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Sample records for enzyme prodrug therapy

  1. Prodrugs in medicinal chemistry and enzyme prodrug therapies.

    PubMed

    Walther, Raoul; Rautio, Jarkko; Zelikin, Alexander N

    2017-09-01

    Prodrugs are cunning derivatives of therapeutic agents designed to improve the pharmacokinetics profile of the drug. Within a prodrug, pharmacological activity of the drug is masked and is recovered within the human body upon bioconversion of the prodrug, a process that is typically mediated by enzymes. This concept is highly successful and a significant fraction of marketed therapeutic formulations is based on prodrugs. An advanced subset of prodrugs can be engineered such as to achieve site-specific bioconversion of the prodrug - to comprise the highly advantageous "enzyme prodrug therapy", EPT. Design of prodrugs for EPT is similar to the prodrugs in general medicinal use in that the pharmacological activity of the drug is masked, but differs significantly in that site-specific bioconversion is a prime consideration, and the enzymes typically used for EPT are non-mammalian and/or with low systemic abundance in the human body. This review focuses on the design of prodrugs for EPT in terms of the choice of an enzyme and the corresponding prodrug for bioconversion. We also discuss the recent success of "self immolative linkers" which significantly empower and diversify the prodrug design, and present methodologies for the design of prodrugs with extended blood residence time. The review aims to be of specific interest for medicinal chemists, biomedical engineers, and pharmaceutical scientists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Prodrugs for Gene-Directed Enzyme-Prodrug Therapy (Suicide Gene Therapy)

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    This review focuses on the prodrugs used in suicide gene therapy. These prodrugs need to satisfy a number of criteria. They must be efficient and selective substrates for the activating enzyme, and be metabolized to potent cytotoxins preferably able to kill cells at all stages of the cell cycle. Both prodrugs and their activated species should have good distributive properties, so that the resulting bystander effects can maximize the effectiveness of the therapy, since gene transduction efficiencies are generally low. A total of 42 prodrugs explored for use in suicide gene therapy with 12 different enzymes are discussed, particularly in terms of their physiocochemical properties. An important parameter in determining bystander effects generated by passive diffusion is the lipophilicity of the activated form, a property conveniently compared by diffusion coefficients (log P for nonionizable compounds and log D7 for compounds containing an ionizable centre). Many of the early antimetabolite-based prodrugs provide very polar activated forms that have limited abilities to diffuse across cell membranes, and rely on gap junctions between cells for their bystander effects. Several later studies have shown that more lipophilic, neutral compounds have superior diffusion-based bystander effects. Prodrugs of DNA alkylating agents, that are less cell cycle-specific than antimetabolites and more effective against noncycling tumor cells, appear in general to be more active prodrugs, requiring less prolonged dosing schedules to be effective. It is expected that continued studies to optimize the bystander effects and other properties of prodrugs and the activated species they generate will contribute to improvements in the effectiveness of suicide gene therapy. PMID:12686722

  3. Prodrugs for Gene-Directed Enzyme-Prodrug Therapy (Suicide Gene Therapy).

    PubMed

    Denny, William A.

    2003-01-01

    This review focuses on the prodrugs used in suicide gene therapy. These prodrugs need to satisfy a number of criteria. They must be efficient and selective substrates for the activating enzyme, and be metabolized to potent cytotoxins preferably able to kill cells at all stages of the cell cycle. Both prodrugs and their activated species should have good distributive properties, so that the resulting bystander effects can maximize the effectiveness of the therapy, since gene transduction efficiencies are generally low. A total of 42 prodrugs explored for use in suicide gene therapy with 12 different enzymes are discussed, particularly in terms of their physiocochemical properties. An important parameter in determining bystander effects generated by passive diffusion is the lipophilicity of the activated form, a property conveniently compared by diffusion coefficients (log P for nonionizable compounds and log D(7) for compounds containing an ionizable centre). Many of the early antimetabolite-based prodrugs provide very polar activated forms that have limited abilities to diffuse across cell membranes, and rely on gap junctions between cells for their bystander effects. Several later studies have shown that more lipophilic, neutral compounds have superior diffusion-based bystander effects. Prodrugs of DNA alkylating agents, that are less cell cycle-specific than antimetabolites and more effective against noncycling tumor cells, appear in general to be more active prodrugs, requiring less prolonged dosing schedules to be effective. It is expected that continued studies to optimize the bystander effects and other properties of prodrugs and the activated species they generate will contribute to improvements in the effectiveness of suicide gene therapy.

  4. Macrophage mediated PCI enhanced gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christie, Catherine E.; Zamora, Genesis; Kwon, Young J.; Berg, Kristian; Madsen, Steen J.; Hirschberg, Henry

    2015-03-01

    Photochemical internalization (PCI) is a photodynamic therapy-based approach for improving the delivery of macromolecules and genes into the cell cytosol. Prodrug activating gene therapy (suicide gene therapy) employing the transduction of the E. coli cytosine deaminase (CD) gene into tumor cells, is a promising method. Expression of this gene within the target cell produces an enzyme that converts the nontoxic prodrug, 5-FC, to the toxic metabolite, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). 5-FC may be particularly suitable for brain tumors, because it can readily cross the bloodbrain barrier (BBB). In addition the bystander effect, where activated drug is exported from the transfected cancer cells into the tumor microenvironment, plays an important role by inhibiting growth of adjacent tumor cells. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are frequently found in and around glioblastomas. Monocytes or macrophages (Ma) loaded with drugs, nanoparticles or photosensitizers could therefore be used to target tumors by local synthesis of chemo attractive factors. The basic concept is to combine PCI, to enhance the ex vivo transfection of a suicide gene into Ma, employing specially designed core/shell NP as gene carrier.

  5. Translating antibody directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT) and prospects for combination.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Surinder K; Bagshawe, Kenneth D

    2017-01-01

    The generation of cytotoxic drugs, selectively within tumours, from non-toxic prodrugs by targeted enzymes provides a powerful system for cancer therapy. In the form of Antibody directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT), this approach has shown feasibility in the clinic. Areas covered: Although numerous enzyme prodrug combinations have been reported over the last two decades, only the CPG2 ADEPT system has progressed to clinical trials. Using readily available components such as chemical antibody enzyme conjugate or recombinant multifunctional fusion protein, delivery of a specific enzyme to tumours, its elimination from non-tumour sites and prodrug activation has been achieved with therapeutic benefit in the clinic. The challenge here is to overcome immunogenicity of CPG2. Technology exists to overcome this limitation together with prospects for rational design of combined therapy. Expert opinion: ADEPT has the potential to be an effective treatment for solid cancer. However, the system necessitates a multi-disciplinary and iterative approach. Although xenograft studies provide a consistent guide it is only through clinical studies that the real challenges can be identified. The emerging preclinical data with other enzyme prodrug systems may provide the opportunity to develop the next generation ADEPT comprising non-immunogenic enzymes to generate potent cytotoxic drugs within tumours.

  6. Antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy: a promising approach for a selective treatment of cancer based on prodrugs and monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Tietze, Lutz F; Krewer, Birgit

    2009-09-01

    The antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy allows a selective liberation of cytotoxic agents from non-toxic prodrugs in cancerous tissue by targeted antibody-enzyme conjugates. We have developed a series of novel glycosidic prodrugs based on the natural antibiotic CC-1065 and the duocarmycins, which are up to 4800 times less toxic than the drugs liberated from these prodrugs in the presence of the activating enzyme (e.g., beta-D-galactosidase). Furthermore, the drugs show very high cytotoxicities with IC(50) values of as low as 4.5 pm. In this report, we summarize our recent results on the development and biological evaluation of these novel third-generation prodrugs with higher water solubility, higher difference in cytotoxicity between the prodrugs and the corresponding drugs and improved cytotoxicity of the drugs as compared with previous compounds.

  7. Optimization of alkylating agent prodrugs derived from phenol and aniline mustards: a new clinical candidate prodrug (ZD2767) for antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT).

    PubMed

    Springer, C J; Dowell, R; Burke, P J; Hadley, E; Davis, D H; Blakey, D C; Melton, R G; Niculescu-Duvaz, I

    1995-12-22

    Sixteen novel potential prodrugs derived from phenol or aniline mustards and their 16 corresponding drugs with ring substitution and/or different alkylating functionalities were designed. The [[[4-]bis(2-bromoethyl)-(1a), [[[4-[bis(2-iodoethyl)-(1b), and [[[4-[(2-chloroethyl)-[2-(mesyloxy)ethyl]amino]phenyl]oxy] carbonyl]-L-glutamic acids (1c), their [[[2- and 3-substituted-4-[bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]phenyl]oxy]carbonyl]-L- glutamic acids (1e-1), and the [[3-substituted-4-[bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]phenyl]carbamoyl]-L- glutamic acids (1o-r) were synthesized. They are bifunctional alkylating agents in which the activating effect of the phenolic hydroxyl or amino function is masked through an oxycarbonyl or a carbamoyl bond to a glutamic acid. These prodrugs were designed to be activated to their corresponding phenol and aniline nitrogen mustard drugs at a tumor site by prior administration of a monoclonal antibody conjugated to the bacterial enzyme carboxypeptidase G2 (CPG2) in antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT). The synthesis of the analogous novel parent drugs (2a-r) is also described. The viability of a colorectal cell line (LoVo) was monitored with the potential prodrugs and the parent drugs. The differential in the cytotoxicity between the potential prodrugs and their corresponding active drugs ranged between 12 and > 195 fold. Compounds 1b-d,f,o exhibited substantial prodrug activity, since a cytotoxicity differential of > 100 was achieved compared to 2b-d,f,o respectively. The ability of the potential prodrugs to act as substrates for CPG2 was determined (kinetic parameters KM and kcat), and the chemical stability was measured for all the compounds. The unsubstituted phenols with different alkylating functionalities (1a-c) proved to have the highest ratio of the substrates kcat:KM. From these studies [[[4-[bis(2-iodoethyl)amino]phenyl]oxy]carbonyl]-L-glutamic acid (1b) emerges as a new ADEPT clinical trial candidate due to its physicochemical and

  8. Enzyme Prodrug Therapy Achieves Site-Specific, Personalized Physiological Responses to the Locally Produced Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a highly potent but short-lived endogenous radical with a wide spectrum of physiological activities. In this work, we developed an enzymatic approach to the site-specific synthesis of NO mediated by biocatalytic surface coatings. Multilayered polyelectrolyte films were optimized as host compartments for the immobilized β-galactosidase (β-Gal) enzyme through a screen of eight polycations and eight polyanions. The lead composition was used to achieve localized production of NO through the addition of β-Gal–NONOate, a prodrug that releases NO following enzymatic bioconversion. The resulting coatings afforded physiologically relevant flux of NO matching that of the healthy human endothelium. The antiproliferative effect due to the synthesized NO in cell culture was site-specific: within a multiwell dish with freely shared media and nutrients, a 10-fold inhibition of cell growth was achieved on top of the biocatalytic coatings compared to the immediately adjacent enzyme-free microwells. The physiological effect of NO produced via the enzyme prodrug therapy was validated ex vivo in isolated arteries through the measurement of vasodilation. Biocatalytic coatings were deposited on wires produced using alloys used in clinical practice and successfully mediated a NONOate concentration-dependent vasodilation in the small arteries of rats. The results of this study present an exciting opportunity to manufacture implantable biomaterials with physiological responses controlled to the desired level for personalized treatment. PMID:29570264

  9. Modular adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors used for cellular virus-directed enzyme prodrug therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Sven; Baumann, Tobias; Wagner, Hanna J.; Morath, Volker; Kaufmann, Beate; Fischer, Adrian; Bergmann, Stefan; Schindler, Patrick; Arndt, Katja M.; Müller, Kristian M.

    2014-01-01

    The pre-clinical and clinical development of viral vehicles for gene transfer increased in recent years, and a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) drug took center stage upon approval in the European Union. However, lack of standardization, inefficient purification methods and complicated retargeting limit general usability. We address these obstacles by fusing rAAV-2 capsids with two modular targeting molecules (DARPin or Affibody) specific for a cancer cell-surface marker (EGFR) while simultaneously including an affinity tag (His-tag) in a surface-exposed loop. Equipping these particles with genes coding for prodrug converting enzymes (thymidine kinase or cytosine deaminase) we demonstrate tumor marker specific transduction and prodrug-dependent apoptosis of cancer cells. Coding terminal and loop modifications in one gene enabled specific and scalable purification. Our genetic parts for viral production adhere to a standardized cloning strategy facilitating rapid prototyping of virus directed enzyme prodrug therapy (VDEPT). PMID:24457557

  10. Nucleotide prodrugs for HCV therapy.

    PubMed

    Sofia, Michael J

    2011-08-23

    HCV infection is a significant worldwide health problem and is a major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma. The current standard of care, interferon and ribavirin, is only effective against a proportion of the patient population infected with HCV. To address the shortcomings of existing therapy, the development of direct acting antiviral agents is under investigation. The HCV RNA dependent RNA polymerase is an essential enzyme for viral replication and is therefore a logical target against which to develop novel anti-HCV agents. Nucleosides have been shown to be effective as antiviral agents for other viral diseases and therefore, have been investigated as inhibitors of HCV replication. The development of prodrugs of nucleoside 5'-monophosphates has been pursued to address limitations associated with poor nucleoside phosphorylation. This is required to produce the nucleoside 5'-triphosphate which is the anabolite that is the actual inhibitor of the polymerase enzyme. Prodrugs of nucleoside 5'-monophosphates have been developed that enable their delivery into cells and in vivo into the liver. The implementation of these prodrug strategies has ultimately led to the identification of several prodrugs of nucleoside 5'-monophosphates that are potent inhibitors of HCV replication in vitro. They have progressed into the clinic and the early data demonstrate greatly reduced viral load levels in HCV-infected patients. This review will survey the state of nucleotide prodrugs for the treatment of HCV.

  11. HDAC inhibition amplifies gap junction communication in neural progenitors: Potential for cell-mediated enzyme prodrug therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Zahidul; Akhtar, Monira; Asklund, Thomas

    2007-08-01

    Enzyme prodrug therapy using neural progenitor cells (NPCs) as delivery vehicles has been applied in animal models of gliomas and relies on gap junction communication (GJC) between delivery and target cells. This study investigated the effects of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors on GJC for the purpose of facilitating transfer of therapeutic molecules from recombinant NPCs. We studied a novel immortalized midbrain cell line, NGC-407 of embryonic human origin having neural precursor characteristics, as a potential delivery vehicle. The expression of gap junction protein connexin 43 (C x 43) was analyzed by western blot and immunocytochemistry. While C x 43 levelsmore » were decreased in untreated differentiating NGC-407 cells, the HDAC inhibitor 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PB) increased C x 43 expression along with increased membranous deposition in both proliferating and differentiating cells. Simultaneously, Ser 279/282-phosphorylated form of C x 43 was declined in both culture conditions by 4-PB. The 4-PB effect in NGC-407 cells was verified by using HNSC.100 human neural progenitors and Trichostatin A. Improved functional GJC is of imperative importance for therapeutic strategies involving intercellular transport of low molecular-weight compounds. We show here an enhancement by 4-PB, of the functional GJC among NGC-407 cells, as well as between NGC-407 and human glioma cells, as indicated by increased fluorescent dye transfer.« less

  12. Rational design of an AKR1C3-resistant analog of PR-104 for enzyme-prodrug therapy.

    PubMed

    Mowday, Alexandra M; Ashoorzadeh, Amir; Williams, Elsie M; Copp, Janine N; Silva, Shevan; Bull, Matthew R; Abbattista, Maria R; Anderson, Robert F; Flanagan, Jack U; Guise, Christopher P; Ackerley, David F; Smaill, Jeff B; Patterson, Adam V

    2016-09-15

    The clinical stage anti-cancer agent PR-104 has potential utility as a cytotoxic prodrug for exogenous bacterial nitroreductases expressed from replicating vector platforms. However substrate selectivity is compromised due to metabolism by the human one- and two-electron oxidoreductases cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) and aldo-keto reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3). Using rational drug design we developed a novel mono-nitro analog of PR-104A that is essentially free of this off-target activity in vitro and in vivo. Unlike PR-104A, there was no biologically relevant cytotoxicity in cells engineered to express AKR1C3 or POR, under aerobic or anoxic conditions, respectively. We screened this inert prodrug analog, SN34507, against a type I bacterial nitroreductase library and identified E. coli NfsA as an efficient bioactivator using a DNA damage response assay and recombinant enzyme kinetics. Expression of E. coli NfsA in human colorectal cancer cells led to selective cytotoxicity to SN34507 that was associated with cell cycle arrest and generated a robust 'bystander effect' at tissue-like cell densities when only 3% of cells were NfsA positive. Anti-tumor activity of SN35539, the phosphate pre-prodrug of SN34507, was established in 'mixed' tumors harboring a minority of NfsA-positive cells and demonstrated marked tumor control following heterogeneous suicide gene expression. These experiments demonstrate that off-target metabolism of PR-104 can be avoided and identify the suicide gene/prodrug partnership of E. coli NfsA/SN35539 as a promising combination for development in armed vectors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Engineered Thymidylate Kinase (TMPK)/AZT Enzyme-Prodrug Axis Offers Efficient Bystander Cell Killing for Suicide Gene Therapy of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lavie, Arnon; Yanagisawa, Teruyuki; Medin, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    We previously described a novel suicide (or ‘cell fate control’) gene therapy enzyme/prodrug system based on an engineered variant of human thymidylate kinase (TMPK) that potentiates azidothymidine (AZT) activation. Delivery of a suicide gene sequence into tumors by lentiviral transduction embodies a cancer gene therapy that could employ bystander cell killing as a mechanism driving significant tumor regression in vivo. Here we present evidence of a significant bystander cell killing in vitro and in vivo mediated by the TMPK/AZT suicide gene axis that is reliant on the formation of functional gap-junctional intercellular communications (GJICs). Potentiation of AZT activation by the engineered TMPK expressed in the human prostate cancer cell line, PC-3, resulted in effective bystander killing of PC-3 cells lacking TMPK expression – an effect that could be blocked by the GJIC inhibitor, carbenoxolone. Although GJICs are mainly formed by connexins, a new family of GJIC molecules designated pannexins has been recently identified. PC-3 cells expressed both connexin43 (Cx43) and Pannexin1 (Panx1), but Panx1 expression predominated at the plasma membrane, whereas Cx43 expression was primarily localized to the cytosol. The contribution of bystander effects to the reduction of solid tumor xenografts established by the PC-3 cell line was evaluated in an animal model. We demonstrate the contribution of bystander cell killing to tumor regression in a xenograft model relying on the delivery of expression of the TMPK suicide gene into tumors via direct intratumoral injection of recombinant therapeutic lentivirus. Taken together, our data underscore that the TMPK/AZT enzyme-prodrug axis can be effectively utilized in suicide gene therapy of solid tumors, wherein significant tumor regression can be achieved via bystander effects mediated by GJICs. PMID:24194950

  14. Evaluation of Bystander Cell Killing Effects in Suicide Gene Therapy of Cancer: Engineered Thymidylate Kinase (TMPK)/AZT Enzyme-Prodrug Axis.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takeya; Neschadim, Anton; Nakagawa, Ryo; Yanagisawa, Teruyuki; Medin, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Suicide gene therapy of cancer (SGTC) entails the introduction of a cDNA sequence into tumor cells whose polypeptide product is capable of either directly activating apoptotic pathways itself or facilitating the activation of pharmacologic agents that do so. The latter class of SGTC approaches is of the greater utility in cancer therapy owing to the ability of some small, activated cytotoxic compounds to diffuse from their site of activation into neighboring malignant cells, where they can also mediate destruction. This phenomenon, termed "bystander killing", can be highly advantageous in driving significant tumor regression in vivo without the requirement of transduction of each and every tumor cell with the suicide gene. We have developed a robust suicide gene therapy enzyme/prodrug system based on an engineered variant of the human thymidylate kinase (TMPK), which has been endowed with the ability to drive azidothymidine (AZT) activation. Delivery of this suicide gene sequence into tumors by means of recombinant lentivirus-mediated transduction embodies an SGTC strategy that successfully employs bystander cell killing as a mechanism to achieve significant ablation of solid tumors in vivo. Thus, this engineered TMPK/AZT suicide gene therapy axis holds great promise for clinical application in the treatment of inoperable solid tumors in the neoadjuvant setting. Here we present detailed procedures for the preparation of recombinant TMPK-based lentivirus, transduction of target cells, and various approaches for the evaluation of bystander cell killing effects in SGCT in both in vitro and in vivo models.

  15. A self-contained enzyme activating prodrug cytotherapy for preclinical melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Gwi-Moon; Rachakatla, Raja Shekar; Balivada, Sivasai; Pyle, Marla; Shrestha, Tej B.; Basel, Matthew T.; Myers, Carl; Wang, Hongwang; Tamura, Masaaki; Bossmann, Stefan H.; Troyer, Deryl L.

    2011-01-01

    Gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) has been investigated as a means of cancer treatment without affecting normal tissues. This system is based on the delivery of a suicide gene, a gene encoding an enzyme which is able to convert its substrate from non-toxic prodrug to cytotoxin. In this experiment, we have developed a targeted suicide gene therapeutic system that is completely contained within tumor-tropic cells and have tested this system for melanoma therapy in a preclinical model. First, we established double stable RAW264.7 monocyte/macrophage-like cells (Mo/Ma) containing a Tet-On® Advanced system for intracellular carboxylesterase (InCE) expression. Second, we loaded a prodrug into the delivery cells, double stable Mo/Ma. Third, we activated the enzyme system to convert the prodrug, irinotecan, to the cytotoxin, SN-38. Our double stable Mo/Ma homed to the lung melanomas after 1 day and successfully delivered the prodrug-activating enzyme/prodrug package to the tumors. We observed that our system significantly reduced tumor weights and numbers as targeted tumor therapy after activation of the InCE. Therefore, we propose that this system may be a useful targeted melanoma therapy system for pulmonary metastatic tumors with minimal side effects, particularly if it is combined with other treatments. PMID:21567204

  16. Adenoviral delivery of pan-caspase inhibitor p35 enhances bystander killing by P450 gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy using cyclophosphamide+

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cytochrome P450-based suicide gene therapy for cancer using prodrugs such as cyclophosphamide (CPA) increases anti-tumor activity, both directly and via a bystander killing mechanism. Bystander cell killing is essential for the clinical success of this treatment strategy, given the difficulty of achieving 100% efficient gene delivery in vivo using current technologies. Previous studies have shown that the pan-caspase inhibitor p35 significantly increases CPA-induced bystander killing by tumor cells that stably express P450 enzyme CYP2B6 (Schwartz et al, (2002) Cancer Res. 62: 6928-37). Methods To further develop this approach, we constructed and characterized a replication-defective adenovirus, Adeno-2B6/p35, which expresses p35 in combination with CYP2B6 and its electron transfer partner, P450 reductase. Results The expression of p35 in Adeno-2B6/p35-infected tumor cells inhibited caspase activation, delaying the death of the CYP2B6 "factory" cells that produce active CPA metabolites, and increased bystander tumor cell killing compared to that achieved in the absence of p35. Tumor cells infected with Adeno-2B6/p35 were readily killed by cisplatin and doxorubicin, indicating that p35 expression is not associated with acquisition of general drug resistance. Finally, p35 did not inhibit viral release when the replication-competent adenovirus ONYX-017 was used as a helper virus to facilitate co-replication and spread of Adeno-2B6/p35 and further increase CPA-induced bystander cell killing. Conclusions The introduction of p35 into gene therapeutic regimens constitutes an effective approach to increase bystander killing by cytochrome P450 gene therapy. This strategy may also be used to enhance other bystander cytotoxic therapies, including those involving the production of tumor cell toxic protein products. PMID:20836875

  17. Ligand-conjugated mesoporous silica nanorattles based on enzyme targeted prodrug delivery system for effective lung cancer therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Sundarraj, Shenbagamoorthy, E-mail: sundarrajbu09@gmail.com; Thangam, Ramar; Department of Virology, King Institute of Preventive Medicine and Research, Guindy, Chennai 600 032, TN

    2014-03-15

    Epidermal growth factor receptor antibody (EGFRAb) conjugated silica nanorattles (SNs) were synthesized and used to develop receptor mediated endocytosis for targeted drug delivery strategies for cancer therapy. The present study determined that the rate of internalization of silica nanorattles was found to be high in lung cancer cells when compared with the normal lung cells. EGFRAb can specifically bind to EGFR, a receptor that is highly expressed in lung cancer cells, but is expressed at low levels in other normal cells. Furthermore, in vitro studies clearly substantiated that the cPLA{sub 2}α activity, arachidonic acid release and cell proliferation were considerablymore » reduced by pyrrolidine-2 loaded EGFRAb-SN in H460 cells. The cytotoxicity, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were significantly induced by the treatment of pyrrolidine-2 loaded EGFRAb-SN when compared with free pyrrolidine-2 and pyrrolidine-2 loaded SNs in human non-small cell lung cancer cells. An in vivo toxicity assessment showed that silica nanorattles and EGFRAb-SN-pyrrolidine-2 exhibited low systemic toxicity in healthy Balb/c mice. The EGFRAb-SN-pyrrolidine-2 showed a much better antitumor activity (38%) with enhanced tumor inhibition rate than the pyrrolidine-2 on the non-small cell lung carcinoma subcutaneous model. Thus, the present findings validated the low toxicity and high therapeutic potentials of EGFRAb-SN-pyrrolidine-2, which may provide a convincing evidence of the silica nanorattles as new potential carriers for targeted drug delivery systems. - Highlights: • EGFRAb-SN developed for receptor-mediated Drug delivery system (DDS). • EGFRAb-SN-pyrrolidine-2 targeted DDS for cPLA2α inhibition in NSLC. • Study indicates EGFRAb-SN-pyrrolidine-2 as an efficient in target dug delivery carrier. • Study explains entire efficiency of EGFRAb-SN-pyrrolidine-2 in vitro and in vivo models.« less

  18. Genetically engineered theranostic mesenchymal stem cells for the evaluation of the anticancer efficacy of enzyme/prodrug systems.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Faranak Salman; Wang, Xing; Hatefi, Arash

    2015-02-28

    Over the past decade, various enzyme/prodrug systems such as thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (TK/GCV), yeast cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine (yCD/5-FC) and nitroreductase/CB1954 (NTR/CB1954) have been used for stem cell mediated suicide gene therapy of cancer. Yet, no study has been conducted to compare and demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of using one system over another. Knowing that each enzyme/prodrug system has its own strengths and weaknesses, we utilized mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a medium to perform for the first time a comparative study that illustrated the impact of subtle differences among these systems on the therapeutic outcome. For therapeutic purposes, we first genetically modified MSCs to stably express a panel of four suicide genes including TK (TK007 and TK(SR39) mutants), yeast cytosine deaminase:uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (yCD:UPRT) and nitroreductase (NTR). Then, we evaluated the anticancer efficacies of the genetically engineered MSCs in vitro and in vivo by using SKOV3 cell line which is sensitive to all four enzyme/prodrug systems. In addition, all MSCs were engineered to stably express luciferase gene making them suitable for quantitative imaging and dose-response relationship studies in animals. Considering the limitations imposed by the prodrugs' bystander effects, our findings show that yCD:UPRT/5-FC is the most effective enzyme/prodrug system among the ones tested. Our findings also demonstrate that theranostic MSCs are a reliable medium for the side-by-side evaluation and screening of the enzyme/prodrug systems at the preclinical level. The results of this study could help scientists who utilize cell-based, non-viral or viral vectors for suicide gene therapy of cancer make more informed decisions when choosing enzyme/prodrug systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase: an antiviral prodrug activating enzyme.

    PubMed

    Tehler, Ulrika; Nelson, Cara H; Peterson, Larryn W; Provoda, Chester J; Hilfinger, John M; Lee, Kyung-Dall; McKenna, Charles E; Amidon, Gordon L

    2010-03-01

    Cidofovir (HPMPC) is a broad-spectrum antiviral agent, currently used to treat AIDS-related human cytomegalovirus retinitis. Cidofovir has recognized therapeutic potential for orthopox virus infections, although its use is hampered by its inherent low oral bioavailability. Val-Ser-cyclic HPMPC (Val-Ser-cHPMPC) is a promising peptide prodrug which has previously been shown by us to improve the permeability and bioavailability of the parent compound in rodent models (Eriksson et al., 2008. Molecular Pharmaceutics 5, 598-609). Puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase was partially purified from Caco-2 cell homogenates and identified as a prodrug activating enzyme for Val-Ser-cHPMPC. The prodrug activation process initially involves an enzymatic step where the l-Valine residue is removed by puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase, a step that is bestatin-sensitive. Subsequent chemical hydrolysis results in the generation of cHPMPC. A recombinant puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase was generated and its substrate specificity investigated. The k(cat) for Val-pNA was significantly lower than that for Ala-pNA, suggesting that some amino acids are preferred over others. Furthermore, the three-fold higher k(cat) for Val-Ser-cHPMPC as compared to Val-pNA suggests that the leaving group may play an important role in determining hydrolytic activity. In addition to its ability to hydrolyze a variety of substrates, these observations strongly suggest that puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase is an important enzyme for activating Val-Ser-cHPMPC in vivo. Taken together, our data suggest that puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase makes an attractive target for future prodrug design.

  20. Genetically Engineered Theranostic Mesenchymal Stem Cells for the Evaluation of the Anticancer Efficacy of Enzyme/Prodrug Systems

    PubMed Central

    Nouri, Faranak Salman; Wang, Xing; Hatefi, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, various enzyme/prodrug systems such as thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (TK/GCV), yeast cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine (yCD/5-FC) and nitroreductase/CB1954 (NTR/CB1954) have been used for stem cell mediated suicide gene therapy of cancer. Yet, no study has been conducted to compare and demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of using one system over another. Knowing that each enzyme/prodrug system has its own strengths and weaknesses, we utilized mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a medium to perform for the first time a comparative study that illustrated the impact of subtle differences among these systems on the therapeutic outcome. For therapeutic purposes, we first genetically modified MSCs to stably express a panel of four suicide genes including TK (TK007 and TKSR39 mutants), yeast cytosine deaminase: uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (yCD:UPRT) and nitroreductase (NTR). Then, we evaluated the anticancer efficacies of the genetically engineered MSCs in vitro and in vivo by using SKOV3 cell line which is sensitive to all four enzyme/prodrug systems. In addition, all MSCs were engineered to stably express luciferase gene making them suitable for quantitative imaging and dose-response relationship studies in animals. Considering the limitations imposed by the prodrugs’ bystander effects, our findings show that yCD:UPRT/5-FC is the most effective enzyme/prodrug system among the ones tested. Our findings also demonstrate that theranostic MSCs are a reliable medium for the side-by-side evaluation and screening of the enzyme/prodrug systems at the preclinical level. The results of this study could help scientists who utilize cell-based, non-viral or viral vectors for suicide gene therapy of cancer make more informed decisions when choosing enzyme/prodrug systems. PMID:25575867

  1. Engineering a Multifunctional Nitroreductase for Improved Activation of Prodrugs and PET Probes for Cancer Gene Therapy.

    PubMed

    Copp, Janine N; Mowday, Alexandra M; Williams, Elsie M; Guise, Christopher P; Ashoorzadeh, Amir; Sharrock, Abigail V; Flanagan, Jack U; Smaill, Jeff B; Patterson, Adam V; Ackerley, David F

    2017-03-16

    Gene-directed enzyme-prodrug therapy (GDEPT) is a promising anti-cancer strategy. However, inadequate prodrugs, inefficient prodrug activation, and a lack of non-invasive imaging capabilities have hindered clinical progression. To address these issues, we used a high-throughput Escherichia coli platform to evolve the multifunctional nitroreductase E. coli NfsA for improved activation of a promising next-generation prodrug, PR-104A, as well as clinically relevant nitro-masked positron emission tomography-imaging probes EF5 and HX4, thereby addressing a critical and unmet need for non-invasive bioimaging in nitroreductase GDEPT. The evolved variant performed better in E. coli than in human cells, suggesting optimal usefulness in bacterial rather than viral GDEPT vectors, and highlighting the influence of intracellular environs on enzyme function and the shaping of promiscuous enzyme activities within the "black box" of in vivo evolution. We provide evidence that the dominant contribution to improved PR-104A activity was enhanced affinity for the prodrug over-competing intracellular substrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Substrate-Competitive Activity-Based Profiling of Ester Prodrug Activating Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hao; Majmudar, Jaimeen D; Davda, Dahvid; Ghanakota, Phani; Kim, Ki H; Carlson, Heather A; Showalter, Hollis D; Martin, Brent R; Amidon, Gordon L

    2015-09-08

    Understanding the mechanistic basis of prodrug delivery and activation is critical for establishing species-specific prodrug sensitivities necessary for evaluating preclinical animal models and potential drug-drug interactions. Despite significant adoption of prodrug methodologies for enhanced pharmacokinetics, functional annotation of prodrug activating enzymes is laborious and often unaddressed. Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) describes an emerging chemoproteomic approach to assay active site occupancy within a mechanistically similar enzyme class in native proteomes. The serine hydrolase enzyme family is broadly reactive with reporter-linked fluorophosphonates, which have shown to provide a mechanism-based covalent labeling strategy to assay the activation state and active site occupancy of cellular serine amidases, esterases, and thioesterases. Here we describe a modified ABPP approach using direct substrate competition to identify activating enzymes for an ethyl ester prodrug, the influenza neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir. Substrate-competitive ABPP analysis identified carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) as an oseltamivir-activating enzyme in intestinal cell homogenates. Saturating concentrations of oseltamivir lead to a four-fold reduction in the observed rate constant for CES1 inactivation by fluorophosphonates. WWL50, a reported carbamate inhibitor of mouse CES1, blocked oseltamivir hydrolysis activity in human cell homogenates, confirming CES1 is the primary prodrug activating enzyme for oseltamivir in human liver and intestinal cell lines. The related carbamate inhibitor WWL79 inhibited mouse but not human CES1, providing a series of probes for analyzing prodrug activation mechanisms in different preclinical models. Overall, we present a substrate-competitive activity-based profiling approach for broadly surveying candidate prodrug hydrolyzing enzymes and outline the kinetic parameters for activating enzyme discovery, ester prodrug design, and

  3. Characterization of a CC49-based single-chain fragment-beta-lactamase fusion protein for antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT).

    PubMed

    Alderson, Ralph F; Toki, Brian E; Roberge, Martin; Geng, Wei; Basler, Joshua; Chin, Regina; Liu, Amy; Ueda, Roanna; Hodges, Douglas; Escandon, Enrique; Chen, Tianling; Kanavarioti, Tessi; Babé, Lilia; Senter, Peter D; Fox, Judith A; Schellenberger, Volker

    2006-01-01

    CC49 is a clinically validated antibody with specificity for TAG-72, a carbohydrate epitope that is overexpressed and exposed on the cell surface in a large fraction of solid malignancies. We constructed a single-chain fragment (scFv) based on CC49 and fused it to beta-lactamase (BLA). Following optimization of the scFv domain by combinatorial consensus mutagenesis (CCM) for increased expression and stability, we characterized the protein variant for binding, in vivo pharmacokinetics (PK), and antitumor efficacy. The fusion protein TAB2.5 possessed a similar binding specificity relative to the parent antibody CC49. TAB2.5 also showed prolonged retention (T(1/2) = 36.9 h) in tumor-bearing mice with tumor/plasma ratios of up to 1000. Preliminary evaluation of TAB2.5, in combination with a novel prodrug, GC-Mel, resulted in significant efficacy in a colorectal xenograft tumor model and supports the utility of the protein as an agent for tumor-selective prodrug activation.

  4. Formulated Delivery of Enzyme/Prodrug and Cytokine Gene Therapy to Promote Immune Reduction of Treated and Remote Tumors in Mouse Models of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    as thymidine kinase from herpes simplex virus (HSV-tk), Varicella – zoster virus or the Escherichia coli enzymes, cytosine Figure 1. General mechanism...kinase from Herpes Simplex virus (HSV-tk) or from Varicella zoster virus; E. coli enzymes: cytosine deaminase (CD), uracil phosphoribosyl transferase

  5. Proline prodrug of melphalan targeted to prolidase, a prodrug activating enzyme overexpressed in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Sachin; Song, Xueqin; Vig, Balvinder S; Amidon, Gordon L

    2007-07-01

    To determine the bioactivation and uptake of prolidase-targeted proline prodrugs of melphalan in six cancer cell lines with variable prolidase expression and to evaluate prolidase-dependence of prodrug cytotoxicity in the cell lines compared to that of the parent drug, melphalan. Hydrolysis, cell uptake, and cell proliferation studies of melphalan and the L: - and D: -proline prodrugs of melphalan, prophalan-L: and prophalan-D: , respectively, were conducted in the cancer cell lines using established procedures. The bioactivation of prophalan-L: in the cancer cell lines exhibited high correlation with their prolidase expression levels (r (2) = 0.86). There were no significant differences in uptake of melphalan and its prodrugs. The cytotoxicity of prophalan-L: (GI(50)) in cancer cells also showed high correlation with prolidase expression (r (2) = 0.88), while prophalan-D: was ineffective at comparable concentrations. A prolidase targeting index (ratio of melphalan to prophalan-L: cytotoxicity normalized to their uptake) was computed and showed high correlation with prolidase expression (r (2) = 0.82). The data corroborates the specificity of prophalan-L: activation by prolidase as well as prolidase-targeted cytotoxicity of prophalan-L: in cancer cell lines. Hence, prophalan-L: , a stable prodrug of melphalan, exhibits potential for efficiently targeting melanoma with reduced systemic toxicity.

  6. Combined enzyme/prodrug treatment by genetically engineered AT-MSC exerts synergy and inhibits growth of MDA-MB-231 induced lung metastases.

    PubMed

    Matuskova, Miroslava; Kozovska, Zuzana; Toro, Lenka; Durinikova, Erika; Tyciakova, Silvia; Cierna, Zuzana; Bohovic, Roman; Kucerova, Lucia

    2015-04-09

    Metastatic spread of tumor cells remains a serious problem in cancer treatment. Gene-directed enzyme/prodrug therapy mediated by tumor-homing genetically engineered mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) represents a promising therapeutic modality for elimination of disseminated cells. Efficacy of gene-directed enzyme/prodrug therapy can be improved by combination of individual systems. We aimed to define the combination effect of two systems of gene therapy mediated by MSC, and evaluate the ability of systemically administered genetically engineered mesenchymal stromal cells to inhibit the growth of experimental metastases derived from human breast adenocarcinoma cells MDA-MB-231/EGFP. Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (AT-MSC) were retrovirally transduced with fusion yeast cytosine deaminase::uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (CD::UPRT) or with Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk). Engineered MSC were cocultured with tumor cells in the presence of prodrugs 5-fluorocytosin (5-FC) and ganciclovir (GCV). Combination effect of these enzyme/prodrug approaches was calculated. SCID/bg mice bearing experimental lung metastases were treated with CD::UPRT-MSC, HSVtk-MSC or both in combination in the presence of respective prodrug(s). Treatment efficiency was evaluated by EGFP-positive cell detection by flow cytometry combined with real-time PCR quantification of human cells in mouse organs. Results were confirmed by histological and immunohistochemical examination. We demonstrated various extent of synergy depending on tested cell line and experimental setup. The strongest synergism was observed on breast cancer-derived cell line MDA-MB-231/EGFP. Systemic administration of CD::UPRT-MSC and HSVtk-MSC in combination with 5-FC and GCV inhibited growth of MDA-MB-231 induced lung metastases. Combined gene-directed enzyme/prodrug therapy mediated by MSC exerted synergic cytotoxic effect and resulted in high therapeutic efficacy in vivo.

  7. Enzyme-functionalized vascular grafts catalyze in-situ release of nitric oxide from exogenous NO prodrug.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhihong; Lu, Yaxin; Qin, Kang; Wu, Yifan; Tian, Yingping; Wang, Jianing; Zhang, Jimin; Hou, Jingli; Cui, Yun; Wang, Kai; Shen, Jie; Xu, Qingbo; Kong, Deling; Zhao, Qiang

    2015-07-28

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule in cardiovascular system, and the sustained release of NO by endothelial cells plays a vital role in maintaining patency and homeostasis. In contrast, lack of endogenous NO in artificial blood vessel is believed to be the main cause of thrombus formation. In this study, enzyme prodrug therapy (EPT) technique was employed to construct a functional vascular graft by immobilization of galactosidase on the graft surface. The enzyme-functionalized grafts exhibited excellent catalytic property in decomposition of the exogenously administrated NO prodrug. Localized and on-demand release of NO was demonstrated by in vitro release assay and fluorescent probe tracing in an ex vivo model. The immobilized enzyme retained catalytic property even after subcutaneous implantation of the grafts for one month. The functional vascular grafts were implanted into the rat abdominal aorta with a 1-month monitoring period. Results showed effective inhibition of thrombus formation in vivo and enhancement of vascular tissue regeneration and remodeling on the grafts. Thus, we create an enzyme-functionalized vascular graft that can catalyze prodrug to release NO locally and sustainably, indicating that this approach may be useful to develop new cell-free vascular grafts for treatment of vascular diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Specificity of a Prodrug-Activating Enzyme hVACVase: the Leaving Group Effect

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jing; Dahan, Arik; Walls, Zachary F.; Lai, Longsheng; Lee, Kyung-Dall; Amidon, Gordon L.

    2010-01-01

    Human valacyclovirase (hVACVase) is a prodrug-activating enzyme for amino acid prodrugs including the antiviral drugs valacyclovir and valganciclovir. In hVACVase-catalyzed reactions, the leaving group of the substrate corresponds to the drug moiety of the prodrug, making the leaving group effect essential for the rational design of new prodrugs targeting hVACVase activation. In this study, a series of valine esters, phenylalanine esters and a valine amide were characterized for the effect of the leaving group on the efficiency of hVACVase-mediated prodrug activation. Except for phenylalanine methyl and ethyl esters, all of the ester substrates exhibited a relatively high specificity constant (kcat/Km), ranging from 850 to 9490 mM-1·s-1. The valine amide Val-3-APG exhibited significantly higher Km and lower kcat values compared to the corresponding ester Val-3-HPG, indicating poor specificity for hVACVase. In conclusion, the substrate leaving group has been shown to affect both binding and specific activity of hVACVase-catalyzed activation. It is proposed that hVACVase is an ideal target for α-amino acid ester prodrugs with relatively labile leaving groups, while it is relatively inactivate towards amide prodrugs. PMID:21028903

  9. Specificity of a prodrug-activating enzyme hVACVase: the leaving group effect.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Dahan, Arik; Walls, Zachary F; Lai, Longsheng; Lee, Kyung-Dall; Amidon, Gordon L

    2010-12-06

    Human valacyclovirase (hVACVase) is a prodrug-activating enzyme for amino acid prodrugs including the antiviral drugs valacyclovir and valganciclovir. In hVACVase-catalyzed reactions, the leaving group of the substrate corresponds to the drug moiety of the prodrug, making the leaving group effect essential for the rational design of new prodrugs targeting hVACVase activation. In this study, a series of valine esters, phenylalanine esters, and a valine amide were characterized for the effect of the leaving group on the efficiency of hVACVase-mediated prodrug activation. Except for phenylalanine methyl and ethyl esters, all of the ester substrates exhibited a relatively high specificity constant (k(cat)/K(m)), ranging from 850 to 9490 mM(-1)·s(-1). The valine amide Val-3-APG exhibited significantly higher K(m) and lower k(cat) values compared to the corresponding ester Val-3-HPG, indicating poor specificity for hVACVase. In conclusion, the substrate leaving group has been shown to affect both binding and specific activity of hVACVase-catalyzed activation. It is proposed that hVACVase is an ideal target for α-amino acid ester prodrugs with relatively labile leaving groups while it is relatively inactivate toward amide prodrugs.

  10. The feasibility of enzyme targeted activation for amino acid/dipeptide monoester prodrugs of floxuridine; cathepsin D as a potential targeted enzyme.

    PubMed

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Amidon, Gordon L

    2012-03-26

    The improvement of therapeutic efficacy for cancer agents has been a big challenge which includes the increase of tumor selectivity and the reduction of adverse effects at non-tumor sites. In order to achieve those goals, prodrug approaches have been extensively investigated. In this report, the potential activation enzymes for 5'-amino acid/dipeptide monoester floxuridine prodrugs in pancreatic cancer cells were selected and the feasibility of enzyme specific activation of prodrugs was evaluated. All prodrugs exhibited the range of 3.0-105.7 min of half life in Capan-2 cell homogenate with the presence and the absence of selective enzyme inhibitors. 5'-O-L-Phenylalanyl-L-tyrosyl-floxuridine exhibited longer half life only with the presence of pepstatin A. Human cathepsin B and D selectively hydrolized 5'-O-L-phenylalanyl-L-tyrosylfloxuridine and 5'-O-L-phenylalanyl-L-glycylfloxuridine compared to the other tested prodrugs. The wide range of growth inhibitory effect by floxuridine prodrugs in Capan-2 cells was observed due to the different affinities of prodrug promoieties to enzymes. In conclusion, it is feasible to design prodrugs which are activated by specific enzymes. Cathepsin D might be a good candidate as a target enzyme for prodrug activation and 5'-O-L-phenylalanyl-L-tyrosylfloxuridine may be the best candidate among the tested floxuridine prodrugs.

  11. The Feasibility of Enzyme Targeted Activation for Amino Acid/Dipeptide Monoester Prodrugs of Floxuridine; Cathepsin D as a Potential Targeted Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Amidon, Gordon L.

    2013-01-01

    The improvement of therapeutic efficacy for cancer agents has been a big challenge which includes the increase of tumor selectivity and the reduction of adverse effects at non-tumor sites. In order to achieve those goals, prodrug approaches have been extensively investigated. In this report, the potential activation enzymes for 5′-amino acid/dipeptide monoester floxuridine prodrugs in pancreatic cancer cells were selected and the feasibility of enzyme specific activation of prodrugs was evaluated. All prodrugs exhibited the range of 3.0–105.7 min of half life in Capan-2 cell homogenate with the presence and the absence of selective enzyme inhibitors. 5′-O-L-Phenylalanyl-L-tyrosyl-floxuridine exhibited longer half life only with the presence of pepstatin A. Human cathepsin B and D selectively hydrolized 5′-O-L-phenylalanyl-L-tyrosylfloxuridine and 5′-O-L-phenylalanyl-L-glycylfloxuridine compared to the other tested prodrugs. The wide range of growth inhibitory effect by floxuridine prodrugs in Capan-2 cells was observed due to the different affinities of prodrug promoieties to enyzmes. In conclusion, it is feasible to design prodrugs which are activated by specific enzymes. Cathepsin D might be a good candidate as a target enzyme for prodrug activation and 5′-O-L-phenylalanyl-L-tyrosylfloxuridine may be the best candidate among the tested floxuridine prodrugs. PMID:22450679

  12. Enzymes to die for: exploiting nucleotide metabolizing enzymes for cancer gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Ardiani, Andressa; Johnson, Adam J; Ruan, Hongmei; Sanchez-Bonilla, Marilyn; Serve, Kinta; Black, Margaret E

    2012-04-01

    Suicide gene therapy is an attractive strategy to selectively destroy cancer cells while minimizing unnecessary toxicity to normal cells. Since this idea was first introduced more than two decades ago, numerous studies have been conducted and significant developments have been made to further its application for mainstream cancer therapy. Major limitations of the suicide gene therapy strategy that have hindered its clinical application include inefficient directed delivery to cancer cells and the poor prodrug activation capacity of suicide enzymes. This review is focused on efforts that have been and are currently being pursued to improve the activity of individual suicide enzymes towards their respective prodrugs with particular attention to the application of nucleotide metabolizing enzymes in suicide cancer gene therapy. A number of protein engineering strategies have been employed and our discussion here will center on the use of mutagenesis approaches to create and evaluate nucleotide metabolizing enzymes with enhanced prodrug activation capacity and increased thermostability. Several of these studies have yielded clinically important enzyme variants that are relevant for cancer gene therapy applications because their utilization can serve to maximize cancer cell killing while minimizing the prodrug dose, thereby limiting undesirable side effects.

  13. Enzymes To Die For: Exploiting Nucleotide Metabolizing Enzymes for Cancer Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ardiani, Andressa; Johnson, Adam J.; Ruan, Hongmei; Sanchez-Bonilla, Marilyn; Serve, Kinta; Black, Margaret E.

    2012-01-01

    Suicide gene therapy is an attractive strategy to selectively destroy cancer cells while minimizing unnecessary toxicity to normal cells. Since this idea was first introduced more than two decades ago, numerous studies have been conducted and significant developments have been made to further its application for mainstream cancer therapy. Major limitations of the suicide gene therapy strategy that have hindered its clinical application include inefficient directed delivery to cancer cells and the poor prodrug activation capacity of suicide enzymes. This review is focused on efforts that have been and are currently being pursued to improve the activity of individual suicide enzymes towards their respective prodrugs with particular attention to the application of nucleotide metabolizing enzymes in suicide cancer gene therapy. A number of protein engineering strategies have been employed and our discussion here will center on the use of mutagenesis approaches to create and evaluate nucleotide metabolizing enzymes with enhanced prodrug activation capacity and increased thermostability. Several of these studies have yielded clinically important enzyme variants that are relevant for cancer gene therapy applications because their utilization can serve to maximize cancer cell killing while minimizing the prodrug dose, thereby limiting undesirable side effects. PMID:22384805

  14. Theranostic reduction-sensitive gemcitabine prodrug micelles for near-infrared imaging and pancreatic cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Haijie; Wang, Haibo; Chen, Yangjun; Li, Zuhong; Wang, Yin; Jin, Qiao; Ji, Jian

    2015-12-01

    A biodegradable and reduction-cleavable gemcitabine (GEM) polymeric prodrug with in vivo near-infrared (NIR) imaging ability was reported. This theranostic GEM prodrug PEG-b-[PLA-co-PMAC-graft-(IR820-co-GEM)] was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization and ``click'' reaction. The as-prepared reduction-sensitive prodrug could self-assemble into prodrug micelles in aqueous solution confirmed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In vitro drug release studies showed that these prodrug micelles were able to release GEM in an intracellular-mimicking reductive environment. These prodrug micelles could be effectively internalized by BxPC-3 pancreatic cancer cells, which were observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Meanwhile, a methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay demonstrated that this prodrug exhibited high cytotoxicity against BxPC-3 cells. The in vivo whole-animal near-infrared (NIR) imaging results showed that these prodrug micelles could be effectively accumulated in tumor tissue and had a longer blood circulation time than IR820-COOH. The endogenous reduction-sensitive gemcitabine prodrug micelles with the in vivo NIR imaging ability might have great potential in image-guided pancreatic cancer therapy.A biodegradable and reduction-cleavable gemcitabine (GEM) polymeric prodrug with in vivo near-infrared (NIR) imaging ability was reported. This theranostic GEM prodrug PEG-b-[PLA-co-PMAC-graft-(IR820-co-GEM)] was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization and ``click'' reaction. The as-prepared reduction-sensitive prodrug could self-assemble into prodrug micelles in aqueous solution confirmed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In vitro drug release studies showed that these prodrug micelles were able to release GEM in an intracellular-mimicking reductive environment. These prodrug micelles could be effectively internalized by BxPC-3 pancreatic cancer cells, which

  15. Use of enzyme inhibitors to evaluate the conversion pathways of ester and amide prodrugs: a case study example with the prodrug ceftobiprole medocaril.

    PubMed

    Eichenbaum, Gary; Skibbe, Jennifer; Parkinson, Andrew; Johnson, Mark D; Baumgardner, Dawn; Ogilvie, Brian; Usuki, Etsuko; Tonelli, Fred; Holsapple, Jeff; Schmitt-Hoffmann, Anne

    2012-03-01

    An approach was developed that uses enzyme inhibitors to support the assessment of the pathways that are responsible for the conversion of intravenously administered ester and amide prodrugs in different biological matrices. The methodology was applied to ceftobiprole medocaril (BAL5788), the prodrug of the cephalosporin antibiotic, ceftobiprole. The prodrug was incubated in plasma, postmitochondrial supernatant fractions from human liver (impaired and nonimpaired), kidney, and intestine as well as erythrocytes, in the presence and absence of different enzyme inhibitors (acetylcholinesterase, pseudocholinesterase, retinyl palmitoyl hydrolase, serine esterases, amidases, and cholinesterase). Hydrolysis was rapid, extensive, and not dependent on the presence of β-nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced form) in all matrices tested, suggesting the involvement of carboxylesterases but not P450 enzymes. Hydrolysis in healthy human plasma was rapid and complete and only partially inhibited in the presence of paraoxonase inhibitors or in liver from hepatic impaired patients, suggesting involvement of nonparaoxonase pathways. The results demonstrate the utility of this approach in confirming the presence of multiple conversion pathways of intravenously administered prodrugs and in the case of BAL5788 demonstrated that this prodrug is unlikely to be affected by genetic polymorphisms, drug interactions, or other environmental factors that might inhibit or induce the enzymes involved in its conversion. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Gelatin-encapsulated iron oxide nanoparticles for platinum (IV) prodrug delivery, enzyme-stimulated release and MRI.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ziyong; Dai, Yunlu; Kang, Xiaojiao; Li, Chunxia; Huang, Shanshan; Lian, Hongzhou; Hou, Zhiyao; Ma, Pingan; Lin, Jun

    2014-08-01

    A facile method for transferring hydrophobic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) from chloroform to aqueous solution via encapsulation of FITC-modified gelatin based on the hydrophobic-hydrophobic interaction is described in this report. Due to the existence of large amount of active groups such as amine groups in gelatin, the fluorescent labeling molecules of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and platinum (IV) prodrug functionalized with carboxylic groups can be conveniently conjugated on the IONPs. The nanoparticles carrying Pt(IV) prodrug exhibit good anticancer activities when the Pt(IV) complexes are reduced to Pt(II) in the intracellular environment, while the pure Pt(IV) prodrug only presents lower cytotoxicity on cancer cells. Meanwhile, fluorescence of FITC on the surface of nanoparticles was completely quenched due to the possible Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) mechanism and showed a fluorescence recovery after gelatin release and detachment from IONPs. Therefore FITC as a fluorescence probe can be used for identification, tracking and monitoring the drug release. In addition, adding pancreatic enzyme can effectively promote the gelatin release from IONPs owing to the degradation of gelatin. Noticeable darkening in magnetic resonance image (MRI) was observed at the tumor site after in situ injection of nanoparticles, indicating the IONPs-enhanced T2-weighted imaging. Our results suggest that the gelatin encapsulated Fe3O4 nanoparticles have potential applications in multi-functional drug delivery system for disease therapy, MR imaging and fluorescence sensor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. ALA-Butyrate prodrugs for Photo-Dynamic Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkovitch, G.; Nudelman, A.; Ehenberg, B.; Rephaeli, A.; Malik, Z.

    2010-05-01

    The use of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) administration has led to many applications of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in cancer. However, the hydrophilic nature of ALA limits its ability to penetrate the cells and tissues, and therefore the need for ALA derivatives became an urgent research target. In this study we investigated the activity of novel multifunctional acyloxyalkyl ester prodrugs of ALA that upon metabolic hydrolysis release active components such as, formaldehyde, and the histone deacetylase inhibitory moiety, butyric acid. Evaluation of these prodrugs under photo-irradiation conditions showed that butyryloxyethyl 5-amino-4-oxopentanoate (ALA-BAC) generated the most efficient photodynamic destruction compared to ALA. ALA-BAC stimulated a rapid biosynthesis of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in human glioblastoma U-251 cells which resulted in generation of intracellular ROS, reduction of mitochondrial activity, leading to apoptotic and necrotic death of the cells. The apoptotic cell death induced by ALA / ALA-BAC followed by PDT equally activate intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic signals and both pathways may occur simultaneously. The main advantage of ALA-BAC over ALA stems from its ability to induce photo-damage at a significantly lower dose than ALA.

  18. Theranostic reduction-sensitive gemcitabine prodrug micelles for near-infrared imaging and pancreatic cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Han, Haijie; Wang, Haibo; Chen, Yangjun; Li, Zuhong; Wang, Yin; Jin, Qiao; Ji, Jian

    2016-01-07

    A biodegradable and reduction-cleavable gemcitabine (GEM) polymeric prodrug with in vivo near-infrared (NIR) imaging ability was reported. This theranostic GEM prodrug PEG-b-[PLA-co-PMAC-graft-(IR820-co-GEM)] was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization and "click" reaction. The as-prepared reduction-sensitive prodrug could self-assemble into prodrug micelles in aqueous solution confirmed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In vitro drug release studies showed that these prodrug micelles were able to release GEM in an intracellular-mimicking reductive environment. These prodrug micelles could be effectively internalized by BxPC-3 pancreatic cancer cells, which were observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Meanwhile, a methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay demonstrated that this prodrug exhibited high cytotoxicity against BxPC-3 cells. The in vivo whole-animal near-infrared (NIR) imaging results showed that these prodrug micelles could be effectively accumulated in tumor tissue and had a longer blood circulation time than IR820-COOH. The endogenous reduction-sensitive gemcitabine prodrug micelles with the in vivo NIR imaging ability might have great potential in image-guided pancreatic cancer therapy.

  19. PSMA-Specific Theranostic Nanoplex for Combination of TRAIL Gene and 5-FC Prodrug Therapy of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhihang; Penet, Marie-France; Krishnamachary, Balaji; Banerjee, Sangeeta R.; Pomper, Martin G.; Bhujwalla, Zaver M.

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic prostate cancer causes significant morbidity and mortality and there is a critical unmet need for effective treatments. We have developed a theranostic nanoplex platform for combined imaging and therapy of prostate cancer. Our prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) targeted nanoplex is designed to deliver plasmid DNA encoding tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), together with bacterial cytosine deaminase (bCD) as a prodrug enzyme. Nanoplex specificity was tested using two variants of human PC3 prostate cancer cells in culture and in tumor xenografts, one with high PSMA expression and the other with negligible expression levels. The expression of EGFP-TRAIL was demonstrated by fluorescence optical imaging and real-time PCR. Noninvasive 19F MR spectroscopy detected the conversion of the nontoxic prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) to cytotoxic 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) by bCD. The combination strategy of TRAIL gene and 5-FC/bCD therapy showed significant inhibition of the growth of prostate cancer cells and tumors. These data demonstrate that the PSMA-specific theranostic nanoplex can deliver gene therapy and prodrug enzyme therapy concurrently for precision medicine in metastatic prostate cancer. PMID:26706476

  20. Mesenchymal stem cells as cellular vehicles for prodrug gene therapy against tumors.

    PubMed

    Amara, Ikrame; Touati, Walid; Beaune, Philippe; de Waziers, Isabelle

    2014-10-01

    Gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) consists of targeted delivery to tumor cells of a suicide gene responsible for the in situ conversion of a prodrug into cytotoxic metabolites. One of the major impediments of GDEPT is to target specifically the tumor cells with the suicide gene. Among gene delivery methods, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged recently as potential cellular vehicles for gene delivery. MSCs are particularly suited for gene transduction. They exhibit remarkable migratory property towards tumors and their metastases and they are weakly immunogenic. This review will summarize the current knowledge about MSCs engineered to express different suicide genes (cytosine deaminase, thymidine kinase, carboxylesterase, cytochrome P450) to elicit a significant antitumor response against brain tumors, ovarian, hepatocellular, pancreatic, renal or medullary thyroid carcinomas, breast or prostate cancer and pulmonary metastases. The potential side effects of these MSC-based tumor therapies will also be considered to highlight certain aspects that need to be improved prior to clinical use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. The application of prodrug-based nano-drug delivery strategy in cancer combination therapy.

    PubMed

    Ge, Yanxiu; Ma, Yakun; Li, Lingbing

    2016-10-01

    Single drug therapy that leads to the multidrug resistance of cancer cells and severe side-effect is a thing of the past. Combination therapies that affect multiple signaling pathways have been the focus of recent active research. Due to the successful development of prodrug-based nano-drug delivery systems (P-N-DDSs), their use has been extended to combination therapy as drug delivery platforms. In this review, we focus specifically on the P-N-DDSs in the field of combination therapy including the combinations of prodrugs with different chemotherapeutic agents, other therapeutic agents, nucleic acid or the combination of different types of therapy (e.g. chemotherapy and phototherapy). The relevant examples of prodrug-based nanoparticulate drug delivery strategy in combination cancer therapy from the recent literature are discussed to demonstrate the feasibilities of relevant technology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Chirally Pure Prodrugs and Their Converting Enzymes Lead to High Supersaturation and Rapid Transcellular Permeation of Benzodiazepines.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Mamta; Cheryala, Narsihmulu; Rautiola, Davin; Georg, Gunda I; Cloyd, James C; Siegel, Ronald A

    2016-08-01

    Water-soluble prodrugs can be rapidly converted by enzymes to hydrophobic drugs, whose aqueous thermodynamic solubilities are low, but are maintained in aqueous solution at supersaturated concentrations due to slow precipitation kinetics. Recently, we investigated avizafone (AVF) in combination with Aspergillus oryzae protease as a prodrug/enzyme system intended to produce supersaturated diazepam (DZP). Several fold enhancement of permeation of supersaturated DZP across Madin-Darby canine kidney II-wild type (MDCKII-wt) monolayers was observed, compared to saturated DZP solutions. However, prodrug conversion was incomplete, putatively due to partial racemization of AVF and stereoselectivity of A oryzae protease. Here we report synthesis of chirally pure AVF, and demonstrate complete conversion to supersaturated DZP followed by complete DZP permeation at enhanced rates across MDCKII-wt cell monolayers. We also synthesized, for the first time, a chirally pure prodrug of midazolam (MDZ-pro) and carried out the same sequence of studies. A oryzae protease was identified as a benign and efficient activating enzyme for MDZ-pro. The MDZ-pro/A oryzae protease system showed greater than 25-fold increase in absorption rate of MDZ across MDCKII-wt monolayers, compared to saturated MDZ. Such chirally pure prodrug/enzyme systems are promising candidates for efficient intranasal delivery of benzodiazepine drugs used in the treatment of seizure emergencies. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Nanoassemblies from amphiphilic cytarabine prodrug for leukemia targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Zhao, Dujuan; He, Wenxiu; Zhang, Huiyuan; Li, Zhonghao; Luan, Yuxia

    2017-02-01

    The anti-leukemia effect of cytarabine (Ara-C) is severely restricted by its high hydrophilic properties and rapid plasma degradation. Herein, a novel amphiphilic small molecular prodrug of Ara-C was developed by coupling a short aliphatic chain, hexanoic acid (HA) to 4-NH 2 of the parent drug. Based on the amphiphilic nature, the resulting bioconjugate (HA-Ara) could spontaneously self-assemble into stable spherical nanoassemblies (NAs) with an extremely high drug loading (∼71wt%). Moreover, folate receptor (FR)-targeting NAs with high grafting efficient folic acid - bovine serum albumin (FA-BSA) conjugate immobilized on the surface (NAs/FA-BSA) was prepared. The results of MTT assays on FR-positive K562 cells and FR-negative A549 cells demonstrated higher cytotoxicity of HA-Ara NAs than the native drug. Especially, the IC 50 values revealed that NAs/FA-BSA was 3 and 2-fold effective than non-targeted NAs after 24 and 48h treatment with K562 cells, respectively indicating FR-mediated enhanced anti-tumor efficacy. In vitro cellular uptake, larger accumulation of HA-Ara NAs were observed in comparative with the free FITC and the results further confirmed the selective uptake of NAs/FA-BSA in folate receptor enriched cancer cells. Above all, self-assembled HA-Ara NAs exhibited potential superiority for Ara-C delivery and FA-modified NAs would be an excellent candidate for targeting leukemia therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Amphipathic dextran-doxorubicin prodrug micelles for solid tumor therapy.

    PubMed

    Jin, Rong; Guo, Xuelian; Dong, Lingli; Xie, Enyuan; Cao, Aoneng

    2017-10-01

    A group of micelles self-assembled from deoxycholic acid-doxorubicin-conjugated dextran (denoted as Dex-DCA-DOX) prodrugs were designed and prepared for pH-triggered drug release and cancer chemotherapy. These prodrugs could be successfully produced by chemically coupling hydrophobic deoxycholic acid (DCA) to dextran hydrazine (denoted as Dex-NHNH 2 ) and hydrazone linker formation between doxorubicin (DOX) and Dex-NHNH 2 . These Dex-DCA-DOX prodrugs self-assembled to form micelles under physiological conditions with varied particle sizes depending on molecular weight of dextran, degree of substitution (DS) of DCA and DOX. After optimization, Dex10k-DCA9-DOX5.5 conjugate comprising dextran of 10kDa, DCA of DS 9 and DOX loading content of 5.5wt%, formed the micelles with the smallest size (110nm). These prodrug micelles could slowly liberate DOX under physiological conditions but efficiently released the drug at an acidified endosomal pH by the hydrolysis of acid-labile hydrazone linker. In vitro cytotoxicity experiment indicated that Dex10k-DCA9-DOX5.5 micelles exerted marked antitumor activity against MCF-7 and SKOV-3 cancer cells. Besides, intravenous administration of the micelles afforded growth inhibition of SKOV-3 tumor bearing in nude mice at a dosage of 2.5mg per kg with anti-cancer efficacy comparable to free DOX-chemotherapy but low systemic toxicity. This study highlights the feasibility of bio-safe and efficient dextran-based prodrug micelles designed for cancer chemotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Glutathione- and pH-responsive nonporous silica prodrug nanoparticles for controlled release and cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhigang; Liu, Shiying; Kang, Yuejun; Wang, Mingfeng

    2015-03-01

    A myriad of drug delivery systems such as liposomes, micelles, polymers and inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) have been developed for cancer therapy. Very few of them, however, have the ability to integrate multiple functionalities such as specific delivery, high circulation stability, controllable release and good biocompatibility and biodegradability in a single system to improve the therapeutic efficacy. Herein, we report two types of stimuli-responsive nonporous silica prodrug NPs towards this goal for controlled release of anticancer drugs and efficient combinatorial cancer therapy. As a proof of concept, anticancer drugs camptothecin (CPT) and doxorubicin (DOX) were covalently encapsulated into silica matrices through glutathione (GSH)-responsive disulfide and pH-responsive hydrazone bonds, respectively, resulting in NPs with sizes tunable in the range of 50-200 nm. Both silica prodrug NPs showed stimuli-responsive controlled release upon exposure to a GSH-rich or acidic environment, resulting in improved anticancer efficacy. Notably, two prodrug NPs simultaneously taken up by HeLa cells showed a remarkable combinatorial efficacy compared to free drug pairs. These results suggest that the stimuli-responsive silica prodrug NPs are promising anticancer drug carriers for efficient cancer therapy.A myriad of drug delivery systems such as liposomes, micelles, polymers and inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) have been developed for cancer therapy. Very few of them, however, have the ability to integrate multiple functionalities such as specific delivery, high circulation stability, controllable release and good biocompatibility and biodegradability in a single system to improve the therapeutic efficacy. Herein, we report two types of stimuli-responsive nonporous silica prodrug NPs towards this goal for controlled release of anticancer drugs and efficient combinatorial cancer therapy. As a proof of concept, anticancer drugs camptothecin (CPT) and doxorubicin (DOX) were

  6. Utilization of peptide carrier system to improve intestinal absorption: targeting prolidase as a prodrug-converting enzyme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, J. P.; Hu, M.; Subramanian, P.; Mosberg, H. I.; Amidon, G. L.

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility of targeting prolidase as a peptide prodrug-converting enzyme has been examined. The enzymatic hydrolysis by prolidase of substrates for the peptide transporter L-alpha-methyldopa-pro and several dipeptide analogues without an N-terminal alpha-amino group (phenylpropionylproline, phenylacetylproline, N-benzoylproline, and N-acetylproline) was investigated. The Michaelis-Menten parameters Km and Vmax for L-alpha-methyldopa-pro are 0.09 +/- 0.02 mM and 3.98 +/- 0.25 mumol/min/mg protein, respectively. However, no hydrolysis of the dipeptide analogues without an N-terminal alpha-amino group is observed, suggesting that an N-terminal alpha-amino group is required for prolidase activity. These results demonstrate that prolidase may serve as a prodrug-converting enzyme for the dipeptide-type prodrugs, utilizing the peptide carrier for transport of prodrugs into the mucosal cells and prolidase, a cytosolic enzyme, to release the drug. However, a free alpha-amino group appears to be necessary for prolidase hydrolysis.

  7. Somatostatin receptor-mediated specific delivery of paclitaxel prodrugs for efficient cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Huo, Meirong; Zhu, Qinnv; Wu, Qu; Yin, Tingjie; Wang, Lei; Yin, Lifang; Zhou, Jianping

    2015-06-01

    In this study, a novel PTX prodrug, octreotide(Phe)-polyethene glycol-paclitaxel [OCT(Phe)-PEG-PTX], was successfully synthesized and used for targeted cancer therapy. A nontargeting conjugate, mPEG-PTX, was also synthesized and used as a control. Chemical structures of OCT(Phe)-PEG-PTX and mPEG-PTX were confirmed using (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance and circular dichroism. The drug contents in both the conjugates were 12.0% and 14.0%, respectively. Compared with the parent drug (PTX), OCT(Phe)-PEG-PTX, and mPEG-PTX prodrugs showed a 20,000- and 30,000-fold increase in water solubility, respectively. PTX release from mPEG-PTX and OCT(Phe)-PEG-PTX exhibited a pH-dependent profile. Moreover, compared with mPEG-PTX, OCT(Phe)-PEG-PTX exhibited significantly stronger cytotoxicity against NCI-H446 cells (SSTR overexpression) but comparable cytotoxicity against WI-38 cells (no SSTR expression). Results of confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that the targeting prodrug labeled with fluorescence probe was selectively taken into tumor cells via SSTR-mediated endocytosis. In vivo investigation of prodrugs in nude mice bearing NCI-H446 cancer xenografts confirmed that OCT(Phe)-PEG-PTX prodrug exhibited stronger antitumor efficacy and lower systemic toxicity than mPEG-PTX and commercial Taxol. These results suggested that OCT(Phe)-PEG-PTX is a promising anticancer drug delivery system for targeted cancer therapy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  8. Doxorubicin delivered by a redox-responsive dasatinib-containing polymeric prodrug carrier for combination therapy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jingjing; Liu, Yanhua; Chen, Yichao; Zhao, Wenchen; Zhai, Qianyu; Rathod, Sanjay; Huang, Yixian; Tang, Suoqin; Kwon, Yong Tae; Fernandez, Christian; Venkataramanan, Raman; Li, Song

    2017-07-28

    Two novel prodrug polymers POEG-b-PSSDas (redox-sensitive) and POEG-b-PCCDas (redox-insensitive), which consist of poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate) (POEG) hydrophilic blocks and dasatinib (DAS, an oncogenic tyrosine kinases inhibitor) conjugated hydrophobic blocks, were designed as dual-functional carriers for codelivery with doxorubicin (DOX). Both carriers retained antitumor activity of DAS and could form mixed micelles with DOX. Compared to POEG-b-PCCDas micelles, incorporation of disulfide linkage into POEG-b-PSSDas micelles facilitated efficient cleavage of DAS from prodrug micelles in tumor cells/tissues, leading to a higher level of anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. In addition, DOX-loaded POEG-b-PSSDas micelles exhibited triggered DOX release under a redox environment (10mM glutathione, GSH), and demonstrated enhanced cytotoxicity against 4T1.2 and PC3 cell lines compared to DOX and DOX-loaded POEG-b-PCCDas micelles. More importantly, DOX-loaded POEG-b-PSSDas micelles were more effective in inhibiting the tumor growth and prolonging the survival rate in an aggressive murine breast cancer model (4T1.2) compared to DOX-loaded POEG-b-PCCDas micelles and a micellar formulation co-loaded with DOX and DAS. This redox-responsive prodrug micellar system provides an attractive strategy for effective combination of tumor targeted therapy and traditional chemotherapy, which warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Platinum(iv) prodrug conjugated Pd@Au nanoplates for chemotherapy and photothermal therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Saige; Chen, Xiaolan; Wei, Jingping; Huang, Yizhuan; Weng, Jian; Zheng, Nanfeng

    2016-03-01

    Owing to the excellent near infrared (NIR) light absorption and efficient passive targeting toward tumor tissue, two-dimensional (2D) core-shell PEGylated Pd@Au nanoplates have great potential in both photothermal therapy and drug delivery systems. In this work, we successfully conjugate Pd@Au nanoplates with a platinum(iv) prodrug c,c,t-[Pt(NH3)2Cl2(O2CCH2CH2CO2H)2] to obtain a nanocomposite (Pd@Au-PEG-Pt) for combined photothermal-chemotherapy. The prepared Pd@Au-PEG-Pt nanocomposite showed excellent stability in physiological solutions and efficient Pt(iv) prodrug loading. Once injected into biological tissue, the Pt(iv) prodrug was easily reduced by physiological reductants (e.g. ascorbic acid or glutathione) into its cytotoxic and hydrophilic Pt(ii) form and released from the original nanocomposite, and the NIR laser irradiation could accelerate the release of Pt(ii) species. More importantly, Pd@Au-PEG-Pt has high tumor accumulation (29%ID per g), which makes excellent therapeutic efficiency at relatively low power density possible. The in vivo results suggested that, compared with single therapy the combined thermo-chemotherapy treatment with Pd@Au-PEG-Pt resulted in complete destruction of the tumor tissue without recurrence, while chemotherapy using Pd@Au-PEG-Pt without irradiation or photothermal treatment using Pd@Au-PEG alone did not. Our work highlights the prospects of a feasible drug delivery strategy of the Pt prodrug by using 2D Pd@Au nanoplates as drug delivery carriers for multimode cancer treatment.Owing to the excellent near infrared (NIR) light absorption and efficient passive targeting toward tumor tissue, two-dimensional (2D) core-shell PEGylated Pd@Au nanoplates have great potential in both photothermal therapy and drug delivery systems. In this work, we successfully conjugate Pd@Au nanoplates with a platinum(iv) prodrug c,c,t-[Pt(NH3)2Cl2(O2CCH2CH2CO2H)2] to obtain a nanocomposite (Pd@Au-PEG-Pt) for combined photothermal-chemotherapy. The

  10. Long-Persistent Enzyme-MOF Nanoreactor Activates Non-toxic Paracetamol for Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Lian, Xizhen; Huang, Yanyan; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Fang, Yu; Zhao, Rui; Joseph, Elizabeth; Li, Jialuo; Pellois, Jean-Phillipe; Zhou, Hongcai

    2018-03-13

    Prodrug activation by exogenously administered enzymes for cancer therapy is an approach to achieve better selectivity and less systemic toxicity than conventional chemotherapy. However, the short half-lives of the activating enzymes in bloodstream has limited its success. Here, we demonstrate that a tyrosinase-MOF nanoreactor activates the prodrug paracetamol in cancer cells in a long-lasting manner. By generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) and depleting glutathione (GSH), the product of enzymatic conversion of paracetamol is toxic to drug-resistant cancer cells. Tyrosinase-MOF nanoreactors cause significant cell death in the presence of paracetamol for up to three days after being internalized by cells, while free enzymes totally lose activity in a few hours. Thus, we envision enzyme-MOF nanocomposites to be novel long-persistent platforms for various biomedical applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Legubicin a Tumor-activated Prodrug for Breast Cancer Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    treatments generally involve the use of surgery , radiation therapy, and/or chemotherapy. However, these treatments all involve serious side effects...For example, surgery can be complicated by bleeding, damage to internal organs, adverse reactions to anesthesia or other medicines, pain, infection...Spleen cells have considerably less legumain than renal cells; however, f1% to 2% of spleen cells are weakly positive for cell surface legumain

  12. Identification of novel nitroreductases from Bacillus cereus and their interaction with the CB1954 prodrug.

    PubMed

    Gwenin, Vanessa V; Poornima, Paramasivan; Halliwell, Jennifer; Ball, Patrick; Robinson, George; Gwenin, Chris D

    2015-12-01

    Directed enzyme prodrug therapy is a form of cancer chemotherapy in which bacterial prodrug-activating enzymes, or their encoding genes, are directed to the tumour before administration of a prodrug. The prodrug can then be activated into a toxic drug at the tumour site, reducing off-target effects. The bacterial nitroreductases are a class of enzymes used in this therapeutic approach and although very promising, the low turnover rate of prodrug by the most studied nitroreductase enzyme, NfnB from Escherichia coli (NfnB_Ec), is a major limit to this technology. There is a continual search for enzymes with greater efficiency, and as part of the search for more efficient bacterial nitroreductase enzymes, two novel enzymes from Bacillus cereus (strain ATCC 14579) have been identified and shown to reduce the CB1954 (5-(aziridin-1-yl)-2,4-dinitrobenzamide) prodrug to its respective 2'-and 4'-hydroxylamine products. Both enzymes shared features characteristic of the nitro-FMN-reductase superfamily including non-covalently associated FMN, requirement for the NAD(P)H cofactor, homodimeric, could be inhibited by Dicoumarol (3,3'-methylenebis(4-hydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one)), and displayed ping pong bi bi kinetics. Based on the biochemical characteristics and nucleotide alignment with other nitroreductase enzymes, one enzyme was named YdgI_Bc and the other YfkO_Bc. Both B. cereus enzymes had greater turnover for the CB1954 prodrug compared with NfnB_Ec, and in the presence of added NADPH cofactor, YfkO_Bc had superior cell killing ability, and produced mainly the 4'-hydroxylamine product at low prodrug concentration. The YfkO_Bc was identified as a promising candidate for future enzyme prodrug therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Self-assembling prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Cheetham, Andrew G; Chakroun, Rami W; Ma, Wang; Cui, Honggang

    2017-10-30

    Covalent modification of therapeutic compounds is a clinically proven strategy to devise prodrugs with enhanced treatment efficacies. This prodrug strategy relies on the modified drugs that possess advantageous pharmacokinetic properties and administration routes over their parent drug. Self-assembling prodrugs represent an emerging class of therapeutic agents capable of spontaneously associating into well-defined supramolecular nanostructures in aqueous solutions. The self-assembly of prodrugs expands the functional space of conventional prodrug design, affording a possible pathway to more effective therapies as the assembled nanostructure possesses distinct physicochemical properties and interaction potentials that can be tailored to specific administration routes and disease treatment. In this review, we will discuss the various types of self-assembling prodrugs in development, providing an overview of the methods used to control their structure and function and, ultimately, our perspective on their current and future potential.

