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Sample records for enzyminer automatic identification

  1. Automatic Identification of Metaphoric Utterances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Jonathan Edwin

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes the problem of metaphor identification in linguistic and computational semantics, considering both manual and automatic approaches. It describes a manual approach to metaphor identification, the Metaphoricity Measurement Procedure (MMP), and compares this approach with other manual approaches. The dissertation then…

  2. Automatic identification of species with neural networks.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Serna, Andrés; Jiménez-Segura, Luz Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    A new automatic identification system using photographic images has been designed to recognize fish, plant, and butterfly species from Europe and South America. The automatic classification system integrates multiple image processing tools to extract the geometry, morphology, and texture of the images. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used as the pattern recognition method. We tested a data set that included 740 species and 11,198 individuals. Our results show that the system performed with high accuracy, reaching 91.65% of true positive fish identifications, 92.87% of plants and 93.25% of butterflies. Our results highlight how the neural networks are complementary to species identification.

  3. Automatic identification of species with neural networks

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Segura, Luz Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    A new automatic identification system using photographic images has been designed to recognize fish, plant, and butterfly species from Europe and South America. The automatic classification system integrates multiple image processing tools to extract the geometry, morphology, and texture of the images. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used as the pattern recognition method. We tested a data set that included 740 species and 11,198 individuals. Our results show that the system performed with high accuracy, reaching 91.65% of true positive fish identifications, 92.87% of plants and 93.25% of butterflies. Our results highlight how the neural networks are complementary to species identification. PMID:25392749

  4. An efficient automatic firearm identification system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuan, Zun Liang; Liong, Choong-Yeun; Jemain, Abdul Aziz; Ghani, Nor Azura Md.

    2014-06-01

    Automatic firearm identification system (AFIS) is highly demanded in forensic ballistics to replace the traditional approach which uses comparison microscope and is relatively complex and time consuming. Thus, several AFIS have been developed for commercial and testing purposes. However, those AFIS are still unable to overcome some of the drawbacks of the traditional firearm identification approach. The goal of this study is to introduce another efficient and effective AFIS. A total of 747 firing pin impression images captured from five different pistols of same make and model are used to evaluate the proposed AFIS. It was demonstrated that the proposed AFIS is capable of producing firearm identification accuracy rate of over 95.0% with an execution time of less than 0.35 seconds per image.

  5. Automatic Palette Identification of Colored Graphics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, Vinciane

    The median-shift, a new clustering algorithm, is proposed to automatically identify the palette of colored graphics, a pre-requisite for graphics vectorization. The median-shift is an iterative process which shifts each data point to the "median" point of its neighborhood defined thanks to a distance measure and a maximum radius, the only parameter of the method. The process is viewed as a graph transformation which converges to a set of clusters made of one or several connected vertices. As the palette identification depends on color perception, the clustering is performed in the L*a*b* feature space. As pixels located on edges are made of mixed colors not expected to be part of the palette, they are removed from the initial data set by an automatic pre-processing. Results are shown on scanned maps and on the Macbeth color chart and compared to well established methods.

  6. 33 CFR 401.20 - Automatic Identification System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...' maritime Differential Global Positioning System radiobeacon services; or (7) The use of a temporary unit... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Automatic Identification System... Identification System. (a) Each of the following vessels must use an Automatic Identification System...

  7. 33 CFR 401.20 - Automatic Identification System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...' maritime Differential Global Positioning System radiobeacon services; or (7) The use of a temporary unit... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Automatic Identification System... Identification System. (a) Each of the following vessels must use an Automatic Identification System...

  8. 33 CFR 401.20 - Automatic Identification System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...' maritime Differential Global Positioning System radiobeacon services; or (7) The use of a temporary unit... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Automatic Identification System... Identification System. (a) Each of the following vessels must use an Automatic Identification System...

  9. 33 CFR 401.20 - Automatic Identification System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...' maritime Differential Global Positioning System radiobeacon services; or (7) The use of a temporary unit... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Automatic Identification System... Identification System. (a) Each of the following vessels must use an Automatic Identification System...

  10. Automatic firearm class identification from cartridge cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamalakannan, Sridharan; Mann, Christopher J.; Bingham, Philip R.; Karnowski, Thomas P.; Gleason, Shaun S.

    2011-03-01

    We present a machine vision system for automatic identification of the class of firearms by extracting and analyzing two significant properties from spent cartridge cases, namely the Firing Pin Impression (FPI) and the Firing Pin Aperture Outline (FPAO). Within the framework of the proposed machine vision system, a white light interferometer is employed to image the head of the spent cartridge cases. As a first step of the algorithmic procedure, the Primer Surface Area (PSA) is detected using a circular Hough transform. Once the PSA is detected, a customized statistical region-based parametric active contour model is initialized around the center of the PSA and evolved to segment the FPI. Subsequently, the scaled version of the segmented FPI is used to initialize a customized Mumford-Shah based level set model in order to segment the FPAO. Once the shapes of FPI and FPAO are extracted, a shape-based level set method is used in order to compare these extracted shapes to an annotated dataset of FPIs and FPAOs from varied firearm types. A total of 74 cartridge case images non-uniformly distributed over five different firearms are processed using the aforementioned scheme and the promising nature of the results (95% classification accuracy) demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach.

  11. 47 CFR 25.281 - Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (ATIS). 25.281 Section 25.281 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.281 Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS). All satellite uplink transmissions carrying broadband video information shall...

  12. 47 CFR 25.281 - Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (ATIS). 25.281 Section 25.281 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.281 Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS). All satellite uplink transmissions carrying broadband video information shall...

  13. 47 CFR 25.281 - Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (ATIS). 25.281 Section 25.281 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.281 Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS). All satellite uplink transmissions carrying broadband video information shall...

  14. 47 CFR 25.281 - Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (ATIS). 25.281 Section 25.281 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.281 Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS). All satellite uplink transmissions carrying broadband video information shall...

  15. Automatic enrollment for gait-based person re-identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortells, Javier; Martín-Félez, Raúl; Mollineda, Ramón A.

    2015-02-01

    Automatic enrollment involves a critical decision-making process within people re-identification context. However, this process has been traditionally undervalued. This paper studies the problem of automatic person enrollment from a realistic perspective relying on gait analysis. Experiments simulating random flows of people with considerable appearance variations between different observations of a person have been conducted, modeling both short- and longterm scenarios. Promising results based on ROC analysis show that automatically enrolling people by their gait is affordable with high success rates.

  16. All-optical automatic pollen identification: Towards an operational system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouzy, Benoît; Stella, Michelle; Konzelmann, Thomas; Calpini, Bertrand; Clot, Bernard

    2016-09-01

    We present results from the development and validation campaign of an optical pollen monitoring method based on time-resolved scattering and fluorescence. Focus is first set on supervised learning algorithms for pollen-taxa identification and on the determination of aerosol properties (particle size and shape). The identification capability provides a basis for a pre-operational automatic pollen season monitoring performed in parallel to manual reference measurements (Hirst-type volumetric samplers). Airborne concentrations obtained from the automatic system are compatible with those from the manual method regarding total pollen and the automatic device provides real-time data reliably (one week interruption over five months). In addition, although the calibration dataset still needs to be completed, we are able to follow the grass pollen season. The high sampling from the automatic device allows to go beyond the commonly-presented daily values and we obtain statistically significant hourly concentrations. Finally, we discuss remaining challenges for obtaining an operational automatic monitoring system and how the generic validation environment developed for the present campaign could be used for further tests of automatic pollen monitoring devices.

  17. Person categorization and automatic racial stereotyping effects on weapon identification.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher R; Fazio, Russell H

    2010-08-01

    Prior stereotyping research provides conflicting evidence regarding the importance of person categorization along a particular dimension for the automatic activation of a stereotype corresponding to that dimension. Experiment 1 replicated a racial stereotyping effect on object identification and examined whether it could be attenuated by encouraging categorization by age. Experiment 2 employed socially complex person stimuli and manipulated whether participants categorized spontaneously or by race. In Experiment 3, the distinctiveness of the racial dimension was manipulated by having Black females appear in the context of either Black males or White females. The results indicated that conditions fostering categorization by race consistently produced automatic racial stereotyping and that conditions fostering nonracial categorization can eliminate automatic racial stereotyping. Implications for the relation between automatic stereotype activation and dimension of categorization are discussed.

  18. Automatic identification of abstract online groups

    DOEpatents

    Engel, David W; Gregory, Michelle L; Bell, Eric B; Cowell, Andrew J; Piatt, Andrew W

    2014-04-15

    Online abstract groups, in which members aren't explicitly connected, can be automatically identified by computer-implemented methods. The methods involve harvesting records from social media and extracting content-based and structure-based features from each record. Each record includes a social-media posting and is associated with one or more entities. Each feature is stored on a data storage device and includes a computer-readable representation of an attribute of one or more records. The methods further involve grouping records into record groups according to the features of each record. Further still the methods involve calculating an n-dimensional surface representing each record group and defining an outlier as a record having feature-based distances measured from every n-dimensional surface that exceed a threshold value. Each of the n-dimensional surfaces is described by a footprint that characterizes the respective record group as an online abstract group.

  19. Automatic seagrass pattern identification on sonar images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahnemoonfar, Maryam; Rahman, Abdullah

    2016-05-01

    Natural and human-induced disturbances are resulting in degradation and loss of seagrass. Freshwater flooding, severe meteorological events and invasive species are among the major natural disturbances. Human-induced disturbances are mainly due to boat propeller scars in the shallow seagrass meadows and anchor scars in the deeper areas. Therefore, there is a vital need to map seagrass ecosystems in order to determine worldwide abundance and distribution. Currently there is no established method for mapping the pothole or scars in seagrass. One of the most precise sensors to map the seagrass disturbance is side scan sonar. Here we propose an automatic method which detects seagrass potholes in sonar images. Side scan sonar images are notorious for having speckle noise and uneven illumination across the image. Moreover, disturbance presents complex patterns where most segmentation techniques will fail. In this paper, by applying mathematical morphology technique and calculating the local standard deviation of the image, the images were enhanced and the pothole patterns were identified. The proposed method was applied on sonar images taken from Laguna Madre in Texas. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. Automatic swimming pool identification for fire suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzsimmons, Bo; Buck, Heidi

    2012-09-01

    Southern California experienced some of the largest wildfires ever seen in 2003 and 2007. The Cedar fire in 2003 resulted in 2,820 lost structures and 15 deaths, and the Witch fire in 2007 resulted in 1,650 lost structures and 2 deaths according to the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection (CAL FIRE). Fighting fires of this magnitude requires every available resource, and an adequate water supply is vital in the firefighting arsenal. Utilizing the fact that many homes in Southern California have swimming pools, firefighters could have access to strategically placed water supplies. The problem is accurately and quickly identifying which residences have actively filled swimming pools at the time of the emergency. The proposed method approaches the problem by employing satellite imagery and remote sensing techniques. Specifically, swimming pool identification is attempted with Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) on multispectral imagery from the Worldview-2 satellite.

  1. [Study on the automatic parameters identification of water pipe network model].

    PubMed

    Jia, Hai-Feng; Zhao, Qi-Feng

    2010-01-01

    Based on the problems analysis on development and application of water pipe network model, the model parameters automatic identification is regarded as a kernel bottleneck of model's application in water supply enterprise. The methodology of water pipe network model parameters automatic identification based on GIS and SCADA database is proposed. Then the kernel algorithm of model parameters automatic identification is studied, RSA (Regionalized Sensitivity Analysis) is used for automatic recognition of sensitive parameters, and MCS (Monte-Carlo Sampling) is used for automatic identification of parameters, the detail technical route based on RSA and MCS is presented. The module of water pipe network model parameters automatic identification is developed. At last, selected a typical water pipe network as a case, the case study on water pipe network model parameters automatic identification is conducted and the satisfied results are achieved. PMID:20329520

  2. Feature dependence in the automatic identification of musical woodwind instruments.

    PubMed

    Brown, J C; Houix, O; McAdams, S

    2001-03-01

    The automatic identification of musical instruments is a relatively unexplored and potentially very important field for its promise to free humans from time-consuming searches on the Internet and indexing of audio material. Speaker identification techniques have been used in this paper to determine the properties (features) which are most effective in identifying a statistically significant number of sounds representing four classes of musical instruments (oboe, sax, clarinet, flute) excerpted from actual performances. Features examined include cepstral coefficients, constant-Q coefficients, spectral centroid, autocorrelation coefficients, and moments of the time wave. The number of these coefficients was varied, and in the case of cepstral coefficients, ten coefficients were sufficient for identification. Correct identifications of 79%-84% were obtained with cepstral coefficients, bin-to-bin differences of the constant-Q coefficients, and autocorrelation coefficients; the latter have not been used previously in either speaker or instrument identification work. These results depended on the training sounds chosen and the number of clusters used in the calculation. Comparison to a human perception experiment with sounds produced by the same instruments indicates that, under these conditions, computers do as well as humans in identifying woodwind instruments. PMID:11303920

  3. Automatic identification of fungi under complex microscopic fecal images.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Yuan, Yang; Zhang, Jing; Lei, Haoting; Wang, Qiang; Liu, Juanxiu; Du, Xiaohui; Ni, Guangming; Liu, Yong

    2015-07-01

    Automatic identification of fungi in microscopic fecal images provides important information for evaluating digestive diseases. To date, disease diagnosis is primarily performed by manual techniques. However, the accuracy of this approach depends on the operator's expertise and subjective factors. The proposed system automatically identifies fungi in microscopic fecal images that contain other cells and impurities under complex environments. We segment images twice to obtain the correct area of interest, and select ten features, including the circle number, concavity point, and other basic features, to filter fungi. An artificial neural network (ANN) system is used to identify the fungi. The first stage (ANN-1) processes features from five images in differing focal lengths; the second stage (ANN-2) identifies the fungi using the ANN-1 output values. Images in differing focal lengths can be used to improve the identification result. The system output accurately detects the image, whether or not it has fungi. If the image does have fungi, the system output counts the number of different fungi types.

  4. Automatic identification of fungi under complex microscopic fecal images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lin; Yuan, Yang; Zhang, Jing; Lei, Haoting; Wang, Qiang; Liu, Juanxiu; Du, Xiaohui; Ni, Guangming; Liu, Yong

    2015-07-01

    Automatic identification of fungi in microscopic fecal images provides important information for evaluating digestive diseases. To date, disease diagnosis is primarily performed by manual techniques. However, the accuracy of this approach depends on the operator's expertise and subjective factors. The proposed system automatically identifies fungi in microscopic fecal images that contain other cells and impurities under complex environments. We segment images twice to obtain the correct area of interest, and select ten features, including the circle number, concavity point, and other basic features, to filter fungi. An artificial neural network (ANN) system is used to identify the fungi. The first stage (ANN-1) processes features from five images in differing focal lengths; the second stage (ANN-2) identifies the fungi using the ANN-1 output values. Images in differing focal lengths can be used to improve the identification result. The system output accurately detects the image, whether or not it has fungi. If the image does have fungi, the system output counts the number of different fungi types.

  5. Automatically identification of Equatorial Spread-F occurrence on ionograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillat, Valdir Gil; Fagundes, Paulo Roberto; Guimarães, Lamartine Nogueira Frutuoso

    2015-12-01

    F-region large-scale irregularities, also called plasma bubbles, are one of the most interesting equatorial ionospheric phenomena. These irregularities are generated in the equatorial region and afterwards extend to lower latitudes. They are one of the important topics of investigation in equatorial ionosphere electrodynamics and, therefore, are subject to intense theoretical and experimental research. The ionosonde is the most used scientific equipment to study the ionosphere and the F-region. With advancement of digital ionosonde, it is now possible to carry out an ionospheric sounding with a cadence of 5 min or even with 1-minute cadence. To analyse a large amount of ionograms, more sophisticated tools are needed. Thus, development of algorithms to identify and analyse different aspects of ionograms has become very important to space science researchers. Multiple echoes recorded on ionograms are the signature of these irregularities in the ionograms, usually called Spread-F. Spread-F is classified into three types: range, frequency, and mixed. Thus, automatic identification of Spread-F is important in ionospheric studies, because studies usually involve the analysis and interpretation of large numbers of ionograms. The main objective of this paper is to present a new computational tool, based on fuzzy relation, designed to automatically identify the occurrence of Spread-F in ionograms. The test was conducted in ionograms recorded in the Brazilian sector (São José dos Campos (23.2°S, 45.9°W, dip latitude 17.6°S-low latitude) and Palmas (10.2°S, 48.2°W, dip latitude 5.5°S-near the magnetic equatorial)). The automatic identification of Spread-F occurrence was compared with those obtained manually and good agreement was found.

  6. Automatically identification of Equatorial Spread-F occurrence on ionograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagundes, P. R.; Pillat, V. G.; Guimarães, L. N. F.

    2015-12-01

    F-region large-scale irregularities, also called plasma bubbles, are one of the most interesting equatorial ionospheric phenomena. These irregularities are generated in the equatorial region and afterwards extend to lower latitudes. They are one of the important topics of investigation in equatorial ionosphere electrodynamics and, therefore, are subject to intense theoretical and experimental research. The ionosonde is the most used scientific equipment to study the ionosphere and the F-region. With advancement of digital ionosonde, it is now possible to carry out an ionospheric sounding with a cadence of 5 minutes or even with 1-minute cadence. To analyse a large amount of ionograms, more sophisticated tools are needed. Thus, development of algorithms to identify and analyse different aspects of ionograms has become very important to space science researchers. Multiple echoes recorded on ionograms are the signature of these irregularities in the ionograms, usually called Spread-F. Spread-F is classified into three types: range, frequency, and mixed. Thus, automatic identification of Spread-F is important in ionospheric studies, because studies usually involve the analysis and interpretation of large numbers of ionograms. The main objective of this paper is to present a new computational tool, based on fuzzy relation, designed to automatically identify the occurrence of Spread-F in ionograms. The test was conducted in ionograms recorded in the Brazilian sector (São José dos Campos (23.2° S, 45.9° W, dip latitude 17.6° S - low latitude) and Palmas (10.2° S, 48.2° W, dip latitude 5.5° S - near the magnetic equatorial)). The automatic identification of Spread-F occurrence was compared with those obtained manually and good agreement was found.

  7. Development of an automatic identification algorithm for antibiogram analysis.

    PubMed

    Costa, Luan F R; da Silva, Eduardo S; Noronha, Victor T; Vaz-Moreira, Ivone; Nunes, Olga C; Andrade, Marcelino M de

    2015-12-01

    Routinely, diagnostic and microbiology laboratories perform antibiogram analysis which can present some difficulties leading to misreadings and intra and inter-reader deviations. An Automatic Identification Algorithm (AIA) has been proposed as a solution to overcome some issues associated with the disc diffusion method, which is the main goal of this work. AIA allows automatic scanning of inhibition zones obtained by antibiograms. More than 60 environmental isolates were tested using susceptibility tests which were performed for 12 different antibiotics for a total of 756 readings. Plate images were acquired and classified as standard or oddity. The inhibition zones were measured using the AIA and results were compared with reference method (human reading), using weighted kappa index and statistical analysis to evaluate, respectively, inter-reader agreement and correlation between AIA-based and human-based reading. Agreements were observed in 88% cases and 89% of the tests showed no difference or a <4mm difference between AIA and human analysis, exhibiting a correlation index of 0.85 for all images, 0.90 for standards and 0.80 for oddities with no significant difference between automatic and manual method. AIA resolved some reading problems such as overlapping inhibition zones, imperfect microorganism seeding, non-homogeneity of the circumference, partial action of the antimicrobial, and formation of a second halo of inhibition. Furthermore, AIA proved to overcome some of the limitations observed in other automatic methods. Therefore, AIA may be a practical tool for automated reading of antibiograms in diagnostic and microbiology laboratories. PMID:26513468

  8. 33 CFR 164.43 - Automatic Identification System Shipborne Equipment-Prince William Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (AISSE) system consisting of a: (1) Twelve-channel all-in-view Differential Global Positioning System (d... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Automatic Identification System... Automatic Identification System Shipborne Equipment—Prince William Sound. (a) Until December 31, 2004,...

  9. 33 CFR 164.43 - Automatic Identification System Shipborne Equipment-Prince William Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (AISSE) system consisting of a: (1) Twelve-channel all-in-view Differential Global Positioning System (d... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Automatic Identification System... Automatic Identification System Shipborne Equipment—Prince William Sound. (a) Until December 31, 2004,...

  10. 33 CFR 164.43 - Automatic Identification System Shipborne Equipment-Prince William Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (AISSE) system consisting of a: (1) Twelve-channel all-in-view Differential Global Positioning System (d... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Automatic Identification System... Automatic Identification System Shipborne Equipment—Prince William Sound. (a) Until December 31, 2004,...

  11. 33 CFR 164.43 - Automatic Identification System Shipborne Equipment-Prince William Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (AISSE) system consisting of a: (1) Twelve-channel all-in-view Differential Global Positioning System (d... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Automatic Identification System... Automatic Identification System Shipborne Equipment—Prince William Sound. (a) Until December 31, 2004,...

  12. Automatic Identification of Interictal Epileptiform Discharges in Secondary Generalized Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Won-Du; Cha, Ho-Seung; Lee, Chany; Kang, Hoon-Chul; Im, Chang-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Ictal epileptiform discharges (EDs) are characteristic signal patterns of scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) or intracranial EEG (iEEG) recorded from patients with epilepsy, which assist with the diagnosis and characterization of various types of epilepsy. The EEG signal, however, is often recorded from patients with epilepsy for a long period of time, and thus detection and identification of EDs have been a burden on medical doctors. This paper proposes a new method for automatic identification of two types of EDs, repeated sharp-waves (sharps), and runs of sharp-and-slow-waves (SSWs), which helps to pinpoint epileptogenic foci in secondary generalized epilepsy such as Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS). In the experiments with iEEG data acquired from a patient with LGS, our proposed method detected EDs with an accuracy of 93.76% and classified three different signal patterns with a mean classification accuracy of 87.69%, which was significantly higher than that of a conventional wavelet-based method. Our study shows that it is possible to successfully detect and discriminate sharps and SSWs from background EEG activity using our proposed method. PMID:27379172

  13. Automatic Identification of Interictal Epileptiform Discharges in Secondary Generalized Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Won-Du; Cha, Ho-Seung; Lee, Chany; Kang, Hoon-Chul; Im, Chang-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Ictal epileptiform discharges (EDs) are characteristic signal patterns of scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) or intracranial EEG (iEEG) recorded from patients with epilepsy, which assist with the diagnosis and characterization of various types of epilepsy. The EEG signal, however, is often recorded from patients with epilepsy for a long period of time, and thus detection and identification of EDs have been a burden on medical doctors. This paper proposes a new method for automatic identification of two types of EDs, repeated sharp-waves (sharps), and runs of sharp-and-slow-waves (SSWs), which helps to pinpoint epileptogenic foci in secondary generalized epilepsy such as Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS). In the experiments with iEEG data acquired from a patient with LGS, our proposed method detected EDs with an accuracy of 93.76% and classified three different signal patterns with a mean classification accuracy of 87.69%, which was significantly higher than that of a conventional wavelet-based method. Our study shows that it is possible to successfully detect and discriminate sharps and SSWs from background EEG activity using our proposed method. PMID:27379172

  14. Development of an Automatic Identification System Autonomous Positioning System.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qing; Jiang, Yi; Zhang, Jingbo; Sun, Xiaowen; Zhang, Shufang

    2015-11-11

    In order to overcome the vulnerability of the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and provide robust position, navigation and time (PNT) information in marine navigation, the autonomous positioning system based on ranging-mode Automatic Identification System (AIS) is presented in the paper. The principle of the AIS autonomous positioning system (AAPS) is investigated, including the position algorithm, the signal measurement technique, the geometric dilution of precision, the time synchronization technique and the additional secondary factor correction technique. In order to validate the proposed AAPS, a verification system has been established in the Xinghai sea region of Dalian (China). Static and dynamic positioning experiments are performed. The original function of the AIS in the AAPS is not influenced. The experimental results show that the positioning precision of the AAPS is better than 10 m in the area with good geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) by the additional secondary factor correction technology. This is the most economical solution for a land-based positioning system to complement the GNSS for the navigation safety of vessels sailing along coasts.

  15. Automatic Identification of Subcellular Phenotypes on Human Cell Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Christian; Erfle, Holger; Warnat, Patrick; Daigle, Nathalie; Lörch, Thomas; Ellenberg, Jan; Pepperkok, Rainer; Eils, Roland

    2004-01-01

    Light microscopic analysis of cell morphology provides a high-content readout of cell function and protein localization. Cell arrays and microwell transfection assays on cultured cells have made cell phenotype analysis accessible to high-throughput experiments. Both the localization of each protein in the proteome and the effect of RNAi knock-down of individual genes on cell morphology can be assayed by manual inspection of microscopic images. However, the use of morphological readouts for functional genomics requires fast and automatic identification of complex cellular phenotypes. Here, we present a fully automated platform for high-throughput cell phenotype screening combining human live cell arrays, screening microscopy, and machine-learning-based classification methods. Efficiency of this platform is demonstrated by classification of eleven subcellular patterns marked by GFP-tagged proteins. Our classification method can be adapted to virtually any microscopic assay based on cell morphology, opening a wide range of applications including large-scale RNAi screening in human cells. PMID:15173118

  16. Development of an Automatic Identification System Autonomous Positioning System.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qing; Jiang, Yi; Zhang, Jingbo; Sun, Xiaowen; Zhang, Shufang

    2015-01-01

    In order to overcome the vulnerability of the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and provide robust position, navigation and time (PNT) information in marine navigation, the autonomous positioning system based on ranging-mode Automatic Identification System (AIS) is presented in the paper. The principle of the AIS autonomous positioning system (AAPS) is investigated, including the position algorithm, the signal measurement technique, the geometric dilution of precision, the time synchronization technique and the additional secondary factor correction technique. In order to validate the proposed AAPS, a verification system has been established in the Xinghai sea region of Dalian (China). Static and dynamic positioning experiments are performed. The original function of the AIS in the AAPS is not influenced. The experimental results show that the positioning precision of the AAPS is better than 10 m in the area with good geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) by the additional secondary factor correction technology. This is the most economical solution for a land-based positioning system to complement the GNSS for the navigation safety of vessels sailing along coasts. PMID:26569258

  17. Development of an Automatic Identification System Autonomous Positioning System

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qing; Jiang, Yi; Zhang, Jingbo; Sun, Xiaowen; Zhang, Shufang

    2015-01-01

    In order to overcome the vulnerability of the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and provide robust position, navigation and time (PNT) information in marine navigation, the autonomous positioning system based on ranging-mode Automatic Identification System (AIS) is presented in the paper. The principle of the AIS autonomous positioning system (AAPS) is investigated, including the position algorithm, the signal measurement technique, the geometric dilution of precision, the time synchronization technique and the additional secondary factor correction technique. In order to validate the proposed AAPS, a verification system has been established in the Xinghai sea region of Dalian (China). Static and dynamic positioning experiments are performed. The original function of the AIS in the AAPS is not influenced. The experimental results show that the positioning precision of the AAPS is better than 10 m in the area with good geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) by the additional secondary factor correction technology. This is the most economical solution for a land-based positioning system to complement the GNSS for the navigation safety of vessels sailing along coasts. PMID:26569258

  18. A unified framework and method for automatic neural spike identification

    PubMed Central

    Ekanadham, Chaitanya; Tranchina, Daniel; Simoncelli, Eero P.

    2014-01-01

    Automatic identification of action potentials from one or more extracellular electrode recordings is generally achieved by clustering similar segments of the measured voltage trace, a method that fails (or requires substantial human intervention) for spikes whose waveforms overlap. We formulate the problem in terms of a simple probabilistic model, and develop a unified method to identify spike waveforms along with continuous-valued estimates of their arrival times, even in the presence of overlap. Specifically, we make use of a recent algorithm known as Continuous Basis Pursuit for solving linear inverse problems in which the component occurrences are sparse and are at arbitrary continuous-valued times. We demonstrate significant performance improvements over current state-of-the-art clustering methods for four simulated and two real data sets with ground truth, each of which has previously been used as a benchmark for spike sorting. In addition, performance of our method on each of these data sets surpasses that of the best possible clustering method (i.e., one that is specifically optimized to minimize errors on each data set). Finally, the algorithm is almost completely automated, with a computational cost that scales well for multi-electrode arrays. PMID:24184059

  19. An automatic identification and monitoring system for coral reef fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilder, Joseph; Tonde, Chetan; Sundar, Ganesh; Huang, Ning; Barinov, Lev; Baxi, Jigesh; Bibby, James; Rapport, Andrew; Pavoni, Edward; Tsang, Serena; Garcia, Eri; Mateo, Felix; Lubansky, Tanya M.; Russell, Gareth J.

    2012-10-01

    To help gauge the health of coral reef ecosystems, we developed a prototype of an underwater camera module to automatically census reef fish populations. Recognition challenges include pose and lighting variations, complicated backgrounds, within-species color variations and within-family similarities among species. An open frame holds two cameras, LED lights, and two `background' panels in an L-shaped configuration. High-resolution cameras send sequences of 300 synchronized image pairs at 10 fps to an on-shore PC. Approximately 200 sequences containing fish were recorded at the New York Aquarium's Glover's Reef exhibit. These contained eight `common' species with 85-672 images, and eight `rare' species with 5-27 images that were grouped into an `unknown/rare' category for classification. Image pre-processing included background modeling and subtraction, and tracking of fish across frames for depth estimation, pose correction, scaling, and disambiguation of overlapping fish. Shape features were obtained from PCA analysis of perimeter points, color features from opponent color histograms, and `banding' features from DCT of vertical projections. Images were classified to species using feedforward neural networks arranged in a three-level hierarchy in which errors remaining after each level are targeted by networks in the level below. Networks were trained and tested on independent image sets. Overall accuracy of species-specific identifications typically exceeded 96% across multiple training runs. A seaworthy version of our system will allow for population censuses with high temporal resolution, and therefore improved statistical power to detect trends. A network of such devices could provide an `early warning system' for coral ecosystem collapse.

  20. Image classification approach for automatic identification of grassland weeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, Steffen; Kühbauch, Walter

    2006-08-01

    The potential of digital image processing for weed mapping in arable crops has widely been investigated in the last decades. In grassland farming these techniques are rarely applied so far. The project presented here focuses on the automatic identification of one of the most invasive and persistent grassland weed species, the broad-leaved dock (Rumex obtusifolius L.) in complex mixtures of grass and herbs. A total of 108 RGB-images were acquired in near range from a field experiment under constant illumination conditions using a commercial digital camera. The objects of interest were separated from the background by transforming the 24 bit RGB-images into 8 bit intensities and then calculating the local homogeneity images. These images were binarised by applying a dynamic grey value threshold. Finally, morphological opening was applied to the binary images. The remaining contiguous regions were considered to be objects. In order to classify these objects into 3 different weed species, a soil and a residue class, a total of 17 object-features related to shape, color and texture of the weeds were extracted. Using MANOVA, 12 of them were identified which contribute to classification. Maximum-likelihood classification was conducted to discriminate the weed species. The total classification rate across all classes ranged from 76 % to 83 %. The classification of Rumex obtusifolius achieved detection rates between 85 % and 93 % by misclassifications below 10 %. Further, Rumex obtusifolius distribution and the density maps were generated based on classification results and transformation of image coordinates into Gauss-Krueger system. These promising results show the high potential of image analysis for weed mapping in grassland and the implementation of site-specific herbicide spraying.

  1. Automatic Identification of Changes on the Lunar Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speyerer, Emerson; Wagner, Robert; Robinson, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Since June 2009, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has maintained a stable polar orbit enabling the twin Narrow Angle Cameras (NACs) to acquire high-resolution observations of the lunar surface (pixel scale of 0.25 to 2 m/pixel). This orbital configuration facilitates occasional repeat coverage with similar lighting geometries. These before and after observations, referred to in this study as temporal pairs, enable the identification of changes to the surface based on applying a series of change detection techniques. Manual inspection of the temporal pairs by LROC team members resulted in the discovery of hundreds of new changes across the lunar surface [1]. However, this manual process is time consuming (2-4 hours per temporal pair) and each analyst must apply their own judgment on whether they have discovered a real change or an artifact in the image pair. Thus far, the LROC team has identified 650 surface changes as well as 19 resolved craters using the manual approach. Leveraging image processing techniques developed by the LROC team, we started automatically scanning and identifying these changes. The new automated algorithm locates changes based on albedo variations and changes in surface texture. The program provides a list of potential new features for later manual inspection and classification (disturbance lacking resolvable crater or crater with a rim diameter of X meters). This new approach eliminates the human inspector from scanning up to 5.22*109 pixels in each temporal pair and instead provides cropped cutouts with the detected changes centered in the thumbnail image. The LROC NACs have already collected thousands of temporal pair observations and will continue to do so over the remaining extended mission. Highest fidelity change detection comes from temporal pairs with nearly identical lighting geometries. In the next two years, the progression of the LRO orbit with respect to beta angle will enable direct illumination matches (<2 degrees

  2. A Review of Automatic Patient Identification Options for Public Health Care Centers with Restricted Budgets

    PubMed Central

    García-Betances, Rebeca I.; Huerta, Mónica K.

    2012-01-01

    A comparative review is presented of available technologies suitable for automatic reading of patient identification bracelet tags. Existing technologies’ backgrounds, characteristics, advantages and disadvantages, are described in relation to their possible use by public health care centers with budgetary limitations. A comparative assessment is presented of suitable automatic identification systems based on graphic codes, both one- (1D) and two-dimensional (2D), printed on labels, as well as those based on radio frequency identification (RFID) tags. The analysis looks at the tradeoffs of these technologies to provide guidance to hospital administrator looking to deploy patient identification technology. The results suggest that affordable automatic patient identification systems can be easily and inexpensively implemented using 2D code printed on low cost bracelet labels, which can then be read and automatically decoded by ordinary mobile smart phones. Because of mobile smart phones’ present versatility and ubiquity, the implantation and operation of 2D code, and especially Quick Response® (QR) Code, technology emerges as a very attractive alternative to automate the patients’ identification processes in low-budget situations. PMID:23569629

  3. A review of automatic patient identification options for public health care centers with restricted budgets.

    PubMed

    García-Betances, Rebeca I; Huerta, Mónica K

    2012-01-01

    A comparative review is presented of available technologies suitable for automatic reading of patient identification bracelet tags. Existing technologies' backgrounds, characteristics, advantages and disadvantages, are described in relation to their possible use by public health care centers with budgetary limitations. A comparative assessment is presented of suitable automatic identification systems based on graphic codes, both one- (1D) and two-dimensional (2D), printed on labels, as well as those based on radio frequency identification (RFID) tags. The analysis looks at the tradeoffs of these technologies to provide guidance to hospital administrator looking to deploy patient identification technology. The results suggest that affordable automatic patient identification systems can be easily and inexpensively implemented using 2D code printed on low cost bracelet labels, which can then be read and automatically decoded by ordinary mobile smart phones. Because of mobile smart phones' present versatility and ubiquity, the implantation and operation of 2D code, and especially Quick Response® (QR) Code, technology emerges as a very attractive alternative to automate the patients' identification processes in low-budget situations. PMID:23569629

  4. Human Identification Using Automatic and Semi-Automatically Detected Facial Marks.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, Nisha; Flynn, Patrick J; Vorder Bruegge, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    Continuing advancements in the field of digital cameras and surveillance imaging devices have led law enforcement and intelligence agencies to use analysis of images and videos for the investigation and prosecution of crime. When determining identity from photographic evidence, forensic analysts perform comparison of visible facial features manually, which is inefficient. In this study, we will address research efforts to use facial marks as biometric signatures to distinguish between individuals. We propose two systems to assist forensic analysts during photographic comparison: an improved multiscale facial mark system in which facial marks are detected automatically, and a semi-automatic facial mark system that integrates human knowledge within the improved multiscale facial mark system. Experiment results employ a high-resolution time-elapsed dataset acquired at the University of Notre Dame between 2009 and 2011. The results indicate that the geometric distributions of facial mark patterns can be used to distinguish between individuals.

  5. Human Identification Using Automatic and Semi-Automatically Detected Facial Marks.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, Nisha; Flynn, Patrick J; Vorder Bruegge, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    Continuing advancements in the field of digital cameras and surveillance imaging devices have led law enforcement and intelligence agencies to use analysis of images and videos for the investigation and prosecution of crime. When determining identity from photographic evidence, forensic analysts perform comparison of visible facial features manually, which is inefficient. In this study, we will address research efforts to use facial marks as biometric signatures to distinguish between individuals. We propose two systems to assist forensic analysts during photographic comparison: an improved multiscale facial mark system in which facial marks are detected automatically, and a semi-automatic facial mark system that integrates human knowledge within the improved multiscale facial mark system. Experiment results employ a high-resolution time-elapsed dataset acquired at the University of Notre Dame between 2009 and 2011. The results indicate that the geometric distributions of facial mark patterns can be used to distinguish between individuals. PMID:27405018

  6. A Novel Method of Automatic Plant Species Identification Using Sparse Representation of Leaf Tooth Features

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Taisong; Hou, Xueliang; Li, Pifan; Zhou, Feifei

    2015-01-01

    Automatic species identification has many advantages over traditional species identification. Currently, most plant automatic identification methods focus on the features of leaf shape, venation and texture, which are promising for the identification of some plant species. However, leaf tooth, a feature commonly used in traditional species identification, is ignored. In this paper, a novel automatic species identification method using sparse representation of leaf tooth features is proposed. In this method, image corners are detected first, and the abnormal image corner is removed by the PauTa criteria. Next, the top and bottom leaf tooth edges are discriminated to effectively correspond to the extracted image corners; then, four leaf tooth features (Leaf-num, Leaf-rate, Leaf-sharpness and Leaf-obliqueness) are extracted and concatenated into a feature vector. Finally, a sparse representation-based classifier is used to identify a plant species sample. Tests on a real-world leaf image dataset show that our proposed method is feasible for species identification. PMID:26440281

  7. Automatic script identification from images using cluster-based templates

    SciTech Connect

    Hochberg, J.; Kerns, L.; Kelly, P.; Thomas, T.

    1995-02-01

    We have developed a technique for automatically identifying the script used to generate a document that is stored electronically in bit image form. Our approach differs from previous work in that the distinctions among scripts are discovered by an automatic learning procedure, without any handson analysis. We first develop a set of representative symbols (templates) for each script in our database (Cyrillic, Roman, etc.). We do this by identifying all textual symbols in a set of training documents, scaling each symbol to a fixed size, clustering similar symbols, pruning minor clusters, and finding each cluster`s centroid. To identify a new document`s script, we identify and scale a subset of symbols from the document and compare them to the templates for each script. We choose the script whose templates provide the best match. Our current system distinguishes among the Armenian, Burmese, Chinese, Cyrillic, Ethiopic, Greek, Hebrew, Japanese, Korean, Roman, and Thai scripts with over 90% accuracy.

  8. Automatic vertebral identification using surface-based registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herring, Jeannette L.; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2000-06-01

    This work introduces an enhancement to currently existing methods of intra-operative vertebral registration by allowing the portion of the spinal column surface that correctly matches a set of physical vertebral points to be automatically selected from several possible choices. Automatic selection is made possible by the shape variations that exist among lumbar vertebrae. In our experiments, we register vertebral points representing physical space to spinal column surfaces extracted from computed tomography images. The vertebral points are taken from the posterior elements of a single vertebra to represent the region of surgical interest. The surface is extracted using an improved version of the fully automatic marching cubes algorithm, which results in a triangulated surface that contains multiple vertebrae. We find the correct portion of the surface by registering the set of physical points to multiple surface areas, including all vertebral surfaces that potentially match the physical point set. We then compute the standard deviation of the surface error for the set of points registered to each vertebral surface that is a possible match, and the registration that corresponds to the lowest standard deviation designates the correct match. We have performed our current experiments on two plastic spine phantoms and one patient.

  9. Automatic and Direct Identification of Blink Components from Scalp EEG

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Wanzeng; Zhou, Zhanpeng; Hu, Sanqing; Zhang, Jianhai; Babiloni, Fabio; Dai, Guojun

    2013-01-01

    Eye blink is an important and inevitable artifact during scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) recording. The main problem in EEG signal processing is how to identify eye blink components automatically with independent component analysis (ICA). Taking into account the fact that the eye blink as an external source has a higher sum of correlation with frontal EEG channels than all other sources due to both its location and significant amplitude, in this paper, we proposed a method based on correlation index and the feature of power distribution to automatically detect eye blink components. Furthermore, we prove mathematically that the correlation between independent components and scalp EEG channels can be translating directly from the mixing matrix of ICA. This helps to simplify calculations and understand the implications of the correlation. The proposed method doesn't need to select a template or thresholds in advance, and it works without simultaneously recording an electrooculography (EOG) reference. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can automatically recognize eye blink components with a high accuracy on entire datasets from 15 subjects. PMID:23959240

  10. Automatic and direct identification of blink components from scalp EEG.

    PubMed

    Kong, Wanzeng; Zhou, Zhanpeng; Hu, Sanqing; Zhang, Jianhai; Babiloni, Fabio; Dai, Guojun

    2013-08-16

    Eye blink is an important and inevitable artifact during scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) recording. The main problem in EEG signal processing is how to identify eye blink components automatically with independent component analysis (ICA). Taking into account the fact that the eye blink as an external source has a higher sum of correlation with frontal EEG channels than all other sources due to both its location and significant amplitude, in this paper, we proposed a method based on correlation index and the feature of power distribution to automatically detect eye blink components. Furthermore, we prove mathematically that the correlation between independent components and scalp EEG channels can be translating directly from the mixing matrix of ICA. This helps to simplify calculations and understand the implications of the correlation. The proposed method doesn't need to select a template or thresholds in advance, and it works without simultaneously recording an electrooculography (EOG) reference. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can automatically recognize eye blink components with a high accuracy on entire datasets from 15 subjects.

  11. AUTOMATISM.

    PubMed

    MCCALDON, R J

    1964-10-24

    Individuals can carry out complex activity while in a state of impaired consciousness, a condition termed "automatism". Consciousness must be considered from both an organic and a psychological aspect, because impairment of consciousness may occur in both ways. Automatism may be classified as normal (hypnosis), organic (temporal lobe epilepsy), psychogenic (dissociative fugue) or feigned. Often painstaking clinical investigation is necessary to clarify the diagnosis. There is legal precedent for assuming that all crimes must embody both consciousness and will. Jurists are loath to apply this principle without reservation, as this would necessitate acquittal and release of potentially dangerous individuals. However, with the sole exception of the defence of insanity, there is at present no legislation to prohibit release without further investigation of anyone acquitted of a crime on the grounds of "automatism".

  12. Phase coherence adaptive processor for automatic signal detection and identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagstaff, Ronald A.

    2006-05-01

    A continuously adapting acoustic signal processor with an automatic detection/decision aid is presented. Its purpose is to preserve the signals of tactical interest, and filter out other signals and noise. It utilizes single sensor or beamformed spectral data and transforms the signal and noise phase angles into "aligned phase angles" (APA). The APA increase the phase temporal coherence of signals and leave the noise incoherent. Coherence thresholds are set, which are representative of the type of source "threat vehicle" and the geographic area or volume in which it is operating. These thresholds separate signals, based on the "quality" of their APA coherence. An example is presented in which signals from a submerged source in the ocean are preserved, while clutter signals from ships and noise are entirely eliminated. Furthermore, the "signals of interest" were identified by the processor's automatic detection aid. Similar performance is expected for air and ground vehicles. The processor's equations are formulated in such a manner that they can be tuned to eliminate noise and exploit signal, based on the "quality" of their APA temporal coherence. The mathematical formulation for this processor is presented, including the method by which the processor continuously self-adapts. Results show nearly complete elimination of noise, with only the selected category of signals remaining, and accompanying enhancements in spectral and spatial resolution. In most cases, the concept of signal-to-noise ratio looses significance, and "adaptive automated /decision aid" is more relevant.

  13. Automatic identification of model reductions for discrete stochastic simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Sheng; Fu, Jin; Li, Hong; Petzold, Linda

    2012-07-01

    Multiple time scales in cellular chemical reaction systems present a challenge for the efficiency of stochastic simulation. Numerous model reductions have been proposed to accelerate the simulation of chemically reacting systems by exploiting time scale separation. However, these are often identified and deployed manually, requiring expert knowledge. This is time-consuming, prone to error, and opportunities for model reduction may be missed, particularly for large models. We propose an automatic model analysis algorithm using an adaptively weighted Petri net to dynamically identify opportunities for model reductions for both the stochastic simulation algorithm and tau-leaping simulation, with no requirement of expert knowledge input. Results are presented to demonstrate the utility and effectiveness of this approach.

  14. Automatic Bayesian single molecule identification for localization microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yunqing; Hendriks, Johnny; Gensch, Thomas; Dai, Luru; Li, Junbai

    2016-01-01

    Single molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) is on its way to become a mainstream imaging technique in the life sciences. However, analysis of SMLM data is biased by user provided subjective parameters required by the analysis software. To remove this human bias we introduce here the Auto-Bayes method that executes the analysis of SMLM data automatically. We demonstrate the success of the method using the photoelectron count of an emitter as selection characteristic. Moreover, the principle can be used for any characteristic that is bimodally distributed with respect to false and true emitters. The method also allows generation of an emitter reliability map for estimating quality of SMLM-based structures. The potential of the Auto-Bayes method is shown by the fact that our first basic implementation was able to outperform all software packages that were compared in the ISBI online challenge in 2015, with respect to molecule detection (Jaccard index). PMID:27641933

  15. Automatic Bayesian single molecule identification for localization microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yunqing; Hendriks, Johnny; Gensch, Thomas; Dai, Luru; Li, Junbai

    2016-01-01

    Single molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) is on its way to become a mainstream imaging technique in the life sciences. However, analysis of SMLM data is biased by user provided subjective parameters required by the analysis software. To remove this human bias we introduce here the Auto-Bayes method that executes the analysis of SMLM data automatically. We demonstrate the success of the method using the photoelectron count of an emitter as selection characteristic. Moreover, the principle can be used for any characteristic that is bimodally distributed with respect to false and true emitters. The method also allows generation of an emitter reliability map for estimating quality of SMLM-based structures. The potential of the Auto-Bayes method is shown by the fact that our first basic implementation was able to outperform all software packages that were compared in the ISBI online challenge in 2015, with respect to molecule detection (Jaccard index). PMID:27641933

  16. Investigation of Ballistic Evidence through an Automatic Image Analysis and Identification System.

    PubMed

    Kara, Ilker

    2016-05-01

    Automated firearms identification (AFI) systems contribute to shedding light on criminal events by comparison between different pieces of evidence on cartridge cases and bullets and by matching similar ones that were fired from the same firearm. Ballistic evidence can be rapidly analyzed and classified by means of an automatic image analysis and identification system. In addition, it can be used to narrow the range of possible matching evidence. In this study conducted on the cartridges ejected from the examined pistol, three imaging areas, namely the firing pin impression, capsule traces, and the intersection of these traces, were compared automatically using the image analysis and identification system through the correlation ranking method to determine the numeric values that indicate the significance of the similarities. These numerical features that signify the similarities and differences between pistol makes and models can be used in groupings to make a distinction between makes and models of pistols. PMID:27122419

  17. Automatic identification of needle insertion site in epidural anesthesia with a cascading classifier.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuang; Tan, Kok Kiong; Sng, Ban Leong; Li, Shengjin; Sia, Alex Tiong Heng

    2014-09-01

    Ultrasound imaging was used to detect the anatomic structure of lumbar spine from the transverse view, to facilitate needle insertion in epidural anesthesia. The interspinous images that represent proper needle insertion sites were identified automatically with image processing and pattern recognition techniques. On the basis of ultrasound video streams obtained in pregnant patients, the image processing and identification procedure in a previous work was tested and improved. The test results indicate that the pre-processing algorithm performs well on lumbar spine ultrasound images, whereas the classifier is not flexible enough for pregnant patients. To improve the accuracy of identification, we propose a cascading classifier that successfully located the proper needle insertion site on all of the 36 video streams collected from pregnant patients. The results indicate that the proposed image identification procedure is able to identify the ultrasound images of lumbar spine in an automatic manner, so as to facilitate the anesthetists' work to identify the needle insertion point precisely and effectively.

  18. Line Detection and Texture Analysis for Automatic Nematode Identification

    PubMed Central

    Fdez-Valdivia, J.; Pérez de la Blanca, N.; Castillo, P.; Gómez-Barcina, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is the second in a series studying procedures for estimating and calibrating features of nematodes from digital images. Two kinds of features were analyzed for recognition: those with a directional component and those with a textural component. Features that have a directional component (lateral field and annules) were preprocessed with classic algorithms and modified by directional filters. Features having texture (esophagus and intestine) were analyzed with vectors of measures to define them and the statistical technique CART (classification and regression trees) to explain the role that each measure plays in the identification and discrimination process. PMID:19283037

  19. Automatic annotation of protein function based on family identification.

    PubMed

    Abascal, Federico; Valencia, Alfonso

    2003-11-15

    Although genomes are being sequenced at an impressive rate, the information generated tells us little about protein function, which is slow to characterize by traditional methods. Automatic protein function annotation based on computational methods has alleviated this imbalance. The most powerful current approach for inferring the function of new proteins is by studying the annotations of their homologues, since their common origin is assumed to be reflected in their structure and function. Unfortunately, as proteins evolve they acquire new functions, so annotation based on homology must be carried out in the context of orthologues or subfamilies. Evolution adds new complications through domain shuffling: homology (or orthology) frequently corresponds to domains rather than complete proteins. Moreover, the function of a protein may be seen as the result of combining the functions of its domains. Additionally, automatic annotation has to deal with problems related to the annotations in the databases: errors (which are likely to be propagated), inconsistencies, or different degrees of function specification. We describe a method that addresses these difficulties for the annotation of protein function. Sequence relationships are detected and measured to obtain a map of the sequence space, which is searched for differentiated groups of proteins (similar to islands on the map), which are expected to have a common function and correspond to groups of orthologues or subfamilies. This mapmaking is done by applying a clustering algorithm based on Normalized cuts in graphs. The domain problem is addressed in a simple way: pairwise local alignments are analyzed to determine the extent to which they cover the entire sequence lengths of the two proteins. This analysis determines both what homologues are preferred for functional inheritance and the level of confidence of the annotation. To alleviate the problems associated with database annotations, the information on all the

  20. Sensitivity based segmentation and identification in automatic speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Absher, R.

