 in at least one of our antigen detection methods. Clinically, a predominance of female patients was found. Oral mucosal and cutaneous lesions were found in 85.5% and 41.0% of patients, respectively, and frequent treatments were systemic steroids, tetracycline/minocycline and diaminodiphenyl sulfone. Various immunological methods, including a newly developed BP180 C-terminal domain enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), revealed frequent reactivity with BP180 C-terminal and NC16a domains. Some patients reacted with BP180 and other antigens, indicating that BP180-MMP tends to concur with other AIBDs. This large study of patients with suspected BP180-MMP indicates the difficulty of diagnosis of BP180-MMP and the diagnostic usefulness of BP180 C-terminal domain ELISA.

  17. Nuclear Reactors. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogerton, John F.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: How