  14. Targeted prodrug approaches for hormone refractory prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Aloysius, Herve; Hu, Longqin

    2015-05-01

    Due to the propensity of relapse and resistance with prolonged androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), there is a growing interest in developing non-hormonal therapeutic approaches as alternative treatment modalities for hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). Although the standard treatment for HRPC consists of a combination of ADT with taxanes and anthracyclines, the clinical use of chemotherapeutics is limited by systemic toxicity stemming from nondiscriminatory drug exposure to normal tissues. In order to improve the tumor selectivity of chemotherapeutics, various targeted prodrug approaches have been explored. Antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT) and gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) strategies leverage tumor-specific antigens and transcription factors for the specific delivery of cytotoxic anticancer agents using various prodrug-activating enzymes. In prostate cancer, overexpression of tumor-specific proteases such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is being exploited for selective activation of anticancer prodrugs designed to be activated through proteolysis by these prostate cancer-specific enzymes. PSMA- and PSA-activated prodrugs typically comprise an engineered high-specificity protease peptide substrate coupled to a potent cytotoxic agent via a linker for rapid release of cytotoxic species in the vicinity of prostate cancer cells following proteolytic cleavage. Over the past two decades, various such prodrugs have been developed and they were effective at inhibiting prostate tumor growth in rodent models; several of these prodrug approaches have been advanced to clinical trials and may be developed into effective therapies for HRPC. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Esterase-activatable β-lapachone prodrug micelles for NQO1-targeted lung cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xinpeng; Huang, Xiumei; Moore, Zachary; Huang, Gang; Kilgore, Jessica A.; Wang, Yiguang; Hammer, Suntrea; Williams, Noelle S.; Boothman, David A.; Gao, Jinming

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most lethal forms of cancer and current chemotherapeutic strategies lack broad specificity and efficacy. Recently, β-lapachone (β-lap) was shown to be highly efficacious in killing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells regardless of their p53, cell cycle and caspase status. Pre-clinical and clinical use of β-lap (clinical form, ARQ501 or 761) is hampered by poor pharmacokinetics and toxicity due to hemolytic anemia. Here, we report the development and preclinical evaluation of β-lap prodrug nanotherapeutics consisting of diester derivatives of β-lap encapsulated in biocompatible and biodegradable poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(d,l-lactic acid) (PEG-b-PLA) micelles. Compared to the parent drug, diester derivatives of β-lap showed higher drug loading densities inside PEG-b-PLA micelles. After esterase treatment, micelle-delivered β-lap-dC3 and -dC6 prodrugs were converted to β-lap. Cytotoxicity assays using A549 and H596 lung cancer cells showed that both micelle formulations maintained NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1)-dependent cytotoxicity. However, antitumor efficacy study of β-lap-dC3 micelles against orthotopic A549 NSCLC xenograft-bearing mice showed significantly greater long-term survival over β-lap-dC6 micelles or β-lap-HPβCD complexes. Improved therapeutic efficacy of β-lap-dC3 micelles correlated with higher area under the concentration-time curves of β-lap in tumors, and enhanced pharmacodynamic endpoints (e.g., PARP1 hyperactivation, γH2AX, and ATP depletion). β-Lap-dC3 prodrug micelles provide a promising strategy for NQO1-targeted therapy of lung cancer with improved safety and antitumor efficacy. PMID:25542645

  16. Smart activatable and traceable dual-prodrug for image-guided combination photodynamic and chemo-therapy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fang; Yuan, Youyong; Mao, Duo; Wu, Wenbo; Liu, Bin

    2017-11-01

    Activatable photosensitizers (PSs) and chemo-prodrugs are highly desirable for anti-cancer therapy to reduce systemic toxicity. However, it is difficult to integrate both together into a molecular probe for combination therapy due to the complexity of introducing PS, singlet oxygen quencher, chemo-drug, chemo-drug inhibitor and active linker at the same time. To realize activatable PS and chemo-prodrug combination therapy, we develop a smart therapeutic platform in which the chemo-prodrug serves as the singlet oxygen quencher for the PS. Specifically, the photosensitizing activity and fluorescence of the PS (TPEPY-SH) are blocked by the chemo-prodrug (Mitomycin C, MMC) in the probe. Meanwhile, the cytotoxicity of MMC is also inhibited by the electron-withdrawing acyl at the nitrogen position next to the linker. Upon glutathione activation, TPEPY-S-MMC can simultaneously release active PS and MMC for combination therapy. The restored fluorescence of TPEPY-SH is also used to report the activation for both PS and MMC as well as to guide the photodynamic therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Noninvasive theranostic imaging of HSV1-sr39TK-NTR/GCV-CB1954 dual-prodrug therapy in metastatic lung lesions of MDA-MB-231 triple negative breast cancer in mice.

    PubMed

    Sekar, Thillai V; Foygel, Kira; Ilovich, Ohad; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy

    2014-01-01

    Metastatic breast cancer is an obdurate cancer type that is not amenable to chemotherapy regimens currently used in clinic. There is a desperate need for alternative therapies to treat this resistant cancer type. Gene-Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy (GDEPT) is a superior gene therapy method when compared to chemotherapy and radiotherapy procedures, proven to be effective against many types of cancer in pre-clinical evaluations and clinical trials. Gene therapy that utilizes a single enzyme/prodrug combination targeting a single cellular mechanism needs significant overexpression of delivered therapeutic gene in order to achieve therapy response. Hence, to overcome this obstacle we recently developed a dual therapeutic reporter gene fusion that uses two different prodrugs, targeting two distinct cellular mechanisms in order to achieve effective therapy with a limited expression of delivered transgenes. In addition, imaging therapeutic reporter genes offers additional information that indirectly correlates gene delivery, expression, and functional effectiveness as a theranostic approach. In the present study, we evaluate the therapeutic potential of HSV1-sr39TK-NTR fusion dual suicide gene therapy system that we recently developed, in MDA-MB-231 triple negative breast cancer lung-metastatic lesions in a mouse model. We compared the therapeutic potential of HSV1-sr39TK-NTR fusion with respective dual prodrugs GCV-CB1954 with HSV1-sr39TK/GCV and NTR/CB1954 single enzyme prodrug system in this highly resistant metastatic lesion of the lungs. In vitro optimization of dose and duration of exposure to GCV and CB1954 was performed in MDA-MB-231 cells. Drug combinations of 1 μg/ml GCV and 10 μM CB1954 for 3 days was found to be optimal regimen for induction of significant cell death, as assessed by FACS analysis. In vivo therapeutic evaluation in animal models showed a complete ablation of lung metastatic nodules of MDA-MB-231 triple negative breast cancer cells following

  18. Noninvasive Theranostic Imaging of HSV1-sr39TK-NTR/GCV-CB1954 Dual-Prodrug Therapy in Metastatic Lung Lesions of MDA-MB-231 Triple Negative Breast Cancer in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sekar, Thillai V.; Foygel, Kira; Ilovich, Ohad; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy

    2014-01-01

    Metastatic breast cancer is an obdurate cancer type that is not amenable to chemotherapy regimens currently used in clinic. There is a desperate need for alternative therapies to treat this resistant cancer type. Gene-Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy (GDEPT) is a superior gene therapy method when compared to chemotherapy and radiotherapy procedures, proven to be effective against many types of cancer in pre-clinical evaluations and clinical trials. Gene therapy that utilizes a single enzyme/prodrug combination targeting a single cellular mechanism needs significant overexpression of delivered therapeutic gene in order to achieve therapy response. Hence, to overcome this obstacle we recently developed a dual therapeutic reporter gene fusion that uses two different prodrugs, targeting two distinct cellular mechanisms in order to achieve effective therapy with a limited expression of delivered transgenes. In addition, imaging therapeutic reporter genes offers additional information that indirectly correlates gene delivery, expression, and functional effectiveness as a theranostic approach. In the present study, we evaluate the therapeutic potential of HSV1-sr39TK-NTR fusion dual suicide gene therapy system that we recently developed, in MDA-MB-231 triple negative breast cancer lung-metastatic lesions in a mouse model. We compared the therapeutic potential of HSV1-sr39TK-NTR fusion with respective dual prodrugs GCV-CB1954 with HSV1-sr39TK/GCV and NTR/CB1954 single enzyme prodrug system in this highly resistant metastatic lesion of the lungs. In vitro optimization of dose and duration of exposure to GCV and CB1954 was performed in MDA-MB-231 cells. Drug combinations of 1 μg/ml GCV and 10 μM CB1954 for 3 days was found to be optimal regimen for induction of significant cell death, as assessed by FACS analysis. In vivo therapeutic evaluation in animal models showed a complete ablation of lung metastatic nodules of MDA-MB-231 triple negative breast cancer cells following

  19. Potential Development of Tumor-Targeted Oral Anti-Cancer Prodrugs: Amino Acid and Dipeptide Monoester Prodrugs of Gemcitabine.

    PubMed

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Drelich, Adam J; Smith, David E; Amidon, Gordon L

    2017-08-10

    One of the main obstacles for cancer therapies is to deliver medicines effectively to target sites. Since stroma cells are developed around tumors, chemotherapeutic agents have to go through stroma cells in order to reach tumors. As a method to improve drug delivery to the tumor site, a prodrug approach for gemcitabine was adopted. Amino acid and dipeptide monoester prodrugs of gemcitabine were synthesized and their chemical stability in buffers, resistance to thymidine phosphorylase and cytidine deaminase, antiproliferative activity, and uptake/permeability in HFF cells as a surrogate to stroma cells were determined and compared to their parent drug, gemcitabine. The activation of all gemcitabine prodrugs was faster in pancreatic cell homogenates than their hydrolysis in buffer, suggesting enzymatic action. All prodrugs exhibited great stability in HFF cell homogenate, enhanced resistance to glycosidic bond metabolism by thymidine phosphorylase, and deamination by cytidine deaminase compared to their parent drug. All gemcitabine prodrugs exhibited higher uptake in HFF cells and better permeability across HFF monolayers than gemcitabine, suggesting a better delivery to tumor sites. Cell antiproliferative assays in Panc-1 and Capan-2 pancreatic ductal cell lines indicated that the gemcitabine prodrugs were more potent than their parent drug gemcitabine. The transport and enzymatic profiles of gemcitabine prodrugs suggest their potential for delayed enzymatic bioconversion and enhanced resistance to metabolic enzymes, as well as for enhanced drug delivery to tumor sites, and cytotoxic activity in cancer cells. These attributes would facilitate the prolonged systemic circulation and improved therapeutic efficacy of gemcitabine prodrugs.

  20. The prodrugs of 5-fluorouracil.

    PubMed

    Malet-Martino, M; Jolimaitre, P; Martino, R

    2002-03-01

    Although 5-fluorouracil (FU) was first introduced in 1957, it remains an essential part of the treatment of a wide range of solid tumors. FU has antitumor activity against epithelial malignancies arising in the gastrointestinal tract, breast as well as the head and neck, with single-agent response rates of only 10-30%. Although FU is still the most widely prescribed agent for the treatment of colorectal cancer, less than a third of patients achieve objective responses. Recent research has focused on the biomodulation of FU to improve the cytotoxicity and therapeutic effectiveness of this drug in the treatment of advanced disease. As all the anticancer agents, FU leads to several toxicities. The toxicity profile of FU is schedule dependent. Myelotoxicity is the major toxic effect in patients receiving bolus doses. Hand-foot syndrome (palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia), stomatitis, neuro- and cardiotoxicity are associated with continuous infusions. Other adverse effects associated with both bolus-dose and continuous infusion regimens include nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, alopecia and dermatitis. All these reasons explain the need of more effective and less toxic fluoropyrimidines. In the first part of the review, we briefly present the metabolic pathways of FU responsible for the efficacy and toxicity of the drug. This knowledge is also necessary to understand the target(s) of the biomodulation. The second part is devoted to a review of the literature on the various prodrugs of FU, including 5'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine, capecitabine, BOF-A2, ftorafur, UFT, and S-1. The promising approach of gene directed enzyme-prodrug therapy is also presented. A brief survey of antibody directed enzyme-prodrug therapy and some new FU prodrugs concludes the paper. The pharmacological principles that have influenced the development of these new drugs and our current knowledge of the clinical pharmacology of these new agents, focusing on antitumor activity and toxicity, are presented.

  1. Co-delivery of doxorubicin and curcumin by pH-sensitive prodrug nanoparticle for combination therapy of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yumin; Yang, Cuihong; Wang, Weiwei; Liu, Jinjian; Liu, Qiang; Huang, Fan; Chu, Liping; Gao, Honglin; Li, Chen; Kong, Deling; Liu, Qian; Liu, Jianfeng

    2016-02-01

    Ample attention has focused on cancer drug delivery via prodrug nanoparticles due to their high drug loading property and comparatively lower side effects. In this study, we designed a PEG-DOX-Cur prodrug nanoparticle for simultaneous delivery of doxorubicin (DOX) and curcumin (Cur) as a combination therapy to treat cancer. DOX was conjugated to PEG by Schiff’s base reaction. The obtained prodrug conjugate could self-assemble in water at pH 7.4 into nanoparticles (PEG-DOX NPs) and encapsulate Cur into the core through hydrophobic interaction (PEG-DOX-Cur NPs). When the PEG-DOX-Cur NPs are internalized by tumor cells, the Schiff’s base linker between PEG and DOX would break in the acidic environment that is often observed in tumors, causing disassembling of the PEG-DOX-Cur NPs and releasing both DOX and Cur into the nuclei and cytoplasma of the tumor cells, respectively. Compared with free DOX, free Cur, free DOX-Cur combination, or PEG-DOX NPs, PEG-DOX-Cur NPs exhibited higher anti-tumor activity in vitro. In addition, the PEG-DOX-Cur NPs also showed prolonged blood circulation time, elevated local drug accumulation and increased tumor penetration. Enhanced anti-tumor activity was also observed from the PEG-DOX-Cur-treated animals, demonstrating better tumor inhibitory property of the NPs. Thus, the PEG-DOX-Cur prodrug nanoparticle system provides a simple yet efficient approach of drug delivery for chemotherapy.

  2. Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Is a Prognostic Marker for Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Mediated Cytosine Deaminase Gene and 5-Fluorocytosine Prodrug Therapy for the Treatment of Recurrent Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Taemoon; Na, Juri; Kim, Young-il; Chang, Da-Young; Kim, Young Il; Kim, Hyeonjin; Moon, Ho Eun; Kang, Keon Wook; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June-Key; Kim, Sung-Soo; Suh-Kim, Haeyoung; Paek, Sun Ha; Youn, Hyewon

    2016-01-01

    We investigated a therapeutic strategy for recurrent malignant gliomas using mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), expressing cytosine deaminase (CD), and prodrug 5-Fluorocytosine (5-FC) as a more specific and less toxic option. MSCs are emerging as a novel cell therapeutic agent with a cancer-targeting property, and CD is considered a promising enzyme in cancer gene therapy which can convert non-toxic 5-FC to toxic 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU). Therefore, use of prodrug 5-FC can minimize normal cell toxicity. Analyses of microarrays revealed that targeting DNA damage and its repair is a selectable option for gliomas after the standard chemo/radio-therapy. 5-FU is the most frequently used anti-cancer drug, which induces DNA breaks. Because dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) was reported to be involved in 5-FU metabolism to block DNA damage, we compared the survival rate with 5-FU treatment and the level of DPD expression in 15 different glioma cell lines. DPD-deficient cells showed higher sensitivity to 5-FU, and the regulation of DPD level by either siRNA or overexpression was directly related to the 5-FU sensitivity. For MSC/CD with 5-FC therapy, DPD-deficient cells such as U87MG, GBM28, and GBM37 showed higher sensitivity compared to DPD-high U373 cells. Effective inhibition of tumor growth was also observed in an orthotopic mouse model using DPD- deficient U87MG, indicating that DPD gene expression is indeed closely related to the efficacy of MSC/CD-mediated 5-FC therapy. Our results suggested that DPD can be used as a biomarker for selecting glioma patients who may possibly benefit from this therapy. PMID:27446484

  3. Adenoviral vectors for prodrug activation-based gene therapy for cancer

    PubMed Central

    Doloff, Joshua C.; Waxman, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer cell heterogeneity is a common feature - both between patients diagnosed with the same cancer and within an individual patient’s tumor - and leads to widely different response rates to cancer therapies and the potential for the emergence of drug resistance. Diverse therapeutic approaches have been developed to combat the complexity of cancer, including individual treatment modalities designed to target tumor heterogeneity. This review discusses adenoviral vectors and how they can be modified to replicate in a cancer-specific manner and deliver therapeutic genes under multi-tiered regulation to target tumor heterogeneity, including heterogeneity associated with cancer stem cell-like subpopulations. Strategies that allow for combination of prodrug-activation gene therapy with a novel replication-conditional, heterogeneous tumor-targeting adenovirus are discussed, as are the benefits of using adenoviral vectors as tumor-targeting oncolytic vectors. While the anticancer activity of many adenoviral vectors has been well established in preclinical studies, only limited successes have been achieved in the clinic, indicating a need for further improvements in activity, specificity, tumor cell delivery and avoidance of immunogenicity. PMID:23869779

  4. Cisplatin Prodrug-Conjugated Gold Nanocluster for Fluorescence Imaging and Targeted Therapy of the Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fangyuan; Feng, Bing; Yu, Haijun; Wang, Dangge; Wang, Tingting; Liu, Jianping; Meng, Qingshuo; Wang, Siling; Zhang, Pengcheng; Zhang, Zhiwen; Li, Yaping

    2016-01-01

    Theranostic nanomedicine has emerged as a promising modality for cancer diagnosis and treatment. In this study, we report the fabrication of fluorescence gold nanoclusters (GNC) conjugated with a cisplatin prodrug and folic acid (FA) (FA-GNC-Pt) for fluorescence imaging and targeted chemotherapy of breast cancer. The physio-chemical properties of FA-GNC-Pt nanoparticles are thoroughly characterized by fluorescence/UV-Vis spectroscopic measurement, particle size and zeta-potential examination. We find that FA-modification significantly accelerated the cellular uptake and increased the cytotoxicity of GNC-Pt nanoparticles in murine 4T1 breast cancer cells. Fluorescence imaging in vivo using 4T1 tumor bearing nude mouse model shows that FA-GNC-Pt nanoparticles selectively accumulate in the orthotopic 4T1 tumor and generate strong fluorescence signal due to the tumor targeting effect of FA. Moreover, we demonstrate that FA-GNC-Pt nanoparticles significantly inhibit the growth and lung metastasis of the orthotopically implanted 4T1 breast tumors. All these data imply a good potential of the GNC-based theranostic nanoplatform for fluorescence tumor imaging and cancer therapy.

  5. Cisplatin Prodrug-Conjugated Gold Nanocluster for Fluorescence Imaging and Targeted Therapy of the Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Fangyuan; Feng, Bing; Yu, Haijun; Wang, Dangge; Wang, Tingting; Liu, Jianping; Meng, Qingshuo; Wang, Siling; Zhang, Pengcheng; Zhang, Zhiwen; Li, Yaping

    2016-01-01

    Theranostic nanomedicine has emerged as a promising modality for cancer diagnosis and treatment. In this study, we report the fabrication of fluorescence gold nanoclusters (GNC) conjugated with a cisplatin prodrug and folic acid (FA) (FA-GNC-Pt) for fluorescence imaging and targeted chemotherapy of breast cancer. The physio-chemical properties of FA-GNC-Pt nanoparticles are thoroughly characterized by fluorescence/UV-Vis spectroscopic measurement, particle size and zeta-potential examination. We find that FA-modification significantly accelerated the cellular uptake and increased the cytotoxicity of GNC-Pt nanoparticles in murine 4T1 breast cancer cells. Fluorescence imaging in vivo using 4T1 tumor bearing nude mouse model shows that FA-GNC-Pt nanoparticles selectively accumulate in the orthotopic 4T1 tumor and generate strong fluorescence signal due to the tumor targeting effect of FA. Moreover, we demonstrate that FA-GNC-Pt nanoparticles significantly inhibit the growth and lung metastasis of the orthotopically implanted 4T1 breast tumors. All these data imply a good potential of the GNC-based theranostic nanoplatform for fluorescence tumor imaging and cancer therapy. PMID:27022415

  6. Synthesis, Chemical and Enzymatic Hydrolysis, and Aqueous Solubility of Amino Acid Ester Prodrugs of 3-Carboranyl Thymidine Analogues for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy of Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Hasabelnaby, Sherifa; Goudah, Ayman; Agarwal, Hitesh K.; Abd alla, Mosaad S. M.; Tjarks, Werner

    2012-01-01

    Various water-soluble L-valine-, L-glutamate-, and glycine ester prodrugs of two 3-Carboranyl Thymidine Analogues (3-CTAs), designated N5 and N5-2OH, were synthesized for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of brain tumors since the water solubilities of the parental compounds proved to be insufficient in preclinical studies. The amino acid ester prodrugs were prepared and stored as hydrochloride salts. The water solubilities of these amino acid ester prodrugs, evaluated in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at pH 5, pH 6 and pH 7.4, improved 48 to 6600 times compared with parental N5 and N5-2OH. The stability of the amino acid ester prodrugs was evaluated in PBS at pH 7.4, Bovine serum, and Bovine cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The rate of the hydrolysis in all three incubation media depended primarily on the amino acid promoiety and, to a lesser extend, on the site of esterification at the deoxyribose portion of the 3-CTAs. In general, 3'-amino acid ester prodrugs were less sensitive to chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis than 5'-amino acid ester prodrugs and the stabilities of the latter decreased in the following order: 5'-valine > 5'-glutamate > 5'-glycine. The rate of the hydrolysis of the 5'-amino acid ester prodrugs in Bovine CSF was overall higher than in PBS and somewhat lower than in Bovine serum. Overall, 5'-glutamate ester prodrug of N5 and the 5'-glycine ester prodrugs of N5 and N5-2OH appeared to be the most promising candidates for preclinical BNCT studies. PMID:22889558

  7. Update of Antitubercular Prodrugs from a Molecular Perspective: Mechanisms of Action, Bioactivation Pathways, and Associated Resistance.

    PubMed

    Laborde, Julie; Deraeve, Céline; Bernardes-Génisson, Vania

    2017-10-20

    The place of prodrugs in the current antitubercular therapeutic arsenal is preponderant, since two of the four first-line antitubercular agents, isoniazid (INH) and pyrazinamide (PZA), need to be activated by Mycobacterium tuberculosis before exerting their activity. In addition, six other prodrugs can be found in the second- and third-line therapeutic regimens. The emergence of mycobacterial strains resistant to one or several antitubercular agents is one of the main issues of the antitubercular therapy. In the case of prodrugs, the resistance phenomenon is often related to a mutation in the gene encoding for the activation enzymes, resulting thus in a default of these enzymes that are no more able to activate prodrugs. Consequently, identification of the prodrugs targets and a better understanding of their modes of action and also of their activation mechanisms are of crucial importance. Related to their molecular mechanism of activation, these prodrugs may thus be classified in four categories: activation via oxidation (catalase-peroxidase (KatG) or flavin monooxygenase (EthA) enzymes), condensation (FolP1 and FolC), hydrolysis (by the amidase PncA) and reduction (by the nitroreductase DnD) mechanisms. For each prodrug, these mechanisms are described in details, as well as the mechanism of action of its active metabolite. Finally, the reported resistance related to these mechanisms of activation/action are also addressed in a molecular perspective. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Combined alloreactive CTL cellular therapy with prodrug activator gene therapy in a model of breast cancer metastatic to the brain.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Michelle J; Malone, Colin C; Erickson, Kate L; Lin, Amy; Soto, Horacio; Ha, Edward T; Kamijima, Shuichi; Inagaki, Akihito; Takahashi, Masamichi; Kato, Yuki; Kasahara, Noriyuki; Mueller, Barbara M; Kruse, Carol A

    2013-08-01

    Individual or combined strategies of cellular therapy with alloreactive CTLs (alloCTL) and gene therapy using retroviral replicating vectors (RRV) encoding a suicide prodrug activating gene were explored for the treatment of breast tumors metastatic to the brain. AlloCTL, sensitized to the HLA of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, were examined in vitro for antitumor functionality toward breast cancer targets. RRV encoding the yeast cytosine deaminase (CD) gene was tested in vivo for virus spread, ability to infect, and kill breast cancer targets when exposed to 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC). Individual and combination treatments were tested in subcutaneous and intracranial xenograft models with 231BR, a brain tropic variant. AlloCTL preparations were cytotoxic, proliferated, and produced IFN-γ when coincubated with target cells displaying relevant HLA. In vivo, intratumorally placed alloCTL trafficked through one established intracranial 231BR focus to another in contralateral brain and induced tumor cell apoptosis. RRV-CD efficiently spread in vivo, infected 231BR and induced their apoptosis upon 5-FC exposure. Subcutaneous tumor volumes were significantly reduced in alloCTL and/or gene therapy-treated groups compared to control groups. Mice with established intracranial 231BR tumors treated with combined alloCTL and RRV-CD had a median survival of 97.5 days compared with single modalities (50-83 days); all experimental treatment groups survived significantly longer than sham-treated groups (median survivals 31.5 or 40 days) and exhibited good safety/toxicity profiles. The results indicate combining cellular and suicide gene therapies is a viable strategy for the treatment of established breast tumors in the brain. ©2013 AACR.

  9. Mesenchymal stromal cells retrovirally transduced with prodrug-converting genes are suitable vehicles for cancer gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Ďuriniková, E; Kučerová, L; Matúšková, M

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) possess a set of several fairly unique properties which make them ideally suitable both for cellular therapies and regenerative medicine. These include: relative ease of isolation, the ability to differentiate along mesenchymal and non-mesenchymal lineages in vitro and the ability to be extensively expanded in culture without a loss of differentiative capacity. MSC are not only hypoimmunogenic, but they mediate immunosuppression upon transplantation, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory properties. They are able to home to damaged tissues, tumors, and metastases following systemic administration. The ability of homing holds big promise for tumor-targeted delivery of therapeutic agents. Viruses are naturally evolved vehicles efficiently transferring their genes into host cells. This ability made them suitable for engineering vector systems for the delivery of genes of interest. MSC can be retrovirally transduced with genes encoding prodrug-converting genes (suicide genes), which are not toxic per se, but catalyze the formation of highly toxic metabolites following the application of a nontoxic prodrug. The homing ability of MSC holds advantages compared to virus vehicles which display many shortcomings in effective delivery of the therapeutic agents. Gene therapies mediated by viruses are limited by their restricted ability to track cancer cells infiltrating into the surrounding tissue, and by their low migratory capacity towards tumor. Thus combination of cellular therapy and gene delivery is an attractive option - it protects the vector from immune surveillance, and supports targeted delivery of a therapeutic gene/protein to the tumor site.

  10. Nucleotide prodrugs for the treatment of HCV infection.

    PubMed

    Sofia, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    The HCV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase is an essential enzyme in HCV viral replication and has been a prominent target in the search for therapies to treat individuals infected with HCV. The development of both nucleoside and nucleotide HCV inhibitors has been pursued because of their potential for showing pangenotypic activity and because of their high barrier to resistance. Even though nucleoside inhibitors were shown to be effective in a clinical setting, their potency limited their effectiveness. The exploitation of prodrug strategies to deliver nucleoside 5'-monophosphates has resulted in the development of a number of very potent inhibitors of HCV replication. In addition, several of these nucleotide prodrugs have demonstrated liver-targeting characteristics when administered orally. Human clinical studies have shown that a number of nucleotide prodrugs are potent inhibitors of viral replication leading to significant reductions in viral load when given orally. Combinations of these nucleotide prodrugs with either pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin or another direct acting antiviral alone has lead to cure rates as high as 100% after only 12 weeks of therapy. The combination of a nucleotide prodrug and another direct-acting antiviral agent holds the promise of delivering an interferon-free therapy for HCV patients thus eliminating the undesirable side effects associated with taking interferon. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hyaluronic acid-coated, prodrug-based nanostructured lipid carriers for enhanced pancreatic cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhihe; Su, Jingrong; Li, Zhengrong; Zhan, Yuzhu; Ye, Decai

    2017-01-01

    Gemcitabine (GEM) and Baicalein (BCL) are reported to have anti-tumor effects including pancreatic cancer. Hyaluronic acid (HA) can bind to over-expressed receptors in various kinds of cancer cells. The aim of this study is to develop prodrugs containing HA, BCL and GEM, and construct nanomedicine incorporate GEM and BCL in the core and HA on the surface. This system could target the cancer cells and co-deliver the drugs. GEM-stearic acid lipid prodrug (GEM-SA) and hyaluronic acid-amino acid-baicalein prodrug (HA-AA-BCL) were synthesized. Then, GEM and BCL prodrug-based targeted nanostructured lipid carriers (HA-GEM-BCL NLCs) were prepared by the nanoprecipitation technique. The in vitro cytotoxicity studies of the NLCs were evaluated on AsPC1 pancreatic cancer cell line. In vivo anti-tumor effects were observed on the murine-bearing pancreatic cancer model. HA-GEM-BCL NLCs were effective in entering pancreatic cancer cells over-expressing HA receptors, and showed cytotoxicity of tumor cells in vitro. In vivo study revealed significant tumor growth inhibition ability of HA-GEM-BCL NLCs in murine pancreatic cancer model. It could be concluded that HA-GEM-BCL NLCs could be featured as promising co-delivery, tumor-targeted nanomedicine for the treatment of cancers.

  12. A unique highly hydrophobic anticancer prodrug self-assembled nanomedicine for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Ren, Guolian; Jiang, Mengjuan; Xue, Peng; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yongjun; Chen, Bo; He, Zhonggui

    2016-11-01

    In contrast with common thought, we generated highly hydrophobic anticancer prodrug self-assembled nanoparticles without the aid of surface active substances, based on the conjugation of docetaxel to d-α-tocopherol succinate. The reduction-sensitive prodrug was synthesized with a disulfide bond inserted into the linker and was compared with a control reduction-insensitive prodrug. The morphology and stability of self-assembled nanoparticles were investigated. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis assays showed that the reduction-sensitive nanoparticles had higher anticancer activity than the reduction-insensitive nanoparticles. The reduction-sensitive nanoparticles exhibited favorable in vivo antitumor activity and tolerance compared with docetaxel Tween80-containing formulation and the reduction-insensitive nanoparticles. Taken together, the unique nanomedicine demonstrated a number of advantages: (i) ease and reproducibility of preparation, (ii) high drug payload, (iii) superior stability, (iv) prolonged circulation, and (v) improved therapeutic effect. This highly reproducible molecular assembly strategy should motivate the development of new nanomedicines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Amplifying the Red-Emission of Upconverting Nanoparticles for Biocompatible Clinically Used Prodrug-Induced Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A class of biocompatible upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) with largely amplified red-emissions was developed. The optimal UCNP shows a high absolute upconversion quantum yield of 3.2% in red-emission, which is 15-fold stronger than the known optimal β-phase core/shell UCNPs. When conjugated to aminolevulinic acid, a clinically used photodynamic therapy (PDT) prodrug, significant PDT effect in tumor was demonstrated in a deep-tissue (>1.2 cm) setting in vivo at a biocompatible laser power density. Furthermore, we show that our UCNP–PDT system with NIR irradiation outperforms clinically used red light irradiation in a deep tumor setting in vivo. This study marks a major step forward in photodynamic therapy utilizing UCNPs to effectively access deep-set tumors. It also provides an opportunity for the wide application of upconverting red radiation in photonics and biophotonics. PMID:25291544

  14. Amplifying the Red-Emission of Upconverting Nanoparticles for Biocompatible Clinically Used Prodrug-Induced Photodynamic Therapy

    DOE PAGES

    Punjabi, Amol; Wu, Xiang; Tokatli-Apollon, Amira; ...

    2014-09-25

    A class of biocompatible upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) with largely amplified red-emissions was developed. The optimal UCNP shows a high absolute upconversion quantum yield of 3.2% in red-emission, which is 15-fold stronger than the known optimal β-phase core/shell UCNPs. When conjugated to aminolevulinic acid, a clinically used photodynamic therapy (PDT) prodrug, significant PDT effect in tumor was demonstrated in a deep-tissue (>1.2 cm) setting in vivo at a biocompatible laser power density. Furthermore, we show that our UCNP–PDT system with NIR irradiation outperforms clinically used red light irradiation in a deep tumor setting in vivo. This study marks a major stepmore » forward in photodynamic therapy utilizing UCNPs to effectively access deep-set tumors.Lastly, it also provides an opportunity for the wide application of upconverting red radiation in photonics and biophotonics.« less

  15. A Novel Doxorubicin Prodrug with GRP78 Recognition and Nucleus-Targeting Ability for Safe and Effective Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Ding, Guo-Bin; Sun, Junqing; Yang, Peng; Li, Binchun; Gao, Ying; Li, Zhuoyu

    2018-01-02

    Glucose-regulated protein of 78 kDa (GRP78) has become an attractive and novel target for tumor therapy. Design and construction of powerful delivery systems that could efficiently transport doxorubicin (DOX) to a tumor-cell nucleus remains a formidable challenge for improving the tumor therapeutic index and mitigating side effects to normal tissues. Herein, a novel doxorubicin prodrug (NDP) with GRP78 recognition and nucleus-targeting ability was synthesized by a facile chemical route. NDP exhibited an enhanced antiproliferative activity against colorectal cancer cells and could efficiently enter the cell nucleus. Furthermore, it is inspiring to note that NDP displayed a much stronger inhibitory efficacy against the growth of colorectal cancer xenografts in nude mice than free DOX and showed superior in vivo safety. Together, the work provides a novel GRP78 and nucleus-targeting strategy, and the NDP holds great promise to be used as a potent and safe chemotherapeutic agent.

  16. Anti-HIV therapy with AZT prodrugs: AZT phosphonate derivatives, current state and prospects.

    PubMed

    Khandazhinskaya, Anastasiya; Matyugina, Elena; Shirokova, Elena

    2010-06-01

    AIDS, a disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus, was called 'plague of the twentieth century'. 3'-Azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT), the first compound approved for the treatment of HIV, is still a mandatory component of treatment schemes. However, its toxicity stimulated a search for new agents. This review presents the history and current state of the design of AZT prodrugs based on its phosphonate derivatives. Although every effort was made to include as many AZT structures bearing phosphonate residues and demonstrate the variety they offer, we also concentrated on the studies performed in our laboratory. Special attention was also paid to AZT 5'-H-phosphonate (phosphazide, Nikavir) approved in the Russian Federation as a drug for the prevention and treatment of HIV infection. The prodrug strategy applied to AZT phosphonate derivatives enriched chemistry, biology and medicine not only with new knowledge, methods and structures, but also with a new anti-HIV drug Nikavir. Currently, study of another phosphonate, AZT 5'-aminocarbonylphosphonate, is underway. Slow release of AZT following oral administration and penetration into cells, decreased toxicity and the lack of cumulative properties make the compounds of this group promising as extended-release forms of AZT.

  17. Docetaxel prodrug liposomes for tumor therapy: characterization, in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ren, Guolian; Liu, Dan; Guo, Weiling; Wang, Menglin; Wu, Chunnuan; Guo, Mengran; Ai, Xiaoyu; Wang, Yongjun; He, Zhonggui

    2016-05-01

    There is a strong desire to develop docetaxel (DTX) formulation with good therapeutic effectiveness in view of serious adverse reactions of the commercial formulation of DTX (Taxotere®). In this study, a redox-responsive DTX-vitamin E prodrug was successfully formulated into liposomes with the drug loading of 4.14% ± 0.10%. Compared with DTX liposomes, the DTX prodrug liposomes (DPLs) showed good stability for 30-d shelf life and during dilution with different media. In vitro antitumor activity of DPLs on human prostatic carcinoma PC-3 cells and human lung cancer A549 cells was evaluated using cytotoxicity and apoptosis assays. In spite of a decrease in in vitro antitumor activity, the in vivo pharmacokinetic study reveals that DPLs exhibit significantly longer DTX plasma half-life (t1/2, 1.38-fold) and higher bioavailability (AUC0-t, 14.49-fold) compared with DTX liposomes. The antitumor activity of DPLs to the A549 tumor xenograft model showed selective accumulation in tumor tissue, significant inhibition the growth of the tumors and a much lower toxicity as seen in body weight loss, compared with DTX-Solution. Taken together, the results showed that DPLs is a promising strategy for DTX antitumor delivery.

  18. Molecular pathologies of and enzyme replacement therapies for lysosomal diseases.

    PubMed

    Sakuraba, Hitoshi; Sawada, Makoto; Matsuzawa, Fumiko; Aikawa, Sei-ichi; Chiba, Yasunori; Jigami, Yoshifumi; Itoh, Kohji

    2006-08-01

    Lysosomal diseases comprise a group of inherited disorders resulting from defects of lysosomal enzymes and their cofactors, and in many of them the nervous system is affected. Recently, enzyme replacement therapy with recombinant lysosomal enzymes has been clinically available for several lysosomal diseases. Such enzyme replacement therapies can improve non-neurological disorders but is not effective for neurological ones. In this review, we discuss the molecular pathologies of lysosomal diseases from the protein structural aspect, current enzyme replacement therapies, and attempts to develop enzyme replacement therapies effective for lysosomal diseases associated with neurological disorders, i.e., production of enzymes, brain-specific delivery and incorporation of lysosomal enzymes into cells.

  19. Self-assembled liposomes of dual paclitaxel-phospholipid prodrug for anticancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Ling, Longbing; Du, Yawei; Ismail, Muhammad; He, Ruiyu; Hou, Yongpeng; Fu, Zhenglin; Zhang, Ying; Yao, Chen; Li, Xinsong

    2017-06-30

    In this report, a newly liposomal formulation of paclitaxel (PTX) based on dual paclitaxel succinate glycerophosphorylcholine (Di-PTX-GPC) prodrug was developed. The Di-PTX-GPC prodrug was synthesized by conjugating PTX with GPC through esterification under N,N'-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) and 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) catalytic system. Di-PTX-GPC liposomes were prepared by thin film method and characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results indicated that the liposomes have an average diameter of 157.9nm with well-defined spherical morphology. In vitro drug release studies confirmed that the Di-PTX-GPC liposomes have controlled release profile of PTX at a weakly acidic environment, which formulates them suitable for sustained drug delivery. Additionally, in vitro cellular uptake analysis and cytotoxicity evaluation showed that Di-PTX-GPC liposomes were internalized successfully into tumor cells to induce the apoptosis against MCF-7, HeLa and HepG-2 cells. In vivo pharmacokinetics study revealed that such liposomal formulation of Di-PTX-GPC has longer retention half-life in bloodstream, which subsequently leads to slight accumulate in tumor sites due to enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. More importantly, Di-PTX-GPC liposomes demonstrated good in vivo anticancer activities compared to Taxol with reduced adverse effects. Conclusively, these results suggest that Di-PTX-GPC liposomes could be an effective PTX delivery vehicles in clinical cancer chemotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Prodrug encapsulated albumin nanoparticles as an alternative approach to manifest anti-proliferative effects of suicide gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Tirkey, Bulbul; Bhushan, Bharat; Uday Kumar, S; Gopinath, P

    2017-04-01

    Conventional anticancer agents are associated with limited therapeutic efficacy and substantial nonspecific cytotoxicity. Thus, there is an imminent need for an alternative approach that can specifically annihilate the cancer cells with minimal side effects. Among such alternative approaches, CD::UPRT (cytosine deaminase uracil phosphoribosyl transferase) suicide gene therapy has tremendous potential due to its high efficacy. Prodrug 5-Fluorocytosine (5-FC) used in combination with CD::UPRT suicide gene suffers from limited solubility which subsequently leads to decline in therapeutic efficacy. In order to overcome this, 5-FC encapsulated bovine serum albumin nanoparticles (BSA-5-FC NPs) were prepared in this work by desolvation method. Physico-chemical characterizations studies revealed amorphous nature of BSA-5-FC NPs with uniform spherical morphology. Apart from increase in solubility, encapsulated 5-FC followed slow and sustained release profile. Suicide gene expressing stable clone of L-132 cells were adapted for investigating therapeutic potential of BSA-5-FC NPs. These nanoparticles were readily taken up by the cells in a concentration dependent manner and subsequently manifested apoptosis, which was further confirmed by morphological examination and gene expression analysis. These findings clearly illustrate that CD::UPRT suicide gene therapy can be efficiently utilized in combination with this nanosystem for improved suicide gene therapy and tumor eradication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Novel prodrug PRX-P4-003, selectively activated by gut enzymes, may reduce the risk of iatrogenic addiction and abuse.

    PubMed

    Patil, Sandeep T; Bihovsky, Ron H; Smith, Steven A; Potter, William Z; Stella, Valentino J

    2018-03-02

    Prescription stimulants are vulnerable to oral and parenteral abuse. Intravenous forms of abuse may be most detrimental due to an enhanced risk of dependence, overdose, and infectious diseases. Our objective was to discover an orally active prodrug of a stimulant that would not be easily converted to its parent when injected, thus hindering intravenous abuse. Following an initial analysis of stimulant structures, the fencamfamine isomer [(-)-FCF; (N-ethyl-3-phenylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-amine)] was chosen as a parent drug due to its favorable biochemical properties. Subsequently, PRX-P4-003 {(-)-N-(Octadecanoyloxymethoxycarbonyl)-N-ethyl-3-phenylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-amine} qualified for further development. Experimental testing of PRX-P4-003 included radioligand binding assays, stability studies, and rodent pharmacokinetic and locomotor assays. Prodrug PRX-P4-003 is a pharmacologically inactive, hydrophobic compound, whereas its parent (-)-FCF is a dopamine reuptake inhibitor with weaker effects on norepinephrine reuptake (K i  = 0.07 and 0.80 μM, respectively). PRX-P4-003 is metabolized to (-)-FCF in simulated intestinal fluid (with pancreatin) but not in simulated gastric fluid (with pepsin). Finally, PRX-P4-003 shows a significant oral but no intravenous increase in locomotion, correlating with its pharmacokinetics by these different routes of administration. PRX-P4-003 is a novel prodrug stimulant enzymatically activated in the gut. Our data suggest a pancreatic, lipase-based mechanism of activation and as only 1% of this enzyme is found in the systemic circulation, PRX-P4-003 is unlikely to be bioactive if injected intravenously. Enzymatic release of (-)-FCF is needed prior to its systemic absorption, which may discourage oral abuse (e.g., by chewing). PRX-P4-003 is being developed for apathy in Alzheimer's disease and binge eating disorder. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Prodrugs design based on inter- and intramolecular chemical processes.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Rafik

    2013-12-01

    This review provides the reader a concise overview of the majority of prodrug approaches with the emphasis on the modern approaches to prodrug design. The chemical approach catalyzed by metabolic enzymes which is considered as widely used among all other approaches to minimize the undesirable drug physicochemical properties is discussed. Part of this review will shed light on the use of molecular orbital methods such as DFT, semiempirical and ab initio for the design of novel prodrugs. This novel prodrug approach implies prodrug design based on enzyme models that were utilized for mimicking enzyme catalysis. The computational approach exploited for the prodrug design involves molecular orbital and molecular mechanics (DFT, ab initio, and MM2) calculations and correlations between experimental and calculated values of intramolecular processes that were experimentally studied to assign the factors determining the reaction rates in certain processes for better understanding on how enzymes might exert their extraordinary catalysis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Iterative design of emetine-based prodrug targeting fibroblast activation protein (FAP) and dipeptidyl peptidase IV DPPIV using a tandem enzymatic activation strategy.

    PubMed

    Akinboye, Emmanuel S; Brennen, W Nathaniel; Rosen, D Marc; Bakare, Oladapo; Denmeade, Samuel R

    2016-06-01

    There is an urgent need to develop new agents for treating metastatic prostate cancer to overcome multiple drug resistance to the current standard targeted cancer therapy. Emetine is a highly cytotoxic natural product protein synthesis inhibitor, which is toxic to all cell types. Its cytotoxicity can be blocked by derivatizing its N-2' position. Thus emetine can be selectively delivered to cancer cells in the region of metastatic cancer as a prodrug that will be activated by an enzyme selectively overexpressed within the metastatic tumor microenvironment. In this work, we convert emetine to a prodrug activatable by the fibroblast activation protein (FAP), a serine protease overexpressed by the carcinoma associated fibroblasts. By using an iterative structure-activity relationship strategy, several peptidyl emetine prodrug analogs (1-11) were synthesized by chemical derivatization of emetine at its N-2' position and tested for in-vitro activation by FAP. The lead prodrug 11 is made up of a DPPIV activatable prodrug precursor 10 (Ala-Pro-PABC-Emetine) coupled to FAP substrate (Ala-Ser-Gly-Pro-Ala-Gly-Pro). Activation assays of the prodrugs were performed in purified FAP, DPPIV, FBS, and human serum and were analyzed by LCMS. In vitro cytotoxicity assays of these prodrugs are carried out in prostate (LNCaP, PC3) and breast (MCF7 and MDA-MB-231) cancer cell lines. The prodrugs are also tested in normal immortalized human prostatic epithelial cell line (PrEC). The lead FAP activated emetine prodrug 11 is activated to emetine in tandem by FAP and DPPIV in about 70% conversion within 24 hr. In prostate and breast cancer cell lines treated with prodrug 11, it is found to be equipotent with emetine in the presence of FAP and DPPIV. However, in the PrEC cell line grown in serum free media, prodrug 11 is more than 200-fold less cytotoxic than emetine in the absence of FAP and DPPIV. This FAP activated prodrug of cytotoxic agent emetine further shows the crucial role of the

  4. Enhancing the Intestinal Membrane Permeability of Zanamivir: A Carrier Mediated Prodrug Approach

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sheeba Varghese; Gupta, Deepak; Sun, Jing; Dahan, Arik; Tsume, Yasuhiro; Hilfinger, John; Lee, Kyung-Dall; Amidon, Gordon L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the membrane permeability and oral absorption of the poorly permeable anti-influenza agent, zanamivir. The poor oral bioavailability is attributed to the high polarity (cLogP~-5) resulting from the polar and zwitterionic nature of zanamivir. In order to improve the permeability of zanamivir, prodrugs with amino acids were developed to target the intestinal membrane transporter, hPepT1. Several acyloxy ester prodrugs of zanamivir conjugated with amino acids were synthesized and characterized. The prodrugs were evaluated for their chemical stability in buffers at various pHs and for their transport and tissue activation by enzymes. The acyloxy ester prodrugs of zanamivir were shown to competitively inhibit [3H]Gly-Sar uptake in Caco-2 cells (IC50: 1.19±0.19mM for L-valyl prodrug of zanamivir). The L-valyl prodrug of zanamivir exhibited ~3 fold higher uptake in transfected HeLa/hPepT1 cells compared to wild type HeLa cells, suggesting, at least in part, carrier mediated transport by the hPepT1 transporter. Further, enhanced transcellular permeability of prodrugs across Caco-2 monolayer compared to the parent drug (Papp= 2.24E-06 ± 1.33E-07 cm/sec for L-valyl prodrug of zanamivir), with only parent zanamivir appearing in the receiver compartment, indicates that the prodrugs exhibited both enhanced transport and activation in intestinal mucosal cells. Most significantly several of these prodrugs exhibited high intestinal jejunal membrane permeability, similar to metoprolol, in the in situ rat intestinal perfusion system, a system highly correlated with human jejunal permeability. In summary, this mechanistic targeted prodrug strategy, to enhance oral absorption via intestinal membrane carriers such as hPepT1, followed by activation to parent drug (active pharmaceutical ingredient or API) in the mucosal cell, significantly improves the intestinal epithelial cell permeability of zanamivir and has the potential to provide the high

  5. Enhancing the intestinal membrane permeability of zanamivir: a carrier mediated prodrug approach.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sheeba Varghese; Gupta, Deepak; Sun, Jing; Dahan, Arik; Tsume, Yasuhiro; Hilfinger, John; Lee, Kyung-Dall; Amidon, Gordon L

    2011-12-05

    The purpose of this study was to improve the membrane permeability and oral absorption of the poorly permeable anti-influenza agent, zanamivir. The poor oral bioavailability is attributed to the high polarity (cLogP ∼ -5) resulting from the polar and zwitterionic nature of zanamivir. In order to improve the permeability of zanamivir, prodrugs with amino acids were developed to target the intestinal membrane transporter, hPepT1. Several acyloxy ester prodrugs of zanamivir conjugated with amino acids were synthesized and characterized. The prodrugs were evaluated for their chemical stability in buffers at various pHs and for their transport and tissue activation by enzymes. The acyloxy ester prodrugs of zanamivir were shown to competitively inhibit [(3)H]Gly-Sar uptake in Caco-2 cells (IC(50): 1.19 ± 0.33 mM for L-valyl prodrug of zanamivir). The L-valyl prodrug of zanamivir exhibited ∼3-fold higher uptake in transfected HeLa/hPepT1 cells compared to wild type HeLa cells, suggesting, at least in part, carrier mediated transport by the hPepT1 transporter. Further, enhanced transcellular permeability of prodrugs across Caco-2 monolayer compared to the parent drug (P(app) = 2.24 × 10(-6) ± 1.33 × 10(-7) cm/s for L-valyl prodrug of zanamivir), with only parent zanamivir appearing in the receiver compartment, indicates that the prodrugs exhibited both enhanced transport and activation in intestinal mucosal cells. Most significantly, several of these prodrugs exhibited high intestinal jejunal membrane permeability, similar to metoprolol, in the in situ rat intestinal perfusion system, a system highly correlated with human jejunal permeability. In summary, this mechanistic targeted prodrug strategy, to enhance oral absorption via intestinal membrane carriers such as hPepT1, followed by activation to parent drug (active pharmaceutical ingredient or API) in the mucosal cell, significantly improves the intestinal epithelial cell permeability of zanamivir and has the

  6. GR-891: a novel 5-fluorouracil acyclonucleoside prodrug for differentiation therapy in rhabdomyosarcoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Marchal, J A; Prados, J; Melguizo, C; Gómez, J A; Campos, J; Gallo, M A; Espinosa, A; Arena, N; Aránega, A

    1999-01-01

    Differentiation therapy provides an alternative treatment of cancer that overcomes the undesirable effects of classical chemotherapy, i.e. cytotoxicity and resistance to drugs. This new approach to cancer therapy focuses on the development of specific agents designed to selectively engage the process of terminal differentiation, leading to the elimination of tumorigenic cells and recovery of normal cell homeostasis. A series of new anti-cancer pyrimidine acyclonucleoside-like compounds were designed and synthesized by structural modifications of 5-fluorouracil, a drug which causes considerable cell toxicity and morbidity, and we evaluated their applicability for differentiation therapy in human rhabdomyosarcoma cells. We tested the pyrimidine derivative GR-891, (RS)-1-{[3-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-1-isopropoxy]propyl}-5-fluorouracil, an active drug which shows low toxicity in vivo and releases acrolein which is an aldehyde with anti-tumour activity. Both GR-891 and 5-fluorouracil caused time- and dose-dependent growth inhibition in vitro; however, GR-891 showed no cytotoxicity at low doses (22.5 μmol l−1 and 45 μmol l−1) and induced terminal myogenic differentiation in RD cells (a rhabdomyosarcoma cell line) treated for 6 days. Changes in morphological features and in protein organization indicated re-entry in the pathway of muscular maturation. Moreover, GR-891 increased adhesion capability mediated by the expression of fibronectin, and did not induce overexpression of P-glycoprotein, the mdr1 gene product, implicated in multidrug resistance. New acyclonucleoside-like compounds such as GR-891 have important potential advantages over 5-fluorouracil because of their lower toxicity and their ability to induce myogenic differentiation in rhabdomyosarcoma cells. Our results suggest that this drug may be useful for differentiation therapy in this type of tumour. 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10070873

  7. Combination of small molecule prodrug and nanodrug delivery: amphiphilic drug-drug conjugate for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ping; Wang, Dali; Su, Yue; Huang, Wei; Zhou, Yongfeng; Cui, Daxiang; Zhu, Xinyuan; Yan, Deyue

    2014-08-20

    All drugs for cancer therapy face several transportation barriers on their tortuous journey to the action sites. To overcome these barriers, an effective drug delivery system for cancer therapy is imperative. Here, we develop a drug self-delivery system for cancer therapy, in which anticancer drugs can be delivered by themselves without any carriers. To demonstrate this unique approach, an amphiphilic drug-drug conjugate (ADDC) has been synthesized from the hydrophilic anticancer drug irinotecan (Ir) and the hydrophobic anticancer drug chlorambucil (Cb) via a hydrolyzable ester linkage. The amphiphilic Ir-Cb conjugate self-assembles into nanoparticles in water and exhibits longer blood retention half-life compared with the free drugs, which facilitates the accumulation of drugs in tumor tissues and promotes their cellular uptake. A benefit of the nanoscale characteristics of the Ir-Cb ADDC nanoparticles is that the multidrug resistance (MDR) of tumor cells can be overcome efficiently. After cellular internalization, the ester bond between hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs undergoes hydrolysis to release free Ir and Cb, resulting in an excellent anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo.

  8. Chemotherapy agent-unsaturated fatty acid prodrugs and prodrug-nanoplatforms for cancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bingjun; Luo, Cong; Cui, Weiping; Sun, Jin; He, Zhonggui

    2017-10-28

    Unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), with the distinct advantages of good biocompatibility and innate tumor-targeting effect, have been widely investigated for the rational design of chemotherapy agent-unsaturated fatty acid (CA-UFA) prodrugs in cancer therapy. Among them, several CA-UFA prodrugs have successfully entered clinical trials and are promising prospects for potential clinical applications. In addition, CA-UFA prodrug-based nanoparticulate drug delivery systems (nano-DDS), which integrate the advantages of CA-UFA prodrugs and nano-DDS, have been emerging as versatile nano-carriers for the efficient delivery of chemotherapeutics. In this paper, we review the advanced drug delivery strategies based on UFA conjugates and focus on the recent advances in CA-UFA prodrugs and the emerging CA-UFA prodrug-based nano-DDS. First, we discuss the rational design of CA-UFA prodrugs in response to the multiple obstacles in chemotherapy, with particular emphasis on the latest progress in both preclinical studies and clinical trials. Moreover, the emerging CA-UFA prodrug-based nano-DDS are also addressed. Finally, the prospects and potential challenges of CA-UFA prodrug-based drug delivery strategies in chemotherapy are highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Expression of the prodrug-activating enzyme DT-diaphorase via Ad5 delivery to human colon carcinoma cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Misra, Veet; Klamut, Henry J; Rauth, A M

    2002-02-01

    Intratumoral injection of recombinant adenoviral type 5 (Ad5) vectors that carry prodrug-activating enzymes like DT-diaphorase (DTD) could be used to selectively target tumor cells for chemotherapy. To demonstrate the feasibility of this approach, Ad5 vectors were constructed, which express human DTD minigenes for both wild-type and mutant (C-to-T change in nucleotide 609 in DTD cDNA) DTD under the control of the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. HT29 human colon carcinoma cells express wild-type DTD, whereas BE human colon carcinoma cells express mutant DTD, have low to undetectable DTD activity, and are 4- to 6-fold more resistant to mitomycin C (MMC) than HT29 cells. A test of the ability of Ad5 to infect these cells (using a beta-galactosidase CMV-driven minigene) indicated that 90-100% of BE cells were infected at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 100, whereas only 15-40% of HT29 cells were infected at this MOI. Infection of BE cells in vitro with recombinant Ad5 carrying a minigene for wild-type DTD at MOIs of 3-100 resulted in a progressive increase in DTD activity and a maximal 8-fold increase in sensitivity to MMC as measured by a colony-forming assay. HT29 cells were sensitized 2- to 3-fold following treatment with Ad5.DTD at an MOI of 100. These results indicate that adenovirus-mediated gene transfer and expression of wild-type DTD can sensitize resistant tumor cells to MMC and that this therapeutic strategy may exert a significant bystander effect.

  10. Comparative Analysis of Enzyme and Pathway Engineering Strategies for 5FC-Mediated Suicide Gene Therapy Applications

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Adam J.; Ardiani, Andressa; Sanchez-Bonilla, Marilyn; Black, Margaret E.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial and yeast encoded cytosine deaminases (bCD and yCD, respectively) are widely investigated suicide enzymes used in combination with the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5FC) to achieve localized cytotoxicity. Yet characteristics such as poor turnover rates of 5FC (bCD) and enzyme thermolability (yCD) preclude their full therapeutic potential. We previously applied regio-specific random mutagenesis and computational design to create novel bCD and yCD variants with altered substrate preference (bCD1525) or increased thermostability (yCDdouble, yCDtriple) to aid in overcoming these limitations. Others have utilized pathway engineering in which the microbial enzyme uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT) is fused with its respective CD, creating bCD/bUPRT or yCD/yUPRT. In this study, we evaluated whether the overlay of CD mutants onto their respective CD/UPRT fusion construct would further enhance 5FC activation, cancer cell prodrug sensitivity and bystander activity in vitro and in vivo. We show that all mutant fusion enzymes allowed for significant reductions in IC50 values relative to their mutant CD counterparts. However, in vivo the CD mutants displayed enhanced tumor growth inhibition capacity relative to the mutant fusions, with bCD1525 displaying the greatest tumor growth inhibition and bystander activity. In summary, mutant bCD1525 appears to be the most effective of all bacterial or yeast CD or CD/UPRT enzymes examined and as such is likely to be the best choice to significantly improve the clinical outcome of CD/5FC suicide gene therapy applications. PMID:21394105

  11. Effect of ion pairing on in vitro transcorneal permeability of a Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol prodrug: potential in glaucoma therapy.

    PubMed

    Hingorani, Tushar; Gul, Waseem; Elsohly, Mahmoud; Repka, Michael A; Majumdar, Soumyajit

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate and improve the in vitro transcorneal permeability characteristics of Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) through prodrug derivatization and formulation approaches. In vitro corneal permeability of THC and its hemisuccinate (THC-HS) and hemiglutarate (THC-HG) ester prodrugs and WIN 55-212-2 (WIN), a synthetic cannabinoid, was determined using isolated rabbit cornea. The formulations studied included hydroxypropyl beta cyclodextrin (HPβCD) or randomly methylated beta cyclodextrin (RMβCD), as well as prodrug-ion-pair complexes with l-arginine or tromethamine. Corneal permeability of WIN was found to be two-fold higher than THC in the presence of HPβCD. THC-HS and THC-HG exhibited pH-dependent permeability. In the presence of HPβCD, at pH 5 (donor solution pH), both prodrugs exhibited six-fold higher permeability compared with THC. However, permeability of the prodrugs was about three-fold lower than that of THC at pH 7.4. RMβCD, at pH 7.4, led to a significant improvement in permeability. Formation of ion-pair complexes markedly improved the solubility and permeability of THC-HG (sevenfold and threefold greater permeability compared with THC and WIN, respectively) at pH 7.4. The in vitro results demonstrate that the use of an ion-pair complex of THC-HG could be an effective strategy for topical delivery of THC. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Synthesis and biological studies of the thiols-triggered anticancer prodrug for a more effective cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuanzhen; Chen, Jianjun; Li, Ya; Peng, Shoujiao; Gu, Xueyan; Sun, Meng; Gao, Kun; Fang, Jianguo

    2015-03-07

    A novel anticancer prodrug compound 1, which was designed to be triggered by thiols and release the chemotherapeutic agent mechlorethamine, was successfully prepared and evaluated for the first time. The activation of compound 1 was determined by NMR analysis and denaturing alkaline agarose gel electrophoresis. A fluorescence image and comet assay indicated that the inducible reactivity of 1 could be accomplished in cell media. The anticancer activities are also discussed.

  13. A prostate-specific antigen activated N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide copolymer prodrug as dual-targeted therapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Sachin S; Nan, Anjan; Rosen, D Marc; Ghandehari, Hamidreza; Denmeade, Samuel R

    2007-11-01

    Prostate cancer targeted peptide prodrugs that are activated by the serine protease activity of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) are under development in our laboratory. To enhance delivery and solubility of these prodrugs, macromolecular carriers consisting of N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide (HPMA)-based copolymers were covalently coupled to a PSA-activated peptide prodrug. HPMA copolymers are water-soluble, nonimmunogenic synthetic carriers that exhibit promise for drug delivery applications. These macromolecular copolymers enter the interstitium of solid tumors by the enhanced permeability and retention effect. The PSA-activated peptide substrate imparts selectivity because it is specifically hydrolyzed to release a cytotoxin at the site of prostate tumor. Enzymatically active PSA is present in high amounts in the extracellular fluid of a tumor, but PSA is inactivated in blood by binding to serum protease inhibitors. As an initial proof of concept, the HPMA copolymer was synthesized with a peptide substrate (HSSKLQ) bound to a fluorophore, 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin (AMC). PSA cleavage of the HPMA-HSSKLQ-AMC copolymer was observed, which led to the synthesis of an HPMA-based copolymer with the prodrug SSKYQ-L12ADT [HPMA-morpholinocarbonyl-Ser-Ser-Lys-Tyr-Gln-Leu-12-aminododecanoyl thapsigargin (JHPD)]. L12ADT is a potent analogue of the highly cytotoxic natural product thapsigargin. HPMA-JHPD was hydrolyzed by PSA in vitro and was toxic to prostate cancer cells in the presence of active PSA. The HPMA-JHPD produced no systemic toxicity when given at a 500 micromol/L L12ADT equivalent dose. Analysis of tumor tissue from mice treated with a single or multiple dose of the HPMA-JHPD copolymer showed release and accumulation of the L12ADT toxin within the tumor tissue.

  14. A paclitaxel prodrug with bifunctional folate and albumin binding moieties for both passive and active targeted cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Lingling; Zhuo, Xin; Zhang, Fuwu; Dai, Yunlu; Zhu, Guizhi; Yung, Bryant C.; Fan, Wenpei; Zhai, Kefeng; Jacobson, Orit; Kiesewetter, Dale O.; Ma, Ying; Gao, Guizhen; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2018-01-01

    Folate receptor (FR) has proven to be a valuable target for chemotherapy using folic acid (FA) conjugates. However, FA-conjugated chemotherapeutics still have low therapeutic efficacy accompanied with side effects, resulting from complications such as short circulation half-life, limited tumor delivery, as well as high kidney accumulation. Herein, we present a novel FA-conjugated paclitaxel (PTX) prodrug which was additionally conjugated with an Evans blue (EB) derivative for albumin binding. The resulting bifunctional prodrug prolonged blood circulation, enhanced tumor accumulation, and consequently improved tumor therapeutic efficacy. Methods: Fmoc-Cys(Trt)-OH was coupled onto PTX at the 7'-OH position for further synthesis of ester prodrug FA-PTX-EB. The targeting ability was investigated using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. The pharmacokinetics of this bifunctional compound was also studied. Meanwhile, cell viability was evaluated in normal cells and three cancer cell lines by MTT assay. In vivo therapeutic effect was tested on FR-α overexpressing MDA-MB-231 tumor model. Results: Compared with free PTX, the FA-PTX, PTX-EB and FA-PTX-EB prodrugs increased circulation half-life in mice from 2.19 to 3.82, 4.41, and 7.51 h, respectively. Pharmacokinetics studies showed that the FA-PTX-EB delivered more PTX to tumors than FA-PTX and free PTX. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that FA-EB-conjugated PTX induced potent antitumor activity. Conclusion: FA-PTX-EB showed prolonged blood circulation, enhanced drug accumulation in tumors, higher therapeutic index, and lower side effects than either free PTX or monofunctional FA-PTX and EB-PTX. The results support the potential of using EB for the development of long-acting therapeutics. PMID:29556370

  15. A paclitaxel prodrug with bifunctional folate and albumin binding moieties for both passive and active targeted cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Shan, Lingling; Zhuo, Xin; Zhang, Fuwu; Dai, Yunlu; Zhu, Guizhi; Yung, Bryant C; Fan, Wenpei; Zhai, Kefeng; Jacobson, Orit; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Ma, Ying; Gao, Guizhen; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2018-01-01

    Folate receptor (FR) has proven to be a valuable target for chemotherapy using folic acid (FA) conjugates. However, FA-conjugated chemotherapeutics still have low therapeutic efficacy accompanied with side effects, resulting from complications such as short circulation half-life, limited tumor delivery, as well as high kidney accumulation. Herein, we present a novel FA-conjugated paclitaxel (PTX) prodrug which was additionally conjugated with an Evans blue (EB) derivative for albumin binding. The resulting bifunctional prodrug prolonged blood circulation, enhanced tumor accumulation, and consequently improved tumor therapeutic efficacy. Methods: Fmoc-Cys(Trt)-OH was coupled onto PTX at the 7'-OH position for further synthesis of ester prodrug FA-PTX-EB. The targeting ability was investigated using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. The pharmacokinetics of this bifunctional compound was also studied. Meanwhile, cell viability was evaluated in normal cells and three cancer cell lines by MTT assay. In vivo therapeutic effect was tested on FR-α overexpressing MDA-MB-231 tumor model. Results: Compared with free PTX, the FA-PTX, PTX-EB and FA-PTX-EB prodrugs increased circulation half-life in mice from 2.19 to 3.82, 4.41, and 7.51 h, respectively. Pharmacokinetics studies showed that the FA-PTX-EB delivered more PTX to tumors than FA-PTX and free PTX. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that FA-EB-conjugated PTX induced potent antitumor activity. Conclusion: FA-PTX-EB showed prolonged blood circulation, enhanced drug accumulation in tumors, higher therapeutic index, and lower side effects than either free PTX or monofunctional FA-PTX and EB-PTX. The results support the potential of using EB for the development of long-acting therapeutics.

  16. Enzymes approved for human therapy: indications, mechanisms and adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Baldo, Brian A

    2015-02-01

    Research and drug developments fostered under orphan drug product development programs have greatly assisted the introduction of efficient and safe enzyme-based therapies for a range of rare disorders. The introduction and regulatory approval of 20 different recombinant enzymes has enabled, often for the first time, effective enzyme-replacement therapy for some lysosomal storage disorders, including Gaucher (imiglucerase, taliglucerase, and velaglucerase), Fabry (agalsidase alfa and beta), and Pompe (alglucosidase alfa) diseases and mucopolysaccharidoses I (laronidase), II (idursulfase), IVA (elosulfase), and VI (galsulfase). Approved recombinant enzymes are also now used as therapy for myocardial infarction (alteplase, reteplase, and tenecteplase), cystic fibrosis (dornase alfa), chronic gout (pegloticase), tumor lysis syndrome (rasburicase), leukemia (L-asparaginase), some collagen-based disorders such as Dupuytren's contracture (collagenase), severe combined immunodeficiency disease (pegademase bovine), detoxification of methotrexate (glucarpidase), and vitreomacular adhesion (ocriplasmin). The development of these efficacious and safe enzyme-based therapies has occurred hand in hand with some remarkable advances in the preparation of the often specifically designed recombinant enzymes; the manufacturing expertise necessary for commercial production; our understanding of underlying mechanisms operative in the different diseases; and the mechanisms of action of the relevant recombinant enzymes. Together with information on these mechanisms, safety findings recorded so far on the various adverse events and problems of immunogenicity of the recombinant enzymes used for therapy are presented.

  17. Bioactive Core-Shell Nanofiber Hybrid Scaffold for Efficient Suicide Gene Transfection and Subsequent Time Resolved Delivery of Prodrug for Anticancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Sukumar, Uday Kumar; Packirisamy, Gopinath

    2015-08-26

    Nanofiber scaffold's ability to foster seemingly nonexistent interface with the cells enables them to effectively deliver various bioactive molecules to cells in the vicinity. Among such bioactive molecules, therapeutically active nucleic acid has been the most common candidate. In spite of such magnanimous efforts in this field, it remains a paradox that suicide gene delivery by nanofibers has never been sought for anticancer application. To investigate such a possibility, in the present work, a composite core-shell nanofiberous scaffold has been realized which could efficiently transfect suicide gene into cancer cells and simultaneously deliver prodrug, 5-Fluorocytosine (5-FC) in a controlled and sustained manner. The scaffold's ability to instigate apoptosis by suicide gene therapy in nonsmall lung cancer cells (A549) was ascertained at both phenotypic and genotypic levels. A cascade of events starting from suicide gene polyplex release from nanofibers, transfection, and expression of cytosine deaminase-uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (CD::UPRT) suicide gene by A549; subsequent prodrug release; and its metabolic conversion into toxic intermediates which finally culminates in host cells apoptosis has been monitored in a time-dependent manner. This work opens up new application avenues for nanofiber-based scaffolds which can effectively manage cancer prognosis.

  18. Prodrug Strategies in Ocular Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Barot, Megha; Bagui, Mahuya; Gokulgandhi, Mitan R.; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2015-01-01

    Poor bioavailability of topically instilled drug is the major concern in the field of ocular drug delivery. Efflux transporters, static and dynamic ocular barriers often possess rate limiting factors for ocular drug therapy. Different formulation strategies like suspension, ointment, gels, nanoparticles, implants, dendrimers and liposomes have been employed in order to improve drug permeation and retention by evading rate limiting factors at the site of absorption. Chemical modification such as prodrug targeting various nutrient transporters (amino acids, peptide and vitamin) has evolved a great deal ofintereSt to improve ocular drug delivery. In this review, we have discussed various prodrug strategies which have been widely applied for enhancing therapeutic efficacy of ophthalmic drugs. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the utilization of prodrug concept in ocular drug delivery. In addition, this review will highlight ongoing academic and industrial research and development in terms of ocular prodrug design and delivery. PMID:22530907

  19. Prodrugs for Improving Tumor Targetability and Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Mahato, Rubi; Tai, Wanyi; Cheng, Kun

    2011-01-01

    As the mainstay in the treatment of various cancers for several decades, chemotherapy is successful but still faces challenges including non-selectivity and high toxicity. Improving the selectivity is therefore a critical step to improve the therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapy. Prodrug is one of the most promising approaches to increase the selectivity and efficacy of a chemotherapy drug. The classical prodrug approach is to improve the pharmaceutical properties (solubility, stability, permeability, irritation, distribution, etc.) via a simple chemical modification. This review will focus on various targeted prodrug designs that have been developed to increase the selectivity of chemotherapy drugs. Various tumor-targeting ligands, transporter-associated ligands, and polymers can be incorporated in a prodrug to enhance the tumor uptake. Prodrugs can also be activated by enzymes that are specifically expressed at a higher level in tumors, leading to a selective anti-tumor effect. This can be achieved by conjugating the enzyme to a tumor-specific antibody, or delivering a vector expressing the enzyme into tumor cells. PMID:21333700

  20. Nucleoside ester prodrug substrate specificity of liver carboxylesterase.

    PubMed

    Landowski, Christopher P; Lorenzi, Philip L; Song, Xueqin; Amidon, Gordon L

    2006-02-01

    Carboxylesterases are among the best characterized prodrug-hydrolyzing enzymes involved in the activation of several therapeutic carbamate and ester prodrugs. The broad specificity of these enzymes makes them amenable for designing prodrugs. Porcine liver carboxylesterase 1 specificity for amino acid esters of three nucleoside analogs [floxuridine, gemcitabine, and 2-bromo-5,6-dichloro-1-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl) benzimidazole] was evaluated to assess optimal structural preferences for prodrug design. The amino acid promoiety and the esterification site influenced carboxylesterase hydrolysis rates up to 1164-fold and the binding affinity up to 26-fold. Carboxylesterase (CES) 1 exhibited high-catalytic efficiency hydrolyzing prodrugs containing a phenylalanyl moiety but was over 100-fold less efficient with valyl or isoleucyl prodrugs, regardless of the nucleoside or esterification site. CES1 catalytic efficiency was 2-fold higher with 5' phenylalanyl monoesters than the corresponding 3' esters of floxuridine. This preference was reversed with phenylalanyl gemcitabine prodrugs, evident from a 2-fold preference for 3' monoesters over 5' esters. The newly characterized esterase valacyclovirase was several hundred-fold more efficient (up to 19,000-fold) than carboxylesterase in hydrolyzing amino acid esters but similar in apparent binding affinity. The specific activities of the two enzymes with several amino acid ester prodrugs clearly suggest that initial hydrolysis rates are relatively low for prodrugs with isoleucyl, aspartyl, and lysyl promoieties for both enzymes compared with those with phenylalanyl, valyl, prolyl, and leucyl progroups. The low relative hydrolysis rates of isoleucyl, aspartyl, and lysyl prodrugs may facilitate prolonged systemic disposition of the nucleoside analogs for improved therapeutic action.

  1. Proteoglycan-targeting applied to hypoxia-activated prodrug therapy in chondrosarcoma: first proof-of-concept

    PubMed Central

    Voissiere, Aurélien; Weber, Valérie; Gerard, Yvain; Rédini, Françoise; Raes, Florian; Chezal, Jean-Michel; Degoul, Françoise; Peyrode, Caroline; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Due to its abundant chondrogenic matrix and hypoxic tissue, chondrosarcoma is chemo- and radio-resistant. Our group has developed a proteoglycan targeting strategy by using a quaternary ammonium (QA) function as a carrier of DNA alkylating agents to chondrosarcoma environment. Here, we assessed the relevance of this strategy applied to hypoxia-activated prodrugs, by conjugating a QA to 2-nitroimidazole phosphoramidate. This derivative, named as 8-QA, was evaluated respectively to its non-QA equivalent and to a QA-conjugated but non-hypoxia activated. Firstly binding to aggrecan was confirmed from dissociation constant determined by Surface Plasmon Resonance. In vitro, in HEMC-SS chondrosarcoma cells cultured in monolayer and in spheroids, 8-QA showed higher cytotoxic activity in hypoxia versus normoxia, and led to a strong accumulation of cells in S phase and apoptosis. In vivo, a HEMC-SS xenograft model was implanted on SCID mice and characterized for hypoxia by photoacoustic imaging as well as proteoglycan content. When HEMC-SS bearing mice were given 8-QA at 47 μmol/kg according to a q4d x 6 schedule, a significant 62.1% inhibition of tumor growth was observed, without associated hematological side effects. Mechanistic studies of treated tumors highlighted decrease in mitotic index associated to increase in both p21 and p53S15 markers. Interestingly, 8-QA treatment induced an increase of DNA damages as measured by γH2AX predominantly found in pimonidazole-positive hypoxic areas. These preclinical results are the first to demonstrate the interest of addressing hypoxia-activated prodrugs selectively to proteoglycan of chondrogenic tumor tissue, as a promising therapeutic strategy. PMID:29221170

  2. Enzyme replacement and substrate reduction therapy for Gaucher disease.

    PubMed

    Shemesh, Elad; Deroma, Laura; Bembi, Bruno; Deegan, Patrick; Hollak, Carla; Weinreb, Neal J; Cox, Timothy M

    2015-03-27

    Gaucher disease, a rare disorder, is caused by inherited deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase. It is unique among the ultra-orphan disorders in that four treatments are currently approved by various regulatory authorities for use in routine clinical practice. Hitherto, because of the relatively few people affected worldwide, many of whom started therapy during a prolonged period when there were essentially no alternatives to imiglucerase, these treatments have not been systematically evaluated in studies such as randomized controlled trials now considered necessary to generate the highest level of clinical evidence. To summarize all available randomized controlled study data on the efficacy and safety of enzyme replacement therapies and substrate reduction therapy for treating Gaucher disease. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Inborn Errors of Metabolism Trials Register. Additional searches were conducted on ClinicalTrials.gov for any ongoing studies with potential interim results, and through PubMed. We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles and reviews.Date of last search: 07 August 2014. All randomized and quasi-randomized controlled studies (including open-label studies and cross-over studies) assessing enzyme replacement therapy or substrate reduction therapy, or both, in all types of Gaucher disease were included. Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias in the included studies, and extracted relevant data. Of the 488 studies retrieved by the electronic searches, eight met the inclusion criteria and were analysed (300 participants). Response parameters were restricted to haemoglobin concentration, platelet count, spleen and liver volume and serum biomarkers (chitotriosidase and CCL18). Only one publication reported a 'low risk of bias' score in all parameters assessed, and all studies included were randomized.Four studies reported the responses to enzyme replacement therapy of previously

  3. Pharmacological screening of glycine amino acid prodrug of acetaminophen.

    PubMed

    Parashar, Arun

    2015-01-01

    To develop an amino acid prodrug of acetaminophen with comparable therapeutic profile and less hepatotoxicity than acetaminophen. Acetaminophen prodrug was synthesized by esterification between the carboxyl group of amino acid glycine and hydroxyl group of acetaminophen. Analgesic, antipyretic, ulcer healing, and hepatotoxic activities were performed on Wistar rats in this study. Prodrug showed a 44% inhibition in writhings as compared to 53.3% of acetaminophen. Acetaminophen also offered highest antipyretic activity. Prodrug showed gastroprotective and hepatoprotective effects as it reduced the gastric lesions by 32.1% (P < 0.01) and significantly prevented the rise in liver enzymes (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase and bilirubin). The most notable effect of prodrug was in preventing the depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH), which is reduced by acetaminophen. Prodrug showed hepatoprotective and gastroprotective effects, although the therapeutic efficacy was compromised. Prodrug was successful in preventing a decrease in GSH, thereby exhibiting promising results in the field of prodrug designing to avoid the toxic effects of acetaminophen.

  4. Dual-therapeutic reporter genes fusion for enhanced cancer gene therapy and imaging.

    PubMed

    Sekar, T V; Foygel, K; Willmann, J K; Paulmurugan, R

    2013-05-01

    Two of the successful gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapies include herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase (HSV1-TK) enzyme-ganciclovir prodrug and the Escherichia coli nitroreductase (NTR) enzyme-CB1954 prodrug strategies; these enzyme-prodrug combinations produce activated cytotoxic metabolites of the prodrugs capable of tumor cell death by inhibiting DNA synthesis and killing quiescent cells, respectively. Both these strategies also affect significant bystander cell killing of neighboring tumor cells that do not express these enzymes. We have developed a dual-combination gene strategy, where we identified HSV1-TK and NTR fused in a particular orientation can effectively kill tumor cells when the tumor cells are treated with a fusion HSV1-TK-NTR gene- along with a prodrug combination of GCV and CB1954. In order to determine whether the dual-system demonstrate superior therapeutic efficacy than either HSV1-TK or NTR systems alone, we conducted both in vitro and in vivo tumor xenograft studies using triple negative SUM159 breast cancer cells, by evaluating the efficacy of cell death by apoptosis and necrosis upon treatment with the dual HSV1-TK genes-GCV-CB1954 prodrugs system, and compared the efficiency to HSV1-TK-GCV and NTR-CB1954. Our cell-based studies, tumor regression studies in xenograft mice, histological analyses of treated tumors and bystander studies indicate that the dual HSV1-TK-NTR-prodrug system is two times more efficient even with half the doses of both prodrugs than the respective single gene-prodrug system, as evidenced by enhanced apoptosis and necrosis of tumor cells in vitro in culture and xenograft of tumor tissues in animals.

  5. Metabolic enzymes dysregulation in heart failure: the prospective therapy.

    PubMed

    Parihar, Priyanka; Parihar, Mordhwaj Singh

    2017-01-01

    The heart failure accounts for the highest mortality rate all over the world. The development of preventive therapeutic approaches is still in their infancy. Owing to the extremely high energy demand of the heart, the bioenergetics pathways need to respond efficiently based on substrate availability. The metabolic regulation of such heart bioenergetics is mediated by various rate limiting enzymes involved in energy metabolism. Although all the pertinent mechanisms are not clearly understood, the progressive decline in the activity of metabolic enzymes leading to diminished ATP production is known to cause progression of the heart failure. Therefore, metabolic therapy that can maintain the appropriate activities of metabolic enzymes can be a promising approach for the prevention and treatment of the heart failure. The flavonoids that constitute various human dietary ingredients also effectively offer a variety of health benefits. The flavonoids target a variety of metabolic enzymes and facilitate effective management of the equilibrium between production and utilization of energy in the heart. This review discusses the broad impact of metabolic enzymes in the heart functions and explains how the dysregulated enzyme activity causes the heart failure. In addition, the prospects of targeting dysregulated metabolic enzymes by developing flavonoid-based metabolic approaches are discussed.