    1984-03-01

    This research program continued an investigation of sensitivity analysis, and its use in the segmentation and identification of the phonetic units of speech, that was initiated during the 1982 Summer Faculty Research Program. The elements of the sensitivity matrix, which express the relative change in each pole of the speech model to a relative change in each coefficient of the characteristic equation, were evaluated for an expanded set of data which consisted of six vowels contained in single words spoken in a simple carrier phrase by five males with differing dialects. The objectives were to evaluate the sensitivity matrix, interpret its changes during the production of the vowels, and to evaluate inter-speaker variations. It was determined that the sensitivity analysis (1) serves to segment the vowel interval, (2) provides a measure of when a vowel is on target, and (3) should provide sufficient information to identify each particular vowel. Based on the results presented, sensitivity analysis should result in more accurate segmentation and identification of phonemes and should provide a practicable framework for incorporation of acoustic-phonetic variance as well as time and talker normalization.

  1. Automatic limb identification and sleeping parameters assessment for pressure ulcer prevention.

    PubMed

    Baran Pouyan, Maziyar; Birjandtalab, Javad; Nourani, Mehrdad; Matthew Pompeo, M D

    2016-08-01

    Pressure ulcers (PUs) are common among vulnerable patients such as elderly, bedridden and diabetic. PUs are very painful for patients and costly for hospitals and nursing homes. Assessment of sleeping parameters on at-risk limbs is critical for ulcer prevention. An effective assessment depends on automatic identification and tracking of at-risk limbs. An accurate limb identification can be used to analyze the pressure distribution and assess risk for each limb. In this paper, we propose a graph-based clustering approach to extract the body limbs from the pressure data collected by a commercial pressure map system. A robust signature-based technique is employed to automatically label each limb. Finally, an assessment technique is applied to evaluate the experienced stress by each limb over time. The experimental results indicate high performance and more than 94% average accuracy of the proposed approach. PMID:27268736

  2. Automatism

    PubMed Central

    McCaldon, R. J.

    1964-01-01

    Individuals can carry out complex activity while in a state of impaired consciousness, a condition termed “automatism”. Consciousness must be considered from both an organic and a psychological aspect, because impairment of consciousness may occur in both ways. Automatism may be classified as normal (hypnosis), organic (temporal lobe epilepsy), psychogenic (dissociative fugue) or feigned. Often painstaking clinical investigation is necessary to clarify the diagnosis. There is legal precedent for assuming that all crimes must embody both consciousness and will. Jurists are loath to apply this principle without reservation, as this would necessitate acquittal and release of potentially dangerous individuals. However, with the sole exception of the defence of insanity, there is at present no legislation to prohibit release without further investigation of anyone acquitted of a crime on the grounds of “automatism”. PMID:14199824

  3. Automatic identification of large collections of protein-coding or rRNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Arigon, Anne-Muriel; Perrière, Guy; Gouy, Manolo

    2008-04-01

    The number of available genomic sequences is growing very fast, due to the development of massive sequencing techniques. Sequence identification is needed and contributes to the assessment of gene and species evolutionary relationships. Automated bioinformatics tools are thus necessary to carry out these identification operations in an accurate and fast way. We developed HoSeqI (Homologous Sequence Identification), a software environment allowing this kind of automated sequence identification using homologous gene family databases. HoSeqI is accessible through a Web interface (http://pbil.univ-lyon1.fr/software/HoSeqI/) allowing to identify one or several sequences and to visualize resulting alignments and phylogenetic trees. We also implemented another application, MultiHoSeqI, to quickly add a large set of sequences to a family database in order to identify them, to update the database, or to help automatic genome annotation. Lately, we developed an application, ChiSeqI (Chimeric Sequence Identification), to automate the processes of identification of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA sequences and of detection of chimeric sequences.

  4. A new approach to the automatic identification of organism evolution using neural networks.

    PubMed

    Kasperski, Andrzej; Kasperska, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Automatic identification of organism evolution still remains a challenging task, which is especially exiting, when the evolution of human is considered. The main aim of this work is to present a new idea to allow organism evolution analysis using neural networks. Here we show that it is possible to identify evolution of any organisms in a fully automatic way using the designed EvolutionXXI program, which contains implemented neural network. The neural network has been taught using cytochrome b sequences of selected organisms. Then, analyses have been carried out for the various exemplary organisms in order to demonstrate capabilities of the EvolutionXXI program. It is shown that the presented idea allows supporting existing hypotheses, concerning evolutionary relationships between selected organisms, among others, Sirenia and elephants, hippopotami and whales, scorpions and spiders, dolphins and whales. Moreover, primate (including human), tree shrew and yeast evolution has been reconstructed. PMID:26975238

  5. A new approach to the automatic identification of organism evolution using neural networks.

    PubMed

    Kasperski, Andrzej; Kasperska, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Automatic identification of organism evolution still remains a challenging task, which is especially exiting, when the evolution of human is considered. The main aim of this work is to present a new idea to allow organism evolution analysis using neural networks. Here we show that it is possible to identify evolution of any organisms in a fully automatic way using the designed EvolutionXXI program, which contains implemented neural network. The neural network has been taught using cytochrome b sequences of selected organisms. Then, analyses have been carried out for the various exemplary organisms in order to demonstrate capabilities of the EvolutionXXI program. It is shown that the presented idea allows supporting existing hypotheses, concerning evolutionary relationships between selected organisms, among others, Sirenia and elephants, hippopotami and whales, scorpions and spiders, dolphins and whales. Moreover, primate (including human), tree shrew and yeast evolution has been reconstructed.

  6. An automatic identification procedure to promote the use of FES-cycling training for hemiparetic patients.

    PubMed

    Ambrosini, Emilia; Ferrante, Simona; Schauer, Thomas; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Molteni, Franco; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Cycling induced by Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) training currently requires a manual setting of different parameters, which is a time-consuming and scarcely repeatable procedure. We proposed an automatic procedure for setting session-specific parameters optimized for hemiparetic patients. This procedure consisted of the identification of the stimulation strategy as the angular ranges during which FES drove the motion, the comparison between the identified strategy and the physiological muscular activation strategy, and the setting of the pulse amplitude and duration of each stimulated muscle. Preliminary trials on 10 healthy volunteers helped define the procedure. Feasibility tests on 8 hemiparetic patients (5 stroke, 3 traumatic brain injury) were performed. The procedure maximized the motor output within the tolerance constraint, identified a biomimetic strategy in 6 patients, and always lasted less than 5 minutes. Its reasonable duration and automatic nature make the procedure usable at the beginning of every training session, potentially enhancing the performance of FES-cycling training. PMID:25193368

  7. Identification of mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum smear slide using automatic scanning microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rulaningtyas, Riries; Suksmono, Andriyan B.; Mengko, Tati L. R.; Saptawati, Putri

    2015-04-01

    Sputum smear observation has an important role in tuberculosis (TB) disease diagnosis, because it needs accurate identification to avoid high errors diagnosis. In development countries, sputum smear slide observation is commonly done with conventional light microscope from Ziehl-Neelsen stained tissue and it doesn't need high cost to maintain the microscope. The clinicians do manual screening process for sputum smear slide which is time consuming and needs highly training to detect the presence of TB bacilli (mycobacterium tuberculosis) accurately, especially for negative slide and slide with less number of TB bacilli. For helping the clinicians, we propose automatic scanning microscope with automatic identification of TB bacilli. The designed system modified the field movement of light microscope with stepper motor which was controlled by microcontroller. Every sputum smear field was captured by camera. After that some image processing techniques were done for the sputum smear images. The color threshold was used for background subtraction with hue canal in HSV color space. Sobel edge detection algorithm was used for TB bacilli image segmentation. We used feature extraction based on shape for bacilli analyzing and then neural network classified TB bacilli or not. The results indicated identification of TB bacilli that we have done worked well and detected TB bacilli accurately in sputum smear slide with normal staining, but not worked well in over staining and less staining tissue slide. However, overall the designed system can help the clinicians in sputum smear observation becomes more easily.

  8. An automatic system to detect and extract texts in medical images for de-identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yingxuan; Singh, P. D.; Siddiqui, Khan; Gillam, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Recently, there is an increasing need to share medical images for research purpose. In order to respect and preserve patient privacy, most of the medical images are de-identified with protected health information (PHI) before research sharing. Since manual de-identification is time-consuming and tedious, so an automatic de-identification system is necessary and helpful for the doctors to remove text from medical images. A lot of papers have been written about algorithms of text detection and extraction, however, little has been applied to de-identification of medical images. Since the de-identification system is designed for end-users, it should be effective, accurate and fast. This paper proposes an automatic system to detect and extract text from medical images for de-identification purposes, while keeping the anatomic structures intact. First, considering the text have a remarkable contrast with the background, a region variance based algorithm is used to detect the text regions. In post processing, geometric constraints are applied to the detected text regions to eliminate over-segmentation, e.g., lines and anatomic structures. After that, a region based level set method is used to extract text from the detected text regions. A GUI for the prototype application of the text detection and extraction system is implemented, which shows that our method can detect most of the text in the images. Experimental results validate that our method can detect and extract text in medical images with a 99% recall rate. Future research of this system includes algorithm improvement, performance evaluation, and computation optimization.

  9. Automatic Identification of Subtechniques in Skating-Style Roller Skiing Using Inertial Sensors.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Yoshihisa; Fujita, Zenya; Ishige, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to develop and validate an automated system for identifying skating-style cross-country subtechniques using inertial sensors. In the first experiment, the performance of a male cross-country skier was used to develop an automated identification system. In the second, eight male and seven female college cross-country skiers participated to validate the developed identification system. Each subject wore inertial sensors on both wrists and both roller skis, and a small video camera on a backpack. All subjects skied through a 3450 m roller ski course using a skating style at their maximum speed. The adopted subtechniques were identified by the automated method based on the data obtained from the sensors, as well as by visual observations from a video recording of the same ski run. The system correctly identified 6418 subtechniques from a total of 6768 cycles, which indicates an accuracy of 94.8%. The precisions of the automatic system for identifying the V1R, V1L, V2R, V2L, V2AR, and V2AL subtechniques were 87.6%, 87.0%, 97.5%, 97.8%, 92.1%, and 92.0%, respectively. Most incorrect identification cases occurred during a subtechnique identification that included a transition and turn event. Identification accuracy can be improved by separately identifying transition and turn events. This system could be used to evaluate each skier's subtechniques in course conditions. PMID:27049388

  10. Automatic Identification of Subtechniques in Skating-Style Roller Skiing Using Inertial Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Yoshihisa; Fujita, Zenya; Ishige, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to develop and validate an automated system for identifying skating-style cross-country subtechniques using inertial sensors. In the first experiment, the performance of a male cross-country skier was used to develop an automated identification system. In the second, eight male and seven female college cross-country skiers participated to validate the developed identification system. Each subject wore inertial sensors on both wrists and both roller skis, and a small video camera on a backpack. All subjects skied through a 3450 m roller ski course using a skating style at their maximum speed. The adopted subtechniques were identified by the automated method based on the data obtained from the sensors, as well as by visual observations from a video recording of the same ski run. The system correctly identified 6418 subtechniques from a total of 6768 cycles, which indicates an accuracy of 94.8%. The precisions of the automatic system for identifying the V1R, V1L, V2R, V2L, V2AR, and V2AL subtechniques were 87.6%, 87.0%, 97.5%, 97.8%, 92.1%, and 92.0%, respectively. Most incorrect identification cases occurred during a subtechnique identification that included a transition and turn event. Identification accuracy can be improved by separately identifying transition and turn events. This system could be used to evaluate each skier’s subtechniques in course conditions. PMID:27049388

  11. Automatic Identification of Subtechniques in Skating-Style Roller Skiing Using Inertial Sensors.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Yoshihisa; Fujita, Zenya; Ishige, Yusuke

    2016-04-02

    This study aims to develop and validate an automated system for identifying skating-style cross-country subtechniques using inertial sensors. In the first experiment, the performance of a male cross-country skier was used to develop an automated identification system. In the second, eight male and seven female college cross-country skiers participated to validate the developed identification system. Each subject wore inertial sensors on both wrists and both roller skis, and a small video camera on a backpack. All subjects skied through a 3450 m roller ski course using a skating style at their maximum speed. The adopted subtechniques were identified by the automated method based on the data obtained from the sensors, as well as by visual observations from a video recording of the same ski run. The system correctly identified 6418 subtechniques from a total of 6768 cycles, which indicates an accuracy of 94.8%. The precisions of the automatic system for identifying the V1R, V1L, V2R, V2L, V2AR, and V2AL subtechniques were 87.6%, 87.0%, 97.5%, 97.8%, 92.1%, and 92.0%, respectively. Most incorrect identification cases occurred during a subtechnique identification that included a transition and turn event. Identification accuracy can be improved by separately identifying transition and turn events. This system could be used to evaluate each skier's subtechniques in course conditions.

  12. Automatic quality assessment and peak identification of auditory brainstem responses with fitted parametric peaks.

    PubMed

    Valderrama, Joaquin T; de la Torre, Angel; Alvarez, Isaac; Segura, Jose Carlos; Thornton, A Roger D; Sainz, Manuel; Vargas, Jose Luis

    2014-05-01

    The recording of the auditory brainstem response (ABR) is used worldwide for hearing screening purposes. In this process, a precise estimation of the most relevant components is essential for an accurate interpretation of these signals. This evaluation is usually carried out subjectively by an audiologist. However, the use of automatic methods for this purpose is being encouraged nowadays in order to reduce human evaluation biases and ensure uniformity among test conditions, patients, and screening personnel. This article describes a new method that performs automatic quality assessment and identification of the peaks, the fitted parametric peaks (FPP). This method is based on the use of synthesized peaks that are adjusted to the ABR response. The FPP is validated, on one hand, by an analysis of amplitudes and latencies measured manually by an audiologist and automatically by the FPP method in ABR signals recorded at different stimulation rates; and on the other hand, contrasting the performance of the FPP method with the automatic evaluation techniques based on the correlation coefficient, FSP, and cross correlation with a predefined template waveform by comparing the automatic evaluations of the quality of these methods with subjective evaluations provided by five experienced evaluators on a set of ABR signals of different quality. The results of this study suggest (a) that the FPP method can be used to provide an accurate parameterization of the peaks in terms of amplitude, latency, and width, and (b) that the FPP remains as the method that best approaches the averaged subjective quality evaluation, as well as provides the best results in terms of sensitivity and specificity in ABR signals validation. The significance of these findings and the clinical value of the FPP method are highlighted on this paper. PMID:24661606

  13. Automatic identification of fetal breathing movements in fetal RR interval time series.

    PubMed

    Van Leeuwen, Peter; Voss, Anna; Cysarz, Dirk; Edelhäuser, Friedrich; Grönemeyer, Dietrich

    2012-03-01

    Fetal breathing movements are associated with respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). We present an algorithm which processes RR interval time series in the time and frequency domain, identifying spectral peaks with characteristics consistent with fetal RSA. Tested on 50 data sets from the second and third trimester, the algorithm had a sensitivity of 96.1%, false positive rate 35.7%, false negative rate 3.9%. The characteristics of automatically and visually identified episodes were very similar and corresponded the expected changes over gestation. The method is suited for easy and reliable identification of fetal breathing movements.

  14. Signal environment mapping of the Automatic Identification System frequencies from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skauen, Andreas Nordmo; Olsen, Øystein

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents received signal strength data recorded by the NORAIS Receiver on the four VHF channels allocated to the use of the Automatic Identification System (AIS). The NORAIS Receiver operated on-board the Columbus module of the International Space Station from June 2010 to February 2015. The data shows that a space-based AIS receiver must handle transient strong signals from land-based interference and that the effectiveness of the two long range AIS channels recently allocated is severely reduced in select areas due to land based interference.

  15. Automatic classification and speaker identification of African elephant (Loxodonta africana) vocalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemins, Patrick J.; Johnson, Michael T.; Leong, Kirsten M.; Savage, Anne

    2005-02-01

    A hidden Markov model (HMM) system is presented for automatically classifying African elephant vocalizations. The development of the system is motivated by successful models from human speech analysis and recognition. Classification features include frequency-shifted Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) and log energy, spectrally motivated features which are commonly used in human speech processing. Experiments, including vocalization type classification and speaker identification, are performed on vocalizations collected from captive elephants in a naturalistic environment. The system classified vocalizations with accuracies of 94.3% and 82.5% for type classification and speaker identification classification experiments, respectively. Classification accuracy, statistical significance tests on the model parameters, and qualitative analysis support the effectiveness and robustness of this approach for vocalization analysis in nonhuman species. .

  16. Automatic identification of shallow landslides based on Worldview2 remote sensing images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hai-Rong; Cheng, Xinwen; Chen, Lianjun; Zhang, Haitao; Xiong, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    Automatic identification of landslides based on remote sensing images is important for investigating disasters and producing hazard maps. We propose a method to detect shallow landslides automatically using Wordview2 images. Features such as high soil brightness and low vegetation coverage can help identify shallow landslides on remote sensing images. Therefore, soil brightness and vegetation index were chosen as indexes for landslide remote sensing. The back scarp of a landslide can form dark shadow areas on the landslide mass, affecting the accuracy of landslide extraction. To eliminate this effect, the shadow index was chosen as an index. The first principal component (PC1) contained >90% of the image information; therefore, this was also selected as an index. The four selected indexes were used to synthesize a new image wherein information on shallow landslides was enhanced, while other background information was suppressed. Then, PC1 was extracted from the new synthetic image, and an automatic threshold segmentation algorithm was used for segmenting the image to obtain similar landslide areas. Based on landslide features such as slope, shape, and area, nonlandslide areas were eliminated. Finally, four experimental sites were used to verify the feasibility of the developed method.

  17. Experiments in automatic word class and word sense identification for information retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Gauch, S.; Futrelle, R.P.

    1994-12-31

    Automatic identification of related words and automatic detection of word senses are two long-standing goals of researchers in natural language processing. Word class information and word sense identification may enhance the performance of information retrieval system4ms. Large online corpora and increased computational capabilities make new techniques based on corpus linguisitics feasible. Corpus-based analysis is especially needed for corpora from specialized fields for which no electronic dictionaries or thesauri exist. The methods described here use a combination of mutual information and word context to establish word similarities. Then, unsupervised classification is done using clustering in the word space, identifying word classes without pretagging. We also describe an extension of the method to handle the difficult problems of disambiguation and of determining part-of-speech and semantic information for low-frequency words. The method is powerful enough to produce high-quality results on a small corpus of 200,000 words from abstracts in a field of molecular biology.

  18. Deep learning for automatic localization, identification, and segmentation of vertebral bodies in volumetric MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzani, Amin; Rasoulian, Abtin; Seitel, Alexander; Fels, Sidney; Rohling, Robert N.; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes an automatic method for vertebra localization, labeling, and segmentation in multi-slice Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. Prior work in this area on MR images mostly requires user interaction while our method is fully automatic. Cubic intensity-based features are extracted from image voxels. A deep learning approach is used for simultaneous localization and identification of vertebrae. The localized points are refined by local thresholding in the region of the detected vertebral column. Thereafter, a statistical multi-vertebrae model is initialized on the localized vertebrae. An iterative Expectation Maximization technique is used to register the vertebral body of the model to the image edges and obtain a segmentation of the lumbar vertebral bodies. The method is evaluated by applying to nine volumetric MR images of the spine. The results demonstrate 100% vertebra identification and a mean surface error of below 2.8 mm for 3D segmentation. Computation time is less than three minutes per high-resolution volumetric image.

  19. Automatic Identification of Critical Data Items in a Database to Mitigate the Effects of Malicious Insiders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Jonathan; Panda, Brajendra

    A major concern for computer system security is the threat from malicious insiders who target and abuse critical data items in the system. In this paper, we propose a solution to enable automatic identification of critical data items in a database by way of data dependency relationships. This identification of critical data items is necessary because insider threats often target mission critical data in order to accomplish malicious tasks. Unfortunately, currently available systems fail to address this problem in a comprehensive manner. It is more difficult for non-experts to identify these critical data items because of their lack of familiarity and due to the fact that data systems are constantly changing. By identifying the critical data items automatically, security engineers will be better prepared to protect what is critical to the mission of the organization and also have the ability to focus their security efforts on these critical data items. We have developed an algorithm that scans the database logs and forms a directed graph showing which items influence a large number of other items and at what frequency this influence occurs. This graph is traversed to reveal the data items which have a large influence throughout the database system by using a novel metric based formula. These items are critical to the system because if they are maliciously altered or stolen, the malicious alterations will spread throughout the system, delaying recovery and causing a much more malignant effect. As these items have significant influence, they are deemed to be critical and worthy of extra security measures. Our proposal is not intended to replace existing intrusion detection systems, but rather is intended to complement current and future technologies. Our proposal has never been performed before, and our experimental results have shown that it is very effective in revealing critical data items automatically.

  20. Real-time automatic target identification system for air-to-ground targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, Mike; Wood, Jonathan; Nothard, Jo

    2005-10-01

    Future targeting systems, for manned or unmanned combat aircraft, aim to provide increased mission success and platform survivability by successfully detecting and identifying even difficult targets at very long ranges. One of the key enabling technologies for such systems is robust automatic target identification (ATI), operating on high resolution electro-optic sensor imagery. QinetiQ have developed a real time ATI processor which will be demonstrated with infrared imagery from the Wescam MX15 in airborne trials in summer 2005. This paper describes some of the novel ATI algorithms, the challenges overcome to port the ATI from the laboratory onto a real time system and offers an assessment of likely airborne performance based on analysis of synthetic image sequences.

  1. Benefit Analyses of Technologies for Automatic Identification to Be Implemented in the Healthcare Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krey, Mike; Schlatter, Ueli

    The tasks and objectives of automatic identification (Auto-ID) are to provide information on goods and products. It has already been established for years in the areas of logistics and trading and can no longer be ignored by the German healthcare sector. Some German hospitals have already discovered the capabilities of Auto-ID. Improvements in quality, safety and reductions in risk, cost and time are aspects and areas where improvements are achievable. Privacy protection, legal restraints, and the personal rights of patients and staff members are just a few aspects which make the heath care sector a sensible field for the implementation of Auto-ID. Auto-ID in this context contains the different technologies, methods and products for the registration, provision and storage of relevant data. With the help of a quantifiable and science-based evaluation, an answer is sought as to which Auto-ID has the highest capability to be implemented in healthcare business.

  2. Quantifying the benefits of high-occupancy vehicle facilities using automatic vehicle identification technology. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, S.M.; Carlin, G.A.; Henk, R.H.

    1995-11-01

    This report examines the benefits of high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes in three major freeway corridors in Houston, Texas: the Katy (I-10), Northwest (US 290), North (I-45) Freeways. The analyses described in this report used eight months of travel time data (April through November 1994) available through Houston`s automatic vehicle identification (AVI) traffic monitoring system. The travel time data were used to quantify travel time savings and reliability benefits of the HOV lanes relative to the freeway general-purpose lanes. The travel time data were also used to calibrate a macroscopic freeway simulation model for comparing an HOV lane alternative to other transportation improvements. Various measures of effectiveness, like person delay, fuel consumption, and mobile source emissions, were used to compare alternative improvements.

  3. Identification of forensic samples by using an infrared-based automatic DNA sequencer.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Ugo; Sani, Ilaria; Klintschar, Michael; Cerri, Nicoletta; De Ferrari, Francesco; Giovannucci Uzielli, Maria Luisa

    2003-06-01

    We have recently introduced a new protocol for analyzing all core loci of the Federal Bureau of Investigation's (FBI) Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) with an infrared (IR) automatic DNA sequencer (LI-COR 4200). The amplicons were labeled with forward oligonucleotide primers, covalently linked to a new infrared fluorescent molecule (IRDye 800). The alleles were displayed as familiar autoradiogram-like images with real-time detection. This protocol was employed for paternity testing, population studies, and identification of degraded forensic samples. We extensively analyzed some simulated forensic samples and mixed stains (blood, semen, saliva, bones, and fixed archival embedded tissues), comparing the results with donor samples. Sensitivity studies were also performed for the four multiplex systems. Our results show the efficiency, reliability, and accuracy of the IR system for the analysis of forensic samples. We also compared the efficiency of the multiplex protocol with ultraviolet (UV) technology. Paternity tests, undegraded DNA samples, and real forensic samples were analyzed with this approach based on IR technology and with UV-based automatic sequencers in combination with commercially-available kits. The comparability of the results with the widespread UV methods suggests that it is possible to exchange data between laboratories using the same core group of markers but different primer sets and detection methods.

  4. Automatic identification and classification of muscle spasms in long-term EMG recordings.

    PubMed

    Winslow, Jeffrey; Martinez, Adriana; Thomas, Christine K

    2015-03-01

    Spinal cord injured (SCI) individuals may be afflicted by spasticity, a condition in which involuntary muscle spasms are common. EMG recordings can be analyzed to quantify this symptom of spasticity but manual identification and classification of spasms are time consuming. Here, an algorithm was created to find and classify spasm events automatically within 24-h recordings of EMG. The algorithm used expert rules and time-frequency techniques to classify spasm events as tonic, unit, or clonus spasms. A companion graphical user interface (GUI) program was also built to verify and correct the results of the automatic algorithm or manually defined events. Eight channel EMG recordings were made from seven different SCI subjects. The algorithm was able to correctly identify an average (±SD) of 94.5 ± 3.6% spasm events and correctly classify 91.6 ± 1.9% of spasm events, with an accuracy of 61.7 ± 16.2%. The accuracy improved to 85.5 ± 5.9% and the false positive rate decreased to 7.1 ± 7.3%, respectively, if noise events between spasms were removed. On average, the algorithm was more than 11 times faster than manual analysis. Use of both the algorithm and the GUI program provide a powerful tool for characterizing muscle spasms in 24-h EMG recordings, information which is important for clinical management of spasticity.

  5. Automatic identification of pectoralis muscle on digital cranio-caudal-view mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Mei; Mawdsley, Gordon; Yaffe, Martin

    2011-03-01

    To improve efficiency and reduce human error in the computerized calculation of volumetric breast density, we have developed an automatic identification process which suppresses the projected region of the pectoralis muscle on digital CC-view mammograms. The pixels in the image of the pectoralis muscle, represent dense tissue, but not related to risk, will cause an error in estimated breast density if counted as fibroglandular tissue. The pectoralis muscle on the CC-view is not always visible and has variable shape and location. Our algorithm robustly detects the existence of the pectoralis in the image and segments it as a semi-elliptical region that closely matches manually segmented images. We present a pipeline where adaptive thresholding and distance transforms have been used in the initial pectoralis region identification process; statistical region growing is applied to explore the region within the identified location aimed at refining the boundary; and a 2D shape descriptor is developed for the target validation: the segmented region is identified as the pectoralis muscle if it has a semi-elliptical contour. After the pectoralis muscle is identified, a 1D-FFT filtering is used for boundary smoothing. Quantitative evaluation was performed by comparing manual segmentation by a trained operator, and analysis using the algorithm in a set of 174 randomly selected digital mammograms. Use of the algorithm is shown to improve accuracy in the automatic determination of the volumetric ratio of breast composition by removal of the pectoralis muscle from both the numerator and denominator. As well, it greatly improves the efficiency and throughput in large scale volumetric mammographic density studies where previously interaction with an operator was required to obtain that level of accuracy.

  6. Automatic Identification of Artifact-Related Independent Components for Artifact Removal in EEG Recordings.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yuan; Nathan, Viswam; Jafari, Roozbeh

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) is the recording of electrical activity produced by the firing of neurons within the brain. These activities can be decoded by signal processing techniques. However, EEG recordings are always contaminated with artifacts which hinder the decoding process. Therefore, identifying and removing artifacts is an important step. Researchers often clean EEG recordings with assistance from independent component analysis (ICA), since it can decompose EEG recordings into a number of artifact-related and event-related potential (ERP)-related independent components. However, existing ICA-based artifact identification strategies mostly restrict themselves to a subset of artifacts, e.g., identifying eye movement artifacts only, and have not been shown to reliably identify artifacts caused by nonbiological origins like high-impedance electrodes. In this paper, we propose an automatic algorithm for the identification of general artifacts. The proposed algorithm consists of two parts: 1) an event-related feature-based clustering algorithm used to identify artifacts which have physiological origins; and 2) the electrode-scalp impedance information employed for identifying nonbiological artifacts. The results on EEG data collected from ten subjects show that our algorithm can effectively detect, separate, and remove both physiological and nonbiological artifacts. Qualitative evaluation of the reconstructed EEG signals demonstrates that our proposed method can effectively enhance the signal quality, especially the quality of ERPs, even for those that barely display ERPs in the raw EEG. The performance results also show that our proposed method can effectively identify artifacts and subsequently enhance the classification accuracies compared to four commonly used automatic artifact removal methods.

  7. Automatic Classification of the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Nystagmus: Integration of Data Clustering and System Identification.

    PubMed

    Ranjbaran, Mina; Smith, Heather L H; Galiana, Henrietta L

    2016-04-01

    The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) plays an important role in our daily activities by enabling us to fixate on objects during head movements. Modeling and identification of the VOR improves our insight into the system behavior and improves diagnosis of various disorders. However, the switching nature of eye movements (nystagmus), including the VOR, makes dynamic analysis challenging. The first step in such analysis is to segment data into its subsystem responses (here slow and fast segment intervals). Misclassification of segments results in biased analysis of the system of interest. Here, we develop a novel three-step algorithm to classify the VOR data into slow and fast intervals automatically. The proposed algorithm is initialized using a K-means clustering method. The initial classification is then refined using system identification approaches and prediction error statistics. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated on simulated and experimental data. It is shown that the new algorithm performance is much improved over the previous methods, in terms of higher specificity.

  8. Automatic identification of bird targets with radar via patterns produced by wing flapping.

    PubMed

    Zaugg, Serge; Saporta, Gilbert; van Loon, Emiel; Schmaljohann, Heiko; Liechti, Felix

    2008-09-01

    Bird identification with radar is important for bird migration research, environmental impact assessments (e.g. wind farms), aircraft security and radar meteorology. In a study on bird migration, radar signals from birds, insects and ground clutter were recorded. Signals from birds show a typical pattern due to wing flapping. The data were labelled by experts into the four classes BIRD, INSECT, CLUTTER and UFO (unidentifiable signals). We present a classification algorithm aimed at automatic recognition of bird targets. Variables related to signal intensity and wing flapping pattern were extracted (via continuous wavelet transform). We used support vector classifiers to build predictive models. We estimated classification performance via cross validation on four datasets. When data from the same dataset were used for training and testing the classifier, the classification performance was extremely to moderately high. When data from one dataset were used for training and the three remaining datasets were used as test sets, the performance was lower but still extremely to moderately high. This shows that the method generalizes well across different locations or times. Our method provides a substantial gain of time when birds must be identified in large collections of radar signals and it represents the first substantial step in developing a real time bird identification radar system. We provide some guidelines and ideas for future research.

  9. Field-portable imaging remote sensing system for automatic identification and imaging of hazardous gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harig, R.; Rusch, P.; Peters, H.; Gerhard, J.; Braun, R.,; Sabbah, S.; Beecken, J.

    2009-09-01

    Hazardous compounds may be released into the atmosphere in the case of fires, chemical accidents, terrorist acts, or war. In these cases, information about the released compounds is required immediately in order to take appropriate measures to protect workers, residents, emergency response personnel at the site of the release, and the environment. Remote sensing by infrared spectroscopy allows detection and identification of hazardous clouds in the atmosphere from long distances. In addition, imaging spectroscopy allows an assessment of the location, the dimensions and the dispersion of a potentially hazardous cloud. This additional information may contribute significantly to a correct assessment of a situation by emergency response forces. Therefore an imaging remote sensing system based on a Fourier-transform spectrometer with a focal plane array detector for automatic identification and imaging of gases has been developed. Imaging systems allow the use of spatial information in addition to spectral information. Thus, in order to achieve low limits of detection, algorithms that combine algorithms for spectral analysis and image analysis have been developed. In this work, the system and first results of measurements are presented.

  10. Automatic Classification of the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Nystagmus: Integration of Data Clustering and System Identification.

    PubMed

    Ranjbaran, Mina; Smith, Heather L H; Galiana, Henrietta L

    2016-04-01

    The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) plays an important role in our daily activities by enabling us to fixate on objects during head movements. Modeling and identification of the VOR improves our insight into the system behavior and improves diagnosis of various disorders. However, the switching nature of eye movements (nystagmus), including the VOR, makes dynamic analysis challenging. The first step in such analysis is to segment data into its subsystem responses (here slow and fast segment intervals). Misclassification of segments results in biased analysis of the system of interest. Here, we develop a novel three-step algorithm to classify the VOR data into slow and fast intervals automatically. The proposed algorithm is initialized using a K-means clustering method. The initial classification is then refined using system identification approaches and prediction error statistics. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated on simulated and experimental data. It is shown that the new algorithm performance is much improved over the previous methods, in terms of higher specificity. PMID:26357393

  11. Automatic identification of various nuclei in the basal ganglia for Parkinson's disease neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Pinzon-Morales, Ruben-Dario; Garces-Arboleda, Maribel; Orozco-Gutierrez, Alvaro-Angel

    2009-01-01

    Stereotactic neurosurgery for Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most used treatments for relief symptoms of this degenerative disorder. Current methods include ablation and deep brain stimulation (DBS) that can be applied to the various nuclei in the basal ganglia (BG), for instance to the Subthalamic nucleus (STN) or the Ventral medial nucleus (Vim). Identification of thus regions must be rigorous and within a minimum position error. Usually, skilled specialist identifies the brain area by comparing and listening to the rhythm created by the temporal and spatial aggregation of action potentials presented in microelectrode recordings (MER). We present a novel system for automatic identification of the various nuclei in the BG which addresses the limitations of the subjectivity and the non-stationary nature of MER signals. This system incorporates the time-frequency analysis using the Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT), which is a recent tool for processing nonlinear and non-stationary data, with a dynamic classifier based on Hidden Markov Models (HMM). Classification accuracy in two different databases is compared to validate the performance of the proposed method. Results show that system can recognize selected nuclei with a mean accuracy of 90%.

  12. Automatic identification of bird targets with radar via patterns produced by wing flapping.

    PubMed

    Zaugg, Serge; Saporta, Gilbert; van Loon, Emiel; Schmaljohann, Heiko; Liechti, Felix

    2008-09-01

    Bird identification with radar is important for bird migration research, environmental impact assessments (e.g. wind farms), aircraft security and radar meteorology. In a study on bird migration, radar signals from birds, insects and ground clutter were recorded. Signals from birds show a typical pattern due to wing flapping. The data were labelled by experts into the four classes BIRD, INSECT, CLUTTER and UFO (unidentifiable signals). We present a classification algorithm aimed at automatic recognition of bird targets. Variables related to signal intensity and wing flapping pattern were extracted (via continuous wavelet transform). We used support vector classifiers to build predictive models. We estimated classification performance via cross validation on four datasets. When data from the same dataset were used for training and testing the classifier, the classification performance was extremely to moderately high. When data from one dataset were used for training and the three remaining datasets were used as test sets, the performance was lower but still extremely to moderately high. This shows that the method generalizes well across different locations or times. Our method provides a substantial gain of time when birds must be identified in large collections of radar signals and it represents the first substantial step in developing a real time bird identification radar system. We provide some guidelines and ideas for future research. PMID:18331979

  13. A new technology for automatic identification and sorting of plastics for recycling.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, S R

    2004-10-01

    A new technology for automatic sorting of plastics, based upon optical identification of fluorescence signatures of dyes, incorporated in such materials in trace concentrations prior to product manufacturing, is described. Three commercial tracers were selected primarily on the basis of their good absorbency in the 310-370 nm spectral band and their identifiable narrow-band fluorescence signatures in the visible band of the spectrum when present in binary combinations. This absorption band was selected because of the availability of strong emission lines in this band from a commercial Hg-arc lamp and high fluorescence quantum yields of the tracers at this excitation wavelength band. The plastics chosen for tracing and identification are HDPE, LDPE, PP, EVA, PVC and PET and the tracers were compatible and chemically non-reactive with the host matrices and did not affect the transparency of the plastics. The design of a monochromatic and collimated excitation source, the sensor system are described and their performances in identifying and sorting plastics doped with tracers at a few parts per million concentration levels are evaluated. In an industrial sorting system, the sensor was able to sort 300 mm long plastic bottles at a conveyor belt speed of 3.5 m.sec(-1) with a sorting purity of -95%. The limitation was imposed due to mechanical singulation irregularities at high speed and the limited processing speed of the computer used.

  14. Automatic identification of gray and white matter components in polarized light imaging.

    PubMed

    Dammers, Jürgen; Breuer, Lukas; Axer, Markus; Kleiner, Melanie; Eiben, Björn; Grässel, David; Dickscheid, Timo; Zilles, Karl; Amunts, Katrin; Shah, N Joni; Pietrzyk, Uwe

    2012-01-16

    Polarized light imaging (PLI) enables the visualization of fiber tracts with high spatial resolution in microtome sections of postmortem brains. Vectors of the fiber orientation defined by inclination and direction angles can directly be derived from the optical signals employed by PLI analysis. The polarization state of light propagating through a rotating polarimeter is varied in such a way that the detected signal of each spatial unit describes a sinusoidal signal. Noise, light scatter and filter inhomogeneities, however, interfere with the original sinusoidal PLI signals, which in turn have direct impact on the accuracy of subsequent fiber tracking. Recently we showed that the primary sinusoidal signals can effectively be restored after noise and artifact rejection utilizing independent component analysis (ICA). In particular, regions with weak intensities are greatly enhanced after ICA based artifact rejection and signal restoration. Here, we propose a user independent way of identifying the components of interest after decomposition; i.e., components that are related to gray and white matter. Depending on the size of the postmortem brain and the section thickness, the number of independent component maps can easily be in the range of a few ten thousand components for one brain. Therefore, we developed an automatic and, more importantly, user independent way of extracting the signal of interest. The automatic identification of gray and white matter components is based on the evaluation of the statistical properties of the so-called feature vectors of each individual component map, which, in the ideal case, shows a sinusoidal waveform. Our method enables large-scale analysis (i.e., the analysis of thousands of whole brain sections) of nerve fiber orientations in the human brain using polarized light imaging. PMID:21875673

  15. Automatic identification of gray and white matter components in polarized light imaging.

    PubMed

    Dammers, Jürgen; Breuer, Lukas; Axer, Markus; Kleiner, Melanie; Eiben, Björn; Grässel, David; Dickscheid, Timo; Zilles, Karl; Amunts, Katrin; Shah, N Joni; Pietrzyk, Uwe

    2012-01-16

    Polarized light imaging (PLI) enables the visualization of fiber tracts with high spatial resolution in microtome sections of postmortem brains. Vectors of the fiber orientation defined by inclination and direction angles can directly be derived from the optical signals employed by PLI analysis. The polarization state of light propagating through a rotating polarimeter is varied in such a way that the detected signal of each spatial unit describes a sinusoidal signal. Noise, light scatter and filter inhomogeneities, however, interfere with the original sinusoidal PLI signals, which in turn have direct impact on the accuracy of subsequent fiber tracking. Recently we showed that the primary sinusoidal signals can effectively be restored after noise and artifact rejection utilizing independent component analysis (ICA). In particular, regions with weak intensities are greatly enhanced after ICA based artifact rejection and signal restoration. Here, we propose a user independent way of identifying the components of interest after decomposition; i.e., components that are related to gray and white matter. Depending on the size of the postmortem brain and the section thickness, the number of independent component maps can easily be in the range of a few ten thousand components for one brain. Therefore, we developed an automatic and, more importantly, user independent way of extracting the signal of interest. The automatic identification of gray and white matter components is based on the evaluation of the statistical properties of the so-called feature vectors of each individual component map, which, in the ideal case, shows a sinusoidal waveform. Our method enables large-scale analysis (i.e., the analysis of thousands of whole brain sections) of nerve fiber orientations in the human brain using polarized light imaging.

  16. Research of online automatism identification algorithm based on image character sequence look-up table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yueping; Han, Yan; Li, Ruihong

    2008-02-01

    This paper proposes an effective approach for online inspecting and recognizing the assembly structure inside three-dimensional objects using multiple views technique and X-ray digital radiography system. During the offline study process, the paper obtains a gray image sequence of a standard sample in multiple circumferential orientations. Utilizing the idea of classifying identification, the paper locates and extracts different characters of different parts in each image of the sequence and establishes corresponding character sequence libraries. In online detection stage, the program finds the optimum solutions to all different target parts in the library with bisearch method and carries out exactness image matching with correlation coefficient weighted of multi-character via Bayes decision. Aiming at the issue of some objects may be occluded by others in a scene, the paper puts forward to rotate the product some certain angles and re-match. Furthermore, the paper analyzes the relationships of misjudgment ratio with product assembling tolerance, the size of target part and identifying velocity. Based on this approach, the first domestic X-ray automatism detection system has been developed and it is successfully applied in online detecting some axis symmetric products which assembly structures inside are complex.

  17. Automatic type classification and speaker identification of african elephant (Loxodonta africana) vocalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemins, Patrick J.; Johnson, Michael T.

    2003-04-01

    This paper presents a system for automatically classifying African elephant vocalizations based on systems used for human speech recognition and speaker identification. The experiments are performed on vocalizations collected from captive elephants in a naturalistic environment. Features used for classification include Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs) and log energy which are the most common features used in human speech processing. Since African elephants use lower frequencies than humans in their vocalizations, the MFCCs are computed using a shifted Mel-Frequency filter bank to emphasize the infrasound range of the frequency spectrum. In addition to these features, the use of less traditional features such as those based on fundamental frequency and the phase of the frequency spectrum is also considered. A Hidden Markov Model with Gaussian mixture state probabilities is used to model each type of vocalization. Vocalizations are classified based on type, speaker and estrous cycle. Experiments on continuous call type recognition, which can classify multiple vocalizations in the same utterance, are also performed. The long-term goal of this research is to develop a universal analysis framework and robust feature set for animal vocalizations that can be applied to many species.

  18. Demonstration of real-time automatic target identification from a surrogate UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, Peter; Wood, Jonathan; Nothard, Jo; Cowell, Jason; Smart, Karen; Pearce, Dan

    2006-05-01

    Airborne surveillance and targeting sensors are capable of generating large quantities of imagery, making it difficult for the user to find the targets of interest. Automatic target identification (ATI) can assist this process by searching for target-like objects and classifying them, thus reducing workload. ATI algorithms, developed in the laboratory by QinetiQ, have been implemented in real-time on ruggedised processing capable of flight. A series of airborne tests has been carried out to assess the performance of the ATI under real world conditions, using a Wescam EO/IR turret as the source of imagery. The tests included examples of military vehicles in urban and rural scenarios, with varying degrees of hide and concealment. Tests were conducted in different weather conditions to assess the robustness of the sensor and ATI combination. This paper discusses the tests carried out and the performance of the ATI achieved as a function of the test parameters. Conclusions are drawn as to the current state of ATI and its applicability to military requirements.

  19. Automatic identification and quantitative morphometry of unstained spinal nerve using molecular hyperspectral imaging technology.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingli; Chen, Zenggan; He, Xiaofu; Wang, Yiting; Liu, Hongying; Xu, Qintong

    2012-12-01

    Quantitative observation of nerve fiber sections is often complemented by morphological analysis in both research and clinical condition. However, existing manual or semi-automated methods are tedious and labour intensive, fully automated morphometry methods are complicated as the information of color or gray images captured by traditional microscopy is limited. Moreover, most of the methods are time-consuming as the nerve sections need to be stained with some reagents before observation. To overcome these shortcomings, a molecular hyperspectral imaging system is developed and used to observe the spinal nerve sections. The molecular hyperspectral images contain both the structural and biochemical information of spinal nerve sections which is very useful for automatic identification and quantitative morphological analysis of nerve fibers. This characteristic makes it possible for researchers to observe the unstained spinal nerve and live cells in their native environment. To evaluate the performance of the new method, the molecular hyperspectral images were captured and the improved spectral angle mapper algorithm was proposed and used to segment the myelin contours. Then the morphological parameters such as myelin thickness and myelin area were calculated and evaluated. With these morphological parameters, the three dimension surface view images were drawn to help the investigators observe spinal nerve at different angles. The experiment results show that the hyperspectral based method has the potential to identify the spinal nerve more accurate than the traditional method as the new method contains both the spectral and spatial information of nerve sections. PMID:23059447

  20. The Iqmulus Urban Showcase: Automatic Tree Classification and Identification in Huge Mobile Mapping Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhm, J.; Bredif, M.; Gierlinger, T.; Krämer, M.; Lindenberg, R.; Liu, K.; Michel, F.; Sirmacek, B.

    2016-06-01

    Current 3D data capturing as implemented on for example airborne or mobile laser scanning systems is able to efficiently sample the surface of a city by billions of unselective points during one working day. What is still difficult is to extract and visualize meaningful information hidden in these point clouds with the same efficiency. This is where the FP7 IQmulus project enters the scene. IQmulus is an interactive facility for processing and visualizing big spatial data. In this study the potential of IQmulus is demonstrated on a laser mobile mapping point cloud of 1 billion points sampling ~ 10 km of street environment in Toulouse, France. After the data is uploaded to the IQmulus Hadoop Distributed File System, a workflow is defined by the user consisting of retiling the data followed by a PCA driven local dimensionality analysis, which runs efficiently on the IQmulus cloud facility using a Spark implementation. Points scattering in 3 directions are clustered in the tree class, and are separated next into individual trees. Five hours of processing at the 12 node computing cluster results in the automatic identification of 4000+ urban trees. Visualization of the results in the IQmulus fat client helps users to appreciate the results, and developers to identify remaining flaws in the processing workflow.

  1. Multi-level Bayesian safety analysis with unprocessed Automatic Vehicle Identification data for an urban expressway.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qi; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Yu, Rongjie

    2016-03-01

    In traffic safety studies, crash frequency modeling of total crashes is the cornerstone before proceeding to more detailed safety evaluation. The relationship between crash occurrence and factors such as traffic flow and roadway geometric characteristics has been extensively explored for a better understanding of crash mechanisms. In this study, a multi-level Bayesian framework has been developed in an effort to identify the crash contributing factors on an urban expressway in the Central Florida area. Two types of traffic data from the Automatic Vehicle Identification system, which are the processed data capped at speed limit and the unprocessed data retaining the original speed were incorporated in the analysis along with road geometric information. The model framework was proposed to account for the hierarchical data structure and the heterogeneity among the traffic and roadway geometric data. Multi-level and random parameters models were constructed and compared with the Negative Binomial model under the Bayesian inference framework. Results showed that the unprocessed traffic data was superior. Both multi-level models and random parameters models outperformed the Negative Binomial model and the models with random parameters achieved the best model fitting. The contributing factors identified imply that on the urban expressway lower speed and higher speed variation could significantly increase the crash likelihood. Other geometric factors were significant including auxiliary lanes and horizontal curvature.

  2. Multi-level Bayesian safety analysis with unprocessed Automatic Vehicle Identification data for an urban expressway.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qi; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Yu, Rongjie

    2016-03-01

    In traffic safety studies, crash frequency modeling of total crashes is the cornerstone before proceeding to more detailed safety evaluation. The relationship between crash occurrence and factors such as traffic flow and roadway geometric characteristics has been extensively explored for a better understanding of crash mechanisms. In this study, a multi-level Bayesian framework has been developed in an effort to identify the crash contributing factors on an urban expressway in the Central Florida area. Two types of traffic data from the Automatic Vehicle Identification system, which are the processed data capped at speed limit and the unprocessed data retaining the original speed were incorporated in the analysis along with road geometric information. The model framework was proposed to account for the hierarchical data structure and the heterogeneity among the traffic and roadway geometric data. Multi-level and random parameters models were constructed and compared with the Negative Binomial model under the Bayesian inference framework. Results showed that the unprocessed traffic data was superior. Both multi-level models and random parameters models outperformed the Negative Binomial model and the models with random parameters achieved the best model fitting. The contributing factors identified imply that on the urban expressway lower speed and higher speed variation could significantly increase the crash likelihood. Other geometric factors were significant including auxiliary lanes and horizontal curvature. PMID:26722989

  3. Automatic procedure for mass and charge identification of light isotopes detected in CsI(Tl) of the GARFIELD apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, L.; Bruno, M.; Baiocco, G.; Bardelli, L.; Barlini, S.; Bini, M.; Casini, G.; D'Agostino, M.; Degerlier, M.; Gramegna, F.; Kravchuk, V. L.; Marchi, T.; Pasquali, G.; Poggi, G.

    2010-08-01

    Mass and charge identification of light charged particles detected with the 180 CsI(Tl) detectors of the GARFIELD apparatus is presented. A "tracking" method to automatically sample the Z and A ridges of "Fast-Slow" histograms is developed. An empirical analytic identification function is used to fit correlations between Fast and Slow, in order to determine, event by event, the atomic and mass numbers of the detected charged reaction products. A summary of the advantages of the proposed method with respect to "hand-based" procedures is reported.