  6. Layer-by-layer nanoparticles co-loading gemcitabine and platinum (IV) prodrugs for synergistic combination therapy of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rongrong; Ru, Yun; Gao, Yiping; Li, Jinyin; Mao, Shilong

    2017-01-01

    Cisplatin plus gemcitabine (GEM) is a standard regimen for the first-line treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer. The aim of this study was to prepare biocompatible and biodegradable polymeric prodrugs and construct nanoparticles (NPs) with layer-by-layer (LbL) technique. Platinum (Pt) (IV) complex with a carboxyl group was conjugated to the amino group of chitosan (CH), resulting in a CH-Pt conjugation with positive charge. GEM with amino group was conjugated to the carboxyl group of hyaluronic acid (HA), resulting in a HA-GEM conjugation with negative charge. Novel LbL NPs consisting of the CH-Pt core and the HA-GEM layer, named as HA-GEM/CH-Pt NPs, were constructed. The physicochemical properties of the HA-GEM/CH-Pt NPs were investigated. In vitro cytotoxicity against human non-small lung cancer cells (NCl-H460 cells) was investigated, and in vivo antitumor efficiency was evaluated on mice bearing NCl-H460 cells xenografts. HA-GEM/CH-Pt NPs have a size of about 187 nm, a zeta potential value of -21 mV and high drug encapsulation efficiency of 90%. The drug release of HA-GEM/CH-Pt NPs exhibited a sustained behavior. HA-GEM/CH-Pt NPs could significantly enhance in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo antitumor effect against lung cancer animal model compared to the single-drug-loaded NPs and free drug solutions. The results demonstrated that the HA-GEM/CH-Pt NPs might be a promising system for the synergetic treatment of lung carcinoma.

  7. Activation of multiple chemotherapeutic prodrugs by the natural enzymolome of tumour-localised probiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lehouritis, Panos; Stanton, Michael; McCarthy, Florence O; Jeavons, Matthieu; Tangney, Mark

    2016-01-28

    Some chemotherapeutic drugs (prodrugs) require activation by an enzyme for efficacy. We and others have demonstrated the ability of probiotic bacteria to grow specifically within solid tumours following systemic administration, and we hypothesised that the natural enzymatic activity of these tumour-localised bacteria may be suitable for activation of certain such chemotherapeutic drugs. Several wild-type probiotic bacteria; Escherichia coli Nissle, Bifidobacterium breve, Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus species, were screened against a panel of popular prodrugs. All strains were capable of activating at least one prodrug. E. coli Nissle 1917 was selected for further studies because of its ability to activate numerous prodrugs and its resistance to prodrug toxicity. HPLC data confirmed biochemical transformation of prodrugs to their toxic counterparts. Further analysis demonstrated that different enzymes can complement prodrug activation, while simultaneous activation of multiple prodrugs (CB1954, 5-FC, AQ4N and Fludarabine phosphate) by E. coli was confirmed, resulting in significant efficacy improvement. Experiments in mice harbouring murine tumours validated in vitro findings, with significant reduction in tumour growth and increase in survival of mice treated with probiotic bacteria and a combination of prodrugs. These findings demonstrate the ability of probiotic bacteria, without the requirement for genetic modification, to enable high-level activation of multiple prodrugs specifically at the site of action. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. JCL Roundtable: enzyme replacement therapy for lipid storage disorders.

    PubMed

    Brown, W Virgil; Desnick, Robert J; Grabowski, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    There are several inherited disorders that involve abnormal storage of lipids in tissues leading to severe compromise of organs. Sadly, these are often accompanied by lifelong morbidity and early mortality. Disorders such as Gaucher, Fabry, and lysosomal acid lipase deficiencies (Wolman and cholesteryl ester storage diseases) have been known for many years, and provide a difficult and frustrating set of problems for patients, their families, and their physicians. With recombinant methods of protein synthesis, it is now possible to literally replace the defective enzymes that underlie the basic pathophysiology of many such disorders. The delivery of these enzymes into the affected cells is possible because of their location in the lysosomes where the natural degradation of their lipid substrates occurs. I have asked 2 well-known investigators to join us for this Roundtable. These are professors who have been involved with the research that has made this type of therapy possible and who have participated in the clinical trials that demonstrated the value of enzyme replacement therapy. They are Dr. Robert Desnick, dean of Genetic and Genomic Medicine and professor and chairman emeritus of the Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York City, and Dr. Gregory Grabowski, professor of Microbiology, Biochemistry, and Pediatrics, at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine. Dr. Grabowski recently retired from that school to become the chief science officer of Synageva, a company involved in producing enzymes for this type of therapy. Copyright © 2014 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy for people with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Somaraju, Usha Rani; Solis-Moya, Arturo

    2014-10-13

    Most people with cystic fibrosis (80% to 90%) need pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy to prevent malnutrition. Enzyme preparations need to be taken whenever food is taken, and the dose needs to be adjusted according to the food consumed. A systematic review on the efficacy and safety of pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy is needed to guide clinical practice, as there is variability between centres with respect to assessment of pancreatic function, time of commencing treatment, dose and choice of supplements. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy in children and adults with cystic fibrosis and to compare the efficacy and safety of different formulations of this therapy and their appropriateness in different age groups. Also, to compare the effects of pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy in cystic fibrosis according to different diagnostic subgroups (e.g. different ages at introduction of therapy and different categories of pancreatic function). We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Most recent search: 14 August 2014.We also searched an ongoing trials website and the websites of the pharmaceutical companies who manufacture pancreatic enzyme replacements for any additional trials. Most recent search: 12 May 2014. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials in people of any age, with cystic fibrosis and receiving pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy, at any dosage and in any formulation, for a period of not less than four weeks, compared to placebo or other pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy preparations. Two authors independently assessed trials and extracted outcome data. They also assessed the risk of bias of the trials included in the review. One parallel trial and 11 cross-over trials of children and

  10. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy for people with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Somaraju, Usha Rani; Solis-Moya, Arturo

    2016-11-23

    Most people with cystic fibrosis (80% to 90%) need pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy to prevent malnutrition. Enzyme preparations need to be taken whenever food is taken, and the dose needs to be adjusted according to the food consumed. A systematic review on the efficacy and safety of pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy is needed to guide clinical practice, as there is variability between centres with respect to assessment of pancreatic function, time of commencing treatment, dose and choice of supplements. This is an updated version of a published review. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy in children and adults with cystic fibrosis and to compare the efficacy and safety of different formulations of this therapy and their appropriateness in different age groups. Also, to compare the effects of pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy in cystic fibrosis according to different diagnostic subgroups (e.g. different ages at introduction of therapy and different categories of pancreatic function). We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Most recent search: 15 July 2016.We also searched an ongoing trials website and the websites of the pharmaceutical companies who manufacture pancreatic enzyme replacements for any additional trials. Most recent search: 22 July 2016. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials in people of any age, with cystic fibrosis and receiving pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy, at any dosage and in any formulation, for a period of not less than four weeks, compared to placebo or other pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy preparations. Two authors independently assessed trials and extracted outcome data. They also assessed the risk of bias of the trials included in the review. One

  11. Effect of Cromakalim Prodrug 1 (CKLP1) on Aqueous Humor Dynamics and Feasibility of Combination Therapy With Existing Ocular Hypotensive Agents

    PubMed Central

    Roy Chowdhury, Uttio; Rinkoski, Tommy A.; Bahler, Cindy K.; Millar, J. Cameron; Bertrand, Jacques A.; Holman, Bradley H.; Sherwood, Joseph M.; Overby, Darryl R.; Stoltz, Kristen L.; Dosa, Peter I.; Fautsch, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Cromakalim prodrug 1 (CKLP1) is a water-soluble ATP-sensitive potassium channel opener that has shown ocular hypotensive properties in ex vivo and in vivo experimental models. To determine its mechanism of action, we assessed the effect of CKLP1 on aqueous humor dynamics and in combination therapy with existing ocular hypotensive agents. Methods Outflow facility was assessed in C57BL/6 mice by ex vivo eye perfusions and by in vivo constant flow infusion following CKLP1 treatment. Human anterior segments with no trabecular meshwork were evaluated for effect on pressure following CKLP1 treatment. CKLP1 alone and in combination with latanoprost, timolol, and Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632 were evaluated for effect on intraocular pressure in C57BL/6 mice and Dutch-belted pigmented rabbits. Results CKLP1 lowered episcleral venous pressure (control: 8.9 ± 0.1 mm Hg versus treated: 6.2 ± 0.1 mm Hg, P < 0.0001) but had no detectable effect on outflow facility, aqueous humor flow rate, or uveoscleral outflow. Treatment with CKLP1 in human anterior segments without the trabecular meshwork resulted in a 50% ± 9% decrease in pressure, suggesting an effect on the distal portion of the conventional outflow pathway. CKLP1 worked additively with latanoprost, timolol, and Y27632 to lower IOP, presumably owing to combined effects on different aspects of aqueous humor dynamics. Conclusions CKLP1 lowered intraocular pressure by reducing episcleral venous pressure and lowering distal outflow resistance in the conventional outflow pathway. Owing to this unique mechanism of action, CKLP1 works in an additive manner to lower intraocular pressure with latanoprost, timolol, and Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632. PMID:29114841

  12. Cytochrome P450-activated prodrugs

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R

    2013-01-01

    A prodrug is a compound that has negligible, or lower, activity against a specified pharmacological target than one of its major metabolites. Prodrugs can be used to improve drug delivery or pharmacokinetics, to decrease toxicity, or to target the drug to specific cells or tissues. Ester and phosphate hydrolysis are widely used in prodrug design because of their simplicity, but such approaches are relatively ineffective for targeting drugs to specific sites. The activation of prodrugs by the cytochrome P450 system provides a highly versatile approach to prodrug design that is particularly adaptable for targeting drug activation to the liver, to tumors or to hypoxic tissues. PMID:23360144

  13. Development of a novel sulfonate ester-based prodrug strategy.

    PubMed

    Hanaya, Kengo; Yoshioka, Shohei; Ariyasu, Shinya; Aoki, Shin; Shoji, Mitsuru; Sugai, Takeshi

    2016-01-15

    A self-immolative γ-aminopropylsulfonate linker was investigated for use in the development of prodrugs that are reactive to various chemical or biological stimuli. To demonstrate their utility, a leucine-conjugated prodrug of 5-chloroquinolin-8-ol (5-Cl-8-HQ), which is a potent inhibitor against aminopeptidase from Aeromonas proteolytica (AAP), was synthesized. The sulfonate prodrug was considerably stable under physiological conditions, with only enzyme-mediated hydrolysis of leucine triggering the subsequent intramolecular cyclization to simultaneously release 5-Cl-8-HQ and form γ-sultam. It was also confirmed that this γ-aminopropylsulfonate linker was applicable for prodrugs of not only 8-HQ derivatives but also other drugs bearing a phenolic hydroxy group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Highly phosphomannosylated enzyme replacement therapy for GM2 gangliosidosis.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Daisuke; Akeboshi, Hiromi; Matsuoka, Kazuhiko; Yasuoka, Hiroko; Miyasaki, Eri; Kasahara, Yoshiko; Kawashima, Ikuo; Chiba, Yasunori; Jigami, Yoshifumi; Taki, Takao; Sakuraba, Hitoshi; Itoh, Kohji

    2011-04-01

    Novel recombinant human lysosomal β-hexosaminidase A (HexA) was developed for enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff diseases, ie, autosomal recessive GM2 gangliosidoses, caused by HexA deficiency. A recombinant human HexA (Om4HexA) with a high mannose 6-phosphate (M6P)-type-N-glycan content, which was produced by a methylotrophic yeast strain, Ogataea minuta, overexpressing the OmMNN4 gene, was intracerebroventricularly (ICV) administered to Sandhoff disease model mice (Hexb⁻/⁻ mice) at different doses (0.5-2.5 mg/kg), and then the replacement and therapeutic effects were examined. The Om4HexA was widely distributed across the ependymal cell layer, dose-dependently restored the enzyme activity due to uptake via cell surface cation-independent M6P receptor (CI-M6PR) on neural cells, and reduced substrates, including GM2 ganglioside (GM2), asialo GM2 (GA2), and oligosaccharides with terminal N-acetylglucosamine residues (GlcNAc-oligosaccharides), accumulated in brain parenchyma. A significant inhibition of chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein-1 α (MIP-1α) induction was also revealed, especially in the hindbrain (< 63%). The decrease in central neural storage correlated with an improvement of motor dysfunction as well as prolongation of the lifespan. This lysosome-directed recombinant human enzyme drug derived from methylotrophic yeast has the high therapeutic potential to improve the motor dysfunction and quality of life of the lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) patients with neurological manifestations. We emphasize the importance of neural cell surface M6P receptor as a delivery target of neural cell-directed enzyme replacement therapy (NCDERT) for neurodegenerative metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2010 American Neurological Association.

  15. Enzyme replacement therapy for infantile-onset Pompe disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Zhang, Lingli; Quan, Shuyan

    2017-11-20

    Infantile-onset Pompe disease is a rare and progressive autosomal-recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA). Current treatment involves enzyme replacement therapy (with recombinant human alglucosidase alfa) and symptomatic therapies (e.g. to control secretions). Children who are cross-reactive immunological material (CRIM)-negative require immunomodulation prior to commencing enzyme replacement therapy.Enzyme replacement therapy was developed as the most promising therapeutic approach for Pompe disease; however, the evidence is lacking, especially regarding the optimal dose and dose frequency. To assess the effectiveness, safety and appropriate dose regimen of enzyme replacement therapy for treating infantile-onset Pompe disease. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Inborn Errors of Metabolism Trials Register, which is compiled from electronic database searches and handsearching of journals and conference abstract books. We also searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Embase (Ovid), PubMed and LILACS, and CBM, CNKI, VIP, and WANFANG for literature published in Chinese. In addition, we searched three online registers: WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform ClinicalTrials.gov, and www.genzymeclinicalresearch.com. We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles and reviews.Date of last search of the Group's Inborn Errors of Metabolism Trials Register: 24 November 2016. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials of enzyme replacement therapy in children with infantile-onset Pompe disease. Two authors independently selected relevant trials, assessed the risk of bias and extracted data. We contacted investigators to obtain important missing information. We found no trials comparing the effectiveness and safety of enzyme replacement therapy to another intervention, no intervention or placebo.We found one trial (18 participants

  16. New Enzyme Prodrug and Methionine-Depletion Combination Therapy of Breast Cancer Designed for Effective Delivery to the Tumor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    in 0.05 mM phosphate-citrate buffer ( pH 5.0). After 30 min at room temperature in the dark, the solution was transferred to a transparent 96...breast, gastrointestinal system, head and neck, and ova1y [1 ]. It has been established that 5-FU is converted inside the cell to the active metabolites...administration. Common side ef- fects of 5-FU are bone man·ow s uppression leading to neu- tropenia and infections, and gastrointestinal tox ici t

  17. New Enzyme Prodrug and Methionine-Depletion Combination Therapy of Breast Cancer Designed for Effective Delivery to the Tumor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    citrate buffer ( pH 5.0). After 30 min at room temperature in the dark, the solution was transferred to a transparent 96-well plate, and the absorbance...of solid tumors, including those of the breast, gastrointestinal system, head and neck, and ova1y [1 ]. It has been established that 5-FU is...infections, and gastrointestinal tox ici t ies such as stromatitis, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea [3 ]. To * Corresponding author. Address: School

  18. Abrogation of Microsatellite-instable Tumors Using a Highly Selective Suicide Gene/Prodrug Combination

    PubMed Central

    Ferrás, Cristina; Oude Vrielink, Joachim AF; Verspuy, Johan WA; te Riele, Hein; Tsaalbi-Shtylik, Anastasia; de Wind, Niels

    2009-01-01

    A substantial fraction of sporadic and inherited colorectal and endometrial cancers in humans is deficient in DNA mismatch repair (MMR). These cancers are characterized by length alterations in ubiquitous simple sequence repeats, a phenotype called microsatellite instability. Here we have exploited this phenotype by developing a novel approach for the highly selective gene therapy of MMR-deficient tumors. To achieve this selectivity, we mutated the VP22FCU1 suicide gene by inserting an out-of-frame microsatellite within its coding region. We show that in a significant fraction of microsatellite-instable (MSI) cells carrying the mutated suicide gene, full-length protein becomes expressed within a few cell doublings, presumably resulting from a reverting frameshift within the inserted microsatellite. Treatment of these cells with the innocuous prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) induces strong cytotoxicity and we demonstrate that this owes to multiple bystander effects conferred by the suicide gene/prodrug combination. In a mouse model, MMR-deficient tumors that contained the out-of-frame VP22FCU1 gene displayed strong remission after treatment with 5-FC, without any obvious adverse systemic effects to the mouse. By virtue of its high selectivity and potency, this conditional enzyme/prodrug combination may hold promise for the treatment or prevention of MMR-deficient cancer in humans. PMID:19471249

  19. Discovery of a para-Acetoxy-benzyl Ester Prodrug of a Hydroxamate-Based Glutamate Carboxypeptidase II Inhibitor as Oral Therapy for Neuropathic Pain.

    PubMed

    Rais, Rana; Vávra, Jan; Tichý, Tomáš; Dash, Ranjeet P; Gadiano, Alexandra J; Tenora, Lukáš; Monincová, Lenka; Bařinka, Cyril; Alt, Jesse; Zimmermann, Sarah C; Slusher, C Ethan; Wu, Ying; Wozniak, Krystyna; Majer, Pavel; Tsukamoto, Takashi; Slusher, Barbara S

    2017-09-28

    4-Carboxy-α-[3-(hydroxyamino)-3-oxopropyl]-benzenepropanoic acid 1 is a potent hydroxamate-based inhibitor of glutamate carboxypeptidase II. In an attempt to improve its poor oral pharmacokinetics, we synthesized a series of prodrugs by masking its hydrophilic hydroxamate group. Prodrugs were evaluated for oral availability in mice and showed varying degree of plasma exposure to 1. Of these, para-acetoxybenzyl-based, 4-(5-(((4-acetoxybenzyl)oxy)amino)-2-carboxy-5-oxopentyl)benzoic acid, 12, provided 5-fold higher plasma levels of 1 compared to oral administration of 1 itself. Subsequently, para-acetoxybenzyl-based prodrugs with additional ester promoiety(ies) on carboxylate(s) were examined for their ability to deliver 1 to plasma. Isopropyloxycarbonyloxymethyl (POC) ester 30 was the only prodrug that achieved substantial plasma levels of 1. In vitro metabolite identification studies confirmed stability of the ethyl ester of benzoate while the POC group was rapidly hydrolyzed. At oral daily dose-equivalent of 3 mg/kg, 12 exhibited analgesic efficacy comparable to dose of 10 mg/kg of 1 in the rat chronic constrictive injury model of neuropathic pain.

  20. Enzyme replacement therapy in Fabry disease: influence on cardiac manifestations.

    PubMed

    Caballero, L; Climent, V; Hernández-Romero, D; Quintanilla, M A; de la Morena, G; Marín, F

    2010-01-01

    Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked glycosphingolipid storage disorder caused by deficient activity of the lysosomal enzyme alpha-galactosidase A. This leads to a progressive accumulation of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) in the lysosomes of different cells and tissues, causing principally ventricular hypertrophy, renal failure and cerebrovascular accidents, reducing lifespan both in hemizygous males and heterozygous females. Residual enzyme activity might lead to slow progression of the disease and result in the so-called cardiac or renal variants with delayed presentation. Two different forms of alpha-galactosidase A enzyme replacement therapies (ERT) are available for the treatment of FD, one genetically engineered in human cell line (agalsidase alfa, Replagal, Shire) and the other produced in a Chinese hamster ovary cell line (agalsidase beta, Fabrazyme, Genzyme). Although both proteins are structurally and functionally very similar, with the same amino acid sequence as the native human enzyme, they differ in the pattern of glycosilation of the protein depending on the originating cell line. Studies with both preparations have described a reduction in plasma, urinary sediment and tissue levels of Gb3, a decrease in the frequency of pain crisis and a reduction in left ventricular mass and improvement or stabilization of renal function. Studies have generally shown the greatest benefit when treatment is started at an early stage of the disease before extensive fibrosis or other irreversible tissue damage takes place. However, more data are needed to document long-term treatment outcomes. The aim of the present review is to provide an update overview of the two different forms of ERT for FD, their clinical effects in cardiac manifestations and their possible differences in terms of efficacy, side effects and safety profiles.

  1. Parental experience of enzyme replacement therapy for Hunter syndrome.

    PubMed

    Buraczewska, M; O'Leary, D; Walsh, O; Monavari, A; Crushell, E

    2013-04-01

    We aimed to establish the profile of Irish patients with Hunter Syndrome (Mucopolysaccharidosis type II, MPS II) receiving weekly intravenous Enzyme Replacement Therapy (ERT) with recombinant iduronate-2-sulfatase and to assess the social impact and parental opinion of ERT through the use of a parental questionnaire. Nine patients aged 3.5- 14 years have received a mean of 2 (range 0.5-3.5) years of ERT. Treatment was associated with clinical improvements from baseline in hepatosplenomegaly in 6/7 (85%) respiratory manifestations in 4/6 (67%) and a mean reduction in urinary glycosaminoglycan excretion of 62%. Changes noted by parents included increased energy 3/9 (33%) and softening of skin, hair and facial features 8/9 (89%). Parents report that seven hours weekly were spent on hospitalizations for ERT. Parental employment was adversely affected in 8 (89%) families. One day of school/preschool (20%) was lost every week for 8 (89%) children. All parents believed the benefits of ERT out-weigh the difficulties involved. All families would welcome the introduction of home based therapy. In conclusion the social and educational burden of hospital-based ERT on these children and their families is significant. The introduction of home-based therapy is likely to improve overall quality of life for MPSII patients and their families.

  2. Interruption of enzyme replacement therapy in Gaucher disease.

    PubMed

    Goldblatt, J; Fletcher, J M; McGill, J; Szer, J; Wilson, M

    2016-05-25

    In Australia, 58 patients with Gaucher disease were managed by a Gaucher Disease Advisory Committee (GDAC) through a centrally adminis-tered national programme, the Life Savings Drug Program (LSDP). In June 2009, Genzyme Corporation, which manufactures imiglucerase (Cerezyme), the only enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) registered for the treatment of Gaucher disease in Australia at that time, announced that due to a viral contamination problem there would be no further shipments of Cerezyme to Australia prior to the end of 2009. The GDAC allocated available drug supplies in order to maintain treatment to those most in need on a hierarchal clinical severity basis. A cohort of 24 patients with Type 1 Gaucher disease was withdrawn from therapy, 22 of whom had no discernible clinically significant adverse effects when reviewed off therapy for up to 6 months. In this paper, we review the course of 20 of the patients who have been on imiglucerase for periods of at least 24 months after the end of their 'drug holiday'. No patient experienced a bone crisis nor clinical nor magnetic resonance imaging evidence of new avascular necrosis events during this period. Two years after recommencing ERT after a 6-month drug holiday, no patient had developed an overt irreversible complication of their Gaucher disease, with the majority returning to their previous clinical status.

  3. Prodrugs of NSAIDs: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Kamal; Gupta, Jeetendra K.; Chauhan, Nagendra S.; Upmanyu, Neeraj; Shrivastava, Sushant K.; Mishra, Pradeep

    2017-01-01

    Intoroduction: Prodrug approach deals with chemical biotransformation or enzymatic conversion or involves inactive or less active bio-reversible derivatives of active drug molecules. They have to pass through enzymatic or chemical biotransformation before eliciting their pharmacological action. Methods & Materials: The two different pharmacophores combine to give synergistic activity or may help in targeting the active drug to its target. Prodrug super seeds the problems of prodrug designing, for example solubility enhancement, bioavailability enhancement, chemical stability improvement, presystemic metabolism, site specific delivery, toxicity masking, improving patient acceptance, or eradicating undesirable adverse effects. Results: As an outcome the search for a prodrug or mutual prodrug with reduced toxicity has continued during recent years. This present review emphasizes the common help to revamp physiochemical, pharmaceutical and therapeutic effectiveness of drugs. Conclusion: This gives the researcher a common platform where they can find prodrugs of commonly used NSAIDs to overcome the gastrointestinal toxicity (irritation, ulcergenocity and bleeding). PMID:29387273

  4. Enzyme replacement therapy for Anderson-Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    El Dib, Regina; Gomaa, Huda; Carvalho, Raíssa Pierri; Camargo, Samira E; Bazan, Rodrigo; Barretti, Pasqual; Barreto, Fellype C

    2016-07-25

    Anderson-Fabry disease is an X-linked defect of glycosphingolipid metabolism. Progressive renal insufficiency is a major source of morbidity, additional complications result from cardio- and cerebro-vascular involvement. Survival is reduced among affected males and symptomatic female carriers.This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2010, and previously updated in 2013. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of enzyme replacement therapy compared to other interventions, placebo or no interventions, for treating Anderson-Fabry disease. We searched the Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Inborn Errors of Metabolism Trials Register (date of the most recent search: 08 July 2016). We also searched 'Clinical Trials' on The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase and LILACS (date of the most recent search: 24 September 2015). Randomized controlled trials of agalsidase alfa or beta in participants diagnosed with Anderson-Fabry disease. Two authors selected relevant trials, assessed methodological quality and extracted data. Nine trials comparing either agalsidase alfa or beta in 351 participants fulfilled the selection criteria.Both trials comparing agalsidase alfa to placebo reported on globotriaosylceramide concentration in plasma and tissue; aggregate results were non-significant. One trial reported pain scores measured by the Brief Pain Inventory severity, there was a statistically significant improvement for participants receiving treatment at up to three months, mean difference -2.10 (95% confidence interval -3.79 to -0.41; at up to five months, mean difference -1.90 (95% confidence interval -3.65 to -0.15); and at up to six months, mean difference -2.00 (95% confidence interval -3.66 to -0.34). There was a significant difference in the Brief Pain Inventory pain-related quality of life at over five months and up to six months, mean difference -2.10 (95% confidence interval -3.92 to -0.28) but not at other time points. Death was not an outcome

  5. Stereoisomeric Prodrugs to Improve Corneal Absorption of Prednisolone: Synthesis and In Vitro Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Ye; Yang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Zhiying; Mitra, Ashim K

    2016-06-01

    A series of stereoisomeric prodrugs have been designed to examine efficacy in generating higher corneal absorption relative to prednisolone. Prodrugs have been studied and identified with LC/MS/MS and NMR analyses. Prodrugs have been characterized for aqueous solubility, buffer stability, and cytotoxicity. Cellular uptake and permeability studies have been conducted across MDCK-MDR1 cells to determine prodrug affinity towards P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and peptide transporters. Enzyme-mediated degradation of prodrugs has been determined using Statens Seruminstitut rabbit cornea (SIRC) cell homogenates. Prodrugs exhibited higher aqueous solubility relative to prednisolone. Prodrugs circumvented P-gp-mediated cellular efflux and were recognized by peptide transporters. Prodrugs (DP, DDP) produced with D-isomers (D-valine) were significantly stable against both chemical and enzymatic hydrolyses. The order of degradation rate constants observed in chemical and enzymatic hydrolyses were in the same order, i.e., L-valine-L-valine-prednisolone (LLP) > L-valine-D-valine-prednisolone (LDP) > D-valine-L-valine-prednisolone (DLP) > D-valine-D-valine-prednisolone (DDP). Results obtained from this study clearly suggest that stereoisomeric prodrug approach is an effective strategy to overcome P-gp-mediated efflux and improve transcorneal permeability of prednisolone following topical administration.

  6. Prodrugs of aza nucleosides based on proton transfer reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaman, Rafik

    2010-12-01

    DFT calculation results for intramolecular proton transfer reactions in Kirby's enzyme models 1- 7 reveal that the reaction rate is quite responsive to geometric disposition, especially to distance between the two reactive centers, r GM, and the angle of attack, α (the hydrogen bonding angle). Hence, the study on the systems reported herein could provide a good basis for designing aza nucleoside prodrug systems that are less hydrophilic than their parental drugs and can be used, in different dosage forms, to release the parent drug in a controlled manner. For example, based on the calculated log EM, the cleavage process for prodrug 1ProD is predicted to be about 1010 times faster than that for prodrug 7ProD and about 104 times faster than prodrug 3ProD: rate 1ProD > rate 3ProD > rate 7ProD . Hence, the rate by which the prodrug releases the aza nucleoside drug can be determined according to the structural features of the linker (Kirby's enzyme model).

  7. Engineering of GlcNAc-1-Phosphotransferase for Production of Highly Phosphorylated Lysosomal Enzymes for Enzyme Replacement Therapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Lee, Wang-Sik; Doray, Balraj; Kornfeld, Stuart

    2017-06-16

    Several lysosomal enzymes currently used for enzyme replacement therapy in patients with lysosomal storage diseases contain very low levels of mannose 6-phosphate, limiting their uptake via mannose 6-phosphate receptors on the surface of the deficient cells. These enzymes are produced at high levels by mammalian cells and depend on endogenous GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase α/β precursor to phosphorylate the mannose residues on their glycan chains. We show that co-expression of an engineered truncated GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase α/β precursor and the lysosomal enzyme of interest in the producing cells resulted in markedly increased phosphorylation and cellular uptake of the secreted lysosomal enzyme. This method also results in the production of highly phosphorylated acid β-glucocerebrosidase, a lysosomal enzyme that normally has just trace amounts of this modification.

  8. Stimuli-responsive PEGylated prodrugs for targeted doxorubicin delivery.

    PubMed

    Xu, Minghui; Qian, Junmin; Liu, Xuefeng; Liu, Ting; Wang, Hongjie

    2015-05-01

    In recent years, stimuli-sensitive prodrugs have been extensively studied for the rapid "burst" release of antitumor drugs to enhance chemotherapeutic efficiency. In this study, a novel stimuli-sensitive prodrug containing galactosamine as a targeting moiety, poly(ethylene glycol)-doxorubicin (PEG-DOX) conjugate, was developed for targeting HepG2 human liver cancer cells. To obtain the PEG-DOX conjugate, both galactosamine-decorated poly(ethylene glycol) aldehyde (Gal-PEG-CHO) and methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) aldehyde (mPEG-CHO) were firstly synthesized and functionalized with dithiodipropionate dihydrazide (TPH) through direct reductive amination via Schiff's base formation, and then DOX molecules were chemically conjugated to the hydrazide end groups of TPH-functionalized Gal-/m-PEG chains via pH-sensitive hydrazone linkages. The chemical structures of TPH-functionalized PEG and PEG-DOX prodrug were confirmed by (1)H NMR analysis. The PEG-DOX conjugate could self-assemble into spherical nanomicelles with a mean diameter of 140 nm, as indicated by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The drug loading content and loading efficiency in the prodrug nanomicelles were as high as 20 wt.% and 75 wt.%, respectively. In vitro drug release studies showed that DOX was released rapidly from the prodrug nanomicelles at the intracellular levels of pH and reducing agent. Cellular uptake and MTT experiments demonstrated that the galactosamine-decorated prodrug nanomicelles were more efficiently internalized into HepG2 cells via a receptor-mediated endocytosis process and exhibited a higher toxicity, compared with pristine prodrug nanomicelles. These results suggest that the novel Gal-PEG-DOX prodrug nanomicelles have tremendous potential for targeted liver cancer therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Synthesis and biological evaluation of S-acyl-3-thiopropyl prodrugs of N-phosphonoacetyl-L-aspartate (PALA).

    PubMed

    Gagnard, Valérie; Leydet, Alain; Le Mellay, Véronique; Aubenque, Marielle; Morère, Alain; Montero, Jean-Louis

    2003-10-01

    The synthesis of new prodrugs of PALA characterised by the presence of S-acyl-3-thiopropyl, as enzyme-labile groups on the phosphonate moiety of PALA, is reported. The cytotoxic activities of PALA prodrugs were determined against human cell line (SW1573 lung carcinoma cells). A number of prodrugs bearing S-pivaloyl as acyl groups displayed cytotoxic activity in the same order of magnitude of PALA.

  10. Enzyme-encapsulated silica nanoparticle for cancer chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Yi-Rong; Ho, Wei-Jen; Chao, Jiun-Shuan; Yuan, Chiun-Jye

    2012-03-01

    A novel horseradish peroxidase-encapsulated silica nanoparticle (SNP) was generated in this study under relatively mild conditions. The generated enzyme-encapsulated SNP were relatively uniform in size (average 70 ± 14.3 nm), monodispersed, and spherical, as characterized by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The horseradish peroxidase encapsulated in silica nanoparticle exhibits biological properties, such as a pH-dependent activity profile and k m value, similar to that of free enzymes. Furthermore, enzyme-encapsulated SNP exhibited good operational stability for the repetitive usage with a relative standard deviation of 5.1 % ( n = 10) and a high stability for long term storage (>60 days) at 4 °C. The feasibility of using enzyme-encapsulated SNP in prodrug cancer therapy was also demonstrated by its capability to convert the prodrug indole-3-acetic acid into cytotoxic peroxyl radicals and trigger the death of tumor cells. These results indicate that the developed enzyme-encapsulated SNP has potential in the applications of prodrug cancer therapy.

  11. Smart Cu(II)-aptamer complexes based gold nanoplatform for tumor micro-environment triggered programmable intracellular prodrug release, photodynamic treatment and aggregation induced photothermal therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Da; Zheng, Aixian; Li, Juan; Wu, Ming; Wu, Lingjie; Wei, Zuwu; Liao, Naishun; Zhang, Xiaolong; Cai, Zhixiong; Yang, Huanghao; Liu, Gang; Liu, Xiaolong; Liu, Jingfeng

    2017-01-01

    This study describes smart Cu(II)-aptamer complexes based gold nanoplatform for tumor micro-environment triggered programmable prodrug release, in demand photodynamic therapy and aggregation induced photothermal ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma. The nanoplatform is consist of monodispersed gold nanoparticle (GNP) that is binding to HCC cell specific targeting aptamers (TLS11a) through Au-S bond; the aptamer is labeled with Ce6 at the 5'end and coordinated with Cu(II) through (GA) 10 repeating bases to load AQ4N at the 3' end. In normal physiological conditions, the fluorescence and ROS generation ability of Ce6 are quenched by GNPs via RET; but in cancerous cells, the fluorescence and the ROS generation of Ce6 could be recovered by cleavage of Au-S bond through high level of intracellular GSH for real-time imaging and in demand PDT. Meanwhile, the prodrug AQ4N release could be triggered by acid-cleavage of coordination bonds, then accompanied by a release of Cu(II) that would induce the electrostatic aggregation of GNPs for photo-thermal ablation; furthermore, the significantly enhanced chemotherapy efficiency could be achieved by PDT produced hypoxia to convert AQ4N into AQ4. In summary, here described nanoplatform with tumor cell specific responsive properties and programmable PDT/PTT/chemotherapy functions, might be an interesting synergistic strategy for HCC treatment.

  12. Pharmacological evaluation and preliminary pharmacokinetics studies of a new diclofenac prodrug without gastric ulceration effect.

    PubMed

    Santos, Jean Leandro Dos; Moreira, Vanessa; Campos, Michel Leandro; Chelucci, Rafael Consolin; Barbieri, Karina Pereira; de Castro Souto, Pollyana Cristina Maggio; Matsubara, Márcio Hideki; Teixeira, Catarina; Bosquesi, Priscila Longhin; Peccinini, Rosângela Gonçalves; Chin, Chung Man

    2012-11-19

    Long-term nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) therapy has been associated with several adverse effects such as gastric ulceration and cardiovascular events. Among the molecular modifications strategies, the prodrug approach is a useful tool to discover new safe NSAIDs. The 1-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)indolin-2-one is a diclofenac prodrug which demonstrated relevant anti-inflammatory properties without gastro ulceration effect. In addition, the prodrug decreases PGE(2) levels, COX-2 expression and cellular influx into peritoneal cavity induced by carrageenan treatment. Preliminary pharmacokinetic studies have shown in vivo bioconversion of prodrug to diclofenac. This prodrug is a new nonulcerogenic NSAID useful to treat inflammatory events by long-term therapy.

  13. Pharmacological Evaluation and Preliminary Pharmacokinetics Studies of a New Diclofenac Prodrug without Gastric Ulceration Effect

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Jean Leandro; Moreira, Vanessa; Campos, Michel Leandro; Chelucci, Rafael Consolin; Barbieri, Karina Pereira; de Castro Souto, Pollyana Cristina Maggio; Matsubara, Márcio Hideki; Teixeira, Catarina; Bosquesi, Priscila Longhin; Peccinini, Rosângela Gonçalves; Chin, Chung Man

    2012-01-01

    Long-term nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) therapy has been associated with several adverse effects such as gastric ulceration and cardiovascular events. Among the molecular modifications strategies, the prodrug approach is a useful tool to discover new safe NSAIDs. The 1-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)indolin-2-one is a diclofenac prodrug which demonstrated relevant anti-inflammatory properties without gastro ulceration effect. In addition, the prodrug decreases PGE2 levels, COX-2 expression and cellular influx into peritoneal cavity induced by carrageenan treatment. Preliminary pharmacokinetic studies have shown in vivo bioconversion of prodrug to diclofenac. This prodrug is a new nonulcerogenic NSAID useful to treat inflammatory events by long-term therapy. PMID:23203127

  14. Hypoxia Activated Prodrugs: Factors Influencing Design and Development.

    PubMed

    Liang, Dinghua; Miller, Graham H; Tranmer, Geoffrey K

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia in tumor cells is characterized by a lack of oxygen resulting from reduced blood supply to the surrounding tissue, and is a common characteristic of solid tumors as a consequence of rapid cell growth. Hypoxia in tumors is a predictor of both resistance to chemotherapy and of a metastatic/aggressive form of cancer, and as a result, development of cancer therapies which target hypoxia is of vital importance. One such targeting strategy is the development of hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAP) which can preferentially release chemotherapeutic agents within hypoxic tumor regions. This targeting strategy is accomplished by attaching a hypoxia activated trigger to a chemotherapeutic agent and under oxygen-poor conditions, the agent (effector) is released into the tumor, while remaining intact in normal tissue, and leaving non-hypoxic cells undamaged. Overall, this strategy can achieve an increased therapeutic benefit over conventional small molecule chemotherapeutic treatments by concentrating the drugs within hypoxic tumor environments, while simultaneously reducing the side-effects and toxicity issues that surround the systemic distribution of traditional drugs on normoxic cells. In this review, we will describe the factors that should be considered when designing an effective HAP, such as the mechanism of prodrug action, the elements that influence the rational design of HAP (i.e. reduction potential), and the activating enzymes of HAP. As part of this description, we will utilize select examples from the literature to reinforce these factors, and make a case for the intelligent design of new HAPs, leading to the development of novel hypoxia targeting chemotherapeutic agents.

  15. Prodrug Strategies for Paclitaxel

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Ziyuan; Lv, Quanxia; Lu, Jun; Yao, Houzong; Lv, Xiaoqing; Jiang, Feng; Lu, Aiping; Zhang, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Paclitaxel is an anti-tumor agent with remarkable anti-tumor activity and wide clinical uses. However, it is also faced with various challenges especially for its poor water solubility and low selectivity for the target. To overcome these disadvantages of paclitaxel, approaches using small molecule modifications and macromolecule modifications have been developed by many research groups from all over the world. In this review, we discuss the different strategies especially prodrug strategies that are currently used to make paclitaxel more effective. PMID:27223283

  16. Investigations in enzyme replacement therapy in lipid storage diseases.

    PubMed

    Brady, R O; Pentchev, P G; Gal, A G

    1975-04-01

    Enzyme replacement appears to offer much promise as specific therapeutic procedures for patients with Fabry's disease and Gaucher's disease. However, enzyme replacement in patients with Tay-Sachs disease and other heritable metabolic disorders where the central nervous system is affected will require first the development of effective methods for the delivery of exogenous enzymes to the brain; such methods are not yet available.

  17. Enzyme

    MedlinePlus

    Enzymes are complex proteins that cause a specific chemical change in all parts of the body. For ... use them. Blood clotting is another example of enzymes at work. Enzymes are needed for all body ...

  18. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors' Influence on Antiplatelet Therapy of Clopidogrel in ACS.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuo; Cui, Chanjuan; Zhang, Jie; Qiao, Rui

    2016-10-01

    Clopidogrel is a prodrug, the minority of which is converted to an active metabolite by hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP2C19), however, most of it is metabolized to inactive substance by hepatic carboxylesterase1 (CES1). Meanwhile angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) are mostly metabolized by CES1. We aimed to assess the impact of ACEIs on platelet inhibition by clopidogrel. We genotyped variants CES1, CYP2C19*2 and *3 in 502 patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) receiving clopidogrel therapy, and analyzed the effects of ACEIs on responsiveness to clopidogrel by the vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation assay and ADP-stimulated impedance whole blood platelet aggregation assay. It showed that the allele frequency of CES1 c.428A was 0% in these patients. 45.22% (227/502) of these patients were carriers of CYP2C19*2 or CYP2C9*3 loss-of-function alleles. Among them, 57.71% (131/227) of the patients with CYP2C19 variants received ACEIs therapy. In a total of 502 patients, there was no difference in the VASP-PRI or the impedance whole blood platelet aggregation assay between the ACEIs group and non-ACEIs group [56.26 ± 14.55% versus 57.76 ± 13.56%, p = 0.241; 0 (0 - 2) Ω vs. 0 (0 - 2) Ω, p = 0.856]. In the CYP2C19 variant patients, there was no difference in the VASP-PRI or the impedance whole blood platelet aggregation assay between ACEIs group and non-ACEIs group [57.24 ± 15.12% versus 58.07 ± 13.90%, p = 0.667; 0 (0 - 2) Ω versus 0 (0 - 2) Ω, p = 0.536]. In the subgroups of ACS patients (unstable angina, non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction), there was no difference in the VASP-PRI between the ACEIs group and non-ACEIs group [55.81 ± 15.24% versus 58.37 ± 13.31%, p = 0.103; 55.76 ± 15.20% versus 49.09 ± 15.22%, p = 0.098; 58.13 ± 11.48% versus 61.87 ± 10.34%, p = 0.221], and there was no difference in the impedance whole blood platelet aggregation assay between

  19. Cytomegalovirus Protease Targeted Prodrug Development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a prevalent virus that infects up to 90% of the population. The goal of this research is to determine if small molecular prodrug substrates can be developed for a specific HCMV encoded protease and thus achieve site-specific activation. HCMV encodes a 256 amino acid serine protease that is responsible for capsid assembly, an essential process for herpes virus production. The esterase activity of the more stable HCMV A143T/A144T protease mutant was evaluated with model p-nitrophenol (ONp) esters, Boc-Xaa-ONp (Ala, Leu, Ile, Val, Gln, Phe at the Xaa position). We demonstrate that the A143T/A144T mutant has esterase activity toward specific small ester compounds, e.g., Boc-l-Ala-ONp. Mono amino acid and dipeptide prodrugs of ganciclovir (GCV) were also synthesized and evaluated for hydrolysis by the A143T/A144T protease mutant in solution. Hydrolysis of these prodrugs was also evaluated in Caco-2 cell homogenates, human liver microsomes (HLMs), and rat and human plasma. For the selectivity potential of the prodrugs, the hydrolysis ratio was evaluated as a percentage of prodrug hydrolyzed by the HCMV protease over the percentages of prodrug hydrolyses by Caco-2 cell homogenates, HLMs, and human/rat plasma. A dipeptide prodrug of ganciclovir, Ac-l-Gln-l-Ala-GCV, emerged as a potential selective prodrug candidate. The results of this research demonstrate that targeting prodrugs for activation by a specific protease encoded by the infectious HCMV pathogen may be achievable. PMID:23485093

  20. Cytomegalovirus protease targeted prodrug development.

    PubMed

    Sabit, Hairat; Dahan, Arik; Sun, Jing; Provoda, Chester J; Lee, Kyung-Dall; Hilfinger, John H; Amidon, Gordon L

    2013-04-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a prevalent virus that infects up to 90% of the population. The goal of this research is to determine if small molecular prodrug substrates can be developed for a specific HCMV encoded protease and thus achieve site-specific activation. HCMV encodes a 256 amino acid serine protease that is responsible for capsid assembly, an essential process for herpes virus production. The esterase activity of the more stable HCMV A143T/A144T protease mutant was evaluated with model p-nitrophenol (ONp) esters, Boc-Xaa-ONp (Ala, Leu, Ile, Val, Gln, Phe at the Xaa position). We demonstrate that the A143T/A144T mutant has esterase activity toward specific small ester compounds, e.g., Boc-L-Ala-ONp. Mono amino acid and dipeptide prodrugs of ganciclovir (GCV) were also synthesized and evaluated for hydrolysis by the A143T/A144T protease mutant in solution. Hydrolysis of these prodrugs was also evaluated in Caco-2 cell homogenates, human liver microsomes (HLMs), and rat and human plasma. For the selectivity potential of the prodrugs, the hydrolysis ratio was evaluated as a percentage of prodrug hydrolyzed by the HCMV protease over the percentages of prodrug hydrolyses by Caco-2 cell homogenates, HLMs, and human/rat plasma. A dipeptide prodrug of ganciclovir, Ac-l-Gln-l-Ala-GCV, emerged as a potential selective prodrug candidate. The results of this research demonstrate that targeting prodrugs for activation by a specific protease encoded by the infectious HCMV pathogen may be achievable.

  1. Chemical and enzymatic stability of amino acid prodrugs containing methoxy, ethoxy and propylene glycol linkers.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Deepak; Gupta, Sheeba Varghese; Lee, Kyung-Dall; Amidon, Gordon L

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the chemical and enzymatic stabilities of prodrugs containing methoxy, ethoxy and propylene glycol linkers in order to find a suitable linker for prodrugs of carboxylic acids with amino acids. l-Valine and l-phenylalanine prodrugs of model compounds (benzoic acid and phenyl acetic acid) containing methoxy, ethoxy and propylene glycol linkers were synthesized. The hydrolysis rate profile of each compound was studied at physiologically relevant pHs (1.2, 4, 6 and 7.4). Enzymatic hydrolysis of propylene glycol containing compounds was studied using Caco-2 homogenate as well as purified enzyme valacyclovirase. It was observed that the stability of the prodrugs increases with the linker length (propyl > ethyl > methyl). The model prodrugs were stable at acidic pH as compared to basic pH. It was observed that the prodrug with the aliphatic amino acid promoiety was more stable compared to its aromatic counterpart. The comparison between benzyl and the phenyl model compounds revealed that the amino acid side chain is significant in determining the stability of the prodrug whereas the benzyl or phenyl carboxylic acid had little or no effect on the stability. The enzymatic activation studies of propylene glycol linker prodrug in the presence of valacyclovirase and cell homogenate showed faster generation of the parent drug at pH 7.4. The half-life of prodrugs at pH 7.4 was more than 12 h, whereas in the presence of cell homogenate the half-lives were less than 1 h. Hydrolysis by Caco-2 homogenate generated the parent compound in two steps, where the prodrug was first converted to the intermediate, propylene glycol benzoate, which was then converted to the parent compound (benzoic acid). Enzymatic hydrolysis of propylene glycol containing prodrugs by valacyclovirase showed hydrolysis of the amino acid ester part to generate the propylene glycol ester of model compound (propylene glycol benzoate) as the major product. The amino acid prodrugs containing methoxy

  2. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy for pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in the 21st century

    PubMed Central

    Trang, Tony; Chan, Johanna; Graham, David Y

    2014-01-01

    Restitution of normal fat absorption in exocrine pancreatic insufficiency remains an elusive goal. Although many patients achieve satisfactory clinical results with enzyme therapy, few experience normalization of fat absorption, and many, if not most, will require individualized therapy. Increasing the quantity of lipase administered rarely eliminates steatorrhea but increases the cost of therapy. Enteric coated enzyme microbead formulations tend to separate from nutrients in the stomach precluding coordinated emptying of enzymes and nutrients. Unprotected enzymes mix well and empty with nutrients but are inactivated at pH 4 or below. We describe approaches for improving the results of enzyme therapy including changing to, or adding, a different product, adding non-enteric coated enzymes, (e.g., giving unprotected enzymes at the start of the meal and acid-protected formulations later), use of antisecretory drugs and/or antacids, and changing the timing of enzyme administration. Because considerable lipid is emptied in the first postprandial hour, it is prudent to start therapy with enteric coated microbead prior to the meal so that some enzymes are available during that first hour. Patients with hyperacidity may benefit from adjuvant antisecretory therapy to reduce the duodenal acid load and possibly also sodium bicarbonate to prevent duodenal acidity. Comparative studies of clinical effectiveness of different formulations as well as the characteristics of dispersion, emptying, and dissolution of enteric-coated microspheres of different diameter and density are needed; many such studies have been completed but not yet made public. We discuss the history of pancreatic enzyme therapy and describe current use of modern preparations, approaches to overcoming unsatisfactory clinical responses, as well as studies needed to be able to provide reliably effective therapy. PMID:25206255

  3. Synthesis of a novel legumain-cleavable colchicine prodrug with cell-specific toxicity.

    PubMed

    Smith, Robert Løvsletten; Åstrand, Ove Alexander Høgmoen; Nguyen, Luan Minh; Elvestrand, Tina; Hagelin, Gunnar; Solberg, Rigmor; Johansen, Harald Thidemann; Rongved, Pål

    2014-07-01

    Conventional chemotherapy has undesirable toxic side-effects to healthy tissues due to low cell selectivity of cytotoxic drugs. One approach to increase the specificity of a cytotoxic drug is to make a less toxic prodrug which becomes activated at the tumour site. The cysteine protease legumain have remarkable restricted substrate specificity and is the only known mammalian asparaginyl (Asn) endopeptidase. Over-expression of legumain is reported in cancers and unstable atherosclerotic plaques, and utilizing legumain is a promising approach to activate prodrugs. In this study we have synthesized the legumain-cleavable peptide sequence N-Boc-Ala-Ala-Asn-Val-OH. The peptide was subsequently conjugated to deacetyl colchicine during three steps to produce Suc-Ala-Ala-Asn-Val-colchicine (prodrug) with >90% chemical purity. Several cell lines with different expressions and activities of legumain were used to evaluate the general toxicity, specificity and efficacy of the microtubule inhibitor colchicine, valyl colchicine and the legumain-cleavable colchicine prodrug. The prodrug was more toxic to the colorectal cancer HCT116 cells (expressing both the 36kDa active and 56kDa proform of legumain) than SW620 cells (only expressing the 56kDa prolegumain) indicating a relationship between toxicity of the prodrug and activity of legumain in the cells. Also, in monoclonal legumain over-expressing HEK293 cells the prodrug toxicity was higher compared to native HEK293 cells. Furthermore, co-administration of the prodrug either with the potent legumain inhibitor cystatin E/M or the endocytosis inhibitor Dyngo-4a inhibited cell death, indicating that the prodrug toxicity was dependent on both asparaginyl endopeptidase activity and endocytosis. This colchicine prodrug adds to a legumain-activated prodrug strategy approach and could possibly be of use both in targeted anticancer and anti-inflammatory therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Combined miglustat and enzyme replacement therapy in two patients with type 1 Gaucher disease: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Amato, Dominick; Patterson, Mary Anne

    2018-01-27

    Intravenous enzyme replacement therapy is a first-line therapy for Gaucher disease type 1, and substrate reduction therapy represents an oral treatment alternative. Both enzyme replacement therapy and substrate reduction therapy are generally used as monotherapies in Gaucher disease. However, one randomized study and several case reports have described combination therapy over short time periods. We report two female Gaucher disease type 1 patients of mainly Anglo-Saxon descent, where combined enzyme replacement therapy and miglustat substrate reduction therapy were administered to overcome refractory clinical symptoms. The first patient was diagnosed at age 17 and developed Gaucher disease-related bone manifestations that worsened despite starting imiglucerase enzyme replacement therapy. After switching to miglustat substrate reduction therapy, her bone symptoms improved, but she developed tremors and eventually switched back to enzyme replacement therapy. Miglustat was later recommenced in combination with ongoing enzyme replacement therapy due to continued bone pain, and her bone symptoms improved along with maintained visceral manifestations. Enzyme replacement therapy was subsequently tapered off and the patient has since been successfully maintained on miglustat. The second patient was diagnosed aged 3, and commenced imiglucerase enzyme replacement therapy aged 15. After 9 years on enzyme replacement therapy she switched to miglustat substrate reduction therapy and her core symptoms were maintained/stable for 3 years. Imiglucerase enzyme replacement therapy was later added as a boost to therapy and her symptoms were subsequently maintained over a 2.3-year period. However, miglustat was discontinued due to her relocation, necessitating an increase in enzyme replacement therapy dose. Overall, both patients benefited from combination therapy. While the majority of Gaucher disease type 1 patients will not need treatment with both substrate reduction therapy

  5. Impact of enzyme replacement therapy on cardiac morphology and function and late enhancement in Fabry's cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Beer, Meinrad; Weidemann, Frank; Breunig, Frank; Knoll, Anita; Koeppe, Sabrina; Machann, Wolfram; Hahn, Dietbert; Wanner, Christoph; Strotmann, Jörg; Sandstede, Jörn

    2006-05-15

    The present study evaluated the evolution of cardiac morphology, function, and late enhancement as a noninvasive marker of myocardial fibrosis, and their inter-relation during enzyme replacement therapy in patients with Fabry's disease using magnetic resonance imaging and color Doppler myocardial imaging. Late enhancement, which was present in up to 50% of patients, was associated with increased left ventricular mass, the failure of a significant regression of hypertrophy during enzyme replacement therapy, and worse segmental myocardial function. Late enhancement may predict the effect of enzyme replacement therapy on left ventricular mass and cardiac function.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of enzyme replacement therapy for Fabry disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The cost-effectiveness of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) compared to standard medical care was evaluated in the Dutch cohort of patients with Fabry disease. Methods Cost-effectiveness analysis was performed using a life-time state-transition model. Transition probabilities, effectiveness data and costs were derived from retrospective data and prospective follow-up of the Dutch study cohort consisting of males and females aged 5–78 years. Intervention with ERT (either agalsidase alfa or agalsidase beta) was compared to the standard medical care. The main outcome measures were years without end organ damage (renal, cardiac en cerebrovascular complications), quality adjusted life years (QALYs), and costs. Results Over a 70 year lifetime, an untreated Fabry patient will generate 55.0 years free of end-organ damage (53.5 years in males, 56.9 years in females) and 48.6 QALYs (47.8 in males, 49.7 in females). Starting ERT in a symptomatic patient increases the number of years free of end-organ damage by 1.5 year (1.6 in males, 1.3 in females), while the number of QALYs gained increases by a similar amount (1.7 in males, 1.4 in females). The costs of ERT starting in the symptomatic stage are between €9 - €10 million (£ 7.9 - £ 8.8 million, $13.0- $14.5 million) during a patient’s lifetime. Consequently, the extra costs per additional year free of end-organ damage and the extra costs per additional QALY range from €5.5 - €7.5 million (£ 4.8 – £ 6.6 million, $ 8.0 – $ 10.8 million), undiscounted. Conclusions In symptomatic patients with Fabry disease, ERT has limited effect on quality of life and progression to end organ damage. The pharmaco-economic evaluation shows that this modest effectiveness drives the costs per QALY and the costs per year free of end-organ damage to millions of euros. Differentiation of patients who may benefit from ERT should be improved to enhance cost-effectiveness. PMID:23421808

  7. Development and validation of LC-MS/MS assay for the determination of the prodrug Midodrine and its active metabolite Desglymidodrine in plasma of ascitic patients: Application to individualized therapy and comparative pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ahmed A; Al-Ghobashy, Medhat A; Farid, Samar F; Kassem, Mohamed A

    2015-06-01

    Midodrine (MD) is a prodrug that is converted after oral administration to Desglymidodrine (DMD). In this study, an LC-MS/MS assay was developed and validated for investigation of the pharmacokinetics of MD and DMD in non azotemic patients with liver cirrhosis and tense ascites. Results were compared to those noted with healthy volunteers following the adminstration of a single oral dose of MD. Sample preparation was performed by liquid-liquid extraction using t-butyl methyl ether. HPLC separation was carried out using RP C18 column (4.6mm×50mm, 5μm). Isocratic elution was performed using methanol:0.2% formic acid (70:30, v/v) as the mobile phase, at a flow rate of 0.7mL/min. Tandem mass spectrometric detection was employed at positive electrospray ionization in MRM mode for the determination of MD and DMD. Analysis was carried out within 1.0min over a concentration range of 0.50-40.00ng/mL for the prodrug and its active metabolite. The assay was validated according to FDA guidelines for bioanalytical method validation and satisfactory results were obtained. The applicability of the assay for the determination of the pharmacokinetic parameters of MD and DMD and personalized therapy was demonstrated in healthy volunteers and ascitic patients. Results revealed significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters among the studied groups. Such differences were explained on the basis of the medical condition and co-adminstered medications exerting possible drug-drug interaction. Results confirmed the need for implementation of reliable analysis tools for therapeutic dose adjustment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Polymeric prodrug combination to exploit the therapeutic potential of antimicrobial peptides against cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kelly, G J; Kia, A Foltyn-Arfa; Hassan, F; O'Grady, S; Morgan, M P; Creaven, B S; McClean, S; Harmey, J H; Devocelle, M

    2016-10-04

    Antimicrobial Peptides (AMPs) have unique anticancer properties, but their clinical application is currently limited by an inadequate margin of safety. A prodrug strategy associated with a combination therapy approach could address this limitation by increasing their therapeutic index and their efficacy. Accordingly, the first targeted anticancer polymeric prodrug candidates of AMPs, intended for combination therapy with another polymeric prodrug of an approved antineoplastic agent (doxorubicin), were synthesized as either a PEG-based dual-release prodrug or two individual pegylated prodrugs. The latter are based on a cathepsin B-labile peptide linker and an acid-sensitive acyl hydrazone bond for the AMP and doxorubicin prodrugs, respectively. Anticancer activities and toxicity differentials achieved with the free peptide and its polymer conjugates against ovarian, cancer and non-malignant, cells, indicate that protease-dependent reversible pegylation could be implemented to increase the therapeutic indices of AMPs in cancer therapy. The results obtained also show that this approach can be developed if the releasable PEG linker can be optimised to conciliate the attributes and restrictions of pegylation against proteases. In addition, combination of the polymeric prodrugs of the AMP and of doxorubicin provides additive antitumor effects which could be exploited to enhance the efficacy of the AMP candidate.

  9. Development of macromolecular prodrug for rheumatoid arthritis☆

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Fang; Quan, Ling-dong; Cui, Liao; Goldring, Steven R.; Wang, Dong

    2012-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease that is considered to be one of the major public health problems worldwide. The development of therapies that target tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and co-stimulatory pathways that regulate the immune system have revolutionized the care of patients with RA. Despite these advances, many patients continue to experience symptomatic and functional impairment. To address this issue, more recent therapies that have been developed are designed to target intracellular signaling pathways involved in immunoregulation. Though this approach has been encouraging, there have been major challenges with respect to off-target organ side effects and systemic toxicities related to the widespread distribution of these signaling pathways in multiple cell types and tissues. These limitations have led to an increasing interest in the development of strategies for the macromolecularization of anti-rheumatic drugs, which could target them to the inflamed joints. This approach enhances the efficacy of the therapeutic agent with respect to synovial inflammation, while markedly reducing non-target organ adverse side effects. In this manuscript, we provide a comprehensive overview of the rational design and optimization of macromolecular prodrugs for treatment of RA. The superior and the sustained efficacy of the prodrug may be partially attributed to their Extravasation through Leaky Vasculature and subsequent Inflammatory cell-mediated Sequestration (ELVIS) in the arthritic joints. This biologic process provides a plausible mechanism, by which macromolecular prodrugs preferentially target arthritic joints and illustrates the potential benefits of applying this therapeutic strategy to the treatment of other inflammatory diseases. PMID:22433784

  10. Development of macromolecular prodrug for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Fang; Quan, Ling-dong; Cui, Liao; Goldring, Steven R; Wang, Dong

    2012-09-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease that is considered to be one of the major public health problems worldwide. The development of therapies that target tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and co-stimulatory pathways that regulate the immune system have revolutionized the care of patients with RA. Despite these advances, many patients continue to experience symptomatic and functional impairment. To address this issue, more recent therapies that have been developed are designed to target intracellular signaling pathways involved in immunoregulation. Though this approach has been encouraging, there have been major challenges with respect to off-target organ side effects and systemic toxicities related to the widespread distribution of these signaling pathways in multiple cell types and tissues. These limitations have led to an increasing interest in the development of strategies for the macromolecularization of anti-rheumatic drugs, which could target them to the inflamed joints. This approach enhances the efficacy of the therapeutic agent with respect to synovial inflammation, while markedly reducing non-target organ adverse side effects. In this manuscript, we provide a comprehensive overview of the rational design and optimization of macromolecular prodrugs for treatment of RA. The superior and the sustained efficacy of the prodrug may be partially attributed to their Extravasation through Leaky Vasculature and subsequent Inflammatory cell-mediated Sequestration (ELVIS) in the arthritic joints. This biologic process provides a plausible mechanism, by which macromolecular prodrugs preferentially target arthritic joints and illustrates the potential benefits of applying this therapeutic strategy to the treatment of other inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A biochemical and physicochemical comparison of two recombinant enzymes used for enzyme replacement therapies of hunter syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yo Kyung; Sohn, Young Bae; Sohn, Jong Mun; Lee, Jieun; Chang, Mi Sun; Kwun, Younghee; Kim, Chi Hwa; Lee, Jin Young; Yook, Yeon Joo; Ko, Ah-Ra; Jin, Dong-Kyu

    2014-05-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis II (MPS II, Hunter syndrome; OMIM 309900) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency in the enzyme iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS), leading to accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). For enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) of Hunter syndrome, two recombinant enzymes, idursulfase (Elaprase(®), Shire Human Genetic Therapies, Lexington, MA) and idursulfase beta (Hunterase(®), Green Cross Corporation, Yongin, Korea), are currently available in Korea. To compare the biochemical and physicochemical differences between idursulfase and idursulfase beta, we examined the formylglycine (FGly) content, specific enzyme activity, mannose-6-phosphate (M6P) content, sialic acid content, and in vitro cell uptake activity of normal human fibroblasts of these two enzymes.The FGly content, which determines the enzyme activity, of idursulfase beta was significantly higher than that of idursulfase (79.4 ± 0.9 vs. 68.1 ± 2.2 %, P < 0.001). In accordance with the FGly content, the specific enzyme activity of idursulfase beta was significantly higher than that of idursulfase (42.6 ± 1.1 vs. 27.8 ± 0.9 nmol/min/μg protein, P < 0.001). The levels of M6P and sialic acid were not significantly different (2.4 ± 0.1 vs 2.4 ± 0.3 mol/mol protein for M6P and 12.3 ± 0.7 vs. 12.4 ± 0.4 mol/mol protein for sialic acid). However, the cellular uptake activity of the normal human fibroblasts in vitro showed a significant difference (Kuptake, 5.09 ± 0.96 vs. 6.50 ± 1.28 nM protein, P = 0.017).In conclusion, idursulfase beta exhibited significantly higher specific enzyme activity than idursulfase, resulting from higher FGly content. These biochemical differences may be partly attributed to clinical efficacy. However, long-term clinical evaluations of Hunter syndrome patients treated with these two enzymes will be needed to demonstrate the clinical implications of significant difference of the enzyme activity and the FGly content.

  12. Prodrug strategy for cancer cell-specific targeting: A recent overview.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xian; Li, Xiang; You, Qidong; Zhang, Xiaojin

    2017-10-20

    The increasing development of targeted cancer therapy provides extensive possibilities in clinical trials, and numerous strategies have been explored. The prodrug is one of the most promising strategies in targeted cancer therapy to improve the selectivity and efficacy of cytotoxic compounds. Compared with normal tissues, cancer cells are characterized by unique aberrant markers, thus inactive prodrugs targeting these markers are excellent therapeutics to release active drugs, killing cancer cells without damaging normal tissues. In this review, we explore an integrated view of potential prodrugs applied in targeted cancer therapy based on aberrant cancer specific markers and some examples are provided for inspiring new ideas of prodrug strategy for cancer cell-specific targeting. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. Colchicine prodrugs and codrugs: Chemistry and bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Ghawanmeh, Abdullah A; Chong, Kwok Feng; Sarkar, Shaheen M; Bakar, Muntaz Abu; Othaman, Rizafizah; Khalid, Rozida M

    2018-01-20

    Antimitotic colchicine possesses low therapeutic index due to high toxicity effects in non-target cell. However, diverse colchicine analogs have been derivatized as intentions for toxicity reduction and structure-activity relationship (SAR) studying. Hybrid system of colchicine structure with nontoxic biofunctional compounds modified further affords a new entity in chemical structure with enhanced activity and selectivity. Moreover, nanocarrier formulation strategies have been used for colchicine delivery. This review paper focuses on colchicine nanoformulation, chemical synthesis of colchicine prodrugs and codrugs with different linkers, highlights linker chemical nature and biological activity of synthesized compounds. Additionally, classification of colchicine prodrugs based on type of conjugates is discussed, as biopolymers prodrugs, fluorescent prodrug, metal complexes prodrug, metal-labile prodrug and bioconjugate prodrug. Finally, we briefly summarized the biological importance of colchicine nanoformulation, colchicine prodrugs and codrugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens YwrO enzyme

    SciTech Connect

    AbuKhader, Majed M.; Heap, John; De Matteis, Cristina I.

    2007-09-01

    The novel bacterial nitroreductase YwrO from B. amyloliquefaciens has been crystallized in two different crystal forms. An initial molecular-replacement solution has been obtained using the mammalian NQO2 structure. CB1954 is an anticancer prodrug that is currently in clinical trials coupled with the Escherichia coli flavoenzyme nitroreductase (NTR) for use in directed-enzyme prodrug therapy (DEPT). The NTR enzyme is responsible for the conversion of the prodrug into a cytotoxic agent. The bifunctional alkylating agent produced by this bioactivation process leads to DNA damage and death of cancer cells. Recently, a novel flavoenzyme from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, YwrO (Bam YwrO), was reported tomore » be able to reduce CB1954 from its noncytotoxic form into its active form. The crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of two crystal forms of Bam YwrO are reported. The first crystal form is orthorhombic, with space group P22{sub 1}2{sub 1}, and diffracts X-rays to 2.18 Å resolution. The second crystal form is tetragonal, with space group P4{sub 1}, and diffracts X-rays to 3.4 Å. Determination of the Bam YwrO crystal structure will provide an understanding of the molecular recognition between this enzyme and the anticancer prodrug CB1954.« less

  15. Improved peptide prodrugs of 5-ALA for PDT: rationalization of cellular accumulation and protoporphyrin IX production by direct determination of cellular prodrug uptake and prodrug metabolization.

    PubMed

    Giuntini, Francesca; Bourré, Ludovic; MacRobert, Alexander J; Wilson, Michael; Eggleston, Ian M

    2009-07-09

    Twenty-seven dipeptide derivatives of general structure Ac-Xaa-ALA-OR were synthesized as potential prodrugs for 5-aminolaevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT). Xaa is an alpha-amino acid, chosen to provide a prodrug with appropriately tailored lipophilicity and water solubility. Although no simple correlation is observed between downstream production of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in PAM212 keratinocytes and HPLC-derived descriptors of compound lipophilicity, quantification of prodrug uptake reveals that most of the dipeptides are actually more efficiently accumulated than ALA in PAM212 and also A549 and Caco-2 cell lines. Subsequent ALA release is the limiting factor, which emphasizes the importance of decoupling prodrug uptake and intracellular metabolization when assessing the efficacy of ALA derivatives for PDT. In agreement with PpIX fluorescence studies, at a concentration of 0.1 mM, l-Phe derivatives 4m and 4o, and l-Leu, l-Met, and l-Glu derivatives 4f, 4k, and 4u, exhibit significantly enhanced photoxicity in PAM212 cells compared to ALA.

  16. Reconversion of bone marrow in Gaucher disease treated with enzyme therapy documented by MR.

    PubMed

    Allison, J W; James, C A; Arnold, G L; Stine, K C; Becton, D L; Bell, J M

    1998-04-01

    Skeletal complications are responsible for significant morbidity in Gaucher patients. Plain radiographs have been unreliable in assessing bone marrow infiltration and activity. A way to assess bone marrow improvement is needed during enzyme therapy. The purpose of this paper is to assess the usefulness of MR in following improvement of abnormal bone marrow in Gaucher patients on enzyme therapy. Three patients aged 2, 7, and 24 years underwent serial MR scans of the lower extremities before and during treatment with Alglucerase (two patients) and Imiglucerase (one patient). T1-weighted, T2-weighted, STIR and FSE T2-weighted images were utilized. Two patients were imaged after 16 months of therapy, and one patient was imaged after 6 months of therapy. All patients had improvement in marrow signal consistent with partial reconversion to fatty marrow during treatment. The findings were more marked after prolonged therapy. T1-weighted images demonstrated findings most clearly. MR consistently showed improvement in marrow signal in Gaucher patients on enzyme therapy. As smaller doses of enzyme therapy are the trend, MR can be utilized to determine if therapy is effecting a change in the bone marrow.

  17. ¹¹¹In-DOTA-Annexin V for imaging of apoptosis during HSV1-tk/GCV prodrug activation gene therapy in mice with NG4TL4 sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ming-Hsien; Wu, Shih-Yen; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Liu, Ren-Shyan; Chen, Jyh-Cheng

    2016-02-01

    Apoptosis has been suggested as a cytocidal mechanism of the HSV1-tk-expressing cells when exposed to ganciclovir (GCV). This study evaluated the efficacy of (111)In-labeled Annexin V for monitoring tumor responses during prodrug activation gene therapy with HSV1-tk and GCV. Annexin V was conjugated to DOTA using N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide (sulfo-NHS) and 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide (EDC), labeled with (111)In-InCl3 and purified using size exclusion chromatography to give (111)In-DOTA-Annexin V conjugate. The radiochemical yield and the radiochemical purity of (111)In-DOTA-Annexin V were 74±12% and 98±3%, respectively (n=10). (111)In-DOTA-BSA was prepared similarly. An in vitro study to demonstrate the apoptosis of NG4TL4-STK cells after GCV treatment has been performed. Mice bearing NG4TL4-STK and NG4TL4-WT tumors were treated with GCV (10 mg/kg daily) by i.p. injection for 7 consecutive days. Before and during the GCV treatment, biodistribution studies and scintigraphic imaging were performed at 2h post injection of the radiotracers. The uptake of (111)In-DOTA-Annexin V in treated cells (13.41±1.30%) was 4.1 times higher than that in untreated cells (3.21±0.37%). The GCV-induced cell apoptosis in NG4TL4-STK tumor resulted in a significantly increasing accumulation of (111)In-DOTA-Annexin V (1.92±0.32%ID/g at day 0, 4.79±0.86%ID/g at day 2, 4.56±0.58%ID/g at day 4) was observed, but not for that of (111)In-DOTA-BSA. During consecutive GCV treatment, scintigraphic imaging with (111)In-DOTA-Annexin V revealed high uptake in NG4TL4-STK tumor compared with that in NG4TL4-WT tumor. However, no specific (111)In-DOTA-BSA accumulation in NG4TL4-STK and NG4TL4-WT tumors was observed throughout the course of GCV treatment. This study demonstrated that (111)In-DOTA-Annexin V can be used for monitoring tumor cell apoptosis during prodrug activation gene therapy with HSV1-tk and GCV for cancer treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  18. Computationally-designed phenylephrine prodrugs - a model for enhancing bioavailability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaman, Rafik; Karaman, Donia; Zeiadeh, Isra'

    2013-11-01

    DFT calculations at B3LYP 6-31G (d,p) for intramolecular proton transfer in a number of Kirby's enzyme models demonstrated that the driving force for the proton transfer efficiency is the distance between the two reactive centres (rGM) and the attack angle (α); and the rate of the reaction is linearly correlated with rGM2 and sin (180°- α). Based on these results three phenylephrine prodrugs were designed to provide phenylephrine with higher bioavailability than their parent drug. Using the experimental t1/2 (the time needed for the conversion of 50% of the reactants to products) and EM (effective molarity) values for these processes the t1/2 values for the conversion of the three prodrugs to the parent drug, phenylephrine were calculated. The calculated t1/2 values for ProD 1 and ProD 2 were very high (145 days and several years, respectively) whereas that of ProD 3 was found to be about 35 hours. Therefore, the intra-conversion rates of the phenylephrine prodrugs to phenylephrine can be programmed according to the nature of the prodrug linker.

  19. Trial watch – inhibiting PARP enzymes for anticancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sistigu, Antonella; Manic, Gwenola; Obrist, Florine; Vitale, Ilio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) are a members of family of enzymes that catalyze poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) and/or mono(ADP-ribosyl)ation (MARylation), two post-translational protein modifications involved in crucial cellular processes including (but not limited to) the DNA damage response (DDR). PARP1, the most abundant family member, is a nuclear protein that is activated upon sensing distinct types of DNA damage and contributes to their resolution by PARylating multiple DDR players. Recent evidence suggests that, along with DDR, activated PARP1 mediates a series of prosurvival and proapoptotic processes aimed at preserving genomic stability. Despite this potential oncosuppressive role, upregulation and/or overactivation of PARP1 or other PARP enzymes has been reported in a variety of human neoplasms. Over the last few decades, several pharmacologic inhibitors of PARP1 and PARP2 have been assessed in preclinical and clinical studies showing potent antineoplastic activity, particularly against homologous recombination (HR)-deficient ovarian and breast cancers. In this Trial Watch, we describe the impact of PARP enzymes and PARylation in cancer, discuss the mechanism of cancer cell killing by PARP1 inactivation, and summarize the results of recent clinical studies aimed at evaluating the safety and therapeutic profile of PARP inhibitors in cancer patients. PMID:27308587

  20. Strategies in the designing of prodrugs, taking into account the antiviral and anticancer compounds.

    PubMed

    Lesniewska-Kowiel, Monika A; Muszalska, Izabela

    2017-03-31

    Prodrugs are a wide group of substances of low or no pharmacological activity. The search for prodrugs is aimed at obtaining drugs characterized by better pharmacokinetic properties, pharmaceutical availability and selective activity of the active substance. Prodrug strategies involve chemical modifications and syntheses of new structures as well as the establishment of systems that deliver active substances for therapeutic aims that is prodrug-based treatments. The paper describes decisive factors in prodrug designing, such as enzymes participating in their activation, concepts of chemical modifications in the group of antiviral drugs and new anticancer treatments based on prodrugs (ADEPT, GDEPT, LEAPT). Prodrugs are seen as a possibility to design medicines which are selective for their therapeutic aim, for example a tumorous cell or a microorganism. Such an approach is possible thanks to the knowledge on: pathogenesis of diseases at molecular level, metabolism of healthy and affected cells as well as metabolism of microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, protozoa, etc.). Many drugs which have been used for years are still studied in relation to their metabolism and their molecular mechanism of operation, providing new knowledge on active substances. Many of them meet the criteria of being a prodrug. The paper indicates methods of discovering new structures or modifications of known structures and their synthesis as well as new therapeutic strategies using prodrugs, which are expected to be successful and to broaden the knowledge on what is happening to the drug in the body, in addition to providing a molecular explanation of xenobiotics activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Chemical synthesis of an indomethacin ester prodrug and its metabolic activation by human carboxylesterase 1.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masato; Ogawa, Tomohiro; Kashiwagi, Hiroshi; Fukushima, Fumiya; Yoshitsugu, Misaki; Haba, Masami; Hosokawa, Masakiyo

    2018-04-01

    It is necessary to consider the affinity of prodrugs for metabolic enzymes for efficient activation of the prodrugs in the body. Although many prodrugs have been synthesized with consideration of these chemical properties, there has been little study on the design of a structure with consideration of biological properties such as substrate recognition ability of metabolic enzymes. In this report, chemical synthesis and evaluation of indomethacin prodrugs metabolically activated by human carboxylesterase 1 (hCES1) are described. The synthesized prodrugs were subjected to hydrolysis reactions in solutions of human liver microsomes (HLM), human intestine microsomes (HIM) and hCES1, and the hydrolytic parameters were investigated to evaluate the hydrolytic rates of these prodrugs and to elucidate the substrate recognition ability of hCES1. It was found that the hydrolytic rates greatly change depending on the steric hindrance and stereochemistry of the ester in HLM, HIM and hCES1 solutions. Furthermore, in a hydrolysis reaction catalyzed by hCES1, the V max value of n-butyl thioester with chemically high reactivity was significantly lower than that of n-butyl ester. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of pyrrolobenzodiazepine-containing hypoxia-activated prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Dragovich, Peter S; Broccatelli, Fabio; Chen, Jinhua; Fan, Peter; Le, Hoa; Mao, Weiguang; Pillow, Thomas H; Polson, Andrew G; Wai, John; Xu, Zijin; Yao, Hui; Zhang, Donglu

    2017-12-01

    The ability of various pyrrolobenzodiazepine(PBD)-containing cytotoxic compounds to function as hypoxia-activated prodrugs was assessed. These molecules incorporated a 1-methyl-2-nitro-1H-imidazole hypoxia-activated trigger (present in the clinically evaluated compound TH-302) in a manner that masked a reactive imine moiety required for cytotoxic activity. Incubation of the prodrugs with cytochrome P450-reductase under normoxic and hypoxic conditions revealed that some, but not all, were efficient substrates for the enzyme. In these experiments, prodrugs derived from PBD-monomers underwent rapid conversion to the parent cytotoxic compounds under low-oxygen conditions while related PBD-dimers did not. The ability of a given prodrug to function as an efficient cytochrome P450-reductase substrate correlated with the ratio of cytotoxic potencies measured for the compound against NCI460 cells under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Design strategies in the prodrugs of HIV-1 protease inhibitors to improve the pharmaceutical properties.

    PubMed

    Subbaiah, Murugaiah A M; Meanwell, Nicholas A; Kadow, John F

    2017-10-20

    Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is currently the most effective treatment for HIV-1 infection. HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PIs) are an important component of some regimens of cART. However, PIs are known for sub-optimal ADME properties, resulting in poor oral bioavailability. This often necessitates high drug doses, combination with pharmacokinetic enhancers and/or special formulations in order to effectively deliver PIs, which may lead to a high pill burden and reduced patient compliance. As a remedy, improving the ADME properties of existing drugs via prodrug and other approaches has been pursued in addition to the development of next generation PIs with improved pharmacokinetic, resistance and side effect profiles. Phosphate prodrugs have been explored to address the solubility-limiting absorption and high excipient load. Prodrug design to target carrier-mediated drug delivery has also been explored. Amino acid prodrugs have been shown to improve permeability by engaging active transport mechanisms, reduce efflux and mitigate first pass metabolism while acyl migration prodrugs have been shown to improve solubility. Prodrug design efforts have led to the identification of one marketed agent, fosamprenavir, and clinical studies with two other prodrugs. Several of the reported approaches lack detailed in vivo characterization and hence the potential preclinical or clinical benefits of these approaches are yet to be fully determined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Prodrugs: Some thoughts and current issues.

    PubMed

    Stella, Valentino J

    2010-12-01

    The prodrug approach to resolving formulation, delivery, and toxicity limitations on problematic drugs has had its proponents and detractors. Over the last 10 years or so, about 20% of all new small molecule NCEs have been prodrugs-a number that will surprise some. As chemists begin to explore new chemical spaces, larger and more complex molecules present greater drug delivery challenges. Prodrugs provide a means of solving these challenges, but also have their limitations. Prodrugs are becoming an integral part of the drug discovery paradigm in some large pharma companies, and a number of small biotech companies have been built around the design and application of prodrugs to improve drug candidates. Some issues facing the area of prodrug research and the commercialization of prodrugs are discussed. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  5. Enzyme targeting strategies for prevention and treatment of cancer: Implications for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Baig, Mohammad Hassan; Adil, Mohd; Khan, Rosina; Dhadi, Surendar; Ahmad, Khurshid; Rabbani, Gulam; Bashir, Tufail; Imran, Mohammad Azhar; Husain, Fohad Mabood; Lee, Eun Ju; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Choi, Inho

    2017-12-14

    Extensive growth of cancer in humans is a major cause of death. Numerous studies are being conducted to improve the early diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of cancer. Recent technological advancements in medical science and research indicate molecular target therapy holds much promise in cancer treatment. In the past, therapeutic and diagnostic targeting of non-glycolytic and glycolytic enzymes in cancer have been successful, and discoveries of biomarker enzymes in cancer hold promise for therapeutic treatments. In this review, we discuss the roles of several cancer-associated enzymes that could potentially act as therapeutic targets, and place special focus on non-glycolytic and glycolytic enzymes. This review indicates that the targeting of metabolic signaling offers a promising means of developing novel anti-cancer therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. GSH-Activated NIR Fluorescent Prodrug for Podophyllotoxin Delivery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yajing; Zhu, Shaojia; Gu, Kaizhi; Guo, Zhiqian; Huang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Mingwei; Amin, Hesham M; Zhu, Weihong; Shi, Ping

    2017-09-06

    Theranostic prodrug therapy enables the targeted delivery of anticancer drugs with minimized adverse effects and real-time in situ monitoring of activation of the prodrugs. In this work, we report the synthesis and biological assessment of the near-infrared (NIR) prodrug DCM-S-PPT and its amphiphilic copolymer (mPEG-DSPE)-encapsulated nanoparticles. DCM-S-PPT is composed of podophyllotoxin (PPT) as the anticancer moiety and a dicyanomethylene-4H-pyran (DCM) derivative as the NIR fluorescent reporter, which are linked by a thiol-specific cleavable disulfide bond. In vitro experiments indicated that DCM-S-PPT has low cytotoxicity and that glutathione (GSH) can activate DCM-S-PPT resulting in PPT release and a concomitant significant enhancement in NIR fluorescence at 665 nm. After being intravenously injected into tumor-bearing nude mice, DCM-S-PPT exhibited excellent tumor-activated performance. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that mPEG-DSPE as a nanocarrier loaded with DCM-S-PPT (mPEG-DSPE/DCM-S-PPT) showed even greater tumor-targeting performance than DCM-S-PPT on account of the enhanced permeability and retention effect. Its tumor-targeting ability and specific drug release in tumors make DCM-S-PPT a promising prodrug that could provide a significant strategy for theranostic drug delivery systems.

  7. Cognitive Development in Infantile-Onset Pompe Disease Under Very Early Enzyme Replacement Therapy.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chih-Jou; Hsu, Ting-Rong; Yang, Chia-Feng; Chen, Shyi-Jou; Chuang, Ya-Chin; Niu, Dau-Ming

    2016-12-01

    Most patients with infantile-onset Pompe disease die in early infancy before beginning enzyme replacement therapy, which has made it difficult to evaluate the impact of Pompe disease on cognitive development. Patients with infantile-onset Pompe disease can survive with enzyme replacement therapy, and physicians can evaluate cognitive development in these patients. We established an effective newborn screening program with quick clinical diagnostic criteria. Cognitive and motor development were evaluated using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-Third Edition at 6, 12, and 24 months of age. The patients who were treated very early demonstrate normal cognitive development with no significant change in cognition during this period (P = .18 > .05). The cognitive development was positively correlated with motor development (r = 0.533, P = .011). The results indicated that very early enzyme replacement therapy could protect cognitive development in patients with infantile-onset Pompe disease up to 24 months of age. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Modulating lipophilicity of rohitukine via prodrug approach: Preparation, characterization, and in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis in biorelevant media.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vikas; Bharate, Sonali S; Vishwakarma, Ram A

    2016-09-20

    Rohitukine is a medicinally important natural product which has inspired the discovery of two anticancer clinical candidates. Rohitukine is highly hydrophilic in nature which hampers its oral bioavailability. Thus, herein our objective was to improve the drug-like properties of rohitukine via prodrug-strategy. Various ester prodrugs were synthesized and studied for solubility, lipophilicity, chemical stability and enzymatic hydrolysis in plasma/esterase. All prodrugs displayed lower aqueous solubility and improved lipophilicity compared with rohitukine, which was in accordance with the criteria of compounds in drug-discovery. The stability of synthesized prodrugs was evaluated in buffers at different pH, SGF, SIF, rat plasma and in esterase enzyme. The rate of hydrolysis in all incubation media was dependent primarily on the acyl promoieties. Hexanoyl ester prodrug of rohitukine, 3d, was stable under chemical conditions; however it was completely hydrolyzed to rohitukine, in plasma and in esterase in 4h. Hexanoate ester 3d appeared to be the most promising prodrug as it remained intact at gastric/intestinal pH and was completely transformed to the parent compound in plasma as desired for an ideal prodrug. The data presented herein, will help in designing prodrugs with desired physicochemical properties in future in structurally similar chemotypes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Prodrugs of phosphonates and phosphates: crossing the membrane barrier

    PubMed Central

    Wiemer, Andrew J.; Wiemer, David F.

    2016-01-01

    A substantial portion of metabolism involves transformation of phosphate esters, including pathways leading to nucleotides and oligonucleotides, carbohydrates, isoprenoids and steroids, and phosphorylated proteins. Because the natural substrates bear one or more negative charges, drugs that target these enzymes generally must be charged as well but small charged molecules can have difficulty traversing the cell membrane other than by endocytosis. The resulting dichotomy has stimulated abundant effort to develop effective prodrugs, compounds that carry little or no charge to enable them to transit biological membranes but then able to release the parent drug once inside the target cell. This chapter will present recent studies on advances in prodrug forms, along with representative examples of their application to marketed and developmental drugs. PMID:25391982

  10. Prodrugs of phosphonates and phosphates: crossing the membrane barrier.

    PubMed

    Wiemer, Andrew J; Wiemer, David F

    2015-01-01

    A substantial portion of metabolism involves transformation of phosphate esters, including pathways leading to nucleotides and oligonucleotides, carbohydrates, isoprenoids and steroids, and phosphorylated proteins. Because the natural substrates bear one or more negative charges, drugs that target these enzymes generally must be charged as well, but small charged molecules can have difficulty traversing the cell membrane by means other than endocytosis. The resulting dichotomy has stimulated a great deal of effort to develop effective prodrugs, compounds that carry little or no charge to enable them to transit biological membranes, but able to release the parent drug once inside the target cell. This chapter presents recent studies on advances in prodrug forms, along with representative examples of their application to marketed and developmental drugs.

  11. New natural amino acid-bearing prodrugs boost pterostilbene's oral pharmacokinetic and distribution profile.

    PubMed

    Azzolini, Michele; Mattarei, Andrea; La Spina, Martina; Fanin, Michele; Chiodarelli, Giacomo; Romio, Matteo; Zoratti, Mario; Paradisi, Cristina; Biasutto, Lucia

    2017-06-01

    The biomedical effects of the natural phenol pterostilbene are of great interest but its bioavailability is negatively affected by the phenolic group in position 4' which is an ideal target for the conjugative enzymes of phase II metabolism. We report the synthesis and characterization of prodrugs in which the hydroxyl moiety is reversibly protected as a carbamate ester linked to the N-terminus of a natural amino acid. Prodrugs comprising amino acids with hydrophobic side chains were readily absorbed after intragastric administration to rats. The Area Under the Curve for pterostilbene in blood was optimal when prodrugs with isoleucine or β-alanine were used. The prodrug incorporating isoleucine was used for further studies to map distribution into major organs. When compared to pterostilbene itself, administration of the isoleucine prodrug afforded increased absorption, reduced metabolism and higher concentrations of pterostilbene, sustained for several hours, in most of the organs examined. Experiments using Caco-2 cells as an in vitro model for human intestinal absorption suggest that the prodrug could have promising absorption profiles also in humans; its uptake is partly due to passive diffusion, and partly mediated by H + -dependent transporters expressed on the apical membrane of enterocytes, such as PepT1 and OATP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hyperthyrotropinemia in newly diagnosed cystic fibrosis patients with pancreatic insufficiency reversed by enzyme therapy.

    PubMed

    Giannakopoulos, Aris; Katelaris, Anni; Noni, Maria; Karakonstantakis, Theodore; Kanaka-Gantenbein, Christina; Doudounakis, Stavros

    2018-05-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) commonly present with an elevated TSH concentration, suggesting subclinical hypothyroidism. Its relation to concomitant pancreatic insufficiency and its natural course upon initiation of enzyme replacement have not been adequately studied. Herein, we investigated the thyroid function in newly diagnosed infants with CF and monitored the course of thyroid function response to pancreatic enzyme substitution treatment. Fourteen, newly diagnosed infants with CF and pancreatic insufficiency, were followed every 6-8 weeks for 6 months ensuing onset of pancreatic enzyme substitution therapy. All infants had normal TSH values on neonatal screening. Ten out of 14 (71%) had hyperthyrotropinemia and normal freeT4 values at presentation. No patient received thyroxine. Upon follow-up, after 6 months, TSH values normalized in 90% of infants with CF and hyperthyrotropinemia. Serum selenium levels were negatively correlated with TSH levels. Mild TSH elevation is a frequent finding in newly diagnosed cystic fibrosis patients with pancreatic insufficiency during infancy. TSH elevation resolves in most cases after initiation of enzyme substitution and improvement of nutritional status without any substitutive therapy with thyroxine. What is Known: • Newly diagnosed infants with cystic fibrosis often present with a state of hyperthyrotropinemia suggesting subclinical hypothyroidism. What is New: • Pancreatic enzyme substitution and improvement of nutrition restores normal TSH levels without the need of thyroxine therapy.

  13. A Screen for and Validation of Prodrug Antimicrobials

    PubMed Central

    Fleck, Laura E.; North, E. Jeffrey; Lee, Richard E.; Mulcahy, Lawrence R.; Casadei, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    The rise of resistant pathogens and chronic infections tolerant to antibiotics presents an unmet need for novel antimicrobial compounds. Identifying broad-spectrum leads is challenging due to the effective penetration barrier of Gram-negative bacteria, formed by an outer membrane restricting amphipathic compounds, and multidrug resistance (MDR) pumps. In chronic infections, pathogens are shielded from the immune system by biofilms or host cells, and dormant persisters tolerant to antibiotics are responsible for recalcitrance to chemotherapy with conventional antibiotics. We reasoned that the dual need for broad-spectrum and sterilizing compounds could be met by developing prodrugs that are activated by bacterium-specific enzymes and that these generally reactive compounds could kill persisters and accumulate over time due to irreversible binding to targets. We report the development of a screen for prodrugs, based on identifying compounds that nonspecifically inhibit reduction of the viability dye alamarBlue, and then eliminate generally toxic compounds by testing for cytotoxicity. A large pilot of 55,000 compounds against Escherichia coli produced 20 hits, 3 of which were further examined. One compound, ADC111, is an analog of a known nitrofuran prodrug nitrofurantoin, and its activity depends on the presence of activating enzymes nitroreductases. ADC112 is an analog of another known antimicrobial tilbroquinol with unknown mechanism of action, and ADC113 does not belong to an approved class. All three compounds had a good spectrum and showed good to excellent activity against persister cells in biofilm and stationary cultures. These results suggest that screening for overlooked prodrugs may present a viable platform for antimicrobial discovery. PMID:24342644

  14. Antiproteinuric therapy and fabry nephropathy: sustained reduction of proteinuria in patients receiving enzyme replacement therapy with agalsidase-beta.

    PubMed

    Tahir, Hindia; Jackson, Leslie L; Warnock, David G

    2007-09-01

    This report describes an open-label, nonrandomized, prospective evaluation of the effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker therapy on patients who have Fabry disease and also received enzyme replacement therapy with agalsidase-beta, given at 1 mg/kg body wt every 2 wk. Previous placebo-controlled phase III and phase IV trials with agalsidase-beta demonstrated clearing of globotriaosylceramide from vascular endothelia but little effect on proteinuria or progressive loss of kidney function in patients with Fabry disease and severe chronic kidney disease marked by overt proteinuria and/or estimated GFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and/or angiotensin receptor blocker therapy is the standard of care for patients with proteinuric kidney diseases, but their use is challenging in patients with Fabry disease and low or low-normal baseline systemic BP. A group of patients with Fabry disease were treated with antiproteinuric therapy, in conjunction with agalsidase-beta; sustained reductions in proteinuria with stabilization of kidney function were achieved in a group of six patients who had severe Fabry nephropathy; the progression rate was -0.23 +/- 1.12 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per yr with 30 mo of follow-up.

  15. Application of homology modeling to generate CYP1A1 mutants with enhanced activation of the cancer chemotherapeutic prodrug dacarbazine.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Benjamin C; Mackenzie, Peter I; Miners, John O

    2011-11-01

    The chemotherapeutic prodrug dacarbazine (DTIC) has limited efficacy in human malignancies and exhibits numerous adverse effects that arise from systemic exposure to the cytotoxic metabolite. DTIC is activated by CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 catalyzed N-demethylation. However, structural features of these enzymes that confer DTIC N-demethylation have not been characterized. A validated homology model of CYP1A1 was employed to elucidate structure-activity relationships and to engineer CYP1A1 enzymes with altered DTIC activation. In silico docking demonstrated that DTIC orientates proximally to Ser122, Phe123, Asp313, Ala317, Ile386, Tyr259, and Leu496 of human CYP1A1. The site of metabolism is positioned 5.6 Å from the heme iron at an angle of 105.3°. Binding in the active site is stabilized by H-bonding between Tyr259 and the N(2) position of the imidazole ring. Twenty-seven CYP1A1 mutants were generated and expressed in Escherichia coli in yields ranging from 9 to 225 pmol P450/mg. DTIC N-demethylation by the E161K, E256K, and I458V mutants exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with decreases in K(m) (183-249 μM) that doubled the catalytic efficiency (p < 0.05) relative to wild-type CYP1A1 (K(m), 408 ± 43 μM; V(max), 28 ± 4 pmol · min(-1) · pmol of P450(-1)). The generation of enzymes with catalytically enhanced DTIC activation highlights the potential use of mutant CYP1A1 proteins in P450-based gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy for the treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma.

  16. Albumin-binding caspase-cleavable prodrug that is selectively activated in radiation exposed local tumor.

    PubMed

    Chung, Seung Woo; Choi, Jeong Uk; Lee, Beom Seok; Byun, Julia; Jeon, Ok-Cheol; Kim, Seong Who; Kim, In-San; Kim, Sang Yoon; Byun, Youngro

    2016-07-01

    Existence of the genomically and epigenomically diverse subclones in a tumor severely limits the therapeutic efficacy of targeted agents. To overcome such a limitation, we prepared a novel targeted prodrug, EMC-DEVD-S-DOX, which comprises two important features: radiation-induced apoptosis targeting and albumin-binding properties. In particular, the prodrug binds circulating albumin after intravenous administration and then activated by caspase-3, which is upregulated from apoptotic cells that responded to radiotherapy. The prodrug was designed to bind circulating albumin to extend half-life and facilitate tumor accumulation in order to increase the possibility of contacting caspase-3, which is only transiently upregulated during apoptosis. Our results showed that EMC-DEVD-S-DOX had a prolonged half-life with enhanced tumor accumulation, which clearly benefited the therapeutic effect of the prodrug. Also, agreeing with the in vitro studies that showed ignorable cytotoxic effect in the absence of caspase-3, the prodrug was effective only when combined with radiotherapy without any noticeable systemic toxicity in vivo. Due to the highly selective action of EMC-DEVD-S-DOX independent to the complex genomic profiles of tumor, the prodrug would overcome the limitation of current targeted therapy and potentiate radiotherapy in the clinical oncology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sustained release of metformin via red blood cell accumulated sulfenamide prodrug.

    PubMed

    Peura, Lauri; Huttunen, Kristiina M

    2014-07-01

    Metformin is a first-line antidiabetic drug to treat type 2 diabetes. It is rapidly eliminated from plasma but also accumulated into red blood cells (RBCs) from which it is slowly released back into plasma. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the amount of metformin in the RBCs could be increased by a sulfenamide prodrug approach, which could provide longer duration of metformin in systemic circulation. Pharmacokinetic properties of metformin and its cyclohexyl sulfenamide prodrug were evaluated in plasma and in whole blood after intravenous and oral administration in rats. Once the sulfenamide prodrug reached the bloodstream, it was rapidly and efficiently accumulated into the RBCs, where it was converted to metformin by free thiols. The RBC-whole blood ratio of metformin was increased approximately from 42% to 96% when metformin was administered intravenously as its sulfenamide prodrug, and the proportion of metformin in the RBCs was found to be concentration and time independent. Because metformin was slowly liberated into plasma, the prodrug showed a sustained-release pharmacokinetic profile and longer plasma half-life for metformin after oral administration. Therefore, this sulfenamide prodrug has great potential to improve metformin therapy as the daily doses could be reduced. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  18. Amino acid deprivation using enzymes as a targeted therapy for cancer and viral infections.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, H S; Silva Teixeira, C S; Fernandes, P A; Ramos, M J; Cerqueira, N M F S A

    2017-03-01

    Amino acid depletion in the blood serum is currently being exploited and explored for therapies in tumors or viral infections that are auxotrophic for a certain amino acid or have a metabolic defect and cannot produce it. The success of these treatments is because normal cells remain unaltered since they are less demanding and/or can synthesize these compounds in sufficient amounts for their needs by other mechanisms. Areas covered: This review is focused on amino acid depriving enzymes and their formulations that have been successfully used in the treatment of several types of cancer and viral infections. Particular attention will be given to the enzymes L-asparaginase, L-arginase, L-arginine deiminase, and L-methionine-γ-lyase. Expert opinion: The immunogenicity and other toxic effects are perhaps the major limitations of these therapies, but they have been successfully decreased either through the expression of these enzymes from other organisms, recombination processes, pegylation of the selected enzymes or by specific mutations in the proteins. In 2006, FDA has already approved the use of L-asparaginase in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Other enzymes and in particular L-arginase, L-arginine deiminase, and L-methioninase have been showing promising results in vitro and in vivo studies.

  19. Synthesis, pH dependent, plasma and enzymatic stability of bergenin prodrugs for potential use against rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rohit; Kumar, Vikas; Bharate, Sonali S; Vishwakarma, Ram A

    2017-10-15

    Bergenin is a unique C-glycoside natural product possessing anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity. It is hydrophilic molecule and stable under acidic conditions however is unstable at neutral-basic pH conditions. The rate of degradation is directly proportional to the increase in pH which might be one of the reasons for its low oral bioavailability. Thus, herein our objective was to improve its stability using prodrug strategy. Various ester and ether prodrugs were synthesized and studied for lipophilicity, chemical stability and enzymatic hydrolysis in plasma/esterase. The stability of synthesized prodrugs was evaluated in buffers at different pH, in biorelevant media such as SGF, SIF, rat plasma and in esterase enzyme. All prodrugs displayed significantly improved lipophilicity compared with bergenin, which was in accordance with the criteria of drug-like compounds. Acetyl ester 4a 2 appeared to be the most promising prodrug as it remained stable at gastric/intestinal pH and was completely transformed to the parent compound bergenin in plasma as desired for an ideal prodrug. The data presented herein, will help in designing stable prodrugs of unstable molecules with desired physicochemical properties in structurally similar chemotypes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Enzyme replacement therapy in juvenile glycogenosis type II: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Deroma, Laura; Guerra, Mattia; Sechi, Annalisa; Ciana, Giovanni; Cisilino, Giorgia; Dardis, Andrea; Bembi, Bruno

    2014-06-01

    Glycogenosis type II, a genetic muscle-wasting disorder, results in a spectrum of clinical phenotypes. Enzyme replacement therapy is effective in the infantile form of the disease, while little is known about its effectiveness in late-onset disease, especially in juvenile patients. The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to assess the long-term effects of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in juvenile glycogenosis type II (GSDII). Eight Italian juvenile GSDII patients, receiving biweekly infusions of 20 mg/kg recombinant human α-glucosidase for at least 72 months, were enrolled (median age at therapy start was 11.8 years). Six-minute walk test (6MWT) and forced vital capacity (FVC), measured in upright position, were chosen as the principal outcome measures. Global motor disability (modified Walton scale (WS)), muscle enzymes levels [creatine phosphokinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT)] and body mass index (BMI) were also analysed both at baseline (therapy start) and annually afterwards. At baseline, most patients (six out of eight) did not show muscle function impairment (WS ≤ 2). The performance at 6MWT showed a slight improvement during follow-up as well as FVC. Muscle enzymes levels showed a clear decrease after the 1st year of treatment while remained stable afterwards. An overall decrease in BMI was also observed during follow-up, although at the individual level, trends were variable. ERT is effective in stabilising both motor and lung functions in juvenile patients with GSDII, possibly slowing down the rate of disease progression. Randomised controlled trials are needed to understand whether early treatment allows juvenile patients to reach adulthood with a more beneficial residual muscular function than untreated patients.

  1. Enzyme replacement therapy in adult-onset glycogenosis II: is quantitative muscle MRI helpful?

    PubMed

    Pichiecchio, A; Poloni, G U; Ravaglia, S; Ponzio, M; Germani, G; Maranzana, D; Costa, A; Repetto, A; Tavazzi, E; Danesino, C; Moglia, A; Bastianello, S

    2009-07-01

    Although it has been shown that muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) improves the phenotypic characterization of patients with neuromuscular disorders and allows accurate quantification of muscle and adipose tissue distribution, to date quantitative MRI has not been used to assess the therapeutic response in clinical trials of neuromuscular diseases. We discuss quantitative MRI findings after a 6-month course of enzyme replacement therapy administered to nine patients with adult-onset glycogenosis II.

  2. Long-term outcomes with agalsidase alfa enzyme replacement therapy: Analysis using deconstructed composite events.

    PubMed

    Beck, Michael; Hughes, Derralynn; Kampmann, Christoph; Pintos-Morell, Guillem; Ramaswami, Uma; West, Michael L; Giugliani, Roberto

    2018-03-01

    This is a retrospective analysis of Fabry Outcome Survey data from children/adults ( n  = 677) receiving agalsidase alfa enzyme replacement therapy for a median of 3 years, examining cerebrovascular, cardiac, and renal morbidity endpoints separately. Cardiac events occurred at younger ages than cerebrovascular or renal events, cerebrovascular events were more frequent in females than males, and males were more likely to experience cardiac and renal events at a younger age than females.

  3. Lipid nanocarriers containing a levodopa prodrug with potential antiparkinsonian activity.

    PubMed

    Ravani, Laura; Sarpietro, Maria Grazia; Esposito, Elisabetta; Di Stefano, Antonio; Sozio, Piera; Calcagno, Mariangela; Drechsler, Markus; Contado, Catia; Longo, Francesco; Giuffrida, Maria Chiara; Castelli, Francesco; Morari, Michele; Cortesi, Rita

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes the production, characterization and in vivo activity of lipid nanocarriers (LN) containing a levodopa prodrug (LD-PD) with therapeutic potential in Parkinson's disease. LD is the mainstay of the pharmacotherapy of Parkinson's disease. However, after a good initial response, motor fluctuations, dyskinesia and loss of efficacy, develop over time, partly due to oscillations in plasma and brain levels of the drug. LD-PD was produced with the aim of prolonging the pharmacological activity of LD. To improve solubility, and simultaneously provide a long lasting release and therapeutic efficacy, the prodrug was formulated in tristearin/lecithin LN. The obtained formulation was homogeneous in particle size and remained stable for up to 2months from preparation. For the three different tested LD concentrations, namely 1.25, 2.5 and 5.0mg/ml, the morphological characterization revealed no substantial differences between unloaded and LD-PD loaded LN. The calorimetric test showed an interaction between the lipid phase and the loaded prodrug. In vitro studies using the dialysis method and enzymatic degradation procedure showed that the LD-PD loaded LN provided a controlled prodrug release. Finally, two behavioural tests specific to akinesia (bar test) or akinesia/bradykinesia (drag test) performed in 6-hydroxydopamine hemilesioned mice (a model of Parkinson's disease) demonstrated that the LD-PD loaded LN attenuated parkinsonian disabilities, showing a slightly reduced maximal efficacy but a longer lasting action (up to 24h) than an equal dose of LD. We conclude that LD-PD loaded LN may represent a future LD formulation useful in Parkinson's disease therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency: diagnostic evaluation and replacement therapy with pancreatic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Heinz F

    2010-01-01

    In chronic pancreatitis over a course of years to decades, pancreatic parenchyma is gradually lost and pain is gradually decreasing as signs and symptoms of malabsorption appear. Appearance of calcifications is a late sign and in many cases coincides with appearance of steatorrhea. Decreasing output of insulin and glucagon results in diabetes mellitus, which is characterized by a high risk of hypoglycemias ('brittle' diabetes). In most instances, measurement of fecal concentration of elastase may be sufficient to diagnose exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Fecal fat analysis is useful to establish malabsorption and to monitor pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy. Components essential to the optimal management of chronic pancreatitis are control of pain, improvement of maldigestion, management of diabetes and of complications like cysts or strictures, and alcohol and nicotine abstinence. Patients with pain are evaluated for structural abnormalities which can be treated endoscopically or surgically. Conservative treatment of pain includes fat-reduced diet, nonnarcotic analgesics, alcohol and smoking cessation, and, if not successful, an 8-week trial of high-dose pancreatic enzymes. Pancreatic enzymes are used for the treatment of maldigestion. Digestion of fat is the determining factor in pancreatic insufficiency. Treatment success is defined clinically by improved body weight and consistency of feces. Modern pancreatin preparations are engineered as acid-resistant, pH-sensitive microspheres. Using such preparations, most patients will reduce their steatorrhea to <15 g fat per day during supplementation of 25,000-40,000 IU of lipase per meal, but in selected cases larger doses may be needed, depending on size of the meal and severity of the disease. Efficacy of enzyme replacement therapy is influenced by denaturation of lipase by gastric acid, improper timing of enzymes, coexisting small-intestinal mucosal disease, rapid intestinal transit and effects of diabetes

  5. Optimizing delivery of flurbiprofen to the colon using a targeted prodrug approach.

    PubMed

    Philip, Anil K; Dubey, Rajesh K; Pathak, Kamla

    2008-05-01

    The carboxylic group responsible for the gastric side-effects of the propionic acid derivative, flurbiprofen, was masked temporarily to overcome these side-effects and to accomplish colon-specific delivery of the drug. An amide prodrug (FLU-GLY) was synthesized by coupling flurbiprofen with L-glycine. Confirmation and characterization of the structure of the synthesized prodrug included elemental analysis, Fourier transform (FT)-IR, FT-NMR, mass (FAB) spectroscopy, and determinations of R(f), R(t) and R(M) values, respectively. Aqueous solubility and lipophilicity (logP) value were determined at pH 1.2, 4.0, 6.8 and 7.4. In-vitro reversion of FLU-GLY to flurbiprofen was measured at different pHs and in a simulated colonic environment. Acute toxicity and ulceration potential were evaluated in-vivo in albino rats. Pre-formulation studies showed increased hydrophilicity but a non-significant increase in lipophilicity of the prodrug. In-vitro reversion studies suggested that the prodrug remained intact until colonic pH was attained, when the colonic microfloral enzymes (amidase) hydrolysed the FLU-GLY amide linkage, releasing the free drug. In-vivo evaluation indicated that the prodrug was much less toxic and had less ulcerogenic activity than the parent drug. Selective delivery of drugs to the colon can be useful in terms of reducing the dose administered and reducing undesirable side-effects.

  6. Radiation-activated prodrugs as hypoxia-selective cytotoxins: model studies with nitroarylmethyl quaternary salts.

    PubMed

    Wilson, W R; Tercel, M; Anderson, R F; Denny, W A

    1998-09-01

    Bioreductive drugs are designed to be activated by enzymatic reduction in hypoxic regions of tumours, but activation of these drugs is not always fully suppressed by oxygen in normal tissues. A further limitation is that bioreductive drug activation depends on suitable reductases being expressed in the hypoxic zone. This essay proposes an alternative approach in which prodrugs are reduced, and thereby activated, in hypoxic regions by ionizing radiation rather than by enzymes. This strategy is theoretically attractive, but design requirements for such radiation-activated cytotoxins are challenging. In particular, the reducing capacity of radiation at clinically relevant doses is small, which necessitates the development of prodrugs capable of releasing very potent cytotoxins efficiently in hypoxic tissue. It is shown that nitroarylmethyl quaternary (NMQ) salts possess many of the features required of a radiation-activated prodrug. In some heterocyclic NMQ compounds the cytotoxicity of the latent cytotoxic amine effector is suppressed by > 100-fold in the prodrug form, and the effector is released rapidly by fragmentation following reduction by a single electron. Appreciable cytotoxic activation of NMQ prodrugs can be achieved by irradiation at clinically relevant doses in anoxic plasma. Some of the further drug design challenges required to develop a clinical agent based on this approach are outlined.

  7. Synthesis of Mevalonate- and Fluorinated Mevalonate Prodrugs and Their in vitro Human Plasma Stability

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Soosung; Watanabe, Mizuki; Jacobs, JC; Yamaguchi, Masaya; Dahesh, Samira; Nizet, Victor; Leyh, Thomas S.; Silverman, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    The mevalonate pathway is essential for the production of many important molecules in lipid biosynthesis. Inhibition of this pathway is the mechanism of statin cholesterol-lowering drugs, as well as the target of drugs to treat osteoporosis, to combat parasites, and to inhibit tumor cell growth. Unlike the human mevalonate pathway, the bacterial pathway appears to be regulated by diphosphomevalonate (DPM). Enzymes in the mevalonate pathway act to produce isopentenyl diphosphate, the product of the DPM decarboxylase reaction, utilize phosphorylated (charged) intermediates, which are poorly bioavailable. It has been shown that fluorinated DPMs (6-fluoro- and 6,6,6-trifluoro-5-diphosphomevalonate) are excellent inhibitors of the bacterial pathway; however, highly charged DPM and analogues are not bioavailable. To increase cellular permeability of mevalonate analogues, we have synthesized various prodrugs of mevalonate and 6-fluoro- and 6,6,6-trifluoromevalonate that can be enzymatically transformed to the corresponding DPM or fluorinated DPM analogues by esterases or amidases. To probe the required stabilities as potentially bioavailable prodrugs, we measured the half-lives of esters, amides, carbonates, acetals, and ketal promoieties of mevalonate and the fluorinated mevalonate analogues in human blood plasma. Stability studies showed that the prodrugs are converted to the mevalonates in human plasma with a wide range of half-lives. These studies provide stability data for a variety of prodrug options having varying stabilities and should be very useful in the design of appropriate prodrugs of mevalonate and fluorinated mevalonates. PMID:25461893

  8. Utilizing native fluorescence imaging, modeling and simulation to examine pharmacokinetics and therapeutic regimen of a novel anticancer prodrug.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Hung; Endsley, Aaron N; Green, Carol E; Matin, A C

    2016-07-25

    Success of cancer prodrugs relying on a foreign gene requires specific delivery of the gene to the cancer, and improvements such as higher level gene transfer and expression. Attaining these objectives will be facilitated in preclinical studies using our newly discovered CNOB-GDEPT, consisting of the produrg: 6-chloro-9-nitro-5-oxo-5H-benzo-(a)-phenoxazine (CNOB) and its activating enzyme ChrR6, which generates the cytotoxic product 9-amino-6-chloro-5H-benzo[a]phenoxazine-5-one (MCHB). MCHB is fluorescent and can be noninvasively imaged in mice, and here we investigated whether MCHB fluorescence quantitatively reflects its concentration, as this would enhance its reporter value in further development of the CNOB-GDEPT therapeutic regimen. PK parameters were estimated and used to predict more effective CNOB administration schedules. CNOB (3.3 mg/kg) was injected iv in mice implanted with humanized ChrR6 (HChrR6)-expressing 4T1 tumors. Fluorescence was imaged in live mice using IVIS Spectrum, and quantified by Living Image 3.2 software. MCHB and CNOB were quantified also by LC/MS/MS analysis. We used non-compartmental model to estimate PK parameters. Phoenix WinNonlin software was used for simulations to predict a more effective CNOB dosage regimen. CNOB administration significantly prolonged mice survival. MCHB fluorescence quantitatively reflected its exposure levels to the tumor and the plasma, as verified by LC/MS/MS analysis at various time points, including at a low concentration of 2 ng/g tumor. The LC/MS/MS data were used to estimate peak plasma concentrations, exposure (AUC0-24), volume of distribution, clearance and half-life in plasma and the tumor. Simulations suggested that the CNOB-GDEPT can be a successful therapy without large increases in the prodrug dosage. MCHB fluorescence quantifies this drug, and CNOB can be effective at relatively low doses. MCHB fluorescence characteristics will expedite further development of CNOB-GDEPT by, for example

  9. Pancreatic enzyme-replacement therapy in CF: considerations for the USA.

    PubMed

    Heubi, James E

    2008-10-01

    Pancreatic enzyme products (PEPs) have been commercially available since before the passage of the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act in 1938. They are a vital therapy for patients with cystic fibrosis and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. PEPs help to enhance absorption of nutrients and thereby play an important role in maintaining good nutritional status and preserving lung function. The benefits of these supplements are not limited to cystic fibrosis and also extend to patients with other conditions, such as chronic pancreatitis. Concerns over the safety and consistency of PEPs have led to the requirement that all PEPs be approved by the US FDA. Clinical studies are currently underway to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of different PEPs, including new formulations that meet FDA guidelines for no enzyme overfill. This review highlights currently available PEPs and new formulations that hold promise for patients with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency.

  10. Enzyme therapy for Fabry disease: neutralizing antibodies toward agalsidase alpha and beta.

    PubMed

    Linthorst, Gabor E; Hollak, Carla E M; Donker-Koopman, Wilma E; Strijland, Anneke; Aerts, Johannes M F G

    2004-10-01

    Fabry disease is an X-linked inherited disorder that is caused by excessive lysosomal globotriaosylceramide (CTH) storage due to a deficiency in alpha-galactosidase A (alpha-Gal A). Two recombinant enzyme preparations have been approved as treatment modality. We studied emergence and properties of alpha-Gal A antibodies in treated patients. During the first 6 to 12 months of intravenous administration of recombinant enzymes (rh-alpha-Gal A) formation of antibodies was studied in 18 adult Fabry patients (two females). The female patients did not develop detectable amounts of antibodies following enzyme therapy. After 6 months of treatment with either agalsidase alpha or beta, 11/16 male patients showed high titers of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies that cross-react in vitro similarly with both recombinant enzymes. The anti-rh-alpha-Gal A IgG neutralizes rh-alpha-Gal A activity in vitro for 65% to 95%. During infusion with rh-alpha-Gal A, circulating enzyme-antibody complexes are formed and these complexes are taken up by leukocytes in the peripheral blood. After 6 months of treatment all IgG-negative patients showed a significant (P < 0.01) reduction of urinary CTH (1890 +/- 797 to 603 +/- 291 nmol CTH/24hr urine), compared to IgG-positive patients (mean increase from 2535 +/- 988 to 2723 +/- 1212), suggesting a negative effect of circulating antibodies on renal tubular CTH clearance. Emergence of antibodies with in vivo neutralizing capacities is frequently encountered in treated Fabry disease patients. Complete cross-reactivity of these antibodies suggests that it is unlikely that switching from one to the other recombinant protein prevents the immune response and related effects. Further studies on the clinical implications of alpha-Gal A antibodies are essential.

  11. Enzyme replacement therapy with idursulfase for mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome).

    PubMed

    da Silva, Edina M K; Strufaldi, Maria Wany Louzada; Andriolo, Regis B; Silva, Laercio A

    2016-02-05

    Mucopolysaccharidosis II, also known as Hunter syndrome, is a rare, X-linked disease caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme iduronate-2-sulfatase, which catalyses a step in the catabolism of glycosaminoglycans. The glycosaminoglycans accumulate within tissues affecting multiple organs and physiologic systems. The clinical manifestations include neurologic involvement, severe airways obstruction, skeletal deformities and cardiomyopathy. The disease has a variable age of onset and variable rate of progression. In those with severe disease, death usually occurs in the second decade of life, whereas those individuals with less severe disease may survive into adulthood. Enzyme replacement therapy with intravenous infusions of idursulfase has emerged as a new treatment for mucopolysaccharidosis type II. This is an update of a previously published version of this review. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of enzyme replacement therapy with idursulfase compared to other interventions, placebo or no intervention, for treating mucopolysaccharidosis type II. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Trials Register (date of last search 23 November 2015).We also searched Embase, PubMed and the Literature Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) (date of last search 28 November 2015). Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of enzyme replacement therapy with idursulfase compared to no intervention, placebo or other options (e.g. behavioral strategies, transplantation). Two authors independently screened the trials identified, appraised quality of papers and extracted data. One study (96 male participants) met the inclusion criteria, although the primary outcome of this review - z score for height and weight, was not assessed in the study. This trial was considered to be of overall good quality. Following 53 weeks of treatment, participants in the weekly idursulfase 0.5 mg/kg group demonstrated a

  12. Successful switch from enzyme replacement therapy to miglustat in an adult patient with type 1 Gaucher disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    Giuffrida, Gaetano; Lombardo, Rita; Di Francesco, Ernesto; Parrinello, Laura; Di Raimondo, Francesco; Fiumara, Agata

    2016-11-08

    Gaucher disease is one of the most common lipid-storage disorders, affecting approximately 1 in 75,000 births. Enzyme replacement therapy with recombinant glucocerebrosidase is currently considered the first-line treatment choice for patients with symptomatic Gaucher disease type 1. Oral substrate reduction therapy is generally considered a second-line treatment option for adult patients with mild to moderate Gaucher disease type 1 who are unable or unwilling to receive lifelong intravenous enzyme infusions. The efficacy and safety of the oral substrate reduction therapy miglustat (Zavesca®) in patients with Gaucher disease type 1 have been established in both short-term clinical trials and long-term, open-label extension studies. Published data indicate that miglustat can be used as maintenance therapy in patients with stable Gaucher disease type 1 switched from previous enzyme replacement therapy. We report a case of a 44-year-old Caucasian man with Gaucher disease type 1 who was initially treated with enzyme replacement therapy but, owing to repeated cutaneous allergic reactions, had to be switched to miglustat after several attempts with enzyme replacement therapy. Despite many attempts, desensitization treatment did not result in improved toleration of imiglucerase infusions, and the patient became unwilling to continue with any intravenous enzyme replacement therapy. He subsequently agreed to switch to oral substrate reduction therapy with miglustat 100 mg twice daily titrated up to 100 mg three times daily over a short period. Long-term miglustat treatment maintained both hemoglobin and platelet levels within acceptable ranges over 8 years. The patient's spleen volume decreased, his plasma chitotriosidase levels stayed at reduced levels, and his bone mineral density findings have remained stable throughout follow-up. The patient's quality of life has remained satisfactory. Miglustat showed good gastrointestinal tolerability in this patient, and no

  13. Anticancer drug released from near IR-activated prodrug overcomes spatiotemporal limits of singlet oxygen.

    PubMed

    Rajaputra, Pallavi; Bio, Moses; Nkepang, Gregory; Thapa, Pritam; Woo, Sukyung; You, Youngjae

    2016-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a cancer treatment modality where photosensitizer (PS) is activated by visible and near IR light to produce singlet oxygen ((1)O2). However, (1)O2 has a short lifetime (<40 ns) and cannot diffuse (<20 nm) beyond the cell diameter (e.g., ∼ 1800 nm). Thus, (1)O2 damage is both spatially and temporally limited and does not produce bystander effect. In a heterogeneous tumor, cells escaping (1)O2 damage can regrow after PDT treatment. To overcome these limitations, we developed a prodrug concept (PS-L-D) composed of a photosensitizer (PS), an anti-cancer drug (D), and an (1)O2-cleavable linker (L). Upon illumination of the prodrug, (1)O2 is generated, which damages the tumor and also releases anticancer drug. The locally released drug could cause spatially broader and temporally sustained damage, killing the surviving cancer cells after the PDT damage. In our previous report, we presented the superior activity of our prodrug of CA4 (combretastatin A-4), Pc-(L-CA4)2, compared to its non-cleavable analog, Pc-(NCL-CA4)2, that produced only PDT effects. Here, we provide clear evidence demonstrating that the released anticancer drug, CA4, indeed damages the surviving cancer cells over and beyond the spatial and temporal limits of (1)O2. In the limited light illumination experiment, cells in the entire well were killed due to the effect of released anti-cancer drug, whereas only a partial damage was observed in the pseudo-prodrug treated wells. A time-dependent cell survival study showed more cell death in the prodrug-treated cells due to the sustained damage by the released CA4. Cell cycle analysis and microscopic imaging data demonstrated the typical damage patterns by CA4 in the prodrug treated cells. A time-dependent histological study showed that prodrug-treated tumors lacked mitotic bodies, and the prodrug caused broader and sustained tumor size reduction compared to those seen in the tumors treated with the pseudo-prodrug. This data

  14. Anticancer Drug Released from Near IR-activated Prodrug Overcomes Spatiotemporal Limits of Singlet Oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Rajaputra, Pallavi; Bio, Moses; Nkepang, Gregory; Thapa, Pritam; Woo, Sukyung; You, Youngjae

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a cancer treatment modality where photosensitizer (PS) is activated by visible and near IR light to produce singlet oxygen (1O2). However, 1O2 has a short lifetime (< 40 ns) and cannot diffuse (< 20 nm) beyond the cell diameter (e.g., ~ 1,800 nm). Thus, 1O2 damage is both spatially and temporally limited and does not produce bystander effect. In a heterogeneous tumor, cells escaping 1O2 damage can regrow after PDT treatment. To overcome these limitations, we developed a prodrug concept (PS-L-D) composed of a photosensitizer (PS), an anti-cancer drug (D), and an 1O2-cleavable linker (L). Upon illumination of the prodrug, 1O2 is generated, which damages the tumor and also releases anticancer drug. The locally released drug could cause spatially broader and temporally sustained damage, killing the surviving cancer cells after the PDT damage. In our previous report, we presented the superior activity of our prodrug of CA4 (combretastatin A-4), Pc-(L-CA4)2, compared to its non-cleavable analog, Pc-(NCL-CA4)2, that produced only PDT effects. Here, we provide clear evidence demonstrating that the released anticancer drug, CA4, indeed damages the surviving cancer cells over and beyond the spatial and temporal limits of 1O2. In the limited light illumination experiment, cells in the entire well were killed due to the effect of released anticancer drug, whereas only a partial damage was observed in the pseudo-prodrug treated wells. A time-dependent cell survival study showed more cell death in the prodrug-treated cells due to the sustained damage by the released CA4. Cell cycle analysis and microscopic imaging data demonstrated the typical damage patterns by CA4 in the prodrug treated cells. A time-dependent histological study showed that prodrug-treated tumors lacked mitotic bodies, and the prodrug caused broader and sustained tumor size reduction compared to those seen in the tumors treated with the pseudo-prodrug. This data consistently

  15. [Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency in children: our experience and a novel possibility of enzyme replacement therapy].

    PubMed

    Ramadža, Danijela Petković; Ćuk, Mario; Zibar, Karin; Barić, Marina; Sarnavka, Vladimir; Bilić, Karmen; Fumić, Ksenija; Vuković, Jurica; Pušeljić, Silvija; Ćorić, Marijana; Padovan, Ranka Štern; Kralik, Marko; Barić, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder with two distinct clinical phenotypes. Wolman disease is rapidly progressive with onset in early infancy. Complete enzyme deficiency results in massive accumulation of cholesterol esters and triglycerides in intestines, liver, spleen and other monocyte-macrophage system cells causing malabsorption, hepatosplenomegaly, liver failure and death in early infancy. Cholesterol ester storage disease may be diagnosed in childhood or later in life. It is characterized by chronic course and variable progression. Main features are variously expressed hepatopathy, including cirrhosis and liver failure, hypercholesterolemia and premature atherosclerosis. Characteristic is pathohistological finding of microvesicular steatosis and fibrosis and patognomonic are typical cholesterol ester crystals. Diagnosis is confirmed by enzyme assay and/or gene analysis. Until recently treatment was symptomatic. Ongoing clinical trials of enzyme replacement therapy have shown very promising results. We are presenting an infant with Wolman disease and two children with cholesterol ester storage disease with the aim to raise awareness about this disease and to start optimal care early.

  16. Biomolecules damage and redox status abnormalities in Fabry patients before and during enzyme replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Biancini, Giovana Brondani; Jacques, Carlos Eduardo; Hammerschmidt, Tatiane; de Souza, Heryk Motta; Donida, Bruna; Deon, Marion; Vairo, Filippo Pinto; Lourenço, Charles Marques; Giugliani, Roberto; Vargas, Carmen Regla

    2016-10-01

    Fabry disease (FD) is caused by deficient activity of the lysosomal enzyme α-galactosidase A. Its substrates, mainly globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), accumulate and seem to induce other pathophysiological findings of FD. Once enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is not completely efficient on preventing disease progress in FD patients, elucidating the underlying mechanisms in FD pathophysiology is essential to the development of additional therapeutic strategies. We investigated 58 Fabry patients (23 male and 35 female) subdivided into two groups (at diagnosis and during long-term ERT) and compared them to healthy individuals. Fabry patients at diagnosis presented altered glutathione (GSH) metabolism (higher GSH levels, lower glutathione peroxidase - GPx - and normal glutathione reductase - GR - activities), higher lipid peroxidation levels (thiobarbituric acid reactive species - TBARS - and malondialdehyde - MDA), nitric oxide (NO(.)) equivalents and urinary Gb3. Fabry patients on ERT presented GSH metabolism similar to controls, although lipid peroxidation and urinary levels of NO(.) equivalents remained higher whereas Gb3 levels were lower than at diagnosis but still higher than controls. These data demonstrated that redox impairment occurs in Fabry patients before and after ERT, probably as a consequence of Gb3 accumulation, providing targets to future therapy approaches using antioxidants in combination with ERT in FD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Enzyme replacement therapy with alglucosidase alfa in Pompe disease: Clinical experience with rate escalation.

    PubMed

    Desai, Ankit K; Walters, Crista K; Cope, Heidi L; Kazi, Zoheb B; DeArmey, Stephanie M; Kishnani, Priya S

    2018-02-01

    Patients with Pompe disease have realized significant medical benefits due to enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) infusions with alglucosidase alfa. However, regular infusions are time-consuming. Utilizing recommended infusion rates, infusion duration is 3h 45min for a patient receiving the standard dose of 20mg/kg, not including additional time needed for preparation of ERT, assessment of vital signs, intravenous access, and post-infusion monitoring. Recent studies have demonstrated increased effectiveness of higher dose of ERT (40mg/kg) in infantile-onset Pompe disease (IOPD), which increases the infusion duration to 6h 36min. Increased infusion durations compound the psychosocial burden on patients and families and potentially further disrupt family activities and obligations. We developed a stepwise infusion rate escalation protocol to administer higher dose ERT safely while decreasing infusion duration, which has been implemented in 15 patients to date. Reported here in detail are five patients with IOPD on 40mg/kg/weekly ERT in whom infusion duration was decreased with individualized, stepwise rate escalation. All patients tolerated rate escalations above the recommended rates without experiencing any infusion associated reactions and experienced a reduction in infusion duration by 1h and 24min with a corresponding increase in reported satisfaction. Our experience with ERT rate escalation is presented. A careful stepwise method of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) rate escalation can safely reduce infusion duration in patients with Pompe disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of new cyclophosphamide-based anticancer prodrugs

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Ki-Young.

    1993-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CP,1) is a prodrug that is activated by hepatic microsomal mixed-function oxidase (MFO) catalyzed C[sub 4]-hydroxylation. The resulting 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide (4-OH-CP) undergoes ring opening to aldophosphamide (Aldo), followed by generation of cytotoxic phosphoramide mustard (PDA,2) and acrolein by [beta]-elimination. The cytotoxic activity of CP is attributed to the aziridinium ion species derived from PDA that cross-links interstrand DNA. The aim of this research is to design, synthesize, and evaluate new cyclophosphamide-based alkylating agents to achieve improved therapeutic efficacy against neoplastic cells. Benzyl phosphoramide mustard (Benzyl PDA,4), 2.4-difluorobenzyl phosphoramide mustard (2,4-Difluorobenzyl PDA,5) and methyl phosphoramide mustard (Methyl PDA,6) were examined asmore » lipophilic, chemically stable prodrugs of PDA (2). These phosphorodiamidic esters were designed to undergo biotransformation by hepatic microsomal enzymes to produce 2 without generation of acrolein and to be active against CP-resistant tumor cells. Several N-methyl-4-(alkylthio)cyclophosphamide derivatives were synthesized and examined as chemically stable, biooxidative prodrugs of 4-OH-CP, the activated species of CP. All of the prodrugs underwent N-demethylation in a time-dependent manner when incubated with rat hepatic microsomes, which resulted in formation of formaldehyde as well as alkylating species. Among the prodrugs, N-methyl-4-(diethyldithiocarbamoyl)cyclophosphamide (N-CH[sub 3]-4-DDTC-CP,15) showed exceptional in vitro cytotoxicity against 3T3 cells as well as against a panel of human tumor cell lines, with a particular sensitivity to leukemia and small cell lung cancer cell lines. Preliminary in vivo antitumor evaluation against L1210 leukemia in mice showed that all of the prodrugs were active.« less

  19. Enzyme replacement therapy with agalsidase alfa in patients with Fabry's disease: an analysis of registry data.

    PubMed

    Mehta, A; Beck, M; Elliott, P; Giugliani, R; Linhart, A; Sunder-Plassmann, G; Schiffmann, R; Barbey, F; Ries, M; Clarke, J T R

    2009-12-12

    We analysed 5-year treatment with agalsidase alfa enzyme replacement therapy in patients with Fabry's disease who were enrolled in the Fabry Outcome Survey observational database (FOS). Baseline and 5-year data were available for up to 181 adults (126 men) in FOS. Serial data for cardiac mass and function, renal function, pain, and quality of life were assessed. Safety and sensitivity analyses were done in patients with baseline and at least one relevant follow-up measurement during the 5 years (n=555 and n=475, respectively). In patients with baseline cardiac hypertrophy, treatment resulted in a sustained reduction in left ventricular mass (LVM) index after 5 years (from 71.4 [SD 22.5] g/m(2.7) to 64.1 [18.7] g/m(2.7), p=0.0111) and a significant increase in midwall fractional shortening (MFS) from 14.3% (2.3) to 16.0% (3.8) after 3 years (p=0.02). In patients without baseline hypertrophy, LVM index and MFS remained stable. Mean yearly fall in estimated glomerular filtration rate versus baseline after 5 years of enzyme replacement therapy was -3.17 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) for men and -0.89 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) for women. Average pain, measured by Brief Pain Inventory score, improved significantly, from 3.7 (2.3) at baseline to 2.5 (2.4) after 5 years (p=0.0023). Quality of life, measured by deviation scores from normal EuroQol values, improved significantly, from -0.24 (0.3) at baseline to -0.17 (0.3) after 5 years (p=0.0483). Findings were confirmed by sensitivity analysis. No unexpected safety concerns were identified. By comparison with historical natural history data for patients with Fabry's disease who were not treated with enzyme replacement therapy, long-term treatment with agalsidase alfa leads to substantial and sustained clinical benefits. Shire Human Genetic Therapies AB.

  20. NIR Fluorogenic Dye as a Modular Platform for Prodrug Assembly: Real-Time in vivo Monitoring of Drug Release.

    PubMed

    Redy-Keisar, Orit; Ferber, Shiran; Satchi-Fainaro, Ronit; Shabat, Doron

    2015-06-01

    The ability to monitor drug release in vivo provides essential pharmacological information. We developed a new modular approach for the preparation of theranostic prodrugs with a turn-ON near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence mode of action. The prodrugs release their chemotherapeutic cargo and an active cyanine fluorophore upon reaction with a specific analyte. The prodrug platform is based on the fluorogenic dye QCy7; upon removal of a triggering substrate, the dye fluoresces, and the free drug is released. The evaluated camptothecin prodrug was activated by endogenous hydrogen peroxide produced in tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Drug release and in vitro cytotoxicity were correlated with the emitted fluorescence. The prodrug activation was effectively imaged in real time in mice bearing tumors. The modular design of the QCy7 fluorogenic platform should allow the preparation of numerous other prodrugs with various triggering substrates and chemotherapeutic agents. We anticipate that the development of real-time in vivo monitoring tools such as that described herein will pave the way for personalized therapy. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Plasma-Mediated Release of Morphine from Synthesized Prodrugs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    REPORT Plasma-mediated Release of Morphine from Synthesized Prodrugs 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Two morphine prodrugs (‘PDA’ and ‘PDB...were synthesized and the kinetics of esterase-mediated morphine release from these prodrugs were determined when incubated with plasma from...P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS controlled release, morphine, prodrugs 1. Thommey P. Thomas, Baohua Huang

  2. Enzyme-triggered size shrink and laser-enhanced NO release nanoparticles for deep tumor penetration and combination therapy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chuan; Cun, Xingli; Ruan, Shaobo; Liu, Rui; Xiao, Wei; Yang, Xiaotong; Yang, Yuanyuan; Yang, Chuanyao; Gao, Huile

    2018-03-27

    Chemotherapy remains restricted by poor drug delivery efficacy due to the heterogenous nature of tumor. Herein, we presented a novel nanoparticle that could not only response to the tumor microenvironment but also modulate it for deep tumor penetration and combination therapy. The intelligent nanoparticle (IDDHN) was engineered by hyaluronidase (HAase)-triggered size shrinkable hyaluronic acid shells, which were modified with NIR laser sensitive nitric oxide donor (HN), small-sized dendrimeric prodrug (IDD) of doxorubicin (DOX) as chemotherapy agent and indocyanine green (ICG) as photothermal agent into a single nanoparticle. IDDHN displayed synergistic deep penetration both in vitro and in vivo, owing to the enzymatically degradable HN shell mediated by HAase and laser-enhanced NO release triggered deep penetration upon strong hyperthermia effect of ICG under the NIR laser irradiation. The therapeutic effect of IDDHN was verified in 4T1 xenograft tumor model, and IDDHN showed a much better antitumor efficiency with few side effects upon NIR laser irradiation. Therefore, the valid of this study might provide a novel tactic for engineering nanoparticles both response to and modulate the tumor microenvironment for improving penetration and heterogeneity distribution of therapeutic agents in tumor. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Amino Acid Carbamates As Prodrugs Of Resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Mattarei, Andrea; Azzolini, Michele; La Spina, Martina; Zoratti, Mario; Paradisi, Cristina; Biasutto, Lucia

    2015-10-14

    Resveratrol (3, 5, 4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene), a plant polyphenol, has important drug-like properties, but its pharmacological exploitation in vivo is hindered by its rapid transformation via phase II conjugative metabolism. One approach to bypass this problem relies on prodrugs. We report here the synthesis, characterization, stability and in vivo pharmacokinetic behaviour of prodrugs of resveratrol in which the OH groups are engaged in an N-monosubstituted carbamate ester (-OC(O)NHR) linkage with a natural amino acid (Leu, Ile, Phe, Thr) to prevent conjugation and modulate the physicochemical properties of the molecule. We also report a convenient, high-yield protocol to obtain derivatives of this type. The new carbamate ester derivatives are stable at pH 1, while they undergo slow hydrolysis at physiological pH and hydrolyse with kinetics suitable for use in prodrugs in whole blood. After administration to rats by oral gavage the isoleucine-containing prodrug was significantly absorbed, and was present in the bloodstream as non-metabolized unaltered or partially deprotected species, demonstrating effective shielding from first-pass metabolism. We conclude that prodrugs based on the N-monosubstituted carbamate ester bond have the appropriate stability profile for the systemic delivery of phenolic compounds.

  4. Efficacy of pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy in chronic pancreatitis: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    de la Iglesia-García, Daniel; Huang, Wei; Szatmary, Peter; Baston-Rey, Iria; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jaime; Prada-Ramallal, Guillermo; Mukherjee, Rajarshi; Nunes, Quentin M; Domínguez-Muñoz, J Enrique; Sutton, Robert

    2017-08-01

    The benefits of pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) in chronic pancreatitis (CP) are inadequately defined. We have undertaken a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials of PERT to determine the efficacy of PERT in exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) from CP. Major databases were searched from 1966 to 2015 inclusive. The primary outcome was coefficient of fat absorption (CFA). Effects of PERT versus baseline and versus placebo, and of different doses, formulations and schedules were determined. A total of 17 studies (511 patients with CP) were included and assessed qualitatively (Jadad score). Quantitative data were synthesised from 14 studies. PERT improved CFA compared with baseline (83.7±6.0 vs 63.1±15.0, p<0.00001; I 2 =89%) and placebo (83.2±5.5 vs 67.4±7.0, p=0.0001; I 2 =86%). PERT improved coefficient of nitrogen absorption, reduced faecal fat excretion, faecal nitrogen excretion, faecal weight and abdominal pain, without significant adverse events. Follow-up studies demonstrated that PERT increased serum nutritional parameters, improved GI symptoms and quality of life without significant adverse events. High-dose or enteric-coated enzymes showed a trend to greater effectiveness than low-dose or non-coated comparisons, respectively. Subgroup, sensitive and meta-regression analyses revealed that sample size, CP diagnostic criteria, study design and enzyme dose contributed to heterogeneity; data on health inequalities were lacking. PERT is indicated to correct EPI and malnutrition in CP and may be improved by higher doses, enteric coating, administration during food and acid suppression. Further studies are required to determine optimal regimens, the impact of health inequalities and long-term effects on nutrition. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Cardiomyopathy and Response to Enzyme Replacement Therapy in a Male Mouse Model for Fabry Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen Dinh Cat, Aurelie; Escoubet, Brigitte; Agrapart, Vincent; Griol-Charhbili, Violaine; Schoeb, Trenton; Feng, Wenguang; Jaimes, Edgar; Warnock, David G.; Jaisser, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    Fabry disease is an X-linked disorder of glycosphingolipid metabolism that results in progressive accumulation of neutral glycosphingolipids, (predominately globotriaosylceramide; GL-3) in lysosomes, as well as other cellular compartments and the extracellular space. Our aim was to characterize the cardiac phenotype of male knock-out mice that are deficient in alpha-galactosidase A activity, as a model for Fabry disease and test the efficacy of Enzyme Replacement Therapy with agalsidase-beta. Male mice (3–4 months of age) were characterized with awake blood pressure and heart rate measurements, cardiac echocardiography and electrocardiography measurements under light anesthesia, histological studies and molecular studies with real-time polymerase chain reaction. The Fabry knock-out mouse has bradycardia and lower blood pressure than control wild type (CB7BL/6J) mice. In Fabry knock-out mice, the cardiomyopathy associated mild hypertrophy at echography with normal systolic LV function and mild diastolic dysfunction. Premature atrial contractions were more frequent in without conduction defect. Heart weight normalized to tibial length was increased in Fabry knock-out mice. Ascending aorta dilatation was observed. Molecular studies were consistent with early stages of cardiac remodeling. A single dose of agalsidase-beta (3 mg/kg) did not affect the LV hypertrophy, function or heart rate, but did improve the mRNA signals of early cardiac remodeling. In conclusion, the alpha-galactosidase A deficient mice at 3 to 4 months of age have cardiac and vascular alterations similar to that described in early clinical stage of Fabry disease in children and adolescents. Enzyme replacement therapy affects cardiac molecular remodeling after a single dose. PMID:22574107

  6. Fabry disease: characterisation of the plasma proteome pre- and post-enzyme replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Heo, Sun Hee; Kang, Eungu; Kim, Yoon-Myung; Go, Heounjeong; Kim, Kyung Yong; Jung, Jae Yong; Kang, Minji; Kim, Gu-Hwan; Kim, Jae-Min; Choi, In-Hee; Choi, Jin-Ho; Jung, Sung-Chul; Desnick, Robert J; Yoo, Han-Wook; Lee, Beom Hee

    2017-11-01

    Fabry disease is characterised by the progressive accumulation of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) and related glycosphingolipids in vascular endothelial cells. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) clears this accumulation. We analysed plasma proteome profiles before and after ERT to characterise its molecular pathology. Two-dimensional electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) were done using plasma samples before and after ERT in eight patients with classical Fabry disease RESULTS: After short-term ERT (4-12 months), the levels of 15 plasma proteins involved in inflammation, oxidative and ischaemic injury, or complement activation were reduced significantly. Among them, β-actin (ACTB), inactivated complement C3b (iC3b), and C4B were elevated significantly in pre-ERT Fabry disease plasma compared with control plasma. After longer-term ERT (46-96 months), iC3b levels gradually decreased, whereas the levels of other proteins varied. The gradual reduction of iC3b was comparable to that of Gb3 levels. In addition, iC3b increased significantly in pre-ERT Fabry disease mouse plasma, and C3 deposits were notable in renal tissues of pre-enzyme replacement therapy patients. These results indicated that C3-mediated complement activation might be altered in Fabry disease and ERT might promote its stabilisation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Enzyme replacement therapy for mucopolysaccharidosis VI from 8 weeks of age--a sibling control study.

    PubMed

    McGill, J J; Inwood, A C; Coman, D J; Lipke, M L; de Lore, D; Swiedler, S J; Hopwood, J J

    2010-05-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI) is a progressive, multisystem disorder caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulphatase (ASB). Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has been shown to clinically benefit affected individuals greater than 6 years of age. This case control study of affected siblings assessed the safety, efficacy and benefits of ERT in children less than 5 years of age. Siblings, aged 8 weeks and 3.6 years, were treated weekly with 1 mg/kg recombinant human N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulphatase (rhASB) with an end-point of 3.6 years. Clinical and biochemical parameters were monitored to assess the benefits of ERT. The treatment was well tolerated by both siblings. In the younger sibling, ERT was associated with the absence of the development of scoliosis and preserved joint movement, cardiac valves and facial morphology. The older sibling had a marked improvement in joint mobility and cardiac valve pathology and scoliosis slowed or stabilized. Corneal clouding and progressive skeletal changes were observed despite treatment. This study demonstrated a clear benefit of early initiation of ERT to slow or prevent the development of significant pathological changes of MPS VI. These results indicate that the earlier ERT is started, the greater the response.

  8. Chemical Reactivity Window Determines Prodrug Efficiency toward Glutathione Transferase Overexpressing Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    van Gisbergen, Marike W; Cebula, Marcus; Zhang, Jie; Ottosson-Wadlund, Astrid; Dubois, Ludwig; Lambin, Philippe; Tew, Kenneth D; Townsend, Danyelle M; Haenen, Guido R M M; Drittij-Reijnders, Marie-José; Saneyoshi, Hisao; Araki, Mika; Shishido, Yuko; Ito, Yoshihiro; Arnér, Elias S J; Abe, Hiroshi; Morgenstern, Ralf; Johansson, Katarina

    2016-06-06

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are often overexpressed in tumors and frequently correlated to bad prognosis and resistance against a number of different anticancer drugs. To selectively target these cells and to overcome this resistance we previously have developed prodrugs that are derivatives of existing anticancer drugs (e.g., doxorubicin) incorporating a sulfonamide moiety. When cleaved by GSTs, the prodrug releases the cytostatic moiety predominantly in GST overexpressing cells, thus sparing normal cells with moderate enzyme levels. By modifying the sulfonamide it is possible to control the rate of drug release and specifically target different GSTs. Here we show that the newly synthesized compounds, 4-acetyl-2-nitro-benzenesulfonyl etoposide (ANS-etoposide) and 4-acetyl-2-nitro-benzenesulfonyl doxorubicin (ANS-DOX), function as prodrugs for GSTA1 and MGST1 overexpressing cell lines. ANS-DOX, in particular, showed a desirable cytotoxic profile by inducing toxicity and DNA damage in a GST-dependent manner compared to control cells. Its moderate conversion of 500 nmol/min/mg, as catalyzed by GSTA1, seems hereby essential since the more reactive 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonyl doxorubicin (DNS-DOX) (14000 nmol/min/mg) did not display a preference for GSTA1 overexpressing cells. DNS-DOX, however, effectively killed GSTP1 (20 nmol/min/mg) and MGST1 (450 nmol/min/mg) overexpressing cells as did the less reactive 4-mononitrobenzenesulfonyl doxorubicin (MNS-DOX) in a MGST1-dependent manner (1.5 nmol/min/mg) as shown previously. Furthermore, we show that the mechanism of these prodrugs involves a reduction in GSH levels as well as inhibition of the redox regulatory enzyme thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) by virtue of their electrophilic sulfonamide moiety. TrxR1 is upregulated in many tumors and associated with resistance to chemotherapy and poor patient prognosis. Additionally, the prodrugs potentially acted as a general shuttle system for DOX, by overcoming resistance

  9. Where do the immunostimulatory effects of oral proteolytic enzymes ('systemic enzyme therapy') come from? Microbial proteolysis as a possible starting point.

    PubMed

    Biziulevicius, Gediminas A

    2006-01-01

    Enteric-coated proteolytic enzyme preparations like Wobenzym and Phlogenzym are widely used for the so-called 'systemic enzyme therapy' both in humans and animals. Numerous publications reveal that oral proteolytic enzymes are able to stimulate directly the activity of immune competent cells as well as to increase efficiency of some of their products. But origins of the immunostimulatory effects of oral proteolytic enzymes are still unclear. The hypothesis described here suggests that it may be proteolysis of intestinal microorganisms that makes the immune competent cells to work in the immunostimulatory manner. The hypothesis was largely formed by several scientific observations: First, microbial lysis products (lipopolysaccharides, muropeptides and other peptidoglycan fragments, beta-glucans, etc.) are well known for their immunostimulatory action. Second, a normal human being hosts a mass of intestinal microorganisms equivalent to about 1 kg. The biomass (mainly due to naturally occurring autolysis) continuously supplies the host's organism with immunostimulatory microbial cell components. Third, the immunostimulatory effects resulting from the oral application of exogenously acting antimicrobial (lytic) enzyme preparations, such as lysozyme and lysosubtilin, are likely to be a result of the action of microbial lysis products. Fourth, cell walls of most microorganisms contain a considerable amount of proteins/peptides, a possible target for exogenous proteolytic enzymes. In fact, several authors have already shown that a number of proteases possess an ability to lyse the microbial cells in vitro. Fifth, the pretreatment of microbial cells (at least of some species) in vitro with proteolytic enzymes makes them more sensitive to the lytic action of lysozyme and, otherwise, pretreatment with lysozyme makes them more susceptible to proteolytic degradation. Sixth, exogenous proteases, when in the intestines, may participate in final steps of food-protein digestion

  10. [Radiation Anticarcinogenesis by Thiazolidine Pro-drug

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warters, Raymond L.; Roberts, Jeanette C.; Fain, Heidi

    1999-01-01

    The original goal of this work was to determine the capacity of selected aminothiols to modulate radiation induced cytotoxicity, mutagenesis and carcinogenesis in a human mammary epithelial cell line. The conclusions from this work are that WR-1065 is the "gold standard" for protection against radiation induced cytotoxicity, mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. While a potent radiation protector, WR-1065 is cytotoxic in vitro and in vivo. Our rationale for a study of the thiazolidine pro-drugs was that these compounds are neither toxic in vitro or in vivo. The results obtained during this funding period indicate that the thiazolidine pro-drugs are as potent as WR-1065 as protectors against radiation induced mutation induction, and thus presumably against radiation induced carcinogenesis. Our results indicate that the thiazolidine prodrugs are excellent candidates to test as non-toxic anticarcinogens for protecting astronauts from cancer induction during space travel.

  11. Antibody-mediated enzyme replacement therapy targeting both lysosomal and cytoplasmic glycogen in Pompe disease.

    PubMed

    Yi, Haiqing; Sun, Tao; Armstrong, Dustin; Borneman, Scott; Yang, Chunyu; Austin, Stephanie; Kishnani, Priya S; Sun, Baodong

    2017-05-01

    Pompe disease is characterized by accumulation of both lysosomal and cytoplasmic glycogen primarily in skeletal and cardiac muscles. Mannose-6-phosphate receptor-mediated enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with recombinant human acid α-glucosidase (rhGAA) targets the enzyme to lysosomes and thus is unable to digest cytoplasmic glycogen. Studies have shown that anti-DNA antibody 3E10 penetrates living cells and delivers "cargo" proteins to the cytosol or nucleus via equilibrative nucleoside transporter ENT2. We speculate that 3E10-mediated ERT with GAA will target both lysosomal and cytoplasmic glycogen in Pompe disease. A fusion protein (FabGAA) containing a humanized Fab fragment derived from the murine 3E10 antibody and the 110 kDa human GAA precursor was constructed and produced in CHO cells. Immunostaining with an anti-Fab antibody revealed that the Fab signals did not co-localize with the lysosomal marker LAMP2 in cultured L6 myoblasts or Pompe patient fibroblasts after incubation with FabGAA. Western blot with an anti-GAA antibody showed presence of the 150 kDa full-length FabGAA in the cell lysates, in addition to the 95- and 76 kDa processed forms of GAA that were also seen in the rhGAA-treated cells. Blocking of mannose-6-phosphate receptor with mannose-6-phosphate markedly reduced the 95- and the 76 kDa forms but not the 150 kDa form. In GAA-KO mice, FabGAA achieved similar treatment efficacy as rhGAA at an equal molar dose in reducing tissue glycogen contents. Our data suggest that FabGAA retains the ability of rhGAA to treat lysosomal glycogen accumulation and has the beneficial potential over rhGAA to reduce cytoplasmic glycogen storage in Pompe disease. FabGAA can be delivered to both the cytoplasm and lysosomes in cultured cells. FabGAA equally reduced lysosomal glycogen accumulation as rhGAA in GAA-KO mice. FabGAA has the beneficial potential over rhGAA to clear cytoplasmic glycogen. This study suggests a novel antibody-enzyme fusion protein therapy

  12. Prodrugs of herpes simplex thymidine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Yanachkova, Milka; Xu, Wei-Chu; Dvoskin, Sofya; Dix, Edward J; Yanachkov, Ivan B; Focher, Federico; Savi, Lida; Sanchez, M Dulfary; Foster, Timothy P; Wright, George E

    2015-04-01

    Because guanine-based herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase inhibitors are not orally available, we synthesized various 6-deoxy prodrugs of these compounds and evaluated them with regard to solubility in water, oral bioavailability, and efficacy to prevent herpes simplex virus-1 reactivation from latency in a mouse model. Organic synthesis was used to prepare compounds, High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to analyze hydrolytic conversion, Mass Spectrometry (MS) to measure oral bioavailability, and mouse latent infection and induced reactivation to evaluate the efficacy of a specific prodrug. Aqueous solubilities of prodrugs were improved, oxidation of prodrugs by animal cytosols occurred in vitro, and oral absorption of the optimal prodrug sacrovir™ (6-deoxy-mCF3PG) in the presence of the aqueous adjuvant Soluplus® and conversion to active compound N(2)-[3-(trifluoromethyl)pheny])guanine (mCF3PG) were accomplished in mice. Treatment of herpes simplex virus-1 latent mice with sacrovir™ in 1% Soluplus in drinking water significantly suppressed herpes simplex virus-1 reactivation and viral genomic replication. Ad libitum oral delivery of sacrovir™ was effective in suppressing herpes simplex virus-1 reactivation in ocularly infected latent mice as measured by the numbers of mice shedding infectious virus at the ocular surface, numbers of trigeminal ganglia positive for infectious virus, number of corneas that had detectable infectious virus, and herpes simplex virus-1 genome copy numbers in trigeminal ganglia following reactivation. These results demonstrate the statistically significant effect of the prodrug on suppressing herpes simplex virus-1 reactivation in vivo. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Lactic acid oligomers (OLAs) as prodrug moieties.

    PubMed

    Kruse, J; Lachmann, B; Lauer, R; Eppacher, S; Noe, C R

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we propose the use of lactic acid oligomers (OLAs) as prodrug moieties. Two synthetic approaches are presented, on the one hand a non selective oligomerisation of lactic acid and on the other hand a block synthesis to tetramers of lactic acid. Dimers of lactic acid were investigated with respect to their plasma stability and their adsorption to albumine. Ibuprofen was chosen as the first drug for OLAylation. The ester 19 of LA(1)-ibuprofen was evaluated with respect to the degradation to human plasma and the adsorption to albumine. All results indicate that lactic acid oligomers are promising prodrug moieties.

  14. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of NAD(P)H: Quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1)-targeted oridonin prodrugs possessing indolequinone moiety for hypoxia-selective activation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shengtao; Yao, Hong; Pei, Lingling; Hu, Mei; Li, Dahong; Qiu, Yangyi; Wang, Guangyu; Wu, Liang; Yao, Hequan; Zhu, Zheying; Xu, Jinyi

    2017-05-26

    The enzyme NQO1 is a potential target for selective cancer therapy due to its overexpression in certain hypoxic tumors. A series of prodrugs possessing a variety of cytotoxic diterpenoids (oridonin and its analogues) as the leaving groups activated by NQO1 were synthesized by functionalization of 3-(hydroxymethyl)indolequinone, which is a good substrate of NQO1. The target compounds (29a-m) exhibited relatively higher antiproliferative activities against NQO1-rich human colon carcinoma cells (HT-29) and human lung carcinoma (A549) cells (IC 50  = 0.263-2.904 μM), while NQO1-defficient lung adenosquamous carcinoma cells (H596) were less sensitive to these compounds, among which, compound 29h exhibited the most potent antiproliferative activity against both A549 and HT-29 cells, with IC 50 values of 0.386 and 0.263 μM, respectively. Further HPLC and docking studies demonstrated that 29h is a good substrate of NQO1. Moreover, the investigation of anticancer mechanism showed that the representative compound 29h affected cell cycle and induced NQO1 dependent apoptosis through an oxidative stress triggered mitochondria-related pathway in A549 cells. Besides, the antitumor activity of 29h was also verified in a liver cancer xenograft mouse model. Biological evaluation of these compounds concludes that there is a strong correlation between NQO1 enzyme and induction of cancer cell death. Thus, this suggests that some of the target compounds activated by NQO1 are novel prodrug candidates potential for selective anticancer therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Novel prodrugs with a spontaneous cleavable guanidine moiety.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Yoshio

    2016-04-01

    Water-soluble prodrug strategy is a practical alternative for improving the drug bioavailability of sparingly-soluble drugs with reduced drug efficacy. Many water-soluble prodrugs of sparingly-soluble drugs, such as the phosphate ester of a drug, have been reported. Recently, we described a novel water-soluble prodrug based on O-N intramolecular acyl migration. However, these prodrug approaches require a hydroxy group in the structure of their drugs, and other prodrug approaches are often restricted by the structure of the parent drugs. To develop prodrugs with no restriction in the structure, we focused on a decomposition reaction of arginine methyl ester. This reaction proceeds at room temperature under neutral conditions, and we applied this reaction to the prodrug strategy for drugs with an amino group. We designed and synthesized novel prodrugs of representative sparingly soluble drugs phenytoin and sulfathiazole. Phenytoin and sulfathiazole were obtained as stable salt that were converted to parent drugs under physiological conditions. Phenytoin prodrug 3 showed a short half-life (t1/2) of 13min, whereas sulfathiazole prodrug 7 had a moderate t1/2 of 40min. Prodrugs 3 and 7 appear to be suitable for use as an injectable formulation and orally administered drug, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Advances in oral delivery of anti-cancer prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Jain, Amit K; Jain, Sanyog

    2016-12-01

    Most anticancer drugs have poor aqueous solubility and low permeability across the gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, extensive efflux by P-glycoproteins (P-gp) in the small intestine also limits the efficient delivery of anticancer drugs via oral route. Area covered: This review explores the prodrug strategy for oral delivery of anticancer drugs. Different categories of oral anticancer prodrugs along with recent clinical studies have been comprehensively reviewed here. Furthermore, novel anticancer prodrugs such as polymer-prodrugs and lipid-prodrugs have been discussed in detail. Finally, various nanocarrier-based approaches employed for oral delivery of anticancer prodrugs have also been discussed. Expert opinion: Premature degradation of anticancer prodrugs in the gastrointestinal tract could lead to variable pharmacokinetics and undesired toxicity. Despite their increased aqueous solubility, the oral bioavailability of several anticancer prodrugs are limited by their poor permeability across the gastrointestinal tract. These limitations can be overcome by the use of functional excipients (polymers, lipids, amino acids/dipeptides), which are specifically absorbed via transporters and receptor-mediated endocytosis. Oral delivery of anticancer prodrugs using nanocarrier-based drug delivery system is a recent development; however it should be justified based on the comparative advantages of encapsulating prodrug in a nanocarrier versus the use of anticancer prodrug molecule itself.

  17. Co-enzyme Q10, riboflavin and niacin supplementation on alteration of DNA repair enzyme and DNA methylation in breast cancer patients undergoing tamoxifen therapy.

    PubMed

    Premkumar, Vummidi Giridhar; Yuvaraj, Srinivasan; Shanthi, Palanivel; Sachdanandam, Panchanatham

    2008-12-01

    In the present study, eighty-four breast cancer patients were randomized to receive a daily supplement of 100 mg co-enzyme Q10, 10 mg riboflavin and 50 mg niacin (CoRN), one dosage per d along with 10 mg tamoxifen twice per d. A significant increase in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase levels and disappearance of RASSF1A DNA methylation patterns were found in patients treated with supplement therapy along with tamoxifen compared to untreated breast cancer patients and tamoxifen alone-treated patients. An increase in DNA repair enzymes and disappearance of DNA methylation patterns attributes to reduction in tumour burden and may suggest good prognosis and efficacy of the treatment.

  18. Targeting Carcinoma-Associated Fibroblasts Within the Tumor Stroma With a Fibroblast Activation Protein-Activated Prodrug

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    : mean = 0.543mm3, 95% CI = 0.173 to 0.913mm3), respectively, on day 21 after therapy. Conclusions This study validates the proteolytic activity of FAP as a target for the activation of a systemically delivered cytotoxic prodrug and demonstrates that targeted killing of cells within the stromal compartment of the tumor microenvironment can produce a therapeutic response. PMID:22911669

  19. ROS-activated anticancer prodrugs: a new strategy for tumor-specific damage

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xiaohua; Gandhi, Varsha

    2013-01-01

    Targeting tumor cells is an important strategy to improve the selectivity of cancer therapies. With the advanced studies in cancer biology, we know that cancer cells are usually under increased oxidative stress. The high level of reactive oxygen species in cancer cells has been exploited for developing novel therapeutic strategies to preferentially kill cancer cells. Our group, amongst others, have used boronic acids/esters as triggers for developing ROS-activated anticancer prodrugs that target cancer cells. The selectivity was achieved by combining a specific reaction between boronates and H2O2 with the efficient masking of drug toxicity in the prodrug via boronates. Prodrugs activated via ferrocene-mediated oxidation have also been developed to improve the selectivity of anticancer drugs. We describe how the strategies of ROS-activation can be used for further development of new ROS-targeting prodrugs, eventually leading to novel approaches and/or combined technology for more efficient and selective treatment of cancers. PMID:22900465

  20. Plasma lyso-Gb3: a biomarker for monitoring fabry patients during enzyme replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Sakuraba, Hitoshi; Togawa, Tadayasu; Tsukimura, Takahiro; Kato, Hiroshi

    2017-12-29

    Recently, globotriaosylsphingosine (lyso-Gb3) has attracted interest as a biomarker of Fabry disease. However, little is known regarding its utility for the evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy. We measured plasma lyso-Gb3 concentration in Japanese healthy subjects and Fabry patients by means of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We determined the reference interval in Japanese (UMIN000016854), and examined the effect of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with recombinant α-galactosidase A (GLA) and the influence of antibodies against the enzyme on the plasma lyso-Gb3 level in Fabry patients (UMIN000017152). The reference interval was determined to be 0.35-0.71 nmol/L, this being almost the same as the normal range in a non-Japanese population previously reported. The analysis revealed that the plasma lyso-Gb3 level was strikingly increased in classic Fabry males, and to a lesser extent in later-onset Fabry males and Fabry females. The elevation of the plasma lyso-Gb3 level was related to renal involvement in the Fabry females. ERT gave a rapid reduction in the elevated plasma lyso-Gb3 level in the classic Fabry males, and a gradual one or stabilization in most of the later-onset Fabry males and Fabry females. However, formation of antibodies against the recombinant GLA had a negative effect on the reduction of plasma lyso-Gb3. Regular observation of plasma lyso-Gb3 and antibodies is useful for monitoring of Fabry patients during ERT.