  4. An ECG-based Algorithm for the Automatic Identification of Autonomic Activations Associated with Cortical Arousal

    PubMed Central

    Basner, Mathias; Griefahn, Barbara; Müller, Uwe; Plath, Gernot; Samel, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    supplement visual EEG arousal scoring by this automatic, objective, reproducible, cheap, and time-saving method. Citation: Basner M; Griefahn B; Müller U; Plath G; Samel A. An ECG-based Algorithm for the automatic identification of autonomic activations associated with cortical arousal. SLEEP 2007;30(10):1349-1361. PMID:17969469

  5. Automatic Identification of Changes on the Lunar Surface and the Discovery of New Impact Craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speyerer, E. J.; Robinson, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    Since June 2009, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has maintained a stable polar orbit enabling the twin Narrow Angle Cameras (NACs) to acquire high-resolution observations of the lunar surface (pixel scale of 0.25 to 2 m/pixel). This orbital configuration facilitates occasional repeat coverage with nearly identical lighting geometries. These before and after observations, referred to in this study as temporal pairs, enable the identification of changes to the surface using a series of automated change detection techniques. Initial manual inspection of temporal pairs resulted in the discovery of many changes across the lunar surface [1]. However, this manual process is time consuming (2-4 hours per temporal pair) and each analyst must apply their own judgment on whether they have discovered a real change or an artifact in the image pair. This manual approach resulted in the identification of 650 surface changes as well as 19 resolved craters. Leveraging image processing techniques developed by the LROC team, we started automatically scanning and identifying temporal changes. The new automated algorithm locates changes based on reflectance variations and changes in surface texture. The program provides a list of potential new features for later manual inspection and classification (disturbance lacking resolvable crater or crater with a rim diameter of x meters). This new approach reduces the time to manually inspect a temporal pair by over a factor of 200 by providing cropped cutouts with the putative changes centered in a thumbnail. The LROC NACs have already collected thousands of temporal pair observations and will continue to do so over the remaining extended mission. Highest fidelity change detection comes from temporal pairs with nearly identical lighting geometries (i.e. sub-solar points within 3°), of which over 5000 pairs exist. In our initial scan of 1645 temporal pairs, over 8000 surface changes were identified along with over 50 new impact craters

  6. Automatic identification and characterization of radial files in light microscopy images of wood

    PubMed Central

    Brunel, Guilhem; Borianne, Philippe; Subsol, Gérard; Jaeger, Marc; Caraglio, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Analysis of anatomical sections of wood provides important information for understanding the secondary growth and development of plants. This study reports on a new method for the automatic detection and characterization of cell files in wood images obtained by light microscopy. To facilitate interpretation of the results, reliability coefficients have been determined, which characterize the files, their cells and their respective measurements. Methods Histological sections and blocks of the gymnosperms Pinus canariensis, P. nigra and Abies alba were used, together with histological sections of the angiosperm mahogany (Swietenia spp.). Samples were scanned microscopically and mosaic images were built up. After initial processing to reduce noise and enhance contrast, cells were identified using a ‘watershed’ algorithm and then cell files were built up by the successive aggregation of cells taken from progressively enlarged neighbouring regions. Cell characteristics such as thickness and size were calculated, and a method was developed to determine the reliability of the measurements relative to manual methods. Key Results Image analysis using this method can be performed in less than 20 s, which compares with a time of approx. 40 min to produce the same results manually. The results are accompanied by a reliability indicator that can highlight specific configurations of cells and also potentially erroneous data. Conclusions The method provides a fast, economical and reliable tool for the identification of cell files. The reliability indicator characterizing the files permits quick filtering of data for statistical analysis while also highlighting particular biological configurations present in the wood sections. PMID:24989783

  7. Automaticity and eyewitness accuracy: a 10- to 12-second rule for distinguishing accurate from inaccurate positive identifications.

    PubMed

    Dunning, David; Perretta, Scott

    2002-10-01

    Eyewitness researchers have shown that witnesses accurately choosing the culprit out of a lineup reach their decisions more quickly than those erroneously choosing an innocent individual. However, this research is silent regarding how quickly or slowly witnesses must be, in absolute terms, to indicate that they are accurate or inaccurate. Across 4 studies, the authors discovered that a time boundary of roughly 10 to 12 s best differentiated accurate from inaccurate positive identifications. Witnesses making their identification faster than 10 to 12 s were nearly 90% accurate; those taking longer were roughly 50% accurate. This finding is consistent with previous research showing that accurate witnesses are more likely than inaccurate witnesses to reach their decisions automatically, that is, quickly, without conscious thought or effort. PMID:12395819

  8. Dissimilarity analysis and automatic identification of monomethylalkanes from gas chromatography mass spectrometry data 1. Principle and protocols.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangxiao; Liang, Yizeng

    2009-07-01

    Monomethylalkanes are common but important components in many naturally occurring and synthetic organic materials. Generally, this kind of compounds is routinely analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and identified by the retention pattern or similarity matching to the reference mass spectral library. However, these identification approaches rely on the limited standard database or costly standard compounds. When unknown monomethylalkane is absent from the reference library, these approaches might be less useful. In this study, based on the fragmentation rules and empirical observation, many interesting mass spectral characteristics of monomethylalkanes were discovered and employed to infer the number of carbon atoms and methylated position. Combined with the retention pattern, a protocol was described for the identification of monomethylalkane analyzed by GC-MS. After tested by simulated data and GC-MS data of the gasoline sample, it was demonstrated that the developing approach could automatically and correctly identify monomethylalkanes in complicated GC-MS data. PMID:19477452

  9. Introducing a semi-automatic method to simulate large numbers of forensic fingermarks for research on fingerprint identification.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Crystal M; de Jongh, Arent; Meuwly, Didier

    2012-03-01

    Statistical research on fingerprint identification and the testing of automated fingerprint identification system (AFIS) performances require large numbers of forensic fingermarks. These fingermarks are rarely available. This study presents a semi-automatic method to create simulated fingermarks in large quantities that model minutiae features or images of forensic fingermarks. This method takes into account several aspects contributing to the variability of forensic fingermarks such as the number of minutiae, the finger region, and the elastic deformation of the skin. To investigate the applicability of the simulated fingermarks, fingermarks have been simulated with 5-12 minutiae originating from different finger regions for six fingers. An AFIS matching algorithm was used to obtain similarity scores for comparisons between the minutiae configurations of fingerprints and the minutiae configurations of simulated and forensic fingermarks. The results showed similar scores for both types of fingermarks suggesting that the simulated fingermarks are good substitutes for forensic fingermarks.

  10. Introducing a semi-automatic method to simulate large numbers of forensic fingermarks for research on fingerprint identification.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Crystal M; de Jongh, Arent; Meuwly, Didier

    2012-03-01

    Statistical research on fingerprint identification and the testing of automated fingerprint identification system (AFIS) performances require large numbers of forensic fingermarks. These fingermarks are rarely available. This study presents a semi-automatic method to create simulated fingermarks in large quantities that model minutiae features or images of forensic fingermarks. This method takes into account several aspects contributing to the variability of forensic fingermarks such as the number of minutiae, the finger region, and the elastic deformation of the skin. To investigate the applicability of the simulated fingermarks, fingermarks have been simulated with 5-12 minutiae originating from different finger regions for six fingers. An AFIS matching algorithm was used to obtain similarity scores for comparisons between the minutiae configurations of fingerprints and the minutiae configurations of simulated and forensic fingermarks. The results showed similar scores for both types of fingermarks suggesting that the simulated fingermarks are good substitutes for forensic fingermarks. PMID:22103733

  11. A semi-automatic model for sinkhole identification in a karst area of Zhijin County, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hao; Oguchi, Takashi; Wu, Pan

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the use of DEMs derived from ASTER and SRTM remote sensing images and topographic maps to detect and quantify natural sinkholes in a karst area in Zhijin county, southwest China. Two methodologies were implemented. The first is a semi-automatic approach which stepwise identifies the depression using DEMs: 1) DEM acquisition; 2) sink fill; 3) sink depth calculation using the difference between the original and sinkfree DEMs; and 4) elimination of the spurious sinkholes by the threshold values of morphometric parameters including TPI (topographic position index), geology, and land use. The second is the traditional visual interpretation of depressions based on the integrated analysis of the high-resolution aerial photographs and topographic maps. The threshold values of the depression area, shape, depth and TPI appropriate for distinguishing true depressions were abstained from the maximum overall accuracy generated by the comparison between the depression maps produced by the semi-automatic model or visual interpretation. The result shows that the best performance of the semi-automatic model for meso-scale karst depression delineation was using the DEM from the topographic maps with the thresholds area >~ 60 m2, ellipticity >~ 0.2 and TPI <= 0. With these realistic thresholds, the accuracy of the semi-automatic model ranges from 0.78 to 0.95 for DEM resolutions from 3 to 75 m.

  12. Automatic identification and classification of noun argument structures in biomedical literature.

    PubMed

    Ozyurt, Ibrahim Burak

    2012-01-01

    The accelerating increase in the biomedical literature makes keeping up with recent advances challenging for researchers thus making automatic extraction and discovery of knowledge from this vast literature a necessity. Building such systems requires automatic detection of lexico-semantic event structures governed by the syntactic and semantic constraints of human languages in sentences of biomedical texts. The lexico-semantic event structures in sentences are centered around the predicates and most semantic role labeling (SRL) approaches focus only on the arguments of verb predicates and neglect argument taking nouns which also convey information in a sentence. In this article, a noun argument structure (NAS) annotated corpus named BioNom and a SRL system to identify and classify these structures is introduced. Also, a genetic algorithm-based feature selection (GAFS) method is introduced and global inference is applied to significantly improve the performance of the NAS Bio SRL system. PMID:22868678

  13. A new method for the automatic identification of the dimensional features of vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Di Angelo, L; Di Stefano, P

    2015-08-01

    In this paper a new automatic approach to determine the accurate measure of human vertebrae is proposed. The aim is to speed up the measurement process and to reduce the uncertainties that typically affect the measurement carried out by traditional approaches. The proposed method uses a 3D model of the vertebra obtained from CT-scans or 3D scanning, from which some characteristic dimensions are detected. For this purpose, specific rules to identify morphological features, from which to detect dimensional features unambiguously and accurately, are put forward and implemented in original software. The automatic method which is here proposed is verified by analysing real vertebrae and is then compared with the state-of-the-art methods for vertebra measurement.

  14. A new method for the automatic identification of the dimensional features of vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Di Angelo, L; Di Stefano, P

    2015-08-01

    In this paper a new automatic approach to determine the accurate measure of human vertebrae is proposed. The aim is to speed up the measurement process and to reduce the uncertainties that typically affect the measurement carried out by traditional approaches. The proposed method uses a 3D model of the vertebra obtained from CT-scans or 3D scanning, from which some characteristic dimensions are detected. For this purpose, specific rules to identify morphological features, from which to detect dimensional features unambiguously and accurately, are put forward and implemented in original software. The automatic method which is here proposed is verified by analysing real vertebrae and is then compared with the state-of-the-art methods for vertebra measurement. PMID:25985887

  15. Call recognition and individual identification of fish vocalizations based on automatic speech recognition: An example with the Lusitanian toadfish.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Manuel; Fonseca, Paulo J; Amorim, M Clara P; Teixeira, Carlos J C

    2015-12-01

    The study of acoustic communication in animals often requires not only the recognition of species specific acoustic signals but also the identification of individual subjects, all in a complex acoustic background. Moreover, when very long recordings are to be analyzed, automatic recognition and identification processes are invaluable tools to extract the relevant biological information. A pattern recognition methodology based on hidden Markov models is presented inspired by successful results obtained in the most widely known and complex acoustical communication signal: human speech. This methodology was applied here for the first time to the detection and recognition of fish acoustic signals, specifically in a stream of round-the-clock recordings of Lusitanian toadfish (Halobatrachus didactylus) in their natural estuarine habitat. The results show that this methodology is able not only to detect the mating sounds (boatwhistles) but also to identify individual male toadfish, reaching an identification rate of ca. 95%. Moreover this method also proved to be a powerful tool to assess signal durations in large data sets. However, the system failed in recognizing other sound types. PMID:26723348

  16. A method for automatic identification of water and fat images from a symmetrically-sampled dual-echo Dixon technique

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Moiz; Liu, Yinan; Slavens, Zachary W.; Low, Russell; Merkle, Elmar; Hwang, Ken-Pin; Vu, Anthony; Ma, Jingfei

    2016-01-01

    Sampling water and fat signals symmetrically (i.e., at 0 and 180° relative phase angles) in a dual-echo Dixon technique offers high intrinsic tolerance to phase fluctuations in postprocessing and maximum SNR performance for the separated water and fat images. However, identification of which image is water and which image is fat after their separation is not possible based on the phase information alone. In this work, we proposed a semi-empirical automatic image identification method that is based on the intrinsic asymmetry between the water and fat chemical shift spectra. Specifically, the approximately bi-modal feature of the fat spectra and the observation that most in vivo tissues are either predominantly water or predominantly fat are used to construct a spectrum-based algorithm. Additional refinement is accomplished by considering the spatial distribution of the tissues that may have a coexistence of water and fat. The final improved algorithm was tested on a total of 131 three-dimensional patient datasets collected from different scanners and found to yield correct water and fat identification in all datasets. PMID:20061107

  17. Sparse appearance model-based algorithm for automatic segmentation and identification of articulated hand bones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reda, Fitsum A.; Peng, Zhigang; Liao, Shu; Shinagawa, Yoshihisa; Zhan, Yiqiang; Hermosillo, Gerardo; Zhou, Xiang Sean

    2014-03-01

    Automatic and precise segmentation of hand bones is important for many medical imaging applications. Although several previous studies address bone segmentation, automatically segmenting articulated hand bones remains a challenging task. The highly articulated nature of hand bones limits the effectiveness of atlas-based segmentation methods. The use of low-level information derived from the image-of-interest alone is insufficient for detecting bones and distinguishing boundaries of different bones that are in close proximity to each other. In this study, we propose a method that combines an articulated statistical shape model and a local exemplar-based appearance model for automatically segmenting hand bones in CT. Our approach is to perform a hierarchical articulated shape deformation that is driven by a set of local exemplar-based appearance models. Specifically, for each point in the shape model, the local appearance model is described by a set of profiles of low-level image features along the normal of the shape. During segmentation, each point in the shape model is deformed to a new point whose image features are closest to the appearance model. The shape model is also constrained by an articulation model described by a set of pre-determined landmarks on the finger joints. In this way, the deformation is robust to sporadic false bony edges and is able to fit fingers with large articulations. We validated our method on 23 CT scans and we have a segmentation success rate of ~89.70 %. This result indicates that our method is viable for automatic segmentation of articulated hand bones in conventional CT.

  18. Assessing sound exposure from shipping in coastal waters using a single hydrophone and Automatic Identification System (AIS) data.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Nathan D; Witt, Matthew J; Blondel, Philippe; Godley, Brendan J; Smith, George H

    2012-07-01

    Underwater noise from shipping is a growing presence throughout the world's oceans, and may be subjecting marine fauna to chronic noise exposure with potentially severe long-term consequences. The coincidence of dense shipping activity and sensitive marine ecosystems in coastal environments is of particular concern, and noise assessment methodologies which describe the high temporal variability of sound exposure in these areas are needed. We present a method of characterising sound exposure from shipping using continuous passive acoustic monitoring combined with Automatic Identification System (AIS) shipping data. The method is applied to data recorded in Falmouth Bay, UK. Absolute and relative levels of intermittent ship noise contributions to the 24-h sound exposure level are determined using an adaptive threshold, and the spatial distribution of potential ship sources is then analysed using AIS data. This technique can be used to prioritize shipping noise mitigation strategies in coastal marine environments. PMID:22658576

  19. Automatic recognition of type III solar radio bursts: Automated Radio Burst Identification System method and first observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobzin, Vasili V.; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, Peter A.; Steward, Graham; Patterson, Garth

    2009-04-01

    Because of the rapidly increasing role of technology, including complicated electronic systems, spacecraft, etc., modern society has become more vulnerable to a set of extraterrestrial influences (space weather) and requires continuous observation and forecasts of space weather. The major space weather events like solar flares and coronal mass ejections are usually accompanied by solar radio bursts, which can be used for a real-time space weather forecast. Coronal type III radio bursts are produced near the local electron plasma frequency and near its harmonic by fast electrons ejected from the solar active regions and moving through the corona and solar wind. These bursts have dynamic spectra with frequency rapidly falling with time, the typical duration of the coronal burst being about 1-3 s. This paper presents a new method developed to detect coronal type III bursts automatically and its implementation in a new Automated Radio Burst Identification System. The central idea of the implementation is to use the Radon transform for more objective detection of the bursts as approximately straight lines in dynamic spectra. Preliminary tests of the method with the use of the spectra obtained during 13 days show that the performance of the current implementation is quite high, ˜84%, while no false positives are observed and 23 events not listed previously are found. Prospects for improvements are discussed. The first automatically detected coronal type III radio bursts are presented.

  20. A tool for developing an automatic insect identification system based on wing outlines.

    PubMed

    Yang, He-Ping; Ma, Chun-Sen; Wen, Hui; Zhan, Qing-Bin; Wang, Xin-Li

    2015-01-01

    For some insect groups, wing outline is an important character for species identification. We have constructed a program as the integral part of an automated system to identify insects based on wing outlines (DAIIS). This program includes two main functions: (1) outline digitization and Elliptic Fourier transformation and (2) classifier model training by pattern recognition of support vector machines and model validation. To demonstrate the utility of this program, a sample of 120 owlflies (Neuroptera: Ascalaphidae) was split into training and validation sets. After training, the sample was sorted into seven species using this tool. In five repeated experiments, the mean accuracy for identification of each species ranged from 90% to 98%. The accuracy increased to 99% when the samples were first divided into two groups based on features of their compound eyes. DAIIS can therefore be a useful tool for developing a system of automated insect identification. PMID:26251292

  1. Robust features for the automatic identification of autism spectrum disorder in children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is commonly reported that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit hyper-reactivity or hypo-reactivity to sensory stimuli. Electroencephalography (EEG) is commonly used to study neural sensory reactivity, suggesting that statistical analysis of EEG recordings is a potential means of automatic classification of the disorder. EEG recordings taken from children, however, are frequently contaminated with large amounts of noise, making analysis difficult. In this paper, we present a method for the automatic extraction of noise-robust EEG features, which serve to quantify neural sensory reactivity. We show the efficacy of a system for the classification of ASD using these features. Methods An oddball paradigm was used to elicit event-related potentials from a group of 19 ASD children and 30 typically developing children. EEG recordings were taken and robust features were extracted. A support vector machine, logistic regression, and a naive Bayes classifier were used to classify the children as having ASD or being typically developing. Results A classification accuracy of 79% was achieved, making our method competitive with other automatic diagnosis methods based on EEG. Additionally, we found that classification performance is reduced if eye blink artifacts are removed during preprocessing. Conclusions This study shows that robust EEG features that quantify neural sensory reactivity are useful for the classification of ASD. We showed that noise-robust features are crucial for our analysis, and observe that traditional preprocessing methods may lead to poor classification performance in the face of a large amount of noise. Further exploration of alternative preprocessing methods is warranted. PMID:24936212

  2. Automatic NMR-based identification of chemical reaction types in mixtures of co-occurring reactions.

    PubMed

    Latino, Diogo A R S; Aires-de-Sousa, João

    2014-01-01

    The combination of chemoinformatics approaches with NMR techniques and the increasing availability of data allow the resolution of problems far beyond the original application of NMR in structure elucidation/verification. The diversity of applications can range from process monitoring, metabolic profiling, authentication of products, to quality control. An application related to the automatic analysis of complex mixtures concerns mixtures of chemical reactions. We encoded mixtures of chemical reactions with the difference between the (1)H NMR spectra of the products and the reactants. All the signals arising from all the reactants of the co-occurring reactions were taken together (a simulated spectrum of the mixture of reactants) and the same was done for products. The difference spectrum is taken as the representation of the mixture of chemical reactions. A data set of 181 chemical reactions was used, each reaction manually assigned to one of 6 types. From this dataset, we simulated mixtures where two reactions of different types would occur simultaneously. Automatic learning methods were trained to classify the reactions occurring in a mixture from the (1)H NMR-based descriptor of the mixture. Unsupervised learning methods (self-organizing maps) produced a reasonable clustering of the mixtures by reaction type, and allowed the correct classification of 80% and 63% of the mixtures in two independent test sets of different similarity to the training set. With random forests (RF), the percentage of correct classifications was increased to 99% and 80% for the same test sets. The RF probability associated to the predictions yielded a robust indication of their reliability. This study demonstrates the possibility of applying machine learning methods to automatically identify types of co-occurring chemical reactions from NMR data. Using no explicit structural information about the reactions participants, reaction elucidation is performed without structure elucidation of

  3. An automatic method for atom identification in scanning tunnelling microscopy images of Fe-chalcogenide superconductors.

    PubMed

    Perasso, A; Toraci, C; Massone, A M; Piana, M; Gerbi, A; Buzio, R; Kawale, S; Bellingeri, E; Ferdeghini, C

    2015-12-01

    We describe a computational approach for the automatic recognition and classification of atomic species in scanning tunnelling microscopy images. The approach is based on a pipeline of image processing methods in which the classification step is performed by means of a Fuzzy Clustering algorithm. As a representative example, we use the computational tool to characterize the nanoscale phase separation in thin films of the Fe-chalcogenide superconductor FeSex Te1-x , starting from synthetic data sets and experimental topographies. We quantify the stoichiometry fluctuations on length scales from tens to a few nanometres. PMID:26291960

  4. An automatic method for atom identification in scanning tunnelling microscopy images of Fe-chalcogenide superconductors.

    PubMed

    Perasso, A; Toraci, C; Massone, A M; Piana, M; Gerbi, A; Buzio, R; Kawale, S; Bellingeri, E; Ferdeghini, C

    2015-12-01

    We describe a computational approach for the automatic recognition and classification of atomic species in scanning tunnelling microscopy images. The approach is based on a pipeline of image processing methods in which the classification step is performed by means of a Fuzzy Clustering algorithm. As a representative example, we use the computational tool to characterize the nanoscale phase separation in thin films of the Fe-chalcogenide superconductor FeSex Te1-x , starting from synthetic data sets and experimental topographies. We quantify the stoichiometry fluctuations on length scales from tens to a few nanometres.

  5. Accuracy of computerized automatic identification of cephalometric landmarks by a designed software

    PubMed Central

    Shahidi, S; Oshagh, M; Gozin, F; Salehi, P; Danaei, S M

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to design software for localization of cephalometric landmarks and to evaluate its accuracy in finding landmarks. Methods 40 digital cephalometric radiographs were randomly selected. 16 landmarks which were important in most cephalometric analyses were chosen to be identified. Three expert orthodontists manually identified landmarks twice. The mean of two measurements of each landmark was defined as the baseline landmark. The computer was then able to compare the automatic system's estimate of a landmark with the baseline landmark. The software was designed using Delphi and Matlab programming languages. The techniques were template matching, edge enhancement and some accessory techniques. Results The total mean error between manually identified and automatically identified landmarks was 2.59 mm. 12.5% of landmarks had mean errors less than 1 mm. 43.75% of landmarks had mean errors less than 2 mm. The mean errors of all landmarks except the anterior nasal spine were less than 4 mm. Conclusions This software had significant accuracy for localization of cephalometric landmarks and could be used in future applications. It seems that the accuracy obtained with the software which was developed in this study is better than previous automated systems that have used model-based and knowledge-based approaches. PMID:23236215

  6. Computer-based automatic identification of neurons in gigavoxel-sized 3D human brain images.

    PubMed

    Soda, Paolo; Acciai, Ludovica; Cordelli, Ermanno; Costantini, Irene; Sacconi, Leonardo; Pavone, Francesco Saverio; Conti, Valerio; Guerrini, Renzo; Frasconi, Paolo; Iannello, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    Achieving a comprehensive knowledge of the human brain cytoarchitecture is a fundamental step to understand how the nervous system works, i.e., one of the greatest challenge of 21(st) century science. The recent development of biological tissue labeling and automated microscopic imaging systems has permitted to acquire images at the micro-resolution, which produce a huge quantity of data that cannot be manually analyzed. In case of mammals brain, automatic methods to extract objective information at the microscale have been applied until now to mice, macaque and cat 3D volume images. Here we report a method to automatically localize neurons in a sample of human brain removed during a surgical procedure for the treatments of drug resistant epilepsy in a child with hemimegalencephaly, whose neurons and neurites were fluorescence labelled and finally imaged using the two-photon fluorescence microscope. The method provides the map of both parvalbuminergic neurons and all other cells nuclei with a satisfactory f-score measured using more than two thousand human labelled soma. PMID:26738082

  7. On-line novelty detection for artefact identification in automatic anaesthesia record keeping.

    PubMed

    Hoare, Stephen W; Asbridge, David; Beatty, Paul C W

    2002-12-01

    We report the design of a kernel-based on-line novelty detector (ADDaM - Automatic Dynamic Data Mapper) and its use in the detection of artefacts in an automatic anaesthesia record keeper (AARK).ADDaM produces a partitioned history of any ordered data stream and constructs a probability distribution function (PDF) from that history using Gaussian kernels. Two forms of PDF are possible: a static PDF where the prior probability of each kernel is determined by the number of observations it represents and a temporal PDF where more recent observations have a higher prior probability. Testing against the current PDF assesses the novelty of the next point entering the stream. The performance of this method for artefact detection in heart rate data was compared to Kalman, ARIMA and moving mean filters using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves. Performance was measured using the area under the curves (AUC), and the false positive rate (FPR) and positive predictive value (PPV) calculated at the optimal cost-point on the curves. The results obtained were: ADDaM (Static PDF) AUC 0.92, FPR 0.12, PPV 0.12 and ADDaM (Temporal PDF) AUC 0.97, FPR 0.12, PPV 0.15. Both ADDaM-based methods out performed all other on-line methods tested.

  8. Progress towards an unassisted element identification from Laser Induced Breakdown Spectra with automatic ranking techniques inspired by text retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, G.; Cristoforetti, G.; Legnaioli, S.; Lorenzetti, G.; Palleschi, V.; Sorrentino, F.; Tognoni, E.

    2010-08-01

    In this communication, we will illustrate an algorithm for automatic element identification in LIBS spectra which takes inspiration from the vector space model applied to text retrieval techniques. The vector space model prescribes that text documents and text queries are represented as vectors of weighted terms (words). Document ranking, with respect to relevance to a query, is obtained by comparing the vectors representing the documents with the vector representing the query. In our case, we represent elements and samples as vectors of weighted peaks, obtained from their spectra. The likelihood of the presence of an element in a sample is computed by comparing the corresponding vectors of weighted peaks. The weight of a peak is proportional to its intensity and to the inverse of the number of peaks, in the database, in its wavelength neighboring. We suppose to have a database containing the peaks of all elements we want to recognize, where each peak is represented by a wavelength and it is associated with its expected relative intensity and the corresponding element. Detection of elements in a sample is obtained by ranking the elements according to the distance of the associated vectors from the vector representing the sample. The application of this approach to elements identification using LIBS spectra obtained from several kinds of metallic alloys will be also illustrated. The possible extension of this technique towards an algorithm for fully automated LIBS analysis will be discussed.

  9. Automatic laser-based material identification and marking: a new approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quay, Ruediger; Sattmann, R.; Noll, Reinhard

    1997-08-01

    Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is a remote, online, in situ technique used for the quantitative analysis of elemental constituents in matrices such as steels, non ferrous metals, polymers and soils. A typical industrial application already established is the sorting of non ferrous metals for the purpose of recycling. A new device, the Laser Identification and Marking System introduced here, uses a combination of material identification by means of LIBS and instantly marking the workpiece using the same Nd:YAG laser. This method was developed since the application required a strongly decreased probability of mixing up of different steel qualities in comparison to conventional methods. At the same time a decisive disadvantage of LIBS, the insufficient detection limits for several elements, can be lowered by using repetitive bursts of multiple laser pulses.

  10. Algorithm Summary and Evaluation: Automatic Implementation of Ringdown Analysis for Electromechanical Mode Identification from Phasor Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ning; Huang, Zhenyu; Tuffner, Francis K.; Jin, Shuangshuang; Lin, Jenglung; Hauer, Matthew L.

    2010-02-28

    Small signal stability problems are one of the major threats to grid stability and reliability. Prony analysis has been successfully applied on ringdown data to monitor electromechanical modes of a power system using phasor measurement unit (PMU) data. To facilitate an on-line application of mode estimation, this paper develops a recursive algorithm for implementing Prony analysis and proposed an oscillation detection method to detect ringdown data in real time. By automatically detecting ringdown data, the proposed method helps guarantee that Prony analysis is applied properly and timely on the ringdown data. Thus, the mode estimation results can be performed reliably and timely. The proposed method is tested using Monte Carlo simulations based on a 17-machine model and is shown to be able to properly identify the oscillation data for on-line application of Prony analysis. In addition, the proposed method is applied to field measurement data from WECC to show the performance of the proposed algorithm.

  11. Automatic Identification of Web-Based Risk Markers for Health Events

    PubMed Central

    Borsa, Diana; Hayward, Andrew C; McKendry, Rachel A; Cox, Ingemar J

    2015-01-01

    Background The escalating cost of global health care is driving the development of new technologies to identify early indicators of an individual’s risk of disease. Traditionally, epidemiologists have identified such risk factors using medical databases and lengthy clinical studies but these are often limited in size and cost and can fail to take full account of diseases where there are social stigmas or to identify transient acute risk factors. Objective Here we report that Web search engine queries coupled with information on Wikipedia access patterns can be used to infer health events associated with an individual user and automatically generate Web-based risk markers for some of the common medical conditions worldwide, from cardiovascular disease to sexually transmitted infections and mental health conditions, as well as pregnancy. Methods Using anonymized datasets, we present methods to first distinguish individuals likely to have experienced specific health events, and classify them into distinct categories. We then use the self-controlled case series method to find the incidence of health events in risk periods directly following a user’s search for a query category, and compare to the incidence during other periods for the same individuals. Results Searches for pet stores were risk markers for allergy. We also identified some possible new risk markers; for example: searching for fast food and theme restaurants was associated with a transient increase in risk of myocardial infarction, suggesting this exposure goes beyond a long-term risk factor but may also act as an acute trigger of myocardial infarction. Dating and adult content websites were risk markers for sexually transmitted infections, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Conclusions Web-based methods provide a powerful, low-cost approach to automatically identify risk factors, and support more timely and personalized public health efforts to bring human and economic benefits. PMID

  12. Automatic identification of sources and trajectories of atmospheric Saharan dust aerosols with Latent Gaussian Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbe, Christoph; Bachl, Fabian

    2013-04-01

    Dust transported from the Sahara across the ocean has a high impact on radiation fluxes and marine nutrient cycles. Significant progress has been made in characterising Saharan dust properties (Formenti et al., 2011) and its radiative effects through the 'SAharan Mineral dUst experiMent' (SAMUM) (Ansmann et al., 2011). While the models simulating Saharan dust transport processes have been considerably improved in recent years, it is still an open question which meteorological processes and surface characteristics are mainly responsible for dust transported to the Sub-Tropical Atlantic (Schepanski et al., 2009; Tegen et al., 2012). Currently, there exists a large discrepancy between modelled dust emission events and those observed from satellites. In this contribution we present an approach for classifying and tracking dust plumes based on a Bayesian hierarchical model. Recent developments in computational statistics known as Integrated Nested Laplace Approximations (INLA) have paved the way for efficient inference in a respective subclass, the Generalized Linear Model (GLM) (Rue et al., 2009). We present the results of our approach based on data from the SIVIRI instrument on board the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite. We demonstrate the accuracy for automatically detecting sources of dust and aerosol concentrations in the atmosphere. The trajectories of aerosols are also computed very efficiently. In our framework, we automatically identify optimal parameters for the computation of atmospheric aerosol motion. The applicability of our approach to a wide range of conditions will be discussed, as well as the ground truthing of our results and future directions in this field of research.

  13. Automatic identification and morphometry of optic nerve fibers in electron microscopy images.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ximei; Pan, Zhenkuan; Wu, Jinyan; Zhou, Guomin; Zeng, Yanjun

    2010-04-01

    The neuroanatomical morphology of the optic nerve is an important description for understanding different aspects like topological distribution of nerves. Manual identification and morphometry has been usually considered as tedious, time consuming, and susceptible to error. A method that automates the identification and analysis of axons from electron micrographic images is presented. First, using region growing approach binarizes the image by combining the feature information together with spatial information, and obtains a coarse classification between myelin and non-myelin pixels. Next, identifies the axon candidates by region labeling and remove false axons on the basis of the identification ruler. Then the connected myelin sheaths are separated from each other using the maximum gradient magnitude of the outer annulus. Finally, analyses the morphological data of fibers. The developed method has been tested on a number of optic nerve images and results were presented. Regional distributions of axon caliber were unimodal. The thickness of the myelin sheath was highly correlated with the fiber diameter; hence, myelin sheath width was also distributed in a unimodal manner.

  14. A smart pattern recognition system for the automatic identification of aerospace acoustic sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabell, R. H.; Fuller, C. R.

    1989-01-01

    An intelligent air-noise recognition system is described that uses pattern recognition techniques to distinguish noise signatures of five different types of acoustic sources, including jet planes, propeller planes, a helicopter, train, and wind turbine. Information for classification is calculated using the power spectral density and autocorrelation taken from the output of a single microphone. Using this system, as many as 90 percent of test recordings were correctly identified, indicating that the linear discriminant functions developed can be used for aerospace source identification.

  15. [Wearable Automatic External Defibrillators].

    PubMed

    Luo, Huajie; Luo, Zhangyuan; Jin, Xun; Zhang, Leilei; Wang, Changjin; Zhang, Wenzan; Tu, Quan

    2015-11-01

    Defibrillation is the most effective method of treating ventricular fibrillation(VF), this paper introduces wearable automatic external defibrillators based on embedded system which includes EGG measurements, bioelectrical impedance measurement, discharge defibrillation module, which can automatic identify VF signal, biphasic exponential waveform defibrillation discharge. After verified by animal tests, the device can realize EGG acquisition and automatic identification. After identifying the ventricular fibrillation signal, it can automatic defibrillate to abort ventricular fibrillation and to realize the cardiac electrical cardioversion.

  16. Automatic Identification of Critical Follow-Up Recommendation Sentences in Radiology Reports

    PubMed Central

    Yetisgen-Yildiz, Meliha; Gunn, Martin L.; Xia, Fei; Payne, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    Communication of follow-up recommendations when abnormalities are identified on imaging studies is prone to error. When recommendations are not systematically identified and promptly communicated to referrers, poor patient outcomes can result. Using information technology can improve communication and improve patient safety. In this paper, we describe a text processing approach that uses natural language processing (NLP) and supervised text classification methods to automatically identify critical recommendation sentences in radiology reports. To increase the classification performance we enhanced the simple unigram token representation approach with lexical, semantic, knowledge-base, and structural features. We tested different combinations of those features with the Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) classification algorithm. Classifiers were trained and tested with a gold standard corpus annotated by a domain expert. We applied 5-fold cross validation and our best performing classifier achieved 95.60% precision, 79.82% recall, 87.0% F-score, and 99.59% classification accuracy in identifying the critical recommendation sentences in radiology reports. PMID:22195225

  17. Quality assurance in the production of pipe fittings by automatic laser-based material identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moench, Ingo; Peter, Laszlo; Priem, Roland; Sturm, Volker; Noll, Reinhard

    1999-09-01

    In plants of the chemical, nuclear and off-shore industry, application specific high-alloyed steels are used for pipe fittings. Mixing of different steel grades can lead to corrosion with severe consequential damages. Growing quality requirements and environmental responsibilities demand a 100% material control in the production of the pipe fittings. Therefore, LIFT, an automatic inspection machine, was developed to insure against any mix of material grades. LIFT is able to identify more than 30 different steel grades. The inspection method is based on Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometry (LIBS). An expert system, which can be easily trained and recalibrated, was developed for the data evaluation. The result of the material inspection is transferred to an external handling system via a PLC interface. The duration of the inspection process is 2 seconds. The graphical user interface was developed with respect to the requirements of an unskilled operator. The software is based on a realtime operating system and provides a safe and reliable operation. An interface for the remote maintenance by modem enables a fast operational support. Logged data are retrieved and evaluated. This is the basis for an adaptive improvement of the configuration of LIFT with respect to changing requirements in the production line. Within the first six months of routine operation, about 50000 pipe fittings were inspected.

  18. An Automatic Quality Control Pipeline for High-Throughput Screening Hit Identification.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yufeng; Chen, Kaisheng; Zhong, Yang; Zhou, Bin; Ainscow, Edward; Wu, Ying-Ta; Zhou, Yingyao

    2016-09-01

    The correction or removal of signal errors in high-throughput screening (HTS) data is critical to the identification of high-quality lead candidates. Although a number of strategies have been previously developed to correct systematic errors and to remove screening artifacts, they are not universally effective and still require fair amount of human intervention. We introduce a fully automated quality control (QC) pipeline that can correct generic interplate systematic errors and remove intraplate random artifacts. The new pipeline was first applied to ~100 large-scale historical HTS assays; in silico analysis showed auto-QC led to a noticeably stronger structure-activity relationship. The method was further tested in several independent HTS runs, where QC results were sampled for experimental validation. Significantly increased hit confirmation rates were obtained after the QC steps, confirming that the proposed method was effective in enriching true-positive hits. An implementation of the algorithm is available to the screening community.

  19. An Automatic Quality Control Pipeline for High-Throughput Screening Hit Identification.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yufeng; Chen, Kaisheng; Zhong, Yang; Zhou, Bin; Ainscow, Edward; Wu, Ying-Ta; Zhou, Yingyao

    2016-09-01

    The correction or removal of signal errors in high-throughput screening (HTS) data is critical to the identification of high-quality lead candidates. Although a number of strategies have been previously developed to correct systematic errors and to remove screening artifacts, they are not universally effective and still require fair amount of human intervention. We introduce a fully automated quality control (QC) pipeline that can correct generic interplate systematic errors and remove intraplate random artifacts. The new pipeline was first applied to ~100 large-scale historical HTS assays; in silico analysis showed auto-QC led to a noticeably stronger structure-activity relationship. The method was further tested in several independent HTS runs, where QC results were sampled for experimental validation. Significantly increased hit confirmation rates were obtained after the QC steps, confirming that the proposed method was effective in enriching true-positive hits. An implementation of the algorithm is available to the screening community. PMID:27313114

  20. The link between morphology and structure of brightest cluster galaxies: automatic identification of cDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dongyao; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Conselice, Christopher J.

    2015-04-01

    We study a large sample of 625 low-redshift brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) and link their morphologies to their structural properties. We derive visual morphologies and find that ˜57 per cent of the BCGs are cD galaxies, ˜13 per cent are ellipticals, and ˜21 per cent belong to the intermediate classes mostly between E and cD. There is a continuous distribution in the properties of the BCG's envelopes, ranging from undetected (E class) to clearly detected (cD class), with intermediate classes (E/cD and cD/E) showing the increasing degrees of the envelope presence. A minority (˜7 per cent) of BCGs have disc morphologies, with spirals and S0s in similar proportions, and the rest (˜2 per cent) are mergers. After carefully fitting the galaxies light distributions by using one-component (Sérsic) and two-component (Sérsic+Exponential) models, we find a clear link between the BCGs morphologies and their structures and conclude that a combination of the best-fitting parameters derived from the fits can be used to separate cD galaxies from non-cD BCGs. In particular, cDs and non-cDs show very different distributions in the Re-RFF plane, where Re is the effective radius and RFF (the residual flux fraction) measures the proportion of the galaxy flux present in the residual images after subtracting the models. In general, cDs have larger Re and RFF values than ellipticals. Therefore we find, in a statistically robust way, a boundary separating cD and non-cD BCGs in this parameter space. BCGs with cD morphology can be selected with reasonably high completeness (˜75 per cent) and low contamination (˜20 per cent). This automatic and objective technique can be applied to any current or future BCG sample with good-quality images.

  1. Automatic identification of resting state networks: an extended version of multiple template-matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guaje, Javier; Molina, Juan; Rudas, Jorge; Demertzi, Athena; Heine, Lizette; Tshibanda, Luaba; Soddu, Andrea; Laureys, Steven; Gómez, Francisco

    2015-12-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging in resting state (fMRI-RS) constitutes an informative protocol to investigate several pathological and pharmacological conditions. A common approach to study this data source is through the analysis of changes in the so called resting state networks (RSNs). These networks correspond to well-defined functional entities that have been associated to different low and high brain order functions. RSNs may be characterized by using Independent Component Analysis (ICA). ICA provides a decomposition of the fMRI-RS signal into sources of brain activity, but it lacks of information about the nature of the signal, i.e., if the source is artifactual or not. Recently, a multiple template-matching (MTM) approach was proposed to automatically recognize RSNs in a set of Independent Components (ICs). This method provides valuable information to assess subjects at individual level. Nevertheless, it lacks of a mechanism to quantify how much certainty there is about the existence/absence of each network. This information may be important for the assessment of patients with severely damaged brains, in which RSNs may be greatly affected as a result of the pathological condition. In this work we propose a set of changes to the original MTM that improves the RSNs recognition task and also extends the functionality of the method. The key points of this improvement is a standardization strategy and a modification of method's constraints that adds flexibility to the approach. Additionally, we also introduce an analysis to the trustworthiness measurement of each RSN obtained by using template-matching approach. This analysis consists of a thresholding strategy applied over the computed Goodness-of-Fit (GOF) between the set of templates and the ICs. The proposed method was validated on 2 two independent studies (Baltimore, 23 healthy subjects and Liege, 27 healthy subjects) with different configurations of MTM. Results suggest that the method will provide

  2. Automatic Whole-Spectrum Matching Techniques for Identification of Pure and Mixed Minerals using Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyar, M. D.; Carey, C. J.; Breitenfeld, L.; Tague, T.; Wang, P.

    2015-12-01

    In situuse of Raman spectroscopy on Mars is planned for three different instruments in the next decade. Although implementations differ, they share the potential to identify surface minerals and organics and inform Martian geology and geochemistry. Their success depends on the availability of appropriate databases and software for phase identification. For this project, we have consolidated all known publicly-accessible Raman data on minerals for which independent confirmation of phase identity is available, and added hundreds of additional spectra acquired using varying instruments and laser energies. Using these data, we have developed software tools to improve mineral identification accuracy. For pure minerals, whole-spectrum matching algorithms far outperform existing tools based on diagnostic peaks in individual phases. Optimal matching accuracy does depend on subjective end-user choices for data processing (such as baseline removal, intensity normalization, and intensity squashing), as well as specific dataset characteristics. So, to make this tuning process amenable to automated optimization methods, we developed a machine learning-based generalization of these choices within a preprocessing and matching framework. Our novel method dramatically reduces the burden on the user and results in improved matching accuracy. Moving beyond identifying pure phases into quantification of relative abundances is a complex problem because relationships between peak intensity and mineral abundance are obscured by complicating factors: exciting laser frequency, the Raman cross section of the mineral, crystal orientation, and long-range chemical and structural ordering in the crystal lattices. Solving this un-mixing problem requires adaptation of our whole-spectrum algorithms and a large number of test spectra of minerals in known volume proportions, which we are creating for this project. Key to this effort is acquisition of spectra from mixtures of pure minerals paired

  3. Increasing Accuracy: A New Design and Algorithm for Automatically Measuring Weights, Travel Direction and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) of Penguins

    PubMed Central

    Afanasyev, Vsevolod; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Dunn, Michael J.; Robst, Jeremy; Preston, Mark; Bremner, Steve F.; Briggs, Dirk R.; Brown, Ruth; Adlard, Stacey; Peat, Helen J.

    2015-01-01

    A fully automated weighbridge using a new algorithm and mechanics integrated with a Radio Frequency Identification System is described. It is currently in use collecting data on Macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) at Bird Island, South Georgia. The technology allows researchers to collect very large, highly accurate datasets of both penguin weight and direction of their travel into or out of a breeding colony, providing important contributory information to help understand penguin breeding success, reproductive output and availability of prey. Reliable discrimination between single and multiple penguin crossings is demonstrated. Passive radio frequency tags implanted into penguins allow researchers to match weight and trip direction to individual birds. Low unit and operation costs, low maintenance needs, simple operator requirements and accurate time stamping of every record are all important features of this type of weighbridge, as is its proven ability to operate 24 hours a day throughout a breeding season, regardless of temperature or weather conditions. Users are able to define required levels of accuracy by adjusting filters and raw data are automatically recorded and stored allowing for a range of processing options. This paper presents the underlying principles, design specification and system description, provides evidence of the weighbridge’s accurate performance and demonstrates how its design is a significant improvement on existing systems. PMID:25894763

  4. Increasing Accuracy: A New Design and Algorithm for Automatically Measuring Weights, Travel Direction and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) of Penguins.

    PubMed

    Afanasyev, Vsevolod; Buldyrev, Sergey V; Dunn, Michael J; Robst, Jeremy; Preston, Mark; Bremner, Steve F; Briggs, Dirk R; Brown, Ruth; Adlard, Stacey; Peat, Helen J

    2015-01-01

    A fully automated weighbridge using a new algorithm and mechanics integrated with a Radio Frequency Identification System is described. It is currently in use collecting data on Macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) at Bird Island, South Georgia. The technology allows researchers to collect very large, highly accurate datasets of both penguin weight and direction of their travel into or out of a breeding colony, providing important contributory information to help understand penguin breeding success, reproductive output and availability of prey. Reliable discrimination between single and multiple penguin crossings is demonstrated. Passive radio frequency tags implanted into penguins allow researchers to match weight and trip direction to individual birds. Low unit and operation costs, low maintenance needs, simple operator requirements and accurate time stamping of every record are all important features of this type of weighbridge, as is its proven ability to operate 24 hours a day throughout a breeding season, regardless of temperature or weather conditions. Users are able to define required levels of accuracy by adjusting filters and raw data are automatically recorded and stored allowing for a range of processing options. This paper presents the underlying principles, design specification and system description, provides evidence of the weighbridge's accurate performance and demonstrates how its design is a significant improvement on existing systems.

  5. Hybrid EEG—Eye Tracker: Automatic Identification and Removal of Eye Movement and Blink Artifacts from Electroencephalographic Signal

    PubMed Central

    Mannan, Malik M. Naeem; Kim, Shinjung; Jeong, Myung Yung; Kamran, M. Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of eye movement and blink artifacts in Electroencephalogram (EEG) recording makes the analysis of EEG data more difficult and could result in mislead findings. Efficient removal of these artifacts from EEG data is an essential step in improving classification accuracy to develop the brain-computer interface (BCI). In this paper, we proposed an automatic framework based on independent component analysis (ICA) and system identification to identify and remove ocular artifacts from EEG data by using hybrid EEG and eye tracker system. The performance of the proposed algorithm is illustrated using experimental and standard EEG datasets. The proposed algorithm not only removes the ocular artifacts from artifactual zone but also preserves the neuronal activity related EEG signals in non-artifactual zone. The comparison with the two state-of-the-art techniques namely ADJUST based ICA and REGICA reveals the significant improved performance of the proposed algorithm for removing eye movement and blink artifacts from EEG data. Additionally, results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can achieve lower relative error and higher mutual information values between corrected EEG and artifact-free EEG data. PMID:26907276

  6. Vectorcardiographic identification of myocardial scar: a discriminative study with automatically processed vectorcardiographic information.

    PubMed

    Bizarro, R O; O'Brien, P C; Titus, J L; Smith, R E

    1978-07-01

    A multivariate discriminative procedure for the vectorcardiographic identification of ischemic myocardial scarring was performed utilizing data from 1,162 vectorcardiograms (VCGs) obtained in clinically normal subjects and 90 VCGs obtained from patients proved at autopsy to have ischemic myocardial scars. The VCGs from patients with myocardial scars were divided into two groups, a design group of 50 cases and an evaluation group of 40 cases. The best vectorcardiographic variables to discriminate the clinically normal group from the design group with scars were identified by stepwise linear discrimination. Sixteen vectorcardiographic variables were then used for discriminative analysis. This analysis correctly identified myocardial scars in 45 of the 50 VCGs in the design group (sensitivity 90%); among the 1,162 VCGs from clinically normal subjects, 32 were misidentified as myocardial scar (specificity 97.2). The sensitivity of these defining criteria was then tested in the 40 cases of myocardial scar in the evaluation group and found to be reproducible; 34 of the 40 cases of this group (85.0%) were correctly identified as having a myocardial scar. The multivariate discriminative criteria developed in this study had greater sensitivity and specificity than standard methods usually employed in electrocardiography and vectorcardiography. The criteria defined need to be evaluated in a large series that includes instances of cardiac pathology of nonischemic nature. PMID:357672

  7. Large data analysis: automatic visual personal identification in a demography of 1.2 billion persons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daugman, John

    2014-05-01

    The largest biometric deployment in history is now underway in India, where the Government is enrolling the iris patterns (among other data) of all 1.2 billion citizens. The purpose of the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) is to ensure fair access to welfare benefits and entitlements, to reduce fraud, and enhance social inclusion. Only a minority of Indian citizens have bank accounts; only 4 percent possess passports; and less than half of all aid money reaches its intended recipients. A person who lacks any means of establishing their identity is excluded from entitlements and does not officially exist; thus the slogan of UIDAI is: To give the poor an identity." This ambitious program enrolls a million people every day, across 36,000 stations run by 83 agencies, with a 3-year completion target for the entire national population. The halfway point was recently passed with more than 600 million persons now enrolled. In order to detect and prevent duplicate identities, every iris pattern that is enrolled is first compared against all others enrolled so far; thus the daily workflow now requires 600 trillion (or 600 million-million) iris cross-comparisons. Avoiding identity collisions (False Matches) requires high biometric entropy, and achieving the tremendous match speed requires phase bit coding. Both of these requirements are being delivered operationally by wavelet methods developed by the author for encoding and comparing iris patterns, which will be the focus of this Large Data Award" presentation.