  1. Bacterial Toxins for Oncoleaking Suicidal Cancer Gene Therapy.

    PubMed

    Pahle, Jessica; Walther, Wolfgang

    For suicide gene therapy, initially prodrug-converting enzymes (gene-directed enzyme-producing therapy, GDEPT) were employed to intracellularly metabolize non-toxic prodrugs into toxic compounds, leading to the effective suicidal killing of the transfected tumor cells. In this regard, the suicide gene therapy has demonstrated its potential for efficient tumor eradication. Numerous suicide genes of viral or bacterial origin were isolated, characterized, and extensively tested in vitro and in vivo, demonstrating their therapeutic potential even in clinical trials to treat cancers of different entities. Apart from this, growing efforts are made to generate more targeted and more effective suicide gene systems for cancer gene therapy. In this regard, bacterial toxins are an alternative to the classical GDEPT strategy, which add to the broad spectrum of different suicide approaches. In this context, lytic bacterial toxins, such as streptolysin O (SLO) or the claudin-targeted Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) represent attractive new types of suicide oncoleaking genes. They permit as pore-forming proteins rapid and also selective toxicity toward a broad range of cancers. In this chapter, we describe the generation and use of SLO as well as of CPE-based gene therapies for the effective tumor cell eradication as promising, novel suicide gene approach particularly for treatment of therapy refractory tumors.

  2. Regional 'pro-drug' gene therapy: intravenous administration of an adenoviral vector expressing the E. coli cytosine deaminase gene and systemic administration of 5-fluorocytosine suppresses growth of hepatic metastasis of colon carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Topf, N; Worgall, S; Hackett, N R; Crystal, R G

    1998-04-01

    Direct administration of an adenoviral vector expressing the cytosine deaminase gene (AdCMV.CD) to tumors of colon carcinoma cells, with concomitant systemic administration of 5-fluorocytosine (5FC), results in local production of 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and suppression of tumor growth. Based on the demonstration that in vivo adenovirus-mediated gene transfer to intrahepatic tumors is relatively inefficient compared with in vivo gene transfer to hepatocytes, we developed a 'regional' prodrug strategy using in vivo Ad-mediated CD gene transfer to normal liver, permitting hepatocytes to convert 5FC into 5FU to treat local metastasis effectively in a 'trans' fashion. To show that hepatocytes can generate and export sufficient 5FU to achieve this goal, primary rat hepatocytes were exposed to AdCMV.CD and 5FC. Evaluation of the supernatants by spectrophotometry and by HPLC demonstrated significant conversion of 5FC into 5FU. When supernatants of hepatocytes exposed to AdCMV.CD and 5FC were transferred to cultures of CT26 mouse colon carcinoma cells, the CT26 viability was reduced by 80%. To show that this regional AdCMV.CD/5FC prodrug strategy can suppress tumor growth in vivo, a model of metastatic colon carcinoma was established by injecting CT26 cells into the left lobe of the liver of syngeneic Balb/c mice. The next day, AdCMV.CD was transferred to hepatocytes by intravenous administration, and 5FC treatment was started the following day. Evaluation of tumor growth after 15 days showed marked suppression of tumor growth in AdCMV.CD- and 5FC- treated animals compared to control groups (P < 0.007). We conclude that primary hepatocytes are capable of converting 5FC into 5FU and exporting sufficient amounts of 5FU to the local milieu to suppress the growth of liver metastases of colon carcinoma cells.

  3. Catalase-loaded cisplatin-prodrug-constructed liposomes to overcome tumor hypoxia for enhanced chemo-radiotherapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Song, Xuejiao; Liang, Chao; Yi, Xuan; Song, Guosheng; Chao, Yu; Yang, Yu; Yang, Kai; Feng, Liangzhu; Liu, Zhuang

    2017-09-01

    Aiming at improved therapeutic efficacies, the combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy (chemo-radiotherapy) has been widely studied and applied in clinic. However, the hostile characteristics of tumor microenvironment such as hypoxia often limit the efficacies in both types of cancer therapies. Herein, catalase (CAT), an antioxidant enzyme, is encapsulated inside liposomes constituted by cisplatin (IV)-prodrug-conjugated phospholipid, forming CAT@Pt (IV)-liposome for enhanced chemo-radiotherapy of cancer. After being loaded inside liposomes, CAT within CAT@Pt (IV)-liposome shows retained and well-protected enzyme activity, and is able to trigger decomposition of H 2 O 2 produced by tumor cells, so as to produce additional oxygen for hypoxia relief. As the result, treatment of CAT@Pt (IV)-liposome induces the highest level of DNA damage in cancer cells after X-ray radiation compared to the control groups. In vivo tumor treatment further demonstrates a remarkably improved therapeutic outcome in chemo-radiotherapy with such CAT@Pt (IV)-liposome nanoparticles. Hence, an exquisite type of liposome-based nanoparticles is developed in this work by integrating cisplatin-based chemotherapy and catalase-induced tumor hypoxia relief together for combined chemo-radiotherapy with great synergistic efficacy, promising for clinical translation in cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV as a potential target for selective prodrug activation and chemotherapeutic action in cancers.

    PubMed

    Dahan, Arik; Wolk, Omri; Yang, Peihua; Mittal, Sachin; Wu, Zhiqian; Landowski, Christopher P; Amidon, Gordon L

    2014-12-01

    The efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs is often offset by severe side effects attributable to poor selectivity and toxicity to normal cells. Recently, the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) was considered as a potential target for the delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of targeting chemotherapeutic drugs to DPPIV as a strategy to enhance their specificity. The expression profile of DPPIV was obtained for seven cancer cell lines using DNA microarray data from the DTP database, and was validated by RT-PCR. A prodrug was then synthesized by linking the cytotoxic drug melphalan to a proline-glycine dipeptide moiety, followed by hydrolysis studies in the seven cell lines with a standard substrate, as well as the glycyl-prolyl-melphalan (GP-Mel). Lastly, cell proliferation studies were carried out to demonstrate enzyme-dependent activation of the candidate prodrug. The relative RT-PCR expression levels of DPPIV in the cancer cell lines exhibited linear correlation with U95Av2 Affymetrix data (r(2) = 0.94), and with specific activity of a standard substrate, glycine-proline-p-nitroanilide (r(2) = 0.96). The significantly higher antiproliferative activity of GP-Mel in Caco-2 cells (GI₅₀ = 261 μM) compared to that in SK-MEL-5 cells (GI₅₀ = 807 μM) was consistent with the 9-fold higher specific activity of the prodrug in Caco-2 cells (5.14 pmol/min/μg protein) compared to SK-MEL-5 cells (0.68 pmol/min/μg protein) and with DPPIV expression levels in these cells. Our results demonstrate the great potential to exploit DPPIV as a prodrug activating enzyme for efficient chemotherapeutic drug targeting.

  5. Targeting Cancer Cells with a Bisphosphonate Prodrug.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kenji; Hayashi, Kosuke; Murata-Hirai, Kaoru; Iwasaki, Masashi; Okamura, Haruki; Minato, Nagahiro; Morita, Craig T; Tanaka, Yoshimasa

    2016-12-16

    Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates have antitumor activity in certain breast cancer and myeloma patients. However, these drugs have limited oral absorption, tumor cell entry and activity, and cause bone side effects. The potencies of phosphorylated antiviral drugs have been increased by administering them as prodrugs, in which the negative charges on the phosphate moieties are masked to make them lipophilic. We synthesized heterocyclic bisphosphonate (BP) prodrugs in which the phosphonate moieties are derivatized with pivaloyloxymethyl (pivoxil) groups and that lack the hydroxy "bone hook" on the geminal carbon. When the lipophilic BP prodrugs enter tumor cells, they are converted into their active forms by intracellular esterases. The most active BP prodrug, tetrakispivaloyloxymethyl 2-(thiazole-2-ylamino)ethylidene-1,1-bisphosphonate (7), was found to potently inhibit the in vitro growth of a variety of tumor cell lines, especially hematopoietic cells, at nanomolar concentrations. Consistent with this fact, compound 7 inhibited the prenylation of the RAP1A small GTPase signaling protein at concentrations as low as 1-10 nm. In preclinical studies, 7 slowed the growth of human bladder cancer cells in an immunodeficient mouse model. Thus, 7 is significantly more active than zoledronic acid, the most active FDA-approved BP, and a potential anticancer therapeutic. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Enhanced Efficacy of Enzyme Replacement Therapy in Pompe Disease Through Mannose-6-Phosphate Receptor Expression in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Koeberl, Dwight D.; Luo, Xiaoyan; Sun, Baodong; McVie-Wylie, Alison; Dai, Jian; Li, Songtao; Banugaria, Suhrad G.; Chen, Y-T; Bali, Deeksha S.

    2011-01-01

    Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with acid α-glucosidase has become available for Pompe disease; however, the response of skeletal muscle, as opposed to the heart, has been attenuated. The poor response of skeletal muscle has been attributed to the low abundance of the cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR) in skeletal muscle compared to heart. To further understand the role of CI-MPR in Pompe disease, muscle-specific CI-MPR conditional knockout (KO) mice were crossed with GAA-KO (Pompe disease) mice. We evaluated the impact of CI-MPR-mediated uptake of GAA by evaluating ERT in CI-MPR-KO/GAA-KO (double KO) mice. The essential role of CI-MPR was emphasized by the lack of efficacy of ERT as demonstrated by markedly reduced biochemical correction of GAA deficiency and of glycogen accumulations in double KO mice, in comparison with administration of the same therapeutic doses in GAA-KO mice. Clenbuterol, a selective β2-agonist, enhanced CI-MPR expression in skeletal tissue and also increased efficacy from GAA therapy, thereby confirming the key role of CI-MPR with regard to enzyme replacement therapy in Pompe disease. Biochemical correction improved in both muscle and non-muscle tissues, indicating that therapy could be similarly enhanced in other lysosomal storage disorders. In summary, enhanced CI-MPR expression might improve the efficacy of enzyme replacement therapy in Pompe disease through enhancing receptor-mediated uptake of GAA. PMID:21397538

  7. Albuterol as an adjunctive treatment to enzyme replacement therapy in infantile-onset Pompe disease.

    PubMed

    Chien, Yin-Hsiu; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Lee, Ni-Chung; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Koeberl, Dwight D; Tsai, Wen-Hui; Chiu, Pao-Chin; Chang, Chaw-Liang

    2017-06-01

    Early initiation of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with recombinant human acid alpha-glucosidase is an effective treatment for patients with infantile-onset Pompe disease (IOPD) but cannot prevent a slow progression of myopathy. Albuterol has been shown to be helpful in adult patients with Pompe disease, and therefore, we administered an open-label adjunctive therapy with albuterol in IOPD patients undergoing ERT. Fourteen patients, aged 2 to 12 years, were enrolled in this study; all of them had a disease onset before 12 months of life, and 13 of them were ambulatory because of early initiation of ERT. All patients received albuterol (also referred to as salbutamol) 12 mg daily for 26 weeks. The outcome measurements included a 6-minute walk test, four-stair climb test (SCT), the standing/walking/running/jumping domains of Gross Motor Function Measure-88, speech quality, serum creatine kinase, and urinary glucose tetrasaccharide. Outcome and safety measurements were evaluated at baseline, and at 1, 3, and 6 months (26 weeks) after entering the trial. After a period of 26 weeks, among the 12 patients who were able to complete the SCT, the median time needed decreased by 22% ( p  = 0.034). Other parameters inconsistently improved in a variety of individuals. Eleven adverse events, including nausea, urinary frequency, and tachycardia, were potentially related to the study drug, but all were mild and disappeared after a brief drug withdrawal. One patient was actively withdrawn from the trial because of poor compliance. The results of our study suggest that albuterol showed a good safety profile as an adjunctive treatment in our IOPD cohort, although the benefits are limited.

  8. Enzyme replacement therapy attenuates disease progression in two Japanese siblings with mucopolysaccharidosis type VI.

    PubMed

    Furujo, Mahoko; Kubo, Toshihide; Kosuga, Motomichi; Okuyama, Torayuki

    2011-12-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI) is a progressive, multisystem autosomal recessive lysosomal disorder resulting from deficient N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulphatase (ASB) and the consequent accumulation of glycosaminoglycan (GAG). Preclinical and clinical studies had demonstrated clinical benefits of early initiation of systemic therapies in patients with MPS. In this case report, two siblings with MPS VI started enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with weekly infusions of recombinant human ASB (Galsulfase) at 1mg/kg. Sibling 1 started ERT 5.6 years of age and Sibling 2 was 6 weeks old. The disease status in these two siblings prior to and for no less than 36 months of ERT was followed up and compared. The treatment was well tolerated by both siblings. During 36 months of ERT, symptoms typical of MPS VI including short stature, progressive dysmorphic facial features, hepatosplenomegaly, hearing impairment, corneal clouding, and dysostosis multiplex were largely absent in the younger sibling. Her cardiac functions and joint mobility were well preserved. On the other hand, her affected brother had typical MPS VI phenotypic features described above before commencing ERT at the equivalent age, of 3 years. There was significant improvement in the shoulder range of motion and hearing loss after 36 months of treatment and cardiac function was largely preserved. His skeletal deformity and short stature remained unchanged. The results showed that early ERT initiated at newborn is safe and effective in preventing or slowing down disease progression of MPS VI including bone deformities. These observations indicate that early diagnosis and treatment of MPS VI before development of an irreversible disease is critical for optimal clinical outcome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Enzyme replacement therapy prevents dental defects in a model of hypophosphatasia.

    PubMed

    McKee, M D; Nakano, Y; Masica, D L; Gray, J J; Lemire, I; Heft, R; Whyte, M P; Crine, P; Millán, J L

    2011-04-01

    Hypophosphatasia (HPP) occurs from loss-of-function mutation in the tissue-non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNALP) gene, resulting in extracellular pyrophosphate accumulation that inhibits skeletal and dental mineralization. TNALP-null mice (Akp2(-/-)) phenocopy human infantile hypophosphatasia; they develop rickets at 1 week of age, and die before being weaned, having severe skeletal and dental hypomineralization and episodes of apnea and vitamin B(6)-responsive seizures. Delay and defects in dentin mineralization, together with a deficiency in acellular cementum, are characteristic. We report the prevention of these dental abnormalities in Akp2(-/-) mice receiving treatment from birth with daily injections of a mineral-targeting, human TNALP (sALP-FcD(10)). sALP-FcD(10) prevented hypomineralization of alveolar bone, dentin, and cementum as assessed by micro-computed tomography and histology. Osteopontin--a marker of acellular cementum--was immuno-localized along root surfaces, confirming that acellular cementum, typically missing or reduced in Akp2(-/-) mice, formed normally. Our findings provide insight concerning how acellular cementum is formed on tooth surfaces to effect periodontal ligament attachment to retain teeth in their osseous alveolar sockets. Furthermore, they provide evidence that this enzyme-replacement therapy, applied early in post-natal life--where the majority of tooth root development occurs, including acellular cementum formation--could prevent the accelerated tooth loss seen in individuals with HPP.

  10. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy in cystic fibrosis: dose, variability and coefficient of fat absorption.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Lerma, Joaquim; Martínez-Barona, Sandra; Masip, Etna; Fornés, Victoria; Ribes-Koninckx, Carmen

    2017-10-01

    Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) remains a backbone in the nutritional treatment of cystic fibrosis. Currently, there is a lack of an evidence-based tool that allows dose adjustment. To date, no studies have found an association between PERT dose and fat absorption. Therefore, the aim of the study was to assess the influence of both the PERT dose and the variability in this dose on the coefficient of fat absorption (CFA). This is a retrospective longitudinal study of 16 pediatric patients (192 food records) with three consecutive visits to the hospital over a twelve-month period. Dietary fat intake and PERT were assessed via a four-day food record and fat content in stools was determined by means of a three-day stool sample collection. A beta regression model was built to explain the association between the CFA and the interaction between the PERT dose (lipase units [LU]/g dietary fat) and the variability in the PERT dose (standard deviation [SD]). The coefficient of fat absorption increased with the PERT dose when the variability in the dose was low. In contrast, even at the highest PERT dose values, the CFA decreased when the variability was high. The confidence interval suggested an association, although the analysis was not statistically significant. The variability in the PERT dose adjustment should be taken into consideration when performing studies on PERT efficiency. A clinical goal should be the maintenance of a constant PERT dose rather than trying to obtain an optimal value.

  11. Fibrinolytic enzyme co-therapy improves tumor perfusion and therapeutic efficacy of anticancer nanomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Kirtane, Ameya R.; Sadhukha, Tanmoy; Kim, Hyunjoon; Khanna, Vidhi; Koniar, Brenda; Panyam, Jayanth

    2017-01-01

    Elevated interstitial fluid pressure and solid stress within tumors contribute to poor intratumoral distribution of nanomedicine. In this study, we hypothesized that the presence of fibrin in tumor extracellular matrix contributes to hindered intratumoral distribution of nanocarriers and that this can be overcome through the use of a fibrinolytic enzyme such as tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Analysis of fibrin expression in human tumor biopsies showed significant fibrin staining in nearly all tumor types evaluated. However, staining was heterogeneous across and within tumor types. We determined the effect of fibrin on the diffusion, intratumoral distribution, and therapeutic efficacy of nanocarriers. Diffusivity of nanocarriers in fibrin matrices was limited and could be improved significantly by co-incubation with tPA. In vivo, co-administration of tPA improved the anticancer efficacy of nanoparticle-encapsulated paclitaxel in subcutaneous syngeneic mouse melanoma and orthotopic xenograft lung cancer models. Furthermore, treatment with tPA led to decompression of blood vessels and improved tumor perfusion. Co-treatment with tPA resulted in greater intratumoral penetration of a model nanocarrier (Doxil7reg;), leading to enhanced availability of the drug in the tumor core. Fibrinolytics such as tPA are already approved for other indications. Fibrinolytic co-therapy is therefore a rapidly translatable strategy for improving therapeutic effectiveness of anticancer nanomedicine. PMID:28108516

  12. The Role of Pancreatic Enzyme Replacement Therapy in Unresectable Pancreatic Cancer: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tomotaka; Hirano, Kenji; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Nakai, Yousuke; Saito, Kei; Umefune, Gyotane; Akiyama, Dai; Watanabe, Takeo; Takagi, Kaoru; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Takahara, Naminatsu; Uchino, Rie; Mizuno, Suguru; Kogure, Hirofumi; Matsubara, Saburo; Yamamoto, Natsuyo; Tada, Minoru; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2017-03-01

    Although patients with pancreatic cancer (PC) are prone to exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, there are little evidence about pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) in patients with PC, especially those receiving chemotherapy. This is a prospective consecutive observational study of PERT in patients with unresectable PC. We prospectively enrolled patients receiving chemotherapy for unresectable PC from April 2012 to February 2014 and prescribed oral pancrelipase of 48,000 lipase units per meal (pancrelipase group). N-benzoyl-tryrosyl para-aminobenzoic acid test was performed at baseline. Patients receiving chemotherapy before April 2012 were retrospectively studied as a historical cohort. Data on the nutritional markers at baseline and 16 weeks were extracted, and serial changes, defined as the ratio of markers at 16 weeks/baseline, were compared between 2 groups. A total of 91 patients (46 in the pancrelipase group and 45 in the historical cohort) were analyzed. N-benzoyl-tryrosyl para-aminobenzoic acid test was low in 94% of the pancrelipase group. Serial change in the pancrelipase group versus historical cohort was 1.01 versus 0.95 in body mass index (P < 0.001) and 1.03 versus 0.97 in serum albumin (P = 0.131). The rate of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in unresectable PC was high, and PERT can potentially improve the nutritional status during chemotherapy.

  13. A beta-blocker, propranolol, decreases the efficacy from enzyme replacement therapy in Pompe disease

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sang-oh; Pope, Rand; Li, Songtao; Kishnani, Priya S.; Steet, Richard; Koeberl, Dwight D.

    2015-01-01

    Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with recombinant human acid α-glucosidase (rhGAA) fails to completely reverse muscle weakness in Pompe disease. β2-agonists enhanced ERT by increasing receptor-mediated uptake of rhGAA in skeletal muscles. Purpose To test the hypothesis that a β-blocker might reduce the efficacy of ERT, because the action of β-blockers opposes those of β2-agonists. Methods Mice with Pompe disease were treated with propranolol (a β-blocker) or clenbuterol in combination with ERT, or with ERT alone. Results Propranolol-treated mice had decreased weight gain (p<0.01), in comparison with clenbuterol-treated mice. Left ventricular mass was decreased (and comparable to wild-type) in ERT only and clenbuterol-treated groups of mice, and unchanged in propranolol-treated mice. GAA activity increased following either clenbuterol or propranolol in skeletal muscles. However, muscle glycogen was reduced only in clenbuterol-treated mice, not in propranolol-treated mice. Cell-based experiments confirmed that propranolol reduces uptake of rhGAA into Pompe fibroblasts and also demonstrated that the drug induces intracellular accumulation of glycoproteins at higher doses. Conclusion Propranolol, a commonly prescribed β-blocker, increased left ventricular mass and decreased glycogen clearance in skeletal muscle following ERT. β-blockers might therefore decrease the efficacy from ERT in patients with Pompe disease. PMID:26454691

  14. A beta-blocker, propranolol, decreases the efficacy from enzyme replacement therapy in Pompe disease.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang-Oh; Pope, Rand; Li, Songtao; Kishnani, Priya S; Steet, Richard; Koeberl, Dwight D

    2016-02-01

    Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with recombinant human acid α-glucosidase (rhGAA) fails to completely reverse muscle weakness in Pompe disease. β2-agonists enhanced ERT by increasing receptor-mediated uptake of rhGAA in skeletal muscles. To test the hypothesis that a β-blocker might reduce the efficacy of ERT, because the action of β-blockers opposes those of β2-agonists. Mice with Pompe disease were treated with propranolol (a β-blocker) or clenbuterol in combination with ERT, or with ERT alone. Propranolol-treated mice had decreased weight gain (p<0.01), in comparison with clenbuterol-treated mice. Left ventricular mass was decreased (and comparable to wild-type) in ERT only and clenbuterol-treated groups of mice, and unchanged in propranolol-treated mice. GAA activity increased following either clenbuterol or propranolol in skeletal muscles. However, muscle glycogen was reduced only in clenbuterol-treated mice, not in propranolol-treated mice. Cell-based experiments confirmed that propranolol reduces uptake of rhGAA into Pompe fibroblasts and also demonstrated that the drug induces intracellular accumulation of glycoproteins at higher doses. Propranolol, a commonly prescribed β-blocker, reduced weight, increased left ventricular mass and decreased glycogen clearance in skeletal muscle following ERT. β-Blockers might therefore decrease the efficacy from ERT in patients with Pompe disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Targeted delivery of a model immunomodulator to the lymphatic system: comparison of alkyl ester versus triglyceride mimetic lipid prodrug strategies.

    PubMed

    Han, Sifei; Quach, Tim; Hu, Luojuan; Wahab, Anisa; Charman, William N; Stella, Valentino J; Trevaskis, Natalie L; Simpson, Jamie S; Porter, Christopher J H

    2014-03-10

    A lipophilic prodrug approach has been used to promote the delivery of a model immunomodulator, mycophenolic acid (MPA), to the lymphatic system after oral administration. Lymphatic transport was employed to facilitate enhanced drug uptake into lymphocytes, as recent studies demonstrate that targeted drug delivery to lymph resident lymphocytes may enhance immunomodulatory effects. Two classes of lymph-directing prodrugs were synthesised. Alkyl chain derivatives (octyl mycophenolate, MPA-C8E; octadecyl mycophenolate, MPA-C18E; and octadecyl mycophenolamide, MPA-C18AM), to promote passive partitioning into lipids in lymphatic transport pathways, and a triglyceride mimetic prodrug (1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-mycophenoloyl glycerol, 2-MPA-TG) to facilitate metabolic integration into triglyceride deacylation-reacylation pathways. Lymphatic transport, lymphocyte uptake and plasma pharmacokinetics were assessed in mesenteric lymph and carotid artery cannulated rats following intraduodenal infusion of lipid-based formulations containing MPA or MPA prodrugs. Patterns of prodrug hydrolysis in rat digestive fluid, and cellular re-esterification in vivo, were evaluated to examine the mechanisms responsible for lymphatic transport. Poor enzyme stability and low absorption appeared to limit lymphatic transport of the alkyl derivatives, although two of the three alkyl chain prodrugs - MPA-C18AM (6-fold) and MPA-C18E (13-fold) still increased lymphatic drug transport when compared to MPA. In contrast, 2-MPA-TG markedly increased lymphatic drug transport (80-fold) and drug concentrations in lymphocytes (103-fold), and this was achieved via biochemical incorporation into triglyceride deacylation-reacylation pathways. The prodrug was hydrolysed rapidly to 2-mycophenoloyl glycerol (2-MPA-MG) in the presence of rat digestive fluid, and 2-MPA-MG was subsequently re-esterified in the enterocyte with oleic acid (most likely originating from the co-administered formulation) prior to accessing the

  16. Modeling of Pharmacokinetics of Cocaine in Human Reveals the Feasibility for Development of Enzyme Therapies for Drugs of Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fang; Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2012-01-01

    A promising strategy for drug abuse treatment is to accelerate the drug metabolism by administration of a drug-metabolizing enzyme. The question is how effectively an enzyme can actually prevent the drug from entering brain and producing physiological effects. In the present study, we have developed a pharmacokinetic model through a combined use of in vitro kinetic parameters and positron emission tomography data in human to examine the effects of a cocaine-metabolizing enzyme in plasma on the time course of cocaine in plasma and brain of human. Without an exogenous enzyme, cocaine half-lives in both brain and plasma are almost linearly dependent on the initial cocaine concentration in plasma. The threshold concentration of cocaine in brain required to produce physiological effects has been estimated to be 0.22±0.07 µM, and the threshold area under the cocaine concentration versus time curve (AUC) value in brain (denoted by AUC2∞) required to produce physiological effects has been estimated to be 7.9±2.7 µM·min. It has been demonstrated that administration of a cocaine hydrolase/esterase (CocH/CocE) can considerably decrease the cocaine half-lives in both brain and plasma, the peak cocaine concentration in brain, and the AUC2∞. The estimated maximum cocaine plasma concentration which a given concentration of drug-metabolizing enzyme can effectively prevent from entering brain and producing physiological effects can be used to guide future preclinical/clinical studies on cocaine-metabolizing enzymes. Understanding of drug-metabolizing enzymes is key to the science of pharmacokinetics. The general insights into the effects of a drug-metabolizing enzyme on drug kinetics in human should be valuable also in future development of enzyme therapies for other drugs of abuse. PMID:22844238

  17. Modeling of pharmacokinetics of cocaine in human reveals the feasibility for development of enzyme therapies for drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fang; Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2012-01-01

    A promising strategy for drug abuse treatment is to accelerate the drug metabolism by administration of a drug-metabolizing enzyme. The question is how effectively an enzyme can actually prevent the drug from entering brain and producing physiological effects. In the present study, we have developed a pharmacokinetic model through a combined use of in vitro kinetic parameters and positron emission tomography data in human to examine the effects of a cocaine-metabolizing enzyme in plasma on the time course of cocaine in plasma and brain of human. Without an exogenous enzyme, cocaine half-lives in both brain and plasma are almost linearly dependent on the initial cocaine concentration in plasma. The threshold concentration of cocaine in brain required to produce physiological effects has been estimated to be 0.22±0.07 µM, and the threshold area under the cocaine concentration versus time curve (AUC) value in brain (denoted by AUC2(∞)) required to produce physiological effects has been estimated to be 7.9±2.7 µM·min. It has been demonstrated that administration of a cocaine hydrolase/esterase (CocH/CocE) can considerably decrease the cocaine half-lives in both brain and plasma, the peak cocaine concentration in brain, and the AUC2(∞). The estimated maximum cocaine plasma concentration which a given concentration of drug-metabolizing enzyme can effectively prevent from entering brain and producing physiological effects can be used to guide future preclinical/clinical studies on cocaine-metabolizing enzymes. Understanding of drug-metabolizing enzymes is key to the science of pharmacokinetics. The general insights into the effects of a drug-metabolizing enzyme on drug kinetics in human should be valuable also in future development of enzyme therapies for other drugs of abuse.

  18. Stepwise-activable multifunctional peptide-guided prodrug micelles for cancerous cells intracellular drug release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Li, Mengfei; Yuan, Zhefan; Wu, Dan; Chen, Jia-da; Feng, Jie

    2016-10-01

    A novel type of stepwise-activable multifunctional peptide-guided prodrug micelles (MPPM) was fabricated for cancerous cells intracellular drug release. Deca-lysine sequence (K10), a type of cell-penetrating peptide, was synthesized and terminated with azido-glycine. Then a new kind of molecule, alkyne modified doxorubicin (DOX) connecting through disulfide bond (DOX-SS-alkyne), was synthesized. After coupling via Cu-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) click chemistry reaction, reduction-sensitive peptide-guided prodrug was obtained. Due to the amphiphilic property of the prodrug, it can assemble to form micelles. To prevent the nanocarriers from unspecific cellular uptake, the prodrug micelles were subsequently modified with 2,3-dimethyl maleic anhydride to obtain MPPM with a negatively charged outer shell. In vitro studies showed that MPPM could be shielded from cells under psychological environment. However, when arriving at mild acidic tumor site, the cell-penetrating capacity of MPPM would be activated by charge reversal of the micelles via hydrolysis of acid-labile β-carboxylic amides and regeneration of K10, which enabled efficient internalization of MPPM by tumor cells as well as following glutathione- and protease-induced drug release inside the cancerous cells. Furthermore, since the guide peptide sequences can be accurately designed and synthesized, it can be easily changed for various functions, such as targeting peptide, apoptotic peptide, even aptamers, only need to be terminated with azido-glycine. This method can be used as a template for reduction-sensitive peptide-guided prodrug for cancer therapy.

  19. Colonic thioguanine pro-drug: Investigation of microbiome and novel host metabolism.

    PubMed

    Florin, Timothy; Movva, Ramya; Begun, Jakob; Duley, John; Oancea, Iulia; Cuív, Páraic Ó

    2017-10-04

    Thiopurines are analogues of endogenous purines. They are pro-drugs which require the purine salvage pathway to convert them to the active drug nucleotides (TGN). These drugs are used to maintain clinical remission in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. In our recent Gut paper, we showed that thioguanine worked quickly to improve colitis in the absence in the host animal of the key guanine salvage enzyme, hypoxanthine-guanine-phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT). Current evidence favours the proposition that active drug delivery to the host lacking HPRT requires translocation of TGN-loaded bacteria across the inflamed mucosal barrier, and most likely delivery by phagocytosis. Alternatively, the efficacy of thioguanine in treating colitis could be mediated by modulation of the community of the microbiota in the intestine, or there are novel host pathways for conversion of the thioguanine pro-drug to TGN.

  20. Facile Fabrication of Tumor Redox-Sensitive Nanoassemblies of Small-Molecule Oleate Prodrug as Potent Chemotherapeutic Nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Luo, Cong; Sun, Jin; Sun, Bingjun; Liu, Dan; Miao, Lei; Goodwin, Tyler Jay; Huang, Leaf; He, Zhonggui

    2016-12-01

    The conjugate of paclitaxel (PTX) and docosahexaenoic acid has entered into clinical trials. However, the most recent clinical outcomes fell short of expectations, due to the extremely slow drug release from the hydrophobic conjugates. Herein, a novel prodrug-based nanoplatform self-assembled by the disulfide bond linked conjugates of PTX and oleic acid for rapid and differential release of PTX in tumor cells is reported. This redox-responsive prodrug-nanosystem demonstrates multiple therapeutic advantages, including one-step facile fabrication, high drug-loading efficiency (56%, w/w), on-demand drug release responding to redox stimuli, as well as favorable cellular uptake and biodistribution. These advantages result in significantly enhanced antitumor efficacy in vivo, with the tumor almost completely disappearing in mice. Such a uniquely engineered prodrug-nanosystem has great potential to be used as potent chemotherapeutic nanomedicine in clinical cancer therapy. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Center of Excellence for Individuation of Therapy for Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    patients with metastatic breast cancer treated with the antimetabolite prodrug capecitabine was performed, and revealed striking correlations between...Cyclophosphamide is a prodrug that undergoes activation through phase I metabolism via the enzymes CYP2B6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and CYP2C9 into 4- hydroxy...Attempts to increase the efficacy and tolerability of fluoropyrimidine treatment have led to the development of capecitabine (Xeloda™), a prodrug

  2. Synthesis and characterization of novel dipeptide ester prodrugs of acyclovir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nashed, Yasser E.; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2003-07-01

    Four dipeptide (Gly-Gly, Gly-Val, Val-Val, Val-Gly) ester prodrugs of 9-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]guanine (acyclovir, ACV) were synthesized. LC/MS was used to characterize the new prodrugs. Both 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra of the four prodrugs of ACV were measured and assigned based on spectral comparison with compounds of similar structures.

  3. Development of Targeted, Enzyme-Activated Nano-Conjugates for Hepatic Cancer Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuruvilla, Sibu Philip

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the 5th most commonly-occurring cancer worldwide and the 2nd highest cause for cancer-related deaths globally. The current treatment strategy is the direct injection of a chemotherapeutic agent (e.g. doxorubicin; DOX) into the hepatic artery, through a process called hepatic arterial infusion (HAI). Unfortunately, HAI is severely hindered by limited therapeutic efficacy against the tumor and high systemic toxicity to surrounding organs (e.g. cardiotoxicity). This thesis focuses on the development of a targeted, nanoparticle-based drug delivery system aimed to improve the clinical treatment of HCC. In particular, we employ generation 5 (G5) poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers targeted to hepatic cancer cells via N-acetylgalactosamine (NAcGal) ligands attached to the surface through a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) brush. DOX is attached to the G5 surface through two different enzyme-sensitive linkages, L3 or L4, to achieve controllable release of the drug inside hepatic cancer cells. The combination of NAcGal-PEG targeting branches with either L3- or L4-DOX linkages led to the development of P1 and P2 particles, respectively. In Part 1, we discuss the development of these particles and measure their ability to target and kill hepatic cancer cells in vitro. In Part 2, we investigate the antitumor activity of P1 and P2 particles in tumor-bearing mice in comparison to the free drug, and we measure the cardiac function of mice undergoing treatment to assess differences in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Finally, in Part 3, we explore multi-valent targeting of G5 dendrimers in pursuit of further improving their specificity to hepatic cancer cells. Ultimately, this thesis provides insight into the utility of nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems that can potentially be translated to the clinic to improve cancer therapy.

  4. Long term effects of enzyme replacement therapy in an Italian cohort of type 3 Gaucher patients.

    PubMed

    Sechi, Annalisa; Deroma, Laura; Dardis, Andrea; Ciana, Giovanni; Bertin, Nicole; Concolino, Daniela; Linari, Silvia; Perria, Chiara; Bembi, Bruno

    2014-11-01

    The chronic neuropathic form of Gaucher disease (GD3) is characterised by hepatosplenomegaly, anaemia, thrombocytopenia, bone alterations and central neurological involvement. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has been demonstrated to be effective in non neuropathic Gaucher disease, but long term results in patients with GD3 are still limited and contrasting. A possible role of genotype in determining the response to ERT has been hypothesised. All patients affected by GD3, treated with ERT, and followed-up in 4 different Italian centres (Udine, Catanzaro, Sassari and Florence) were included. Data on clinical conditions, laboratory values, neurological and neuropsychological examinations, radiological and electrophysiological features were collected retrospectively from clinical records. Ten patients (6 females, 4 males) with four different genotypes (L444P/L444P, L444P/F231I, P159T/unknown, C.115+1G>A/N188S) were identified. They received ERT infusions from 3 to 21years. Haematological parameters and organomegaly improved/normalised in all patients. Three patients showed severe progressive skeletal deformities. 6/10 patients were neurologically asymptomatic when they started ERT for systemic symptoms. During the follow-up, 2/6 developed an important central nervous system disease; 2/6 developed mild central symptoms; and 2/6 did not show any neurological symptom after 5, and 20years of treatment respectively, despite the presence of epileptiform abnormalities at the electroencephalogram. Overall, neurological involvement worsened over time in 6/10 patients, 3 of whom developed progressive myoclonic encephalopathy and died. ERT improved the systemic manifestations in patients with GD3, but was not able to counteract the progression of neurological symptoms in the long term. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. AAV Gene Therapy for Alcoholism: Inhibition of Mitochondrial Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Enzyme Expression in Hepatoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Anamaria C; Li, Chengwen; Andrews, Barbara; Asenjo, Juan A; Samulski, R Jude

    2017-09-01

    Most ethanol is broken down in the liver in two steps by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) enzymes, which metabolize down ethanol into acetaldehyde and then acetate. Some individuals from the Asian population who carry a mutation in the aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (ALDH2*2) cannot metabolize acetaldehyde as efficiently, producing strong effects, including facial flushing, dizziness, hypotension, and palpitations. This results in an aversion to alcohol intake and protection against alcoholism. The large prevalence of this mutation in the human population strongly suggests that modulation of ALDH2 expression by genetic technologies could result in a similar phenotype. scAAV2 vectors encoding ALDH2 small hairpin RNA (shRNA) were utilized to validate this hypothesis by silencing ALDH2 gene expression in human cell lines. Human cell lines HEK-293 and HepG2 were transduced with scAAV2/shRNA, showing a reduction in ALDH2 RNA and protein expression with the two viral concentration assayed (1 × 10 4 and 1 × 10 5 vg/cell) at two different time points. In both cell lines, ALDH2 RNA levels were reduced by 90% and protein expression was inhibited by 90% and 52%, respectively, 5 days post infection. Transduced HepG2 VL17A cells (ADH+) exposed to ethanol resulted in a 50% increase in acetaldehyde levels. These results suggest that gene therapy could be a useful tool for the treatment of alcoholism by knocking down ALDH2 expression using shRNA technology delivered by AAV vectors.

  6. Effects of enzyme replacement therapy started late in a murine model of mucopolysaccharidosis type I.

    PubMed

    Pasqualim, Gabriela; Baldo, Guilherme; de Carvalho, Talita Giacomet; Tavares, Angela Maria Vicente; Giugliani, Roberto; Matte, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a progressive disorder caused by deficiency of α-L-iduronidase (IDUA), which leads to storage of heparan and dermatan sulphate. It is suggested that early enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) leads to better outcomes, although many patients are diagnosed late and don't receive immediate treatment. This study aims to evaluate the effects of late onset ERT in a MPS I murine model. MPS I mice received treatment from 6 to 8 months of age (ERT 6-8mo) with 1.2mg laronidase/kg every 2 weeks and were compared to 8 months-old wild-type (Normal) and untreated animals (MPS I). ERT was effective in reducing urinary and visceral GAG to normal levels. Heart GAG levels and left ventricular (LV) shortening fraction were normalized but cardiac function was not completely improved. While no significant improvements were found on aortic wall width, treatment was able to significantly reduce heart valves thickening. High variability was found in behavior tests, with treated animals presenting intermediate results between normal and affected mice, without correlation with cerebral cortex GAG levels. Cathepsin D activity in cerebral cortex also did not correlate with behavior heterogeneity. All treated animals developed anti-laronidase antibodies but no correlation was found with any parameters analyzed. However, intermediary results from locomotion parameters analyzed are in accordance with intermediary levels of heart function, cathepsin D, activated glia and reduction of TNF-α expression in the cerebral cortex. In conclusion, even if started late, ERT can have beneficial effects on many aspects of the disease and should be considered whenever possible.

  7. Effects of Enzyme Replacement Therapy Started Late in a Murine Model of Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I

    PubMed Central

    Pasqualim, Gabriela; Baldo, Guilherme; de Carvalho, Talita Giacomet; Tavares, Angela Maria Vicente; Giugliani, Roberto; Matte, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a progressive disorder caused by deficiency of α-L-iduronidase (IDUA), which leads to storage of heparan and dermatan sulphate. It is suggested that early enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) leads to better outcomes, although many patients are diagnosed late and don’t receive immediate treatment. This study aims to evaluate the effects of late onset ERT in a MPS I murine model. MPS I mice received treatment from 6 to 8 months of age (ERT 6–8mo) with 1.2mg laronidase/kg every 2 weeks and were compared to 8 months-old wild-type (Normal) and untreated animals (MPS I). ERT was effective in reducing urinary and visceral GAG to normal levels. Heart GAG levels and left ventricular (LV) shortening fraction were normalized but cardiac function was not completely improved. While no significant improvements were found on aortic wall width, treatment was able to significantly reduce heart valves thickening. High variability was found in behavior tests, with treated animals presenting intermediate results between normal and affected mice, without correlation with cerebral cortex GAG levels. Cathepsin D activity in cerebral cortex also did not correlate with behavior heterogeneity. All treated animals developed anti-laronidase antibodies but no correlation was found with any parameters analyzed. However, intermediary results from locomotion parameters analyzed are in accordance with intermediary levels of heart function, cathepsin D, activated glia and reduction of TNF-α expression in the cerebral cortex. In conclusion, even if started late, ERT can have beneficial effects on many aspects of the disease and should be considered whenever possible. PMID:25646802

  8. Pregnancy is associated with elevation of liver enzymes in HIV-positive women on antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Huntington, Susie; Thorne, Claire; Newell, Marie-Louise; Anderson, Jane; Taylor, Graham P; Pillay, Deenan; Hill, Teresa; Tookey, Pat A; Sabin, Caroline

    2015-04-24

    The objective of this study is to assess whether pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of liver enzyme elevation (LEE) and severe LEE in HIV-positive women on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Two observational studies: the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (UK CHIC) study and the UK and Ireland National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood (NSHPC). Combined data from UK CHIC and NSHPC were used to identify factors associated with LEE (grade 1-4) and severe LEE (grade 3-4). Women starting ART in 2000-2012 were included irrespective of pregnancy status. Cox proportional hazards were used to assess fixed and time-dependent covariates including pregnancy status, CD4 cell count, drug regimen and hepatitis B virus/hepatitis C virus (HBV/HCV) coinfection. One-quarter (25.7%, 982/3815) of women were pregnant during follow-up, 14.2% (n = 541) when starting ART. The rate of LEE was 14.5/100 person-years in and 6.0/100 person-years outside of pregnancy. The rate of severe LEE was 3.9/100 person-years in and 0.6/100 person-years outside of pregnancy. The risk of LEE and severe LEE was increased during pregnancy [LEE: adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.66 (1.31-2.09); severe LEE: aHR 3.57 (2.30-5.54)], including in secondary analyses excluding 541 women pregnant when starting ART. Other factors associated with LEE and severe LEE included lower CD4 cell count (<250 cells/μl), HBV/HCV coinfection and calendar year. Although few women developed severe LEE, this study provides further evidence that pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of LEE and severe LEE, reinforcing the need for regular monitoring of liver biomarkers during pregnancy.

  9. Pregnancy is associated with elevation of liver enzymes in HIV-positive women on antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Huntington, Susie; Thorne, Claire; Newell, Marie-Louise; Anderson, Jane; Taylor, Graham P.; Pillay, Deenan; Hill, Teresa; Tookey, Pat A.; Sabin, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to assess whether pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of liver enzyme elevation (LEE) and severe LEE in HIV-positive women on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Design: Two observational studies: the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (UK CHIC) study and the UK and Ireland National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood (NSHPC). Methods: Combined data from UK CHIC and NSHPC were used to identify factors associated with LEE (grade 1–4) and severe LEE (grade 3–4). Women starting ART in 2000–2012 were included irrespective of pregnancy status. Cox proportional hazards were used to assess fixed and time-dependent covariates including pregnancy status, CD4+ cell count, drug regimen and hepatitis B virus/hepatitis C virus (HBV/HCV) coinfection. Results: One-quarter (25.7%, 982/3815) of women were pregnant during follow-up, 14.2% (n = 541) when starting ART. The rate of LEE was 14.5/100 person-years in and 6.0/100 person-years outside of pregnancy. The rate of severe LEE was 3.9/100 person-years in and 0.6/100 person-years outside of pregnancy. The risk of LEE and severe LEE was increased during pregnancy [LEE: adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.66 (1.31–2.09); severe LEE: aHR 3.57 (2.30–5.54)], including in secondary analyses excluding 541 women pregnant when starting ART. Other factors associated with LEE and severe LEE included lower CD4+ cell count (<250 cells/μl), HBV/HCV coinfection and calendar year. Conclusion: Although few women developed severe LEE, this study provides further evidence that pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of LEE and severe LEE, reinforcing the need for regular monitoring of liver biomarkers during pregnancy. PMID:25710412

  10. Lisdexamfetamine: a prodrug stimulant for ADHD.

    PubMed

    Howland, Robert H

    2008-08-01

    This article reviews the unique prodrug stimulant lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX, Vyvanse), an approved treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. LDX is an inactive prodrug in which l-lysine is chemically bonded to d-amphetamine. Although its efficacy is not significantly different from that of other stimulants, LDX may be different with respect to potential toxicity and abuse liability. In this article, I will review the short-term controlled studies that were the basis for LDX's approval for both children and adults; the lack of and need for more long-term studies; two double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover studies that examined LDX's abuse liability; and clinical uses for the drug. The clinical implications stemming from LDX's unique characteristics are also discussed.

  11. Transcranial pulsed ultrasound facilitates brain uptake of laronidase in enzyme replacement therapy for Mucopolysaccharidosis type I disease.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yu-Hone; Liu, Ren-Shyan; Lin, Win-Li; Yuh, Yeong-Seng; Lin, Shuan-Pei; Wong, Tai-Tong

    2017-06-08

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a debilitating hereditary disease characterized by alpha-L-iduronidase (IDUA) deficiency and consequent inability to degrade glycosaminoglycans. The pathological accumulation of glycosaminoglycans systemically results in severe mental retardation and multiple organ dysfunction. Enzyme replacement therapy with recombinant human alpha-L-iduronidase (rhIDU) improves the function of some organs but not neurological deficits owing to its exclusion from the brain by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We divided MPS I mice into control group, enzyme replacement group with rhIDU 2.9 mg/kg injection, enzyme replacement with one-spot ultrasound treatment group, and enzyme replacement with two-spot ultrasound treatment group, and compare treatment effectiveness between groups. All ultrasound treatments were applied on left side brain. Evans blue was used to simulate the distribution of rhIDU in the brain. Transcranial pulsed weakly focused ultrasound combined with microbubbles facilitates brain rhIDU delivery in MPS I mice receiving systemic enzyme replacement therapy. With intravenously injected rhIDU 2.9 mg/kg, the IDUA enzyme activity on the ultrasound treated side of the cerebral hemisphere raised to 7.81-fold that on the untreated side and to 75.84% of its normal value. Evans blue simulation showed the distribution of the delivered drug was extensive, involving a large volume of the treated cerebral hemisphere. Two-spot ultrasound treatment scheme is more efficient for brain rhIDU delivery than one-spot ultrasound treatment scheme. Transcranial pulsed weakly focused ultrasound can open BBB extensively and facilitates brain rhIDU delivery. This novel technology may provide a new MPS I treatment strategy.

  12. Retrospective study of long-term outcomes of enzyme replacement therapy in Fabry disease: Analysis of prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    Biegstraaten, Marieke; Hughes, Derralynn A.; Mehta, Atul; Elliott, Perry M.; Oder, Daniel; Watkinson, Oliver T.; Vaz, Frédéric M.; van Kuilenburg, André B. P.; Wanner, Christoph; Hollak, Carla E. M.

    2017-01-01

    Despite enzyme replacement therapy, disease progression is observed in patients with Fabry disease. Identification of factors that predict disease progression is needed to refine guidelines on initiation and cessation of enzyme replacement therapy. To study the association of potential biochemical and clinical prognostic factors with the disease course (clinical events, progression of cardiac and renal disease) we retrospectively evaluated 293 treated patients from three international centers of excellence. As expected, age, sex and phenotype were important predictors of event rate. Clinical events before enzyme replacement therapy, cardiac mass and eGFR at baseline predicted an increased event rate. eGFR was the most important predictor: hazard ratios increased from 2 at eGFR <90 ml/min/1.73m2 to 4 at eGFR <30, compared to patients with an eGFR >90. In addition, men with classical disease and a baseline eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2 had a faster yearly decline (-2.0 ml/min/1.73m2) than those with a baseline eGFR of >60. Proteinuria was a further independent risk factor for decline in eGFR. Increased cardiac mass at baseline was associated with the most robust decrease in cardiac mass during treatment, while presence of cardiac fibrosis predicted a stronger increase in cardiac mass (3.36 gram/m2/year). Of other cardiovascular risk factors, hypertension significantly predicted the risk for clinical events. In conclusion, besides increasing age, male sex and classical phenotype, faster disease progression while on enzyme replacement therapy is predicted by renal function, proteinuria and to a lesser extent cardiac fibrosis and hypertension. PMID:28763515

  13. Enzyme replacement therapy for Fabry disease: lessons from two alpha-galactosidase A orphan products and one FDA approval.

    PubMed

    Desnick, Robert J

    2004-07-01

    Two virtually identical products have been developed for enzyme replacement therapy for the treatment of Fabry disease, which is a rare and debilitating genetic disease caused by decreased activity of the lysosomal enzyme alpha-galactosidase A. Lack of this enzyme results in progressive tissue accumulation of globotriaosylceramide (GL-3), resulting in life-threatening renal, cardiac and cerebrovascular complications. Both enzyme replacement products, agalsidase alfa (Replagal; Transkaryotic Therapies, Cambridge, MA, USA) and agalsidase beta (Fabrazyme; Genzyme Corporation, Cambridge, MA, USA), were approved by the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products in 2001; agalsidase alfa at a recommended dose of 0.2 mg/kg and agalsidase beta at a recommended dose of 1 mg/kg. In the US, however, orphan drug laws dictated that only one of these products could be approved. In April 2003, after a rigorous evaluation of both products by the US FDA, this approval was granted to agalsidase beta. This decision reflected clinical trial design, how dosages were determined, antibody effects and the ability of each product to demonstrate either clinical efficacy or reduction of tissue storage of GL-3 in major organs of pathology when administered at the recommended dosage. The process also highlighted important issues in the evaluation of drugs to treat life-threatening genetic diseases for which the pathological basis is well-defined.

  14. Use of a Modified α-N-Acetylgalactosaminidase in the Development of Enzyme Replacement Therapy for Fabry Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tajima, Youichi; Kawashima, Ikuo; Tsukimura, Takahiro; Sugawara, Kanako; Kuroda, Mayuko; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Togawa, Tadayasu; Chiba, Yasunori; Jigami, Yoshifumi; Ohno, Kazuki; Fukushige, Tomoko; Kanekura, Takuro; Itoh, Kohji; Ohashi, Toya; Sakuraba, Hitoshi

    2009-01-01

    A modified α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (NAGA) with α-galactosidase A (GLA)-like substrate specificity was designed on the basis of structural studies and was produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells. The enzyme acquired the ability to catalyze the degradation of 4-methylumbelliferyl-α-D-galactopyranoside. It retained the original NAGA's stability in plasma and N-glycans containing many mannose 6-phosphate (M6P) residues, which are advantageous for uptake by cells via M6P receptors. There was no immunological cross-reactivity between the modified NAGA and GLA, and the modified NAGA did not react to serum from a patient with Fabry disease recurrently treated with a recombinant GLA. The enzyme cleaved globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) accumulated in cultured fibroblasts from a patient with Fabry disease. Furthermore, like recombinant GLA proteins presently used for enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for Fabry disease, the enzyme intravenously injected into Fabry model mice prevented Gb3 storage in the liver, kidneys, and heart and improved the pathological changes in these organs. Because this modified NAGA is hardly expected to cause an allergic reaction in Fabry disease patients, it is highly promising as a new and safe enzyme for ERT for Fabry disease. PMID:19853240

  15. Use of a modified alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase in the development of enzyme replacement therapy for Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Youichi; Kawashima, Ikuo; Tsukimura, Takahiro; Sugawara, Kanako; Kuroda, Mayuko; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Togawa, Tadayasu; Chiba, Yasunori; Jigami, Yoshifumi; Ohno, Kazuki; Fukushige, Tomoko; Kanekura, Takuro; Itoh, Kohji; Ohashi, Toya; Sakuraba, Hitoshi

    2009-11-01

    A modified alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (NAGA) with alpha-galactosidase A (GLA)-like substrate specificity was designed on the basis of structural studies and was produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells. The enzyme acquired the ability to catalyze the degradation of 4-methylumbelliferyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside. It retained the original NAGA's stability in plasma and N-glycans containing many mannose 6-phosphate (M6P) residues, which are advantageous for uptake by cells via M6P receptors. There was no immunological cross-reactivity between the modified NAGA and GLA, and the modified NAGA did not react to serum from a patient with Fabry disease recurrently treated with a recombinant GLA. The enzyme cleaved globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) accumulated in cultured fibroblasts from a patient with Fabry disease. Furthermore, like recombinant GLA proteins presently used for enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for Fabry disease, the enzyme intravenously injected into Fabry model mice prevented Gb3 storage in the liver, kidneys, and heart and improved the pathological changes in these organs. Because this modified NAGA is hardly expected to cause an allergic reaction in Fabry disease patients, it is highly promising as a new and safe enzyme for ERT for Fabry disease.

  16. Far-Red Light Activatable, Multifunctional Prodrug for Fluorescence Optical Imaging and Combinational Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We recently developed “photo-unclick chemistry”, a novel chemical tool involving the cleavage of aminoacrylate by singlet oxygen, and demonstrated its application to visible light-activatable prodrugs. In this study, we prepared an advanced multifunctional prodrug, Pc-(L-CA4)2, composed of the fluorescent photosensitizer phthalocyanine (Pc), an SO-labile aminoacrylate linker (L), and a cytotoxic drug combretastatin A-4 (CA4). Pc-(L-CA4)2 had reduced dark toxicity compared with CA4. However, once illuminated, it showed improved toxicity similar to CA4 and displayed bystander effects in vitro. We monitored the time-dependent distribution of Pc-(L-CA4)2 using optical imaging with live mice. We also effectively ablated tumors by the illumination with far-red light to the mice, presumably through the combined effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) and released chemotherapy drug, without any sign of acute systemic toxicity. PMID:24694092

  17. Beta-lactamase targeted enzyme activatable photosensitizers for antimicrobial PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiang; Verma, Sarika; Sallum, Ulysses W.; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2009-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a treatment modality for infectious disease has shown promise. However, most of the antimicrobial photosensitizers (PS) non-preferentially accumulate in both bacteria and host tissues, causing host tissue phototoxicity during treatment. We have developed a new antimicrobial PDT strategy which exploits beta-lactam resistance mechanism, one of the major drug-resistance bacteria evolved, to achieve enhanced target specificity with limited host damage. Our strategy comprises a prodrug construct with a PS and a quencher linked by beta-lactam ring, resulting in a diminished phototoxicity. This construct, beta-lactamase enzyme-activated-photosensitizer (beta-LEAP), can only be activated in the presence of both light and bacteria, and remains inactive elsewhere such as mammalian tissue. Beta-LEAP construct had shown specific cleavage by purified beta-lactamase and by beta-lactamase over-expressing methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Specific photodynamic toxicity was observed towards MRSA, while dark and light toxicity were equivalent to reference strains. The prodrug design, synthesis and photophysical properties will be discussed.

  18. [The Russian consensus on the diagnosis and treatment of chronic pancreatitis: Enzyme replacement therapy].

    PubMed

    Khatkov, I E; Maev, I V; Bordin, D S; Kucheryavyi, Yu A; Abdulkhakov, S R; Alekseenko, S A; Alieva, E I; Alikhanov, R B; Bakulin, I G; Baranovsky, A Yu; Beloborodova, E V; Belousova, E A; Buriev, I M; Bystrovskaya, E V; Vertyankin, S V; Vinokurova, L V; Galperin, E I; Gorelov, A V; Grinevich, V B; Danilov, M V; Darvin, V V; Dubtsova, E A; Dyuzheva, T G; Egorov, V I; Efanov, M G; Zakharova, N V; Zagainov, V E; Ivashkin, V T; Izrailov, R E; Korochanskaya, N V; Kornienko, E A; Korobka, V L; Kokhanenko, N Yu; Livzan, M A; Loranskaya, I D; Nikolskaya, K A; Osipenko, M F; Okhlobystin, A V; Pasechnikov, V D; Plotnikova, E Yu; Polyakova, S I; Sablin, O A; Simanenkov, V I; Ursova, N I; Tsvirkun, V V; Tsukanov, V V; Shabunin, A V

    Russian National Research Medical University, Ministry of Health of Russia, Moscow; 26A.M. Nikiforov All-Russian Center of Emergency and Radiation Medicine, Russian Ministry for Civil Defense, Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters, Saint Petersburg; 27Research Institute for Medical Problems of the North, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk; 28S.P. Botkin City Clinical Hospital, Moscow Healthcare Department, Moscow; 29Tver State Medical University, Ministry of Health of Russia, Tver The Russian consensus on the diagnosis and treatment of chronic pancreatitis has been prepared on the initiative of the Russian Pancreatology Club to clarify and consolidate the opinions of Russian specialists (gastroenterologists, surgeons, and pediatricians) on the most significant problems of diagnosis and treatment of chronic pancreatitis. This article continues a series of publications explaining the most significant interdisciplinary consensus statements and deals with enzyme replacement therapy.

  19. Enzyme replacement therapy stabilized white matter lesion progression in Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Fellgiebel, Andreas; Gartenschläger, Martin; Wildberger, Kerstin; Scheurich, Armin; Desnick, Robert J; Sims, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    The central nervous system manifestations in Fabry disease (FD) include progressive white matter lesions (WMLs) and stroke. Due to progressive microvascular involvement, men and women with FD over 35 years of age develop WMLs. Moreover, the prevalence of stroke has been estimated to be 12 times higher in FD compared with the general population. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is available and has shown beneficial effects on renal, cardiac, and peripheral nerve function in FD, but the ERT effect on the progression of WMLs, or the reduction in cerebrovascular events, remains unknown. The WML burden and the effect of agalsidase beta 1 mg/kg biweekly on WML progression were assessed longitudinally in a Phase 4 agalsidase-beta placebo-controlled analysis of untreated and treated FD patients with mild-to-moderate renal involvement (serum creatinine measurements of ≥1.2 mg/dl and <3.0 mg/dl). The primary end point was the difference in the number of patients with increased WML burden between the agalsidase beta and placebo groups at the end of treatment. The diameters of the WMLs were determined manually using axial flow-attenuated-inversion-recovery-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans taken at baseline and follow-up. MRI scans from 41 FD patients (mean age 43.9, age range 20-68, 3 females; n=25 on ERT, n=16 on placebo) were analyzed. WML burden was present in 63% of patients at baseline, increased over a mean of 27 months (range 12-33 months) follow-up, and correlated with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVPW). Patients with previous or recent strokes (n=11, 39-68 years) showed an increase in the number of WMLs (p=0.005). A greater proportion of younger patients (≤50 years) on ERT (n=18) had stable WML burden compared with younger patients in the placebo group (n=13): 44% (8 of 18) versus 31% (4 of 13), p=0.014. The number needed to treat was 8. This FD patient cohort, with mild-to-moderate renal involvement, had a significant WML burden and high inter

  20. Renal function predicts long-term outcome on enzyme replacement therapy in patients with Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Lenders, Malte; Schmitz, Boris; Stypmann, Jörg; Duning, Thomas; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Kurschat, Christine; Brand, Eva

    2017-12-01

    Renal and cardiac involvement is responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality in Fabry disease (FD). We analysed the incidence of FD-related renal, cardiac and neurologic end points in patients with FD on long-term enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from two German FD centres was performed. The impact of renal and cardiac function at ERT-naïve baseline on end point development despite ERT was analysed. Fifty-four patients (28 females) receiving ERT (mean 81 ± 21 months) were investigated. Forty per cent of patients were diagnosed with clinical end points before ERT initiation and 50% of patients on ERT developed new clinical end points. In patients initially diagnosed with an end point before ERT initiation, the risk for an additional end point on ERT was increased {hazard ratio [HR] 3.83 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.61-9.08]; P = 0.0023}. A decreased glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≤75 mL/min/1.73 m2 in ERT-naïve patients at baseline was associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular end points [HR 3.59 (95% CI 1.15-11.18); P = 0.0273] as well as for combined renal, cardiac and neurologic end points on ERT [HR 4.77 (95% CI 1.93-11.81); P = 0.0007]. In patients with normal kidney function, left ventricular hypertrophy at baseline predicted a decreased end point-free survival [HR 6.90 (95% CI 2.04-23.27); P = 0.0018]. The risk to develop an end point was independent of sex. In addition to age, even moderately impaired renal function determines FD progression on ERT. In patients with FD, renal and cardiac protection is warranted to prevent patients from deleterious manifestations of the disease. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of enzyme replacement therapy with alglucosidase alfa in adult patients with Pompe disease.

    PubMed

    Kanters, Tim A; van der Ploeg, Ans T; Kruijshaar, Michelle E; Rizopoulos, Dimitris; Redekop, W Ken; Rutten-van Mӧlken, Maureen P M H; Hakkaart-van Roijen, Leona

    2017-12-13

    Pompe disease is a rare, progressive, metabolic disease, and the first treatable inheritable muscle disorder. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with alglucosidase alfa is disease specific and the only medicinal product authorized for the treatment of Pompe disease. Costs of ERT are very high as for most orphan drugs. This study investigates the cost-effectiveness of ERT compared to supportive treatment in adult patients with Pompe disease. Survival probabilities were estimated from an international observational dataset (n = 283) using a time-dependent Cox model. Quality of life was estimated on a Dutch observational dataset using a previously developed conceptual model which links clinical factors to quality of life. Costs included costs of ERT, costs of drug administration and other healthcare costs. Cost-effectiveness was estimated using a patient-level simulation model (n = 90), synthesising the information from underlying models for survival, quality of life and costs. The cost-effectiveness model estimated the (difference in) lifetime effects and costs for both treatments. Two scenarios were modelled: (1) a worse case scenario with no extrapolation of the survival gain due to ERT beyond the observed period (i.e. from 10 years onwards); and (2) a best case scenario with lifetime extrapolation of the survival gain due to ERT. Effects were expressed in (quality adjusted) life years (QALYs). Costs were discounted at 4.0% and effects at 1.5%. Substantial increases in survival were estimated - discounted incremental life years of ERT ranged from 1.9 years to 5.4 years in the scenarios without and with extrapolation of survival gains beyond the observed period. Quality of life was also significantly better for patients receiving ERT. Incremental costs were considerable and primarily consisted of the costs of ERT. Incremental costs per QALY were €3.2 million for scenario 1 and €1.8 million for scenario 2. The availability of extended, prospectively

  2. Long-term benefit of enzyme replacement therapy in Pompe disease: A 5-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Kuperus, Esther; Kruijshaar, Michelle E; Wens, Stephan C A; de Vries, Juna M; Favejee, Marein M; van der Meijden, Jan C; Rizopoulos, Dimitris; Brusse, Esther; van Doorn, Pieter A; van der Ploeg, Ans T; van der Beek, Nadine A M E

    2017-12-05

    To determine the effect of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) after 5 years and to identify predictors for a favorable response because few data are available on the long-term efficacy of ERT in Pompe disease. We included 102 adult patients with Pompe disease in a nationwide, prospective cohort study. We assessed muscle strength (manual muscle testing with Medical Research Council [MRC] grading, handheld dynamometry [HHD]), muscle function (6-minute walk test, Quick Motor Function Test), daily life activities (Rasch-Built Pompe-Specific Activity [R-PAct] Scale), and pulmonary function (forced vital capacity [FVC] in upright and supine positions, maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressures) at 3- to 6-month intervals before and after the start of ERT. Data were analyzed with linear mixed-effects models for repeated measurements. Median follow-up duration was 6.1 years (range 0.4-7.9 years), of which 5.0 years (range 0.2-7.3 years) were during ERT. Treated patients had better muscle strength (MRC sum score +6.6 percentage points [pp]; HHD sum score +9.6 pp, both p < 0.0001), activity levels (R-PAct +10.8 pp, p < 0.002), and pulmonary function (FVC upright +7.3 pp, FVC supine +7.6 pp, both p < 0.0003) than expected for their untreated disease course. Walking distance improved (416 vs 376 m at baseline, p = 0.03). The largest increase was seen during the first 2 to 3 years of treatment. Response to treatment was similar between groups regardless of sex, age, or disease duration. Long-term ERT positively affects muscle strength, pulmonary function, and daily life activities in adult patients with Pompe disease, with a peak effect at ≈2 to 3 years of treatment. This study provides Class IV evidence that for patients with Pompe disease, long-term ERT positively affects muscle strength, pulmonary function, and daily life activities. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  3. Dipeptide Prodrug Approach to Evade Efflux Pumps and CYP3A4 Metabolism of Lopinavir

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mitesh; Sheng, Ye; Mandava, Nanda K.; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2014-01-01

    Oral absorption of lopinavir (LPV) is limited due to P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein2 (MRP2) mediated efflux by intestinal epithelial cells. Moreover, LPV is extensively metabolized by CYP3A4 enzymes. In the present study, dipeptide prodrug approach was employed to circumvent efflux pumps (P-gp and MRP2) and CYP3A4 mediated metabolism of LPV. Valine-isoleucine-LPV (Val-Ile-LPV) was synthesized and identified by LCMS and NMR techniques. The extent of LPV and Val-Ile-LPV interactions with P-gp and MRP2 was studied by uptake and transport studies across MDCK-MDR1 and MDCK-MRP2 cells. To determine the metabolic stability, time and concentration dependent degradation study was performed in liver microsomes. Val-Ile-LPV exhibited significantly higher aqueous solubility relative to LPV. This prodrug generated higher stability under acidic pH. Val-Ile-LPV demonstrated significantly lower affinity towards P-gp and MRP2 relative to LPV. Transepithelial transport of Val-Ile-LPV was significantly higher in the absorptive direction (apical to basolateral) relative to LPV. Importantly, Val-Ile-LPV was recognized as an excellent substrate by peptide transporter. Moreover, Val-Ile-LPV displayed significantly higher metabolic stability relative to LPV. Results obtained from this study suggested that dipeptide prodrug approach is a viable option to elevate systemic levels of LPV following oral administration PMID:25261710

  4. In vivo and in situ tracking cancer chemotherapy by highly photostable NIR fluorescent theranostic prodrug.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xumeng; Sun, Xuanrong; Guo, Zhiqian; Tang, Jianbin; Shen, Youqing; James, Tony D; Tian, He; Zhu, Weihong

    2014-03-05

    In vivo monitoring of the biodistribution and activation of prodrugs is urgently required. Near infrared (NIR) fluorescence-active fluorophores with excellent photostability are preferable for tracking drug release in vivo. Herein, we describe a NIR prodrug DCM-S-CPT and its polyethylene glycol-polylactic acid (PEG-PLA) loaded nanoparticles as a potent cancer therapy. We have conjugated a dicyanomethylene-4H-pyran derivative as the NIR fluorophore with camptothecin (CPT) as the anticancer drug using a disulfide linker. In vitro experiments verify that the high intracellular glutathione (GSH) concentrations in tumor cells cause cleavage of the disulfide linker, resulting in concomitantly the active drug CPT release and significant NIR fluorescence turn-on with large Stokes shift (200 nm). The NIR fluorescence of DCM-S-CPT at 665 nm with fast response to GSH can act as a direct off-on signal reporter for the GSH-activatable prodrug. Particularly, DCM-S-CPT possesses much better photostability than ICG, which is highly desirable for in situ fluorescence-tracking of cancer chemotherapy. DCM-S-CPT has been successfully utilized for in vivo and in situ tracking of drug release and cancer therapeutic efficacy in living animals by NIR fluorescence. DCM-S-CPT exhibits excellent tumor-activatable performance when intravenously injected into tumor-bearing nude mice, as well as specific cancer therapy with few side effects. DCM-S-CPT loaded in PEG-PLA nanoparticles shows even higher antitumor activity than free CPT, and is also retained longer in the plasma. The tumor-targeting ability and the specific drug release in tumors make DCM-S-CPT as a promising prodrug, providing significant advances toward deeper understanding and exploration of theranostic drug-delivery systems.

  5. Dual delivery systems based on polyamine analog BENSpm as prodrug and gene delivery vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yu

    Combination drug and gene therapy shows promise in cancer treatment. However, the success of such strategy requires careful selection of the therapeutic agents, as well as development of efficient delivery vectors. BENSpm (N 1, N11-bisethylnorspermine), a polyamine analogue targeting the intracellular polyamine pathway, draws our special attention because of the following reasons: (1) polyamine pathway is frequently dysregulated in cancer; (2) BENSpm exhibits multiple functions to interfere with the polyamine pathway, such as to up-regulate polyamine metabolism enzymes and down-regulate polyamine biosynthesis enzymes. Therefore BENSpm depletes all natural polyamines and leads to apoptosis and cell growth inhibition in a wide range of cancers; (3) preclinical studies proved that BENSpm can act synergistically with various chemotherapy agents, making it a promising candidate in combination therapy; (4) multiple positive charges in BENSpm enable it as a suitable building block for cationic polymers, which can be further applied to gene delivery. In this dissertation, our goal was to design dual-function delivery vector based on BENSpm that can function as a gene delivery vector and, after intracellular degradation, as an active anticancer agent targeting dysregulated polyamine metabolism. We first demonstrated strong synergism between BENSpm and a potential therapeutic gene product TRAIL. Strong synergism was obtained in both estrogen-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cells and triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Significant dose reduction of TRAIL in combination with BENSpm in MDA-MB-231 cells, together with the fact that BENSpm rendered MCF-7 cells more sensitive to TRAIL treatment verified our rationale of designing BENSpm-based delivery platform. This was expected to be beneficial for overcoming drug resistance in chemotherapy, as well as boosting the therapeutic effect of therapeutic genes. We first designed a lipid-based BENSpm dual vector (Lipo

  6. Evaluation of antimalarial activity and toxicity of a new primaquine prodrug.

    PubMed

    Davanço, Marcelo Gomes; Aguiar, Anna Caroline Campos; Dos Santos, Leandro Alves; Padilha, Elias Carvalho; Campos, Michel Leandro; de Andrade, Cleverton Roberto; da Fonseca, Luiz Marcos; Dos Santos, Jean Leandro; Chin, Chung Man; Krettli, Antoniana Ursine; Peccinini, Rosangela Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent of the five species causing malaria in humans. The current available treatment for P. vivax malaria is limited and unsatisfactory due to at least two drawbacks: the undesirable side effects of primaquine (PQ) and drug resistance to chloroquine. Phenylalanine-alanine-PQ (Phe-Ala-PQ) is a PQ prodrug with a more favorable pharmacokinetic profile compared to PQ. The toxicity of this prodrug was evaluated in in vitro assays using a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2), a monkey kidney cell line (BGM), and human red blood cells deficient in the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G6PD). In addition, in vivo toxicity assays were performed with rats that received multiple doses of Phe-Ala-PQ to evaluate biochemical, hematological, and histopathological parameters. The activity was assessed by the inhibition of the sporogonic cycle using a chicken malaria parasite. Phe-Ala-PQ blocked malaria transmission in Aedes mosquitoes. When compared with PQ, it was less cytotoxic to BGM and HepG2 cells and caused less hemolysis of G6PD-deficient red blood cells at similar concentrations. The prodrug caused less alteration in the biochemical parameters than did PQ. Histopathological analysis of the liver and kidney did show differences between the control and Phe-Ala-PQ-treated groups, but they were not statistically significant. Taken together, the results highlight the prodrug as a novel lead compound candidate for the treatment of P. vivax malaria and as a blocker of malaria transmission.

  7. Evaluation of Antimalarial Activity and Toxicity of a New Primaquine Prodrug

    PubMed Central

    Davanço, Marcelo Gomes; Aguiar, Anna Caroline Campos; dos Santos, Leandro Alves; Padilha, Elias Carvalho; Campos, Michel Leandro; de Andrade, Cleverton Roberto; da Fonseca, Luiz Marcos; dos Santos, Jean Leandro; Chin, Chung Man; Krettli, Antoniana Ursine; Peccinini, Rosangela Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent of the five species causing malaria in humans. The current available treatment for P. vivax malaria is limited and unsatisfactory due to at least two drawbacks: the undesirable side effects of primaquine (PQ) and drug resistance to chloroquine. Phenylalanine-alanine-PQ (Phe-Ala-PQ) is a PQ prodrug with a more favorable pharmacokinetic profile compared to PQ. The toxicity of this prodrug was evaluated in in vitro assays using a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2), a monkey kidney cell line (BGM), and human red blood cells deficient in the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G6PD). In addition, in vivo toxicity assays were performed with rats that received multiple doses of Phe-Ala-PQ to evaluate biochemical, hematological, and histopathological parameters. The activity was assessed by the inhibition of the sporogonic cycle using a chicken malaria parasite. Phe-Ala-PQ blocked malaria transmission in Aedes mosquitoes. When compared with PQ, it was less cytotoxic to BGM and HepG2 cells and caused less hemolysis of G6PD-deficient red blood cells at similar concentrations. The prodrug caused less alteration in the biochemical parameters than did PQ. Histopathological analysis of the liver and kidney did show differences between the control and Phe-Ala-PQ-treated groups, but they were not statistically significant. Taken together, the results highlight the prodrug as a novel lead compound candidate for the treatment of P. vivax malaria and as a blocker of malaria transmission. PMID:25133630

  8. Endothelial Targeting of Semi-permeable Polymer Nanocarriers for Enzyme Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Dziubla, Thomas D; Shuvaev, Vladimir V.; Hong, Nan Kang; Hawkins, Brian; Muniswamy, Madesh; Takano, Hajime; Simone, Eric; Nakada, Marian T.; Fisher, Aron; Albelda, Steven M.; Muzykantov, Vladimir R.

    2007-01-01

    The medical utility of proteins, e.g. therapeutic enzymes, is greatly restricted by their liable nature and inadequate delivery. Most therapeutic enzymes do not accumulate in their targets and are inactivated by proteases. Targeting of enzymes encapsulated into substrate-permeable Polymeric Nano-Carriers (PNC) impermeable for proteases might overcome these limitations. To test this hypothesis, we designed endothelial targeted PNC loaded with catalase, the H2O2-detoxifying enzyme, and tested if this approach protects against vascular oxidative stress, a pathological process implicated in ischemia-reperfusion and other disease conditions. Encapsulation of catalase (MW 240KD), peroxidase (MW 42kD) and xanthine oxidase (XO, MW 300 kD) into ~300nm diameter PNC composed of co-polymers of PEG-PLGA (polyethylene glycol and poly-lactic/poly-glycolic acid) was in the range ~10% for all enzymes. PNC/catalase and PNC/peroxidase were protected from external proteolysis and exerted the enzymatic activity on their PNC diffusible substrates, H2O2 and ortho-phenylendiamine, whereas activity of encapsulated XO was negligible due to polymer impermeability to the substrate. PNC targeted to platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 delivered active encapsulated catalase to endothelial cells and protected the endothelium against oxidative stress in cell culture and animal studies. Vascular targeting of PNC-loaded detoxifying enzymes may find wide medical applications including management of oxidative stress and other toxicities. PMID:17950837

  9. Synthesis, hydrolysis kinetics and pharmacological evaluation of aceclofenac prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Dhokchawle, Bharat V; Bhandari, Anil B

    2015-01-01

    The mutual prodrugs of aceclofenac with various naturally available antioxidants; menthol, thymol, eugenol, guiacol and vanillin have been synthesized by the DCC coupling method, purified and characterized by spectral data, as well as, partition coefficient, solubility and hydrolytic studies. The title compounds have more lipophilic character as compared to the parent moieties and good stability in acidic environment, which is prerequisite for the oral absorption of the drug. Under gastric as well as intestinal pH conditions these prodrugs showed variable susceptibility towards hydrolysis. The synthesized derivatives were evaluated for antiinflammatory, analgesic activities and ulcerogenic potential. Prodrug showed improved solubility in organic solvents, which implies lipophilic character of ester prodrugs and were also found to be chemically stable in acidic environment. The aceclofenac mutual prodrugs showed improved analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities with reduced ulcerogenicity.

  10. Rapidly cell-penetrating and reductive milieu-responsive nanoaggregates assembled from an amphiphilic folate-camptothecin prodrug for enhanced drug delivery and controlled release.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhigang; Hou, Meili; Shi, Xiaoxiao; Gao, Yong-E; Xue, Peng; Liu, Shiying; Kang, Yuejun

    2017-02-28

    Accurate diagnosis and treatment based on small molecular prodrugs can enhance drug efficiency and reduce side-effects during cancer therapy. Herein, we report the preparation of a type of glutathione (GSH)-responsive small prodrug delivery system based on targeting folic acid (FA) and conjugating with the hydrophobic antitumor drug camptothecin (CPT) via disulfide bonds. The obtained prodrug is capable of high and precise drug loading (36.8 wt%) and can self-assemble into nanoaggregates with an average size of 46.4 nm in an aqueous solution. The GSH-triggered release of CPT can reach a maximum of 82% under 10 mM GSH in 60 h, which is dramatically higher than 12% of CPT released in a physiological environment. More interestingly, the resulting prodrug can also work as a "switchable" fluorescence probe, which exhibits fluorescence changes in response to GSH stimulus or FA receptors on the membranes of tumor cells. Specifically, the fluorescence of the prodrug is quenched in the physiological environments, whereas strong fluorescence is activated in the tumoral microenvironment expressing high levels of GSH or when the FA terminal is conjugated with the receptors on the membranes of tumor cells. Furthermore, the FA-CPT prodrug shows a superior specificity and higher cytotoxicity for FA receptor-positive KB tumor cells as compared to those of FA receptor-negative A549 tumor cells. Therefore, we believe that this FA-CPT prodrug can be used for the recognition and diagnosis of tumor cells and it also provides a promising modality towards an effective cancer therapy.

  11. A Prodrug-doped Cellular Trojan Horse for the Potential Treatment of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Oren; Brennen, W. Nathaniel; Han, Edward; Rosen, David Marc; Musabeyezu, Juliet; Safaee, Helia; Ranganath, Sudhir; Ngai, Jessica; Heinelt, Martina; Milton, Yuka; Wang, Hao; Bhagchandani, Sachin H.; Joshi, Nitin; Bhowmick, Neil; Denmeade, Samuel R.; Isaacs, John T.; Karp, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite considerable advances in prostate cancer research, there is a major need for a systemic delivery platform that efficiently targets anti-cancer drugs to sites of disseminated prostate cancer while minimizing host toxicity. In this proof-of-principle study, human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were loaded with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles (MPs) that encapsulate the macromolecule G114, a thapsigargin-based prostate specific antigen (PSA)-activated prodrug . G114-particles (~950nm in size) were internalized by MSCs, followed by the release of G114 as an intact prodrug from loaded cells. Moreover, G114 released from G114 MP-loaded MSCs selectively induced death of the PSA-secreting PCa cell line, LNCaP. Finally, G114 MP-loaded MSCs inhibited tumor growth when used in proof-of-concept co-inoculation studies with CWR22 PCa xenografts, suggesting that cell-based delivery of G114 did not compromise the potency of this pro-drug in-vitro or in-vivo. This study demonstrates a potentially promising approach to assemble a cell-based drug delivery platform, which inhibits cancer growth in-vivo without the need of genetic engineering. We envision that upon achieving efficient homing of systemically infused MSCs to cancer sites, this MSC-based platform may be developed into an effective, systemic ‘Trojan Horse’ therapy for targeted delivery of therapeutic agents to sites of metastatic PCa. PMID:27019026

  12. A prodrug-doped cellular Trojan Horse for the potential treatment of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Levy, Oren; Brennen, W Nathaniel; Han, Edward; Rosen, David Marc; Musabeyezu, Juliet; Safaee, Helia; Ranganath, Sudhir; Ngai, Jessica; Heinelt, Martina; Milton, Yuka; Wang, Hao; Bhagchandani, Sachin H; Joshi, Nitin; Bhowmick, Neil; Denmeade, Samuel R; Isaacs, John T; Karp, Jeffrey M

    2016-06-01

    Despite considerable advances in prostate cancer research, there is a major need for a systemic delivery platform that efficiently targets anti-cancer drugs to sites of disseminated prostate cancer while minimizing host toxicity. In this proof-of-principle study, human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were loaded with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles (MPs) that encapsulate the macromolecule G114, a thapsigargin-based prostate specific antigen (PSA)-activated prodrug. G114-particles (∼950 nm in size) were internalized by MSCs, followed by the release of G114 as an intact prodrug from loaded cells. Moreover, G114 released from G114 MP-loaded MSCs selectively induced death of the PSA-secreting PCa cell line, LNCaP. Finally, G114 MP-loaded MSCs inhibited tumor growth when used in proof-of-concept co-inoculation studies with CWR22 PCa xenografts, suggesting that cell-based delivery of G114 did not compromise the potency of this pro-drug in-vitro or in-vivo. This study demonstrates a potentially promising approach to assemble a cell-based drug delivery platform, which inhibits cancer growth in-vivo without the need of genetic engineering. We envision that upon achieving efficient homing of systemically infused MSCs to cancer sites, this MSC-based platform may be developed into an effective, systemic 'Trojan Horse' therapy for targeted delivery of therapeutic agents to sites of metastatic PCa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Analgesic Prodrugs for Combating their Side-Effects: Rational Approach.

    PubMed

    Ruchita; Sucheta; Nanda, Sanju; Pathak, Dharampal

    2017-01-01

    Analgesics are the drugs which bring insensibility to pain without loosing consciousness. Treatment strategy is generally based on the type of pain. Most of the analgesics are associated with serious side effects, such as NSAIDS can cause severe GI disturbance and opioids can cause addiction. There are various ways to reduce their side effects The analgesic prodrug approach is one of the several strategies used to attain the required pharmacological response with a considerable decrease in side effects. The aim of this paper is to introduce in depth the rational behind the use of the analgesic prodrug approach from past to present. Data is collected from online as well as from extensive literature survey which have appeared on this subject during the last decades. This review will map the origins and development of the most important of the analgesic prodrugs to date. This review indicates that, designing analgesic prodrugs represent successful strategy to gain the required pharmacological activity with a considerable decrease in side effects. However thorough knowledge of diverse biological phenomena is needed which enables scientists to invent and design superior, nontoxic and better-targeted prodrugs. The newly synthesized chemical entity or prodrugs may or may not have intrinsic pharmacological activity and also synthesizing novel molecules consume a lot of time and money than developing prodrugs of existing clinically used analgesic drugs which is surely an attractive and promising area of research now a days. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. In vitro evaluation of novel N-acetylalaninate prodrugs that selectively induce apoptosis in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    McGoldrick, Christopher A; Jiang, Yu-Lin; Brannon, Marianne; Krishnan, Koyamangalath; Stone, William L

    2014-09-18

    Cancer cell esterases are often overexpressed and can have chiral specificities different from that of the corresponding normal cells and can, therefore, be useful targets for activating chemotherapeutic prodrug esters. Prodrug esters are inactive compounds that can be preferentially activated by esterase enzymes. Moreover, cancer cells often exhibit a high level of intrinsic oxidative stress due to an increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a decreased expression of some enzymatic antioxidants. Prodrugs designed to induce additional oxidative stress can selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells already exhibiting a high level of intrinsic oxidative stress. This study focused on the in vitro evaluation of four novel prodrug esters: the R- and S- chiral esters of 4-[(nitrooxy)methyl]phenyl N-acetylalaninate (R- and S-NPAA) and the R- and S- chiral esters of 4-[(nitrooxy)methyl]naphth-1-yl N-acetylalaninate (R- and S-NQM), which are activated, to varying extents, by oxidized protein hydrolase (OPH, EC 3.4.19.1) yielding a quinone methide (QM) intermediate capable of depleting glutathione (GSH), a key intracellular antioxidant. OPH is a serine esterase/protease that is overexpressed in some human tumors and cancer cell lines. To evaluate the chiral ester prodrugs, we monitored cellular GSH depletion, cellular protein carbonyl levels (an oxidative stress biomarker) and cell viability in tumorigenic and nontumorigenic prostate cancer cell lines. We found that the prodrugs were activated by OPH and subsequently depleted GSH. The S-chiral ester of NPAA (S-NPAA) was two-fold more effective than the R-chiral ester (R-NPAA) in depleting GSH, increasing oxidative stress, inducing apoptosis, and decreasing cell viability in tumorigenic prostate LNCaP cells but had little effect on non-tumorigenic RWPE-1 cells. In addition, we found that that S-NPAA induced apoptosis and decreased cell viability in tumorigenic DU145 and PC3 prostate cell lines. Similar

  15. Mucopolysaccharidoses in northern Brazil: Targeted mutation screening and urinary glycosaminoglycan excretion in patients undergoing enzyme replacement therapy

    PubMed Central

    Viana, Gustavo M.; de Lima, Nathália O.; Cavaleiro, Rosely; Alves, Erik; Souza, Isabel C.N.; Feio, Raimunda; Leistner-Segal, Sandra; Schwartz, Ida; Giugliani, Roberto; da Silva, Luiz C. Santana

    2011-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are rare lysosomal disorders caused by the deficiency of specific lysosomal enzymes responsible for glycosaminoglycan (GAG) degradation. Enzyme Replacement Therapy (ERT) has been shown to reduce accumulation and urinary excretion of GAG, and to improve some of the patients’ clinical signs. We studied biochemical and molecular characteristics of nine MPS patients (two MPS I, four MPS II and three MPS VI) undergoing ERT in northern Brazil. The responsiveness of ERT was evaluated through urinary GAG excretion measurements. Patients were screened for eight common MPS mutations, using PCR, restriction enzyme tests and direct sequencing. Two MPS I patients had the previously reported mutation p.P533R. In the MPS II patients, mutation analysis identified the mutation p.R468W, and in the MPS VI patients, polymorphisms p.V358M and p.V376M were also found. After 48 weeks of ERT, biochemical analysis showed a significantly decreased total urinary GAG excretion in patients with MPS I (p < 0.01) and MPS VI (p < 0.01). Our findings demonstrate the effect of ERT on urinary GAG excretion and suggest the adoption of a screening strategy for genotyping MPS patients living far from the main reference centers. PMID:21931511

  16. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor therapy in children with Alport syndrome: effect on urinary albumin, TGF-β, and nitrite excretion

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Liora; Mathew, Roy; Futterweit, Stephen; Frank, Rachel; Gauthier, Bernard G; Kashtan, Clifford E; Trachtman, Howard

    2002-01-01

    Background Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors are routinely prescribed to patients with chronic kidney disease because of their known renoprotective effects. We evaluated the effect of short-term therapy with the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, enalapril, in early Alport syndrome, defined as disease duration less than 10 years and a normal glomerular filtration rate. Methods 11 children with early Alport syndrome were investigated. Two consecutive early morning urine specimens were collected at the start of the study for measurement of urinary creatinine, total protein, albumin, TGF-β, and nitrite excretion. Patients were treated with enalapril, ≅ 0.2 mg/kg/day, once a day for 14 days. Two early morning urine specimens were collected on days 13 and 14 of enalapril treatment and two weeks later for measurement of urinary creatinine, total protein, albumin, TGF-β, and nitrite excretion. Results Prior to treatment, urinary excretion of transforming growth factor-β and nitrite, the major metabolite of nitric oxide, was within normal limits in all patients. Administration of enalapril for 2 weeks did not alter urinary albumin, transforming growth factor-β, or nitrite excretion. Conclusion These findings suggest that early Alport syndrome represents a disease involving exclusively intrinsic glomerular barrier dysfunction. At this stage of the illness, there is no evidence of angiotensin II-mediated proteinuria or increased production of transforming growth factor-β and, therefore, routine treatment with an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor may not be warranted. PMID:11869456

  17. Evidence-based recommendations for monitoring bone disease and the response to enzyme replacement therapy in Gaucher patients.

    PubMed

    Vom Dahl, Stephan; Poll, Ludger; Di Rocco, Maja; Ciana, Giovanni; Denes, Carmencita; Mariani, Giuliano; Maas, Mario

    2006-06-01

    Bone disease is a serious complication of Gaucher disease. Untreated, it can result in pain, permanent bone damage and disability. Enzyme replacement therapy reverses many of the clinical signs of Gaucher bone disease but early assessment and treatment, and regular monitoring, are essential in optimising outcomes. In September 2005, a group of European experts met to review current knowledge and identify best practice and unmet needs in the monitoring of Gaucher bone disease and the response to enzyme replacement therapy. Medline searches of peer-reviewed literature (no date restrictions) were conducted and supplemented by additional information considered relevant by panellists to furthering discussions. The group's recommendations included: currently used biochemical bone markers are not clinically practical or reliable; plain X-rays should not be the sole method of assessing bone disease; MRI is the most sensitive method for monitoring bone marrow infiltration by Gaucher cells; semi-quantitative methods for assessing bone marrow infiltration in routine clinical practice should use readily available technology, include an assessment of Gaucher cell infiltration in the lumbar spine and femur, and be validated for inter-rater reliability and in comparison to other methods; a multidisciplinary approach is required for the treatment of Gaucher patients; all Gaucher patients should receive a comprehensive initial radiologic evaluation for bone disease and ongoing radiological monitoring at least once every 2 years.

  18. Bioreductively activatable prodrug conjugates of phenstatin designed to target tumor hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Winn, Blake A; Shi, Zhe; Carlson, Graham J; Wang, Yifan; Nguyen, Benson L; Kelly, Evan M; Ross, R David; Hamel, Ernest; Chaplin, David J; Trawick, Mary L; Pinney, Kevin G

    2017-02-01

    A variety of solid tumor cancers contain significant regions of hypoxia, which provide unique challenges for targeting by potent anticancer agents. Bioreductively activatable prodrug conjugates (BAPCs) represent a promising strategy for therapeutic intervention. BAPCs are designed to be biologically inert until they come into contact with low oxygen tension, at which point reductase enzyme mediated cleavage releases the parent anticancer agent in a tumor-specific manner. Phenstatin is a potent inhibitor of tubulin polymerization, mimicking the chemical structure and biological activity of the natural product combretastatin A-4. Synthetic approaches have been established for nitrobenzyl, nitroimidazole, nitrofuranyl, and nitrothienyl prodrugs of phenstatin incorporating nor-methyl, mono-methyl, and gem-dimethyl variants of the attached nitro compounds. A series of BAPCs based on phenstatin have been prepared by chemical synthesis and evaluated against the tubulin-microtubule protein system. In a preliminary study using anaerobic conditions, the gem-dimethyl nitrothiophene and gem-dimethyl nitrofuran analogues were shown to undergo efficient enzymatic cleavage in the presence of NADPH cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase. Each of the eleven BAPCs evaluated in this study demonstrated significantly reduced inhibitory activity against tubulin in comparison to the parent anti-cancer agent phenstatin (IC 50 =1.0μM). In fact, the majority of the BAPCs (seven of the eleven analogues) were not inhibitors of tubulin polymerization (IC 50 >20μM), which represents an anticipated (and desirable) attribute for these prodrugs, since they are intended to be biologically inactive prior to enzyme-mediated cleavage to release phenstatin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Towards the development of an enzyme replacement therapy for the metabolic disorder propionic acidemia.

    PubMed

    Darvish-Damavandi, Mahnaz; Ho, Han Kiat; Kang, Tse Siang

    2016-09-01

    Propionic acidemia (PA) is a life-threatening disease caused by the deficiency of a mitochondrial biotin-dependent enzyme known as propionyl coenzyme-A carboxylase (PCC). This enzyme is responsible for degrading the metabolic intermediate, propionyl coenzyme-A (PP-CoA), derived from multiple metabolic pathways. Currently, except for drastic surgical and dietary intervention that can only provide partial symptomatic relief, no other form of therapeutic option is available for this genetic disorder. Here, we examine a novel approach in protein delivery by specifically targeting and localizing our protein candidate of interest into the mitochondrial matrix of the cells. In order to test this concept of delivery, we have utilized cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) and mitochondria targeting sequences (MTS) to form specific fusion PCC protein, capable of translocating and localizing across cell membranes. In vitro delivery of our candidate fusion proteins, evaluated by confocal images and enzymatic activity assay, indicated effectiveness of this strategy. Therefore, it holds immense potential in creating a new paradigm in site-specific protein delivery and enzyme replacement therapeutic for PA.

  20. Triacylglycerol mimetics regulate membrane interactions of glycogen branching enzyme: implications for therapy.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Rafael; Casas, Jesús; López, David J; Ibarguren, Maitane; Suari-Rivera, Ariadna; Terés, Silvia; Guardiola-Serrano, Francisca; Lossos, Alexander; Busquets, Xavier; Kakhlon, Or; Escribá, Pablo V

    2017-08-01

    Adult polyglucosan body disease (APBD) is a neurological disorder characterized by adult-onset neurogenic bladder, spasticity, weakness, and sensory loss. The disease is caused by aberrant glycogen branching enzyme (GBE) (GBE1Y329S) yielding less branched, globular, and soluble glycogen, which tends to aggregate. We explore here whether, despite being a soluble enzyme, GBE1 activity is regulated by protein-membrane interactions. Because soluble proteins can contact a wide variety of cell membranes, we investigated the interactions of purified WT and GBE1Y329S proteins with different types of model membranes (liposomes). Interestingly, both triheptanoin and some triacylglycerol mimetics (TGMs) we have designed (TGM0 and TGM5) markedly enhance GBE1Y329S activity, possibly enough for reversing APBD symptoms. We show that the GBE1Y329S mutation exposes a hydrophobic amino acid stretch, which can either stabilize and enhance or alternatively, reduce the enzyme activity via alteration of protein-membrane interactions. Additionally, we found that WT, but not Y329S, GBE1 activity is modulated by Ca 2+ and phosphatidylserine, probably associated with GBE1-mediated regulation of energy consumption and storage. The thermal stabilization and increase in GBE1Y329S activity induced by TGM5 and its omega-3 oil structure suggest that this molecule has a considerable therapeutic potential for treating APBD. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Enzyme replacement therapy started at birth improves outcome in difficult-to-treat organs in mucopolysaccharidosis I mice.

    PubMed

    Baldo, Guilherme; Mayer, Fabiana Q; Martinelli, Bárbara Z; de Carvalho, Talita G; Meyer, Fabiola S; de Oliveira, Patrícia G; Meurer, Luise; Tavares, Angela; Matte, Ursula; Giugliani, Roberto

    2013-05-01

    Since we previously observed that in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) the storage of undegraded glycosaminoglycans (GAG) occurs from birth, in the present study we aimed to compare normal, untreated MPS I mice (knockout for alpha-l-iduronidase-IDUA), and MPS I mice treated with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT, Laronidase, 1.2mg/kg every 2 weeks) started from birth (ERT-neo) or from 2 months of age (ERT-ad). All mice were sacrificed at 6 months. Both treatments were equally effective in normalizing GAG levels in the viscera but had no detectable effect on the joint. Heart function was also improved with both treatments. On the other hand, mice treated from birth presented better outcomes in the difficult-to-treat aortas and heart valves. Surprisingly, both groups had improvements in behavior tests, and normalization of GAG levels in the brain and IDUA injection resulted in detectable levels of enzyme in the brain tissue 1h after administration. ERT-ad mice developed significantly more anti-IDUA-IgG antibodies, and mice that didn't develop antibodies had better performances in behavior tests, indicating that development of antibodies may reduce enzyme bioavailability. Our results suggest that ERT started from birth leads to better outcomes in the aorta and heart valves, as well as a reduction in antibody levels. Some poor vascularized organs, such as the joints, had partial or no benefit and ancillary therapies might be needed for patients. The results presented here support the idea that ERT started from birth leads to better treatment outcomes and should be considered whenever possible, a observation that gains relevance as newborn screening programs are being considered for MPS and other treatable lysosomal storage disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Immune response to enzyme replacement therapies in lysosomal storage diseases and the role of immune tolerance induction.

    PubMed

    Kishnani, Priya S; Dickson, Patricia I; Muldowney, Laurie; Lee, Jessica J; Rosenberg, Amy; Abichandani, Rekha; Bluestone, Jeffrey A; Burton, Barbara K; Dewey, Maureen; Freitas, Alexandra; Gavin, Derek; Griebel, Donna; Hogan, Melissa; Holland, Stephen; Tanpaiboon, Pranoot; Turka, Laurence A; Utz, Jeanine J; Wang, Yow-Ming; Whitley, Chester B; Kazi, Zoheb B; Pariser, Anne R

    2016-02-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and National Organization for Rare Disease (NORD) convened a public workshop titled "Immune Responses to Enzyme Replacement Therapies: Role of Immune Tolerance Induction" to discuss the impact of anti-drug antibodies (ADAs) on efficacy and safety of enzyme replacement therapies (ERTs) intended to treat patients with lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs). Participants in the workshop included FDA staff, clinicians, scientists, patients, industry, and advocacy group representatives. The risks and benefits of implementing prophylactic immune tolerance induction (ITI) to reduce the potential clinical impact of antibody development were considered. Complications due to immune responses to ERT are being recognized with increasing experience and lengths of exposure to ERTs to treat several LSDs. Strategies to mitigate immune responses and to optimize therapies are needed. Discussions during the workshop resulted in the identification of knowledge gaps and future areas of research, as well as the following proposals from the participants: (1) systematic collection of longitudinal data on immunogenicity to better understand the impact of ADAs on long-term clinical outcomes; (2) development of disease-specific biomarkers and outcome measures to assess the effect of ADAs and ITI on efficacy and safety; (3) development of consistent approaches to ADA assays to allow comparisons of immunogenicity data across different products and disease groups, and to expedite reporting of results; (4) establishment of a system to widely share data on antibody titers following treatment with ERTs; (5) identification of components of the protein that are immunogenic so that triggers and components of the immune responses can be targeted in ITI; and (6) consideration of early ITI in patients who are at risk of developing clinically relevant ADA that have been demonstrated to worsen treatment outcomes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Effect of Simvastatin Prodrug on Experimental Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Aaron D; Zhang, Yijia; Jia, Zhenshan; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Xiaobei; Pranke, Laura; Schmid, Marian J; Wang, Dong; Reinhardt, Richard A

    2016-05-01

    Local application of statins has shown potential in preventing and regenerating bone loss associated with experimental periodontitis. This study evaluates the effect of a novel simvastatin (SIM) prodrug (capable of delivering high doses to periodontitis inflammatory lesion and cells) on experimental periodontitis bone loss and inflammation. Forty mature female Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to ligature-induced experimental periodontitis between maxillary first and second molars (M1-M2). Equal groups were treated with three weekly doses of: 1) prodrug carrier alone (mPEG); 2) 0.5 mg SIM dose equivalent in carrier (SIM/SIM-mPEG); 3) 1.0 mg SIM/SIM-mPEG; 4) 1.5 mg SIM/SIM-mPEG; or 5) ligature alone. Contralateral molars served as unmanipulated controls. Four weeks after initiation of periodontitis, animals were euthanized, the M1-M2 interproximal was evaluated with microcomputed tomography and histology, and data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance. Ligature alone caused a mean bone loss of 1.01 ± 0.06 mm from the cemento-enamel junction, whereas all doses of SIM/SIM-mPEG reduced bone loss, especially 1.5 mg SIM/SIM-mPEG (0.68 ± 0.05 mm, P <0.001), which was not statistically different from contralateral control (0.47 ± 0.06 mm). A dose of 1.5 mg SIM/SIM-mPEG also reduced percentage of neutrophils compared with carrier alone (2.0% ± 1.0% versus 5.7% ± 1.1%; P <0.05), and increased amount of uninflamed connective tissue in the M1-M2 interproximal area (65.2% ± 3.3% versus 46.3% ± 3.3%; P <0.001). The mPEG carrier alone did not have bone-sparing or anti-inflammatory properties. Multiple local 1.5-mg doses of a macromolecular SIM prodrug decreases amount of experimental periodontitis bone loss and inflammation in rats.

  4. The preformulation stability studies of a proline prodrug of methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Ann; Wu, Zhiqian; Yuan, Xudong

    2012-07-01

    In order to reduce toxicity of methotrexate and improve bioavailability, permeability, and explore other delivery routes, a proline prodrug of methotrexate was synthesized and preformulation stability studies were conducted under accelerated conditions to assess compound liability and possible conversion to the parent drug. Forced degradation studies showed that the prodrug will degrade in the presence of water, acid, and heat (70 °C), generating the parent compound methotrexate. It was also found that this conversion is temperature dependent. In addition, the prodrug is extremely light and oxidative labile. Therefore, future formulation studies should be light protected and stabilized by a suitable antioxidant. It was also found that the prodrug is stable in the HPLC diluent, consisting of water and acetonitrile; stored bench-top and protected from light for up to two weeks.

  5. Congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency: diagnostic challenges and response to enzyme replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Puntis, J W L; Zamvar, V

    2015-09-01

    Congenital sucrase-isomaltase (SI) deficiency is a rare genetic condition characterised by a deficiency in the brush-border SI enzyme, resulting in an inability to metabolise sucrose and starches. Six cases of congenital SI deficiency treated with Sucraid (sacrosidase, a yeast-derived enzyme that facilitates sucrose digestion) are described. Typical presenting symptoms were watery diarrhoea, abdominal pain and bloating, sometimes noticeably worse after ingestion of fruit. Diagnosis is challenging since conventional hydrogen breath testing after an oral sucrose load is impractical in young children, and many laboratories no longer look for maldigested sucrose using faecal sugar chromatography. Confirmation is by disaccharidase assay of duodenal or jejunal mucosa obtained endoscopically. All six patients showed little improvement following advice regarding dietary management, but experienced a marked reduction in symptoms with sacrosidase administration; no adverse events were reported. Sacrosidase is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for patients with congenital SI deficiency. Gene testing and clinical trial of sacrosidase may become an alternative to endoscopic biopsies for diagnosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Structure-activity relationship study of human liver microsomes-catalyzed hydrolysis rate of ester prodrugs of MENT by comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA).

    PubMed

    Bursi, Roberta; Grootenhuis, Arijan; van der Louw, Jaap; Verhagen, Jos; de Gooyer, Marcel; Jacobs, Peter; Leysen, Dirk

    2003-03-01

    A series of MENT esters (3-71) was designed, prepared and tested to study the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of the hydrolysis rate with human liver microsomes of these prodrugs. Compounds were obtained covering a wide range of metabolic stability. The results are useful for the proper selection of prodrugs for different pharmaceutical formulations to deliver the potent and prostate-sparing androgen MENT. The MENT esters can especially be administered for male hormone replacement therapy and male contraception. Comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) was applied to a dataset of 28 esters, for which ED50 values could be obtained. The CoMFA model where the electrostatic and H-bond molecular fields were combined turned out to be most predictive. Despite the limited size of the dataset, CoMFA can help to rationalize the SAR of the ester hydrolysis rate of ester prodrugs of MENT.

  7. The Prodrug Approach: A Successful Tool for Improving Drug Solubility.

    PubMed

    Jornada, Daniela Hartmann; dos Santos Fernandes, Guilherme Felipe; Chiba, Diego Eidy; de Melo, Thais Regina Ferreira; dos Santos, Jean Leandro; Chung, Man Chin

    2015-12-29

    Prodrug design is a widely known molecular modification strategy that aims to optimize the physicochemical and pharmacological properties of drugs to improve their solubility and pharmacokinetic features and decrease their toxicity. A lack of solubility is one of the main obstacles to drug development. This review aims to describe recent advances in the improvement of solubility via the prodrug approach. The main chemical carriers and examples of successful strategies will be discussed, highlighting the advances of this field in the last ten years.

  8. Ocular Sustained Release Nanoparticles Containing Stereoisomeric Dipeptide Prodrugs of Acyclovir

    PubMed Central

    Jwala, Jwala; Boddu, Sai H.S.; Shah, Sujay; Sirimulla, Suman; Pal, Dhananjay

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Purpose The objective of this study was to develop and characterize polymeric nanoparticles of appropriate stereoisomeric dipeptide prodrugs of acyclovir (L-valine-L-valine-ACV, L-valine-D-valine-ACV, D-valine-L-valine-ACV, and D-valine-D-valine-ACV) for the treatment of ocular herpes keratitis. Methods Stereoisomeric dipeptide prodrugs of acyclovir (ACV) were screened for bioreversion in various ocular tissues, cell proliferation, and uptake across the rabbit primary corneal epithelial cell line. Docking studies were carried out to examine the affinity of prodrugs to the peptide transporter protein. Prodrugs with optimum characteristics were selected for the preparation of nanoparticles using various grades of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). Nanoparticles were characterized for the entrapment efficiency, surface morphology, size distribution, and in vitro release. Further, the effect of thermosensitive gels on the release of prodrugs from nanoparticles was also studied. Results L-valine-L-valine-ACV and L-valine-D-valine-ACV were considered to be optimum in terms of enzymatic stability, uptake, and cytotoxicity. Docking results indicated that L-valine in the terminal position increases the affinity of the prodrugs to the peptide transporter protein. Entrapment efficiency values of L-valine-L-valine-ACV and L-valine-D-valine-ACV were found to be optimal with PLGA 75:25 and PLGA 65:35 polymers, respectively. In vitro release of prodrugs from nanoparticles exhibited a biphasic release behavior with initial burst phase followed by sustained release. Dispersion of nanoparticles in thermosensitive gels completely eliminated the burst release phase. Conclusion Novel nanoparticulate systems of dipeptide prodrugs of ACV suspended in thermosensitive gels may provide sustained delivery after topical administration. PMID:21500985

  9. Ocular sustained release nanoparticles containing stereoisomeric dipeptide prodrugs of acyclovir.

    PubMed

    Jwala, Jwala; Boddu, Sai H S; Shah, Sujay; Sirimulla, Suman; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and characterize polymeric nanoparticles of appropriate stereoisomeric dipeptide prodrugs of acyclovir (L-valine-L-valine-ACV, L-valine-D-valine-ACV, D-valine-L-valine-ACV, and D-valine-D-valine-ACV) for the treatment of ocular herpes keratitis. Stereoisomeric dipeptide prodrugs of acyclovir (ACV) were screened for bioreversion in various ocular tissues, cell proliferation, and uptake across the rabbit primary corneal epithelial cell line. Docking studies were carried out to examine the affinity of prodrugs to the peptide transporter protein. Prodrugs with optimum characteristics were selected for the preparation of nanoparticles using various grades of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). Nanoparticles were characterized for the entrapment efficiency, surface morphology, size distribution, and in vitro release. Further, the effect of thermosensitive gels on the release of prodrugs from nanoparticles was also studied. L-valine-L-valine-ACV and L-valine-D-valine-ACV were considered to be optimum in terms of enzymatic stability, uptake, and cytotoxicity. Docking results indicated that L-valine in the terminal position increases the affinity of the prodrugs to the peptide transporter protein. Entrapment efficiency values of L-valine-L-valine-ACV and L-valine-D-valine-ACV were found to be optimal with PLGA 75:25 and PLGA 65:35 polymers, respectively. In vitro release of prodrugs from nanoparticles exhibited a biphasic release behavior with initial burst phase followed by sustained release. Dispersion of nanoparticles in thermosensitive gels completely eliminated the burst release phase. Novel nanoparticulate systems of dipeptide prodrugs of ACV suspended in thermosensitive gels may provide sustained delivery after topical administration.

  10. Low-dose, continuous enzyme replacement therapy ameliorates brain pathology in the neurodegenerative lysosomal disorder mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA.

    PubMed

    King, Barbara; Hassiotis, Sofia; Rozaklis, Tina; Beard, Helen; Trim, Paul J; Snel, Marten F; Hopwood, John J; Hemsley, Kim M

    2016-05-01

    Repeated replacement of sulphamidase via cerebrospinal fluid injection is an effective treatment for pathological changes in the brain in mice and dogs with the lysosomal storage disorder, mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA (MPS IIIA). Investigational trials of this approach are underway in children with this condition, however, infusions require attendance at a specialist medical facility. We sought to comprehensively evaluate the effectiveness of sustained-release (osmotic pump-delivered) enzyme replacement therapy in murine MPS IIIA as this method, if applied to humans, would require only subcutaneous administration of enzyme once the pump was installed. Six-week-old MPS IIIA and unaffected mice were implanted with subcutaneous mini-osmotic pumps connected to an infusion cannula directed at the right lateral ventricle. Either recombinant human sulphamidase or vehicle were infused over the course of 7 weeks, with pumps replaced part-way through the experimental period. We observed near-normalisation of primarily stored substrate (heparan sulphate) in both hemispheres of the MPS IIIA brain and cervical spinal cord, as determined using tandem mass spectrometry. Immunohistochemistry indicated a reduction in secondarily stored GM 3 ganglioside and neuroinflammatory markers. A bias towards the infusion side was seen in some, but not all outcomes. The recombinant enzyme appears stable under pump-like conditions for at least 1 month. Given that infusion pumps are in clinical use in other nervous system disorders, e.g. for treatment of spasticity or brain tumours, this treatment method warrants consideration for testing in large animal models of MPS IIIA and other lysosomal storage disorders that affect the brain. Clinical trials of repeated injection of replacement enzyme into CSF are underway in patients with the inherited neurodegenerative disorder mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA. In this pre-clinical study, we examined an alternative approach - slow, continual infusion

  11. Case report of unexpected gastrointestinal involvement in type 1 Gaucher disease: comparison of eliglustat tartrate treatment and enzyme replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoo-Mi; Shin, Dong Hoon; Park, Su Bum; Cheon, Chong Kun; Yoo, Han-Wook

    2017-05-15

    Gastrointestinal involvement in Gaucher disease is very rare, and appears to be unresponsive to enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). Here, we describe identical twin, splenectomized, non-neuronopathic Gaucher patients on long-term ERT for 9 years, who complained of epigastric discomfort due to Gaucher cell infiltration of the gastroduodenal mucosa. Rare compound heterozygous mutations (p.Arg48Trp and p.Arg257Gln) of the GBA gene were found in both. Improvement in the gastroduodenal infiltration and reduced chitotriosidase levels were observed in one who switched to eliglustat tartrate for 1 year, whereas the other one who maintained ERT showed no improvement of chitotriosidase level and persistent duodenal lesions. This shows that eliglustat might be an effective treatment for Gaucher disease patients having lesions resistant to ERT.

  12. AB073. Classic infantile-onset Pompe disease: phenotypes and outcomes of 5 Vietnamese patients receiving enzyme replacement therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Khanh Ngoc; Do, Mai Thi Thanh; Can, Ngoc Thi Bich; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Vu, Dung Chi

    2017-01-01

    Background Pompe disease (PD) or glycogen storage disease type II is a lysosomal storage disorder, caused by mutations of GAA gene which results in deficiency of acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA) enzyme that involves in metabolism of glycogen in the lysosomes. Its incidence is 1/14,000–1/100,000. PD is divided into three types: classic infantile onset, non-classic infantile onset, and late onset. Early enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) before developing respiratory distress may lead to good outcome. Since 2013, we have identified 16 cases with classic infantile-onset and 5 cases were treated with ERT. Herein, we describe phenotypes and outcomes of five infantile-onset PD patients who received ERT. Methods GAA enzyme assay was done at National Taiwan University Hospital. Results Ages of diagnosis were 12, 38 and 70 days, 5 and 9 months of age. Clinical presentations included macroglossia (5/5), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (5/5), failure to thrive (5/5), facial weakness and hypotonia (3 patients diagnosed after 70 days of age), respiratory failure (1 patient diagnosed at 9 months of age). All patients had mildly elevated plasma CK (270–380 UI/L) and transaminase (60–260 UI/l). Ages at starting ERT were 28 and 58 days, 3, 6 and 10 months. The time intervals from diagnosis to starting ERT were between 14 days and 1 month. The durations of ERT were 4–22 months. The outcomes were good. All patients had improvement of cardiac functions shown on echocardiography, respiratory status, and motor development. The patient who first received ERT at 10 months of age was reportedly dead at home due to food obstruction at 18 months of age. Current ages of the survivors were 5–24 months. Conclusions Patients with classic infantile-onset PD will have good outcomes if ERT is started early. Newborn screening for this disease is necessary to yield an early diagnosis.

  13. Long-term observational, non-randomized study of enzyme replacement therapy in late-onset glycogenosis type II.

    PubMed

    Bembi, Bruno; Pisa, Federica Edith; Confalonieri, Marco; Ciana, Giovanni; Fiumara, Agata; Parini, Rossella; Rigoldi, Miriam; Moglia, Arrigo; Costa, Alfredo; Carlucci, Annalisa; Danesino, Cesare; Pittis, Maria Gabriela; Dardis, Andrea; Ravaglia, Sabrina

    2010-12-01

    Type II glycogenosis (GSDII) is a lysosomal storage disorder due to acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA) deficiency. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with human recombinant alpha-glucosidase (rhGAA) has been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of infantile forms of GSDII, but little information is available concerning late-onset phenotypes. Long-term follow-up studies are not available at present. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ERT long-term effects in late-onset GSDII. Twenty-four patients, including 7 juveniles and 17 adults, received bi-weekly infusion of rhGAA (20 mg/kg) for at least 36 months. Clinical conditions, muscular function (6-min walking test, 6MWT; Walton scale, WS), respiratory function (vital capacity, VC; forced expiratory volume, FEV1; arterial pCO(2)), and muscle enzymes were assessed every 6 months. The 6MWT improved in both juvenile and adult patients (p = 0.01, p = 0.0002, respectively), as well as in patients with moderate to severe muscle function impairment (WS >3.5; p = 0.002). An overall improvement in WS was also observed (p = 0.0003). VC and FEV1 remained unchanged, while pCO(2) decreased (p = 0.017). Muscle enzymes decreased significantly (p < 0.0001). Two patients (8%) showed transient secondary events during ERT. Long-term ERT with rhGAA was shown to be safe, well tolerated, and effective in improving motor function and in stabilizing respiratory function in late-onset GSDII. The response pattern showed a progressive clinical improvement during the follow-up period in juvenile patients, while in adults it reached and maintained a plateau after the first year of treatment.

  14. Cardiac energy metabolism is disturbed in Fabry disease and improves with enzyme replacement therapy using recombinant human galactosidase A.

    PubMed

    Machann, Wolfram; Breunig, Frank; Weidemann, Frank; Sandstede, Jörn; Hahn, Dietbert; Köstler, Herbert; Neubauer, Stefan; Wanner, Christoph; Beer, Meinrad

    2011-03-01

    In vitro studies have shown impairment of energy metabolism in cardiac fibroblasts from Fabry patients. A recent in vivo study reported an association between cardiac energy metabolism and increased myocardial mass in Fabry patients. We therefore assessed possible disturbances of cardiac energy metabolism in Fabry patients by in vivo (31)P-MR-spectroscopy. Additionally, the effect of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) on cardiac energetics was tested. Twenty-three patients (41 ± 9 years; 10 females) with genetically proven Fabry disease were examined with a 1.5 T Scanner, and compared with an age-matched healthy control group. Eight patients underwent ERT and had follow-up examinations after 3 and 14 months. The high-energy phosphate molecules phosphocreatine (PCr) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were quantified in localized 31P-spectra by SLOOP (spectral localization with optimum point spread function). Cine- and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) studies were also performed. When compared with healthy controls, Fabry patients demonstrated reduced PCr- (6.1 ± 1.9 vs. 8.8 ± 2.6 mmol/kg; P = 0.003) and ATP concentrations (3.9 ± 1.5 vs. 4.6 ± 1.0 mmol/kg; P = 0.048). During ERT, PCr concentrations increased (7.1 ± 1.5 mmol/kg vs. 6.1 ± 1.9; P < 0.05) and left ventricular mass decreased (215 ± 55 vs. 185 ± 45 g; P = 0.012). Disturbances in cardiac energetics were not correlated to the presence or absence of cardiac fibrosis on LGE. Cardiac energy metabolism is disturbed in Fabry disease; this may play an important role in the pathogenesis of Fabry cardiomyopathy. Enzyme replacement therapy ameliorates energetic depression.

  15. Leveraging Hypoxia-Activated Prodrugs to Prevent Drug Resistance in Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, Danika; Garvey, Colleen M.; Mumenthaler, Shannon M.; Foo, Jasmine

    2016-01-01

    Experimental studies have shown that one key factor in driving the emergence of drug resistance in solid tumors is tumor hypoxia, which leads to the formation of localized environmental niches where drug-resistant cell populations can evolve and survive. Hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAPs) are compounds designed to penetrate to hypoxic regions of a tumor and release cytotoxic or cytostatic agents; several of these HAPs are currently in clinical trial. However, preliminary results have not shown a survival benefit in several of these trials. We hypothesize that the efficacy of treatments involving these prodrugs depends heavily on identifying the correct treatment schedule, and that mathematical modeling can be used to help design potential therapeutic strategies combining HAPs with standard therapies to achieve long-term tumor control or eradication. We develop this framework in the specific context of EGFR-driven non-small cell lung cancer, which is commonly treated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib. We develop a stochastic mathematical model, parametrized using clinical and experimental data, to explore a spectrum of treatment regimens combining a HAP, evofosfamide, with erlotinib. We design combination toxicity constraint models and optimize treatment strategies over the space of tolerated schedules to identify specific combination schedules that lead to optimal tumor control. We find that (i) combining these therapies delays resistance longer than any monotherapy schedule with either evofosfamide or erlotinib alone, (ii) sequentially alternating single doses of each drug leads to minimal tumor burden and maximal reduction in probability of developing resistance, and (iii) strategies minimizing the length of time after an evofosfamide dose and before erlotinib confer further benefits in reduction of tumor burden. These results provide insights into how hypoxia-activated prodrugs may be used to enhance therapeutic effectiveness in the clinic. PMID

  16. Enzyme-replacement therapy from birth delays the development of behavior and learning problems in mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA mice.

    PubMed

    Gliddon, Briony L; Hopwood, John J

    2004-07-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA (MPS IIIA; Sanfilippo syndrome) is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by severe CNS degeneration, resulting in behavioral abnormalities and loss of learned abilities. Early treatment is vital to prevent long-term clinical pathology in lysosomal storage disorders. We have used naturally occurring MPS IIIA mice to assess the effects of long-term enzyme-replacement therapy initiated either at birth or at 6 wk of age. MPS IIIA and normal control mice received weekly i.v. injections of 1 mg/kg recombinant human sulfamidase until 20 wk of age. Sulfamidase is able to enter the brain until the blood-brain barrier completely closes at 10-14 d of age. MPS IIIA mice that were treated from birth demonstrated normal weight, behavioral characteristics, and ability to learn. MPS IIIA mice that were treated from birth performed significantly better in the Morris water maze than MPS IIIA mice that were treated from 6 wk of age or left untreated. A reduction in storage vacuoles in cells of the CNS in MPS IIIA mice that were treated from birth is consistent with the improvements observed. These data suggest that enzyme that enters the brain in the first few weeks of life, before the blood-brain barrier matures, is able to delay the development of behavior and learning difficulties in MPS IIIA mice.

  17. Peptide dendrimer-Doxorubicin conjugate-based nanoparticles as an enzyme-responsive drug delivery system for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengyuan; Pan, Dayi; Luo, Kui; She, Wenchuan; Guo, Chunhua; Yang, Yang; Gu, Zhongwei

    2014-08-01

    Peptide dendrimers have shown promise as an attractive platform for drug delivery. In this study, mPEGylated peptide dendrimer-doxorubicin (dendrimer-DOX) conjugate-based nanoparticle is prepared and characterized as an enzyme-responsive drug delivery vehicle. The drug DOX is conjugated to the periphery of dendrimer via an enzyme-responsive tetra-peptide linker Gly-Phe-Leu-Gly (GFLG). The dendrimer-DOX conjugate can self-assemble into nanoparticle, which is confirmed by dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy studies. At equal dose, mPEGylated dendrimer-DOX conjugate-based nanoparticle results in significantly high antitumor activity, and induces apoptosis on the 4T1 breast tumor model due to the evidences from tumor growth curves, an immunohistochemical analysis, and a histological assessment. The in vivo toxicity evaluation demonstrates that nanoparticle substantially avoids DOX-related toxicities and presents good biosafety without obvious side effects to normal organs of both tumor-bearing and healthy mice as measured by body weight shift, blood routine test, and a histological analysis. Thus, the mPEGylated peptide dendrimer-DOX conjugate-based nanoparticle may be a potential nanoscale drug delivery vehicle for the breast cancer therapy. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Large amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) prodrugs of valproic acid: new prodrug design ideas for central nervous system delivery.

    PubMed

    Peura, Lauri; Malmioja, Kalle; Laine, Krista; Leppänen, Jukka; Gynther, Mikko; Isotalo, Antti; Rautio, Jarkko

    2011-10-03

    Central nervous system (CNS) drug delivery is a major challenge in drug development because the blood-brain barrier (BBB) efficiently restricts the entry of drug molecules into the CNS at sufficient amounts. The brain uptake of poorly penetrating drugs could be improved by utilizing the transporters at the BBB with a prodrug approach. In this study, we designed four phenylalanine derivatives of valproic acid and studied their ability to utilize a large amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) in CNS delivery with an aim to show that the meta-substituted phenylalanine prodrugs bind to LAT1 with a higher affinity compared with the affinity of the para-substituted derivatives. All of the prodrugs crossed the BBB carrier mediatedly via LAT1 in in situ rat brain perfusion. For the first time, we introduced a novel meta-substituted phenylalanine analogue promoiety which improved the LAT1 affinity 10-fold and more importantly the rat brain uptake of the prodrug 2-fold compared with those of the para-substituted derivatives. Therefore, we have characterized a new prodrug design idea for CNS drug delivery utilizing a transporter-mediated prodrug approach.

  19. Molecular Basis of Prodrug Activation by Human Valacyclovirase, an [alpha]-Amino Acid Ester Hydrolase

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Longsheng; Xu, Zhaohui; Zhou, Jiahai

    2008-07-08

    Chemical modification to improve biopharmaceutical properties, especially oral absorption and bioavailability, is a common strategy employed by pharmaceutical chemists. The approach often employs a simple structural modification and utilizes ubiquitous endogenous esterases as activation enzymes, although such enzymes are often unidentified. This report describes the crystal structure and specificity of a novel activating enzyme for valacyclovir and valganciclovir. Our structural insights show that human valacyclovirase has a unique binding mode and specificity for amino acid esters. Biochemical data demonstrate that the enzyme hydrolyzes esters of {alpha}-amino acids exclusively and displays a broad specificity spectrum for the aminoacyl moiety similar tomore » tricorn-interacting aminopeptidase F1. Crystal structures of the enzyme, two mechanistic mutants, and a complex with a product analogue, when combined with biochemical analysis, reveal the key determinants for substrate recognition; that is, a flexible and mostly hydrophobic acyl pocket, a localized negative electrostatic potential, a large open leaving group-accommodating groove, and a pivotal acidic residue, Asp-123, after the nucleophile Ser-122. This is the first time that a residue immediately after the nucleophile has been found to have its side chain directed into the substrate binding pocket and play an essential role in substrate discrimination in serine hydrolases. These results as well as a phylogenetic analysis establish that the enzyme functions as a specific {alpha}-amino acid ester hydrolase. Valacyclovirase is a valuable target for amino acid ester prodrug-based oral drug delivery enhancement strategies.« less

  20. Molecular basis of prodrug activation by human valacyclovirase, an alpha-amino acid ester hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Lai, Longsheng; Xu, Zhaohui; Zhou, Jiahai; Lee, Kyung-Dall; Amidon, Gordon L

    2008-04-04

    Chemical modification to improve biopharmaceutical properties, especially oral absorption and bioavailability, is a common strategy employed by pharmaceutical chemists. The approach often employs a simple structural modification and utilizes ubiquitous endogenous esterases as activation enzymes, although such enzymes are often unidentified. This report describes the crystal structure and specificity of a novel activating enzyme for valacyclovir and valganciclovir. Our structural insights show that human valacyclovirase has a unique binding mode and specificity for amino acid esters. Biochemical data demonstrate that the enzyme hydrolyzes esters of alpha-amino acids exclusively and displays a broad specificity spectrum for the aminoacyl moiety similar to tricorn-interacting aminopeptidase F1. Crystal structures of the enzyme, two mechanistic mutants, and a complex with a product analogue, when combined with biochemical analysis, reveal the key determinants for substrate recognition; that is, a flexible and mostly hydrophobic acyl pocket, a localized negative electrostatic potential, a large open leaving group-accommodating groove, and a pivotal acidic residue, Asp-123, after the nucleophile Ser-122. This is the first time that a residue immediately after the nucleophile has been found to have its side chain directed into the substrate binding pocket and play an essential role in substrate discrimination in serine hydrolases. These results as well as a phylogenetic analysis establish that the enzyme functions as a specific alpha-amino acid ester hydrolase. Valacyclovirase is a valuable target for amino acid ester prodrug-based oral drug delivery enhancement strategies.

  1. Timing of initiation of enzyme replacement therapy after diagnosis of type 1 Gaucher disease: effect on incidence of avascular necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, Pramod K; Deegan, Patrick; Vellodi, Ashok; Cole, J Alexander; Yeh, Michael; Weinreb, Neal J

    2009-01-01

    Data from the International Collaborative Gaucher Group Gaucher Registry were analysed to assess the relationship between enzyme replacement therapy with imiglucerase (ERT) and incidence of avascular necrosis (AVN) in type 1 Gaucher disease (GD1), and to determine whether the time interval between diagnosis and initiation of ERT influences the incidence rate of AVN. All patients with GD1 enrolled in the Gaucher Registry who received ERT and did not report AVN prior to starting therapy (n = 2700) were included. The incidence rate of AVN following initiation of ERT was determined. An incidence rate of AVN of 13·8 per 1000 person-years was observed in patients receiving ERT. Patients who initiated ERT within 2 years of diagnosis had an incidence rate of 8·1 per 1000 person-years; patients who started ERT ≥2 years after diagnosis had an incidence rate of 16·6 per 1000 person-years. The adjusted incidence rate ratio was 0·59 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0·36–0·96, P = 0·0343]. Splenectomy was an independent risk factor for AVN (adjusted incidence rate ratio 2·23, 95% CI 1·61–3·08, P < 0·0001). In conclusion, the risk of AVN was reduced among patients who initiated ERT within 2 years of diagnosis, compared to initiating treatment ≥2 years after diagnosis. A higher risk of AVN was observed among patients who had previously undergone splenectomy. PMID:19732054

  2. Systemic and Brain Pharmacokinetics of Perforin Inhibitor Prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Gynther, Mikko; Pickering, Darryl S; Spicer, Julie A; Denny, William A; Huttunen, Kristiina M

    2016-07-05

    We have recently reported that by converting a perforin inhibitor into an l-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1)-utilizing prodrug its cellular uptake can be greatly increased. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vivo and brain pharmacokinetics of two perforin inhibitors and their LAT1-utilizing prodrugs 1 and 2. In addition, the brain uptake mechanism and entry into primary mouse cortical neurons and astrocytes were evaluated. After 23 μmol/kg i.p. bolus injection, the prodrugs' unbound area under the concentration curve in brain was 0.3 nmol/g × min, whereas the parent drugs could not reach the brain. The unbound brain concentrations of the prodrugs after 100 μM in situ mouse brain perfusion were 521.4 ± 46.9 and 126.9 ± 19.9 pmol/g for prodrugs 1 and 2, respectively. The combination of competing transporter substrates for LAT1, l-tryptophan, and for organic anion transporting polypeptides, probenecid, decreased the brain concentrations to 352.4 ± 44.5 and 70.9 ± 7.0 pmol/g, respectively. In addition, in vitro uptake studies showed that at 100 μM prodrug 1 had 3.4-fold and 4.5-fold higher uptake rate into neurons and astrocytes, respectively, compared to its parent drug. Thus, the prodrugs enhance significantly the therapeutic potential of the parent drugs for the treatment of disorders of central nervous system in which neuroinflammation is involved.

  3. Targeted anticancer prodrug with mesoporous silica nanoparticles as vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jianquan; Fang, Gang; Wang, Xiaodan; Zeng, Fang; Xiang, Yufei; Wu, Shuizhu

    2011-11-01

    A targeted anticancer prodrug system was fabricated with 180 nm mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) as carriers. The anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) was conjugated to the particles through an acid-sensitive carboxylic hydrazone linker which is cleavable under acidic conditions. Moreover, folic acid (FA) was covalently conjugated to the particle surface as the targeting ligand for folate receptors (FRs) overexpressed in some cancer cells. The in vitro release profiles of DOX from the MSN-based prodrug systems showed a strong dependence on the environmental pH values. The fluorescent dye FITC was incorporated in the MSNs so as to trace the cellular uptake on a fluorescence microscope. Cellular uptakes by HeLa, A549 and L929 cell lines were tested for FA-conjugated MSNs and plain MSNs respectively, and a much more efficient uptake by FR-positive cancer cells (HeLa) can be achieved by conjugation of folic acid onto the particles because of the folate-receptor-mediated endocytosis. The cytotoxicities for the FA-conjugated MSN prodrug, the plain MSN prodrug and free DOX against three cell lines were determined, and the result indicates that the FA-conjugated MSN prodrug exhibits higher cytotoxicity to FR-positive cells, and reduced cytotoxicity to FR-negative cells. Thus, with 180 nm MSNs as the carriers for the prodrug system, good drug loading, selective targeting and sustained release of drug molecules within targeted cancer cells can be realized. This study may provide useful insights for designing and improving the applicability of MSNs in targeted anticancer prodrug systems.

  4. 1-Arylsulfonyl-2-(Pyridylmethylsulfinyl) Benzimidazoles as New Proton Pump Inhibitor Prodrugs

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jai Moo; Sachs, George; Cho, Young-moon; Garst, Michael

    2010-01-01

    New arylsulfonyl proton pump inhibitor (PPI) prodrug forms were synthesized. These prodrugs provided longer residence time of an effective PPI plasma concentration, resulting in better gastric acid inhibition. PMID:20032890

  5. The activity of antioxidant enzymes in blood platelets in different types of renal replacement therapy: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Stępniewska, Joanna; Dołęgowska, Barbara; Cecerska-Heryć, Elżbieta; Gołembiewska, Edyta; Malinowska-Jędraszczyk, Alicja; Marchelek-Myśliwiec, Małgorzata; Ciechanowski, Kazimierz

    2016-04-01

    The changes in redox status characterise physiological platelet activation. Increased oxidative stress in chronic kidney disease (CKD) associated with uremic toxicity and procedures of renal replacement therapy leads to the impairment of antioxidant properties of platelets. It may contribute to thrombosis and cardiovascular complications increasing morbidity and mortality among the CKD patients. The object of the research was to assess the influence of conservative treatment, peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis on platelet prooxidative-antioxidative balance. The examined group consisted of 122 patients: 37 on regular haemodialysis (HD), 23 on peritoneal dialysis (PD) and 62 on conservative treatment with CKD stages 3-5 (CKD3-5). The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione transpherase (GST) in platelets were obtained using kinetic methods. The spectrophotometric method established the concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH). SOD activity in PD differs significantly from CKD3-5 (4.96 vs 1.66; p < 0.0001). CAT activity assessed in PD and CKD3-5 was significantly different from HD (0.82 and 0.8 vs 0.52 before and 0.35 after HD, respectively). GST activity reached the highest value in PD (1.62), and it was significantly different from CKD3-5 (0.23) and HD before haemodialysis (0.11). During haemodialysis therapy, there was a considerable increase in GST activity (0.11 vs 0.3; p = 0.02) and decrease in SOD activity (from 3.41 to 2.27; p = 0.01). The highest GSH concentrations were obtained in CKD3-5 and differ significantly from HD (4.12 vs 2.01; p = 0.02). The type of treatment, age and duration of renal replacement therapy determined significant changes in platelet antioxidative enzymes activities and concentration of GSH, which may enhance the thrombotic complications. PD is associated with lower platelet oxidative stress.

  6. Enzyme responsive drug delivery system based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles for tumor therapy in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yun; Ding, Xingwei; Li, Jinghua; Luo, Zhong; Hu, Yan; Liu, Junjie; Dai, Liangliang; Zhou, Jun; Hou, Changjun; Cai, Kaiyong

    2015-04-01

    To reduce the toxic side effects of traditional chemotherapeutics in vivo, we designed and constructed a biocompatible, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) responsive drug delivery system based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs). MMPs substrate peptide containing PLGLAR (sensitive to MMPs) was immobilized onto the surfaces of amino-functionalized MSNs via an amidation reaction, serving as MMPs sensitive intermediate linker. Bovine serum albumin was then covalently coupled to linker as end-cap for sealing the mesopores of MSNs. Lactobionic acid was further conjugated to the system as targeting motif. Doxorubicin hydrochloride was used as the model anticancer drug in this study. A series of characterizations revealed that the system was successfully constructed. The peptide-functionalized MSNs system demonstrated relatively high sensitivity to MMPs for triggering drug delivery, which was potentially important for tumor therapy since the tumor’s microenvironment overexpressed MMPs in nature. The in vivo experiments proved that the system could efficiently inhibit the tumor growth with minimal side effects. This study provides an approach for the development of the next generation of nanotherapeutics toward efficient cancer treatment.

  7. The prodrug DHED selectively delivers 17β-estradiol to the brain for treating estrogen-responsive disorders

    PubMed Central

    Prokai, Laszlo; Nguyen, Vien; Szarka, Szabolcs; Garg, Puja; Sabnis, Gauri; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A.; McLaughlin, Katie J.; Talboom, Joshua S.; Conrad, Cheryl D.; Shughrue, Paul J.; Gould, Todd D.; Brodie, Angela; Merchenthaler, Istvan; Koulen, Peter; Prokai-Tatrai, Katalin

    2015-01-01

    Many neurological and psychiatric maladies originate from the deprivation of the human brain from estrogens. However, current hormone therapies cannot be used safely to treat these conditions commonly associated with menopause because of detrimental side-effects in the periphery. The latter also prevents the use of the hormone for neuroprotection. Here we show that a small-molecule bioprecursor prodrug, 10β,17β-dihydroxyestra-1,4-dien-3-one (DHED), converts to 17β-estradiol in the brain after systemic administration, but remains inert in the rest of the body. The localized and rapid formation of estrogen from the prodrug was revealed by a series of in vivo bioanalytical assays and through in vivo imaging in rodents. DHED treatment efficiently alleviated symptoms originated from brain estrogen deficiency in animal models of surgical menopause and provided neuroprotection in a rat stroke model. Concomitantly, we determined that 17β-estradiol formed in the brain from DHED elicited changes in gene expression and neuronal morphology identical to those obtained after direct 17β-estradiol treatment. Altogether, complementary functional and mechanistic data show that our approach is highly relevant therapeutically, because administration of the prodrug selectively produces estrogen in the brain independently from the route of administration and treatment regimen. Therefore, peripheral responses associated with the use of systemic estrogens, such as stimulation of the uterus and estrogen-responsive tumor growth, were absent. Collectively, our brain-selective prodrug approach may safely provide estrogen neuroprotection and medicate neurological and psychiatric symptoms developing from estrogen deficiency, particularly those encountered after surgical menopause, without the adverse side-effects of current hormone therapies. PMID:26203081

  8. Enzymatic activation of double-targeted 5'-O-L-valyl-decitabine prodrug by biphenyl hydrolase-like protein and its molecular design basis.

    PubMed

    Tao, Wenhui; Zhao, Dongyang; Sun, Mengchi; Li, Meng; Zhang, Xiangyu; He, Zhonggui; Sun, Yinghua; Sun, Jin

    2017-04-01

    A primary focus of this research was to explore the activation process and mechanism of decitabine (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, DAC) prodrug. Recently, it has been reported that biphenyl hydrolase-like protein (BPHL) can play an important role in the activation of some amino acid nucleoside prodrugs with a general preference for hydrophobic amino acids and 5'-esters. Therefore, we put forward a bold hypothesis that this novel enzyme may be primarily responsible for the activation process of DAC prodrug as well. 5'-O-L-valyl-decitabine (L-val-DAC) was synthesized before and can be transported across biological membranes by the oligopeptide transporter (PEPT1), granting it much greater utility in vivo. In this report, L-val-DAC was found to be a good substrate of BPHL protein (K m 0.59 mM; k cat /K m 553.69 mM -1  s -1 ). After intestinal absorption, L-val-DAC was rapidly and almost completely hydrolyzed to DAC and L-valine. The catalysis was mainly mediated by the BPHL hydrolase and resulted in the intestinal first-pass effect of L-val-DAC after oral administration in Sprague-Dawley rats with cannulated jugular and portal veins. The structural insights using computational molecular docking showed that BPHL had a unique binding mode for L-val-DAC. As a fundamental basis, the simulation was employed to explain the catalytic mechanism in molecular level. In conclusion, BPHL was at least one of the primary candidate enzymes for L-val-DAC prodrug activation. This promising double-targeted prodrug approach have more advantages than the traditional targeted designs due to its higher transport and more predictable activation, thereby leading to a favorable property for oral delivery.

  9. Identification of P450 Oxidoreductase as a Major Determinant of Sensitivity to Hypoxia-Activated Prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Francis W; Young, Richard J; Shalev, Zvi; Vellanki, Ravi N; Wang, Jingli; Gu, Yongchuan; Joshi, Naveen; Sreebhavan, Sreevalsan; Weinreb, Ilan; Goldstein, David P; Moffat, Jason; Ketela, Troy; Brown, Kevin R; Koritzinsky, Marianne; Solomon, Benjamin; Rischin, Danny; Wilson, William R; Wouters, Bradly G

    2015-10-01

    Hypoxia is a prevalent feature of many tumors contributing to disease progression and treatment resistance, and therefore constitutes an attractive therapeutic target. Several hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAP) have been developed, including the phase III candidate TH-302 (evofosfamide) and the preclinical agent SN30000, which is an optimized analogue of the well-studied HAP tirapazamine. Experience with this therapeutic class highlights an urgent need to identify biomarkers of HAP sensitivity, including enzymes responsible for prodrug activation during hypoxia. Using genome-scale shRNA screens and a high-representation library enriched for oxidoreductases, we identified the flavoprotein P450 (cytochrome) oxidoreductase (POR) as the predominant determinant of sensitivity to SN30000 in three different genetic backgrounds. No other genes consistently modified SN30000 sensitivity, even within a POR-negative background. Knockdown or genetic knockout of POR reduced SN30000 reductive metabolism and clonogenic cell death and similarly reduced sensitivity to TH-302 under hypoxia. A retrospective evaluation of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas showed heterogeneous POR expression and suggested a possible relationship between human papillomavirus status and HAP sensitivity. Taken together, our study identifies POR as a potential predictive biomarker of HAP sensitivity that should be explored during the clinical development of SN30000, TH-302, and other hypoxia-directed agents. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of a Phosphate Prodrug of Isoliquiritigenin.

    PubMed

    Boyapelly, Kumaraswamy; Bonin, Marc-André; Traboulsi, Hussein; Cloutier, Alexandre; Phaneuf, Samuel C; Fortin, Daniel; Cantin, André M; Richter, Martin V; Marsault, Eric

    2017-04-28

    Isoliquiritigenin (1) possesses a variety of biological activities in vitro. However, its poor aqueous solubility limits its use for subsequent in vivo experimentation. In order to enable the use of 1 for in vivo studies without the use of toxic carriers or cosolvents, a phosphate prodrug strategy was implemented relying on the availability of phenol groups in the molecule. In this study, a phosphate group was added to position C-4 of 1, leading to the more water-soluble prodrug 2 and its ammonium salt 3, which possesses increased stability compared to 2. Herein are reported the synthesis, characterization, solubility, and stability of phosphate prodrug 3 in biological medium in comparison to 1, as well as new results on its anti-inflammatory properties in vivo. As designed, the solubility of prodrug 3 was superior to that of the parent natural product 1 (9.6 mg/mL as opposed to 3.9 μg/mL). Prodrug 3 as an ammonium salt was also found to possess excellent stability as a solid and in aqueous solution, as opposed to its phosphoric acid precursor 2.

  11. Sobetirome prodrug esters with enhanced blood-brain barrier permeability.

    PubMed

    Placzek, Andrew T; Ferrara, Skylar J; Hartley, Meredith D; Sanford-Crane, Hannah S; Meinig, J Matthew; Scanlan, Thomas S

    2016-11-15

    There is currently great interest in developing drugs that stimulate myelin repair for use in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Thyroid hormone plays a key role in stimulating myelination during development and also controls the expression of important genes involved in myelin repair in adults. Because endogenous thyroid hormone in excess lacks a generally useful therapeutic index, it is not used clinically for indications other than hormone replacement; however, selective thyromimetics such as sobetirome offer a therapeutic alternative. Sobetirome is the only clinical-stage thyromimetic that is known to cross the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) and we endeavored to increase the BBB permeability of sobetirome using a prodrug strategy. Ester prodrugs of sobetirome were prepared based on literature reports of improved BBB permeability with other carboxylic acid containing drugs and BBB permeability was assessed in vivo. One sobetirome prodrug, ethanolamine ester 11, was found to distribute more sobetirome to the brain compared to an equimolar peripheral dose of unmodified sobetirome. In addition to enhanced brain levels, prodrug 11 displayed lower sobetirome blood levels and a brain/serum ratio that was larger than that of unmodified sobetirome. Thus, these data indicate that an ester prodrug strategy applied to sobetirome can deliver increased concentrations of the active drug to the central nervous system (CNS), which may prove useful in the treatment of CNS disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. ELQ-300 Prodrugs for Enhanced Delivery and Single-Dose Cure of Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Miley, Galen P.; Pou, Sovitj; Winter, Rolf; Nilsen, Aaron; Li, Yuexin; Kelly, Jane X.; Mather, Michael W.; Forquer, Isaac P.; Pershing, April M.; White, Karen; Shackleford, David; Saunders, Jessica; Chen, Gong; Ting, Li-Min; Kim, Kami; Zakharov, Lev N.; Donini, Cristina; Burrows, Jeremy N.

    2015-01-01

    ELQ-300 is a preclinical candidate that targets the liver and blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum, as well as the forms that are crucial to transmission of disease: gametocytes, zygotes, and ookinetes. A significant obstacle to the clinical development of ELQ-300 is related to its physicochemical properties. Its relatively poor aqueous solubility and high crystallinity limit absorption to the degree that only low blood concentrations can be achieved following oral dosing. While these low blood concentrations are sufficient for therapy, the levels are too low to establish an acceptable safety margin required by regulatory agencies for clinical development. One way to address the challenging physicochemical properties of ELQ-300 is through the development of prodrugs. Here, we profile ELQ-337, a bioreversible O-linked carbonate ester prodrug of the parent molecule. At the molar equivalent dose of 3 mg/kg of body weight, the delivery of ELQ-300 from ELQ-337 is enhanced by 3- to 4-fold, reaching a maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax) of 5.9 μM by 6 h after oral administration, and unlike ELQ-300 at any dose, ELQ-337 provides single-dose cures of patent malaria infections in mice at low-single-digit milligram per kilogram doses. Our findings show that the prodrug strategy represents a viable approach to overcome the physicochemical limitations of ELQ-300 to deliver the active drug to the bloodstream at concentrations sufficient for safety and toxicology studies, as well as achieving single-dose cures. PMID:26124159

  13. Telomerase activated thymidine analogue pro-drug is a new molecule targeting hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tarocchi, Mirko; Polvani, Simone; Peired, Anna Julie; Marroncini, Giada; Calamante, Massimo; Ceni, Elisabetta; Rhodes, Daniela; Mello, Tommaso; Pieraccini, Giuseppe; Quattrone, Alessandro; Luchinat, Claudio; Galli, Andrea

    2014-11-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Although hepatectomy and transplantation have significantly improved survival, there is no effective chemotherapeutic treatment for HCC and its prognosis remains poor. Sustained activation of telomerase is essential for the growth and progression of HCC, suggesting that telomerase is a rational target for HCC therapy. Therefore, we developed a thymidine analogue pro-drug, acycloguanosyl-5'-thymidyltriphosphate (ACV-TP-T), which is specifically activated by telomerase in HCC cells and investigated its anti-tumour efficacy. First, we verified in vitro whether ACV-TP-T was a telomerase substrate. Second, we evaluated proliferation and apoptosis in murine (Hepa1-6) and human (Hep3B, HuH7, HepG2) hepatic cancer cells treated with ACV-TP-T. Next, we tested the in vivo treatment efficacy in HBV transgenic mice that spontaneously develop hepatic tumours, and in a syngeneic orthotopic murine model where HCC cells were implanted directly in the liver. In vitro characterization provided direct evidence that the pro-drug was actively metabolized in liver cancer cells by telomerase to release the active form of acyclovir. Alterations in cell cycle and apoptosis were observed following in vitro treatment with ACV-TP-T. In the transgenic and orthotopic mouse models, treatment with ACV-TP-T reduced tumour growth, increased apoptosis, and reduced the proliferation of tumour cells. ACV-TP-T is activated by telomerase in HCC cells and releases active acyclovir that reduces proliferation and induces apoptosis in human and murine liver cancer cells. This pro-drug holds a great promise for the treatment of HCC. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Telomerase activated thymidine analogue pro-drug is a new molecule targeting hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tarocchi, Mirko; Polvani, Simone; Peired, Anna Julie; Marroncini, Giada; Calamante, Massimo; Ceni, Elisabetta; Rhodes, Daniela; Mello, Tommaso; Pieraccini, Giuseppe; Quattrone, Alessandro; Luchinat, Claudio; Galli, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Although hepatectomy and transplantation have significantly improved survival, there is no effective chemotherapeutic treatment for HCC and its prognosis remains poor. Sustained activation of telomerase is essential for the growth and progression of HCC, suggesting that telomerase is a rational target for HCC therapy. Therefore, we developed a thymidine analogue pro-drug, acycloguanosyl-5′-thymidyltriphosphate (ACV-TP-T), which is specifically activated by telomerase in HCC cells and investigated its anti-tumour efficacy. Methods First, we verified in vitro whether ACV-TP-T was a telomerase substrate. Second, we evaluated proliferation and apoptosis in murine (Hepa1-6) and human (Hep3B, HuH7, HepG2) hepatic cancer cells treated with ACV-TP-T. Next, we tested the in vivo treatment efficacy in HBV transgenic mice that spontaneously develop hepatic tumours, and in a syngeneic orthotopic murine model where HCC cells were implanted directly in the liver. Results In vitro characterization provided direct evidence that the pro-drug was actively metabolized in liver cancer cells by telomerase to release the active form of acyclovir. Alterations in cell cycle and apoptosis were observed following in vitro treatment with ACV-TP-T. In the transgenic and orthotopic mouse models, treatment with ACV-TP-T reduced tumour growth, increased apoptosis, and reduced the proliferation of tumour cells. Conclusions ACV-TP-T is activated by telomerase in HCC cells and releases active acyclovir that reduces proliferation and induces apoptosis in human and murine liver cancer cells. This pro-drug holds a great promise for the treatment of HCC. PMID:24862448

  15. Fabry disease under enzyme replacement therapy-new insights in efficacy of different dosages.

    PubMed

    Krämer, Johannes; Lenders, Malte; Canaan-Kühl, Sima; Nordbeck, Peter; Üçeyler, Nurcan; Blaschke, Daniela; Duning, Thomas; Reiermann, Stefanie; Stypmann, Jörg; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Gottschling, Timo; Störk, Stefan; Wanner, Christoph; Sommer, Claudia; Brand, Eva; Weidemann, Frank

    2017-11-23

    Fabry patients on reduced dose of agalsidase-beta or after switch to agalsidase-alfa show a decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and an increase of the Mainz Severity Score Index. In this prospective observational study, we assessed end-organ damage and clinical symptoms in 112 patients who had received agalsidase-beta (1.0 mg/kg) for >1 year, who were (i) non-randomly assigned to continue this treatment regime (regular-dose group, n = 37); (ii) received a reduced dose of agalsidase-beta and subsequent switch to agalsidase-alfa (0.2 mg/kg) or a direct switch to 0.2 mg/kg agalsidase-alfa (switch group, n = 38); or (iii) were re-switched to agalsidase-beta after receiving agalsidase-alfa for at least 12 months (re-switch group, n = 37) with a median follow-up of 53 (38-57) months. eGFR of patients in the regular-dose group remained stable. Patients in the switch group showed an annual eGFR loss of - 4.6  ±  9.1 mL/min/1.73 m2 (P < 0.05). Patients in the re-switch group also had an eGFR loss of - 2.2  ±  4.4 mL/min/1.73 m2 after re-switch to agalsidase-beta, but to a lower degree compared with the switch group (P < 0.05). Patients in the re-switch group suffered less frequently from diarrhoea (relative risk 0.42; 95% confidence interval 0.19-0.93; P = 0.02). Lyso-Gb3 remained stable in the switch (P = 0.97) and the regular-dose (P = 0.48) groups, but decreased in the re-switch group after change of the therapy regimen (P < 0.05). After switch to agalsidase-alfa, Fabry patients experienced a continuous decline in eGFR, while this decline was attenuated in patients who were re-switched to agalsidase-beta. Decreasing lyso-Gb3 levels may indicate a better treatment response in the latter group. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of N-nonyl-deoxygalactonojirimycin as a pharmacological chaperone for human GM1 gangliosidosis leads to identification of a feline model suitable for testing enzyme enhancement therapy.

    PubMed

    Rigat, Brigitte A; Tropak, Michael B; Buttner, Justin; Crushell, Ellen; Benedict, Daphne; Callahan, John W; Martin, Douglas R; Mahuran, Don J

    2012-09-01

    Deficiencies of lysosomal β-D-galactosidase can result in GM1 gangliosidosis, a severe neurodegenerative disease characterized by massive neuronal storage of GM1 ganglioside in the brain. Currently there are no available therapies that can even slow the progression of this disease. Enzyme enhancement therapy utilizes small molecules that can often cross the blood brain barrier, but are also often competitive inhibitors of their target enzyme. It is a promising new approach for treating diseases, often caused by missense mutations, associated with dramatically reduced levels of functionally folded enzyme. Despite a number of positive reports based on assays performed with patient cells, skepticism persists that an inhibitor-based treatment can increase mutant enzyme activity in vivo. To date no appropriate animal model, i.e., one that recapitulates a responsive human genotype and clinical phenotype, has been reported that could be used to validate enzyme enhancement therapy. In this report, we identify a novel enzyme enhancement-agent, N-nonyl-deoxygalactonojirimycin, that enhances the mutant β-galactosidase activity in the lysosomes of a number of patient cell lines containing a variety of missense mutations. We then demonstrate that treatment of cells from a previously described, naturally occurring feline model (that biochemically, clinically and molecularly closely mimics GM1 gangliosidosis in humans) with this molecule, results in a robust enhancement of their mutant lysosomal β-galactosidase activity. These data indicate that the feline model could be used to validate this therapeutic approach and determine the relationship between the disease stage at which this therapy is initiated and the maximum clinical benefits obtainable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Computational modeling and in-vitro/in-silico correlation of phospholipid-based prodrugs for targeted drug delivery in inflammatory bowel disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahan, Arik; Markovic, Milica; Keinan, Shahar; Kurnikov, Igor; Aponick, Aaron; Zimmermann, Ellen M.; Ben-Shabat, Shimon

    2017-11-01

    Targeting drugs to the inflamed intestinal tissue(s) represents a major advancement in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this work we present a powerful in-silico modeling approach to guide the molecular design of novel prodrugs targeting the enzyme PLA2, which is overexpressed in the inflamed tissues of IBD patients. The prodrug consists of the drug moiety bound to the sn-2 position of phospholipid (PL) through a carbonic linker, aiming to allow PLA2 to release the free drug. The linker length dictates the affinity of the PL-drug conjugate to PLA2, and the optimal linker will enable maximal PLA2-mediated activation. Thermodynamic integration and Weighted Histogram Analysis Method (WHAM)/Umbrella Sampling method were used to compute the changes in PLA2 transition state binding free energy of the prodrug molecule (ΔΔGtr) associated with decreasing/increasing linker length. The simulations revealed that 6-carbons linker is the optimal one, whereas shorter or longer linkers resulted in decreased PLA2-mediated activation. These in-silico results were shown to be in excellent correlation with experimental in-vitro data. Overall, this modern computational approach enables optimization of the molecular design of novel prodrugs, which may allow targeting the free drug specifically to the diseased intestinal tissue of IBD patients.

  18. Telomerase Enzyme Inhibition (TEI) and Cytolytic Therapy in the Management of Androgen Independent Osseous Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yingming; Malaeb, Bahaa S.; Li, Zhong-ze; Thompson, Melissa G.; Chen, Zhi; Corey, David R.; Hsieh, Jer-Tsong; Shay, Jerry W.; Koeneman, Kenneth S.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recurrent prostate cancer can be osseous, androgen independent and lethal. The purpose is to discern the efficacy of synthetic small molecule telomerase enzyme inhibitors (TEI) alone or in combination with other cytotoxic therapies in controlling metastatic osseous prostate cancer. METHODS C4-2B was pre-treated with a match or mismatch TEI for 6 weeks and then inoculated into nude mice subcutaneously or intraosseously. In a separate experiment, untreated C4-2B was injected into femur of nude mice. The mice were divided into seven systemic “combination” treatment groups of control, Ad-BSP-E1a virus, docetaxel, mismatch and match TEI. Serum PSA was followed longitudinally. Histology analyses and histomorphometry were performed. Repeated measure analysis was applied for statistical analysis and Bonferroni method was used in multiple comparisons. RESULTS In the pre-treated study, the PSA of match treated cells in subcutaneous or intraosseous model was significantly lower than mismatch TEI or PBS treated group (P <0.05). Histology revealed increased fibrosis, apoptosis and decreased PSA staining in the match TEI treated subcutaneous xenografts. In the combination treatment study, the PSA was significantly lower in single/double treatment and triple treatment than control (P <0.05). Histology revealed that triple therapy mice had normal femur architecture. Histomorphometrics revealed that the area of femur tumor and woven bone was significantly positively correlated (P =0.007). CONCLUSIONS Multiple lines of data point toward the efficacy of systemically administered telomerase inhibitors. Combining cytotoxic regimens with telomerase inhibitors could be beneficial in controlling prostate cancer. Clinical trials are warranted to explore the efficacy of TEI in prostate cancer. PMID:20043297

  19. Efficacy of Enzyme and Substrate Reduction Therapy with a Novel Antagonist of Glucosylceramide Synthase for Fabry Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ashe, Karen M; Budman, Eva; Bangari, Dinesh S; Siegel, Craig S; Nietupski, Jennifer B; Wang, Bing; Desnick, Robert J; Scheule, Ronald K; Leonard, John P; Cheng, Seng H; Marshall, John

    2015-01-01

    Fabry disease, an X-linked glycosphingolipid storage disorder, is caused by the deficient activity of α-galactosidase A (α-Gal A). This results in the lysosomal accumulation in various cell types of its glycolipid substrates, including globotriaosylceramide (GL-3) and lysoglobotriaosylceramide (globotriaosyl lysosphingolipid, lyso-GL-3), leading to kidney, heart, and cerebrovascular disease. To complement and potentially augment the current standard of care, biweekly infusions of recombinant α-Gal A, the merits of substrate reduction therapy (SRT) by selectively inhibiting glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) were examined. Here, we report the development of a novel, orally available GCS inhibitor (Genz-682452) with pharmacological and safety profiles that have potential for treating Fabry disease. Treating Fabry mice with Genz-682452 resulted in reduced tissue levels of GL-3 and lyso-GL-3 and a delayed loss of the thermal nociceptive response. Greatest improvements were realized when the therapeutic intervention was administered to younger mice before they developed overt pathology. Importantly, as the pharmacologic profiles of α-Gal A and Genz-682452 are different, treating animals with both drugs conferred the greatest efficacy. For example, because Genz-682452, but not α-Gal A, can traverse the blood–brain barrier, levels of accumulated glycosphingolipids were reduced in the brain of Genz-682452–treated but not α-Gal A–treated mice. These results suggest that combining substrate reduction and enzyme replacement may confer both complementary and additive therapeutic benefits in Fabry disease. PMID:25938659

  20. Oxidative stress and antioxidative enzyme activities in chronic kidney disease and different types of renal replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Stępniewska, Joanna; Gołembiewska, Edyta; Dołęgowska, Barbara; Domański, Maciej; Ciechanowski, Kazimierz

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and diagnosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is on the rise all over the world. CKD is related to ageing of the society and high morbidity due to lifestyle diseases like diabetes, atherosclerosis, and hypertension. CKD is associated with increased oxidative stress generated by uremic toxicity, chronic inflammatory state, lack of vitamins and microelements, parenteral iron administration, and dialysis procedure itself. In terms of cellular physiology, erythrocytes and blood platelets in particular have effective enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidative system. The most efficient enzymatic antioxidants include superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Glutathione is the leading non-enzymatic free radical scavenger. In CKD, antioxidative defense is impaired and the abnormal activity of the enzymes and glutathione concentration is described in literature. The imbalance between the formation of reactive oxygen species and antioxidative system efficiency takes part in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications. It contributes to increased morbidity and mortality in patients with CKD. The severity of these processes depends on the type of renal replacement therapy; haemodialysis (HD) is more predisposing to such disorders than peritoneal dialysis (PD), or even conservative treatment. This can influence the outcome and the possibility of kidney transplantation. Moreover, the early function of kidney allograft seems to be dependent on perioperative antioxidative ability of platelets, which can play a potential protective role in kidney transplantation.

  1. Differences in cleavage of globotriaosylceramide and its derivatives accumulated in organs of young Fabry mice following enzyme replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Takashi; Tsukimura, Takahiro; Kawashima, Ikuo; Sato, Atsuko; Sakuraba, Hitoshi; Togawa, Tadayasu

    In Fabry disease, large amounts of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) and related glycosphingolipids accumulate in organs due to a deficiency of α-galactosidase A (GLA) activity. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with recombinant GLA is now available, and it has been reported that ERT is beneficial for patients with Fabry disease, especially those who start treatment at an early stage of the disease. However, it seems that the efficacy of ERT differs with each organ, and Gb3 accumulated in the kidneys shows resistance to ERT when it is started at a late stage. In this study, we examined the differences in cleavage of Gb3 isoforms, and lyso-Gb3 and its analogues in the kidneys, liver, and heart in young Fabry mice subjected to ERT. The results revealed that recurrent administration of recombinant GLA had prominent effects in terms of degradation of Gb3 and its derivatives accumulated in the organs. However, particular Gb3 isoforms, i.e., Gb3 (C20:0) and Gb3 (C24OH), accumulated in the kidneys largely escaped from degradation. Such Gb3 isoforms may gradually accumulate in the kidneys from a young age, which results in a reduction in the efficacy of ERT for Fabry disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Lucerastat, an Iminosugar for Substrate Reduction Therapy: Tolerability, Pharmacodynamics, and Pharmacokinetics in Patients With Fabry Disease on Enzyme Replacement.