  8. Automatic identification of angiogenesis in double stained images of liver tissue

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background To grow beyond certain size and reach oxygen and other essential nutrients, solid tumors trigger angiogenesis (neovascularization) by secreting various growth factors. Based on this fact, several researches proposed that density of newly formed vessels correlate with tumor malignancy. Vessel density is known as a true prognostic indicator for several types of cancer. However, automated quantification of angiogenesis is still in its primitive stage, and deserves more intelligent methods by taking advantages accruing from novel computer algorithms. Results The newly introduced characteristics of subimages performed well in identification of region-of-angiogenesis. The proposed technique was tested on 522 samples collected from two high-resolution tissues. Having 0.90 overall f-measure, the results obtained with Support Vector Machines show significant agreement between automated framework and manual assessment of microvessels. Conclusion This study introduces a new framework to identify angiogenesis to measure microvessel density (MVD) in digitalized images of liver cancer tissues. The objective is to recognize all subimages having new vessel formations. In addition to region based characteristics, a set of morphological features are proposed to differentiate positive and negative incidences. PMID:19811678

  9. Multispectral hypercolorimetry and automatic guided pigment identification: some masterpieces case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melis, Marcello; Miccoli, Matteo; Quarta, Donato

    2013-05-01

    A couple of years ago we proposed, in this same session, an extension to the standard colorimetry (CIE '31) that we called Hypercolorimetry. It was based on an even sampling of the 300-1000nm wavelength range, with the definition of 7 hypercolor matching functions optimally shaped to minimize the methamerism. Since then we consolidated the approach through a large number of multispectral analysis and specialized the system to the non invasive diagnosis for paintings and frescos. In this paper we describe the whole process, from the multispectral image acquisition to the final 7 bands computation and we show the results on paintings from Masters of the colour. We describe and propose in this paper a systematic approach to the non invasive diagnosis that is able to change a subjective analysis into a repeatable measure indipendent from the specific lighting conditions and from the specific acquisition system. Along with the Hypercolorimetry and its consolidation in the field of non invasive diagnosis, we developed also a standard spectral reflectance database of pure pigments and pigments painted with different bindings. As we will see, this database could be compared to the reflectances of the painting to help the diagnostician in identifing the proper matter. We used a Nikon D800FR (Full Range) camera. This is a 36megapixel reflex camera modified under a Nikon/Profilocolore common project, to achieve a 300-1000nm range sensitivity. The large amount of data allowed us to perform very accurate pixels comparisions, based on their spectral reflectance. All the original pigments and their binding have been provided by the Opificio delle Pietre Dure, Firenze, Italy, while the analyzed masterpieces belong to the collection of the Pinacoteca Nazionale of Bologna, Italy.

  10. Automatic identification and placement of measurement stations for hydrological discharge simulations at basin scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassi, P. R.; Ceppi, A.; Cancarè, F.; Ravazzani, G.; Mancini, M.; Sciuto, D.

    2012-04-01

    corresponding data is used, and false that it is not used. Using this definition of the solution space it is possible to apply various optimization algorithms such as genetics and simulated annealing. Iterating on a large set of possible configurations these algorithms provide the set of Pareto-optimal solutions, i.e. the number of measuring points is minimized while the forecasting accuracy is maximised. The identified Pareto curve is approximate, since the identification of the complete Pareto curve is practically impossible due to the large amount of possible configurations. From the experimental results, as expected, we notice that a certain set of weather data are essential for hydrological simulations while other are negligible. Combining the outcome of different optimization algorithms is possible to extract a reliable set of rules to place measurement stations for forecasting monitoring.

  11. Google Earth Visualizations of the Marine Automatic Identification System (AIS): Monitoring Ship Traffic in National Marine Sanctuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwehr, K.; Hatch, L.; Thompson, M.; Wiley, D.

    2007-12-01

    The Automatic Identification System (AIS) is a new technology that provides ship position reports with location, time, and identity information without human intervention from ships carrying the transponders to any receiver listening to the broadcasts. In collaboration with the USCG's Research and Development Center, NOAA's Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary (SBNMS) has installed 3 AIS receivers around Massachusetts Bay to monitor ship traffic transiting the sanctuary and surrounding waters. The SBNMS and the USCG also worked together propose the shifting the shipping lanes (termed the traffic separation scheme; TSS) that transit the sanctuary slightly to the north to reduce the probability of ship strikes of whales that frequent the sanctuary. Following approval by the United Nation's International Maritime Organization, AIS provided a means for NOAA to assess changes in the distribution of shipping traffic caused by formal change in the TSS effective July 1, 2007. However, there was no easy way to visualize this type of time series data. We have created a software package called noaadata-py to process the AIS ship reports and produce KML files for viewing in Google Earth. Ship tracks can be shown changing over time to allow the viewer to feel the motion of traffic through the sanctuary. The ship tracks can also be gridded to create ship traffic density reports for specified periods of time. The density is displayed as map draped on the sea surface or as vertical histogram columns. Additional visualizations such as bathymetry images, S57 nautical charts, and USCG Marine Information for Safety and Law Enforcement (MISLE) can be combined with the ship traffic visualizations to give a more complete picture of the maritime environment. AIS traffic analyses have the potential to give managers throughout NOAA's National Marine Sanctuaries an improved ability to assess the impacts of ship traffic on the marine resources they seek to protect. Viewing ship traffic

  12. Automatic identification of agricultural terraces through object-oriented analysis of very high resolution DSMs and multispectral imagery obtained from an unmanned aerial vehicle.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Varela, R A; Zarco-Tejada, P J; Angileri, V; Loudjani, P

    2014-02-15

    Agricultural terraces are features that provide a number of ecosystem services. As a result, their maintenance is supported by measures established by the European Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). In the framework of CAP implementation and monitoring, there is a current and future need for the development of robust, repeatable and cost-effective methodologies for the automatic identification and monitoring of these features at farm scale. This is a complex task, particularly when terraces are associated to complex vegetation cover patterns, as happens with permanent crops (e.g. olive trees). In this study we present a novel methodology for automatic and cost-efficient identification of terraces using only imagery from commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) cameras on board unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Using state-of-the-art computer vision techniques, we generated orthoimagery and digital surface models (DSMs) at 11 cm spatial resolution with low user intervention. In a second stage, these data were used to identify terraces using a multi-scale object-oriented classification method. Results show the potential of this method even in highly complex agricultural areas, both regarding DSM reconstruction and image classification. The UAV-derived DSM had a root mean square error (RMSE) lower than 0.5 m when the height of the terraces was assessed against field GPS data. The subsequent automated terrace classification yielded an overall accuracy of 90% based exclusively on spectral and elevation data derived from the UAV imagery.

  13. Automatic identification of agricultural terraces through object-oriented analysis of very high resolution DSMs and multispectral imagery obtained from an unmanned aerial vehicle.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Varela, R A; Zarco-Tejada, P J; Angileri, V; Loudjani, P

    2014-02-15

    Agricultural terraces are features that provide a number of ecosystem services. As a result, their maintenance is supported by measures established by the European Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). In the framework of CAP implementation and monitoring, there is a current and future need for the development of robust, repeatable and cost-effective methodologies for the automatic identification and monitoring of these features at farm scale. This is a complex task, particularly when terraces are associated to complex vegetation cover patterns, as happens with permanent crops (e.g. olive trees). In this study we present a novel methodology for automatic and cost-efficient identification of terraces using only imagery from commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) cameras on board unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Using state-of-the-art computer vision techniques, we generated orthoimagery and digital surface models (DSMs) at 11 cm spatial resolution with low user intervention. In a second stage, these data were used to identify terraces using a multi-scale object-oriented classification method. Results show the potential of this method even in highly complex agricultural areas, both regarding DSM reconstruction and image classification. The UAV-derived DSM had a root mean square error (RMSE) lower than 0.5 m when the height of the terraces was assessed against field GPS data. The subsequent automated terrace classification yielded an overall accuracy of 90% based exclusively on spectral and elevation data derived from the UAV imagery. PMID:24473345

  14. Genetic fingerprinting proves cross-correlated automatic photo-identification of individuals as highly efficient in large capture–mark–recapture studies

    PubMed Central

    Drechsler, Axel; Helling, Tobias; Steinfartz, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Capture–mark–recapture (CMR) approaches are the backbone of many studies in population ecology to gain insight on the life cycle, migration, habitat use, and demography of target species. The reliable and repeatable recognition of an individual throughout its lifetime is the basic requirement of a CMR study. Although invasive techniques are available to mark individuals permanently, noninvasive methods for individual recognition mainly rest on photographic identification of external body markings, which are unique at the individual level. The re-identification of an individual based on comparing shape patterns of photographs by eye is commonly used. Automated processes for photographic re-identification have been recently established, but their performance in large datasets (i.e., > 1000 individuals) has rarely been tested thoroughly. Here, we evaluated the performance of the program AMPHIDENT, an automatic algorithm to identify individuals on the basis of ventral spot patterns in the great crested newt (Triturus cristatus) versus the genotypic fingerprint of individuals based on highly polymorphic microsatellite loci using GENECAP. Between 2008 and 2010, we captured, sampled and photographed adult newts and calculated for 1648 samples/photographs recapture rates for both approaches. Recapture rates differed slightly with 8.34% for GENECAP and 9.83% for AMPHIDENT. With an estimated rate of 2% false rejections (FRR) and 0.00% false acceptances (FAR), AMPHIDENT proved to be a highly reliable algorithm for CMR studies of large datasets. We conclude that the application of automatic recognition software of individual photographs can be a rather powerful and reliable tool in noninvasive CMR studies for a large number of individuals. Because the cross-correlation of standardized shape patterns is generally applicable to any pattern that provides enough information, this algorithm is capable of becoming a single application with broad use in CMR studies for many

  15. Automatic identification of IASLC-defined mediastinal lymph node stations on CT scans using multi-atlas organ segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Joanne; Liu, Jiamin; Turkbey, Evrim; Kim, Lauren; Summers, Ronald M.

    2015-03-01

    Station-labeling of mediastinal lymph nodes is typically performed to identify the location of enlarged nodes for cancer staging. Stations are usually assigned in clinical radiology practice manually by qualitative visual assessment on CT scans, which is time consuming and highly variable. In this paper, we developed a method that automatically recognizes the lymph node stations in thoracic CT scans based on the anatomical organs in the mediastinum. First, the trachea, lungs, and spines are automatically segmented to locate the mediastinum region. Then, eight more anatomical organs are simultaneously identified by multi-atlas segmentation. Finally, with the segmentation of those anatomical organs, we convert the text definitions of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) lymph node map into patient-specific color-coded CT image maps. Thus, a lymph node station is automatically assigned to each lymph node. We applied this system to CT scans of 86 patients with 336 mediastinal lymph nodes measuring equal or greater than 10 mm. 84.8% of mediastinal lymph nodes were correctly mapped to their stations.

  16. Automatic identification approach for high-performance liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring fatty acid global profiling.

    PubMed

    Tie, Cai; Hu, Ting; Jia, Zhi-Xin; Zhang, Jin-Lan

    2015-08-18

    Fatty acids (FAs) are a group of lipid molecules that are essential to organisms. As potential biomarkers for different diseases, FAs have attracted increasing attention from both biological researchers and the pharmaceutical industry. A sensitive and accurate method for globally profiling and identifying FAs is required for biomarker discovery. The high selectivity and sensitivity of high-performance liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring (HPLC-MRM) gives it great potential to fulfill the need to identify FAs from complicated matrices. This paper developed a new approach for global FA profiling and identification for HPLC-MRM FA data mining. Mathematical models for identifying FAs were simulated using the isotope-induced retention time (RT) shift (IRS) and peak area ratios between parallel isotope peaks for a series of FA standards. The FA structures were predicated using another model based on the RT and molecular weight. Fully automated FA identification software was coded using the Qt platform based on these mathematical models. Different samples were used to verify the software. A high identification efficiency (greater than 75%) was observed when 96 FA species were identified in plasma. This FAs identification strategy promises to accelerate FA research and applications.

  17. Development of a Korotkov sound processor for automatic identification of auscultatory events. I - Specification of preprocessing bandpass filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, D. P., Jr.; Wolthuis, R. A.; Hoffler, G. W.; Gowen, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    Frequency bands that best discriminate the Korotkov sounds at systole and at diastole from the sounds immediately preceding these events are defined. Korotkov sound data were recorded from five normotensive subjects during orthostatic stress (lower body negative pressure) and bicycle ergometry. A spectral analysis of the seven Korotkov sounds centered about the systolic and diastolic auscultatory events revealed that a maximum increase in amplitude at the systolic transition occurred in the 18-26-Hz band, while a maximum decrease in amplitude at the diastolic transition occurred in the 40-60-Hz band. These findings were remarkably consistent across subjects and test conditions. These passbands are included in the design specifications for an automatic blood pressure measuring system used in conjuction with medical experiments during NASA's Skylab program.

  18. Identification of Xanthomonas fragariae, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli, and Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. fuscans with novel markers and using a dot blot platform coupled with automatic data analysis.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Pedro; Caridade, Cristina M R; Marcal, Andre R S; Cruz, Joana; Cruz, Leonor; Santos, Catarina L; Mendes, Marta V; Tavares, Fernando

    2011-08-15

    Phytosanitary regulations and the provision of plant health certificates still rely mainly on long and laborious culture-based methods of diagnosis, which are frequently inconclusive. DNA-based methods of detection can circumvent many of the limitations of currently used screening methods, allowing a fast and accurate monitoring of samples. The genus Xanthomonas includes 13 phytopathogenic quarantine organisms for which improved methods of diagnosis are needed. In this work, we propose 21 new Xanthomonas-specific molecular markers, within loci coding for Xanthomonas-specific protein domains, useful for DNA-based methods of identification of xanthomonads. The specificity of these markers was assessed by a dot blot hybridization array using 23 non-Xanthomonas species, mostly soil dwelling and/or phytopathogens for the same host plants. In addition, the validation of these markers on 15 Xanthomonas spp. suggested species-specific hybridization patterns, which allowed discrimination among the different Xanthomonas species. Having in mind that DNA-based methods of diagnosis are particularly hampered for unsequenced species, namely, Xanthomonas fragariae, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli, and Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. fuscans, for which comparative genomics tools to search for DNA signatures are not yet applicable, emphasis was given to the selection of informative markers able to identify X. fragariae, X. axonopodis pv. phaseoli, and X. fuscans subsp. fuscans strains. In order to avoid inconsistencies due to operator-dependent interpretation of dot blot data, an image-processing algorithm was developed to analyze automatically the dot blot patterns. Ultimately, the proposed markers and the dot blot platform, coupled with automatic data analyses, have the potential to foster a thorough monitoring of phytopathogenic xanthomonads. PMID:21705524

  19. Automatic de-identification of French clinical records: comparison of rule-based and machine-learning approaches.

    PubMed

    Grouin, Cyril; Zweigenbaum, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a comparison of two approaches to automatically de-identify medical records written in French: a rule-based system and a machine-learning based system using a conditional random fields (CRF) formalism. Both systems have been designed to process nine identifiers in a corpus of medical records in cardiology. We performed two evaluations: first, on 62 documents in cardiology, and on 10 documents in foetopathology - produced by optical character recognition (OCR) - to evaluate the robustness of our systems. We achieved a 0.843 (rule-based) and 0.883 (machine-learning) exact match overall F-measure in cardiology. While the rule-based system allowed us to achieve good results on nominative (first and last names) and numerical data (dates, phone numbers, and zip codes), the machine-learning approach performed best on more complex categories (postal addresses, hospital names, medical devices, and towns). On the foetopathology corpus, although our systems have not been designed for this corpus and despite OCR character recognition errors, we obtained promising results: a 0.681 (rule-based) and 0.638 (machine-learning) exact-match overall F-measure. This demonstrates that existing tools can be applied to process new documents of lower quality.

  20. Automatic Imitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    "Automatic imitation" is a type of stimulus-response compatibility effect in which the topographical features of task-irrelevant action stimuli facilitate similar, and interfere with dissimilar, responses. This article reviews behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging research on automatic imitation, asking in what sense it is "automatic"…

  1. Automatic classification and robust identification of vestibulo-ocular reflex responses: from theory to practice: introducing GNL-HybELS.

    PubMed

    Ghoreyshi, Atiyeh; Galiana, Henrietta

    2011-10-01

    The Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (VOR) stabilizes images of the world on our retinae when our head moves. Basic daily activities are thus impaired if this reflex malfunctions. During the past few decades, scientists have modeled and identified this system mathematically to diagnose and treat VOR deficits. However, traditional methods do not analyze VOR data comprehensively because they disregard the switching nature of nystagmus; this can bias estimates of VOR dynamics. Here we propose, for the first time, an automated tool to analyze entire VOR responses (slow and fast phases), without a priori classification of nystagmus segments. We have developed GNL-HybELS (Generalized NonLinear Hybrid Extended Least Squares), an algorithmic tool to simultaneously classify and identify the responses of a multi-mode nonlinear system with delay, such as the horizontal VOR and its alternating slow and fast phases. This algorithm combines the procedures of Generalized Principle Component Analysis (GPCA) for classification, and Hybrid Extended Least Squares (HybELS) for identification, by minimizing a cost function in an optimization framework. It is validated here on clean and noisy VOR simulations and then applied to clinical VOR tests on controls and patients. Prediction errors were less than 1 deg for simulations and ranged from .69 deg to 2.1 deg for the clinical data. Nonlinearities, asymmetries, and dynamic parameters were detected in normal and patient data, in both fast and slow phases of the response. This objective approach to VOR analysis now allows the design of more complex protocols for the testing of oculomotor and other hybrid systems.

  2. Implementing electronic identification for performance recording in sheep: I. Manual versus semiautomatic and automatic recording systems in dairy and meat farms.

    PubMed

    Ait-Saidi, A; Caja, G; Salama, A A K; Carné, S

    2014-12-01

    With the aim of assessing the secondary benefits of using electronic identification (e-ID) in sheep farms, we compared the use of manual (M), semiautomatic (SA), and automatic (AU) data-collection systems for performance recording (i.e., milk, lambing, and weight) in 3 experiments. Ewes were identified with visual ear tags and electronic rumen boluses. The M system consisted of visual ear tags, on-paper data recording, and manual data uploading to a computer; the use of a personal digital assistant (PDA) for data recording and data uploading was also done in M. The SA system used a handheld reader (HHR) for e-ID, data recording, and uploading. Both PDA and HHR used Bluetooth for uploading. The AU system was only used for body weight recording and consisted of e-ID, data recording in an electronic scale, and data uploading. In experiment 1, M and SA milk-recording systems were compared in a flock of 48 dairy ewes. Ewes were milked once- (×1, n=24) or twice- (×2, n=24) daily in a 2 × 12 milking parlor and processed in groups of 24. Milk yield (1.21 ± 0.04 L/d, on average) was 36% lower in ×1 than ×2 ewes and milk recording time correlated positively with milk yield (R(2)=0.71). Data transfer was markedly faster for PDA and HHR than for M. As a result, overall milk recording time was faster in SA (×1=12.1 ± 0.6 min/24 ewes; ×2=22.1 ± 0.9 min/24 ewes) than M (×1=14.9 ± 0.6 min/24 ewes; ×2=27.9 ± 1.0 min/24 ewes). No differences between PDA and HHR were detected. Time savings, with regard to M, were greater for ×2 than for ×1 (5.6 ± 0.2 vs. 2.8 ± 0.1 min per 24 ewes, respectively), but similar for PDA and HHR. Data transfer errors averaged 3.6% in M, whereas no errors were found in either SA system. In experiment 2, 73 dairy and 80 meat ewes were monitored at lambing using M and SA. Overall time for lambing recording was greater in M than SA in dairy (1.67 ± 0.06 vs. 0.87 ± 0.04 min/ewe) and meat (1.30 ± 0.03 vs. 0.73 ± 0.03 min/ewe) ewes

  3. Implementing electronic identification for performance recording in sheep: I. Manual versus semiautomatic and automatic recording systems in dairy and meat farms.

    PubMed

    Ait-Saidi, A; Caja, G; Salama, A A K; Carné, S

    2014-12-01

    With the aim of assessing the secondary benefits of using electronic identification (e-ID) in sheep farms, we compared the use of manual (M), semiautomatic (SA), and automatic (AU) data-collection systems for performance recording (i.e., milk, lambing, and weight) in 3 experiments. Ewes were identified with visual ear tags and electronic rumen boluses. The M system consisted of visual ear tags, on-paper data recording, and manual data uploading to a computer; the use of a personal digital assistant (PDA) for data recording and data uploading was also done in M. The SA system used a handheld reader (HHR) for e-ID, data recording, and uploading. Both PDA and HHR used Bluetooth for uploading. The AU system was only used for body weight recording and consisted of e-ID, data recording in an electronic scale, and data uploading. In experiment 1, M and SA milk-recording systems were compared in a flock of 48 dairy ewes. Ewes were milked once- (×1, n=24) or twice- (×2, n=24) daily in a 2 × 12 milking parlor and processed in groups of 24. Milk yield (1.21 ± 0.04 L/d, on average) was 36% lower in ×1 than ×2 ewes and milk recording time correlated positively with milk yield (R(2)=0.71). Data transfer was markedly faster for PDA and HHR than for M. As a result, overall milk recording time was faster in SA (×1=12.1 ± 0.6 min/24 ewes; ×2=22.1 ± 0.9 min/24 ewes) than M (×1=14.9 ± 0.6 min/24 ewes; ×2=27.9 ± 1.0 min/24 ewes). No differences between PDA and HHR were detected. Time savings, with regard to M, were greater for ×2 than for ×1 (5.6 ± 0.2 vs. 2.8 ± 0.1 min per 24 ewes, respectively), but similar for PDA and HHR. Data transfer errors averaged 3.6% in M, whereas no errors were found in either SA system. In experiment 2, 73 dairy and 80 meat ewes were monitored at lambing using M and SA. Overall time for lambing recording was greater in M than SA in dairy (1.67 ± 0.06 vs. 0.87 ± 0.04 min/ewe) and meat (1.30 ± 0.03 vs. 0.73 ± 0.03 min/ewe) ewes

  4. 47 CFR 64.1602 - Restrictions on use and sale of telephone subscriber information provided pursuant to automatic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... subscriber information provided pursuant to automatic number identification or charge number services. 64... automatic number identification or charge number services. (a) Any common carrier providing Automatic Number... automatic number identification or charge number service for any purpose other than (i) Performing...

  5. 47 CFR 64.1602 - Restrictions on use and sale of telephone subscriber information provided pursuant to automatic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... subscriber information provided pursuant to automatic number identification or charge number services. 64... automatic number identification or charge number services. (a) Any common carrier providing Automatic Number... automatic number identification or charge number service for any purpose other than (i) Performing...

  6. Automatic vehicle monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bravman, J. S.; Durrani, S. H.

    1976-01-01

    Automatic vehicle monitoring systems are discussed. In a baseline system for highway applications, each vehicle obtains position information through a Loran-C receiver in rural areas and through a 'signpost' or 'proximity' type sensor in urban areas; the vehicle transmits this information to a central station via a communication link. In an advance system, the vehicle carries a receiver for signals emitted by satellites in the Global Positioning System and uses a satellite-aided communication link to the central station. An advanced railroad car monitoring system uses car-mounted labels and sensors for car identification and cargo status; the information is collected by electronic interrogators mounted along the track and transmitted to a central station. It is concluded that automatic vehicle monitoring systems are technically feasible but not economically feasible unless a large market develops.

  7. Automatic Stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haus, FR

    1936-01-01

    This report lays more stress on the principles underlying automatic piloting than on the means of applications. Mechanical details of servomotors and the mechanical release device necessary to assure instantaneous return of the controls to the pilot in case of malfunction are not included. Descriptions are provided of various commercial systems.

  8. AUTOMATIC COUNTER

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, H.P.

    1960-06-01

    An automatic counter of alpha particle tracks recorded by a sensitive emulsion of a photographic plate is described. The counter includes a source of mcdulated dark-field illumination for developing light flashes from the recorded particle tracks as the photographic plate is automatically scanned in narrow strips. Photoelectric means convert the light flashes to proportional current pulses for application to an electronic counting circuit. Photoelectric means are further provided for developing a phase reference signal from the photographic plate in such a manner that signals arising from particle tracks not parallel to the edge of the plate are out of phase with the reference signal. The counting circuit includes provision for rejecting the out-of-phase signals resulting from unoriented tracks as well as signals resulting from spurious marks on the plate such as scratches, dust or grain clumpings, etc. The output of the circuit is hence indicative only of the tracks that would be counted by a human operator.

  9. 21 CFR 892.1900 - Automatic radiographic film processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automatic radiographic film processor. 892.1900... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1900 Automatic radiographic film processor. (a) Identification. An automatic radiographic film processor is a device intended to be used...

  10. 21 CFR 892.1900 - Automatic radiographic film processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Automatic radiographic film processor. 892.1900... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1900 Automatic radiographic film processor. (a) Identification. An automatic radiographic film processor is a device intended to be used...

  11. Automatic identification of the number of food items in a meal using clustering techniques based on the monitoring of swallowing and chewing

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Meyer, Paulo; Schuckers, Stephanie; Makeyev, Oleksandr; Fontana, Juan M.; Sazonov, Edward

    2012-01-01

    The number of distinct foods consumed in a meal is of significant clinical concern in the study of obesity and other eating disorders. This paper proposes the use of information contained in chewing and swallowing sequences for meal segmentation by food types. Data collected from experiments of 17 volunteers were analyzed using two different clustering techniques. First, an unsupervised clustering technique, Affinity Propagation (AP), was used to automatically identify the number of segments within a meal. Second, performance of the unsupervised AP method was compared to a supervised learning approach based on Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering (AHC). While the AP method was able to obtain 90% accuracy in predicting the number of food items, the AHC achieved an accuracy >95%. Experimental results suggest that the proposed models of automatic meal segmentation may be utilized as part of an integral application for objective Monitoring of Ingestive Behavior in free living conditions. PMID:23125872

  12. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkubo, M.

    1988-02-16

    An automatic transmission is described combining a stator reversing type torque converter and speed changer having first and second sun gears comprising: (a) a planetary gear train composed of first and second planetary gears sharing one planetary carrier in common; (b) a clutch and requisite brakes to control the planetary gear train; and (c) a speed-increasing or speed-decreasing mechanism is installed both in between a turbine shaft coupled to a turbine of the stator reversing type torque converter and the first sun gear of the speed changer, and in between a stator shaft coupled to a reversing stator and the second sun gear of the speed changer.

  13. Automatic stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haus, FR

    1936-01-01

    This report concerns the study of automatic stabilizers and extends it to include the control of the three-control system of the airplane instead of just altitude control. Some of the topics discussed include lateral disturbed motion, static stability, the mathematical theory of lateral motion, and large angles of incidence. Various mechanisms and stabilizers are also discussed. The feeding of Diesel engines by injection pumps actuated by engine compression, achieves the required high speeds of injection readily and permits rigorous control of the combustible charge introduced into each cylinder and of the peak pressure in the resultant cycle.

  14. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miki, N.

    1988-10-11

    This patent describes an automatic transmission including a fluid torque converter, a first gear unit having three forward-speed gears and a single reverse gear, a second gear unit having a low-speed gear and a high-speed gear, and a hydraulic control system, the hydraulic control system comprising: a source of pressurized fluid; a first shift valve for controlling the shifting between the first-speed gear and the second-speed gear of the first gear unit; a second shift valve for controlling the shifting between the second-speed gear and the third-speed gear of the first gear unit; a third shift valve equipped with a spool having two positions for controlling the shifting between the low-speed gear and the high-speed gear of the second gear unit; a manual selector valve having a plurality of shift positions for distributing the pressurized fluid supply from the source of pressurized fluid to the first, second and third shift valves respectively; first, second and third solenoid valves corresponding to the first, second and third shift valves, respectively for independently controlling the operation of the respective shift valves, thereby establishing a six forward-speed automatic transmission by combining the low-speed gear and the high-speed gear of the second gear unit with each of the first-speed gear, the second speed gear and the third-speed gear of the first gear unit; and means to fixedly position the spool of the third shift valve at one of the two positions by supplying the pressurized fluid to the third shift valve when the manual selector valve is shifted to a particular shift position, thereby locking the second gear unit in one of low-speed gear and the high-speed gear, whereby the six forward-speed automatic transmission is converted to a three forward-speed automatic transmission when the manual selector valve is shifted to the particular shift position.

  15. RFID: A Revolution in Automatic Data Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2004-01-01

    Radio frequency identification, or RFID, is a generic term for technologies that use radio waves to automatically identify people or objects. There are several methods of identification, but the most common is to store a serial number that identifies a person or object, and perhaps other information, on a microchip that is attached to an antenna…

  16. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, H.

    1989-03-21

    An automatic transmission is described, comprising: a torque converter including an impeller having a connected member, a turbine having an input member and a reactor; and an automatic transmission mechanism having first to third clutches and plural gear units including a single planetary gear unit with a ring gear and a dual planetary gear unit with a ring gear. The single and dual planetary gear units have respective carriers integrally coupled with each other and respective sun gears integrally coupled with each other, the input member of the turbine being coupled with the ring gear of the single planetary gear unit through the first clutch, and being coupled with the sun gear through the second clutch. The connected member of the impeller is coupled with the ring gear of the dual planetary gear of the dual planetary gear unit is made to be and ring gear of the dual planetary gear unit is made to be restrained as required, and the carrier is coupled with an output member.

  17. Automatic identification, localisation and volume estimation of rockfalls occurring in the Dolomieu crater, Piton de la Fournaise volcano, la Réunion Island.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibert, Clément; Mangeney, Anne; Grandjean, Gilles; Baillard, Chrisitian; Crawford, Wayne; Ballu, Valérie; Shapiro, Nikolaï

    2013-04-01

    The permanent seismic network set up on the Piton de la Fournaise volcano by the Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (OVPF) is particularly well suited to studying seismic signals generated by slope instabilities related to volcanic activity. Hundred seismic signals generated by rockfalls that occurred in the Dolomieu crater are studied to assess the links between the processes that trigger the rockfalls, their intrinsic properties and the associated seismic signals. For the study of these processes and the spatio-temporal evolution of the rockfall activity over a long period of time, it is necessary to have automatic methods to process the large amount of data available. We present a method which aims to automatically discriminate seismic signals generated by rockfalls from those recorded by the OVPF seismological network. A kurtosis-based automatic picking method makes it possible to precisely pick the onset time and the final time of the rockfall generated seismic signals, despite their peculiarity. We then established localisation methods based on these precise picking, and a surface wave propagation model computed for each station from a Fast Marching Method. These methods have successfully localized rockfalls which were directly observed. This set of methods makes it possible the study of a database of 12422 rockfalls that occurred during a period going from May 2007 to May 2011, from the Dolomieu crater floor collapse to the end of the UDNERVOLC project. This study reveals that the number and moreover the volume of the rockfalls is an important information to take into account to determine wether an intrusive process will end as a summit eruption or not.

  18. Automatic identification of fault zone head waves and direct P waves and its application in the Parkfield section of the San Andreas Fault, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zefeng; Peng, Zhigang

    2016-06-01

    Fault zone head waves (FZHWs) are observed along major strike-slip faults and can provide high-resolution imaging of fault interface properties at seismogenic depth. In this paper, we present a new method to automatically detect FZHWs and pick direct P waves secondary arrivals (DWSAs). The algorithm identifies FZHWs by computing the amplitude ratios between the potential FZHWs and DSWAs. The polarities, polarizations and characteristic periods of FZHWs and DSWAs are then used to refine the picks or evaluate the pick quality. We apply the method to the Parkfield section of the San Andreas Fault where FZHWs have been identified before by manual picks. We compare results from automatically and manually picked arrivals and find general agreement between them. The obtained velocity contrast at Parkfield is generally 5-10 per cent near Middle Mountain while it decreases below 5 per cent near Gold Hill. We also find many FZHWs recorded by the stations within 1 km of the background seismicity (i.e. the Southwest Fracture Zone) that have not been reported before. These FZHWs could be generated within a relatively wide low velocity zone sandwiched between the fast Salinian block on the southwest side and the slow Franciscan Mélange on the northeast side. Station FROB on the southwest (fast) side also recorded a small portion of weak precursory signals before sharp P waves. However, the polarities of weak signals are consistent with the right-lateral strike-slip mechanisms, suggesting that they are unlikely genuine FZHW signals.

  19. Automatic segmentation and identification of solitary pulmonary nodules on follow-up CT scans based on local intensity structure analysis and non-rigid image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Naito, Hideto; Nakamura, Yoshihiko; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Rueckert, Daniel; Honma, Hirotoshi; Takabatake, Hirotsugu; Mori, Masaki; Natori, Hiroshi; Mori, Kensaku

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a novel method that can automatically segment solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) and match such segmented SPNs on follow-up thoracic CT scans. Due to the clinical importance, a physician needs to find SPNs on chest CT and observe its progress over time in order to diagnose whether it is benign or malignant, or to observe the effect of chemotherapy for malignant ones using follow-up data. However, the enormous amount of CT images makes large burden tasks to a physician. In order to lighten this burden, we developed a method for automatic segmentation and assisting observation of SPNs in follow-up CT scans. The SPNs on input 3D thoracic CT scan are segmented based on local intensity structure analysis and the information of pulmonary blood vessels. To compensate lung deformation, we co-register follow-up CT scans based on an affine and a non-rigid registration. Finally, the matches of detected nodules are found from registered CT scans based on a similarity measurement calculation. We applied these methods to three patients including 14 thoracic CT scans. Our segmentation method detected 96.7% of SPNs from the whole images, and the nodule matching method found 83.3% correspondences from segmented SPNs. The results also show our matching method is robust to the growth of SPN, including integration/separation and appearance/disappearance. These confirmed our method is feasible for segmenting and identifying SPNs on follow-up CT scans.

  20. Automatic analysis of macroarrays images.

    PubMed

    Caridade, C R; Marcal, A S; Mendonca, T; Albuquerque, P; Mendes, M V; Tavares, F

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of dot blot (macroarray) images is currently based on the human identification of positive/negative dots, which is a subjective and time consuming process. This paper presents a system for the automatic analysis of dot blot images, using a pre-defined grid of markers, including a number of ON and OFF controls. The geometric deformations of the input image are corrected, and the individual markers detected, both tasks fully automatically. Based on a previous training stage, the probability for each marker to be ON is established. This information is provided together with quality parameters for training, noise and classification, allowing for a fully automatic evaluation of a dot blot image. PMID:21097139

  1. The First Results of Testing Methods and Algorithms for Automatic Real Time Identification of Waveforms Introduction from Local Earthquakes in Increased Level of Man-induced Noises for the Purposes of Ultra-short-term Warning about an Occurred Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravirov, V. V.; Kislov, K. V.

    2009-12-01

    and to administration by automatic transmission of SMS messages, etc. This recognition technique can also be used to filter the noise, since the noise aggregate characteristic for megacities, since the noise aggregate characteristic for megacities has typical characteristics (traffic, industry-caused vibrations, free oscillations of buildings, and so on). Analysis of the data shows that earthquakes and noise can be dealt with using a finite set of scenarios that characterize a mixture of the data and noise. In this way it becomes possible to develop an automatic system for detection and identification of low-energy earthquake phases in a noise that may even be above the signal level. Comparison of different methods employed for early warning of an occurring earthquake shows that the attainable accuracy of earthquake identification is 97%.

  2. A Comparative Analysis of DBSCAN, K-Means, and Quadratic Variation Algorithms for Automatic Identification of Swallows from Swallowing Accelerometry Signals

    PubMed Central

    Dudik, Joshua M.; Kurosu, Atsuko; Coyle, James L

    2015-01-01

    Background Cervical auscultation with high resolution sensors is currently under consideration as a method of automatically screening for specific swallowing abnormalities. To be clinically useful without human involvement, any devices based on cervical auscultation should be able to detect specified swallowing events in an automatic manner. Methods In this paper, we comparatively analyze the density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise algorithm (DBSCAN), a k-means based algorithm, and an algorithm based on quadratic variation as methods of differentiating periods of swallowing activity from periods of time without swallows. These algorithms utilized swallowing vibration data exclusively and compared the results to a gold standard measure of swallowing duration. Data was collected from 23 subjects that were actively suffering from swallowing difficulties. Results Comparing the performance of the DBSCAN algorithm with a proven segmentation algorithm that utilizes k-means clustering demonstrated that the DBSCAN algorithm had a higher sensitivity and correctly segmented more swallows. Comparing its performance with a threshold-based algorithm that utilized the quadratic variation of the signal showed that the DBSCAN algorithm offered no direct increase in performance. However, it offered several other benefits including a faster run time and more consistent performance between patients. All algorithms showed noticeable differen-tiation from the endpoints provided by a videofluoroscopy examination as well as reduced sensitivity. Conclusions In summary, we showed that the DBSCAN algorithm is a viable method for detecting the occurrence of a swallowing event using cervical auscultation signals, but significant work must be done to improve its performance before it can be implemented in an unsupervised manner. PMID:25658505

  3. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, M.; Inuzuka, T.

    1986-08-26

    1. An automatic transmission with four forward speeds and one reverse position, is described which consists of: an input shaft; an output member; first and second planetary gear sets each having a sun gear, a ring gear and a carrier supporting a pinion in mesh with the sun gear and ring gear; the carrier of the first gear set, the ring gear of the second gear set and the output member all being connected; the ring gear of the first gear set connected to the carrier of the second gear set; a first clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the first gear set, including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a second clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the second gear set a third clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the carrier of the second gear set including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a first drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the ring gear of the first gear set and the carrier of the second gear set in only one direction and, alternatively, in any direction; a second drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the sun gear of the second gear set; and a drum being open to the first planetary gear set, with a cylindrical intermediate wall, an inner peripheral wall and outer peripheral wall and forming the hydraulic servos of the first and third clutch means between the intermediate wall and the inner peripheral wall and between the intermediate wall and the outer peripheral wall respectively.

  4. SU-E-J-182: A Feasibility Study Evaluating Automatic Identification of Gross Tumor Volume for Breast Cancer Radiotherapy Using Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MR Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C; Horton, J; Yin, F; Blitzblau, R; Palta, M; Chang, Z

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop a computerized pharmacokinetic model-free Gross Tumor Volume (GTV) segmentation method based on dynamic contrastenhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) data that can improve physician GTV contouring efficiency. Methods: 12 patients with biopsy-proven early stage breast cancer with post-contrast enhanced DCE-MRI images were analyzed in this study. A fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering-based method was applied to segment 3D GTV from pre-operative DCE-MRI data. A region of interest (ROI) is selected by a clinician/physicist, and the normalized signal evolution curves were calculated by dividing the signal intensity enhancement value at each voxel by the pre-contrast signal intensity value at the corresponding voxel. Three semi-quantitative metrics were analyzed based on normalized signal evolution curves: initial Area Under signal evolution Curve (iAUC), Immediate Enhancement Ratio (IER), and Variance of Enhancement Slope (VES). The FCM algorithm wass applied to partition ROI voxels into GTV voxels and non-GTV voxels by using three analyzed metrics. The partition map for the smaller cluster is then generated and binarized with an automatically calculated threshold. To reduce spurious structures resulting from background, a labeling operation was performed to keep the largest three-dimensional connected component as the identified target. Basic morphological operations including hole-filling and spur removal were useutilized to improve the target smoothness. Each segmented GTV was compared to that drawn by experienced radiation oncologists. An agreement index was proposed to quantify the overlap between the GTVs identified using two approaches and a thershold value of 0.4 is regarded as acceptable. Results: The GTVs identified by the proposed method were overlapped with the ones drawn by radiation oncologists in all cases, and in 10 out of 12 cases, the agreement indices were above the threshold of 0.4. Conclusion: The proposed automatic segmentation method was shown to

  5. Identification of Xanthomonas fragariae, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli, and Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. fuscans with Novel Markers and Using a Dot Blot Platform Coupled with Automatic Data Analysis ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Pedro; Caridade, Cristina M. R.; Marcal, Andre R. S.; Cruz, Joana; Cruz, Leonor; Santos, Catarina L.; Mendes, Marta V.; Tavares, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Phytosanitary regulations and the provision of plant health certificates still rely mainly on long and laborious culture-based methods of diagnosis, which are frequently inconclusive. DNA-based methods of detection can circumvent many of the limitations of currently used screening methods, allowing a fast and accurate monitoring of samples. The genus Xanthomonas includes 13 phytopathogenic quarantine organisms for which improved methods of diagnosis are needed. In this work, we propose 21 new Xanthomonas-specific molecular markers, within loci coding for Xanthomonas-specific protein domains, useful for DNA-based methods of identification of xanthomonads. The specificity of these markers was assessed by a dot blot hybridization array using 23 non-Xanthomonas species, mostly soil dwelling and/or phytopathogens for the same host plants. In addition, the validation of these markers on 15 Xanthomonas spp. suggested species-specific hybridization patterns, which allowed discrimination among the different Xanthomonas species. Having in mind that DNA-based methods of diagnosis are particularly hampered for unsequenced species, namely, Xanthomonas fragariae, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli, and Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. fuscans, for which comparative genomics tools to search for DNA signatures are not yet applicable, emphasis was given to the selection of informative markers able to identify X. fragariae, X. axonopodis pv. phaseoli, and X. fuscans subsp. fuscans strains. In order to avoid inconsistencies due to operator-dependent interpretation of dot blot data, an image-processing algorithm was developed to analyze automatically the dot blot patterns. Ultimately, the proposed markers and the dot blot platform, coupled with automatic data analyses, have the potential to foster a thorough monitoring of phytopathogenic xanthomonads. PMID:21705524

  6. Automatic identification of origins of left and right coronary arteries in CT angiography for coronary arterial tree tracking and plaque detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Chightai, Aamer; Wei, Jun; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Agarwal, Prachi; Kuriakose, Jean W.; Kazerooni, Ella A.

    2013-03-01

    Automatic tracking and segmentation of the coronary arterial tree is the basic step for computer-aided analysis of coronary disease. The goal of this study is to develop an automated method to identify the origins of the left coronary artery (LCA) and right coronary artery (RCA) as the seed points for the tracking of the coronary arterial trees. The heart region and the contrast-filled structures in the heart region are first extracted using morphological operations and EM estimation. To identify the ascending aorta, we developed a new multiscale aorta search method (MAS) method in which the aorta is identified based on a-priori knowledge of its circular shape. Because the shape of the ascending aorta in the cCTA axial view is roughly a circle but its size can vary over a wide range for different patients, multiscale circularshape priors are used to search for the best matching circular object in each CT slice, guided by the Hausdorff distance (HD) as the matching indicator. The location of the aorta is identified by finding the minimum HD in the heart region over the set of multiscale circular priors. An adaptive region growing method is then used to extend the above initially identified aorta down to the aortic valves. The origins at the aortic sinus are finally identified by a morphological gray level top-hat operation applied to the region-grown aorta with morphological structuring element designed for coronary arteries. For the 40 test cases, the aorta was correctly identified in 38 cases (95%). The aorta can be grown to the aortic root in 36 cases, and 36 LCA origins and 34 RCA origins can be identified within 10 mm of the locations marked by radiologists.

  7. 16S rRNA Gene Sequence-Based Identification of Bacteria in Automatically Incubated Blood Culture Materials from Tropical Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Hahn, Andreas; Boahen, Kennedy; Sarpong, Nimako; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Halbgewachs, Eva; Marks, Florian; von Kalckreuth, Vera; Poppert, Sven; Loderstaedt, Ulrike; May, Jürgen; Hagen, Ralf Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Background The quality of microbiological diagnostic procedures depends on pre-analytic conditions. We compared the results of 16S rRNA gene PCR and sequencing from automatically incubated blood culture materials from tropical Ghana with the results of cultural growth after automated incubation. Methods Real-time 16S rRNA gene PCR and subsequent sequencing were applied to 1500 retained blood culture samples of Ghanaian patients admitted to a hospital with an unknown febrile illness after enrichment by automated culture. Results Out of all 1500 samples, 191 were culture-positive and 98 isolates were considered etiologically relevant. Out of the 191 culture-positive samples, 16S rRNA gene PCR and sequencing led to concordant results in 65 cases at species level and an additional 62 cases at genus level. PCR was positive in further 360 out of 1309 culture-negative samples, sequencing results of which suggested etiologically relevant pathogen detections in 62 instances, detections of uncertain relevance in 50 instances, and DNA contamination due to sample preparation in 248 instances. In two instances, PCR failed to detect contaminants from the skin flora that were culturally detectable. Pre-analytical errors caused many Enterobacteriaceae to be missed by culture. Conclusions Potentially correctable pre-analytical conditions and not the fastidious nature of the bacteria caused most of the discrepancies. Although 16S rRNA gene PCR and sequencing in addition to culture led to an increase in detections of presumably etiologically relevant blood culture pathogens, the application of this procedure to samples from the tropics was hampered by a high contamination rate. Careful interpretation of diagnostic results is required. PMID:26270631

  8. Update on hydrocodone metabolites in rats and dogs aided with a semi-automatic software for metabolite identification Mass-MetaSite.

    PubMed

    Li, Austin C; Chovan, James P; Yu, Erya; Zamora, Ismael

    2013-04-01

    1. There has been a lack of in vivo metabolite profiling update of hydrocodone since the original report on species differences was published in 1978. As such, the mechanism for its analgesic activity in different species has been ambiguous. To address safety concern from regulatory agencies, hydrocodone metabolite profiles in rats and dogs are updated herein aided by a newly developed software, Mass-MetaSite. 2. Samples collected from rats and dogs dosed orally with hydrocodone were analyzed with reversed phase liquid chromatography coupled with LTQ-Orbitrap. The exact mass measurement data collected with data-dependent acquisition methodology were analyzed both traditionally, using Xcalibur Qual Browser and MetWorks, and by Mass-MetaSite. 3. Profiling of hydrocodone metabolites in rat and dog plasma reflected previously reported species differences in circulating metabolites. While hydrocodone mainly underwent O-demethylation and ketone reduction in rats forming hydromorphone and reduced hydromorphone, which were then subsequently cleared via glucuronide conjugation, hydrocodone in dogs was cleared predominantly by N-demethylation and N-oxidation. 4. Given the success ratio of metabolite detection offered by Mass-MetaSite, the software will be able to aid chemists in early identification of drug metabolites from complex biomatrices.

  9. Automatic basal slice detection for cardiac analysis.

    PubMed

    Paknezhad, Mahsa; Marchesseau, Stephanie; Brown, Michael S

    2016-07-01

    Identification of the basal slice in cardiac imaging is a key step to measuring the ejection fraction of the left ventricle. Despite all the effort placed on automatic cardiac segmentation, basal slice identification is routinely performed manually. Manual identification, however, suffers from high interobserver variability. As a result, an automatic algorithm for basal slice identification is required. Guidelines published in 2013 identify the basal slice based on the percentage of myocardium surrounding the blood cavity in the short-axis view. Existing methods, however, assume that the basal slice is the first short-axis view slice below the mitral valve and are consequently at times identifying the incorrect short-axis slice. Correct identification of the basal slice under the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance guidelines is challenging due to the poor image quality and blood movement during image acquisition. This paper proposes an automatic tool that utilizes the two-chamber view to determine the basal slice while following the guidelines. To this end, an active shape model is trained to segment the two-chamber view and create temporal binary profiles from which the basal slice is identified. From the 51 tested cases, our method obtains 92% and 84% accurate basal slice detection for the end-systole and the end-diastole, respectively. PMID:27660805

  10. Features and Methods for Automatic Dialect Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas, David Michael

    2010-01-01

    Systematic differences among regional U.S. English speech are recognizable to native speakers to varying degrees. This has been demonstrated by researchers in perceptual dialectology who ask listeners to match a speaker to his or her dialect region. Machines have also been able to identify the regional origin of a speaker to some degree, although…

  11. Automatism and hypoglycaemia.

    PubMed

    Beaumont, Guy

    2007-02-01

    A case of a detained person (DP) suffering from insulin-dependent diabetes, who subsequently used the disorder in his defence as a reason to claim automatism, is discussed. The legal and medical history of automatism is outlined along with the present day situation. Forensic physicians should be aware when examining any diabetic that automatism may subsequently be claimed. With this in mind, the importance of relevant history taking specifically relating to diabetic control and symptoms is discussed.

  12. An anatomy of automatism.

    PubMed

    Mackay, R D

    2015-07-01

    The automatism defence has been described as a quagmire of law and as presenting an intractable problem. Why is this so? This paper will analyse and explore the current legal position on automatism. In so doing, it will identify the problems which the case law has created, including the distinction between sane and insane automatism and the status of the 'external factor doctrine', and comment briefly on recent reform proposals.

  13. An anatomy of automatism.

    PubMed

    Mackay, R D

    2015-07-01

    The automatism defence has been described as a quagmire of law and as presenting an intractable problem. Why is this so? This paper will analyse and explore the current legal position on automatism. In so doing, it will identify the problems which the case law has created, including the distinction between sane and insane automatism and the status of the 'external factor doctrine', and comment briefly on recent reform proposals. PMID:26378105

  14. Automatic crack propagation tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shephard, M. S.; Weidner, T. J.; Yehia, N. A. B.; Burd, G. S.

    1985-01-01

    A finite element based approach to fully automatic crack propagation tracking is presented. The procedure presented combines fully automatic mesh generation with linear fracture mechanics techniques in a geometrically based finite element code capable of automatically tracking cracks in two-dimensional domains. The automatic mesh generator employs the modified-quadtree technique. Crack propagation increment and direction are predicted using a modified maximum dilatational strain energy density criterion employing the numerical results obtained by meshes of quadratic displacement and singular crack tip finite elements. Example problems are included to demonstrate the procedure.

  15. Automatic differentiation bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Corliss, G.F.

    1992-07-01

    This is a bibliography of work related to automatic differentiation. Automatic differentiation is a technique for the fast, accurate propagation of derivative values using the chain rule. It is neither symbolic nor numeric. Automatic differentiation is a fundamental tool for scientific computation, with applications in optimization, nonlinear equations, nonlinear least squares approximation, stiff ordinary differential equation, partial differential equations, continuation methods, and sensitivity analysis. This report is an updated version of the bibliography which originally appeared in Automatic Differentiation of Algorithms: Theory, Implementation, and Application.

  16. Automatic Differentiation Package

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, David M.; Phipps, Eric; Bratlett, Roscoe

    2007-03-01

    Sacado is an automatic differentiation package for C++ codes using operator overloading and C++ templating. Sacado provide forward, reverse, and Taylor polynomial automatic differentiation classes and utilities for incorporating these classes into C++ codes. Users can compute derivatives of computations arising in engineering and scientific applications, including nonlinear equation solving, time integration, sensitivity analysis, stability analysis, optimization and uncertainity quantification.

  17. Automatic Versus Manual Indexing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Meulen, W. A.; Janssen, P. J. F. C.

    1977-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of results in terms of recall and precision from queries submitted to systems with automatic and manual subject indexing. Differences were attributed to query formulation. The effectiveness of automatic indexing was found equivalent to manual indexing. (Author/KP)

  18. Automatic stereoscopic system for person recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murynin, Alexander B.; Matveev, Ivan A.; Kuznetsov, Victor D.

    1999-06-01

    A biometric access control system based on identification of human face is presented. The system developed performs remote measurements of the necessary face features. Two different scenarios of the system behavior are implemented. The first one assumes the verification of personal data entered by visitor from console using keyboard or card reader. The system functions as an automatic checkpoint, that strictly controls access of different visitors. The other scenario makes it possible to identify visitors without any person identifier or pass. Only person biometrics are used to identify the visitor. The recognition system automatically finds necessary identification information preliminary stored in the database. Two laboratory models of recognition system were developed. The models are designed to use different information types and sources. In addition to stereoscopic images inputted to computer from cameras the models can use voice data and some person physical characteristics such as person's height, measured by imaging system.

  19. Automatic basal slice detection for cardiac analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paknezhad, Mahsa; Marchesseau, Stephanie; Brown, Michael S.

    2016-03-01

    Identification of the basal slice in cardiac imaging is a key step to measuring the ejection fraction (EF) of the left ventricle (LV). Despite research on cardiac segmentation, basal slice identification is routinely performed manually. Manual identification, however, has been shown to have high inter-observer variability, with a variation of the EF by up to 8%. Therefore, an automatic way of identifying the basal slice is still required. Prior published methods operate by automatically tracking the mitral valve points from the long-axis view of the LV. These approaches assumed that the basal slice is the first short-axis slice below the mitral valve. However, guidelines published in 2013 by the society for cardiovascular magnetic resonance indicate that the basal slice is the uppermost short-axis slice with more than 50% myocardium surrounding the blood cavity. Consequently, these existing methods are at times identifying the incorrect short-axis slice. Correct identification of the basal slice under these guidelines is challenging due to the poor image quality and blood movement during image acquisition. This paper proposes an automatic tool that focuses on the two-chamber slice to find the basal slice. To this end, an active shape model is trained to automatically segment the two-chamber view for 51 samples using the leave-one-out strategy. The basal slice was detected using temporal binary profiles created for each short-axis slice from the segmented two-chamber slice. From the 51 successfully tested samples, 92% and 84% of detection results were accurate at the end-systolic and the end-diastolic phases of the cardiac cycle, respectively.

  20. Automatic and Flexible

    PubMed Central

    Hassin, Ran R.; Bargh, John A.; Zimerman, Shira

    2008-01-01

    Arguing from the nature of goal pursuit and from the economy of mental resources this paper suggests that automatic goal pursuit, much like its controlled counterpart, may be flexible. Two studies that employ goal priming procedures examine this hypothesis using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (Study 1) and a variation of the Iowa Gambling Task (Study 2). Implications of the results for our understanding of the dichotomy between automatic and controlled processes in general, and for our conception of automatic goal pursuit in particular, are discussed. PMID:19325712

  1. Automatic amino acid analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdahl, B. J.; Carle, G. C.; Oyama, V. I.

    1971-01-01

    Analyzer operates unattended or up to 15 hours. It has an automatic sample injection system and can be programmed. All fluid-flow valve switching is accomplished pneumatically from miniature three-way solenoid pilot valves.

  2. AUTOMATIC MASS SPECTROMETER

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, M.L.; Tabor, C.D. Jr.

    1961-12-01

    A mass spectrometer for analyzing the components of a gas is designed which is capable of continuous automatic operation such as analysis of samples of process gas from a continuous production system where the gas content may be changing. (AEC)

  3. Automatic Payroll Deposit System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    The Automatic Payroll Deposit System in Yakima, Washington's Public School District No. 7, directly transmits each employee's salary amount for each pay period to a bank or other financial institution. (Author/MLF)

  4. Automatic switching matrix

    DOEpatents

    Schlecht, Martin F.; Kassakian, John G.; Caloggero, Anthony J.; Rhodes, Bruce; Otten, David; Rasmussen, Neil

    1982-01-01

    An automatic switching matrix that includes an apertured matrix board containing a matrix of wires that can be interconnected at each aperture. Each aperture has associated therewith a conductive pin which, when fully inserted into the associated aperture, effects electrical connection between the wires within that particular aperture. Means is provided for automatically inserting the pins in a determined pattern and for removing all the pins to permit other interconnecting patterns.

  5. A new approach to automatic radiation spectrum analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Olmos, P.; Diaz, J.C.; Perez, J.M.; Aguayo, P.; Bru, A.; Garcia-Belmonte, G.; de Pablos, J.L. ); Gomez, P.; Rodellar, V. )

    1991-08-01

    In this paper the application of adaptive methods to the solution of the automatic radioisotope identification problem using the energy spectrum is described. The identification is carried out by means of neural networks, which allow the use of relatively reduced computational structures, while keeping high pattern recognition capability. In this context, it has been found that one of these simple structures, once adequately trained, is quite suitable to identify a given isotope present in a mixture of elements as well as the relative proportions of each identified substance. Preliminary results are good enough to consider these adaptive structures as powerful and simple tools in the automatic spectrum analysis.

  6. A new automatic synchronizer

    SciTech Connect

    Malm, C.F.

    1995-12-31

    A phase lock loop automatic synchronizer, PLLS, matches generator speed starting from dead stop to bus frequency, and then locks the phase difference at zero, thereby maintaining zero slip frequency while the generator breaker is being closed to the bus. The significant difference between the PLLS and a conventional automatic synchronizer is that there is no slip frequency difference between generator and bus. The PLL synchronizer is most advantageous when the penstock pressure fluctuates the grid frequency fluctuates, or both. The PLL synchronizer is relatively inexpensive. Hydroplants with multiple units can economically be equipped with a synchronizer for each unit.

  7. WOLF; automatic typing program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evenden, G.I.

    1982-01-01

    A FORTRAN IV program for the Hewlett-Packard 1000 series computer provides for automatic typing operations and can, when employed with manufacturer's text editor, provide a system to greatly facilitate preparation of reports, letters and other text. The input text and imbedded control data can perform nearly all of the functions of a typist. A few of the features available are centering, titles, footnotes, indentation, page numbering (including Roman numerals), automatic paragraphing, and two forms of tab operations. This documentation contains both user and technical description of the program.

  8. AUTOMATIC COUNTING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Howell, W.D.

    1957-08-20

    An apparatus for automatically recording the results of counting operations on trains of electrical pulses is described. The disadvantages of prior devices utilizing the two common methods of obtaining the count rate are overcome by this apparatus; in the case of time controlled operation, the disclosed system automatically records amy information stored by the scaler but not transferred to the printer at the end of the predetermined time controlled operations and, in the case of count controlled operation, provision is made to prevent a weak sample from occupying the apparatus for an excessively long period of time.

  9. Automatic Prosodic Analysis to Identify Mild Dementia.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Moreira, Eduardo; Torres-Boza, Diana; Kairuz, Héctor Arturo; Ferrer, Carlos; Garcia-Zamora, Marlene; Espinoza-Cuadros, Fernando; Hernandez-Gómez, Luis Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an exploratory technique to identify mild dementia by assessing the degree of speech deficits. A total of twenty participants were used for this experiment, ten patients with a diagnosis of mild dementia and ten participants like healthy control. The audio session for each subject was recorded following a methodology developed for the present study. Prosodic features in patients with mild dementia and healthy elderly controls were measured using automatic prosodic analysis on a reading task. A novel method was carried out to gather twelve prosodic features over speech samples. The best classification rate achieved was of 85% accuracy using four prosodic features. The results attained show that the proposed computational speech analysis offers a viable alternative for automatic identification of dementia features in elderly adults. PMID:26558287

  10. Automatic Prosodic Analysis to Identify Mild Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Moreira, Eduardo; Torres-Boza, Diana; Kairuz, Héctor Arturo; Ferrer, Carlos; Garcia-Zamora, Marlene; Espinoza-Cuadros, Fernando; Hernandez-Gómez, Luis Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an exploratory technique to identify mild dementia by assessing the degree of speech deficits. A total of twenty participants were used for this experiment, ten patients with a diagnosis of mild dementia and ten participants like healthy control. The audio session for each subject was recorded following a methodology developed for the present study. Prosodic features in patients with mild dementia and healthy elderly controls were measured using automatic prosodic analysis on a reading task. A novel method was carried out to gather twelve prosodic features over speech samples. The best classification rate achieved was of 85% accuracy using four prosodic features. The results attained show that the proposed computational speech analysis offers a viable alternative for automatic identification of dementia features in elderly adults. PMID:26558287

  11. Automaticity of Conceptual Magnitude

    PubMed Central

    Gliksman, Yarden; Itamar, Shai; Leibovich, Tali; Melman, Yonatan; Henik, Avishai

    2016-01-01

    What is bigger, an elephant or a mouse? This question can be answered without seeing the two animals, since these objects elicit conceptual magnitude. How is an object’s conceptual magnitude processed? It was suggested that conceptual magnitude is automatically processed; namely, irrelevant conceptual magnitude can affect performance when comparing physical magnitudes. The current study further examined this question and aimed to expand the understanding of automaticity of conceptual magnitude. Two different objects were presented and participants were asked to decide which object was larger on the screen (physical magnitude) or in the real world (conceptual magnitude), in separate blocks. By creating congruent (the conceptually larger object was physically larger) and incongruent (the conceptually larger object was physically smaller) pairs of stimuli it was possible to examine the automatic processing of each magnitude. A significant congruity effect was found for both magnitudes. Furthermore, quartile analysis revealed that the congruity was affected similarly by processing time for both magnitudes. These results suggest that the processing of conceptual and physical magnitudes is automatic to the same extent. The results support recent theories suggested that different types of magnitude processing and representation share the same core system. PMID:26879153

  12. Automatic sweep circuit

    DOEpatents

    Keefe, Donald J.

    1980-01-01

    An automatically sweeping circuit for searching for an evoked response in an output signal in time with respect to a trigger input. Digital counters are used to activate a detector at precise intervals, and monitoring is repeated for statistical accuracy. If the response is not found then a different time window is examined until the signal is found.

  13. Automatic Program Synthesis Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biermann, A. W.; And Others

    Some of the major results of future goals of an automatic program synthesis project are described in the two papers that comprise this document. The first paper gives a detailed algorithm for synthesizing a computer program from a trace of its behavior. Since the algorithm involves a search, the length of time required to do the synthesis of…

  14. Brut: Automatic bubble classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaumont, Christopher; Goodman, Alyssa; Williams, Jonathan; Kendrew, Sarah; Simpson, Robert

    2014-07-01

    Brut, written in Python, identifies bubbles in infrared images of the Galactic midplane; it uses a database of known bubbles from the Milky Way Project and Spitzer images to build an automatic bubble classifier. The classifier is based on the Random Forest algorithm, and uses the WiseRF implementation of this algorithm.

  15. Automatic multiple applicator electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunbaum, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    Easy-to-use, economical device permits electrophoresis on all known supporting media. System includes automatic multiple-sample applicator, sample holder, and electrophoresis apparatus. System has potential applicability to fields of taxonomy, immunology, and genetics. Apparatus is also used for electrofocusing.

  16. Automatic finite element generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, P. S.

    1984-01-01

    The design and implementation of a software system for generating finite elements and related computations are described. Exact symbolic computational techniques are employed to derive strain-displacement matrices and element stiffness matrices. Methods for dealing with the excessive growth of symbolic expressions are discussed. Automatic FORTRAN code generation is described with emphasis on improving the efficiency of the resultant code.

  17. Reactor component automatic grapple

    SciTech Connect

    Greenaway, P.R.

    1982-12-07

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment.

  18. Reactor component automatic grapple

    DOEpatents

    Greenaway, Paul R.

    1982-01-01

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment.

  19. Automatic Data Processing Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of the Budget, Washington, DC.

    The technology of the automatic information processing field has progressed dramatically in the past few years and has created a problem in common term usage. As a solution, "Datamation" Magazine offers this glossary which was compiled by the U.S. Bureau of the Budget as an official reference. The terms appear in a single alphabetic sequence,…

  20. AUTOmatic Message PACKing Facility

    2004-07-01

    AUTOPACK is a library that provides several useful features for programs using the Message Passing Interface (MPI). Features included are: 1. automatic message packing facility 2. management of send and receive requests. 3. management of message buffer memory. 4. determination of the number of anticipated messages from a set of arbitrary sends, and 5. deterministic message delivery for testing purposes.

  1. Automatic Dryers--Components and Operations; Appliance Repair--Intermediate: 9025.01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Designed to familiarize the student with the components and operations of automatic gas and electric dryers, this course outlines the principles of drying and how they relate to the automatic dryer. Instruction centers upon the functions and operations of dryer components and the recognition and identification of various component malfunctions,…

  2. Profiling School Shooters: Automatic Text-Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Yair; Assaf, Dan; Cohen, Yochai; Knoll, James L.

    2015-01-01

    School shooters present a challenge to both forensic psychiatry and law enforcement agencies. The relatively small number of school shooters, their various characteristics, and the lack of in-depth analysis of all of the shooters prior to the shooting add complexity to our understanding of this problem. In this short paper, we introduce a new methodology for automatically profiling school shooters. The methodology involves automatic analysis of texts and the production of several measures relevant for the identification of the shooters. Comparing texts written by 6 school shooters to 6056 texts written by a comparison group of male subjects, we found that the shooters’ texts scored significantly higher on the Narcissistic Personality dimension as well as on the Humilated and Revengeful dimensions. Using a ranking/prioritization procedure, similar to the one used for the automatic identification of sexual predators, we provide support for the validity and relevance of the proposed methodology. PMID:26089804

  3. Profiling School Shooters: Automatic Text-Based Analysis.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Yair; Assaf, Dan; Cohen, Yochai; Knoll, James L

    2015-01-01

    School shooters present a challenge to both forensic psychiatry and law enforcement agencies. The relatively small number of school shooters, their various characteristics, and the lack of in-depth analysis of all of the shooters prior to the shooting add complexity to our understanding of this problem. In this short paper, we introduce a new methodology for automatically profiling school shooters. The methodology involves automatic analysis of texts and the production of several measures relevant for the identification of the shooters. Comparing texts written by 6 school shooters to 6056 texts written by a comparison group of male subjects, we found that the shooters' texts scored significantly higher on the Narcissistic Personality dimension as well as on the Humilated and Revengeful dimensions. Using a ranking/prioritization procedure, similar to the one used for the automatic identification of sexual predators, we provide support for the validity and relevance of the proposed methodology. PMID:26089804

  4. Automatic Method of Pause Measurement for Normal and Dysarthric Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Kristin; Murdoch, Bruce; Folker, Joanne; Vogel, Adam; Cahill, Louise; Delatycki, Martin; Corben, Louise

    2010-01-01

    This study proposes an automatic method for the detection of pauses and identification of pause types in conversational speech for the purpose of measuring the effects of Friedreich's Ataxia (FRDA) on speech. Speech samples of [approximately] 3 minutes were recorded from 13 speakers with FRDA and 18 healthy controls. Pauses were measured from the…

  5. Automatic comparison of striation information on firearm bullets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puente Leon, Fernando; Beyerer, Juergen

    1999-08-01

    This paper deals with an important task within forensic science - the automatic comparison of bullets for the purpose of firearm identification. Bullets bear groove- shaped marks that can be though of as a kind of 'fingerprint' of the firearm on their circumferential surface. To accomplish the comparison task, mainly the fine grooves on the bullet surface are of interests.

  6. Fully automatic telemetry data processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, F. B.; Keipert, F. A.; Lee, R. C.

    1968-01-01

    Satellite Telemetry Automatic Reduction System /STARS 2/, a fully automatic computer-controlled telemetry data processor, maximizes data recovery, reduces turnaround time, increases flexibility, and improves operational efficiency. The system incorporates a CDC 3200 computer as its central element.

  7. Automatic cytometric device using multiple wavelength excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rongeat, Nelly; Ledroit, Sylvain; Chauvet, Laurence; Cremien, Didier; Urankar, Alexandra; Couderc, Vincent; Nérin, Philippe

    2011-05-01

    Precise identification of eosinophils, basophils, and specific subpopulations of blood cells (B lymphocytes) in an unconventional automatic hematology analyzer is demonstrated. Our specific apparatus mixes two excitation radiations by means of an acousto-optics tunable filter to properly control fluorescence emission of phycoerythrin cyanin 5 (PC5) conjugated to antibodies (anti-CD20 or anti-CRTH2) and Thiazole Orange. This way our analyzer combining techniques of hematology analysis and flow cytometry based on multiple fluorescence detection, drastically improves the signal to noise ratio and decreases the spectral overlaps impact coming from multiple fluorescence emissions.

  8. Uranium casting furnace automatic temperature control development

    SciTech Connect

    Lind, R.F.

    1992-05-31

    Development of an automatic molten uranium temperature control system for use on batch-type induction casting furnaces is described. Implementation of a two-color optical pyrometer, development of an optical scanner for the pyrometer, determination of furnace thermal dynamics, and design of control systems are addressed. The optical scanning system is shown to greatly improve pyrometer measurement repeatability, particularly where heavy floating slag accumulations cause surface temperature gradients. Thermal dynamics of the furnaces were determined by applying least-squares system identification techniques to actual production data. A unity feedback control system utilizing a proportional-integral-derivative compensator is designed by using frequency-domain techniques. 14 refs.

  9. Automatic repair in active-matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Hongjie; Sheng, King C.; Lam, Joseph K.; Knuth, Tim; Miller, Mike; Addiego, Ginetto

    1994-04-01

    This paper presents an automatic AMLCD repair system utilizing real-time video, image processing and analysis, pattern recognition, and artificial intelligence. The system fundamentally includes automatic optical focus, automatic alignment, defect detection, defect analysis and identification, repair point and path definition, and automatic metal removal and addition (cutting, ablating, and metal deposition). Automatic alignment includes mark alignment as well AMLCD pixel alignment. The features (area, centroid, slope, perimeter, length, width and relative location between objects of interest) are measured for defect analysis. A least cost criterion is employed for defect detection and classification. The choice of repair process is determined by two defect types, either `Open' or `Short'. The repair point and path definition is made from the material structure type such as Data line, Gate line, and ITO area, defect position, and repair rules. The rules are generated from the global and local knowledge. In the automatic repair process, the system automatically performs optical focus, mark and pixel alignment, defect detection and classification, and laser writing or cutting.

  10. Automatism and driving offences.

    PubMed

    Rumbold, John

    2013-10-01

    Automatism is a rarely used defence, but it is particularly used for driving offences because many are strict liability offences. Medical evidence is almost always crucial to argue the defence, and it is important to understand the bars that limit the use of automatism so that the important medical issues can be identified. The issue of prior fault is an important public safeguard to ensure that reasonable precautions are taken to prevent accidents. The total loss of control definition is more problematic, especially with disorders of more gradual onset like hypoglycaemic episodes. In these cases the alternative of 'effective loss of control' would be fairer. This article explores several cases, how the criteria were applied to each, and the types of medical assessment required. PMID:24112330

  11. Automatic transmission control method

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.; Ishiguro, T.

    1989-07-04

    This patent describes a method of controlling an automatic transmission of an automotive vehicle. The transmission has a gear train which includes a brake for establishing a first lowest speed of the transmission, the brake acting directly on a ring gear which meshes with a pinion, the pinion meshing with a sun gear in a planetary gear train, the ring gear connected with an output member, the sun gear being engageable and disengageable with an input member of the transmission by means of a clutch. The method comprises the steps of: detecting that a shift position of the automatic transmission has been shifted to a neutral range; thereafter introducing hydraulic pressure to the brake if present vehicle velocity is below a predetermined value, whereby the brake is engaged to establish the first lowest speed; and exhausting hydraulic pressure from the brake if present vehicle velocity is higher than a predetermined value, whereby the brake is disengaged.

  12. Automatism and driving offences.

    PubMed

    Rumbold, John

    2013-10-01

    Automatism is a rarely used defence, but it is particularly used for driving offences because many are strict liability offences. Medical evidence is almost always crucial to argue the defence, and it is important to understand the bars that limit the use of automatism so that the important medical issues can be identified. The issue of prior fault is an important public safeguard to ensure that reasonable precautions are taken to prevent accidents. The total loss of control definition is more problematic, especially with disorders of more gradual onset like hypoglycaemic episodes. In these cases the alternative of 'effective loss of control' would be fairer. This article explores several cases, how the criteria were applied to each, and the types of medical assessment required.

  13. Automatic Abstraction in Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, abstraction in planning has been accomplished by either state abstraction or operator abstraction, neither of which has been fully automatic. We present a new method, predicate relaxation, for automatically performing state abstraction. PABLO, a nonlinear hierarchical planner, implements predicate relaxation. Theoretical, as well as empirical results are presented which demonstrate the potential advantages of using predicate relaxation in planning. We also present a new definition of hierarchical operators that allows us to guarantee a limited form of completeness. This new definition is shown to be, in some ways, more flexible than previous definitions of hierarchical operators. Finally, a Classical Truth Criterion is presented that is proven to be sound and complete for a planning formalism that is general enough to include most classical planning formalisms that are based on the STRIPS assumption.

  14. Automatic speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espy-Wilson, Carol

    2005-04-01

    Great strides have been made in the development of automatic speech recognition (ASR) technology over the past thirty years. Most of this effort has been centered around the extension and improvement of Hidden Markov Model (HMM) approaches to ASR. Current commercially-available and industry systems based on HMMs can perform well for certain situational tasks that restrict variability such as phone dialing or limited voice commands. However, the holy grail of ASR systems is performance comparable to humans-in other words, the ability to automatically transcribe unrestricted conversational speech spoken by an infinite number of speakers under varying acoustic environments. This goal is far from being reached. Key to the success of ASR is effective modeling of variability in the speech signal. This tutorial will review the basics of ASR and the various ways in which our current knowledge of speech production, speech perception and prosody can be exploited to improve robustness at every level of the system.

  15. Automatic volume calibration system

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, A.J.; Aaron, C.C.

    1985-05-06

    The Automatic Volume Calibration System presently consists of three independent volume-measurement subsystems and can possibly be expanded to five subsystems. When completed, the system will manually or automatically perform the sequence of valve-control and data-acquisition operations required to measure given volumes. An LSI-11 minicomputer controls the vacuum and pressure sources and controls solenoid control valves to open and close various volumes. The input data are obtained from numerous displacement, temperature, and pressure sensors read by the LSI-11. The LSI-11 calculates the unknown volume from the data acquired during the sequence of valve operations. The results, based on the Ideal Gas Law, also provide information for feedback and control. This paper describes the volume calibration system, its subsystems, and the integration of the various instrumentation used in the system's design and development. 11 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Automatic Skin Color Beautification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chih-Wei; Huang, Da-Yuan; Fuh, Chiou-Shann

    In this paper, we propose an automatic skin beautification framework based on color-temperature-insensitive skin-color detection. To polish selected skin region, we apply bilateral filter to smooth the facial flaw. Last, we use Poisson image cloning to integrate the beautified parts into the original input. Experimental results show that the proposed method can be applied in varied light source environment. In addition, this method can naturally beautify the portrait skin.

  17. Automatic payload deployment system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezeshkian, Narek; Nguyen, Hoa G.; Burmeister, Aaron; Holz, Kevin; Hart, Abraham

    2010-04-01

    The ability to precisely emplace stand-alone payloads in hostile territory has long been on the wish list of US warfighters. This type of activity is one of the main functions of special operation forces, often conducted at great danger. Such risk can be mitigated by transitioning the manual placement of payloads over to an automated placement mechanism by the use of the Automatic Payload Deployment System (APDS). Based on the Automatically Deployed Communication Relays (ADCR) system, which provides non-line-of-sight operation for unmanned ground vehicles by automatically dropping radio relays when needed, the APDS takes this concept a step further and allows for the delivery of a mixed variety of payloads. For example, payloads equipped with a camera and gas sensor in addition to a radio repeater, can be deployed in support of rescue operations of trapped miners. Battlefield applications may include delivering food, ammunition, and medical supplies to the warfighter. Covert operations may require the unmanned emplacement of a network of sensors for human-presence detection, before undertaking the mission. The APDS is well suited for these tasks. Demonstrations have been conducted using an iRobot PackBot EOD in delivering a variety of payloads, for which the performance and results will be discussed in this paper.

  18. Research into automatic recognition of joints in human symmetrical movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yifang; Li, Zhiyu

    2008-03-01

    High speed photography is a major means of collecting data from human body movement. It enables the automatic identification of joints, which brings great significance to the research, treatment and recovery of injuries, the analysis to the diagnosis of sport techniques and the ergonomics. According to the features that when the adjacent joints of human body are in planetary motion, their distance remains the same, and according to the human body joint movement laws (such as the territory of the articular anatomy and the kinematic features), a new approach is introduced to process the image thresholding of joints filmed by the high speed camera, to automatically identify the joints and to automatically trace the joint points (by labeling markers at the joints). Based upon the closure of marking points, automatic identification can be achieved through thresholding treatment. Due to the screening frequency and the laws of human segment movement, when the marking points have been initialized, their automatic tracking can be achieved with the progressive sequential images.Then the testing results, the data from three-dimensional force platform and the characteristics that human body segment will only rotate around the closer ending segment when the segment has no boding force and only valid to the conservative force all tell that after being analyzed kinematically, the approach is approved to be valid.

  19. Automatic range selector

    DOEpatents

    McNeilly, Clyde E.

    1977-01-04

    A device is provided for automatically selecting from a plurality of ranges of a scale of values to which a meter may be made responsive, that range which encompasses the value of an unknown parameter. A meter relay indicates whether the unknown is of greater or lesser value than the range to which the meter is then responsive. The rotatable part of a stepping relay is rotated in one direction or the other in response to the indication from the meter relay. Various positions of the rotatable part are associated with particular scales. Switching means are sensitive to the position of the rotatable part to couple the associated range to the meter.

  20. AUTOMATIC FREQUENCY CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, C.F.; Salisbury, J.D.

    1961-01-10

    A control is described for automatically matching the frequency of a resonant cavity to that of a driving oscillator. The driving oscillator is disconnected from the cavity and a secondary oscillator is actuated in which the cavity is the frequency determining element. A low frequency is mixed with the output of the driving oscillator and the resultant lower and upper sidebands are separately derived. The frequencies of the sidebands are compared with the secondary oscillator frequency. deriving a servo control signal to adjust a tuning element in the cavity and matching the cavity frequency to that of the driving oscillator. The driving oscillator may then be connected to the cavity.

  1. Automatic level control circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toole, P. C.; Mccarthy, D. M. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An automatic level control circuit for an operational amplifier for minimizing spikes or instantaneous gain of the amplifier at a low period wherein no signal is received on the input is provided. The apparatus includes a multibranch circuit which is connected between an output terminal and a feedback terminal. A pair of zener diodes are connected back to back in series with a capacitor provided in one of the branches. A pair of voltage dividing resistors are connected in another of the branches and a second capacitor is provided in the remaining branch of controlling the high frequency oscillations of the operational amplifier.

  2. Management of natural resources through automatic cartographic inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rey, P.; Gourinard, Y.; Cambou, F. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Significant results of the ARNICA program from August 1972 - January 1973 have been: (1) establishment of image to object correspondence codes for all types of soil use and forestry in northern Spain; (2) establishment of a transfer procedure between qualitative (remote identification and remote interpretation) and quantitative (numerization, storage, automatic statistical cartography) use of images; (3) organization of microdensitometric data processing and automatic cartography software; and (4) development of a system for measuring reflectance simultaneous with imagery.

  3. Automatic readout micrometer

    DOEpatents

    Lauritzen, T.

    A measuring system is described for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principle use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse of fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

  4. Automatic readout micrometer

    DOEpatents

    Lauritzen, Ted

    1982-01-01

    A measuring system is disclosed for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principal use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse or fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

  5. Automatic temperature control

    SciTech Connect

    Sheridan, J.P.

    1986-07-22

    An automatic temperature control system is described for maintaining a preset temperature in an enclosed space in a building, comprising: heating and cooling means for conditioning the air in the enclosed space to maintain the preset temperature; exterior thermostat means outside the building for sensing ambient exterior temperature levels; interior thermostat means in the enclosed space, preset to the preset temperature to be maintained and connected with the heating and cooling means to energize the means for heating or cooling, as appropriate, when the preset temperature is reached; means defining a heat sink containing a volume of air heated by solar radiation, the volume of the heat sink being such that the temperature level therein is not affected by minor or temporary ambient temperature fluctuations; and heat sink thermostat means in the heat sink sensing the temperature in the heat sink, the heat sink thermostat means being connected in tandem with the exterior thermostat means and operative with the exterior thermostat means to switch the interior thermostat means to either a first readiness state for heating or a second readiness state for cooling, depending upon which mode is indicated by both the exterior and heat sink thermostat means, whereby the system automatically switches between heating and cooling, as required, in response to a comparison of exterior and heat sink temperatures.

  6. Comparison of automatic control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oppelt, W

    1941-01-01

    This report deals with a reciprocal comparison of an automatic pressure control, an automatic rpm control, an automatic temperature control, and an automatic directional control. It shows the difference between the "faultproof" regulator and the actual regulator which is subject to faults, and develops this difference as far as possible in a parallel manner with regard to the control systems under consideration. Such as analysis affords, particularly in its extension to the faults of the actual regulator, a deep insight into the mechanism of the regulator process.

  7. Automatism, medicine and the law.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, P

    1990-01-01

    The law on automatism is undergoing change. For some time there has been a conflict between the medical and the legal views. The medical profession believes that the present division between sane and insane automatism makes little medical sense. Insane automatism is due to an internal factor, that is, a disease of the brain, while sane automatism is due to an external factor, such as a blow on the head or an injection of a drug. This leads to the situation where, for example, the hypoglycaemia resulting from injected insulin would be sane automatism, while hypoglycaemia while results from an islet tumour would be insane automatism. This would not matter if the consequences were the same. However, sane automatism leads to an acquittal, whereas insane automatism leads to committal to a secure mental hospital. This article traces the development of the concept of automatism in the 1950s to the present time, and looks at the anomalies in the law as it now stands. It considers the medical conditions of, and the law relating to, epilepsy, alcohol and drug automatism, hypoglycaemic automatisms, transient global amnesia, and hysterical automatisms. Sleep automatisms, and offences committed during a somnambulistic automatism, are also discussed in detail. The article also examines the need of the Courts to be provided with expert evidence and the role that the qualified medical practitioner should take. It clarifies the various points which medical practitioners should consider when assessing whether a defence of automatism is justified on medical grounds, and in seeking to establish such a defence. The present law is unsatisfactory, as it does not allow any discretion in sentencing on the part of the judge once a verdict of not guilty by virtue of insane automatism has been passed. The judge must sentence the defendant to detention in a secure mental hospital. This would certainly be satisfactory where violent crimes have been committed. However, it is inappropriate in

  8. Automatic routing module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Janice A.

    1987-01-01

    Automatic Routing Module (ARM) is a tool to partially automate Air Launched Cruise Missile (ALCM) routing. For any accessible launch point or target pair, ARM creates flyable routes that, within the fidelity of the models, are optimal in terms of threat avoidance, clobber avoidance, and adherence to vehicle and planning constraints. Although highly algorithmic, ARM is an expert system. Because of the heuristics applied, ARM generated routes closely resemble manually generated routes in routine cases. In more complex cases, ARM's ability to accumulate and assess threat danger in three dimensions and trade that danger off with the probability of ground clobber results in the safest path around or through difficult areas. The tools available prior to ARM did not provide the planner with enough information or present it in such a way that ensured he would select the safest path.

  9. AUTOMATIC HAND COUNTER

    DOEpatents

    Mann J.R.; Wainwright, A.E.

    1963-06-11

    An automatic, personnel-operated, alpha-particle hand monitor is described which functions as a qualitative instrument to indicate to the person using it whether his hands are cold'' or hot.'' The monitor is activated by a push button and includes several capacitor-triggered thyratron tubes. Upon release of the push button, the monitor starts the counting of the radiation present on the hands of the person. If the count of the radiation exceeds a predetermined level within a predetermined time, then a capacitor will trigger a first thyratron tube to light a hot'' lamp. If, however, the count is below such level during this time period, another capacitor will fire a second thyratron to light a safe'' lamp. (AEC)

  10. Automatic thermal switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, L. D.; Cunningham, J. W. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An automatic thermal switch to control heat flow includes a first thermally conductive plate, a second thermally conductive plate and a thermal transfer plate pivotally mounted between the first and second plates. A phase change power unit, including a plunger connected to the transfer plate, is in thermal contact with the first thermally conductive plate. A biasing element, connected to the transfer plate, biases the transfer plate in a predetermined position with respect to the first and second plates. When the phase change power unit is actuated by an increase in heat transmitted through the first plate, the plunger extends and pivots the transfer plate to vary the thermal conduction between the first and second plates through the transfer plate. The biasing element, transfer plate and piston can be arranged to provide either a normally closed or normally open thermally conductive path between the first and second plates.

  11. Automatic Bayesian polarity determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugh, D. J.; White, R. S.; Christie, P. A. F.

    2016-07-01

    The polarity of the first motion of a seismic signal from an earthquake is an important constraint in earthquake source inversion. Microseismic events often have low signal-to-noise ratios, which may lead to difficulties estimating the correct first-motion polarities of the arrivals. This paper describes a probabilistic approach to polarity picking that can be both automated and combined with manual picking. This approach includes a quantitative estimate of the uncertainty of the polarity, improving calculation of the polarity probability density function for source inversion. It is sufficiently fast to be incorporated into an automatic processing workflow. When used in source inversion, the results are consistent with those from manual observations. In some cases, they produce a clearer constraint on the range of high-probability source mechanisms, and are better constrained than source mechanisms determined using a uniform probability of an incorrect polarity pick.

  12. Automatic alkaloid removal system.

    PubMed

    Yahaya, Muhammad Rizuwan; Hj Razali, Mohd Hudzari; Abu Bakar, Che Abdullah; Ismail, Wan Ishak Wan; Muda, Wan Musa Wan; Mat, Nashriyah; Zakaria, Abd

    2014-01-01

    This alkaloid automated removal machine was developed at Instrumentation Laboratory, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin Malaysia that purposely for removing the alkaloid toxicity from Dioscorea hispida (DH) tuber. It is a poisonous plant where scientific study has shown that its tubers contain toxic alkaloid constituents, dioscorine. The tubers can only be consumed after it poisonous is removed. In this experiment, the tubers are needed to blend as powder form before inserting into machine basket. The user is need to push the START button on machine controller for switching the water pump ON by then creating turbulence wave of water in machine tank. The water will stop automatically by triggering the outlet solenoid valve. The powders of tubers are washed for 10 minutes while 1 liter of contaminated water due toxin mixture is flowing out. At this time, the controller will automatically triggered inlet solenoid valve and the new water will flow in machine tank until achieve the desire level that which determined by ultra sonic sensor. This process will repeated for 7 h and the positive result is achieved and shows it significant according to the several parameters of biological character ofpH, temperature, dissolve oxygen, turbidity, conductivity and fish survival rate or time. From that parameter, it also shows the positive result which is near or same with control water and assuming was made that the toxin is fully removed when the pH of DH powder is near with control water. For control water, the pH is about 5.3 while water from this experiment process is 6.0 and before run the machine the pH of contaminated water is about 3.8 which are too acid. This automated machine can save time for removing toxicity from DH compared with a traditional method while less observation of the user. PMID:24783795

  13. Identification of Relevant Phytochemical Constituents for Characterization and Authentication of Tomatoes by General Linear Model Linked to Automatic Interaction Detection (GLM-AID) and Artificial Neural Network Models (ANNs)

    PubMed Central

    Hernández Suárez, Marcos; Astray Dopazo, Gonzalo; Larios López, Dina; Espinosa, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    There are a large number of tomato cultivars with a wide range of morphological, chemical, nutritional and sensorial characteristics. Many factors are known to affect the nutrient content of tomato cultivars. A complete understanding of the effect of these factors would require an exhaustive experimental design, multidisciplinary scientific approach and a suitable statistical method. Some multivariate analytical techniques such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) or Factor Analysis (FA) have been widely applied in order to search for patterns in the behaviour and reduce the dimensionality of a data set by a new set of uncorrelated latent variables. However, in some cases it is not useful to replace the original variables with these latent variables. In this study, Automatic Interaction Detection (AID) algorithm and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models were applied as alternative to the PCA, AF and other multivariate analytical techniques in order to identify the relevant phytochemical constituents for characterization and authentication of tomatoes. To prove the feasibility of AID algorithm and ANN models to achieve the purpose of this study, both methods were applied on a data set with twenty five chemical parameters analysed on 167 tomato samples from Tenerife (Spain). Each tomato sample was defined by three factors: cultivar, agricultural practice and harvest date. General Linear Model linked to AID (GLM-AID) tree-structured was organized into 3 levels according to the number of factors. p-Coumaric acid was the compound the allowed to distinguish the tomato samples according to the day of harvest. More than one chemical parameter was necessary to distinguish among different agricultural practices and among the tomato cultivars. Several ANN models, with 25 and 10 input variables, for the prediction of cultivar, agricultural practice and harvest date, were developed. Finally, the models with 10 input variables were chosen with fit’s goodness between 44 and

  14. Automatic Coal-Mining System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Coal cutting and removal done with minimal hazard to people. Automatic coal mine cutting, transport and roof-support movement all done by automatic machinery. Exposure of people to hazardous conditions reduced to inspection tours, maintenance, repair, and possibly entry mining.

  15. Automatic Indexing of Full Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonak, Zdenek

    1984-01-01

    Demonstrates efficiency of preparation of query description using semantic analyser method based on analysis of semantic structure of documents in field of automatic indexing. Results obtained are compared with automatic indexing results performed by traditional methods and results of indexing done by human indexers. Sample terms and codes are…

  16. Application of automatic differentiation to groundwater transport models

    SciTech Connect

    Bischof, C.H.; Ross, A.A.; Whiffen, G.J.; Shoemaker, C.A.; Carle, A.

    1994-06-01

    Automatic differentiation (AD) is a technique for generating efficient and reliable derivative codes from computer programs with a minimum of human effort. Derivatives of model output with respect to input are obtained exactly. No intrinsic limits to program length or complexity exist for this procedure. Calculation of derivatives of complex numerical models is required in systems optimization, parameter identification, and systems identification. We report on our experiences with the ADIFOR (Automatic Differentiation of Fortran) tool on a two-dimensional groundwater flow and contaminant transport finite-element model, ISOQUAD, and a three-dimensional contaminant transport finite-element model, TLS3D. Derivative values and computational times for the automatic differentiation procedure axe compared with values obtained from the divided differences and handwritten analytic approaches. We found that the derivative codes generated by ADIFOR provided accurate derivatives and ran significantly faster than divided-differences approximations, typically in a tenth of the CPU time required for the imprecise divided-differences method for both codes. We also comment on the impact of automatic differentiation technology with respect to accelerating the transfer of general techniques developed for using water resource computer models, such as optimal design, sensitivity analysis, and inverse modeling problems to field problems.

  17. Automatic Command Sequence Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Forest; Gladded, Roy; Khanampompan, Teerapat

    2007-01-01

    Automatic Sequence Generator (Autogen) Version 3.0 software automatically generates command sequences for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and several other JPL spacecraft operated by the multi-mission support team. Autogen uses standard JPL sequencing tools like APGEN, ASP, SEQGEN, and the DOM database to automate the generation of uplink command products, Spacecraft Command Message Format (SCMF) files, and the corresponding ground command products, DSN Keywords Files (DKF). Autogen supports all the major multi-mission mission phases including the cruise, aerobraking, mapping/science, and relay mission phases. Autogen is a Perl script, which functions within the mission operations UNIX environment. It consists of two parts: a set of model files and the autogen Perl script. Autogen encodes the behaviors of the system into a model and encodes algorithms for context sensitive customizations of the modeled behaviors. The model includes knowledge of different mission phases and how the resultant command products must differ for these phases. The executable software portion of Autogen, automates the setup and use of APGEN for constructing a spacecraft activity sequence file (SASF). The setup includes file retrieval through the DOM (Distributed Object Manager), an object database used to store project files. This step retrieves all the needed input files for generating the command products. Depending on the mission phase, Autogen also uses the ASP (Automated Sequence Processor) and SEQGEN to generate the command product sent to the spacecraft. Autogen also provides the means for customizing sequences through the use of configuration files. By automating the majority of the sequencing generation process, Autogen eliminates many sequence generation errors commonly introduced by manually constructing spacecraft command sequences. Through the layering of commands into the sequence by a series of scheduling algorithms, users are able to rapidly and reliably construct the

  18. 19 CFR 24.5 - Filing identification number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... “00” suffix will be automatically assigned. (e) Retention of importer identification number. An... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing identification number. 24.5 Section 24.5... TREASURY CUSTOMS FINANCIAL AND ACCOUNTING PROCEDURE § 24.5 Filing identification number. (a)...

  19. Electronically controlled automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkubo, M.; Shiba, H.; Nakamura, K.

    1989-03-28

    This patent describes an electronically controlled automatic transmission having a manual valve working in connection with a manual shift lever, shift valves operated by solenoid valves which are driven by an electronic control circuit previously memorizing shift patterns, and a hydraulic circuit controlled by these manual valve and shift valves for driving brakes and a clutch in order to change speed. Shift patterns of 2-range and L-range, in addition to a shift pattern of D-range, are memorized previously in the electronic control circuit, an operation switch is provided which changes the shift pattern of the electronic control circuit to any shift pattern among those of D-range, 2-range and L-range at time of the manual shift lever being in a D-range position, a releasable lock mechanism is provided which prevents the manual shift lever from entering 2-range and L-range positions, and the hydraulic circuit is set to a third speed mode when the manual shift lever is in the D-range position. The circuit is set to a second speed mode when it is in the 2-range position, and the circuit is set to a first speed mode when it is in the L-range position, respectively, in case where the shift valves are not working.

  20. Automatic Welding System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Robotic welding has been of interest to industrial firms because it offers higher productivity at lower cost than manual welding. There are some systems with automated arc guidance available, but they have disadvantages, such as limitations on types of materials or types of seams that can be welded; susceptibility to stray electrical signals; restricted field of view; or tendency to contaminate the weld seam. Wanting to overcome these disadvantages, Marshall Space Flight Center, aided by Hayes International Corporation, developed system that uses closed-circuit TV signals for automatic guidance of the welding torch. NASA granted license to Combined Technologies, Inc. for commercial application of the technology. They developed a refined and improved arc guidance system. CTI in turn, licensed the Merrick Corporation, also of Nashville, for marketing and manufacturing of the new system, called the CT2 Optical Trucker. CT2 is a non-contracting system that offers adaptability to broader range of welding jobs and provides greater reliability in high speed operation. It is extremely accurate and can travel at high speed of up to 150 inches per minute.

  1. Automatic transmission system

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, J.S.

    1989-04-25

    An automatic transmission system is described for use in vehicles, which comprises: a clutch wheel containing a plurality of concentric rings of decreasing diameter, the clutch wheel being attached to an engine of the vehicle; a plurality of clutch gears corresponding in size to the concentric rings, the clutch gears being adapted to selectively and frictionally engage with the concentric rings of the clutch wheel; an accelerator pedal and a gear selector, the accelerator pedals being connected to one end of a substantially U-shaped frame member, the other end of the substantially U-shaped frame member selectively engaging with one end of one of wires received in a pair of apertures of the gear selector; a plurality of drive gear controllers and a reverse gear controller; means operatively connected with the gear selector and the plurality of drive gear controllers and reverse gear controller for selectively engaging one of the drive and reverse gear controllers depending upon the position of the gear selector; and means for individually connecting the drive and reverse gear controllers with the corresponding clutch gears whereby upon the selection of the gear selector, friction engagement is achieved between the clutch gear and the clutch wheels for rotating the wheel in the forward or reverse direction.

  2. An Automatic Editing Algorithm for GPS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blewitt, Geoffrey

    1990-03-01

    An algorithm has been developed to edit automatically Global Positioning System data such that outlier deletion, cycle slip identification and correction are independent of clock instability, selective availability, receiver-satellite kinematics, and tropospheric conditions. This algorithm, called TurboEdit, operates on undifferenced, dual frequency carrier phase data, and requires (1) the use of P code pseudorange data and (2) a smoothly varying ionospheric electron content. The latter requirement can be relaxed if the analysis software incorporates ambiguity resolution techniques to estimate unresolved cycle slip parameters. TurboEdit was tested on the large data set from the CASA Uno experiment, which contained over 2500 cycle slips. Analyst intervention was required on 1% of the station-satellite passes, almost all of these problems being due to difficulties in extrapolating variations in the ionospheric delay. The algorithm is presently being adapted for real time data editing in the Rogue receiver for continuous monitoring applications.

  3. Modeling and Calibration of Automatic Guided Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Kenji; Tanaka, Kosuke; Shin, Seiichi; Kumagai, Kenji; Yoneda, Hisato

    This paper presents a modeling of an automatic guided vehicle (AGV) to achieve a model-based control. The modeling includes 3 kinds of choices; a choice of input-output data pair from 14 candidate pairs, a choice of system identification technique form 5 candidate techniques, a choice of discrete to continuous transform method from 2 candidate methods. In order to obtain reliable plant models of AGV, an approach for calibration between a statistical model and a physical model is also here. In our approach, the models are combined according to the weight of AGV. As a result, our calibration problem is recast as a nonlinear optimization problem that can be solved by quasi-Newton's method.

  4. An automatic editing algorithm for GPS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blewitt, Geoffrey

    1990-01-01

    An algorithm has been developed to edit automatically Global Positioning System data such that outlier deletion, cycle slip identification, and correction are independent of clock instability, selective availability, receiver-satellite kinematics, and tropospheric conditions. This algorithm, called TurboEdit, operates on undifferenced, dual frequency carrier phase data, and requires the use of P code pseudorange data and a smoothly varying ionospheric electron content. TurboEdit was tested on the large data set from the CASA Uno experiment, which contained over 2500 cycle slips.Analyst intervention was required on 1 percent of the station-satellite passes, almost all of these problems being due to difficulties in extrapolating variations in the ionospheric delay. The algorithm is presently being adapted for real time data editing in the Rogue receiver for continuous monitoring applications.

  5. Attaining Automaticity in the Visual Numerosity Task is Not Automatic

    PubMed Central

    Speelman, Craig P.; Muller Townsend, Katrina L.

    2015-01-01

    This experiment is a replication of experiments reported by Lassaline and Logan (1993) using the visual numerosity task. The aim was to replicate the transition from controlled to automatic processing reported by Lassaline and Logan (1993), and to examine the extent to which this result, reported with average group results, can be observed in the results of individuals within a group. The group results in this experiment did replicate those reported by Lassaline and Logan (1993); however, one half of the sample did not attain automaticity with the task, and one-third did not exhibit a transition from controlled to automatic processing. These results raise questions about the pervasiveness of automaticity, and the interpretation of group means when examining cognitive processes. PMID:26635658

  6. Automatic transmission apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Hiketa, M.

    1987-10-06

    An automatic transmission apparatus is described comprising: an input shaft, an output shaft disposed behind and coaxially with the input shaft, a counter shaft disposed substantially parallel to both of the input and output shafts, a first gear train including a first gear provided on the input shaft and a second gear provided on the counter shaft to be meshed with the first gear so as to form a first power transmitting path, first friction clutch means operative selectively to make and break the first power transmitting path, a second gear train including a third gear provided through one-way clutch means on a rear end portion of the input shaft and a fourth gear provided on the counter shaft to be meshed with the third gear so as to form a second power transmitting path, second friction clutch means provided at a front end portion of the output shaft, a third gear train including a fifth gear provided on a rear end portion of the counter shaft and a sixth gear provided on the output shaft to be meshed with the fifth gear so as to form a fourth power transmitting path, third friction clutch means operative selectively to make and break the fourth power transmitting path, fourth friction clutch means operative selectively to make and break the second power transmitting path, a fourth gear train including a seventh gear provided on the counter shaft and an eighth gear provided on the output shaft and fifth friction clutch means operative selectively to make and break the fifth power transmitting path.

  7. Clothes Dryer Automatic Termination Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.

    2014-10-01

    Volume 2: Improved Sensor and Control Designs Many residential clothes dryers on the market today provide automatic cycles that are intended to stop when the clothes are dry, as determined by the final remaining moisture content (RMC). However, testing of automatic termination cycles has shown that many dryers are susceptible to over-drying of loads, leading to excess energy consumption. In particular, tests performed using the DOE Test Procedure in Appendix D2 of 10 CFR 430 subpart B have shown that as much as 62% of the energy used in a cycle may be from over-drying. Volume 1 of this report shows an average of 20% excess energy from over-drying when running automatic cycles with various load compositions and dryer settings. Consequently, improving automatic termination sensors and algorithms has the potential for substantial energy savings in the U.S.