    PubMed

    Guérard, Nicolas; Oder, Daniel; Nordbeck, Peter; Zwingelstein, Christian; Morand, Olivier; Welford, Richard W D; Dingemanse, Jasper; Wanner, Christoph

    2018-04-01

    Lucerastat is a glucosylceramide synthase inhibitor aimed at reducing production of glycosphingolipids (GSLs), including those accumulating in Fabry disease. The safety, tolerability, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics of oral lucerastat were evaluated in an exploratory study in patients with Fabry disease. In this single-center, open-label, randomized study, 10 patients received lucerastat 1,000 mg b.i.d. for 12 weeks in addition to enzyme replacement therapy (ERT; the lucerastat group). Four patients with Fabry disease received ERT only. Eight patients reported 17 adverse events (AEs) in the lucerastat group. No clinically relevant safety abnormalities were observed. The mean (SD) levels of the plasma GSLs, glucosylceramide, lactosylceramide, and globotriaosylceramide, were significantly decreased from baseline in the lucerastat group (-49.0% (16.5%), -32.7% (13.0%), and -55.0% (10.4%), respectively). Lucerastat 1,000 mg b.i.d. was well tolerated in patients with Fabry disease over 12 weeks. A marked decrease in plasma GSLs was observed, suggesting clinical potential for lucerastat in patients with Fabry disease. © 2017 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  3. Pompe disease: dramatic improvement in gastrointestinal function following enzyme replacement therapy. A report of three later-onset patients.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Donna L; Bialer, Martin G; Mehta, Lakshmi; Desnick, Robert J

    2010-01-01

    Pompe disease is a lysosomal storage disease due to deficient acid α-glucosidase (GAA) activity. Infants with the classic infantile-onset subtype present with severe hypotonia and cardiomegaly, and most expire in the first year of life, whereas the severity of the muscle-based manifestations in patients with the late infantile/juvenile and adult-onset subtypes depends on the level of GAA residual enzymatic activity. The clinical features of later-onset Pompe disease are still emerging, and even the natural history and progression of muscle weakness and respiratory failure, hallmarks of the later-onset subtypes, are not well documented. For example, we report here three later-onset patients who had chronic diarrhea, postprandial bloating and abdominal pain, previously unrecognized manifestations of later-onset Pompe disease. Two patients had intestinal incontinence and one reported synchronous vomiting and diarrhea on a daily basis. These symptoms significantly interfered with their quality of life, often limiting their ability to leave home. All gastrointestinal symptoms resolved within the first six months of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with recombinant human alglucosidase alpha (rhGAA). All three patients gained weight and remain symptom free, two for over four years. Thus, gastrointestinal symptoms occur in later-onset patients with Pompe disease and are resolved with ERT. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Histological characterisation of visceral changes in a patient with type 2 Gaucher disease treated with enzyme replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Tezuka, Yuko; Fukuda, Mitsumasa; Watanabe, Shohei; Nakano, Takeshi; Okamoto, Kentaro; Kuzume, Kazuyo; Yano, Yoshiaki; Eguchi, Mariko; Ishimae, Minenori; Ishii, Eiichi; Miyazaki, Tatsuhiko

    2018-02-01

    Gaucher disease is a lysosomal storage disease caused by deficiency of glucocerebrosidase and accumulation of glucocerebroside. Three major sub-types have been described, type 2 is an acute neurological form that exhibits serious general symptoms and poor prognosis, compared with the other types. This case was a girl diagnosed with type 2 Gaucher disease at 12months of age who presented with poor weight gain from infancy, stridor, hypertonia, hepatosplenomegaly, trismus and an eye movement disorder. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) was administered, but she had frequent myoclonus and developmental regression. She needed artificial ventilation because of respiratory failure. She died at 11years of age. An autopsy demonstrated infiltrating CD68-positive large cells containing abundant lipids in alveoli, while in the liver, kidney and bone marrow CD68-positive cells were small and round. In the bone marrow, myelodysplastic changes were present without Gaucher cells. The infiltration of Gaucher cells in alveoli was marked, suggesting that ERT was relatively ineffective in pulmonary involvement, particularly intra-alveolar. Additional treatments are necessary to improve the neurological and pulmonary prognosis of type 2Gaucher disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. European consensus for starting and stopping enzyme replacement therapy in adult patients with Pompe disease: a 10-year experience.

    PubMed

    van der Ploeg, A T; Kruijshaar, M E; Toscano, A; Laforêt, P; Angelini, C; Lachmann, R H; Pascual Pascual, S I; Roberts, M; Rösler, K; Stulnig, T; van Doorn, P A; Van den Bergh, P Y K; Vissing, J; Schoser, B

    2017-06-01

    Pompe disease is a rare inheritable muscle disorder for which enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has been available since 2006. Uniform criteria for starting and stopping ERT in adult patients were developed and reported here. Three consensus meetings were organized through the European Pompe Consortium, a network of experts from 11 European countries in the field of Pompe disease. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of ERT in adult patients on a range of clinical outcome measures and quality of life. A narrative synthesis is presented. Consensus was reached on how the diagnosis of Pompe disease should be confirmed, when treatment should be started, reasons for stopping treatment and the use of ERT during pregnancy. This was based on expert opinion and supported by the literature. One clinical trial and 43 observational studies, covering a total of 586 individual adult patients, provided evidence of a beneficial effect of ERT at group level. At individual patient level, the response to treatment varied, but factors associated with a patient's response to ERT were not described in many studies. Eleven observational studies focused on more severely affected patients, suggesting that ERT can also be beneficial in these patients. There are no studies on the effects of ERT in pre-symptomatic patients. This is the first European consensus recommendation for starting and stopping ERT in adult patients with Pompe disease, based on the extensive experience of experts from different countries. © 2017 EAN.

  6. Ocular and histologic findings in a series of children with infantile pompe disease treated with enzyme replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Prakalapakorn, S Grace; Proia, Alan D; Yanovitch, Tammy L; DeArmey, Stephanie; Mendelsohn, Nancy J; Aleck, Kyrieckos A; Kishnani, Priya S

    2014-01-01

    To report the ophthalmologic and histologic findings in a series of children with infantile Pompe disease treated with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). Records of children with infantile Pompe disease treated with ERT who had at least one complete ophthalmic examination and the ocular histopathology of children with infantile Pompe disease who were treated with ERT were reviewed. The patients' clinical history, including external ocular examination, ocular alignment and motility, dilated fundus examination, and cycloplegic refraction, was evaluated. A literature review was performed for ophthalmologic findings in infantile Pompe disease using PubMed. The clinical findings of 13 children were included and the ocular histopathology of 3 children with infantile Pompe disease who were treated with ERT were reviewed. Forty-six percent (6 of 13) had bilateral ptosis, 23% (3 of 13) had strabismus, 62% (8 of 13) had myopia, and 69% (9 of 13) had astigmatism. On histologic examination, there was vacuolar myopathy affecting the extraocular muscles, ciliary body, and iris smooth muscle and glycogen accumulation in corneal endothelial, lens epithelium, and retinal ganglion cells, and within lysosomes of scleral fibroblasts. It is important that ophthalmic providers are aware of the high prevalence of myopia, astigmatism, and ptosis in children with infantile Pompe disease treated with ERT because they are potentially amblyogenic but treatable factors. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. New prodrugs based on phospholipid-nucleoside conjugates

    SciTech Connect

    MacCoss, M.

    1982-02-03

    A method is described for the preparation of defined, isomerically pure phospholipid-nucleoside conjugates as a prodrug in which the drug (araC) is attached to the phospholipid by a monophosphate linkage. Key intermediates in the process involve selective blocking and deblocking of the nucleoside derivative. These particular monophosphate-linked derivatives represent a new class of prodrug, which are useful by themselves or in combination with diphosphate linked derivatives. Several new compositions involving diphosphate linked derivatives are described in which the products are isomerically pure and having defined fatty acid chain lengths.

  8. Design, preparation and characterization of pH-responsive prodrug micelles with hydrolyzable anhydride linkages for controlled drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Seetharaman, Girija; Kallar, Adarsh R; Vijayan, Vineeth M; Muthu, Jayabalan; Selvam, Shivaram

    2017-04-15

    We report a new prodrug micelle-based approach in which a model hydrophobic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), ibuprofen (Ibu), is tethered to amphiphilic methoxy polyethylene glycol-polypropylene fumarate (mPEG-PPF) diblock copolymer via hydrolytic anhydride linkages for potential controlled release applications of NSAIDs. Synthesized mPEG-PPF-Ibu polymer drug conjugates (PDCs) demonstrated high drug conjugation efficiency (∼90%) and self-assembled to form micellar nanostructures in aqueous medium with critical micelle concentrations ranging between 16 and 30μg/mL. The entrapment efficiency of Ibu in prepared PDC micelles was as high as 18% (w/w). Crosslinking of prodrug micelles with N,N'-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate conferred pH-responsive characteristics. pH-responsive PDC micelles averaged 100nm in size at pH 7.4 and exhibited concomitant changes in size upon incubation in physiologically relevant mildly acidic conditions. Ibu release was observed to increase with increasing acidic conditions and could be controlled by varying the amount of crosslinker used. Furthermore, the prepared mPEG-PPF-based micelles demonstrated excellent cytocompatibility and cellular internalization in vitro. More importantly, PDC micelles exerted anti-inflammatory effects by significantly decreasing monosodium urate crystal-induced prostaglandin E2 levels in rabbit synoviocyte cultures in vitro. Cumulatively, our results indicate that this new prodrug micelle approach is promising for NSAID-based therapies in the treatment of arthritis and cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficacy of laronidase therapy in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type I who initiated enzyme replacement therapy in adult age. A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pérez-López, Jordi; Morales-Conejo, Montserrat; López-Rodríguez, Mónica; Hermida-Ameijeiras, Álvaro; Moltó-Abad, Marc

    2017-06-01

    The efficacy of starting enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in adults with Muchopolysaccharidosis Type I (MPS-I) is controversial. Evaluating the benefits reported by patients initiating ERT with laronidase at adult age might help physicians decide whether the use of ERT in these patients is worthwhile from a clinical point of view. To assess every effectiveness variable modified in MPS-I patients who initiated laronidase at adult age. A systematic search of the literature, from inception to July 2016, was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and LILACS to identify randomized trials or observational studies including ≥1 MPS-I patients with ERT initiated in adult age (≥18years) and evaluating ERT efficacy. A meta-analysis of studies evaluating the same effectiveness outcome was performed and the evidence was rated according to GRADE criteria. Heterogeneity was assessed by the Chi-squared test and the I-squared statistic. Case reports were excluded from meta-analysis but their main outcomes were separately evaluated. The decrease in urine glycosaminoglycans (uGAGs) levels as patient percentage with reduction in uGAGs and with normalization was the primary outcome. Nineteen clinical studies and 12 case reports were selected. ERT decreased uGAG levels (high evidence) and liver volume (high), improved 6-min walking test (6MWT) (moderate) and increased blood anti-ERT antibody levels (high). There was no conclusive results (low or very low evidence) regarding improvement/stabilization of respiratory function, change in shoulder flexion, cardiac improvement/stabilization, improvement in symptoms of nocturnal hypoventilation and sleep apnea, improvement in quality of life, visual acuity, otolaryngologic function, bone mineral density or effectiveness of intrathecal therapy. Excluding case reports, there was no study conducted specifically in the target population (ERT ≥18years). Data were from subgroup analyses of selected studies. There was a great heterogeneity

  10. Bioreducible mustards: a paradigm for hypoxia-selective prodrugs of diffusible cytotoxins (HPDCs).

    PubMed

    Denny, W A; Wilson, W R

    1993-06-01

    Existing hypoxia-selective cytotoxins (HSCs) are designed to kill only the hypoxic subpopulation in tumours, and to be used in conjunction with other therapies (e.g., radiation). A new class of drugs, hypoxia-activated prodrugs of diffusible cytotoxins (HPDCs) are proposed. These are designed to exploit, rather than merely deal with, tumour hypoxia, by releasing diffusible cytotoxins on bioreduction in hypoxic regions. Such diffusible cytotoxins are required to be much more cytotoxic than the parent prodrug, to be sufficiently stable (half lives from 0.1 to 10 min) to allow them to diffuse up to 200 microns from the hypoxic regions, and to be equally effective against all major tumour cell subpopulations, including non-cycling cells. Nitrogen mustards, which show little cell cycle specificity, which kill cells by a well-understood mechanism (DNA cross-links), and which have stabilities and reactivities able to be predictably controlled by structural variations, are proposed as suitable candidates fur such diffusible cytotoxins. Design parameters for two classes of potential HPDCs are discussed; nitro-deactivated aromatic mustards, and cobalt (III) complex-deactivated aliphatic mustards. Examples of both classes show greater cell-killing activity against intact compared with dissociated multi-cellular spheroids. This suggests they may indeed function as HPDCs, by penetrating to the hypoxic core of the spheroid and there releasing potent cytotoxins which diffuse out to kill surrounding cells at lower oxygen tensions.

  11. [Digestion of fat and protein and its relation to the activity of faecal enzymes in mucoviscidosis infants under substitution therapy with pancreatic enzymes (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Tolckmitt, W; Lohmann, A; Kutschera, J

    1981-09-01

    The article reports on a study to determine the influence of different dosage schedules of a pancreas enzyme preparation on the digestion of fat and protein and on the lipolytic, tryptic and chymotryptic activity of the faeces in children suffering from mucoviscidose. After administration of the pancreatin preparation at the low dose level, the quantity of faeces, the excretion of fatty acids and of nitrogen are reduced and the absorption coefficient is improved. The faecal tryptic and chymotryptic activity increases, whereas the lipase activity in the faeces merely shows a tendency to rise. Increasing the pancreatin dose up to a still tolerable value by doubling the dosage does not result in further reduction of the excretion of fat and nitrogen although it enhances the proteolytic activity of the faeces while the lipase activity remains unaffected. Determination of the lipolytic, tryptic or chymotryptic activity is, therefore, unsuitable for assessing the fat and protein digestion and for estimating the required dose of pancreatic enzyme. No increase in uric acid excretion was seen in the urine collected for 24 hours after administration of both enzyme doses.

  12. Value of plasma chitotriosidase to assess non-neuronopathic Gaucher disease severity and progression in the era of enzyme replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    van Dussen, L; Hendriks, E J; Groener, J E M; Boot, R G; Hollak, C E M; Aerts, J M F G

    2014-11-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is caused by deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase catalysing the regular lysosomal degradation of glucosylceramide. In the common non-neuropathic variant of GD, glucosylceramide-laden macrophages (Gaucher cells) accumulate in various tissues. Gaucher cells secrete chitotriosidase, an active chitinase, resulting in increased plasma chitotriosidase levels, which can be sensitively monitored by an enzyme activity assay. Plasma chitotriosidase is a rough estimate of body burden of Gaucher cells. Non-neuronopathic GD is presently treated by enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and substrate reduction therapy (SRT). We addressed the question whether plasma chitotriosidase acts as (predictive) marker of clinical manifestations in non-neuronopathic GD patients receiving treatment. Reductions in plasma chitotriosidase during therapy correlated with corrections in liver and spleen volumes and showed positive trends with improvements in haemoglobin and platelet count and bone marrow composition. The occurrence of long-term complications and associated conditions such as multiple myeloma, bone complications, Parkinson's disease, hepatocellular carcinoma and pulmonary hypertension positively correlated with the plasma chitotriosidase level pre-therapy, the average plasma chitotriosidase during 3 years of ERT and the residual plasma chitotriosidase after 2 years of ERT. In summary, plasma chitotriosidase is a valuable marker in the assessment and follow-up of GD patients.

  13. Tumor-activated prodrug (TAP)-conjugated nanoparticles with cleavable domains for safe doxorubicin delivery.

    PubMed

    Guarnieri, Daniela; Biondi, Marco; Yu, Hui; Belli, Valentina; Falanga, Andrea P; Cantisani, Marco; Galdiero, Stefania; Netti, Paolo A

    2015-03-01

    A major issue in chemotherapy is the lack of specificity of many antitumor drugs, which cause severe side effects and an impaired therapeutic response. Here we report on the design and characterization of model tumor activated prodrug-conjugated polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles (TAP-NPs) for the release of doxorubicin (Dox) triggered by matrix metalloprotease-2 (MMP2) enzyme, which is overexpressed in the extracellular matrix of tumors. In particular, TAP-NPs were produced by attaching Dox to poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) through two MMP2-cleavable enzymes. The resulting adduct was then tethered to PS NPs. Results showed that Dox release was actually triggered by MMP2 cleavage and was dependent on enzyme concentration, with a plateau around 20 nM. Furthermore, significant cell cytotoxicity was observed towards three cell lines only in the presence of MMP2, but not in cells without enzyme pre-treatment, even after NP internalization by cells. These findings indicate the potential of TAP-NPs as suitable nanocarriers for an on demand, tumor--specific delivery of antitumor drugs after the response to an endogenous stimulus. Further advancements will focus on the translation of this production technology to biodegradable systems for the safe transport of cytotoxic drug to tumor tissues. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Structure of a mutant human purine nucleoside phosphorylase with the prodrug, 2-fluoro-2-deoxyadenosine and the cytotoxic drug, 2-fluoroadenine

    SciTech Connect

    Afshar, Sepideh; Sawaya, Michael R.; Morrison, Sherie L.

    2009-06-30

    A double mutant of human purine nucleoside phosphorylase (hDM) with the amino acid mutations Glu201Gln:Asn243Asp cleaves adenosine-based prodrugs to their corresponding cytotoxic drugs. When fused to an anti-tumor targeting component, hDM is targeted to tumor cells, where it effectively catalyzes phosphorolysis of the prodrug, 2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine (F-dAdo) to the cytotoxic drug, 2-fluoroadenine (F-Ade). This cytotoxicity should be restricted only to the tumor microenvironment, because the endogenously expressed wild type enzyme cannot use adenosine-based prodrugs as substrates. To gain insight into the interaction of hDM with F-dAdo, we have determined the crystal structures of hDM with F-dAdo and F-Ade. The structures revealmore » that despite the two mutations, the overall fold of hDM is nearly identical to the wild type enzyme. Importantly, the residues Gln201 and Asp243 introduced by the mutation form hydrogen bond contacts with F-dAdo that result in its binding and catalysis. Comparison of substrate and product complexes suggest that the side chains of Gln201 and Asp243 as well as the purine base rotate during catalysis possibly facilitating cleavage of the glycosidic bond. The two structures suggest why hDM, unlike the wild-type enzyme, can utilize F-dAdo as substrate. More importantly, they provide a critical foundation for further optimization of cleavage of adenosine-based prodrugs, such as F-dAdo by mutants of human purine nucleoside phosphorylase.« less

  15. Legubicin, a Tumor-Activated Prodrug for Breast Cancer Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    cathepsins B and L ) has been observed [4]. Legumain is critical in the activation of cathepsin B, D, and H [2, 5, 6]. We and others showed legumain...James et al. 2002)(Scheme 1). Briefly, dipeptide 4 was synthesized by coupling of Cbz- L -alanine and L -analine methyl ester, and then converted to...legumain:αvβ3 against legumain physiologic substrate MMP2 (Figure 6c) and cathepsin L (Figure 6d). These results indicate that the legumain:αvβ3 complex

  16. Simvastatin Prodrug Micelles Target Fracture and Improve Healing

    PubMed Central

    Dusad, Anand; Yuan, Hongjiang; Ren, Ke; Li, Fei; Fehringer, Edward V.; Purdue, P. Edward; Goldring, Steven R.; Daluiski, Aaron; Wang, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Simvastatin (SIM), a widely used anti-lipidaemic drug, has been identified as a bone anabolic agent. Its poor water solubility and the lack of distribution to the skeleton, however, have limited its application in the treatment of bone metabolic diseases. In this study, an amphiphilic macromolecular prodrug of SIM was designed and synthesized to overcome these limitations. The polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based prodrug can spontaneously self-assemble to form micelles. The use of SIM trimer as the prodrug’s hydrophobic segment allows easy encapsulation of additional free SIM. The in vitro studies showed that SIM/SIM-mPEG micelles were internalized by MC3T3 cells via lysosomal trafficking and consistently induced expression of both BMP2 and DKK1 mRNA, suggesting that the prodrug micelle retains the biological functions of SIM. After systemic administration, optical imaging suggests that the micelles would passively target to bone fracture sites associated with hematoma and inflammation. Furthermore, flow cytometry study revealed that SIM/SIM-mPEG micelles had preferred cellular uptake by inflammatory and resident cells within the fracture callus tissue. The treatment study using a mouse osteotomy model validated the micelles’ therapeutic efficacy in promoting bone fracture healing as demonstrated by micro-CT and histological analyses. Collectively, these data suggest that the macromolecular prodrug-based micelle formulation of SIM may have great potential for clinical management of impaired fracture healing. PMID:25542644

  17. Nucleoside diphosphate and triphosphate prodrugs - An unsolvable task?

    PubMed

    Meier, Chris

    2017-12-01

    In this review, our recent advances in the development of nucleoside di- and nucleoside triphosphate prodrugs is summarized. Previously, we had developed a successful membrane-permeable pronucleotide system for the intracellular delivery of nucleoside monophosphates as well, the so-called cycloSal-approach. In contrast to that work in which the delivery is initiated by a chemically driven hydrolysis reaction, for the di- and triphosphate delivery, an enzymatic trigger mechanism involving (carboxy)esterases had to be used. The other features of the new pronucleotide approaches are: (i) lipophilic modification was restricted to the terminal phosphate group leaving charges at the internal phosphate moieties and (ii) appropriate lipophilicity is introduced by long aliphatic residues within the bipartite prodrug moiety. The conceptional design of the di- and triphosphate prodrug systems will be described and the chemical synthesis, the hydrolysis properties, a structure-activity relationship and antiviral activity data will be discussed as well. The advantage of these new approaches is that all phosphorylation steps from the nucleoside analogue into the bioactive nucleoside triphosphate form can be bypassed in the case of the triphosphate prodrugs. Moreover, enzymatic processes like the deamination of nucleosides or nucleoside monophosphates which lead to catabolic clearance of the potential antivirally active compound can be avoided by the delivery of the higher phosphorylated nucleotides.

  18. Evaluation of Diclofenac Prodrugs for Enhancing Transdermal Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Shabbir; Li, Henan; Farhan, Nashid; Yan, Guang

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the approach of using diclofenac acid (DA) prodrugs for enhancing transdermal delivery. Methanol diclofenac ester (MD), ethylene glycol diclofenac ester (ED), glycerol diclofenac ester (GD), and 1,3-propylene glycol diclofenac ester (PD) were synthesized and evaluated for their physicochemical properties such as solubilities, octanol/water partition coefficients, stratum corneum/water partition coefficients, hydrolysis rates, and bioconversion rates. In vitro fluxes across human epidermal membrane (HEM) in Franz diffusion cell were determined on DA, MD, ED, GD, and PD saturated aqueous solutions. The formation of GD and ED led to the prodrugs with higher aqueous solubilities and lower partition coefficients than those of the parent drug. Prodrugs with improved aqueous solubility showed better fluxes across HEM in aqueous solution than that of the parent drug, with GD showing the highest aqueous solubility and also the highest flux. There is a linear relationship between the aqueous solubility and flux for DA, ED and PD, but GD and MD deviated from the linear line. Overall, diclofenac prodrugs with improved hydrophilicity than the parent drug could be utilized for enhancing transdermal diclofenac delivery. PMID:24517636

  19. Evaluation of diclofenac prodrugs for enhancing transdermal delivery.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Shabbir; Li, Henan; Farhan, Nashid; Yan, Guang

    2014-03-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the approach of using diclofenac acid (DA) prodrugs for enhancing transdermal delivery. Methanol diclofenac ester (MD), ethylene glycol diclofenac ester (ED), glycerol diclofenac ester (GD) and 1,3-propylene glycol diclofenac ester (PD) were synthesized and evaluated for their physicochemical properties such as solubilities, octanol/water partition coefficients, stratum corneum/water partition coefficients, hydrolysis rates and bioconversion rates. In vitro fluxes across human epidermal membrane (HEM) in the Franz diffusion cell were determined on DA-, MD-, ED-, GD- and PD-saturated aqueous solutions. The formation of GD and ED led to the prodrugs with higher aqueous solubilities and lower partition coefficients than those of the parent drug. Prodrugs with improved aqueous solubility showed better fluxes across HEM in aqueous solution than that of the parent drug, with GD showing the highest aqueous solubility and also the highest flux. There is a linear relationship between the aqueous solubility and flux for DA, ED and PD, but GD and MD deviated from the linear line. Diclofenac prodrugs with improved hydrophilicity than the parent drug could be utilized for enhancing transdermal diclofenac delivery.

  20. Safety and efficacy of enzyme replacement therapy with idursulfase beta in children aged younger than 6 years with Hunter syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Young Bae; Cho, Sung Yoon; Lee, Jieun; Kwun, Yonghee; Huh, Rimm; Jin, Dong-Kyu

    2015-02-01

    Idursulfase beta (Hunterase®) has been used for enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) of patients with mucopolysaccharidosis II (MPS II, Hunter syndrome) aged 6 years or older since 2012 in Korea. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of ERT with idursulfase beta in Hunter syndrome children younger than 6 years. This study was a 52-week, single center, single arm, open-label clinical trial (NCT01645189). Idursulfase beta (0.5mg/kg/week) was administered intravenously for 52 weeks. The primary endpoint was safety assessed by adverse events (AEs). Secondary endpoints included vital signs, physical examination, ECG, laboratory tests, anti-idursulfase antibodies, and efficacy represented by changes in urinary glycosaminoglycan (GAG) at week 53 from baseline. In addition, growth indices and developmental milestones (Denver II test) were evaluated as exploratory variables. All six patients experienced at least one AE. A total of 109 AEs were reported. One patient experienced a serious AE (hospitalization due to gastroenteritis) that was considered not to be treatment related. One patient (16.7%) experienced infusion-related adverse drug reactions (ADRs), developing urticaria six times and a cough five times. There were no serious ADRs and no clinically significant changes in vital signs, physical exam, laboratory parameters, or ECG. Of the six patients, four (66.7%) showed anti-idursulfase antibodies and neutralizing antibodies on at least one occasion during the study. At week 53, urinary GAG was significantly reduced by -35.1±30.6mgGAG/g creatine from baseline (P=0.038). This study indicates that the safety and efficacy of idursulfase beta are similar to those reported in Hunter syndrome patients aged 6 years or older. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Long time enzyme replacement therapy stabilizes obstructive lung disease and alters peripheral immune cell subsets in Fabry patients.

    PubMed

    Odler, Balázs; Cseh, Áron; Constantin, Tamás; Fekete, György; Losonczy, György; Tamási, Lilla; Benke, Kálmán; Szilveszter, Bálint; Müller, Veronika

    2017-11-01

    Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder, causing accumulation of globotriaosylceramid in different organs. Glycolipids are activators of different immune cell subsets the resulting inflammation is responsible for organ damage. Pulmonary involvement leads to airway inflammation; however, data on severity, as well as the effect of enzyme replacement therapy on lung function parameters and changes in peripheral immune cell subsets on lung involvement are sparse. Seven Fabry patients and four carriers underwent detailed clinical examinations screening for pulmonary manifestations. Repetitive measurements were performed on five patients on ERT (average follow-up 5 years). Patients with Fabry disease and control volunteers were included into peripheral blood cell measurements. Lung involvement was present in all patients. Symptoms suggestive for lung disease were mild, however, obstructive ventilatory disorder, dominantly affecting small airways accompanied by hyperinflation was demonstrated in all affected patients. ERT resulted in small improvement of FEV1 in most treated patients. Decreased ratio of myeloid DC, Th17 cells while increase in T helper (Th)1 cells, and no change in Th2 and regulatory T (Treg) cells were detected in Fabry patients. Fabry disease results mainly in mild symptoms related to lung involvement, characterized by moderate non-reversible obstructive ventilatory disorder. Stabilization of airway obstruction during follow-up was observed using ERT in most patients, emphasizing the importance of this treatment in respect of pulmonary manifestations. Changes of immune cell subsets in the peripheral blood might play a role in inflammatory process, including small airways in Fabry patient's lung. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Long-term bone mineral density response to enzyme replacement therapy in a retrospective pediatric cohort of Gaucher patients.

    PubMed

    Ciana, Giovanni; Deroma, Laura; Franzil, Anna Martina; Dardis, Andrea; Bembi, Bruno

    2012-11-01

    Osteopenia is described as a relevant sign of bone involvement in Gaucher disease (GD) both in pediatric and adult patients. Furthermore, abnormal bone metabolism is considered to play a role in growth and pubertal delay. To analyze the long-term effect of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) on bone mineral density (BMD), a retrospective observational study was conducted in a cohort of 18 GD pediatric patients (13 males, 5 females; median age 9.2 years). They received biweekly infusions of 20-60 IU/kg of alglucerase/imiglucerase. Clinical, laboratory and imaging parameters were evaluated every 2 years. According to the International Society of Clinical Densitometry guidelines, a Z-score ≤ -2.0 was considered pathological. Nine patients (group P0) began ERT during infancy and nine (group P1) during puberty. At baseline, in three patients (16.6 %; 1P0, 2P1) Z-score was ≤ -2.0 (range -2.47 to -2.25). In patient P0 it normalized after 2 years, while in the 2P1 patients (splenectomized siblings) it persisted abnormal. The remaining 15 patients (83.4 %) always presented a normal value. In group P0, Z-score improved in infancy but showed a significant decrease during puberty, on the contrary it constantly improved in group P1. Furthermore, at baseline group P0 showed a higher median Z-score than group P1: 0.79 (0.38; 1.50) and -1.61 (-2.25; -1.56) respectively. The use of correct BMD standards to interpret bone loss during pediatric age suggests a limited significance of bone loss in these patients. Moreover, the persistence of residual disease activity may affect normal bone growth during puberty in GD populations.

  3. Impact of enzyme replacement therapy on survival in adults with Pompe disease: results from a prospective international observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pompe disease is a rare metabolic myopathy for which disease-specific enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has been available since 2006. ERT has shown efficacy concerning muscle strength and pulmonary function in adult patients. However, no data on the effect of ERT on the survival of adult patients are currently available. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of ERT on survival in adult patients with Pompe disease. Methods Data were collected as part of an international observational study conducted between 2002 and 2011, in which patients were followed on an annual basis. Time-dependent Cox’s proportional hazards models were used for univariable and multivariable analyses. Results Overall, 283 adult patients with a median age of 48 years (range, 19 to 81 years) were included in the study. Seventy-two percent of patients started ERT at some time during follow-up, and 28% never received ERT. During follow-up (median, 6 years; range, 0.04 to 9 years), 46 patients died, 28 (61%) of whom had never received ERT. After adjustment for age, sex, country of residence, and disease severity (based on wheelchair and ventilator use), ERT was positively associated with survival (hazard ratio, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.19 to 0.87). Conclusion This prospective study was the first to demonstrate the positive effect of ERT on survival in adults with Pompe disease. Given the relatively recent registration of ERT for Pompe disease, these findings further support its beneficial impact in adult patients. PMID:23531252

  4. Effects of idursulfase enzyme replacement therapy for Mucopolysaccharidosis type II when started in early infancy: comparison in two siblings.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Go; Sakura, Nobuo; Kosuga, Motomichi; Okuyama, Torayuki; Kobayashi, Masao

    2013-03-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) is a lysosomal storage disorder that is progressive and involves multiple organs and tissues. While enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with idursulfase has been shown to improve many somatic features of the disease, some such as dysostosis multiplex and cardiac valve disease appear irreversible once established, and little is known about the preventative effects of ERT in pre-symptomatic patients. We report on two siblings with severe MPS II caused by an inversion mutation with recombination breakpoints located within the IDS gene and its adjacent pseudogene, IDS-2. The siblings initiated treatment with idursulfase at 3.0 years (older brother) and 4 months (younger brother) of age, and we compared their outcomes following 2 years of treatment. At the start of treatment, the older brother showed typical features of MPS II, including intellectual disability. After 34 months of ERT, his somatic disease was stable or improved, but he continued to decline cognitively. By comparison, after 32 months of ERT his younger brother remained free from most of the somatic features that had already appeared in his brother at the same age, manifesting only exudative otitis media. Skeletal X-rays revealed characteristic signs of dysostosis multiplex in the older brother at the initiation of treatment that were unchanged two years later, whereas the younger brother showed only slight findings of dysostosis multiplex throughout the treatment period. The younger brother's developmental quotient trended downward over time to just below the normal range. These findings suggest that pre-symptomatic initiation of ERT may prevent or attenuate progression of the somatic features of MPS II. Follow-up in a larger number of patients is required to confirm the additive long-term benefits of ERT in pre-symptomatic patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Transporter targeted gatifloxacin prodrugs: Synthesis, permeability, and topical ocular delivery

    PubMed Central

    Vooturi, Sunil K.; Kadam, Rajendra S.; Kompella, Uday B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To design and synthesize prodrugs of gatifloxacin targeting OCT, MCT, and ATB (0, +) transporters and to identify a prodrug with enhanced delivery to the back of the eye. Method Dimethylamino-propyl, carboxy-propyl, and amino-propyl(2-methyl) derivatives of gatifloxacin (GFX), DMAP-GFX, CP-GFX, and APM-GFX, were designed and synthesized to target OCT, MCT, and ATB (0, +) transporters, respectively. LC-MS method was developed to analyze drug and prodrug levels in various studies. Solubility and Log D (pH 7.4) were measured for prodrugs and the parent drug. Permeability of the prodrugs was determined in cornea, conjunctiva, and sclera-choroidretinal pigment epitheluim (SCRPE) and compared with gatifloxacin using Ussing chamber assembly. Permeability mechanisms were elucidated by determining the transport in the presence of transporter specific inhibitors. 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium iodide (MPP+), nicotinic acid sodium salt, and α-methyl-DL-tryptophan were used to inhibit OCT, MCT, and ATB (0, +) transporters, respectively. A prodrug selected based on in vitro studies was administered as an eye drop to pigmented rabbits and the delivery to various eye tissues including vitreous humor was compared with gatifloxacin dosing. Results DMAP-GFX exhibited 12.8-fold greater solubility than GFX. All prodrugs were more lipophilic, with the measured Log D (pH 7.4) values ranging from 0.05 to 1.04, when compared to GFX (Log D: -1.15). DMAP-GFX showed 1.4-, 1.8-, and 1.9-fold improvement in permeability across cornea, conjunctiva, as well as SCRPE when compared to GFX. Moreover, it exhibited reduced permeability in the presence of MPP+ (competitive inhibitor of OCT), indicating OCT-mediated transport. CP-GFX showed 1.2-, 2.3- and 2.5-fold improvement in permeability across cornea, conjunctiva and SCRPE, respectively. In the presence of nicotinic acid (competitive inhibitor of MCT), permeability of CP-GFX was reduced across conjunctiva. However, cornea and SCRPE

  6. Thiazolidine prodrugs of cysteamine and cysteine as radioprotective agents

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J.C.; Koch, K.E.; Detrick, S.R.

    1995-08-01

    The need for protection against the toxic effects of ionizing radiation comes from many different directions: occupational exposure, nuclear accidents, environmental sources and protection of normal tissue during the therapeutic irradiation of cancer. Sulfhydryl-containing compounds, including cysteamine and L-cysteine, have long been known to possess radioprotective properties, but their therapeutic utility is limited by their side effects at radioprotective doses. To avoid this drawback, thiazolidine prodrugs of cysteamine and L-cysteine were prepared by the condensation of each thiolamine with the aldose monosaccharides, D-ribose and D-glucose, producing RibCyst, GlcCyst, Rib-Cys and GlcCys. The prodrugs were designed to liberate the parent thiolaminemore » nonenzymatically, after ring opening and hydrolysis, which is then available e to function as a radioprotective agent. Cysteamine`s inherent toxicity, measured using Chinese hamster V79 cells growing in culture, was completely eliminated, even at concentrations as high as 25 mM, by providing the thiolamine in the form of a prodrug. Good protection against radiation-induced lethality was demonstrated by the cysteamine prodrugs using a clonogenic assay. Protection against radiation-induced DNA single-strand breaks, as measured by alkaline elution, was also shown by both RibCyst and GlcCyst; this activity was higher than that exhibited by either cysteamine or WR-1065. The L-cysteine prodrugs, RibCys and GlcCys, also possessed radioprotective abilities under most of the conditions studied. Protection against DNA damage was comparable between L-cystein, WR-1065 and RibCys. 42 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  7. Preformulation studies of a prodrug of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol.

    PubMed

    Thumma, Sridhar; Majumdar, Soumyajit; Elsohly, Mahmoud A; Gul, Waseem; Repka, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    Preformulation studies were performed on a hemiglutarate ester prodrug of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-HG), to facilitate the development of stable formulations by hot-melt methods. The various studies performed included solid-state thermal characterization, pKa, logP, aqueous and pH dependent solubility, pH stability and effect of moisture, temperature and oxygen on solid-state stability. A hot-melt method was utilized to fabricate THC-HG incorporated poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) matrices and the bioadhesive properties, release profiles and post-processing stability of these matrices were assessed as a function of the polymer molecular weight. The prodrug exhibited a T (g) close to 0 degrees C, indicating its amorphous nature. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed a rapid weight loss after 170 degrees C. The prodrug exhibited a seven-fold higher aqueous solubility as compared to the parent drug (THC). Also, the solubility of the compound increased with increasing pH, being maximum at pH 8. The prodrug exhibited a v-shaped pH-rate profile, with the degradation rate minimum between pH 3 and 4. The moisture uptake and drug degradation increased with an increase in relative humidity. Solid-state stability indicated that the prodrug was stable at -18 degrees C but demonstrated higher degradation at 4 degrees C, 25 degrees C and 40 degrees C (51.6%, 74.5% and 90.1%, respectively) at the end of 3-months. THC-HG was found to be sensitive to the presence of oxygen. The release of the active from the polymeric matrices decreased, while bioadhesion increased, with an increase in molecular weight of PEO.

  8. Recent updates in utilizing prodrugs in drug delivery (2013-2015).

    PubMed

    Amly, Wajd; Karaman, Rafik

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing the prodrug approach as a method to overcome various pharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic barriers to drug delivery is significantly accelerating and achieving successes. In contrast to the older traditional prodrugs which suffer from decreased bioavailability and a high profile of side effects, due to activation at undesired sites, the targeted prodrug approach utilizes delivery systems to improve delivery for a wide range of therapeutics including anti-cancer, anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory drugs. Recent updates in utilization of prodrugs in drug delivery between 2013 and 2015 are discussed. Targeted prodrugs against cancer, solid tumors, microbial infections, inflammation and other diseases using advanced delivery systems such as theranostic approaches, siRNA, DOX immunoconjugate, C 60-ser carrier vector, biotinylated prodrug, human serum albumin (HSA) carrier and others are presented. Recent research efforts have been directed at developing targeted prodrugs to replace the classical prodrugs. The use of this approach has accelerated following the emergence of encouraging results from several studies on targeted prodrugs that have highlighted their higher efficiency and improved safety profiles. Targeted prodrug delivery is now considered more than a chemical modification method. It is an applicable and promising approach and, in the future, better knowledge and wide application of this approach may be attained which may pave the way for more forward-thinking and creative techniques.

  9. Enhanced cancer cell growth inhibition by dipeptide prodrugs of floxuridine: increased transporter affinity and metabolic stability.

    PubMed

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Hilfinger, John M; Amidon, Gordon L

    2008-01-01

    Dipeptide monoester prodrugs of floxuridine were synthesized, and their chemical stability in buffers, resistance to glycosidic bond metabolism, affinity for PEPT1, enzymatic activation and permeability in cancer cells were determined and compared to those of mono amino acid monoester floxuridine prodrugs. Prodrugs containing glycyl moieties were the least stable in pH 7.4 buffer ( t 1/2 < 100 min). The activation of all floxuridine prodrugs was 2- to 30-fold faster in cell homogenates than their hydrolysis in buffer, suggesting enzymatic action. The enzymatic activation of dipeptide monoester prodrugs containing aromatic promoieties in cell homogenates was 5- to 20-fold slower than that of other dipeptide and most mono amino acid monoester prodrugs ( t 1/2 approximately 40 to 100 min). All prodrugs exhibited enhanced resistance to glycosidic bond metabolism by thymidine phosphorylase compared to parent floxuridine. In general, the 5'-O-dipeptide monoester floxuridine prodrugs exhibited higher affinity for PEPT1 than the corresponding 5'-O-mono amino acid ester prodrugs. The permeability of dipeptide monoester prodrugs across Caco-2 and Capan-2 monolayers was 2- to 4-fold higher than the corresponding mono amino acid ester prodrug. Cell proliferation assays in AsPC-1 and Capan-2 pancreatic ductal cell lines indicated that the dipeptide monoester prodrugs were equally as potent as mono amino acid prodrugs. The transport and enzymatic profiles of 5'- l-phenylalanyl- l-tyrosyl-floxuridine, 5'- l-phenylalanyl- l-glycyl-floxuridine, and 5'- l-isoleucyl- l-glycyl-floxuridine suggest their potential for increased oral uptake, delayed enzymatic bioconversion and enhanced resistance to metabolism to 5-fluorouracil, as well as enhanced uptake and cytotoxic activity in cancer cells, attributes that would facilitate prolonged systemic circulation for enhanced therapeutic action.

  10. Enhanced Cancer Cell Growth Inhibition by Dipeptide Prodrugs of Floxuridine: Increased Transporter Affinity and Metabolic Stability

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Dipeptide monoester prodrugs of floxuridine were synthesized, and their chemical stability in buffers, resistance to glycosidic bond metabolism, affinity for PEPT1, enzymatic activation and permeability in cancer cells were determined and compared to those of mono amino acid monoester floxuridine prodrugs. Prodrugs containing glycyl moieties were the least stable in pH 7.4 buffer (t1/2 < 100 min). The activation of all floxuridine prodrugs was 2- to 30-fold faster in cell homogenates than their hydrolysis in buffer, suggesting enzymatic action. The enzymatic activation of dipeptide monoester prodrugs containing aromatic promoieties in cell homogenates was 5- to 20-fold slower than that of other dipeptide and most mono amino acid monoester prodrugs (t1/2 ∼ 40 to 100 min). All prodrugs exhibited enhanced resistance to glycosidic bond metabolism by thymidine phosphorylase compared to parent floxuridine. In general, the 5′-O-dipeptide monoester floxuridine prodrugs exhibited higher affinity for PEPT1 than the corresponding 5′-O-mono amino acid ester prodrugs. The permeability of dipeptide monoester prodrugs across Caco-2 and Capan-2 monolayers was 2- to 4-fold higher than the corresponding mono amino acid ester prodrug. Cell proliferation assays in AsPC-1 and Capan-2 pancreatic ductal cell lines indicated that the dipeptide monoester prodrugs were equally as potent as mono amino acid prodrugs. The transport and enzymatic profiles of 5′-l-phenylalanyl-l-tyrosyl-floxuridine, 5′-l-phenylalanyl-l-glycyl-floxuridine, and 5′-l-isoleucyl-l-glycyl-floxuridine suggest their potential for increased oral uptake, delayed enzymatic bioconversion and enhanced resistance to metabolism to 5-fluorouracil, as well as enhanced uptake and cytotoxic activity in cancer cells, attributes that would facilitate prolonged systemic circulation for enhanced therapeutic action. PMID:18652477

  11. Gene therapy strategies using engineered stem cells for treating gynecologic and breast cancer patients (Review).

    PubMed

    Kim, Ye-Seul; Hwang, Kyung-A; Go, Ryeo-Eun; Kim, Cho-Won; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2015-05-01

    There are three types of stem cells: embryonic stem (ES) cells, adult stem (AS) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. These stem cells have many benefits including the potential ability to differentiate into various organs. In addition, engineered stem cells (GESTECs) designed for delivering therapeutic genes may be capable of treating human diseases including malignant cancers. Stem cells have been found to possess the potential for serving as novel delivery vehicles for therapeutic or suicide genes to primary or metastatic cancer formation sites as a part of gene-directed enzyme/prodrug combination therapy (GEPT). Given the advantageous properties of stem cells, tissue-derived stem cells are emerging as a new tool for anticancer therapy combined with prodrugs. In this review, the effects of GESTECs with different origins, i.e., neural, amniotic membrane and amniotic fluid, introduced to treat patients with diverse types of gynecologic and breast cancers are discussed. Data from the literature indicate the therapeutic potential of these cells as a part of gene therapy strategies to selectively target malignancies in women at clinically terminal stages.

  12. In Vivo Bioorthogonal Chemistry Enables Local Hydrogel and Systemic Pro-Drug To Treat Soft Tissue Sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Mejia Oneto, Jose M; Khan, Irfan; Seebald, Leah; Royzen, Maksim

    2016-07-27

    The ability to activate drugs only at desired locations avoiding systemic immunosuppression and other dose limiting toxicities is highly desirable. Here we present a new approach, named local drug activation, that uses bioorthogonal chemistry to concentrate and activate systemic small molecules at a location of choice. This method is independent of endogenous cellular or environmental markers and only depends on the presence of a preimplanted biomaterial near a desired site (e.g., tumor). We demonstrate the clear therapeutic benefit with minimal side effects of this approach in mice over systemic therapy using a doxorubicin pro-drug against xenograft tumors of a type of soft tissue sarcoma (HT1080).

  13. Use of Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibitor Therapy and Dose-related Outcomes in Older Adults with New Heart Failure in the Community

    PubMed Central

    Rochon, Paula A; Sykora, Kathy; Bronskill, Susan E; Mamdani, Muhammad; Anderson, Geoffrey M; Gurwitz, Jerry H; Gill, Sudeep; Tu, Jack V; Laupacis, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the dose-related benefit of angiotensinconverting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor therapy among older adults with heart failure and to evaluate whether low-dose ACE inhibitor therapy is better than none. DESIGN Observational cohort study. SETTING Community-dwelling older adults in Ontario, Canada. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS We identified 16,539 adults 66 years or older who survived 45 days following their first heart failure hospitalization discharge. MEASUREMENT AND MAIN RESULTS Multivariate techniques including propensity scores were used to study the association between the dose of ACE inhibitor therapy dispensed and 3 outcomes: survival, survival or heart failure rehospitalization, and survival or all-cause hospitalization at 1 year of follow-up. Logistic regression models explored the association between initial dose dispensed and subsequent dose reduction or drug cess-ation. Overall, 10,793 (65.3%) of patients were dispensed ACE inhibitor therapy, with more than a third (3,935; 36.5%) initiated on low-dose therapy. Relative to dispensing of lowdose ACE inhibitor therapy, nonuse was associated with increased mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 1.22). Dispensing medium-dose therapy provided a benefit similar to low-dose (HR, 0.94; CI, 0.86 to 1.03) and dispensing of high-dose therapy was associated with improved survival benefit (HR, 0.76; CI, 0.68 to 0.85). Relative to dispensing of low-dose ACE inhibitor therapy, dispensing high-dose conferred a benefit (HR, 0.87; CI, 0.80 to 0.95) on the composite outcome of 1-year mortality or heart failure hospitalization and the composite outcome of 1-year mortality or all-cause hospitalization (HR, 0.87; CI, 0.81 to 0.93). Relative to those dispensed low-dose ACE inhibitor therapy, those initially dispensed high-dose therapy were twice as likely to have their subsequent dose reduced or the therapy discontinued (odds ratio, 2.36; CI, 2.07 to 2.69). CONCLUSION Our findings

  14. MDCK cell permeability characteristics of a sulfenamide prodrug: strategic implications in considering sulfenamide prodrugs for oral delivery of NH-acids.

    PubMed

    Guarino, Victor R; Nti-Addae, Kwame; Stella, Valentino J

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this Letter is both to report the permeability results of a linezolid-based sulfenamide prodrug in an MDCK cell model (enterocyte surrogate system) and to discuss the strategic implications of these results for considering sulfenamide prodrugs to enhance the oral delivery of weakly acidic NH-acids (e.g., amides, ureas, etc.). The two main findings from this study are that the sulfenamide prodrug does not appear to survive intracellular transport due to conversion to linezolid and that there appears to be an apically-oriented surface conversion pathway that can additionally serve to convert the sulfenamide prodrug to linezolid upon approach of the apical membrane. It is hoped that these findings, along with the discussion of the strategic implications, will facilitate a greater awareness of the potential strengths and weaknesses inherent in the sulfenamide prodrug approach for enhancing the oral delivery of weakly acidic NH-acid drugs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Circulating immune complexes and complement fragment iC3b in chronic polyarthritis during 12 months therapy with oral enzymes in comparison with oral gold].

    PubMed

    Kullich, W; Schwann, H

    1992-01-01

    In the course of a double-blind randomized study lasting 1 year 19 patients suffering from ensured rheumatoid arthritis (ARA criteria) were treated with oral hydrolytic enzymes or oral gold salts. The effects of these therapies were examined in regard to changes in serum concentrations of circulating immune complexes (CIC) and the complement component iC3b. After 12 months treatment with oral enzymes we determined a therapeutically wanted significant decrease of CIC whereas CIC increased up to 6 months. The best but not significant result under therapy with oral gold salts concerning CIC was a decrease in 6 out of 9 patients after 9 months. The complement component iC3b diminished with either therapy during the first 6 months and increased afterwards. As well as the reduction of circulating immune complexes, the intensified inactivation of C3b into iC3b during the second half-year with both treatments indicates that there might be a slight improvement of the pathologically changed immunoreactions after 6 months only. Concerning the examined laboratory parameters, no significant difference was found between both therapies.

  16. Pulmonary involvement in Fabry disease: effect of plasma globotriaosylsphingosine and time to initiation of enzyme replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Franzen, Daniel; Haile, Sarah R; Kasper, David C; Mechtler, Thomas P; Flammer, Andreas J; Krayenbühl, Pierre A; Nowak, Albina

    2018-01-01

    Anderson-Fabry disease (AFD) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations of GLA gene leading to reduced α-galactosidase activity and resulting in a progressive accumulation of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) and its deacylated derivative, globotriaosyl-sphingosine (Lyso-Gb3). Plasma Lyso-Gb3 levels serve as a disease severity and treatment monitoring marker during enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). Adult patients with AFD who had yearly pulmonary function tests between 1999 and 2015 were eligible for this observational study. Primary outcome measures were the change in z-score of forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV 1 ) and FEV 1 /FVC over time. Plasma Lyso-Gb3 levels and the age of ERT initiation were investigated for their association with lung function decline. Fifty-three patients (42% male, median (range) age at diagnosis of AFD 34 (6-61) years in men, 34 (13-67) in women) were included. The greatest decrease of FEV 1 /FVC z-scores was observed in Classic men (-0.048 per year, 95% CI -0.081 to -0.014), compared with the Later-Onset men (+0.013,95% CI -0.055 to 0.082), Classic women (-0.008, 95% CI -0.035 to +0.020) and Later-Onset women (-0.013, 95% CI -0.084 to +0.058). Cigarette smoking (P=0.022) and late ERT initiation (P=0.041) were independently associated with faster FEV 1 decline. FEV 1 /FVC z-score decrease was significantly reduced after initiation of ERT initiation (-0.045 compared with -0.015, P=0.014). Furthermore, there was a trend towards a relevant influence of Lyso-Gb3 (P=0.098) on airflow limitation with age. Early ERT initiation seems to preserve pulmonary function. Plasma Lyso-Gb3 is maybe a useful predictor for airflow limitation. Classic men need a closer monitoring of the lung function.

  17. Amelioration of serum 8-OHdG level by enzyme replacement therapy in patients with Fabry cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuan-Hsuan; Chou, Yueh-Ching; Hsiao, Chen-Yuan; Chien, Yueh; Wang, Kang-Ling; Lai, Ying-Hsiu; Chang, Yuh-Lih; Niu, Dau-Ming; Yu, Wen-Chung

    2017-04-29

    The level of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosise (8-OHdG) is a marker of oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) on the level of 8-OHdG in patients with Fabry cardiomyopathy and the clinical evolution of Fabry cardiomyopathy. We measured the serum levels of 8-OHdG in 20 healthy control and 22 patients with Fabry cardiomyopathy before and after ERT. The mean lysoGb3 and 8-OHdG levels was significantly increased in patients with Fabry cardiomyopathy compared with that of control subjects (lysoGb3, 3.6 ± 1.1 nM vs. 0.4 ± 0.1 nM, p < 0.01; 8-OHdG, 4.5 ± 0.5 ng/mL vs. 3.4 ± 0.4 ng/mL, P < 0.05). The mean lysoGb3 and 8-OHdG levels was significantly reduced after ERT for 14.2 months (lysoGb3, 3.6 ± 1.1 nM vs. 2.9 ± 1.1 nM, P < 0.05; 8-OHdG, 4.5 ± 0.5 ng/mL to 4 ± 0.4 ng/mL, P < 0.05). These changes were accompanied by decreases in LVM and LVMI. We demonstrated that the serum 8-OHdG levels is increased in patients with Fabry cardiomyopathy (FC) and that successful management of FC with ERT is associated with a decrease in this oxidative stress marker. Serum 8-OHdG levels can be used not only as a noninvasive biomarker of oxidative stress in patients with FC but also an objective and quantitative parameter in the follow-up of patients during ERT. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Long term clinical history of an Italian cohort of infantile onset Pompe disease treated with enzyme replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Parini, Rossella; De Lorenzo, Paola; Dardis, Andrea; Burlina, Alberto; Cassio, Alessandra; Cavarzere, Paolo; Concolino, Daniela; Della Casa, Roberto; Deodato, Federica; Donati, Maria Alice; Fiumara, Agata; Gasperini, Serena; Menni, Francesca; Pagliardini, Veronica; Sacchini, Michele; Spada, Marco; Taurisano, Roberta; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Di Rocco, Maja; Bembi, Bruno

    2018-02-08

    Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has deeply modified the clinical history of Infantile Onset Pompe Disease (IOPD). However, its long-term effectiveness is still not completely defined. Available data shows a close relationship between clinical outcome and patients' cross-reactive immunological status (CRIM), being CRIM-negative status a negative prognostic factor. At the same time limited data are available on the long-term treatment in CRIM-positive infants. A retrospective multicentre observational study was designed to analyse the long-term effectiveness of ERT in IOPD. Thirteen Italian centres spread throughout the country were involved and a cohort of 28 patients (15 females, 13 males, born in the period: February 2002-January 2013) was enrolled. IOPD diagnosis was based on clinical symptoms, enzymatic and molecular analysis. All patients received ERT within the first year of life. Clinical, laboratory, and functional data (motor, cardiac and respiratory) were collected and followed for a median period of 71 months (5 years 11 months). Median age at onset, diagnosis and start of ERT were 2, 3 and 4 months, respectively. CRIM status was available for 24/28 patients: 17/24 (71%) were CRIM-positive. Nineteen patients (67%) survived > 2 years: 4 were CRIM-negative, 14 CRIM-positive and one unknown. Six patients (5 CRIM-positive and one unknown) never needed ventilation support (21,4%) and seven (6 CRIM-positive and one unknown: 25%) developed independent ambulation although one subsequently lost this function. Brain imaging study was performed in 6 patients and showed peri-ventricular white matter abnormalities in all of them. Clinical follow-up confirmed the better prognosis for CRIM-positive patients, though a slow, progressive worsening of motor and/or respiratory functions was detected in 8 patients. These data are the result of the longest independent retrospective study on ERT in IOPD reported so far outside clinical trials. The data obtained

  19. Long-term outcome of enzyme-replacement therapy in advanced Fabry disease: evidence for disease progression towards serious complications

    PubMed Central

    Weidemann, F; Niemann, M; Störk, S; Breunig, F; Beer, M; Sommer, C; Herrmann, S; Ertl, G; Wanner, C

    2013-01-01

    Objective The long-term effects of enzyme-replacement therapy (ERT) in Fabry disease are unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether ERT in patients with advanced Fabry disease affects progression towards ‘hard’ clinical end-points in comparison with the natural course of the disease. Methods A total of 40 patients with genetically proven Fabry disease (mean age 40 ± 9 years; n = 9 women) were treated prospectively with ERT for 6 years. In addition, 40 subjects from the Fabry Registry, matched for age, sex, chronic kidney disease stage and previous transient ischaemic attack (TIA), served as a comparison group. The main outcome was a composite of stroke, end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and death. Secondary outcomes included changes in myocardial left ventricular (LV) wall thickness and replacement fibrosis, change in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), new TIA and change in neuropathic pain. Results During a median follow-up of 6.0 years (bottom and top quartiles: 5.1, 7.2), 15 events occurred in 13 patients (n = 7 deaths, n = 4 cases of ESRD and n = 4 strokes). Sudden death occurred (n = 6) only in patients with documented ventricular tachycardia and myocardial replacement fibrosis. The annual progression of myocardial LV fibrosis in the entire cohort was 0.6 ± 0.7%. As a result, posterior end-diastolic wall thinning was observed (baseline, 13.2 ± 2.0 mm; follow-up, 11.4 ± 2.1 mm; P < 0.01). GFR decreased by 2.3 ± 4.6 mL min−1 per year. Three patients experienced a TIA. The major clinical symptom was neuropathic pain (n = 37), and this symptom improved in 25 patients. The event rate was not different between the ERT group and the untreated (natural history) group of the Fabry Registry. Conclusion Despite ERT, clinically meaningful events including sudden cardiac death continue to develop in patients with advanced Fabry disease. PMID:23586858

  20. Long-Acting Diclofenac Ester Prodrugs for Joint Injection: Kinetics, Mechanism of Degradation, and In Vitro Release From Prodrug Suspension.

    PubMed

    Mertz, Nina; Larsen, Susan Weng; Kristensen, Jesper; Østergaard, Jesper; Larsen, Claus

    2016-10-01

    A prodrug approach for local and sustained diclofenac action after injection into joints based on ester prodrugs having a pH-dependent solubility is presented. Inherent ester prodrug properties influencing the duration of action include their pH-dependent solubility and charge state, as well as susceptibility to undergo esterase facilitated hydrolysis. In this study, physicochemical properties and pH rate profiles of 3 diclofenac ester prodrugs differing with respect to the spacer carbon chain length between the drug and the imidazole-based promoiety were determined and a rate equation for prodrug degradation in aqueous solution in the pH range 1-10 was derived. In the pH range 6-10, the prodrugs were subject to parallel degradation to yield diclofenac and an indolinone derivative. The prodrug degradation was found to be about 6-fold faster in 80% (vol/vol) human plasma as compared to 80% (vol/vol) human synovial fluid with 2-(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)ethyl 2-(2-(2,6 dichlorophenyl)amino)phenylacetate being the poorest substrate toward enzymatic cleavage. The conversion and release of parent diclofenac from prodrug suspensions in vitro were studied using the rotating dialysis model. The results suggest that it is possible to alter and control dissolution and reconversion behavior of the diclofenac prodrugs, thus making the prodrug approach feasible for local and sustained diclofenac action after joint injection. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Supramolecular Crafting of Self-Assembling Camptothecin Prodrugs with Enhanced Efficacy against Primary Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Su, Hao; Zhang, Pengcheng; Cheetham, Andrew G; Koo, Jin Mo; Lin, Ran; Masood, Asad; Schiapparelli, Paula; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Cui, Honggang

    2016-01-01

    Chemical modification of small molecule hydrophobic drugs is a clinically proven strategy to devise prodrugs with enhanced treatment efficacy. While this prodrug strategy improves the parent drug's water solubility and pharmacokinetic profile, it typically compromises the drug's potency against cancer cells due to the retarded drug release rate and reduced cellular uptake efficiency. Here we report on the supramolecular design of self-assembling prodrugs (SAPD) with much improved water solubility while maintaining high potency against cancer cells. We found that camptothecin (CPT) prodrugs created by conjugating two CPT molecules onto a hydrophilic segment can associate into filamentous nanostructures in water. Our results suggest that these SAPD exhibit much greater efficacy against primary brain cancer cells relative to that of irinotecan, a clinically used CPT prodrug. We believe these findings open a new avenue for rational design of supramolecular prodrugs for cancer treatment.

  2. Visible Light Controlled Release of Anticancer Drug through Double Activation of Prodrug

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We designed and synthesized a novel double activatable prodrug system (drug–linker–deactivated photosensitizer), containing a photocleavable aminoacrylate-linker and a deactivated photosensitizer, to achieve the spatiotemporally controlled release of parent drugs using visible light. Three prodrugs of CA-4, SN-38, and coumarin were prepared to demonstrate the activation of deactivated photosensitizer by cellular esterase and the release of parent drugs by visible light (540 nm) via photounclick chemistry. Among these prodrugs, nontoxic coumarin prodrug was used to quantify the release of parent drug in live cells. About 99% coumarin was released from the coumarin prodrug after 24 h of incubation with MCF-7 cells followed by irradiation with low intensity visible light (8 mW/cm2) for 30 min. Less toxic prodrugs of CA-4 and SN-38 killed cancer cells as effectively as free drugs after the double activation. PMID:24900573

  3. Non-surgical therapy and radiologic assessment of stage I breast cancer treatment with novel enzyme-targeting radiosensitization: Kochi Oxydol-Radiation Therapy for Unresectable Carcinomas, type II (KORTUC II).

    PubMed

    Hitomi, Jiro; Kubota, Kei; Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Hamada, Norihiko; Murata, Yoriko; Nishioka, Akihito

    2010-09-01

    The new enzyme-targeting radiosensitization treatment, Kochi Oxydol-Radiation Therapy for Unresectable Carcinomas, type II (KORTUC II), markedly enhances the radiotherapeutic effect of treatment for various types of locally advanced malignant neoplasms. Patients who had declined surgical treatment and systemic chemotherapy, as well as a total of 14 stage I breast cancer patients, were enrolled. A maximum of 6 ml of KORTUC II was injected into tumor tissue twice a week under ultrasonographic guidance, immediately prior to each administration of radiation therapy. The median observation period was 21.6 months with a range of 4-48 months, and the therapy was well tolerated. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission computed tomography revealed that all primary breast tumors completely responded, and none of the subjects experienced local recurrence during the observation period. Ultrasonography depicted tumor-like findings in 2/14 cases after therapy. The intratumoral flow signal on color-Doppler sonography was positive in 4/14 cases before therapy, and the signal disappeared from all cases after therapy. The absence of a flow signal after therapy suggested that the tumor-like findings on ultrasonography were from scar tissue. Excellent local control based on accurate radiological evaluation implies that KORTUC II has the potential to replace surgery as a therapeutic option for stage I breast cancer. Precise evaluation by various radiological modalities helped to gage the success of this therapy.

  4. Non-surgical therapy and radiologic assessment of stage I breast cancer treatment with novel enzyme-targeting radiosensitization: Kochi Oxydol-Radiation Therapy for Unresectable Carcinomas, type II (KORTUC II)

    PubMed Central

    HITOMI, JIRO; KUBOTA, KEI; OGAWA, YASUHIRO; HAMADA, NORIHIKO; MURATA, YORIKO; NISHIOKA, AKIHITO

    2010-01-01

    The new enzyme-targeting radiosensitization treatment, Kochi Oxydol-Radiation Therapy for Unresectable Carcinomas, type II (KORTUC II), markedly enhances the radiotherapeutic effect of treatment for various types of locally advanced malignant neoplasms. Patients who had declined surgical treatment and systemic chemotherapy, as well as a total of 14 stage I breast cancer patients, were enrolled. A maximum of 6 ml of KORTUC II was injected into tumor tissue twice a week under ultrasonographic guidance, immediately prior to each administration of radiation therapy. The median observation period was 21.6 months with a range of 4–48 months, and the therapy was well tolerated. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission computed tomography revealed that all primary breast tumors completely responded, and none of the subjects experienced local recurrence during the observation period. Ultrasonography depicted tumor-like findings in 2/14 cases after therapy. The intratumoral flow signal on color-Doppler sonography was positive in 4/14 cases before therapy, and the signal disappeared from all cases after therapy. The absence of a flow signal after therapy suggested that the tumor-like findings on ultrasonography were from scar tissue. Excellent local control based on accurate radiological evaluation implies that KORTUC II has the potential to replace surgery as a therapeutic option for stage I breast cancer. Precise evaluation by various radiological modalities helped to gage the success of this therapy. PMID:22993600

  5. Intracellular Metabolism of the Nucleotide Prodrug GS-9131, a Potent Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Agent▿

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Adrian S.; Vela, Jennifer E.; Boojamra, Constantine G.; Zhang, Lijun; Hui, Hon; Callebaut, Christian; Stray, Kirsten; Lin, Kuei-Ying; Gao, Ying; Mackman, Richard L.; Cihlar, Tomas

    2008-01-01

    GS-9131 is a phosphonoamidate prodrug of the novel ribose-modified phosphonate nucleotide analog GS-9148 that demonstrates potent anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) activity and an excellent resistance profile in vitro. Prodrug moieties were optimized for the efficient delivery of GS-9148 and its active diphosphate (DP) metabolite to lymphoid cells following oral administration. To understand the intracellular pharmacology of GS-9131, incubations were performed with various types of lymphoid cells in vitro. The intracellular accumulation and antiviral activity levels of GS-9148 were limited by its lack of cellular permeation, and GS-9131 increased the delivery of GS-9148-DP by 76- to 290-fold relative to that of GS-9148. GS-9131 activation was saturable at high extracellular concentrations, potentially due to a high-affinity promoiety cleavage step. Once inside the cells, GS-9148 was efficiently phosphorylated, forming similar amounts of anabolites in primary lymphoid cells. The levels of GS-9148-DP formed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells infected with HIV-1 were similar to that in uninfected PBMCs, and approximately equivalent intracellular concentrations of GS-9148-DP and tenofovir (TVF)-DP were required to inhibit viral replication by 90%. Once it was formed, GS-9148-DP was efficiently retained in activated CD4+ cells, with a half-life of 19 h. In addition, GS-9131 showed a low potential for drug interactions with other adenine nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, based on the lack of competition for anabolism between suprapharmacologic concentrations of GS-9148 and TVF and the lack of activity of GS-9131 metabolites against purine nucleoside phosphorylase, an enzyme involved in the clearance of 2′,3′-dideoxyinosine. Together, these observations elucidate the cellular pharmacology of GS-9131 and illustrate its efficient loading of lymphoid cells, resulting in a prolonged intracellular exposure to the active metabolite GS

  6. Brain uptake of a Zidovudine prodrug after nasal administration of solid lipid microparticles.

    PubMed

    Dalpiaz, Alessandro; Ferraro, Luca; Perrone, Daniela; Leo, Eliana; Iannuccelli, Valentina; Pavan, Barbara; Paganetto, Guglielmo; Beggiato, Sarah; Scalia, Santo

    2014-05-05

    Our previous results demonstrated that a prodrug obtained by the conjugation of the antiretroviral drug zidovudine (AZT) with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) represents a potential carrier for AZT in the central nervous system, thus possibly increasing AZT efficiency as an anti-HIV drug. Based on these results and in order to enhance AZT brain targeting, the present study focuses on solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) as a carrier system for the nasal administration of UDCA-AZT prodrug. SLMs were produced by the hot emulsion technique, using tristearin and stearic acid as lipidic carriers, whose mean diameters were 16 and 7 μm, respectively. SLMs were of spherical shape, and their prodrug loading was 0.57 ± 0.03% (w/w, tristearin based) and 1.84 ± 0.02% (w/w, stearic acid based). The tristearin SLMs were able to control the prodrug release, whereas the stearic acid SLMs induced a significant increase of the dissolution rate of the free prodrug. The free prodrug was rapidly hydrolyzed in rat liver homogenates with a half-life of 2.7 ± 0.14 min (process completed within 30 min). The tristearin SLMs markedly enhanced the stability of the prodrug (75% of the prodrug still present after 30 min), whereas the stabilization effect of the stearic acid SLMs was lower (14% of the prodrug still present after 30 min). No AZT and UDCA-AZT were detected in the rat cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after an intravenous prodrug administration (200 μg). Conversely, the nasal administration of stearic acid based SLMs induced the uptake of the prodrug in the CSF, demonstrating the existence of a direct nose-CNS pathway. In the presence of chitosan, the CSF prodrug uptake increased six times, up to 1.5 μg/mL within 150 min after nasal administration. The loaded SLMs appear therefore as a promising nasal formulation for selective zidovudine brain uptake.

  7. Nanoparticles Containing High Loads of Paclitaxel Silicate Prodrugs: Formulation, Drug Release, and Anti-cancer Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jing; Michel, Andrew R.; Lee, Han Seung; Kalscheuer, Stephen; Wohl, Adam; Hoye, Thomas R.; McCormick, Alon V.; Panyam, Jayanth; Macosko, Christopher W.

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated particle size, interior structure, drug release kinetics, and anticancer efficacy of PEG-b-PLGA-based nanoparticles loaded with a series of paclitaxel (PTX) silicate prodrugs [PTX-Si(OR)3]. Silicate derivatization enabled us to adjust the hydrophobicity and hydrolytic lability of the prodrugs by the choice of the alkyl group (R) in the silicate derivatives. The greater hydrophobicity of these prodrugs allows for the preparation of nanoparticles that are stable in aqueous dispersion even when loaded with up to ca. 75 wt% of the prodrug. The hydrolytic lability of silicates allows for facile conversion of prodrugs back to the parent drug, PTX. A suite of eight PTX-silicate prodrugs was investigated; nanoparticles were made by flash nanoprecipitation (FNP) using a confined impingement jet mixer with a dilution step (CIJ-D). The resulting nanoparticles were 80–150 nm in size with a loading level of 47–74 weight percent (wt%) of a PTX-silicate, which corresponds to 36–59 effective wt % of free PTX. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy images show that particles are typically spherical with a core-shell structure. Prodrug/drug release profiles were measured. Release tended to be slower for prodrugs having greater hydrophobicity and slower hydrolysis rate. Nanoparticles loaded with PTX-silicate prodrugs that hydrolyze most rapidly showed in vitro cytotoxicity similar to that of the parent PTX. Nanoparticles loaded with more labile silicates also tended to show greater in vivo efficacy. PMID:26505116

  8. Nanoparticles Containing High Loads of Paclitaxel-Silicate Prodrugs: Formulation, Drug Release, and Anticancer Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Han, Jing; Michel, Andrew R; Lee, Han Seung; Kalscheuer, Stephen; Wohl, Adam; Hoye, Thomas R; McCormick, Alon V; Panyam, Jayanth; Macosko, Christopher W

    2015-12-07

    We have investigated particle size, interior structure, drug release kinetics, and anticancer efficacy of PEG-b-PLGA-based nanoparticles loaded with a series of paclitaxel (PTX)-silicate prodrugs [PTX-Si(OR)3]. Silicate derivatization enabled us to adjust the hydrophobicity and hydrolytic lability of the prodrugs by the choice of the alkyl group (R) in the silicate derivatives. The greater hydrophobicity of these prodrugs allows for the preparation of nanoparticles that are stable in aqueous dispersion even when loaded with up to ca. 75 wt % of the prodrug. The hydrolytic lability of silicates allows for facile conversion of prodrugs back to the parent drug, PTX. A suite of eight PTX-silicate prodrugs was investigated; nanoparticles were made by flash nanoprecipitation (FNP) using a confined impingement jet mixer with a dilution step (CIJ-D). The resulting nanoparticles were 80-150 nm in size with a loading level of 47-74 wt % (wt %) of a PTX-silicate, which corresponds to 36-59 effective wt % of free PTX. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy images show that particles are typically spherical with a core-shell structure. Prodrug/drug release profiles were measured. Release tended to be slower for prodrugs having greater hydrophobicity and slower hydrolysis rate. Nanoparticles loaded with PTX-silicate prodrugs that hydrolyze most rapidly showed in vitro cytotoxicity similar to that of the parent PTX. Nanoparticles loaded with more labile silicates also tended to show greater in vivo efficacy.

  9. A Minireview: Usefulness of Transporter-Targeted Prodrugs in Enhancing Membrane Permeability.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Teruo

    2016-09-01

    Orally administered drugs are categorized into 4 classes depending on the solubility and permeability in a Biopharmaceutics Classification System. Prodrug derivatization is one of feasible approaches in modifying the physicochemical properties such as low solubility and low permeability without changing the in vivo pharmacological action of the parent drug. In this article, prodrug-targeted solute carrier (SLC) transporters were searched randomly by PubMed. Collected SLC transporters are amino acid transporter 1, bile acid transporter, carnitine transporter 2, glucose transporter 1, peptide transporter 1, vitamin C transporter 1, and multivitamin transporter. The usefulness of transporter-targeted prodrugs was evaluated in terms of membrane permeability, stability under acidic condition, and conversion to the parent drug. Among prodrugs collected, peptide transporter-targeted prodrugs exhibited the highest number, and some prodrugs such as valaciclovir and valganciclovir are clinically available. ATP-binding cassette efflux transporter, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), reduces the intestinal absorption of lipophilic P-gp substrate drugs, and SLC transporter-targeted prodrugs of P-gp substrate drugs circumvented the P-gp-mediated efflux transport. Thus, SLC transporter-targeted prodrug derivatization seems to be feasible approach to increase the oral bioavailability by overcoming various unwanted physicochemical properties of orally administered drugs, although the effect of food on prodrug absorption should be taken into consideration. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Design, synthesis and brain uptake of LAT1-targeted amino acid prodrugs of dopamine.

    PubMed

    Peura, Lauri; Malmioja, Kalle; Huttunen, Kristiina; Leppänen, Jukka; Hämäläinen, Miia; Forsberg, Markus M; Gynther, Mikko; Rautio, Jarkko; Laine, Krista

    2013-10-01

    Drug delivery to the brain is impeded by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Here, we attempted to enhance the brain uptake of cationic dopamine by utilizing the large amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) at the BBB by prodrug approach. Three amino acid prodrugs of dopamine were synthesized and their prodrug properties were examined in vitro. Their LAT1-binding and BBB-permeation were studied using the in situ rat brain perfusion technique. The brain uptake after intravenous administration and the dopamine-releasing ability in the rat striatum after intraperitoneal administration were also determined for the most promising prodrug. All prodrugs underwent adequate cleavage in rat tissue homogenates. The prodrug with phenylalanine derivative as the promoiety had both higher affinity for LAT1 and better brain uptake properties than those with an alkyl amino acid - mimicking promoiety. The phenylalanine prodrug was taken up into the brain after intravenous injection but after intraperitoneal injection the prodrug did not elevate striatal dopamine concentrations above those achieved by corresponding L-dopa treatment. These results indicate that attachment of phenylalanine to a cationic drug via an amide bond from the meta-position of its aromatic ring could be highly applicable in prodrug design for LAT1-mediated CNS-delivery of not only anionic but also cationic polar drugs.

  11. Preclinical Efficacy of a Carboxylesterase 2-Activated Prodrug of Doxazolidine

    PubMed Central

    Barthel, Benjamin L.; Zhang, Zhiyong; Rudnicki, Daniel L.; Coldren, Christopher D.; Polinkovsky, Margaret; Sun, Hengrui; Koch, Gary G.; Chan, Daniel C.F.; Koch, Tad H.

    2009-01-01

    Doxazolidine (Doxaz) is a functionally distinct formaldehyde conjugate of doxorubicin (Dox) that induces cancer cell death in Dox-sensitive and resistant cells. Pentyl PABC-Doxaz (PPD) is a prodrug of Doxaz that is activated by carboxylesterase 2 (CES2), which is expressed by liver, non-small cell lung, colon, pancreatic, renal, and thyroid cancer cells. Here, we demonstrate that in two murine models, PPD was effective at slowing tumor growth and demonstrated markedly reduced cardiotoxic and nephrotoxic effects, as well as better tolerance, relative to Dox. Hepatotoxicity, consistent with liver expression of the murine CES2 homolog, was induced by PPD. Unlike irinotecan, a clinical CES2-activated prodrug, PPD produced no visible gastrointestinal damage. Finally, we demonstrate that cellular response to PPD may be predicted with good accuracy using CES2 expression and Doxaz sensitivity, suggesting that these metrics may be useful as clinical biomarkers for sensitivity of a specific tumor to PPD treatment. PMID:19634903

  12. Anticancer platinum (IV) prodrugs with novel modes of activity.

    PubMed

    Chin, Chee Fei; Wong, Daniel Yuan Qiang; Jothibasu, Ramasamy; Ang, Wee Han

    2011-01-01

    Over the past four decades, the search for improved platinum drugs based on the classical platinum (II)-diam(m)ine pharmacophore has yielded only a handful of successful candidates. New methodologies centred on platinum (IV) complexes, with better stability and expanded coordination spheres, offer the possibility of overcoming limitations inherent to platinum (II) drugs. In this review, novel strategies of targeting and killing cancer cells using platinum (IV) constructs are discussed. These approaches exploit the unique electrochemical characteristics and structural attributes of platinum (IV) complexes as a means of developing anticancer prodrugs that can target and selectively destroy cancer cells. Anticancer platinum (IV) prodrugs represent promising new strategies as targeted chemotherapeutic agents in the ongoing battle against cancer.