  8. Automatic programming of simulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, Bernard J.; Tseng, Fan T.; Zhang, Shou X.; Dwan, Wen S.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of automatic programming is to improve the overall environment for describing the program. This improved environment is realized by a reduction in the amount of detail that the programmer needs to know and is exposed to. Furthermore, this improved environment is achieved by a specification language that is more natural to the user's problem domain and to the user's way of thinking and looking at the problem. The goal of this research is to apply the concepts of automatic programming (AP) to modeling discrete event simulation system. Specific emphasis is on the design and development of simulation tools to assist the modeler define or construct a model of the system and to then automatically write the corresponding simulation code in the target simulation language, GPSS/PC. A related goal is to evaluate the feasibility of various languages for constructing automatic programming simulation tools.

  9. Design and implementation for satellite remote sensing forest fire-points automatic monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Chunhui; Chen, Huailiang; Yin, Qing

    2009-08-01

    Satellite remote sensing monitoring of forest fire-points is a routine operation of weather service. By taking advantage of remote sensing information's characteristics such as relatively fixed resolution, little geometric distortion and quite stable data quality, the thesis establishes Henan Satellite Remote Sensing Forest Fire-points Automatic Monitoring System in the way of automatic geography registration based on gray correlation and control point database, which can realize automation of the whole process including automatic monitoring,automatic geography registration,automatic fire-points monitoring,automatic production releasing and cell phone short-message notice of fire-points warning information. The system could greatly improve service efficiency. Automatic registration of remote sensing information based on gray correlation and control point database features simpleness and quickness. Through automatic geography registration testing of sunny EOS/MODIS data (at daytime and nightime) during 18 periods from February 2008 to May 2008 in Henan Province with average error of registration is 0.637 pixels at daytime and 0.319 at nighttime, it can fully meet ordinary operation requirements. Fire-point identification and fire-point area estimate method in the system can be applied to monitoring different fires at daytime and at nighttime. Besides, it can automatically screen effective fire-points according to background geographic information, and thus it can improve monitoring accuracy.

  10. Automatic safety rod for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Germer, John H.

    1988-01-01

    An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-core flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

  11. Prospects for de-automatization.

    PubMed

    Kihlstrom, John F

    2011-06-01

    Research by Raz and his associates has repeatedly found that suggestions for hypnotic agnosia, administered to highly hypnotizable subjects, reduce or even eliminate Stroop interference. The present paper sought unsuccessfully to extend these findings to negative priming in the Stroop task. Nevertheless, the reduction of Stroop interference has broad theoretical implications, both for our understanding of automaticity and for the prospect of de-automatizing cognition in meditation and other altered states of consciousness.

  12. Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swihart, Donald E.; Skoog, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    This document represents two views of the Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT). One viewgraph presentation reviews the development and system design of Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT). Two types of ACAT exist: Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance (AGCAS) and Automatic Air Collision Avoidance (AACAS). The AGCAS Uses Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) for mapping functions, and uses Navigation data to place aircraft on map. It then scans DTED in front of and around aircraft and uses future aircraft trajectory (5g) to provide automatic flyup maneuver when required. The AACAS uses data link to determine position and closing rate. It contains several canned maneuvers to avoid collision. Automatic maneuvers can occur at last instant and both aircraft maneuver when using data link. The system can use sensor in place of data link. The second viewgraph presentation reviews the development of a flight test and an evaluation of the test. A review of the operation and comparison of the AGCAS and a pilot's performance are given. The same review is given for the AACAS is given.

  13. Automatic rapid attachable warhead section

    DOEpatents

    Trennel, Anthony J.

    1994-05-10

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for (1) automatically selecting warheads or reentry vehicles from a storage area containing a plurality of types of warheads or reentry vehicles, (2) automatically selecting weapon carriers from a storage area containing at least one type of weapon carrier, (3) manipulating and aligning the selected warheads or reentry vehicles and weapon carriers, and (4) automatically coupling the warheads or reentry vehicles with the weapon carriers such that coupling of improperly selected warheads or reentry vehicles with weapon carriers is inhibited. Such inhibition enhances safety of operations and is achieved by a number of means including computer control of the process of selection and coupling and use of connectorless interfaces capable of assuring that improperly selected items will be rejected or rendered inoperable prior to coupling. Also disclosed are a method and apparatus wherein the stated principles pertaining to selection, coupling and inhibition are extended to apply to any item-to-be-carried and any carrying assembly.

  14. Automatic rapid attachable warhead section

    DOEpatents

    Trennel, A.J.

    1994-05-10

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for automatically selecting warheads or reentry vehicles from a storage area containing a plurality of types of warheads or reentry vehicles, automatically selecting weapon carriers from a storage area containing at least one type of weapon carrier, manipulating and aligning the selected warheads or reentry vehicles and weapon carriers, and automatically coupling the warheads or reentry vehicles with the weapon carriers such that coupling of improperly selected warheads or reentry vehicles with weapon carriers is inhibited. Such inhibition enhances safety of operations and is achieved by a number of means including computer control of the process of selection and coupling and use of connectorless interfaces capable of assuring that improperly selected items will be rejected or rendered inoperable prior to coupling. Also disclosed are a method and apparatus wherein the stated principles pertaining to selection, coupling and inhibition are extended to apply to any item-to-be-carried and any carrying assembly. 10 figures.

  15. Automatic programming of simulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, Bernard J.; Tseng, Fan T.; Zhang, Shou X.; Dwan, Wen S.

    1990-01-01

    The concepts of software engineering were used to improve the simulation modeling environment. Emphasis was placed on the application of an element of rapid prototyping, or automatic programming, to assist the modeler define the problem specification. Then, once the problem specification has been defined, an automatic code generator is used to write the simulation code. The following two domains were selected for evaluating the concepts of software engineering for discrete event simulation: manufacturing domain and a spacecraft countdown network sequence. The specific tasks were to: (1) define the software requirements for a graphical user interface to the Automatic Manufacturing Programming System (AMPS) system; (2) develop a graphical user interface for AMPS; and (3) compare the AMPS graphical interface with the AMPS interactive user interface.

  16. Automatic recognizing of vocal fold disorders from glottis images.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chang-Chiun; Leu, Yi-Shing; Kuo, Chung-Feng Jeffrey; Chu, Wen-Lin; Chu, Yueng-Hsiang; Wu, Han-Cheng

    2014-09-01

    The laryngeal video stroboscope is an important instrument to test glottal diseases and read vocal fold images and voice quality for physician clinical diagnosis. This study is aimed to develop a medical system with functionality of automatic intelligent recognition of dynamic images. The static images of glottis opening to the largest extent and closing to the smallest extent were screened automatically using color space transformation and image preprocessing. The glottal area was also quantized. As the tongue base movements affected the position of laryngoscope and saliva would result in unclear images, this study used the gray scale adaptive entropy value to set the threshold in order to establish an elimination system. The proposed system can improve the effect of automatically captured images of glottis and achieve an accuracy rate of 96%. In addition, the glottal area and area segmentation threshold were calculated effectively. The glottis area segmentation was corrected, and the glottal area waveform pattern was drawn automatically to assist in vocal fold diagnosis. When developing the intelligent recognition system for vocal fold disorders, this study analyzed the characteristic values of four vocal fold patterns, namely, normal vocal fold, vocal fold paralysis, vocal fold polyp, and vocal fold cyst. It also used the support vector machine classifier to identify vocal fold disorders and achieved an identification accuracy rate of 98.75%. The results can serve as a very valuable reference for diagnosis.

  17. Automatic recognizing of vocal fold disorders from glottis images.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chang-Chiun; Leu, Yi-Shing; Kuo, Chung-Feng Jeffrey; Chu, Wen-Lin; Chu, Yueng-Hsiang; Wu, Han-Cheng

    2014-09-01

    The laryngeal video stroboscope is an important instrument to test glottal diseases and read vocal fold images and voice quality for physician clinical diagnosis. This study is aimed to develop a medical system with functionality of automatic intelligent recognition of dynamic images. The static images of glottis opening to the largest extent and closing to the smallest extent were screened automatically using color space transformation and image preprocessing. The glottal area was also quantized. As the tongue base movements affected the position of laryngoscope and saliva would result in unclear images, this study used the gray scale adaptive entropy value to set the threshold in order to establish an elimination system. The proposed system can improve the effect of automatically captured images of glottis and achieve an accuracy rate of 96%. In addition, the glottal area and area segmentation threshold were calculated effectively. The glottis area segmentation was corrected, and the glottal area waveform pattern was drawn automatically to assist in vocal fold diagnosis. When developing the intelligent recognition system for vocal fold disorders, this study analyzed the characteristic values of four vocal fold patterns, namely, normal vocal fold, vocal fold paralysis, vocal fold polyp, and vocal fold cyst. It also used the support vector machine classifier to identify vocal fold disorders and achieved an identification accuracy rate of 98.75%. The results can serve as a very valuable reference for diagnosis. PMID:25313026

  18. Grinding Parts For Automatic Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard K.; Hoult, William S.

    1989-01-01

    Rollers guide grinding tool along prospective welding path. Skatelike fixture holds rotary grinder or file for machining large-diameter rings or ring segments in preparation for welding. Operator grasps handles to push rolling fixture along part. Rollers maintain precise dimensional relationship so grinding wheel cuts precise depth. Fixture-mounted grinder machines surface to quality sufficient for automatic welding; manual welding with attendant variations and distortion not necessary. Developed to enable automatic welding of parts, manual welding of which resulted in weld bead permeated with microscopic fissures.

  19. Automatic interpretation of Schlumberger soundings

    SciTech Connect

    Ushijima, K.

    1980-09-01

    The automatic interpretation of apparent resistivity curves from horizontally layered earth models is carried out by the curve-fitting method in three steps: (1) the observed VES data are interpolated at equidistant points of electrode separations on the logarithmic scale by using the cubic spline function, (2) the layer parameters which are resistivities and depths are predicted from the sampled apparent resistivity values by SALS system program and (3) the theoretical VES curves from the models are calculated by Ghosh's linear filter method using the Zhody's computer program. Two soundings taken over Takenoyu geothermal area were chosen to test the procedures of the automatic interpretation.

  20. Algorithms for skiascopy measurement automatization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomins, Sergejs; Trukša, Renārs; KrūmiĆa, Gunta

    2014-10-01

    Automatic dynamic infrared retinoscope was developed, which allows to run procedure at a much higher rate. Our system uses a USB image sensor with up to 180 Hz refresh rate equipped with a long focus objective and 850 nm infrared light emitting diode as light source. Two servo motors driven by microprocessor control the rotation of semitransparent mirror and motion of retinoscope chassis. Image of eye pupil reflex is captured via software and analyzed along the horizontal plane. Algorithm for automatic accommodative state analysis is developed based on the intensity changes of the fundus reflex.

  1. Traduction automatique et terminologie automatique (Automatic Translation and Automatic Terminology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dansereau, Jules

    1978-01-01

    An exposition of reasons why a system of automatic translation could not use a terminology bank except as a source of information. The fundamental difference between the two tools is explained and examples of translation and mistranslation are given as evidence of the limits and possibilities of each process. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  2. Cernuc: A program for automatic high-resolution radioelemental analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca, V.; Terrasi, F.; Moro, R.; Sorrentino, G.

    1981-04-01

    A computer program capable of qualitative and quantitative radioelemental analysis with high accuracy, a high degree of automatism and great ease in utilization, is presented. It has been produced to be used for Ge(Li) gammay-ray spectroscopy and can be used for X-ray spectroscopy as well. This program provides automatic searching and fitting of peaks, energy and intensity determination, identification and calculation of activities of the radioisotopes present in the sample. The last step is carried out by using a radionuclides library. The problem of a gamma line being assigned to more than one nuclide, is solved by searching the least-squares solution of a set of equations for the activities of the isotopes. Two versions of this program have been written to be run batchwise on a medium sized computer (UNIVAC 1106) and interactively on a small computer (HP 2100A).

  3. Automatic classification of blank substrate defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettiger, Tom; Buck, Peter; Paninjath, Sankaranarayanan; Pereira, Mark; Ronald, Rob; Rost, Dan; Samir, Bhamidipati

    2014-10-01

    Mask preparation stages are crucial in mask manufacturing, since this mask is to later act as a template for considerable number of dies on wafer. Defects on the initial blank substrate, and subsequent cleaned and coated substrates, can have a profound impact on the usability of the finished mask. This emphasizes the need for early and accurate identification of blank substrate defects and the risk they pose to the patterned reticle. While Automatic Defect Classification (ADC) is a well-developed technology for inspection and analysis of defects on patterned wafers and masks in the semiconductors industry, ADC for mask blanks is still in the early stages of adoption and development. Calibre ADC is a powerful analysis tool for fast, accurate, consistent and automatic classification of defects on mask blanks. Accurate, automated classification of mask blanks leads to better usability of blanks by enabling defect avoidance technologies during mask writing. Detailed information on blank defects can help to select appropriate job-decks to be written on the mask by defect avoidance tools [1][4][5]. Smart algorithms separate critical defects from the potentially large number of non-critical defects or false defects detected at various stages during mask blank preparation. Mechanisms used by Calibre ADC to identify and characterize defects include defect location and size, signal polarity (dark, bright) in both transmitted and reflected review images, distinguishing defect signals from background noise in defect images. The Calibre ADC engine then uses a decision tree to translate this information into a defect classification code. Using this automated process improves classification accuracy, repeatability and speed, while avoiding the subjectivity of human judgment compared to the alternative of manual defect classification by trained personnel [2]. This paper focuses on the results from the evaluation of Automatic Defect Classification (ADC) product at MP Mask

  4. Automatic Error Analysis Using Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, E. J.; Cloud, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    A technique for automatic error analysis using interval mathematics is introduced. A comparison to standard error propagation methods shows that in cases involving complicated formulas, the interval approach gives comparable error estimates with much less effort. Several examples are considered, and numerical errors are computed using the INTLAB…

  5. Automatic 35 mm slide duplicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidel, H. F.; Texler, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    Automatic duplicator is readily assembled from conventional, inexpensive equipment and parts. Series of slides can be exposed without operator attention, eliminating considerable manual handling and processing ordinarily required. At end of programmed exposure sequence, unit shuts off and audible alarm signals completion of process.

  6. Bubble vector in automatic merging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pamidi, P. R.; Butler, T. G.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that it is within the capability of the DMAP language to build a set of vectors that can grow incrementally to be applied automatically and economically within a DMAP loop that serves to append sub-matrices that are generated within a loop to a core matrix. The method of constructing such vectors is explained.

  7. Automatically Preparing Safe SQL Queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisht, Prithvi; Sistla, A. Prasad; Venkatakrishnan, V. N.

    We present the first sound program source transformation approach for automatically transforming the code of a legacy web application to employ PREPARE statements in place of unsafe SQL queries. Our approach therefore opens the way for eradicating the SQL injection threat vector from legacy web applications.

  8. Graphonomics, Automaticity and Handwriting Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucha, Oliver; Tucha, Lara; Lange, Klaus W.

    2008-01-01

    A recent review of handwriting research in "Literacy" concluded that current curricula of handwriting education focus too much on writing style and neatness and neglect the aspect of handwriting automaticity. This conclusion is supported by evidence in the field of graphonomic research, where a range of experiments have been used to investigate…

  9. Automatic marker for photographic film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabbard, N. M.; Surrency, W. M.

    1974-01-01

    Commercially-produced wire-marking machine is modified to title or mark film rolls automatically. Machine is used with film drive mechanism which is powered with variable-speed, 28-volt dc motor. Up to 40 frames per minute can be marked, reducing time and cost of process.

  10. 33 CFR 164.46 - Automatic Identification System (AIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... “registered length” as defined in 46 CFR part 69. “Gross tonnage” refers to tonnage as defined under the... broadcast position, course, and speed without the input of an external positioning device (e.g. dGPS);...

  11. 33 CFR 164.46 - Automatic Identification System (AIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... “registered length” as defined in 46 CFR part 69. “Gross tonnage” refers to tonnage as defined under the... broadcast position, course, and speed without the input of an external positioning device (e.g. dGPS);...

  12. 33 CFR 164.46 - Automatic Identification System (AIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... “registered length” as defined in 46 CFR part 69. “Gross tonnage” refers to tonnage as defined under the... broadcast position, course, and speed without the input of an external positioning device (e.g. dGPS);...

  13. Automatic identification of vessel crossovers in retinal images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, L.; Barreira, N.; Penedo, M. G.; Cancela, B.

    2015-02-01

    Crossovers and bifurcations are interest points of the retinal vascular tree useful to diagnose diseases. Specifically, detecting these interest points and identifying which of them are crossings will give us the opportunity to search for arteriovenous nicking, this is, an alteration of the vessel tree where an artery is crossed by a vein and the former compresses the later. These formations are a clear indicative of hypertension, among other medical problems. There are several studies that have attempted to define an accurate and reliable method to detect and classify these relevant points. In this article, we propose a new method to identify crossovers. Our approach is based on segmenting the vascular tree and analyzing the surrounding area of each interest point. The minimal path between vessel points in this area is computed in order to identify the connected vessel segments and, as a result, to distinguish between bifurcations and crossovers. Our method was tested using retinographies from public databases DRIVE and VICAVR, obtaining an accuracy of 90%.

  14. Automatic Identification of Nutritious Contexts for Learning Vocabulary Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostow, Jack; Gates, Donna; Ellison, Ross; Goutam, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is crucial to literacy development and academic success. Previous research has shown learning the meaning of a word requires encountering it in diverse informative contexts. In this work, we try to identify "nutritious" contexts for a word--contexts that help students build a rich mental representation of the word's…

  15. Intelligent system for automatic feature detection and selection or identification

    DOEpatents

    Sun, Chuen-Tsai; Jang, Jyh-Shing; Fu, Chi-Yung

    1997-01-01

    A neural network uses a fuzzy membership function, the parameters of which are adaptive during the training process, to parameterize the interconnection weights between an (n-1)'th layer and an n'th layer of the network. Each j'th node in each k'th layer of the network except the input layer produces its output value y.sub.k,j according to the function ##EQU1## where N.sub.k-1 is the number of nodes in layer k-1, i indexes the nodes of layer k-1 and all the w.sub.k,i,j are interconnection weights. The interconnection weights to all nodes j in the n'th layer are given by w.sub.n,i,j =w.sub.n,j (i, p.sub.n,j,1, . . . , p.sub.n,j,p.sbsb.n). The apparatus is trained by setting values for at least one of the parameters p.sub.n,j,1, . . . , p.sub.n,j,Pn. Preferably the number of parameters P.sub.n is less than the number of nodes N.sub.n-1 in layer n-1. w.sub.n,j (i,p.sub.n,j,1, . . . , p.sub.n,j,Pn) can be convex in i, and it can be bell-shaped. Sample functions for w.sub.n,j (i, p.sub.n,j,1, . . . , p.sub.n,j,Pn) include ##EQU2##

  16. Intelligent system for automatic feature detection and selection or identification

    DOEpatents

    Sun, C.T.; Shiang, P.S.; Jang, J.S.; Fu, C.Y.

    1997-09-02

    A neural network uses a fuzzy membership function, the parameters of which are adaptive during the training process, to parameterize the interconnection weights between an (n{minus}1)`th layer and an n`th layer of the network. Each j`th node in each k`th layer of the network except the input layer produces its output value y{sub k,j} according to the function shown in Equation 1 where N{sub k{minus}1} is the number of nodes in layer k{minus}1, i indexes the nodes of layer k{minus}1 and all the w{sub k,i,j} are interconnection weights. The interconnection weights to all nodes j in the n`th layer are given by w{sub n,i,j}=w{sub n,j} (i, p{sub n,j,1}, . . . , p{sub n,j},p{sub n}). The apparatus is trained by setting values for at least one of the parameters p{sub n,j,1}, . . . , p{sub n,j},Pn. Preferably the number of parameters P{sub n} is less than the number of nodes N{sub n{minus}1} in layer n{minus}1. W{sub n,j} (i,p{sub n,j,1}, . . . , p{sub n,j},Pn) can be convex in i, and it can be bell-shaped. Sample functions for w{sub n,j} (i, p{sub n,j,1}, . . . , p{sub n,j},Pn) include Equation 2, shown in the patent. 8 figs.

  17. Towards automatic identification of mismatched image pairs through loop constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elibol, Armagan; Kim, Jinwhan; Gracias, Nuno; Garcia, Rafael

    2013-12-01

    Obtaining image sequences has become easier and easier thanks to the rapid progress on optical sensors and robotic platforms. Processing of image sequences (e.g., mapping, 3D reconstruction, Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping (SLAM)) usually requires 2D image registration. Recently, image registration is accomplished by detecting salient points in two images and nextmatching their descriptors. To eliminate outliers and to compute a planar transformation (homography) between the coordinate frames of images, robust methods (such as Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC) and Least Median of Squares (LMedS)) are employed. However, image registration pipeline can sometimes provide sufficient number of inliers within the error bounds even when images do not overlap. Such mismatches occur especially when the scene has repetitive texture and shows structural similarity. In this study, we present a method to identify the mismatches using closed-loop (cycle) constraints. The method exploits the fact that images forming a cycle should have identity mapping when all the homographies between images in the cycle multiplied. Cycles appear when the camera revisits an area that was imaged before, which is a common practice especially for mapping purposes. Our proposal extracts several cycles to obtain error statistics for each matched image pair. Then, it searches for image pairs that have extreme error histogram comparing to the other pairs. We present experimental results with artificially added mismatched image pairs on real underwater image sequences.

  18. 33 CFR 164.46 - Automatic Identification System (AIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... “registered length” as defined in 46 CFR part 69. “Gross tonnage” refers to tonnage as defined under the... broadcast position, course, and speed without the input of an external positioning device (e.g. dGPS);...

  19. 33 CFR 164.46 - Automatic Identification System (AIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... “registered length” as defined in 46 CFR part 69. “Gross tonnage” refers to tonnage as defined under the... accessible from the primary conning position of the vessel, and near a 120 Volt, AC power, 3-prong receptacle....

  20. 33 CFR 401.20 - Automatic Identification System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... close to the primary conning position in the navigation bridge and a standard 120 Volt, AC, 3-prong...) shall be located as close as possible to the primary conning position and be visible; (6) Computation...

  1. How automatic are crossmodal correspondences?

    PubMed

    Spence, Charles; Deroy, Ophelia

    2013-03-01

    The last couple of years have seen a rapid growth of interest (especially amongst cognitive psychologists, cognitive neuroscientists, and developmental researchers) in the study of crossmodal correspondences - the tendency for our brains (not to mention the brains of other species) to preferentially associate certain features or dimensions of stimuli across the senses. By now, robust empirical evidence supports the existence of numerous crossmodal correspondences, affecting people's performance across a wide range of psychological tasks - in everything from the redundant target effect paradigm through to studies of the Implicit Association Test, and from speeded discrimination/classification tasks through to unspeeded spatial localisation and temporal order judgment tasks. However, one question that has yet to receive a satisfactory answer is whether crossmodal correspondences automatically affect people's performance (in all, or at least in a subset of tasks), as opposed to reflecting more of a strategic, or top-down, phenomenon. Here, we review the latest research on the topic of crossmodal correspondences to have addressed this issue. We argue that answering the question will require researchers to be more precise in terms of defining what exactly automaticity entails. Furthermore, one's answer to the automaticity question may also hinge on the answer to a second question: Namely, whether crossmodal correspondences are all 'of a kind', or whether instead there may be several different kinds of crossmodal mapping (e.g., statistical, structural, and semantic). Different answers to the automaticity question may then be revealed depending on the type of correspondence under consideration. We make a number of suggestions for future research that might help to determine just how automatic crossmodal correspondences really are. PMID:23370382

  2. Auxiliary circuit enables automatic monitoring of EKG'S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Auxiliary circuits allow direct, automatic monitoring of electrocardiograms by digital computers. One noiseless square-wave output signal for each trigger pulse from an electrocardiogram preamplifier is produced. The circuit also permits automatic processing of cardiovascular data from analog tapes.

  3. Automatisms: bridging clinical neurology with criminal law.

    PubMed

    Rolnick, Joshua; Parvizi, Josef

    2011-03-01

    The law, like neurology, grapples with the relationship between disease states and behavior. Sometimes, the two disciplines share the same terminology, such as automatism. In law, the "automatism defense" is a claim that action was involuntary or performed while unconscious. Someone charged with a serious crime can acknowledge committing the act and yet may go free if, relying on the expert testimony of clinicians, the court determines that the act of crime was committed in a state of automatism. In this review, we explore the relationship between the use of automatism in the legal and clinical literature. We close by addressing several issues raised by the automatism defense: semantic ambiguity surrounding the term automatism, the presence or absence of consciousness during automatisms, and the methodological obstacles that have hindered the study of cognition during automatisms.

  4. Self-Compassion and Automatic Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akin, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine the relationships between self-compassion and automatic thoughts. Participants were 299 university students. In this study, the Self-compassion Scale and the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire were used. The relationships between self-compassion and automatic thoughts were examined using correlation analysis…

  5. OPTICAL correlation identification technology applied in underwater laser imaging target identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Guang-tao; Zhang, Xiao-hui; Ge, Wei-long

    2012-01-01

    The underwater laser imaging detection is an effective method of detecting short distance target underwater as an important complement of sonar detection. With the development of underwater laser imaging technology and underwater vehicle technology, the underwater automatic target identification has gotten more and more attention, and is a research difficulty in the area of underwater optical imaging information processing. Today, underwater automatic target identification based on optical imaging is usually realized with the method of digital circuit software programming. The algorithm realization and control of this method is very flexible. However, the optical imaging information is 2D image even 3D image, the amount of imaging processing information is abundant, so the electronic hardware with pure digital algorithm will need long identification time and is hard to meet the demands of real-time identification. If adopt computer parallel processing, the identification speed can be improved, but it will increase complexity, size and power consumption. This paper attempts to apply optical correlation identification technology to realize underwater automatic target identification. The optics correlation identification technology utilizes the Fourier transform characteristic of Fourier lens which can accomplish Fourier transform of image information in the level of nanosecond, and optical space interconnection calculation has the features of parallel, high speed, large capacity and high resolution, combines the flexibility of calculation and control of digital circuit method to realize optoelectronic hybrid identification mode. We reduce theoretical formulation of correlation identification and analyze the principle of optical correlation identification, and write MATLAB simulation program. We adopt single frame image obtained in underwater range gating laser imaging to identify, and through identifying and locating the different positions of target, we can improve

  6. OPTICAL correlation identification technology applied in underwater laser imaging target identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Guang-Tao; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Ge, Wei-Long

    2011-11-01

    The underwater laser imaging detection is an effective method of detecting short distance target underwater as an important complement of sonar detection. With the development of underwater laser imaging technology and underwater vehicle technology, the underwater automatic target identification has gotten more and more attention, and is a research difficulty in the area of underwater optical imaging information processing. Today, underwater automatic target identification based on optical imaging is usually realized with the method of digital circuit software programming. The algorithm realization and control of this method is very flexible. However, the optical imaging information is 2D image even 3D image, the amount of imaging processing information is abundant, so the electronic hardware with pure digital algorithm will need long identification time and is hard to meet the demands of real-time identification. If adopt computer parallel processing, the identification speed can be improved, but it will increase complexity, size and power consumption. This paper attempts to apply optical correlation identification technology to realize underwater automatic target identification. The optics correlation identification technology utilizes the Fourier transform characteristic of Fourier lens which can accomplish Fourier transform of image information in the level of nanosecond, and optical space interconnection calculation has the features of parallel, high speed, large capacity and high resolution, combines the flexibility of calculation and control of digital circuit method to realize optoelectronic hybrid identification mode. We reduce theoretical formulation of correlation identification and analyze the principle of optical correlation identification, and write MATLAB simulation program. We adopt single frame image obtained in underwater range gating laser imaging to identify, and through identifying and locating the different positions of target, we can improve

  7. SPHOTOM - Package for an Automatic Multicolour Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parimucha, Š.; Vaňko, M.; Mikloš, P.

    2012-04-01

    We present basic information about package SPHOTOM for an automatic multicolour photometry. This package is in development for the creation of a photometric pipe-line, which we plan to use in the near future with our new instruments. It could operate in two independent modes, (i) GUI mode, in which the user can select images and control functions of package through interface and (ii) command line mode, in which all processes are controlled using a main parameter file. SPHOTOM is developed as a universal package for Linux based systems with easy implementation for different observatories. The photometric part of the package is based on the Sextractor code, which allows us to detect all objects on the images and perform their photometry with different apertures. We can also perform astrometric solutions for all images for a correct cross-identification of the stars on the images. The result is a catalogue of all objects with their instrumental photometric measurements which are consequently used for a differential magnitudes calculations with one or more comparison stars, transformations to an international system, and determinations of colour indices.

  8. Automatically Determining Scale Within Unstructured Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadamen, Jayren; Sithole, George

    2016-06-01

    Three dimensional models obtained from imagery have an arbitrary scale and therefore have to be scaled. Automatically scaling these models requires the detection of objects in these models which can be computationally intensive. Real-time object detection may pose problems for applications such as indoor navigation. This investigation poses the idea that relational cues, specifically height ratios, within indoor environments may offer an easier means to obtain scales for models created using imagery. The investigation aimed to show two things, (a) that the size of objects, especially the height off ground is consistent within an environment, and (b) that based on this consistency, objects can be identified and their general size used to scale a model. To test the idea a hypothesis is first tested on a terrestrial lidar scan of an indoor environment. Later as a proof of concept the same test is applied to a model created using imagery. The most notable finding was that the detection of objects can be more readily done by studying the ratio between the dimensions of objects that have their dimensions defined by human physiology. For example the dimensions of desks and chairs are related to the height of an average person. In the test, the difference between generalised and actual dimensions of objects were assessed. A maximum difference of 3.96% (2.93cm) was observed from automated scaling. By analysing the ratio between the heights (distance from the floor) of the tops of objects in a room, identification was also achieved.

  9. Automatic Target Recognizer Database Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, David R.

    1987-09-01

    Data representative of imaging sensors and scenarios which form the inputs for automatic target recognizers (ATRs) is critical to their development, testing and performance evaluation. The Data Base Committee of the Automatic Target Recognizer Working Group provides a forum and produces products to assist collection, distribution and use of data for development of military ATR systems. Examples discussed in the paper include digital image data exchange format specifications. Requirements for ground and image truth data have been the subject of surveys. Such inputs are intended as recommendations for consideration by imagery data collection activities whose products are potentially useful for ATR development. Other topics concerning collection, reduction, use and exchange of imaging sensor data are outlined but not discussed in detail.

  10. Automatically-Programed Machine Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, L.; Clerman, N.

    1985-01-01

    Software produces cutter location files for numerically-controlled machine tools. APT, acronym for Automatically Programed Tools, is among most widely used software systems for computerized machine tools. APT developed for explicit purpose of providing effective software system for programing NC machine tools. APT system includes specification of APT programing language and language processor, which executes APT statements and generates NC machine-tool motions specified by APT statements.

  11. Automatic computation of transfer functions

    SciTech Connect

    Atcitty, Stanley; Watson, Luke Dale

    2015-04-14

    Technologies pertaining to the automatic computation of transfer functions for a physical system are described herein. The physical system is one of an electrical system, a mechanical system, an electromechanical system, an electrochemical system, or an electromagnetic system. A netlist in the form of a matrix comprises data that is indicative of elements in the physical system, values for the elements in the physical system, and structure of the physical system. Transfer functions for the physical system are computed based upon the netlist.

  12. Toward automatic finite element analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kela, Ajay; Perucchio, Renato; Voelcker, Herbert

    1987-01-01

    Two problems must be solved if the finite element method is to become a reliable and affordable blackbox engineering tool. Finite element meshes must be generated automatically from computer aided design databases and mesh analysis must be made self-adaptive. The experimental system described solves both problems in 2-D through spatial and analytical substructuring techniques that are now being extended into 3-D.

  13. Automatic translation among spoken languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Sharon M.; Costigan, Kelly

    1994-02-01

    The Machine Aided Voice Translation (MAVT) system was developed in response to the shortage of experienced military field interrogators with both foreign language proficiency and interrogation skills. Combining speech recognition, machine translation, and speech generation technologies, the MAVT accepts an interrogator's spoken English question and translates it into spoken Spanish. The spoken Spanish response of the potential informant can then be translated into spoken English. Potential military and civilian applications for automatic spoken language translation technology are discussed in this paper.

  14. Automatic translation among spoken languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Sharon M.; Costigan, Kelly

    1994-01-01

    The Machine Aided Voice Translation (MAVT) system was developed in response to the shortage of experienced military field interrogators with both foreign language proficiency and interrogation skills. Combining speech recognition, machine translation, and speech generation technologies, the MAVT accepts an interrogator's spoken English question and translates it into spoken Spanish. The spoken Spanish response of the potential informant can then be translated into spoken English. Potential military and civilian applications for automatic spoken language translation technology are discussed in this paper.

  15. Group Dynamics in Automatic Imitation

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Neil; Reddy, Geetha; Catmur, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Imitation–matching the configural body movements of another individual–plays a crucial part in social interaction. We investigated whether automatic imitation is not only influenced by who we imitate (ingroup vs. outgroup member) but also by the nature of an expected interaction situation (competitive vs. cooperative). In line with assumptions from Social Identity Theory), we predicted that both social group membership and the expected situation impact on the level of automatic imitation. We adopted a 2 (group membership target: ingroup, outgroup) x 2 (situation: cooperative, competitive) design. The dependent variable was the degree to which participants imitated the target in a reaction time automatic imitation task. 99 female students from two British Universities participated. We found a significant two-way interaction on the imitation effect. When interacting in expectation of cooperation, imitation was stronger for an ingroup target compared to an outgroup target. However, this was not the case in the competitive condition where imitation did not differ between ingroup and outgroup target. This demonstrates that the goal structure of an expected interaction will determine the extent to which intergroup relations influence imitation, supporting a social identity approach. PMID:27657926

  16. Automatic Contrail Detection and Segmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, John M.; Christopher, Sundar A.; Welch, Ronald M.

    1998-01-01

    Automatic contrail detection is of major importance in the study of the atmospheric effects of aviation. Due to the large volume of satellite imagery, selecting contrail images for study by hand is impractical and highly subject to human error. It is far better to have a system in place that will automatically evaluate an image to determine 1) whether it contains contrails and 2) where the contrails are located. Preliminary studies indicate that it is possible to automatically detect and locate contrails in Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) imagery with a high degree of confidence. Once contrails have been identified and localized in a satellite image, it is useful to segment the image into contrail versus noncontrail pixels. The ability to partition image pixels makes it possible to determine the optical properties of contrails, including optical thickness and particle size. In this paper, we describe a new technique for segmenting satellite images containing contrails. This method has good potential for creating a contrail climatology in an automated fashion. The majority of contrails are detected, rejecting clutter in the image, even cirrus streaks. Long, thin contrails are most easily detected. However, some contrails may be missed because they are curved, diffused over a large area, or present in short segments. Contrails average 2-3 km in width for the cases studied.

  17. Automatic programming for critical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loganantharaj, Raj L.

    1988-01-01

    The important phases of a software life cycle include verification and maintenance. Usually, the execution performance is an expected requirement in a software development process. Unfortunately, the verification and the maintenance of programs are the time consuming and the frustrating aspects of software engineering. The verification cannot be waived for the programs used for critical applications such as, military, space, and nuclear plants. As a consequence, synthesis of programs from specifications, an alternative way of developing correct programs, is becoming popular. The definition, or what is understood by automatic programming, has been changed with our expectations. At present, the goal of automatic programming is the automation of programming process. Specifically, it means the application of artificial intelligence to software engineering in order to define techniques and create environments that help in the creation of high level programs. The automatic programming process may be divided into two phases: the problem acquisition phase and the program synthesis phase. In the problem acquisition phase, an informal specification of the problem is transformed into an unambiguous specification while in the program synthesis phase such a specification is further transformed into a concrete, executable program.

  18. 47 CFR 74.882 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... automatic transmission in international Morse telegraphy. (1) A period of operation is defined as a single... Station identification. (a) For transmitters used for voice transmissions and having a transmitter output... transmission or intermittent transmissions pertaining to a single event. (b) Each wireless video assist...

  19. 47 CFR 74.882 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... automatic transmission in international Morse telegraphy. (1) A period of operation is defined as a single... Station identification. (a) For transmitters used for voice transmissions and having a transmitter output... transmission or intermittent transmissions pertaining to a single event. (b) Each wireless video assist...

  20. Semi-automated identification of leopard frogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petrovska-Delacrétaz, Dijana; Edwards, Aaron; Chiasson, John; Chollet, Gérard; Pilliod, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Principal component analysis is used to implement a semi-automatic recognition system to identify recaptured northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens). Results of both open set and closed set experiments are given. The presented algorithm is shown to provide accurate identification of 209 individual leopard frogs from a total set of 1386 images.

  1. Technologies on the Horizon for Product Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry Fred, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: Configuration management. Component/system to report. Unique item identifier (UID). Aftemarket undocumented configuration change. Revolutionary new brake system. Traceability of critical parts. Automatic identification used at many levels. Product ID problems that inhibited traceability. Direct part marking enables life cycle tracking.

  2. Automatic Spectral Classification of Galaxies in the Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, S. G.; Guzmán, V.; Dafonte, C.; Kemp, S. N.; Corral, L. J.

    2016-10-01

    Multi-object spectroscopy (MOS) provides us with numerous spectral data, and the projected new facilities and survey missions will increment the available spectra from stars and galaxies. In order to better understand this huge amount of data we need to develop new techniques of analysis and classification. Over the past decades it has been demonstrated that artificial neural networks are excellent tools for automatic spectral classification and identification, being robust tools and highly resistant to the presence of noise. We present here the result of the application of unsupervised neural networks: competitive neural networks (CNN) and self organized maps (SOM), to a sample of 747 galaxy spectra from the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) of Spitzer. We obtained an automatic classification on 17 groups with the CNN, and we compare the results with those obtained with SOMs.The final goal of the project is to develop an automatic spectral classification tool for galaxies in the infrared, making use of artificial neural networks with unsupervised training and analyze the spectral characteristics of the galaxies that can give us clues to the physical processes taking place inside them.

  3. Neural networks: Alternatives to conventional techniques for automatic docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinz, Bradley L.

    1994-01-01

    Automatic docking of orbiting spacecraft is a crucial operation involving the identification of vehicle orientation as well as complex approach dynamics. The chaser spacecraft must be able to recognize the target spacecraft within a scene and achieve accurate closing maneuvers. In a video-based system, a target scene must be captured and transformed into a pattern of pixels. Successful recognition lies in the interpretation of this pattern. Due to their powerful pattern recognition capabilities, artificial neural networks offer a potential role in interpretation and automatic docking processes. Neural networks can reduce the computational time required by existing image processing and control software. In addition, neural networks are capable of recognizing and adapting to changes in their dynamic environment, enabling enhanced performance, redundancy, and fault tolerance. Most neural networks are robust to failure, capable of continued operation with a slight degradation in performance after minor failures. This paper discusses the particular automatic docking tasks neural networks can perform as viable alternatives to conventional techniques.

  4. A Review on Automatic Mammographic Density and Parenchymal Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    He, Wenda; Juette, Arne; Denton, Erika R. E.; Oliver, Arnau; Martí, Robert; Zwiggelaar, Reyer

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. However, the exact cause(s) of breast cancer still remains unknown. Early detection, precise identification of women at risk, and application of appropriate disease prevention measures are by far the most effective way to tackle breast cancer. There are more than 70 common genetic susceptibility factors included in the current non-image-based risk prediction models (e.g., the Gail and the Tyrer-Cuzick models). Image-based risk factors, such as mammographic densities and parenchymal patterns, have been established as biomarkers but have not been fully incorporated in the risk prediction models used for risk stratification in screening and/or measuring responsiveness to preventive approaches. Within computer aided mammography, automatic mammographic tissue segmentation methods have been developed for estimation of breast tissue composition to facilitate mammographic risk assessment. This paper presents a comprehensive review of automatic mammographic tissue segmentation methodologies developed over the past two decades and the evidence for risk assessment/density classification using segmentation. The aim of this review is to analyse how engineering advances have progressed and the impact automatic mammographic tissue segmentation has in a clinical environment, as well as to understand the current research gaps with respect to the incorporation of image-based risk factors in non-image-based risk prediction models. PMID:26171249

  5. The Automaticity of Social Life.

    PubMed

    Bargh, John A; Williams, Erin L

    2006-02-01

    Much of social life is experienced through mental processes that are not intended and about which one is fairly oblivious. These processes are automatically triggered by features of the immediate social environment, such as the group memberships of other people, the qualities of their behavior, and features of social situations (e.g., norms, one's relative power). Recent research has shown these nonconscious influences to extend beyond the perception and interpretation of the social world to the actual guidance, over extended time periods, of one's important goal pursuits and social interactions.

  6. Commutated automatic gain control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    A commutated automatic gain control (AGC) system was designed and built for a prototype Loran C receiver. The receiver uses a microcomputer to control a memory aided phase-locked loop (MAPLL). The microcomputer also controls the input/output, latitude/longitude conversion, and the recently added AGC system. The circuit designed for the AGC is described, and bench and flight test results are presented. The AGC circuit described actually samples starting at a point 40 microseconds after a zero crossing determined by the software lock pulse ultimately generated by a 30 microsecond delay and add network in the receiver front end envelope detector.

  7. The Automaticity of Social Life.

    PubMed

    Bargh, John A; Williams, Erin L

    2006-02-01

    Much of social life is experienced through mental processes that are not intended and about which one is fairly oblivious. These processes are automatically triggered by features of the immediate social environment, such as the group memberships of other people, the qualities of their behavior, and features of social situations (e.g., norms, one's relative power). Recent research has shown these nonconscious influences to extend beyond the perception and interpretation of the social world to the actual guidance, over extended time periods, of one's important goal pursuits and social interactions. PMID:18568084

  8. Automatic Computer Mapping of Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smedes, H. W.

    1971-01-01

    Computer processing of 17 wavelength bands of visible, reflective infrared, and thermal infrared scanner spectrometer data, and of three wavelength bands derived from color aerial film has resulted in successful automatic computer mapping of eight or more terrain classes in a Yellowstone National Park test site. The tests involved: (1) supervised and non-supervised computer programs; (2) special preprocessing of the scanner data to reduce computer processing time and cost, and improve the accuracy; and (3) studies of the effectiveness of the proposed Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) data channels in the automatic mapping of the same terrain, based on simulations, using the same set of scanner data. The following terrain classes have been mapped with greater than 80 percent accuracy in a 12-square-mile area with 1,800 feet of relief; (1) bedrock exposures, (2) vegetated rock rubble, (3) talus, (4) glacial kame meadow, (5) glacial till meadow, (6) forest, (7) bog, and (8) water. In addition, shadows of clouds and cliffs are depicted, but were greatly reduced by using preprocessing techniques.

  9. Capillary-driven automatic packaging.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yuzhe; Hong, Lingfei; Nie, Baoqing; Lam, Kit S; Pan, Tingrui

    2011-04-21

    Packaging continues to be one of the most challenging steps in micro-nanofabrication, as many emerging techniques (e.g., soft lithography) are incompatible with the standard high-precision alignment and bonding equipment. In this paper, we present a simple-to-operate, easy-to-adapt packaging strategy, referred to as Capillary-driven Automatic Packaging (CAP), to achieve automatic packaging process, including the desired features of spontaneous alignment and bonding, wide applicability to various materials, potential scalability, and direct incorporation in the layout. Specifically, self-alignment and self-engagement of the CAP process induced by the interfacial capillary interactions between a liquid capillary bridge and the top and bottom substrates have been experimentally characterized and theoretically analyzed with scalable implications. High-precision alignment (of less than 10 µm) and outstanding bonding performance (up to 300 kPa) has been reliably obtained. In addition, a 3D microfluidic network, aligned and bonded by the CAP technique, has been devised to demonstrate the applicability of this facile yet robust packaging technique for emerging microfluidic and bioengineering applications.

  10. Automatic temperature controlled retinal photocoagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlott, Kerstin; Koinzer, Stefan; Ptaszynski, Lars; Bever, Marco; Baade, Alex; Roider, Johann; Birngruber, Reginald; Brinkmann, Ralf

    2012-06-01

    Laser coagulation is a treatment method for many retinal diseases. Due to variations in fundus pigmentation and light scattering inside the eye globe, different lesion strengths are often achieved. The aim of this work is to realize an automatic feedback algorithm to generate desired lesion strengths by controlling the retinal temperature increase with the irradiation time. Optoacoustics afford non-invasive retinal temperature monitoring during laser treatment. A 75 ns/523 nm Q-switched Nd:YLF laser was used to excite the temperature-dependent pressure amplitudes, which were detected at the cornea by an ultrasonic transducer embedded in a contact lens. A 532 nm continuous wave Nd:YAG laser served for photocoagulation. The ED50 temperatures, for which the probability of ophthalmoscopically visible lesions after one hour in vivo in rabbits was 50%, varied from 63°C for 20 ms to 49°C for 400 ms. Arrhenius parameters were extracted as ΔE=273 J mol-1 and A=3.1044 s-1. Control algorithms for mild and strong lesions were developed, which led to average lesion diameters of 162+/-34 μm and 189+/-34 μm, respectively. It could be demonstrated that the sizes of the automatically controlled lesions were widely independent of the treatment laser power and the retinal pigmentation.

  11. Automatic Inspection In Industry Today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, Richard A.

    1989-02-01

    With increasing competition in the manufacturing industries product quality is becoming even more important. The shortcomings of human inspectors in many applications are well know, however, the eye/brain combination is very powerful and difficult to replace. At best, any system only simulates a small subset of the human's operations. The economic justification for installing automatic inspection is often difficult without previous applications experience. It therefore calls for confidence and long-term vision by those making the decisions. Over the last ten years the use of such systems has increased as the technology involved has matured and the risks have diminished. There is now a complete spectrum of industrial applications from simple, low-cost systems using standard sensors and computer hardware to the higher cost, custom-designed systems using novel sensors and processing hardware. The underlying growth in enabling technology has been in many areas; sensors and sensing techniques, signal processing and data processing have all moved forward rapidly. This paper will examine the currrent state of automatic inspection and look to the future. The use of expert systems is an obvious candidate. Parallel processing, giving massive increases in the speed of data reduction, is also likely to play a major role in future systems.

  12. Automatic Inspection In Industry Today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, Richard A.

    1989-03-01

    With increasing competition in the manufacturing industries product quality is becoming even more important. The shortcomings of human inspectors in many applications are well know, however, the eye/brain combination is very powerful and difficult to replace. At best, any system only simulates a small subset of the human's operations. The economic justification for installing automatic inspection is often difficult without previous applications experience. It therefore calls for confidence and long-term vision by those making the decisions. Over the last ten years the use of such systems has increased as the technology involved has matured and the risks have diminished. There is now a complete spectrum of industrial applications from simple, low-cost systems using standard sensors and computer hardware to the higher cost, custom-designed systems using novel sensors and processing hardware. The underlying growth in enabling technology has been in many areas; sensors and sensing techniques, signal processing and data processing have all moved forward rapidly. This paper will examine the currrent state of automatic inspection and look to the future. The use of expert systems is an obvious candidate. Parallel processing, giving massive increases in the speed of data reduction, is also likely to play a major role in future systems.

  13. Development of an automatic follicle isolation tool for ovarian ultrasonographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarty, Gordon E.; Sonka, Milan; Liang, Weidong; Pierson, Roger A.

    1997-04-01

    PURPOSE: To develop an automatic computer algorithm for isolating the follicles in ovarian ultrasonographic images. METHODS: A semi-automatic algorithm has been developed as the first step in the development of a totally automatic follicle isolation tool for use with ovarian ultrasonographic imaging. The algorithm is knowledge-based and depends upon the use of a priori information about the structure of the follicle. Graph searching techniques are used along with a method of assigning graph node costs that represent edge information combined with the a priori knowledge.Interactive identification of the follicle of interest is followed by, in some cases, a manual editing of an automatically defined interior boundary. After the interior boundary has been defined, the outer follicle wall border is found without further human intervention. RESULTS: Based on a test with 31 ultrasonographic images of women's ovaries made in vivo, the algorithm is able to locate the outer follicle wall to an rms accuracy of 0.59 mm +/- 0.28 mm in comparison with human expert manual boundary tracing. BREAKTHROUGHS: The isolation of ovarian follicles in ultrasonographic imaging has heretofore only been accomplished by manual tracing. Our semi-automated follicle border finding algorithm is, to the best of our knowledge, the first computerized method capable of finding the outer wall boundary of the follicle. CONCLUSIONS: The success of our semi-automatic follicle isolation algorithm clearly demonstrates the feasibility of a totally automatic tool that should have wide application in ultrasonographic studies of ovarian follicular dynamics.

  14. ANPS - AUTOMATIC NETWORK PROGRAMMING SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    Development of some of the space program's large simulation projects -- like the project which involves simulating the countdown sequence prior to spacecraft liftoff -- requires the support of automated tools and techniques. The number of preconditions which must be met for a successful spacecraft launch and the complexity of their interrelationship account for the difficulty of creating an accurate model of the countdown sequence. Researchers developed ANPS for the Nasa Marshall Space Flight Center to assist programmers attempting to model the pre-launch countdown sequence. Incorporating the elements of automatic programming as its foundation, ANPS aids the user in defining the problem and then automatically writes the appropriate simulation program in GPSS/PC code. The program's interactive user dialogue interface creates an internal problem specification file from user responses which includes the time line for the countdown sequence, the attributes for the individual activities which are part of a launch, and the dependent relationships between the activities. The program's automatic simulation code generator receives the file as input and selects appropriate macros from the library of software modules to generate the simulation code in the target language GPSS/PC. The user can recall the problem specification file for modification to effect any desired changes in the source code. ANPS is designed to write simulations for problems concerning the pre-launch activities of space vehicles and the operation of ground support equipment and has potential for use in developing network reliability models for hardware systems and subsystems. ANPS was developed in 1988 for use on IBM PC or compatible machines. The program requires at least 640 KB memory and one 360 KB disk drive, PC DOS Version 2.0 or above, and GPSS/PC System Version 2.0 from Minuteman Software. The program is written in Turbo Prolog Version 2.0. GPSS/PC is a trademark of Minuteman Software. Turbo Prolog

  15. Commutated automatic gain control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, S. R.

    1981-01-01

    A commutated automatic gain control system (AGC) was designed and constructed for the prototype Loran C receiver. The AGC is designed to improve the signal-to-signal ratio of the received Loran signals. The AGC design does not require any analog to digital conversion and it utilizes commonly available components. The AGC consists of: (1) a circuit which samples the peak of the envelope of the Loran signal to obtain an AGC voltage for each of three Loran stations, (2) a dc gain circuit to control the overall gain of the AGC system, and (3) an AGC amplification of the input RF signal. The performance of the AGC system was observed in bench and flight tests; it has improved the overall accuracy of the receiver. Improvements in the accuracy of the time difference calculations to within approx. + or - 1.5 microseconds of the observed time differnces for a given position are reported.

  16. Automatic inspection of leather surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poelzleitner, Wolfgang; Niel, Albert

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes the key elements of a system for detecting quality defects on leather surfaces. The inspection task must treat defects like scars, mite nests, warts, open fissures, healed scars, holes, pin holes, and fat folds. The industrial detection of these defects is difficult because of the large dimensions of the leather hides (2 m X 3 m), and the small dimensions of the defects (150 micrometers X 150 micrometers ). Pattern recognition approaches suffer from the fact that defects are hidden on an irregularly textured background, and can be hardly seen visually by human graders. We describe the methods tested for automatic classification using image processing, which include preprocessing, local feature description of texture elements, and final segmentation and grading of defects. We conclude with a statistical evaluation of the recognition error rate, and an outlook on the expected industrial performance.

  17. Automatic blocking of nested loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiber, Robert; Dongarra, Jack J.

    1990-01-01

    Blocked algorithms have much better properties of data locality and therefore can be much more efficient than ordinary algorithms when a memory hierarchy is involved. On the other hand, they are very difficult to write and to tune for particular machines. The reorganization is considered of nested loops through the use of known program transformations in order to create blocked algorithms automatically. The program transformations used are strip mining, loop interchange, and a variant of loop skewing in which invertible linear transformations (with integer coordinates) of the loop indices are allowed. Some problems are solved concerning the optimal application of these transformations. It is shown, in a very general setting, how to choose a nearly optimal set of transformed indices. It is then shown, in one particular but rather frequently occurring situation, how to choose an optimal set of block sizes.

  18. Automatic tools for system testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peccia, N. M.

    1993-01-01

    As spacecraft control and other space-related ground systems become increasingly complex, the effort required in testing and validation also increases. Implementation of a spacecraft control system normally involves a number of incremental deliveries. In addition kernel or general purpose software may also be involved, which must itself be considered in the integration and testing program. Tools can be used to assist this testing. These can reduce the effort required or alternatively they can ensure that for a given level of effort, a better job is done. Great benefit could be derived by automating certain types of testing (interactive software) which up to now has been performed manually at a terminal. This paper reports on an on-going study. The study examines means of automating spacecraft control system testing, evaluates relevant commercial tools and aims to prototype basic automatic testing functions.

  19. Automatic home medical product recommendation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Gang; Thomas, Selena B; Tang, Chunqiang

    2012-04-01

    Web-based personal health records (PHRs) are being widely deployed. To improve PHR's capability and usability, we proposed the concept of intelligent PHR (iPHR). In this paper, we use automatic home medical product recommendation as a concrete application to demonstrate the benefits of introducing intelligence into PHRs. In this new application domain, we develop several techniques to address the emerging challenges. Our approach uses treatment knowledge and nursing knowledge, and extends the language modeling method to (1) construct a topic-selection input interface for recommending home medical products, (2) produce a global ranking of Web pages retrieved by multiple queries, and (3) provide diverse search results. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our techniques using USMLE medical exam cases. PMID:20703712

  20. Automatic Mechetronic Wheel Light Device

    DOEpatents

    Khan, Mohammed John Fitzgerald

    2004-09-14

    A wheel lighting device for illuminating a wheel of a vehicle to increase safety and enhance aesthetics. The device produces the appearance of a "ring of light" on a vehicle's wheels as the vehicle moves. The "ring of light" can automatically change in color and/or brightness according to a vehicle's speed, acceleration, jerk, selection of transmission gears, and/or engine speed. The device provides auxiliary indicator lights by producing light in conjunction with a vehicle's turn signals, hazard lights, alarm systems, and etc. The device comprises a combination of mechanical and electronic components and can be placed on the outer or inner surface of a wheel or made integral to a wheel or wheel cover. The device can be configured for all vehicle types, and is electrically powered by a vehicle's electrical system and/or battery.

  1. Automatic insulation resistance testing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wyant, Francis J.; Nowlen, Steven P.; Luker, Spencer M.

    2005-06-14

    An apparatus and method for automatic measurement of insulation resistances of a multi-conductor cable. In one embodiment of the invention, the apparatus comprises a power supply source, an input measuring means, an output measuring means, a plurality of input relay controlled contacts, a plurality of output relay controlled contacts, a relay controller and a computer. In another embodiment of the invention the apparatus comprises a power supply source, an input measuring means, an output measuring means, an input switching unit, an output switching unit and a control unit/data logger. Embodiments of the apparatus of the invention may also incorporate cable fire testing means. The apparatus and methods of the present invention use either voltage or current for input and output measured variables.

  2. Autoclass: An automatic classification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutz, John; Cheeseman, Peter; Hanson, Robin

    1991-01-01

    The task of inferring a set of classes and class descriptions most likely to explain a given data set can be placed on a firm theoretical foundation using Bayesian statistics. Within this framework, and using various mathematical and algorithmic approximations, the AutoClass System searches for the most probable classifications, automatically choosing the number of classes and complexity of class descriptions. A simpler version of AutoClass has been applied to many large real data sets, has discovered new independently-verified phenomena, and has been released as a robust software package. Recent extensions allow attributes to be selectively correlated within particular classes, and allow classes to inherit, or share, model parameters through a class hierarchy. The mathematical foundations of AutoClass are summarized.

  3. Automatic electronic fish tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborne, P. W.; Hoffman, E.; Merriner, J. V.; Richards, C. E.; Lovelady, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A newly developed electronic fish tracking system to automatically monitor the movements and migratory habits of fish is reported. The system is aimed particularly at studies of effects on fish life of industrial facilities which use rivers or lakes to dump their effluents. Location of fish is acquired by means of acoustic links from the fish to underwater Listening Stations, and by radio links which relay tracking information to a shore-based Data Base. Fish over 4 inches long may be tracked over a 5 x 5 mile area. The electronic fish tracking system provides the marine scientist with electronics which permit studies that were not practical in the past and which are cost-effective compared to manual methods.

  4. Automatic Synthesis Of Greedy Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhansali, Sanjay; Miriyala, Kanth; Harandi, Mehdi T.

    1989-03-01

    This paper describes a knowledge based approach to automatically generate Lisp programs using the Greedy method of algorithm design. The system's knowledge base is composed of heuristics for recognizing problems amenable to the Greedy method and knowledge about the Greedy strategy itself (i.e., rules for local optimization, constraint satisfaction, candidate ordering and candidate selection). The system has been able to generate programs for a wide variety of problems including the job-scheduling problem, the 0-1 knapsack problem, the minimal spanning tree problem, and the problem of arranging files on tape to minimize access time. For the special class of problems called matroids, the synthesized program provides optimal solutions, whereas for most other problems the solutions are near-optimal.

  5. Automatic toilet seat lowering apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Guerty, Harold G.

    1994-09-06

    A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat. A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat.

  6. Automatic star-horizon angle measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koerber, K.; Koso, D. A.; Nardella, P. C.

    1969-01-01

    Automatic star horizontal angle measuring aid for general navigational use incorporates an Apollo type sextant. The eyepiece of the sextant is replaced with two light detectors and appropriate circuitry. The device automatically determines the angle between a navigational star and a unique point on the earths horizon as seen on a spacecraft.

  7. Automatic Item Generation of Probability Word Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holling, Heinz; Bertling, Jonas P.; Zeuch, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical word problems represent a common item format for assessing student competencies. Automatic item generation (AIG) is an effective way of constructing many items with predictable difficulties, based on a set of predefined task parameters. The current study presents a framework for the automatic generation of probability word problems…

  8. Annual Report: Automatic Informative Abstracting and Extracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earl, L. L.; And Others

    The development of automatic indexing, abstracting, and extracting systems is investigated. Part I describes the development of tools for making syntactic and semantic distinctions of potential use in automatic indexing and extracting. One of these tools is a program for syntactic analysis (i.e., parsing) of English, the other is a dictionary of…

  9. Automatic Contour Tracking in Ultrasound Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Min; Kambhamettu, Chandra; Stone, Maureen

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a new automatic contour tracking system, EdgeTrak, for the ultrasound image sequences of human tongue is presented. The images are produced by a head and transducer support system (HATS). The noise and unrelated high-contrast edges in ultrasound images make it very difficult to automatically detect the correct tongue surfaces. In…

  10. Automatic Grading of Spreadsheet and Database Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacic, Zlatko J.; Green, John Steven

    2012-01-01

    Growing enrollment in distance education has increased student-to-lecturer ratios and, therefore, increased the workload of the lecturer. This growing enrollment has resulted in mounting efforts to develop automatic grading systems in an effort to reduce this workload. While research in the design and development of automatic grading systems has a…

  11. Automatic data editing: a brief introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Liepins, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    This paper briefly discusses the automatic data editing process: (1) check the data records for consistency, (2) analyze the inconsistent records to determine the inconsistent variables. It is stated that the application of automatic data editing is broad, and two specific examples are cited. One example, that of a vehicle maintenance data base is used to illustrate the process.

  12. 6 CFR 7.28 - Automatic declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automatic declassification. 7.28 Section 7.28 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.28 Automatic declassification. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of...

  13. An automatic contact algorithm in DYNA3D for impact problems

    SciTech Connect

    Whirley, R.G.; Engelmann, B.E.

    1993-07-23

    This paper presents a new approach for the automatic definition and treatment of mechanical contact in explicit nonlinear finite element analysis. Automatic contact offers the benefits of significantly reduced model construction time and fewer opportunities for user error, but faces significant challenges in reliability and computational costs. Key aspects of the proposed new method include automatic identification of adjacent and opposite surfaces in the global search phase, and the use of a well-defined surface normal which allows a consistent treatment of shell intersection and corner contact conditions without a ad-hoc rules. The paper concludes with three examples which illustrate the performance of the newly proposed algorithm in the public DYNA3D code.

  14. Image analysis techniques for automatic evaluation of two-dimensional electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Häder, D P; Kauer, G

    1990-05-01

    Techniques for automatic analysis of two-dimensional electrophoresis gels by computer-aided image analysis are described. Original gels or photographic films are scanned using a laser scanner and the files are transferred to a microcomputer. The program package first performs a compression and preevaluation of the files. Spot identification and quantification is performed by the chain code algorithm after appropriate zooming and cutting. Labeling facilitates spot identification and quantification in numerical and graphical (pseudocolor) representation on peripheral devices for camera ready output. Interpolation between measured basepoints is performed by cubic spline algorithms which are automatically switched on and off, depending on the need by the program. High speed analysis and graphic representation is achieved using fast Assembler language routines rather than high level languages. One-dimensional gels can be analyzed using the same software. Spot matching between parallel two-dimensional gels has not yet been implemented.

  15. 47 CFR 64.1602 - Restrictions on use and sale of telephone subscriber information provided pursuant to automatic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... as permitted by paragraphs (a) (1) and (2) of this section, any information derived from the... provided pursuant to such service, and (2) Any information derived from the automatic number identification or charge number service, or from the analysis of the characteristics of a...

  16. 75 FR 2557 - Interim Policy for the Sharing of Information Collected by the Coast Guard Nationwide Automatic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Interim Policy for the Sharing of Information Collected by the Coast Guard Nationwide Automatic Identification System AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of policy and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard has developed an interim policy for the access and sharing of...

  17. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT VII, AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS--ALLISON, TORQUMATIC SERIES 5960 AND 6060 (PART I).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF SPECIFIC MODELS OF AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) GENERAL SPECIFICATION DATA, (2) OPTIONS FOR VARIOUS APPLICATIONS, (3) ROAD TEST INSTRUCTIONS, (4) IDENTIFICATION AND SPECIFICATION DATA, (5) ALLISON…

  18. Automatic spent fuel ID-number reader (II) image-processing technique

    SciTech Connect

    Kubo, K.; Mizuguchi, H.; Miyazawa, T. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on an image-processing technique for automatic spent fuel ID-number reader system. As a result, efficiency and reliability of the reader system is improved. To obtain reliable ID-number identification-capability, there are many items to be considered. Some of the important ones are appropriate lighting, high speed processors and suitable algorithm. After developing the technique on the items, the applicability of the image-processing technique for the reader system is verified. ID-numbers are accurately identified, and the time required for one ID-number reading is obtained in about 2 seconds. The result is one tenth of the conventional visual identification.

  19. Automatic Keyword Identification by Artificial Neural Networks Compared to Manual Identification by Users of Filtering Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boger, Zvi; Kuflik, Tsvi; Shoval, Peretz; Shapira, Bracha

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of information filtering (IF) and information retrieval focuses on the use of an artificial neural network (ANN) as an alternative method for both IF and term selection and compares its effectiveness to that of traditional methods. Results show that the ANN relevance prediction out-performs the prediction of an IF system. (Author/LRW)

  20. Intraoperative multichannel audio-visual information recording and automatic surgical phase and incident detection.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takashi; Sakurai, Yasuo; Yoshimitsu, Kitaro; Nambu, Kyojiro; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Iseki, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Identification, analysis, and treatment of potential risk in surgical workflow are the key to decrease medical errors in operating room. For the automatic analysis of recorded surgical information, this study reports multichannel audio visual recording system, and its review and analysis system. Motion in operating room is quantified using video file size without motion tracking. Conversation among surgical staff is quantified using fast Fourier transformation and frequency filter without speech recognition. The results suggested the progression phase of surgical procedure.

  1. Automatic Weather Station (AWS) Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rall, Jonathan A.R.; Abshire, James B.; Spinhirne, James D.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    An autonomous, low-power atmospheric lidar instrument is being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This compact, portable lidar will operate continuously in a temperature controlled enclosure, charge its own batteries through a combination of a small rugged wind generator and solar panels, and transmit its data from remote locations to ground stations via satellite. A network of these instruments will be established by co-locating them at remote Automatic Weather Station (AWS) sites in Antarctica under the auspices of the National Science Foundation (NSF). The NSF Office of Polar Programs provides support to place the weather stations in remote areas of Antarctica in support of meteorological research and operations. The AWS meteorological data will directly benefit the analysis of the lidar data while a network of ground based atmospheric lidar will provide knowledge regarding the temporal evolution and spatial extent of Type la polar stratospheric clouds (PSC). These clouds play a crucial role in the annual austral springtime destruction of stratospheric ozone over Antarctica, i.e. the ozone hole. In addition, the lidar will monitor and record the general atmospheric conditions (transmission and backscatter) of the overlying atmosphere which will benefit the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). Prototype lidar instruments have been deployed to the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station (1995-96, 2000) and to an Automated Geophysical Observatory site (AGO 1) in January 1999. We report on data acquired with these instruments, instrument performance, and anticipated performance of the AWS Lidar.

  2. Ekofisk automatic GPS subsidence measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Mes, M.J.; Landau, H.; Luttenberger, C.

    1996-10-01

    A fully automatic GPS satellite-based procedure for the reliable measurement of subsidence of several platforms in almost real time is described. Measurements are made continuously on platforms in the North Sea Ekofisk Field area. The procedure also yields rate measurements, which are also essential for confirming platform safety, planning of remedial work, and verification of subsidence models. GPS measurements are more attractive than seabed pressure-gauge-based platform subsidence measurements-they are much cheaper to install and maintain and not subject to gauge drift. GPS measurements were coupled to oceanographic quantities such as the platform deck clearance, which leads to less complex offshore survey procedures. Ekofisk is an oil and gas field in the southern portion of the Norwegian North Sea. Late in 1984, it was noticed that the Ekofisk platform decks were closer to the sea surface than when the platforms were installed-subsidence was the only logical explanation. After the subsidence phenomenon was recognized, an accurate measurement method was needed to measure progression of subsidence and the associated subsidence rate. One available system for which no further development was needed, was the NAVSTAR GPS-measurements started in March 1985.

  3. Automatic segmentation of psoriasis lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Yang; Shi, Chenbo; Wang, Li; Shu, Chang

    2014-10-01

    The automatic segmentation of psoriatic lesions is widely researched these years. It is an important step in Computer-aid methods of calculating PASI for estimation of lesions. Currently those algorithms can only handle single erythema or only deal with scaling segmentation. In practice, scaling and erythema are often mixed together. In order to get the segmentation of lesions area - this paper proposes an algorithm based on Random forests with color and texture features. The algorithm has three steps. The first step, the polarized light is applied based on the skin's Tyndall-effect in the imaging to eliminate the reflection and Lab color space are used for fitting the human perception. The second step, sliding window and its sub windows are used to get textural feature and color feature. In this step, a feature of image roughness has been defined, so that scaling can be easily separated from normal skin. In the end, Random forests will be used to ensure the generalization ability of the algorithm. This algorithm can give reliable segmentation results even the image has different lighting conditions, skin types. In the data set offered by Union Hospital, more than 90% images can be segmented accurately.

  4. Actuator for automatic cruising system

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, K.

    1989-03-07

    An actuator for an automatic cruising system is described, comprising: a casing; a control shaft provided in the casing for rotational movement; a control motor for driving the control shaft; an input shaft; an electromagnetic clutch and a reduction gear which are provided between the control motor and the control shaft; and an external linkage mechanism operatively connected to the control shaft; wherein the reduction gear is a type of Ferguson's mechanical paradox gear having a pinion mounted on the input shaft always connected to the control motor; a planetary gear meshing with the pinion so as to revolve around the pinion; a static internal gear meshing with the planetary gear and connected with the electromagnetic clutch for movement to a position restricting rotation of the static internal gear; and a rotary internal gear fixed on the control shaft and meshed with the planetary gear, the rotary internal gear having a number of teeth slightly different from a number of teeth of the static internal gear; and the electromagnetic clutch has a tubular electromagnetic coil coaxially provided around the input shaft and an engaging means for engaging and disengaging with the static internal gear in accordance with on-off operation of the electromagnetic coil.

  5. Automatic locking orthotic knee device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce C. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An articulated tang in clevis joint for incorporation in newly manufactured conventional strap-on orthotic knee devices or for replacing such joints in conventional strap-on orthotic knee devices is discussed. The instant tang in clevis joint allows the user the freedom to extend and bend the knee normally when no load (weight) is applied to the knee and to automatically lock the knee when the user transfers weight to the knee, thus preventing a damaged knee from bending uncontrollably when weight is applied to the knee. The tang in clevis joint of the present invention includes first and second clevis plates, a tang assembly and a spacer plate secured between the clevis plates. Each clevis plate includes a bevelled serrated upper section. A bevelled shoe is secured to the tank in close proximity to the bevelled serrated upper section of the clevis plates. A coiled spring mounted within an oblong bore of the tang normally urges the shoes secured to the tang out of engagement with the serrated upper section of each clevic plate to allow rotation of the tang relative to the clevis plate. When weight is applied to the joint, the load compresses the coiled spring, the serrations on each clevis plate dig into the bevelled shoes secured to the tang to prevent relative movement between the tang and clevis plates. A shoulder is provided on the tang and the spacer plate to prevent overextension of the joint.

  6. Automatic restart of complex irrigation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, H.D.; Alcock, R.; DeBoer, D.W.; Olson, D.I. . Dept. of Agricultural Engineering)

    1992-05-01

    Automatic restart of irrigation systems under load management has the potential to maximize pumping time during off-peak hours. Existing automation technology ranges from time delay relays to more sophisticated control using computers together with weather data to optimize irrigation practices. Centrifugal pumps and water hammer concerns prevent automatic restart of common but often complex irrigation systems in South Dakota. The irrigator must manually prime the pump and control water hammer during pipeline pressurization. Methods to prime centrifugal pumps and control water hammer facilitate automatic restart after load management is released. Seven priming methods and three water hammer control methods were investigated. A sump pump and small vacuum pump were used to test two automatic prime and restart systems in the laboratory. A variable frequency phase converter was also used to automatically control water hammer during pipeline pressurization. Economical methods to safely prime and restart centrifugal pumps were discussed. The water hammer control methods safely pressurize the pipeline but require a higher initial investment. The automatic restart systems can be used to safely restart centrifugal pumps and control water hammer after load management is released. Based upon laboratory research and a technical review of available restart components, a computer software program was developed. The program assists customers in evaluating various restart options for automatic restarting of electric irrigation pumps. For further information on the software program, contact the South Dakota State University, Department of Agricultural Engineering.

  7. Automatisms in non common law countries.

    PubMed

    Falk-Pedersen, J K

    1997-01-01

    The distinction made in the common law tradition between sane and insane automatisms, and in particular the labelling of epileptic automatisms as insane, are legal concepts which surprise and even astonish lawyers of other traditions, whether they work within a civil law system or one with elements both from civil law and common law. It could be useful to those lawyers, doctors and patients struggling for a change in the common law countries to receive comparative material from other countries. Thus, the way automatisms are dealt with in non-common law countries will be discussed with an emphasis on the Norwegian criminal law system. In Norway no distinction is made between sane and insane automatisms and the plea Not Guilty by virtue of epileptic automatism is both available and valid assuming certain conditions are met. No. 44 of the Penal Code states that acts committed while the perpetrator is unconscious are not punishable. Automatisms are regarded as "relative unconsciousness", and thus included under No. 44. Exceptions may be made if the automatism is a result of self-inflicted intoxication following the consumption of alcohol or (illegal) drugs. Also, the role and relevance of experts as well as the law of some other European countries will be briefly discussed.

  8. Assessment of automatic ligand building in ARP/wARP

    PubMed Central

    Evrard, Guillaume X.; Langer, Gerrit G.; Perrakis, Anastassis; Lamzin, Victor S.

    2007-01-01

    The efficiency of the ligand-building module of ARP/wARP version 6.1 has been assessed through extensive tests on a large variety of protein–ligand complexes from the PDB, as available from the Uppsala Electron Density Server. Ligand building in ARP/wARP involves two main steps: automatic identification of the location of the ligand and the actual construction of its atomic model. The first step is most successful for large ligands. The second step, ligand construction, is more powerful with X-ray data at high resolution and ligands of small to medium size. Both steps are successful for ligands with low to moderate atomic displacement parameters. The results highlight the strengths and weaknesses of both the method of ligand building and the large-scale validation procedure and help to identify means of further improvement. PMID:17164533

  9. Automatic generation of warehouse mediators using an ontology engine

    SciTech Connect

    Critchlow, T., LLNL

    1998-04-01

    Data warehouses created for dynamic scientific environments, such as genetics, face significant challenges to their long-term feasibility One of the most significant of these is the high frequency of schema evolution resulting from both technological advances and scientific insight Failure to quickly incorporate these modifications will quickly render the warehouse obsolete, yet each evolution requires significant effort to ensure the changes are correctly propagated DataFoundry utilizes a mediated warehouse architecture with an ontology infrastructure to reduce the maintenance acquirements of a warehouse. Among the things, the ontology is used as an information source for automatically generating mediators, the methods that transfer data between the data sources and the warehouse The identification, definition and representation of the metadata required to perform this task is a primary contribution of this work.

  10. Evolutionary synthesis of automatic classification on astroinformatic big data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojecky, Lumir; Zelinka, Ivan; Saloun, Petr

    2016-06-01

    This article describes the initial experiments using a new approach to automatic identification of Be and B[e] stars spectra in large archives. With enormous amount of these data it is no longer feasible to analyze it using classical approaches. We introduce an evolutionary synthesis of the classification by means of analytic programming, one of methods of symbolic regression. By this method, we synthesize the most suitable mathematical formulas that approximate chosen samples of the stellar spectra. As a result is then selected the category whose formula has the lowest difference compared to the particular spectrum. The results show us that classification of stellar spectra by means of analytic programming is able to identify different shapes of the spectra.

  11. Automatic detection of spermatozoa for laser capture microdissection.

    PubMed

    Vandewoestyne, Mado; Van Hoofstat, David; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Deforce, Dieter

    2009-03-01

    In sexual assault crimes, differential extraction of spermatozoa from vaginal swab smears is often ineffective, especially when only a few spermatozoa are present in an overwhelming amount of epithelial cells. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) enables the precise separation of spermatozoa and epithelial cells. However, standard sperm-staining techniques are non-specific and rely on sperm morphology for identification. Moreover, manual screening of the microscope slides is time-consuming and labor-intensive. Here, we describe an automated screening method to detect spermatozoa stained with Sperm HY-LITER. Different ratios of spermatozoa and epithelial cells were used to assess the automatic detection method. In addition, real postcoital samples were also screened. Detected spermatozoa were isolated using LCM and DNA analysis was performed. Robust DNA profiles without allelic dropout could be obtained from as little as 30 spermatozoa recovered from postcoital samples, showing that the staining had no significant influence on DNA recovery.

  12. Hand radiograph analysis for fully automatic bone age assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chassignet, Philippe; Nitescu, Teodor; Hassan, Max; Stanescu, Ruxandra

    1999-05-01

    This paper describes a method for the fully automatic and reliable segmentation of the bones in a radiograph of the child's hand. The problem consists in identifying the contours of the bones and the difficulty lies in the large variability of the anatomical structures, according to age, hand pose or individual. The model shall not force any standard interpretation, hence we use a simple hierarchical geometric model that provides the only information required for the identification of the chunks of contours. The phalangeal and metacarpal resulting segmentation is proved robust over a set of many hundred of images and measurements of shapes, sizes, areas, ..., are now quite allowed. The next step consists in extending the model for more accurate measurements and also for the localization of the carpal bones.

  13. Multiple layer identification label using stacked identification symbols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An automatic identification system and method are provided which employ a machine readable multiple layer label. The label has a plurality of machine readable marking layers stacked one upon another. Each of the marking layers encodes an identification symbol detectable using one or more sensing technologies. The various marking layers may comprise the same marking material or each marking layer may comprise a different medium having characteristics detectable by a different sensing technology. These sensing technologies include x-ray, radar, capacitance, thermal, magnetic and ultrasonic. A complete symbol may be encoded within each marking layer or a symbol may be segmented into fragments which are then divided within a single marking layer or encoded across multiple marking layers.

  14. A manual and an automatic TERS based virus discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olschewski, Konstanze; Kämmer, Evelyn; Stöckel, Stephan; Bocklitz, Thomas; Deckert-Gaudig, Tanja; Zell, Roland; Cialla-May, Dana; Weber, Karina; Deckert, Volker; Popp, Jürgen

    2015-02-01

    Rapid techniques for virus identification are more relevant today than ever. Conventional virus detection and identification strategies generally rest upon various microbiological methods and genomic approaches, which are not suited for the analysis of single virus particles. In contrast, the highly sensitive spectroscopic technique tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) allows the characterisation of biological nano-structures like virions on a single-particle level. In this study, the feasibility of TERS in combination with chemometrics to discriminate two pathogenic viruses, Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and Porcine teschovirus (PTV), was investigated. In a first step, chemometric methods transformed the spectral data in such a way that a rapid visual discrimination of the two examined viruses was enabled. In a further step, these methods were utilised to perform an automatic quality rating of the measured spectra. Spectra that passed this test were eventually used to calculate a classification model, through which a successful discrimination of the two viral species based on TERS spectra of single virus particles was also realised with a classification accuracy of 91%.Rapid techniques for virus identification are more relevant today than ever. Conventional virus detection and identification strategies generally rest upon various microbiological methods and genomic approaches, which are not suited for the analysis of single virus particles. In contrast, the highly sensitive spectroscopic technique tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) allows the characterisation of biological nano-structures like virions on a single-particle level. In this study, the feasibility of TERS in combination with chemometrics to discriminate two pathogenic viruses, Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and Porcine teschovirus (PTV), was investigated. In a first step, chemometric methods transformed the spectral data in such a way that a rapid visual discrimination of the two examined viruses

  15. Automatic molecular structure perception for the universal force field.

    PubMed

    Artemova, Svetlana; Jaillet, Léonard; Redon, Stephane

    2016-05-15

    The Universal Force Field (UFF) is a classical force field applicable to almost all atom types of the periodic table. Such a flexibility makes this force field a potential good candidate for simulations involving a large spectrum of systems and, indeed, UFF has been applied to various families of molecules. Unfortunately, initializing UFF, that is, performing molecular structure perception to determine which parameters should be used to compute the UFF energy and forces, appears to be a difficult problem. Although many perception methods exist, they mostly focus on organic molecules, and are thus not well-adapted to the diversity of systems potentially considered with UFF. In this article, we propose an automatic perception method for initializing UFF that includes the identification of the system's connectivity, the assignment of bond orders as well as UFF atom types. This perception scheme is proposed as a self-contained UFF implementation integrated in a new module for the SAMSON software platform for computational nanoscience (http://www.samson-connect.net). We validate both the automatic perception method and the UFF implementation on a series of benchmarks. PMID:26927616

  16. An automatic and effective tooth isolation method for dental radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, P.-L.; Huang, P.-W.; Cho, Y. S.; Kuo, C.-H.

    2013-03-01

    Tooth isolation is a very important step for both computer-aided dental diagnosis and automatic dental identification systems, because it will directly affect the accuracy of feature extraction and, thereby, the final results of both types of systems. This paper presents an effective and fully automatic tooth isolation method for dental X-ray images, which contains up-per-lower jaw separation, single tooth isolation, over-segmentation verification, and under-segmentation detection. The upper-lower jaw separation mechanism is based on a gray-scale integral projection to avoid possible information loss and incorporates with the angle adjustment to handle skewed images. In a single tooth isolation, an adaptive windowing scheme for locating gap valleys is proposed to improve the accuracy. In over-segmentation, an isolation-curve verification scheme is proposed to remove excessive curves; and in under-segmentation, a missing-teeth detection scheme is proposed. The experimental results demonstrate that our method achieves the accuracy rates of 95.63% and 98.71% for the upper and lower jaw images, respectively, from the test database of 60 bitewing dental radiographs, and performs better for images with severe teeth occlusion, excessive dental works, and uneven illumination than that of Nomir and Abdel-Mottaleb's method. The method without upper-lower jaw separation step also works well for panoramic and periapical images.

  17. A Cough-Based Algorithm for Automatic Diagnosis of Pertussis

    PubMed Central

    Pramono, Renard Xaviero Adhi; Imtiaz, Syed Anas; Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Pertussis is a contagious respiratory disease which mainly affects young children and can be fatal if left untreated. The World Health Organization estimates 16 million pertussis cases annually worldwide resulting in over 200,000 deaths. It is prevalent mainly in developing countries where it is difficult to diagnose due to the lack of healthcare facilities and medical professionals. Hence, a low-cost, quick and easily accessible solution is needed to provide pertussis diagnosis in such areas to contain an outbreak. In this paper we present an algorithm for automated diagnosis of pertussis using audio signals by analyzing cough and whoop sounds. The algorithm consists of three main blocks to perform automatic cough detection, cough classification and whooping sound detection. Each of these extract relevant features from the audio signal and subsequently classify them using a logistic regression model. The output from these blocks is collated to provide a pertussis likelihood diagnosis. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated using audio recordings from 38 patients. The algorithm is able to diagnose all pertussis successfully from all audio recordings without any false diagnosis. It can also automatically detect individual cough sounds with 92% accuracy and PPV of 97%. The low complexity of the proposed algorithm coupled with its high accuracy demonstrates that it can be readily deployed using smartphones and can be extremely useful for quick identification or early screening of pertussis and for infection outbreaks control. PMID:27583523

  18. Automatic polar ice thickness estimation from SAR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahnemoonfar, Maryam; Yari, Masoud; Fox, Geoffrey C.

    2016-05-01

    Global warming has caused serious damage to our environment in recent years. Accelerated loss of ice from Greenland and Antarctica has been observed in recent decades. The melting of polar ice sheets and mountain glaciers has a considerable influence on sea level rise and altering ocean currents, potentially leading to the flooding of the coastal regions and putting millions of people around the world at risk. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems are able to provide relevant information about subsurface structure of polar ice sheets. Manual layer identification is prohibitively tedious and expensive and is not practical for regular, longterm ice-sheet monitoring. Automatic layer finding in noisy radar images is quite challenging due to huge amount of noise, limited resolution and variations in ice layers and bedrock. Here we propose an approach which automatically detects ice surface and bedrock boundaries using distance regularized level set evolution. In this approach the complex topology of ice and bedrock boundary layers can be detected simultaneously by evolving an initial curve in radar imagery. Using a distance regularized term, the regularity of the level set function is intrinsically maintained that solves the reinitialization issues arising from conventional level set approaches. The results are evaluated on a large dataset of airborne radar imagery collected during IceBridge mission over Antarctica and Greenland and show promising results in respect to hand-labeled ground truth.

  19. Reactor protection system with automatic self-testing and diagnostic

    DOEpatents

    Gaubatz, Donald C.

    1996-01-01

    A reactor protection system having four divisions, with quad redundant sensors for each scram parameter providing input to four independent microprocessor-based electronic chassis. Each electronic chassis acquires the scram parameter data from its own sensor, digitizes the information, and then transmits the sensor reading to the other three electronic chassis via optical fibers. To increase system availability and reduce false scrams, the reactor protection system employs two levels of voting on a need for reactor scram. The electronic chassis perform software divisional data processing, vote 2/3 with spare based upon information from all four sensors, and send the divisional scram signals to the hardware logic panel, which performs a 2/4 division vote on whether or not to initiate a reactor scram. Each chassis makes a divisional scram decision based on data from all sensors. Automatic detection and discrimination against failed sensors allows the reactor protection system to automatically enter a known state when sensor failures occur. Cross communication of sensor readings allows comparison of four theoretically "identical" values. This permits identification of sensor errors such as drift or malfunction. A diagnostic request for service is issued for errant sensor data. Automated self test and diagnostic monitoring, sensor input through output relay logic, virtually eliminate the need for manual surveillance testing. This provides an ability for each division to cross-check all divisions and to sense failures of the hardware logic.

  20. Reactor protection system with automatic self-testing and diagnostic

    DOEpatents

    Gaubatz, D.C.

    1996-12-17

    A reactor protection system is disclosed having four divisions, with quad redundant sensors for each scram parameter providing input to four independent microprocessor-based electronic chassis. Each electronic chassis acquires the scram parameter data from its own sensor, digitizes the information, and then transmits the sensor reading to the other three electronic chassis via optical fibers. To increase system availability and reduce false scrams, the reactor protection system employs two levels of voting on a need for reactor scram. The electronic chassis perform software divisional data processing, vote 2/3 with spare based upon information from all four sensors, and send the divisional scram signals to the hardware logic panel, which performs a 2/4 division vote on whether or not to initiate a reactor scram. Each chassis makes a divisional scram decision based on data from all sensors. Automatic detection and discrimination against failed sensors allows the reactor protection system to automatically enter a known state when sensor failures occur. Cross communication of sensor readings allows comparison of four theoretically ``identical`` values. This permits identification of sensor errors such as drift or malfunction. A diagnostic request for service is issued for errant sensor data. Automated self test and diagnostic monitoring, sensor input through output relay logic, virtually eliminate the need for manual surveillance testing. This provides an ability for each division to cross-check all divisions and to sense failures of the hardware logic. 16 figs.

  1. A Cough-Based Algorithm for Automatic Diagnosis of Pertussis.

    PubMed

    Pramono, Renard Xaviero Adhi; Imtiaz, Syed Anas; Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Pertussis is a contagious respiratory disease which mainly affects young children and can be fatal if left untreated. The World Health Organization estimates 16 million pertussis cases annually worldwide resulting in over 200,000 deaths. It is prevalent mainly in developing countries where it is difficult to diagnose due to the lack of healthcare facilities and medical professionals. Hence, a low-cost, quick and easily accessible solution is needed to provide pertussis diagnosis in such areas to contain an outbreak. In this paper we present an algorithm for automated diagnosis of pertussis using audio signals by analyzing cough and whoop sounds. The algorithm consists of three main blocks to perform automatic cough detection, cough classification and whooping sound detection. Each of these extract relevant features from the audio signal and subsequently classify them using a logistic regression model. The output from these blocks is collated to provide a pertussis likelihood diagnosis. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated using audio recordings from 38 patients. The algorithm is able to diagnose all pertussis successfully from all audio recordings without any false diagnosis. It can also automatically detect individual cough sounds with 92% accuracy and PPV of 97%. The low complexity of the proposed algorithm coupled with its high accuracy demonstrates that it can be readily deployed using smartphones and can be extremely useful for quick identification or early screening of pertussis and for infection outbreaks control. PMID:27583523

  2. Automatic alignment of infrared video frames for equipment leak detection.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liming; Zeng, Yousheng

    2007-02-12

    Petroleum refining and petrochemical industries start using infrared (IR) cameras to detect volatile organic compounds (VOC) leaking out of process equipment. However, further quantitative processing of these video image data or automatic recognition of VOC plumes are hindered by unaligned video frames owing to the slight vibrations of the camera. An automatic method is developed to align the IR video frames as a preprocessing procedure for other possible video processing methods. The alignment method is based on a two-dimensional spatial Fourier transform. The accuracy can reach fractional pixels in estimation of translational shift and 1-2 degrees for rotational shift. Temporal Fourier transform of actual industrial tests of IR videos is performed with both unaligned and aligned video frames. The results indicate that only after the alignment of the video frames, the camera motion interferences on VOC plume identification can be eliminated or minimized, and the VOC plume can be identified through investigating the characteristic flickering frequency power in the temporal Fourier transform. This alignment method provides a useful tool for IR or other optical video image data preprocessing purposes.

  3. Automatic activity estimation based on object behaviour signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Pérez, F. E.; González-Fraga, J. A.; Tentori, M.

    2010-08-01

    Automatic estimation of human activities is a topic widely studied. However the process becomes difficult when we want to estimate activities from a video stream, because human activities are dynamic and complex. Furthermore, we have to take into account the amount of information that images provide, since it makes the modelling and estimation activities a hard work. In this paper we propose a method for activity estimation based on object behavior. Objects are located in a delimited observation area and their handling is recorded with a video camera. Activity estimation can be done automatically by analyzing the video sequences. The proposed method is called "signature recognition" because it considers a space-time signature of the behaviour of objects that are used in particular activities (e.g. patients' care in a healthcare environment for elder people with restricted mobility). A pulse is produced when an object appears in or disappears of the observation area. This means there is a change from zero to one or vice versa. These changes are produced by the identification of the objects with a bank of nonlinear correlation filters. Each object is processed independently and produces its own pulses; hence we are able to recognize several objects with different patterns at the same time. The method is applied to estimate three healthcare-related activities of elder people with restricted mobility.

  4. Automatic Operation For A Robot Lawn Mower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. Y.; Cao, Z. L.; Oh, S. J.; Kattan, E. U.; Hall, E. L.

    1987-02-01

    A domestic mobile robot, lawn mower, which performs the automatic operation mode, has been built up in the Center of Robotics Research, University of Cincinnati. The robot lawn mower automatically completes its work with the region filling operation, a new kind of path planning for mobile robots. Some strategies for region filling of path planning have been developed for a partly-known or a unknown environment. Also, an advanced omnidirectional navigation system and a multisensor-based control system are used in the automatic operation. Research on the robot lawn mower, especially on the region filling of path planning, is significant in industrial and agricultural applications.

  5. Automatic Behavior Pattern Classification for Social Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, Abraham; Bellas, Francisco; Caamaño, Pilar; Duro, Richard J.

    In this paper, we focus our attention on providing robots with a system that allows them to automatically detect behavior patterns in other robots, as a first step to introducing social responsive robots. The system is called ANPAC (Automatic Neural-based Pattern Classification). Its main feature is that ANPAC automatically adjusts the optimal processing window size and obtains the appropriate features through a dimensional transformation process that allow for the classification of behavioral patterns of large groups of entities from perception datasets. Here we present the basic elements and operation of ANPAC, and illustrate its applicability through the detection of behavior patterns in the motion of flocks.

  6. Automatic defensive control of asynchronous sequential machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Control theoretic techniques are utilised to develop automatic controllers that counteract robotic adversarial interventions in the operation of asynchronous sequential machines. The scenario centres on automatic protection against pre-programmed adversarial agents that attempt to subvert the operation of an asynchronous computing system. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of defensive controllers that automatically defeat such adversarial agents are derived. These conditions are stated in terms of skeleton matrices - matrices of zeros and ones obtained directly from the given description of the asynchronous sequential machine being protected. When defensive controllers exist, a procedure for their design is outlined.

  7. Output gear of automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ideta, Y.; Miida, S.

    1986-12-16

    An automatic transmission is described for a front engine, front wheel drive vehicle, comprising: a torque converter; a main power train comprising a rotatory terminal member, the main power train being connected with the torque converter for transmitting a driving torque from the torque converter to the terminal member; housing means enclosing the main power train, the housing means having a cylindrical bore and at least one oil feed passage opening in a cylindrical surface of the bore, and an output gear rotatably supported by the housing means and connected detachably with the terminal member of the main power train for transmitting the driving torque from the main power train to front wheels of the vehicle. The main power train is placed between the torque converter and the output gear, the output gear having a hub which is splined detachably to the terminal member, and which is fitting in the bore of the housing means in such a manner that the hub can rotate in the bore. The hub has an annular groove formed on an outer cylindrical surface of the hub, the output gear being formed with lubricating means extending from the annular groove for conveying oil from the annular groove, the oil feed passage of the housing means opening into the annular groove for supplying oil into the lubricating means through the annular groove. The annular groove has sufficient depth and width within a range permitted by a strength of the hub to prevent a shortage of the oil supply through the annular groove to the lubricating means due to a centrifugal force of the oil rotating in the annular groove together with walls of the annular groove.

  8. Traceability Through Automatic Program Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Julian; Green, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Program synthesis is a technique for automatically deriving programs from specifications of their behavior. One of the arguments made in favour of program synthesis is that it allows one to trace from the specification to the program. One way in which traceability information can be derived is to augment the program synthesis system so that manipulations and calculations it carries out during the synthesis process are annotated with information on what the manipulations and calculations were and why they were made. This information is then accumulated throughout the synthesis process, at the end of which, every artifact produced by the synthesis is annotated with a complete history relating it to every other artifact (including the source specification) which influenced its construction. This approach requires modification of the entire synthesis system - which is labor-intensive and hard to do without influencing its behavior. In this paper, we introduce a novel, lightweight technique for deriving traceability from a program specification to the corresponding synthesized code. Once a program has been successfully synthesized from a specification, small changes are systematically made to the specification and the effects on the synthesized program observed. We have partially automated the technique and applied it in an experiment to one of our program synthesis systems, AUTOFILTER, and to the GNU C compiler, GCC. The results are promising: 1. Manual inspection of the results indicates that most of the connections derived from the source (a specification in the case of AUTOFILTER, C source code in the case of GCC) to its generated target (C source code in the case of AUTOFILTER, assembly language code in the case of GCC) are correct. 2. Around half of the lines in the target can be traced to at least one line of the source. 3. Small changes in the source often induce only small changes in the target.

  9. Automatic mathematical modeling for space application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Caroline K.

    1987-01-01

    A methodology for automatic mathematical modeling is described. The major objective is to create a very friendly environment for engineers to design, maintain and verify their model and also automatically convert the mathematical model into FORTRAN code for conventional computation. A demonstration program was designed for modeling the Space Shuttle Main Engine simulation mathematical model called Propulsion System Automatic Modeling (PSAM). PSAM provides a very friendly and well organized environment for engineers to build a knowledge base for base equations and general information. PSAM contains an initial set of component process elements for the Space Shuttle Main Engine simulation and a questionnaire that allows the engineer to answer a set of questions to specify a particular model. PSAM is then able to automatically generate the model and the FORTRAN code. A future goal is to download the FORTRAN code to the VAX/VMS system for conventional computation.

  10. Automatic program debugging for intelligent tutoring systems

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis explores the process by which student programs can be automatically debugged in order to increase the instructional capabilities of these systems. This research presents a methodology and implementation for the diagnosis and correction of nontrivial recursive programs. In this approach, recursive programs are debugged by repairing induction proofs in the Boyer-Moore Logic. The potential of a program debugger to automatically debug widely varying novice programs in a nontrivial domain is proportional to its capabilities to reason about computational semantics. By increasing these reasoning capabilities a more powerful and robust system can result. This thesis supports these claims by examining related work in automated program debugging and by discussing the design, implementation, and evaluation of Talus, an automatic degugger for LISP programs. Talus relies on its abilities to reason about computational semantics to perform algorithm recognition, infer code teleology, and to automatically detect and correct nonsyntactic errors in student programs written in a restricted, but nontrivial, subset of LISP.

  11. Low distortion automatic phase control circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauge, G.; Pederson, C. W.

    1972-01-01

    Circuit for generation and demodulation of quadrature double side band signals in frequency division multiplexing system is described. Circuit is designed to produce low distortion automatic phase control. Illustration of circuit and components is included.

  12. Variable load automatically tests dc power supplies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, H. C., Jr.; Sullivan, R. M.

    1965-01-01

    Continuously variable load automatically tests dc power supplies over an extended current range. External meters monitor current and voltage, and multipliers at the outputs facilitate plotting the power curve of the unit.

  13. Computer systems for automatic earthquake detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, S.W.

    1974-01-01

    U.S Geological Survey seismologists in Menlo park, California, are utilizing the speed, reliability, and efficiency of minicomputers to monitor seismograph stations and to automatically detect earthquakes. An earthquake detection computer system, believed to be the only one of its kind in operation, automatically reports about 90 percent of all local earthquakes recorded by a network of over 100 central California seismograph stations. The system also monitors the stations for signs of malfunction or abnormal operation. Before the automatic system was put in operation, all of the earthquakes recorded had to be detected by manually searching the records, a time-consuming process. With the automatic detection system, the stations are efficiently monitored continuously. 

  14. Automaticity in social-cognitive processes.

    PubMed

    Bargh, John A; Schwader, Kay L; Hailey, Sarah E; Dyer, Rebecca L; Boothby, Erica J

    2012-12-01

    Over the past several years, the concept of automaticity of higher cognitive processes has permeated nearly all domains of psychological research. In this review, we highlight insights arising from studies in decision-making, moral judgments, close relationships, emotional processes, face perception and social judgment, motivation and goal pursuit, conformity and behavioral contagion, embodied cognition, and the emergence of higher-level automatic processes in early childhood. Taken together, recent work in these domains demonstrates that automaticity does not result exclusively from a process of skill acquisition (in which a process always begins as a conscious and deliberate one, becoming capable of automatic operation only with frequent use) - there are evolved substrates and early childhood learning mechanisms involved as well.

  15. Automatic Evolution of Molecular Nanotechnology Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Lawton, John; Wipke, Todd; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes strategies for automatically generating designs for analog circuits at the molecular level. Software maps out the edges and vertices of potential nanotechnology systems on graphs, then selects appropriate ones through evolutionary or genetic paradigms.

  16. Automatic water inventory, collecting, and dispensing unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Williams, E. F.

    1972-01-01

    Two cylindrical tanks with piston bladders and associated components for automatic filling and emptying use liquid inventory readout devices in control of water flow. Unit provides for adaptive water collection, storage, and dispensation in weightlessness environment.

  17. A Versatile, Automatic Chromatographic Column Packing Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Eugene F.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive apparatus for packing liquid and gas chromatographic columns of high efficiency. Consists of stainless steel support struts, an Automat Getriebmotor, and an associated three-pulley system capable of 10, 30, and 300 rpm. (MLH)

  18. Gear drive automatically indexes rotary table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johns, M. F.

    1966-01-01

    Combination indexer and drive unit drills equally spaced circular hole patterns on rotary tables. It automatically rotates the table a distance exactly equal to one hole spacing for each revolution of a special idler gear.

  19. Three layered framework for automatic service composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xinqiong; Xia, Ping; Wan, Junli

    2009-10-01

    For automatic service composition, a planning based framework MOCIS is proposed. Planning is based on two major techniques, service reasoning and constraint satisfaction. Constraint satisfaction can be divided into quality constraint satisfaction and quantity constraint satisfaction. Contrary to traditional methods realizing upon techniques by interleaving activity, message and provider, the novelty of the framework is dividing these concerns into three layers, with activity layer majoring service reasoning, message layer for quality constraint and provider layer for quantity constraint. The layered architecture makes automatic web service composition possible for activity tree that abstract BPEL list and concrete BPEL list are achieved automatically with each layer, and users can selection proper abstract BPEL or BPEL to satisfy their request. And E-traveling composition cases have been tested, demonstrating that complex service can be achieved through three layers compositing automatically.

  20. Automatic calibration system for pressure transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Fifty-channel automatic pressure transducer calibration system increases quantity and accuracy for test evaluation calibration. The pressure transducers are installed in an environmental tests chamber and manifolded to connect them to a pressure balance which is uniform.

  1. Automated Drug Identification for Urban Hospitals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirley, Donna L.

    1971-01-01

    Many urban hospitals are becoming overloaded with drug abuse cases requiring chemical analysis for identification of drugs. In this paper, the requirements for chemical analysis of body fluids for drugs are determined and a system model for automated drug analysis is selected. The system as modeled, would perform chemical preparation of samples, gas-liquid chromatographic separation of drugs in the chemically prepared samples, infrared spectrophotometric analysis of the drugs, and would utilize automatic data processing and control for drug identification. Requirements of cost, maintainability, reliability, flexibility, and operability are considered.

  2. An automatic LCD panel quality detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Bianfang; Hou, Wenguang; Ding, Mingyue

    2009-10-01

    Automatic detection using computer vision expands rapidly along with the development of image processing technology. In this paper, we developed a rapid LCD quality detection system for automobile instrument panel production, which has wide range of usage and good stability.Our automatic detection system consists of four parts: panel fixture, signal generator module, image acquisition module and image processing software. Experiments demonstrated that our system is feasible, efficient and fast compared to manual detection.

  3. Automatic Refilling System For Liquid Helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serlemitsos, Aristides; Sansebastian, Mark; Geagen, Jay; Warner, Brent

    1990-01-01

    Cryogenic experiments left unattended for days. System automatically replenishes liquid helium in cryogenic experimental apparatus as liquid evaporates. Automatic filling system transfers liquid helium from storage vessel to experimental apparatus under computer control. Gaseous helium from cylinder supplies pumping pressure. Circuit senses level of liquid helium by sensing voltage across measuring resistors in series with silicon resistance thermometers (SRT's). Low voltage indicates SRT covered, while high voltage indicates uncovered.

  4. Automatic safety rod for reactors. [LMFBR

    DOEpatents

    Germer, J.H.

    1982-03-23

    An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

  5. UMLS-based automatic image indexing.

    PubMed

    Sneiderman, C; Sneiderman, Charles Alan; Demner-Fushman, D; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Fung, K W; Fung, Kin Wah; Bray, B; Bray, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    To date, most accurate image retrieval techniques rely on textual descriptions of images. Our goal is to automatically generate indexing terms for an image extracted from a biomedical article by identifying Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) concepts in image caption and its discussion in the text. In a pilot evaluation of the suggested image indexing method by five physicians, a third of the automatically identified index terms were found suitable for indexing.

  6. A performance evaluation of biometric identification devices

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, J.P.; Maxwell, R.L.; Wright, L.J.

    1990-06-01

    A biometric identification device is an automatic device that can verify a person's identity from a measurement of a physical feature or repeatable action of the individual. A reference measurement of the biometric is obtained when the individual is enrolled on the device. Subsequent verifications are made by comparing the submitted biometric feature against the reference sample. Sandia Laboratories has been evaluating the relative performance of several identity verifiers, using volunteer test subjects. Sandia testing methods and results are discussed.

  7. Audio watermarking technologies for automatic cue sheet generation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caccia, Giuseppe; Lancini, Rosa C.; Pascarella, Annalisa; Tubaro, Stefano; Vicario, Elena

    2001-08-01

    Usually watermark is used as a way for hiding information on digital media. The watermarked information may be used to allow copyright protection or user and media identification. In this paper we propose a watermarking scheme for digital audio signals that allow automatic identification of musical pieces transmitted in TV broadcasting programs. In our application the watermark must be, obviously, imperceptible to the users, should be robust to standard TV and radio editing and have a very low complexity. This last item is essential to allow a software real-time implementation of the insertion and detection of watermarks using only a minimum amount of the computation power of a modern PC. In the proposed method the input audio sequence is subdivided in frames. For each frame a watermark spread spectrum sequence is added to the original data. A two steps filtering procedure is used to generate the watermark from a Pseudo-Noise (PN) sequence. The filters approximate respectively the threshold and the frequency masking of the Human Auditory System (HAS). In the paper we discuss first the watermark embedding system then the detection approach. The results of a large set of subjective tests are also presented to demonstrate the quality and robustness of the proposed approach.

  8. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  9. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  10. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  11. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  12. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  13. 46 CFR 52.01-10 - Automatic controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Automatic controls. 52.01-10 Section 52.01-10 Shipping... Requirements § 52.01-10 Automatic controls. (a) Each main boiler must meet the special requirements for automatic safety controls in § 62.35-20(a)(1) of this chapter. (b) Each automatically controlled...

  14. 46 CFR 52.01-10 - Automatic controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Automatic controls. 52.01-10 Section 52.01-10 Shipping... Requirements § 52.01-10 Automatic controls. (a) Each main boiler must meet the special requirements for automatic safety controls in § 62.35-20(a)(1) of this chapter. (b) Each automatically controlled...

  15. 46 CFR 52.01-10 - Automatic controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Automatic controls. 52.01-10 Section 52.01-10 Shipping... Requirements § 52.01-10 Automatic controls. (a) Each main boiler must meet the special requirements for automatic safety controls in § 62.35-20(a)(1) of this chapter. (b) Each automatically controlled...

  16. 14 CFR 23.1329 - Automatic pilot system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Automatic pilot system. 23.1329 Section 23...: Installation § 23.1329 Automatic pilot system. If an automatic pilot system is installed, it must meet the following: (a) Each system must be designed so that the automatic pilot can— (1) Be quickly and...

  17. The Importance of Automaticity for Developing Expertise in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, S. Jay; Flor, Richard F.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses how students become automatic at reading sub-skills, the indicators that can be used to determine whether a student is automatic, and the psychological mechanisms that allow students to perform complex skills automatically. Discusses implications of automaticity research for teaching reading. (RS)

  18. 7 CFR 58.418 - Automatic cheese making equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Automatic cheese making equipment. 58.418 Section 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.418 Automatic cheese making equipment. (a) Automatic Curd Maker. The automatic curd making system shall be constructed of stainless steel or of material approved in the...

  19. 7 CFR 58.418 - Automatic cheese making equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Automatic cheese making equipment. 58.418 Section 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.418 Automatic cheese making equipment. (a) Automatic Curd Maker. The automatic curd making system shall be constructed of stainless steel or of material approved in the...

  20. 7 CFR 58.418 - Automatic cheese making equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automatic cheese making equipment. 58.418 Section 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.418 Automatic cheese making equipment. (a) Automatic Curd Maker. The automatic curd making system shall be constructed of stainless steel or of material approved in the...

  1. 7 CFR 58.418 - Automatic cheese making equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Automatic cheese making equipment. 58.418 Section 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.418 Automatic cheese making equipment. (a) Automatic Curd Maker. The automatic curd making system shall be constructed of stainless steel or of material approved in the...

  2. 7 CFR 58.418 - Automatic cheese making equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Automatic cheese making equipment. 58.418 Section 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.418 Automatic cheese making equipment. (a) Automatic Curd Maker. The automatic curd making system shall be constructed of stainless steel or of material approved in the...

  3. 10 CFR 429.45 - Automatic commercial ice makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Automatic commercial ice makers. 429.45 Section 429.45... PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.45 Automatic commercial ice makers. (a... automatic commercial ice makers; and (2) For each basic model of automatic commercial ice maker selected...

  4. 10 CFR 429.45 - Automatic commercial ice makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Automatic commercial ice makers. 429.45 Section 429.45... PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.45 Automatic commercial ice makers. (a... automatic commercial ice makers; and (2) For each basic model of automatic commercial ice maker selected...

  5. 10 CFR 429.45 - Automatic commercial ice makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Automatic commercial ice makers. 429.45 Section 429.45... PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.45 Automatic commercial ice makers. (a... automatic commercial ice makers; and (2) For each basic model of automatic commercial ice maker selected...

  6. 46 CFR 52.01-10 - Automatic controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automatic controls. 52.01-10 Section 52.01-10 Shipping... Requirements § 52.01-10 Automatic controls. (a) Each main boiler must meet the special requirements for automatic safety controls in § 62.35-20(a)(1) of this chapter. (b) Each automatically controlled...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1329 - Automatic pilot system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automatic pilot system. 23.1329 Section 23...: Installation § 23.1329 Automatic pilot system. If an automatic pilot system is installed, it must meet the following: (a) Each system must be designed so that the automatic pilot can— (1) Be quickly and...

  8. Practical automatic Arabic license plate recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Khader; Agaian, Sos; Saleh, Hani

    2011-02-01

    Since 1970's, the need of an automatic license plate recognition system, sometimes referred as Automatic License Plate Recognition system, has been increasing. A license plate recognition system is an automatic system that is able to recognize a license plate number, extracted from image sensors. In specific, Automatic License Plate Recognition systems are being used in conjunction with various transportation systems in application areas such as law enforcement (e.g. speed limit enforcement) and commercial usages such as parking enforcement and automatic toll payment private and public entrances, border control, theft and vandalism control. Vehicle license plate recognition has been intensively studied in many countries. Due to the different types of license plates being used, the requirement of an automatic license plate recognition system is different for each country. [License plate detection using cluster run length smoothing algorithm ].Generally, an automatic license plate localization and recognition system is made up of three modules; license plate localization, character segmentation and optical character recognition modules. This paper presents an Arabic license plate recognition system that is insensitive to character size, font, shape and orientation with extremely high accuracy rate. The proposed system is based on a combination of enhancement, license plate localization, morphological processing, and feature vector extraction using the Haar transform. The performance of the system is fast due to classification of alphabet and numerals based on the license plate organization. Experimental results for license plates of two different Arab countries show an average of 99 % successful license plate localization and recognition in a total of more than 20 different images captured from a complex outdoor environment. The results run times takes less time compared to conventional and many states of art methods.

  9. Attention to Automatic Movements in Parkinson's Disease: Modified Automatic Mode in the Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tao; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Hejia; Hallett, Mark; Zheng, Zheng; Chan, Piu

    2015-01-01

    We investigated neural correlates when attending to a movement that could be made automatically in healthy subjects and Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Subjects practiced a visuomotor association task until they could perform it automatically, and then directed their attention back to the automated task. Functional MRI was obtained during the early-learning, automatic stage, and when re-attending. In controls, attention to automatic movement induced more activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), anterior cingulate cortex, and rostral supplementary motor area. The motor cortex received more influence from the cortical motor association regions. In contrast, the pattern of the activity and connectivity of the striatum remained at the level of the automatic stage. In PD patients, attention enhanced activity in the DLPFC, premotor cortex, and cerebellum, but the connectivity from the putamen to the motor cortex decreased. Our findings demonstrate that, in controls, when a movement achieves the automatic stage, attention can influence the attentional networks and cortical motor association areas, but has no apparent effect on the striatum. In PD patients, attention induces a shift from the automatic mode back to the controlled pattern within the striatum. The shifting between controlled and automatic behaviors relies in part on striatal function. PMID:24925772

  10. Identification of Polygonal Patterns on Venus Using Mathematical Morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreels, P.; Smrekar, S. E.

    2001-01-01

    We develop a detection and recognition model to fully automatize the identification of polygonal faults present in many of the Magellan SAR images. Our segmentation model is based on a modified watershed algorithm. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  11. 48 CFR 252.211-7006 - Radio Frequency Identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... supply, as defined in DoD 4140.1-R, DoD Supply Chain Materiel Management Regulation, AP1.1.11: (A... immediate, automatic, and accurate identification of any item in the supply chain of any company, in any..., organizational tool kits, hand tools, and administrative and housekeeping supplies and equipment. (C) Class...

  12. Automatic imitation is reduced in narcissists.

    PubMed

    Obhi, Sukhvinder S; Hogeveen, Jeremy; Giacomin, Miranda; Jordan, Christian H

    2014-06-01

    Narcissism is a personality trait that has been extensively studied in normal populations. Individuals high on subclinical narcissism tend to display an excessive self-focus and reduced concern for others. Does their disregard of others have roots in low-level processes of social perception? We investigated whether narcissism is related to the automatic imitation of observed actions. In the automatic imitation task, participants make cued actions in the presence of action videos displaying congruent or incongruent actions. The difference in response times and accuracy between congruent and incongruent trials (i.e., the interference effect) is a behavioral index of motor resonance in the brain-a process whereby observed actions activate matching motor representations in the observer. We found narcissism to be negatively related to interference in the automatic imitation task, such that high narcissism is associated with reduced imitation. Thus, levels of narcissism predict differences in the tendency to automatically resonate with others, and the pattern of data we observe suggests that a key difference is that high narcissists possess an improved ability to suppress automatic imitation when such imitation would be detrimental to task performance. To the extent that motor resonance is a product of a human mirror system, our data constitute evidence for a link between narcissistic tendencies and mirror system functioning. PMID:23957308

  13. Automatic Fastening Large Structures: a New Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumley, D. F.

    1985-01-01

    The external tank (ET) intertank structure for the space shuttle, a 27.5 ft diameter 22.5 ft long externally stiffened mechanically fastened skin-stringer-frame structure, was a labor intensitive manual structure built on a modified Saturn tooling position. A new approach was developed based on half-section subassemblies. The heart of this manufacturing approach will be 33 ft high vertical automatic riveting system with a 28 ft rotary positioner coming on-line in mid 1985. The Automatic Riveting System incorporates many of the latest automatic riveting technologies. Key features include: vertical columns with two sets of independently operating CNC drill-riveting heads; capability of drill, insert and upset any one piece fastener up to 3/8 inch diameter including slugs without displacing the workpiece offset bucking ram with programmable rotation and deep retraction; vision system for automatic parts program re-synchronization and part edge margin control; and an automatic rivet selection/handling system.

  14. Automatic prejudice in childhood and early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Degner, Juliane; Wentura, Dirk

    2010-03-01

    Four cross-sectional studies are presented that investigated the automatic activation of prejudice in children and adolescents (aged 9 years to 15 years). Therefore, 4 different versions of the affective priming task were used, with pictures of ingroup and outgroup members being presented as prejudice-related prime stimuli. In all 4 studies, a pattern occurred that suggests a linear developmental increase of automatic prejudice with significant effects of outgroup negativity appearing only around the ages of 12 to 13 years. Results of younger children, on the contrary, did not indicate any effect of automatic prejudice activation. In contrast, prejudice effects in an Implicit Association Test (IAT) showed high levels of prejudice independent of age (Study 3). Results of Study 4 suggest that these age differences are due to age-related differences in spontaneous categorization processes. Introducing a forced-categorization into the affective priming procedure produced a pattern of results equivalent to that obtained with the IAT. These results suggest that although children are assumed to acquire prejudice at much younger ages, automatization of such attitudes might be related to developmental processes in early adolescence. We discuss possible theoretical implications of these results for a developmental theory of prejudice representation and automatization during childhood and adolescence. PMID:20175618

  15. Automatic contrast: evidence that automatic comparison with the social self affects evaluative responses.

    PubMed

    Ruys, Kirsten I; Spears, Russell; Gordijn, Ernestine H; de Vries, Nanne K

    2007-08-01

    The aim of the present research was to investigate whether unconsciously presented affective information may cause opposite evaluative responses depending on what social category the information originates from. We argue that automatic comparison processes between the self and the unconscious affective information produce this evaluative contrast effect. Consistent with research on automatic behaviour, we propose that when an intergroup context is activated, an automatic comparison to the social self may determine the automatic evaluative responses, at least for highly visible categories (e.g. sex, ethnicity). Contrary to previous research on evaluative priming, we predict automatic contrastive responses to affective information originating from an outgroup category such that the evaluative response to neutral targets is opposite to the valence of the suboptimal primes. Two studies using different intergroup contexts provide support for our hypotheses. PMID:17705936

  16. Automatic classification of animal vocalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemins, Patrick J.

    2005-11-01

    Bioacoustics, the study of animal vocalizations, has begun to use increasingly sophisticated analysis techniques in recent years. Some common tasks in bioacoustics are repertoire determination, call detection, individual identification, stress detection, and behavior correlation. Each research study, however, uses a wide variety of different measured variables, called features, and classification systems to accomplish these tasks. The well-established field of human speech processing has developed a number of different techniques to perform many of the aforementioned bioacoustics tasks. Melfrequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) and perceptual linear prediction (PLP) coefficients are two popular feature sets. The hidden Markov model (HMM), a statistical model similar to a finite autonoma machine, is the most commonly used supervised classification model and is capable of modeling both temporal and spectral variations. This research designs a framework that applies models from human speech processing for bioacoustic analysis tasks. The development of the generalized perceptual linear prediction (gPLP) feature extraction model is one of the more important novel contributions of the framework. Perceptual information from the species under study can be incorporated into the gPLP feature extraction model to represent the vocalizations as the animals might perceive them. By including this perceptual information and modifying parameters of the HMM classification system, this framework can be applied to a wide range of species. The effectiveness of the framework is shown by analyzing African elephant and beluga whale vocalizations. The features extracted from the African elephant data are used as input to a supervised classification system and compared to results from traditional statistical tests. The gPLP features extracted from the beluga whale data are used in an unsupervised classification system and the results are compared to labels assigned by experts. The

  17. Automatic CT Measurement In Lumbar Vertebrae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisseling, Johannes T.; van Erning, Leon J. T. O.; Schouten, Theo E.; Lemmen, J. Albert M.

    1989-04-01

    Reliable software for automatic determination of the border between the cancellous bone and the cortical bone of lumbar vertebrae has been developed. An automatic procedure is needed because calculations in a larger series of patient data take too much time due to the inevitable human interaction required by available software packages. Processing in batch mode is essential. An important advantage of automatic outlining is its reproducibility, because only a single technique with objective criteria is used. In a so-called Region Of Interest (ROI) texture analysis can be performed to quantify the condition of the vertebral body in order to diagnose osteoporosis. This technique may be an alternative to a classification based solely on the average X-ray absorption value.

  18. Automatic welding of stainless steel tubing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clautice, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    The use of automatic welding for making girth welds in stainless steel tubing was investigated as well as the reduction in fabrication costs resulting from the elimination of radiographic inspection. Test methodology, materials, and techniques are discussed, and data sheets for individual tests are included. Process variables studied include welding amperes, revolutions per minute, and shielding gas flow. Strip chart recordings, as a definitive method of insuring weld quality, are studied. Test results, determined by both radiographic and visual inspection, are presented and indicate that once optimum welding procedures for specific sizes of tubing are established, and the welding machine operations are certified, then the automatic tube welding process produces good quality welds repeatedly, with a high degree of reliability. Revised specifications for welding tubing using the automatic process and weld visual inspection requirements at the Kennedy Space Center are enumerated.

  19. Support vector machine for automatic pain recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monwar, Md Maruf; Rezaei, Siamak

    2009-02-01

    Facial expressions are a key index of emotion and the interpretation of such expressions of emotion is critical to everyday social functioning. In this paper, we present an efficient video analysis technique for recognition of a specific expression, pain, from human faces. We employ an automatic face detector which detects face from the stored video frame using skin color modeling technique. For pain recognition, location and shape features of the detected faces are computed. These features are then used as inputs to a support vector machine (SVM) for classification. We compare the results with neural network based and eigenimage based automatic pain recognition systems. The experiment results indicate that using support vector machine as classifier can certainly improve the performance of automatic pain recognition system.

  20. Automatic weld torch guidance control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smaith, H. E.; Wall, W. A.; Burns, M. R., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A highly reliable, fully digital, closed circuit television optical, type automatic weld seam tracking control system was developed. This automatic tracking equipment is used to reduce weld tooling costs and increase overall automatic welding reliability. The system utilizes a charge injection device digital camera which as 60,512 inidividual pixels as the light sensing elements. Through conventional scanning means, each pixel in the focal plane is sequentially scanned, the light level signal digitized, and an 8-bit word transmitted to scratch pad memory. From memory, the microprocessor performs an analysis of the digital signal and computes the tracking error. Lastly, the corrective signal is transmitted to a cross seam actuator digital drive motor controller to complete the closed loop, feedback, tracking system. This weld seam tracking control system is capable of a tracking accuracy of + or - 0.2 mm, or better. As configured, the system is applicable to square butt, V-groove, and lap joint weldments.

  1. Automatic metro map layout using multicriteria optimization.

    PubMed

    Stott, Jonathan; Rodgers, Peter; Martínez-Ovando, Juan Carlos; Walker, Stephen G

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an automatic mechanism for drawing metro maps. We apply multicriteria optimization to find effective placement of stations with a good line layout and to label the map unambiguously. A number of metrics are defined, which are used in a weighted sum to find a fitness value for a layout of the map. A hill climbing optimizer is used to reduce the fitness value, and find improved map layouts. To avoid local minima, we apply clustering techniques to the map-the hill climber moves both stations and clusters when finding improved layouts. We show the method applied to a number of metro maps, and describe an empirical study that provides some quantitative evidence that automatically-drawn metro maps can help users to find routes more efficiently than either published maps or undistorted maps. Moreover, we have found that, in these cases, study subjects indicate a preference for automatically-drawn maps over the alternatives.

  2. Automatic alignment method for calibration of hydrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. J.; Chang, K. H.; Chon, J. C.; Oh, C. Y.

    2004-04-01

    This paper presents a new method to automatically align specific scale-marks for the calibration of hydrometers. A hydrometer calibration system adopting the new method consists of a vision system, a stepping motor, and software to control the system. The vision system is composed of a CCD camera and a frame grabber, and is used to acquire images. The stepping motor moves the camera, which is attached to the vessel containing a reference liquid, along the hydrometer. The operating program has two main functions: to process images from the camera to find the position of the horizontal plane and to control the stepping motor for the alignment of the horizontal plane with a particular scale-mark. Any system adopting this automatic alignment method is a convenient and precise means of calibrating a hydrometer. The performance of the proposed method is illustrated by comparing the calibration results using the automatic alignment method with those obtained using the manual method.

  3. Automatic discrimination of emotion from spoken Finnish.

    PubMed

    Toivanen, Juhani; Väyrynen, Eero; Seppänen, Tapio

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, experiments on the automatic discrimination of basic emotions from spoken Finnish are described. For the purpose of the study, a large emotional speech corpus of Finnish was collected; 14 professional actors acted as speakers, and simulated four primary emotions when reading out a semantically neutral text. More than 40 prosodic features were derived and automatically computed from the speech samples. Two application scenarios were tested: the first scenario was speaker-independent for a small domain of speakers while the second scenario was completely speaker-independent. Human listening experiments were conducted to assess the perceptual adequacy of the emotional speech samples. Statistical classification experiments indicated that, with the optimal combination of prosodic feature vectors, automatic emotion discrimination performance close to human emotion recognition ability was achievable. PMID:16038449

  4. An Automatic Speed Control for Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahm, A F

    1928-01-01

    Described here is an automatic control that has been used in several forms in wind tunnels at the Washington Navy Yard. The form now in use with the 8-foot tunnel at the Navy Yard is considered here. Details of the design and operation of the automatic control system are given. Leads from a Pitot tube are joined to an inverted cup manometer located above a rheostat. When the sliding weight of this instrument is set to a given notch, say for 40 m.p.h, the beam tip vibrates between two electric contacts that feed the little motor. Thus, when the wind is too strong or too weak, the motor automatically throws the rheostat slide forward and backward. If it failed to function well, the operator would notice the effect on his meniscus, and would operate the hand control by merely pressing the switch.

  5. Automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor

    DOEpatents

    Langner, Jr., G. Harold

    1993-01-01

    An automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor is provided which includes a housing having an aperture allowing radon entry, and a filter that excludes the entry of radon daughters into the housing. A flexible track registration material is located within the housing that records alpha-particle emissions from the decay of radon and radon daughters inside the housing. The flexible track registration material is capable of being spliced such that the registration material from a plurality of monitors can be spliced into a single strip to facilitate automatic processing of the registration material from the plurality of monitors. A process for the automatic counting of radon registered by a radon monitor is also provided.

  6. Automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor

    DOEpatents

    Langner, G.H. Jr.

    1993-01-12

    An automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor is provided which includes a housing having an aperture allowing radon entry, and a filter that excludes the entry of radon daughters into the housing. A flexible track registration material is located within the housing that records alpha-particle emissions from the decay of radon and radon daughters inside the housing. The flexible track registration material is capable of being spliced such that the registration material from a plurality of monitors can be spliced into a single strip to facilitate automatic processing of the registration material from the plurality of monitors. A process for the automatic counting of radon registered by a radon monitor is also provided.

  7. Automatic gisting systems for voice communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksymowicz, A. T.

    It is pointed out that the detection of a limited number of key words in voice communications, combined with nonlinguistic cues and situation knowledge, holds out the promise for automatic extraction of the general content or gist of the transmitted messages. A systems-level description of an end-to-end automatic gisting system for screening voice communications is presented. The emphasis is on identifying information which can usefully supplement the detected key words in the gisting process. Principal subsystems are identified, and their functions are discussed in the context of an overall system architecture. The example of automatic determination of aircraft takeoffs and landings at an airport, based on monitoring conversations between pilots and air traffic controllers, is used for illustrative purposes.

  8. Automatic exposure control for space sequential camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcatee, G. E., Jr.; Stoap, L. J.; Solheim, C. D.; Sharpsteen, J. T.

    1975-01-01

    The final report for the automatic exposure control study for space sequential cameras, for the NASA Johnson Space Center is presented. The material is shown in the same sequence that the work was performed. The purpose of the automatic exposure control is to automatically control the lens iris as well as the camera shutter so that the subject is properly exposed on the film. A study of design approaches is presented. Analysis of the light range of the spectrum covered indicates that the practical range would be from approximately 20 to 6,000 foot-lamberts, or about nine f-stops. Observation of film available from space flights shows that optimum scene illumination is apparently not present in vehicle interior photography as well as in vehicle-to-vehicle situations. The evaluation test procedure for a breadboard, and the results, which provided information for the design of a brassboard are given.

  9. Automatic Welding of Stainless Steel Tubing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clautice, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    To determine if the use of automatic welding would allow reduction of the radiographic inspection requirement, and thereby reduce fabrication costs, a series of welding tests were performed. In these tests an automatic welder was used on stainless steel tubing of 1/2, 3/4, and 1/2 inch diameter size. The optimum parameters were investigated to determine how much variation from optimum in machine settings could be tolerate and still result in a good quality weld. The process variables studied were the welding amperes, the revolutions per minute as a function of the circumferential weld travel speed, and the shielding gas flow. The investigation showed that the close control of process variables in conjunction with a thorough visual inspection of welds can be relied upon as an acceptable quality assurance procedure, thus permitting the radiographic inspection to be reduced by a large percentage when using the automatic process.

  10. Automatic Control Of Length Of Welding Arc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iceland, William F.

    1991-01-01

    Nonlinear relationships among current, voltage, and length stored in electronic memory. Conceptual microprocessor-based control subsystem maintains constant length of welding arc in gas/tungsten arc-welding system, even when welding current varied. Uses feedback of current and voltage from welding arc. Directs motor to set position of torch according to previously measured relationships among current, voltage, and length of arc. Signal paths marked "calibration" or "welding" used during those processes only. Other signal paths used during both processes. Control subsystem added to existing manual or automatic welding system equipped with automatic voltage control.

  11. Automatic reading of hybridization filter images.

    PubMed

    Audic, S; Zanetti, G

    1995-10-01

    We describe a new technique for the automatic detection and characterization, in terms of location, size and intensity, of positive hybridization spots on hybridization filter images. We will also discuss how this information can be used to reconstruct the spot deposition pattern on the filter and thus identify the spots. The part of the algorithm dedicated to the detection of spots is derived from a technique used in astronomy for the automatic recognition of galaxies on photographic plates. This technique has been modified so that it becomes able to cope with the strongly varying background typical of hybridization filter images. The technique does not require any human intervention.

  12. Automatic cell counting with ImageJ.

    PubMed

    Grishagin, Ivan V

    2015-03-15

    Cell counting is an important routine procedure. However, to date there is no comprehensive, easy to use, and inexpensive solution for routine cell counting, and this procedure usually needs to be performed manually. Here, we report a complete solution for automatic cell counting in which a conventional light microscope is equipped with a web camera to obtain images of a suspension of mammalian cells in a hemocytometer assembly. Based on the ImageJ toolbox, we devised two algorithms to automatically count these cells. This approach is approximately 10 times faster and yields more reliable and consistent results compared with manual counting.

  13. Automatic emotional expression analysis from eye area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkoç, Betül; Arslan, Ahmet

    2015-02-01

    Eyes play an important role in expressing emotions in nonverbal communication. In the present study, emotional expression classification was performed based on the features that were automatically extracted from the eye area. Fırst, the face area and the eye area were automatically extracted from the captured image. Afterwards, the parameters to be used for the analysis through discrete wavelet transformation were obtained from the eye area. Using these parameters, emotional expression analysis was performed through artificial intelligence techniques. As the result of the experimental studies, 6 universal emotions consisting of expressions of happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, anger and fear were classified at a success rate of 84% using artificial neural networks.

  14. Yuma proving grounds automatic UXO detection using biomorphic robots

    SciTech Connect

    Tilden, M.W.

    1996-07-01

    The current variety and dispersion of Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) is a daunting technological problem for current sensory and extraction techniques. The bottom line is that the only way to insure a live UXO has been found and removed is to step on it. As this is an upsetting proposition for biological organisms like animals, farmers, or Yuma field personnel, this paper details a non-biological approach to developing inexpensive, automatic machines that will find, tag, and may eventually remove UXO from a variety of terrains by several proposed methods. The Yuma proving grounds (Arizona) has been pelted with bombs, mines, missiles, and shells since the 1940s. The idea of automatic machines that can clean up after such testing is an old one but as yet unrealized because of the daunting cost, power and complexity requirements of capable robot mechanisms. A researcher at Los Alamos National Laboratory has invented and developed a new variety of living robots that are solar powered, legged, autonomous, adaptive to massive damage, and very inexpensive. This technology, called Nervous Networks (Nv), allows for the creation of capable walking mechanisms (known as Biomorphic robots, or Biomechs for short) that rather than work from task principles use instead a survival-based design philosophy. This allows Nv based machines to continue doing work even after multiple limbs and sensors have been removed or damaged, and to dynamically negotiate complex terrains as an emergent property of their operation (fighting to proceed, as it were). They are not programmed, and indeed, the twelve transistor Nv controller keeps their electronic cost well below that of most pocket radios. It is suspected that advanced forms of these machines in huge numbers may be an interesting, capable solution to the problem of general and specific UXO identification, tagging, and removal.

  15. Semi-automatic parcellation of the corpus striatum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hakim, Ramsey; Nain, Delphine; Levitt, James; Shenton, Martha; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2007-03-01

    The striatum is the input component of the basal ganglia from the cerebral cortex. It includes the caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens. Thus, the striatum is an important component in limbic frontal-subcortical circuitry and is believed to be relevant both for reward-guided behaviors and for the expression of psychosis. The dorsal striatum is composed of the caudate and putamen, both of which are further subdivided into pre- and post-commissural components. The ventral striatum (VS) is primarily composed of the nucleus accumbens. The striatum can be functionally divided into three broad regions: 1) a limbic; 2) a cognitive and 3) a sensor-motor region. The approximate corresponding anatomic subregions for these 3 functional regions are: 1) the VS; 2) the pre/post-commissural caudate and the pre-commissural putamen and 3) the post-commissural putamen. We believe assessing these subregions, separately, in disorders with limbic and cognitive impairment such as schizophrenia may yield more informative group differences in comparison with normal controls than prior parcellation strategies of the striatum such as assessing the caudate and putamen. The manual parcellation of the striatum into these subregions is currently defined using certain landmark points and geometric rules. Since identification of these areas is important to clinical research, a reliable and fast parcellation technique is required. Currently, only full manual parcellation using editing software is available; however, this technique is extremely time intensive. Previous work has shown successful application of heuristic rules into a semi-automatic platform1. We present here a semi-automatic algorithm which implements the rules currently used for manual parcellation of the striatum, but requires minimal user input and significantly reduces the time required for parcellation.

  16. Automatic segmentation of maxillofacial cysts in cone beam CT images.

    PubMed

    Abdolali, Fatemeh; Zoroofi, Reza Aghaeizadeh; Otake, Yoshito; Sato, Yoshinobu

    2016-05-01

    Accurate segmentation of cysts and tumors is an essential step for diagnosis, monitoring and planning therapeutic intervention. This task is usually done manually, however manual identification and segmentation is tedious. In this paper, an automatic method based on asymmetry analysis is proposed which is general enough to segment various types of jaw cysts. The key observation underlying this approach is that normal head and face structure is roughly symmetric with respect to midsagittal plane: the left part and the right part can be divided equally by an axis of symmetry. Cysts and tumors typically disturb this symmetry. The proposed approach consists of three main steps as follows: At first, diffusion filtering is used for preprocessing and symmetric axis is detected. Then, each image is divided into two parts. In the second stage, free form deformation (FFD) is used to correct slight displacement of corresponding pixels of the left part and a reflected copy of the right part. In the final stage, intensity differences are analyzed and a number of constraints are enforced to remove false positive regions. The proposed method has been validated on 97 Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) sets containing various jaw cysts which were collected from various image acquisition centers. Validation is performed using three similarity indicators (Jaccard index, Dice's coefficient and Hausdorff distance). The mean Dice's coefficient of 0.83, 0.87 and 0.80 is achieved for Radicular, Dentigerous and KCOT classes, respectively. For most of the experiments done, we achieved high true positive (TP). This means that a large number of cyst pixels are correctly classified. Quantitative results of automatic segmentation show that the proposed method is more effective than one of the recent methods in the literature.

  17. Matching pursuit filters applied to face identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Jonathan

    1994-10-01

    An algorithm has been developed for the automatic identification of human faces. Because the algorithm uses facial features restricted to the nose and eye regions of the face, it is robust to variations in facial expression, hair style and the surrounding environment. The algorithm uses coarse to fine processing to estimate the location of a small set of key facial features. Based on the hypothesized locations of the facial features, the identification module searches the database for the identity of the unknown face. The identification is made by matching pursuit filters. Matching pursuit filters have the advantage that they can be designed to find the differences between facial features needed to identify unknown individuals. The algorithm is demonstrated on a database of 172 individuals.

  18. Automatic recognition system of aquatic organisms by classical and fluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauffer, M.; Genty, F.; Margueron, S.; Collette, J. L.; Pihan, J. C.

    2015-05-01

    Blooming of algae and more generally phytoplankton in water ponds or marine environments can lead to hyper eutrophication and lethal consequences on other organisms. The selective recognition of invading species is investigated by automatic recognition algorithms of optical and fluorescence imaging. On one hand, morphological characteristics of algae of microscopic imaging are treated. The image processing lead to the identification the genus of aquatic organisms and compared to a morphologic data base. On the other hand, fluorescence images allow an automatic recognition based on multispectral data that identify locally the ratio of different photosynthetic pigments and gives a unique finger print of algae. It is shown that the combination of both methods are useful in the recognition of aquatic organisms.

  19. Validation of crowdsourced automatic rain gauge measurements in Amsterdam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vos, Lotte; Leijnse, Hidde; Overeem, Aart; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2016-04-01

    over time in most stations showed an underestimation of rainfall compared to the accumulative values found in the corresponding radar pixel of the reference. Special consideration is given to the identification of faulty measurements without the need to obtain additional meta-data, such as setup and surroundings. This validation will show the potential of crowdsourced automatic weather stations for future urban rainfall monitoring.

  20. Feedback Improvement in Automatic Program Evaluation Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skupas, Bronius

    2010-01-01

    Automatic program evaluation is a way to assess source program files. These techniques are used in learning management environments, programming exams and contest systems. However, use of automated program evaluation encounters problems: some evaluations are not clear for the students and the system messages do not show reasons for lost points.…

  1. Automatic Positioning System of Small Agricultural Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momot, M. V.; Proskokov, A. V.; Natalchenko, A. S.; Biktimirov, A. S.

    2016-08-01

    The present article discusses automatic positioning systems of agricultural robots used in field works. The existing solutions in this area have been analyzed. The article proposes an original solution, which is easy to implement and is characterized by high- accuracy positioning.

  2. Automatic Guidance System for Welding Torches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, H.; Wall, W.; Burns, M. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Digital system automatically guides welding torch to produce squarebutt, V-groove and lap-joint weldments within tracking accuracy of +0.2 millimeter. Television camera observes and traverses weld joint, carrying welding torch behind. Image of joint digitized, and resulting data used to derive control signals that enable torch to track joint.

  3. Support for Debugging Automatically Parallelized Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Robert; Jost, Gabriele

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on support sources available for the automatic parallelization of computer program. CAPTools, a support tool developed at the University of Greenwich, transforms, with user guidance, existing sequential Fortran code into parallel message passing code. Comparison routines are then run for debugging purposes, in essence, ensuring that the code transformation was accurate.

  4. Flight Investigation of an Automatic Pitchup Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurt, George J., Jr.; Whitten, James B.

    1960-01-01

    A flight investigation of an automatic pitchup control has been conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration at the Langley Research Center. The pitching-moment characteristics of a transonic fighter airplane which was subject to pitchup were altered by driving the stabilizer in accordance with a signal that was a function of a combination of the measured angle of attack and the pitching velocity. An angle-of-attack threshold control was used to preset the angle of attack at which the automatic pitchup-control system would begin to drive the stabilizer. No threshold control as such existed for the pitching-velocity signal. A summing linkage in series with the pilot's longitudinal control allowed the automatic pitchup-control system to drive the stabilizer 13.5 percent of the total stabilizer travel independently of the pilot's control. Tests were made at an altitude of 35,000 feet over a Mach number range of 0.80 to 0.90. Various gearings between the control and the sensing devices were investigated. The automatic system was capable of extending the region of positive stability for the test airplane to angles of attack above the basic-airplane pitchup threshold angle of attack. In most cases a limit-cycle oscillation about the airplane pitch axis occurred.

  5. Automatic Layout Design for Power Module

    SciTech Connect

    Ning, Puqi; Wang, Fei; Ngo, Khai

    2013-01-01

    The layout of power modules is one of the key points in power module design, especially for high power densities, where couplings are increased. In this paper, along with the design example, an automatic design processes by using a genetic algorithm are presented. Some practical considerations and implementations are introduced in the optimization of module layout design.

  6. Automatic optometer operates with infrared test pattern

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornsweet, T. N.; Crane, H. D.

    1970-01-01

    Refractive strength of human eye is monitored by optometer that automatically and continuously images infrared test pattern onto the retina. Condition of focus of the eye at any instant is determined from optometer settings needed to maintain focus of the pattern on the retina.

  7. Automatic thematic mapping in the EROS program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edson, D. T.

    1972-01-01

    A specified approach to the automatic extraction and catographic presentation of thematic data contained in multispectral photographic images is presented. Experimental efforts were directed toward the mapping of open waters, snow and ice, infrared reflective vegetation, and massed works of man. The system must also be able to process data from a wide variety of sources.

  8. Low Speed Control for Automatic Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iceland, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    Amplifier module allows rotating positioner of automatic welding machine to operate at speeds below normal range. Low speeds are precisely regulated by a servomechanism as are normal-range speeds. Addition of module to standard welding machine makes it unnecessary to purchase new equipment for low-speed welding.

  9. Automatic speech recognition in air traffic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlsson, Joakim

    1990-01-01

    Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) technology and its application to the Air Traffic Control system are described. The advantages of applying ASR to Air Traffic Control, as well as criteria for choosing a suitable ASR system are presented. Results from previous research and directions for future work at the Flight Transportation Laboratory are outlined.

  10. 42 CFR 407.17 - Automatic enrollment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) ENROLLMENT AND ENTITLEMENT Individual Enrollment and Entitlement for SMI... enrolled for SMI if he or she: (1) Resides in the United States, except in Puerto Rico; (2) Becomes... chapter; and (3) Does not decline SMI enrollment. (b) Opportunity to decline automatic enrollment. (1)...

  11. Multiple Regression Analysis and Automatic Interaction Detection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koplyay, Janos B.

    The Automatic Interaction Detector (AID) is discussed as to its usefulness in multiple regression analysis. The algorithm of AID-4 is a reversal of the model building process; it starts with the ultimate restricted model, namely, the whole group as a unit. By a unique splitting process maximizing the between sum of squares for the categories of…

  12. A Statistical Approach to Automatic Speech Summarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, Chiori; Furui, Sadaoki; Malkin, Rob; Yu, Hua; Waibel, Alex

    2003-12-01

    This paper proposes a statistical approach to automatic speech summarization. In our method, a set of words maximizing a summarization score indicating the appropriateness of summarization is extracted from automatically transcribed speech and then concatenated to create a summary. The extraction process is performed using a dynamic programming (DP) technique based on a target compression ratio. In this paper, we demonstrate how an English news broadcast transcribed by a speech recognizer is automatically summarized. We adapted our method, which was originally proposed for Japanese, to English by modifying the model for estimating word concatenation probabilities based on a dependency structure in the original speech given by a stochastic dependency context free grammar (SDCFG). We also propose a method of summarizing multiple utterances using a two-level DP technique. The automatically summarized sentences are evaluated by summarization accuracy based on a comparison with a manual summary of speech that has been correctly transcribed by human subjects. Our experimental results indicate that the method we propose can effectively extract relatively important information and remove redundant and irrelevant information from English news broadcasts.

  13. Automatic Assessment of 3D Modeling Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanna, A.; Lamberti, F.; Paravati, G.; Demartini, C.

    2012-01-01

    Computer-based assessment of exams provides teachers and students with two main benefits: fairness and effectiveness in the evaluation process. This paper proposes a fully automatic evaluation tool for the Graphic and Virtual Design (GVD) curriculum at the First School of Architecture of the Politecnico di Torino, Italy. In particular, the tool is…

  14. Automatic Pilot For Flight-Test Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Eugene L.; Jones, Frank P.; Roncoli, Ralph B.

    1992-01-01

    Autopilot replaces pilot during automatic maneuvers. Pilot, based on ground, flies aircraft to required altitude, then turns control over to autopilot. Increases quality of maneuvers significantly beyond that attainable through remote manual control by pilot on ground. Also increases quality of maneuvers because it performs maneuvers faster than pilot could and because it does not have to repeat poorly executed maneuvers.

  15. 28 CFR 17.28 - Automatic declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 17.28 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND... through the Department Security Officer of any specific information they propose to exempt from automatic... information exempted does not identify a confidential human source or human intelligence source. (c)...

  16. 28 CFR 17.28 - Automatic declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 17.28 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND... through the Department Security Officer of any specific information they propose to exempt from automatic... information exempted does not identify a confidential human source or human intelligence source. (c)...

  17. Laser tracking system with automatic reacquisition capability.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R E; Weiss, P F

    1968-06-01

    A laser based tracking system is described that has the capability of automatically performing an acquisition search to locate the target. This work is intended for precision launch phase tracking of the Saturn V launch vehicle. System tracking accuracies limited only by the atmosphere have been demonstrated, as has acquisition over a 1 degrees x 1 degrees field of view.

  18. Automatic thermographic image defect detection of composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Bin; Liebenberg, Bjorn; Raymont, Jeff; Santospirito, SP

    2011-05-01

    Detecting defects, and especially reliably measuring defect sizes, are critical objectives in automatic NDT defect detection applications. In this work, the Sentence software is proposed for the analysis of pulsed thermography and near IR images of composite materials. Furthermore, the Sentence software delivers an end-to-end, user friendly platform for engineers to perform complete manual inspections, as well as tools that allow senior engineers to develop inspection templates and profiles, reducing the requisite thermographic skill level of the operating engineer. Finally, the Sentence software can also offer complete independence of operator decisions by the fully automated "Beep on Defect" detection functionality. The end-to-end automatic inspection system includes sub-systems for defining a panel profile, generating an inspection plan, controlling a robot-arm and capturing thermographic images to detect defects. A statistical model has been built to analyze the entire image, evaluate grey-scale ranges, import sentencing criteria and automatically detect impact damage defects. A full width half maximum algorithm has been used to quantify the flaw sizes. The identified defects are imported into the sentencing engine which then sentences (automatically compares analysis results against acceptance criteria) the inspection by comparing the most significant defect or group of defects against the inspection standards.

  19. Second-Generation Automatic Problem Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Ronald L.

    2006-01-01

    Recent years have seen widespread adoption of automatic grading of physics homework problems. Although first-generation homework management systems provide feedback and assign scores based only on the answers, problem-solving performance on exams seems to be no worse for students using these systems than for those who receive detailed comments…

  20. 12 CFR 925.4 - Automatic membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK MEMBERS AND HOUSING ASSOCIATES... for certain charter conversions. An insured depository institution member that converts from one charter type to another automatically shall become a member of the Bank of which the...

  1. An automatic bridge for inductive voltage dividers

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, P.; Liang, C.P.; Hsiao, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    We describe an automatic, injection-type bridge for inductive voltage divider (IVD) applications at low audio frequencies. We used it to self-calibrate programmable IVDs fabricated in house, by an automated {open_quotes}boot-strap{close_quotes} procedure. It is the heart of our reference standard for ac voltage ratios as well as a calibration system for IVDs.

  2. 32 CFR 2001.30 - Automatic declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provisions of the National Security Act of 1947, as amended, shall be referred to the Department of Energy... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Automatic declassification. 2001.30 Section 2001.30 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY...

  3. 32 CFR 2001.30 - Automatic declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provisions of the National Security Act of 1947, as amended, shall be referred to the Department of Energy... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic declassification. 2001.30 Section 2001.30 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY...

  4. 32 CFR 2001.30 - Automatic declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provisions of the National Security Act of 1947, as amended, shall be referred to the Department of Energy... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Automatic declassification. 2001.30 Section 2001.30 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY...

  5. 32 CFR 2001.30 - Automatic declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provisions of the National Security Act of 1947, as amended, shall be referred to the Department of Energy... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Automatic declassification. 2001.30 Section 2001.30 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY...

  6. 32 CFR 2001.30 - Automatic declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provisions of the National Security Act of 1947, as amended, shall be referred to the Department of Energy... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Automatic declassification. 2001.30 Section 2001.30 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY...

  7. Automatic Activation of Exercise and Sedentary Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Tanya; Spence, John C.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the automatic activation of "sedentary" and "exerciser" stereotypes using a social prime Stroop task. Results showed significantly slower response times between the exercise words and the exercise control words and between the sedentary words and the exercise control words when preceded by an attractive exerciser prime. Words preceded…

  8. Handwriting Automaticity: The Search for Performance Thresholds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medwell, Jane; Wray, David

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that handwriting has an important role in written composition. In particular, handwriting automaticity appears to relate to success in composition. This relationship has been little explored in British contexts and we currently have little idea of what threshold performance levels might be. In this paper, we report on two…

  9. 38 CFR 51.31 - Automatic recognition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in... that already is recognized by VA as a State home for nursing home care at the time this part becomes effective, automatically will continue to be recognized as a State home for nursing home care but will...

  10. 38 CFR 51.31 - Automatic recognition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in... that already is recognized by VA as a State home for nursing home care at the time this part becomes effective, automatically will continue to be recognized as a State home for nursing home care but will...

  11. 38 CFR 51.31 - Automatic recognition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in... that already is recognized by VA as a State home for nursing home care at the time this part becomes effective, automatically will continue to be recognized as a State home for nursing home care but will...

  12. 38 CFR 51.31 - Automatic recognition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in... that already is recognized by VA as a State home for nursing home care at the time this part becomes effective, automatically will continue to be recognized as a State home for nursing home care but will...

  13. 38 CFR 51.31 - Automatic recognition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in... that already is recognized by VA as a State home for nursing home care at the time this part becomes effective, automatically will continue to be recognized as a State home for nursing home care but will...

  14. Automatic TLI recognition system beta prototype testing

    SciTech Connect

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the beta prototype automatic target recognition system ATR3, and some performance tests done with this system. This is a fully operational system, with a high computational speed. It is useful for findings any kind of target in digitized image data, and as a general purpose image analysis tool.

  15. A Method for Automatically Abstracting Visual Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rorvig, Mark E.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a method for automatically selecting key frames that can be used to represent the total image sequence of visual documents. An abstracting algorithm developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is explained, and extensive examples of abstracted motion sequences are presented. (eight references) (LRW)

  16. MARZ: Manual and automatic redshifting software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinton, S. R.; Davis, Tamara M.; Lidman, C.; Glazebrook, K.; Lewis, G. F.

    2016-04-01

    The Australian Dark Energy Survey (OzDES) is a 100-night spectroscopic survey underway on the Anglo-Australian Telescope using the fibre-fed 2-degree-field (2dF) spectrograph. We have developed a new redshifting application MARZ with greater usability, flexibility, and the capacity to analyse a wider range of object types than the RUNZ software package previously used for redshifting spectra from 2dF. MARZ is an open-source, client-based, Javascript web-application which provides an intuitive interface and powerful automatic matching capabilities on spectra generated from the AAOmega spectrograph to produce high quality spectroscopic redshift measurements. The software can be run interactively or via the command line, and is easily adaptable to other instruments and pipelines if conforming to the current FITS file standard is not possible. Behind the scenes, a modified version of the AUTOZ cross-correlation algorithm is used to match input spectra against a variety of stellar and galaxy templates, and automatic matching performance for OzDES spectra has increased from 54% (RUNZ) to 91% (MARZ). Spectra not matched correctly by the automatic algorithm can be easily redshifted manually by cycling automatic results, manual template comparison, or marking spectral features.

  17. Automatization of Student Assessment Using Multimedia Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taniar, David; Rahayu, Wenny

    Most use of multimedia technology in teaching and learning to date has emphasized the teaching aspect only. An application of multimedia in examinations has been neglected. This paper addresses how multimedia technology can be applied to the automatization of assessment, by proposing a prototype of a multimedia question bank, which is able to…

  18. Grammatically-Based Automatic Word Class Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschman, Lynette; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Describes an automatic procedure which uses the syntactic relations as the basis for grouping words into classes. It forms classes by grouping together nouns that occur as subject (or object) of the same verbs, and similarly by grouping together verbs occurring with the same subject or object. (Author)

  19. A Semi-Automatic Variability Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewski, G.; Niedzielski, A.

    Technical features of the Semi-Automatic Variability Search (SAVS) operating at the Astronomical Observatory of the Nicolaus Copernicus University and the results of the first year of observations are presented. The user-friendly software developed for reduction of acquired CCD images and detection of new variable stars is also described.

  20. Young Children's Automatic Encoding of Social Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisman, Kara; Johnson, Marissa V.; Shutts, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The present research investigated young children's automatic encoding of two social categories that are highly relevant to adults: gender and race. Three- to 6-year-old participants learned facts about unfamiliar target children who varied in either gender or race and were asked to remember which facts went with which targets. When participants…