  13. Differential In Vitro and In Vivo Toxicities of Antimicrobial Peptide Prodrugs for Potential Use in Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Schütte, André; Reeves, Emer; Greene, Catherine; Humphreys, Hilary; Mall, Marcus; Fitzgerald-Hughes, Deirdre; Devocelle, Marc

    2016-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in the use of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as antimicrobial agents for the treatment of many conditions, including cystic fibrosis (CF). The challenging conditions of the CF patient lung require robust AMPs that are active in an environment of high proteolytic activity but that also have low cytotoxicity and immunogenicity. Previously, we developed prodrugs of AMPs that limited the cytotoxic effects of AMP treatment by rendering the antimicrobial activity dependent on the host enzyme neutrophil elastase (NE). However, cytotoxicity remained an issue. Here, we describe the further optimization of the AMP prodrug (pro-AMP) model for CF to produce pro-WMR, a peptide with greatly reduced cytotoxicity (50% inhibitory concentration against CFBE41o- cells, >300 μM) compared to that of the previous group of pro-AMPs. The bactericidal activity of pro-WMR was increased in NE-rich bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from CF patients (range, 8.4% ± 6.9% alone to 91.5% ± 5.8% with BAL fluid; P = 0.0004), an activity differential greater than that of previous pro-AMPs. In a murine model of lung delivery, the pro-AMP modification reduced host toxicity, with pro-WMR being less toxic than the active peptide. Previously, host toxicity issues have hampered the clinical application of AMPs. However, the development of application-specific AMPs with modifications that minimize toxicity similar to those described here can significantly advance their potential use in patients. The combination of this prodrug strategy with a highly active AMP has the potential to produce new therapeutics for the challenging conditions of the CF patient lung. PMID:26902766

  14. Macromolecular Pt(IV) Prodrugs from Poly(organo)phosphazenes

    PubMed Central

    Banfić, Jelena; Theiner, Sarah; Körner, Wilfried; Brüggemann, Oliver; Berger, Walter; Keppler, Bernhard K.; Heffeter, Petra; Teasdale, Ian

    2016-01-01

    The preparation of novel macromolecular prodrugs via the conjugation of two platinum(IV) complexes to suitably functionalized poly(organo)phosphazenes is presented. The inorganic/organic polymers provide carriers with controlled dimensions due to the use of living cationic polymerization and allow the preparation of conjugates with excellent aqueous solubility but long-term hydrolytic degradability. The macromolecular Pt(IV) prodrugs are designed to undergo intracellular reduction and simultaneous release from the macromolecular carrier to present the active Pt(II) drug derivatives. In vitro investigations show a significantly enhanced intracellular uptake of Pt for the macromolecular prodrugs when compared to small molecule Pt complexes, which is also reflected in an increase in cytotoxicity. Interestingly, drug-resistant sublines also show a significantly smaller resistance against the conjugates compared to clinically established platinum drugs, indicating that an alternative uptake route of the Pt(IV) conjugates might also be able to overcome acquired resistance against Pt(II) drugs. In vivo studies of a selected conjugate show improved tumor shrinkage compared to the respective Pt(IV) complex. PMID:27169668

  15. Anhydride prodrugs for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    PubMed

    Shaaya, Osnat; Magora, Amir; Sheskin, Tzviel; Kumar, Neeraj; Domb, Abraham J

    2003-02-01

    The objective of this study was to synthesize anhydride prodrugs for prolong action to shield the carboxylic acid group from irritative effects and to temporary hydrophobize the drug so that it becomes accessible to aqueous media when the anhydride residue is hydrolyzed. Ibuprofen, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent, was used as a representative drug for anhydride derivatization. Mixed anhydrides of ibuprofen with fatty acids of different chain length were prepared by reacting acid chloride derivatives with the corresponding acid in the presence of acid acceptor and two-phase reaction. Mixed anhydrides were also prepared by dehydration reaction using acetic anhydride and anhydride interchange of symmetric anhydrides. The analgesic effects of mixed anhydride prodrugs were tested using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug rat paw edema model. In vitro degradation of mixed anhydrides and drug release were monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography. Ibuprofen was bound to aliphatic and aromatic acids via an anhydride bond in high reaction yields (>85%) with high mixed anhydride content (>80%). The mix anhydride was purified by chromatography and stored at 4 degrees C to minimize conversion into the symmetric anhydride. These anhydride derivatives hydrolyzed at different time intervals depending on the hydrophobicity of conjugated acid. In vivo testing of the ibuprofen anhydride derivatives for analgesic effect indicated an extended action of the drug for over 24 h as a function of the fatty acid chain length. This study demonstrates the promise of anhydride prodrugs for extending drug action and shielding the carboxylic acid group.

  16. Molecular Basis of Prodrug Activation by Human Valacyclovirase, an α-Amino Acid Ester Hydrolase*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Longsheng; Xu, Zhaohui; Zhou, Jiahai; Lee, Kyung-Dall; Amidon, Gordon L.

    2008-01-01

    Chemical modification to improve biopharmaceutical properties, especially oral absorption and bioavailability, is a common strategy employed by pharmaceutical chemists. The approach often employs a simple structural modification and utilizes ubiquitous endogenous esterases as activation enzymes, although such enzymes are often unidentified. This report describes the crystal structure and specificity of a novel activating enzyme for valacyclovir and valganciclovir. Our structural insights show that human valacyclovirase has a unique binding mode and specificity for amino acid esters. Biochemical data demonstrate that the enzyme hydrolyzes esters of α-amino acids exclusively and displays a broad specificity spectrum for the aminoacyl moiety similar to tricorn-interacting aminopeptidase F1. Crystal structures of the enzyme, two mechanistic mutants, and a complex with a product analogue, when combined with biochemical analysis, reveal the key determinants for substrate recognition; that is, a flexible and mostly hydrophobic acyl pocket, a localized negative electrostatic potential, a large open leaving group-accommodating groove, and a pivotal acidic residue, Asp-123, after the nucleophile Ser-122. This is the first time that a residue immediately after the nucleophile has been found to have its side chain directed into the substrate binding pocket and play an essential role in substrate discrimination in serine hydrolases. These results as well as a phylogenetic analysis establish that the enzyme functions as a specific α-amino acid ester hydrolase. Valacyclovirase is a valuable target for amino acid ester prodrug-based oral drug delivery enhancement strategies. PMID:18256025

  17. A Novel Hybrid Promoter ARE-hTERT for Cancer Gene Therapy.

    PubMed

    Kalinichenko, S V; Shepelev, M V; Vikhreva, P N; Korobko, I V

    2017-01-01

    describe a novel hybrid tumor-specific promoter, ARE-hTERT, composed of the human TERT gene promoter (hTERT) and the antioxidant response element (ARE) from the human GCLM gene promoter. The hybrid promoter retains the tumor specificity of the basal hTERT promoter but is characterized by an enhanced transcriptional activity in cancer cells with abnormal activation of the Nrf2 transcription factor and upon induction of oxidative stress. In the in vitro enzyme-prodrug cancer gene therapy scheme, ARE-hTERT promoter-driven expression of CD : UPRT (yeast cytosine deaminase : uracil phosphoribosyltransferase) chimeric protein induced a more pronounced death of cancer cells either upon treatment with 5-fluorouracil (5FC) alone or when 5FC was combined with chemotherapeutic drugs as compared to the hTERT promoter. The developed hybrid promoter can be considered a better alternative to the hTERT promoter in cancer gene therapy schemes.

  18. The first generation of β-galactosidase-responsive prodrugs designed for the selective treatment of solid tumors in prodrug monotherapy.

    PubMed

    Legigan, Thibaut; Clarhaut, Jonathan; Tranoy-Opalinski, Isabelle; Monvoisin, Arnaud; Renoux, Brigitte; Thomas, Mikaël; Le Pape, Alain; Lerondel, Stéphanie; Papot, Sébastien

    2012-11-12

    Massive attack: Galactoside prodrugs have been designed that can be selectively activated by lysosomal β-galactosidase located inside cancer cells expressing a specific tumor-associated receptor. This efficient enzymatic process triggers a potent cytotoxic effect, releasing the potent antimitotic agent MMAE and allowing the destruction of both receptor-positive and surrounding receptor-negative tumor cells. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Synthesis, Bioevaluation and Molecular Dynamic Simulation Studies of Dexibuprofen–Antioxidant Mutual Prodrugs

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Zaman; Alamgeer; Rasool, Raqiqatur; Hassan, Mubashir; Ahsan, Haseeb; Afzal, Samina; Afzal, Khurram; Cho, Hongsik; Kim, Song Ja

    2016-01-01

    Dexibuprofen–antioxidant conjugates were synthesized with the aim to reduce its gastrointestinal effects. The esters analogs of dexibuprofen 5a–c were obtained by reacting its –COOH group with chloroacetyl derivatives 3a–c. The in vitro hydrolysis data confirmed that synthesized prodrugs 5a–c were stable in stomach while undergo significant hydrolysis in 80% human plasma and thus release free dexibuprofen. The minimum reversion was observed at pH 1.2 suggesting that prodrugs are less irritating to stomach than dexibuprofen. The anti-inflammatory activity of 5c (p < 0.001) is more significant than the parent dexibuprofen. The prodrug 5c produced maximum inhibition (42.06%) of paw-edema against egg-albumin induced inflammation in mice. Anti-pyretic effects in mice indicated that prodrugs 5a and 5b showed significant inhibition of pyrexia (p < 0.001). The analgesic activity of 5a is more pronounced compared to other synthesized prodrugs. The mean percent inhibition indicated that the prodrug 5a was more active in decreasing the number of writhes induced by acetic acid than standard dexibuprofen. The ulcerogenic activity results assured that synthesized prodrugs produce less gastrointestinal adverse effects than dexibuprofen. The ex vivo antiplatelet aggregation activity results also confirmed that synthesized prodrugs are less irritant to gastrointestinal mucosa than the parent dexibuprofen. Molecular docking analysis showed that the prodrugs 5a–c interacts with the residues present in active binding sites of target protein. The stability of drug–target complexes is verified by molecular dynamic simulation study. It exhibited that synthesized prodrugs formed stable complexes with the COX-2 protein thus support our wet lab results. It is therefore concluded that the synthesized prodrugs have promising pharmacological activities with reduced gastrointestinal adverse effects than the parent drug. PMID:28009827

  20. Synthesis, Bioevaluation and Molecular Dynamic Simulation Studies of Dexibuprofen-Antioxidant Mutual Prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Zaman; Alamgeer; Rasool, Raqiqatur; Hassan, Mubashir; Ahsan, Haseeb; Afzal, Samina; Afzal, Khurram; Cho, Hongsik; Kim, Song Ja

    2016-12-21

    Dexibuprofen-antioxidant conjugates were synthesized with the aim to reduce its gastrointestinal effects. The esters analogs of dexibuprofen 5a - c were obtained by reacting its -COOH group with chloroacetyl derivatives 3a - c . The in vitro hydrolysis data confirmed that synthesized prodrugs 5a - c were stable in stomach while undergo significant hydrolysis in 80% human plasma and thus release free dexibuprofen. The minimum reversion was observed at pH 1.2 suggesting that prodrugs are less irritating to stomach than dexibuprofen. The anti-inflammatory activity of 5c ( p < 0.001) is more significant than the parent dexibuprofen. The prodrug 5c produced maximum inhibition (42.06%) of paw-edema against egg-albumin induced inflammation in mice. Anti-pyretic effects in mice indicated that prodrugs 5a and 5b showed significant inhibition of pyrexia ( p < 0.001). The analgesic activity of 5a is more pronounced compared to other synthesized prodrugs. The mean percent inhibition indicated that the prodrug 5a was more active in decreasing the number of writhes induced by acetic acid than standard dexibuprofen. The ulcerogenic activity results assured that synthesized prodrugs produce less gastrointestinal adverse effects than dexibuprofen. The ex vivo antiplatelet aggregation activity results also confirmed that synthesized prodrugs are less irritant to gastrointestinal mucosa than the parent dexibuprofen. Molecular docking analysis showed that the prodrugs 5a - c interacts with the residues present in active binding sites of target protein. The stability of drug-target complexes is verified by molecular dynamic simulation study. It exhibited that synthesized prodrugs formed stable complexes with the COX-2 protein thus support our wet lab results. It is therefore concluded that the synthesized prodrugs have promising pharmacological activities with reduced gastrointestinal adverse effects than the parent drug.

  1. Preparation and Bioactivity Assessment of Chitosan-1-Acetic Acid-5-Flurouracil Conjugates as Cancer Prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Mohsin O; Hussain, Kameran S; Haj, Nadia Q

    2017-11-08

    5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is a specific anti-cancer agent that is generally used to treat gastrointestinal, colorectal, and breast cancer. In this work, chitosan (CS) was extracted from local fish scales using an established method. 5-FU was then converted to 1-acetic acid-5-fluorouracil (FUAC) and reacted with this CS to prepare chitosan-1-acetic acid-5-fluorouracil (CS-FUAC) conjugates as a colon-specific prodrug. All compounds were characterized by Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), and UV-visible spectroscopy. The synthesized compound was subjected to a chemical stability study in phosphate buffer (0.2 M, pH 7.4) and in KCl/HCl buffer (0.2 M, pH 1.2) at different time intervals (0-240 min) and incubation at 37 °C. This revealed a significantly greater stability and a longer half-life for the CS-FUAC than for FUAC. Hemolytic activity results indicated a much lower toxicity for CS-FUAC than for 5-FU and supported consideration of CS-FUAC for further biological screening and application trials. The percentage of FUAC in the conjugates was determined by subjecting the prodrug to treatment in basic media to hydrolyze the amide bond, followed by absorbency measurements at 273 nm. The cytotoxicity studies of the conjugates were also evaluated on human colorectal cancer cell line (HT-29), which showed that the conjugates are more cytotoxic than the free drug. Therefore, CS-FUAC conjugates can be considered to represent potential colon-specific drug delivery agents, with minimal undesirable side effects, for colon cancer therapy.

  2. Intracellular implantation of enzymes in hollow silica nanospheres for protein therapy: cascade system of superoxide dismutase and catalase.

    PubMed

    Chang, Feng-Peng; Chen, Yi-Ping; Mou, Chung-Yuan

    2014-11-01

    An approach for enzyme therapeutics is elaborated with cell-implanted nanoreactors that are based on multiple enzymes encapsulated in hollow silica nanospheres (HSNs). The synthesis of HSNs is carried out by silica sol-gel templating of water-in-oil microemulsions so that polyethyleneimine (PEI) modified enzymes in aqueous phase are encapsulated inside the HSNs. PEI-grafted superoxide dismutase (PEI-SOD) and catalase (PEI-CAT) encapsulated in HSNs are prepared with quantitative control of the enzyme loadings. Excellent activities of superoxide dismutation by PEI-SOD@HSN are found and transformation of H2 O2 to water by PEI-CAT@HSN. When PEI-SOD and PEI-CAT are co-encapsulated, cascade transformation of superoxide through hydrogen peroxide to water was facile. Substantial fractions of HSNs exhibit endosome escape to cytosol after their delivery to cells. The production of downstream reactive oxygen species (ROS) and COX-2/p-p38 expression show that co-encapsulated SOD/CAT inside the HSNs renders the highest cell protection against the toxicant N,N'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride (paraquat). The rapid cell uptake and strong detoxification effect on superoxide radicals by the SOD/CAT-encapsulated hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles demonstrate the general concept of implanting catalytic nanoreactors in biological cells with designed functions. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. A rapid albumin-binding 5-fluorouracil prodrug with a prolonged circulation time and enhanced antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dongyang; Zhang, Huicong; Tao, Wenhui; Wei, Wei; Sun, Jin; He, Zhonggui

    2017-02-28

    5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is an antimetabolite widely used in the treatment of a variety of solid tumors. However, its clinical applications are greatly hindered by a very short residence time in blood circulation and non-specific distribution in the body. In order to overcome these challenges, 1-alkylcarbonyloxymethyl 5-FU was designed and linked with a maleimide group to form an albumin-binding 5-FU prodrug, named EMC-5-FU. In vitro incubation with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and fresh rat blood proved that the prodrug bound rapidly to cysteine-34 to form the drug-albumin conjugate nanomedicine. The conjugate BSA-EMC-5-FU was stable under acidic and neutral conditions but an unstable compound to release 5-FU in alkaline solution, and such a property was used for the determination of total 5-FU concentration in plasma. The t 1/2 and AUC values of total 5-FU after an intravenous injection of EMC-5-FU to SD rats were significantly increased, about 43-fold and 93-fold higher than those of 5-FU following 5-FU intravenous administration, respectively. In vivo fluorescence images of EMC-Cy5 indirectly demonstrated the selective tumor accumulation of EMC-5-FU. In H22 tumor-bearing mice models, treatment with EMC-5-FU was more efficacious in tumor inhibition compared to 5-FU intravenous administration. In conclusion, a rapid albumin-binding prodrug strategy addresses concerns related to the poor circulation half-life and non-specific distribution of anticancer drugs, and paves the way for the development of in vivo-forming nanomedicines in clinical cancer therapy.

  4. Flurbiprofen derivatives in Alzheimer's disease: synthesis, pharmacokinetic and biological assessment of lipoamino acid prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Pignatello, Rosario; Pantò, Valentina; Salmaso, Stefano; Bersani, Sara; Pistarà, Venerando; Kepe, Vladimir; Barrio, Jorge R; Puglisi, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    Flurbiprofen (FLU) lipophilic prodrugs with lipoamino acids (LAA) 6a- e were synthesized for brain delivery. Chemical and plasmatic stability of prodrugs 6a- e as well as pharmacokinetic distribution studies for the prodrugs 6b and 6d were carried out. FLU prodrugs 6a- e were compared to the parent drug for their ability to inhibit binding of [F-18]FDDNP to in vitro formed beta-amyloid protein (Abeta fibrils). FLU-LAA conjugates showed a typical prodrug stability profile, being stable in PBS at pH 7.4 and releasing the active drug in plasma. Compound 6d yielded a slow accumulation of FLU in the brain. In the in vitro inhibition assay, all prodrugs except for the prodrug with the longest alkyl side chain ( 6e) were effective as inhibitors of [F-18]FDDNP binding to Abeta fibrils with EC50 values in the 10-300 nM range. The different brain accumulation kinetics shown by FLU and its LAA conjugate 6d suggested a possible slow-releasing activity of FLU by these prodrugs in the brain or a differential pharmacological effect deserving further, detailed studies on their biodistribution and pharmacological profile.

  5. The Dipeptide Monoester Prodrugs of Floxuridine and Gemcitabine—Feasibility of Orally Administrable Nucleoside Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Bermejo, Blanca Borras; Amidon, Gordon L.

    2014-01-01

    Dipeptide monoester prodrugs of floxuridine and gemcitabine were synthesized. Their chemical stability in buffers, enzymatic stability in cell homogenates, permeability in mouse intestinal membrane along with drug concentration in mouse plasma, and anti-proliferative activity in cancer cells were determined and compared to their parent drugs. Floxuridine prodrug was more enzymatically stable than floxuridine and the degradation from prodrug to parent drug works as the rate-limiting step. On the other hand, gemcitabine prodrug was less enzymatically stable than gemcitabine. Those dipeptide monoester prodrugs exhibited 2.4- to 48.7-fold higher uptake than their parent drugs in Caco-2, Panc-1, and AsPC-1 cells. Floxuridine and gemcitabine prodrugs showed superior permeability in mouse jejunum to their parent drugs and exhibited the higher drug concentration in plasma after in situ mouse perfusion. Cell proliferation assays in ductal pancreatic cancer cells, AsPC-1 and Panc-1, indicated that dipeptide prodrugs of floxuridine and gemcitabine were more potent than their parent drugs. The enhanced potency of nucleoside analogs was attributed to their improved membrane permeability. The prodrug forms of 5′-l-phenylalanyl-l-tyrosyl-floxuridine and 5′-l-phenylalanyl-l-tyrosyl-gemcitabine appeared in mouse plasma after the permeation of intestinal membrane and the first-pass effect, suggesting their potential for the development of oral dosage form for anti-cancer agents. PMID:24473270

  6. The dipeptide monoester prodrugs of floxuridine and gemcitabine-feasibility of orally administrable nucleoside analogs.

    PubMed

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Borras Bermejo, Blanca; Amidon, Gordon L

    2014-01-27

    Dipeptide monoester prodrugs of floxuridine and gemcitabine were synthesized. Their chemical stability in buffers, enzymatic stability in cell homogenates, permeability in mouse intestinal membrane along with drug concentration in mouse plasma, and anti-proliferative activity in cancer cells were determined and compared to their parent drugs. Floxuridine prodrug was more enzymatically stable than floxuridine and the degradation from prodrug to parent drug works as the rate-limiting step. On the other hand, gemcitabine prodrug was less enzymatically stable than gemcitabine. Those dipeptide monoester prodrugs exhibited 2.4- to 48.7-fold higher uptake than their parent drugs in Caco-2, Panc-1, and AsPC-1 cells. Floxuridine and gemcitabine prodrugs showed superior permeability in mouse jejunum to their parent drugs and exhibited the higher drug concentration in plasma after in situ mouse perfusion. Cell proliferation assays in ductal pancreatic cancer cells, AsPC-1 and Panc-1, indicated that dipeptide prodrugs of floxuridine and gemcitabine were more potent than their parent drugs. The enhanced potency of nucleoside analogs was attributed to their improved membrane permeability. The prodrug forms of 5¢-L-phenylalanyl-l-tyrosyl-floxuridine and 5¢-L-phenylalanyl-L-tyrosyl-gemcitabine appeared in mouse plasma after the permeation of intestinal membrane and the first-pass effect, suggesting their potential for the development of oral dosage form for anti-cancer agents.

  7. Down-regulation of malic enzyme 1 and 2: Sensitizing head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells to therapy-induced senescence.

    PubMed

    Woo, Sang Hyeok; Yang, Liang P; Chuang, Hui-Ching; Fitzgerald, Alison; Lee, Ho-Young; Pickering, Curtis; Myers, Jeffrey N; Skinner, Heath D

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to present the results of our investigation of malic enzyme (ME) expression and the induction of senescence in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). P53, ME1, ME2, and aspects of cellular metabolism, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) were investigated in HNSCC cell lines. Both metformin and ionizing radiation inhibited the expression of ME2, but not ME1, in HNSCC. Knockdown of ME1 or ME2 potentiated therapy-induced senescence in HNSCC cells regardless of p53 status, and led to increased p21 and generation of ROS. Therapy-induced senescence in ME-depleted cells was blocked by the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine. Finally, high expression of ME2 was associated with poorer overall survival (OS) in patients with HNSCC. Depletion of ME enhances therapy-induced senescence and seems driven largely by ROS. ME2 expression in HNSCC may be associated with poor outcome, providing a possible link between therapy-induced senescence and patient outcome, and indicating a potential therapeutic benefit of targeting ME2. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E934-E940, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Ozone therapy and the activity of selected lysosomal enzymes in blood serum of patients with lower limb ischaemia associated with obliterative atheromatosis.

    PubMed

    Tafil-Klawe, Małgorzata; Woźniak, Alina; Drewa, Tomasz; Ponikowska, Irena; Drewa, Joanna; Drewa, Gerard; Włodarczyk, Konrad; Olszewska, Dorota; Klawe, Jacek; Kozłowska, Róza

    2002-07-01

    The paper compares the effects of ozone therapy and conventional balneological methods on health condition of patients with obliterative atheromatosis and on serum activity of three lysosomal enzymes. Sixty-four patients with lower limb ischaemia in the course of obliterative atheromatosis (without diabetes) were enrolled in the study. Thirty-two patients were treated with ozone administered by intravenous infusions and 30-minute aerosol oxygen-ozone baths. A comparative group was formed of 32 patients treated with traditional balneology. There was also a control group made up of 30 healthy subjects. Ozone therapy as well as traditional balneology were administered daily for the period of 10 days, excluding Saturdays and Sundays. Blood for biochemical analysis was collected from elbow vein in the following time intervals: 24 hours before ozone therapy or classical balneology, one hour after therapy and on the 10th day of treatment. The activity of cathepsin D, acid phosphatase and arylsulphatase as well as the levels of a-1-antitrypsin (protease inhibitor) were determined in blood serum of patients with obliterative atheromatosis. In patients who received ozone therapy the activity of analysed lysosomal hydrolases returned to the values typical for healthy subjects. Patients' general condition also improved. The use of traditional balneological methods did not result in any significant change either in the activity of lysosomal hydrolases, the level of a-1-antitrypsin or general condition of patients. Ozone therapy administered by intravenous infusions and aerosol oxygen-ozone baths of lower extremities yields much better therapeutic results in comparison with classical balneology.

  9. The In-Situ One-Step Synthesis of a PDC Macromolecular Pro-Drug and the Fabrication of a Novel Core-Shell Micell.

    PubMed

    Yu, Cui-Yun; Yang, Sa; Li, Zhi-Ping; Huang, Can; Ning, Qian; Huang, Wen; Yang, Wen-Tong; He, Dongxiu; Sun, Lichun

    2016-01-01

    The development of slow release nano-sized carriers for efficient antineoplastic drug delivery with a biocompatible and biodegradable pectin-based macromolecular pro-drug for tumor therapy has been reported in this study. Pectin-doxorubicin conjugates (PDC), a macromolecular pro-drug, were prepared via an amide condensation reaction, and a novel amphiphilic core-shell micell based on a PDC macromolecular pro-drug (PDC-M) was self-assembled in situ, with pectin as the hydrophilic shell and doxorubicin (DOX) as the hydrophobic core. Then the chemical structure of the PDC macromolecular pro-drug was identified by both Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-NMR), and proved that doxorubicin combined well with the pectin and formed macromolecular pro-drug. The PDC-M were observed to have an unregularly spherical shape and were uniform in size by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The average particle size of PDC-M, further measured by a Zetasizer nanoparticle analyzer (Nano ZS, Malvern Instruments), was about 140 nm. The encapsulation efficiency and drug loading were 57.82% ± 3.7% (n = 3) and 23.852% ±2.3% (n = 3), respectively. The in vitro drug release behaviors of the resulting PDC-M were studied in a simulated tumor environment (pH 5.0), blood (pH 7.4) and a lysosome media (pH 6.8), and showed a prolonged slow release profile. Assays for antiproliferative effects and flow cytometry of the resulting PDC-M in HepG2 cell lines demonstrated greater properties of delayed and slow release as compared to free DOX. A cell viability study against endothelial cells further revealed that the resulting PDC-M possesses excellent cell compatibilities and low cytotoxicities in comparison with that of the free DOX. Hemolysis activity was investigated in rabbits, and the results also demonstrated that the PDC-M has greater compatibility in comparison with free DOX. This shows that the resulting PDC-M can ameliorate the

  10. Mucopolysaccharidosis type I, II and VI and response to enzyme replacement therapy: Results from a single-center case series study

    PubMed Central

    Franco, José Francisco da Silva; El Dib, Regina; Agarwal, Arnav; Soares, Diogo; Milhan, Noala Vicensoto Moreira; Albano, Lilian Maria José; Kim, Chong Ae

    2017-01-01

    Summary Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) types I, II and VI are associated with deficiencies in alpha-L-iduronidase, iduronate-2-sulfatase and N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase, respectively, and generally involve progressive and multi-systemic clinical manifestations. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) appears to be reasonably well tolerated. The aim of this study was to examine clinical and diagnostic findings of a series of pediatric and adult MPS patients, and assess the safety and efficacy of ERT in children and adults with MPS type I, II and VI. Pediatric and adult patients were treated weekly with 1 mg/kg recombinant human N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulphatase (rhASB), 0.45 mg/kg alpha-L-iduronidase, or 0.5 mg/kg iduronate-2-sulfatase. Clinical and biochemical parameters with ERT were evaluated for a mean duration of 5 years. Mantel-Haenszel risk ratios and associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for rates of death among different types of enzyme replacement therapies (ERTs). Twenty-seven patients (mean ages ‒ pediatric: 6.8 years; adult: 29 years) were included. ERT was found to be consistently well tolerated and effective in attenuating symptoms, but did not prevent the progression of the disease or reduce mortality rates. Our findings demonstrated that early diagnosis and initiation of ERT are critical for improvements in patient-important outcomes and quality of life, although disease progression and mortality rates remain high. PMID:28944140

  11. Mucopolysaccharidosis type I, II and VI and response to enzyme replacement therapy: Results from a single-center case series study.

    PubMed

    Franco, José Francisco da Silva; El Dib, Regina; Agarwal, Arnav; Soares, Diogo; Milhan, Noala Vicensoto Moreira; Albano, Lilian Maria José; Kim, Chong Ae

    2017-08-01

    Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) types I, II and VI are associated with deficiencies in alpha-L-iduronidase, iduronate-2-sulfatase and N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase, respectively, and generally involve progressive and multi-systemic clinical manifestations. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) appears to be reasonably well tolerated. The aim of this study was to examine clinical and diagnostic findings of a series of pediatric and adult MPS patients, and assess the safety and efficacy of ERT in children and adults with MPS type I, II and VI. Pediatric and adult patients were treated weekly with 1 mg/kg recombinant human N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulphatase (rhASB), 0.45 mg/kg alpha-L-iduronidase, or 0.5 mg/kg iduronate-2-sulfatase. Clinical and biochemical parameters with ERT were evaluated for a mean duration of 5 years. Mantel-Haenszel risk ratios and associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for rates of death among different types of enzyme replacement therapies (ERTs). Twenty-seven patients (mean ages ‒ pediatric: 6.8 years; adult: 29 years) were included. ERT was found to be consistently well tolerated and effective in attenuating symptoms, but did not prevent the progression of the disease or reduce mortality rates. Our findings demonstrated that early diagnosis and initiation of ERT are critical for improvements in patient-important outcomes and quality of life, although disease progression and mortality rates remain high.

  12. Ten-year-long enzyme replacement therapy shows a poor effect in alleviating giant leg ulcers in a male with Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Okada, Jun; Hossain, Mohammad Arif; Wu, Chen; Miyajima, Takashi; Yanagisawa, Hiroko; Akiyama, Keiko; Eto, Yoshikatsu

    2018-03-01

    Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of α-galactosidase A (α-gal A), leading to the progressive accumulation of glycosphingolipids. Classical hemizygous males usually present symptoms, including pain and paresthesia in the extremities, angiokeratoma, hypo- or anhidrosis, abdominal pain, cornea verticillata, early stroke, tinnitus, and/or hearing loss, during early childhood or adolescence. Moreover, proteinuria, renal impairment, and cardiac hypertrophy can appear with age. Enzyme replacement is the most common therapy for Fabry disease at present which has been approved in Japan since 2004. We report a case involving a 27-year-old male with extreme terminal pain, anhidrosis, abdominal pain, tinnitus, hearing impairment, cornea verticillata, and recurrent huge ulcers in the lower extremities. At the age of 16 years, he was diagnosed with Fabry disease with a positive family history and very low α-gal A activity. He then received enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with recombinant human agalsidase beta at 1 mg/kg every 2 weeks for 10 years. Throughout the course of ERT, his leg ulcers recurred, and massive excretion of urinary globotriaosylceramide and plasma globotriaosylsphingosine was observed. Electron microscopy of the venous tissue in the regions of the ulcer showed massive typical zebra bodies in the vascular wall smooth muscle cells.

  13. Water-soluble prodrugs of paclitaxel containing self-immolative disulfide linkers.

    PubMed

    Gund, Machhindra; Khanna, Amit; Dubash, Nauzer; Damre, Anagha; Singh, Kishore S; Satyam, Apparao

    2015-01-01

    A new series of disulfide-containing prodrugs of paclitaxel were designed, synthesized and evaluated against 6 cancer cell lines. Some of these prodrugs exhibited nearly equal or slightly better anticancer activity when compared to that of paclitaxel. These prodrugs contain water-soluble groups such as amino, carboxyl, hydroxyl, amino acids, etc., and exhibited 6-140 fold increase in aqueous solubility when compared to paclitaxel. One of these prodrugs exhibited improved water solubility, better in vitro anticancer activity and significantly superior oral bioavailability in mice when compared to those of paclitaxel. Thus, we have identified a very promising lead compound for further optimization and evaluation as a potentially bioavailable water-soluble prodrug of paclitaxel.

  14. A Food Effect Study of an Oral Thrombin Inhibitor and Prodrug Approach To Mitigate It.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jihye; Kim, Bongchan; Kim, Tae Hun; Lee, Sun Hwa; Park, Hee Dong; Chung, Kyungha; Lee, Sung-Hack; Paek, Seungyup; Kim, Eunice EunKyeong; Yoon, SukKyoon; Kim, Aeri

    2016-04-04

    LB30870, a new direct thrombin inhibitor, showed 80% reduction in oral bioavailability in fed state. The present study aims to propose trypsin binding as a mechanism for such negative food effect and demonstrate a prodrug approach to mitigate food effect. Effect of food composition on fed state oral bioavailability of LB30870 was studied in dogs. Various prodrugs were synthesized, and their solubility, permeability, and trypsin binding affinity were measured. LB30870 and prodrugs were subject to cocrystallization with trypsin, and the X-ray structures of cocrystals were determined. Food effect was studied in dogs for selected prodrugs. Protein or lipid meal appeared to affect oral bioavailability of LB30870 in dogs more than carbohydrate meal. Blocking both carboxyl and amidine groups of LB30870 resulted in trypsin Ki values orders of magnitude higher than that of LB30870. Prodrugs belonged to either Biopharmaceutical Classification System I, II, or III. X-ray crystallography revealed that prodrugs did not bind to trypsin, but instead their hydrolysis product at the amidine blocking group formed cocrystal with trypsin. A prodrug with significantly less food effect than LB30870 was identified. Binding of prodrugs to food components such as dietary fiber appeared to counteract the positive effect brought with the prodrug approach. Further formulation research is warranted to enhance the oral bioavailability of prodrugs. In conclusion, this study is the first to demonstrate that the negative food effect of LB30870 can be attributed to trypsin binding. Trypsin binding study is proposed as a screening tool during lead optimization to minimize food effect.

  15. Evaluation of salicylic acid fatty ester prodrugs for UV protection.

    PubMed

    Im, Jong Seob; Balakrishnan, Prabagar; Oh, Dong Hoon; Kim, Jung Sun; Jeon, Eun-Mi; Kim, Dae-Duk; Yong, Chul Soon; Choi, Han-Gon

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the physicochemical properties and in vitro evaluation of fatty ester prodrugs of salicylic acid for ultraviolet (UV) protection. The physicochemical properties such as lipophilicity, chemical stability and enzymatic hydrolysis were investigated with the following fatty ester prodrugs of salicylic acid: octanoyl (C8SA), nonanoyl (C9SA), decanoyl (C10SA), lauroyl (C12SA), myristoyl (C14SA) and palmitoyl oxysalicylate (C16SA). Furthermore, their skin permeation and accumulation were evaluated using a combination of common permeation enhancing techniques such as the use of a lipophilic receptor solution, removal of stratum corneum and delipidization of skin. Their k' values were proportional to the degree of carbon-carbon saturation in the side chain. All these fatty esters were highly stable in 2-propanol, acetonitrile and glycerin, but unstable in methanol and ethanol. They were relatively unstable in liver and skin homogenates. In particular, C16SA was mostly hydrolyzed to its parent compound in hairless mouse liver and skin homogenates, suggesting that it might be converted to salicylic acid after its topical administration. In the skin permeation and accumulation study, C16SA showed the poorest permeation in all skins, suggesting that it could not be permeated in the skin. Furthermore, C14SA and C16SA were less accumulated in delipidized skin compared with normal skin or stripped skin, suggesting that these esters had relatively strong affinities for lipids compared with the other prodrugs in the skin. C16SA showed significantly higher dermal accumulation in all skins compared with its parent salicylic acid. Thus, the palmitoyl oxysalicylate (C16SA) might be a potential candidate for UV protection due to its absence of skin permeation, smaller uptake in the lipid phase and relatively lower skin accumulation.

  16. Photochemical internalization (PCI) enhanced nonviral transfection of tumor suppressor and pro-drug activating genes; a potential treatment modality for gliomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Frederick; Zamora, Genesis; Sun, Chung-Ho; Trinidad, Anthony; Berg, Kristian; Madsen, Steen; Kwon, Young Jik; Hirschberg, Henry

    2014-03-01

    The overall objective of the research is to investigate the utility of photochemical internalization for the enhanced nonviral transfection of genes into cells. We have examined, in detail, the evaluation of photochemical internalization (PCI) as a method for the non-viral introduction of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN and the PCI mediated transfection of the cytosine deaminase (CD) pro drug activating gene into glioma cell monolayers and multi-cell tumor spheroids. Expression of the CD gene within the target cell produces an enzyme that converts the nontoxic prodrug, 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC), to the toxic metabolite, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU).

  17. Supramolecular curcumin-barium prodrugs for formulating with ceramic particles.

    PubMed

    Kamalasanan, Kaladhar; Anupriya; Deepa, M K; Sharma, Chandra P

    2014-10-01

    A simple and stable curcumin-ceramic combined formulation was developed with an aim to improve curcumin stability and release profile in the presence of reactive ceramic particles for potential dental and orthopedic applications. For that, curcumin was complexed with barium (Ba(2+)) to prepare curcumin-barium (BaCur) complex. Upon removal of the unbound curcumin and Ba(2+) by dialysis, a water-soluble BaCur complex was obtained. The complex was showing [M+1](+) peak at 10,000-20,000 with multiple fractionation peaks of MALDI-TOF-MS studies, showed that the complex was a supramolecular multimer. The (1)H NMR and FTIR studies revealed that, divalent Ba(2+) interacted predominantly through di-phenolic groups of curcumin to form an end-to-end complex resulted in supramolecular multimer. The overall crystallinity of the BaCur was lower than curcumin as per XRD analysis. The complexation of Ba(2+) to curcumin did not degrade curcumin as per HPLC studies. The fluorescence spectrum was blue shifted upon Ba(2+) complexation with curcumin. Monodisperse nanoparticles with size less than 200dnm was formed, out of the supramolecular complex upon dialysis, as per DLS, and upon loading into pluronic micelles the size was remaining in similar order of magnitude as per DLS and AFM studies. Stability of the curcumin was improved greater than 50% after complexation with Ba(2+) as per UV/Vis spectroscopy. Loading of the supramloecular nanoparticles into pluronic micelles had further improved the stability of curcumin to approx. 70% in water. These BaCur supramolecule nanoparticles can be considered as a new class of prodrugs with improved solubility and stability. Subsequently, ceramic nanoparticles with varying chemical composition were prepared for changing the material surface reactivity in terms of the increase in, degradability, surface pH and protein adsorption. Further, these ceramic particles were combined with curcumin prodrug formulations and optimized the curcumin release

  18. Novel Biotinylated Lipid Prodrugs of Acyclovir for the Treatment of Herpetic Keratitis (HK): Transporter Recognition, Tissue Stability and Antiviral Activity

    PubMed Central

    Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Earla, Ravinder; Sirimulla, Suman; Bailey, Jake Brain; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Biotinylated lipid prodrugs of acyclovir (ACV) were designed to target the sodium dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT) on the cornea to facilitate enhanced cellular absorption of ACV. Methods All the prodrugs were screened for in vitro cellular uptake, interaction with SMVT, docking analysis, cytotoxicity, enzymatic stability and antiviral activity. Results Uptake of biotinylated lipid prodrugs of ACV (B-R-ACV and B-12HS-ACV) was significantly higher than biotinylated prodrug (B-ACV), lipid prodrugs (R-ACV and 12HS-ACV) and ACV in corneal cells. Transepithelial transport across rabbit corneas indicated the recognition of the prodrugs by SMVT. Average Vina scores obtained from docking studies further confirmed that biotinylated lipid prodrugs possess enhanced affinity towards SMVT. All the prodrugs studied did not cause any cytotoxicity and were found to be safe and non-toxic. B-R-ACV and B-12HS-ACV were found to be relatively more stable in ocular tissue homogenates and exhibited excellent antiviral activity. Conclusions Biotinylated lipid prodrugs demonstrated synergistic improvement in cellular uptake due to recognition of the prodrugs by SMVT on the cornea and lipid mediated transcellular diffusion. These biotinylated lipid prodrugs appear to be promising drug candidates for the treatment of herpetic keratitis (HK) and may lower ACV resistance in patients with poor clinical response. PMID:23657675

  19. Novel biotinylated lipid prodrugs of acyclovir for the treatment of herpetic keratitis (HK): transporter recognition, tissue stability and antiviral activity.

    PubMed

    Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Earla, Ravinder; Sirimulla, Suman; Bailey, Jake Brain; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

    2013-08-01

    Biotinylated lipid prodrugs of acyclovir (ACV) were designed to target the sodium dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT) on the cornea to facilitate enhanced cellular absorption of ACV. All the prodrugs were screened for in vitro cellular uptake, interaction with SMVT, docking analysis, cytotoxicity, enzymatic stability and antiviral activity. Uptake of biotinylated lipid prodrugs of ACV (B-R-ACV and B-12HS-ACV) was significantly higher than biotinylated prodrug (B-ACV), lipid prodrugs (R-ACV and 12HS-ACV) and ACV in corneal cells. Transepithelial transport across rabbit corneas indicated the recognition of the prodrugs by SMVT. Average Vina scores obtained from docking studies further confirmed that biotinylated lipid prodrugs possess enhanced affinity towards SMVT. All the prodrugs studied did not cause any cytotoxicity and were found to be safe and non-toxic. B-R-ACV and B-12HS-ACV were found to be relatively more stable in ocular tissue homogenates and exhibited excellent antiviral activity. Biotinylated lipid prodrugs demonstrated synergistic improvement in cellular uptake due to recognition of the prodrugs by SMVT on the cornea and lipid mediated transcellular diffusion. These biotinylated lipid prodrugs appear to be promising drug candidates for the treatment of herpetic keratitis (HK) and may lower ACV resistance in patients with poor clinical response.

  20. The Medicinal Chemistry of Imidazotetrazine Prodrugs

    PubMed Central

    Moody, Catherine L.; Wheelhouse, Richard T

    2014-01-01

    Temozolomide (TMZ) is the standard first line treatment for malignant glioma, reaching “blockbuster” status in 2010, yet it remains the only drug in its class. The main constraints on the clinical effectiveness of TMZ therapy are its requirement for active DNA mismatch repair (MMR) proteins for activity, and inherent resistance through O6-methyl guanine-DNA methyl transferase (MGMT) activity. Moreover, acquired resistance, due to MMR mutation, results in aggressive TMZ-resistant tumour regrowth following good initial responses. Much of the attraction in TMZ as a drug lies in its PK/PD properties: it is acid stable and has 100% oral bioavailability; it also has excellent distribution properties, crosses the blood-brain barrier, and there is direct evidence of tumour localisation. This review seeks to unravel some of the mysteries of the imidazotetrazine class of compounds to which TMZ belongs. In addition to an overview of different synthetic strategies, we explore the somewhat unusual chemical reactivity of the imidazotetrazines, probing their mechanisms of reaction, examining which attributes are required for an active drug molecule and reviewing the use of this combined knowledge towards the development of new and improved anti-cancer agents. PMID:25014631

  1. The Evaluation Of Therapeutic Efficacy and Safety Profile of Simvastatin Prodrug Micelles in a Closed Fracture Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yijia; Jia, Zhenshan; Yuan, Hongjiang; Dusad, Anand; Ren, Ke; Wei, Xin; Fehringer, Edward V.; Purdue, P. Edward; Daluiski, Aaron; Goldring, Steven R.; Wang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the therapeutic efficiency of a micellar prodrug formulation of simvastatin (SIM/SIM-mPEG) and explore its safety in a closed femoral fracture mouse model. Methods The amphiphilic macromolecular prodrug of simvastatin (SIM-mPEG) was synthesized and formulated together with free simvastatin into micelles. It was also labeled with a near infrared dye for in vivo imaging purpose. A closed femoral fracture mouse model was established using a three-point bending device. The mice with established closed femoral fracture were treated with SIM/SIM-mPEG micelle, using free simvastatin and saline as controls. The therapeutic efficacy of the micelles was evaluated using a high-resolution micro-CT. Serum biochemistry and histology analyses were performed to explore the potential toxicity of the micelle formulation. Results Near Infrared Fluorescence (NIRF) imaging confirmed the passive targeting of SIM/SIM-mPEG micelles to the bone lesion of the mice with closed femoral fracture. The micelle was found to promote fracture healing with an excellent safety profile. In addition, the accelerated healing of the femoral fracture also helped to prevent disuse-associated same-side tibia bone loss accompanying the femur fracture. Conclusion SIM/SIM-mPEG micelle was found to be an effective and safe treatment for closed femoral fracture repair in mice. The evidence obtained in this study suggests that it may have the potential to be translated into a novel therapy for clinical management of skeletal fractures and non-union. PMID:27164897

  2. [Infection with fasciola hepatica causing elevated liver-enzyme results and eosinophilia - serologic and endoscopic diagnosis and therapy].

    PubMed

    Christmann, M; Henrich, R; Mayer, G; Ell, C

    2002-09-01

    A 36 year old man was diagnosed with eosinophilia and elevated liver-enzyme levels in a preoperative routine laboratory testing. In the course of the evaluation we found high levels of Fasciola hepatica specific antibodies which lead to an ERC with biliary aspiration after choleretic stimulation. The bile showed Fasciola eggs and subsequently we recovered a parasite from the bile duct. Abdominal CT- and MRI-Scans showed lesions of the liver consistent with hepatic fascioliasis. Focussed patient's history revealed ingestion of contaminated watercress in Turkey as the most likely source of infection. For patients with elevated liver-enzymes of unknown etiology with eosinophilia or in combination with a congruent patient's history even without eosinophilia serologic studies of Fasciola hepatica seem to be advisable. We suggest an ERC with biliary aspiration to prove the diagnosis in case of positive results, if the prepatency period of 4 months after the ingestion is over. Fasciola hepatica is rarely diagnosed in Germany probably due to the lack of awareness of the disease.

  3. Dominant negative selection of vaccinia virus using a thymidine kinase/thymidylate kinase fusion gene and the prodrug azidothymidine

    SciTech Connect

    Holzer, Georg W.; Mayrhofer, Josef; Gritschenberger, Werner

    2005-07-05

    The Escherichia coli thymidine kinase/thymidylate kinase (tk/tmk) fusion gene encodes an enzyme that efficiently converts the prodrug 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT) into its toxic triphosphate derivative, a substance which stops DNA chain elongation. Integration of this marker gene into vaccinia virus that normally is not inhibited by AZT allowed the establishment of a powerful selection procedure for recombinant viruses. In contrast to the conventional vaccinia thymidine kinase (tk) selection that is performed in tk-negative cell lines, AZT selection can be performed in normal (tk-positive) cell lines. The technique is especially useful for the generation of replication-deficient vaccinia viruses and may also bemore » used for gene knock-out studies of essential vaccinia genes.« less

  4. Pancreatic Enzymes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contact Us DONATE NOW GENERAL DONATION PURPLESTRIDE Pancreatic enzymes Home Facing Pancreatic Cancer Living with Pancreatic Cancer ... and see a registered dietitian. What are pancreatic enzymes? Pancreatic enzymes help break down fats, proteins and ...

  5. Enzyme encapsulated hollow silica nanospheres for intracellular biocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Feng-Peng; Hung, Yann; Chang, Jen-Hsuan; Lin, Chen-Han; Mou, Chung-Yuan

    2014-05-14

    Hollow silica nanospheres (HSN) with low densities, large interior spaces and permeable silica shells are suitable for loading enzymes in the cavity to carry out intracellular biocatalysis. The porous shell can protect the encapsulated enzymes against proteolysis and attenuate immunological response. We developed a microemulsion-templating method for confining horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the cavity of HSN. This simple one-pot enzyme encapsulation method allows entrapping of the enzyme, which retains high catalytic activity. Compared with HRP supported on solid silica spheres, HRP@HSN with thin porous silica shells displayed better enzyme activity. The small HRP@HSN (∼50 nm in diameter), giving satisfactory catalytic activity, can act as an intracellular catalyst for the oxidation of the prodrug indole-3-acetic acid to produce toxic free radicals for killing cancer cells. We envision this kind of hollow nanosystem could encapsulate multiple enzymes or other synergistic drugs and function as therapeutic nanoreactors.

  6. Recent progress in prodrug design strategies based on generally applicable modifications.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Yoshio

    2017-04-15

    The development of prodrugs has progressed with the aim of improving drug bioavailability by overcoming various barriers that reduce drug benefits in clinical use, such as stability, duration, water solubility, side effect profile, and taste. Many conventional drugs act as the precursors of an active agent in vivo; for example, the anti-HIV agent azidothymidine (AZT) is converted into its corresponding active triphosphate ester in the body, meaning that AZT is a prodrug in the broadest sense. However prodrug design is generally difficult owing to the lack of general versatility. Thus, these prodrugs, broadly defined, are often discovered by chance or trial-and-error. Recently, many prodrugs that could release the corresponding parent drugs with or without enzymatic action under physiological conditions have been reported. These prodrugs can be easily designed and synthesized because of their generally applicable modifications. This digest paper provides an overview of recent development in prodrug strategies for drugs with a carboxylic acid or hydroxyl/amino group on the basis of a generally applicable modification strategy, such as esterification, amidation, or benzylation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Design of Enzymatically Cleavable Prodrugs of a Potent Platinum-Containing Anticancer Agent

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Song; Pickard, Amanda J.; Kucera, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    Using a versatile synthetic approach, a new class of potential ester prodrugs of highly potent, but systemically too toxic, platinum–acridine anticancer agents was generated. The new hybrids contain a hydroxyl group, which has been masked with a cleavable lipophilic acyl moiety. Both butanoic (butyric) and bulkier 2-propanepentanoic (valproic) esters were introduced. The goals of this design were to improve the drug-like properties (e.g., logD) and to reduce the systemic toxicity of the pharmacophore. Two distinct pathways by which the target compounds undergo effective ester hydrolysis, the proposed activating step, have been confirmed: platinum-assisted, self-immolative ester cleavage in a low-chloride environment (LC-ESMS, NMR spectroscopy) and enzymatic cleavage by human carboxylesterase-2 (hCES-2) (LC-ESMS). The valproic acid ester derivatives are the first example of a metal-containing agent cleavable by the pro-drug-converting enzyme. They show excellent chemical stability and reduced systemic toxicity. Preliminary results from screening in lung adenocarcinoma cell lines (A549, NCI-H1435) suggest that the mechanism of the valproic esters may involve intracellular deesterification. PMID:25303639

  8. Electrospun poly-l-lactide scaffold for the controlled and targeted delivery of a synthetically obtained Diclofenac prodrug to treat actinic keratosis.

    PubMed

    Piccirillo, Germano; Bochicchio, Brigida; Pepe, Antonietta; Schenke-Layland, Katja; Hinderer, Svenja

    2017-04-01

    Actinic Keratosis' (AKs) are small skin lesions that are related to a prolonged sun-damage, which can develop into invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) when left untreated. Effective, specific and well tolerable therapies to cure AKs are still of great interest. Diclofenac (DCF) is the current gold standard for the local treatment of AKs in terms of costs, effectiveness, side effects and tolerability. In this work, an electrospun polylactic acid (PLA) scaffold loaded with a synthetic DCF prodrug was developed and characterized. Specifically, the prodrug was successfully synthetized by binding DCF to a glycine residue via solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) and then incorporated in an electrospun PLA scaffold. The drug encapsulation was verified using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) and its scaffold release was spectrophotometrically monitored and confirmed with MPM. The scaffold was further characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), tensile testing and contact angle measurements. Its biocompatibility was verified by performing a cell proliferation assay and compared to PLA scaffolds containing the same amount of DCF sodium salt (DCFONa). Finally, the effect of the electrospun scaffolds on human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) morphology and metabolism was investigated by combining MPM with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). The obtained results suggest that the obtained scaffold could be suitable for the controlled and targeted delivery of the synthesized prodrug for the treatment of AKs. Electrospun scaffolds are of growing interest as materials for a controlled drug delivery. In this work, an electrospun polylactic acid scaffold containing a synthetically obtained Diclofenac prodrug is proposed as a novel substrate for the topical treatment of actinic keratosis. A controlled drug delivery targeted to the area of interest could enhance the efficacy of the therapy and favor the healing process. The prodrug was synthesized via solid phase

  9. Evaluation of treatment response to enzyme replacement therapy with Velaglucerase alfa in patients with Gaucher disease using whole-body magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Laudemann, K; Moos, L; Mengel, E; Lollert, A; Hoffmann, C; Brixius-Huth, M; Wagner, D; Düber, C; Staatz, G

    2016-03-01

    This was a retrospective data analysis to evaluate the treatment response to enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with Velaglucerase alfa using whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A baseline and follow-up MRI were performed on 18 Gaucher Type 1 patients at an interval of 11.6 months. The MRI score systems determined the Bone-Marrow-Burden (BMB) score, the Düsseldorf-Gaucher score (DGS), and the Vertebra-Disc-Ratio (VDR). The Severity Score Index Type 1 (GD-DS3) was also assessed. The baseline MRI medians were: BMB, 7.00; DGS, 3.00; and VDR: 1.70; while, the follow-up MRI medians were: BMB, 7.00; DGS, 3.00; and VDR: 1.73. The baseline GD-DS3 median was 2.40 (BMB excl.: 0.50) and the follow-up median was 2.00 (BMB excl.: 0.50). There was weak statistical significance with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for the DGS (p=0.034) and GD-DS3 (p=0.047) between both MRIs. Velaglucerase alfa therapy is a effective long-term treatment for Gaucher Type 1 patients who are newly diagnosed or switching therapies. Measurements with whole-body MRI and an objective scoring system were reliable tools for detecting early stage bone marrow activity. Further research is needed to evaluate the "Booster-Effect" of Velaglucerase alfa therapy in Gaucher skeletal disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of nucleoside prodrugs designed to target siderophore biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Dawadi, Surendra; Kawamura, Shuhei; Rubenstein, Anja; Remmel, Rory; Aldrich, Courtney C

    2016-03-15

    The nucleoside antibiotic, 5'-O-[N-(salicyl)sulfamoyl]adenosine (1), possesses potent whole-cell activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB). This compound is also active in vivo, but suffers from poor drug disposition properties that result in poor bioavailability and rapid clearance. The synthesis and evaluation of a systematic series of lipophilic ester prodrugs containing linear and α-branched alkanoyl groups from two to twelve carbons at the 3'-position of a 2'-fluorinated analog of 1 is reported with the goal to improve oral bioavailability. The prodrugs were stable in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) and under physiological conditions (pH 7.4). The prodrugs were also remarkably stable in mouse, rat, and human serum (relative serum stability: human∼rat≫mouse) displaying a parabolic trend in the SAR with hydrolysis rates increasing with chain length up to eight carbons (t1/2=1.6 h for octanoyl prodrug 7 in mouse serum) and then decreasing again with higher chain lengths. The permeability of the prodrugs was also assessed in a Caco-2 cell transwell model. All of the prodrugs were found to have reduced permeation in the apical-to-basolateral direction and enhanced permeation in the basolateral-to-apical direction relative to the parent compound 2, resulting in efflux ratios 5-28 times greater than 2. Additionally, Caco-2 cells were found to hydrolyze the prodrugs with SAR mirroring the serum stability results and a preference for hydrolysis on the apical side. Taken together, these results suggest that the described prodrug strategy will lead to lower than expected oral bioavailability of 2 and highlight the contribution of intestinal esterases for prodrug hydrolysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetic polymorphisms in phase I and phase II enzymes and breast cancer risk associated with menopausal hormone therapy in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    2010-01-01

    Recent findings indicate a greater risk of postmenopausal breast cancer with estrogen-progestagen therapy than estrogen monotherapy, and more so for current than past use. Few studies have examined individual genetic susceptibility to the effects of menopausal hormone therapy. We used two population-based case-control studies with 3,155 postmenopausal breast cancer patients and 5,496 controls to evaluate modification of breast cancer risk associated with duration of hormone use by genes involved in hormone metabolism and detoxification. Twenty-eight polymorphisms in eight genes of phase I (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP3A7) and nine genes of phase II enzymes (COMT, GSTM1, GSTM3, GSTP1, GSTT1, SULT1A1, UGT1A1, UGT1A6, UGT2B7) were genotyped. The risk associated with duration of use of combined estrogen-progestagen therapy was significantly modified by genetic polymorphisms located in CYP1B1, GSTP1, and GSTT1. In homozygote carriers of the CYP1B1_142_G and the CYP1B1_355 _T variant alleles, adjusted odds ratios (OR) per year of use were 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-1.09) and 1.06 (95% CI = 1.03-1.09), respectively, compared with 1.02 (95% CI = 1.01-1.03) in non-carriers of either polymorphism (p(interaction) = 0.01). Carriers of the functional GSTT1 allele and the GSTP1_341_T allele were at significantly higher risks associated with hormone use compared with non-carriers (p(interaction) = 0.0001 and 0.02). CYP1A1_2452_C>A significantly reduced the risk associated with duration of use of estrogen monotherapy (p(interaction) = 0.01). The finding regarding GSTT1 was still statistically significant after corrections for multiple comparisons. Postmenopausal breast cancer risk associated with hormone therapy may be modified by genetically determined variations in phase I and II enzymes involved in steroid hormone metabolism.

  12. Natural Cancer Therapy and Prevention Targeted on Cancer Cells and Cancer Stem Cells Based on the Cytochrome P45O Enzyme CYP1B1: A Commentary.

    PubMed

    Ware, William R

    2017-09-01

    The importance of the P450 enzyme CYP1B1 in both cancer therapy and prevention are reviewed and evidence is discussed, which provides strong biological plausibility for the therapeutic merits of this approach. The significant resistance to chemotherapy among common cancers, and the realization that in many cases chemotherapy leaves behind drug-resistant cancer cells that eventually cause recurrence and metastatic disease, has recently prompted the search for natural compounds that would circumvent this problem. There is also the important question of therapies that will kill cancer stem cells (CSCs) because they appear, in many cases, to be resistant to conventional therapy. The repeated observation that resveratrol has the ability kill CSCs in a variety of cancers suggests that this natural product may act through a mechanism that is cancer-type independent. There are a few other natural products that have this property and all act through a well-understood mechanism involving CYP1B1, which is known to be overexpressed at the protein level in ordinary cancer cells but not in noncancer cells. These natural products toxic to ordinary cancer cells serve as substrates for this enzyme and the metabolites cause apoptosis or cell cycle arrest. This small group includes resveratrol. The observation that resveratrol also has this same action on CSCs independent of cancer type suggests the hypothesis that these cells also overexpress CYP1B1 and offer the same target as ordinary cancer cells. A number of case histories are reviewed that involve a variety of cancers from different sites and grades or stages treated with a proprietary mixture of CYP1B1 substrates extracted from fruit. They illustrate therapeutic effectiveness with even late-stage cancers put into durable remission. This implies combined ordinary cancer cell and CSC toxicity. In addition, a recent proposed mechanism for CYP1B1 overexpression only in cancer cells are described. Recently developed blood tests for

  13. Hepatic, intestinal, renal, and plasma hydrolysis of prodrugs in human, cynomolgus monkey, dog, and rat: implications for in vitro-in vivo extrapolation of clearance of prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Nishimuta, Haruka; Houston, J Brian; Galetin, Aleksandra

    2014-09-01

    Hydrolysis plays an important role in metabolic activation of prodrugs. In the current study, species and in vitro system differences in hepatic and extrahepatic hydrolysis were investigated for 11 prodrugs. Ten prodrugs in the data set are predominantly hydrolyzed by carboxylesterases (CES), whereas olmesartan medoxomil is also metabolized by carboxymethylenebutenolidase (CMBL) and paraoxonase. Metabolic stabilities were assessed in cryopreserved hepatocytes, liver S9 (LS9), intestinal S9 (IS9), kidney S9 (KS9), and plasma from human, monkey, dog, and rat. Of all the preclinical species investigated, monkey intrinsic hydrolysis clearance obtained in hepatocytes (CLint,hepatocytes) were the most comparable to human hepatocyte data. Perindopril and candesartan cilexetil showed the lowest and highest CLint,hepatocytes, respectively, regardless of the species investigated. Scaled intrinsic hydrolysis clearance obtained in LS9 were generally higher than CLint,hepatocytes in all species investigated, with the exception of dog. In the case of human and dog intestinal S9, hydrolysis intrinsic clearance could not be obtained for CES1 substrates, but hydrolysis for CES2 and CMBL substrates was detected in IS9 and KS9 from all species. Pronounced species differences were observed in plasma; hydrolysis of CES substrates was only evident in rat. Predictability of human hepatic intrinsic clearance (CLint,h) was assessed for eight CES1 substrates using hepatocytes and LS9; extrahepatic hydrolysis was not considered due to high stability of these prodrugs in intestinal and kidney S9. On average, predicted oral CLint,h from hepatocyte data represented 20% of the observed value; the underprediction was pronounced for high-clearance prodrugs, consistent with the predictability of cytochrome P450/conjugation clearance from this system. Prediction bias was less apparent with LS9, in particular for high-clearance prodrugs, highlighting the application of this in vitro system for

  14. Pervasive supply of therapeutic lysosomal enzymes in the CNS of normal and Krabbe-affected non-human primates by intracerebral lentiviral gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Meneghini, Vasco; Lattanzi, Annalisa; Tiradani, Luigi; Bravo, Gabriele; Morena, Francesco; Sanvito, Francesca; Calabria, Andrea; Bringas, John; Fisher-Perkins, Jeanne M; Dufour, Jason P; Baker, Kate C; Doglioni, Claudio; Montini, Eugenio; Bunnell, Bruce A; Bankiewicz, Krystof; Martino, Sabata; Naldini, Luigi; Gritti, Angela

    2016-05-01

    Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) and globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD or Krabbe disease) are severe neurodegenerative lysosomal storage diseases (LSD) caused by arylsulfatase A (ARSA) and galactosylceramidase (GALC) deficiency, respectively. Our previous studies established lentiviral gene therapy (GT) as a rapid and effective intervention to provide pervasive supply of therapeutic lysosomal enzymes in CNS tissues of MLD and GLD mice. Here, we investigated whether this strategy is similarly effective in juvenile non-human primates (NHP). To provide proof of principle for tolerability and biological efficacy of the strategy, we established a comprehensive study in normal NHP delivering a clinically relevant lentiviral vector encoding for the human ARSA transgene. Then, we injected a lentiviral vector coding for the human GALC transgene in Krabbe-affected rhesus macaques, evaluating for the first time the therapeutic potential of lentiviral GT in this unique LSD model. We showed favorable safety profile and consistent pattern of LV transduction and enzyme biodistribution in the two models, supporting the robustness of the proposed GT platform. We documented moderate inflammation at the injection sites, mild immune response to vector particles in few treated animals, no indication of immune response against transgenic products, and no molecular evidence of insertional genotoxicity. Efficient gene transfer in neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes close to the injection sites resulted in robust production and extensive spreading of transgenic enzymes in the whole CNS and in CSF, leading to supraphysiological ARSA activity in normal NHP and close to physiological GALC activity in the Krabbe NHP, in which biological efficacy was associated with preliminary indication of therapeutic benefit. These results support the rationale for the clinical translation of intracerebral lentiviral GT to address CNS pathology in MLD, GLD, and other neurodegenerative LSD. © 2016

  15. [Effect of estradiol valerate and chlormadinone acetate in hormone replacement therapy in postmenopause on Kupperman index, body weight, blood pressure, lipids, enzymes and electrolytes].

    PubMed

    Göretzlehner, G; Nikschick, S; Zimmermann, T

    1996-01-01

    Kupperman-index, weight, blood pressure, serum lipids, blood count, thrombocytes, fibrinogen, thrombine time, electrolytes, enzymes, serum proteins, bilirubine and other parameters were studied in 16 healthy post-menopausal women treated for 18 months with 2 mgs estradiol valerate continuously sequentially combined with the antiandrogenic progestogen chlormadinone acetate (CMA) 2 mgs from 1st to 12th every month of treatment. The women were examined after the 1st, 3rd, 6th, 12th, and 18th month during the last 3 days of the progestogen phase, where the CMA had been added to the estradiol valerate for at least 12 days. The combined estradiol-CMA therapy resulted in a significantly reduced Kupperman-index. The total serum cholesterol- and LDLC-levels were also reduced and the HDL-cholesterol and HDLC-cholesterol-quotient increased. Triglycerides, weight, blood pressure, enzymes, and other parameters were unchanged. The positively metabolic effects of estradiol valerate were not altered after the chlormadinone acetate in a sequential regime.

  16. Increasing Oral Absorption of Polar Neuraminidase Inhibitors: A Prodrug Transporter Approach Applied to Oseltamivir Analogue

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Deepak; Gupta, Sheeba Varghese; Dahan, Arik; Tsume, Yasuhiro; Hilfinger, John; Lee, Kyung-Dall; Amidon, Gordon L.

    2013-01-01

    Poor oral absorption is one of the limiting factors in utilizing the full potential of polar antiviral agents. The neuraminidase target site requires a polar chemical structure for high affinity binding, thus limiting oral efficacy of many high affinity ligands. The aim of this study was to overcome this poor oral absorption barrier, utilizing prodrug to target the apical brush border peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1). Guanidine oseltamivir carboxylate (GOCarb) is a highly active polar antiviral agent (prodrug) with insufficient oral bioavailability (4%) to be an effective therapeutic agent. In this report we utilize a carrier-mediated targeted prodrug approach to improve the oral absorption of GOCarb. Acyloxy(alkyl) ester based amino acid linked prodrugs were synthesized and evaluated as potential substrates of mucosal transporters e.g. PEPT1. Prodrugs were also evaluated for their chemical and enzymatic stability. PEPT1 transport studies included [3H]Gly-Sar uptake inhibition and cellular uptake experiments using HeLa cells over-expressing PEPT1. The intestinal membrane permeability of the selected prodrugs and the parent drug were then evaluated for epithelial cell transport across Caco-2 monolayers, and in the in-situ rat intestinal jejunal perfusion model. Prodrugs exhibited a pH dependent stability with higher stability at acidic pHs. Significant inhibition of uptake (IC50 <1mM) was observed for L-valyl and L-isoleucyl amino acid prodrugs in competition experiments with [3H]Gly-Sar, indicating a 3–6 times higher affinity for PEPT1 compared to valacyclovir; a well-known PEPT1 substrate and >30 fold increase in affinity compared to GOCarb. The L-valyl prodrug exhibited significant enhancement of uptake in PEPT1/HeLa cells, and compared favorably with the well absorbed valacyclovir. Transepithelial permeability across Caco-2 monolayers showed that these amino acid prodrugs have a 2–5 fold increase in permeability as compared to the parent drug and showed that

  17. Hunter syndrome in an 11-year old girl on enzyme replacement therapy with idursulfase: brain magnetic resonance imaging features and evolution.

    PubMed

    Manara, Renzo; Rampazzo, Angelica; Cananzi, Mara; Salviati, Leonardo; Mardari, Rodica; Drigo, Paola; Tomanin, Rosella; Gasparotto, Nicoletta; Priante, Elena; Scarpa, Maurizio

    2010-12-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS-II, Hunter disease) is a X-linked recessive disorder. Affected females are extremely rare, mostly due to skewed X chromosome inactivation. A few papers outline MPS-II brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) "gestalt" in males, but neuroradiological reports on females are still lacking. We present an 11-year-old girl affected by the severe form of MPS-II who was followed up over a time span of 8 years, focusing on clinical and brain MRI evolution. In the last 2.5 years, the patient has been treated with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with idursulfase (Elaprase™, Shire Human Genetic Therapies AB, Sweden). On brain and cervical MRI examination, abnormalities in our patient did not differ from those detected in male patients: J-shaped pituitary sella, enlargement of perivascular spaces, brain atrophy, mild T2-hyperintensity in the paratrigonal white matter, diffuse platyspondylia, and mild odontoid dysplasia with odontoid cup. Brain atrophy progressed despite ERT introduction, whereas perivascular space enlargement did not change significantly before and after ERT. Cognitive impairment worsened independently from the course of white matter abnormality. Despite a profound knowledge of genetic and biochemical aspects in MPS-II, neuroradiology is still poorly characterized, especially in female patients. Spinal and brain involvement and its natural course and evolution after ERT introduction still need to be clarified.

  18. Pregnancy and associated events in women receiving enzyme replacement therapy for late-onset glycogen storage disease type II (Pompe disease).

    PubMed

    Rohman, Philippa J; Scott, Elaine; Richfield, Linda; Ramaswami, Uma; Hughes, Derralynn A

    2016-10-01

    Glycogen storage disease type II (GSD II or Pompe disease; OMIM; 232 300) is a rare autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder resulting from deficiency of α-glucosidase and accumulation of glycogen in muscle. Clinical symptoms include weakness of skeletal and respiratory muscles and, in infants, cardiomyopathy. Patients with GSD II receive infusions of recombinant α-glucosidase (enzyme replacement therapy; ERT), which slow the progression of the disease. ERT is given to male and female patients of all ages but as yet little is documented on the effects of continuing ERT during pregnancy. The aim of this case series was therefore to ascertain the pregnancy outcomes of women with GSD II on ERT and to describe adverse events associated with pregnancy, delivery and therapy. The medical records of eight women attending the Royal Free Hospital Lysosomal Storage Disorders Unit were reviewed. Four of the eight women had seven pregnancies over a period of 8 years. In this series GSD II was associated with interventional deliveries but normal neonates. Cessation of ERT in early pregnancy resulted in deterioration of maternal symptoms and emergence of allergic reactions on restarting ERT. Individualized care plans are required to ensure the best neonatal and maternal outcomes. Consideration should be given to the potential benefits to mother and fetus of continuing ERT during pregnancy. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  19. Combination therapy with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and indapamide impairs glucose tolerance in Chinese hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Liang; Qin, Yong-Wen; Zheng, Xing; Qiu, Jian-Li; Zhao, Xian-Xian; Zou, Da-Jin

    2010-04-01

    Elevated blood glucose (BG) induced by antihypertensive agents increases the risk of cardiovascular events. This study was designed to investigate whether fosinopril+indapamide combination therapy has any effect on glucose tolerance (GT), and if it did, whether conversion to fosinopril alone could reverse the impaired GT. Included in the present study were 124 hypertensive patients, of whom 62 patients were treated with fosinopril plus indapamide (F/I group) and the remaining 62 patients were treated with fosinopril alone (F group). Of them, 89 patients completed a mean of 14-month follow-up. In the F/I group, 29 patients were converted to the use of fosinopril for 4-12 months after they completed the follow-up. In the F group, fasting BG decreased significantly from 5.1+/-0.5 to 4.8+/-0.7 mmol/l (p<0.01), and 2-h postprandial BG decreased significantly from 7.2+/-1.6 to 6.4+/-1.4 mmol/l (p<0.01), while in the F/I group, fasting BG increased significantly from 5.1 +/-0.6 to 5.3+/-0.9 mmol/l (p<0.05), and 2-h postprandial BG increased significantly from 7.2+/-1.7 to 7.7+/-1.8 mmol/l (p<0.05). In 29 patients of the F/I group who completed the follow-up and were converted to fosinopril, fasting BG decreased significantly from 5.5+/-1.0 to 5.3+/-1.0 mmol/l (p<0.05), and 2-h postprandial BG decreased significantly from 7.5+/-2.0 to 7.0+/-2.7 mmol/l (p<0.05). Fosinopril+indapamide combination therapy impaired GT in Chinese hypertensive patients, and fosinopril alone was able to reverse fosinopril+indapamide-induced GT impairment in part of these patients.

  20. Targeted theranostic platinum(IV) prodrug with a built-in aggregation-induced emission light-up apoptosis sensor for noninvasive early evaluation of its therapeutic responses in situ.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Youyong; Kwok, Ryan T K; Tang, Ben Zhong; Liu, Bin

    2014-02-12

    Targeted drug delivery to tumor cells with minimized side effects and real-time in situ monitoring of drug efficacy is highly desirable for personalized medicine. In this work, we report the synthesis and biological evaluation of a chemotherapeutic Pt(IV) prodrug whose two axial positions are functionalized with a cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (cRGD) tripeptide for targeting integrin αvβ3 overexpressed cancer cells and an apoptosis sensor which is composed of tetraphenylsilole (TPS) fluorophore with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) characteristics and a caspase-3 enzyme specific Asp-Glu-Val-Asp (DEVD) peptide. The targeted Pt(IV) prodrug can selectively bind to αvβ3 integrin overexpressed cancer cells to facilitate cellular uptake. In addition, the Pt(IV) prodrug can be reduced to active Pt(II) drug in cells and release the apoptosis sensor TPS-DEVD simultaneously. The reduced Pt(II) drug can induce the cell apoptosis and activate caspase-3 enzyme to cleave the DEVD peptide sequence. Due to free rotation of the phenylene rings, TPS-DEVD is nonemissive in aqueous media. The specific cleavage of DEVD by caspase-3 generates the hydrophobic TPS residue, which tends to aggregate, resulting in restriction of intramolecular rotations of the phenyl rings and ultimately leading to fluorescence enhancement. Such noninvasive and real-time imaging of drug-induced apoptosis in situ can be used as an indicator for early evaluation of the therapeutic responses of a specific anticancer drug.

  1. The 3D structure of the anticancer prodrug CPT-11 with Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase rationalizes its inhibitory action on AChE and its hydrolysis by butyrylcholinesterase and carboxylesterase.

    PubMed

    Harel, Michal; Hyatt, Janice L; Brumshtein, Boris; Morton, Christopher L; Wadkins, Randy M; Silman, Israel; Sussman, Joel L; Potter, Philip M

    2005-12-15

    The anticancer prodrug CPT-11 is a highly effective camptothecin analog that has been approved for the treatment of colon cancer. The 2.6 angstroms resolution crystal structure of its complex with Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase (TcAChE) demonstrates that CPT-11 binds to TcAChE and spans its gorge similarly to the Alzheimer drug, Aricept. The crystal structure clearly reveals the interactions, which contribute to the inhibitory action of CPT-11. Modeling of the complexes of CPT-11 with mammalian butyrylcholinesterase and carboxylesterase, both of which are known to hydrolyze the drug, shows how binding to either of the two enzymes yields a productive substrate-enzyme complex.

  2. Statin cardiomyopathy? A potential role for Co-Enzyme Q10 therapy for statin-induced changes in diastolic LV performance: description of a clinical protocol.

    PubMed

    Silver, Marc A; Langsjoen, Peter H; Szabo, Szabolcs; Patil, Harish; Zelinger, Allan

    2003-01-01

    Lipid-lowering statins are thought to have a favorable safety profile. Statins inhibit 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, the rate-limiting step of mevalonate synthesis. Mevalonate is the substrate for further synthesis of cholesterol and Co Enzyme Q10 (CoQ10). CoQ10 plays an important role during oxidative phosphorylation in the myocardial cell. Since myocardial diastolic function is a highly ATP dependent, we reasoned that early changes of diastolic function may be an early marker of ventricular dysfunction. Patients who are to commence on statin therapy will be enrolled in the trial. Baseline measurements of plasma CoQ10, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, CoQ10/LDL ratio, peak E, peak A velocities, E/A ratio, deceleration time, isovolumetric relaxation time, color M-mode propagation velocity will be performed and patients will then begin to take Oral atorvastatin (Lipitor, Parke-Davis) 20 mg daily for three to six months. All baseline measurement will be repeated after 3 to 6 months of statin therapy. Those patients demonstrating > 1 measurement of diastolic LV function that worsened during the 3 to 6 months of statin therapy will be supplemented with CoQ10 300 mg. daily for 3 months. A followup echocardiogram and blood CoQ10 level will be measured in patients who received CoQ10 supplementation. Statistical analysis will be performed using the paired t test to compare coenzyme levels and echocardiographic indices at baseline and after treatment and after supplementation.

  3. Partial phenotypic correction and immune tolerance induction to enzyme replacement therapy after hematopoietic stem cell gene transfer of alpha-glucosidase in Pompe disease.

    PubMed

    Douillard-Guilloux, Gaëlle; Richard, Emmanuel; Batista, Lionel; Caillaud, Catherine

    2009-04-01

    Glycogen storage disease type II (GSDII) or Pompe disease is an inherited disease of glycogen metabolism caused by a lack of functional lysosomal acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA). Affected individuals store glycogen in lysosomes resulting in fatal hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and respiratory failure in the most severe form. Even if enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has already proven some efficacy, its results remain heterogeneous in skeletal muscle, especially in cross reactive immunological material (CRIM)-negative patients. We investigated for the first time the use of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy in a murine model of GSDII. Deficient HSC were transduced with a lentiviral vector expressing human GAA or enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the retroviral MND promoter and transplanted into lethally irradiated GSDII mice. Animals were then subjected to an ERT protocol for 5 weeks and monitored for metabolic correction and GAA-induced immune reaction. GAA was expressed as a correctly processed protein, allowing a complete enzymatic correction in transduced deficient cells without toxicity. Seventeen weeks after transplantation, a partial restoration of the GAA enzymatic activity was observed in bone marrow and peripheral blood cells of GSDII mice, allowing a significant glycogen clearance in skeletal muscle. ERT induced a robust antibody response in GFP-transplanted mice, whereas no immune reaction could be detected in GAA-transplanted mice. Lentiviral vector-mediated HSC gene therapy leads to a partial metabolic correction and induces a tolerance to ERT in GSDII mice. This strategy could enhance the efficacy of ERT in CRIM-negative Pompe patients.

  4. Lipidomic profiling of plasma and urine from patients with Gaucher disease during enzyme replacement therapy by nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Byeon, Seul Kee; Lee, Ju Yong; Lee, Jin-Sung; Moon, Myeong Hee

    2015-02-13

    Gaucher disease (GD) is a rare genetic disorder that arises from lipid species, especially monohexosylceramide (MHC), accumulating in different organs. GD results from a β-glucocerebrosidase deficiency, causing metabolic or neurologic complications. This study comprehensively profiled lipids from patients and healthy controls to discover active lipid species related to GD. Most studies have evaluated lipids from one type of biological sample, such as plasma, urine, or spinal fluid, which are the main sources of lipids in human bodies. The purpose of this study, however, was to collect and assess both plasma and urine samples from a group of individuals, explore the lipids, and select characteristic species that show significant differences between controls and patients from the two sources. Also, the response of lipids to enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), which is targeted to reduce excessive lipid accumulation within lysosomes, was investigated by obtaining plasma and urine from patients after receiving the therapy. Most lipid species were found in both plasma and urine but their concentrations differed, and some species were found in either plasma or urine only. Out of 125 plasma and 105 urinary lipids that were identified by nLC-ESI-MS/MS, 20 plasma and 10 urinary lipids were selected as characteristic species for having average concentrations that were significantly increased or decreased in patients by greater than 2-fold. Moreover, the concentrations of most lipids that showed greater than 2-fold of difference in patients decreased after ERT indicating that these species were directly or indirectly affected by the therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Re-engineering Cytochrome P450 2B11dH for Enhanced Metabolism of Several Substrates Including the Anti-cancer Prodrugs Cyclophosphamide and Ifosfamide

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ling; Chen, Chong S.; Waxman, David J.; Liu, Hong; Halpert, James R.; Kumar, Santosh

    2007-01-01

    Based on recent directed evolution of P450 2B1, six P450 2B11 mutants at three positions were created in an N-terminal modified construct termed P450 2B11dH and characterized for enzyme catalysis using five substrates. Mutant I209A demonstrated a 3.2-fold enhanced kcat/Km for 7-ethoxy-4-trifluoromethylcourmarin O-deethylation, largely due to a dramatic decrease in Km (0.72 vs. 18 μM). I209A also demonstrated enhanced selectivity for testosterone 16β-hydroxylation over 16α-hydroxylation. In contrast, V183L showed a 4-fold increased kcat for 7-benzyloxyresorufin debenzylation and a 4.7-fold increased kcat/Km for testosterone 16α-hydroxylation. V183L also displayed a 1.7-fold higher kcat/Km than P450 2B11dH with the anti-cancer prodrugs cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide, resulting from a ~4-fold decrease in Km. Introduction of the V183L mutation into full-length P450 2B11 did not enhance the kcat/Km. Overall, the re-engineered P450 2B11dH enzymes exhibited enhanced catalytic efficiency with several substrates including the anti-cancer prodrugs. PMID:17254539

  6. The development of an oral prodrug, SR-2545, of the 2-nitroimidazole radiosensitizer SR-2508

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, C.N.; Lee, W.W.; Constine, L.S.

    1982-03-01

    SR-2508, a 2-nitroimidazole radiosensitizer, is expected to be clinically superior to desmethylmisonidazole or misonidazole because of its lower lipophilicity with subsequent lower drug levels in neural tissue and more rapid plasma eliminaton. The intravenous route of administration will be optimal but oral drugs may be necessary. Since decreased lipophilicity will decrease oral absorption we have synthesized, and tested in mice, SR-2545, an acetate ester prodrug of SR-2508. In the liver there is complete first pass metabolism to parent drug with no prodrug detectable in the blood. Compared to an equal dose of oral SR-2508, the prodrug yields a more rapid,more » reproducible, plasma peak with twice the bioavailability, peak plasma concentration and radiosensitizaton. If oral preparations of SR-2508 are to be used in the clinic the prodrug, SR-2545, is likely to be superior to oral SR-2508.« less

  7. PARP Inhibitor and NO-Donor Dual Prodrugs as Anticancer Agents | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer In