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Sample records for eosinophil specific ige

  1. Atopy, IgE and eosinophilic cationic protein concentration, specific IgE positivity, eosinophil count in cutaneous T Cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Kural, Yasemin Balsever; Su, Ozlem; Onsun, Nahide; Uras, Ahmet Riza

    2010-04-01

    Even though several case studies have reported a relationship between Cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma (CTCL) and atopic diathesis, this association is still controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the actual presence of atopic status in CTCL patients. A total of 78 patients with both clinical and histological features typical of CTCL and 77 control cases from our outpatient dermatology clinic were included in this study. After initial evaluation and staging, all patients were investigated for history of atopic disease, serum total IgE and eosinophil cationic protein concentration (ECP), eosinophil count, serum specific IgE, and skin prick test positivity. Personal atopy in CTCL group was 23,1% (n = 18) and familial atopy was 9.0% (n = 7) whereas in the control group, these values were 11.7% (n = 9) and 7.8% (n = 6), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference, however, the number of atopic patients were higher in CTCL group than the control group (p = 0.151). Serum total IgE levels were significantly increased in patients with CTCL when compared to control group (p = 0.04). Serum specific IgE panel and prick test positivity between patients and controls were significantly different, respectively (p = 0. 03) (p = 0. 00). Eosinophil counts and ECP levels were not significantly different, respectively (p = 0.10) (p = 0.885). In high stages of CTCL, patients were found to have elevated IgE, ECP levels and eosinophil count. These results were statistically significant (p = 0.011) (p = 0.009) (p = 0.007). Eventhough the number of patients with atopy in the CTCL group was higher than the control cases, there was no significant different. On the other hand high levels of serum IgE, elevated eosinophil count and specific IgE positivity may be found in CTCL patients with or without atopic disease, especially with high stages.

  2. Reflections on current food allergy controversies: specific IgE test application, patch testing, eosinophilic esophagitis, and probiotics.

    PubMed

    Bahna, Sami L

    2008-01-01

    This presentation addresses four selected issues that are current controversies in the area of food allergy. First, the diagnostic proficiency of specific IgE (sIgE) measurement. sIgE testing has been a useful screening test; the higher the level, the more likely to be clinically relevant. However, published predictive values varied from one study to another. Levels derived from data on certain groups of patients reflect probabilities that can not be applied with certainty to individual patients. Several factors need to be considered in interpreting the value of sIgE in any particular patient. Definitive decisions require well-designed challenge testing. Second, a few studies suggested the usefulness of including patch testing in food allergy evaluation. It may reveal positive results that may or may not be clinically relevant. At present, its use is not generally accepted because of inconsistency in the reported findings and the lack of standardization of test materials and interpretation. It may possibly have a role in evaluating eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) more than in atopic dermatitis. Third, EE does not seem to be a new disease or is causing a miniepidemic. Its increasing diagnosis is probably because of a greater awareness and better biopsy assessment. Fourth, the usefulness of probiotics on allergy prevention or treatment has been reported by some studies but not by others. Appropriately designed studies are needed to identify the efficacious type(s) of probiotics, effective doses, method of administration, optimal time to begin, and duration of therapy.

  3. Cut-off values of serum IgE (total and A. fumigatus -specific) and eosinophil count in differentiating allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis from asthma.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ritesh; Aggarwal, Ashutosh N; Garg, Mandeep; Saikia, Biman; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke

    2014-11-01

    The cut-off values of immunological tests employed in diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) have never been validated. Herein, we compare the immunological findings in patients with ABPA and asthma using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Consecutive asthmatic subjects underwent all the following investigations: Aspergillus skin test, IgE levels (total and A. fumigatus-specific), Aspergillus precipitins, eosinophil count, chest radiograph and CT chest. There were 372 subjects (179 men, mean age 35.9 years) with a mean asthma duration of 8 years. ABPA was diagnosed in 76 patients (64 bronchiectasis, 12 without bronchiectasis). ABPA was separated from asthma using the best cut-off values of total IgE, A. fumigatus IgE and total eosinophil count of 2347 IU ml(-1) , 1.91 kUA l(-1) and 507 cells per μl respectively. The sensitivity/specificity of these parameters were 87/81%; 99/87%; and, 79/76% respectively. The corresponding AUC values were 0.95, 0.90 and 0.82 respectively. The combination of these three tests at the aforementioned cut-offs provided 100% specificity. Our study provides evidence-based cut-off values of IgE (total and A. fumigatus-specific) and eosinophil counts in differentiating ABPA from asthma. As this is a single centre retrospective study, further studies from different centres are required, as these values could vary by ethnicity and environmental exposure. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Human eosinophils express the high affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI, in bullous pemphigoid.

    PubMed

    Messingham, Kelly N; Holahan, Heather M; Frydman, Alexandra S; Fullenkamp, Colleen; Srikantha, Rupasree; Fairley, Janet A

    2014-01-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering disease mediated by autoantibodies targeting BP180 (type XVII collagen). Patient sera and tissues typically have IgG and IgE autoantibodies and elevated eosinophil numbers. Although the pathogenicity of the IgE autoantibodies is established in BP, their contribution to the disease process is not well understood. Our aims were two-fold: 1) To establish the clinical relationships between total and BP180-specific IgE, eosinophilia and other markers of disease activity; and 2) To determine if eosinophils from BP patients express the high affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI, as a potential mechanism of action for IgE in BP. Our analysis of 48 untreated BP patients revealed a correlation between BP180 IgG and both BP180 IgE and peripheral eosinophil count. Additionally, we established a correlation between total IgE concentration and both BP180 IgE levels and eosinophil count. When only sera from patients (n = 16) with total IgE ≥ 400 IU/ml were analyzed, BP180 IgG levels correlated with disease severity, BP230 IgG, total circulating IgE and BP180 IgE. Finally, peripheral eosinophil count correlated more strongly with levels of BP180 IgE then with BP180 IgG. Next, eosinophil FcεRI expression was investigated in the blood and skin using several methods. Peripheral eosinophils from BP patients expressed mRNA for all three chains (α, β and γ) of the FcεRI. Surface expression of the FcεRIα was confirmed on both peripheral and tissue eosinophils from most BP patients by immunostaining. Furthermore, using a proximity ligation assay, interaction of the α- and β-chains of the FcεRI was observed in some biopsy specimens, suggesting tissue expression of the trimeric receptor form in some patients. These studies provide clinical support for the relevance of IgE in BP disease and provide one mechanism of action of these antibodies, via binding to the FcεRI on eosinophils.

  5. Increased local IgE production induced by common aeroallergens and phenotypic alteration of mast cells in Chinese eosinophilic, but not non-eosinophilic, chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Ping-Ping; Zhang, Ya-Na; Liao, Bo; Ma, Jin; Wang, Bao-Feng; Wang, Heng; Zeng, Ming; Liu, Wei-Hong; Schleimer, Robert P.; Liu, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) display distinct patterns of inflammation. However, the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the heterogeneity of CRSwNP need further investigation. Objective To investigate local immunoglobulin E (IgE) production and phenotype of mast cells in eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic CRSwNP in Chinese. Methods Total and specific IgE levels were analyzed by means of the ImmunoCAP system. The molecular steps involved in class switch recombination to IgE were investigated using RT-PCR assays. Mast cell phenotypes, IgE- and high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI)-positive cells, and allergen binding to specific IgE in sinonasal mucosa were determined by means of immunohistochemistry. Results Compared with controls and non-eosinophilic CRSwNP, local total IgE levels were increased, and local specific IgE to common aeroallergens was more frequently found, in Chinese eosinophilic CRSwNP independent of atopy and without significant association with Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins. The ε germline gene transcript was also more frequently detected in eosinophilic CRSwNP. The number of IgE- and FcεRI-positive cells was increased in eosinophilic CRSwNP. Most IgE- and FcεRI-positive cells were mast cells. Dust mite antigens could bind to IgE on mast cells in situ. The number of mast cells positive for both tryptase and chymase and activated mast cells was increased in eosinophilic CRSwNP and the number of activated mast cells positively correlated with local IgE level, eotaxin-1 level, and eosinophil count in CRSwNP. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance The local IgE induced by common aeroallergens may mediate mast cell activation and contribute to subsequent eosinophilic inflammation in Chinese CRSwNP. This study offers a rationale for considering intervention strategies designed to target “local allergy” in eosinophilic CRSwNP. PMID:24597471

  6. Functional study of a monoclonal antibody to IgE Fc receptor (Fc epsilon R2) of eosinophils, platelets, and macrophages

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    An IgM mAb (BB10) was produced by immunization of mice with human eosinophils purified according to their abnormal low density ("hypodense" cells), and previously shown to exhibit increased IgE- dependent antiparasite cytotoxicity. This BB10 antibody, selected for positive fluorescence staining of hypodense blood or lung eosinophils and low or negative staining of normodense eosinophils or neutrophils, could strongly inhibit IgE-dependent cytotoxicity of human eosinophils and platelets. The specificity for the IgE Fc receptor was suggested by the high levels of inhibition of IgE rosettes formed by eosinophils after incubation with the purified IgM fraction of BB10, whereas other receptors (Fc gamma R, CR1) were not affected. On the other hand, BB10, able to inhibit rat eosinophil Fc epsilon R, did not react with the IgE Fc receptor on mast cells or basophils. A technique using radioiodinated BB10 allowed us to quantify the specific binding of BB10 to human eosinophils and platelets. Competition experiments revealed a crossinhibition between the binding of BB10 and IgE, suggesting the specificity of BB10 for the IgE binding site of eosinophil, platelet, and monocyte Fc epsilon R. Three proteins having extrapolated Mr of 32,000, 43,000-45,000, and 97,000 were found in the platelet extract eluted from a BB10 or from an IgE immunosorbent column. These findings confirm the similarities between IgE Fc receptors on human eosinophils, platelets, and macrophages, already observed with polyclonal antibodies directed against the B lymphocyte Fc epsilon receptor. They suggest, moreover, that the mAb BB10 can represent a good reagent for further investigations on the structure and the functions of this IgE Fc receptor (Fc epsilon R2). PMID:2425032

  7. The correlation of serum eosinophil cationic protein level with eosinophil count, and total IgE level in Korean adult allergic rhinitis patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuhong; Wu, Rong; Tian, Yian; Bao, Tianping; Tian, Zhaofang

    2016-12-01

    Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) is present in eosinophil granules. It has been associated with eosinophil-associated disorders. We compared serum ECP levels in allergic and non-allergic rhinitis patients and evaluated the association with the eosinophil count and the total IgE level. We retrospectively reviewed medical records and categorized enrolled patients into the allergic (AR) and non-allergic rhinitis (NAR) groups. ECP, eosinophil count, and total IgE levels were reviewed in both groups. The association between ECP and the eosinophil count and total IgE level was further evaluated according to commonly detected specific antigens. Six hundred and ten adults were included in the study. In the AR group (n=349), the median age was 27.0(23.0-42.0) years and the female:male ratio was 0.26:1. In the NAR group (n=261), the median age was 32.0(24.0-45.5) years and the female:male ratio was 0.33:1. We found that ECP (AR: 18.8(9.9-31.4), NAR: 14.8(8.2-24.9), p=0.003), eosinophil count (AR: 191.0(112.0-308.5), NAR: 149.0(91.0-249.0), p=0.002) and total IgE (AR: 166.0(58.4-422.5), NAR: 68.8(24.5-141.0), p<0.001) were higher in AR than in NAR patients. The ECP level was associated with the eosinophil count in both the AR (p<0.001) and NAR groups (p<0.001). A significant correlation between the ECP level and eosinophil count was demonstrated in AR patients who were skin test positive against house dust mite, animal and pollen allergens. We suggest that ECP could be an important mediator in the pathogenesis of AR. The level of serum ECP was positively correlated with eosinophilia in AR patients regardless of the type of allergen sensitization. However, further study is warranted to verify the role of ECP in the clinical management of allergic rhinitis.

  8. Intrathecal synthesis of IgE in children with eosinophilic meningoencephalitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis

    PubMed Central

    Padilla-Docal, Barbara; Dorta-Contreras, Alberto J; Bu-Coifiu-Fanego, Raisa; Hernández, Hermes Fundora; Barroso, Jesús Callol; Sanchez-Martinez, Consuelo

    2008-01-01

    Background Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis caused by the helminth Angiostrongylus cantonensis, is an emerging infectious disease in America. The objective of this paper was to determine if the intrathecal synthesis of immunoglobulin E is produced during the acute phase of the disease. Methods Thirteen patients, mean age 4.5 years were studied; a diagnostic lumbar puncture was performed and serum samples taken. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) in serum and in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was quantified by nephelometry. Control patients had other infections or other neurological diseases. Results The mean cell count in the CSF was 500 × 10-6 cells/L and of these 23% were eosinophils. In blood the eosinophils were 13%. The chief symptoms of the patients were migraine, vomiting and fever and 50% presented some meningeal signs. IgE intrathecal synthesis analyzed by the corresponding quotient diagram (Reibergram) was observed in all patients. No intrathecal IgE synthesis was seen in control patients. Conclusion Intrathecal synthesis of IgE demonstrates the participation of this immunoglobulin in the destruction of the third stage larvae of the parasite in the CSF. The test should be considered in our environment as a tool to aid diagnosis. PMID:19032790

  9. Staphylococcal enterotoxin IgE sensitization in late-onset severe eosinophilic asthma in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Song, W-J; Sintobin, I; Sohn, K-H; Kang, M-G; Park, H-K; Jo, E-J; Lee, S-E; Yang, M-S; Kim, S-H; Park, H-K; Kwon, Y E; Kim, T-B; Kim, S-H; Park, H-W; Chang, Y-S; Lee, B-J; Jee, Y-K; Choi, B W; Bachert, C; Cho, S-H

    2016-03-01

    Asthma in the elderly (aged ≥ 65 years old) is a significant concern with high morbidity, but the pathophysiology remains unclear particularly in late-onset asthma. Recent studies suggest staphylococcal enterotoxin IgE (SE-IgE) sensitization to be a risk factor for asthma in general populations; however, the associations have not been examined in late-onset elderly asthma. We aimed to examine the associations of SE-IgE sensitization with late-onset asthma in the elderly, using a database of elderly asthma cohort study. A total of 249 elderly patients with asthma and 98 controls were analysed. At baseline, patients were assessed for demographics, atopy, induced sputum profiles and comorbidities including chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Serum total IgE and SE-IgE levels were measured. Asthma severity was assessed on the basis of asthma outcomes during a 12-month follow-up period. At baseline, serum SE-IgE concentrations were significantly higher in patients with asthma than in controls [median 0.16 (interquartile range 0.04-0.53) vs. 0.10 (0.01-0.19), P < 0.001]. Elderly asthma patients with high SE-IgE levels had specific characteristics of having more severe asthma, sputum eosinophilia and CRS, compared to those with lower SE-IgE levels. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, the associations between serum SE-IgE concentrations and severe asthma were significant, independently of covariables [SE-IgE-high (≥ 0.35 kU/L) vs. negative (< 0.10 kU/L) group: odds ratio 7.47, 95% confidence interval 1.86-30.03, P = 0.005]. Multiple correspondence analyses also showed that high serum SE-IgE level had close relationships with severe asthma, CRS and sputum eosinophilia together. This is the first report on the significant associations of SE-IgE sensitization with late-onset asthma in the elderly, particularly severe eosinophilic asthma with CRS comorbidity. Our findings indicate a potential implication of SE in the high morbidity burden of elderly asthma and suggest

  10. Rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in wheezing children requiring emergency care. IgE and eosinophil analyses.

    PubMed

    Rakes, G P; Arruda, E; Ingram, J M; Hoover, G E; Zambrano, J C; Hayden, F G; Platts-Mills, T A; Heymann, P W

    1999-03-01

    This cross-sectional emergency department study of 70 wheezing children and 59 control subjects (2 mo to 16 yr of age) examined the prevalence of respiratory viruses and their relationship to age, atopic status, and eosinophil markers. Nasal washes were cultured for respiratory viruses, assayed for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) antigen, and tested for coronavirus and rhinovirus RNA using reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Also evaluated were eosinophil numbers and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in both nasal washes and serum, along with total IgE and specific IgE antibody in serum. Respiratory viruses were detected in 82% (18 of 22) of wheezing infants younger than 2 yr of age and in 83% (40 of 48) of older wheezing children. The predominant pathogens were RSV in infants (detected in 68% of wheezing subjects) and rhinovirus in older wheezing children (71%), and both were strongly associated with wheezing (p < 0.005). RSV was largely limited to wheezing children younger than 24 mo of age, but rhinovirus was detected by RT-PCR in 41% of all infants and in 35% of nonwheezing control subjects older than 2 yr of age. After 2 yr of age the strongest odds for wheezing were observed among those who had a positive RT-PCR test for rhinovirus together with a positive serum radioallergosorbent testing (RAST), nasal eosinophilia, or elevated nasal ECP (odds ratios = 17, 21, and 25, respectively). Results from this study demonstrate that a large majority of emergent wheezing illnesses during childhood (2 to 16 yr of age) can be linked to infection with rhinovirus, and that these wheezing attacks are most likely in those who have rhinovirus together with evidence of atopy or eosinophilic airway inflammation.

  11. Serum IgE and eosinophil count in allergic rhinitis--analysis using a modified Bayes' theorem.

    PubMed

    Demirjian, M; Rumbyrt, J S; Gowda, V C; Klaustermeyer, W B

    2012-01-01

    To use probability theory to establish threshold values for total serum IgE and eosinophil counts that support a diagnosis of allergic rhinitis and to compare our results with previously published data. Prospective study of rhinitis patients using a modified version of Bayes' theorem. Study included 125 patients at the West Los Angeles VA Medical Center diagnosed with rhinitis who completed allergy consultation and immediate hypersensitivity skin testing. Eighty-nine of 125 patients were atopic by prick and/or intradermal skin testing. Using a modified version of Bayes' theorem and positive and negative probability weights, calculations for different thresholds of serum IgE and eosinophil counts were summated and a posttest probability for atopy was calculated. Calculated posttest probabilities varied according to the threshold used to determine a positive or negative test; however, IgE thresholds greater than 140IU/ml and eosinophil counts greater that 80cells/ml were found to have a high probability of predicting atopy in patients with rhinitis. Moreover, IgE had a greater influence than eosinophil count in determining posttest probability of allergy in this population. Considerable differences were noted in the IgE levels of atopic and non-atopic patients, including those with asthma or a history of smoking. However, these differences were not observed with eosinophil levels. Using a modified version of Bayes' theorem to determine posttest probability, IgE threshold levels greater than 140IU/ml and eosinophil counts greater than 80cells/ml in an individual with clinical signs and symptoms of rhinitis are likely to correlate with an atopic aetiology. This model of probability may be helpful in evaluating individuals for diagnostic skin testing and certain types of allergy-modifying treatment. Copyright © 2011 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Specific IgE of common foods in Chinese children with eczema.

    PubMed

    Hon, Kam L E; Chan, Iris H-S; Chow, Chung-Mo; Wang, Shuxin S; Lam, Christopher W-K; Ng, Pak-Cheung; Leung, Ting-fan

    2011-02-01

    Food atopy is important but inadequately studied among children with atopic dermatitis (AD). We evaluated whether any association existed between AD severity, quality of life, total IgE, eosinophil counts, and the number of food items sensitized. Specific IgE of ten common food items was measured for a group of consecutive AD patients (n=85) enrolled during a randomized trial and correlated the findings with eczema severity. Twenty-four patients (28%) were negative for any of the ten common food items. The most commonly sensitized foods were shrimp (54%), egg white (43%), wheat (42%), and peanut (41%). Atopy to beef as a protein and orange as a fruit were least common among the food items studied, even among patients positive for 8-9 IgE items. Patients with severe AD (objective SCORAD>40) were more likely to be positive for at least one of the food items (Yates corrected p=0.024 for ≥1 food-specific IgE in severe vs. moderate AD, OR 3.42 and 95% CI 1.15-10.32); and for at least seven of the food items (p=0.001 for ≥7 food-specific IgE vs. nil with OR 11.67 and 95% CI 2.29-67.77), respectively. The Spearman coefficients between the number of positive food-specific IgE and total SCORAD, objective SCORAD, area of AD involvement, Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI), total IgE levels, and eosinophil counts were 0.42 (p<0.001), 0.45 (p<0.001), 0.50 (p<0.001), 0.17 (p=0.116), 0.80 (p<0.001), and 0.22 (p=0.043), respectively. Specific IgE levels for beef correlated with all the other food-specific IgE levels, including cow's milk (ρ=0.061, p<0.001) and soy (ρ=0.70, p<0.001). The number of common food items sensitized correlated with disease severity, extent, and total IgE levels. IgE sensitization to beef protein is unlikely in the majority of children with AD, but its serum IgE level is associated with disease severity and risk of sensitization to other foods. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. IgE basement membrane zone antibodies induce eosinophil infiltration and histological blisters in engrafted human skin on SCID mice.

    PubMed

    Zone, John J; Taylor, Ted; Hull, Christopher; Schmidt, Linda; Meyer, Laurence

    2007-05-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is characterized by the deposition of IgG in the basement membrane zone, infiltration of eosinophils, and blister formation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a potential role of IgE basement membrane antibodies in the histological findings of BP. LABD97 is a component of the shed ectodomain of bullous pemphigoid antigen 2. We have developed an IgE hybridoma to LABD97 antigen. This hybridoma was injected subcutaneously in SCID mice with engrafted human skin. A subcutaneous hybridoma secreting IgE antibodies developed. An IgE mouse hybridoma to trinitrophenyl was used as a control. Human grafts and mouse skin were examined grossly over 21 days, histologically, and immunopathologically at day 21 after injection of the hybridoma. A visible subcutaneous tumor developed in 10-14 days. Erythema and intense scratching developed 2-3 days before the tumor in test mice, but not in controls. At day 21, 16/16 test mice developed intense eosinophil infiltration and degranulation of the human mast cells within the grafts and 13/16 developed histological, but not clinically visible, basement membrane blisters. Human skin grafts of control mice and normal mouse skin on the test mice and control mice did not develop any histological abnormalities. IgE antibodies to LABD97 recapitulate the histological inflammatory process seen in BP.

  14. Enhanced expression of neuropeptide S (NPS) receptor in eosinophils from severe asthmatics and subjects with total IgE above 100IU/ml.

    PubMed

    Ilmarinen, Pinja; James, Anna; Moilanen, Eeva; Pulkkinen, Ville; Daham, Kameran; Saarelainen, Seppo; Laitinen, Tarja; Dahlén, Sven-Erik; Kere, Juha; Dahlén, Barbro; Kankaanranta, Hannu

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophils are inflammatory cells of particular relevance to asthma exacerbations. Neuropeptide S (NPS) receptor was identified in a search for asthma susceptibility genes, where the risk haplotypes of the NPS receptor gene associated with total serum IgE above 100IU/ml and asthma. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare expression of NPS receptor in human peripheral blood eosinophils derived from subjects with total serum IgE above and below 100IU/ml and patients with different phenotypes of asthma. Additionally, we aimed to study the function of NPS receptor in human eosinophils. We found higher NPS receptor protein expression in eosinophils derived from subjects with high IgE when compared to those from subjects with low IgE and the level of NPS receptor positively correlated with serum IgE. NPS receptor expression was also higher in eosinophils from patients with severe asthma than in cells from mild asthmatics or healthy controls. The receptor agonist NPS was a chemotactic agent for eosinophils. NPS also increased N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-stimulated CD11b integrin levels in eosinophils from subjects with high IgE. Furthermore, eosinophils from those subjects exhibited Ca(2+) mobilization but not cAMP rise in response to NPS. Altogether, NPS receptor may have a pathological role in individuals with severe asthma and/or elevated serum IgE levels as eosinophils from these patients express higher levels of NPS receptor protein and respond to NPS by enhanced migration and adhesion molecule expression.

  15. Use of AN Eosinophil Specific Monoclonal Antibody in Assessing Eosinophil Function.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minkoff, Marjorie Sue

    A monoclonal antibody to an eosinophil specific determinant is very important in assessing eosinophil function during helminthic infection. Eosinophils induced by Schistosoma mansoni infection in BALB/c mice were used to induce C57B1/6 immunocytes for production of hybridomas secreting eosinophil monoclonal antibodies. These antibodies were shown to react with an eosinophil surface epitope but not with neutrophils or macrophages as determined by ELISA, immunodiffusion, immunofluorescence, and immunoblot assay. Affinity chromatography with eosinophil chemotactic factor-sepharose consistently selected out a { rm M_ R} 67,000 protein from solubilized eosinophil membrane antigens but not from neutrophil and macrophage antigens. In vitro studies showed that the eosinophil-specific monoclonal antibodies abrogated antibody-dependent eosinophil -mediated killing of S. mansoni schistosomula using mouse, rat or human eosinophils. Neutrophil and macrophage killing activities were unaffected. The monoclonal antibodies effected complement-dependent lysis of mouse and rat eosinophils but not of human eosinophils. ECF-treated eosinophils showed enhanced killing of schistosomula which was blocked by the monoclonal antibody. Murine and human eosinophils preincubated with monoclonal antibody exhibited decreased chemotaxis to ECF at optimal chemotactic concentrations. The monoclonal antibody also blocked eosinophil binding to ECF- sepharose beads. In vivo induction of peripheral blood eosinophilia by injection of S. mansoni eggs was suppressed by injections of monoclonal antibodies 2CD13 and 2QD45 in mouse and rat experimental models. Eosinophilia induced by keyhole limpet hemocyanin- cyclophosphamide treatment was also suppressed by monoclonal antibody in both murine and rat systems. Pulmonary granulomas in mice given egg injection and monoclonal antibody were smaller and contained fewer eosinophils than those granulomas from mice given eggs only. In immuno-biochemical studies, the

  16. Increases in IgE, Eosinophils, and Mast Cells Can be Used in Diagnosis and to Predict Relapse of IgG4-Related Disease.

    PubMed

    Culver, Emma L; Sadler, Ross; Bateman, Adrian C; Makuch, Mateusz; Cargill, Tamsin; Ferry, Berne; Aalberse, Rob; Barnes, Eleanor; Rispens, Theo

    2017-09-01

    IgG subclass 4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is characterized by increased serum levels of IgG4 and infiltration of biliary, pancreatic, and other tissues by IgG4-positive plasma cells. We assessed the prevalence of allergy and/or atopy, serum, and tissue IgE antibodies, and blood and tissue eosinophils in patients with IgG4-RD. We investigated the association between serum IgE and diagnosis and relapse of this disease. We performed a prospective study of 48 patients with IgG4-RD, 42 patients with an increased serum level of IgG4 with other inflammatory and autoimmune conditions (disease control subjects), and 51 healthy individuals (healthy control subjects) recruited from Oxford, United Kingdom from March 2010 through March 2014, and followed for a median of 41 months (range, 3-73 months). Serum levels of immunoglobulin were measured at diagnosis, during steroid treatment, and at disease relapse for patients with IgG4-RD; levels at diagnosis were compared with baseline levels of control subjects. Allergen-specific IgEs were measured using the IgE ImmunoCAP. Levels and distribution of IgG4 and IgE antibodies in lymphoid, biliary, and pancreatic tissues from patients with IgG4-RD and disease control subjects were measured by immunohistochemistry. We analyzed data using the Spearman rank correlation and receiver operating characteristic curves. Serum levels of IgG4 increased to 1.4 g/L or more, and IgE increased to 125 kIU/L or more, in 81% and 54% of patients with IgG4-RD, respectively, compared with 6% and 16% of healthy control subjects (P < .0001). Peripheral blood eosinophilia was detected in 38% of patients with IgG4-RD versus 9% of healthy control subjects (P = .004). Of patients with IgG4-RD, 63% had a history of allergy and 40% had a history of atopy with an IgE-specific response; these values were 60% and 53% in patients with increased serum levels of IgE (P < .05). Level of IgE at diagnosis >480 kIU/L distinguished patients with IgG4-RD from disease control

  17. Specific IgE response in patients with brucellosis.

    PubMed Central

    Araj, G. F.; Lulu, A. R.; Khateeb, M. I.; Haj, M.

    1990-01-01

    In the search to find discriminative serological markers to differentiate between patients with acute brucellosis and those with chronic brucellosis, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine and compare the brucella-specific IgE response in 80 sera from patients with acute brucellosis, 37 sera from patients with chronic brucellosis, 26 sera from patients with positive blood cultures for bacteria other than brucella and 51 sera from healthy controls. The IgE findings were compared to brucella-specific IgG, IgM, IgA and IgG1-4 demonstrated by ELISA, and to microagglutination test (MAT) results. Elevated (positive) antibrucella IgE titres were detected in 89 and 81% of sera from patients with acute and chronic brucellosis respectively. The predominant antibodies found in patients with acute brucellosis were of the IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, IgG1 and IgG3 types while in chronic brucellosis IgG, IgA, IgE and IgG4 were found. Although IgE can be detected in patients with brucellosis, it does not discriminate between the acute and chronic stages of the disease. PMID:2249721

  18. Evaluation report on the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-05

    IGES is a communication file structure for data produced on and used by computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems in widespread use today. It is intended to provide a means for data interchange between CAD/CAM systems of different brand name, and to allow the transfer of geometric data to and from external applications programs. IGES represents an initial organized attempt to address and resolve the interface problems that arise as a result of the introduction of the computer into the design and manufacturing environment by introducing a set of specifications where none presently exists. This report gives an overview of IGES progress as of April 1980. 5 figures, 1 table. (RWR)

  19. Application Protocol, Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES), Layered Electrical Product

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connell, L.J.

    1994-12-01

    An application protocol is an information systems engineering view of a specific product The view represents an agreement on the generic activities needed to design and fabricate the product the agreement on the information needed to support those activities, and the specific constructs of a product data standard for use in transferring some or all of the information required. This application protocol describes the data for electrical and electronic products in terms of a product description standard called the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). More specifically, the Layered Electrical Product IGES Application Protocol (AP) specifies the mechanisms for defining and exchanging computer-models and their associated data for those products which have been designed in two dimensional geometry so as to be produced as a series of layers in IGES format The AP defines the appropriateness of the data items for describing the geometry of the various parts of a product (shape and location), the connectivity, and the processing and material characteristics. Excluded is the behavioral requirements which the product was intended to satisfy, except as those requirements have been recorded as design rules or product testing requirements.

  20. Correlations Between Allergen-Specific IgE Serum Levels in Patients With Ocular Allergy.

    PubMed

    Polido, Júlia Gomes Fernandes; Cabral, Thiago; Perini, Paula de Resende Campos; Fernandes, Maria de Fátima Marcelos; de Freitas, Denise; dos Santos Araújo, Maria Emília Xavier; Serracarbassa, Pedro Durães

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate ocular allergies in patients at the Hospital do Servidor Publico Estadual de Sao Paulo (HSPE) and the correlations with serum allergen-specific immunoglobulin E levels. We performed a longitudinal study of patients with ocular allergies who were treated at the Cornea and Immunology and Allergy Department. Patients underwent an ophthalmologic examination to identify their primary presenting signs and symptoms. The allergy types were divided into 4 groups. We conducted the following laboratory tests and measurements: blood count, eosinophil count, total serum IgE, and specific IgE. Among 61 patients, 16 (26.2%) had a clinical diagnosis of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis, 23 (37.7%) had perennial allergic conjunctivitis, 19 (31.1%) had vernal keratoconjunctivitis, and 3 (4.9%) had atopic keratoconjunctivitis. Mixed dust mites were positive in 94.9% of patients. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (dp) and Dermatophagoides farinae (df) antigens were positive in 93.2% of patients followed by Blattella germanica, Blomia tropicalis, and mixed animal epithelia (81%, 75.9%, and 25.8%, respectively). Perennial allergic conjunctivitis was the most prevalent disorder and demonstrated higher positivity in class V/VI for specific antigens (mixed dust mites, dp, and df), indicating high antigenicity. Dust mites, D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae, B. germanica, and B. tropicalis were the primary triggers of the studied ocular allergies.

  1. Occupational asthma, eosinophil and skin prick tests and serum total IgE values of the workers in a plant manufacturing rose oil.

    PubMed

    Akkaya, A; Ornek, Z; Kaleli, S

    2004-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine the rate of occupational asthma (OA) in workers at a rose extracting plant. Specific clinical tests of 52 workers, randomly chosen from four local rose extracting plants, were statistically compared with the test results of 30 local control subjects of similar age and sex as the plant workers, but who had never worked in such a plant. There were no significant differences in pulmonary function tests (FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, PEFR) between the control and test groups. Significantly higher serum total IgE values (p < 0.0001) were observed for the test subjects (239.08+/-240 IU/ml) compared to the control subjects (81.33+/-61.45 IU/ml). There were also significant differences (p < 0.0001) in the number of eosinophils between the control and test groups, with corresponding mean values of 2.28+/-2.75% and 0.73+/-1.72%, respectively. A specifically prepared skin prick test using a rose allergen (Rosa domescena) was positive for 53.84% in the test subjects whereas only 5.33% positive test results were seen in the control group. We have demonstrated the involvement of Rosa domescena pollen in occupational allergy, through IgE-mediated hypersensitivity. It was concluded that the workers of a rose oil extracting plant are more susceptible to the rose pollens.

  2. Local increase in IgE and class switch recombination to IgE in nasal polyps in chronic rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Baba, S; Kondo, K; Toma-Hirano, M; Kanaya, K; Suzukawa, K; Ushio, M; Suzukawa, M; Ohta, K; Yamasoba, T

    2014-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps is generally characterized by local Th2 inflammation and is categorized into two subtypes in Japan: eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (similar to chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps in western countries) and non-eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (characterized by Th1-dominant inflammation). To investigate local IgE production and class switch recombination to IgE in these two subtypes of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps. The identity of IgE-positive cells was determined using double-immunofluorescent staining for IgE and cell-type-specific molecular markers. To investigate the local class switch recombination to IgE and IgE synthesis in the mucosa, we performed real-time polymerase chain reaction to examine the mRNA expression of Th2 cytokines and class-switch-related molecules, including IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, ε germline gene transcripts, IgE mature transcript, IgG mature transcript, RAG1, RAG2 and activation-induced cytidine deaminase in eosinophilic polyps, non-eosinophilic polyps and controls. The concentrations of total IgE and number of IgE-positive cells were significantly higher in the eosinophilic polyps compared with control and non-eosinophilic polyps. IgE-positive cells were predominantly mast cells in eosinophilic polyps and significantly correlated with the number of FcεR1-positive cells in the subepithelial layer. IL-5 and IL-13 mRNA and ε germline gene transcripts expression levels were significantly higher in eosinophilic polyps compared with control and non-eosinophilic polyps. In contrast, the number of plasma cells and the expression of IgG mature transcripts were increased in non-eosinophilic polyps compared with eosinophilic polyps. RAG2 mRNA was significantly increased in both eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic polyps compared with control mucosa. The current study suggests local class switching to IgE, production of IgE and IgE localization to the surface of mast cells in eosinophilic

  3. IgE to penicillins with different specificities can be identified by a multiepitope macromolecule: Bihaptenic penicillin structures and IgE specificities.

    PubMed

    Ariza, A; Barrionuevo, E; Mayorga, C; Montañez, M I; Perez-Inestrosa, E; Ruiz-Sánchez, A; Rodríguez-Guéant, R M; Fernández, T D; Guéant, J L; Torres, M J; Blanca, M

    2014-04-01

    Quantitation of specific IgE by immunoassay is a recommended in vitro test for the diagnosis of immediate hypersensitivity reactions to betalactams (BLs), particularly when skin test results are negative. IgE antibodies that recognize the common nuclear structure of all BLs or the specific side chain structure can be mainly distinguished by immunoassays. The aim of this study was to develop an immunoassay system to detect IgE antibodies with different specificities. Cellulose discs conjugated with benzylpenicillin (BP), amoxicillin (AX) or both drugs, with poly-l-lysine (PLL) as carrier molecule, were used as solid phases in the radioallergosorbent test (RAST). Direct and inhibition radioimmunoassay studies were made to verify the structures recognized by serum IgE antibodies from penicillin-allergic patients. Our results indicated that the addition of both haptens did not decrease the capacity to capture IgE when serum specific to either BP or AX was used, at least in terms of sensitivity. In addition, the inclusion of two haptens improved significantly the levels of IgE detection in patients who recognized both BP and AX. Therefore, the use of a solid phase with a carrier molecule conjugated with two determinants (AX and BP) is helpful to recognize IgE antibodies against either of these determinants and is useful for screening sera with different specificities.

  4. Factors affecting allergen-specific IgE serum levels in cats

    PubMed Central

    Belova, S.; Wilhelm, S.; Linek, M.; Beco, L.; Fontaine, J.; Bergvall, K.; Favrot, C.

    2012-01-01

    Pruritic skin diseases are common in cats and demand rigorous diagnostic workup for finding an underlying etiology. Measurement of a serum allergen-specific IgE in a pruritic cat is often used to make or confirm the diagnosis of a skin hypersensitivity disease, although current evidence suggests that elevated allergen-specific IgE do not always correlate with a clinical disease and vice versa. The aim of the study was to to assess the possible influence of age, deworming status, lifestyle, flea treatment, and gender on allergen-specific IgE levels and to evaluate the reliability of IgE testing in predicting the final diagnosis of a pruritic cat. For this purpose sera of 179 cats with pruritus of different causes and 20 healthy cats were evaluated for allergen-specific IgE against environmental, food and flea allergens using the Fc-epsilon receptor based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. The results of the study showed positive correlation between age, outdoor life style, absence of deworming, absence of flea control measures and levels of allergen-specific IgE. Gender and living area (urban versus rural) did not seem to affect the formation of allergen-specific IgE. According to these findings, evaluating allergen-specific IgE levels, is not a reliable test to diagnose hypersensitivity to food or environmental allergens in cats. On the contrary, this test can be successfully used for diagnosing feline flea bite hypersensitivity. PMID:22754094

  5. Quantitative measurement of serum allergen-specific IgE on protein chip.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Eun; Park, Seok-Won; Cho, Nam-Yun; Choi, Seung-Young; Yong, Tai-soon; Nahm, Baek-Hie; Lee, Sangsun; Noh, Geunwoong

    2002-05-31

    Type I allergy is an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated hypersensitivity disease inflicting more than quarter of the world population. In order to identify allergen sources, skin provocation test and IgE serology was performed using allergen extracts. Such process identifies allergen-containing sources but cannot identify the disease-eliciting allergenic molecules. Recently, microarray technology has been developed for allergen-specific IgE detection using rolling circle amplification. This study was carried out to evaluate protein chip technology for the quantitative measurement and limits of sensitivity of multiple allergen-specific IgE by an immunofluorescence assay. Significance of positive calibrators was tested using purified human IgE. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp), egg white, milk, soybean, and wheat were used as allergens and human serum albumin as negative control. Sensitivity and clinical efficacy of protein chip were evaluated using allergy immune serum for Dp. The fluorescent intensities for purified human IgE as calibrator were well correlated with the concentrations of human IgE. Two-fold dilution of serum allowed an optimal reaction with Dp (1 mg/ml) at which serum Dp-specific IgE levels by protein chip were compatible with those by UniCap. The sensitivity of protein chip in this study was found at level of 1 IU/ml of IgE. Dp-specific IgE levels by protein chip correlated well with those of UniCap by comparing 10 atopic dermatitis. Additional 18 sera were tested for above multiple antigens other than Dp and significant results were obtained for many antigens as well as Dp. These results indicated that spotting of heterogeneous protein mixture on protein chip and the quantitative measurement of serum allergen-specific IgE levels using immunofluorescence assay can be successfully applied in the clinical laboratory for the diagnosis of allergy and could be applied to diagnosis of autoimmune and infectious diseases

  6. Elevation of serum IgE level and peripheral eosinophil count during T lymphocyte-directed gene therapy for ADA deficiency: implication of Tc2-like cells after gene transduction procedure.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, N; Ariga, T; Ohtsu, M; Yamada, M; Tame, A; Furuta, H; Kobayashi, I; Okano, M; Yanagihara, Y; Sakiyama, Y

    1998-11-01

    We have successfully carried out T-cell-directed gene therapy for a boy with severe combined immunodeficiency due to adenosine deaminase deficiency (ADA SCID) and unexpectedly found an elevation of serum IgE level and peripheral eosinophil count during the course. More than 90% of transduced cells cultured for 7-11 days before infusion into the patient were positive for CD8 and expressed Th2-type cytokine genes such as IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13. Furthermore, CD4(+) T-depleted PBMC (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) from the patient synthesized IgE in vitro by stimulation with IL-4. Collectively, these results suggested that Tc2-like cells in the transduced cells have distinct immunological functions to help IgE synthesis and activate eosinophils.

  7. Measurement of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) specific for house dust mite antigens in normal cats and cats with allergic skin disease.

    PubMed

    Taglinger, K; Helps, C R; Day, M J; Foster, A P

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether cats with allergic skin disease have significant concentrations of serum Immunoglobulin E (IgE) specific for antigens derived from the house dust mites (HDM) Dermatophagoides farinae (DF) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (DP). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were developed for this purpose. Binding of serum allergen-specific IgE was detected via the use of biotinylated Fc-epsilon receptor alpha chain protein (FcvarepsilonRIalpha). Following optimisation of the assay, serum samples from 59 cats with allergic skin disease and 54 clinically normal cats were screened. Results were expressed as ELISA units per ml (EU/ml) compared to a standard curve. Serological findings were correlated with the clinical presentation of affected cats. Cats with symptoms of feline allergic skin disease were grouped as follows: self-induced alopecia without lesions (group 1), papulocrusting dermatitis (group 2), eosinophilic granuloma complex (group 3), papular/ulcerative dermatitis of head and neck/facial dermatitis (group 4), and a combination of symptoms (group 5). Control normal cats comprised the final group (group 6). The Kruskal-Wallis test was used for statistical analysis. There was no significant difference between groups for DF- and DP-specific IgE concentrations with a p-value of 0.875 and 0.705, respectively. Although the FcvarepsilonRIalpha-based ELISA was able to detect house dust mite-specific feline IgE, the presence of this allergen-specific IgE correlates poorly with the presence of clinical manifestations of allergic skin disease. The results of this study question the clinical relevance of house dust mite-specific IgE in feline allergic skin disease.

  8. Involvement of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants-specific IgE in pollen allergy testing

    PubMed Central

    Yoshitake, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Yuma; Kawada, Michitsugu; Takato, Yoshiki; Shinagawa, Kiyomi; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Saito, Koichiro

    2017-01-01

    Background Specific IgE antibodies against the low-molecular-weight carbohydrate antigen that does not bridge IgE molecules on mast cells are not associated with clinical symptoms. Cross reactivity can be determined in allergen-specific IgE detection assays when the carbohydrate structures between pollen allergens and plant derived food allergens are similar; in such cases, false positive results for grain or legume allergens can be reported for pollen allergic patients who are not sensitized to those allergens. This phenomenon arises owing to the presence of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs). Objective This study aimed to assess the impact of CCD interference on the results for pollen allergen-specific IgE antibodies in the general adult population and to perform CCD inhibition tests evaluating the involvement of CCD on samples positive to pollen allergens. Methods Serum samples from 322 subjects were tested for IgE antibodies to pollens and CCD. The research subjects were given questionnaires about pollen allergic symptoms to help assess the presence of allergies. Allergen IgE antibodies for Japanese cedar, Japanese cypress, orchard grass, ragweed, MUXF, bromelain, horseradish peroxidase (HRP), and ascorbate oxidase (ASOD) were analyzed. Results It was observed that among individuals who tested positive to any of the pollen allergens, the positive ratio of CCD-specific IgE antibody was the highest for HRP (13.5%–50.0%). The results from the inhibition tests revealed that CCD was marginally present. Although IgE antibodies for cedar pollen did not react with CCD, IgE antibodies for Japanese cypress, orchard grass, and ragweed might be detected by the presence of CCD. Conclusion The results of the inhibition tests revealed the obvious presence of CCD suggesting its involvement. Considering these findings, careful evaluation of patient IgE results should be performed for Japanese cypress, orchard grass, and ragweed. PMID:28154803

  9. Immediate hypersensitivity to penicillins with negative skin tests--the value of specific IgE.

    PubMed

    Silva, R; Cruz, L; Botelho, C; Castro, E; Cadinha, S; Castel-Branco, M G; Rodrigues, J

    2009-08-01

    The determination of specific IgE in patients with history of penicillins hypersensitivity is simple, safe and widely available. The positive and negative predictive values of this determination, however, are not yet established. In order to evaluate them, we performed specific IgE determination and diagnostic drug challenges in a group of 22 patients with a clear history of immediate penicillins hypersensitivity but negative skin tests. In this sample, the positive and negative predictive values were 29% and 87%, respectively. This seems to indicate that a positive specific IgE is not enough to confirm the diagnosis, and further study is necessary.

  10. Fine specificity of the IgE interaction with the low and high affinity Fc receptor.

    PubMed

    Nissim, A; Schwarzbaum, S; Siraganian, R; Eshhar, Z

    1993-02-15

    The characterization of the site(s) on the IgE molecule that accommodate the high (Fc epsilon RI) and low (Fc epsilon RII) affinity receptors for IgE should allow the design of IgE analogues that can be used to block the onset of the allergic response or to regulate IgE production. To identify the IgE domain responsible for receptor binding, we generated a series of chimeric IgE antibodies in which constant region domains were interchanged between the human and mouse molecules. Binding studies with these chimeras revealed that both the high and low affinity receptor binding-sites reside primarily in the third constant domain of IgE (C epsilon 3). Additional chimeric IgE molecules were generated in which different parts of the human C epsilon 3 domain were exchanged with their murine homologues. Binding experiments with these chimeras suggest that not only the sequence of a particular C epsilon 3 fragment, but the entire C epsilon 3 domain in its native configuration is essential for binding to the Fc epsilon RI. The amino acid residues determining the species specificity of the Fc epsilon RII are not contained in the first 16 amino acids of the C epsilon 3 domain.

  11. Active induction of tumor-specific IgE antibodies by oral mimotope vaccination.

    PubMed

    Riemer, Angelika B; Untersmayr, Eva; Knittelfelder, Regina; Duschl, Albert; Pehamberger, Hubert; Zielinski, Christoph C; Scheiner, Otto; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2007-04-01

    A role of IgE antibodies in cancer surveillance has been implicated for a long time. Studies dealing with IgE antibodies directly targeted to tumor antigens have shown marked anticancer effects mediated by this antibody class. Thus, the basic function of IgE antibodies may be to control tumor growth. Thus far, cancer-specific IgE has only been applied passively. Consequently, the aim of this study was to establish an active vaccination protocol to induce tumor antigen-specific IgE antibodies, and to evaluate functional properties. We previously generated epitope mimics, so-called mimotopes, for the epitope recognized by the anti-HER-2 antibody trastuzumab. Upon i.p. immunizations, IgG antibodies with trastuzumab-like properties could be elicited. In the present study, we immunized BALB/c mice via the oral route with these trastuzumab mimotopes, under simultaneous neutralization and suppression of gastric acid. As shown in preceding experiments, this feeding regimen effectively induces Th2 immune responses. Oral immunizations with trastuzumab mimotopes under hypoacidic conditions indeed resulted in the formation of IgE antibodies towards the HER-2 antigen. Moreover, anti-HER-2 IgE-sensitized effector cells mediated SK-BR-3 target cell lysis in an antibody-dependent cytotoxicity assay. We conclude that directed and epitope-specific induction of IgE against tumor antigens is feasible with an oral mimotope vaccination regimen, and that these antibodies mediate anticancer effects.

  12. NASA geometry data exchange specification for computational fluid dynamics (NASA IGES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Matthew W.; Kerr, Patricia A.; Thorp, Scott A.; Jou, Jin J.

    1994-01-01

    This document specifies a subset of an existing product data exchange specification that is widely used in industry and government. The existing document is called the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification. This document, a subset of IGES, is intended for engineers analyzing product performance using tools such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. This document specifies how to define mathematically and exchange the geometric model of an object. The geometry is represented utilizing nonuniform rational B-splines (NURBS) curves and surfaces. Only surface models are represented; no solid model representation is included. This specification does not include most of the other types of product information available in IGES (e.g., no material properties or surface finish properties) and does not provide all the specific file format details of IGES. The data exchange protocol specified in this document is fully conforming to the American National Standard (ANSI) IGES 5.2.

  13. IGES, a key interface specification for CAD/CAM systems integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, B. M.; Wellington, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) program has focused the efforts of 52 companies on the development and documentation of a means of graphics data base exchange among present day CAD/CAM systems. The project's brief history has seen the evolution of the Specification into preliminary industrial usage marked by public demonstrations of vendor capability, mandatory requests in procurement actions, and a formalization into an American National Standard in September 1981. Recent events have demonstrated intersystem data exchange among seven vendor systems with a total of 30 vendors committing to offer IGES capability. A full range of documentation supports the IGES project and the recently approved IGES Version 2.0 of the Specification.

  14. IGES, a key interface specification for CAD/CAM systems integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, B. M.; Wellington, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) program has focused the efforts of 52 companies on the development and documentation of a means of graphics data base exchange among present day CAD/CAM systems. The project's brief history has seen the evolution of the Specification into preliminary industrial usage marked by public demonstrations of vendor capability, mandatory requests in procurement actions, and a formalization into an American National Standard in September 1981. Recent events have demonstrated intersystem data exchange among seven vendor systems with a total of 30 vendors committing to offer IGES capability. A full range of documentation supports the IGES project and the recently approved IGES Version 2.0 of the Specification.

  15. Serum Specific IgE to Thyroid Peroxidase Activates Basophils in Aspirin Intolerant Urticaria.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yoo Seob; Suh, Dong-Hyeon; Yang, Eun-Mi; Ye, Young-Min; Park, Hae-Sim

    2015-06-01

    Thyroid antibodies are frequently observed in urticaria patients, but their roles in urticaria are not clearly elucidated. We investigated the role of serum specific IgE to thyroid peroxidase (TPO) in patients with aspirin intolerant acute urticaria (AIAU) and aspirin intolerant chronic urticaria (AICU). We recruited 59 AIAU and 96 AICU patients with 69 normal controls (NC). Serum specific IgE to TPO was measured by manual direct ELISA, and CD203c expressions on basophil with additions of TPO were measured to prove a direct role of TPO in effector cells. The prevalences of serum specific IgE to TPO were significantly higher in AIAU (15.2%) and AICU groups (7.5%) compared to NC (0%, P=0.018: P=0.013, respectively). Flow cytometry showed CD203c induction in a dose dependent manner with serial additions of TPO in some AIAU and AICU patients having high specific IgE to TPO. Our findings show that the prevalence of serum specific IgE to TPO was significantly higher in both AIAU and AICU patients than in NC. It is suggested that specific IgE to TPO play a pathogenic role in AIAU and AICU.

  16. Total and antigen-specific Ige levels in umbilical cord blood

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The present study was conducted to learn whether the perinatal and environmental factors could influence the total and antigen-specific IgE levels in umbilical cord blood. Retrospective data were obtained from 173 mother-infant pairs. Total and specific (for children's food, wheat/grass and house dust mite-HDM) cord blood IgE levels were determined using the immunoassay test. The total cord blood IgE was between 0.0-23.08 IU/ml (mean 0.55 ± 2.07 IU/ml; median 0.16 IU/ml). Total IgE levels were significantly higher in boys compared with girls (OR = 2.2; P = 0.007), and in newborns with complicated pregnancy (OR = 2.7; P = 0.003). A greater number of siblings correlated with increases in the total cord blood IgE (P < 0.02). We detected specific IgE in 34 newborns (40 positive tests). A long-standing contact with a cat during pregnancy decreased the specific IgE level for wheat/grass (OR = 3.2; P < 0.07) and for children's food (OR = 5.0; P < 0.04), and the contact with a dog decreased the specific-IgE for wheat/grass (OR = 0.3; P < 0.05). Exposure to tobacco smoke correlated with the positive specific IgE toward house dust mite (OR = 4.7; P = 0.005). PMID:20156762

  17. Glycoproteins are species-specific markers and major IgE reactants in grass pollens.

    PubMed

    Manduzio, Hélène; Fitchette, Anne-Catherine; Hrabina, Maud; Chabre, Henri; Batard, Thierry; Nony, Emmanuel; Faye, Loïc; Moingeon, Philippe; Gomord, Véronique

    2012-02-01

    Grass pollen allergic patients are concomitantly exposed and sensitized to pollens from multiple Pooideae (i.e. common grass) species. As such, they are currently desensitized by allergen-specific immunotherapy using extracts made from mixes of pollens from Anthoxanthum odoratum, Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense and Poa pratensis. Herein, we demonstrate that species-specific glycoprotein patterns are documented by 1D and 2D electrophoresis and Western blotting analysis, which can be used as an identity test for such pollens. Most allergens are glycoproteins bearing complex N-glycans encompassing β1,2 xylose and α1,3 fucose glycoepitopes. Glycoepitope destruction using periodate oxidation has no impact on seric IgE reactivity in 75% atopic patients (n = 24). The latter have thus no significant IgE responses to carbohydrate-containing epitopes. In contrast, periodate treatment strongly impairs IgE recognition of glycoallergens in 25% of patients tested, demonstrating the presence of carbohydrate-specific IgE in those patients. While the clinical impact of carbohydrate-specific IgE is still a matter of controversy, the presence of these IgE in the serum of many allergic patients illustrates the need for cross-reacting carbohydrate epitope-free recombinant allergens to develop relevant diagnostic tests. These data also support the pertinence of mixing multiple grass pollens to desensitize atopic patients, with the aim to broaden the repertoire of glycoepitopes in the vaccine, thus mimicking natural exposure conditions.

  18. The Wilson-Fowler spline in a global IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) coordinate frame

    SciTech Connect

    Dolin, R.M.

    1987-09-01

    This report re-examines the original Wilson-Fowler spline. The Wilson-Fowler spline is a two-dimensional, cubic, piecewise-smooth, curve-fitting algorithm. Its defining equations are redeveloped. The intended application of the redevelopment is the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) environment. IGES is the current national geometry standard. Splines are by far the most ambiguous form of geometry that IGES deals with. The work contained in this report is an effort to understand the Wilson-Fowler spline, both how it works and how it can be applied to IGES. The two important features of our work are a global Wilson-Fowler spline definition and a scheme for computing normalized offsets.

  19. The component-specific to total IgE ratios do not improve peanut and hazelnut allergy diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Grabenhenrich, Linus; Lange, Lars; Härtl, Magdalena; Kalb, Birgit; Ziegert, Mandy; Finger, Antje; Harandi, Neda; Schlags, Ruppert; Gappa, Monika; Puzzo, Letizia; Stephan, Volker; Heigele, Thomas; Büsing, Susanne; Ott, Hagen; Niggemann, Bodo; Beyer, Kirsten

    2016-06-01

    Specific IgE measurement predicts the outcome of oral food challenges with considerable uncertainty when evaluating food allergy. Our aim was to assess whether accounting for the ratio of component- or allergen-specific to total IgE can improve this prediction. This multicenter study collected blood samples from children with suspected peanut or hazelnut allergy referred to allergy specialist clinics for food challenges. Specific IgE to peanuts, hazelnuts, and their components (Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3, Ara h 8, Cor a 1, Cor a 8, Cor a 9, and Cor a 14) and total IgE levels were determined by using the ImmunoCAP-FEIA. Specific to total IgE ratios were compared with raw IgE levels in terms of discrimination and prediction. Eighty-eight (43%) of 207 children with suspected peanut allergy and 44 (31%) of 142 children with suspected hazelnut allergy had symptoms during food challenge. Discrimination was similar for raw and ratio measures: areas under the curve of 0.93 for Ara h 2-specific IgE versus 0.92 for the Ara h 2-specific/total IgE ratio and 0.89 for Cor a 14-specific IgE versus 0.87 for the Cor a 14-specific/total IgE ratio. The probability for a positive peanut challenge with 0.35 kU/L Ara h 2-specific IgE was 16% when the total IgE level was greater than 500 kU/L compared with 51%/48% for low/medium total IgE levels (<100/100-500 kU/L). A positive hazelnut challenge with 0.35 kU/L Cor a 14-specific IgE was estimated in 7% when total IgE levels were high compared with 34%/32% with low/medium total IgE levels. Raw Ara h 2- and Cor a 14-specific IgE levels were the best single predictors for pediatric peanut and hazelnut allergies, suggesting the omission of challenges at very high levels. Calculating ratio measures did not improve prediction in this population. However, estimation of individual probabilities for challenge outcomes could be supported by total IgE levels because high levels might indicate lower probabilities at a given component-specific IgE

  20. Nanoparticles rapidly assess specific IgE in plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashraf, Sarmadia; Qadri, Shahnaz; al-Ramadi, Basel; Haik, Yousef

    2012-08-01

    Allergy is the sixth leading cause of chronic disease in the world. This study demonstrates the feasibility of detecting allergy indicators in human plasma, noninvasively, at the point of care and with a comparable efficiency and reduced turnaround time compared with the gold standard. Peanut allergy was utilized as a model due to its widespread occurrence among the US population and fatality if not treated. The detection procedure utilized magnetic nanoparticles that were coated with an allergen layer (peanut protein extract). Peanut immunoglobulin E (IgE) was detected in concentrations close to the minimum detection range of CAP assay. The results were obtained in minutes compared with the CAP assay which requires more than 3 h.

  1. Setaria cervi dual specific phosphatase: characterization and its effect on eosinophil degranulation.

    PubMed

    Rathaur, S; Rai, R; Srikanth, E; Srivastava, S

    2009-07-01

    Setaria cervi, a bovine filarial parasite contains significant acid phosphatase (AcP) activity in its various life stages. Two forms of AcP were separated from somatic extract of adult female parasite using cation exchange, gel filtration and concavalin affinity chromatography. One form having a molecular mass of 79 kDa was characterized as dual specific protein tyrosine phosphatase (ScDSP) based on substrate specificity and inhibition studies. With various substrates tested, it showed significant activity in the order of phospho-L-tyrosine>pNPP>ADP>phospho-L-serine. Inhibition by orthovanadate, fluoride, molybdate, and zinc ions further confirms protein tyrosine phosphatase nature of the enzyme. Km and Vmax determined with various substrates were found to be 16.66 mM, 25.0 microM/ml/min with pNPP; 20.0 mM, 40.0 microM/ml/min with phospho-L-tyrosine and 27.0 mM, 25.0 microM/ml/min with phospho-L-serine. KI with pNPP and sodium orthovanadate (IC50 33.0 microM) was calculated to be 50.0 mM. Inhibition with pHMB, silver nitrate, DEPC and EDAC suggested the presence of cysteine, histidine and carboxylate residues at its active site. Cross-reactivity with W. bancrofti-infected sera was demonstrated by Western blotting. ScDSP showed elevated levels of IgE in chronic filarial sera using ELISA. Under in vitro conditions, ScDSP resulted in increased effector function of human eosinophils when stimulated by IgG, which showed a further decrease with increasing enzyme concentration. Results presented here suggest that S. cervi DSP should be further studied to determine its role in pathogenesis and the persistence of filarial parasite.

  2. Assessment of allergen-specific IgE by immunoblotting method in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bonyadi, M R; Hassanzadeh, D; Seyfizadeh, N; Borzoueisileh, S

    2017-09-01

    Background and Objectives. Stimulating the immune system by exposure to various allergens to produce specific IgE has a significant role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. Identifying disease-causing allergens, prevention of exposure to those allergens, and immunotherapy will play an important role in the treatment of Atopic Disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the common allergens of northwest of Iran in patients with atopic dermatitis that are resistant to treatment. Materials and methods. In this descriptive-analytical study, serum levels of total IgE and frequency of specific IgE were measured by Immunoblotting against 20 common allergens in 150 cases of patients with atopic dermatitis, attending to dermatology and asthma and allergy clinics from 2010 to 2011. The control group consisted of individuals who had been clinically healthy. Results. In the 90% of patients that were included in this study, total IgE levels were higher than in healthy people with mean serum levels of total IgE 227.51 ± 103 IU/ml. 136 patients (90.6%) had specific IgE for at least one allergen. The frequency of positive allergens among the patients who were included in this study were 53.34%, 26.8%, and 19.56% respectively in plants and fungus allergens group, animal allergens group and food allergens group. After avoiding of the allergens (which they had been sensitized to), 60% of patients were cured with immune therapy, and total IgE serum levels in the control group were not increased. Conclusion. Identifying the abundant allergens such as cultivated rye, Timothy grass, house dust mite, birch, cat, horse, potato, dog, egg white, cow milk, in order to advise patients to avoid them or to do immunotherapy and desensitization, is useful in this area.

  3. Eosinophil-Cryptococcus neoformans interactions in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Feldmesser, M; Casadevall, A; Kress, Y; Spira, G; Orlofsky, A

    1997-01-01

    Eosinophils are components of inflammatory responses to a variety of pathogens. Although a variety of beneficial and harmful functions have been ascribed to these cells, their role in protection against infectious agents remains uncertain. Previous studies have reported eosinophilic pneumonia in mice infected intratracheally with Cryptococcus neoformans. We confirmed this observation and studied the inflammatory response in the lung at day 14 by light and electron microscopy. Immunostaining for glucuronoxylomannan showed isolated cryptococci inside the eosinophilic cuffs. Eosinophils were found to be in close association with C. neoformans in vivo. Cryptococci were associated with eosinophils within eosinophilic perivascular cuffs, within granulomas, and lining the alveolar space. To further investigate this phenomenon in vitro, we isolated rat peritoneal eosinophils and studied cryptococcus-eosinophil interactions in the presence and absence of anti-capsular immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgE monoclonal antibody (MAb). Eosinophils phagocytosed C. neoformans only in the presence of specific antibody. Phagocytosis was rapid, and dense rings that appeared to consist of granule contents were formed around the organisms. Mast cells were observed to occasionally phagocytose C. neoformans in vitro in the presence of IgE MAb. Our observations suggest that eosinophils may be effector cells against C. neoformans. PMID:9125578

  4. Use of Specific IgE and Skin Prick Test to Determine Clinical Reaction Severity.

    PubMed

    Ta, Von; Weldon, Brittany; Yu, Grace; Humblet, Olivier; Neale-May, Susan; Nadeau, Kari

    2011-01-01

    AIMS: To determine whether specific IgE and skin prick test correlate better in predicting reaction severity during a double-blinded placebo controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) for egg, milk, and multiple tree nut allergens. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, August 2009 and ongoing. METHODOLOGY: We examined the reaction severity of twenty-four subjects to nine possible food allergens: milk, egg, almond, cashew, hazelnut, peanut, sesame, pecan and walnut. Specific IgE and SPT were performed before each DBPCFC. DBPCFC results were classified into mild (1), moderate (2), or severe (3) reactions using a modified Bock's criteria. RESULTS: Twenty four subjects underwent a total of 80 DBPCFC. Eighty percent of all DBPCFCs resulted in a positive reaction. A majority, 71%, were classified as mild. No reactions occurred with a SPT of zero mm while three reactions occurred with a negative specific IgE. All reactions were reversible with medication. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that SPT and specific IgE levels are not associated with reaction severity (p<0.64 and 0.27, respectively). We also found that combining specific IgE and SPT improved specificity but did not help to achieve clinically useful sensitivity. For instance, an SPT > 5mm had a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 50%. Combining SPT > 5mm and IgE > 7 resulted in a reduced sensitivity of 64%. Unexpectedly, a history of anaphylaxis 70% (n=17) was not predictive of anaphylaxis on challenge 4% (n=2).

  5. Non-allergic rhinitis with eosinophilia syndrome is not associated with local production of specific IgE in nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Becker, Sven; Rasp, Julia; Eder, Katharina; Berghaus, Alexander; Kramer, Matthias F; Gröger, Moritz

    2016-06-01

    Non-allergic rhinitis with eosinophilia syndrome (NARES) is an eosinophilic inflammation of the nasal mucosa without evidence of an allergy or other nasal pathologies. Patients complain about perennial symptoms like nasal obstruction, rhinorrhea, itchiness and sneezing of the nose sometimes accompanied by hyposmia. The aim of the study was to better characterize NARES patients using immunoassay-biochip technology to examine serum and nasal secretion. Sera and nasal secretion of patients with NARES (perennial nasal symptoms, no evidence of acute or chronic rhinosinusitis with or without polyps, negative SX1-Screening test and/or negative skin prick test, eosinophilic cationic protein in nasal secretion >200 ng/ml) were tested by immunoassay-biochip technology (ImmunoCAP(®) ISAC, Phadia). 112 different allergen components from 51 allergen sources were tested on the chip. Furthermore, serum and nasal secretion were tested for specific IgE to Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin TSST-1 by fluorescence-enzyme-immunoassay (UniCAP(®), Phadia). Unrecognized systemic sensitization could be ruled out by negative ISAC results in sera of all patients. Testing of nasal secretion for allergen-specific IgE by ISAC chip technology was negative as well in all cases. In one patient, a systemic sensitization to Staphylococcus aureus superantigen TSST-1 was detectable but no allergen-specific IgE to TSST-1 was measurable in nasal secretion of any patient. The results demonstrate that NARES is not associated with local allergy (entopy) nor with a local inflammation driven by Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin TSST-1. Further studies are necessary to better understand the underlying mechanisms of NARES.

  6. IGES/RIM Parser/Converter users guide. [Initial Graphics Exchange Specification/Relational Information Manager

    SciTech Connect

    Isler, R.E.

    1985-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has been assigned Lead Lab responsibility by the Department of Energy (DOE) for integrating the communications among computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) activities throughout DOE's Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC). A primary objective is to provide a capability for the exchange of digital data between dissimilar CAD systems within the NWC. A subset of the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) will be the data exchange format. The IGES/RIM Parser/Converter is the first in a series of programs being developed within the NWC to carry out this automated exchange. The Parser/Converter program converts an IGES file into a file of input commands to a Relational Information Manager (RIM) database.

  7. Specific IgE for wheat in tear fluid of patients with allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Tatsuya; Yamagami, Satoru; Noma, Hidetaka; Kamei, Yuko; Goto, Mari; Kondo, Aki; Matsubara, Masao

    2015-03-01

    Allergy to hydrolyzed wheat protein in facial soap has become a major social issue in Japan. It has been reported that the most frequent early symptoms of allergy to hydrolyzed wheat protein in soap are allergic conjunctivitis and rhinitis, while wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis can be induced by long-term use. We evaluated the relation between tear fluid levels of specific IgE for wheat and the features of allergic conjunctivitis. A prospective, non-randomized, cross-sectional study was conducted in 103 patients with moderate to severe allergic conjunctivitis (allergic group) and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects (control group). Specific IgE for wheat was measured in tear fluid with an immunochromatography assay, and a skin prick test (SPT) was also performed. Symptoms (sneezing, rhinorrhea, nasal obstruction, ocular itching, and lacrimation) were assessed in each subject along with the activities of daily living (ADL) score and the total ocular symptom score for allergic conjunctivitis. A severity score (0, 1, 2, or 3) was assigned for various changes of the palpebral and bulbar conjunctiva, as well as for limbal and corneal lesions associated with allergic conjunctivitis. The IgE positive rate and specific IgE score were both higher in the allergic group than in the control group (71.8% versus 40.0% and 1.9 ± 0.7 versus 1.4 ± 0.5). A positive SPT for wheat was also more frequent in the allergic group than in the control group (6.8% versus 0.0%). Within the allergic group, patients with a positive SPT had higher specific IgE scores than patients with a negative SPT (3.3 ± 0.5 versus 1.8 ± 0.6, p < 0.001). In the allergic group, the wheat IgE level in tear fluid was correlated with the severity of allergic conjunctivitis symptoms, including ocular itching (r = 0.665), tearing (r = 0.672), and the total ocular symptom score (r = 0.204). Wheat IgE in tear fluid was also correlated with the severity of rhinitis symptoms, including

  8. Allergic Mechanisms in Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Wechsler, Joshua B; Bryce, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Paralleling the overall trend in allergic diseases, Eosinophilic Esophagitis is rapidly increasing in incidence. It is associated with food antigen-triggered, eosinophil-predominant inflammation and the pathogenic mechanisms have many similarities to other chronic atopic diseases, such as eczema and allergic asthma. Studies in animal models and from patients over the last 15 years have suggested that allergic sensitization leads to food-specific IgE and T-helper lymphocyte type 2 cells, both of which appear to contribute to the pathogenesis along with basophils, mast cells, and antigen-presenting cells. This review will outline our current understandings of the allergic mechanisms that drive eosinophilic esophagitis, drawing from clinical and translational studies in humans as well as experimental animal models. PMID:24813516

  9. Anisakis/Ascaris IgE ratio improves specificity for the diagnosis of Anisakis simplex sensitization in travellers and immigrants.

    PubMed

    Carballeda-Sangiao, N; Rodríguez-Mahillo, A I; Puente, S; Gutiérrez, M T; Moneo, I; González-Muñoz, M

    2014-10-01

    Anisakis simplex is a fish parasite responsible for human infection and is able to induce IgE-mediated reactions with several clinical manifestations. Laboratory diagnosis of Anisakis allergy is based on the detection of specific IgE using parasite whole antigen. Unfortunately, these diagnostic tools detect cross-reactivities with other nematodes and micro-organisms leading to low specificity of the diagnostic tests. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the diagnostic value of specific IgE to Anisakis for diagnosis of A. simplex-sensitization in native Spanish residents (IMM, n=766) and subjects coming from tropical and sub-tropical geographic areas (TRO, n=233). Since Ascaris is the human parasite most closely related to Anisakis, specific IgE to Ascaris was also determined to assess Anisakis cross-reaction with other nematodes and the diagnostic value of Anisakis/Ascaris IgE ratio for Anisakis allergy was examined. IMM and TRO groups showed similar specific IgE to Anisakis levels, while TRO had higher levels of specific IgE to Ascaris than IMM group (p=0.001). ROC curve analysis determined that an Anisakis specific IgE threshold of 0.71 kU/L yielded 93% and 82% specificities in IMM and TRO groups, respectively. A cut-off value ≥4.4 for Anisakis/Ascaris IgE ratio increased specificity to 95% for samples having IgE to Ascaris ≥0.35. In conclusion, the ratio of specific IgE to Anisakis and Ascaris improved remarkably the specificity and this parameter easily obtained from the commercially available system could be useful in the diagnosis of hypersensitivity to A. simplex. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Immunization with Hypoallergens of Shrimp Allergen Tropomyosin Inhibits Shrimp Tropomyosin Specific IgE Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Wai, Christine Y. Y.; Leung, Nicki Y. H.; Ho, Marco H. K.; Gershwin, Laurel J.; Shu, Shang An; Leung, Patrick S. C.; Chu, Ka Hou

    2014-01-01

    Designer proteins deprived of its IgE-binding reactivity are being sought as a regimen for allergen-specific immunotherapy. Although shrimp tropomyosin (Met e 1) has long been identified as the major shellfish allergen, no immunotherapy is currently available. In this study, we aim at identifying the Met e 1 IgE epitopes for construction of hypoallergens and to determine the IgE inhibitory capacity of the hypoallergens. IgE-binding epitopes were defined by three online computational models, ELISA and dot-blot using sera from shrimp allergy patients. Based on the epitope data, two hypoallergenic derivatives were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis (MEM49) and epitope deletion (MED171). Nine regions on Met e 1 were defined as the major IgE-binding epitopes. Both hypoallergens MEM49 and MED171 showed marked reduction in their in vitro reactivity towards IgE from shrimp allergy patients and Met e 1-sensitized mice, as well as considerable decrease in induction of mast cell degranulation as demonstrated in passive cutaneous anaphylaxis assay. Both hypoallergens were able to induce Met e 1-recognizing IgG antibodies in mice, specifically IgG2a antibodies, that strongly inhibited IgE from shrimp allergy subjects and Met e 1-sensitized mice from binding to Met e 1. These results indicate that the two designer hypoallergenic molecules MEM49 and MED171 exhibit desirable preclinical characteristics, including marked reduction in IgE reactivity and allergenicity, as well as ability to induce blocking IgG antibodies. This approach therefore offers promises for development of immunotherapeutic regimen for shrimp tropomyosin allergy. PMID:25365343

  11. Rapid desensitization induces internalization of antigen-specific IgE on mouse mast cells

    PubMed Central

    Oka, Tatsuya; Rios, Eon J.; Tsai, Mindy; Kalesnikoff, Janet; Galli, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Rapid desensitization transiently prevents severe allergic reactions, allowing administration of life-saving therapies in previously sensitized patients. However, the mechanisms underlying successful rapid desensitization are not fully understood. Objectives We sought to investigate whether the mast cell (MC) is an important target of rapid desensitization in mice sensitized to exhibit IgE-dependent passive systemic anaphylaxis in vivo and to investigate the antigen specificity and underlying mechanisms of rapid desensitization in our mouse model. Methods C57BL/6 mice (in vivo) or primary isolated C57BL/6 mouse peritoneal mast cells (PMCs; in vitro) were passively sensitized with antigen-specific anti–2,4-dinitrophenyl IgE, anti-ovalbumin IgE, or both. MCs were exposed over a short period of time to increasing amounts of antigen (2,4-dinitrophenyl–human serum albumin or ovalbumin) in the presence of extracellular calcium in vitro or by means of intravenous administration to sensitized mice in vivo before challenging the mice with or exposing the PMCs to optimal amounts of specific or irrelevant antigen. Results Rapidly exposing mice or PMCs to progressively increasing amounts of specific antigen inhibited the development of antigen-induced hypothermia in sensitized mice in vivo and inhibited antigen-induced PMC degranulation and prostaglandin D2 synthesis in vitro. Such MC hyporesponsiveness was induced antigen-specifically and was associated with a significant reduction in antigen-specific IgE levels on MC surfaces. Conclusions Rapidly exposing MCs to progressively increasing amounts of antigen can both enhance the internalization of antigen-specific IgE on the MC surface and also desensitize these cells in an antigen-specific manner in vivo and in vitro. PMID:23810240

  12. Rapid desensitization induces internalization of antigen-specific IgE on mouse mast cells.

    PubMed

    Oka, Tatsuya; Rios, Eon J; Tsai, Mindy; Kalesnikoff, Janet; Galli, Stephen J

    2013-10-01

    Rapid desensitization transiently prevents severe allergic reactions, allowing administration of life-saving therapies in previously sensitized patients. However, the mechanisms underlying successful rapid desensitization are not fully understood. We sought to investigate whether the mast cell (MC) is an important target of rapid desensitization in mice sensitized to exhibit IgE-dependent passive systemic anaphylaxis in vivo and to investigate the antigen specificity and underlying mechanisms of rapid desensitization in our mouse model. C57BL/6 mice (in vivo) or primary isolated C57BL/6 mouse peritoneal mast cells (PMCs; in vitro) were passively sensitized with antigen-specific anti-2,4-dinitrophenyl IgE, anti-ovalbumin IgE, or both. MCs were exposed over a short period of time to increasing amounts of antigen (2,4-dinitrophenyl-human serum albumin or ovalbumin) in the presence of extracellular calcium in vitro or by means of intravenous administration to sensitized mice in vivo before challenging the mice with or exposing the PMCs to optimal amounts of specific or irrelevant antigen. Rapidly exposing mice or PMCs to progressively increasing amounts of specific antigen inhibited the development of antigen-induced hypothermia in sensitized mice in vivo and inhibited antigen-induced PMC degranulation and prostaglandin D2 synthesis in vitro. Such MC hyporesponsiveness was induced antigen-specifically and was associated with a significant reduction in antigen-specific IgE levels on MC surfaces. Rapidly exposing MCs to progressively increasing amounts of antigen can both enhance the internalization of antigen-specific IgE on the MC surface and also desensitize these cells in an antigen-specific manner in vivo and in vitro. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Factors associated with Culicoides Obsoletus complex spp.-specific IgE reactivity in Icelandic horses and Shetland ponies.

    PubMed

    Schurink, Anouk; van der Meide, Nathalie M A; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Ducro, Bart J; Tijhaar, Edwin

    2014-09-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a common allergic skin disease in horses, caused by biting insects of the Culicoides spp. In The Netherlands, Culicoides spp. of the Obsoletus complex are the most important midges involved in IBH. The aim of the present study was to identify and quantify associations between several endogenous (host) and exogenous (environmental) factors and immunoglobulin E (IgE) reactivity against Obsoletus complex-derived whole body extract or seven recombinant allergens, measured by ELISA. Data from 143 Icelandic horses and 177 Shetland ponies were analysed using multivariable models. In addition, the relationship between IgE reactivity and severity of clinical signs in IBH-affected horses was examined. Positive correlations were found between Obsoletus complex-specific IgE and severity of clinical signs. Disease status (IBH affected or control), breed and the interaction between IBH status and breed were significantly associated with IgE reactivity against several Obsoletus complex allergens. Significantly greater IgE reactivity was seen in IBH-affected horses compared to controls. The differences in IgE values between cases and controls were most pronounced in Icelandic horses. Shetland pony controls had significantly greater IgE reactivity compared to Icelandic horse controls, while differences in IgE values comparing Shetland pony cases and Icelandic horse cases were not significant. Severity of clinical signs and IgE reactivity in IBH-affected horses against several Obsoletus complex allergens appeared to be related. Consideration of the factors associated with Obsoletus complex-specific IgE in horses might further improve interpretation and accuracy of IgE ELISA test results within these breeds, although further research is required.

  14. Establishment of monoclonal antibodies against a novel eosinophil-specific cell surface molecule, major facilitator super family domain containing 10.

    PubMed

    Motoi, Yuji; Saeki, Mayumi; Nishimura, Tomoe; Katayama, Kazufumi; Kitamura, Noriko; Ichikawa, Hitoshi; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Kaminuma, Osamu; Hiroi, Takachika

    2012-09-01

    Eosinophilic inflammation is the prominent feature of bronchial asthma, though the importance of eosinophils in the pathogenesis of this disease is controversial. We here established monoclonal antibodies against a newly identified cell surface molecule specifically expressed on mouse eosinophils. Eosinophils were highly purified from small intestine lamina propria and thymus as CD11c(+)Gr1(low)F4/80(+)B220(-) cells. Upon comparative microarray analysis for mRNA expressed in eosinophils and other leukocytes, major facilitator super family domain containing 10 (Mfsd10) was identified as a novel eosinophil-specific cell surface molecule. Hybridomas were established from spleen cells of rats immunized with Mfsd10-introduced Ba/F3 cells. One of three monoclonal antibodies against Mfsd10 displayed selective binding activity against eosinophils recovered in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of ovalbumin-immunized and -challenged mice. Administration of this antibody in vivo induced a significant reduction of eosinophils recruited in the allergic lungs. Anti-Mfsd10 antibody is useful for investigating the pathophysiological roles of eosinophils with its selective binding and neutralizing activity for mouse eosinophils. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Utility of specific IgE to Ara h 6 in peanut allergy diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, María; Boyano-Martínez, Teresa; García-Ara, Carmen; Caballero, Teresa; Quirce, Santiago

    2015-08-01

    Specific IgE to Ara h 2 has been shown to be useful in the diagnosis of peanut allergy, whereas the peanut lipid transfer protein, Ara h 9, has been suggested to be responsible for peanut allergy in the Mediterranean population. To better characterize peanut allergy in children from a Mediterranean area and determine the value of specific IgE to Ara h 6 (conglutinin, 2S albumin) for the diagnosis of peanut allergy. Ninety-one children with suspected allergy to edible vegetables were included in the study. They were classified as allergic or tolerant to peanut. Specific IgE to peanut allergens was measured by a commercially available microarray (ImmunoCAP ISAC 112, ThermoFisher, Uppsala, Sweden). Patients allergic to peanut showed positive specific IgE changes to peanut seed storage proteins (Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3, and Ara h 6) more frequently than tolerant subjects. Ara h 9 showed a similar frequency of reactivity in the 2 groups. Ara h 6 was the allergen most frequently recognized by patients with allergy. Four patients with allergy were found to be mono-sensitized to Ara h 6. Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 showed similar diagnostic accuracy (areas under the curve 0.792 and 0.852). A combined cutoff point for Ara h 2 (≥0.1 ISU) and Ara h 6 (≥2 ISU) yielded the best diagnostic performance (sensitivity 0.77, specificity 0.97, positive predictive value 0.89, negative predictive value 0.93). Peanut allergy cannot be ruled out without obtaining a negative determination of Ara h 6. Copyright © 2015 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Layered Electrical Product Application Protocol (AP). Draft: Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    An application protocol is an information systems engineering view of a specific product. The view represents an agreement on the generic activities needed to design and fabricate the product, the agreement on the information needed to support those activities, and the specific constructs of a product data standard for use in transfering some or all of the information required. This applications protocol describes the data for electrical and electronic products in terms of a product description standard called the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). More specifically, the Layered Electrical Product IGES Application Protocol (AP) specifies the mechanisms for defining and exchanging computer-models and their associated data for those products which have been designed in two dimensional geometry so as to be produced as a series of layers in IGES format. The AP defines the appropriateness of the data items for describing the geometry of the various parts of a product (shape and location), the connectivity, and the processing and material characteristics. Excluded is the behavioral requirements which the product was intended to satisfy, except as those requirements have been recorded as design rules or product testing requirements.

  17. Serum Malassezia-specific IgE in dogs with recurrent Malassezia otitis externa without concurrent skin disease.

    PubMed

    Layne, Elizabeth A; DeBoer, Douglas J

    2016-08-01

    Immediate-type hypersensitivity (ITH), mediated by IgE, to Malassezia pachydermatis is recognized in atopic dogs with recurrent yeast dermatitis and otitis externa (OE). Malassezia-associated OE commonly occurs in dogs without other signs of atopic dermatitis (AD). The aim of this study was to detect Malassezia-specific IgE in the sera of dogs with recurrent Malassezia OE without concurrent skin disease. Sera from healthy dogs were used for comparison. An FcεRIα-based ELISA was used to measure Malassezia-specific IgE. There was no significant difference between number of positive affected dogs (6/21, 29%) and number of positive unaffected dogs (15/86, 17%) (P=0.36). There was also no significant difference in the concentrations of Malassezia-specific IgE between the two groups (P=0.97). Malassezia-specific IgE did not distinguish between patient groups so, as with other canine allergens, serum IgE reactivity for Malassezia could not be used to differentiate between diseased and healthy patients. The presence of Malassezia-specific IgE in some of the affected dogs might indicate ITH to Malassezia in those dogs. Evaluation of ITH via intradermal test reactivity and response to allergen-specific immunotherapy might clarify the role of Malassezia-associated ITH in similarly affected dogs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evidence of infectious asthma phenotype: Chlamydia-induced allergy and pathogen-specific IgE in a neonatal mouse model.

    PubMed

    Patel, Katir K; Webley, Wilmore C

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease whose etiology is poorly understood. Recent studies suggest that early-life respiratory infections with atypical bacteria may play an important role in the induction or exacerbation of chronic respiratory disease. The current study utilized a neonatal mouse ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization model of asthma to determine the course of early-life respiratory tract infection by Chlamydia. Neonatal (day 1) and adult (6 wks) BALB/c mice were infected intranasally with Chlamydia (MoPn) and 7 weeks later were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin. Allergic airway disease was characterized by examination of serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) cellularity, cytokine production and antibody response. The presence of Chlamydia was determined by PCR and culture. Ova-specific IgE was quantified by ELISA and Chlamydia-specific IgE was determined via Western blot analysis. Chlamydial infection in neonatal mice induced increased production of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, 5, 10, and 13) in both BAL and serum, while infected adult mice produced increased Th1 cytokines (IL-2, IFN-γ). The BAL from infected neonates contained significantly elevated levels of eosinophils compared to infected adult mice. Although adult mice cleared the infection ∼30 days post infection (pi), neonates were still infected 66 days after initial infection. Chlamydia-specific IgE was detected in both the BAL and serum of neonatal mice beginning 28 days post infection, however, infected adult mice did not produce Chlamydia-specific IgE antibodies over the course of the study. When allergic airway was induced using Ova, infected neonatal mice increased their production of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 by >2 fold compared to uninfected controls and infected adult groups. Our findings demonstrate that early-life Chlamydia infection induces a Th2-dominant cytokine response in the airways of neonatal mice, leading to chronic infection. More significantly, early life respiratory

  19. Food aversion: a critical balance between allergen-specific IgE levels and taste preference.

    PubMed

    Mirotti, Luciana; Mucida, Daniel; de Sá-Rocha, Luis Carlos; Costa-Pinto, Frederico Azevedo; Russo, Momtchilo

    2010-03-01

    Animals sensitized to allergens change their feeding behavior and avoid drinking the otherwise preferred sweetened solutions containing the allergens. This phenomenon, known as food aversion, appears to be mediated by allergen-specific IgE antibodies. Here we investigated food aversion in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, which differ in their allergic responses to the allergen ovalbumin as well as in their preference for sweet taste. BALB/c mice present higher levels of IgE and a natural lower preference for sweet flavors when compared to C57BL/6 mice. Specifically, we studied a conflicting situation in which animals simultaneously experienced the aversive contact with the allergen and the attractive sweet taste of increasing concentrations of sucrose. We found that BALB/c mice were more prone to develop food aversion than C57BL/6 mice and that this aversive behavior could be abolished in both strains by increasing the palatability of the solution containing the allergen. In both strains food aversion was positively correlated with the levels of allergen-specific IgE antibodies and inversely correlated with their preference for sucrose sweetened solutions. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [A study of occupational asthma and specific IgE in sericulture workers].

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Zheng, S; Zhang, H

    1994-10-01

    Clinical investigation revealed that 75.6% (68/90) of sericulture workers examined had allergic respiratory symptoms. Of the 90 workers, 14 (15.6%) suffered from occupational asthma. Work-related allergens including silkworm cocoon (SC), silkworm urine (SU), moth excrete (ME) and moth scales (MS) were collected and prepared. Serum specific IgE levels were detected by ELISA. The results showed that the level of sIgE in asthmatic workers was significantly higher than that in the "common symptom" group, asymptomatic group and control group. No significant difference in total IgE was found between the workers and controls. The anti-SU-sIgE positive rate was significantly higher than those of sIgE to the other three allergens. These results indicate that the high levels of sIgE are responsible for occupational asthma in sericulture workers and that SU is an important allergen in these patients.

  1. Specific IgE recognition of pollen allergens from subtropic grasses in patients from the subtropics.

    PubMed

    Nony, Emmanuel; Timbrell, Victoria; Hrabina, Maud; Boutron, Mélanie; Solley, Graham; Moingeon, Philippe; Davies, Janet M

    2015-03-01

    Pollens of subtropical grasses, Bahia (Paspalum notatum), Johnson (Sorghum halepense), and Bermuda (Cynodon dactylon), are common causes of respiratory allergies in subtropical regions worldwide. To evaluate IgE cross-reactivity of grass pollen (GP) found in subtropical and temperate areas. Case and control serum samples from 83 individuals from the subtropical region of Queensland were tested for IgE reactivity with GP extracts by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A randomly sampled subset of 21 serum samples from patients with subtropical GP allergy were examined by ImmunoCAP and cross-inhibition assays. Fifty-four patients with allergic rhinitis and GP allergy had higher IgE reactivity with P notatum and C dactylon than with a mixture of 5 temperate GPs. For 90% of 21 GP allergic serum samples, P notatum, S halepense, or C dactylon specific IgE concentrations were higher than temperate GP specific IgE, and GP specific IgE had higher correlations of subtropical GP (r = 0.771-0.950) than temperate GP (r = 0.317-0.677). In most patients (71%-100%), IgE with P notatum, S halepense, or C dactylon GPs was inhibited better by subtropical GP than temperate GP. When the temperate GP mixture achieved 50% inhibition of IgE with subtropical GP, there was a 39- to 67-fold difference in concentrations giving 50% inhibition and significant differences in maximum inhibition for S halepense and P notatum GP relative to temperate GP. Patients living in a subtropical region had species specific IgE recognition of subtropical GP. Most GP allergic patients in Queensland would benefit from allergen specific immunotherapy with a standardized content of subtropical GP allergens. Copyright © 2015 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. An optimized assay of specific IgE antibodies to reactive dyes and studies of immunologic responses in exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Wass, U; Nilsson, R; Nordlinder, R; Belin, L

    1990-03-01

    Methods of assaying reactive dye-specific IgE antibodies were investigated with a RAST. Sera from three patients, occupationally exposed to a reactive dye, Remazol black B (Chemical Abstract registry number 17095-24-8), were used. Directly dyed disks, that is, disks without any carrier protein, resulted in poor and unreliable measures of specific IgE. In contrast, optimized preparation of conjugates between the dye and human serum albumin resulted in efficient binding of specific IgE. The patients' RAST results were strongly positive, whereas sera from 36 exposed workers but without symptoms and sera from unexposed subjects with high levels of total IgE were negative. The hapten and carrier specificity of the IgE antibodies was studied by direct RAST and RAST inhibition. In one patient, the antibodies were principally hapten specific, whereas another patient was found to have antibodies with a high degree of specificity to the carrier. The third patient's antibodies were intermediate between the other two patients' antibodies in this respect, suggesting that antibody specificity is dependent not only on the nature of the hapten but also on individual immune response factors. The study demonstrates that it is important to use an optimized preparation of dye-protein conjugates to elicit reliable results and a high degree of specific IgE binding in the RAST.

  3. Specific IgE response to purified and recombinant allergens in latex allergy

    PubMed Central

    Kurup, Viswanath P; Sussman, Gordon L; Yeang, Hoong Y; Elms, Nancy; Breiteneder, Heimo; Arif, Siti AM; Kelly, Kevin J; Bansal, Naveen K; Fink, Jordan N

    2005-01-01

    Background In recent years, allergy to natural rubber latex has emerged as a major allergy among certain occupational groups and patients with underlying diseases. The sensitization and development of latex allergy has been attributed to exposure to products containing residual latex proteins. Although improved manufacturing procedures resulted in a considerable reduction of new cases, the potential risk for some patient groups is still great. In addition the prevalent cross-reactivity of latex proteins with other food allergens poses a major concern. A number of purified allergens and a few commercial kits are currently available, but no concerted effort was undertaken to evaluate them. Methods We studied 11 purified latex allergens, Hev b 1 to Hev b 10, and Hev b 13 along with several crude allergen extracts and two commercial ImmunoCAP assays to evaluate specific IgE antibody in the sera from latex allergic patients and controls. Health care workers and spina bifida patients with clinical symptoms of latex allergy, spina bifida patients without latex allergy, and non-atopic health care workers have been studied. Results The results suggest that Hev b 2, 5, 6, and 13 together identified over 80 percent health care workers with latex allergy, while Hev b 6 along with Hev b 1 or 3 detected specific IgE antibody in all sera studied from patients with spina bifida and latex allergy. The ImmunoCAP results using both Hev b 5 amplified and non-amplified closely agreed with the clinical diagnosis of latex allergy in health care workers and in spina bifida. Conclusion Although the purified allergens and crude extracts reacted diversely with IgE from different patient groups, the results indicated that use of certain combinations of purified recombinant antigens will be useful in commercial kits or in in-house assays for detecting specific IgE antibody in the sera. The results suggest that a combination of Hev b 2, 3, 5, 6, and 13 together detected specific IgE in 80% of

  4. Galactose-α-1,3-galactose-specific IgE is associated with anaphylaxis but not asthma.

    PubMed

    Commins, Scott P; Kelly, Libby A; Rönmark, Eva; James, Hayley R; Pochan, Shawna L; Peters, Edward J; Lundbäck, Bo; Nganga, Lucy W; Cooper, Philip J; Hoskins, Janelle M; Eapen, Saju S; Matos, Luis A; McBride, Dane C; Heymann, Peter W; Woodfolk, Judith A; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E

    2012-04-01

    IgE antibodies to the mammalian oligosaccharide galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-gal) are common in the southeastern United States. These antibodies, which are induced by ectoparasitic ticks, can give rise to positive skin tests or serum assays with cat extract. To evaluate the relationship between IgE antibodies to α-gal and asthma, and compare this with the relationship between asthma and IgE antibodies to Fel d 1 and other protein allergens. Patients being investigated for recurrent anaphylaxis, angioedema, or acute urticaria underwent spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide, questionnaires, and serum IgE antibody assays. The results were compared with control subjects and cohorts from the emergency department in Virginia (n = 130), northern Sweden (n = 963), and rural Kenya (n = 131). Patients in Virginia with high-titer IgE antibodies to α-gal had normal lung function, low levels of exhaled nitric oxide, and low prevalence of asthma symptoms. Among patients in the emergency department and children in Kenya, there was no association between IgE antibodies to α-gal and asthma (odds ratios, 1.04 and 0.75, respectively). In Sweden, IgE antibodies to cat were closely correlated with IgE antibodies to Fel d 1 (r = 0.83) and to asthma (P < 0.001). These results provide a model of an ectoparasite-induced specific IgE response that can increase total serum IgE without creating a risk for asthma, and further evidence that the main allergens that are causally related to asthma are those that are inhaled.

  5. Antigen-specific regulation of IgE antibodies by non-antigen-specific γδ T cells1

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yafei; Aydintug, M. Kemal; Loomis, Joshua; MacLeod, Megan K.; McKee, Amy S.; Kirchenbaum, Greg; Jakubzick, Claudia V.; Kedl, Ross M.; Sun, Deming; Jacobelli, Jordan; O'Brien, Rebecca L.; Born, Willi K.

    2013-01-01

    We re-examined the observation that γδ T cells, when transferred from mice tolerized to an inhaled conventional antigen (Ag), suppress the allergic IgE response to this Ag specifically. Using ovalbumin and hen egg lysozyme in crisscross fashion, we confirmed the Ag-specific IgE regulatory effect of the γδ T cells. Although only Vγ4+ γδ T cells are regulators, the Ag specificity does not stem from specificity of their γδ TCRs. Instead, the Vγ4+ γδ T cells failed to respond to either Ag, but rapidly acquired Ag-specific regulatory function in vivo following i.v. injection of non-T cells derived from the spleen of Ag-tolerized mice. This correlated with their in vivo Ag acquisition from i.v. injected Ag-loaded splenic non-T cells, and in vivo transfer of membrane label provided evidence for direct contact between the injected splenic non-T cells and the Vγ4+ γδ T cells. Together, our data suggest that Ag itself, when acquired by γδ T cells, directs the specificity of their IgE suppression. PMID:23275606

  6. Sensitivity of the skin prick test and specificity of the serum-specific IgE test for airway responsiveness to house dust mites in asthma.

    PubMed

    Choi, Inseon S; Koh, Youngil I; Koh, Jeom-seok; Lee, Min-Gu

    2005-04-01

    The concept that asthma diagnosis based on allergen-specific IgE levels in serum is more accurate than diagnosis based on skin test reactivity is controversial. To determine the atopy parameter that correlates most closely with airway reactivity to house dust mites in asthma. Forty-three asthma cases were examined retrospectively for data on Dermatophagoides farinae-specific bronchoprovocation, serum-specific IgE, and skin prick tests. The maximal decreases in FEV1 following bronchoprovocation were correlated significantly with both the IgE levels and skin test scores. The accuracies of the tests were highest at a cutoff value of class 4 or higher for the IgE and of 3+ or higher for the skin test. At the cutoff values, the accuracies of both tests were similar (70% vs. 70%). The sensitivity of the skin test (81%) was higher than that of the IgE test (67%), whereas the specificity of the IgE test (71%) was higher than that of the skin test (52%). The sensitivity of the skin test was 91% at 2+ or higher, and the specificity of the IgE test was 95% at class 6 or higher. These results suggest that both the specific IgE level and the skin test reactivity are useful parameters in the prediction of positive airway responses to house dust mites in asthma. However, the skin test is more sensitive, whereas the IgE test is more specific. Therefore, these tests can be used in a complementary fashion (i.e., the skin test for screening and the specific IgE test for confirmation of the relevant allergen).

  7. [Detection of IgE specific for egg yolk by enzyme immunoassay. Description of a case].

    PubMed

    Carrillo Díaz, T; Cuevas Agustín, M; Moneo Goiri, I; Ibáñez Sandín, M D; Ureña Vilardell, V

    1986-01-01

    Food allergy is a common disease in our country, especially affecting atopic children. Egg-white hypersensitivity is frequently found in these patients. However, egg-yolk hypersensitivity is not usually reported in patients with egg allergy. This article describes a young patient with egg-yolk hypersensitivity, a 12 year old female patient with a medical history of contact urticaria, angioedema and severe acute bronchospasm shortly after the intake of small amounts of egg-yolk. All these episodes required treatment in emergency care units because of the severity of the symptoms. The patient did not describe any other food hypersensitivity and remained symptom-free after the intake of boiled or fried egg-white. She had clinical symptoms of grass pollen hypersensitivity and was therefore on specific immunotherapy at the time of the study. The skin prick-tests were positive to grass pollen and egg-yolk and were negative to mites, moulds, animal dander and to the common food tested (milk, fish, peanut, almond and hazel-nut). Total serum IgE was 1.160 UL/ml. The patient had a positive RAST to egg-white (0.0 PRU/ml) as well as to egg-yolk (8.6 PRU/ml). Furthermore, an indirect enzyme immunoassay as well as a reverse enzyme immunoassay also revealed the presence of specific IgE antibodies. The reverse enzyme immunoassay uses microtiter plates as a solid surface. These plates are coated with a monospecific antihuman IgE antibody. Thereafter, the serum samples are incubated overnight in the wells. After several washings, the presence of specific antibodies is revealed by means of a peroxidase conjugated allergen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Quantification of specific IgE antibodies in immediate drug hypersensitivity: More shortcomings than potentials?

    PubMed

    Decuyper, I I; Ebo, D G; Uyttebroek, A P; Hagendorens, M M; Faber, M A; Bridts, C H; De Clerck, L S; Sabato, V

    2016-09-01

    For many physicians, quantification of serum drug-specific IgE (sIgE) antibodies constitutes the first measure in the diagnostic approach of immediate drug hypersensitivity reactions (IDHR). To review the accuracy and limitations of the main drug-sIgE tests, especially those that are commercially available. A literature search was conducted, using the key-words allergy, diagnosis, drugs, hypersensitivity, specific IgE antibodies; this was complemented by the authors' own experience. The drugs that have mostly been studied appeared to be β-lactam antibiotics, neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA) and morphine, the latter as a biomarker for sensitisation to substituted ammonium structures that constitute the major epitope of NMBA. For β-lactams sensitivity and specificity varied between 0-85% and 52-100%, respectively. For NMBA, sensitivity and specificity varied between 38.5-92% and 92-100%, respectively. With respect to sIgE to morphine it appears this drug to be a sensitive biomarker for sensitisation to rocuronium and suxamethonium but not for atracurium. However, sIgE morphine should not be applied in isolation to diagnose IDHR to NMBA nor opiates. Although drug-sIgE assay can provide valuable information they should not be performed in isolation to establish correct diagnosis, as their predictive value is not per se absolute. Larger comprehensive studies are urgently required to determine the accuracy of drug-sIgE assays. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Predictive values of component-specific IgE for the outcome of peanut and hazelnut food challenges in children.

    PubMed

    Beyer, K; Grabenhenrich, L; Härtl, M; Beder, A; Kalb, B; Ziegert, M; Finger, A; Harandi, N; Schlags, R; Gappa, M; Puzzo, L; Röblitz, H; Millner-Uhlemann, M; Büsing, S; Ott, H; Lange, L; Niggemann, B

    2015-01-01

    Oral challenges are the gold standard in food allergy diagnostic, but time-consuming. Aim of the study was to investigate the role of peanut- and hazelnut-component-specific IgE in the diagnostics of peanut and hazelnut allergy and to identify cutoff levels to make some challenges superfluous. In a prospective and multicenter study, children with suspected peanut or hazelnut allergy underwent oral challenges. Specific IgE to peanut, hazelnut, and their components (Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3, and Ara h 8, Cor a 1, Cor a 8, Cor a 9, and Cor a 14) were determined by ImmunoCAP-FEIA. A total of 210 children were challenged orally with peanut and 143 with hazelnut. 43% of the patients had a positive peanut and 31% a positive hazelnut challenge. With an area under the curve of 0.92 and 0.89, respectively, Ara h 2 and Cor a 14-specific IgE discriminated between allergic and tolerant children better than peanut- or hazelnut-specific IgE. For the first time, probability curves for peanut and hazelnut components have been calculated. A 90% probability for a positive peanut or hazelnut challenge was estimated for Ara h 2-specific IgE at 14.4 kU/l and for Cor a 14-specific IgE at 47.8 kU/l. A 95% probability could only be estimated for Ara h 2 at 42.2 kU/l. Ara h 2- and Cor a 14-specific IgE are useful to estimate the probability for a positive challenge outcome in the diagnostic work-up of peanut or hazelnut allergy making some food challenges superfluous. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Multiplexed Method to Calibrate and Quantitate Fluorescence Signal for Allergen-Specific IgE

    PubMed Central

    Monroe, Margo R.; Reddington, Alexander P.; Collins, Austin D.; LaBoda, Craig; Cretich, Marina; Chiari, Marcella; Little, Frédéric F.; Ünlü, M. Selim

    2012-01-01

    Using a microarray platform for allergy diagnosis allows for testing of specific IgE sensitivity to a multitude of allergens, while requiring only small volumes of serum. However, variation of probe immobilization on microarrays hinders the ability to make quantitative, assertive, and statistically relevant conclusions necessary in immunodiagnostics. To address this problem, we have developed a calibrated, inexpensive, multiplexed, and rapid protein microarray method that directly correlates surface probe density to captured labeled secondary antibody in clinical samples. We have identified three major technological advantages of our calibrated fluorescence enhancement (CaFE) technique: (i) a significant increase in fluorescence emission over a broad range of fluorophores on a layered substrate optimized specifically for fluorescence; (ii) a method to perform label-free quantification of the probes in each spot while maintaining fluorescence enhancement for a particular fluorophore; and (iii) a calibrated, quantitative technique that combines fluorescence and label-free modalities to accurately measure probe density and bound target for a variety of antibody–antigen pairs. In this paper, we establish the effectiveness of the CaFE method by presenting the strong linear dependence of the amount of bound protein to the resulting fluorescence signal of secondary antibody for IgG, β-lactoglobulin, and allergen-specific IgEs to Ara h 1 (peanut major allergen) and Phl p 1 (timothy grass major allergen) in human serum. PMID:22060132

  11. Identification and characterization of human eosinophil cationic protein by an epitope-specific antibody.

    PubMed

    Boix, E; Carreras, E; Nikolovski, Z; Cuchillo, C M; Nogués, M V

    2001-06-01

    The eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) is a basic secretion protein involved in the immune response system. ECP levels in biological fluids are an indicator of eosinophil-specific activation and degranulation and are currently used for the clinical monitoring and diagnosis of inflammatory disorders. A polyclonal epitope-specific antibody has been obtained by immunizing rabbits with a conjugated synthetic peptide. A sequence corresponding to a large exposed loop in the human ECP three-dimensional structure (D115-Y122) was selected as a putative antigenic epitope. The antibody was purified on an affinity column using recombinant ECP (rECP) as antigen. The antibody (D112-P123 Ab) specifically recognizes rECP and its native glycosylated and nonglycosylated forms in plasma, granulocytes, and sputum. The antibody detects as little as 1 ng of rECP, can be used both in reducing and nonreducing conditions, and does not cross-react with the highly homologous eosinophil-derived neurotoxin or other proteins of the pancreatic ribonuclease superfamily.

  12. Effects of Nasal Corticosteroids on Boosts of Systemic Allergen-Specific IgE Production Induced by Nasal Allergen Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Cornelia; Lupinek, Christian; Ristl, Robin; Lemell, Patrick; Horak, Friedrich; Zieglmayer, Petra; Spitzauer, Susanne; Valenta, Rudolf; Niederberger, Verena

    2015-01-01

    Background Allergen exposure via the respiratory tract and in particular via the nasal mucosa boosts systemic allergen-specific IgE production. Intranasal corticosteroids (INCS) represent a first line treatment of allergic rhinitis but their effects on this boost of allergen-specific IgE production are unclear. Aim Here we aimed to determine in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study whether therapeutic doses of an INCS preparation, i.e., nasal fluticasone propionate, have effects on boosts of allergen-specific IgE following nasal allergen exposure. Methods Subjects (n = 48) suffering from grass and birch pollen allergy were treated with daily fluticasone propionate or placebo nasal spray for four weeks. After two weeks of treatment, subjects underwent nasal provocation with either birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 or grass pollen allergen Phl p 5. Bet v 1 and Phl p 5-specific IgE, IgG1–4, IgM and IgA levels were measured in serum samples obtained at the time of provocation and one, two, four, six and eight weeks thereafter. Results Nasal allergen provocation induced a median increase to 141.1% of serum IgE levels to allergens used for provocation but not to control allergens 4 weeks after provocation. There were no significant differences regarding the boosts of allergen-specific IgE between INCS- and placebo-treated subjects. Conclusion In conclusion, the application of fluticasone propionate had no significant effects on the boosts of systemic allergen-specific IgE production following nasal allergen exposure. Trial Registration http://clinicaltrials.gov/ NCT00755066 PMID:25705889

  13. Anti-Malassezia-Specific IgE Antibodies Production in Japanese Patients with Head and Neck Atopic Dermatitis: Relationship between the Level of Specific IgE Antibody and the Colonization Frequency of Cutaneous Malassezia Species and Clinical Severity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Enshi; Tanaka, Takafumi; Tajima, Mami; Tsuboi, Ryoji; Kato, Hiroshi; Nishikawa, Akemi; Sugita, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis of the head and neck (HNAD) is recognized as a separate condition. Malassezia, the predominant skin microbiota fungus, is considered to exacerbate atopic dermatitis (AD), especially HNAD. In the present study, we investigated the relationships between the levels of specific IgE antibodies, colonization frequency of eight predominant Malassezia species, and clinical severity in 61 patients with HNAD (26 mild, 24 moderate, and 11 severe cases). As clinical severity increased, the levels of specific IgE antibodies against eight Malassezia species also increased. Species diversity of the Malassezia microbiota in scale samples from patients was analyzed by nested PCR using species-specific primers. The clinical severity of HNAD was correlated with the total level of specific IgE antibodies against Malassezia species and the number of Malassezia species detected. PMID:22253636

  14. Eosinophilic colitis

    PubMed Central

    Okpara, Nnenna; Aswad, Bassam; Baffy, Gyorgy

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophilic colitis (EC) is a rare form of primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease with a bimodal peak of prevalence in neonates and young adults. EC remains a little understood condition in contrast to the increasingly recognized eosinophilic esophagitis. Clinical presentation of EC is highly variable according to mucosal, transmural, or serosal predominance of inflammation. EC has a broad differential diagnosis because colon tissue eosinophilia often occurs in parasitic infection, drug-induced allergic reactions, inflammatory bowel disease, and various connective tissue disorders, which require thorough searching for secondary causes that may be specifically treated with antibiotics or dietary and drug elimination. Like eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease involving other segments of the gastrointestinal tract, EC responds very well to steroids that may be spared by using antihistamines, leukotriene inhibitors and biologics. PMID:19554649

  15. Insect Sting Reactions and Specific IgE to Venom and Major Allergens in a General Population.

    PubMed

    Mosbech, Holger; Tang, Line; Linneberg, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Insect sting reactions are frequently reported, but population studies documenting the frequency and the relation to IgE-sensitization and serum tryptase are scarce. Questionnaire data and results from measurements of specific IgE against venom, major allergens and cross-reacting carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) were collected from 2,090 adult participants in a cross-sectional survey. 13% of the population reported symptoms of sting reactions and about half were systemic in nature. In all, 15% were sensitized to venom but only 31% of these had reacted to stings and only 38% of those with reactions had IgE to venom. In addition, 12% with IgE to venom were double-sensitized (DS), i.e. to both bee and wasp venom. Among DS IgE to major venom allergens, rApi m 1, rVes v 1 and rVes v 5 were negative and of no help in 31%, but 59% could be identified as likely sensitized to bee or wasp. IgE to CCDs occurred in only 0.7%, but 80% of these were DS. Finally, 36% with IgE to CCDs had had symptoms, mostly local. Serum tryptase was not associated with a history of sting reactions. In a temperate climate, self-reported insect sting reactions and sensitization to venom are frequent, but in most cases, these are not seen in the same individual. In DS individuals, measurements of IgE to major allergens can be helpful in some but not all cases and additional analyses are needed. IgE to CCDs may have some clinical relevance. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. [Change in venom-specific IgE levels during 2-year follow-up in five cases with a history of Hymenoptera sting].

    PubMed

    Ono, T; Yoshida, M; Nakazono, N

    1997-11-01

    Levels of specific IgE antibodies to three kinds of venom (honeybee, wasp and yellow jacket) were followed up for two years in five male pest control operators (age: 24 to 50 years) with Hymenoptera sting within the latest six months. At the first examination, all subjects had a positive reaction for venom-specific IgE but their levels were varied in the range from class 2 to 5 (0.70 approximately 99.9 UA/ml), and a positive reaction was observed in the case of unoffending Hymenoptera. A subject who was re-stung during the two-year follow-up period showed increase in all of the venom-specific IgE levels. Of four subjects without re-stung during the two years, three subjects had a logarithmic decrease in all the specific IgE levels time-dependently, but one subject with a high total serum IgE level showed an increase and decrease alternately in the specific IgE The total serum IgE level may be a factor which influences the change in the venom-specific IgE level. In the four subjects without a high total serum IgE level, the biological half-life of venom-specific IgE was estimated to be 6 to 12 months based on the decreased level during the follow-up period.

  17. Variable Region Identical IgA and IgE to Cryptococcus neoformans Capsular Polysaccharide Manifest Specificity Differences*

    PubMed Central

    Janda, Alena; Eryilmaz, Ertan; Nakouzi, Antonio; Pohl, Mary Ann; Bowen, Anthony; Casadevall, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years several groups have shown that isotype switching from IgM to IgG to IgA can affect the affinity and specificity of antibodies sharing identical variable (V) regions. However, whether the same applies to IgE is unknown. In this study we compared the fine specificity of V region-identical IgE and IgA to Cryptococcus neoformans capsular polysaccharide and found that these differed in specificity from each other. The IgE and IgA paratopes were probed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with 15N-labeled peptide mimetics of cryptococcal polysaccharide antigen (Ag). IgE was found to cleave the peptide at a much faster rate than V region-identical IgG subclasses and IgA, consistent with an altered paratope. Both IgE and IgA were opsonic for C. neoformans and protected against infection in mice. In summary, V-region expression in the context of the ϵ constant (C) region results in specificity changes that are greater than observed for comparable IgG subclasses. These results raise the possibility that expression of certain V regions in the context of α and ϵ C regions affects their function and contributes to the special properties of those isotypes. PMID:25778397

  18. ELISA method for monitoring human serum IgE specific for Cry1Ab introduced into genetically modified corn.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Osamu; Teshima, Reiko; Takagi, Kayoko; Okunuki, Haruyo; Sawada, Jun-ichi

    2007-02-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the most convenient method of monitoring the occurrence of IgE antibodies specific for novel proteins in genetically modified (GM) foods. The levels of IgE specific for a recombinant protein, Cry1Ab, were determined using an ELISA method. A soluble form of the Cry1Ab protein purified from pCold1 vector-transformed Escherichia coli pTf16/BL21 was used as the ELISA coating antigen, and 1M NaCl was used as the washing buffer to remove IgE non-specifically bound to the coated antigen. Sera from 44 patients allergic to major food allergens were obtained, diluted 20-fold, tested, and found no identifiable IgE above background levels. We also tested sera from patients with corn allergy against whole extracts of non-GM and GM-corn (MON 810) using immunoblotting. The staining patterns were similar for the two types of corn. These results indicate that significant levels of IgE antibodies specific to Cry1Ab were not found in the sera of Japanese patients with food allergies.

  19. Sensitivity and specificity of food specific IgE and IgG determinations for the diagnosis of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Kochuyt, A M

    2006-01-01

    Among the methods currently used to demonstrate a sensitization to foods, the measurement of food specific IgE antibodies (sIgE) is the most practical but not the most accurate. The "sensitivity" of food sIgE determinations is, for example, suboptimal with unstable allergens in fruits and vegetables that are involved in the (birch) pollen-related immediate oral allergy syndromes. In this particular syndrome the history is often conclusive and can be substantiated by skin prick tests with fresh foods. The "sensitivity" of sIgE tests is much better when sIgE are directed to stable plant or animal food allergens which often cause non-immediate generalized reactions. Foods, usually, contain many different (glyco)proteinic allergens of which some are stable and others not. The "sensitivity" of the sIgE test with a particular food, therefore, varies according to the type of allergen that is recognized by the patient. The "specificity" of sIgE tests with foods is affected by the existence of homologous food allergens which induce cross-reactive IgE that may or may not be clinically relevant. While variable, clinical cross-reactivity is more common among botanically-related fruits, among different nuts, among mammalian foods and among seafood than among cereals, grains and legumes. The "specificity" of food sIgE tests is much better when sIgE are directed to unique non-cross-reactive food allergens. Unfortunately, neither the presence of food sIgE nor its level are predictive of clinical reactivity. The identification of individual allergens in foods and the characterization of the relevant IgE binding sites in these allergens might lead to the development of tests that only measure sIgE to clinical relevant food allergens.

  20. Detection of Fungi in Indoor Environments and Fungus-Specific IgE Sensitization in Allergic Children

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to investigate relationships between fungal colonization in the house and IgE sensitization to fungi, and to clarify the effects of house care in relation to fungi. Materials and Methods We measured levels of fungi in the houses of 52 allergic children. Of these, 32 children displayed detectable levels of IgE (≥ 0.35 UA/ml) to a combination of fungi (positive group). The remaining 20 children were not sensitized to fungi (negative group). Each fungus-specific IgE level was also measured in sera of the positive group, and a questionnaire-based survey was conducted for daily lifestyles. Results Cladosporium was the most prevalent in the houses. From the 32 sera of the positive group, specific IgE levels ≥ 0.70 UA/ml were most frequently detected in 21 sera for Alternaria. Children in whose houses Alternaria was found displayed higher levels of Alternaria-IgE than those in whose houses where Alternaria was not found. In addition, Alternaria-IgE level was lower for children using an air purifier than for children who were not. Windows were more frequently opened for ventilation in negative-group houses than in positive-group houses. Conclusions The existence of Alternaria might strongly induce IgE sensitization for Alternaria. Using an air purifier and frequently opening windows may minimize fungal sensitization of allergic children. PMID:23283150

  1. Is nonhomogeneous expression of tissue mast cells or allergen specific IgEs bound to tissue mast cells possible?

    PubMed Central

    Bahçecioğlu, Sakine Nazik

    2017-01-01

    Skin prick tests (SPTs) are widely used to demonstrate an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction to a specific allergen. However, local allergic conditions cannot be diagnosed with SPTs. Local specific IgE production was only presented before in mucosal tissues. We present a patient with house dust mite sensitization that had variable SPTs results in different body regions. PMID:28765824

  2. Is nonhomogeneous expression of tissue mast cells or allergen specific IgEs bound to tissue mast cells possible?

    PubMed

    Türk, Murat; Bahçecioğlu, Sakine Nazik; Yılmaz, İnsu

    2017-07-01

    Skin prick tests (SPTs) are widely used to demonstrate an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction to a specific allergen. However, local allergic conditions cannot be diagnosed with SPTs. Local specific IgE production was only presented before in mucosal tissues. We present a patient with house dust mite sensitization that had variable SPTs results in different body regions.

  3. The correlation between anti phospholipase A2 specific IgE and clinical symptoms after a bee sting in beekeepers

    PubMed Central

    Matysiak, Joanna; Bręborowicz, Anna; Dereziński, Paweł; Kokot, Zenon J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Beekeepers are a group of people with high exposure to honeybee stings and with a very high risk of allergy to bee venom. Therefore, they are a proper population to study the correlations between clinical symptoms and results of diagnostic tests. Aim The primary aim of our study was to assess the correlations between total IgE, venom- and phospholipase A2-specific IgE and clinical symptoms after a bee sting in beekeepers. The secondary aim was to compare the results of diagnostic tests in beekeepers and in individuals with standard exposure to bees. Material and methods Fifty-four individuals were divided into two groups: beekeepers and control group. The levels of total IgE (tIgE), venom-specific IgE (venom sIgE), and phospholipase A2-specific IgE (phospholipase A2 sIgE) were analyzed. Results Our study showed no statistically significant correlation between the clinical symptoms after a sting and tIgE in the entire analyzed group. There was also no correlation between venom sIgE level and clinical symptoms either in beekeepers or in the group with standard exposure to bees. We observed a statistically significant correlation between phospholipase A2 sIgE level and clinical signs after a sting in the group of beekeepers, whereas no such correlation was detected in the control group. Significantly higher venom-specific IgE levels in the beekeepers, as compared to control individuals were shown. Conclusions In beekeepers, the severity of clinical symptoms after a bee sting correlated better with phospholipase A2 sIgE than with venom sIgE levels. PMID:27512356

  4. Eosinophilic colitis in children

    PubMed Central

    Horowska-Ziaja, Sabina; Kajor, Maciej; Więcek, Sabina; Chlebowczyk, Wojciech; Woś, Halina

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Eosinophilic colitis, which is a rare form of eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases, occurs as primary and secondary allergic eosinophilic colitis of the gastrointestinal tract infection, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and vasculitis. The diagnosis is based on a significant amount of eosinophils in the inflammatory infiltrate of the colon wall. Aim To analyze the clinical picture taking into account comorbidities and endoscopic picture in children with eosinophilic colitis. Material and methods The test group consisted of 43 children, the average age – 12.1 years diagnosed with eosinophilic colitis (according to the Whitington scale) hospitalized in the Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Pediatrics of the Medical University of Silesia in Katowice. Testing for food allergies, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, gastrointestinal diseases and parasitic diseases was performed in the group of children and the analysis concerned the intensity of eosinophilic infiltration of the colon mucosa with the severity of clinical symptoms, endoscopic picture, the presence of inflammatory bowel disease, and food allergy. Results Half of the tested children suffered from isolated eosinophilic colitis but the rest of them had eosinophilic infiltrate with inflammatory bowel disease more often, however, the Crohn’s disease. The endoscopic image was uncharacteristic, and grade III in the Whitington scale was predominant in the histopathological examination, in most cases located in the entire large intestine. The higher level of total IgE was found in less than half of the patients and it did not correlate with the severity of eosinophilic infiltration. It was shown that the severity of eosinophilic infiltration correlated with exacerbation of clinical symptoms, endoscopic image, and the presence of inflammatory bowel disease. The higher level of antibodies of ASCA and ANCA was found in approximately 20% of the children with isolated eosinophilic

  5. Presence of functional, autoreactive human milk-specific IgE in infants with cow's milk allergy.

    PubMed

    Järvinen, K M; Geller, L; Bencharitiwong, R; Sampson, H A

    2012-02-01

    Occasionally, exclusively breastfed infants with cow's milk allergy (CMA) remain symptomatic despite strict maternal milk avoidance. To determine whether or not persistence of symptoms could be due to sensitization against endogenous human milk proteins with a high degree of similarity to bovine allergens. Ten peptides representing known bovine milk IgE-binding epitopes [α-lactalbumin (ALA), β- and κ-casein] and the corresponding, highly homologous human milk peptides were labelled with sera from 15 breastfed infants with CMA, aged 3 weeks to 12 months, and peptide (epitope)-specific IgE antibodies were assessed. Nine of the 15 breastfed infants became asymptomatic during strict maternal avoidance of milk and other major food allergens; six infants remained symptomatic until weaned. Ten older children, aged 5-15 years, with CMA were also assessed. The functional capacity of specific IgE antibodies was assessed by measuring β-hexosaminidase release from rat basophilic leukaemia cells passively sensitized and stimulated with human and bovine ALA. A minimum of one human milk peptide was recognized by IgE antibodies from 9 of 15 (60%) milk-allergic infants, and the majority of older children with CMA. Genuine sensitization to human milk peptides in the absence of IgE to bovine milk was occasionally seen. There was a trend towards specific IgE being detected to more human milk peptides in those infants who did not respond to the maternal milk elimination diet than in those who did (P = 0.099). Functional IgE antibody to human ALA was only detected in infants not responding to the maternal diet. Endogenous human milk epitopes are recognized by specific IgE from the majority of infants and children with CMA. Such autoreactive, human milk-specific IgE antibodies appear to have functional properties in vitro. Their role in provoking allergic symptoms in infants exclusively breastfed by mothers strictly avoiding dietary milk remains unclear. © 2011 Blackwell

  6. Anaphylaxis to pork kidney is related to IgE antibodies specific for galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose.

    PubMed

    Morisset, M; Richard, C; Astier, C; Jacquenet, S; Croizier, A; Beaudouin, E; Cordebar, V; Morel-Codreanu, F; Petit, N; Moneret-Vautrin, D A; Kanny, G

    2012-05-01

    Carbohydrate-specific IgE antibodies present on nonprimate mammalian proteins were incriminated recently in delayed meat anaphylaxis. The aim of this study was to explore whether anaphylaxis to mammalian kidney is also associated with galactose-α-1,3-galactose (αGal)-specific IgE. Fourteen patients with anaphylaxis to pork or beef kidney underwent prick tests to meat and kidney. Some patients also underwent skin tests to Erbitux(®) (cetuximab). IgE antibodies to αGal, swine urine proteins, beef and pork meat, serum albumin proteins, cat, and rFel d 1 were measured by ImmunoCAP(®). The αGal levels were estimated in meats and kidney by ELISA inhibition assay. Cross-reactivity between αGal and pork kidney was studied with the ImmunoCAP(®) inhibition assay. Among the 14 patients, 12 presented with anaphylactic shock. Reactions occurred within 2 h from exposure in 67% of patients. Associated risk factors were observed in 10 cases, and alcohol was the main cofactor. Three patients underwent an oral challenge to pork kidney, and anaphylaxis occurred after ingestion of small quantities (1-2 g). Prick tests to kidney were positive in 54% of patients. All tested patients showed positive skin tests to Erbitux(®). All patients tested positive for IgE to αGal, with levels ranging from 0.4 to 294 kU/l. IgE binding to αGal was inhibited by raw pork kidney extract (mean, 77%; range, 55-87%), which showed a high amount of αGal determinants. Pork or beef kidney anaphylaxis is related to αGal IgE. Its peculiar severity could be due to an elevated content of αGal epitopes in kidney. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Ascaris lumbricoides-induced suppression of total and specific IgE responses in atopic subjects is interleukin 10-independent and associated with an increase of CD25(+) cells.

    PubMed

    Matera, Giovanni; Giancotti, Aida; Scalise, Sonia; Pulicari, Maria Concetta; Maselli, Rosario; Piizzi, Chiara; Pelaia, Girolamo; Tancrè, Valentina; Muto, Valentina; Doldo, Patrizia; Cosco, Vincenzo; Cosimo, Paola; Capicotto, Renata; Quirino, Angela; Scalzo, Rosaria; Liberto, Maria Carla; Parlato, Giuseppe; Focà, Alfredo

    2008-11-01

    Ascaris presence in humans has been associated with high levels of blood eosinophils and serum IgE. This study was designed to address the influence of Ascaris infection on allergic and inflammatory parameters of atopic subjects. A cross-sectional design was used, and atopic individuals to be assessed were divided into 3 groups including Ascaris-infected, anti-Ascaris IgG-positive (seropositive), and control subjects. All subjects enrolled had positive skin test reactivity to at least 1 perennial or seasonal allergen; however, levels of C-reactive protein, C3, and C4 were within normal range values. Eosinophil percentage was not significantly different among the groups studied. Total IgE and specific anti-Ascaris IgE levels in the seropositive group were significantly higher than concentrations found in both control and infected groups. Interleukin (IL)-4 release in Ascaris-infected patients was significantly increased versus seropositives, who were able to produce more IL-4 than controls. The levels of IL-10 were lower in the seropositives as well as infected subjects in comparison with controls. CD25(+) lymphocyte populations were significantly increased in the infected group versus the seropositives as well as the controls. Lung function tests of some selected seropositive subjects were significantly impaired. The same parameters of a representative infected patient were not different from controls. Our data on T helper type 2 cells (Th2) and regulatory T cells (Treg) features, as well as CD25(+) lymphocyte increase, suggest an Ascaris-induced mechanism leading to parasite survival. Moreover, the stable control of both T helper type 1 cells (Th1) and Th2 immunity cascades, paralleled by the absence of overwhelming inflammatory systemic reactions and lack of allergic syndromes, may result in a favorable host condition.

  8. Dansylglycine, a fluorescent probe for specific determination of halogenating activity of myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Bertozo, Luiza de Carvalho; Zeraik, Maria Luiza; Ximenes, Valdecir Farias

    2017-09-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) are enzymes present in neutrophil and eosinophil leukocytes, respectively. Here, we present the development of a sensitive and specific assay for determination of the halogenating enzymatic activity of MPO and EPO based on the electrophilic attack of HOCl and HOBr on aromatic ring of dansylglycine (DG). We found that the intrinsic fluorescence of DG was promptly depleted by the action of these acids. In the presence of the enzymes, the fluorescence bleaching was dependent of chloride (Cl(-)) and bromide (Br(-)), which makes the assay able to distinguish the halogenating from the peroxidase activity. A linear correlation was obtained between the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration and the fluorescent decay. Similarly, the enzyme activity was measured by keeping constant H2O2. The method was applied for studding MPO/EPO specific inhibitors as 5-fluortryptamine (reversible inhibitor) and 4-hydroxybenzhydrazide (irreversible inhibitor). Differently of the taurine chloramine/3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine assay, which is among the most used technique, the dansylglycine assay was able to differentiate these inhibitors based on their kinetic behavior. In conclusion, this assay can differentiate the peroxidase and halogenating activity of MPO and EPO. Moreover, the method is adequate for real-time measurement of the production of HOCl and HOBr. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Eosinophilic cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Verhagen, P; Nikkels, P; de Jong, T P V M

    2001-01-01

    We describe four cases of eosinophilic cystitis in whom no specific cause could be found, and review the literature. Complaints at presentation included urgency, frequency, abdominal pain, and haematuria. In three patients the symptoms and ultrasound pictures suggested a bladder tumour. One patient was treated with anticholinergics and corticosteroids without relief of symptoms; a localised eosinophilic tumour was excised in one patient who remained symptom free; and two patients were managed conservatively with spontaneous resolution of bladder pathology and symptoms. One case was identified by random bladder biopsy in 150 consecutive patients with unexplained irritable micturition complaints. Eosinophilic cystitis is rare in children. After biopsy, we consider a wait and see policy is justified as symptoms tend to disappear spontaneously. Routine bladder biopsies in children with unexplained bladder symptoms is not justifiable.

 PMID:11259238

  10. Association of house dust mite-specific IgE with asthma control, medications and household pets

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, John Donnie A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence is conflicting regarding the effectiveness of creating a low-allergen environment or reducing allergen exposure to control asthma exacerbations. Objective This study determined the association of house dust mite (HDM)-specific IgE levels with asthma symptom control, selected medications, family history of allergic disease, and exposure to second-hand smoke and household pets. Methods Serum samples from 102 doctor-diagnosed allergic asthma patients and 100 non-atopic controls were subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using the HDM species Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp), Dermatophagoides farinae (Df), and Blomia tropicalis (Bt) allergens. Point-biserial correlation coefficient, Pearson R correlation, and logistic regression analyses were used to determine association of HDM-specific IgE levels with the abovementioned variables. Results Of the 102 cases, 38.24%, 47.06%, and 33.33% were sensitized to Bt, Df, and Dp, respectively. Sensitized patients showed greater probability [Bt (OR = 1.21), Df (OR = 1.14), and Dp (OR = 1.35)] to manifest symptoms than those who were not. Obtained p-values [Bt (p = 0.73), Df (p = 0.83), and Dp (p = 0.59)], however, proved that HDM-specific IgE levels had no significant contribution in predicting or explaining occurrence of asthma symptoms. Bt- and Df-specific IgEs showed moderately weak but significant relationship with bambuterol HCl and expectorant, respectively. Patients currently on said medications registered higher HDM-specific IgE levels than those who were not. No significant correlation between IgE levels and family history of allergic disease or with exposure to second-hand smoke was seen. Dp-specific IgE levels of patients exposed to household pets were significantly lower compared to those without exposure. Conclusion This study proves that sensitization to Bt, Df, and Dp allergens is not significantly associated with asthma symptoms and control. Although cases were shown to be sensitized

  11. Total and specific serum IgE decreases with age in patients with allergic rhinitis, asthma and insect allergy but not in patients with atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Mediaty, Anja; Neuber, Karsten

    2005-01-01

    Concerning allergic diseases, the incidence of allergic symptoms, as well as their severity, seems to decrease with age. The decline of onset of allergic symptoms observed in ageing might result from a decrease of serum total and specific IgE. Atopic disorders are complex diseases that involve interactions among several physiological systems, e.g. skin, lung, mucosae, and the immune system. It was the aim of this study to compare the effects of age on total and specific IgE in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), allergic rhinitis or asthma, and insect allergy, respectively. The study population consisted of 559 individuals (male: 229 and female: 330). Total and allergen specific IgE was measured in every individual. From the whole study population, 113 patients suffered from atopic dermatitis (AD), 132 had allergic rhinitis or asthma, and 314 were tested because of insect allergy. Total and specific serum IgE was significantly decreased as a function of age in patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma and with insect allergy. In contrast, no significant decrease of total and specific serum IgE in old individuals with AD was observed. Additionally, in the group of patients with a total IgE < 300 kU/l a reduction of total serum IgE was significantly correlated with age. In contrast, patients with IgE levels > 300 kU/l showed no correlation with age. Immunosenescence does not affect increased IgE levels in atopic patients with AD and/or high serum IgE levels indicating that in these subgroups of patients the atopic propensity remains into advanced age. One may hypothesize that either onset of allergic sensitization during life or the kind of atopic disease influences the correlation between age and IgE synthesis. PMID:15927080

  12. High Serum β-Lactams Specific/Total IgE Ratio Is Associated with Immediate Reactions to β-Lactams Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Vultaggio, Alessandra; Virgili, Gianni; Gaeta, Francesco; Romano, Antonino; Maggi, Enrico; Matucci, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Total serum IgE result from the combination of specific and non-specific pools. High specific/total IgE ratio may reflect high level of allergen-specific IgE on mast cells. No data regarding its applications to drug allergies is available. One hundred seventy-one patients with a history of immediate reactions to β-lactams, confirmed by positive skin testing, and 122 control subjects tolerant to β-lactams, were studied. CAP System was used for the detection of serum total and specific IgE antibodies. The specific/total IgE ratio was tested for diagnostic accuracy compared with conventional criteria. We finally performed a simulation study to expand our investigation of the performance of the specific/total IgE ratio index in a scenario in which the new CAP detection threshold is lowered further. Specific/total IgE ratio values ≥0.002 were observed more frequently in reactive than in controls. Seventy-four of 80 subjects with values ≥0.002 were allergic to β-lactams, yielding a positive predictive value of 92.5%. The application of specific/total IgE ratio significantly improves the positive likelihood ratio and the overall diagnostic performance. In addition, we showed the capability of this new criterion to identify true reactive patients even among subjects with high levels of total IgE (>200 kU/L). Significant increase in both receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve and sensitivity were observed in imputed case of the simulation study. The β-lactams-specific/total IgE ratio may be an additional index compared to the common criterion of positivity to a single hapten in the allergological work-up of patients with β-lactams immediate adverse reactions. PMID:25880869

  13. High serum β-lactams specific/total IgE ratio is associated with immediate reactions to β-lactams antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Vultaggio, Alessandra; Virgili, Gianni; Gaeta, Francesco; Romano, Antonino; Maggi, Enrico; Matucci, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Total serum IgE result from the combination of specific and non-specific pools. High specific/total IgE ratio may reflect high level of allergen-specific IgE on mast cells. No data regarding its applications to drug allergies is available. One hundred seventy-one patients with a history of immediate reactions to β-lactams, confirmed by positive skin testing, and 122 control subjects tolerant to β-lactams, were studied. CAP System was used for the detection of serum total and specific IgE antibodies. The specific/total IgE ratio was tested for diagnostic accuracy compared with conventional criteria. We finally performed a simulation study to expand our investigation of the performance of the specific/total IgE ratio index in a scenario in which the new CAP detection threshold is lowered further. Specific/total IgE ratio values ≥0.002 were observed more frequently in reactive than in controls. Seventy-four of 80 subjects with values ≥0.002 were allergic to β-lactams, yielding a positive predictive value of 92.5%. The application of specific/total IgE ratio significantly improves the positive likelihood ratio and the overall diagnostic performance. In addition, we showed the capability of this new criterion to identify true reactive patients even among subjects with high levels of total IgE (>200 kU/L). Significant increase in both receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve and sensitivity were observed in imputed case of the simulation study. The β-lactams-specific/total IgE ratio may be an additional index compared to the common criterion of positivity to a single hapten in the allergological work-up of patients with β-lactams immediate adverse reactions.

  14. A new quantitative in vitro for the detection of latex-specific IgE antibodies.

    PubMed

    Moussadeh, M; Hamedi, N; Alem, N; Alem, M

    1999-12-01

    Immediate-type hypersensitivity to latex allergens has resulted in anaphylactic shock and death in numerous reported cases. The allergenic proteins of latex are contained within the natural rubber extract of Hevea brasiliensis and are eluted into the final product during the manufacturing process. The quantity and types of latex allergens found in different latex products depends on the manufacturing process. Not all of these allergens are available for use in the latex prick skin test, and as a result, such tests may not be conclusive. Furthermore, application of such allergens to the skin of undiagnosed hypersensitive individuals may have harmful effects on their health. Therefore, it is important to be able to utilize in vitro methods, which reliably identify latex allergy without placing hypersensitive individuals at risk. We have developed a relatively simple and new enzyme immuno-assay (EIA) method for the detection of latex allergy. This in vitro method is quantitative and allows for the classification of allergy to latex in a short time. In comparative studies, ninety-nine serum specimens with documented clinical history of latex allergy were tested by this method, and the results paralleled those of the skin prick test performed by an independent group. The data showed that the specificity and sensitivity of our assay approaches 97.5% and 100%, respectively. We conclude that, by using a simple assay, the detection of specific IgE to latex proteins may be valuable for screening individuals and for the diagnosis of allergy to latex.

  15. Asthma Symptoms and Specific IgE Levels among Toluene Diisocyanate (TDI) Exposed Workers in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Laleh; Karimi, Akram; Shokouhi Shoormasti, Raheleh; Miri, Sara; Heydar Nazhad, Hassan; Bokaie, Saied; Fazlollahi, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghniiat Haghighi, Khosro; Pourpak, Zahra; Moin, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) is an imperative chemical substance used in the production of polyurethane foams, elastomers, paints and coatings that cause a variety of health problems in workers who are exposed in work places. This study aimed to determine the asthma symptoms and serum specific IgE levels in TDI exposed workers and comparing the results with healthy control group. All the plants that use TDI in the manufacturing of paint and glue in the west of Tehran Province entered to the study and all the workers (550) completed modified initial questionnaire of the NIOSH, the questions were consisted of asthma symptoms. For each symptomatic exposed worker one healthy, sex and age matched control selected. Total IgE and Specific TDI IgE tests were done for each case and control groups. Among 550 TDI exposed workers, 26(4.7%) had asthma symptoms. Nine (34.6%) of symptomatic workers who were exposed to TDI were active cigarette consumer versus 3(11.5%) unexposed workers, P=0.049(CI= 0.953-17.29) OR=4.059. Nine (34.6%) workers had positive family history of atopy versus 1(3.8%) unexposed workers, P=0.0138 (CI= 1.45-305.41) OR=13.24. TDI specific IgE was found in 2 TDI exposed workers and 1 unexposed worker (P=0.5). Mean of total IgE was 339.05 in exposed workers (P=0.201). This study provides clinical and paraclinical data of workers exposed to TDI and points to a relation between atopy and smoking habit with asthma symptoms that offer preventing recommendations for TDI exposed workers and their heath administrators.

  16. A Protein Allergen Microarray Detects Specific IgE to Pollen Surface, Cytoplasmic, and Commercial Allergen Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Vigh-Conrad, Katinka A.; Conrad, Donald F.; Preuss, Daphne

    2010-01-01

    Background Current diagnostics for allergies, such as skin prick and radioallergosorbent tests, do not allow for inexpensive, high-throughput screening of patients. Additionally, extracts used in these methods are made from washed pollen that lacks pollen surface materials that may contain allergens. Methodology/Principal Findings We sought to develop a high-throughput assay to rapidly measure allergen-specific IgE in sera and to explore the relative allergenicity of different pollen fractions (i.e. surface, cytoplasmic, commercial extracts). To do this, we generated a protein microarray containing surface, cytoplasmic, and commercial extracts from 22 pollen species, commercial extracts from nine non-pollen allergens, and five recombinant allergenic proteins. Pollen surface and cytoplasmic fractions were prepared by extraction into organic solvents and aqueous buffers, respectively. Arrays were incubated with <25 uL of serum from 176 individuals and bound IgE was detected by indirect immunofluorescence, providing a high-throughput measurement of IgE. We demonstrated that the allergen microarray is a reproducible method to measure allergen-specific IgE in small amounts of sera. Using this tool, we demonstrated that specific IgE clusters according to the phylogeny of the allergen source. We also showed that the pollen surface, which has been largely overlooked in the past, contained potent allergens. Although, as a class, cytoplasmic fractions obtained by our pulverization/precipitation method were comparable to commercial extracts, many individual allergens showed significant differences. Conclusions/Significance These results support the hypothesis that protein microarray technology is a useful tool for both research and in the clinic. It could provide a more efficient and less painful alternative to traditionally used skin prick tests, making it economically feasible to compare allergen sensitivity of different populations, monitor individual responses over time

  17. Staphylococcal superantigen-specific IgE antibodies: degree of sensitization and association with severity of asthma

    PubMed Central

    Elabras, José; Mello, Fernanda Carvalho de Queiroz; Lupi, Omar; Bica, Blanca Elena Rios Gomes; Papi, José Angelo de Souza; França, Alfeu Tavares

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the presence of staphylococcal superantigen-specific IgE antibodies and degree of IgE-mediated sensitization, as well as whether or not those are associated with the severity of asthma in adult patients. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving outpatients with asthma under treatment at a tertiary care university hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Consecutive patients were divided into two groups according to the severity of asthma based on the Global Initiative for Asthma criteria: mild asthma (MA), comprising patients with mild intermittent or persistent asthma; and moderate or severe asthma (MSA). We determined the serum levels of staphylococcal toxin-specific IgE antibodies, comparing the results and performing a statistical analysis. Results: The study included 142 patients: 72 in the MA group (median age = 46 years; 59 females) and 70 in the MSA group (median age = 56 years; 60 females). In the sample as a whole, 62 patients (43.7%) presented positive results for staphylococcal toxin-specific IgE antibodies: staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), in 29 (20.4%); SEB, in 35 (24.6%); SEC, in 33 (23.2%); and toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST), in 45 (31.7%). The mean serum levels of IgE antibodies to SEA, SEB, SEC, and TSST were 0.96 U/L, 1.09 U/L, 1.21 U/L, and 1.18 U/L, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of the qualitative or quantitative results. Conclusions: Serum IgE antibodies to SEA, SEB, SEC, and TSST were detected in 43.7% of the patients in our sample. However, neither the qualitative nor quantitative results showed a statistically significant association with the clinical severity of asthma. PMID:27812635

  18. Relationship between specific serum IgE to Ascaris lumbricoides and onset of respiratory symptoms in Bangladesh immigrants.

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, G; Pacor, M L; Mansueto, P; Esposito-Pellitteri, M; Scichilone, N; Ditta, V; Lo Bianco, C; Leto-Barone, M S; Di Fede, G; Corrocher, R; Mansueto, S; Rini, G B

    2006-01-01

    The role of helminths in asthma and/or rhinitis and in allergic sensitization is still unclear. We assessed the relationship between Ascaris-specific IgE, respiratory symptoms and allergic sensitization in Bangladesh immigrants. 246 individuals were examined from 1996 to 2001. Serum total IgE, Ascaris IgE, specific IgE to inhalant allergens, skin prick tests (SPT) and parasitological evaluation of the stool were performed. Total serum IgE were significantly higher in Ascaris-IgE positive (> 0.35 kU/L) individuals (806.5 [409.0-1436.0] kU/L vs. 207.0 [127.0-332.5] kU/L; P < 0.0001) and in subjects with respiratory symptoms (413.0 [239.0-1096.0] kU/L vs. 259.5 [147.0-387.0] kU/L), (P < 0.0001), but not in SPT positive subjects (413.0 [179.0-894.0] kU/L vs. 404.6 [305.0-1201.0] kU/L (P = 0.5). Ascaris-specific IgE were detected in 48 subjects with respiratory symptoms (40.0%) and in 46 subjects without respiratory symptoms (36.5%) (P = 0.5). The SPT positivity was similar between Ascaris-IgE seropositive (38.2%) and Ascaris-IgE seronegative (38.1%) subjects (P = 0.9). Total IgE and length of stay in Italy correlated with SPT positivity (OR 5.6 [CI 95% 1.5-19.8], P = 0.007, and OR 1.5 [CI 95% 1.3-1.7], P< 0.0001), and with respiratory symptoms (OR 13.7 [CI 95% 3.0-62.4];, P = 0.0007, and OR 2.4 [CI 95% 1.9-3.0], P < 0.0001). Ascaris-IgE were negatively associated with SPT positivity (OR 0.3 [CI 95% 0.1-0.8], P = 0.02) and with respiratory symptoms (OR 0.1 [CI 95% 0.04-0.7], P = 0.01). Our findings favour the role of environmental factors in the development of respiratory symptoms in immigrants, irrespective of Ascaris-IgE.

  19. Organ-specific eosinophilic disorders of the skin, lung and gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Dagmar; Wardlaw, Andrew; Rothenberg, Marc E.

    2010-01-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional leukocytes that increase in various tissues in a variety of disorders. Locally, they can be involved in the initiation and propagation of diverse inflammatory responses. In this review, the clinical association of eosinophils with diseases of the skin, lung and gastrointestinal tract is summarized. An approach to determining the causal role of eosinophils in these diseases is presented. Recent findings concerning molecular diagnosis, etiology and treatment are discussed. PMID:20392477

  20. A mimotope gene encoding the major IgE epitope of allergen Phl p 5 for epitope-specific immunization.

    PubMed

    Wallmann, J; Proell, M; Stepanoska, T; Hantusch, B; Pali-Schöll, I; Thalhamer, T; Thalhamer, J; Jensen-Jarolim, E; Hartl, A

    2009-01-29

    A gene vaccine based on a mammalian expression vector containing the sequence of a peptide mimotope of Phl p 5 was constructed. To test whether mimotope gene vaccines can induce allergen-specific antibody responses via molecular mimicry, BALB/c mice were immunized using the mimotope construct with or without a tetanus toxin T-helper epitope. Moreover, intradermal injection was compared to epidermal application via gene gun immunization. Immunization with both mimotope gene constructs elicited allergen-specific antibody responses. As expected, gene gun bombardment induced a Th2-biased immune response, typically associated with IgG1 and IgE antibody production. In contrast, intradermal injection of the vaccine triggered IgG2a antibody expression without any detectable IgE levels, thus biasing the immune response towards Th1. In an RBL assay, mimotope-specific IgG antibodies were able to prevent cross-linking of allergen-specific IgE by Phl p 5. A construct coding for the complete Phl p 5 induced T-cell activation, IFN-gamma and IL-4 production. In contrast, the mimotope-DNA construct being devoid of allergen-specific T-cell epitopes had no capacity to activate allergen-specific T cells. Taken together, our data show that it is feasible to induce blocking IgG antibodies with a mimotope-DNA construct when applied intradermally. Thus the mimotope-DNA strategy has two advantages: (1) the avoidance of IgE induction and (2) the avoidance of triggering allergen-specific T-lymphocytes. We therefore suggest that mimotope gene vaccines are potential candidates for epitope-specific immunotherapy of type I allergy.

  1. Renaturation of blotted allergens increases the sensitivity of specific IgE detection.

    PubMed

    Muro, M D; Fernández, C; Moneo, I

    1996-01-01

    Several authors have demonstrated that renaturation is an essential step for the appropriate recognition of blotted proteins. The use of nonionic detergents has been described as a useful alternative to enhance the antigenicity in immunoblotting, although elution from proteins by detergents has been observed. To measure the influence of different factors on the sensitivity of specific IgE by immunoblotting, we used twenty human sera from atopic patients who were allergic or nonallergic to a common, reliable allergen (grass pollen mixture). The use of Nonidet-P40 was found to be a useful alternative for the renaturation of the allergens. No elution from the membrane was found when employing this detergent, even at high concentrations (3%), and its use gave better sensitivity than methanol. On the other hand, we detected that methanol possessed renaturing properties. A transfer method using diffusion instead of electric transfer gave the best results and two membranes could be obtained from each gel. Using this method, we found that after NP-40 incubation of the membrane, the use of bovine albumin could be omitted as blocking agent and that its use had even deleterious effects.

  2. Establishment of two novel ELISA methods for Dermatophagoides farinae-specific IgE detection with recombinant group 2 allergen.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yubao; Zhou, Ying; Ma, Guifang; Shi, Weihong; Yang, Li; Wang, Yungang

    2012-01-01

    Dermatophagoides farinae, or the American house dust mite, is a common cause of allergy and asthma. Current tests for sensitization to D. farinae include an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method for specific IgE detection, which, while clinically useful, is time-consuming and has low sensitivity since it uses crude mite extracts. We developed two new ELISA methods to detect the group 2 allergen from D. farinae (Der f 2) and the Der f 2-specific IgE in sera of patients with asthma. Using recombinant Der f 2 protein for the analysis of Der f 2-specific IgE, we tested both indirect ELISA and avidin biotin complex ELISA (ABC-ELISA) methods in 46 patients who were also tested by Pharmacia UniCap. Both of these approaches are more specific than traditional methods using crude mite extracts. These new tests could aid in the laboratory diagnosis of asthma due to sensitization to D. farinae.

  3. Food allergen-specific serum IgG and IgE before and after elimination diets in allergic dogs.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Anja; Bexley, Jennifer; Halliwell, Richard E W; Mueller, Ralf S

    2011-12-15

    Serum food allergen-specific antibody testing is widely offered to identify suitable ingredients for diets to diagnose adverse food reaction (AFR) in dogs with allergic skin disease. Antibody concentrations in blood samples obtained during an unsuccessful diet to help in the choice of diet changes may be influenced by the previous diet. The objective of this paper was to measure food antigen-specific IgE and IgG for the most commonly used 16 food antigens before and after an elimination diet. Levels of food-specific serum IgE and IgG antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Dogs had detectable IgE antibodies to beef, pork, lamb and cows' milk; and detectable IgG antibodies to beef, pork, lamb, cows' milk, chicken and turkey. Of 19 dogs with complete data sets, 14 dogs showed clear improvement during diet and in 7 dogs AFR could be diagnosed by deterioration on rechallenge and subsequent improvement on refeeding the diet. Serum was obtained before and 6-8 weeks after beginning such a diet. There was no significant difference in pre- and post-diet levels for any of the individual allergens nor for the total IgE and IgG concentrations of all antigens (P=0.55 and P=0.53 respectively). In these 19 dogs in which an elimination diet was used for the diagnosis of food allergy and in which 14 were probably food allergic and 7 were proven food allergic there were no significant differences in food-specific antibodies before and after an elimination diet of 6-8 weeks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Two cases of allergies due to Anisakis simplex, positive to specific IgE for Ani s 12 allergen].

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Yuri; Fujimoto, Kazuhisa; Lee, Min; Shinohara, Rie; Kobayashi, Yukihiro; Kawana, Seiji; Saeki, Hidehisa

    2014-12-01

    We report 2 cases of immediate allergies to Anisakis after ingestion of seafood. In case 1, after ingestion of flatfish, sea bream and mackerel, wheals and dyspnea occurred. Result of ImmunoCAP was class 5 for Anisakis. ELISA for specific IgE showed that the patient serum strongly reacted to Ani s 12. In case 2, after ingestion of flatfish and yellowtail, pruritus and dyspnea occurred. Result of ImmunoCAP was class 6 for Anisakis. ELISA for specific IgE showed that the patient serum reacted to Ani s 1, 4, 6 and 12. In both cases, skin prick tests were negative for suspected seafoods. These data suggests the possibility Ani s 12 is a major allergen of Anisakis allergy besides Ani s 1, 2 and 7. Ani s 12 is an allergen that was first reported in 2011. The reactivity of Ani s 12 specific IgE with ELISA may become useful for the diagnosis of Anisakis allergy.

  5. Application of immuno-PCR assay for the detection of serum IgE specific to Bermuda allergen.

    PubMed

    Rahmatpour, Samine; Khan, Amjad Hayat; Nasiri Kalmarzi, Rasoul; Rajabibazl, Masoumeh; Tavoosidana, Gholamreza; Motevaseli, Elahe; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Sadroddiny, Esmaeil

    2017-04-01

    In vivo and in vitro tests are the two major ways of identifying the triggering allergens in sensitized individuals with allergic symptoms. Both methods are equally significant in terms of sensitivity and specificity. However, in certain circumstances, in vitro methods are highly preferred because they circumvent the use of sensitizing drugs in patients. In current study, we described a highly sensitive immuno-PCR (iPCR) assay for serum IgE specific to Bermuda allergens. Using oligonucleotide-labelled antibody, we used iPCR for the sensitive detection of serum IgE. The nucleotide sequence was amplified using conventional PCR and the bands were visualized on 2.5% agarose gel. Results demonstrated a 100-fold enhancement in sensitivity of iPCR over commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Our iPCR method was highly sensitive for Bermuda-specific serum IgE and could be beneficial in allergy clinics.

  6. Is the Determination of Specific IgE against Components Using ISAC 112 a Reproducible Technique?

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Aranguren, Rubén; Lizaso, María T.; Goikoetxea, María J.; García, Blanca E.; Cabrera-Freitag, Paula; Trellez, Oswaldo; Sanz, María L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The ImmunoCAP ISAC 112 is a fluoro-immunoassay that allows detection of specific IgE to 112 molecular components from 51 allergenic sources. We studied the reliability of this technique intra- and inter- assay, as well as inter-batch- and inter-laboratory-assay. Methods Twenty samples were studied, nineteen sera from polysensitized allergic patients, and the technique calibrator provided by the manufacturer (CTR02). We measured the sIgE from CTR02 and three patients' sera ten times in the same and in different assays. Furthermore, all samples were tested in two laboratories and with two batches of ISAC kit. To evaluate the accuracy of ISAC 112, we contrasted the determinations of CTR02 calibrator with their expected values by T Student test. To analyse the precision, we calculated the coefficient of variation (CV) of the 15 allergens that generate the calibration curve, and to analyse the repeatability and the reproducibility, we calculated the intraclass coefficient correlation (ICC) to each allergen. Results The results obtained for CTR02 were similar to those expected in 7 of 15 allergens that generate the calibration curve, whereas in 8 allergens the results showed significant differences. The mean CV obtained in the CTR02 determinations was of 9.4%, and the variability of sera from patients was of 22.9%. The agreement in the intra- and inter-assay analysis was very good to 94 allergens and good to one. In the inter-batch analyse, we obtained a very good agreement to 82 allergens, good to 14, moderate to 5 allergens, poor to one, and bad to 1 allergen. In the inter-laboratory analyse, we obtained a very good agreement to 73 allergens, good to 22, moderate to 6 and poor to two allergens. Conclusion The allergen microarray immunoassay, ISAC 112, is a repeatable and reproducible in vitro diagnostic tool for determination of sIgE beyond the own laboratory. PMID:24516646

  7. Role of specific IgE in predicting the clinical course of lentil allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, Suleyman T; Sahiner, Umit M; Buyuktiryaki, Betul; Tuncer, Ayfer; Yilmaz, Ebru A; Cavkaytar, Ozlem; Karabulut, Erdem; Sackesen, Cansin

    2013-06-01

    Legumes, and particularly lentils, are frequently consumed in Mediterranean, Middle Eastern, and some Asian countries. The aim of this study was to document the demographic features of children with lentil allergy and to determine the role of specific IgE (sIgE) in predicting the risk of clinical reactivity and disease persistence. Thirty children were enrolled. The diagnosis of lentil allergy was based on convincing history of symptoms or anaphylaxis after the ingestion of lentils, with positive skin tests and/or sIgE to lentils. To determine the diagnosis and prognosis of lentil allergy, 24 children were evaluated with food challenges. The median age at the onset of symptoms was 1.5 yr (0.9-2.3) (inter-quartile range). The most frequent symptoms were immediate cutaneous (97%) and respiratory (30%) reactions, whereas eight patients (27%) reported anaphylactic reactions. The median level of lentil sIgE at the time of diagnosis was 3 kU/l (1.2-9.6). Of the 24 challenges, 12 were positive. Fifteen patients (50%) outgrew the lentil allergy by the age of 3.5 (2.5-11) years. Children with an initial lentil sIgE < 4.9 kU/l had a significantly higher likelihood (68.4% vs. 18.2%) of outgrowing the lentil allergy than children with an initial lentil sIgE ≥ 4.9 k/l (p = 0.008). Our results suggest that sIgE levels may be important for predicting clinical reactivity and persistence of lentil allergy. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Antibodies specific for a segment of human membrane IgE deplete IgE-producing B cells in humanized mice

    PubMed Central

    Brightbill, Hans D.; Jeet, Surinder; Lin, Zhonghua; Yan, Donghong; Zhou, Meijuan; Tan, Martha; Nguyen, Allen; Yeh, Sherry; Delarosa, Donnie; Leong, Steven R.; Wong, Terence; Chen, Yvonne; Ultsch, Mark; Luis, Elizabeth; Ramani, Sree Ranjani; Jackman, Janet; Gonzalez, Lino; Dennis, Mark S.; Chuntharapai, Anan; DeForge, Laura; Meng, Y. Gloria; Xu, Min; Eigenbrot, Charles; Lee, Wyne P.; Refino, Canio J.; Balazs, Mercedesz; Wu, Lawren C.

    2010-01-01

    IgE-mediated hypersensitivity is central to the pathogenesis of asthma and other allergic diseases. Although neutralization of serum IgE with IgE-specific antibodies is in general an efficacious treatment for allergic asthma, one limitation of this approach is its lack of effect on IgE production. Here, we have developed a strategy to disrupt IgE production by generating monoclonal antibodies that target a segment of membrane IgE on human IgE-switched B cells that is not present in serum IgE. This segment is known as the M1′ domain, and using genetically modified mice that contain the human M1′ domain inserted into the mouse IgE locus, we demonstrated that M1′-specific antibodies reduced serum IgE and IgE-producing plasma cells in vivo, without affecting other immunoglobulin isotypes. M1′-specific antibodies were effective when delivered prophylactically and therapeutically in mouse models of immunization, allergic asthma, and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection, likely by inducing apoptosis of IgE-producing B cells. In addition, we generated a humanized M1′-specific antibody that was active on primary human cells in vivo, as determined by its reduction of serum IgE levels and IgE plasma cell numbers in a human PBMC-SCID mouse model. Thus, targeting of human IgE-producing B cells with apoptosis-inducing M1′-specific antibodies may be a novel treatment for asthma and allergy. PMID:20458139

  9. Agreement between allergen-specific IgE assays and ensuing immunotherapy recommendations from four commercial laboratories in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Plant, Jon D; Neradelik, Moni B; Polissar, Nayak L; Fadok, Valerie A; Scott, Brian A

    2014-01-01

    Background Canine allergen-specific IgE assays in the USA are not subjected to an independent laboratory reliability monitoring programme. Hypothesis/Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the agreement of diagnostic results and treatment recommendations of four serum IgE assays commercially available in the USA. Methods Replicate serum samples from 10 atopic dogs were submitted to each of four laboratories for allergen-specific IgE assays (ACTT®, VARL Liquid Gold, ALLERCEPT® and Greer® Aller-g-complete®). The interlaboratory agreement of standard, regional panels and ensuing treatment recommendations were analysed with the kappa statistic (κ) to account for agreement that might occur merely by chance. Six comparisons of pairs of laboratories and overall agreement among laboratories were analysed for ungrouped allergens (as tested) and also with allergens grouped according to reported cross-reactivity and taxonomy. Results The overall chance-corrected agreement of the positive/negative test results for ungrouped and grouped allergens was slight (κ = 0.14 and 0.13, respectively). Subset analysis of the laboratory pair with the highest level of diagnostic agreement (κ = 0.36) found slight agreement (κ = 0.13) for ungrouped plants and fungi, but substantial agreement (κ = 0.71) for ungrouped mites. The overall agreement of the treatment recommendations was slight (κ = 0.11). Altogether, 85.1% of ungrouped allergen treatment recommendations were unique to one laboratory or another. Conclusions and clinical importance Our study indicated that the choice of IgE assay may have a major influence on the positive/negative results and ensuing treatment recommendations. PMID:24461034

  10. Lol p I-specific IgE and IgG synthesis by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from atopic subjects in SCID mice.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, R; Boutin, Y; Hébert, J

    1995-06-01

    The development of an animal model representative of the in vivo situation of human atopic diseases is always of interest for a better understanding of IgE production and regulation. Along these lines, mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice) engrafted with lymphocytes from atopic subjects might be a suitable model for such studies. This study aims to analyze the production of Lol p I-specific IgE and IgG antibodies in SCID mice after transplantation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells from atopic patients sensitive to grass pollens and from nonatopic donors. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were transplanted into SCID mice, which were then challenged with Lol p I, and antibody responses (IgG and IgE) were analyzed over a 6-week period. Total IgG antibody was measured in each mouse serum after transplantation. Also, most mice (regardless of whether donors were atopic) that were challenged with Lol p I produced specific IgG antibody. Total IgE antibody production was observed only in mice grafted with cells from atopic patients. Lol p I-specific IgE antibodies were also produced after immunization with Lol p I. Although IgG antibody/response tended to plateau, the IgE antibody response increased until it peaked and declined thereafter. Interferon-gamma was detected in sera from mice producing IgE antibody, which supports a possible role of interferon-gamma in the decrease of IgE response. This study suggests that the SCID mouse model could represent an interesting approach to studying specific, total IgG and IgE antibody production, and ultimately their regulation.

  11. Bahia grass pollen specific IgE is common in seasonal rhinitis patients but has limited cross-reactivity with Ryegrass.

    PubMed

    Davies, J M; Bright, M L; Rolland, J M; O'hehir, R E

    2005-02-01

    Perennial Ryegrass is a major cause of rhinitis in spring and early summer. Bahia grass, Paspalum notatum, flowers late into summer and could account for allergic rhinitis at this time. We determined the frequency of serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E reactivity with Bahia grass in Ryegrass pollen allergic patients and investigated IgE cross-reactivity between Bahia and Ryegrass. Serum from 33 Ryegrass pollen allergic patients and 12 nonatopic donors were tested for IgE reactivity with Bahia and Ryegrass pollen extracts (PE) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), western blotting and inhibition ELISA. Allergen-specific antibodies from a pool of sera from allergic donors were affinity purified and tested for IgE cross-reactivity. Seventy-eight per cent of the sera had IgE reactivity with Bahia grass, but more weakly than with Ryegrass. Antibodies eluted from the major Ryegrass pollen allergens, Lol p 1 and Lol p 5, showed IgE reactivity with allergens of Ryegrass and Canary but not Bahia or Bermuda grasses. Timothy, Canary and Ryegrass inhibited IgE reactivity with Ryegrass and Bahia grass, whereas Bahia, Johnson and Bermuda grass did not inhibit IgE reactivity with Ryegrass. The majority of Ryegrass allergic patients also showed serum IgE reactivity with Bahia grass PE. However, Bahia grass and Ryegrass had only limited IgE cross-reactivity indicating that Bahia grass should be considered in diagnosis and treatment of patients with hay fever late in the grass pollen season.

  12. Diagnostic accuracy of specific IgE to components in diagnosing peanut allergy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Klemans, R J B; van Os-Medendorp, H; Blankestijn, M; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C A F M; Knol, E F; Knulst, A C

    2015-04-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of skin prick test (SPT) and specific IgE (sIgE) to peanut extract in diagnosing peanut allergy is suboptimal. Recent studies have evaluated sIgE to peanut components as a possible new diagnostic tool. The aim of our review was to systematically search the literature to assess the diagnostic value of sIgE to peanut components in diagnosing peanut allergy. A literature search was performed in PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library. Results were subsequently screened for in- and exclusion criteria. The quality of eligible studies was assessed using a standardized quality assessment tool (QUADAS-2). Data on sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios were extracted or calculated for a descriptive analysis. Twenty-two studies were eligible, of which 21 studies in paediatric populations. Most studies reported on sIgE to peanut extract (15) and sIgE to Ara h 2 (12), followed by SPT (9) and sIgE to Ara h 1 (7). All studies were at risk of bias or caused applicability concerns on at least one item of the quality assessment tool. The best combination of diagnostic accuracy measures of all diagnostic tests was found for sIgE to Ara h 2. This finding was independent of geographical location. Compared to SPT and sIgE to peanut extract, sIgE to Ara h 2 was mainly superior in diagnosing peanut allergy in case of a positive test result. Worst diagnostic accuracy measures were found in general for sIgE to Ara h 8 and sIgE to Ara h 9. sIgE to Ara h 2 showed the best diagnostic accuracy of all diagnostic tests to diagnose peanut allergy. Compared to the currently used SPT and sIgE to peanut extract, sIgE to Ara h 2 was superior in diagnosing peanut allergy and should therefore replace these tests in daily clinical practice, especially in children. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Fiber type-specific autoantibodies in a dog with eosinophilic myositis.

    PubMed

    Shelton, G D; Cardinet, G H; Bandman, E; Cuddon, P

    1985-01-01

    Serum from a 2-year-old male Belgian sheepdog with eosinophilic myositis, which particularly affects the masticatory muscles, was tested for the presence of muscle-specific autoantibodies. Control type 2 temporalis muscle fibers were selectively stained following incubation with the patient's serum and staphylococcal protein A conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (SPA-HRPO). Likewise, type 2 fibers in the patient's temporalis muscle were selectively stained with SPA-HRPO. The same staining procedures applied to limb muscle did not result in fiber staining. Proteins isolated from the temporalis and triceps brachii muscles of a normal dog were separated under denaturing conditions by one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The separated proteins were transferred onto nitrocellulose paper and incubated with either sera from the patient, normal dogs, or neuromuscular disease controls. Subsequent incubation with peroxidase-conjugated goat anti-dog IgG demonstrated antibodies to at least four proteins of the temporalis muscle (myosin heavy chain and three unidentified proteins) when incubated with the patient's serum but not with the controls. Under all conditions, antibodies to the proteins of the triceps brachii were not detected. These findings establish the presence of autoantibodies to specific temporalis muscle proteins that may initiate the myonecrosis and inflammatory response as well as limit the distribution of the response.

  14. Sulfadoxine specific lymphocyte transformation in a patient with eosinophilic pneumonia induced by sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (Fansidar).

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, P T; Holzschuh, J; Berg, P A

    1989-01-01

    A patient developed eosinophilic peripheral pulmonary infiltrates while receiving malaria prophylaxis with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (Fansidar). Withdrawal of Fansidar and treatment with corticosteroids led to rapid recovery. No exacerbation occurred after cessation of corticosteroids. Lymphocyte transformation testing gave a positive result in the presence of sulfadoxine but not pyrimethamine. It is concluded that drug hypersensitivity to sulfadoxine was the cause of the eosinophilic pneumonia in this patient. Images PMID:2763233

  15. Unique Inflammatory Mediators and Specific IgE Levels Distinguish Local from Systemic Reactions after Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Garman, Lori; Smith, Kenneth; Muns, Emily E.; Velte, Cathy A.; Spooner, Christina E.; Munroe, Melissa E.; Farris, A. Darise; Nelson, Michael R.; Engler, Renata J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Although the U.S. National Academy of Sciences concluded that anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) has an adverse event (AE) profile similar to those of other adult vaccines, 30 to 70% of queried AVA vaccinees report AEs. AEs appear to be correlated with certain demographic factors, but the underlying immunologic pathways are poorly understood. We evaluated a cohort of 2,421 AVA vaccinees and found 153 (6.3%) reported an AE. Females were more likely to experience AEs (odds ratio [OR] = 6.0 [95% confidence interval {CI} = 4.2 to 8.7]; P < 0.0001). Individuals 18 to 29 years of age were less likely to report an AE than individuals aged 30 years or older (OR = 0.31 [95% CI = 0.22 to 0.43]; P < 0.0001). No significant effects were observed for African, European, Hispanic, American Indian, or Asian ancestry after correcting for age and sex. Additionally, 103 AEs were large local reactions (LLRs), whereas 53 AEs were systemic reactions (SRs). In a subset of our cohort vaccinated 2 to 12 months prior to plasma sample collection (n = 75), individuals with LLRs (n = 33) had higher protective-antigen (PA)-specific IgE levels than matched, unaffected vaccinated individuals (n = 50; P < 0.01). Anti-PA IgE was not associated with total plasma IgE, hepatitis B-specific IgE, or anti-PA IgG in individuals who reported an AE or in matched, unaffected AVA-vaccinated individuals. IP-10 was also elevated in sera of individuals who developed LLRs (P < 0.05). Individuals reporting SRs had higher levels of systemic inflammation as measured from C-reactive protein (P < 0.01). Thus, LLRs and SRs are mediated by distinct pathways. LLRs are associated with a vaccine-specific IgE response and IP-10, whereas SRs demonstrate increased systemic inflammation without a skewed cytokine profile. PMID:27280620

  16. Impact of Allergic Reactions on Food-Specific IgE Concentrations and Skin Test Results.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Wood, Robert A; Vickery, Brian P; Perry, Tamara T; Jones, Stacie M; Leung, Donald Y M; Blackwell, Beth; Dawson, Peter; Burks, A Wesley; Lindblad, Robert; Sampson, Hugh A

    2016-01-01

    Although there is concern that food allergy reactions may negatively affect the natural history of food allergy, the impact of reactions on food-specific IgE (sIgE) levels or skin prick test (SPT) wheal size is unknown. To measure the effects of allergic reactions on SPT wheal size and sIgE concentrations to milk, egg, and peanut. Participants included 512 infants with likely milk or egg allergy enrolled in a multicenter observational study. Changes in sIgE level and SPT wheal size to milk, egg, and peanut were measured before and after oral food challenge (OFC) or accidental exposure for 377 participants. The median age of the cohort at the time of analysis was 8.5 years (67% males). There were no statistically significant changes in sIgE level or SPT wheal size after positive OFC to milk, egg, or peanut (n = 20-27 for each food). Change in sIgE level and SPT wheal size was measured after 446 and 453 accidental exposure reactions, respectively. The median change in sIgE level was a decrease of 0.33 kU(A)/L (P < .01) after milk and 0.34 kU(A)/L (P < .01) after egg reactions, but no other statistically significant changes in sIgE level or SPT wheal size were observed for milk, egg, or peanut. When we limited the analysis to only those participants who had diagnostic testing done within 6 months of an accidental exposure reaction, we found that peanut SPT wheal size increased by 1.75 mm (P < .01), but a significant increase was not noted when all participants with testing done within 12 months were considered. The results suggest that reactions from OFCs and accidental exposure are not associated with increases in sensitization among children allergic to milk, egg, or peanut. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Measurement of specific IgE antibodies to Ses i 1 improves the diagnosis of sesame allergy.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, N; Nakagawa, T; Ito, K; Cabanos, C; Borres, M P; Movérare, R; Tanaka, A; Sato, S; Ebisawa, M

    2016-01-01

    The number of reported cases of allergic reactions to sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum) has increased significantly. The specific IgE tests and skin prick tests presently available for diagnosis of sesame allergy are all based on crude sesame extract and are limited by their low clinical specificity. Thus, oral food challenge (OFC) is still the gold standard in the diagnosis. The aim was to identify the allergen components useful to diagnose sesame-allergic children with the goal to reduce the number of OFCs needed. Ninety-two sesame-sensitized children were consecutively enrolled and diagnosed based on OFC or convincing history. Specific IgE to purified native 11S globulin (nSes i 11S), 7S globulin (nSes i 7S), 2S albumin (nSes i 2S), and two recombinant 2S albumins (rSes i 1 and rSes i 2) was measured by ELISA and/or ImmunoCAP (rSes i 1/streptavidin application). Based on area under curve (AUC) values from receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, rSes i 1 was shown to have the best diagnostic performance of the allergen components in ELISA. The experimental rSes i 1 ImmunoCAP test had larger AUC (0.891; 95% CI, 0.826-0.955) compared to the commercially available sesame ImmunoCAP (0.697; 95% CI, 0.589-0.805). The clinical sensitivity and specificity for the rSes i 1 ImmunoCAP test at optimal cut-off (3.96 kUA /L) were 86.1% and 85.7%, respectively. Sensitization to Ses i 1 is strongly associated with clinical sesame allergy. Measurement of specific IgE to rSes i 1 could reduce the numbers of OFCs needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Production of a mouse/human chimeric IgE monoclonal antibody to the house dust mite allergen Der p 2 and its use for the absolute quantification of allergen-specific IgE.

    PubMed

    Schuurman, J; Perdok, G J; Lourens, T E; Parren, P W; Chapman, M D; Aalberse, R C

    1997-04-01

    A chimeric human IgE monoclonal antibody was developed against the house dust mite allergen Der p 2. This chimeric antibody (hIgE-Dp2A) was composed of the heavy-chain variable domains and light chains of the original murine monoclonal antibody retaining its binding characteristics, whereas the heavy-chain constant domains were exchanged with the human IgE heavy chain. The chimeric IgE expression level was IgE 600 IU/ml (1 IU = 2.4 ng/ml). The binding of the chimeric hIgE-Dp2A to mite extract was indistinguishable from that of the original mouse monoclonal antibody. Parallel dose-response curves were found when the binding of hIgE-Dp2A to mite extract and anti-IgE coupled to sepharose were compared. Binding levels were not identical; however, hIgE-Dp2A bound significantly better to the mite-extract sepharose. This result indicates that the commonly used anti-IgE on solid phase calibration systems may lead to an overestimation of the amount of allergen-specific IgE present in the serum sample. The less efficient binding of the detector anti-IgE in case of the anti-IgE sepharose is likely to be because of the occupation of epitopes of the IgE by the sepharose-bound anti-IgE. Dose-response curves of serial dilutions of patient samples were parallel with the hIgE-Dp2A dose-response curve, which indicates that hIgE-Dp2A behaves like natural IgE antibodies in binding to allergen coupled to solid phase. This antibody is well suited for use as a reference reagent in the RAST and enables the expression of the amount of allergen-specific IgE present in a patient sample in absolute amounts.

  19. Increase of regulatory T cells and the ratio of specific IgE to total IgE are candidates for response monitoring or prognostic biomarkers in 2-year sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for Japanese cedar pollinosis.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Takashi; Yonekura, Syuji; Horiguchi, Shigetoshi; Taniguchi, Yuriko; Saito, Akemi; Yasueda, Hiroshi; Inamine, Ayako; Nakayama, Toshinori; Takemori, Toshitada; Taniguchi, Masaru; Sakaguchi, Masahiro; Okamoto, Yoshitaka

    2011-04-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the therapeutic effects of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) and to identify potential biomarkers that would predict the therapeutic response in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The trial was carried out over two pollinosis seasons in 2007 and 2008. Carry-over therapeutic effects were analyzed in 2009. SLIT significantly ameliorated the symptoms of pollinosis during the 2008 and 2009 pollen seasons. Cry j 1-specific cytokine production in a subgroup of patients with mild disease in the SLIT group was significantly attenuated. The ratio of specific IgE to total IgE before treatment correlated with the symptom-medication score in the SLIT group in 2008. Patients with increased Cry j 1-iTreg in the SLIT group had significantly improved QOL and QOL-symptom scores. In summary, the specific IgE to total IgE ratio and upregulation of Cry j 1-iTreg are candidates for biomarker of the clinical response to SLIT.

  20. IgE, IgG4 and IgA specific to Bet v 1-related food allergens do not predict oral allergy syndrome.

    PubMed

    Guhsl, E E; Hofstetter, G; Lengger, N; Hemmer, W; Ebner, C; Fröschl, R; Bublin, M; Lupinek, C; Breiteneder, H; Radauer, C

    2015-01-01

    Birch pollen-associated plant food allergy is caused by Bet v 1-specific IgE, but presence of cross-reactive IgE to related allergens does not predict food allergy. The role of other immunoglobulin isotypes in the birch pollen-plant food syndrome has not been investigated in detail. Bet v 1-sensitized birch pollen-allergic patients (n = 35) were diagnosed for food allergy by standardized interviews, skin prick tests, prick-to-prick tests and ImmunoCAP. Concentrations of allergen-specific IgE, IgG1, IgG4 and IgA to seven Bet v 1-related food allergens were determined by ELISA. Bet v 1, Cor a 1, Mal d 1 and Pru p 1 bound IgE from all and IgG4 and IgA from the majority of sera. Immunoglobulins to Gly m 4, Vig r 1 and Api g 1.01 were detected in <65% of the sera. No significant correlation was observed between plant food allergy and increased or reduced levels of IgE, IgG1, IgG4 or IgA specific to most Bet v 1-related allergens. Api g 1-specific IgE was significantly (P = 0.01) elevated in celeriac-allergic compared with celeriac-tolerant patients. Likewise, frequencies of IgE (71% vs 15%; P = 0.01) and IgA (86% vs 38%; P = 0.04) binding to Api g 1.01 were increased. Measurements of allergen-specific immunoglobulins are not suitable for diagnosing Bet v 1-mediated plant food allergy to hazelnut and Rosaceae fruits. In contrast, IgE and IgA to the distantly related allergen Api g 1 correlate with allergy to celeriac. © 2014 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. IgE, IgG4 and IgA specific to Bet v 1-related food allergens do not predict oral allergy syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Guhsl, E E; Hofstetter, G; Lengger, N; Hemmer, W; Ebner, C; Fröschl, R; Bublin, M; Lupinek, C; Breiteneder, H; Radauer, C

    2015-01-01

    Background Birch pollen-associated plant food allergy is caused by Bet v 1-specific IgE, but presence of cross-reactive IgE to related allergens does not predict food allergy. The role of other immunoglobulin isotypes in the birch pollen-plant food syndrome has not been investigated in detail. Methods Bet v 1-sensitized birch pollen-allergic patients (n = 35) were diagnosed for food allergy by standardized interviews, skin prick tests, prick-to-prick tests and ImmunoCAP. Concentrations of allergen-specific IgE, IgG1, IgG4 and IgA to seven Bet v 1-related food allergens were determined by ELISA. Results Bet v 1, Cor a 1, Mal d 1 and Pru p 1 bound IgE from all and IgG4 and IgA from the majority of sera. Immunoglobulins to Gly m 4, Vig r 1 and Api g 1.01 were detected in <65% of the sera. No significant correlation was observed between plant food allergy and increased or reduced levels of IgE, IgG1, IgG4 or IgA specific to most Bet v 1-related allergens. Api g 1-specific IgE was significantly (P = 0.01) elevated in celeriac-allergic compared with celeriac-tolerant patients. Likewise, frequencies of IgE (71% vs 15%; P = 0.01) and IgA (86% vs 38%; P = 0.04) binding to Api g 1.01 were increased. Conclusion Measurements of allergen-specific immunoglobulins are not suitable for diagnosing Bet v 1-mediated plant food allergy to hazelnut and Rosaceae fruits. In contrast, IgE and IgA to the distantly related allergen Api g 1 correlate with allergy to celeriac. PMID:25327982

  2. Administrative coding is specific, but not sensitive, for identifying eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Rybnicek, D A; Hathorn, K E; Pfaff, E R; Bulsiewicz, W J; Shaheen, N J; Dellon, E S

    2014-01-01

    The use of administrative databases to conduct population-based studies of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) in the United States is limited because it is unknown whether the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) code for EoE, 530.13, accurately identifies those who truly have the disease. The aim of this retrospective study was to validate the ICD-9 code for identifying cases of EoE in administrative data. Confirmed cases of EoE as per consensus guidelines (symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and ≥15 eosinophils per high-power field on biopsy after 8 weeks of twice daily proton pump inhibitor therapy) were identified in the University of North Carolina (UNC) EoE Clinicopathologic Database from 2008 to 2010; 2008 was the first year in which the 530.13 code was approved. Using the Carolina Data Warehouse, the administrative database for patients seen in the UNC system, all diagnostic and procedure codes were obtained for these cases. Then, with the EoE cases as the reference standard, we re-queried the Carolina Data Warehouse over the same time frame for all patients seen in the system (n=308,372) and calculated the sensitivity and specificity of the ICD-9 code 530.13 as a case definition of EoE. To attempt to refine the case definition, we added procedural codes in an iterative fashion to optimize sensitivity and specificity, and restricted our analysis to privately insured patients. We also conducted a sensitivity analysis with 2011 data to identify trends in the operating parameters of the code. We identified 226 cases of EoE at UNC to serve as the reference standard. The ICD-9 code 530.13 yielded a sensitivity of 37% (83/226; 95% confidence interval: 31-43%) and specificity of 99% (308,111/308,146; 95% confidence interval: 98-100%). These operating parameters were not substantially altered if the case definition required a procedure code for endoscopy or if cases were limited to those with commercial insurance. However, in 2011, the

  3. Role of specific IgE to β-lactoglobulin in the gastrointestinal phenotype of cow's milk allergy.

    PubMed

    Poza-Guedes, Paloma; Barrios, Yvelise; González-Pérez, Ruperto; Sánchez-Machín, Inmaculada; Franco, Andres; Matheu, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of many phenotypes of food allergy is increasing. Specific gastrointestinal (GI) phenotype of food allergy (GI allergy) is also increasing but it is difficult to know the prevalence because of many entities. METHODS AND RESULTS: A 1 year retrospective study of pediatric patients complaining exclusively gastrointestinal symptoms after cow's milk consumption and at least one positive specific IgE (sIgE) to cow's milk (CM) proteins (CMP) was done (n = 39). The most prevalent symptom was abdominal cramps in 35 patients (90 %), discomfort or abdominal distention in 30 patients (75 %), diarrhea in 10 patients (25 %) and constipation in 5 patients (12 %). IgA anti-transglutaminase antibodies were absent and lactose intolerance was ruled out in all patients. Average of total IgE on this group was 288 UI/ml. sIgE against β-lactoglobulin was the dominant with an average of 4.14 kU/l. sIgE to casein (CAS), which is the dominant protein in systemic anaphylaxis was 1.74 kU/l; sIgE to α-lactoalbumin, the other whey protein, was 0.83 kU/l and sIgE levels to CM were 0.78 kU/l. The quotient sIgE CAS/sIgE β-lactoglobulin in these patients was always lower than 1. Patients experienced an improvement of their symptoms after a CM free diet. An open oral challenge with CM did mimic their initial symptoms in all patients. However, the open oral challenge with dairy products was well tolerated. Patients with a specific phenotype of GI allergy with CM have specific IgE against β-lactoglobulin, as a dominant sIgE. These patients could beneficiate of a diet with dairy products.

  4. IgE and allergen-specific immunotherapy-induced IgG4 recognize similar epitopes of Bet v 1, the major allergen of birch pollen.

    PubMed

    Groh, N; von Loetzen, C S; Subbarayal, B; Möbs, C; Vogel, L; Hoffmann, A; Fötisch, K; Koutsouridou, A; Randow, S; Völker, E; Seutter von Loetzen, A; Rösch, P; Vieths, S; Pfützner, W; Bohle, B; Schiller, D

    2017-05-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) with birch pollen generates Bet v 1-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)G4 which blocks IgE-mediated hypersensitivity mechanisms. Whether IgG4 specific for Bet v 1a competes with IgE for identical epitopes or whether novel epitope specificities of IgG4 antibodies are developed is under debate. We sought to analyze the epitope specificities of IgE and IgG4 antibodies from sera of patients who received AIT. 15 sera of patients (13/15 received AIT) with Bet v 1a-specific IgE and IgG4 were analyzed. The structural arrangements of recombinant (r)Bet v 1a and rBet v 1a_11x , modified in five potential epitopes, were analyzed by circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. IgE binding to Bet v 1 was assessed by ELISA and mediator release assays. Competitive binding of monoclonal antibodies specific for Bet v 1a and serum IgE/IgG4 to rBet v 1a and serum antibody binding to a non-allergenic Bet v 1-type model protein presenting an individual epitope for IgE was analyzed in ELISA and western blot. rBet v 1a_11x had a Bet v 1a - similar secondary and tertiary structure. Monomeric dispersion of rBet v 1a_11x was concentration and buffer-dependent. Up to 1500-fold increase in the EC50 for IgE-mediated mediator release induced by rBet v 1a_11x was determined. The reduction of IgE and IgG4 binding to rBet v 1a_11x was comparable in 67% (10/15) of sera. Bet v 1a-specific monoclonal antibodies inhibited binding of serum IgE and IgG4 to 66.1% and 64.9%, respectively. Serum IgE and IgG4 bound specifically to an individual epitope presented by our model protein in 33% (5/15) of sera. Patients receiving AIT develop Bet v 1a-specific IgG4 which competes with IgE for partly identical or largely overlapping epitopes. The similarities of epitopes for IgE and IgG4 might stimulate the development of epitope-specific diagnostics and therapeutics. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Fox, B; Seed, W A

    1980-01-01

    We described three cases of eosinophilic pneumonia of unknown aetiology investigated clinically and by lung biopsy. The illnesses lasted between six and 20 weeks and consisted of cough, dyspnoea, malaise, and in two cases prolonged pyrexia. All had blood eosinophilia and chest radiographs showing widespread bilateral shadowing; in two cases this had a characteristic peripheral distribution. One patient recovered spontaneously and the other two responded to steroids, with disappearance of pyrexia within 12 hours and radiological clearing within 14 days. Lung function tests during the acute illness showed volume restriction or gas transfer defects or both in two cases. After remission all three showed abnormalities if small airways function. Lung biopsies performed during the acute illness were examined histologically and by transmission electron microscopy, and in two cases by immunofluorescence. There was both intra-alveolar and interstitial eosinophilic pneumonia with bronchiolitis obliterans, microgranulomata, and a vasculitis. Electron microscopy showed numerous eosinophils, many degranulated, and macrophages with phagocytosed eosinophilic granules and intracytoplasmic inclusions. In one case IgM, IgG, and IgA were demonstrated in the bronchial walls and interstitium. No IgE or complement was present. We believe that eosinophil granules are responsible for the tissue damage and fever and suggest mechanisms for this and for the response to steroid therapy. Images PMID:7003796

  6. Impact of the IL-4 -590 C/T transition on the levels of Plasmodium falciparum specific IgE, IgG, IgG subclasses and total IgE in two sympatric ethnic groups living in Mali.

    PubMed

    Vafa, Manijeh; Maiga, Bakary; Israelsson, Elisabeth; Dolo, Amagana; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Troye-Blomberg, Marita

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of IL-4 -590 T/C polymorphism on the levels of malaria-specific IgE, IgG, IgG (1-4) subclasses as well as total IgE in the Fulani and their sympatric ethnic group, the Dogon, in Mali. Asymptomatic individuals, of the Fulani and the Dogon ethnic groups, were included in the study. IL-4 is involved in the regulation of IgE and IgG4 subclass. In line with this we found that within the Fulani, the T allele was associated with increased levels of total and anti-malarial IgE (P=0.02 and P=0.04, respectively). The Fulani T allele carriers had slightly higher levels of malarial specific IgG4 as compared to those with the CC genotype (P=0.08). No such differences were observed amongst the Dogon individuals. Taken together, these data indicate that the impact of IL-4 -590 variants on antibody levels may vary in different ethnic populations, and that this might affect the Ig-class and subclass distributions.

  7. An assay that may predict the development of IgG enhancing allergen-specific IgE binding during birch immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Selb, R.; Eckl-Dorna, J.; Vrtala, S.; Valenta, R.; Niederberger, V.

    2017-01-01

    Background It has been shown that birch pollen immunotherapy can induce IgG antibodies which enhance IgE binding to Bet v 1. We aimed to develop a serological assay to predict the development of antibodies which enhance IgE binding to Bet v 1 during immunotherapy. Methods In 18 patients treated by Bet v 1-fragment-specific immunotherapy, the effects of IgG antibodies specific for the fragments on the binding of IgE antibodies to Bet v 1 were measured by ELISA. Blocking and possible enhancing effects on IgE binding were compared with skin sensitivity to Bet v 1 after treatment. Results We found that fragment-specific IgG enhanced IgE binding to Bet v 1 in two patients who also showed an increase of skin sensitivity to Bet v 1. Conclusion Our results indicate that it may be possible to develop serological tests which predict the induction of unfavourable IgG antibodies enhancing the binding of IgE to Bet v 1 during immunotherapy. PMID:23998344

  8. Comparison of intradermal skin testing (IDST) and serum allergen-specific IgE determination in an experimental model of feline asthma.

    PubMed

    Lee-Fowler, Tekla M; Cohn, Leah A; DeClue, Amy E; Spinka, Christine M; Ellebracht, Ryan D; Reinero, Carol R

    2009-11-15

    Intradermal skin testing (IDST) and allergen-specific IgE determination are used to determine allergen sensitization. In cats, studies have found poor correlation between the two tests. However, these studies were mainly conducted in pet cats sensitized to unknown allergens with unknown dose and duration of exposure. We hypothesized that in an experimental model of allergic sensitization where these variables are controlled, IDST would demonstrate greater sensitivity and specificity than would serum allergen-specific IgE determination. A model of feline asthma employing Bermuda grass allergen (BGA) or house dust mite allergen (HDMA) was used to test the hypothesis. Thirteen cats were assigned to undergo sensitization to BGA, HDMA or saline (placebo). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid confirmed development of an asthmatic phenotype. Serum collection and IDST were performed on D0, D28 and D50. A portion of serum was pooled, and an aliquot heat inactivated (HI) to destroy IgE. Individual, pooled, and pooled HI samples were used for allergen-specific IgE determination using an Fc epsilon R1 alpha-based ELISA; pooled samples were also analyzed using an enzymoimmunometric assay. Sensitivity (SE), specificity (SP), and positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) were calculated for IDST and for BGA- and HDMA-specific IgE. Combined results for IDST found SE=90.9%, SP=86.7%, PPV=83.3%, and NPV=92.9%. For ELISA-based serum IgE testing, the SE=22.7%, SP=100%, PPV=100% and NPV=63.8%. The enzymoimmunometric assay did not detect sensitizing IgE, but did detect IgE reactivity to a variety of irrelevant allergens (even in HI samples). Sensitivity of IDST was greater than sensitivity of serum IgE measurement supporting use as a screening test for aeroallergens. Both IDST and allergen-specific IgE determination via ELISA were specific; either test can be used to guide selection of allergens for immunotherapy. The enzymoimmunometric assay was unreliable and cannot be recommended.

  9. Administrative coding is specific, but not sensitive, for identifying eosinophilic esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Rybnicek, David A.; Hathorn, Kelly E.; Pfaff, Emily R.; Bulsiewicz, William J.; Shaheen, Nicholas J.; Dellon, Evan S.

    2013-01-01

    The use of administrative databases to conduct population-based studies of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) in the United States is limited because it is unknown whether the ICD-9 code for EoE, 530.13, accurately identifies those who truly have the disease. The aim of this retrospective study was to validate the ICD-9 code for identifying cases of EoE in administrative data. Confirmed cases of EoE as per consensus guidelines (symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and ≥ 15 eos/hpf on biopsy after 8 weeks of twice daily PPI therapy) were identified in the University of North Carolina (UNC) EoE Clinicopathologic database from 2008–2010; 2008 was the first year in which the 530.13 code was approved. Using the Carolina Data Warehouse (CDW), the administrative database for patients seen in the UNC system, all diagnostic and procedure codes were obtained for these cases. Then, with the EoE cases as the reference standard, we re-queried the CDW over the same time frame for all patients seen in the system (n=308,372) and calculated the sensitivity and specificity of the ICD-9 code 530.13 as a case definition of EoE. To attempt to refine the case definition, we added procedural codes in an iterative fashion to optimize sensitivity and specificity, and restricted our analysis to privately insured patients. We also conducted a sensitivity analysis with 2011 data to identify trends in the operating parameters of the code. We identified 226 cases of EoE at UNC to serve as the reference standard. The ICD-9 code 530.13 yielded a sensitivity of 37% (83/226; 95% CI: 31–43%) and specificity of 99% (308,111/308,146; 95% CI: 98–100%). These operating parameters were not substantially altered if the case definition required a procedure code for endoscopy or if cases were limited to those with commercial insurance. However, in 2011 the sensitivity of the code had increased to 61%, while the specificity remained at 99%. The ICD-9 code for EoE, 530.13, had excellent specificity for

  10. Staphylococcal superantigen-specific IgE antibodies: degree of sensitization and association with severity of asthma.

    PubMed

    Elabras, José; Mello, Fernanda Carvalho de Queiroz; Lupi, Omar; Bica, Blanca Elena Rios Gomes; Papi, José Angelo de Souza; França, Alfeu Tavares

    2016-01-01

    To determine the presence of staphylococcal superantigen-specific IgE antibodies and degree of IgE-mediated sensitization, as well as whether or not those are associated with the severity of asthma in adult patients. This was a cross-sectional study involving outpatients with asthma under treatment at a tertiary care university hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Consecutive patients were divided into two groups according to the severity of asthma based on the Global Initiative for Asthma criteria: mild asthma (MA), comprising patients with mild intermittent or persistent asthma; and moderate or severe asthma (MSA). We determined the serum levels of staphylococcal toxin-specific IgE antibodies, comparing the results and performing a statistical analysis. The study included 142 patients: 72 in the MA group (median age = 46 years; 59 females) and 70 in the MSA group (median age = 56 years; 60 females). In the sample as a whole, 62 patients (43.7%) presented positive results for staphylococcal toxin-specific IgE antibodies: staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), in 29 (20.4%); SEB, in 35 (24.6%); SEC, in 33 (23.2%); and toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST), in 45 (31.7%). The mean serum levels of IgE antibodies to SEA, SEB, SEC, and TSST were 0.96 U/L, 1.09 U/L, 1.21 U/L, and 1.18 U/L, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of the qualitative or quantitative results. Serum IgE antibodies to SEA, SEB, SEC, and TSST were detected in 43.7% of the patients in our sample. However, neither the qualitative nor quantitative results showed a statistically significant association with the clinical severity of asthma. Determinar a presença de anticorpos IgE específicos para superantígenos estafilocócicos e o grau de sensibilização mediada por esses, assim como se esses estão associados à gravidade da asma em pacientes adultos. Estudo transversal incluindo asmáticos adultos em acompanhamento ambulatorial em

  11. Detection of ovomucoid-specific low-affinity IgE in infants and its relationship to eczema.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Norio; Kamemura, Norio; Kido, Hiroshi; Fukao, Toshiyuki

    2017-06-01

    Allergen-specific low-affinity IgE was previously detected in cord blood by a highly sensitive densely carboxylated protein (DCP) chip, but not by ImmunoCAP. Here, we investigated the presence of low-affinity IgE during the early life of infants and observed its relationship with eczema. We conducted a birth cohort study, collecting sera at birth and 6 and 14 months of age (n = 110). We monitored the ovomucoid (OM)- and egg white (EW)-specific IgE (sIgE) by ImmunoCAP or DCP chip and analyzed the antigen affinity of sIgE by binding inhibition assays in the presence or absence of a mild chaotropic agent, diethyl amine (DEA). The low- and high-affinity OM-sIgEs and sensitization risk factors were analyzed by a multivariate logistic analysis. The OM-sIgE measured by DCP chip significantly correlated with that measured by ImmunoCAP, but some samples assessed as OM-sIgE positive by DCP chip were considered OM-sIgE negative by ImmunoCAP. Binding inhibition analysis after DEA treatment was performed for participants judged as OM-sIgE positive by DCP chip at 14 M. The group assessed as negative for OM- and EW-sIgE by ImmunoCAP at 6 and 14 months showed a larger binding inhibition curve shift after DEA treatment than did the group assessed as positive at these times, indicating the presence of low-affinity sIgE antibodies at 14 months. The logistic regression analysis found that persistent eczema from 6 to 14 months is a significant risk factor for developing high-affinity, but not low-affinity, sIgE. Human infant peripheral blood contains allergen-specific low-affinity sIgE. Persistent eczema is related to the development of high-affinity, but not low-affinity, IgE. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Serum eosinophil-derived neurotoxin: correlation with persistent airflow limitation in adults with house-dust mite allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Gon, Yasuhiro; Ito, Reiko; Hattori, Tomohiro; Hiranuma, Hisato; Kumasawa, Fumio; Kozu, Yutaka; Endo, Daisuke; Koyama, Daisuke; Shintani, Yoshitaka; Eriko, Tsuboi; Soda, Kaori; Maruoka, Shuichiro; Hashimoto, Shu

    2015-01-01

    The serum level of eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN), a protein present in eosinophil granules, correlates with the severity of childhood asthma. However, the relationship between the serum EDN level and the severity of adult asthma has not been sufficiently investigated. This study aimed to elucidate the correlation between the serum EDN level and markers of severity in adult asthma. The subjects comprised 83 adult patients who had asthma and who were undergoing treatment. Of these patients, 40 were positive for house-dust-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies; 9 patients with severe adult asthma who were treated with omalizumab were included in the study. We measured the blood eosinophil count, serum EDN, and eosinophil cationic protein levels before investigating the correlations of these parameters with lung function and symptom score. There were no significant correlations between the blood eosinophil count or serum EDN or eosinophil cationic protein level with lung function and the symptom score in patients with asthma. However, serum EDN level was inversely correlated with the decrease percentage forced expiratory volume in 1 second (%FEV1) in patients positive for house-dust-specific IgE antibody (R = -0.54; p < 0.05), whereas no such correlation was observed in patients with negative results for house-dust-specific IgE antibody (R = 0.11; p = 0.468). A significant correlation was observed between a decrease in serum EDN level from baseline and lung function improvement after 8 weeks of omalizumab therapy (R = -0.77; p = 0.015). Serum EDN level may be a useful marker for monitoring persistent airflow limitation in adult patients with asthma who had positive results for house-dust-specific IgE antibodies.

  13. Laboratory diagnosis of hymenoptera venom allergy: comparative study between specific IgE, western blot and allergen leukocyte stimulation (CAST).

    PubMed

    Santos, M C Pereira; Carlos, M L Palma; Pedro, E; Carlos, A G Palma

    2002-01-01

    Allergy to hymenoptera venom is a classical IgE mediated disease with a potentially fatal course. Specific venom immunotherapy (SIT) is the most effective mean of treating this serious condition, after the diagnosis has been clearly established by a clinical history, in-vivo and in vitro tests. We have evaluated the usefulness of a cellular test (CAST) which is a recently developed ELISA method based on the evaluation of sulfidoleukotriene secretion by leukocytes stimulated with specific antigen. We also evaluated the correlation of CAST with skin tests, specific IgE (sIgE) and western blot for sIgE for hymenoptera venom sIgE. We have included in this study 14 patients, with a clinical history suggestive of hymenoptera venom allergy. None of them had previously been subjected to immunotherapy. A good correlation was obtained between skin tests, sIgE and western blot. However, there was no correlation between these methods and CAST. We conclude that the positivity of CAST method raises some questions about other mechanisms, which maybe non-IgE dependent. Although the number of patients in this study is quite small, the immunoblot analysis may be a valuable additional method in insect venom allergy.

  14. The value of specific IgE to peanut and its component Ara h 2 in the diagnosis of peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Lopes de Oliveira, Lucila C; Aderhold, Martina; Brill, Marianne; Schulz, Gabriele; Rolinck-Werninghaus, Claudia; Clare Mills, E N; Niggemann, Bodo; Naspitz, Charles Kirov; Wahn, Ulrich; Beyer, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    To avoid unnecessary oral food challenges, which are time consuming, stressful, and risky, improved in vitro diagnostic methods for food allergy such as component resolved diagnostics are still under investigation. To investigate the role of whole peanut- and peanut-component (Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3, Ara h 6 and Ara h 8)-specific IgE levels in the diagnostic procedure of peanut allergy as well as the diagnostic properties of peanut-specific IgG and IgG4. Sixty-one children underwent oral peanut challenge tests for diagnostic purposes irrespective of their peanut-specific IgE levels. Peanut-specific serum IgE, IgG, and IgG4 levels were determined by ImmunoCAP FEIA and specific IgE against individual peanut proteins by Immuno Solid-phase Allergen Chip. Thirty-four of 61 patients (56%) had a peanut allergy. No significant difference was observed for peanut-specific IgG or peanut-specific IgG4 levels between patients who were allergic and tolerant patients, whereas peanut-specific IgE was significant higher in patients who were allergic than in tolerant patients (P < .005). Twenty-five of 61 children had peanut-specific IgE above a previously proposed cutoff level of 15 kUA/L; however, 7 of these 25 children (28%) were clinically tolerant. Ara h 2-specific IgE was significantly lower in tolerant than in patients with allergies (P < .0001). Interestingly, 94% of the patients with peanut allergies showed IgE-binding to Ara h 2. Unfortunately, 26% of the sensitized but tolerant patients have shown IgE binding to Ara h 2 too. Neither the level of specific IgE to peanut nor to Ara h 2 was able to clearly distinguish patients with clinical relevant peanut allergy from those who were clinical tolerant in our population. As expected, peanut-specific IgG and IgG4 did not improve the diagnostic procedure. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Food-specific serum IgE and IgG reactivity in dogs with and without skin disease: lack of correlation between laboratories.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Jonathan I; Hendricks, Anke; Loeffler, Anette; Chang, Yu-Mei; Verheyen, Kristien L; Garden, Oliver A; Bond, Ross

    2014-10-01

    Despite conflicting data on their utility and no reports on interlaboratory reproducibility, serum food-specific antibodies are commonly assayed in first-opinion canine practice. To determine both the variability of test results between two laboratories and the frequencies and magnitudes of food reactivity in dogs of different disease status. Sera were obtained from eight dogs with cutaneous adverse food reaction (Group A), 22 with nonfood-induced atopic dermatitis (Group B), 30 with an allergic/inflammatory phenotype (Group C), 12 with miscellaneous skin diseases (Group D) and nine healthy dogs (Group E). Paired sera were submitted to two laboratories (A and B) for assays of food-specific IgE and IgG antibodies. Numbers of positive IgE and IgG tests determined by each laboratory in Groups A, B, D and E were comparable (Group C not included). Significant differences in the magnitude of IgE reactivity between groups for each allergen were seen only for lamb (Laboratory A, P = 0.003); lamb reactivity in Group D exceeded Group E (P = 0.004) but was comparable between all other groups. Agreement (kappa statistic) between the two laboratories' tests was 'moderate' for one antigen (potato IgE), 'fair' for four (corn IgE, rice IgE and IgG and soya bean IgG), 'slight' for eight (six IgE and two IgG) and 'less than chance' for the remaining six antigens (three IgE and three IgG). These laboratories' tests appear to have dubious predictive clinical utility because they neither correlate nor distinguish between dogs of different disease status. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.

  16. Delayed anaphylaxis, angioedema, or urticaria after consumption of red meat in patients with IgE antibodies specific for galactose-α-1,3-galactose

    PubMed Central

    Commins, Scott P.; Satinover, Shama M.; Hosen, Jacob; Mozena, Jonathan; Borish, Larry; Lewis, Barrett D.; Woodfolk, Judith A.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A. E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Carbohydrate moieties are frequently encountered in food and can elicit IgE responses, the clinical significance of which has been unclear. Recent work, however, has shown that IgE antibodies to galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-gal), a carbohydrate commonly expressed on nonprimate mammalian proteins, are capable of eliciting serious, even fatal, reactions. Objective We sought to determine whether IgE antibodies to α-gal are present in sera from patients who report anaphylaxis or urticaria after eating beef, pork, or lamb. Methods Detailed histories were taken from patients presenting to the University of Virginia Allergy Clinic. Skin prick tests (SPTs), intradermal skin tests, and serum IgE antibody analysis were performed for common indoor, outdoor, and food allergens. Results Twenty-four patients with IgE antibodies to α-gal were identified. These patients described a similar history of anaphylaxis or urticaria 3 to 6 hours after the ingestion of meat and reported fewer or no episodes when following an avoidance diet. SPTs to mammalian meat produced wheals of usually less than 4 mm, whereas intradermal or fresh-food SPTs provided larger and more consistent wheal responses. CAP-RAST testing revealed specific IgE antibodies to beef, pork, lamb, cow’s milk, cat, and dog but not turkey, chicken, or fish. Absorption experiments indicated that this pattern of sensitivity was explained by an IgE antibody specific for α-gal. Conclusion We report a novel and severe food allergy related to IgE antibodies to the carbohydrate epitope α-gal. These patients experience delayed symptoms of anaphylaxis, angioedema, or urticaria associated with eating beef, pork, or lamb. PMID:19070355

  17. An immunodiagnostic assay for quantitation of specific IgE to the major pollen allergen component, Pas n 1, of the subtropical Bahia grass.

    PubMed

    Timbrell, Victoria L; Riebelt, Lindsay; Simmonds, Claire; Solley, Graham; Smith, William B; Mclean-Tooke, Andrew; van Nunen, Sheryl; Smith, Peter K; Upham, John W; Langguth, Daman; Davies, Janet M

    2014-01-01

    Pollens of the Panicoideae subfamily of grasses including Bahia (Paspalum notatum) are important allergen sources in subtropical regions of the world. An assay for specific IgE to the major molecular allergenic component, Pas n 1, of Bahia grass pollen (BaGP) would have immunodiagnostic utility for patients with pollen allergy in these regions. Biotinylated Pas n 1 purified from BaGP was coated onto streptavidin ImmunoCAPs. Subjects were assessed by clinical history of allergic rhinitis and skin prick test (SPT) to aeroallergens. Serum total, BaGP-specific and Pas n 1-specific IgE were measured. Pas n 1 IgE concentrations were highly correlated with BaGP SPT (r = 0.795, p < 0.0001) and BaGP IgE (r = 0.915, p < 0.0001). At 0.23 kU/l Pas n 1 IgE, the diagnostic sensitivity (92.4%) and specificity (93.1%) for the detection of BaGP allergy was high (area under receiver operator curve 0.960, p < 0.0001). The median concentrations of Pas n 1 IgE in non-atopic subjects (0.01 kU/l, n = 67) and those with other allergies (0.02 kU/l, n = 59) showed no inter-group difference, whilst grass pollen-allergic patients with allergic rhinitis showed elevated Pas n 1 IgE (6.71 kU/l, n = 182, p < 0.0001). The inter-assay coefficient of variation for the BaGP-allergic serum pool was 6.92%. Pas n 1 IgE appears to account for most of the BaGP-specific IgE. This molecular component immunoassay for Pas n 1 IgE has potential utility to improve the sensitivity and accuracy of diagnosis of BaGP allergy for patients in subtropical regions. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Purification of allergenic proteins from peanut for preparative of the reactive solid phase of a specific IgE radioimmunoassay.

    PubMed

    Moutete, H F; Olszewski, A; Gastin, I; Namour, F; Moneret-Vautrin, D A; Guéant, J L

    1995-02-03

    Peanut is one of the most allergenic foods. Detection of specific IgE in the serum of allergic patients requires the purification of allergenic proteins. In the present work, proteins were recovered from peanut kernel after successive treatment in acetone and diethyl ether. The proteins were dissolved in 0.05% TFA and analysed by RP-HPLC with a 0-100% gradient of methanol containing 0.05% TFA. The protein peaks were recovered and tested in SDS-PAGE. Eleven proteins were identified with a M(r) ranging from 13 to 81. Western blotting was performed with sera from allergic patients. Allergenic proteins had a M(r) of 15, 18, 19, 33, 41 and 67. By comparison, a protein fraction from peanut shell contained seven proteins with M(r) ranging from 15 to 81. Only two proteins with M(r) of 18 and 41 were detected in a Western blot. The protein fractions were coupled to epoxy-Sepharose and the gels were used as a solid reactive phase for detection by IgE-RIA of specific IgE from the serum of allergic patients.

  19. [Classification of allergens by positive percentage agreement and cluster analysis based on specific IgE antibodies in asthmatic children].

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, E; Baba, M

    1992-10-01

    Classification and characterization of allergens is important because allergic patients are sensitized by a variety of allergens. One hundred and sixty-one sera from asthmatic children were investigated for specific IgE antibodies against 35 allergens including 20 inhalants and 15 foods by means of the MAST method. We assessed the allergenic properties of the allergens based on positive percentage agreement and cluster analysis. There was a high positive percentage agreement of specific IgE antibodies between house dust and Dermatophagoides spp., a relatively high agreement between 5 molds, cat and dog epithelium, mugwort and wormwood and 5 grasses. Among the food allergens, the positive percentage agreements were relatively high, especially between cow's milk, casein, cheese, and between 3 cereal grains. In the cluster analysis, house dust and Dermatophagoides spp. made a big cluster; therefore 32 allergens except house dust and mites were analyzed. From the results of the cluster analysis, the major cluster consisted of (1) ragweed, (2) mugwort and wormwood, (3) timothy, sweet vernal, velvet and cultivated rye, (4) wheat, barley and rice, (5) molds, (6) cow's milk, casein, soybean and cheese, (7) shrimp and crab, (8) egg white, (9) Japanese cedar, (10) dog epithelium, (11) cat epithelium. The cluster of grass pollens and cereal grains made one cluster. These results tend to confirm the presence of species cross-reactivities within the major classes of allergens.

  20. Aspergillus oryzae lectin induces anaphylactoid oedema and mast cell activation through its interaction with fucose of mast cell-bound non-specific IgE.

    PubMed

    Yamaki, K; Yoshino, S

    2011-11-01

    We investigated whether Aspergillus oryzae lectin (AOL), a fucose-specific lectin, induces anaphylactoid reactions and mast cell activation. The injection of AOL into footpads of mice produced a dose-related acute paw oedema. The AOL-induced oedema was attenuated by predose of histamine H1 receptor blocker or pretreatment of the lectin with fucose before injection and was not observed in SCID and mast cell-deficient WBB6F1-W/Wv mice. These results suggested that the AOL-induced anaphylactoid reaction was mediated by histamine released from mast cells. In addition, the activation of mast cells was seemed to be induced by the crosslinking of IgE on the cell surface following the binding of AOL to fucose residues in IgE. Consistent with the in vivo results, AOL induced the degranulation of the rat mast cell line RBL2H3 sensitized with monoclonal IgE. As AOL induced the increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration of IgE-sensitized RBL2H3 cells as well as antigen stimulation, AOL could input signals from FcεRI. The degranulation of IgE-sensitized RBL2H3 cells by AOL was diminished by pretreatment of AOL with fucose. Defucosylated IgE did not induce degranulation of RBL2H3 cells in response to AOL stimulation, in spite of its ability to induce degranulation by antigen stimulation as intact IgE. These results indicated that AOL bound to fucose residue of IgE causing antigen-independent IgE-mediated mast cell activation and anaphylactoid reactions in vitro and in vivo, respectively. AOL bound to human IgE as well as to mouse IgE, suggesting the possible implication of AOL in the allergic response to Aspergillus oryzae in humans.

  1. Is trimellitic anhydride skin testing a sufficient screening tool for selectively identifying TMA-exposed workers with TMA-specific serum IgE antibodies?

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Jonathan A; Ghosh, Debajyoti; Sublett, Wesley J; Wells, Heather; Levin, Linda

    2011-10-01

    Trimellitic anhydride (TMA) can elicit specific IgE-mediated immune responses leading to asthma. This single-blinded study investigated the ability of TMA skin testing to identify workers with TMA-serum specific IgE antibodies. Forty TMA-exposed workers who were previously screened for the presence of TMA-IgG and/or IgE serum specific antibodies were skin tested to a TMA-human serum albumin reagent by nurses blinded to their antibody responses. Findings from skin-prick tests were positive in 8 of 11 workers with TMA-serum specific IgE antibodies. Intracutaneous testing, performed only on skin prick testing-negative workers, was positive in two additional workers with TMA-serum specific IgE antibodies. A significant correlation was found between serum and skin test dilutions eliciting positive responses (ρ = 0.87, P < 0.05; n = 11). TMA skin testing provides an alternative and potentially more practical method for monitoring TMA-exposed workers for developing IgE sensitization.

  2. Histological and immunological features of non-eosinophilic nasal polyps.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Whun; Hong, Sung-Lyong; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Lee, Chul Hee; Min, Yang-Gi; Rhee, Chae-Seo

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the histoimmunological features of non-eosinophilic nasal polyps (NPs). Thirty patients with chronic rhinosinusitis and NPs were included in this study. NPs were grouped into eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic types according to the amount of eosinophils in the NPs. The amount of serum total IgE and peripheral blood eosinophils were measured. Basement membrane (BM) thickness was measured, along with the expression of chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) and chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3) in NP lymphocytes. Non-eosinophilic NPs comprised 66.7% of the total NPs included in this study. The amount of eosinophils in NPs was related to eosinophilia of the peripheral blood, but not to elevated serum IgE. BM was significantly thinner in non-eosinophilic than in eosinophilic NPs. Lymphocytes expressing CCR5 or CCR3 were less frequently found in non-eosinophilic than in eosinophilic NPs. Histoimmunological characteristics of non-eosinophilic NPs differ from those of eosinophilic NPs; non-eosinophilic NPs may be featured by thinner BM and fewer CCR5- and CCR3-positive lymphocytes.

  3. [Two cases of eosinophilic gastroenteritis whose causative allergens are usefully diagnosed by patch test].

    PubMed

    Adachi, Atsuko

    2010-05-01

    Case 1: 67-years-old woman with pollinosis noticed oppressive feeling of chest and back, and heart burn after accidental ingestion of her dental filling and dental treatment. Oral famotidine did not improve her symptom. Her peripheral blood eosinophils increased to 38.0%. As for the specific IgE, only cedar and cypress were positive. Case 2: a 42-years-old-woman with pollinosis and asthma repeated urticaria, heart burn, diarrhea and peripheral eosinophilia (25%). At her first visit to our department, her blood eosinophil increased to 52.9%, her serum IgG markedly increased in polyclonal pattern and overt all subclasses. The specific IgE was positive only for cypress. Because they revealed a remarkable infiltrates of eosinophils in the mucosa of alimentary tract, we diagnosed the 2 patient as eosinophilic gastroenteritis. In case 1, based on the history and patch-test-positive finding of formalin and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, we diagnosed the two may be causative allergens. In case 2, based on the patch-test-positive finding of garlic and sesame and improvement after removal of the two allergens, we diagnosed the two may be causative allergens. Although causative allergens of eosinophilic gastroenteritis are almost unknown, some cases are reported to be determined the allergens of foods and drugs. In our cases, patch test was useful to identify the allergens.

  4. House dust-mite allergen exposure is associated with serum specific IgE but not with respiratory outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bakolis, I; Heinrich, J; Zock, J P; Norbäck, D; Svanes, C; Chen, C M; Accordini, S; Verlato, G; Olivieri, M; Jarvis, D

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to house dust has been associated with asthma in adults, and this is commonly interpreted as a direct immunologic response to dust-mite allergens in those who are IgE sensitized to house dust-mite. Mattress house dust-mite concentrations were measured in a population-based sample of 2890 adults aged between 27 and 56 years living in 22 centers in 10 countries. Generalized linear mixed models were employed to explore the association of respiratory symptoms with house dust-mite concentrations, adjusting for individual and household confounders. There was no overall association of respiratory outcomes with measured house dust-mite concentrations, even in those who reported they had symptoms on exposure to dust and those who had physician-diagnosed asthma. However, there was a positive association of high serum specific IgE levels to HDM (>3.5 kUA /l) with mattress house dust-mite concentrations and a negative association of sensitization to cat with increasing house dust-mite concentrations. In conclusion, there was no evidence that respiratory symptoms in adults were associated with exposure to house dust-mite allergen in the mattress, but an association of house mite with strong sensitization was observed.

  5. Effect of walnut (Juglans regia) polyphenolic compounds on ovalbumin-specific IgE induction in female BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Comstock, Sarah S; Gershwin, Laurel J; Teuber, Suzanne S

    2010-03-01

    English walnuts are implicated in severe, IgE-mediated food allergy in humans. We sought to determine if polyphenolic compounds extracted from the edible nut could promote IgE production to a coadministered allergen. BALB/c mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) with or without alum (AL) or polyphenolic-enriched extract via intraperitoneal injection. Serum was analyzed for total IgE and OVA-specific IgE, IgG(1,) and IgG(2a/2b). Coadministration of walnut polyphenolic-enriched extract with antigen and AL increased serum concentrations of antigen-specific IgE and IgG(1). When AL was excluded from the injections, polyphenolic extract tended to enhance OVA-specific IgE and IgG(1) over levels induced by OVA alone, but the increase did not reach significance. Serum IgG(2a/2b) levels were similar between mice receiving OVA/AL and OVA/AL with polyphenolics. Thus, walnut polyphenolic extract enhanced the Th2-skewing effect of an aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. This indicates that walnut polyphenolic compounds may play a role in allergic sensitization of genetically predisposed individuals.

  6. Application of Photonic Crystal Enhanced Fluorescence to Detection of Low Serum Concentrations of Human IgE Antibodies Specific for a Purified Cat Allergen (Fel d1)

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yafang; Halsey, John F.; Tang, Tiantian; Wetering, Scott Vande; Taine, Elaine; Van Cleve, Mark; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the detection of low concentrations of allergen-specific Immunoglobulin E (IgE) in human sera using a Photonic Crystal Enhanced Fluorescence (PCEF) microarray platform. The Photonic Crystal (PC) surface, designed to provide optical resonances for the excitation wavelength and emission wavelength of Cy5, was used to amplify the fluorescence signal intensity measured from a multiplexed allergen microarray. Surface-based sandwich immunoassays were used to detect and quantify specific IgE antibodies against a highly purified cat allergen (Fel d1). A comparison of the lowest detectable concentration of IgE measured by the PC microarray system and a commercially available clinical analyzer demonstrated that the PCEF microarray system provides higher sensitivity. The PCEF system was able to detect low concentrations of specific IgE (~0.02 kU/L), which is 5 to 17 -fold more sensitive than the commercially available FDA-approved analyzers. In preliminary experiments using multi-allergen arrays, we demonstrate selective simultaneous detection of IgE antibodies to multiple allergens. PMID:26406461

  7. Application of photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence to detection of low serum concentrations of human IgE antibodies specific for a purified cat allergen (Fel D1).

    PubMed

    Tan, Yafang; Halsey, John F; Tang, Tiantian; Wetering, Scott Vande; Taine, Elaine; Cleve, Mark Van; Cunningham, Brian T

    2016-03-15

    We demonstrate the detection of low concentrations of allergen-specific Immunoglobulin E (IgE) in human sera using a Photonic Crystal Enhanced Fluorescence (PCEF) microarray platform. The Photonic Crystal (PC) surface, designed to provide optical resonances for the excitation wavelength and emission wavelength of Cy5, was used to amplify the fluorescence signal intensity measured from a multiplexed allergen microarray. Surface-based sandwich immunoassays were used to detect and quantify specific IgE antibodies against a highly purified cat allergen (Fel d1). A comparison of the lowest detectable concentration of IgE measured by the PC microarray system and a commercially available clinical analyzer demonstrated that the PCEF microarray system provides higher sensitivity. The PCEF system was able to detect low concentrations of specific IgE (~0.02 kU/L), which is 5-17-fold more sensitive than the commercially available FDA-approved analyzers. In preliminary experiments using multi-allergen arrays, we demonstrate selective simultaneous detection of IgE antibodies to multiple allergens.

  8. Measurement of Ara h 1-, 2-, and 3-specific IgE antibodies is useful in diagnosis of peanut allergy in Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Ebisawa, Motohiro; Movérare, Robert; Sato, Sakura; Maruyama, Nobuyuki; Borres, Magnus P; Komata, Takatsugu

    2012-09-01

    Food challenges are time-consuming, expensive, and not always possible to perform. Therefore, new tools to diagnose food allergy are desired. The aim was to evaluate IgE antibodies to peanut allergens in the diagnosis of peanut allergy in Japanese children using ImmunoCAP(®) and IgE immunoblotting. The study included 2-13-yr-old consecutive patients (n = 57) referred to our specialist clinic for investigation of current peanut allergy using food challenge. All children had a previous doctor's diagnosis of peanut allergy and were on elimination diet. Serum samples were analyzed for IgE reactivity to peanut, recombinant (r) Ara h 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, and 9. IgE immunoblotting (n = 23) was performed using extracts from raw and roasted peanut. Twenty-six of the children failed (allergic group), and 31 passed the peanut challenge (tolerant group). The rAra h 2 ImmunoCAP test was superior in its ability to differentiate between children in the allergic and tolerant groups with a sensitivity and specificity of 88% and 84%, respectively (cutoff, 0.35 kU(A)/l). The combination of rAra h 1, 2, and 3 resulted in a higher specificity (94%) when IgE to all of them was the criteria for positivity. ImmunoCAP generally showed a good agreement with immunoblotting using both raw and roasted peanut for IgE reactivity to Ara h 1, 2, and 3. Measurement of IgE antibodies to rAra h 1, 2, and 3 is useful in the diagnosis of peanut allergy and in the investigation of reactions to raw and roasted peanut. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. IgE, IgG1 and IgG4 response to specific allergens in sensitized subjects showing different clinical reactivity to Anisakis simplex.

    PubMed

    Ventura, M T; Rodriguez-Perez, R; Caballero, M L; Garcia-Alonso, M; Antonicelli, L; Asero, R

    2017-03-01

    Background. Anisakis simplex hypersensitive subjects may be sensitized without clinical allergy, or experience acute symptoms or chronic urticaria induced by raw fish. We studied whether the 3 subgroups differ in IgE, IgG1 or IgG4 reactivity to specific Anisakis simplex allergens. Methods. 28 Anisakis simplex-hypersensitive adults, 11 with acute symptoms, 9 with chronic urticaria, and 8 sensitized were studied. IgE, IgG1 and IgG4 to rAni s 1, 5, 9 and 10 were sought by ELISA. IgE and IgG4 to nAni s 4 were determined by WB. Results. IgE to Ani s 1, 4, 5, 9, and 10 were found in 8, 3, 2, 5, and 9 sera, respectively. Nine sera did not react to any allergen. IgG1 to Ani s 1, 5, 9, and 10 were detected in 5, 16, 14, and 4 sera, respectively. Four sera did not react to any of the 4 allergens. IgG4 to Ani s 1, 4, 5, 9, and 10 were detected in 10, 0, 2, 6 and 1 sera, respectively. Fifteen subjects did not react to any of the 5 allergens. On ELISA sensitized subjects showed lower IgE and IgG1 levels than patients. IgG4 levels were highest in the sensitized group. The prevalence of IgE, IgG1 or IgG4 reactivity to any of the studied allergens did not differ between the 3 subgroups. Conclusion. The clinical expression of Anisakis simplex sensitization does not seem to depend on IgE reactivity to a specific allergen of the parasite, nor on the presence of IgG antibodies possibly related with blocking activity.

  10. Mature eosinophils stimulated to develop in human-cord blood mononuclear cell cultures supplemented with recombinant human interleukin-5. II. Vesicular transport of specific granule matrix peroxidase, a mechanism for effecting piecemeal degranulation.

    PubMed Central

    Dvorak, A. M.; Ackerman, S. J.; Furitsu, T.; Estrella, P.; Letourneau, L.; Ishizaka, T.

    1992-01-01

    The mechanism of piecemeal degranulation by human eosinophils was investigated. Mature eosinophils that developed in rhIL-5-containing conditioned media from cultured human cord blood mononuclear cells were prepared for ultrastructural studies using a combined technique to image eosinophil peroxidase by cytochemistry in the same sections on which postembedding immunogold was used to demonstrate Charcot-Leyden crystal protein. Vesicular transport of eosinophil peroxidase from the specific granule matrix compartment to the cell surface was associated with piecemeal degranulation. This process involved budding of eosinophil peroxidase-loaded vesicles and tubules from specific granules. Some eosinophil peroxidase that was released from eosinophils remained bound to the cell surface; some was free among the cultured cells. Macrophages and basophils bound the released eosinophil peroxidase to their plasma membranes, internalized it in endocytotic vesicles, and stored it in their respective phagolysosomes and secretory granules. Charcot-Leyden crystal protein was diffusely present in the nucleus and cytoplasm of IL-5-stimulated mature eosinophils. Extensive amounts were generally present in granule-poor and subplasma membrane areas of the cytoplasm in contrast to eosinophil peroxidase, which was secreted and bound to the external surface of eosinophil plasma membranes. These studies establish vesicular transport as a mechanism for emptying the specific eosinophil granule matrix compartment during IL-5-associated piecemeal degranulation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:1562046

  11. Effects of routine prophylactic vaccination or administration of aluminum adjuvant alone on allergen-specific serum IgE and IgG responses in allergic dogs.

    PubMed

    Tater, Kathy C; Jackson, Hilary A; Paps, Judy; Hammerberg, Bruce

    2005-09-01

    To determine the acute corn-specific serum IgE and IgG, total serum IgE, and clinical responses to s.c. administration of prophylactic vaccines and aluminum adjuvant in corn-allergic dogs. 20 allergic and 8 nonallergic dogs. 17 corn-allergic dogs were vaccinated. Eight clinically normal dogs also were vaccinated as a control group. Serum corn-specific IgE, corn-specific IgG, and total IgE concentrations were measured in each dog before vaccination and 1 and 3 weeks after vaccination by use of an ELISA. The corn-allergic dogs also had serum immunoglobulin concentrations measured at 8 and 9 weeks after vaccination. Twenty allergic dogs received a s.c. injection of aluminum adjuvant, and serum immunoglobulin concentrations were measured in each dog 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8 weeks after injection. The allergic dogs were examined during the 8 weeks after aluminum administration for clinical signs of allergic disease. The allergic dogs had significant increases in serum corn-specific IgE and IgG concentrations 1 and 3 weeks after vaccination but not 8 or 9 weeks after vaccination. Control dogs did not have a significant change in serum immunoglobulin concentrations after vaccination. After injection of aluminum adjuvant, the allergic dogs did not have a significant change in serum immunoglobulin concentrations or clinical signs. Allergen-specific IgE and IgG concentrations increase after prophylactic vaccination in allergic dogs but not in clinically normal dogs. Prophylactic vaccination of dogs with food allergies may affect results of serologic allergen-specific immunoglobulin testing performed within 8 weeks after vaccination.

  12. Intradermal Delivery of Antigens Enhances Specific IgG and Diminishes IgE Production: Potential Use for Vaccination and Allergy Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Takuwa; Ura, Takehiro; Taniguchi, Masaru; Yoshida, Hisahiro

    2016-01-01

    Skin is protected by a tough but flexible multilayered barrier and is a front line for immune responses against invading particles. For many years now, skin has been a tissue where certain vaccines are injected for the prevention of infectious disease, however, the detailed mechanisms of the skin immune response are not yet well understood. Using thin and small injection needles, we carefully injected OVA into a restricted region of mouse skin, i.e., intradermal (ID), and examined the antibody response in comparison with subcutaneous (SC) injection or epicutaneous patch administration of OVA. Epicutaneous patches induced a high IgE response against OVA, but IgG production was low. High IgG production was induced by both ID and SC injection, moreover, ID injection induced higher IgG production without any adjutants. Furthermore, OVA-specific IgE production was diminished by ID injection. We found that ID injection could efficiently stimulate skin resident DCs, drive Th1-biased conditions and diminish IgE production. The ID injection response was regulated by Langerin+ dermal DCs, because OVA was taken up mainly by these cells and, after transiently deleting them, the IgE response was no longer diminished and IgG1 production was enhanced. We also tested whether ID injection might be an effective allergy treatment by attempting to inhibit ongoing IgE production in mice with experimentally induced high serum IgE levels. Multiple ID injections of OVA were shown to prevent elevation of serum OVA-specific IgE after repeated allergen challenge. In contrast, SC OVA injection could only transiently inhibit the OVA-specific IgE production. These findings indicated that ID injection results in higher induction of antigen-specific IgG, and thus may be useful for vaccine delivery with little or no adjuvant components. Moreover, the observed diminishment of IgE and induction of Th1-biased immune responses suggest that ID may be a useful injection route for allergy immunotherapy

  13. Discordance between Aeroallergen Specific Serum IgE and Skin Testing in Children < 4 years of age

    PubMed Central

    de Vos, Gabriele; Nazari, Ramin; Ferastraoaru, Denisa; Parikh, Purvi; Geliebter, Rebecca; Pichardo, Yikania; Wiznia, Andrew; Rosenstreich, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Atopic sensitization to aeroallergens in early life has been shown to be a strong risk factor for developing persisting asthma in young children with recurrent wheeze. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the yield of skin prick test (SPT) compared to allergen specific serum IgE testing (sIgE) at identifying aeroallergen sensitization in atopic children < 4 years of age. Methods Concordance between SPT (Greer Laboratories, ComforTen™) and allergen specific sIgE (Immulite 2000™) for 7 common aeroallergens was analyzed in forty atopic inner-city children, 18–48 months of age (mean 36 +/− 9 months) with recurrent wheezing, family history of asthma and/or eczema. Results In 80% of children one or more allergen sensitizations would have been missed if only SPT had been performed, and in 38% of children one or more sensitizations would have been missed if only serum IgE testing had been performed. Agreement and between SPT and sIgE test was fair for most allergens (kappa between −0.04 and 0.50), as was correlation between sIgE levels and SPT grade (rho between 0.21 and 0.55). Children with high total sIgE (≥300 kU/l) were more likely to have sIgE positive tests with negative corresponding skin test (p=0.025). Conclusions Our study showed significant discordance between allergen specific SPT and sIgE testing results for common aeroallergens, suggesting that both SPT and sIgE testing should be done when diagnosing allergic sensitization in young children at high risk of asthma. PMID:23706713

  14. [The comparative study of LUMIWARD immunoassay system and CAP RAST system for determination of specific IgE antibody against mite in infantile atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, M; Sakurai, T; Kodama, S

    1998-08-01

    We determined the levels of specific IgE antibody against mite in 91 infants with atopic dermatitis by CAP RAST system and LUMIWARD immunoassay system, and observed them for about two years. The correlation between CAP RAST and LUMIWARD was weak. The cut off point was set up at 0.06 IU/ml, most of the patients who had asthma attack or whose atopic dermatitis were poorly controlled during two years judged to be positive. In conclusion, the determination of low levels of specific IgE antibody against mite in infants with atopic dermatitis was reliable to prediction of allergy.

  15. Suppression of eosinophil function by RP 73401, a potent and selective inhibitor of cyclic AMP-specific phosphodiesterase: comparison with rolipram.

    PubMed Central

    Souness, J. E.; Maslen, C.; Webber, S.; Foster, M.; Raeburn, D.; Palfreyman, M. N.; Ashton, M. J.; Karlsson, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    1. We have investigated the inhibitory potency of RP 73401, a novel, highly selective and potent inhibitor of cyclic AMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE IV), against partially-purified PDE isoenzymes from smooth muscle and the particulate PDE IV from guinea-pig eosinophils. The inhibitory effects of RP 73401 on the generation of superoxide (.O2-), major basic protein (MBP) and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) from guinea-pig eosinophils have also been studied. 2. RP 73401 potently inhibited partially-purified cyclic AMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE IV) from pig aortic smooth muscle (IC50 = 1.2 nM); it was similarly potent against the particulate PDE IV from guinea-pig peritoneal eosinophils (IC50 = 0.7 nM). It displayed at least a 19000 fold selectivity for PDE IV compared to its potencies against other PDE isoenzymes. Rolipram was approximately 2600 fold less potent than RP 73401 against pig aortic smooth muscle PDE IV (IC50 = 3162 nM) and about 250 times less potent against eosinophil PDE IV (IC50 = 186 nM). 3. Solubilization of the eosinophil particulate PDE IV increased the potency of rolipram 10 fold but did not markedly affect the potency of RP 73401. A similar (10 fold) increase in the PDE IV inhibitory potency of rolipram, but not RP 73401, was observed when eosinophil membranes were exposed to vanadate/glutathione complex (V/GSH). 4. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), using primer pairs designed against specific sequences in four distinct rat PDE IV subtype cDNA clones (PDE IVA-D), showed only mRNA for PDE IVD in guinea-pig eosinophils. PDE IVD was also the predominant subtype expressed in pig aortic smooth muscle cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 6 PMID:7647982

  16. Persistence of IgE-Associated Allergy and Allergen-Specific IgE despite CD4+ T Cell Loss in AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Marth, Katharina; Wollmann, Eva; Gallerano, Daniela; Ndlovu, Portia; Makupe, Ian; Valenta, Rudolf; Sibanda, Elopy

    2014-01-01

    The infection of CD4+ cells by HIV leads to the progressive destruction of CD4+ T lymphocytes and, after a severe reduction of CD4+ cells, to AIDS. The aim of the study was to investigate whether HIV-infected patients with CD4 cell counts <200 cells/µl can suffer from symptoms of IgE-mediated allergy, produce allergen-specific IgE antibody responses and show boosts of allergen-specific IgE production. HIV-infected patients with CD4 counts ≤200 cells/µl suffering from AIDS and from IgE-mediated allergy were studied. Allergy was diagnosed according to case history, physical examination, skin prick testing (SPT), and serological analyses including allergen microarrays. HIV infection was confirmed serologically and the disease was staged clinically. The predominant allergic symptoms in the studied patients were acute allergic rhinitis (73%) followed by asthma (27%) due to IgE-mediated mast cell activation whereas no late phase allergic symptoms such as atopic dermatitis, a mainly T cell-mediated skin manifestation, were found in patients suffering from AIDS. According to IgE serology allergies to house dust mites and grass pollen were most common besides IgE sensitizations to various food allergens. Interestingly, pollen allergen-specific IgE antibody levels in the patients with AIDS and in additional ten IgE-sensitized patients with HIV infections and low CD4 counts appeared to be boosted by seasonal allergen exposure and were not associated with CD4 counts. Our results indicate that secondary allergen-specific IgE production and IgE-mediated allergic inflammation do not require a fully functional CD4+ T lymphocyte repertoire. PMID:24896832

  17. Persistence of IgE-associated allergy and allergen-specific IgE despite CD4+ T cell loss in AIDS.

    PubMed

    Marth, Katharina; Wollmann, Eva; Gallerano, Daniela; Ndlovu, Portia; Makupe, Ian; Valenta, Rudolf; Sibanda, Elopy

    2014-01-01

    The infection of CD4+ cells by HIV leads to the progressive destruction of CD4+ T lymphocytes and, after a severe reduction of CD4+ cells, to AIDS. The aim of the study was to investigate whether HIV-infected patients with CD4 cell counts <200 cells/µl can suffer from symptoms of IgE-mediated allergy, produce allergen-specific IgE antibody responses and show boosts of allergen-specific IgE production. HIV-infected patients with CD4 counts ≤ 200 cells/µl suffering from AIDS and from IgE-mediated allergy were studied. Allergy was diagnosed according to case history, physical examination, skin prick testing (SPT), and serological analyses including allergen microarrays. HIV infection was confirmed serologically and the disease was staged clinically. The predominant allergic symptoms in the studied patients were acute allergic rhinitis (73%) followed by asthma (27%) due to IgE-mediated mast cell activation whereas no late phase allergic symptoms such as atopic dermatitis, a mainly T cell-mediated skin manifestation, were found in patients suffering from AIDS. According to IgE serology allergies to house dust mites and grass pollen were most common besides IgE sensitizations to various food allergens. Interestingly, pollen allergen-specific IgE antibody levels in the patients with AIDS and in additional ten IgE-sensitized patients with HIV infections and low CD4 counts appeared to be boosted by seasonal allergen exposure and were not associated with CD4 counts. Our results indicate that secondary allergen-specific IgE production and IgE-mediated allergic inflammation do not require a fully functional CD4+ T lymphocyte repertoire.

  18. Cross-reactivity among edible nuts: double immunodiffusion, crossed immunoelectrophoresis, and human specific igE serologic surveys.

    PubMed

    Goetz, David W; Whisman, Bonnie A; Goetz, Andrew D

    2005-07-01

    As many as one third of all food allergen anaphylactic events are related to tree nut ingestion. Although concurrent allergen sensitivity to tree nuts is common, cross-reactivity among nut antigens is less well defined. To survey serologic cross-reactivities among 7 tree nuts (walnut, pecan, hazelnut, cashew, Brazil nut, pistachio, and almond) and peanut. Human specific IgE enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay inhibition was used to identify nut allergen cross-reactivities. Single-nut rabbit antisera were used in double immunodiffusion, crossed-line immunoelectrophoresis, and crossed immunoelectrophoresis with intermediate gel studies of nut antigen cross-reactivity. Nut specific IgE enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay inhibition demonstrated no cross-reactivities between peanut and tree nuts. Among tree nuts, 2 groups with allergen cross-reactivity were defined: (1) walnut, pecan, and hazelnut and (2) hazelnut, cashew, Brazil nut, pistachio, and almond. Double immunodiffusion, crossed-line immunoelectrophoresis, and crossed immunoelectrophoresis with intermediate gel results supported the same groupings of cross-reactive tree nuts and identified several less prominent nut-nut antigen cross-reactivities between groups and with peanut. With few exceptions (notably limited peanut cross-reactivity with pistachio and walnut), peanut antigens did not serologically cross-react with tree nuts. Walnut, pecan, and hazelnut form a group of strongly cross-reactive tree nuts. Hazelnut, cashew, Brazil nut, pistachio, and almond form a group of moderately cross-reactive tree nuts. Cross-reactivities between these groups are less pronounced (notably limited cross-reactivity of walnut and pecan with Brazil nut). The strongest cross-reactivities among tree nuts follow botanical family associations: (1) walnut and pecan in the family Juglandaceae and (2) cashew and pistachio in the family Anacardiaceae.

  19. Exosomes from eosinophils autoregulate and promote eosinophil functions.

    PubMed

    Cañas, José Antonio; Sastre, Beatriz; Mazzeo, Carla; Fernández-Nieto, Mar; Rodrigo-Muñoz, José Manuel; González-Guerra, Andrés; Izquierdo, Manuel; Barranco, Pilar; Quirce, Santiago; Sastre, Joaquín; Del Pozo, Victoria

    2017-01-17

    Eosinophils are able to secrete exosomes that have an undefined role in asthma pathogenesis. We hypothesized that exosomes released by eosinophils autoregulate and promote eosinophil function. Eosinophils of patients with asthma (n = 58) and healthy volunteers (n = 16) were purified from peripheral blood, and exosomes were isolated and quantified from eosinophils of the asthmatic and healthy populations. Apoptosis, adhesion, adhesion molecules expression, and migration assays were performed with eosinophils in the presence or absence of exosomes from healthy and asthmatic individuals. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were evaluated by flow cytometry with an intracellular fluorescent probe and nitric oxide (NO) and a colorimetric kit. In addition, exosomal proteins were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Eosinophil-derived exosomes induced an increase in NO and ROS production on eosinophils. Moreover, exosomes could act as a chemotactic factor on eosinophils, and they produced an increase in cell adhesion, giving rise to a specific augmentation of adhesion molecules, such as ICAM-1 and integrin α2. Protein content between exosomes from healthy and asthmatic individuals seems to be similar in both groups. In conclusion, we found that exosomes from the eosinophils of patients with asthma could modify several specific eosinophil functions related to asthma pathogenesis and that they could contribute fundamentally to the development and maintenance of asthma.

  20. Eosinophilic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... parasites , particularly ones that invade tissue, cause eosinophilia. Cancers that cause eosinophilia include Hodgkin lymphoma , leukemia , and myeloproliferative disorders . If the number of eosinophils is only ...

  1. Effects of maternal diet during late pregnancy and lactation on the development of IgE and egg- and milk-specific IgE and IgG antibodies in infants.

    PubMed

    Lilja, G; Dannaeus, A; Foucard, T; Graff-Lonnevig, V; Johansson, S G; Oman, H

    1991-03-01

    The IgE levels and food-allergen-specific IgE- and IgG-antibodies (Ab) to ovalbumin (OA), ovomucoid (OVO) and beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) were determined up to 18 months of age in 163 infants born to women who were atopic. A high (HIGH group) or a low (REDUCED group) intake of hen's egg and cow's milk by the mother during the third trimester gave no significant differences in the concentrations of IgE or in IgE-Ab (OVO, BLG) and IgG-Ab (OA, OVO, BLG). Similarly, a prolongation of the abstention diet to the early lactation period did not influence the immune response. The IgG-Ab levels to all three food allergens decreased significantly (P less than 0.001) in both study groups between birth and 2 months of age, but then increased significantly (P less than 0.001) between 6 and 18 months of age. The presence in serum of IgE-Ab to OVO (greater than or equal to 0.15 PRU/ml) was associated with significantly higher IgG-Ab levels to OVO at 6 months (P less than 0.001) and at 18 months (P less than 0.05). Infants with positive skin-prick tests (SPT) to OA and OVO showed higher IgG-Ab levels at 6 and 18 months of age than did infants with negative SPT reactions to the two egg allergens. This indicates a relation between the IgE- and IgG-Ab response and it also suggests that some individuals are 'high responders' to both types of immunoglobulin isotypes while others are 'low responders'.

  2. Association between the MHC gene region and variation of serum IgE levels against specific mould allergens in the horse

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    To investigate whether the equine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene region influences the production of mould-specific immunoglobulin E antibodies (IgE), alleles of the equine leukocyte antigen (ELA-A) locus and three microsatellite markers (UM-011, HTG-05 and HMS-42) located on the same chromosome as the equine MHC were determined in 448 Lipizzan horses. Statistical analyses based on composite models, showed significant associations of the ELA-A and UM-011 loci with IgE titres against the recombinant Aspergillus fumigatus 7 antigen (rAsp f 7). UM-011 was also significantly associated with IgE titres against the recombinant Aspergillus fumigatus 8 antigen (rAsp f 8). In addition to the loci mentioned above, the MHC class II DQA and DRA loci were determined in 76 Lipizzans from one stud. For IgE levels against rAsp f 7, the composite model showed the strongest association for DQA (P < 0.01) while for rAsp f 8 specific IgE levels, similarly to the results found with all 448 horses, the strongest association was found with UM-011 (P = 0.01), which is closely linked with the MHC class II DRB locus. These results suggest that the equine MHC gene region and possibly MHC class II loci, influence the specific IgE response in the horse. However, although the strongest associations were found with DQA and UM-011, this study did not distinguish if the observed effects were due to the MHC itself or to other tightly linked genes. PMID:12927090

  3. Non-Eosinophilic Nasal Polyps Shows Increased Epithelial Proliferation and Localized Disease Pattern in the Early Stage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Kyu; Jin, Hong Ryul; Eun, Kyoung Mi; Mutusamy, Somasundran; Cho, Seong H.; Oh, Sohee; Kim, Dae Woo

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-eosinophilic nasal polyps (NPs) show less inflammatory changes and are less commonly associated with lower airway inflammatory disorders such as asthma, compared with eosinophilic NPs. However, the development of non-eosinophilic NPs which is a predominant subtype in Asian population still remains unclear. Methods A total of 81 patients (45 with non-eosinophilic NPs and 36 with eosinophilic NPs) were enrolled. Clinical information and computed tomography (CT), endoscopic, and histological findings were investigated. Tissue samples were analyzed for total IgE levels and for mRNA expression levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL–5, IL–13, interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-17A, IL–22, IL-23p19, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, TGF-β2, TGF-β3, and periostin. Immunostaining assessment of Ki–67 as a proliferation marker was performed. Results We found that epithelial in-growing patterns such as pseudocysts were more frequently observed in histological and endoscopic evaluations of non-eosinophilic NPs, which was linked to increase epithelial staining of Ki–67, a proliferating marker. Eosinophilic NPs were characterized by high infiltration of inflammatory cells, compared with non-eosinophilic NPs. To investigate the developmental course of each subtype, CT was analyzed according to CT scores and subtypes. Non-eosinophilic NPs showed more localized pattern and maxillary sinus involvement, but lesser olfactory involvement in early stage whereas eosinophilic NPs were characterized by diffuse ethmoidal and olfactory involvement. In addition, high ethmoidal/maxillary (E/M) CT scores, indicating ethmoidal dominant involvement, were one of surrogate markers for eosinophilic NP. E/M CT scores was positively correlated with levels of TH2 inflammatory markers, including IL–4, IL–5, periostin mRNA expression and total IgE levels in NPs, whereas levels of the TH1 cytokine, IFN- γ were inversely correlated. Moreover, if the

  4. Allergen-specific IgG antibodies purified from mite-allergic patients sera block the IgE recognition of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus antigens: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Siman, Isabella Lima; de Aquino, Lais Martins; Ynoue, Leandro Hideki; Miranda, Juliana Silva; Pajuaba, Ana Claudia Arantes Marquez; Cunha-Júnior, Jair Pereira; Silva, Deise Aparecida Oliveira; Taketomi, Ernesto Akio

    2013-01-01

    One of the purposes of specific immunotherapy (SIT) is to modulate humoral immune response against allergens with significant increases in allergen-specific IgG levels, commonly associated with blocking activity. The present study investigated in vitro blocking activity of allergen-specific IgG antibodies on IgE reactivity to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt) in sera from atopic patients. Dpt-specific IgG antibodies were purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by protein-G affinity chromatography. Purity was checked by SDS-PAGE and immunoreactivity by slot-blot and immunoblot assays. The blocking activity was evaluated by inhibition ELISA. The electrophoretic profile of the ammonium sulfate precipitated fraction showed strongly stained bands in ligand fraction after chromatography, compatible with molecular weight of human whole IgG molecule. The purity degree was confirmed by detecting strong immunoreactivity to IgG, negligible to IgA, and no reactivity to IgE and IgM. Dpt-specific IgG fraction was capable of significantly reducing levels of IgE anti-Dpt, resulting in 35%-51% inhibition of IgE reactivity to Dpt in atopic patients sera. This study showed that allergen-specific IgG antibodies purified from mite-allergic patients sera block the IgE recognition of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus antigens. This approach reinforces that intermittent measurement of serum allergen-specific IgG antibodies will be an important objective laboratorial parameter that will help specialists to follow their patients under SIT.

  5. Performance of a polymer coated silicon microarray for simultaneous detection of food allergen-specific IgE and IgG4.

    PubMed

    Sievers, S; Cretich, M; Gagni, P; Ahrens, B; Grishina, G; Sampson, H A; Niggemann, B; Chiari, M; Beyer, K

    2017-08-01

    Microarray-based component-resolved diagnostics (CRD) has become an accepted tool to detect allergen-specific IgE sensitization towards hundreds of allergens in parallel from one drop of serum. Nevertheless, specificity and sensitivity as well as a simultaneous detection of allergen-specific IgG4 , as a potential parameter for tolerance development, remain to be optimized. We applied the recently introduced silicon chip coated with a functional polymer named copoly(DMA-NAS-MAPS) to the simultaneous detection of food allergen-specific IgE and IgG4 , and compared it with ImmunoCAP and ImmunoCAP ISAC. Inter- and intraslide variation, linearity of signal and working range, sensitivity and application of internal calibrations for IgE and IgG4 were assessed. Native and recombinant allergenic proteins from hen's egg and cow's milk were spotted on silicon chips coated with copoly(DMA-NAS-MAPS) along with known concentrations for human IgE and IgG4 . A serum pool and 105 patient samples were assessed quantitatively and semi-quantitatively with the ImmunoCAP and ImmunoCAP ISAC and correlated with IgE- and IgG4 -specific fluorescence on silicon microarrays. Allergen-specific IgE and IgG4 were detected in parallel using two fluorescent dyes with no crosstalk. Results from the ImmunoCAP correlated better with microarray fluorescence than with ImmunoCAP ISAC except for the allergen ovomucoid. The working range of the silicon microarray for total hen's egg-specific IgE was comparable to the range of 0.1 to >100 kUA /L of the ImmunoCAP system, whereas for total cow's milk, the silicon microarray was less sensitive. Detectable allergen-specific IgG4 could be determined only for low concentrations, but still correlated positively with ImmunoCAP results. We confirmed the ability of the polymer coated silicon microarray to be comparably sensitive to the ImmunoCAP ISAC for various food allergens. This suggests that the copoly(DMA-NAS-MAPS) microarray is a low-cost, self

  6. Predictive value of specific IgE for clinical peanut allergy in children: relationship with eczema, asthma, and setting (primary or secondary care).

    PubMed

    van Veen, Wilma J; Dikkeschei, Lambert D; Roberts, Graham; Brand, Paul Lp

    2013-10-10

    The usefulness of peanut specific IgE levels for diagnosing peanut allergy has not been studied in primary and secondary care where most cases of suspected peanut allergy are being evaluated. We aimed to determine the relationship between peanut-specific IgE levels and clinical peanut allergy in peanut-sensitized children and how this was influenced by eczema, asthma and clinical setting (primary or secondary care). We enrolled 280 children (0-18 years) who tested positive for peanut-specific IgE (> 0.35 kU/L) requested by primary and secondary physicians. We used predefined criteria to classify participants into three groups: peanut allergy, no peanut allergy, or possible peanut allergy, based on responses to a validated questionnaire, a detailed food history, and results of oral food challenges.Fifty-two participants (18.6%) were classified as peanut allergy, 190 (67.9%) as no peanut allergy, and 38 (13.6%) as possible peanut allergy. The association between peanut-specific IgE levels and peanut allergy was significant but weak (OR 1.46 for a 10.0 kU/L increase in peanut-specific IgE, 95% CI 1.28-1.67). Eczema was the strongest risk factor for peanut allergy (aOR 3.33, 95% CI 1.07-10.35), adjusted for demographic and clinical characteristics. Asthma was not significantly related to peanut allergy (aOR 1.93, 95% CI 0.90-4.13). Peanut allergy was less likely in primary than in secondary care participants (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.25-0.86), at all levels of peanut-specific IgE.The relationship between peanut-specific IgE and peanut allergy in children is weak, is strongly dependent on eczema, and is weaker in primary compared to secondary care. This limits the usefulness of peanut-specific IgE levels in the diagnosis of peanut allergy in children.

  7. [Correlation between the magnitude of skin prick test reactivity and pollen-specific serum IgE levels in patients with respiratory allergy].

    PubMed

    Tlachi-Corona, Laura; Caballero-López, Chrystopherson Gengyny; López-García, Aída Inés; Papaqui-Tapia, Sergio; Arana-Muñoz, Oswaldo; Carcaño-Pérez, María Socorro Yolanda; Marín-Marín, Araceli; Garrido-Priego, Fabiola

    2014-01-01

    For the etiological diagnosis of allergic respiratory diseases skin tests or specific serum IgE determination are used. To determine the correlation between the extent of reactivity to cutaneous prick tests and the levels of pollen specific serum IgE in patients with respiratory allergy. A prolective, descriptive and transversal study was done with patients of both genders, aged 2 to 60 years, who attended for the first time at the service of Allergy and Clinical Immunology of University Hospital of Puebla, Mexico, with presumptive diagnosis of respiratory allergy. All patients underwent clinical history, skin prick tests with standardized allergenic extracts and quantification of pollen specific serum IgE by chemiluminescence method. We estimated the correlation index r using the statistical method Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient; a value r equal to or higher than 0.70 was considered a significant relationship or a high correlation. Nine-one patients were included, of whom 58.2% were female. The diagnoses were: allergic rhinitis (79.1%), asthma and allergic rhinitis (16.5%) and only asthma (4.4%). Only significant correlation was found in patients with allergic rhinitis for Rumex crispus (r = 0.702) and in patients with asthma and rhinitis for Ambrosia trifida (r = 1). Only for Rumex crispus and Ambrosia trifida, the skin prick tests or the determination of specific serum IgE levels are comparable diagnostic methods of allergic respiratory diseases.

  8. Allergen diagnosis microarray with high-density immobilization capacity using diamond-like carbon-coated chips for profiling allergen-specific IgE and other immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Koichi; Hiyoshi, Mineyoshi; Tada, Hitomi; Bando, Miwa; Ichioka, Takao; Kamemura, Norio; Kido, Hiroshi

    2011-11-14

    The diagnosis of antibody-mediated allergic disorders is based on clinical findings, skin prick tests and detection of allergen-specific IgE in serum. Here, we present a new microarray technique of high-density antigen immobilization using carboxylated arms on the surface of a diamond-like carbon (DLC)-coated chip. High immobilization capacity of antigen on DLC chip at (0.94-7.82)×10(9) molecules mm(-2) allowed the analysis of allergen-specific immunoglobulins against not only purified proteins but also natural allergen extracts with wide assay dynamic range. The higher sensitivity of the allergen-specific IgE detection on DLC chip was observed for comparison with the UniCAP system: the DLC chip allowed lowering the limit of dilution rate in UniCAP system to further dilution at 4-8-fold. High correlations (ρ>0.9-0.85) of allergen-specific IgE values determined by the DLC chip and UniCAP were found in most of 20 different allergens tested. The DLC chip was useful to determine allergen-induced antibodies of IgA, IgG, IgG1, and IgG4 in sera, apart from IgE, as well as secretory IgA in saliva against the same series of allergens on the chip in a minimal amount (1-2 μL) of sample. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Is peanut causing food allergy in Cuba? Preliminary assessment of allergic sensitization and IgE specificity profile to peanut allergens in Cuban allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Mateo-Morejón, Mayteé; Labrada-Rosado, Alexis; Torralba-Averoff, Damaris; Cruz-Jimenez, Rayza; Oliva-Díaz, Yunia; Álvarez-Castelló, Mirta; Ciria-Martín, Alexander; Jiménez-Frandín, Marlene; Reyes-Zamora, Mary Carmen; Castro-Almarales, Raúl Lázaro; Tamargo-García, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Peanut allergy is increasing at an alarming pace in developed countries. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is a common food in Cuba. Nevertheless, reported values of sensitization and symptom severity are usually low. As our objective, we carried out an evaluation of allergic sensitivity to perform an assessment of allergic sensitization and IgE specificity profile to peanut allergens in Cuban allergic patients. The Skin Prick Test (SPT) was performed for each patient, using two glycerinated allergenic extracts, prepared from raw or roasted peanuts. Overall, 316 food allergic patients (159 adults and 157 children) attending allergy services at four hospitals in Havana were included, as well as 303 adult non- allergic volunteers. The IgE binding profile of 26 selected SPT positive patients was further analyzed by immunoblotting. The prevalence of sensitization to peanut was 4.6% in general adult population, whereas in adult food-allergic patients it was 18.6%. Prevalence rates were even greater in food allergic children achieving 25.8%. Sensitization frequencies were apparently greater for roasted, as compared to raw peanuts, although the difference was not significant (p> 0.05, Mc Nemar's). IgE binding was shown mostly by the 15 and 17 kDa bands, tentatively identified as the major allergens Ara h 2 and Ara h 6. The IgG4 binding profile was similar to IgE, although with more prominence of the bands at 37 and 28 KDa, corresponding to an Ara h 3 fragment and Peanut Agglutinin. The study estimated a relatively high prevalence of peanut sensitization in population. Data reported here suggest that IgE sensitization in Cuban patients is focused mostly on MW bands corresponding to the major allergens Ara h 6 and Ara h 2. Sensitization to peanut allergen is indeed relatively frequent in Cuba. The IgE profile is congruent to a sensitization pattern by ingestion of roasted peanuts and is directed to well-known major allergens.

  10. Evaluation of a Novel Rapid Test System for the Detection of Specific IgE to Hymenoptera Venoms

    PubMed Central

    Pfender, Nikolai; Lucassen, Ralf; Offermann, Nadine; Schulte-Pelkum, Johannes; Fooke, Margrit; Jakob, Thilo

    2012-01-01

    Background. The Allergy Lateral Flow Assay (ALFA) is a novel rapid assay for the detection of sIgE to allergens. The objective of this study is the evaluation of ALFA for the detection of sIgE to bee venom (BV) and wasp venom (WV) in insect venom allergic patients. Methods. Specific IgE to BV and WV was analyzed by ALFA, ALLERG-O-LIQ, and ImmunoCAP in 80 insect venom allergic patients and 60 control sera. Sensitivity and specificity of ALFA and correlation of ALFA and ImmunoCAP results were calculated. Results. The sensitivity/specificity of ALFA to the diagnosis was 100%/83% for BV and 82%/97% for WV. For insect venom allergic patients, the Spearman correlation coefficient for ALFA versus ImmunoCAP was 0.79 for BV and 0.80 for WV. However, significant differences in the negative control groups were observed. Conclusion. ALFA represents a simple, robust, and reliable tool for the rapid detection of sIgE to insect venoms. PMID:22500188

  11. The influence of the carrier molecule on amoxicillin recognition by specific IgE in patients with immediate hypersensitivity reactions to betalactams

    PubMed Central

    Ariza, Adriana; Mayorga, Cristobalina; Salas, María; Doña, Inmaculada; Martín-Serrano, Ángela; Pérez-Inestrosa, Ezequiel; Pérez-Sala, Dolores; Guzmán, Antonio E.; Montañez, María I.; Torres, María J.

    2016-01-01

    The optimal recognition of penicillin determinants, including amoxicillin (AX), by specific IgE antibodies is widely believed to require covalent binding to a carrier molecule. The nature of the carrier and its contribution to the antigenic determinant is not well known. Here we aimed to evaluate the specific-IgE recognition of different AX-derived structures. We studied patients with immediate hypersensitivity reactions to AX, classified as selective or cross-reactors to penicillins. Competitive immunoassays were performed using AX itself, amoxicilloic acid, AX bound to butylamine (AXO-BA) or to human serum albumin (AXO-HSA) in the fluid phase, as inhibitors, and amoxicilloyl-poli-L-lysine (AXO-PLL) in the solid-phase. Two distinct patterns of AX recognition by IgE were found: Group A showed a higher recognition of AX itself and AX-modified components of low molecular weights, whilst Group B showed similar recognition of both unconjugated and conjugated AX. Amoxicilloic acid was poorly recognized in both groups, which reinforces the need for AX conjugation to a carrier for optimal recognition. Remarkably, IgE recognition in Group A (selective responders to AX) is influenced by the mode of binding and/or the nature of the carrier; whereas IgE in Group B (cross-responders to penicillins) recognizes AX independently of the nature of the carrier. PMID:27731424

  12. The influence of the carrier molecule on amoxicillin recognition by specific IgE in patients with immediate hypersensitivity reactions to betalactams.

    PubMed

    Ariza, Adriana; Mayorga, Cristobalina; Salas, María; Doña, Inmaculada; Martín-Serrano, Ángela; Pérez-Inestrosa, Ezequiel; Pérez-Sala, Dolores; Guzmán, Antonio E; Montañez, María I; Torres, María J

    2016-10-12

    The optimal recognition of penicillin determinants, including amoxicillin (AX), by specific IgE antibodies is widely believed to require covalent binding to a carrier molecule. The nature of the carrier and its contribution to the antigenic determinant is not well known. Here we aimed to evaluate the specific-IgE recognition of different AX-derived structures. We studied patients with immediate hypersensitivity reactions to AX, classified as selective or cross-reactors to penicillins. Competitive immunoassays were performed using AX itself, amoxicilloic acid, AX bound to butylamine (AXO-BA) or to human serum albumin (AXO-HSA) in the fluid phase, as inhibitors, and amoxicilloyl-poli-L-lysine (AXO-PLL) in the solid-phase. Two distinct patterns of AX recognition by IgE were found: Group A showed a higher recognition of AX itself and AX-modified components of low molecular weights, whilst Group B showed similar recognition of both unconjugated and conjugated AX. Amoxicilloic acid was poorly recognized in both groups, which reinforces the need for AX conjugation to a carrier for optimal recognition. Remarkably, IgE recognition in Group A (selective responders to AX) is influenced by the mode of binding and/or the nature of the carrier; whereas IgE in Group B (cross-responders to penicillins) recognizes AX independently of the nature of the carrier.

  13. Establishing a cut-off for the serum levels of specific IgE to milk and its components for cow's milk allergy: results from a specific population.

    PubMed

    Castro, A P; Pastorino, A C; Gushken, A K F; Kokron, C M; Filho, U D; Jacob, C M A

    2015-01-01

    Cow's milk allergy diagnosis many times requires double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC), which presents high accuracy but involves risks, specifically in infants and anaphylactic patients. The identification of the cut-off values for specific IgE to milk or its components would contribute to cow's milk allergy (CMA) diagnosis. The aim of this study was to compare discriminating concentration of a cow's milk specific IgE and its fractions (α-lactoalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, casein) in children for the CMA diagnosis. this study included 123 patients (M:F=1.3:1) median age at diagnosis=1.91 years, (3.5m to 13.21y) with CMA diagnosis via DBPCFC (n=26), proven anaphylaxis due to cow's milk (n=46) or a suggestive clinical history associated with a positive skin prick test (n=51) and open oral food challenge. The control group included 61 patients (1 male:1.1 female) ages ranging from 0.66 to 16.7 years (median=6.83 years). Receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curves were constructed to determine the best cut-offs that guarantees high specificity (>95%) for cow's milk and its components. considering 98% specificity, cut-off points were: 3.06 kU/L for cow's milk, 2.06 kU/L for α-lactalbumin, 1.85 kU/L for β-lactoglobulin and 1.47kU/L for casein. The best ROC curve (area under the curve=0.929) was obtained evaluating cow's milk. this study showed that the cut-off point detected for whole cow's milk revealed a better discriminatory capacity for CMA diagnosis without the necessity of the milk components testing. Copyright © 2013 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Eosinophilic esophagitis: strictures, impactions, dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Khan, Seema; Orenstein, Susan R; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Kocoshis, Samuel A; Putnam, Philip E; Sigurdsson, Luther; Shalaby, Theresa M

    2003-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis, long known to be a feature of acid reflux, has recently been described in patients with food allergies and macroscopically furrowed esophagus. The pathophysiology and optimal management of patients with eosinophilic esophagitis is unclear. We describe our clinical experience related to eosinophilic esophagitis and obstructive symptoms in children and propose etiopathogenesis and management guidelines. Twelve children with obstructive esophageal symptoms (11 male), median age 5 years, and identified to have eosinophilic esophagitis with > 5 eosinophils per high-power field (eos/hpf) are reported. Of these, four had strictures, six had impactions, and two had only dysphagia. A diagnostic evaluation included esophagogastroduodenoscopy with biopsies in all and upper gastrointestinal series, IgE, radioallergosorbent tests, and skin tests for food allergies in some cases. Esophageal histology specimens were independently analyzed for eosinophil density by two authors. Four of five children with > 20 eos/hpf responded to elimination diets/steroids. The fifth child responded to a fundoplication. Seven children had 5-20 eos/hpf and three of them with no known food allergies responded to antireflux therapy alone. Three others in this group with positive food allergies responded to treatment with elimination diets and/or steroids. The seventh patient in this group was lost to follow-up. In conclusion, on the basis of response to therapy, eosinophilic esophagitis can be subdivided into two groups: those with likely gastroesophageal reflux disease if < 20 eos/hpf and no food allergies, and others with allergic eosinophilic esophagitis associated with food allergies and often with > 20 eos/hpf.

  15. Eosinophilic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... produce more of them in response to Allergic disorders Skin conditions Parasitic and fungal infections Autoimmune diseases Some cancers Bone marrow disorders In some conditions, the eosinophils can move outside ...

  16. The Immunomodulating Effect of a Diet Consisting of Green Vegetables, Beef, Whole Milk and Full-Fat Butter for Children with Non-Specific Elevated IgE.

    PubMed

    van der Gaag, Ellen Jose; Forbes, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Non-specific elevated IgE and allergies are common in children, and their prevalence is increasing. Dietary changes could be an explanation for this increase. Zinc, iron, vitamins A, C and E, and polyunsaturated fatty acids all play possible roles in the etiology and possible treatment of allergies due to their numerous immunomodulating properties. To investigate the immunomodulating effect of recommending a nutrient-rich diet consisting of green vegetables, beef, whole milk and full-fat butter. We conducted a case-controlled, non-randomized, retrospective study. Children between the ages of 1 and 18 years with non-specific elevated IgE were included. Baseline and follow-up measurements of serum total IgE and clinical outcomes were retrospectively collected and compared for 49 children who received the dietary advice (to eat green vegetables, beef, whole milk and full-fat butter) and 56 children who did not. The initial analysis showed a significantly greater decrease in IgE in the intervention group compared to the control group; a 9.2 kU/l versus a 0.1 kU/l decrease, respectively (P = 0.02). When supplement (vitamin D) use was taken into account, however, no significant difference was produced by the dietary effect alone (unstandardized coefficient = 71.3 kU/l, P = 0.16). 53.2 % of participants in the intervention group reported considerable improvement in symptoms versus 28.6 % in the control group (P < 0.001). Overall, the effects of nutrients and vitamins on the decrease in IgE are promising. The separate contributions of dietary advice and/or supplements need to be investigated in the future.

  17. Evaluation of the prevalence of antiwheat-, anti-flour dust, and anti-alpha-amylase specific IgE antibodies in US blood donors.

    PubMed

    Biagini, Raymond E; MacKenzie, Barbara A; Sammons, Deborah L; Smith, Jerome P; Striley, Cynthia A F; Robertson, Shirley K; Snawder, John E

    2004-06-01

    Asthma in bakery workers is one of the most frequently occurring forms of occupational asthma in the world. Experience from other countries has shown the prevalence of sensitization (IgE) to bakery-associated allergens (BAAs) (wheat [W], flour dust [FD], alpha-amylase [AA]) in bakery workers to be 5% to 53%, whereas the prevalence in nonoccupationally exposed individuals was estimated to be 1.2% to 6.4%. To estimate the prevalence of BAA sensitization by measuring BAA specific IgE in the residual serum tubes of volunteer blood donors. Serum samples from 534 volunteer blood donors were measured for anti-W, anti-FD, and anti-AA specific IgE antibodies (in duplicate) using the AlaSTAT microplate assay. Samples with BAA IgE concentrations of 0.35 kU/L or greater were considered positive. Nineteen of 530 serum samples (3.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.3%-3.9%) were positive for W (range, 0.38-3.61 kU/L), whereas 31 of 534 (5.8%; 95% CI, 5.3%-6.3%) were positive for FD (range, 0.35-2.34 kU/L) and 5 of 529 (1.0%; 95% CI, 0.9%-1.1%) were positive for AA (range, 0.38-1.59 kU/L). Thirteen serum samples were positive for both W and FD; 1 sample each was positive for W and AA and FD and AA. The prevalence of IgE sensitization in serum samples from a relatively large unselected population of volunteer blood donors is 1.0% for AA, 3.6% for W, and 5.8% for FD, which agrees well with data from other countries for sensitization prevalence rates for nonoccupationally exposed individuals.

  18. Skin prick tests and specific IgE in 10-year-old children: Agreement and association with allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Chauveau, A; Dalphin, M-L; Mauny, F; Kaulek, V; Schmausser-Hechfellner, E; Renz, H; Riedler, J; Pekkanen, J; Karvonen, A M; Lauener, R; Roduit, C; Vuitton, D A; von Mutius, E; Dalphin, J-C

    2017-09-01

    Accurate assessment of atopic sensitization is pivotal to clinical practice and research. Skin prick test (SPT) and specific IgE (sIgE) are often used interchangeably. Some studies have suggested a disagreement between these two methods, and little is known about their association with allergic diseases. The aims of our study were to evaluate agreement between SPT and sIgE, and to compare their association with allergic diseases in 10-year-old children. Skin prick test, sIgE measurements, and assessment of allergic diseases were performed in children aged 10 years in the Protection against Allergy: STUdy in Rural Environments (PASTURE) cohort. The agreement between SPT and sIgE was assessed by Cohen's kappa coefficient with different cutoff values. Skin prick tests and sIgE were performed in 529 children. The highest agreement (κ=.44) was found with a cutoff value of 3 and 5 mm for SPT, and 3.5 IU/mL for sIgE. The area under the curve (AUC) obtained with SPT was not significantly different from that obtained with sIgE. For asthma and hay fever, SPT (cutoff value at 3 mm) had a significantly higher specificity (P<.0001) than sIgE (cutoff value at 0.35 IU/mL) and the specificity was not different between both tests (P=.1088). Skin prick test and sIgE display moderate agreement, but have a similar AUC for allergic diseases. At the cutoff value of 3 mm for SPT and 0.35 IU/mL for sIgE, SPT has a higher specificity for asthma and hay fever than sIgE without difference for sensitivity. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  19. Eosinophilic venulitis in the small intestines in a mouse model of late asthma.

    PubMed

    Bui, Linh Kan; Hayashi, Toshiharu; Nakashima, Tomomi; Horii, Yoichiro

    2011-10-01

    The allergen-unchallenged enteric lesions in late allergic asthma are largely unknown. To clarify this point, BALB/c mice were sensitized by ovalbumin (OVA)/aluminum adjuvant intraperitoneally two times (on days 0 and 10) and then challenged with OVA intranasally on day 14 (asthma group). Four days after the challenge, small intestinal lesions were examined. By this treatment, diarrhea was not observed in the asthma group. Compared to the controls with or without OVA sensitization and/or OVA challenge, the asthma group developed eosinophilic venulitis without an increase in mucosal mast cells in small intestines, whereas intestinal epithelial cells were relatively intact. A few numbers of interleukin (IL)-4(+) and IL-5(+) lymphoid cells were recognized in intestines in the asthma group, but not in the controls. Expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 on venular endothelium and eotaxin-2(+) eosinophils, but not epithelial cells, in intestines were detected in the asthma group, but not in the controls. Total IgE, OVA-specific IgE and eotaxin, and IL-5, but not interferon-γ, were produced systemically in the asthma group compared to the controls. The present study suggests that eosinophilic venulitis without mast cells in the intestine may be induced by the systemic, but not by local, helper T 2-type responses. In addition, eosinophilic venulitis in small intestines may be subclinical enteric lesions.

  20. New Insights into Eosinophilic Otitis Media.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Hiromi; Yoshida, Naohiro; Iino, Yukiko

    2015-12-01

    Eosinophilic otitis media (EOM) is a type of intractable otitis media that occurs mainly in patients with bronchial asthma (BA). In 2011, the diagnostic criteria for EOM were established. EOM is characterized by the presence of a highly viscous yellowish effusion containing eosinophils and immunoglobulin E (IgE), eosinophil chemoattractants, such as eosinophil cationic protein, interleukin-5, and eotaxin. Local sensitization against foreign agents such as fungi or bacteria (e.g., Staphylococcus aureus) may result in local IgE production in the middle ear and may be responsible for the severity of EOM. The clinical features of EOM closely resemble localized eosinophilic granulomatosis polyangiitis, therefore it is necessary to be vigilant to the symptoms of mononeuritis, polyneuritis, and skin purpura during diagnosis. Standard treatment for EOM is the instillation of triamcinolone acetonide into the mesotympanum. However, severe cases exhibiting strong inflammation and otorrhea are not easily controlled with antibiotics and/or corticosteroids. We proposed the introduction of a severity score to evaluate the severity of EOM. This score correlated with local IgE levels in middle ear effusion. Clinically, the risk factors associated with this severity score were body mass index, and the duration of bronchial asthma (from the onset of BA to the age of the first consultation of otitis media to our hospital). We emphasize that early diagnosis and adequate treatment are vital in preventing progressive and sudden hearing loss resulting from EOM.

  1. Selected eosinophil proteins as markers of inflammation in atopic dermatitis patients.

    PubMed

    Jenerowicz, Dorotaz; Czarnecka-Operacz, Magdalena; Silny, Wojciech

    2006-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory skin disease characterized by chronic and recurrent course, beginning primarily in early childhood. The etiopathogenesis of AD has not yet been fully understood, although various types of inflammatory cells including eosinophils may be involved in its pathomechanism. The basic aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of selected eosinophil proteins in serum and urine of AD patients, as markers of disease severity. The study also aimed to analyze correlations between the level of examined proteins and parameters such as skin prick test (SPT) results, serum concentration of total IgE, and coexistence of symptoms of other atopic diseases. The study included 30 AD patients and two control groups: 30 patients suffering from chronic urticaria and 30 healthy individuals. The mean level of eosinophil proteins measured in serum and urine of AD patients was higher than that in controls, although a significant difference was only recorded for serum and urine level of eosinophil protein X (EPX). Patients with very severe/severe AD presented higher levels of eosinophil proteins than patients presenting with mild/moderate AD, although no significant difference was found between these two groups. AD patients with positive SPT results and detectable specific IgE in serum, and with coexisting symptoms of other atopic diseases presented with higher mean levels of serum and urine eosinophil proteins than AD cases with negative SPT results and without any symptoms of other atopic diseases. In children suffering from AD, serum eosinophil cationic protein level, EPX level and urine EPX level were higher than those in healthy children, however, without statistical significance. Study results suggested a significant role of eosinophils in the etiopathogenesis of AD. Serum and urine levels of selected eosinophil proteins may serve as an important part of diagnostic approach to AD patients, especially in differentiation of allergic and non

  2. Allergen component specific ige measurement with the Immulite™ 2000 system: diagnostic accuracy and intermethod comparison.

    PubMed

    Villalta, Danilo; Da Re, Mirella; Conte, Mariaelisabetta; Martelli, Paola; Uasuf, Carina Gabriela; Barrale, Maria; La Chiusa, Stella Maria; Brusca, Ignazio

    2015-03-01

    The identification of the allergenic molecules, associated to the advances in the field of recombinant allergens, led to the development of a new concept in allergy diagnosis called component-resolved diagnosis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of different allergen components using the full automatic singleplex quantitative platform Immulite™ 2000. One hundred ninety-five allergic outpatients (35 to olive pollen, 35 to birch pollen, 35 to profilin, 35 to house dust mites, 35 to peach, and 20 to shrimp) and 20 negative controls were enrolled for the study. Bet v 1, Bet v 2, Ole e 1, Der p 1, Der p 2, Der f 1, Der f 2, Pru p 3, tropomyosin were tested both with Immulite™ 2000 and ImmunoCAP™ (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Uppsala, Sweden). Sensitivity of allergen-specific Immunoglobulin E (sIgE) to Ole e 1, Bet v 1, Der p 1, Der p 2, Der f 1, Der f 2, Pen m 1, and Pru p 3 with Immulite™ 2000 was 100%, 100%, 77.1%, 94.3%, 71.4%, 94%, 75%, and 97.1%, respectively, and the specificity was 100% for all the allergens. The overall agreement between Immulite™ 2000 and ImmunoCAP™ (Thermo Fisher Scientific) platforms was 98.6% (Cohen's kappa = 0.979; confidence interval [CI] 95%: 0.960-0.997). From moderate to strong, positive linear correlations between the assays (r(2) from 0.322 to 0.860, and Spearman's rho from 0.824 to 0.971) were showed. A high diagnostic accuracy of the sIgE to allergen components measurement with Immulite™ 2000 and a high agreement with ImmunoCAP™ platforms were shown in this study. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Allergen-specific IgE levels against crude mould and storage mite extracts and recombinant mould allergens in sera from horses affected with chronic bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Eder, C; Crameri, R; Mayer, C; Eicher, R; Straub, R; Gerber, H; Lazary, S; Marti, E

    2000-03-15

    between healthy and CB-affected animals nor correlations between IgA and IgG or IgE titres could be found. These results show that horses suffering from CB are more often sensitised to some Aspergillus fumigatus and Alternaria alternata allergens than control horses and that they are partly sensitised to the same fungal proteins as mould-allergic human patients. Furthermore, this study shows that r-allergens allow a much more sensitive determination of specific serum antibody levels by ELISA than crude mould extracts.

  4. Longitudinal study on specific IgE against natural rubber latex, banana and kiwi in patients with spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Cremer, R; Mennicken, O

    2011-11-01

    Up to 2 out of 3 spina bifida (sb) patients with natural rubber latex (NRL) antibodies (ab) have crossreacting IgE-ab against tropical fruit, due to structural homologies between several NRL antigens and allergenic fruit proteins. It is essential to investigate whether the patients were first sensitized against NRL or fruit, to give recommendations for an evidence-based prophylaxis. We investigated sera of 96 sb patients for specific IgE ab against NRL, banana and kiwi as examples for crossreacting fruit by FEIA (ImmunoCAP System, Phadia). These tests were repeated up to 3 times (mean after 2 years, maximum after 7 years). In the first testing only 2 of 50 NRL-IgE negative patients (4%) had ab against banana or kiwi. 4 of the 46 NRL-IgE positive patients (8%) showed ab against banana (2) or kiwi (2), 3 (7%) against both fruit. Symptoms of fruit allergy were presented by 3 patients, all symptomatic patients had high levels of specific fruit-ab. In the follow-up study 2 patients with low sensitization against NRL lost their NRL ab and their fruit ab, another 2 only the fruit ab, whereas 4 NRL-sensitized patients newly developed ab against banana and 1 against kiwi. Only 2 patients developed ab against fruit without being sensitized against NRL. 7 out of 10 patients with banana and kiwi ab were atopics. In most cases the sensitization against fruit follows the NRL sensitization. There is no need to recommend sb patients without NRL sensitization to primarily avoid tropical fruit. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Diagnostic Value of Specific IgE to Peanut and Ara h 2 in Korean Children with Peanut Allergy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Young; Han, Youngshin; Kim, Kwanghoon; Lee, Ji Young; Kim, Min Ji; Ahn, Kangmo; Kim, Jihyun

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the diagnostic decision point (DDP) of peanut specific IgE (sIgE) for predicting the outcome of oral food challenge (OFC). We also evaluated the usefulness of sIgE to peanut components (Ara h 1, 2, 3, 8, and 9) in diagnosing peanut allergy. Korean children aged over 12 months with a suspected peanut allergy were enrolled. Diagnosis of peanut allergy was confirmed by an open OFC or through the convincing history of anaphylaxis. Cutoff levels of sIgE to peanut and peanut components were determined by analyzing receiver operating characteristic curves. Forty-eight children (22 boys and 26 girls) with a suspected peanut allergy were enrolled. The previously established DDP for peanut-sIgE antibodies (14 kU/L) showed a sensitivity of 22.7%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 100%, and negative predictive value of 60.4% in our study population. The median levels of peanut-sIgE (5.4 kU/L vs 1.1 kU/L, P<0.001) and Ara h 2-sIgE (0.8 kU/L vs 0 kU/L, P<0.001) were significantly higher in the peanut allergy group than in the peanut tolerance group. The peanut-sIgE concentration indicating a PPV of 100% was 10.3 kU/L. The Ara h 2-sIgE level of 4.0 kU/L had a PPV of 100%. Our results showed that the cutoff levels for peanut (10.3 kU/L) and Ara h 2 (4.0 kU/L) established in this study is useful for the diagnosis of peanut allergy in Korean children.

  6. High correlation of specific IgE sensitization between birch pollen, soy and apple allergens indicates pollen-food allergy syndrome among birch pollen allergic patients in northern China.

    PubMed

    Hao, Guo-Dong; Zheng, Yi-Wu; Wang, Zhi-Xiang; Kong, Xing-Ai; Song, Zhi-Jing; Lai, Xu-Xin; Spangfort, Michael D

    2016-05-01

    Birch pollen sensitization and associated pollen-food syndrome among Chinese allergic patients have not been investigated. Sera from 203 allergic patients from the northern part of China and collected during February to July 2014 were investigated. Specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) against birch pollen extract Bet v and major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 were measured using the ADVIA Centaur. The presence of major apple allergen Mal d 1 and soy bean allergen Gly m 4 specific IgE was measured by ImmunoCAP 100. Among the 203 sera, 34 sera (16.7%) had specific IgE to Bet v and of these, 28 sera (82.4%) contained Bet v 1-specific IgE. Among the 28 sera with Bet v 1-specific IgE, 27 sera (96.4%) contained Mal d 1-specific IgE and 22 sera (78.6%) contained Gly m 4-specific IgE. Of the 34 Bet v-positive sera, 6 sera (17.6%) contained no specific IgE for Bet v 1, Mal d 1, or Gly m 4. Almost all Bet v-positive sera were donated during the birch pollen season. The prevalence of birch allergy among patients visiting health care during pollen season can be as high as 16.7% in Tangshan City. The majority of Chinese birch allergic patients are IgE-sensitized to the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 as well as to the major apple allergen Mal d 1 and soy bean allergen Gly m 4. A relatively high number of patients (17.6%) are IgE-sensitized to birch pollen allergen(s) other than Bet v 1. The high prevalence of specific IgE to Mal d 1 and Gly m 4 among Bet v 1-sensitized patients indicates that pollen-food allergy syndrome could be of clinical relevance in China.

  7. Determinants of total and specific IgE in infants with atopic dermatitis. ETAC Study Group. Early Treatment of the Atopic Child.

    PubMed

    1997-11-01

    ETAC (Early Treatment of the Atopic Child), a multi-centre predominantly European study to investigate the potential for cetirizine to prevent the development of asthma in infants with atopic dermatitis has completed enrollment: 817 children have been randomised to 18 months' treatment with either active or placebo and a subsequent 18 months of post-treatment follow-up. Results of the therapeutic effects will not be available for some time, but the study has provided an opportunity to investigate influences on sensitization to allergens in a large cohort of 1-2 years olds with already established atopic dermatitis, resident in different countries and in different environments. The study shows that in infants with atopic dermatitis, raised serum total IgE has significantly different determinants from that a specific allergen sensitization. In infancy, increased total IgE is more affected by factors increasing risk of intercurrent infection and non-specific airway inflammation, such as environmental tobacco smoke exposure (p < 0.001) and the use of gas cookers (p = 0.02). Specific allergen sensitization as represented by detectable IgE antibodies is influenced primarily by allergen exposure. In Sweden, low level exposure to allergens is associated with reduced specific allergen sensitization rates even though the infants already have atopic dermatitis.

  8. The transfer of maternal IgE and other immunoglobulins specific for Trichostrongylus colubriformis larval excretory/secretory product to the neonatal lamb.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, A; Shaw, R J; Green, R S; Phegan, M D

    2005-12-15

    The transference of immunoglobulins from six New Zealand Romney ewes to their lambs was examined. Immunoglobulin levels were determined in ewe plasma, colostrum and lamb plasma shortly after birth and before the lambs fed, in lamb plasma 2 days after birth, and lamb plasma, ewe plasma and milk 30 days after parturition. Levels of total IgE, and IgE, IgG1, IgG2, IgM, and IgA with specificity for Trichostronglus colubriformis third stage larval secretory/excretory products (TcL3E/S) were determined. Mean levels of total IgE were three times higher in colostrum than in parturient ewe plasma while only trace amounts were detected in milk at 30 days after birth (107.7, 34.3, and 0.2U ml(-1), respectively, differences between means P< or =0.01). Mean total IgE in lamb plasma rose from being undetectable before suckling to levels comparable to those of the ewes by 2 days after birth (21.7U ml(-1)) and then declined to low levels by 30 days (0.4U ml(-1)). Total IgE levels in lamb plasma were significantly correlated with levels in ewe plasma and colostrum (r=0.91, P< or =0.01; r=0.96, P< or =0.003, respectively). The transference of TcL3E/S-specific IgE, IgG1 and IgA was substantial with mean levels of these antibodies in lamb plasma at 2 days comparable to that in parturient ewe plasma (absorbance levels in lamb plasma of 0.283, 0.537, and 0.334, respectively). Proportionally less maternal IgM and IgG2 appeared to be transferred to the lambs (absorbance of 0.112 and 0.081, respectively). Levels of TcL3E/S-specific IgE and IgG1 in lamb plasma at 2 days were significantly correlated with levels in parturient ewe plasma and colostrum (r=0.89 and 0.82, 0.85 and 0.96; all P< or =0.05, respectively). These results indicate that IgE is concentrated in ewe colostrum and that substantial amounts of maternal IgE are transferred to lambs via colostrum. Further, the results suggest that humoral immunity against gastro-intestinal nematode parasites and potentially other parasites in

  9. Food Allergy in Infants With Atopic Dermatitis: Limitations of Food-Specific IgE Measurements.

    PubMed

    Spergel, Jonathan M; Boguniewicz, Mark; Schneider, Lynda; Hanifin, Jon M; Paller, Amy S; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2015-12-01

    Children with atopic dermatitis (AD) have a higher risk for development of food allergies. The objective of this study was to examine incidence of food allergy development in infants with AD and the predictive value of food-antigen-specific immunoglobulin E measurements. This trial examined the long-term safety and efficacy of pimecrolimus cream 1% in >1000 infants (3-18 months) with mild-to-severe AD without a history of food allergy. Food allergy development was followed throughout a 36-month randomized double-blind phase followed by an open-label (OL) phase up to 33 months. Additionally, sIgE for cow's milk, egg white, peanut, wheat, seafood mix, and soybean was measured by ImmunoCAP at baseline, end of the double-blind phase, and end of OL phase. By the end of the OL phase, 15.9% of infants with AD developed at least 1 food allergy; allergy to peanut was most common (6.6%), followed by cow's milk (4.3%) and egg white (3.9%). Seafood, soybean, and wheat allergies were rare. Levels of sIgE for milk, egg, and peanut increased with severity of AD, as determined by Investigator's Global Assessment score. We assigned sIgE decision points for the 6 foods and tested their ability to predict definite food allergy in this population. Positive predictive values for published and newly developed sIgE decision points were low (<0.6 for all values tested). In a large cohort of infants at risk for development of food allergy, sIgE levels were not clinically useful for predicting food allergy development. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Eosinophilic Skin Diseases: A Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Long, Hai; Zhang, Guiying; Wang, Ling; Lu, Qianjin

    2016-04-01

    Eosinophilic skin diseases, commonly termed as eosinophilic dermatoses, refer to a broad spectrum of skin diseases characterized by eosinophil infiltration and/or degranulation in skin lesions, with or without blood eosinophilia. The majority of eosinophilic dermatoses lie in the allergy-related group, including allergic drug eruption, urticaria, allergic contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, and eczema. Parasitic infestations, arthropod bites, and autoimmune blistering skin diseases such as bullous pemphigoid, are also common. Besides these, there are several rare types of eosinophilic dermatoses with unknown origin, in which eosinophil infiltration is a central component and affects specific tissue layers or adnexal structures of the skin, such as the dermis, subcutaneous fat, fascia, follicles, and cutaneous vessels. Some typical examples are eosinophilic cellulitis, granuloma faciale, eosinophilic pustular folliculitis, recurrent cutaneous eosinophilic vasculitis, and eosinophilic fasciitis. Although tissue eosinophilia is a common feature shared by these disorders, their clinical and pathological properties differ dramatically. Among these rare entities, eosinophilic pustular folliculitis may be associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or malignancies, and some other diseases, like eosinophilic fasciitis and eosinophilic cellulitis, may be associated with an underlying hematological disorder, while others are considered idiopathic. However, for most of these rare eosinophilic dermatoses, the causes and the pathogenic mechanisms remain largely unknown, and systemic, high-quality clinical investigations are needed for advances in better strategies for clinical diagnosis and treatment. Here, we present a comprehensive review on the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, and management of these rare entities, with an emphasis on recent advances and current consensus.

  11. Allergy to Red Meat: A Diagnosis Made by the Patient and Confirmed by an Assay for IgE Antibodies Specific for Alpha-1,3-Galactose

    PubMed Central

    Kaloga, Mamadou; Kourouma, Sarah; Kouassi, Yao Isidore; Ecra, Elidje Joseph; Gbery, Ildevert Patrice; Allou, Ange S.; Diabate, Almamy; Djeha, Djokouehi; Sangaré, Abdoulaye; Yoboue, Yao Pauline

    2016-01-01

    We report the first case of allergy to red meat observed in Ivory Coast. A 49-year-old male presented with pruritus. The diagnosis of allergy to red meat was confirmed by an assay for IgE antibodies specific for alpha-1,3 galactose. Interestingly, the disease was considered a spell to the patient who was suspected of being a sorcerer by the community. PMID:26933408

  12. Serum concentrations of allergen-specific IgE in horses with equine recurrent airway obstruction and healthy controls assessed by ELISA.

    PubMed

    Niedzwiedz, Artur; Jaworski, Zbigniew; Kubiak, Krzysztof

    2015-09-01

    Equine recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), also known as heaves, is one of the most common respiratory problems in older horses. When RAO-affected horses stay pastured or in a dust-free environment for a prolonged time, clinical signs as well as airway inflammation wane. A number of environmental, immunologic, infectious, and genetic factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of RAO, and the immunologic basis of this disease is still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of allergen-specific IgE in the serum of horses suffering from RAO and healthy controls. The study included a group of 14 adult Polish Konik horses, kept in a standardized environment, and divided into 2 groups: 7 horses which did not have any respiratory problems comprised the control group and 7 horses with a history of RAO constituted the study group. A clinical and laboratory evaluation, endoscopic examination, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were performed in all horses. Sera of all horses were tested against allergens from 9 molds and 3 mites using the Heska Allercept assay. In the serologic tests, a statistically significant difference between both groups was found for specific IgE against mites, wherein Tyrophagus putrescentia correlated most clearly with RAO. There was no difference between groups for IgE specific against molds. On the basis of our observations and results, we conclude that RAO is associated with increased serum concentrations of specific serum IgE against mites, in particular T putrescentia. © 2015 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  13. Eosinophilic Lung Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic or chemical reactions and certain infections. Eosinophilic Pneumonia Eosinophilic pneumonia describes a category of pneumonias that ... low oxygen in the bloodstream. Acute Idiopathic Eosinophilic Pneumonia Acute idiopathic eosinophilic pneumonia is a more sudden ...

  14. Eosinophilic fasciitis*

    PubMed Central

    Lamback, Elisa Baranski; Resende, Fernanda Simões Seabra; Lenzi, Thiara Cristina Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis is a rare sclerodermiform syndrome of unknown etiology. It is characterized by the thickening of the muscular fascia and subcutaneous tissue, with a variable infiltration of eosinophils. Peripheral eosinophilia, poly or monoclonal hypergammaglobulinemia and increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate can be seen. Clinical features begin acutely, with local edema and a painful and symmetrical stiffening of the limbs, progressing rapidly to fibrosis, which can limit joint movements. Some cases have a history of strenuous physical exercise or trauma. The diagnosis is confirmed by a deep skin biopsy. Glucocorticoids in high doses is the treatment of choice. We report a typical eosinophilic fasciitis case with peripheral eosinophilia and dramatic response to pulse therapy with methylprednisolone. PMID:28300895

  15. Eosinophilic esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Gupte, Anand R; Draganov, Peter V

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is increasingly recognized in adults. The diagnosis is based on the presence of both typical symptoms and pathologic findings on esophageal biopsy. Patients usually present with dysphagia, food impaction and/or reflux-like symptoms, and biopsy of the esophagus shows more than 15 eosinophils per high-power field. In addition, it is essential to exclude the presence of known causes of tissue eosinophilia such as gastroesophageal reflux disease, infections, malignancy, collagen vascular diseases, hypersensitivity, and inflammatory bowel disease. There are no standardized protocols for the therapy of eosinophilic esophagitis. A variety of therapeutic approaches including acid suppression, dietary modifications, topical corticosteroids and endoscopic dilation can be used alone or in combination. PMID:19115464

  16. Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Furuta, Glenn T.; Katzka, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Once considered a rare condition, eosinophilic esophagitis is now one of the most common conditions diagnosed during the assessment of feeding problems in children and during the evaluation of dysphagia and food impaction in adults.1 The entity exists worldwide but has been most extensively studied in Western countries, where its prevalence has been estimated to be 0.4% among all children and adults.2 Whether eosinophilic esophagitis is truly a new disease or simply a recently recognized one is uncertain.3 In this review, we consider the diagnostic criteria, pathophysiological and clinical features, and treatment of this increasingly prevalent disease. PMID:26488694

  17. Genome-wide association analysis of eosinophilic esophagitis provides insight into the tissue specificity of this allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Kottyan, Leah C; Davis, Benjamin P; Sherrill, Joseph D; Liu, Kan; Rochman, Mark; Kaufman, Kenneth; Weirauch, Matthew T; Vaughn, Samuel; Lazaro, Sara; Rupert, Andrew M; Kohram, Mojtaba; Stucke, Emily M; Kemme, Katherine A; Magnusen, Albert; He, Hua; Dexheimer, Phillip; Chehade, Mirna; Wood, Robert A; Pesek, Robbie D; Vickery, Brian P; Fleischer, David M; Lindbad, Robert; Sampson, Hugh A; Mukkada, Vincent A; Putnam, Phil E; Abonia, J Pablo; Martin, Lisa J; Harley, John B; Rothenberg, Marc E

    2014-08-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory disorder associated with allergic hypersensitivity to food. We interrogated >1.5 million genetic variants in EoE cases of European ancestry and subsequently in a multi-site cohort with local and out-of-study control subjects. In addition to replicating association of the 5q22 locus (meta-analysis P=1.9×10(-16)), we identified an association at 2p23 spanning CAPN14 (P=2.5×10(-10)). CAPN14 was specifically expressed in the esophagus, was dynamically upregulated as a function of disease activity and genetic haplotype and after exposure of epithelial cells to interleukin (IL)-13, and was located in an epigenetic hotspot modified by IL-13. Genes neighboring the top 208 EoE-associated sequence variants were enriched for esophageal expression, and multiple loci for allergic sensitization were associated with EoE susceptibility (4.8×10(-2)specific nature of EoE that involves the interplay of allergic sensitization with an EoE-specific, IL-13-inducible esophageal response involving CAPN14.

  18. [Investigation of mold fungi in air samples of elementary schools and evaluation of allergen-specific IgE levels in students' sera].

    PubMed

    Ovet, Habibe; Ergin, Cağrı; Kaleli, Ilknur

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric fungal spores play important role in allergic reactions in atopic individuals. Monitorization of those spores found in the environment of atopic cases is crucial for the choice of the antigens that will be included in allergen screening procedures and precautions to be taken against mold-originated health problems. Since most of the people spend plenty of time indoors in recent years, the effects of exposure to indoor air fungi on human health have gained importance. This study was aimed to investigate the indoor air mold distribution of elementary schools in Denizli province (located in west Anatolia, Turkey) and to compare the allergen-specific IgE levels of children against the most frequently detected mold genus. A questionnaire (MM080) was distributed to the 4967 students (6-8 year-old) attending first and second degrees of 16 different elementary schools with scattered locations in city center. This questionnaire form included the questions related to the general information about the child, school environment, allergic complaints since last year, home environment and nutrition. Response rate to the questionnaire was 51.6% (2565/4967). Air samples were collected from 18 classrooms in March 2009, during which high rates of allergic symptoms were observed according to the questionnaire results. Mold fungi belonging to 10 different genera (Penicillium spp. 46%; Aspergillus spp. 18%; Cladosporium spp. 17%; Alternaria spp. 15%; Drechslera spp. 1%; Chrysosporium, Fusarium, Conidiobolus and Cladothecium species 0.5%; unidentified 1%) were isolated from indoor air of classrooms. Since the most frequently detected mold was Penicillium spp. (46%), the 48 children with atopic symptoms were called to the hospital for the determination of total IgE and Penicillium specific IgE in their sera. Twenty two students accepted the invitation and serum total IgE (Immulite 2000; Diagnostic Product Corporation, USA) and allergen-specific IgE (Penicillium brevicompactum

  19. Hay fever and predictive value of prick test and specific IgE antibodies: a prospective study in children.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Torsten; Hoelscher, Bernd; Adam, Horst; Ring, Johannes; Wichmann, H-Erich; Heinrich, Joachim

    2003-04-01

    Little is known from population-based studies in children about the diagnostic values of allergen-specific IgE antibodies (RAST) and skin prick test (SPT) with respect to hay fever. We aimed to determine and compare the diagnostic values of SPT and RAST to aeroallergens with respect to the incidence of hay fever cases in schoolchildren at different cut-off points. A prospective cohort study was performed on 1100 school children (5-7 and 8-10 years). Information on a doctor's diagnosis of hay fever was obtained by questionnaire and allergic sensitization to grass and birch pollen, cat, and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were measured using SPT and RAST between September 1992 and July 1993. Thirty-eight children give a history of hay fever (3.5%) in 1992/93 and additionally 37 cases occurred until 1996. Allergic sensitization was present in 17.9% (SPT), 30.2% (RAST) and more frequent in children with a history of hay fever (SPT: OR 11.7, 5.5-24.7; RAST: OR 10.6, 4.3-26.4). This difference was most pronounced for sensitization to pollen allergens. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV) for SPT and RAST were 65.6, 83.7, 11.9, 98.6 and 79.3, 71.6, 9.3, 99.0, respectively, with differences for specificity being significant (p < 0.001). Whereas NPV were equally high for SPT (99.2) and RAST (99.3), the incidence of hay fever cases were predicted rather poorly though somewhat better by SPT than by RAST (PPV 16.7 vs. 9.8; p < 0.001) initially. With increasing cut-off point for RAST reactivity, the PPV increased and reached 25.0 at 17.5 kU/l, whereas the NPV decreased to 97.9, which was lower than that of SPT reactivity (p < 0.01). At the cut-off point of 1.5 kU/l almost identical predictive values for SPT and RAST were obtained. SPT and RAST perform better in the negative than positive prediction of hay fever cases in epidemiological studies. Differences in the predictive capabilities depend on the chosen cut-off point for RAST

  20. Analysis of T cell responses to the major allergens from German cockroach: epitope specificity and relationship to IgE production.

    PubMed

    Oseroff, Carla; Sidney, John; Tripple, Victoria; Grey, Howard; Wood, Robert; Broide, David H; Greenbaum, Jason; Kolla, Ravi; Peters, Bjoern; Pomés, Anna; Sette, Alessandro

    2012-07-15

    Bla g allergens are major targets of IgE responses associated with cockroach allergies. However, little is known about corresponding T cell responses, despite their potential involvement in immunopathology and the clinical efficacy of specific immunotherapy. Bioinformatic predictions of the capacity of Bla g 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, and 7 peptides to bind HLA-DR, -DP, and -DQ molecules, and PBMC responses from 30 allergic donors, identified 25 T cell epitopes. Five immunodominant epitopes accounted for more than half of the response. Bla g 5, the most dominant allergen, accounted for 65% of the response, and Bla g 6 accounted for 20%. Bla g 5 induced both IL-5 and IFN-γ responses, whereas Bla g 6 induced mostly IL-5, and, conversely, Bla g 2 induced only IFN-γ. Thus, responses to allergens within a source are independently regulated, suggesting a critical role for the allergen itself, and not extraneous stimulation from other allergens or copresented immunomodulators. In comparing Ab with T cell responses for several donor/allergen combinations, we detected IgE titers in the absence of detectable T cell responses, suggesting that unlinked T cell-B cell help might support development of IgE responses. Finally, specific immunotherapy resulted in IL-5 down modulation, which was not associated with development of IFN-γ or IL-10 responses to any of the Bla g-derived peptides. In summary, the characteristics of T cell responses to Bla g allergens appear uncorrelated with IgE responses. Monitoring these responses may therefore yield important information relevant to understanding cockroach allergies and their treatment.

  1. Baseline specific IgE levels are useful to predict safety of oral immunotherapy in egg-allergic children.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Ortiz, M; Alvaro, M; Piquer, M; Dominguez, O; Machinena, A; Martín-Mateos, M A; Plaza, A M

    2014-01-01

    Oral immunotherapy (OIT) is a promising treatment for food allergy but dose-related reactions are common. To evaluate safety of egg-OIT. To identify predictors of dose-related reactions. Fifty children aged 5-18 underwent egg-OIT after confirming IgE-mediated egg allergy by double-blind placebo-controlled challenge (DBPCFC). All dose-related reactions over a median period of 18 months on-OIT (range: 12-28) were registered. Children were retrospectively divided into three subgroups: (1) children who stopped reacting to OIT-doses over time (RR, Resolved Reactions); (2) children with ongoing dose-related reactions over the whole period on-OIT (PR, Persistent Reactions); (3) children who discontinued OIT within induction phase due to frequent reactions not improved by protocol re-adaptation and medication (ED, Early Discontinuation). Baseline clinical/immunological parameters associated with subgroups were investigated. Reactions occurred in 7.6% of doses. Adrenaline was required in 26% of children. The three subgroups corresponded to three different safety phenotypes: (1) twenty-four children (48%, RR) experienced infrequent and mainly mild reactions that resolved over time. None required adrenaline; (2) seventeen children (34%, PR) experienced more frequent and severe ongoing reactions over time; (3) nine children (18%, ED) discontinued OIT due to very frequent and mainly moderate reactions. Early discontinuation was associated with underlying asthma, higher specific IgE (sIgE) and lower threshold at DBPCFC. In contrast, lower sIgE and less severe reactions at DBPCFC were associated with subgroup RR. sIgE showed excellent performance in predicting belonging to subgroup RR. Levels below the optimal cut-off (ovomucoid-sIgE 8.85 kU/L) indicated 77% probability of belonging to subgroup RR, whereas levels above it indicated 95% probability of early discontinuation or ongoing reactions over time. Egg-OIT involves substantial risks. However, baseline parameters

  2. Diagnostic Decision Points of Specific IgE Concentrations in Korean Children With Egg and Cow's Milk Allergies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jihyun; Kim, Hye Young; Park, Mi Ran; Choi, Jaehee; Shim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Min Ji; Han, Youngshin; Ahn, Kangmo

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of specific IgE (sIgE) concentrations for the diagnosis of immediate-type egg and cow's milk (CM) allergies in Korean children and to determine the optimal cutoff levels. In this prospective study, children ≥12 months of age with suspected egg or CM allergy were enrolled. Food allergy was diagnosed by an open oral food challenge (OFC) or through the presence of a convincing history after ingestion of egg or CM. The cutoff levels of sIgE for egg white (EW) and CM were determined by analyzing the receiver operating characteristic curves. Out of 273 children, 52 (19.0%) were confirmed to have egg allergy. CM allergy was found in 52 (23.1%) of 225 children. The EW-sIgE concentration indicating a positive predictive value (PPV) of >90% was 28.1 kU/L in children <24 months of age and 22.9 kU/L in those ≥24 months of age. For CM-sIgE, the concentration of 31.4 kU/L in children <24 months of age and 10.1 kU/L in those ≥24 months of age indicated a >90% PPV. EW-sIgE levels of 3.45 kU/L presented a negative predictive value (NPV) of 93.6% in children <24 months of age, while 1.80 kU/L in those ≥24 months of age presented a NPV of 99.2%. The CM-sIgE levels of 0.59 kU/L in children <24 months of age and 0.94 kU/L in those ≥24 months of age showed NPVs of 100% and 96.9%. Our results indicate that different diagnostic decision points (DDPs) of sIgE levels should be used for the diagnosis of egg or CM allergy in Korean children. The data also suggest that DDPs with high PPV and high NPV are useful for determining whether OFC is required in children with suspected egg or CM allergy.

  3. Solid modeling and IGES

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, N.C.

    1985-09-01

    The current status of IGES as concerns solid modeling is described. Covered are the activities of the IGES Solids Committee, planned solids capability for IGES and IGES-PDES by December 1986. One of the key requirements of CIM is data integration. Data are entered once and then made available to all applications. IGES was developed to allow communication of CAD data between different vendor's systems. Originally the requirement was to communicate drawings. IGES Version 3.0 due in October 1985 contains no capability to communicate solids. But as industry moves toward the use of solids, the IGES Committee has been preparing to meet the foreseen need for solids.

  4. The management of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Greenhawt, Matthew; Aceves, Seema S; Spergel, Jonathan M; Rothenberg, Marc E

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a clinicopathologic, chronic esophageal inflammatory disease resistant to acid suppressive therapy and is associated with variable symptoms indicative of upper gastrointestinal dysfunction. Per current guidelines established by The International Group of Eosinophil Researchers (TIGERS), the diagnosis is made in symptomatic patients after a biopsy that confirms a peak eosinophil level of ≥15 eosinophils/high-powered field (HPF). The esophagus is distinguished by pronounced tissue eosinophilia in which dietary antigens are key inciting factors for disease pathogenesis; EoE being reversed by elimination of triggering food allergens suggests that the disease is mediated in part by allergic sensitization to foods. Moreover, experimental EoE in mice can be induced not only via food exposure but also via aeroallergen exposure. Consistent with an allergic etiology rather than an acid-induced esophagitis, swallowed glucocorticoids are effective for the treatment of EoE. Evaluation by an allergist is a recommended part of the diagnostic workup, especially for management of allergic comorbidities. Clinical practice for the evaluation of patients with EoE mainly relies on prick skin tests due to the ease and validation of these tests in the context of immediate hypersensitivity. However, both atopy patch testing and serum IgE testing have been used in EoE. Herein, we reviewed the basic clinical features of EoE with a focus on the approach to diagnosing causative food allergens and to dietary therapy.

  5. Eosinophils, probiotics, and the microbiome.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Helene F; Masterson, Joanne C; Furuta, Glenn T

    2016-11-01

    There is currently substantial interest in the therapeutic properties of probiotic microorganisms as recent research suggests that oral administration of specific bacterial strains may reduce inflammation and alter the nature of endogenous microflora in the gastrointestinal tract. Eosinophils are multifunctional tissue leukocytes, prominent among the resident cells of the gastrointestinal mucosa that promote local immunity. Recent studies with genetically altered mice indicate that eosinophils not only participate in maintaining gut homeostasis, but that the absence of eosinophils may have significant impact on the nature of the endogenous gut microflora and responses to gut pathogens, notably Clostridium difficile Furthermore, in human subjects, there is an intriguing relationship between eosinophils, allergic inflammation, and the nature of the lung microflora, notably a distinct association between eosinophil infiltration and detection of bacteria of the phylum Actinobacteria. Among topics for future research, it will be important to determine whether homeostatic mechanisms involve direct interactions between eosinophils and bacteria or whether they involve primarily eosinophil-mediated responses to cytokine signaling in the local microenvironment. Likewise, although is it clear that eosinophils can and do interact with bacteria in vivo, their ability to discern between pathogenic and probiotic species in various settings remains to be explored.

  6. Differential response in allergen-specific IgE, IgGs, and IgA levels for predicting outcome of oral immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Mayumi; Kamemura, Norio; Nagao, Mizuho; Irahara, Makoto; Kagami, Shoji; Fujisawa, Takao; Kido, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    Oral immunotherapy (OIT) induces desensitization and/or tolerance in patients with persistent food allergy, but the biomarkers of clinical outcomes remain obscure. Although OIT-induced changes in serum allergen-specific IgE and IgG4 levels have been investigated, the response of other allergen-specific IgG subclasses and IgA during OIT remains obscure. A pilot study was conducted to investigate egg OIT-induced changes in allergen-specific IgE, IgG subclasses, and IgA levels and search for possible prediction biomarkers of desensitization. We measured serum levels of egg white-, ovomucoid-, and ovalbumin-specific IgE, IgA, and IgG subclasses by high-sensitivity allergen microarray in 26 children with egg allergy who received rush OIT. Allergen-specific IgE gradually decreased while IgG4 increased during 12-month OIT. Serum levels of IgG1, IgG3, and IgA increased significantly after the rush phase, then decreased during the maintenance phase. IgG2 levels changed in a manner similar to that of IgG4. In particular, significantly high fold increases in egg white-specific IgG1, relative to baseline, after the rush phase and high IgA levels before OIT were observed in responders, compared with low-responders to OIT. Patients who could not keep desensitization showed relatively small changes in all immunoglobulin levels during OIT. The response to OIT was associated with significant increases in serum allergen-specific IgG1 levels after rush phase and high baseline IgA levels, compared with small changes in immunoglobulin response in low-responders. The characteristic IgG1 changes and IgA levels in the responders could be potentially useful biomarkers for the prediction of positive clinical response to OIT. © 2016 The Authors. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Eosinophilic esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Dellon, Evan S.

    2012-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic immune-mediated condition where infiltration of eosinophils into the esophageal mucosa leads to symptoms of esophageal dysfunction. It has rapidly emerged as an important cause of upper GI morbidity in patients of all ages and is encountered in a substantial proportion of patients undergoing diagnostic upper endoscopy. This review discusses the clinical, endoscopic, and histologic features of EoE and presents the most recent guidelines for diagnosis of EoE. It describes selected diagnostic dilemmas including distinguishing EoE from gastroesophageal reflux disease and addressing the newly recognized clinical entity of proton pump inhibitor responsive esophageal eosinophilia. It also highlights evidence to support both pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments, including topical corticosteroids, dietary elimination therapy, and endoscopic dilation. PMID:23452635

  8. Specific antigen targeting to surface IgE and IgG on mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells enhances efficiency of antigen presentation.

    PubMed Central

    Tkaczyk, C; Viguier, M; Boutin, Y; Frandji, P; David, B; Hébert, J; Mécheri, S

    1998-01-01

    The discovery that bone marrow-derived mast cells can express major histocompatibility complex class II molecules and act as antigen-presenting cells prompted us to evaluate this function when antigen is internalized through fluid-phase endocytosis or via specific uptake by using IgG and IgE antibodies. This study was performed using a specific T-cell hybridoma developed against Lol p 1, the major allergen of grass pollen Lolium perenne. Expression of Fc gamma R and Fc epsilon RI by mast cells led us to investigate the influence of IgG- and IgE-targeted antigen on the antigen-presenting function of mast cells. Internalization of Lol p 1 through different specific IgG monoclonal antibodies (mAb) resulted in the activation of Lol p 1-specific T-cell hybridoma at concentrations about 100-fold less than that required for T-cell stimulation by uncomplexed antigen. IgE-complexed Lol p 1, which facilitates trapping of antigen by mast cells, induced an accelerated and more efficient antigen-presenting capacity of mast cells than that obtained with uncomplexed antigen. However, aggregation of anti-dinitrophenyl (DNP) IgE mAb by the irrelevant antigen DNP-human serum albumin did not substantially increase the capacity of mast cells to present Lol p 1 to T cells. This suggests that the mere aggregation of Fc epsilon RI is not sufficient for enhanced antigen presentation mediated by IgE. Tissue distribution and strategic location of mast cells at the mucosal barriers and their capacity to process the antigen through efficient fluid-phase pinocytosis as well as IgG- and IgE-dependent targeting of antigens provide mast cells with a prominent role in immune surveillance. Images Figure 1 PMID:9767412

  9. Association of Schistosoma mansoni-Specific IgG and IgE Antibody Production and Clinical Schistosomiasis Status in a Rural Area of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Negrão-Corrêa, Deborah; Fittipaldi, Juliana F.; Lambertucci, José Roberto; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Antunes, Carlos Maurício de Figueiredo; Carneiro, Mariângela

    2014-01-01

    schistosomiasis, independently of parasite burden, while high production of parasite-specific IgE is associated with mild disease in the human population. Antibody profiles are good correlates for schistosomiasis severity and could be tested as biomarkers of disease severity. PMID:24505371

  10. Association of Schistosoma mansoni-specific IgG and IgE antibody production and clinical schistosomiasis status in a rural area of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Negrão-Corrêa, Deborah; Fittipaldi, Juliana F; Lambertucci, José Roberto; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Antunes, Carlos Maurício de Figueiredo; Carneiro, Mariângela

    2014-01-01

    of parasite-specific IgE is associated with mild disease in the human population. Antibody profiles are good correlates for schistosomiasis severity and could be tested as biomarkers of disease severity.

  11. Enhancement of human eosinophil- and neutrophil-mediated killing of schistosomula of schistosoma mansoni by reversed type (IgE-mediated) anaphylaxis, in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Moqbel, R.; Macdonald, A. J.; Kay, A. B.

    1985-01-01

    Using human peripheral blood leucocytes we have developed a model for studying the effect of in vitro anaphylaxis on granulocyte-mediated killing of helminthic larvae (schistosomula (Sch) of Schistosoma mansoni). Leucocytes were incubated with either an F(ab')2 rabbit anti-human IgE (αE) or a control F(ab')2 prepared from non-specific rabbit IgG (αEc). A time-dependent enhancement of eosinophil- and neutrophil-mediated complement (C) or antibody- (Ab) dependent killing of Sch was observed following incubation with αE, but not αEc. Optimal enhancement of granulocyte killing was dependent on the concentration of αE, pre-incubation of granulocytes with αE prior to addition to C coated Sch, as well as the granulocyte:Sch ratio. Baseline killing of Ab and/or C coated Sch by eosinophil rich cells was significantly greater than neutrophil rich suspensions and both were proportionally increased following incubation with αE. Enhanced eosinophil and neutrophil killing by αE required the presence of mononuclear cells containing basophils, whereas there was no difference in the killing of C or Ab coated Sch when eosinophils or neutrophils alone were incubated with αE or αEc. This IgE and leucocyte-dependent model might facilitate the isolation and identification of the pharmacological mediator(s) of hypersensitivity which enhance eosinophil or neutrophil killing of appropriately opsonized helminthic larvae. PMID:3987093

  12. Preferential induction of a Th1 immune response and inhibition of specific IgE antibody formation by plasmid DNA immunization.

    PubMed Central

    Raz, E; Tighe, H; Sato, Y; Corr, M; Dudler, J A; Roman, M; Swain, S L; Spiegelberg, H L; Carson, D A

    1996-01-01

    We compared the antigen-specific antibody isotypes and lymphokine secretion by CD4+ T cells in BALB/c mice immunized intradermally with either Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) or plasmid DNA (pDNA) encoding beta-gal in a cytomegalovirus-based expression vector (pCMV-LacZ). pCMV-LacZ induced mainly IgG2a, whereas beta-gal in saline or alum induced IgG1 and IgE beta-gal-specific antibodies. In addition, splenic CD4+ T helper (Th) cells isolated from pDNA-immunized mice secreted interferon-gamma but not interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5, whereas Th cells from beta-gal-injected mice secreted IL-4 and IL-5 but not interferon-gamma after in vitro stimulation with antigen. Together these data demonstrate that pDNA immunization induced a T helper type 1 (Th1) response, whereas protein immunization induced a T helper type 2 (Th2) response to the same antigen. Interestingly, priming of mice with pCMV-LacZ prevented IgE antibody formation to a subsequent i.p. beta-gal in alum injection. This effect was antigen-specific, because priming with pCMV-LacZ did not inhibit IgE anti-ovalbumin antibody formation. Most importantly, intradermal immunization with pCMV-LacZ (but not pCMV-OVA) of beta-gal in alum-primed mice caused a 66-75% reduction of the IgE anti-beta-gal titer in 6 weeks. Also, pCMV-LacZ induced specific IgG2a antibody titers and interferon-gamma secretion by Th cells in the beta-gal in alum-primed mice. The data demonstrate that gene immunization induces a Th1 response that dominates over an ongoing protein-induced Th2 response in an antigen-specific manner. This suggests that immunization with pDNA encoding for allergens may provide a novel type of immunotherapy for allergic diseases. PMID:8643542

  13. Epicutaneous sensitization with nematode antigens of fish parasites results in the production of specific IgG and IgE.

    PubMed

    Fontenelle, G; Knoff, M; Verícimo, M A; São Clemente, S C

    2017-08-07

    Fish consumption plays an important role in the human diet. Hoplias malabaricus, trahira, is a freshwater fish widely appreciated in several Brazilian states and it is frequently infected by Contracaecum multipapillatum third-instar larvae (L3). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the allergenic potential of the C. multipapillatum L3 crude extract (CECM). BALB/c mice were immunized intraperitoneally (ip) with 10 or 50 μg CECM associated with 2 mg of aluminium hydroxide on days 0, 14 and 48. The determination of specific IgG and IgE antibody levels was done after immunization, and the late immunity was evaluated by the intradermal reaction in the ear pavilion. Epicutaneous sensitization was performed in the dorsal region, with antigenic exposure via a Finn-type chamber, containing 100 μg of chicken ovum albumin (OVA) or 100 μg CECM. After the exposures, the specific antibody levels were determined. In the ip immunization, there was a gradual increase in IgG antibody levels, independent of CECM concentration. In relation to IgE production, it was transitory, and immunization with 10 μg was more efficient than that of 50 μg. The same result was observed in the cellular hypersensitivity reaction. In the case of antigen exposure by the epicutaneous route, it was verified that only CECM was able to induce detectable levels of specific IgG and IgE antibodies. In the present study it was demonstrated that both intraperitoneal immunization and epicutaneous contact with C. multipapillatum larval antigens are potentially capable of inducing allergic sensitization in mice.

  14. NASA-IGES Translator and Viewer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Jin J.; Logan, Michael A.

    1995-01-01

    NASA-IGES Translator (NIGEStranslator) is a batch program that translates a general IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) file to a NASA-IGES-Nurbs-Only (NINO) file. IGES is the most popular geometry exchange standard among Computer Aided Geometric Design (CAD) systems. NINO format is a subset of IGES, implementing the simple and yet the most popular NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines) representation. NIGEStranslator converts a complex IGES file to the simpler NINO file to simplify the tasks of CFD grid generation for models in CAD format. The NASA-IGES Viewer (NIGESview) is an Open-Inventor-based, highly interactive viewer/ editor for NINO files. Geometry in the IGES files can be viewed, copied, transformed, deleted, and inquired. Users can use NIGEStranslator to translate IGES files from CAD systems to NINO files. The geometry then can be examined with NIGESview. Extraneous geometries can be interactively removed, and the cleaned model can be written to an IGES file, ready to be used in grid generation.

  15. Genomic organization, complete sequence, and chromosomal location of the gene for human eotaxin (SCYA11), an eosinophil-specific CC chemokine

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Zepeda, E.A.; Sarafi, M.N.; Luster, A.D. |

    1997-05-01

    Eotaxin is a CC chemokine that is a specific chemoattractant for eosinophils and is implicated in the pathogenesis of eosinophilic inflammatory diseases, such as asthma. We describe the genomic organization, complete sequence, including 1354 bp 5{prime} of the RNA initiation site, and chromosomal localization of the human eotaxin gene. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis localized eotaxin to human chromosome 17, in the region q21.1-q21.2, and the human gene name SCYA11 was assigned. We also present the 5{prime} flanking sequence of the mouse eotaxin gene and have identified several regulatory elements that are conserved between the murine and the human promoters. In particular, the presence of elements such as NF-{Kappa}B, interferon-{gamma} response element, and glucocorticoid response element may explain the observed regulation of the eotaxin gene by cytokines and glucocorticoids. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Eosinophilic Lung Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education & Training Home Conditions Eosinophilic Lung Disorders Eosinophilic Lung Disorders Make an Appointment Find a Doctor Ask ... Rafeul Alam, MD, PhD (July 01, 2012) Eosinophilic lung disorders are a category of lung problems characterized ...

  17. Recombinant IgE antibodies for passive immunotherapy of solid tumours: from concept towards clinical application.

    PubMed

    Karagiannis, Sophia N; Josephs, Debra H; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Gilbert, Amy E; Saul, Louise; Rudman, Sarah M; Dodev, Tihomir; Koers, Alexander; Blower, Philip J; Corrigan, Christopher; Beavil, Andrew J; Spicer, James F; Nestle, Frank O; Gould, Hannah J

    2012-09-01

    Therapeutic antibodies have revolutionised treatment of some cancers and improved prognosis for many patients. Over half of those available are approved for haematological malignancies, but efficacious antibodies for solid tumours are still urgently needed. Clinically available antibodies belong to the IgG class, the most prevalent antibody class in human blood, while other classes have not been extensively considered. We hypothesised that the unique properties of IgE, a class of tissue-resident antibodies commonly associated with allergies, which can trigger powerful immune responses through strong affinity for their particular receptors on effector cells, could be employed for passive immunotherapy of solid tumours such as ovarian and breast carcinomas. Our laboratory has examined this concept by evaluating two chimaeric antibodies of the same specificity (MOv18) but different isotype, an IgG1 and an IgE against the tumour antigen folate receptor α (FRα). The latter demonstrates the potency of IgE to mount superior immune responses against tumours in disease-relevant models. We identified Fcε receptor-expressing cells, monocytes/macrophages and eosinophils, activated by MOv18 IgE to kill tumour cells by mechanisms such as ADCC and ADCP. We also applied this notion to a marketed therapeutic, the humanised IgG1 antibody trastuzumab and engineered an IgE counterpart, which retained the functions of trastuzumab in restricting proliferation of HER2/neu-expressing tumour cells but also activated effector cells to kill tumour cells by different mechanisms. On-going efficacy, safety evaluations and future first-in-man clinical studies of IgE therapeutics constitute key metrics for this concept, providing new scope for antibody immunotherapies for solid tumours.

  18. Eosinophils are important for protection, immunoregulation and pathology during infection with nematode microfilariae.

    PubMed

    Cadman, Emma T; Thysse, Katherine A; Bearder, Siobhan; Cheung, Anita Y N; Johnston, Ashleigh C; Lee, James J; Lawrence, Rachel A

    2014-03-01

    Eosinophil responses typify both allergic and parasitic helminth disease. In helminthic disease, the role of eosinophils can be both protective in immune responses and destructive in pathological responses. To investigate whether eosinophils are involved in both protection and pathology during filarial nematode infection, we explored the role of eosinophils and their granule proteins, eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) and major basic protein-1 (MBP-1), during infection with Brugia malayi microfilariae. Using eosinophil-deficient mice (PHIL), we further clarify the role of eosinophils in clearance of microfilariae during primary, but not challenge infection in vivo. Deletion of EPO or MBP-1 alone was insufficient to abrogate parasite clearance suggesting that either these molecules are redundant or eosinophils act indirectly in parasite clearance via augmentation of other protective responses. Absence of eosinophils increased mast cell recruitment, but not other cell types, into the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid during challenge infection. In addition absence of eosinophils or EPO alone, augmented parasite-induced IgE responses, as measured by ELISA, demonstrating that eosinophils are involved in regulation of IgE. Whole body plethysmography indicated that nematode-induced changes in airway physiology were reduced in challenge infection in the absence of eosinophils and also during primary infection in the absence of EPO alone. However lack of eosinophils or MBP-1 actually increased goblet cell mucus production. We did not find any major differences in cytokine responses in the absence of eosinophils, EPO or MBP-1. These results reveal that eosinophils actively participate in regulation of IgE and goblet cell mucus production via granule secretion during nematode-induced pathology and highlight their importance both as effector cells, as damage-inducing cells and as supervisory cells that shape both innate and adaptive immunity.

  19. Development of sandwich ELISA for testing bovine β-lactoglobulin allergenic residues by specific polyclonal antibody against human IgE binding epitopes.

    PubMed

    He, Shengfa; Li, Xin; Gao, Jinyan; Tong, Ping; Chen, Hongbing

    2017-07-15

    Bovine β-lactoglobulin (BLG) is the main allergen in cows' milk, and the most commonly used method for detecting BLG is enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). However, antibodies used in commercial ELISA kits do not recognize specifically BLG IgE epitopes. Here, an antibody specific to IgE linear epitopes for BLG was used to develop a sandwich ELISA using a rabbit anti-BLG polyclonal antibody. The linear range for BLG detection was 31.25-8000ng/mL and limit of detection was 1.96ng/mL. BLG content in dairy samples was determined, and there was a good agreement between this immunoassay and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with high recovery. Additionally, BLG content in food samples had an average recovery of 104.25%. Allergenic residues were also detected in hydrolyzed infant formulas. The method developed could be a practical approach to determine BLG and its allergenic residues in food with a high degree of sensitivity, reliability and recovery.

  20. Inhibition of eosinophil infiltration into the mouse peritoneal cavity by a traditional Chinese medicine, Bu-zhong-yi-qi-tang (Japanese name: Hochu-ekki-to).

    PubMed

    Kaneko, M; Kawakita, T; Nomoto, K

    1999-02-01

    Our previous study showed that the serum level of antigen-specific IgE antibodies in primary response was decreased by a traditional Chinese medicine, Bu-zhong-yi-qi-tang (Japanese name; Hochu-ekki-to, HOT). In this study, we examined inhibition of secondary IgE response and of eosinophil infiltration by HOT. BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally immunized with aluminum hydroxide adsorbed with DNP-KLH (DNP-KLH + alum) on day -14 and on day 0. In mice treated with HOT daily from day -14, the serum level of antigen-specific IgE antibodies after the secondary immunization was significantly decreased compared to that in mice not treated with HOT. Eosinophils increased in number after 6 and 24 hr, and CD4+ T cells in the peritoneal cavity increased in number 24 hr after the secondary immunization. HOT suppressed accumulation of eosinophils and CD4+ T cells in the peritoneal cavity. Furthermore, HOT suppressed the numbers of IL-4- and IL-5-producing cells 24 hr after the secondary immunization, but did not inhibit the number of IFN-gamma-producing cells. HOT also suppressed IL-5 mRNA expression. Furthermore, HOT also inhibited antigen-induced late-phase reaction (LPR) in the skin. These results suggested that HOT exhibited anti-allergic effects mainly by inhibiting Th2 cell responses.

  1. Vig r 6, the cytokinin-specific binding protein from mung bean (Vigna radiata) sprouts, cross-reacts with Bet v 1-related allergens and binds IgE from birch pollen allergic patients’ sera

    PubMed Central

    Guhsl, Eva Elisabeth; Hofstetter, Gerlinde; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Ebner, Christof; Vieths, Stefan; Vogel, Lothar; Breiteneder, Heimo; Radauer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Scope Birch pollen associated allergy to mung bean sprouts is caused by cross-reactivity between the birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and the mung bean allergen Vig r 1. We aimed to determine the allergenicity of the cytokinin-specific binding protein from mung bean (Vig r 6), another allergen related to Bet v 1 with only 31% sequence identity. Methods and results Bet v 1, Gly m 4, Vig r 1, and Vig r 6 were produced in Escherichia coli. In an ELISA, 73 and 32% of Bet v 1-sensitized birch-allergic patients’ sera (n = 60) showed IgE binding to Vig r 1 and Vig r 6, respectively. Of 19 patients who reported allergic reactions or had positive prick-to-prick tests to mung bean sprouts, 79% showed IgE binding to Vig r 1 and 63% showed IgE binding to Vig r 6. Bet v 1 completely inhibited IgE binding to both mung bean allergens. Vig r 6 showed partial cross-reactivity with Vig r 1 and activated basophils sensitized with mung bean allergic patients’ sera. Conclusion We demonstrated IgE cross-reactivity despite low sequence identity between Vig r 6 and other Bet v 1-related allergens. Thus, IgE binding to Vig r 6 may contribute to birch pollinosis-associated mung bean sprout allergy. PMID:23996905

  2. Vig r 6, the cytokinin-specific binding protein from mung bean (Vigna radiata) sprouts, cross-reacts with Bet v 1-related allergens and binds IgE from birch pollen allergic patients' sera.

    PubMed

    Guhsl, Eva Elisabeth; Hofstetter, Gerlinde; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Ebner, Christof; Vieths, Stefan; Vogel, Lothar; Breiteneder, Heimo; Radauer, Christian

    2014-03-01

    Birch pollen associated allergy to mung bean sprouts is caused by cross-reactivity between the birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and the mung bean allergen Vig r 1. We aimed to determine the allergenicity of the cytokinin-specific binding protein from mung bean (Vig r 6), another allergen related to Bet v 1 with only 31% sequence identity. Bet v 1, Gly m 4, Vig r 1, and Vig r 6 were produced in Escherichia coli. In an ELISA, 73 and 32% of Bet v 1-sensitized birch-allergic patients' sera (n = 60) showed IgE binding to Vig r 1 and Vig r 6, respectively. Of 19 patients who reported allergic reactions or had positive prick-to-prick tests to mung bean sprouts, 79% showed IgE binding to Vig r 1 and 63% showed IgE binding to Vig r 6. Bet v 1 completely inhibited IgE binding to both mung bean allergens. Vig r 6 showed partial cross-reactivity with Vig r 1 and activated basophils sensitized with mung bean allergic patients' sera. We demonstrated IgE cross-reactivity despite low sequence identity between Vig r 6 and other Bet v 1-related allergens. Thus, IgE binding to Vig r 6 may contribute to birch pollinosis-associated mung bean sprout allergy. © 2013 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells Derived from Donors with Natural Rubber Latex Allergy Modulate Allergen-Specific T-Cell Responses and IgE Production

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, Alejandro; Aguirre, Adam; Guzmán, María Antonieta; González, Rodrigo; Catalán, Diego; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio; Larrondo, Milton; López, Mercedes; Pesce, Barbara; Rolland, Jennifer; O’Hehir, Robyn; Aguillón, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Natural rubber latex (NRL; Hevea brasiliensis) allergy is an IgE-mediated reaction to latex proteins. When latex glove exposure is the main sensitizing agent, Hev b 5 is one of the major allergens. Dendritic cells (DC), the main antigen presenting cells, modulated with pharmacological agents can restore tolerance in several experimental models, including allergy. In the current study, we aimed to generate DC with tolerogenic properties from NRL-allergic patients and evaluate their ability to modulate allergen-specific T and B cell responses. Here we show that dexamethasone-treated DC (dxDC) differentiated into a subset of DC, characterized by low expression of MHC class II, CD40, CD80, CD86 and CD83 molecules. Compared with LPS-matured DC, dxDC secreted lower IL-12 and higher IL-10 after CD40L activation, and induced lower alloantigenic T cell proliferation. We also show that dxDC pulsed with the dominant Hev b 5 T-cell epitope peptide, Hev b 546–65, inhibited both proliferation of Hev b 5-specific T-cell lines and the production of Hev b 5-specific IgE. Additionally, dxDC induced a subpopulation of IL-10-producing regulatory T cells that suppressed proliferation of Hev b 5-primed T cells. In conclusion, dxDC generated from NRL-allergic patients can modulate allergen-specific T-cell responses and IgE production, supporting their potential use in allergen-specific immunotherapy. PMID:24465795

  4. From genetics to treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Cianferoni, Antonella; Spergel, Jonathan M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE) is an emerging chronic atopic disease. Recent advances in understanding its genetic and molecular biology pathogenesis may lead to a better management of the disease Recent findings EoE is an atopic disease. Most of the patients affected by EoE have other atopic diseases such as allergic rhinitis, asthma, IgE-mediated food allergies and/or atopic dermatitis. The local inflammation is a T helper type 2 (Th2) flogosis, which most likely is driven by a mixed IgE and n-IgE-mediated reaction to food and/or environmental allergens. Epidemiological studies show that EoE is an atopic disease with a strong genetic component. Genetic studies have shown that EoE is associated with single nucleotide polymorphism on genes, which are released by the epithelium and important in atopic inflammation such as thymic stromal lymphopoietin located (TSLP) close to the Th2 cytokine cluster [interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13] on chromosome 5q22, Calpain 14, EMSY, and Eotaxin3. When the EoE diagnosis is made, it is imperative to control the local eosinophilic inflammation not only to give symptomatic relief to the patient, but also to prevent complications such as esophageal stricture and food impaction. Summary EoE is treated like many other atopic diseases with a combination of topical steroids and/or food antigen avoidance. The new understanding of EoE may lead to more specific and definitive treatments of EoE. PMID:26258919

  5. The CAD/CAM product data standards, IGES/PDES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification/Product Data Exchange Standards): The present and the future

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) has more capability than most people infer from the name. It can already provide some product data for manufacturing and test of products and, in particular, products having electrical and electronic aspects. The Product Data Exchange Specification (PDES) promises to do even better. Both of these efforts address the demonstrated need to move product descriptions from one computer-aided system to another in a way that maximizes the utility of the data received. Receiving systems can use these product descriptions (usually after some augmentation) to perform simulations, numerically controlled fabrication operations, process planning and variety of inspections and tests. PDES is expected to support Computer Integrated Manufacturing with the emphasis on Integrated.''

  6. Differences in Features and Course of Mucosal Type Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis between Korean Infants and Children.

    PubMed

    Choi, Bong Seok; Hong, Suk Jin; Park, Suk Hyun; Kim, Heng Mi; Choe, Byung-Ho

    2015-08-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is a disorder characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the bowel wall and various gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations. This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of EGE in infants and children. A total of 22 patients were diagnosed with histologic EGE (hEGE) or possible EGE (pEGE). Serum specific IgE levels, peripheral eosinophil counts, and endoscopic biopsies were carried out. In the hEGE group (n = 13), initial symptoms included hematemesis, abdominal pain, and vomiting. Three of the subjects had normal endoscopic findings. Eight patients were categorized into the infant group and 5 into the child group. All patients in the infant group showed clinical improvement after switching from cow's milk feeding to special formula or breast feeding. The infant group showed a higher eosinophil count in the gastric mucosal biopsy than the child group. In the pEGE group (n = 9) initial symptoms included hematemesis, abdominal pain, and vomiting. Seven patients in this group showed a good response to treatment with restriction of the suspected foods and/or the administration of ketotifen. Both hEGE and pEGE groups showed clinical improvement after restriction of suspected foods in the majority of cases and also showed a similar clinical course. EGE should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with chronic abdominal pain, vomiting, and hematemesis of unknown cause. The infant group may have a better prognosis than the child group if treated properly.

  7. Making IGES work for CAD/CAM data exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, A.L.; Fletcher, S.K.

    1985-01-01

    This report outlines Sandia National Laboratories effort to integrate the CAE/CAD/CAM capabilities of three laboratories and six production plants in the DOE weapons complex with the Initial Graphics Exchange Specifications (IGES). The problems with IGES are addressed and solutions are explained. The implementation of the IGES concept is also outlined.

  8. Skin prick test and specific serum IgE in the diagnostic evaluation of suspected cow's milk and hen's egg allergy in children: does one replace the other?

    PubMed

    Mehl, A; Niggemann, B; Keil, T; Wahn, U; Beyer, K

    2012-08-01

    The measurement of specific serum immunoglobulin E (sIgE) and the skin prick test (SPT) are accepted tools in the diagnostic work-up of suspected food allergy. Often only one of the methods is used to determine sensitization; however, it is still under debate whether these two methods can be used interchangeably. To investigate the concordance of SPT and sIgE serum assays with regard to suspected food allergy. In 395 children referred to our clinic with suspected cow's milk allergy and in 268 children with suspected hen's egg allergy specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) was measured, a SPT and an oral food challenge performed. A weal size ≥ 3 mm and sIgE ≥ 0.35 kU/L were considered positive. The weal size of the SPT and the level of food-specific IgE were tested for correlation for each allergen. Of the 395 (23%) children orally challenged with cow's milk, 92 showed no corresponding results for SPT and sIgE as either positive or negative. For hen's egg, in 27 of 268 (10%) children differing test results for SPT and sIgE in serum were obtained. Moreover, regarding the quantitative values for sIgE and SPT in children with or without clinically relevant food allergy, sIgE and SPT correlated badly. The concordance between SPT and sIgE is surprisingly low for cow's milk and hen's egg on an individual basis. Therefore, the tests should not be used interchangeably. Especially in children who receive a negative test result the alternative test should also be used. Furthermore, our data indicate again that oral food challenges are still the method of choice to diagnose food allergies. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. CD23 surface density on B cells is associated with IgE levels and determines IgE-facilitated allergen uptake, as well as activation of allergen-specific T cells

    PubMed Central

    Selb, Regina; Eckl-Dorna, Julia; Neunkirchner, Alina; Schmetterer, Klaus; Marth, Katharina; Gamper, Jutta; Jahn-Schmid, Beatrice; Pickl, Winfried F.; Valenta, Rudolf; Niederberger, Verena

    2017-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence suggests that the low-affinity receptor for IgE, CD23, plays an important role in controlling the activity of allergen-specific T cells through IgE-facilitated allergen presentation. Objective We sought to determine the number of CD23 molecules on immune cells in allergic patients and to investigate whether the number of CD23 molecules on antigen-presenting cells is associated with IgE levels and influences allergen uptake and allergen-specific T-cell activation. Methods Numbers of CD23 molecules on immune cells of allergic patients were quantified by using flow cytometry with QuantiBRITE beads and compared with total and allergen-specific IgE levels, as well as with allergen-induced immediate skin reactivity. Allergen uptake and allergen-specific T-cell activation in relation to CD23 surface density were determined by using flow cytometry in combination with confocal microscopy and T cells transfected with the T-cell receptor specific for the birch pollen allergen Bet v 1, respectively. Defined IgE-allergen immune complexes were formed with human monoclonal allergen-specific IgE and Bet v 1. Results In allergic patients the vast majority of CD23 molecules were expressed on naive IgD+ B cells. The density of CD23 molecules on B cells but not the number of CD23+ cells correlated with total IgE levels (RS = 0.53, P = .03) and allergen-induced skin reactions (RS = 0.63, P = .008). Uptake of allergen-IgE complexes into B cells and activation of allergen-specific T cells depended on IgE binding to CD23 and were associated with CD23 surface density. Addition of monoclonal IgE to cultured PBMCs significantly (P = .04) increased CD23 expression on B cells. Conclusion CD23 surface density on B cells of allergic patients is correlated with allergen-specific IgE levels and determines allergen uptake and subsequent activation of T cells. PMID:27372566

  10. [Classification of specific IgE antibodies in children with hay fever and other atopic diseases in Germany. Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS)].

    PubMed

    Langen, U

    2012-03-01

    The dependencies between sensitization to common allergens (mono- and polysensitization, IgE level and patterns) and symptomatic hay fever and other atopic diseases, respectively, in children and adolescents are shown in this analysis. The evaluation was based on the KiGGS ("Kinder- und Jugendgesundheitssurvey") study. Our analysis was performed using complex samples methods with SPSS. Participants were interviewed by a physician using a validated questionnaire asking for atopic diseases and symptoms. Specific IgE levels were measured from the age of 3 years on by using the ImmunoCap® test system. The prevalences of hay fever and polysensitizations both significantly increase with increasing age of the participants, while boys are more often affected than girls and migrants less often regarding sensitizations. Prevalence of hay fever decreases with increasing number of older siblings and increases with atopy of one or both parents. Different positive correlations between increasing IgE levels and hay fever were identified, the greatest association was observed with herbal inhalative allergens and cross-reacting food allergens. Lowest IgE levels to nearly all of the tested allergens show a positive correlation with hay fever prevalence. In conclusion, the study indicates that the clinical definition of the lowest positive IgE levels as "marginal" should be discussed as well as indications for specific immunotherapy.

  11. Prediction of anaphylaxis during peanut food challenge: usefulness of the peanut skin prick test (SPT) and specific IgE level.

    PubMed

    Wainstein, Brynn Kevin; Studdert, Jennie; Ziegler, Mary; Ziegler, John B

    2010-06-01

    Cutoffs (decision points) of the peanut skin prick test (SPT) and specific IgE level for predicting peanut allergy have been proposed. It is not known whether decision points indicating a significant risk of severe reactions on challenge differ from those indicating probable allergy. We aimed at determining the usefulness of allergy tests for predicting the risk of anaphylaxis on challenge following the ingestion of up to 12 g of peanut in peanut-sensitized children. Children attending the Allergy Clinic who had a positive peanut SPT and completed open-label in-hospital peanut challenges were included. The challenge protocol provided for challenges to be continued beyond initial mild reactions. Eighty-nine in-hospital peanut challenges were performed. Thirty-four were excluded as the challenge was not completed, leaving 55 for analysis. Children who completed the challenge and did not react (n = 28) or reacted without anaphylaxis (n = 6) represented the comparison group (n = 34). The study group comprised 21 children whose challenge resulted in anaphylaxis. The mean peanut SPT wheal size and specific IgE level were associated with the severity of reactions on challenge. Among the 21 children, who developed anaphylaxis, in only 3 cases was anaphylaxis the initial reaction. Unexpectedly, a history of anaphylaxis was not predictive of anaphylaxis on challenge. Anaphylaxis developed at cumulative doses of peanut ranging from 0.02 to 11.7 g. Provided that a fixed amount of peanut is ingested, available tests for peanut allergy may assist in predicting the risk of anaphylaxis during challenge in peanut-sensitized children.

  12. Food allergies and eosinophilic esophagitis--two case studies.

    PubMed

    Martín-Muñoz, María F; Lucendo, Alfredo J; Navarro, Marta; Letrán, Antonio; Martín-Chávarri, Sonia; Burgos, Emilio; Martín-Esteban, M

    2006-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is a clinical-pathological disorder which is being increasingly diagnosed. It is etiologically associated with hypersensitivity to airborne allergens and/or dietary components. However, immediate hypersensitivity to foods has rarely been proven as the etiologic cause of the disorder. Two patients are presented with a history of rhinoconjunctivitis, allergic asthma, atopic dermatitis and food allergies which are currently under control and who show specific IgE to pulses and chicken respectively. These patients developed acute dysphagia and vomiting immediately after ingesting these foods and following appropriate examination were diagnosed as suffering from EE. The study also showed signs of blood hypereosinophilia while the esophageal manometry revealed a motor disorder characterized by aperistalsis and non-propulsive simultaneous waves affecting the lower two-thirds of the organ composed of smooth muscle. Topical treatment with fluticasone propionate was administered over a period of 3 months, in addition to a diet abstaining from the aforementioned foods and this led to remission of dysphagia and normalization of the endoscopic, histological and manometric studies of the esophagus. This situation remained stable for a considerable length of time after steroid treatment was discontinued, which showed that exposure to foods seemed to be the cause of the esophageal disorder. Similarly, allergies to inhalants and other digestive symptoms which appear upon immediate ingestion of the foods involved would not justify the sudden onset of dysphagia. We offer a pathophysiological explanation for the mechanisms of the disease based on the activation of eosinophils and mast cells by IgE and their ability to disturb the dynamic behavior of the neural and muscle components of the esophageal wall.

  13. Cor a 14, Hazelnut-Specific IgE, and SPT as a Reliable Tool in Hazelnut Allergy Diagnosis in Eastern Mediterranean Children.

    PubMed

    Buyuktiryaki, Betul; Cavkaytar, Ozlem; Sahiner, Umit M; Yilmaz, Ebru Arik; Yavuz, S Tolga; Soyer, Ozge; Sekerel, Bulent E; Tuncer, Ayfer; Sackesen, Cansin

    2016-01-01

    Improving the diagnostic efficacy of laboratory tests might reduce the need for oral food challenges and facilitate our daily practice. We aimed to determine cutoff values and probability curves, as well as to investigate the role of component-resolved diagnosis in predicting clinical reactivity in children with hazelnut allergy and to evaluate the association with pollen sensitivity. A total of 56 children with hazelnut allergy who underwent double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge and 8 children who experienced anaphylaxis after accidental hazelnut intake were included. Serum IgE levels to hazelnut extract, Cor a 1, Cor a 8, Cor a 9, Cor a 14, and Bet v 1 were measured with the ImmunoCAP system. Skin prick tests (SPT) with hazelnut, other implicated foods, and aeroallergens were performed. The optimal cutoff levels for hazelnut sIgE and SPT wheal diameter that predicted clinical reactivity with the highest sensitivity and specificity were 3.15 kU/L and 7.5 mm, respectively. Among the components, only Cor a 14 discriminated between reactive and nonreactive children. The area under curve (AUC) at the optimal cutoff point of 0.63 kU/L for Cor a 14 (0.936) was higher than the AUC of hazelnut sIgE (0.818) and SPT wheal diameter (0.803). For the first time, a 95% probability for clinical reactivity was estimated for SPT wheal diameter, IgE to hazelnut extract, and to Cor a 14 at 12 mm, 10.2 kU/L, and 1.0 kU/L, respectively. Cor a 14 was found to be a useful and reliable tool for predicting clinical reactivity in children with hazelnut allergy in the Eastern Mediterranean area. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The diagnostic value of specific IgE to Ara h 2 to predict peanut allergy in children is comparable to a validated and updated diagnostic prediction model.

    PubMed

    Klemans, Rob J B; Otte, Dianne; Knol, Mirjam; Knol, Edward F; Meijer, Yolanda; Gmelig-Meyling, Frits H J; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla A F M; Knulst, André C; Pasmans, Suzanne G M A

    2013-01-01

    A diagnostic prediction model for peanut allergy in children was recently published, using 6 predictors: sex, age, history, skin prick test, peanut specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE), and total IgE minus peanut sIgE. To validate this model and update it by adding allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and sIgE to peanut components Ara h 1, 2, 3, and 8 as candidate predictors. To develop a new model based only on sIgE to peanut components. Validation was performed by testing discrimination (diagnostic value) with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and calibration (agreement between predicted and observed frequencies of peanut allergy) with the Hosmer-Lemeshow test and a calibration plot. The performance of the (updated) models was similarly analyzed. Validation of the model in 100 patients showed good discrimination (88%) but poor calibration (P < .001). In the updating process, age, history, and additional candidate predictors did not significantly increase discrimination, being 94%, and leaving only 4 predictors of the original model: sex, skin prick test, peanut sIgE, and total IgE minus sIgE. When building a model with sIgE to peanut components, Ara h 2 was the only predictor, with a discriminative ability of 90%. Cutoff values with 100% positive and negative predictive values could be calculated for both the updated model and sIgE to Ara h 2. In this way, the outcome of the food challenge could be predicted with 100% accuracy in 59% (updated model) and 50% (Ara h 2) of the patients. Discrimination of the validated model was good; however, calibration was poor. The discriminative ability of Ara h 2 was almost comparable to that of the updated model, containing 4 predictors. With both models, the need for peanut challenges could be reduced by at least 50%. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The NASA-IGES geometry data visualizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Matthew W.; Jasinskyj, Lonhyn; Chou, Jin J.

    1992-01-01

    NIGESview, an interactive software tool for reading, viewing, and translating geometry data available in the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) format, is described. NIGESview is designed to read a variety of IGES entities, translate some of the entities, graphically view the data, and output a file in a specific IGES format. The software provides a modern graphical user interface and is designed in a modular fashion so developers can utilize all or part of the code in their grid generation software for computational fluid dynamics.

  16. Treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis with specific food elimination diet directed by a combination of skin prick and patch tests.

    PubMed

    Spergel, Jonathan M; Andrews, Timothy; Brown-Whitehorn, Terri F; Beausoleil, Janet L; Liacouras, Chris A

    2005-10-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is a recently described disorder identified in patients with symptoms suggestive of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) but unresponsive to conventional reflux therapies. Therapies have included corticosteroids, elemental diet, and diet restriction. We report our experience with skin prick and atopy patch testing and food elimination diets in patients diagnosed as having EE. To identify food antigens that cause EE and the characteristics of patients who respond to food elimination vs those who are unresponsive. Patients diagnosed as having EE had restricted diets based on skin prick and atopy patch testing results. Additional biopsies were performed after 4 to 8 weeks of restricted diet. Demographics, atopic tendencies, and food antigens were identified retrospectively in our food allergy database. A total of 146 patients diagnosed as having EE were evaluated with skin prick and atopy patch testing. Thirty-nine patients had unequivocal demonstration of food causing EE, with normalization of biopsy results on elimination and reoccurrence on reintroduction. An additional 73 patients, for a total 112 (77%) of 146 patients, had resolution of their EE as demonstrated by biopsy results. Fifteen (10%) of 146 patients were nonresponders manifested by no significant reduction in esophageal eosinophils despite restricted diet based on skin prick and atopy patch testing. Egg, milk, and soy were identified most frequently with skin prick testing, whereas corn, soy, and wheat were identified most frequently with atopy patch testing. In more than 75% of patients with EE, both symptoms and esophageal inflammation can be significantly improved with dietary elimination of foods. Skin prick and atopy patch testing can help identify foods in most patients.

  17. Myeloid cell HIF-1α regulates asthma airway resistance and eosinophil function

    PubMed Central

    Akong-Moore, Kathryn; Feldstein, Stephanie; Johansson, Per; Nyugen, Anh; McEachern, Elisa K.; Nicatia, Shari; Cowburn, Andrew S.; Olson, Joshua; Cho, Jae Youn; Isaacs, Hart; Johnson, Randall S.; Broide, David H.; Nizet, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α is a master regulator of inflammatory activities of myeloid cells, including neutrophils and macrophages. These studies examine the role of myeloid cell HIF-1α in regulating asthma induction and pathogenesis, and for the first time, evaluate the roles of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in the chemotactic properties of eosinophils, the myeloid cells most associated with asthma. Wild-type (WT) and myeloid cell-specific HIF-1α knockout (KO) C57BL/6 mice were studied in an ovalbumin (OVA) model of asthma. Administration of the pharmacological HIF-1α antagonist YC-1 was used to corroborate findings from the genetic model. WT, HIF-1α, and HIF-2α KO eosinophils underwent in vitro chemotaxis assays. We found that deletion of HIF-1α in myeloid cells and systemic treatment with YC-1 during asthma induction decreased airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Deletion of HIF-1α in myeloid cells in OVA-induced asthma also reduced eosinophil infiltration, goblet cell hyperplasia, and levels 34 of cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in the lung. HIF-1α inhibition with YC-1 during asthma induction decreased eosinophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage, lung parenchyma, and blood, as well as decreased total lung inflammation, IL-5, and serum OVA-specific IgE levels. Deletion of HIF-1α in eosinophils decreased their chemotaxis, while deletion of the isoform HIF-2α led to increased chemotaxis. This work demonstrates that HIF-1α in myeloid cells plays a role in asthma pathogenesis, particularly in AHR development. Additionally, treatment with HIF-1α inhibitors during asthma induction decreases AHR and eosinophilia. Finally, we show that HIF- 1α and HIF-2α regulate eosinophil migration in opposing ways. PMID:23250618

  18. Eosinophil count - absolute

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal Results Mean A high number of eosinophils (eosinophilia) are often linked to a variety of disorders. ... Accessed March 29, 2017. Klion AD, Weller PF. Eosinophilia and eosinophil-related disorders. In: Adkinson NF, Bochner ...

  19. Evaluation of risk and diagnostic value of quantitative assays for anti-Toxoplasma gondii immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgE, and IgM and analytical study of specific IgG in immunodeficient patients.

    PubMed Central

    Pinon, J M; Foudrinier, F; Mougeot, G; Marx, C; Aubert, D; Toupance, O; Niel, G; Danis, M; Camerlynck, P; Remy, G

    1995-01-01

    To determine their prognostic and diagnostic values for toxoplasmosis in immunodepressed subjects, we assayed immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgE antibodies by means of immunocapture (IC) tests, with revelation done by using a suspension of T. gondii (ICT). We also carried out a simultaneous analytical study of IgG antibodies on cellulose acetate membranes by using the comparative immunological profile method and an enzyme-linked immunofiltration assay (ELIFA). A total of 1,238 samples (serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and aqueous humor from 318 patients) were tested. IgA and IgE antibodies were detected in all heart, kidney, and liver transplant recipients with clinical manifestations of toxoplasmosis; IgA was detected in the aqueous humor of a patient with chorioretinitis. In patients with AIDS-related toxoplasmosis, including the cerebral form, IgA and IgE antibodies or a significant modification of ELIFA IgG values were observed in 38, 19, and 25% of patients, respectively. IgM was detected by ICT only in 12% of patients and aided the diagnosis in 1 of 71 patients. IC tests for specific IgA and IgE alone and combined with ELIFA were positive in 39 and 46% of patients who developed clinical toxoplasmosis, respectively. In a serial study of 16 patients in whom at least one of these three tests was positive, a significant immunological signal sometimes preceded clinical onset by 1, 6, and even 17 months. Similarly, in a group of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with evidence of previous exposure to T. gondii but no clinical manifestations, IgA, IgE, and IgA and/or IgE antibodies were detected in only 11, 4, and 12% of patients, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7790453

  20. Increased expression of the IgE Fc receptors on rat macrophages induced by elevated serum IgE levels.

    PubMed Central

    Boltz-Nitulescu, G; Plummer, J M; Spiegelberg, H L

    1984-01-01

    Macrophages (M phi) from rats with elevated serum IgE levels induced by (i) Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nb) infection, (ii) IgE-secreting plasmacytoma IR 162, or (iii) i.p. injection of purified rat IgE, and M phi from normal animals cultured in the presence of 10 micrograms/ml IgE were analysed for Fc IgE receptors (Fc epsilon R) expression. To detect Fc epsilon R-bearing cells, a rosette assay employing fixed ox erythrocytes coated with rat IgE was used. With undersensitized indicator cells a significantly (P less than 0.002) greater number of M phi from animals having elevated serum IgE levels or of M phi cultured in the presence of IgE formed IgE rosettes than M phi from normal donors. The IgE rosettes were IgE class-specific, since they were inhibited by rat IgE in a dose-dependent manner, but not by any other rat Ig class, heat-denatured rat IgE or human IgE. The modulating effect of Fc epsilon R expression on M phi was IgE specific, because neither rat IgG nor heated rat IgE induced increased IgE rosette formation. Furthermore, elevated serum IgE levels did not increase the expression of Fc receptors for IgG subclasses. Studies of 125I-IgE binding showed that alveolar macrophages (AM phi) from Nb-infected rats bind IgE with similar affinity (Ka 1.1 X 10(7) M-1) as AM phi from normal animals, but they have increased numbers of IgE binding sites. Collectively, the results demonstrate that in vivo and in vitro elevated serum IgE concentrations induce increased IgE rosette formation as a result of a marked increase in the number of Fc epsilon R per macrophage. PMID:6236146

  1. Measurement of Hymenoptera venom specific IgE by the IMMULITE 3gAllergy in subjects with negative or positive results by ImmunoCAP

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Mineaki; Arima, Masafumi; Hayashi, Yumeko; Chibana, Kazuyuki; Yoshida, Naruo; Ikeno, Yoshihiko; Fukushima, Yasutsugu; Komura, Reiko; Okazaki, Kazumi; Sugiyama, Kumiya; Fukuda, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients may receive negative results from a specific IgE (sIgE) test such as the ImmunoCAP (CAP) despite a documented history of systemic reaction to a Hymenoptera sting. Thus, further testing may be required using another serological method or venom skin prick tests to confirm allergy diagnosis and correct species. Objective To evaluate the sensitivity and the specificity of CAP and IMMULITE 3gAllergy (IMMULITE) for detecting sIgE to Paper wasp (WA) and Yellow Jacket (YJ) venoms using patient clinical history as the comparator. Methods Sera from 70 participants with a history of systemic reactions (SR) to WA and/or YJ stings were tested using CAP and IMMULITE. Fifty participants from this group had negative results on CAP. To assess specificity, sera from 71 participants who had never experienced either a WA or YJ sting were tested using CAP and IMMULITE. Fifty participants from this group tested positive using CAP. Results In participants with a history of systemic reaction to a Hymenoptera sting, yet who tested negative for WA and/or YJ sIgE according to CAP, the positivity rate according to IMMULITE was 20-42% using 0.10 IUA/mL as the limit of detection (LoD), per the manufacturer's specification. When the LoD for CAP (0.35 IUA/mL) was applied to the IMMULITE results, positivity according to IMMULITE was 14-26%. Overall, sensitivity, specificity, and agreement with SR were greater for IMMULITE than for CAP. For YJ: sensitivity (IMMULITE:CAP), 42.8%:28.5%; specificity, 53.5%:39.4%; agreement, 48.2%:34%. For WA, sensitivity (IMMULITE:CAP), 58.6%:28.5%; specificity, 49.3%:47.8%; agreement, 43.9%:38.3%. Conclusion The IMMULITE performed well for detecting sIgE to Hymenoptera venom PMID:22872822

  2. Contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis from corn in a patient with serum IgE specific for a salt-soluble corn protein of low molecular weight.

    PubMed

    Cristaudo, Antonio; Simonato, Barbara; Pasini, Gabriella; De Rocco, Mariagrazia; Curioni, Andrea; Giannattasio, Matteo

    2004-08-01

    Among the cereals, wheat, rye, barley and oats, have been reported to cause protein contact dermatitis. However, in these cases neither the involvement of an immunological mechanism nor the role of specific protein(s) has been demonstrated. We present a case of protein contact dermatitis from corn. The patient presented with a Type I sensitization to corn, as shown by the presence of specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E and positivity to prick tests with both a flour suspension and the salt-soluble protein fraction of this cereal. The same corn preparations induced a strong urticarial reaction on scratch testing. This reaction was followed several days later by the appearance of erythema and then eczema at the site of application. When boiled, these preparations became inactive on both prick and scratch testing. Patch tests were negative in all cases. Immunoblotting performed with the patient's serum showed the presence of a unique IgE-binding protein band with a molecular weight of around 14 kDa, belonging to the salt-soluble corn protein fraction. Our results give the first clear evidence that cornflour can induce protein contact dermatitis. The IgE-binding 14-kDa protein has characteristics identical to those of the trypsin/alpha-amylase inhibitors from cereals.

  3. Retrospective analysis on the agreement between skin prick test and serum food specific IgE antibody results in adults with suspected food allergy.

    PubMed

    Ling, Ling; Ospina, Maria B; Sideri, Kyriaki; Vliagoftis, Harissios

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is a common clinical problem in adults. Given logistical barriers to conducting food challenges, the use of skin prick test (SPT) and specific IgE (sIgE) are important in establishing the diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to investigate the agreement of SPT and sIgE results in adults presenting to an allergy clinic with suspected food allergy. Retrospective analysis of medical records at the University of Alberta Allergy Clinic between September 2013 and May 2015 was performed. Demographic, medical history as well as SPT and specific IgE results were recorded. Agreement of SPT and sIgE for individual food allergens was analyzed by Kappa statistics. Data from 260 patients was collected. The population was predominantly female, often having other atopic diseases. Very few food challenges were performed; IgE mediated food allergy was diagnosed in a minority (29.6 %) of cases. Kappa values which reached statistical significance were moderate for peanut ĸ = 0.535 (p = 0.0002, CI 0.364-0.707), walnut ĸ = 0.408 (p = 0.001 CI 0.159-0.657), pecan ĸ = 0.530 (p = 0.001 CI 0.211-0.848), and lobster ĸ = 0.543 (p = 0.004 CI 0.197-0.889), substantial for pistachio ĸ = 0.657 (p = 0.023 CI 0.224-1.000), codfish ĸ = 0.770 (p = 0.0002 CI 0.558-0.983), shrimp ĸ = 0.627 (p = 0.0006 CI 0.383-0.871) and egg white ĸ = 0.625 (p = 0.002 CI 0.293-0.957), almost perfect for cashew ĸ = 0.894 (p = 0.0008 CI 0.693-1.000) and salmon ĸ = 0.874 (p = 0.004 CI 0.705-1.000). The agreement between SPT and sIgE results on adults being evaluated for food allergy is at least moderate or better for peanut, walnut, pecan, pistachio, cashew, lobster, shrimp, codfish, salmon and egg white. This should be reassuring for patients who have contraindications or restricted access to either test as the results for the above allergens will likely agree. These findings may suggest that these tests could possibly be interchangeable in adults being

  4. Eosinophilic Endotype of Asthma.

    PubMed

    Aleman, Fernando; Lim, Hui Fang; Nair, Parameswaran

    2016-08-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease that can be classified into different clinical endotypes, depending on the type of airway inflammation, clinical severity, and response to treatment. This article focuses on the eosinophilic endotype of asthma, which is defined by the central role that eosinophils play in the pathophysiology of the condition. It is characterized by elevated sputum and/or blood eosinophils on at least 2 occasions and by a significant response to treatments that suppress eosinophilia. Histopathologic demonstration of eosinophils in the airways provides the most direct diagnosis of eosinophilic asthma; but it is invasive, thus, impractical in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of cysticercus-specific IgG (total and subclasses) and IgE antibody responses in cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Lisandra Akemi; Rossi, Cláudio Lúcio

    2013-02-01

    In the present study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) standardized with vesicular fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci was used to screen for IgG (total and subclasses) and IgE antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies and patients with other neurological disorders. The following results were obtained: IgG-ELISA: 100% sensitivity (median of the ELISA absorbances (MEA)=1.17) and 100% specificity; IgG1-ELISA: 72.7% sensitivity (MEA=0.49) and 100% specificity; IgG2-ELISA: 81.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.46) and 100% specificity; IgG3-ELISA: 63.6% sensitivity (MEA=0.12) and 100% specificity; IgG4-ELISA: 90.9% sensitivity (MEA=0.85) and 100% specificity; IgE-ELISA 93.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.60) and 100% specificity. There were no significant differences between the sensitivities and specificities in the detection of IgG-ELISA and IgE-ELISA, although in CSF samples from patients with neurocysticercosis the MEA of the IgG-ELISA was significantly higher than that of the IgE-ELISA. The sensitivity and MEA values of the IgG4-ELISA were higher than the corresponding values for the other IgG subclasses. Future studies should address the contribution of IgG4 and IgE antibodies to the physiopathology of neurocysticercosis.

  6. Activation states of blood eosinophils in asthma.

    PubMed

    Johansson, M W

    2014-04-01

    Asthma is characterized by airway inflammation rich in eosinophils. Airway eosinophilia is associated with exacerbations and has been suggested to play a role in airway remodelling. Recruitment of eosinophils from the circulation requires that blood eosinophils become activated, leading to their arrest on the endothelium and extravasation. Circulating eosinophils can be envisioned as potentially being in different activation states, including non-activated, pre-activated or 'primed', or fully activated. In addition, the circulation can potentially be deficient of pre-activated or activated eosinophils, because such cells have marginated on activated endothelium or extravasated into the tissue. A number of eosinophil surface proteins, including CD69, L-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, CD54), CD44, P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1, CD162), cytokine receptors, Fc receptors, integrins including αM integrin (CD11b), and activated conformations of Fc receptors and integrins, have been proposed to report cell activation. Variation in eosinophil activation states may be associated with asthma activity. Eosinophil surface proteins proposed to be activation markers, with a particular focus on integrins, and evidence for associations between activation states of blood eosinophils and features of asthma are reviewed here. Partial activation of β1 and β2 integrins on blood eosinophils, reported by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) N29 and KIM-127, is associated with impaired pulmonary function and airway eosinophilia, respectively, in non-severe asthma. The association with lung function does not occur in severe asthma, presumably due to greater eosinophil extravasation, specifically of activated or pre-activated cells, in severe disease.

  7. Pinellia ternata, Citrus reticulata, and their combinational prescription inhibit eosinophil infiltration and airway hyperresponsiveness by suppressing CCR3+ and Th2 cytokines production in the ovalbumin-induced asthma model.

    PubMed

    Ok, In-Soo; Kim, Seung-Hyung; Kim, Bok-Kyu; Lee, Jang-Cheon; Lee, Young-Cheol

    2009-01-01

    This study was aimed to analyse the curative effects of Pinellia ternata, Citrus reticulata, and their combination on airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to inhaled methacholine, pulmonary eosinophilic infiltration, Th2 cytokine production, and IgE and histamine production in a murine model of asthma. For this purpose, BALB/c mice were systemically sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) followed intratracheally, intraperitoneally, and by aerosol allergen challenges for 12 weeks. We examined the development of pulmonary eosinophilic accumulation, control of Th2 cytokine, immunoglobulin E (IgE), and histamine productions in a murine model of asthma. Our data suggest that the therapeutic mechanism by which Pinellia ternata, Citrus reticulata, and their combinational prescription effectively treats asthma is based on reductions of eosinophil infiltration, eotaxin receptor (CCR3), histamine, OVA-specific IgE productions in serum, and Th2 cytokines (IL-5, IL-13) by marked reductions of IL-5 and IL-13 mRNA expression in lung tissue. These findings provide evidence that Pinellia ternata, Citrus reticulata, and their combination play a regulatory role in allergic inflammation and offer therapeutic approaches as novel CCR3 antagonists for treatment asthma. However, it is not clear whether pharmacological activities of prescription composed of two herbs are potentiated due to synergistic effect or additive effect.

  8. Pinellia ternata, Citrus reticulata, and Their Combinational Prescription Inhibit Eosinophil Infiltration and Airway Hyperresponsiveness by Suppressing CCR3+ and Th2 Cytokines Production in the Ovalbumin-Induced Asthma Model

    PubMed Central

    Ok, In-Soo; Kim, Seung-Hyung; Kim, Bok-Kyu; Lee, Jang-Cheon; Lee, Young-Cheol

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objective. This study was aimed to analyse the curative effects of Pinellia ternata, Citrus reticulata, and their combination on airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to inhaled methacholine, pulmonary eosinophilic infiltration, Th2 cytokine production, and IgE and histamine production in a murine model of asthma. Methods. For this purpose, BALB/c mice were systemically sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) followed intratracheally, intraperitoneally, and by aerosol allergen challenges for 12 weeks. We examined the development of pulmonary eosinophilic accumulation, control of Th2 cytokine, immunoglobulin E (IgE), and histamine productions in a murine model of asthma. Results. Our data suggest that the therapeutic mechanism by which Pinellia ternata, Citrus reticulata, and their combinational prescription effectively treats asthma is based on reductions of eosinophil infiltration, eotaxin receptor (CCR3), histamine, OVA-specific IgE productions in serum, and Th2 cytokines (IL-5, IL-13) by marked reductions of IL-5 and IL-13 mRNA expression in lung tissue. Conclusions. These findings provide evidence that Pinellia ternata, Citrus reticulata, and their combination play a regulatory role in allergic inflammation and offer therapeutic approaches as novel CCR3 antagonists for treatment asthma. However, it is not clear whether pharmacological activities of prescription composed of two herbs are potentiated due to synergistic effect or additive effect. PMID:19657453

  9. Specific IgE to peanut 2S albumin Ara h 7 has a discriminative ability comparable to Ara h 2 and 6.

    PubMed

    Blankestijn, M A; Otten, H G; Suer, W; Weimann, A; Knol, E F; Knulst, A C

    2017-09-14

    Little is known on the clinical relevance of peanut 2S albumin Ara h 7. To investigate the discriminative ability of Ara h 7 in peanut allergy and assess the role of cross-reactivity between Ara h 2, 6 and Ara h 7 isoforms. Sensitization to recombinant peanut storage proteins Ara h 1, 2, 3, 6, and 7 was assessed using a line blot in sera from 40 peanut-tolerant and 40 peanut-allergic patients, based on food challenge outcome. A dose-dependent ELISA inhibition experiment was performed with recombinant Ara h 2, 6 and Ara h 7 isoforms. For Ara h 7.0201, an area under the ROC curve was found of 0.83, comparable to Ara h 2 (AUC 0.81) and Ara h 6 (AUC 0.85). Ara h 7 intensity values strongly correlated with those from Ara h 2 and 6 (rs = 0.81). Of all patients sensitized to 2S albumins Ara h 2, 6, or 7, the majority was co-sensitized to all three (n = 24, 68%), although mono-sensitization to either 2S albumin was also observed in selected patients (Ara h 2: n = 6, 17%; Ara h 6: n = 2, 6%; Ara h 7: n = 2, 6%). Binding to Ara h 7.0101 could be strongly inhibited by Ara h 7.0201, but not the other way around. Specific IgE against Ara h 7.0201 has a predictive ability for peanut allergy similar to Ara h 2 and 6 and possesses unique IgE epitopes as well as epitopes shared between the other Ara h 7 isoform and Ara h 2 and 6. While co-sensitization to all three 2S albumins is most common, mono-sensitization to either Ara h 2, 6, or 7 occurs in selected patients, leading to a risk of misdiagnosis when testing for a single 2S albumin. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. [Sensitization to inhalant and food allergens in Brazilian atopic children by in vitro total and specific IgE assay. Allergy Project--PROAL].

    PubMed

    Naspitz, Charles K; Solé, Dirceu; Jacob, Cristina A; Sarinho, Emanuel; Soares, Francisco J P; Dantas, Vera; Mallozi, Márcia C; Wandalsen, Neusa F; Borges, Wellington; Rocha Filho, Wilson

    2004-01-01

    To determine the frequency of sensitization to inhalant and food allergens in children seen at Brazilian allergy services. Total and specific IgE serum levels to inhalant and food allergens (RAST, UniCAP - Pharmacia) were measured in 457 children accompanied in pediatric allergy services and in 62 control children age matched. RAST equal or higher than class 1 was considered as positive (R+). Frequency of R+ was significantly higher among atopics (361/457, 79%) when compared to controls (16/62, 25.8%). There were no differences according to gender. The frequency of R+ to all allergens evaluated was higher among atopics when compared to controls. Significantly higher total IgE serum levels were observed among the atopics with R+ in comparison to those with R-. The frequency of R+ to main inhalant allergens were: D. pteronyssinus = 66.7% x 14.5% (p < 0.05), D. farinae = 64.5% x 17.8% (p < 0.05), B. tropicalis = 55.2% x 19.4% (p < 0.05), cockroach = 32.8% x 9.7% (p < 0.05), and cat = 12% x 8.1%. In relation to food allergens we observed: fish = 29.5% x 11.3% (p < 0.05), egg = 24.4% x 4.8% (p < 0.05), cow's milk = 23.1% x 3.2% (p < 0.05), wheat = 20% x 8.1% (p < 0.05), peanuts = 14% x 4.8% (p < 0.05), soy = 11.8% x 4.8% (p < 0.05), and corn = 10.6% x 4.8% (p < 0.05). With respect of age, food allergen sensitization predominates in young children whereas the inverse occurs with inhalant allergens. There was a predominant frequency of sensitization to inhalant allergens, mainly house dust mites in the evaluated patients. Food allergens were also responsible for a significant proportion of sensitization, mainly in infants.

  11. The Natural History of IgE-Mediated Food Allergy: Can Skin Prick Tests and Serum-Specific IgE Predict the Resolution of Food Allergy?

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Rachel L.; Gurrin, Lyle C.; Dharmage, Shyamali C.; Koplin, Jennifer J.; Allen, Katrina J.

    2013-01-01

    IgE-mediated food allergy is a transient condition for some children, however there are few indices to predict when and in whom food allergy will resolve. Skin prick test (SPT) and serum-specific IgE levels (sIgE) are usually monitored in the management of food allergy and are used to predict the development of tolerance or persistence of food allergy. The aim of this article is to review the published literature that investigated the predictive value of SPT and sIgE in development of tolerance in children with a previous diagnosis of peanut, egg and milk allergy. A systematic search identified twenty-six studies, of which most reported SPT or sIgE thresholds which predicted persistent or resolved allergy. However, results were inconsistent between studies. Previous research was hampered by several limitations including the absence of gold standard test to diagnose food allergy or tolerance, biased samples in retrospective audits and lack of systematic protocols for triggering re-challenges. There is a need for population-based, prospective studies that use the gold standard oral food challenge (OFC) to diagnose food allergy at baseline and follow-up to develop SPT and sIgE thresholds that predict the course of food allergy. PMID:24132133

  12. Elements Involved In Promoting Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Anshi; Mishra, Akanksha; Venkateshaiah, Sathisha Upparahalli; Manohar, Murli; Mahadevappa, Chandrashekara Puthanapura; Mishra, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGID) are food allergen-induced allergic gastrointestinal disorders, characterized by accumulation of highly induced eosinophils in different segments of gastrointestinal tract along with eosinophil microabssess and extracellular eosinophilic granules in the epithelial layer. EGID are both IgE- and cell-mediated group of diseases that include eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), eosinophilic gastritis (EG), eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) and eosinophilic colitis (EC). Despite the increased incidences and considerable progress made in understanding EGID pathogenesis. The mechanism is still not well understood. It has been shown that IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-15, IL-18, eotaxin-1, eotaxin-2 and eotaxin-3 play a critical role in EGID pathogenesis. Currently, the only criterion for diagnosing EoE, EGE and EC are repetitive endoscopic and histopathological evaluation of biopsies along with other clinical characteristics/manifestations. Antigen elimination and corticosteroid therapies are the most effective therapies currently in practice for the treatment of EGID. The cytokines (anti-IL-5 and anti-IL-13) therapy trials were not very successful in case of EoE. Most recently, a clinical trial using anti-IL-13 reported only 60% reduced esophageal eosinophilia without achieving primary endpoint. This clinical finding is not surprising and is in accordance with our earlier report indicating that IL-13 is not critical in the initiation of EoE. Notably, EGID still has no reliable noninvasive diagnostic biomarkers. Hence, there is a great necessity to identify novel noninvasive diagnostic biomarkers that can easily diagnose EGID and provide an effective therapy. Now, the attention is required to target cell types like iNKT cells that produce eosinophil active cytokines and is found induced in the pathogenesis of both experimental and human EoE. iNKT cell neutralization is shown to protect allergen-induced EoE in experimental model. In this

  13. β-lactam-associated eosinophilic colitis.

    PubMed

    Mogilevski, Tamara; Nickless, David; Hume, Sam

    2015-06-23

    A 42-year-old man with a history of childhood asthma presented with a 2-week history of watery diarrhoea and marked peripheral eosinophilia in the setting of recent use of cephalexin. His colonoscopy revealed patchy colitis. Biopsies were consistent with eosinophilic colitis. Two months later he received a course of amoxicillin resulting in recurrence of peripheral eosinophilia. Given the time-frame of β-lactam administration to symptom onset and elimination of all other precipitating causes, he was diagnosed with β-lactam-associated eosinophilic colitis. The patient's symptoms resolved and peripheral eosinophil count decreased with no specific treatment. Eosinophilic colitis is a rare heterogeneous condition, the pathogenesis of which is likely to be an interplay between environmental and genetic factors. It can be secondary to a helminthic infection or a drug reaction and has been associated with ulcerative colitis. If secondary causes of eosinophilic colitis have been excluded, the mainstay of treatment is with corticosteroids.

  14. Eosinophilic ascites: A diagnostic and therapeutic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Shefali; Vohra, Sandeep; Rawat, Sangeeta; Kashyap, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is a rare condition characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. Depending on the dominant layer of infiltration it is classified into three types namely, mucosal, muscularis and subserosal. The most uncommon variant is the subserosal type characterized by primarily subserosal disease, eosinophilic ascites and peripheral hypereosinophilia. The clinical features are non-specific with history of atopic predisposition and allergy. Endoscopic biopsy is frequently non-diagnostic due to an uninvolved gastrointestinal mucosa rendering its diagnosis a challenge. The mainstay of diagnosis is peripheral hypereosinophilia and eosinophil-rich ascitic fluid on diagnostic paracentesis. Oral steroid therapy is usually the first line of treatment with dramatic response. Due to a propensity for relapse, steroid-sparing therapy should be considered for relapses of EGE. We report a case of subserosal EGE with diagnostic clinical features and treatment response and review the current strategy in the management of eosinophilic ascites. PMID:27721930

  15. Eosinophils in hereditary and inflammatory myopathies.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Thomas; Fuchss, Johann; Schneider, Ilka; Stoltenburg-Didinger, Gisela; Hanisch, Frank

    2013-12-01

    It is not known whether eosinophilic myositis is a specific histopathological feature of limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A (LGMD2A). Number and location of eosinophils in skeletal muscle biopsies (n=100) was analysed by Giemsa and modified hematoxylin/eosin staining in patients with genetically confirmed myopathies (LGMD2A, LGMD2B, LGMD2L, facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy, dystrophinopathy), histologically confirmed idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM), dermatomyositis (DM), polymyositis), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (neurogenic control), and normal controls. The number of eosinophils/mm² was significantly higher in LGMD2A, PM, DM, and sIBM compared to controls but not significantly higher than other myopathies. A large overlap in the number of eosinophils/mm2 between all groups was seen. In all disease groups eosinophils were mainly found endomysially (46- 88%) and intra- and perivascularly (4-37%). There was no correlation between the numbers of eosinophils/mm² and (i) age at biopsy and (ii) the duration of the disease. The extent of myopathic, fibrotic, and inflammatory changes did not differ in samples with high and low eosinophil count. Eosinophils seem to represent an unspecific histological finding in hereditary and inflammatory myopathies, but also amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  16. Investigation of the roles of fascioliasis and food allergy in intrahepatic eosinophilic proliferative pylephlebitis in Japanese Black cattle.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Kazuki; Ohkusu-Tsukada, Kozo; Hori, Makito; Konnai, Masaki; Abiko, Chieko; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Yamanome, Yukito; Yoshimura, Hisashi; Michishita, Masaki; Takahashi, Kimimasa

    2013-05-01

    Intrahepatic eosinophilic proliferative pylephlebitis (EPP) in Japanese Black (JB) cattle generally has been considered to be an atypical form of fascioliasis. However, there are many cases of EPP in which no Fasciola spp. have been detected in the livers of affected cattle. The aims of this study were to ascertain the relationship between EPP and hepatic fascioliasis and to investigate the role of food allergy in the disease. Histologically, EPP lesions were characterised by severe endothelial proliferation of the interlobular veins, accompanied by varying degrees of fibrosis and eosinophilic infiltration in portal areas, which could be differentiated from chronic cholangiohepatitis, the typical lesion of hepatic fascioliasis. In addition to hepatic lesions, all cases of EPP had varying degrees of eosinophilic infiltration in the perilymphoid red pulp of the spleen, whereas both affected and unaffected animals had eosinophilic infiltrates in the mucosa of the small intestine. Antibodies against Fasciola spp. were detected in 1/14 EPP cases by ELISA; the seropositive case had EPP in combination with chronic cholangitis. There was no significant difference in total concentration of IgE between cases of EPP and unaffected cattle. Serum IgE levels specific to curly dock (Rumex crispus) and oats (Avena sativa) were higher in EPP cases than in unaffected cattle by allergen profiling screening testing and ELISA. The results of this study suggest that hepatic fascioliasis is unlikely to be the cause of EPP in JB cattle and that food allergens should be investigated as possible aetiological agents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Eosinophilic colitis: epidemiology, clinical features, and current management

    PubMed Central

    Alfadda, Abdulrahman A.; Storr, Martin A.; Shaffer, Eldon A.

    2011-01-01

    Primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGIDs) represent a spectrum of inflammatory gastrointestinal disorders in which eosinophils infiltrate the gut in the absence of known causes for such tissue eosinophilia. EGIDs can be subgrouped as eosinophilic esophagitis (EE), eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG), and eosinophilic colitis (EC). The least frequent manifestation of EGIDs is EC. EC is a heterogeneous entity with a bimodal age distribution, presenting with either an acute self-limited bloody diarrhea in otherwise healthy infants or as a more chronic relapsing colitis in young adults. The pathophysiology of primary EC appears related to altered hypersensitivity, principally as a food allergy in infants and T lymphocyte-mediated (i.e. non-IgE associated) in young adults. In adults, symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain, and weight loss. Endoscopic changes are generally modest, featuring edema and patchy granularity. Although standardized criteria are not yet established, the diagnosis of EC depends on histopathology that identifies an excess of eosinophils. Therapeutic approaches are based on case reports and small case series, as prospective randomized controlled trials are lacking. Eosinophilic colitis in infants is a rather benign, frequently food-related entity and dietary elimination of the aggressor often resolves the disorder within days. Adolescent or older patients require more aggressive medical management including: glucocorticoids, anti-histamines, leukotriene receptors antagonists as well as novel approaches employing biologics that target interleukin-5 (IL-5) and IgE. This review article summarizes the current knowledge of EC, its epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:21922029

  18. Generation of eosinophils from cryopreserved murine bone marrow cells.

    PubMed

    Schollaert, Kaila L; Stephens, Michael R; Gray, Jerilyn K; Fulkerson, Patricia C

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophils are produced in the bone marrow from CD34+ eosinophil lineage-committed progenitors, whose levels in the bone marrow are elevated in a variety of human diseases. These findings suggest that increased eosinophil lineage-committed progenitor production is an important process in disease-associated eosinophilia. The pathways central to the biology of the eosinophil lineage-committed progenitor remain largely unknown. Thus, developing new methods to investigate the regulators of eosinophil lineage-committed progenitor differentiation is needed to identify potential therapeutic targets to specifically inhibit eosinophil production. We tested cytokine regimens to optimize liquid cultures for the study of eosinophil lineage-committed progenitor and eosinophil precursor differentiation into mature eosinophils. Stem cell factor (but not fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand) was required for optimal yield of eosinophils. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of cell preservation and scale on the culture, successfully culturing functional eosinophils from fresh and frozen murine bone marrow cells and in a standard-sized and 96-well culture format. In summary, we have developed an adaptable culture system that yields functionally competent eosinophils from murine low-density bone marrow cells and whose cytokine regime includes expansion of progenitors with stem cell factor alone with subsequent differentiation with interleukin 5.

  19. Evidence-based guidelines for anti-allergic drug withdrawal times before allergen-specific intradermal and IgE serological tests in dogs.

    PubMed

    Olivry, Thierry; Saridomichelakis, Manolis

    2013-04-01

    Anti-allergic drugs (e.g. antihistamines, glucocorticoids and ciclosporin) are often administered to dogs with atopic dermatitis to relieve pruritus and skin lesions. Allergen-specific intradermal tests (IDT) and allergen-specific IgE serological (ASIS) tests are used to characterize the allergens to which dogs are hypersensitive. Anti-allergic drugs have the potential to influence the results or interpretation of these tests. To provide evidence-based recommendations for anti-allergic drug withdrawal times before IDT and ASIS tests. Three citation databases and abstracts from international meetings were searched for relevant studies. Studies were grouped based on similar interventions and types of tests. Withdrawal times for each type of drug and test were then extrapolated from the study results. Before the assessment of immediate reactions to IDT, proposed optimal withdrawal times for antihistamines, oral glucocorticoids, topical/otic glucocorticoids and ciclosporin are 7, 14, 14 and 0 days, respectively. Studies have provided no evidence for drug withdrawal prior to ASIS tests for oral ciclosporin or prednisone/prednisolone. Owing to a lack of studies, recommendations for withdrawal times before ASIS tests cannot be made for topical glucocorticoids and antihistamines. These proposed withdrawal times are based on the existing evidence at the end of 2011. Care must be taken before extrapolating the suggested withdrawal times to other species, higher dosages, different formulations and/or durations of administration of tested drugs, as well as to other medications from the same category. © 2013 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology © 2013 ESVD and ACVD.

  20. Levels of house dust mite-specific serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) in different cat populations using a monoclonal based anti-IgE enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Bexley, Jennifer; Hogg, Janice E; Hammerberg, Bruce; Halliwell, Richard E W

    2009-10-01

    Levels of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) specific for the house dust mites (HDMs) Dermatophagoides farinae (DF) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (DP) in 58 cats with clinical signs suggestive of atopic dermatitis (allergic dermatitis cats), 52 cats with no history of allergic or immunological disease (nonallergic cats) and 26 specific pathogen-free (SPF) cats were measured using a monoclonal anti-IgE enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Reactivity to both native and reduced HDM allergens was compared. SPF cats had significantly lower levels of HDM-specific serum IgE than cats with allergic dermatitis and nonallergic cats. The difference in levels of HDM-specific IgE in the serum of cats with allergic dermatitis and nonallergic cats was significant for native DF allergen, but not for native DP allergen or reduced HDM allergens. The results suggest that DF in its native form may be a significant allergen in cats with allergic dermatitis. The clinical relevance of these reactions, however, remains to be proven.

  1. Eosinophils in Autoimmune Diseases.

    PubMed

    Diny, Nicola L; Rose, Noel R; Čiháková, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional granulocytes that contribute to initiation and modulation of inflammation. Their role in asthma and parasitic infections has long been recognized. Growing evidence now reveals a role for eosinophils in autoimmune diseases. In this review, we summarize the function of eosinophils in inflammatory bowel diseases, neuromyelitis optica, bullous pemphigoid, autoimmune myocarditis, primary biliary cirrhosis, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and other autoimmune diseases. Clinical studies, eosinophil-targeted therapies, and experimental models have contributed to our understanding of the regulation and function of eosinophils in these diseases. By examining the role of eosinophils in autoimmune diseases of different organs, we can identify common pathogenic mechanisms. These include degranulation of cytotoxic granule proteins, induction of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, release of proteases degrading extracellular matrix, immune modulation through cytokines, antigen presentation, and prothrombotic functions. The association of eosinophilic diseases with autoimmune diseases is also examined, showing a possible increase in autoimmune diseases in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis, hypereosinophilic syndrome, and non-allergic asthma. Finally, we summarize key future research needs.

  2. Eosinophils in Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Diny, Nicola L.; Rose, Noel R.; Čiháková, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional granulocytes that contribute to initiation and modulation of inflammation. Their role in asthma and parasitic infections has long been recognized. Growing evidence now reveals a role for eosinophils in autoimmune diseases. In this review, we summarize the function of eosinophils in inflammatory bowel diseases, neuromyelitis optica, bullous pemphigoid, autoimmune myocarditis, primary biliary cirrhosis, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and other autoimmune diseases. Clinical studies, eosinophil-targeted therapies, and experimental models have contributed to our understanding of the regulation and function of eosinophils in these diseases. By examining the role of eosinophils in autoimmune diseases of different organs, we can identify common pathogenic mechanisms. These include degranulation of cytotoxic granule proteins, induction of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, release of proteases degrading extracellular matrix, immune modulation through cytokines, antigen presentation, and prothrombotic functions. The association of eosinophilic diseases with autoimmune diseases is also examined, showing a possible increase in autoimmune diseases in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis, hypereosinophilic syndrome, and non-allergic asthma. Finally, we summarize key future research needs. PMID:28496445

  3. Efficacy and safety of oral desensitization in children with cow's milk allergy according to their serum specific IgE level.

    PubMed

    García-Ara, Carmen; Pedrosa, María; Belver, María Teresa; Martín-Muñoz, María Flor; Quirce, Santiago; Boyano-Martínez, Teresa

    2013-04-01

    Oral desensitization in children allergic to cow's milk proteins is not risk free. The analysis of factors that may influence the outcome is of utmost importance. To analyze the efficacy and safety of the oral desensitization according to specific IgE (sIgE) level and adverse events during the maintenance phase. Thirty-six patients allergic to cow's milk (mean age, 7 years) were included in an oral desensitization protocol. Patients were grouped according to sIgE levels (ImmunoCAP) into groups 1 (sIgE <3.5 kU/L), 2 (3.5-17 kU/L), and 3 (>17-50 kU/L). Nineteen children were included as a control group. Serum sIgE levels to cow's milk and its proteins were determined at inclusion and 6 and 12 months after finishing the desensitization protocol. Thirty-three of 36 patients were successfully desensitized (200 mL): 100% of group 1 and 88% of groups 2 and 3. Desensitization was achieved in a median of 3 months (range, 1-12 months); 90% of the patients in group 1, 50% of the patients in group 2, and 30% of the patients in group 3 achieved tolerance in less than 3 months (P = .04). In the control group only 1 child tolerated milk in oral food challenge after 1 year. During the induction phase, there were 53 adverse events in 27 patients (75%). Patients of groups 2 and 3 had more severe adverse events compared with group 1. During the maintenance phase, 20 of 33 patients (60%) had an adverse event. Oral desensitization is efficacious. Tolerance is achieved earlier when sIgE is lower. Severe adverse events are frequent, especially in patients with higher sIgE levels. Copyright © 2013 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The correlation between intradermal testing and serum specific IgE to house dust mite in negative skin prick test allergic rhinitis adult patients.

    PubMed

    Tantilipikorn, Pongsakorn; Danpornprasert, Piyanart; Ngaotepprutaram, Premyot; Assanasen, Paraya; Bunnag, Chaweewan; Thinkhamrop, Bandit

    2015-12-01

    Diagnosis of allergic rhinitis (AR) is based on history, physical examination, and skin prick test (SPT) while intradermal (ID) test can be performed to confirm the diagnosis in case of negative result of SPT. However, the ID test is not recommended for cat and timothy grass allergy because of its high false positive rate. As a result, the "quantitative" technique of serum specific IgE (sIgE) measurement might be helpful to diagnose AR with more confidence. To evaluate the correlation between ID tests and sIgE in the diagnosis of house dust mite (HDM)-sensitive AR patients. Patients with chronic rhinitis (CR) were recruited and SPT was performed. If SPT was negative, ID test and sIgE to HDM [Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp)] measurement were performed. Eighty-two patients with chronic rhinitis (CR), whose SPTs were negative for Dp, were included. There were 39 males (47.6%) and 43 females (52.4%) aged between 18 and 76 years old (mean age = 43.3 years). The ID test was positive in 13 patients (15.9%), and was negative in 69 patients (84.1 %). sIgE to HDM was positive ( ≥ 0.35 kUA/l) in 2 patients (2.4%). There was a fair to moderate correlation between the size of wheal of ID test and sIgE to HDM (r = 0.44, 95% confidence interval: 0.19 to 0.67, p < 0.01). ID test has a fair to moderate correlation with sIgE Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and it can be used in CR patients with negative SPT where sIgE is not feasible.

  5. Investigation on the effects of ciclosporin (Atopica) on intradermal test reactivity and allergen-specific immunoglobulin (IgE) serology in atopic dogs.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Candice; Rosser, Edmund; Petersen, Annette; Hauptman, Joe

    2010-08-01

    The ability to use ciclosporin (Atopica®: Novartis Animal Health, Greensboro, NC, USA) prior to intradermal testing (IDT) would help avoid exacerbation of clinical disease that can be associated with drug withdrawal. This study evaluated the effects of 30 days of administration of ciclosporin at a dose of 5 mg/kg once daily on IDT reactivity (immediate phase reactions) in a group of dogs with atopic dermatitis (AD) with initial positive IDT reactions. 16 dogs diagnosed with AD were included in the study. Eight dogs (group A) were treated with ciclosporin orally at 5 mg/kg once daily for 30 days. Eight dogs (group P) were treated with a placebo orally once daily for 30 days. IDT was performed at day 0 and day 30 on all dogs enrolled using a standardized panel of 45 aqueous allergens (Greer Laboratories, Lenoir, NC, USA) appropriate to our geographical region. IDT reactivity was assessed by both subjective and objective methods at 15 min post-intradermal injection. Serum for allergen-specific immunoglobulin (IgE) serology was obtained at day 0 and day 30. The study was designed as a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Data were analysed using a split-plot analysis of variance with the grouping factor of treatment and the repeat factor of time (SAS System for Windows). At week 4, ciclosporin did not have a statistically significant effect on IDT reactivity or serology results. It therefore appears that, no withdrawal is recommended to evaluate immediate phase reactions.

  6. Eosinophilic esophagitis: current treatment.

    PubMed

    Redd, Matthew; Schey, Ron

    2013-03-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a relatively new entity with a significant amount of increased recognition over the last decade. The mainstay treatments of EoE are designed to eliminate the causative allergens or to reduce their effects on the esophageal mucosa. Common treatments include dietary modification, proton pump inhibitors, systemic and topical corticosteroids, and endoscopic treatments. As the pathogenesis of EoE is explored, new and novel treatments are being studied that target specific pathways and chemokines identified in as precipitating agents of EoE. This is a rapidly evolving field with significant ongoing research and clinical studies. Our review will therefore focus on current and novel treatment approaches to the disease.

  7. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis with refractory ulcer disease and gastrointestinal bleeding as a rare manifestation of seronegative gastrointestinal food allergy.

    PubMed

    Raithel, Martin; Hahn, Markus; Donhuijsen, Konrad; Hagel, Alexander F; Nägel, Andreas; Rieker, Ralf J; Neurath, Markus F; Reinshagen, Max

    2014-09-17

    Gastrointestinal bleeding and iron deficiency anaemia may cause severe symptoms and may require extensive diagnostics and substantial amounts of health resources.This case report focuses on the clinical presentation of a 22 year old patient with recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding from multilocular non-healing ulcers of the stomach, duodenum and jejunum over a period of four years. Extensive gastroenterological and allergological standard diagnostic procedures showed benign ulcerative lesions with tissue eosinophilia, but no conclusive diagnosis. Multiple diagnostic procedures were performed, until finally, endoscopically guided segmental gut lavage identified locally produced, intestinal IgE antibodies by fluoro-enzyme-immunoassay.IgE antibody concentrations at the intestinal level were found to be more-fold increased for total IgE and food-specific IgE against nuts, rye flour, wheat flour, pork, beef and egg yolk compared with healthy controls.Thus, a diet eliminating these allergens was introduced along with antihistamines and administration of a hypoallergenic formula, which resulted in complete healing of the multilocular ulcers with resolution of gastrointestinal bleeding. All gastrointestinal lesions disappeared and total serum IgE levels dropped to normal within 9 months. The patient has been in remission now for more than two years.Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG) is well known to induce refractory ulcer disease. In this case, the mechanisms for intestinal damage and gastrointestinal bleeding were identified as local gastrointestinal type I allergy. Therefore, future diagnostics in EG should also be focused on the intestinal level as identification of causative food-specific IgE antibodies proved to be effective to induce remission in this patient.

  8. Tear and serum IgE concentrations by Tandem-R IgE immunoradiometric assay in allergic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Insler, M.S.; Lim, J.M.; Queng, J.T.; Wanissorn, C.; McGovern, J.P.

    1987-08-01

    The authors studied a population of 39 allergic and 15 nonallergic patients, and determined their tear and serum IgE concentrations. Samples of tear and serum were tested for IgE by the Tandem-R immunoradiometric assay, which uses monoclonal antibody to produce a specific assay for IgE. The serum IgE levels in the study group showed a range from 23,280 to 16 IU/ml compared with controls of 72 to 2 IU/ml. Tear IgE in the study group varied from 159 IU/ml to less than 1 IU/ml compared with controls of 8 IU/ml to less than 1 IU/ml. A statistically significant correlation between tear and serum IgE exists in the allergic patients with eye symptoms. It also exists when serum IgE was greater than 100 IU/ml, the tear IgE greater than 4 IU/ml, or when both the serum IgE was greater than 100 IU/ml and the tear IgE greater than 4 IU/ml.

  9. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis and related eosinophilic disorders

    PubMed Central

    Prussin, Calman

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) represents one member within the spectrum of diseases collectively referred to as eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGIDs), which includes eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), gastritis, enteritis, and colitis. EGE is less common than EoE and involves a different site of disease, but otherwise shares many common features with EoE. The clinical manifestations of EGE are protean and can vary from nausea and vomiting to protein losing enteropathy or even bowel obstruction requiring surgery. Although systemic corticosteroids are an effective treatment for EGE, their use over the chronic course of the disease results in substantial corticosteroid toxicity. Accordingly, there is a great need for improved therapies for these patients. PMID:24813518

  10. Piecemeal degranulation (PMD) morphology in feline circulating eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Fondati, A; Fondevila, D; Ferrer, L

    2003-10-01

    Buffy coat preparation from six cats with 600-4560 circulating eosinophils/microL was collected by either blood centrifugation or sedimentation, fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde, post-fixed in either 1% osmium or in 1.5% potassium ferrocyanide-reduced osmium, ultra-sectioned and examined by transmission electron microscopy. Ultrastructural changes of piecemeal degranulation (PMD), which is a mechanism of eosinophil granule contents release indicative of eosinophil activation, were observed in specific granules from all the samples examined. The spectrum of PMD included coarsening of the granule matrix, budding vesicles, fragmented granule cores and lucent granules. The number of presumably activated eosinophils with ultrastructural evidence of PMD did not correlate with the level of eosinophilia. The lack of correlation suggested that, analogously with humans, blood eosinophil count might not represent the best criterion to evaluate the contribution of eosinophils to tissue damage in certain feline eosinophil-associated diseases.

  11. Protease-Activated Receptor-2 Activation Contributes to House Dust Mite-Induced IgE Responses in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Post, Sijranke; Heijink, Irene H.; Petersen, Arjen H.; de Bruin, Harold G.; van Oosterhout, Antoon J. M.; Nawijn, Martijn C.

    2014-01-01

    Aeroallergens such as house dust mite (HDM), cockroach, and grass or tree pollen are innocuous substances that can induce allergic sensitization upon inhalation. The serine proteases present in these allergens are thought to activate the protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2, on the airway epithelium, thereby potentially inducing allergic sensitization at the expense of inhalation tolerance. We hypothesized that the proteolytic activity of allergens may play an important factor in the allergenicity to house dust mite and is essential to overcome airway tolerance. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of PAR-2 activation in allergic sensitization and HDM-induced allergic airway inflammation. In our study, Par-2 deficient mice were treated with two different HDM extracts containing high and low serine protease activities twice a week for a period of 5 weeks. We determined airway inflammation through quantification of percentages of mononuclear cells, eosinophils and neutrophils in the bronchial alveolar lavage fluid and measured total IgE and HDM-specific IgE and IgG1 levels in serum. Furthermore, Th2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-5, IL-13, Eotaxin-1, IL-17, KC, Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 17 (CCL17) and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), were measured in lung tissue homogenates. We observed that independent of the serine protease content, HDM was able to induce elevated levels of eosinophils and neutrophils in the airways of both wild-type (WT) and Par-2 deficient mice. Furthermore, we show that induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines by HDM exposure is independent of Par-2 activation. In contrast, serine protease activity of HDM does contribute to enhanced levels of total IgE, but not HDM-specific IgE. We conclude that, while Par-2 activation contributes to the development of IgE responses, it is largely dispensable for the HDM-induced induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and airway inflammation in an experimental mouse model of HDM

  12. Eosinophils in vasculitis: characteristics and roles in pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Paneez; Grayson, Peter C.; Klion, Amy D.

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional granular leukocytes that are implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of disorders, including asthma, helminth infection, and rare hypereosinophilic syndromes. Although peripheral and tissue eosinophilia can be a feature of many types of small-vessel and medium-vessel vasculitis, the role of eosinophils has been best studied in eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), where eosinophils are a characteristic finding in all three clinical stages of the disorder. Whereas numerous studies have demonstrated an association between the presence of eosinophils and markers of eosinophil activation in the blood and tissues of patients with EGPA, the precise role of eosinophils in disease pathogenesis has been difficult to ascertain owing to the complexity of the disease process. In this regard, results of clinical trials using novel agents that specifically target eosinophils are providing the first direct evidence of a central role of eosinophils in EGPA. This Review focuses on the aspects of eosinophil biology most relevant to the pathogenesis of vasculitis and provides an update of current knowledge regarding the role of eosinophils in EGPA and other vasculitides. PMID:25003763

  13. Eosinophils in vasculitis: characteristics and roles in pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Paneez; Grayson, Peter C; Klion, Amy D

    2014-08-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional granular leukocytes that are implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of disorders, including asthma, helminth infection, and rare hypereosinophilic syndromes. Although peripheral and tissue eosinophilia can be a feature of many types of small-vessel and medium-vessel vasculitis, the role of eosinophils has been best studied in eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), where eosinophils are a characteristic finding in all three clinical stages of the disorder. Whereas numerous studies have demonstrated an association between the presence of eosinophils and markers of eosinophil activation in the blood and tissues of patients with EGPA, the precise role of eosinophils in disease pathogenesis has been difficult to ascertain owing to the complexity of the disease process. In this regard, results of clinical trials using novel agents that specifically target eosinophils are providing the first direct evidence of a central role of eosinophils in EGPA. This Review focuses on the aspects of eosinophil biology most relevant to the pathogenesis of vasculitis and provides an update of current knowledge regarding the role of eosinophils in EGPA and other vasculitides.

  14. [IgE antibodies in human Fasciola hepatica distomiasis].

    PubMed

    Sampaio Silva, M L; Vindimian, M; Wattré, P; Capron, A

    1985-09-01

    In patients infected by Fasciola hepatica, total IgE and specific IgE antibodies have been determined by radioimmunoassays, and IgG, IgA, IgM levels by radial immunodiffusion test (Mancini, 1965). Moreover, total and specific IgE levels have been related to parasite egg burden, age, clinical features and eosinophilia. Elevated total IgE and specific IgE antibodies levels have been found respectively in 76% and 48% of the patients whereas there was no significant variations in other immunoglobulins levels. However, though the amount of total and specific IgE was lower than in other helminthic diseases, it appears to be a significant data of the immune response to parasites as it has been reported and discussed previously. It has been shown a significant relationship between total and specific IgE levels, the number of lines by immunoelectrophoresis, and the results of the indirect haemagglutination and indirect fluorescent antibody techniques; each method appeared to be in equal value to perform the early diagnosis of human Fasciola hepatica. In addition, specific IgE antibodies levels were correlated with eosinophilia specially when it exceeds 15%. This results demonstrate the availability of their measurement in the diagnosis of fascioliasis versus other diseases with marked eosinophilia.

  15. Thermoinactivation of human IgE: antigenic and functional modifications.

    PubMed Central

    Demeulemester, C; Weyer, A; Peltre, G; Laurent, M; Marchand, F; David, B

    1986-01-01

    The thermoinactivation kinetics of IgE were studied in experimental models revealing the antigenic properties and the basophil-sensitizing capacity of these immunoglobulins. A pool of human sera containing anti-Dactylis glomerata (Dg) IgE was heated from 5 min up to 4 hr at 56 degrees. The IgE antigenicity was tested by two polyclonal 125I-labelled anti-IgE antibodies; one anti-IgE was specific of the whole Fc epsilon region, while the other had a specificity restricted to the D epsilon 2 domain. Radioimmunoassays showed that the D epsilon 2 epitopes were more rapidly altered than the D epsilon 1 epitopes. The capacity of IgE to bind to basophil Fc epsilon receptors was assayed by passive sensitization experiments. Basophil sensitivity towards the Dg pollen extract was tested by histamine release experiments in the presence of this allergen. A progressive decrease in cell sensitivity was observed when IgE samples used for cell sensitization were heated for longer than 5 min. Thermoinactivation kinetics of IgE revealed an unexpected increase in the apparent quantity and biological activity of IgE heated for 5 min at 56 degrees. This fact could be due to auto-anti-IgE antibodies linked to the unheated IgE and which interfere with the biological activities of IgE and their quantification. Images Figure 2 PMID:2420711

  16. Hypersensitivity testing for Aspergillus fumigatus IgE is significantly more sensitive than testing for Aspergillus niger IgE.

    PubMed

    Selvaggi, Thomas A; Walco, Jeremy P; Parikh, Sujal; Walco, Gary A

    2012-02-01

    We sought to determine if sufficient redundancy exists between specific IgE testing for Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger to eliminate one of the assays in determining Aspergillus hypersensitivity. We reviewed regional laboratory results comparing A fumigatus-specific IgE with A niger-specific IgE using the Pharmacia UniCAP system (Pharmacia, Kalamazoo, MI). By using the Fisher exact test as an index of concordance among paired results, we showed a significant difference between 109 paired samples for the presence of specific IgE to A fumigatus and A niger (P < .0001). Of these specimens, 94 were negative for IgE to both species, 10 were positive for A fumigatus and negative for A niger; no specimen was positive for A niger and negative for A fumigatus. We conclude that A fumigatus-specific IgE is sufficient to detect Aspergillus hypersensitivity. The assay for A niger-specific IgE is redundant, less sensitive, and unnecessary if the assay for specific IgE for A fumigatus is performed.

  17. Peritumoral eosinophils predict recurrence in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Harbaum, Lars; Pollheimer, Marion J; Kornprat, Peter; Lindtner, Richard A; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Langner, Cord

    2015-03-01

    In colorectal cancer, the presence and extent of eosinophil granulocyte infiltration may render important prognostic information. However, it remains unclear whether an increasing number of eosinophils might simply be linked to the overall inflammatory cell reaction or represent a self-contained, antitumoral mechanism that needs to be documented and promoted therapeutically. Peri- and intratumoral eosinophil counts were retrospectively assessed in 381 primary colorectal cancers from randomly selected patients. Tumors were diagnosed in American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC)/Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (UICC) stage I in 21%, stage II in 32%, stage III in 33%, and stage IV in 14%. Presence and extent of eosinophils was related to various histopathological parameters as well as patients' outcome. Overall, peri- and intratumoral eosinophils were observed in 86 and 75% cancer specimens. The peritumoral eosinophil count correlated strongly with the intratumoral eosinophil count (R=0.69; P<0.001) and with the intensity of the overall inflammatory cell reaction (R=0.318; P<0.001). Both increasing peri- and intratumoral eosinophil counts were significantly associated with lower T and N classification, better tumor differentiation, absence of vascular invasion, as well as improved progression-free and cancer-specific survival. However, only peritumoral eosinophils, but not intratumoral, were an independent prognosticator of favorable progression-free (hazard ratio 0.75; 95% confidence interval 0.58-0.98; P=0.04) and cancer-specific survival (hazard ratio 0.7; 95% confidence interval 0.52-0.93; P=0.01)-independent of the intensity of overall inflammatory cell reaction. This was also found for patients with AJCC/UICC stage II disease, wherein the presence of peritumoral eosinophils was significantly associated with favorable outcome. In conclusion, the number of peritumoral eosinophils had a significant favorable impact on prognosis of colorectal cancer patients

  18. Skin prick test responses and allergen-specific IgE levels as predictors of peanut, egg, and sesame allergy in infants.

    PubMed

    Peters, Rachel L; Allen, Katrina J; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Tang, Mimi L K; Koplin, Jennifer J; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Lowe, Adrian J; Hill, David; Gurrin, Lyle C

    2013-10-01

    Ninety-five percent positive predictive values (PPVs) provide an invaluable tool for clinicians to avoid unnecessary oral food challenges. However, 95% PPVs specific to infants, the age group most likely to present for diagnosis of food allergy, are limited. We sought to develop skin prick test (SPT) and allergen-specific IgE (sIgE) thresholds with 95% PPVs for challenge-confirmed food allergy in a large population-based cohort of 1-year-old infants with challenges undertaken irrespective of SPT wheal size or previous history of ingestion. HealthNuts is a population-based, longitudinal food allergy study with baseline recruitment of 1-year-old infants. Infants were recruited from council-run immunization sessions during which they underwent SPTs to 4 allergens: egg, peanut, sesame, and cow's milk/shrimp. Any infant with a detectable SPT response was invited to undergo oral food challenge and sIgE testing. Five thousand two hundred seventy-six infants participated in the study. Peanut SPT responses of 8 mm or greater (95% CI, 7-9 mm), egg SPT responses of 4 mm or greater (95% CI, 3-5 mm), and sesame SPT responses of 8 mm or greater (95% CI, 5-9 mm) had 95% PPVs for challenge-proved food allergy. Peanut sIgE levels of 34 kUA/L or greater (95% CI, 14-48 kUA/L) and egg sIgE levels of 1.7 kUA/L or greater (95% CI, 1-3 kUA/L) had 95% PPVs for challenge-proved food allergy. Results were robust when stratified on established risk factors for food allergy. Egg SPT responses and sIgE levels were poor predictors of allergy to egg in baked goods. These 95% PPVs, which were generated from a unique dataset, are valuable for the diagnosis of food allergy in young infants and were robust when stratified across a number of different risk factors. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Short ragweed allergen induces eosinophilic lung disease in HLA-DQ transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Chapoval, Svetlana P.; Nabozny, Gerald H.; Marietta, Eric V.; Raymond, Ernie L.; Krco, Christopher J.; Andrews, Amy G.; David, Chella S.

    1999-01-01

    The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) restriction of the IgE response to different allergens in humans has been a subject of numerous published studies. However, the role and contribution of specific HLA class II molecules in the pathogenesis of allergic airway inflammation are unknown and difficult to assess. HLA-DQ6 and HLA-DQ8 transgenic mice lacking endogenous mouse class II gene expression were actively immunized and later challenged intranasally with short ragweed (SRW) allergenic extract. The HLA-DQ transgenic mice developed pulmonary eosinophilia and lung tissue damage. We also found an increase in total protein (TP) level and IL-5 production in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and an increase in SRW-specific Th2-type immunoglobulins (IgG1, IgG2b) and total serum IgE levels. Under similar treatment, DQ-negative full-sib control mice were normal. The allergic response could be significantly inhibited or abrogated in HLA-DQ mice by systemic treatment with anti-DQ mAb. The in vivo responses of HLA-DQ6 and HLA-DQ8 mice showed differences in terms of levels of eosinophilia, BAL protein, IL-5 concentration, and lung hyperreactivity to inhaled methacholine. These findings demonstrate the crucial role for specific HLA-DQ molecules in SRW-specific CD4+ T-cell activation and resulting recruitment of eosinophils into the airways. J. Clin. Invest. 103:1707–1717 (1999). PMID:10377177

  20. Long-term exposure to diesel exhaust enhances antigen-induced eosinophilic inflammation and epithelial damage in the murine airway.

    PubMed

    Ichinose, T; Takano, H; Miyabara, Y; Sagai, M

    1998-07-01

    The histopathologic changes in the murine airway induced by long-term exposure to diesel exhaust (DE), ovalbumin (OA), or both were investigated. The relationship between the histopathologic appearances in the airway and immunoglobulin production or local cytokine levels in the lungs was also studied. ICR mice were exposed to clean air or DE at a soot concentrations of 0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 mg/m3 for 34 weeks. Fifteen weeks after exposure to DE, mice were sensitized intraperitoneally with 10 micrograms of OA and challenged by an aerosol of 1% OA six times at 3-week intervals during the last 18 weeks of the exposure. DE exposure caused a dose-dependent increase of nonciliated cell proliferation and epithelial cell hypertrophy in the airway, but showed no effect on goblet cell proliferation in the bronchial epithelium and eosinophil recruitment in the submucosa of the airway. OA treatment induced very slight changes in goblet cell proliferation and eosinophil recruitment. The combination of OA and DE exposure produced dose-dependent increases of goblet cells and eosinophils, in addition to further increases of the typical changes induced by DE. OA treatment induced OA-specific IgG1 and IgE production in plasma, whereas the adjuvant effects of DE exposure on immunoglobulin production were not observed. Inhalation of DE led to increased levels of IL-5 protein in the lung at a soot concentration of 1.0 and 3.0 mg/m3 with OA, although these increases did not reach statistical significance. We conclude that the combination of antigen and chronic exposure to DE produces increased eosinophilic inflammation, and cell damage to the epithelium may depend on the degree of eosinophilic inflammation in the airway.

  1. A chronic eosinophilic pneumonia case with long exposure to isocyanates.

    PubMed

    Yalcin, Funda; Sak, Zafer Hasan Ali; Boyaci, Nurefsan; Gencer, Mehmet

    2014-10-01

    Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) is a disease with unknown etiology, characterized by peripheral blood eosinophilia and abnormal eosinophil accumulation in the lungs. A 43-year-old male with 30 years history of exposure to isocyanates was admitted with the complaint of sputum, cough, progressive dyspnoea, and weight loss. Physical examination revealed bilaterally decreased breath sounds and extensive rales. On laboratory analysis; leukocytosis (12.3 10(3)/proportional variant L), hypereosinophilia (30%), elevated CRP and RF (1000 IU/ml), and IgE levels (1160 IU/ml) in the serum were observed. Chest radiograph and computed tomography on admission showed reticulonodular pattern at both lung fields. Pulmonary function tests assumed a restrictive pattern and a low diffusing capacity. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed a marked eosinophilia (50%). Transbronchial lung biopsy indicated eosinophilic pneumonia. In this case we aimed to describe a rare case of CEP probably caused by exposure to isocyanate.

  2. Tannic acid, a higher galloylated pentagalloylglucose, suppresses antigen-specific IgE production by inhibiting ɛ germline transcription induced by STAT6 activation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon Hee; Yoshimoto, Miki; Nakayama, Kazuko; Tanino, Sousuke; Fujimura, Yoshinori; Yamada, Koji; Tachibana, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-4 is a critical stimulator that induces ɛ germline transcripts (ɛGT) for switch recombination to initiate immunoglobulin (Ig) E and is important in allergic disease pathogenesis. We found pentagalloylglucose (PGG) inhibited IL-4-induced ɛGT expression. PGG exerted its inhibitory function by suppressing IL-4-induced activation of IL-4Rα, JAK3 and STAT6. Furthermore, tannic acid, a higher galloylated PGG, attenuated ovalbumin-induced IgE production in vivo by inhibiting IL-4-induced ɛGT expression and the IL-4 signaling pathway. In conclusion, our results suggest that tannic acid may attenuate allergic diseases by suppressing IgE production by inhibiting IL-4-induced signaling.

  3. IgE immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Josephs, Debra H; Spicer, James F; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Gould, Hannah J; Karagiannis, Sophia N

    2014-01-01

    The importance of antibodies in activating immune responses against tumors is now better appreciated with the emergence of checkpoint blockade antibodies and with engineered antibody Fc domains featuring enhanced capacity to focus potent effector cells against cancer cells. Antibodies designed with Fc regions of the IgE class can confer natural, potent, long-lived immune surveillance in tissues through tenacious engagement of high-affinity cognate Fc receptors on distinct, often tumor-resident immune effector cells, and through ability to activate these cells under tumor-induced Th2-biased conditions. Here, we review the properties that make IgE a contributor to the allergic response and a critical player in the protection against parasites, which also support IgE as a novel anti-cancer modality. We discuss IgE-based active and passive immunotherapeutic approaches in disparate in vitro and in vivo model systems, collectively suggesting the potential of IgE immunotherapies in oncology. Translation toward clinical application is now in progress. PMID:24423620

  4. Safety and predictors of adverse events during oral immunotherapy for milk allergy: severity of reaction at oral challenge, specific IgE and prick test.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Ortiz, M; Alvaro-Lozano, M; Alsina, L; Garcia-Paba, M B; Piquer-Gibert, M; Giner-Muñoz, M T; Lozano, J; Domínguez-Sánchez, O; Jiménez, R; Días, M; Martín-Mateos, M A; Plaza-Martín, A M

    2013-01-01

    Strict avoidance is the only accepted management for cow's milk (CM) allergy. CM oral immunotherapy (CM-OIT) is under investigation. To evaluate long-term safety of CM-OIT. To identify clinical/immunological predictors of adverse events. Prospective longitudinal epidemiological intervention study. CM-allergic children aged 5-18 underwent a Spanish-approved CM-OIT protocol without premedication. Clinical data, skin prick test (SPT) and specific IgE (sIgE) at baseline and 1 year after OIT were registered. All dose-related reactions, treatments needed and cofactors involved were recorded. Through survival analysis, we studied the cumulative probability of reactions resolution over time and clinical/immunological risk factors of reactions persistence. 81 children were recruited. Mean follow-up was 25 months. 95% of children suffered reactions, 91% of which affected a single organ. Reactions were heterogeneously distributed: (a) 60 children (75%) had occasional symptoms which ceased over time. 86% of them reached complete desensitization (200 mL). (b) 20 children (25%) suffered frequent (78% of total reactions), more severe and unpredictable reactions, which persisted during follow-up or led to withdrawal (6 cases). Reactions persistence was associated with a higher frequency and severity. Kaplan-Meier estimate revealed a cumulative probability of reactions resolution of 25% at 3 months (95% CI: 1.9-4.1) and 50% (95% CI: 6.1-9.9) at 8 months based on all patients. Cox proportional hazards multivariate regression model identified 3 variables (CM-sIgE ≥ 50 KU L(-1) , CM-SPT ≥ 9 mm and Sampson's severity grades 2, 3 and 4 at baseline food challenge) as independent risk factors of reactions persistence. The combination of 2 or 3 of these factors involved hazard ratios to develop persistent reactions of 2.26 (95% CI: 1.14-4.46; P = 0.019) and 6.06 (95% CI: 2.7-13.7; P < 0.001), respectively. CM-OIT was insufficiently safe in 25% of children. The above-mentioned clinical

  5. Usefulness of antigen-specific IgE probability curves derived from the 3gAllergy assay in diagnosing egg, cow's milk, and wheat allergies.

    PubMed

    Sato, Sakura; Ogura, Kiyotake; Takahashi, Kyohei; Sato, Yasunori; Yanagida, Noriyuki; Ebisawa, Motohiro

    2017-04-01

    Specific IgE (sIgE) antibody detection using the Siemens IMMULITE(®) 3gAllergy™ (3gAllergy) assay have not been sufficiently examined for the diagnosis of food allergy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of measuring sIgE levels using the 3gAllergy assay to diagnose allergic reactions to egg, milk, and wheat. This retrospective study was conducted on patients with diagnosed or suspected allergies to egg, milk and wheat. Patients were divided into two groups according to their clinical reactivity to these allergens based on oral food challenge outcomes and/or convincing histories of immediate reaction to causative food(s). The sIgE levels were measured using 3gAllergy and ImmunoCAP. Predicted probability curves were estimated using logistic regression analysis. We analyzed 1561 patients, ages 0-19 y (egg = 436, milk = 499, wheat = 626). The sIgE levels determined using 3gAllergy correlated with those of ImmunoCAP, classifying 355 patients as symptomatic: egg = 149, milk = 123, wheat = 83. 3gAllergy sIgE levels were significantly higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic patients (P < 0.0001). Predictive probability for positive food allergy was significantly increased and correlated with increased sIgE levels. The cut-offs for allergic reaction with 95% predictive probability as determined by the 3gAllergy probability curves were different from those of ImmunoCAP. Measurements of sIgE against egg, milk, and wheat as determined by 3gAllergy may be used as a tool to facilitate the diagnosis of food allergy in subjects with suspected food allergies. However, these probability curves should not be applied interchangeably between different assays. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Allergic mechanisms of Eosinophilic oesophagitis.

    PubMed

    Leung, John; Beukema, Koen Robert; Shen, Alice Hangzhou

    2015-10-01

    Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) is characterized by oesophageal dysfunction and oesophageal eosinophilia refractory to proton-pump-inhibitor treatment. EoE is a food allergy, as elimination of food trigger(s) abrogates the disease, while trigger reintroduction causes recurrence. The allergic mechanism of EoE involves both IgE and non-IgE processes. There is a break in oral tolerance, the immune mechanism allowing enteric exposure to food and micro-organisms without causing deleterious immune responses. Changes in life-style, alterations in gut flora and use of antibiotics may be increasing disease prevalence. Mouse models of EoE and human studies revealed the role of regulatory T-cells and iNKT-cells in the pathogenesis. Th2-cytokines like IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13, and other cytokines like TGFβ and TSLP are involved, but perhaps no one cytokine is critically important for driving the disease. Control of EoE may require a pharmaceutical approach that blocks more than one target in the Th2-inflammatory pathway.

  7. MOTION PICTURE STUDIES ON DEGRANULATION OF HORSE EOSINOPHILS DURING PHAGOCYTOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Gordon T.; Hirsch, James G.

    1963-01-01

    Horse eosinophil function has been studied in vitro by means of phase contrast cinemicrophotography. Locomotion of horse eosinophils was inhibited by serum factors reacting with glass surfaces. Under appropriate conditions which eliminated this inhibitory effect, eosinophils moved about and ingested some particles as rapidly as did neutrophils. Eosinophils were attracted to and readily engulfed such diverse materials as yeast cell walls, foreign erythrocytes, and antigen-antibody precipitates. Specific antibody was required for phagocytosis of red cells, and greatly accelerated the uptake of yeast cell walls. Horse eosinophil granules situated adjacent to material being engulfed disrupted with discharge of granule contents into or alongside the phagocytic vacuole. Granule disruption resulted in a clear zone and deposition of amorphous, phase-dense material. A heat-labile serum factor was required for degranulation of eosinophils ingesting foreign red cells, but not for degranulation during engulfment of yeast cell walls or antigen-antibody precipitates. Horse eosinophils were incapable under these conditions of engulfing an entire human red cell. The eosinophil commonly put out a large pseudopod to surround about half the red cell, and then appeared to constrict this pseudopod distally to cut the erythrocyte in half. It is concluded that eosinophils are phagocytic cells, resembling neutrophils in many of their properties. Any specific functions of eosinophils, distinguishing them from other phagocytes, remain to be discovered. PMID:14074392

  8. Eosinophilic annular erythema.

    PubMed

    Sempau, Leticia; Larralde, Margarita; Luna, Paula Carolina; Casas, Jose; Staiger, Hernan

    2012-03-15

    Eosinophilic annular erythema is a rare benign recurrent disease, originally described in children, characterized by the recurrent appearance of persistent non-pruritic, urticarial annular lesions. Histologically a perivascular infiltrate composed of lymphocytes and abundant eosinophils in the dermis is exhibited. We report the case of a 15-year-old boy who presented with a 4-year history of recurrent flares of erythematous annular plaques on the trunk and extremities. The lesions resolved spontaneously after 3-5 weeks with no accompanying signs. A biopsy showed a mainly perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate with numerous eosinophils in the dermis.

  9. [Eosinophils and eosinophilia].

    PubMed

    Scarlata, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    Eosinophils were previously considered granulocytes involved in host protection against helminth infections and in inflammation related to atopic diseases. Instead, as supported by recent studies, eosinophils are today considered multifunctional cells involved also in homeostasis of the gastrointestinal tract and other organs, conferring innate and adaptive immunity to certain bacteria and viruses, and perhaps in the control of oncogenicity. Unexplained eosinophilia could be an expression of paraneoplastic syndrome or constitutional factors. Irrespective of the underlying conditions and aetiology of eosinophilia, eosinophil-derived substances may induce potentially irreversible organ damage. A diagnostic algorithm is discussed.

  10. Localization of eosinophil granule major basic protein in human basophils

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    In experiments using an immunofluorescent method to localize human eosinophil granule major basic protein (MBP) in cells and tissues, a small number of cells stained for MBP that subsequently could not be identified as eosinophils. Because the Charcot-Leyden crystal protein, another eosinophil protein, was recently identified in basophils, we tested whether MBP might also be a constituent of blood basophils. Highly purified, eosinophil-free basophil suspensions were prepared using the fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) to sort basophil- containing mononuclear cell preparations stained with fluorescein- conjugated sheep IgG anti-human IgE antibody. Using these FACS-purified basophils, we found that: (a) enrichment for surface IgE-positive cells (greater than 95% basophils) by FACS also enriched for cells staining for MBP by immunofluorescence; (b) MBP appeared to be localized in the histamine-, heparin-containing granules; (c) significant quantities of MBP were measurable by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in freeze-thaw detergent extracts of purified basophils; and (d) RIA dose-response curves for extracts of purified eosinophils and basophils had identical slopes. The MBP content of basophils from normal individuals averaged 140 ng/10(6) cells, whereas purified eosinophils from normal donors and patients with the hyper-eosinophilic syndrome averaged 4,979 and 824 ng/10(6) cells, respectively. MBP was also detected by immunofluorescence and RIA in cells obtained from a patient with basophil leukemia, although the MBP content for basophil leukemia cells was lower than that for normal basophils. We conclude that basophils contain a protein that is immunochemically indistinguishable from eosinophil granule MBP. PMID:6350526

  11. [Ulcerative colitis and eosinophilic corpus gastritis].

    PubMed

    Nagy, Ferenc; Molnár, Tamás; F Kiss, Zsuzsanna; Tiszlavicz, László; Lonovics, János

    2004-10-31

    Ulcerative colitis seldom associated with nutritive and/or salicylate allergy. Authors present a case of both allergic events at the course of the disease. In 1996 a 19-year-old girl was referred with a history of blood in stool as well as diarrhoea, suggesting ulcerative proctitis. Biopsy revealed ulcerative colitis of the rectum mucosa with eosinophilic infiltration and 20% peripheral eosinophilia was found. Allergic origin and worm infection were ruled out, and after tinidazol treatment, four year elapsed without any signs or symptoms. In December 2000 blood in stools and upper abdominal complaints developed without peripheral eosinophilia. Gastroscopy and biopsy showed a mild chronic gastritis. Olsalazine, budesonide enema and famotidin treatment were started, but then later changed to mesalazine and pantoprazol, because of the constant stomach complaints. The next five months passed without any symptoms. The patient had to break off her seashore journey in July 2000 because of stomach complaints, vomiting and exsiccosis. Peripheral eosinophilia (27.3%) was evident. Gastroscopy revealed erosive ulcers and the biopsy showed eosinophilic gastritis. Biopsies from the jejunum, duodenum and antrum as well as enteroscopy and biopsies from the rectum showed mild eosinophilic infiltration. An allergy test proved the presence of IgE against salicylate, egg protein, seafood protein and the lymphocyte transformation test was also positive against salicylate. Oral food challenges proved to be negative and the amino-salicylate treatment was stopped. After a temporary symptom free period, bloody stools reappeared in May 2003; the peripheral eosinophilia still existed, but had decreased (22.2%). Esomeprazol, and methyl-prednisolone containing enema (40 mg/day/2 weeks) followed by budesonide enema twice a week resulted in a symptom free period and peripheral eosinophilia became almost normalised (6.2%). The authors report a case having ulcerative proctitis first, than

  12. Genetics of Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    chemokine production13,18; however, it has been observed that activated mast cells can also express TSLP to similarly drive TH2 responses. 12,19,20 Indeed... activation . Of the eotaxins, only CCL26 is upregulated in patients with EoE, and its expression correlates with eosinophil (and mast cell ) levels within...inflammation, including eosinophils 61 and mast cells .62 For instance, TSLP activates dendritic cells to adopt a TH2 prim- ing phenotype through the

  13. Elemental diet decreases inflammation and improves symptoms in adult eosinophilic oesophagitis patients.

    PubMed

    Warners, M J; Vlieg-Boerstra, B J; Verheij, J; van Rhijn, B D; Van Ampting, M T J; Harthoorn, L F; de Jonge, W J; Smout, A J P M; Bredenoord, A J

    2017-03-01

    Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) is a chronic disease, driven by food allergens. Elemental diets are effective for the management of children with EoE, but studies on the effect of elemental diets in adults are scarce and poor palatability challenges dietary adherence. To assess the effects of an elemental diet (Neocate, Nutricia, Utrecht, the Netherlands) on the inflammation, symptoms and endoscopic signs in adult EoE patients. In this prospective study, 21 patients with active EoE, confirmed by biopsies showing ≥15 eosinophils per microscopic high power field (HPF) and symptoms of oesophageal dysfunction were included. Patients underwent endoscopy before and 4 weeks after diet. Histological disease activity (peak eosinophil count/HPF), and endoscopic signs were scored by physicians. Symptoms and adherence to the diet were evaluated by questionnaires. Serum total IgE levels and total eosinophil counts were determined and the expression of inflammatory cytokines was analysed by qPCR. In total, 17 (81%) of the patients completed the diet, of whom 12 (71%) showed complete histological response (≤15 eosinophils/HPF) and 4 (24%) showed partial histological response (≥50% reduction of baseline eosinophil count). Peak eosinophil counts decreased significantly after the diet from 40 to 9 per HPF (P ≤ 0.001). A marked improvement in endoscopic signs was observed. Symptoms decreased significantly in all subjects, and 15 patients (88%) became completely asymptomatic (P ≤ 0.001). In 14 patients (82%), blood eosinophil count and serum IgE decreased (P ≤ 0.05). Elemental diet reduces eosinophilic inflammation and induces clinical remission in adult patients with eosinophilic oesophagitis. © 2017 The Authors. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Changes over Time in IgE Sensitization to Allergens of the Fish Parasite Anisakis spp.

    PubMed

    Carballeda-Sangiao, Noelia; Rodríguez-Mahillo, Ana I; Careche, Mercedes; Navas, Alfonso; Moneo, Ignacio; González-Muñoz, Miguel

    2016-07-01

    Sensitization to Anisakis spp. can produce allergic reactions after eating raw or undercooked parasitized fish. Specific IgE is detected long after the onset of symptoms, but the changes in specific IgE levels over a long follow-up period are unknown; furthermore, the influence of Anisakis spp. allergen exposure through consumption of fishery products is also unknown. To analyse the changes in IgE sensitization to Anisakis spp. allergens over several years of follow-up and the influence of the consumption of fishery products in IgE sensitization. Total IgE, Anisakis spp.-specific IgE, anti-Ani s 1 and anti-Ani s 4 IgE were repeatedly measured over a median follow-up duration of 49 months in 17 sensitized patients. Anisakis spp.-specific IgE was detected in 16/17 patients throughout the follow-up period. The comparison between baseline and last visit measurements showed significant decreases in both total IgE and specific IgE. The specific IgE values had an exponential or polynomial decay trend in 13/17 patients. In 4/17 patients, an increase in specific IgE level with the introduction of fish to the diet was observed. Three patients reported symptoms after eating aquaculture or previously frozen fish, and in two of those patients, symptom presentation was coincident with an increase in specific IgE level. IgE sensitization to Anisakis spp. allergens lasts for many years since specific IgE was detectable in some patients after more than 8 years from the allergic episode. Specific IgE monitoring showed that specific IgE titres increase in some allergic patients and that allergen contamination of fishery products can account for the observed increase in Anisakis spp.-specific IgE level. Following sensitization to Anisakis spp. allergens, the absence of additional exposure to those allergens does not result in the loss of IgE sensitization. Exposure to Anisakis spp. allergens in fishery products can increase the specific IgE level in some sensitized patients.

  15. Changes over Time in IgE Sensitization to Allergens of the Fish Parasite Anisakis spp.

    PubMed Central

    Carballeda-Sangiao, Noelia; Rodríguez-Mahillo, Ana I.; Careche, Mercedes; Navas, Alfonso; Moneo, Ignacio; González-Muñoz, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Background Sensitization to Anisakis spp. can produce allergic reactions after eating raw or undercooked parasitized fish. Specific IgE is detected long after the onset of symptoms, but the changes in specific IgE levels over a long follow-up period are unknown; furthermore, the influence of Anisakis spp. allergen exposure through consumption of fishery products is also unknown. Objective To analyse the changes in IgE sensitization to Anisakis spp. allergens over several years of follow-up and the influence of the consumption of fishery products in IgE sensitization. Methods Total IgE, Anisakis spp.-specific IgE, anti-Ani s 1 and anti-Ani s 4 IgE were repeatedly measured over a median follow-up duration of 49 months in 17 sensitized patients. Results Anisakis spp.-specific IgE was detected in 16/17 patients throughout the follow-up period. The comparison between baseline and last visit measurements showed significant decreases in both total IgE and specific IgE. The specific IgE values had an exponential or polynomial decay trend in 13/17 patients. In 4/17 patients, an increase in specific IgE level with the introduction of fish to the diet was observed. Three patients reported symptoms after eating aquaculture or previously frozen fish, and in two of those patients, symptom presentation was coincident with an increase in specific IgE level. Conclusions IgE sensitization to Anisakis spp. allergens lasts for many years since specific IgE was detectable in some patients after more than 8 years from the allergic episode. Specific IgE monitoring showed that specific IgE titres increase in some allergic patients and that allergen contamination of fishery products can account for the observed increase in Anisakis spp.-specific IgE level. Clinical Relevance Following sensitization to Anisakis spp. allergens, the absence of additional exposure to those allergens does not result in the loss of IgE sensitization. Exposure to Anisakis spp. allergens in fishery products can

  16. Increased proportions of CCR4(+) cells among peripheral blood CD4(+) cells and serum levels of allergen-specific IgE antibody in canine chronic rhinitis and bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Yamaya, Yoshiki; Watari, Toshihiro

    2015-04-01

    Canine chronic rhinitis (CR) and bronchitis (CB) are suspected to be allergic diseases. The present study tested whether dogs diagnosed with CR or CB present an atopic predisposition based on the ratio of CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4)-positive cells among peripheral blood CD4-positive cells (CCR4/CD4) and the serum levels of allergen-specific IgE antibodies. We found that most dogs with CR and CB have a possibility of atopic predisposition, and macrolide therapy constitutes an alternative to corticosteroid therapy in controlling the clinical signs.

  17. IgG2 deficiency in a healthy blood donor. Concomitant lack of IgG2, IgA and IgE immunoglobulins and specific anti-carbohydrate antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Hammarström, L; Smith, C I

    1983-01-01

    Lack of serum IgG2, IgA and IgE was found in a healthy male adult blood donor. No secretory IgA could be demonstrated. In vitro activation of lymphocytes did not induce IgA secreting cells although no class specific suppressor cells could be found. Normal or slightly subnormal titres to a variety of bacterial and viral antigens were demonstrated whereas anti-carbohydrate antibodies (anti-teichoic acid, anti-dextran and anti-pneumococcal polysaccharide) were virtually absent. Isoagglutinins and heteroagglutinins were present in somewhat lower concentrations than normal. PMID:6189654

  18. IGES transformer and NURBS in grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Tzu-Yi; Soni, Bharat K.

    1993-01-01

    In the field of Grid Generation and the CAD/CAM, there are numerous geometry output formats which require the designer to spend a great deal of time manipulating geometrical entities in order to achieve a useful sculptured geometrical description for grid generation. Also in this process, there is a danger of losing fidelity of the geometry under consideration. This stresses the importance of a standard geometry definition for the communication link between varying CAD/CAM and grid system. The IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) file is a widely used communication between CAD/CAM and the analysis tools. The scientists at NASA Research Centers - including NASA Ames, NASA Langley, NASA Lewis, NASA Marshall - have recognized this importance and, therefore, in 1992 they formed the committee of the 'NASA-IGES' which is the subset of the standard IGES. This committee stresses the importance and encourages the CFD community to use the standard IGES file for the interface between the CAD/CAM and CFD analysis. Also, two of the IGES entities -- the NURBS Curve (Entity 126) and NURBS Surface (Entity 128) -- which have many useful geometric properties -- like the convex hull property, local control property and affine invariance, also widely utilized analytical geometries can be accurately represented using NURBS. This is important in today grid generation tools because of the emphasis of the interactive design. To satisfy the geometry transformation between the CAD/CAM system and Grid Generation field, the CAGI (Computer Aided Geometry Design) developed, which include the Geometry Transformation, Geometry Manipulation and Geometry Generation as well as the user interface. This paper will present the successful development IGES file transformer and application of NURBS definition in the grid generation.

  19. The lymphokine eosinophil stimulation promoter and human schistosomiasis mansoni.

    PubMed

    Kazura, J W; Mahmoud, A A; Karb, K S; Warren, K S

    1975-12-01

    An in vitro assay for the new lymphokine eosinophil stimulation promoter has been adapted for use with human material. Peripheral eosinophils from patients with schistosomiasis mansoni were specifically induced to migrate on incubation with egg antigen. Furthermore, the peripheral lymphocytes of these patients on incubation with the egg antigen secreted the lymphokine eosinophil stimulation promoter, which enhanced the migration of purified eosinophils from patients with or without schistosomiasis. The test can be easily performed with human target cells and may be helpful for diagnostic or investigative purposes.

  20. Eosinophils generate brominating oxidants in allergen-induced asthma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Weijia; Samoszuk, Michael K.; Comhair, Suzy A.A.; Thomassen, Mary Jane; Farver, Carol F.; Dweik, Raed A.; Kavuru, Mani S.; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Hazen, Stanley L.

    2000-01-01

    Eosinophils promote tissue injury and contribute to the pathogenesis of allergen-triggered diseases like asthma, but the chemical basis of damage to eosinophil targets is unknown. We now demonstrate that eosinophil activation in vivo results in oxidative damage of proteins through bromination of tyrosine residues, a heretofore unrecognized pathway for covalent modification of biologic targets in human tissues. Mass spectrometric studies demonstrated that 3-bromotyrosine serves as a specific “molecular fingerprint” for proteins modified through the eosinophil peroxidase-H2O2 system in the presence of plasma levels of halides. We applied a localized allergen challenge to model the effects of eosinophils and brominating oxidants in human lung injury. Endobronchial biopsy specimens from allergen-challenged lung segments of asthmatic, but not healthy control, subjects demonstrated significant enrichments in eosinophils and eosinophil peroxidase. Baseline levels of 3-bromotyrosine in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) proteins from mildly allergic asthmatic individuals were modestly but not statistically significantly elevated over those in control subjects. After exposure to segmental allergen challenge, lung segments of asthmatics, but not healthy control subjects, exhibited a >10-fold increase in BAL 3-bromotyrosine content, but only two- to threefold increases in 3-chlorotyrosine, a specific oxidation product formed by neutrophil- and monocyte-derived myeloperoxidase. These results identify reactive brominating species produced by eosinophils as a distinct class of oxidants formed in vivo. They also reveal eosinophil peroxidase as a potential therapeutic target for allergen-triggered inflammatory tissue injury in humans. PMID:10811853

  1. Sex steroid hormones and circulating IgE levels.

    PubMed

    Mathur, S; Mathur, R S; Goust, J M; Williamson, H O; Fudenberg, H H

    1977-12-01

    The possible influence of sex steroid hormones on circulating IgE levels in general and IgE anti-Candida antibodies in particular was studied by quantification of plasma levels of progesterone, estradiol and IgE (total and anti-Candida-specific) in females during the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle, and during pregnancy. IgE levels during the follicular and luteal phases were not significantly different, although the mean values for the luteal phase were slightly lower. This trend was apparent in daily samples from two normal females during one menstrual cycle. During pregnancy, when the levels of circulating sex steroids were high, IgE levels were only slightly higher than in the follicular and luteal phases. In men and in gonadal dysgenetics, circulating progesterone levels were similar to those of women during the follicular phase (i.e., lower than in the luteal phase or in pregnancy), but the IgE levels were not different. The apparently low levels of IgE during the luteal phase may therefore be due to physiological factors other than fluctuations in the sex steroid hormones. From the present studies, it is apparent that sex steroid hormones have little or no effect on humoral IgE levels, in marked contrast to previously described correlations for other immunoglobulins, especially anti-Candida antibodies.

  2. Eosinophils in the 1990s: new perspectives on their role in health and disease.

    PubMed Central

    Wardlaw, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    Eosinophils are characterized by their unique crystalloid granules that contain four basic proteins--MBP, ECP, EDN and EPO. The cell has many common features with neutrophils but, unlike that cell type, eosinophils utilize VLA-4/VCAM-1 as an adherence pathway and have a number of other receptors not shared by neutrophils. These include recognition units for IgE (distinct from CD23), and receptors for IL-5, IL-3 and RANTES. Following stimulation with a variety of agents, eosinophils preferentially elaborate LTC4 as the major 5-lipoxygenase product of arachidonic acid and produce substantial amounts of PAF. Of particular interest is the ability of eosinophils to synthesize a number of cytokines. Thus eosinophils have marked pro-inflammatory potential. There is now convincing evidence that eosinophilia is T-cell dependent. The Th2-type cell, which selectively secretes IL-5 and IL-4, seems particularly involved. IL-5, IL-3 and GM-CSF are required for eosinophil maturation, and cause activation and prolonged survival of the mature cell. IL-5 is unique in that it promotes terminal differentiation of the committed eosinophil precursor and in vivo in mice appears to be sufficient on its own for eosinophil growth from uncommited stem cells. IL-4 selectively upregulates VCAM-1 expression on endothelial cells thus augmenting VLA-4-dependent eosinophil adhesion. The role of eosinophils in disease is complex but in general their numbers are increased in helminthic parasitic disease and atopic allergy and asthma. Eosinophil products can produce many of the pathological features of asthma, and helminthic larvae coated with immunoglobulin or complement are particularly susceptible to eosinophil-mediated cytotoxicity. Eosinopenia is often related to acute inflammation or stress. PMID:7937446

  3. The relative paucity of IgE in human milk.

    PubMed

    Underdown, B J; Knight, A; Papsin, F R

    1976-05-01

    The levels of IgE were determined in paired samples of serum and milk when whey obtained 3 to 8 days of postpartum, from 16 human lactating mothers who had reported a history of allergy to a variety of common allergens. Two assay procedures were employed to measure total IgE, a double-antibody assay and a commercially available solid phase assay (RIST). In addition, each sample of serum and whey was tested for specific IgE antibodies to a variety of allergens by the RAST test. The levels of total serum IgE were between 30 and 2300 I.U./ml and relatively good agreement was observed for both the double-antibody and RIST methods. In contrast, total IgE levels in milk whey were either undetectable (less than 3.0 I.U./ml in 14 of 16 subjects) or very low when analyzed by the double-antibody method, but were very high (400 to 1650 I.U./ml when analyzed by the RIST method. However, IgE added to milk whey could be measured by the double-antibody procedure indicating that the low levels detected in milk were not a fault of the double-antibody assay. It was assumed that the RIST test was subject to nonspecific interference by factors in milk whey which caused the determination of high, but incorrect, levels of IgE. Specific IgE antibodies were detected in the serum of 10 of 16 subjects but were not present in milk whey. A comparison of the whey/serum ratios of albumin, IgA, and IgE suggested that little, if any, IgE is selectively synthesized or secreted in the mammary gland.

  4. Improving the detection of fungi in eosinophilic mucin: seeing what we could not see before.

    PubMed

    Guo, Canting; Ghadersohi, Saied; Kephart, Gail M; Laine, Roger A; Sherris, David A; Kita, Hirohita; Ponikau, Jens U

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the improvement in histologic detection of fungi with Gomori methenamine silver (GMS) stain by trypsin predigestion in the mucus of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Prospective, single group, descriptive analysis. Multi-institutional. Thirty-four sinus specimens from 12 surgical patients with CRS were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, GMS stain, GMS with trypsin digestion, immunofluorescence stains for chitinase, and anti-Alternaria. All patients received skin testing, total IgE serology, and radioallergosorbent tests (RAST) for 23 fungal-specific IgE antibodies. The conventional GMS stain detected fungi in only 9 of 34 (27%) specimens. Predigesting the specimen with trypsin dramatically improved the visualization of fungi (31/34, 91%). The chitinase immunofluorescence visualized fungi in 32 of 34 (94%), and anti-Alternaria visualized 33 of 34 specimens (97%). Only 8 of 12 (75%) patients had detectable allergies. This report describes a simple modification of the conventional GMS stain that can significantly improve the visualization of fungi on histology and explains the lack of detection in previous studies. These novel, more sensitive histologic methods reveal the presence of fungi within the eosinophilic mucin in allergic and also nonallergic CRS patients, further questioning a crucial role of an IgE-mediated pathophysiology.

  5. IgE antibodies in toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Matowicka-Karna, Joanna; Kemona, Halina

    2014-05-15

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide infection caused by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. At least a third of the world human population is infected with the parasite, making it one of the most successful parasitic infections. Primary maternal infection may cause health-threatening sequelae for the fetus, or even cause death of the uterus. Reactivation of a latent infection in immune deficiency conditions such as AIDS and organ transplantation can cause fatal toxoplasmic encephalitis. Toxoplasmosis is a major cause of chorioretinitis, especially in individuals with impaired immune systems. In the acute phase, directly after invading the body, T. gondii begins to multiply rapidly. In the majority of cases acquired toxoplasmosis is asymptomatic. In the second week of infection, specific IgM antibodies are present in the blood. IgE antibodies appear at the same time, slightly preceding specific IgA antibodies. The concentration of IgE can be one of the parameters used for diagnosing an infection with T. gondii. Laboratory diagnosis, i.e. IgE and serologic assays, plays the main role in the diagnosis of congenital infection and assists in the confirmatory diagnosis of toxoplasmic encephalitis and ocular toxoplasmosis. This article is a review of IgE in toxoplasmosis.

  6. Patterns of Allergic Sensitization in High IgE Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Monica G

    2015-12-01

    Dramatic elevations in the serum IgE level are seen both in polygenic allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis and food allergy, and in a growing list of monogenic primary immune deficiencies (PIDs). Although the IgE produced in patients with PID has generally been considered to be driven by dysregulated IL-4 production and thus lack antigen specificity, in fact allergen-specific IgE can be detected by skin and serum testing in many of these patients. However, perhaps not surprisingly given the distinct immunologic pathways involved, the patterns of allergic disease and atopic sensitization vary widely between syndromes, leading to strikingly different clinical phenotypes.

  7. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 regulates degranulation in human eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Odemuyiwa, Solomon O; Ilarraza, Ramses; Davoine, Francis; Logan, Michael R; Shayeganpour, Anooshirvan; Wu, Yingqi; Majaesic, Carina; Adamko, Darryl J; Moqbel, Redwan; Lacy, Paige

    2015-04-01

    Degranulation from eosinophils in response to secretagogue stimulation is a regulated process that involves exocytosis of granule proteins through specific signalling pathways. One potential pathway is dependent on cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) and its effector molecules, p35 and p39, which play a central role in neuronal cell exocytosis by phosphorylating Munc18, a regulator of SNARE binding. Emerging evidence suggests a role for Cdk5 in exocytosis in immune cells, although its role in eosinophils is not known. We sought to examine the expression of Cdk5 and its activators in human eosinophils, and to assess the role of Cdk5 in eosinophil degranulation. We used freshly isolated human eosinophils and analysed the expression of Cdk5, p35, p39 and Munc18c by Western blot, RT-PCR, flow cytometry and immunoprecipitation. Cdk5 kinase activity was determined following eosinophil activation. Cdk5 inhibitors were used (roscovitine, AT7519 and small interfering RNA) to determine its role in eosinophil peroxidase (EPX) secretion. Cdk5 was expressed in association with Munc18c, p35 and p39, and phosphorylated following human eosinophil activation with eotaxin/CCL11, platelet-activating factor, and secretory IgA-Sepharose. Cdk5 inhibitors (roscovitine, AT7519) reduced EPX release when cells were stimulated by PMA or secretory IgA. In assays using small interfering RNA knock-down of Cdk5 expression in human eosinophils, we observed inhibition of EPX release. Our findings suggest that in activated eosinophils, Cdk5 is phosphorylated and binds to Munc18c, resulting in Munc18c release from syntaxin-4, allowing SNARE binding and vesicle fusion, with subsequent eosinophil degranulation. Our work identifies a novel role for Cdk5 in eosinophil mediator release by agonist-induced degranulation.

  8. Eosinophilic Liver Infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa Rivera, Ivonne; Toro, Doris H.; Gutierrez, Jose; Acosta, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic liver infiltration is a commonly encountered focal eosinophil-related inflammation with or without necrosis, which can be seen on computed tomography (CT) in the presence of peripheral eosinophilia. Although this entity has a relatively benign course, it is related to numerable conditions for which diagnosis may be challenging and requires substantial diagnostic work-up for proper management and care of the underlying disease. We report a case of a 60-year-old man who presented with a 1-week history of right upper quadrant abdominal pain with multiple ill-defined liver hypodensities associated with significant eosinophilia. PMID:26504883

  9. A single glycan on IgE is indispensable for initiation of anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Shade, Kai-Ting C; Platzer, Barbara; Washburn, Nathaniel; Mani, Vinidhra; Bartsch, Yannic C; Conroy, Michelle; Pagan, Jose D; Bosques, Carlos; Mempel, Thorsten R; Fiebiger, Edda; Anthony, Robert M

    2015-04-06

    Immunoglobulin ε (IgE) antibodies are the primary mediators of allergic diseases, which affect more than 1 in 10 individuals worldwide. IgE specific for innocuous environmental antigens, or allergens, binds and sensitizes tissue-resident mast cells expressing the high-affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI. Subsequent allergen exposure cross-links mast cell-bound IgE, resulting in the release of inflammatory mediators and initiation of the allergic cascade. It is well established that precise glycosylation patterns exert profound effects on the biological activity of IgG. However, the contribution of glycosylation to IgE biology is less clear. Here, we demonstrate an absolute requirement for IgE glycosylation in allergic reactions. The obligatory glycan was mapped to a single N-linked oligomannose structure in the constant domain 3 (Cε3) of IgE, at asparagine-394 (N394) in human IgE and N384 in mouse. Genetic disruption of the site or enzymatic removal of the oligomannose glycan altered IgE secondary structure and abrogated IgE binding to FcεRI, rendering IgE incapable of eliciting mast cell degranulation, thereby preventing anaphylaxis. These results underscore an unappreciated and essential requirement of glycosylation in IgE biology. © 2015 Shade et al.

  10. A single glycan on IgE is indispensable for initiation of anaphylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Shade, Kai-Ting C.; Platzer, Barbara; Washburn, Nathaniel; Mani, Vinidhra; Bartsch, Yannic C.; Conroy, Michelle; Pagan, Jose D.; Bosques, Carlos; Mempel, Thorsten R.; Fiebiger, Edda

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin ε (IgE) antibodies are the primary mediators of allergic diseases, which affect more than 1 in 10 individuals worldwide. IgE specific for innocuous environmental antigens, or allergens, binds and sensitizes tissue-resident mast cells expressing the high-affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI. Subsequent allergen exposure cross-links mast cell–bound IgE, resulting in the release of inflammatory mediators and initiation of the allergic cascade. It is well established that precise glycosylation patterns exert profound effects on the biological activity of IgG. However, the contribution of glycosylation to IgE biology is less clear. Here, we demonstrate an absolute requirement for IgE glycosylation in allergic reactions. The obligatory glycan was mapped to a single N-linked oligomannose structure in the constant domain 3 (Cε3) of IgE, at asparagine-394 (N394) in human IgE and N384 in mouse. Genetic disruption of the site or enzymatic removal of the oligomannose glycan altered IgE secondary structure and abrogated IgE binding to FcεRI, rendering IgE incapable of eliciting mast cell degranulation, thereby preventing anaphylaxis. These results underscore an unappreciated and essential requirement of glycosylation in IgE biology. PMID:25824821

  11. EoE (Eosinophilic Esophagitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 15 or more eosinophils per high-powered microscopic field warrants a diagnosis of EoE. A patient may ... Eosinophilic Esophagitis EoE- How do we diagnose? APFED’s Educational Webinar Series © American Partnership for Eosinophilic Disorders (APFED) ...

  12. Indoor insect allergens are potent inducers of experimental eosinophilic esophagitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Rayapudi, Madhavi; Mavi, Parm; Zhu, Xiang; Pandey, Akhilesh K.; Abonia, J. Pablo; Rothenberg, Marc E.; Mishra, Anil

    2010-01-01

    EE is an emerging disease reported in children and adults of urbanized countries, where indoor insect allergens are major health risk factors. Review of our hospital patient database uncovered that a number of EE patients have hypersensitivity to indoor cat, dog, cockroach, and dust mite allergens. We tested the hypothesis whether inhaled indoor insect allergens are effective inducers of experimental EE. We delivered cat, dog, cockroach, and dust mite allergen extracts intranasally to wild-type and eotaxin-1/2-, CCR3-, and IL-5-deficient mice. Interestingly, wild-type mice exposed to cockroach or dust mite allergens develop a significant increase in the levels of esophageal eosinophils and mast cells compared with saline-challenged mice. The eosinophil numbers in the esophagus of cockroach- and dust mite-exposed mice were 18.3 ± 6.8/mm2 and 33.4 ± 11.1/mm2 compared with 2.3 ± 1.8/mm2 and 2.1 ± 1.2/mm2 in saline-challenged mice. Additionally, we observed an additive effect of these two allergens in inducing esophageal eosinophilia and mastocytosis. Histopathological analysis detected intraepithelial esophageal eosinophilia in mice exposed to both allergens. Furthermore, mice exposed to cockroach and/or dust mite had increased levels of total IgE and antigen-specific IgG1 in the blood and increased esophageal expression of eosinophil-active cytokines (IL-13) and chemokines (eotaxin-1). Notably, mice deficient in eotaxin-1/2, CCR3, and IL-5 showed ablated esophageal eosinophilia following cockroach or dust mite allergen exposure. These data indicate that indoor insect allergens are potent inducers of IL-5 and eotaxin-mediated esophageal eosinophilia. These experimental studies are in accordance with clinical data but may have some limitations inherent to animal models of human disease. PMID:20413729

  13. Indoor insect allergens are potent inducers of experimental eosinophilic esophagitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Rayapudi, Madhavi; Mavi, Parm; Zhu, Xiang; Pandey, Akhilesh K; Abonia, J Pablo; Rothenberg, Marc E; Mishra, Anil

    2010-08-01

    EE is an emerging disease reported in children and adults of urbanized countries, where indoor insect allergens are major health risk factors. Review of our hospital patient database uncovered that a number of EE patients have hypersensitivity to indoor cat, dog, cockroach, and dust mite allergens. We tested the hypothesis whether inhaled indoor insect allergens are effective inducers of experimental EE. We delivered cat, dog, cockroach, and dust mite allergen extracts intranasally to wild-type and eotaxin-1/2-, CCR3-, and IL-5-deficient mice. Interestingly, wild-type mice exposed to cockroach or dust mite allergens develop a significant increase in the levels of esophageal eosinophils and mast cells compared with saline-challenged mice. The eosinophil numbers in the esophagus of cockroach- and dust mite-exposed mice were 18.3+/-6.8/mm2 and 33.4+/-11.1/mm2 compared with 2.3+/-1.8/mm2 and 2.1+/-1.2/mm2 in saline-challenged mice. Additionally, we observed an additive effect of these two allergens in inducing esophageal eosinophilia and mastocytosis. Histopathological analysis detected intraepithelial esophageal eosinophilia in mice exposed to both allergens. Furthermore, mice exposed to cockroach and/or dust mite had increased levels of total IgE and antigen-specific IgG1 in the blood and increased esophageal expression of eosinophil-active cytokines (IL-13) and chemokines (eotaxin-1). Notably, mice deficient in eotaxin-1/2, CCR3, and IL-5 showed ablated esophageal eosinophilia following cockroach or dust mite allergen exposure. These data indicate that indoor insect allergens are potent inducers of IL-5 and eotaxin-mediated esophageal eosinophilia. These experimental studies are in accordance with clinical data but may have some limitations inherent to animal models of human disease.

  14. Respiratory viruses and eosinophils: exploring the connections.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Helene F; Dyer, Kimberly D; Domachowske, Joseph B

    2009-07-01

    In this review, we consider the role played by eosinophilic leukocytes in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of respiratory virus infection. The vast majority of the available information on this topic focuses on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV; Family Paramyxoviridae, genus Pneumovirus), an important pediatric pathogen that infects infants worldwide. There is no vaccine currently available for RSV. A formalin-inactivated RSV vaccine used in a trial in the 1960s elicited immunopathology in response to natural RSV infection; this has been modeled experimentally, primarily in inbred mice and cotton rats. Eosinophils are recruited to the lung tissue in response to formalin-inactivated RSV vaccine antigens in humans and in experimental models, but they may or may not be involved in promoting the severe clinical sequelae observed. Pulmonary eosinophilia elicited in response to primary RSV infection has also been explored; this response is particularly evident in the youngest human infants and in neonatal mouse models. Although pulmonary eosinophilia is nearly always perceived in a negative light, the specific role played by virus-elicited eosinophils - negative, positive or neutral bystander - remain unclear. Lastly, we consider the data that focus on the role of eosinophils in promoting virus clearance and antiviral host defense, and conclude with a recent study that explores the role of eosinophils themselves as targets of virus infection.

  15. Interpreting IgE sensitization tests in food allergy.

    PubMed

    Chokshi, Niti Y; Sicherer, Scott H

    2016-01-01

    Food allergies are increasing in prevalence, and with it, IgE testing to foods is becoming more commonplace. Food-specific IgE tests, including serum assays and prick skin tests, are sensitive for detecting the presence of food-specific IgE (sensitization), but specificity for predicting clinical allergy is limited. Therefore, positive tests are generally not, in isolation, diagnostic of clinical disease. However, rationale test selection and interpretation, based on clinical history and understanding of food allergy epidemiology and pathophysiology, makes these tests invaluable. Additionally, there exist highly predictive test cutoff values for common allergens in atopic children. Newer testing methodologies, such as component resolved diagnostics, are promising for increasing the utility of testing. This review highlights the use of IgE serum tests in the diagnosis of food allergy.

  16. Tetanus toxoid IgE may be useful in predicting allergy during childhood.

    PubMed

    Ciprandi, G; De Amici, M; Quaglini, S; Labò, E; Castellazzi, A M; Miraglia Del Giudice, M; Marseglia, A; Bianchi, L; Moratti, R; Marseglia, G L

    2012-01-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions after immunization with tetanus toxoid are occasionally observed in atopic and non-atopic individuals. High IgE levels in infancy may predict subsequent allergy. The aims of this study were: i) to evaluate the role of specific IgE to tetanus toxoid in children in response to tetanus immunization and the possible factors associated with specific IgE levels, and ii) to investigate the correlation between specific IgE levels to tetanus toxoid and the late development of allergy (up to 12 years). Initially, 278 healthy infants (152 males and 126 females, aged 12 months) living in an urban city were screened for serum total IgE and specific IgE to tetanus toxoid, after having obtained informed consent from parents. After 12 years, 151 children could be evaluated. Total IgE summed with tetanus specific IgE were significantly associated with allergy at 12 years. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that serum total IgE and tetanus specific IgE may be predictive of subsequent allergy onset.

  17. Eosinophilic colitis in infants.

    PubMed

    Lozinsky, Adriana Chebar; Morais, Mauro Batista de

    2014-01-01

    To review the literature for clinical data on infants with allergic or eosinophilic colitis. MEDLINE search of all indexes was performed using the words "colitis or proctocolitis and eosinophilic" or "colitis or proctocolitis and allergic" between 1966 and February of 2013. All articles that described patients' characteristics were selected. A total of 770 articles were identified, of which 32 met the inclusion criteria. The 32 articles included a total of 314 infants. According to the available information, 61.6% of infants were male and 78.6% were younger than 6 months. Of the 314 patients, 49.0% were fed exclusively breast milk, 44.2% received cow's milk protein, and 6.8% received soy protein. Diarrheal stools were described in 28.3% of patients. Eosinophilia was found in 43.8% (115/263) of infants. Colonic or rectal biopsy showed infiltration by eosinophils (between 5 and 25 per high-power field) in 89.3% (236/264) of patients. Most patients showed improvement with the removal of the protein in cow's milk from their diet or the mother's diet. Allergy challenge tests with cow's milk protein were cited by 12 of the 32 articles (66 patients). Eosinophilic colitis occurs predominantly in the first six months of life and in males. Allergy to cow's milk was considered the main cause of eosinophilic colitis. Exclusion of cow's milk from the diet of the lactating mother or from the infant's diet is generally an effective therapeutic measure. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Allergy tests do not predict food triggers in adult patients with eosinophilic oesophagitis. A comprehensive prospective study using five modalities.

    PubMed

    Philpott, H; Nandurkar, S; Royce, S G; Thien, F; Gibson, P R

    2016-08-01

    The use of allergy tests to guide dietary treatment for eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) is controversial and data are limited. Aeroallergen sensitisation patterns and food triggers have been defined in Northern Hemisphere cohorts only. To determine if allergy tests that are routinely available can predict food triggers in adult patients with EoE. To define the food triggers and aeroallergen sensitisation patterns in a novel Southern Hemisphere (Australian) cohort of patients. Consecutive patients with EoE who elected to undergo dietary therapy were prospectively assessed, demographic details and atopic characteristics recorded, and allergy tests, comprising skin-prick and skin-patch tests, serum allergen-specific IgE, basophil activation test and serum food-specific IgG, were performed. Patients underwent a six-food elimination diet with a structured algorithm that included endoscopic and histological examination of the oesophagus a minimum of 2 weeks after each challenge. Response was defined as <15 eosinophils per HPF. Foods defined as triggers were considered as gold standard and were compared with those identified by allergy testing. No allergy test could accurately predict actual food triggers. Concordance among skin-prick and serum allergen-specific IgE was high for aeroallergens only. Among seasonal aeroallergens, rye-grass sensitisation was predominant. Food triggers were commonly wheat, milk and egg, alone or in combination. None of the currently-available allergy tests predicts food triggers for EoE. Exclusion-rechallenge methodology with oesophageal histological assessment remains the only effective investigation. The same food triggers were identified in this southern hemisphere cohort as previously described. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Rice protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome with transient specific IgE to boiled rice but not to retort-processed rice.

    PubMed

    Yasutomi, Motoko; Kosaka, Takuya; Kawakita, Akiko; Hayashi, Hisako; Okazaki, Shintaro; Murai, Hiroki; Miyagawa, Kazuhiko; Mayumi, Mitsufumi; Ohshima, Yusei

    2014-02-01

    Described herein is the case of an 8-month-old girl with atypical food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome due to rice. She presented with vomiting and poor general activity 2 h after ingestion of boiled rice. Oral food challenge test using high-pressure retort-processed rice was negative, but re-exposure to boiled rice elicited gastrointestinal symptoms. On western blot analysis the patient's serum was found to contain IgE bound to crude protein extracts from rice seed or boiled rice, but not from retort-processed rice. The major protein bands were not detected in the electrophoresed gel of retort-processed rice extracts, suggesting decomposition by high-temperature and high-pressure processing. Oral food challenge for diagnosing rice allergy should be performed with boiled rice to avoid a false negative. Additionally, some patients with rice allergy might be able to ingest retort-processed rice as a substitute for boiled rice. © 2014 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.

  20. Clinical profile of patients with adult-onset eosinophilic asthma.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Jantina C; Storm, Huib; Amelink, Marijke; de Nijs, Selma B; Eichhorn, Edwin; Reitsma, Bennie H; Bel, Elisabeth H D; Ten Brinke, Anneke

    2016-04-01

    Adult-onset eosinophilic asthma is increasingly recognised as a severe and difficult-to-treat subtype of asthma. In clinical practice, early recognition of patients with this asthma subtype is important because it may have treatment implications. Therefore, physicians need to know the distinct characteristics of this asthma phenotype. The objective of the present study was to determine the characteristic profile of patients with adult-onset eosinophilic asthma. 130 patients with adult-onset (>18 years of age) asthma and high blood eosinophil counts (≥0.3×10(9) L(-1)) were compared with 361 adult-onset asthma patients with low (<0.3×10(9) L(-1)) blood eosinophils. Measurements included a series of clinical, functional and imaging parameters. Patients with high blood eosinophils were more often male, had less well controlled asthma and higher exacerbation rates, despite the use of higher doses of inhaled corticosteroids. They had higher levels of total IgE without more sensitisation to common inhaled allergens. In addition, these patients had worse lung function, and more often showed fixed airflow limitation, air trapping, nasal polyposis and abnormalities on sinus computed tomography scanning. Chronic rhinosinusitis, air trapping and male sex were three independent factors associated with blood eosinophilia (adjusted OR 3.8 (95% CI 1.7-8.1), 3.0 (95% CI 1.1-8.1) and 2.4 (95% CI 1.3-4.4), respectively). Patients with adult-onset asthma with elevated blood eosinophils exhibit a distinct profile, which can readily be recognised in clinical practice.

  1. Clinical profile of patients with adult-onset eosinophilic asthma

    PubMed Central

    Storm, Huib; Amelink, Marijke; de Nijs, Selma B.; Eichhorn, Edwin; Reitsma, Bennie H.; Bel, Elisabeth H.D.; ten Brinke, Anneke

    2016-01-01

    Adult-onset eosinophilic asthma is increasingly recognised as a severe and difficult-to-treat subtype of asthma. In clinical practice, early recognition of patients with this asthma subtype is important because it may have treatment implications. Therefore, physicians need to know the distinct characteristics of this asthma phenotype. The objective of the present study was to determine the characteristic profile of patients with adult-onset eosinophilic asthma. 130 patients with adult-onset (>18 years of age) asthma and high blood eosinophil counts (≥0.3×109 L−1) were compared with 361 adult-onset asthma patients with low (<0.3×109 L−1) blood eosinophils. Measurements included a series of clinical, functional and imaging parameters. Patients with high blood eosinophils were more often male, had less well controlled asthma and higher exacerbation rates, despite the use of higher doses of inhaled corticosteroids. They had higher levels of total IgE without more sensitisation to common inhaled allergens. In addition, these patients had worse lung function, and more often showed fixed airflow limitation, air trapping, nasal polyposis and abnormalities on sinus computed tomography scanning. Chronic rhinosinusitis, air trapping and male sex were three independent factors associated with blood eosinophilia (adjusted OR 3.8 (95% CI 1.7–8.1), 3.0 (95% CI 1.1–8.1) and 2.4 (95% CI 1.3–4.4), respectively). Patients with adult-onset asthma with elevated blood eosinophils exhibit a distinct profile, which can readily be recognised in clinical practice. PMID:27730197

  2. p110γ/δ Double-Deficiency Induces Eosinophilia and IgE Production but Protects from OVA-Induced Airway Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ammon-Treiber, Susanne; Schwab, Matthias; Piekorz, Roland P.; Hirsch, Emilio; Nürnberg, Bernd; Beer-Hammer, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    The catalytical isoforms p110γ and p110δ of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase γ (PI3Kγ) and PI3Kδ play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Two key elements in allergic asthma are increased levels of eosinophils and IgE. Dual pharmacological inhibition of p110γ and p110δ reduces asthma-associated eosinophilic lung infiltration and ameliorates disease symptoms, whereas the absence of enzymatic activity in p110γKOδD910A mice increases IgE and basal eosinophil counts. This suggests that long-term inhibition of p110γ and p110δ might exacerbate asthma. Here, we analysed mice genetically deficient for both catalytical subunits (p110γ/δ-/-) and determined basal IgE and eosinophil levels and the immune response to ovalbumin-induced asthma. Serum concentrations of IgE, IL-5 and eosinophil numbers were significantly increased in p110γ/δ-/- mice compared to single knock-out and wildtype mice. However, p110γ/δ-/- mice were protected against OVA-induced infiltration of eosinophils, neutrophils, T and B cells into lung tissue and bronchoalveolar space. Moreover, p110γ/δ-/- mice, but not single knock-out mice, showed a reduced bronchial hyperresponsiveness. We conclude that increased levels of eosinophils and IgE in p110γ/δ-/- mice do not abolish the protective effect of p110γ/δ-deficiency against OVA-induced allergic airway inflammation. PMID:27442134

  3. p110γ/δ Double-Deficiency Induces Eosinophilia and IgE Production but Protects from OVA-Induced Airway Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Mothes, Benedikt; Bucher, Kirsten; Ammon-Treiber, Susanne; Schwab, Matthias; Piekorz, Roland P; Hirsch, Emilio; Nürnberg, Bernd; Beer-Hammer, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    The catalytical isoforms p110γ and p110δ of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase γ (PI3Kγ) and PI3Kδ play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Two key elements in allergic asthma are increased levels of eosinophils and IgE. Dual pharmacological inhibition of p110γ and p110δ reduces asthma-associated eosinophilic lung infiltration and ameliorates disease symptoms, whereas the absence of enzymatic activity in p110γKOδD910A mice increases IgE and basal eosinophil counts. This suggests that long-term inhibition of p110γ and p110δ might exacerbate asthma. Here, we analysed mice genetically deficient for both catalytical subunits (p110γ/δ-/-) and determined basal IgE and eosinophil levels and the immune response to ovalbumin-induced asthma. Serum concentrations of IgE, IL-5 and eosinophil numbers were significantly increased in p110γ/δ-/- mice compared to single knock-out and wildtype mice. However, p110γ/δ-/- mice were protected against OVA-induced infiltration of eosinophils, neutrophils, T and B cells into lung tissue and bronchoalveolar space. Moreover, p110γ/δ-/- mice, but not single knock-out mice, showed a reduced bronchial hyperresponsiveness. We conclude that increased levels of eosinophils and IgE in p110γ/δ-/- mice do not abolish the protective effect of p110γ/δ-deficiency against OVA-induced allergic airway inflammation.

  4. The coexistence of eosinophilic esophagitis with allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Soylu, A; Altintas, A; Cakmak, S; Poturoglu, S; Kaya, H; Sevindir, I; Okuturlar, Y; Sever, N

    2016-06-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is diagnosed with the presence of characteristic esophageal symptoms and eosinophilic infiltration of the esophageal mucosa after other causes of eosinophilia are excluded. EoE has been reported to co-occur with some allergic diseases. In this study, we evaluated the co-existence of EoE in Ear-Nose-Throat (ENT) outpatient clinic patients with allergic rhinitis (AR). The study group consists of 67 AR patients (AR group) and the control group (CG) was formed with 53 cases with dyspepsia symptoms. Symptoms of AR and CG groups were compared in terms of endoscopic and histological findings. Moreover, in AR group, accompanying symptoms, immunoglobulin E (IgE), skin prick test (SPT) positivity, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) presence, endoscopic findings and biopsy results were compared between patients with EoE and those without. Seven of the cases with AR were diagnosed with EoE. Reflux symptoms were more common in patients with EoE (71.4%). The presence of H. pylori was similar between groups. Blood IgE levels were significantly higher among EoE patients compared to those without EoE (p = 0.003). SPT positivity was present in the 85.7% of patients with EoE and 50% of the patients without EoE (p = 0.113). Allergens were more likely to be mites Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus in patients with EoE (p = 0.042 and p = 0.034 respectively). The most common symptom among patients with EoE is reflux. In AR patients with EoE, serum IgE levels were higher compared to those without EoE. In AR patients with reflux symptoms, high serum IgE levels, and especially in patients whose tests are positive for allergy to mites, referral to a gastroenterologist for EoE evaluation may be recommended.

  5. Pearls and pitfalls of allergy diagnostic testing: report from the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology/American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology Specific IgE Test Task Force.

    PubMed

    Cox, Linda; Williams, Brock; Sicherer, Scott; Oppenheimer, John; Sher, Larry; Hamilton, Robert; Golden, David

    2008-12-01

    The intended purpose of this monograph is to provide a general overview of allergy diagnostics for health care professionals who care for patients with allergic disease. For a more comprehensive review of allergy diagnostic testing, readers can refer to the Allergy Diagnostic Practice Parameters. A key message is that a positive allergy test result (skin or blood) indicates only the presence of allergen specific IgE (called sensitization). It does not necessarily mean clinical allergy (ie, allergic symptoms with exposure). It is important for this reason that the allergy evaluation be based on the patient's history and directed by a health care professional with sufficient understanding of allergy diagnostic testing to use the information obtained from his/her evaluation of the patient to determine (1) what allergy diagnostic tests to order, (2) how to interpret the allergy diagnostic test results, and (3) how to use the information obtained from the allergy evaluation to develop an appropriate therapeutic treatment plan.

  6. IGES Interface for Medical 3-D Volume Data.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gong; Yi, Hong; Ni, Zhonghua

    2005-01-01

    Although there are many medical image processing and virtual surgery systems that provide rather consummate 3D-visualization and data manipulation techniques, few of them can export the volume data for engineering analyze. The thesis presents an interface implementing IGES (initial graphics exchange specification). Volume data such as bones, skins and other tissues can be exported as IGES files to be directly used for engineering analysis.

  7. Intra and inter-laboratory reproducibility of a monoclonal antibody cocktail based ELISA for detection of allergen specific IgE in dogs: proficiency monitoring of macELISA in six laboratories.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kenneth W; Blankenship, Karen D; McCurry, Zachary M; McKinney, Brennan; Ruffner, Rick; Esch, Robert E; Tambone, Cecilia; Faas, Rebecca; Hermes, Darren; Brazis, Pilar; Drouet, Laurent

    2012-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of results yielded using a monoclonal antibody based ELISA for detection of allergen specific IgE when run in six separate affiliated laboratories. On two separate occasions, duplicate samples of 15 different sera pools were independently evaluated by each laboratory in a single blinded fashion. The average intra-assay variance among reactive assay calibrators in all laboratories was 6.2% (range 2.6-18.2%), while the average intra-laboratory inter-assay variance was 12.1% (range 8.0-17.1%). The overall inter-assay inter-laboratory variance was consistent among laboratories and averaged 15.6% (range 15.1-16.6%). All laboratories yielded similar profiles and magnitudes of responses for replicate unknown samples; dose-response profiles observed in each of the laboratories were indistinguishable. Considering positive/negative results, inter-assay inter-laboratory concordance of results exceeded 95%. Correlation of OD values between and among all laboratories was strong (r>0.9, p<0.001). Correlation of OD values between the two separate evaluations was also high for all allergens except olive, which was attributed to lot-to-lot differences of allergen coated wells. Collectively, the results demonstrated that the monoclonal antibody based ELISA for measuring allergen specific canine IgE is reproducible, and documents that consistency of results can be achieved not only in an individual laboratory, but between laboratories using the same monoclonal-based ELISA.

  8. Biomarker Surrogates Do Not Accurately Predict Sputum Eosinophils and Neutrophils in Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Hastie, Annette T.; Moore, Wendy C.; Li, Huashi; Rector, Brian M.; Ortega, Victor E.; Pascual, Rodolfo M.; Peters, Stephen P.; Meyers, Deborah A.; Bleecker, Eugene R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Sputum eosinophils (Eos) are a strong predictor of airway inflammation, exacerbations, and aid asthma management, whereas sputum neutrophils (Neu) indicate a different severe asthma phenotype, potentially less responsive to TH2-targeted therapy. Variables such as blood Eos, total IgE, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) or FEV1% predicted, may predict airway Eos, while age, FEV1%predicted, or blood Neu may predict sputum Neu. Availability and ease of measurement are useful characteristics, but accuracy in predicting airway Eos and Neu, individually or combined, is not established. Objectives To determine whether blood Eos, FeNO, and IgE accurately predict sputum eosinophils, and age, FEV1% predicted, and blood Neu accurately predict sputum neutrophils (Neu). Methods Subjects in the Wake Forest Severe Asthma Research Program (N=328) were characterized by blood and sputum cells, healthcare utilization, lung function, FeNO, and IgE. Multiple analytical techniques were utilized. Results Despite significant association with sputum Eos, blood Eos, FeNO and total IgE did not accurately predict sputum Eos, and combinations of these variables failed to improve prediction. Age, FEV1%predicted and blood Neu were similarly unsatisfactory for prediction of sputum Neu. Factor analysis and stepwise selection found FeNO, IgE and FEV1% predicted, but not blood Eos, correctly predicted 69% of sputum EosIgE, blood Eos and Neu, FEV1%predicted, and age are poor surrogates, separately and combined, for accurately predicting sputum eosinophils and neutrophils. PMID:23706399

  9. IgE reactivity to hen egg white allergens in dogs with cutaneous adverse food reactions.

    PubMed

    Shimakura, Hidekatsu; Uchiyama, Jumpei; Saito, Taku; Miyaji, Kazuki; Fujimura, Masato; Masuda, Kenichi; Okamoto, Noriaki; DeBoer, Douglas J; Sakaguchi, Masahiro

    2016-09-01

    Dogs with cutaneous adverse food reactions (CAFR) often have specific IgE to food allergens. Egg white, which is majorly composed of ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, and lysozyme, is a food allergen in dogs. Information of the IgE reactivity to purified egg white allergens supports accurate diagnosis and efficiency treatment in humans. However, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no studies on the IgE reactivity to purified egg white allergens in dogs. Here, we investigated the IgE reactivity to crude and purified allergens of hen egg white in dogs with CAFR. First, when we examined serum samples from 82 dogs with CAFR for specific IgE to crude egg white by ELISA, 9.8% (8/82) of the dogs with CAFR showed the IgE reactivity to crude egg white. We then used sera from the eight dogs with positive IgE reactivity to crude egg white to examine the IgE reactivity to four purified allergens, ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, and lysozyme, by ELISA. We found that 75% (6/8) of the dogs showed IgE reactivity to both ovomucoid and ovalbumin, and that 37.5% (3/8) of the dogs showed IgE reactivity to ovotransferrin. None (0/8) showed IgE reactivity to lysozyme. Moreover, validating these results, the immunoblot analyses were performed using the sera of the three dogs showing the highest IgE reactivity to crude egg white. Both anti-ovomucoid and anti-ovalbumin IgE were detected in the sera of these dogs, while anti-ovotransferrin IgE was not detected. Considering these, ovomucoid and ovalbumin appears to be the major egg white allergens in dogs with CAFR.

  10. Mechanism of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Anil

    2009-02-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a newly recognized disease and is an emerging entity throughout developing and developed countries, including the United States. Therefore, understanding the causes, natural history, diagnosis, and management is important for future therapeutic interventions. The pathogenesis of EoE is still not clear, but a growing body of evidence has established that this condition represents a T-cell-mediated immune response involving several proinflammatory mediators and chemoattractants known to regulate eosinophilic accumulation in the esophagus, such as IL-4, IL-5, IL-3 and eotaxin-1, -2, and -3. Determining the mechanism or mechanisms through which human esophageal-derived factors ultimately induce the functional abnormalities observed, and to which antigens patients who have EoE are sensitized that lead to the manifestation of symptoms, is of significant interest.

  11. Clinical Features of Eosinophilic Bronchitis

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Jae Hak; Park, Sang Joon; Park, Sung Woo; Lee, June Hyuk; Kim, Do Jin; Uh, Soo Taek; Kim, Yong Hoon; Park, Choon Sik

    2002-01-01

    Background Eosinophilic inflammation of the airway is usually associated with airway hyper-responsiveness in bronchial asthma. However, there is a small group of patients which has the eosinophilic inflammation in the bronchial tree with normal spirometry and no evidence of airway hyper-responsiveness, which was named eosinophilic bronchitis. The objectives of this study are 1) to investigate the incidence of eosinophilic bronchitis in the chronic cough syndrome and 2) to evaluate the clinical features and course of eosinophilic bronchitis. Methods We evaluated 92 patients who had persistent cough for 3 weeks or longer. In addition to routine diagnostic protocol, we performed differential cell count of sputum. Eosinophilic bronchitis was diagnosed when the patient had normal spirometric values, normal peak expiratory flow variability, no airway hyper-responsiveness and sputum eosinophilia (>3%). Results The causes of chronic cough were post-nasal drip in 33%, cough variant asthma in 16%, chronic bronchitis in 15% and eosinophilic bronchitis in 12% of the study subjects. Initial eosinophil percentage in the sputum of patients with eosinophilic bronchitis was 26.8±6.1% (3.8–63.7%). Treatment with inhaled steroid is related with a subjective improvement of cough severity and a significant decrease of sputum eosinophil percentage (from 29.1±8.3% to 7.4±3.3%). During the follow-up period, increase in sputum eosinophil percentage with aggravation of symptoms were found. Conclusion Eosinophilic bronchitis is one of the important cause of chronics cough. Assessment of airway inflammation by sputum examination is important in investigating the cause of chronic cough. Cough in eosinophilic bronchitis is effectively controlled by inhaled corticosteroid, but may follow a chronic course. PMID:12014210

  12. Genetics of Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    chemokine production13,18; however, it has been observed that activated mast cells can also express TSLP to similarly drive TH2 responses. 12,19,20 Indeed...including eosinophils 61 and mast cells .62 For instance, TSLP activates dendritic cells to adopt a TH2 prim- ing phenotype through the secretion of the...binding pattern to lysates from esophageal epithelial cells , as well as esophageal tissue from patients with active EE. This analysis has not shown

  13. Inhibition of CD23-mediated IgE transcytosis suppresses the initiation and development of airway allergic inflammation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The epithelium lining the airway tract and allergen-specific IgE are considered essential controllers of inflammatory responses to allergens. The human IgE receptor, CD23 (Fc'RII), is capable of transporting IgE or IgE-allergen complexes across the polarized human airway epithelial cell (AEC) monola...

  14. Measurement of IgE antibodies against purified grass pollen allergens (Lol p 1, 2, 3 and 5) during immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Van Ree, R; Van Leeuwen, W A; Dieges, P H; Van Wijk, R G; De Jong, N; Brewczyski, P Z; Kroon, A M; Schilte, P P; Tan, K Y; Simon-Licht, I F; Roberts, A M; Stapel, S O; Aalberse, R C

    1997-01-01

    IgE titres tend to rise early after the start of immunotherapy, followed by a decline to pre-immunotherapy levels or lower. We were interested to know whether the early increase in IgE antibodies includes new specificities of IgE, and whether these responses persist. Sera of 64 patients undergoing grass pollen immunotherapy were tested for IgE against four purified grass pollen allergens: Lol p 1, 2, 3, and 5. At least two serum samples were taken, one before the start of therapy and one between 5 and 18 months after the first immunization (mean: 10 months). The mean IgE responses to Lol p 1, 2 and 3 showed a moderate but not significant increase. In contrast, the mean IgE response to Lol p 5 showed a significant decrease of > 30%. IgE against total Lohum perenne pollen extract moderately increased (> 20%), showing that a RAST for total pollen is not always indicative for the development of IgE against its major allergens. For > 40% of the patients it was found that IgE against one or more of the four allergens increased, while IgE against the remaining allergen(s) decreased. For 10 sera the ratio of IgE titres against at least two allergens changed by at least a factor of 5. The changes in specific IgE also included conversions from negative (< 0.1 RU) to positive (0.6 to 5.0 RU) for five patients. For two patients, the induction of these 'new' IgE antibodies against major allergens was shown to result in a response that was persistent over several years. Although active induction of new IgE specificities by immunotherapy was not really proven, the observations in this study indicate that monitoring of IgE against purified (major) allergens is necessary to evaluate changes in specific IgE in a reliable way.

  15. IgG and IgE circulating immune complexes, total serum IgE and parasite related IgE in patients with mono- or mixed infection with Schistosoma mansoni and/or S. haematobium. Influence of therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, W J; Feldmeir, H; Bridts, C H; Daffalla, A A

    1983-01-01

    IgG and IgE containing circulating immune complexes (CIC), total serum IgE and parasite related IgE were determined in monoinfected patients with Schistosoma mansoni or S.haematobium and in patients with a mixed infection. IgE- and IgG-CIC and total serum IgE were significantly higher in the mixed infection group. There is considerable cross-reactivity between the crude S.haematobium and S.mansoni antigen preparations. The level of IgE-CIC is correlated to the levels of total serum IgE and parasite related IgE respectively. Furthermore IgE-CIC levels were related to the intensity of infection. Twelve out of 21 patients suffering from a monoinfection were reinvestigated 1-4 months after specific chemotherapy. Parasitological cure is followed by a significant decrease of total serum IgE and IgE-CIC, whereas parasite related IgE did not change significantly. The importance of the disappearance of IgE-CIC is discussed. PMID:6861371

  16. Selected feline eosinophilic skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Power, H T; Ihrke, P J

    1995-07-01

    Eosinophilic plaque and mosquito-bite dermatitis are recognized hypersensitivity reactions. The pathogenesis of eosinophilic granuloma and indolent ulcer are not as clearly understood. Each of these syndromes is distinctive from a clinical and histopathologic view point. Accurate diagnosis depends on history, physical findings, and histopathologic evaluation. Understanding of feline dermatology will be furthered by including these syndromes in a broader grouping that encompasses all the feline eosinophilic dermatoses.

  17. Eosinophils in health and disease: the LIAR hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, J J; Jacobsen, E A; McGarry, M P; Schleimer, R P; Lee, N A

    2010-04-01

    Discussions of eosinophils are often descriptions of end-stage effector cells with destructive capabilities mediated predominantly by released cytotoxic cationic granule proteins. Moreover, eosinophils in the medical literature are invariably associated with the pathologies linked with helminth infections or allergic diseases such as asthma. This has led to an almost fatalist view of eosinophil effector functions and associated therapeutic strategies targeting these cells that would make even William of Ockham proud - eosinophil effector functions have physiological consequences that increase patient morbidity/mortality and 'the only good eosinophils are dead eosinophils'. Unfortunately, the strengths of dogmas are also their greatest weaknesses. Namely, while the repetitive proclamation of dogmatic concepts by authoritative sources (i.e. reviews, meeting proceedings, textbooks, etc.) builds consensus within the medical community and lower the entropies surrounding difficult issues, they often ignore not easily explained details and place diminished importance on alternative hypotheses. The goal of this perspective is twofold: (i) we will review recent observations regarding eosinophils and their activities as well as reinterpret earlier data as part of the synthesis of a new paradigm. In this paradigm, we hypothesize that eosinophils accumulate at unique sites in response to cell turnover or in response to local stem cell activity(ies). We further suggest that this accumulation is part of one or more mechanisms regulating tissue homeostasis. Specifically, instead of immune cells exclusively mediating innate host defence, we suggest that accumulating tissue eosinophils are actually regulators of Local Immunity And/or Remodeling/Repair in both health and disease - the LIAR hypothesis; (ii) we want to be inflammatory (pun intended!) and challenge the currently common perspective of eosinophils as destructive end-stage effector cells. Our hope is to create more

  18. Eosinophilic myositis: an updated review.

    PubMed

    Selva-O'Callaghan, A; Trallero-Araguás, E; Grau, J M

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilia-associated myopathies are clinically and pathologically heterogeneous conditions characterized by the presence of peripheral and/or muscle eosinophilia. There are at least three distinct subtypes: focal eosinophilic myositis, eosinophilic polymyositis, and eosinophilic perimyositis. Infiltrating eosinophils are not always identified in conventional muscle histologic examination, but the eosinophil major basic protein, whose extracellular diffusion is considered a hallmark of eosinophilic cytotoxicity, is usually detected by immunostaining in muscle biopsy. Whereas focal eosinophilic myositis seems to be a benign and isolated condition, and perimyositis is usually related with the inflammatory infiltrate due to fasciitis, eosinophilic polymyositis can be associated with muscular dystrophy or be a feature of multiorgan hypereosinophilic syndrome. Muscle biopsy remains the cornerstone for the diagnosis. Parasitic infections, connective tissue disorders, hematologic and non-hematologic malignancies, drugs, and toxic substances are the main etiologic agents of eosinophilia-associated myopathy. However, in some cases, no known etiologic factor is identified, and these are considered idiopathic. Glucocorticoids are the mainstay therapy in idiopathic forms. Imatinib and mepolizumab, a humanized anti-interleukin 5 monoclonal antibody, may be useful in patients with eosinophilic myositis as part of a hypereosinophilic syndrome.

  19. Drug treatment of eosinophilic oesophagitis.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Sarah; Kelly, Orlaith B; O'Morain, Colm A

    2012-11-01

    Eosinophilic oesophagitis is a clinicopathological disease characterized by oesophageal eosinophilia and gastrointestinal symptoms. Currently, the optimal treatment regimens remain unclear. The pathogenesis of eosinophilic oesophagitis appears to involve immune dysregulation, while acid reflux may have a secondary role; the mainstays in treatment are aimed principally at these dual processes. While a trial of a PPI is worthwhile it is likely that PPI therapy is treating concurrent acid reflux rather than true eosinophilic oesophagitis. Dietary elimination with elemental feed is safe but poorly tolerated. Swallowed topical steroids are the mainstay of commercially available therapies. Both fluticasone and budesonide have been proven to be beneficial both symptomatically and in reducing oesophageal eosinophil counts in the short and medium term. Basic studies have determined a role for IL-5 in oesophageal remodelling in eosinophilic esophagitis. Initial clinical studies have shown single or multiple infusions of monoclonal antibody to IL-5 to be well tolerated and to cause a long-term decrease in both peripheral and sputum eosinophil count in these eosinophil driven conditions. At present, swallowed corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment for patients with eosinophilic oesophagitis in patients failing PPI therapy. Studies have been heterogenous in their diagnostic criteria for eosinophilic oesophagitis and in the definition of response to therapy, making comparison of results difficult.

  20. Eosinophilic oesophagitis: an otolaryngologist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Gnanasekaran, T; Gnanasekaran, S; Wood, J M; Friedland, P

    2017-06-02

    Eosinophilic oesophagitis is a diagnosis that is being made more frequently in the assessment of dysphagia in both adults and children. It is unclear whether this is a result of increased prevalence or improved diagnostic methods. Children present commonly to paediatric institutions with foreign body impaction. Research indicates that food impaction may predispose to eosinophilic oesophagitis. This article presents eosinophilic oesophagitis from an otolaryngologist's point of view. It details the clinical features present in the disease as well as how it is diagnosed and managed. It illustrates early signs of eosinophilic oesophagitis so that primary physicians and emergency physicians know when to refer on to otolaryngologists.

  1. The relationship of blood lead with immunoglobulin E, eosinophils, and asthma among children: NHANES 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Wells, Ellen M; Bonfield, Tracey L; Dearborn, Dorr G; Jackson, Leila W

    2014-03-01

    Early life lead exposure may alter immune function and predispose a child to develop asthma. In an initial exploration of this hypothesis, we examined the association between blood lead, and serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), eosinophils, and asthma prevalence in a cross-sectional study of 1788 children from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006. Geometric mean blood lead, serum IgE, and percent eosinophils were 1.13 μg/dL (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.22), 46.3 kU/L (95% CI: 40.3, 53.1), and 2.82 percent (95% CI 2.67, 2.98), respectively. Prevalence of asthma, atopic asthma, and atopy were 11.8% (95% CI: 9.5, 14.2), 8.1% (6.2, 9.9), and 44.4% (40.1, 48.7), respectively. Regression models controlled for season, age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, passive smoke exposure, and body mass index. Based on these models, there was an 11.1% (95% CI: 5.6, 16.9) increase in IgE and a 4.9% (95% CI: 2.3, 7.6) increase in eosinophils per 1 μg/dL increase in blood lead. In independent stratified analyses, lead was found to increase IgE and eosinophils among non-Hispanic whites, but not other children; and stronger associations were observed among children who lived with a smoker vs. not. Lead was not associated with asthma, atopic asthma, or general atopy. This study provides additional evidence of a cross-sectional association between lead with IgE and new evidence for eosinophils. This may be a mechanism for development of downstream allergic disease. The mechanisms that determine ultimate development of allergic disease are currently unknown, but are the focus of ongoing studies.

  2. Identification of interleukin-2 in human peripheral blood eosinophils.

    PubMed Central

    Levi-Schaffer, F; Barkans, J; Newman, T M; Ying, S; Wakelin, M; Hohenstein, R; Barak, V; Lacy, P; Kay, A B; Moqbel, R

    1996-01-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is an essential growth factor for T cells. Previous studies have shown that human peripheral eosinophils respond to IL-2 in chemotaxis and express the IL-2 receptor (CD25). In addition, eosinophils have been shown to transcribe messenger RNA for IL-2. The aim of the present study was to determine whether eosinophils translate mRNA for IL-2 and to determine the site of intracellular localization. By immunocytochemistry, an average of 9% of cells showed cytoplasmic staining for IL-2 in freshly isolated unstimulated blood eosinophils obtained from asthmatic subjects who were not receiving oral corticosteroid treatment (n = 5). Freshly isolated, disrupted, highly purified eosinophils (> 99%, by CD16- immunomagnetic selection) contained an average of 6 pg/10(6) cells of IL-2 measured by a specific enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (n = 7). Purified eosinophil incubated with serum-coated Sephadex beads showed an increase in the amount of intracellularly-retained IL-2 (26.2 +/- 7.2 pg/10(6) cells) with some evidence for release of this cytokine but only in three out of six eosinophil preparations (range 1.3-5.8 pg/10(6) cells). The intracellular localization of IL-2 was determined by fractionation of the cells on a linear (0-45%) Nycodenz gradient in sucrose buffer followed by detection of IL-2 in the fractions using an IL-2-specific ELISA and dot blotting. The majority of the IL-2 detected co-eluted with known eosinophil granule markers (i.e. major basic protein (MBP), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) and beta-hexosaminidase) but small quantities were also detected in the cytosolic (lactate dehydrogenase-(LDH) associated) and membrane (CD9+) fractions. Immunogold labelling of intact eosinophils using an anti-IL-2 monoclonal antibody confirmed IL-2 immunoreactivity in association with the eosinophil crystalline granule cores. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that eosinophils synthesize, release and

  3. Eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis in East Asians.

    PubMed

    Wang, En-Tong; Zheng, Yan; Liu, Peng-Fei; Guo, Li-Juan

    2014-12-16

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common disease worldwide, with a prevalence rate of 5%-15% in the general population. CRS is currently classified into two types: CRS with and without nasal polyps. CRS may also be divided into eosinophilic CRS (ECRS) and non-ECRS subtypes based on the presence of tissue eosinophilic infiltration or not. There are significant geographic and ethnic differences in the tissue eosinophilic infiltration, which is predominant in Western white patients and less common in East Asians, despite an increasing tendency for its prevalence in East Asia countries. ECRS differs significantly from non-ECRS in clinical characteristics, treatment outcomes and strategies, and underlying pathogenic mechanisms. ECRS commonly demonstrates more severe symptoms, polyp diseases with a higher incidence of bilateral polyps and sinonasal diseases on computed tomography, and the increase in blood eosinophils. ECRS is considered a special and recalcitrant subtype of CRS, commonly with poor treatment outcomes compared to non-ECRS. The differentiation of specific subtypes and clinical features of CRS will be important for developing novel treatment strategies and improving treatment outcomes for individual phenotypes of CRS. This review discusses clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of ECRS in East Asians.

  4. Eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis in East Asians

    PubMed Central

    Wang, En-Tong; Zheng, Yan; Liu, Peng-Fei; Guo, Li-Juan

    2014-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common disease worldwide, with a prevalence rate of 5%-15% in the general population. CRS is currently classified into two types: CRS with and without nasal polyps. CRS may also be divided into eosinophilic CRS (ECRS) and non-ECRS subtypes based on the presence of tissue eosinophilic infiltration or not. There are significant geographic and ethnic differences in the tissue eosinophilic infiltration, which is predominant in Western white patients and less common in East Asians, despite an increasing tendency for its prevalence in East Asia countries. ECRS differs significantly from non-ECRS in clinical characteristics, treatment outcomes and strategies, and underlying pathogenic mechanisms. ECRS commonly demonstrates more severe symptoms, polyp diseases with a higher incidence of bilateral polyps and sinonasal diseases on computed tomography, and the increase in blood eosinophils. ECRS is considered a special and recalcitrant subtype of CRS, commonly with poor treatment outcomes compared to non-ECRS. The differentiation of specific subtypes and clinical features of CRS will be important for developing novel treatment strategies and improving treatment outcomes for individual phenotypes of CRS. This review discusses clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of ECRS in East Asians. PMID:25516863

  5. Investigation of IGES for CAD/CAE data transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zobrist, George W.

    1989-01-01

    In a CAD/CAE facility there is always the possibility that one may want to transfer the design graphics database from the native system to a non-native system. This may occur because of dissimilar systems within an organization or a new CAD/CAE system is to be purchased. The Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) was developed in an attempt to solve this scenario. IGES is a neutral database format into which the CAD/CAE native database format can be translated to and from. Translating the native design database format to IGES requires a pre-processor and transling from IGES to the native database format requires a post-processor. IGES is an artifice to represent CAD/CAE product data in a neutral environment to allow interfacing applications, archive the database, interchange of product data between dissimilar CAD/CAE systems, and other applications. The intent here is to present test data on translating design product data from a CAD/CAE system to itself and to translate data initially prepared in IGES format to various native design formats. This information can be utilized in planning potential procurement and developing a design discipline within the CAD/CAE community.

  6. Influence of Intrinsic and Lifestyle Factors on the Development of IgE Sensitization.

    PubMed

    Stemeseder, Teresa; Klinglmayr, Eva; Moser, Stephanie; Lang, Roland; Himly, Martin; Oostingh, Gertie J; Zumbach, Joerg; Bathke, Arne C; Hawranek, Thomas; Gadermaier, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    IgE sensitization is a prerequisite for the development of allergic symptoms. The investigation of factors influencing the development of IgE is therefore crucial for understanding the onset of allergic diseases. This epidemiological study investigated personal, intrinsic, and lifestyle factors in a nonselected cohort of 501 Austrian adolescents (aged 12-21 years). IgE levels to 112 allergen molecules were analyzed in the serum of participants using the ImmunoCAP ISAC®. Allergic sensitization, IgE levels to single allergens, and ISAC score sums were correlated with results obtained from a questionnaire. In this adolescent cohort, male participants showed a higher sensitization frequency (56.8%) compared to females (50.9%) and significantly increased IgE levels to profilins. Underweight subjects demonstrated a stronger IgE sensitization. Family size inversely correlated with IgE levels to PR-10 allergens, and predominately paternal allergies were a predictive factor for IgE sensitization in the children. Vaccination, breastfeeding, and delivery mode showed no influence, while a highly protective effect was observed for growing up on a farm. Of all of the investigated lifestyle factors, only smoking significantly influenced the risk for IgE development. Participants with moderate frequencies of colds showed increased sensitization levels. A hereditary predisposition and lifestyle factors such as a farming environment, smoking, family size, body weight, or frequency of colds significantly influenced the development of allergen-specific IgE in this cohort of adolescents. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Therapeutic strategies for harnessing human eosinophils in allergic inflammation, hypereosinophilic disorders, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Amini-Vaughan, Zhaleh J; Martinez-Moczygemba, Margarita; Huston, David P

    2012-10-01

    The eosinophil is a multifunctional granulocyte best known for providing host defense against parasites. Paradoxically, eosinophils are also implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation, asthma, and hypereosinophilic syndromes. Emerging evidence also supports the potential for harnessing the cytotoxic power of eosinophils and redirecting it to kill solid tumors. Central to eosinophil physiology is interleukin-5 (IL-5) and its receptor (IL-5R) which is composed of a ligand-specific alpha chain (IL-5Rα) and the common beta chain (βc). Eosinophil activation can lead to their degranulation, resulting in rapid release of an arsenal of tissue-destructive proinflammatory mediators and cytotoxic proteins that can be both beneficial and detrimental to the host. This review discusses eosinophil immunobiology and therapeutic strategies for targeting of IL-5 and IL-5R, as well as the potential for harnessing eosinophil cytotoxicity as a tumoricide.

  8. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) in eosinophilic leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Jonathan M; Byström, Jonas; Dyer, Kimberly D; Nitto, Takeaki; Wynn, Thomas A; Rosenberg, Helene F

    2004-10-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) as a potential eosinophil protein was inferred from our gene microarray study of mouse eosinophilopoiesis. Here, we detect 47 kDa intracellular and approximately 60 kDa secretory forms of PAI-2 in purified human eosinophil extracts. PAI-2 is present at variable concentrations in eosinophil lysates, ranging from 30 to 444 ng/10(6) cells, with a mean of 182 ng/10(6) cells from 10 normal donors, which is the highest per-cell concentration among all leukocyte subtypes evaluated. Enzymatic assay confirmed that eosinophil-derived PAI-2 is biologically active and inhibits activation of its preferred substrate, urokinase. Immunohistochemical and immunogold staining demonstrated PAI-2 localization in eosinophil-specific granules. Immunoreactive PAI-2 was detected in extracellular deposits in and around the eosinophil-enriched granuloma tissue encapsulating the parasitic egg in livers of wild-type mice infected with the helminthic parasite Schistosoma mansoni. Among the possibilities, we consider a role for eosinophil-derived PAI-2 in inflammation and remodeling associated with parasitic infection as well as allergic airways disease, respiratory virus infection, and host responses to tumors and metastasis in vivo.

  9. First-generation antihistamines diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine reverse cytokine-afforded eosinophil survival by enhancing apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Hasala, Hannele; Moilanen, Eeva; Janka-Junttila, Mirkka; Giembycz, Mark A; Kankaanranta, Hannu

    2007-01-01

    Antihistamines or histamine H1-receptor antagonists are commonly used to treat a variety of allergic symptoms. Eosinophils are considered to play an essential role in the pathogenesis of allergy. Reduced eosinophil apoptosis is thought to be an important element in the formation of eosinophilia in allergic conditions such as allergic rhinitis, atopic eczema, and asthma. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two first-generation antihistamines diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine on constitutive eosinophil apoptosis and on interleukin (IL)-5-afforded eosinophil survival. The role of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in mediating the effects of antihistamines on eosinophil apoptosis was evaluated also. Apoptosis of isolated human eosinophils was assessed by measuring the relative DNA content of propidium iodide-stained cells and confirmed by morphological analysis. The activity of JNK was measured by Western blotting. Antihistamines were found to reverse the survival-prolonging effect of IL-5 in eosinophils by enhancing apoptosis. JNK was found to be activated slowly during diphenhydramine-induced eosinophil apoptosis. An inhibitor peptide specific for JNK, L-JNKI1 (JNK peptide inhibitor 1, L-stereoisomer), inhibited diphenhydramine-mediated eosinophil apoptosis. Our results suggest that first-generation antihistamines diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine reverse IL-5-afforded eosinophil survival and that the enhanced apoptosis by antihistamines is mediated through activation of JNK. Thus, reversal of IL-5-afforded eosinophil survival may contribute to the antiallergic actions of diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine.

  10. Interleukin-5 pathway inhibition in the treatment of eosinophilic respiratory disorders: evidence and unmet needs

    PubMed Central

    Varricchi, Gilda; Bagnasco, Diego; Borriello, Francesco; Heffler, Enrico; Canonica, Giorgio W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Human eosinophils were first identified and named by Paul Ehrlich in 1879 on the basis of the cell's granular uptake of eosin. Although eosinophils represent approximately 1% of peripheral blood leukocytes, they have the propensity to leave the blood stream and migrate into inflamed tissues. Eosinophils and their mediators are critical effectors to asthma and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA). Eosinophils are equipped with a large number of cell-surface receptors and produce specific cytokines and chemokines. Recent findings Eosinophils are the major source of interleukin-5 and highly express the interleukin-5Rα on their surface. Clinical trials evaluating monoclonal antibodies to interleukin-5 (mepolizumab and reslizumab) and its receptor interleukin-5Rα (benralizumab) have been or are underway in patients with eosinophilic asthma, EGPA and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Overall, targeting interleukin-5/interleukin-5Rα is associated with a marked decrease in blood and sputum eosinophilia, the number of exacerbations and improvement of some clinical parameters in adult patients with severe eosinophilic asthma. Pilot studies suggest that mepolizumab might be a glucocorticoid-sparing treatment in patients with EGPA. A preliminary study found that benralizumab did not reduce the exacerbations and did modify lung function in patients with eosinophilic COPD. Summary The review examines recent advances in the biology of eosinophils and how targeting the interleukin-5 pathway might offer benefit to some patients with severe asthma, EGPA, and COPD. Interleukin-5/interleukin-5Rα-targeted treatments offer promises to patients with eosinophilic respiratory disorders. PMID:26859368

  11. Activity assessment of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Schoepfer, Alain; Safroneeva, Ekaterina

    2014-01-01

    The activity of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) can be assessed with patient-reported outcomes and biologic measures. Patient-reported outcomes include symptoms and quality of life, whereas biologic measures refer to endoscopic, histologic, and biochemical activity (e.g. blood biomarkers). So far, a validated tool to assess EoE activity in the above-mentioned dimensions is lacking. Given the lack of a standardized way to assess EoE activity in the various dimensions, the results of different clinical trials may be difficult to compare. For symptom assessment in adult patients, the symptom 'dysphagia' should be evaluated according to different standardized food consistencies. Furthermore, symptom assessment should take into account the following items: avoidance of specific food categories, food modification, and time to eat a regular meal. A distinct symptom recall period (e.g. 2 weeks) has to be defined for symptom assessment. Performing an 'esophageal stress test' with ingestion of a standardized meal to measure symptom severity bears the potential risk of acute food bolus impaction and should therefore be avoided. The description of endoscopic findings in EoE has meanwhile been standardized. Histologic evaluation of EoE activity should report either the size of the high-power field used or count the eosinophils per mm(2). There is a current lack of blood biomarkers demonstrating a good correlation with histologic activity in esophageal biopsies. The development and validation of an adult and pediatric EoE activity index is urgently needed not only for clinical trials and observational studies, but also for daily practice.

  12. [The serum level transformation of IFN-gamma, IL-4 and IgE before and after SIT in patients with allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Li, Yujin; Li, Peizhong

    2013-04-01

    To assess the efficacy and the transformation of IFN-gamma, IL-4, total IgE and specific IgE before and after specific immune therapy(SIT) in patients with allergic rhinitis. The subjective symptom and levels of IFN-gamma, IL-4, total IgE and specific IgE were observed in 40 patients with allergic rhinitis before and after SIT. Total effective rate in patients after SIT was 85%. There's no significant difference between the levels of specific IgE before and after SIT(P>0.05) ,while the levels of IL-4 and total IgE were significantly lower, the levels of IFN-gamma were significantly higher pre than that of post SIT. SIT is safe and effective,and can regulate the levels of IFN-gamma, IgE and IL-4. But the role of specific IgE in SIT is still unknown.

  13. Eosinophils In Health and Disease: The LIAR Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, James J.; Jacobsen, Elizabeth A.; McGarry, Michael P.; Schleimer, Robert P.; Lee, Nancy A.

    2010-01-01

    Discussions of eosinophils are often descriptions of end-stage effector cells with destructive capabilities mediated predominantly by released cytotoxic cationic granule proteins. Moreover, eosinophils in the medical literature are invariably associated with the pathologies linked with helminth infections or allergic diseases such as asthma. This has led to an almost fatalist view of eosinophil effector functions and associated therapeutic strategies targeting these cells that would make even William of Ockham proud - eosinophil effector functions have physiological consequences that increase patient morbidity/mortality and “the only good eosinophils are dead eosinophils”. Unfortunately, the strengths of dogmas are also their greatest weaknesses. Namely, while the repetitive proclamation of dogmatic concepts by authoritative sources (i.e., reviews, meeting proceedings, textbooks, etc.) builds consensus within the medical community and lower the entropies surrounding difficult issues, they often ignore not easily explained details and place diminished importance on alternative hypotheses. The goal of this perspective is two fold: (i) We will review recent observations regarding eosinophils and their activities as well as reinterpret earlier data as part of the synthesis of a new paradigm. In this paradigm, we hypothesize that eosinophils accumulate at unique sites in response to cell turnover or in response to local stem cell activity(ies). We further suggest that this accumulation is part of one or more mechanisms regulating tissue homeostasis. Specifically, instead of immune cells exclusively mediating innate host defense, we suggest that accumulating tissue eosinophils are actually regulators of Local Immunity And/or Remodeling/Repair in both health and disease - The LIAR Hypothesis; (ii) We want to be inflammatory (pun intended!) and challenge the currently common perspective of eosinophils as destructive end-stage effector cells. Our hope is to create more

  14. An epigenome-wide association study of total serum IgE in Hispanic children.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Wang, Ting; Pino-Yanes, Maria; Forno, Erick; Liang, Liming; Yan, Qi; Hu, Donglei; Weeks, Daniel E; Baccarelli, Andrea; Acosta-Perez, Edna; Eng, Celeste; Han, Yueh-Ying; Boutaoui, Nadia; Laprise, Catherine; Davies, Gwyneth A; Hopkin, Julian M; Moffatt, Miriam F; Cookson, William O C M; Canino, Glorisa; Burchard, Esteban G; Celedón, Juan C

    2017-08-01

    Total IgE is a therapeutic target in patients with allergic diseases. DNA methylation in white blood cells (WBCs) was associated with total IgE levels in an epigenome-wide association study of white subjects. Whether DNA methylation of eosinophils explains these findings is insufficiently understood. We tested for association between genome-wide DNA methylation in WBCs and total IgE levels in 2 studies of Hispanic children: the Puerto Rico Genetics of Asthma and Lifestyle Study (PR-GOAL; n = 306) and the Genes-environments and Admixture in Latino Americans (GALA II) study (n = 573). Whole-genome methylation of DNA from WBCs was measured by using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Total IgE levels were measured by using the UniCAP 100 system. In PR-GOAL WBC types (ie, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes) in peripheral blood were measured by using Coulter Counter techniques. In the GALA II study WBC types were imputed. Multivariable linear regression was used for the analysis of DNA methylation and total IgE levels, which was first conducted separately for each cohort, and then results from the 2 cohorts were combined in a meta-analysis. CpG sites in multiple genes, including novel findings and results previously reported in white subjects, were significantly associated with total IgE levels. However, adjustment for WBC types resulted in markedly fewer significant sites. Top findings from this adjusted meta-analysis were in the genes ZFPM1 (P = 1.5 × 10(-12)), ACOT7 (P = 2.5 × 10(-11)), and MND1 (P = 1.4 × 10(-9)). In an epigenome-wide association study adjusted for WBC types (including eosinophils), methylation changes in genes enriched in pathways relevant to asthma and immune responses were associated with total IgE levels among Hispanic children. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Eosinophilic colitis. A report of two cases with non conventional treatment].

    PubMed

    Rosas Vargas, Miguel A; Moncayo Coello, Vivian; García Cárdenas, Eustorgio; Valencia Mayoral, Pedro; Sienra Monge, Juan José Luis; del Río Navarro, Blanca E

    2004-01-01

    Eosinophilic colitis is a rare entity of unknown etiology characterized by diarrhea, abdominal pain, and gastrointestinal bleeding. Diagnosis includes histopathological infiltration of more than 20 eosinophils in colon. It is frequently associated with milk hypersensitivity and, less usual, with other foods and increased IgE. Histopthological appearance of eosinophil mediators has been observed in the gut. It is sometimes related to the degree of infiltration of eosinophils in the gut as well as to the disease severity. There is not an established treatment for this entity, although systemic steroids have been used with certain efficacy. However, there is a recurrence of the symptoms when the therapy stops, besides the well known side effects of the long-term use of steroids. Cromolyn inhibits mast cell degranulation and prevents liberation of mediators. It is successful in certain cases, specially the severe ones. However, it is not available for its use in our country. Ketotifen, as last resource in our patients with bad response to habitual treatment and restriction diet, was used. Although its use is controversial, we consider that stabilizing mast cell membrane with subsequent inhibition of degranulation and recruitment of eosinophils to sites of inflammation, would also restrain histamine liberation and blockage of H1 receptors, which would diminish local damage induced by eosinophils. Nonetheless ketotifen mechanism of action is unknown, our patients improved after treatment with this drug.

  16. Serum eosinophilic cationic protein may predict clinical course of wheezing in young children

    PubMed Central

    Villa, J; Garcia, G; Rueda, S; Nogales, A

    1998-01-01

    Thirty eight children aged between 2 and 4 years with three or more episodes of wheezing were studied to evaluate the role of eosinophil inflammation and its relation to persistence of wheezing two years later. Serum eosinophilic cationic protein, total eosinophil count, total IgE, skin prick test, and clinical features were evaluated at visit 1. Two years later at a second clinical evaluation the children were separated into two groups: group 1, those with persistent wheezing (n = 20); group 2, those who had been asymptomatic over the past six months (transient wheezing) (n = 18). Mean (SEM) eosinophilic cationic protein at visit 1 was higher in group 1 than in group 2 (29.63 (5.16) v 14.42 (2.77) µg/l), and the probability of continuing wheezing at age 5 years was greater in children with values ⩾ 20 µg/l at visit 1 than in those with lower values (relative risk = 2.88, 95% confidence interval 1.42 to 5.87, p < 0.001). Eosinophil inflammation is present from the beginning of the disease in the children who are going to continue with wheezing at age 5 years. The measurement of serum eosinophilic cationic protein may help in evaluating which wheezing infants are going to continue with asthma in the future.

 PMID:9659092

  17. A case of eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis associated with optic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Kurimoto, Takuji; Tonari, Masahiro; Ishizaki, Norihiko; Matsuo, Junko; Oku, Hidehiro; Sugasawa, Jun; Ikeda, Tsunehiko

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS) associated with optic neuropathy. The visual acuity in the right eye was suddenly reduced to no light perception on awakening in the morning. Fundus examination of both eyes on the same day showed no remarkable changes. Emergency computed tomography showed pan-sinusitis bilaterally and a partial defect of the sphenoid bone on the right side. From the clinical findings, the case was diagnosed as optic neuropathy associated with chronic sinusitis. Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) was performed on the same day, and all of the major sinuses were found to be filled with highly viscous fluid. Part of the optic canal had a defect probably due to inflammatory invasion from the adjacent sphenoid bone. Steroid therapy was started immediately postoperatively. Histopathological examination of excised polyps showed that numerous eosinophils had invaded the polyps but no hyphae were present. The patient reported that he had bronchial asthma and had had nasal polypectomy. Six months after the ESS and steroid therapy, the patient had a recurrence of the sinusitis. At that time, laboratory examination showed an elevation of total IgE and eosinophil numbers. From the clinical findings and course, this case was diagnosed as ECRS accompanied by optic neuropathy. Although ECRS rarely has ocular complications, the inflammation can spread and the optic nerve can be affected. PMID:21760710

  18. [The influence of Xuanfeijiedu granules on trace elements, IgE, ECP of allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiping

    2015-06-01

    To study the influence of Xuanfeijiedu granules on trace elements, immunoglobulin E (IgE), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) of allergic rhinitis. One hundred and ten cases of allergic rhinitis ere randomly divided into two groups, 55 cases of the observation group were treated with budesonide, 55 cases of the control group were treated with Xuanfeijiedu granules, the treatment efficacy and serum trace elements, IgE, ECP level were observed. The total effective rate of observation group and control group were 92. 7% and 96. 4%, there was no significant difference between two groups (P>0. 05). Before treatment, the serum zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn) and IgE, ECP levels of two groups were compared, there was no significant difference (P>0. 05); after treatment, the serum Zn level was significantly increased, the serum Cu, Mn, IgE, ECP levels were significantly reduced, and the observation group changed more significantly, there were significant differences between two groups (P<. 05). Xuanfeijiedu granules in the treatment of allergic rhinitis can significantly improve the patient's serum trace elements and IgE, ECP levels, improve the state of patient's disease, and promote the rehabilitation of patients.

  19. Wells Syndrome (Eosinophilic Cellulitis)

    PubMed Central

    Coloe, Jacquelyn; Peters, Sara; Zirwas, Matthew; Darabi, Kamruz

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To report a case of Wells syndrome (eosinophilic cellulitis) in a patient who was previously hospitalized twice and received several antibiotic treatments. Setting: Inpatient hospital consultation. Participant: One patient diagnosed with Wells Syndrome based on supporting clinical history, histopathological examination, and other laboratory data. Measurement: Change in signs and symptoms over time. Results: Improvement of skin lesions after administration of corticosteroids. Conclusion: Wells syndrome is a clinical condition that mimics bacterial cellulitis. It is characterized as an erythematous, edematous tender plaque with predilection for the lower extremity. The authors report this case to warn clinicians about other primary dermatological disorders that resemble infectious cellulitis in order to avoid misdiagnoses and delayed treatment. PMID:21779422

  20. Spline transfer through IGES: CADCAM-001

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, S.K.

    1983-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has been assigned Lead Lab responsibility for integrating CAD/CAM activities throughout the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC). Pilot projects involving exchange of actual or artificial data are being used to assess our current capabilities in the areas of electronic data transmission, translations between different CAD/CAM systems, etc. This report is the final report for one pilot project. It assesses the effectiveness of IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification, defined in ANSIY14.26M-1981) in transferring interpolating splines between various CAD/CAM systems used in the NWC. The results are generally encouraging.

  1. Diagnosis and management of eosinophilic asthma: a US perspective

    PubMed Central

    Walford, Hannah H; Doherty, Taylor A

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic asthma is now recognized as an important subphenotype of asthma based on the pattern of inflammatory cellular infiltrate in the airway. Eosinophilic asthma can be associated with increased asthma severity, atopy, late-onset disease, and steroid refractoriness. Induced sputum cell count is the gold standard for identifying eosinophilic inflammation in asthma although several noninvasive biomarkers, including fractional exhaled nitric oxide and periostin, are emerging as potential surrogates. As novel therapies and biologic agents become increasingly available, there is an increased need for specific phenotype-directed treatment strategies. Greater recognition and understanding of the unique immunopathology of this asthma phenotype has important implications for management of the disease and the potential to improve patient outcomes. The present review provides a summary of the clinical features, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of eosinophilic asthma. PMID:24748808

  2. Eosinophil localization to the basement membrane zone is autoantibody- and complement-dependent in a human cryosection model of bullous pemphigoid

    PubMed Central

    Messingham, Kelly N.; Wang, Jeffrey W.; Holahan, Heather M.; Srikantha, Rupasree; Aust, Samantha C.; Fairley, Janet A.

    2016-01-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering disease characterized by antibodies (IgG and IgE) targeting cell-substrate adhesion proteins. A variety of BP models suggest that autoantibody-dependent neutrophil degranulation is essential for blister formation. However, lesional biopsies reveal a predominance of eosinophils and few neutrophils. Our goal was to evaluate the role of antibodies and complement in eosinophil localization, degranulation, and split formation at the dermo-epidermal junction (DEJ) utilizing a human skin cryosection model of BP paired with a human eosinophilic cell line, 15HL-60. Expression of receptors for IgG (FcγRII), IgE (FcεRI), and complement (CR1 and CR3) was confirmed on 15HL-60 cells using flow cytometry. 15HL-60 expression of granule protein (eosinophil derived neurotoxin (EDN) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO)) mRNA and their degranulation in vitro was confirmed using RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. For cryosection experiments, BP or control sera or IgG and IgE antibodies purified from BP sera were utilized in combination with 15HL-60 cells ± fresh complement. Both BP serum and fresh complement were required for localization of 15-HL60 cells to the DEJ. Interestingly, eosinophil localization to the DEJ was dependent on IgG, but not IgE, and complement. However, no subepidermal split was observed. Additionally, the 15HL-60 cells did not degranulate under any experimental conditions and direct application of cell lysate to cryosections did not result in a split. Our observation that eosinophil localization to the DEJ is dependent on IgG mediated complement fixation provides additional insight into the sequence of events during the development of BP lesions. PMID:26475989

  3. Eosinophil localization to the basement membrane zone is autoantibody- and complement-dependent in a human cryosection model of bullous pemphigoid.

    PubMed

    Messingham, Kelly N; Wang, Jeffrey W; Holahan, Heather M; Srikantha, Rupasree; Aust, Samantha C; Fairley, Janet A

    2016-01-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering disease characterized by antibodies (IgG and IgE) targeting cell-substrate adhesion proteins. A variety of BP models suggest that autoantibody-dependent neutrophil degranulation is essential for blister formation. However, lesional biopsies reveal a predominance of eosinophils and few neutrophils. Our goal was to evaluate the role of antibodies and complement in eosinophil localization, degranulation and split formation at the dermo-epidermal junction (DEJ) utilizing a human skin cryosection model of BP paired with a human eosinophilic cell line, 15HL-60. Expression of receptors for IgG (FcγRII), IgE (FcεRI) and complement (CR1 and CR3) was confirmed on 15HL-60 cells using flow cytometry. 15HL-60 expression of granule protein [eosinophil derived neurotoxin (EDN) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO)] mRNA and their degranulation in vitro was confirmed using RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. For cryosection experiments, BP or control sera or IgG and IgE antibodies purified from BP sera were utilized in combination with 15HL-60 cells ± fresh complement. Both BP serum and fresh complement were required for localization of 15-HL60 cells to the DEJ. Interestingly, eosinophil localization to the DEJ was dependent on IgG, but not IgE, and complement. However, no subepidermal split was observed. Additionally, the 15HL-60 cells did not degranulate under any experimental conditions and direct application of cell lysate to cryosections did not result in a split. Our observation that eosinophil localization to the DEJ is dependent on IgG mediated complement fixation provides additional insight into the sequence of events during the development of BP lesions.

  4. Empiric 6-food elimination diet induced and maintained prolonged remission in patients with adult eosinophilic esophagitis: a prospective study on the food cause of the disease.

    PubMed

    Lucendo, Alfredo J; Arias, Ángel; González-Cervera, Jesús; Yagüe-Compadre, José Luis; Guagnozzi, Danila; Angueira, Teresa; Jiménez-Contreras, Susana; González-Castillo, Sonia; Rodríguez-Domíngez, Benito; De Rezende, Livia C; Tenias, José M

    2013-03-01

    Although empiric exclusion from the diet of the 6 food groups most likely to trigger allergies achieves eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) remission in children, data on its prolonged efficacy and effects on adults are lacking. We sought to evaluate the efficacy of a 6-food elimination diet in inducing and maintaining prolonged remission in patients with adult EoE. Sixty-seven consecutive patients with adult EoE were prospectively recruited and treated exclusively with a diet avoiding cereals, milk, eggs, fish/seafood, legumes/peanuts, and soy for 6 weeks. Subsequent challenge was undertaken by sequentially reintroducing all excluded single foods, followed by endoscopy and biopsies, which were developed every 6 weeks in case of response (eosinophil peak count reduction to <15/high-power field [hpf]). A food was considered a trigger for EoE and removed from the diet if pathologic eosinophilic infiltration (≥15 eosinophils/hpf) reappeared. Food-specific serum IgE measurements and skin prick tests were performed before initiating the diet. Forty-nine (73.1%) patients exhibited significantly reduced eosinophil peak counts (<15 eosinophils/hpf) before sequential single-food reintroduction. A single offending food antigen was identified in 35.71% of patients, 2 food triggers were identified in 30.95%, and 3 or more food triggers were identified in 33.3%. Cow's milk was the most common food antigen (61.9%), followed by wheat (28.6%), eggs (26.2%), and legumes (23.8%). Prior allergy tests showed no concordance with food-reintroduction challenge results. All patients who continued to avoid the offending foods maintained histopathologic and clinical EoE remission for up to 3 years. An empiric 6-food elimination diet effectively induced remission of active adult EoE, which was maintained for up to 3 years with individually tailored, limited exclusion diets. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. GWAS identifies four novel eosinophilic esophagitis loci

    PubMed Central

    Sleiman, Patrick MA; Wang, Mei-Lun; Cianferoni, Antonella; Aceves, Seema; Gonsalves, Nirmala; Nadeau, Kari; Bredenoord, Albert J.; Furuta, Glenn T.; Spergel, Jonathan M.; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an allergic disorder characterized by infiltration of the esophagus with eosinophils. We had previously reported association of the TSLP/WDR36 locus with EoE. Here we report genome-wide significant associations at four additional loci; c11orf30 and STAT6, which have been previously associated with both atopic and autoimmune disease, and two EoE-specific loci, ANKRD27 that regulates the trafficking of melanogenic enzymes to epidermal melanocytes and CAPN14, that encodes a calpain whose expression is highly enriched in the esophagus. The identification of five EoE loci, not only expands our etiological understanding of the disease but may also represent new therapeutic targets to treat the most debilitating aspect of EoE, esophageal inflammation and remodeling. PMID:25407941

  6. Mechanism of the Antigen-Independent Cytokinergic SPE-7 IgE Activation of Human Mast Cells in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Bax, Heather J.; Bowen, Holly; Dodev, Tihomir S.; Sutton, Brian J.; Gould, Hannah J.

    2015-01-01

    Release of pro-inflammatory mediators by mast cells is a key feature of allergic disease. The ‘dogma’ is that IgE molecules merely sensitise mast cells by binding FcεRI prior to cross-linking by multivalent allergen, receptor aggregation and mast cell activation. However, certain monoclonal IgE antibodies have been shown to elicit mast cell activation in an antigen-independent cytokinergic manner, and DNP-specific murine SPE-7 IgE is the most highly cytokinergic antibody known. We show that both monovalent hapten and recombinant SPE-7 IgE Fab inhibit its cytokinergic activity as measured by mast cell degranulation and TNF-α release. Using SPE-7 IgE, a non-cytokinergic human IgE and a poorly cytokinergic murine IgE, we reveal that interaction of the Fab region of ‘free’ SPE-7 IgE with the Fab of FcεRI-bound SPE-7 IgE is the basis of its cytokinergic activity. We rule out involvement of IgE Fc, Cε1 and Cλ/κ domains, and propose that ‘free’ SPE-7 IgE binds to FcεRI-bound SPE-7 IgE by an Fv-Fv interaction. Initial formation of a tri-molecular complex (one ‘free’ IgE molecule cross-linking two receptor-bound IgE molecules) leads to capture of further ‘free’ and receptor-bound IgEs to form larger clusters that trigger mast cell activation. PMID:25892150

  7. Eosinophilic oesophagitis: an Irish experience.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Sarah; Kelly, Orlaith B; Breslin, Niall; Ryan, Barbara M; O'Connor, Humphrey J; Swan, Niall; O'Morain, Colm A

    2011-11-01

    Eosinophilic oesophagitis is a recently recognized oesophageal disorder characterized by a combination of clinical and endoscopic features as well as the histological finding on oesophageal biopsy of greater than 15 eosinophils per high powered field. Recent reports suggest eosinophilic oesophagitis is increasing in incidence and this increase cannot be fully explained by increased recognition of the disorder. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the incidence of eosinophilic oesophagitis within the catchment area of a tertiary referral hospital in southwest Dublin, Ireland. The histopathology database at the Adelaide and Meath Hospital was used to identify all oesophageal biopsies obtained between January 2000 and July 2008 reported to show evidence of oesophagitis. Biopsy samples with greater than 15 eosinophils per high powered field in at least two fields were highlighted as possible eosinophilic oesophagitis. The oesophageal biopsies of patients identified in this way were reviewed by a histopathologist with a special expertise in gastroenterology for features suggestive of eosinophilic oesophagitis. Twenty-five thousand three hundred and sixty-five upper gastrointestinal endoscopies were performed between January 2000 and July 2008. A total of 11 072 sets of oesophageal biopsies were taken and 1364 (12.3%) of these revealed evidence of oesophagitis. Only 13 (0.1%) patients had oesophageal biopsies showing greater than 15 eosinophils per high powered field. The median age of this patient group was 23 years (interquartile range 10.5-50.5 years), with 46% of patients under 18 years at the time of diagnosis. The male to female ratio was 5.5 : 1 compared with 1.1 : 1 in the oesophagitis group as a whole, (P=0.002). There was no significant association between endoscopic findings or presenting complaints and the average number of eosinophils per high powered field. The average number of biopsies taken in patients with endoscopic findings suggestive of

  8. Diagnostic tools for hypersensitivity to platinum drugs and taxanes: skin testing, specific IgE, and mast cell/basophil mediators.

    PubMed

    Caiado, Joana; Picard, Matthieu

    2014-08-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) to platinum drugs and taxanes are increasing in cancer patients, and rapid drug desensitization has emerged as a safe and effective method to reintroduce these drugs in reactive patients. Optimal management of patients presenting HSRs to chemotherapy depends on the use of various diagnostic tools, which include measurement of mast cell/basophil mediator release following a HSR and skin testing. Serum tryptase should be measured in patients presenting chemotherapy HSRs, and its elevation would support mast cell/basophil activation. Skin testing to platinum drugs has a high sensitivity and specificity and is critical to guide the management of platinum-reactive patients. Taxane skin testing is also emerging as a useful diagnostic and risk stratification tool in the evaluation of patients with HSRs to taxanes. Platinum sIgE assays have been recently developed and can be helpful in combination with skin testing or as an alternative when skin testing is not available.

  9. Eosinophil-derived IL-10 supports chronic nematode infection1

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lu; Gebreselassie, Nebiat G.; Gagliardo, Lucille F.; Ruyechan, Maura C.; Lee, Nancy A.; Lee, James J.; Appleton, Judith A.

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilia is a feature of the host immune response that distinguishes parasitic worms from other pathogens, yet a discrete function for eosinophils in worm infection has been elusive. The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanism(s) underlying the striking and unexpected observation that eosinophils protect intracellular, muscle-stage Trichinella spiralis larvae against NO-mediated killing. Our findings indicate that eosinophils are specifically recruited to sites of infection at the earliest stage of muscle infection, consistent with a local response to injury. Early recruitment is essential for larval survival. By producing IL-10 at the initiation of infection, eosinophils expand IL-10+ myeloid dendritic cells and CD4+ IL-10+ T lymphocytes that inhibit iNOS expression and protect intracellular larvae. The results document a novel immunoregulatory function of eosinophils in helminth infection, in which eosinophil-derived IL-10 drives immune responses that eventually limit local nitric oxide production. In this way, the parasite co-opts an immune response in a way that enhances its own survival. PMID:25210122

  10. Eosinophils adhere to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 via podosomes.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Mats W; Lye, Ming H; Barthel, Steven R; Duffy, Allison K; Annis, Douglas S; Mosher, Deane F

    2004-10-01

    Vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 supports specific eosinophil adhesion via alpha4beta1 integrin. We tested the hypothesis that adhesive contacts formed by eosinophils on VCAM-1 are different from focal adhesions formed by adherent fibroblasts. Eosinophils adherent on VCAM-1 formed punctate adhesions that fit the criteria for podosomes, highly dynamic structures found in adherent transformed fibroblasts, osteoclasts, and macrophages. The structures contained beta1 integrin subunit, phosphotyrosine-containing proteins, punctate filamentous actin, and gelsolin, a podosome marker. In contrast, nontransformed fibroblasts on VCAM-1 formed peripheral focal adhesions that were positive for alpha4, beta1, phosphotyrosine, vinculin, talin, and paxillin; negative for gelsolin; and associated with microfilaments. Phorbol myristate acetate or tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-5 stimulated podosome formation in adherent eosinophils. Because podosomes in tumor cells are associated with extracellular matrix degradation, we analyzed the VCAM-1 layer. VCAM-1 was lost under adherent eosinophils but not under adherent fibroblasts. This loss was inhibited by the metalloproteinase inhibitor ortho-phenanthroline and correlated with expression and podosome localization of a membrane-tethered metalloproteinase, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain 8. Podosome-mediated VCAM-1 clearance may be a mechanism to regulate eosinophil arrest and extravasation in allergic conditions such as asthma.

  11. CCR3 Blockade Attenuates Eosinophilic Ileitis and Associated Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Masterson, Joanne C; McNamee, Eóin N; Jedlicka, Paul; Fillon, Sophie; Ruybal, Joseph; Hosford, Lindsay; Rivera-Nieves, Jesús; Lee, James J; Furuta, Glenn T

    2011-11-01

    Intestinal remodeling and stricture formation is a complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that often requires surgical intervention. Although eosinophils are associated with mucosal remodeling in other organs and are increased in IBD tissues, their role in IBD-associated remodeling is unclear. Histological and molecular features of ileitis and remodeling were assessed using immunohistochemical, histomorphometric, flow cytometric, and molecular analysis (real-time RT-PCR) techniques in a murine model of chronic eosinophilic ileitis. Collagen protein was assessed by Sircol assay. Using a spontaneous eosinophilic Crohn's-like mouse model SAMP1/SkuSlc, we demonstrate an association between ileitis progression and remodeling over the course of 40 weeks. Mucosal and submucosal eosinophilia increased over the time course and correlated with increased histological inflammatory indices. Ileitis and remodeling increased over the 40 weeks, as did expression of fibronectin. CCR3-specific antibody-mediated reduction of eosinophils resulted in significant decrease in goblet cell hyperplasia, muscularis propria hypertrophy, villus blunting, and expression of inflammatory and remodeling genes, including fibronectin. Cellularity of local mesenteric lymph nodes, including T- and B-lymphocytes, was also significantly reduced. Thus, eosinophils participate in intestinal remodeling, supporting eosinophils as a novel therapeutic target. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. High affinity targeting of CD23 inhibits IgE synthesis in human B cells.

    PubMed

    Fellmann, Marc; Buschor, Patrick; Röthlisberger, Silvan; Zellweger, Fabian; Vogel, Monique

    2015-12-01

    The low-affinity IgE receptor FcϵRII (CD23) is part of the regulatory system controlling IgE synthesis in human B cells and exists in membrane and soluble forms. Binding of IgE to CD23 has been described to have stabilizing effects and to prevent cleavage of CD23. Previous experiments using anti-CD23 antibodies reduced IgE synthesis but were difficult to interpret as the antibody Fc part might also mediate feedback mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the regulatory role of CD23, by using designed ankyrin repeat proteins (DARPins) that specifically recognize CD23. Anti-CD23 DARPins were isolated by ribosome display and were produced as monovalent and bivalent constructs. Affinities to CD23 were measured by surface plasmon resonance. IgE synthesis and up-regulation of CD23 in human peripheral B cells were induced by IL-4 and anti-CD40 antibody. We assessed CD23 expression and its stabilization by FACS and used an ELISA for detecting soluble CD23. IgE synthesis was measured by ELISA and real-time PCR. Surface plasmon resonance revealed affinities of the DARPins to CD23 in the pico-molar range. Anti-CD23 DARPins strongly inhibited binding of IgE to CD23 and share thus a similar binding epitope as IgE. The DARPins stabilized membrane CD23 and reduced IgE synthesis in an isotype specific manner. Furthermore, the anti-CD23 DARPins decreased IgE transcript through inhibition of mature Cϵ RNA synthesis suggesting a posttranscriptional control mechanism. This study demonstrates that targeting CD23 alone is sufficient to inhibit IgE synthesis and suggests that a negative signaling occurs directly through the CD23 molecule.

  13. IgE sensitization in relation to preschool eczema and filaggrin mutation.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Emma Kristin; Bergström, Anna; Kull, Inger; Lind, Tomas; Söderhäll, Cilla; van Hage, Marianne; Wickman, Magnus; Ballardini, Natalia; Wahlgren, Carl-Fredrik

    2017-04-26

    Eczema (atopic dermatitis) is associated with an increased risk of having IgE antibodies. IgE sensitization can occur through an impaired skin barrier. Filaggrin gene (FLG) mutation is associated with eczema and possibly also with IgE sensitization. We sought to explore the longitudinal relation between preschool eczema (PSE), FLG mutation, or both and IgE sensitization in childhood. A total of 3201 children from the BAMSE (Children Allergy Milieu Stockholm Epidemiology) birth cohort recruited from the general population were included. Regular parental questionnaires identified children with eczema. Blood samples were collected at 4, 8, and 16 years of age for analysis of specific IgE. FLG mutation analysis was performed on 1890 of the children. PSE was associated with IgE sensitization to both food allergens and aeroallergens up to age 16 years (overall adjusted odds ratio, 2.30; 95% CI, 2.00-2.66). This association was even stronger among children with persistent PSE. FLG mutation was associated with IgE sensitization to peanut at age 4 years (adjusted odds ratio, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.03-3.44) but not to other allergens up to age 16 years. FLG mutation and PSE were not effect modifiers for the association between IgE sensitization and PSE or FLG mutation, respectively. Sensitized children with PSE were characterized by means of polysensitization, but no other specific IgE sensitization patterns were found. PSE is associated with IgE sensitization to both food allergens and aeroallergens up to 16 years of age. FLG mutation is associated with IgE sensitization to peanut but not to other allergens. Sensitized children with preceding PSE are more often polysensitized. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Chelidonine, a principal isoquinoline alkaloid of Chelidonium majus, attenuates eosinophilic airway inflammation by suppressing IL-4 and eotaxin-2 expression in asthmatic mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Hyung; Hong, Jung-Hee; Lee, Young-Cheol

    2015-12-01

    Chelidonine, a major bioactive, isoquinoline alkaloid ingredient in Chelidonium majus, exhibits anti-inflammatory and other pharmacological properties. However, its molecular mechanisms in asthma remain unclear. In this work we investigated chelidonine's effect and mechanism in airway inflammation in a mouse model of allergic asthma. The mice were sensitized to ovalbumin followed by aerosol allergen challenges and determination of chelidonine's effect on enhanced pause (Penh), pulmonary eosinophilic infiltration, eotaxin-2, interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-13, OVA-specific IgE production, and several transcription factors. Chelidonine strongly suppressed airway eosinophilia, expression of eotaxin-2, IL-4, and IL-13 cytokine production in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). It also attenuated lung IL-17, and eotaxin-2 mRNA expression levels. Moreover, it suppressed eotaxin-2 and IL-17 production in accordance with up- and downregulation of forkhead box p3 (Foxp3), and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT6) expression, respectively. Chelidonine has profound inhibitory effects on airway inflammation and this effect is caused by suppression of IL-4, eotaxin-2, and OVA-specific IgE production through the STAT6 and Foxp3 pathways. So chelidonine can improve allergic asthma in mice and be a novel anti-asthma therapeutic. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  15. IGES data exchange between dissimilar CAD-CAM systems

    SciTech Connect

    Theilen, D.F.; Jones, J.F.

    1982-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore (SNLL), and Bendix Kansas City have successfully transferred geometric model data by using a neutral graphics format, Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). Data was exchanged between two dissimilar CAD-CAM systems without the need for special translators. The exchanged data was used to fabricate a mechanical part. Design information developed on a CAD-CAM system was translated to IGES with a commercial preprocessor at Sandia. A second vendor's postprocessor translated the design information from IGES to the CAD-CAM system at Bendix. The Bendix system was used to generate the numerical control tape from the exchanged data. The tape was used to fabricate the part. A production print from Sandia was used during final inspection to verify part accuracy. Project results indicated that both vendor-furnished translators correctly transferred the three-dimensional geometric model of points, lines, and arcs.

  16. IGES data exchange between dissimilar CAD-CAM systems

    SciTech Connect

    Theilen, D.F.

    1982-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Bendix Kansas City have successfully transferred geometrical model data by using a neutral graphics format, Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). Data was exchanged between two dissimilar CAD-CAM systems without the need for special translators. The exchanged data was used to fabricate a mechanical part. Design information developed on a CAD-CAM system was translated to IGES with a commercial preprocessor at Sandia. A second vendor's postprocessor translated the design information from IGES to the CAD-CAM system at Bendix. The Bendix CAD-CAM system was used to generate the numerical control tape from the exchange data. The tape was used to fabricate the part. A production print from Sandia was used during final inspection to verify part accuracy. Project results indicated that both vendor-furnished translators correctly transferred the geometric model of points, lines and arcs.

  17. The NASA-IGES geometry data exchange standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Matthew W.; Chou, Jin J.; Kerr, Patricia A.; Thorp, Scott A.

    1992-01-01

    Described here are the data exchange efforts and plans supported by the NASA Steering Committee for Surface Modeling and Grid Generation. Current methods for geometry data exchange between computer aided design (CAD) systems and NASA computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis systems are tedious and induce errors. A Geometry Data Exchange Standard is proposed, utilizing a subset of an existing national standard titled Initial Graphic Exchange Standard (IGES). Future plans for data exchange standardization include all aspects of CFD data. Software systems to utilize this NASA-IGES Geometry Data Exchange Specification are under development.

  18. Differential Activation of Airway Eosinophils Induces IL-13 Mediated Allergic Th2 Pulmonary Responses in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, EA; Doyle, AD; Colbert, DC; Zellner, KR; Protheroe, CA; LeSuer, WE; Lee, NA.; Lee, JJ

    2015-01-01

    Background Eosinophils are hallmark cells of allergic Th2 respiratory inflammation. However, the relative importance of eosinophil activation and the induction of effector functions such as the expression of IL-13 to allergic Th2 pulmonary disease remain to be defined. Methods Wild type or cytokine deficient (IL-13−/− or IL-4−/−) eosinophils treated with cytokines (GM-CSF, IL-4, IL-33) were adoptively transferred into eosinophil-deficient recipient mice subjected to allergen provocation using established models of respiratory inflammation. Allergen-induced pulmonary changes were assessed. Results In contrast to the transfer of untreated blood eosinophils to the lungs of recipient eosinophildeficient mice, which induced no immune/inflammatory changes either in the lung or lung draining lymph nodes (LDLNs), pretreatment of blood eosinophils with GM-CSF prior to transfer elicited trafficking of these eosinophils to LDLNs. In turn, these LDLN eosinophils elicited the accumulation of dendritic cells and CD4+ T cells to these same LDLNs without inducing pulmonary inflammation. However, exposure of eosinophils to GM-CSF, IL-4 and IL-33 prior to transfer induced not only immune events in the LDLN, but also allergen-mediated increases in airway Th2 cytokine/chemokine levels, the subsequent accumulation of CD4+ T cells as well as alternatively activated (M2) macrophages, and the induction of pulmonary histopathologies. Significantly, this allergic respiratory inflammation was dependent on eosinophil-derived IL-13 whereas IL-4 expression by eosinophils had no significant role. Conclusion The data demonstrate the differential activation of eosinophils as a function of cytokine exposure and suggest that eosinophil-specific IL-13 expression by activated cells is a necessary component of the subsequent allergic Th2 pulmonary pathologies. PMID:26009788

  19. Eosinophils are a major intravascular location for tissue factor storage and exposure.

    PubMed

    Moosbauer, Christine; Morgenstern, Eberhard; Cuvelier, Susan L; Manukyan, Davit; Bidzhekov, Kiril; Albrecht, Sybille; Lohse, Peter; Patel, Kamala D; Engelmann, Bernd

    2007-02-01

    Blood cell progenitors were scanned for the presence of the coagulation starter protein tissue factor (TF) by immunoelectron microscopy. Thereby, substantial TF expression was observed in the precursor cells of eosinophils. TF levels were lower in basophil precursors and barely detectable in neutrophil progenitors. In peripheral blood immediately processed to avoid activation of the TF gene, mature eosinophils were found to considerably express TF, unique among the granulocyte and monocyte fractions. TF was preferentially located in the specific granules in resting eosinophils. Platelet-activating factor (PAF), and more pronounced, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) plus PAF, caused translocation of preformed TF to the eosinophil cell membrane. GM-CSF/PAF also increased the TF transcript levels. The activated eosinophils exhibited procoagulant activity that was abrogated by TF inhibition. Targeting the extracellular domain of TF with specific antibodies markedly suppressed the initial phase of the eosinophil passage across the IL-4-activated endothelium. Eosinophil rolling and firm adhesion remained unaffected. This suggests that TF specifically facilitates the early transendothelial migration of the eosinophils. In summary, eosinophils maintain a high TF expression during maturation, providing a main source of preformed TF in blood, which might be relevant for the thrombogenesis promoted by hypereosinophilic conditions.

  20. Comparison of histochemical methods for murine eosinophil detection in a RSV vaccine-enhanced inflammation model

    PubMed Central

    Meyerholz, David K.; Griffin, Michelle A.; Castilow, Elaine M.; Varga, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    A comparative study of histochemical detection of eosinophils in fixed murine tissue is lacking. Five histochemical methods previously reported for eosinophil detection were quantitatively and qualitatively compared in an established murine RSV vaccine-enhanced inflammation model. Nonspecific neutrophil staining was evaluated in tissue sections of neutrophilic soft tissue lesions and bone marrow from respective animals. Eosinophils had granular red to orange-red cytoplasmic staining, depending on the method, whereas neutrophils had, when stained, a more homogenous cytoplasmic pattern. Nonspecific background staining of similar coloration was variably seen in arterial walls and erythrocytes. Astra Blue/Vital New Red, Congo Red, Luna, Modified Hematoxylin & Eosin, and Sirius Red techniques were all effective in detecting increased eosinophil recruitment compared to controls; however, differences in eosinophil quantification significantly varied between techniques. Astra Blue/Vital New Red had the best specificity for differentiating eosinophils and neutrophils, but had a reduced ability to enumerate eosinophils and was the most time intensive. The Luna stain had excessive non specific staining of tissues and a reduced enumeration of infiltrating eosinophils making it suboptimal. For multiple parameters such as eosinophil detection, specificity, and contrast with background tissues, the Sirius Red followed by Congo Red and Modified Hematoxylin & Eosin methods were useful, each with their own staining qualities. PMID:19181630

  1. IGE IN ASTHMATIC HUMAN SERA IS REACTIVE AGAINST MOLD EXTRACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Molds have been associated with various health effects including asthma, but their role in induction of asthma is unclear. However, the presence of mold-specific IgE indicates their capacity to induce allergic responses and possibly exacerbate asthma symptoms. This study was und...

  2. IGE IN ASTHMATIC HUMAN SERA IS REACTIVE AGAINST MOLD EXTRACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Molds have been associated with various health effects including asthma, but their role in induction of asthma is unclear. However, the presence of mold-specific IgE indicates their capacity to induce allergic responses and possibly exacerbate asthma symptoms. This study was und...

  3. Mycoplasma pneumoniae CARDS toxin elicits a functional IgE response in Balb/c mice

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Jorge L.; Brooks, Edward G.; Chaparro, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is strongly associated with new onset asthma and asthma exacerbations. Until recently, the molecular mechanisms utilized by M. pneumoniae to influence asthma symptoms were unknown. However, we recently reported that an ADP-ribosylating and vacuolating toxin called the Community Acquired Respiratory Distress Syndrome toxin, CARDS toxin, produced by M. pneumoniae was sufficient to promote allergic inflammation and asthma-like disease in mice. A mouse model of CARDS toxin exposure was used to evaluate total and CARDS-toxin specific serum IgE responses. Mast cell sensitization, challenge, and degranulation studies determined functionality of the CARDS toxin-specific IgE. In the current study, we report that a single mucosal exposure to CARDS toxin was sufficient to increase total serum IgE and CARDS toxin-specific IgE in mice. Mice given a second mucosal challenge of CARDS toxin responded with significant increases in total and CARDS toxin-specific IgE. CARDS toxin-specific IgE bound to an N-terminal peptide of CARDS toxin but not the C-terminal peptide. Likewise, full-length CARDS toxin and the N-terminal peptide induced mast cell degranulation. Altogether, these data demonstrate that exposure to CARDS toxin is sufficient to generate functional IgE in mice. M. pneumoniae and CARDS toxin are strongly associated with asthma exacerbations raising the possibility that the CARDS toxin-specific IgE-mast cell axis contributes to disease pathogenesis. PMID:28199385

  4. Mycoplasma pneumoniae CARDS toxin elicits a functional IgE response in Balb/c mice.

    PubMed

    Medina, Jorge L; Brooks, Edward G; Chaparro, Adriana; Dube, Peter H

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is strongly associated with new onset asthma and asthma exacerbations. Until recently, the molecular mechanisms utilized by M. pneumoniae to influence asthma symptoms were unknown. However, we recently reported that an ADP-ribosylating and vacuolating toxin called the Community Acquired Respiratory Distress Syndrome toxin, CARDS toxin, produced by M. pneumoniae was sufficient to promote allergic inflammation and asthma-like disease in mice. A mouse model of CARDS toxin exposure was used to evaluate total and CARDS-toxin specific serum IgE responses. Mast cell sensitization, challenge, and degranulation studies determined functionality of the CARDS toxin-specific IgE. In the current study, we report that a single mucosal exposure to CARDS toxin was sufficient to increase total serum IgE and CARDS toxin-specific IgE in mice. Mice given a second mucosal challenge of CARDS toxin responded with significant increases in total and CARDS toxin-specific IgE. CARDS toxin-specific IgE bound to an N-terminal peptide of CARDS toxin but not the C-terminal peptide. Likewise, full-length CARDS toxin and the N-terminal peptide induced mast cell degranulation. Altogether, these data demonstrate that exposure to CARDS toxin is sufficient to generate functional IgE in mice. M. pneumoniae and CARDS toxin are strongly associated with asthma exacerbations raising the possibility that the CARDS toxin-specific IgE-mast cell axis contributes to disease pathogenesis.

  5. Circulating Human Eosinophils Share a Similar Transcriptional Profile in Asthma and Other Hypereosinophilic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Barnig, Cindy; Alsaleh, Ghada; Jung, Nicolas; Dembélé, Doulaye; Paul, Nicodème; Poirot, Anh; Uring-Lambert, Béatrice; Georgel, Philippe; de Blay, Fréderic; Bahram, Seiamak

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils are leukocytes that are released into the peripheral blood in a phenotypically mature state and are capable of being recruited into tissues in response to appropriate stimuli. Eosinophils, traditionally considered cytotoxic effector cells, are leukocytes recruited into the airways of asthma patients where they are believed to contribute to the development of many features of the disease. This perception, however, has been challenged by recent findings suggesting that eosinophils have also immunomodulatory functions and may be involved in tissue homeostasis and wound healing. Here we describe a transcriptome-based approach-in a limited number of patients and controls-to investigate the activation state of circulating human eosinophils isolated by flow cytometry. We provide an overview of the global expression pattern in eosinophils in various relevant conditions, e.g., eosinophilic asthma, hypereosinophilic dermatological diseases, parasitosis and pulmonary aspergillosis. Compared to healthy subjects, circulating eosinophils isolated from asthma patients differed in their gene expression profile which is marked by downregulation of transcripts involved in antigen presentation, pathogen recognition and mucosal innate immunity, whereas up-regulated genes were involved in response to non-specific stimulation, wounding and maintenance of homeostasis. Eosinophils from other hypereosinophilic disorders displayed a very similar transcriptional profile. Taken together, these observations seem to indicate that eosinophils exhibit non-specific immunomodulatory functions important for tissue repair and homeostasis and suggest new roles for these cells in asthma immunobiology.

  6. Recent advances in understanding eosinophil biology.

    PubMed

    Klion, Amy

    2017-01-01

    With the advent of novel therapies targeting eosinophils, there has been renewed interest in understanding the basic biology of this unique cell. In this context, murine models and human studies have continued to highlight the role of the eosinophil in homeostatic functions and immunoregulation. This review will focus on recent advances in our understanding of eosinophil biology that are likely to have important consequences on the development and consequences of eosinophil-targeted therapies. Given the breadth of the topic, the discussion will be limited to three areas of interest: the eosinophil life cycle, eosinophil heterogeneity, and mechanisms of cell-cell communication.

  7. Lung-resident eosinophils represent a distinct regulatory eosinophil subset

    PubMed Central

    Mesnil, Claire; Raulier, Stéfanie; Paulissen, Geneviève; Xiao, Xue; Birrell, Mark A.; Pirottin, Dimitri; Janss, Thibaut; Henket, Monique; Schleich, Florence N.; Radermecker, Marc; Thielemans, Kris; Gillet, Laurent; Thiry, Marc; Belvisi, Maria G.; Louis, Renaud; Desmet, Christophe; Bureau, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Increases in eosinophil numbers are associated with infection and allergic diseases, including asthma, but there is also evidence that eosinophils contribute to homeostatic immune processes. In mice, the normal lung contains resident eosinophils (rEos), but their function has not been characterized. Here, we have reported that steady-state pulmonary rEos are IL-5–independent parenchymal Siglec-FintCD62L+CD101lo cells with a ring-shaped nucleus. During house dust mite–induced airway allergy, rEos features remained unchanged, and rEos were accompanied by recruited inflammatory eosinophils (iEos), which were defined as IL-5–dependent peribronchial Siglec-FhiCD62L–CD101hi cells with a segmented nucleus. Gene expression analyses revealed a more regulatory profile for rEos than for iEos, and correspondingly, mice lacking lung rEos showed an increase in Th2 cell responses to inhaled allergens. Such elevation of Th2 responses was linked to the ability of rEos, but not iEos, to inhibit the maturation, and therefore the pro-Th2 function, of allergen-loaded DCs. Finally, we determined that the parenchymal rEos found in nonasthmatic human lungs (Siglec-8+CD62L+IL-3Rlo cells) were phenotypically distinct from the iEos isolated from the sputa of eosinophilic asthmatic patients (Siglec-8+CD62LloIL-3Rhi cells), suggesting that our findings in mice are relevant to humans. In conclusion, our data define lung rEos as a distinct eosinophil subset with key homeostatic functions. PMID:27548519

  8. Local IgE in non-allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Campo, P; Rondón, C; Gould, H J; Barrionuevo, E; Gevaert, P; Blanca, M

    2015-05-01

    Local allergic rhinitis (LAR) is characterized by the presence of a nasal Th2 inflammatory response with local production of specific IgE antibodies and a positive response to a nasal allergen provocation test (NAPT) without evidence of systemic atopy. The prevalence has been shown to be up to 25% in subjects affected with rhinitis with persistence, comorbidity and evolution similar to allergic rhinitis. LAR is a consistent entity that does not evolve to allergic rhinitis with systemic atopy over time although patients have significant impairment in quality of life and increase in the severity of nasal symptoms over time. Lower airways can be also involved. The diagnosis of LAR is based mostly on demonstration of positive response to NAPT and/or local synthesis of specific IgE. Allergens involved include seasonal or perennial such as house dusts mites, pollens, animal epithelia, moulds (alternaria) and others. Basophils from peripheral blood may be activated by the involved allergens suggesting the spill over of locally synthesized specific IgE to the circulation. LAR patients will benefit from the same treatment as allergic patients using antihistamines, inhaled corticosteroids and IgE antagonists. Studies on immunotherapy are ongoing and will determine its efficacy in LAR in terms of symptoms improvement and evolution of the natural course of the disease.

  9. Beyond immediate hypersensitivity: evolving roles for IgE antibodies in immune homeostasis and allergic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Oliver T.; Oettgen, Hans C.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies have long been recognized as the antigen-specific triggers of allergic reactions. This review briefly introduces the established functions of IgE in immediate hypersensitivity and then focuses on emerging evidencefrom our own investigations as well as those of others that IgE plays important roles in protective immunity against parasites and exerts regulatory influences in the expression of its own receptors, FcεRI and CD23, as well as controlling mast cell homeostasis. We provide an overview of the multifaceted ways in which IgE antibodies contribute to the pathology of food allergy and speculate regarding potential mechanisms of action of IgE blockade. PMID:21682742

  10. Beyond immediate hypersensitivity: evolving roles for IgE antibodies in immune homeostasis and allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Burton, Oliver T; Oettgen, Hans C

    2011-07-01

    Immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies have long been recognized as the antigen-specific triggers of allergic reactions. This review briefly introduces the established functions of IgE in immediate hypersensitivity and then focuses on emerging evidence from our own investigations as well as those of others that IgE plays important roles in protective immunity against parasites and exerts regulatory influences in the expression of its own receptors, FcεRI and CD23, as well as controlling mast cell homeostasis. We provide an overview of the multifaceted ways in which IgE antibodies contribute to the pathology of food allergy and speculate regarding potential mechanisms of action of IgE blockade.

  11. The 28-entity IGES test file results using ComputerVision CADDS 4X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuan, Anchyi; Shah, Saurin; Smith, Kevin

    1987-01-01

    The investigation was based on the following steps: (1) Read the 28 Entity IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) Test File into the CAD data base with the IGES post-processor; (2) Make the modifications to the displayed geometries, which should produce the normalized front view and the drawing entity defined display; (3) Produce the drawing entity defined display of the file as it appears in the CAD system after modification to the geometry; (4) Translate the file back to IGES format using IGES pre-processor; (5) Read the IGES file produced by the pre-processor back into the CAD data base; (6) Produce another drawing entity defined display of the CAD display; and (7) Compare the plots resulting from steps 3 and 6 - they should be identical to each other.

  12. Clinical characteristics that distinguish eosinophilic organ infiltration from metastatic nodule development in cancer patients with eosinophilia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background When new space-occupying lesions are observed together with peripheral blood eosinophilia in patients diagnosed with cancer, the possibility of eosinophilic organ involvement should be differentiated from metastasis of primary cancer, since a misdiagnosis could lead to unnecessary chemotherapy. The aim of this study is to identify the clinical characteristics of eosinophilic organ involvement that distinguish it from distant metastasis in patients with primary cancer. Methods The medical records of 43 cancer patients who developed hepatic or pulmonary nodules with peripheral blood eosinophilia between January 2005 and February 2010 in the Asan Medical Center (Seoul) were reviewed. Eosinophilic infiltration and distant metastasis were identified on the basis of pathological findings and radiological features. Fisher’s exact test, χ2 test or Mann-Whitney test were used for statistical analysis. Results In total, 33 patients (76%) were diagnosed with eosinophilic infiltration, 5 (12%) with cancer metastasis and 5 (12%) had undetermined diagnoses. Compared to the patients with metastases, the patients with eosinophilic infiltration were significantly more likely to have serology indicating a parasitic infection, a history of eating raw food, high serum levels of total IgE, normal liver function, normal C-reactive protein levels, a normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and fewer and smaller nodules. The most common underlying malignancy in the eosinophilic organ infiltration group was stomach cancer. Physicians tended to neglect the eosinophilia in patients with a history of cancer. Conclusions Several clinical characteristics of eosinophilic organ infiltration distinguish it from cancer metastasis. Physicians should make greater efforts to determine the causes of organ involvement with peripheral blood eosinophilia, especially in cancer patients. PMID:22929225

  13. The circadian clock is functional in eosinophils and mast cells.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Anja; Gönnenwein, Simone; Bischoff, Stephan C; Sherman, Hadas; Chapnik, Nava; Froy, Oren; Lorentz, Axel

    2013-12-01

    Allergic diseases are frequently exacerbated between midnight and early morning, suggesting a role for the biological clock. Mast cells (MC) and eosinophils are the main effector cells of allergic diseases and some MC-specific or eosinophil-specific markers, such as tryptase or eosinophil cationic protein, exhibit circadian variation. Here, we analysed whether the circadian clock is functional in mouse and human eosinophils and MC. Mouse jejunal MC and polymorphonuclear cells from peripheral blood (PMNC) were isolated around the circadian cycle. Human eosinophils were purified from peripheral blood of non-allergic and allergic subjects. Human MC were purified from intestinal tissue. We found a rhythmic expression of the clock genes mPer1, mPer2, mClock and mBmal1 and eosinophil-specific genes mEcp, mEpo and mMbp in murine PMNC. We also found circadian variations for hPer1, hPer2, hBmal1, hClock, hEdn and hEcp mRNA and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in human eosinophils of both healthy and allergic people. Clock genes mPer1, mPer2, mClock and mBmal1 and MC-specific genes mMcpt-5, mMcpt-7, mc-kit and mFcεRI α-chain and protein levels of mMCPT5 and mc-Kit showed robust oscillation in mouse jejunum. Human intestinal MC expressed hPer1, hPer2 and hBmal1 as well as hTryptase and hFcεRI α-chain, in a circadian manner. We found that pre-stored histamine and de novo synthesized cysteinyl leukotrienes, were released in a circadian manner by MC following IgE-mediated activation. In summary, the biological clock controls MC and eosinophils leading to circadian expression and release of their mediators and, hence it might be involved in the pathophysiology of allergy.

  14. Association between egg and staphylococcal superantigen IgE sensitizations in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ong, Peck Y

    2014-01-01

    Patients with moderately severe atopic dermatitis (AD) suffer from significant morbidity including secondary infections and psychosocial disturbances. However, there is currently no laboratory test for identifying these patients to implement early treatments. Because IgE sensitization to foods is frequently an early manifestation in infants with AD, this study aims to examine if food IgE levels may identify AD patients with more severe disease, and whether IgE sensitization to food may predict IgE sensitization to staphylococcal superantigens. Fifty-one young children with AD were included in the study. Eczema severity was measured by objective scoring AD. The levels of food and staphylococcal superantigen-specific IgE were measured by Phadia ImmunoCAP system. Of the five common food allergens (cow's milk, egg white, soybean, wheat, and peanut), only IgE levels to egg white correlated significantly with eczema severity in young children with AD. IgE sensitization to egg white was significantly associated with IgE sensitization to staphylococcal superantigens in older children.

  15. Elevated serum IgE, eosinophilia, and lung function in rubber workers

    SciTech Connect

    Bascom, R.; Baser, M.E.; Thomas, R.J.; Fisher, J.F.; Yang, W.N.; Baker, J.H. )

    1990-01-01

    We previously reported an outbreak of acute respiratory illness associated with eosinophilia in a group of rubber workers who performed a thermoinjection process in which synthetic rubber was heated and then injected onto metal molds. This study was conducted to determine if persistent respiratory health effects were associated with this work area and to explore the possible allergic etiology of this syndrome. A survey was performed 1 mo after a major improvement in area ventilation and consisted of baseline, cross-shift, and cross-week spirometry; diffusing capacity; serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), total eosinophil count; and skin patch testing. Baseline lung function, cross-shift, and cross-week spirometry were not significantly worse in the exposed group as compared to the control group. However, either eosinophilia (greater than 450/mm3) or elevated serum IgE (greater than 470 ng/ml) were present in 44% of exposed workers vs. 11% of the control group (p = .003). Nine months later, neither eosinophilia nor elevated IgE were associated with employment in this work area. We conclude that employment in the thermoinjection process was associated with eosinophilia and elevated IgE, which suggests sensitization to one of the components of the rubber, although no effect on pulmonary function could be demonstrated.

  16. Hematopoietic Processes in Eosinophilic Asthma.

    PubMed

    Salter, Brittany M; Sehmi, Roma

    2017-08-01

    Airway eosinophilia is a hallmark of allergic asthma, and understanding mechanisms that promote increases in lung eosinophil numbers is important for effective pharmacotherapeutic development. It has become evident that expansion of hematopoietic compartments in the bone marrow (BM) promotes differentiation and trafficking of mature eosinophils to the airways. Hematopoietic progenitor cells egress the BM and home to the lungs, where in situ differentiation within the tissue provides an ongoing source of proinflammatory cells. In addition, hematopoietic progenitor cells in the airways can respond to locally derived alarmins to produce a panoply of cytokines, thereby themselves acting as effector proinflammatory cells that potentiate type 2 responses in eosinophilic asthma. In this review, we provide evidence for these findings and discuss novel targets for modulating eosinophilopoietic processes, migration, and effector function of precursor cells. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Atypical presentations of eosinophilic fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Ergun, Tulin; Seckin, Dilek; Salman, Andac; Ocak, Esra Sarac; Yucelten, Ayse Deniz; Direskeneli, Haner; Demirkesen, Cuyan; Ekinci, Gazanfer; Bayik, Mahmut

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis is an uncommon connective tissue disease that may mimic and overlap with other sclerosing disorders such as morphea and lichen sclerosus. Herein, we report four patients (two men and two women, aged 16-64 yeas) with eosinophilic fasciitis. There was overlap with both morphea and lichen sclerosus in 2 patients and with morphoea alone in 1 patient. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used for diagnosis in three patients and for assessing treatment response in one patient. Eosinophilic fasciitis may co-exist with morhoea and lichen sclerosus. In view of the overlapping clinical and histopathological features of these disorders, MRI may be helful in delineating the conditions by detecting involvement of fascia.

  18. Eosinophilic Dermatosis of Hematologic Malignancy.

    PubMed

    Lucas-Truyols, S; Rodrigo-Nicolás, B; Lloret-Ruiz, C; Quecedo-Estébanez, E

    Dermatosis characterized by tissue eosinophilia arising in the context of hematologic disease is known as eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy. The most commonly associated malignancy is chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy is a rare condition with a wide variety of clinical presentations, ranging from papules, erythematous nodules, or blisters that simulate arthropod bites, to the formation of true plaques of differing sizes. Histology reveals the presence of abundant eosinophils. We present 4 new cases seen in Hospital Arnau de Vilanova, Valencia, during the past 7 years. Three of these cases were associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and 1 with mycosis fungoides. It is important to recognize this dermatosis as it can indicate progression of the underlying disease, as was the case in 3 of our patients. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Eosinophilic myositis in Canadian cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, H J; Snowdon, K E; Finley, G G

    1991-01-01

    Musculature from 198 Canadian cattle with suspected lesions of eosinophilic myositis were examined histologically and by pepsin digestion. Sera from 51 of the 198 animals were also examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for anti-Trichinella antibodies. Viable larvae of Trichinella were not recovered from any of the cattle but one animal from Ontario tested positive for anti-Trichinella antibodies. Histologically, focal and/or diffuse eosinophilic myositis lesions were observed in 149 (75.2%) of the animals studied. Other conditions identified were sarcocystiosis, abscesses, cysticercosis, steatosis, fibrosis, granuloma, lymphosarcoma and necrosis. Sarcocystiosis was identified in 105 of the 198 animals in both normal and affected musculature. The study indicates that trichinosis is not a primary cause of eosinophilic myositis in cattle. PMID:1884289

  20. Microarray-based IgE detection in tears of patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Andrea; Borghesan, Franco; Faggian, Diego; Plebani, Mario

    2015-11-01

    A specific allergen sensitization can be demonstrated in approximately half of the vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) patients by conventional allergic tests. The measurement of specific IgE in tears using a multiplex allergen microarray may offer advantages to identify local sensitization to a specific allergen. In spring-summer 2011, serum and tears samples were collected from 10 active VKC patients (three females, seven males) and 10 age-matched normal subjects. Skin prick test, symptoms score and full ophthalmological examination were performed. Specific serum and tear IgE were assayed using ImmunoCAP ISAC, a microarray containing 103 components derived from 47 allergens. Normal subjects resulted negative for the presence of specific IgE both in serum and in tears. Of the 10 VKC patients, six resulted positive to specific IgE in serum and/or tears. In three of these six patients, specific IgE was found positive only in tears. Cross-reactivity between specific markers was found in three patients. Grass, tree, mites, animal but also food allergen-specific IgE were found in tears. Conjunctival provocation test performed out of season confirmed the specific local conjunctival reactivity. Multiple specific IgE measurements with single protein allergens using a microarray technique in tear samples are a useful, simple and non-invasive diagnostic tool. ImmunoCAP ISAC detects allergen sensitization at component level and adds important information by defining both cross- and co-sensitization to a large variety of allergen molecules. The presence of specific IgE only in tears of VKC patients reinforces the concept of possible local sensitization. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Eosinophil-dependent skin innervation and itching following contact toxicant exposure in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, James J.; Protheroe, Cheryl A.; Luo, Huijun; Ochkur, Sergei I.; Scott, Gregory D.; Zellner, Katie R.; Raish, Randall J.; Dahl, Mark V.; Vega, Miriam L.; Conley, Olivia; Condjella, Rachel M.; Kloeber, Jake A.; Neely, Joseph L.; Patel, Yash S.; Maizer, Patty; Mazzolini, Andrew; Fryer, Allison D.; Jacoby, Noah W.; Jacoby, David B.; Lee, Nancy A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Contact toxicant reactions are accompanied by localized skin inflammation and concomitant increases in site-specific itch responses. The role(s) of eosinophils in these reactions is poorly understood. However, previous studies have suggested that localized eosinophil-nerve interactions at sites of inflammation significantly alter tissue innervation. Objective To define a potential mechanistic link between eosinophils and neurosensory responses in the skin leading to itching. Methods BALB/cJ mice were exposed to different contact toxicants, identifying trimellitic anhydride (TMA) for further study on the basis of inducing a robust eosinophilia accompanied by degranulation. Subsequent studies using TMA were performed with wild type vs. eosinophil-deficient PHIL mice, assessing edematous responses, remodeling events such as sensory nerve innervation of the skin, and induced pathophysiological responses (i.e., itching). Results Exposure to TMA, but not dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB), resulted in a robust eosinophil skin infiltrate accompanied by significant levels of degranulation. Follow-up studies using TMA with wild type vs. eosinophil-deficient PHIL mice showed that the induced edematous responses and histopathology were, in part, causatively linked with the presence of eosinophils. Significantly, these data also demonstrated that eosinophil-mediated events correlated with a significant increase in substance P content of the cutaneous nerves and an accompanying increase in itching, both of which were abolished in the absence of eosinophils. Conclusions Eosinophil-mediated events following TMA contact toxicant reactions increase skin sensory nerve substance P and, in turn, increase itching responses. Thus, eosinophil-nerve interactions provide a potential mechanistic link between eosinophil-mediated events and neurosensory responses following exposure to some contact toxicants. PMID:25129680

  2. Total IgE as a serodiagnostic marker to aid murine fur mite detection.

    PubMed

    Roble, Gordon S; Boteler, William; Riedel, Elyn; Lipman, Neil S

    2012-03-01

    Mites of 3 genera-Myobia, Myocoptes, and Radfordia -continue to plague laboratory mouse facilities, even with use of stringent biosecurity measures. Mites often spread before diagnosis, predominantly because of detection difficulty. Current detection methods have suboptimal sensitivity, are time-consuming, and are costly. A sensitive serodiagnostic technique would facilitate detection and ease workload. We evaluated whether total IgE increases could serve as a serodiagnostic marker to identify mite infestations. Variables affecting total IgE levels including infestation duration, sex, age, mite species, soiled-bedding exposure, and ivermectin treatment were investigated in Swiss Webster mice. Strain- and pinworm-associated effects were examined by using C57BL/6 mice and Swiss Webster mice dually infested with Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera, respectively. Mite infestations led to significant increases in IgE levels within 2 to 4 wk. Total IgE threshold levels and corresponding sensitivity and specificity values were determined along the continuum of a receiver-operating characteristic curve. A threshold of 81 ng/mL was chosen for Swiss Webster mice; values above this point should trigger screening by a secondary, more specific method. Sex-associated differences were not significant. Age, strain, and infecting parasite caused variability in IgE responses. Mice exposed to soiled bedding showed a delayed yet significant increase in total IgE. Treatment with ivermectin reduced total IgE levels within 2 wk. Our data suggest that increases in total IgE in Swiss Webster and C57BL/6 mice warrant investigation, especially because mite infestations can rapidly elevate total IgE levels. We propose that using total IgE levels routinely in serologic panels will enhance biosecurity.

  3. Total IgE as a Serodiagnostic Marker to Aid Murine Fur Mite Detection

    PubMed Central

    Roble, Gordon S; Boteler, William; Riedel, Elyn; Lipman, Neil S

    2012-01-01

    Mites of 3 genera—Myobia, Myocoptes, and Radfordia—continue to plague laboratory mouse facilities, even with use of stringent biosecurity measures. Mites often spread before diagnosis, predominantly because of detection difficulty. Current detection methods have suboptimal sensitivity, are time-consuming, and are costly. A sensitive serodiagnostic technique would facilitate detection and ease workload. We evaluated whether total IgE increases could serve as a serodiagnostic marker to identify mite infestations. Variables affecting total IgE levels including infestation duration, sex, age, mite species, soiled-bedding exposure, and ivermectin treatment were investigated in Swiss Webster mice. Strain- and pinworm-associated effects were examined by using C57BL/6 mice and Swiss Webster mice dually infested with Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera, respectively. Mite infestations led to significant increases in IgE levels within 2 to 4 wk. Total IgE threshold levels and corresponding sensitivity and specificity values were determined along the continuum of a receiver-operating characteristic curve. A threshold of 81 ng/mL was chosen for Swiss Webster mice; values above this point should trigger screening by a secondary, more specific method. Sex-associated differences were not significant. Age, strain, and infecting parasite caused variability in IgE responses. Mice exposed to soiled bedding showed a delayed yet significant increase in total IgE. Treatment with ivermectin reduced total IgE levels within 2 wk. Our data suggest that increases in total IgE in Swiss Webster and C57BL/6 mice warrant investigation, especially because mite infestations can rapidly elevate total IgE levels. We propose that using total IgE levels routinely in serologic panels will enhance biosecurity. PMID:22776120

  4. Eosinophilic disorders of the gastro-intestinal tract: an update.

    PubMed

    Ridolo, Erminia; Melli, Valerie; De' Angelis, Gianluigi; Martignago, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, including eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE), are rare chronic pathologies of the digestive system, with an immuno-mediated pathogenesis. Recent data suggest that, together with the "classic" IgE-response to allergens, also a delayed hypersensitivity mechanism could be involved in the development of eosinophilic disorders. EoE and EGE were studied only in the latest decades and as a consequence accurate data are not yet available, concerning not only pathogenesis, but also epidemiology, treatment and outcomes. The diagnosis of EoE is centered on endoscopic findings but the certainty is obtained by histological examination from biopsy samples, that has a sensitivity of 100% when based on five samples. The currently available treatments include topical corticosteroids, specific diets and endoscopic treatment. Concerning EGE, three subtypes (mucosal, muscular, and serosal) were identified. The diagnosis is based, as for EoE, on endoscopic and histological assessment, and the treatment includes pharmacological and dietetic approaches. Further studies are warranted in order to better define the etiology and pathogenesis of eosinophilic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, and thus to develop more appropriate and specific therapies.

  5. Pleuroscopy in 'Idiopathic' eosinophilic pleural effusions.

    PubMed

    Archontogeorgis, Kostas; Anevlavis, Stavros; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Jain, Ajay; Karpathiou, Georgia; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra; Sivridis, Efthimios; Bouros, Demosthenes; Froudarakis, Marios E

    2015-10-01

    Idiopathic eosinophilic pleural effusions (IEPEs) comprise the eosinophilic pleural effusions for which a specific aetiology cannot be established. There are no reports investigating IEPE on the basis of a systematically applied pleuroscopy approach and entailing an appropriate patient follow-up till the final outcome is established; existing series rather combine clinical and thoracocentesis criteria to establish the idiopathic character of the diagnosis. The aim of our study was to assess the clinical outcome of patients with IEPE, who underwent a systematic diagnostic approach by pleuroscopy. We studied 10 patients with IEPE among 175 consecutive patients who underwent pleuroscopy for undiagnosed pleural effusion. Pleural biopsies were obtained from observed lesions. All patients were followed up by means of clinical examination and imaging. The diagnosis of IEPE was established in 10 patients (median age was 50.5 years, range 35-91). Macroscopic examination of the pleura showed diffuse thickening with pleural plaques in eight patients, consistent with diffuse pleural eosinophilic inflammation histologically proven. In two patients, macroscopic examination showed scattered nodules associated with non-caseating granulomas histologically. In all 10 patients, a specific aetiology could not be established. Follow-up was available for all patients ranging from 24-102 months (median 60 months). No patient received a specific treatment during the follow-up period. No relapse of a pleural effusion was documented during this period. Pleuroscopy is mandatory in diagnosing IEPE. Negative histology and a long follow-up showed a benign course. These findings suggest that we should call these effusions 'indeterminate'. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. HLA class II genotype, HLA-DR B cell surface expression and allergen specific IgE production in atopic and non-atopic members of asthmatic family pedigrees.

    PubMed

    Howell, W M; Standring, P; Warner, J A; Warner, J O

    1999-12-01

    HLA class II polymorphism is variably associated with sensitization to specific allergens, but few convincing HLA associations with asthma or the general state of atopy have been demonstrated. In this study we investigated HLA class II genotype associations with asthma, atopy and specific IgE (sIgE) production to six allergen extracts and six purified major allergens (Der p 1, Der p 2, Fel d 1, Can f 1, Alt a 1 and Phl p 5) in 176 individuals from 20 asthmatic family pedigrees. In selected individuals, cell surface HLA-DR peripheral B-cell expression was correlated with HLA-DRB1 genotype and atopic status. Results showed that HLA-DRB1*08 was negatively associated with asthma (2% vs 17%; Pc = 0.02; OR = 0.08) and atopy (0% vs 16%; Pc = 0.04; OR = 0.1), while DRB1*15 was positively associated with asthma (36% vs 13%; Pc = 0.02; OR = 3.6). Analysis of DRB1 sequences showed that only 29% of individuals with GAG TAC TCT ACG at codons 9-12 in one or both alleles were atopic, compared with 53% of individuals without this sequence (P = 0.002; OR = 0.36). DPA1*0201 was negatively associated with sIgE to both grass pollen mix and Phl p 5 (0% vs 23%; Pc = 0.02; OR = 0.14). A non-significant trend towards higher HLA-DR B-cell expression was seen in both non-atopic and DRB1*08 individuals. In conclusion, this single centre study has demonstrated a number of HLA class II genotype associations with asthma, atopy and sIgE to grass pollen mix and Phl p 5, including hitherto unreported DRB1*08, DRB1 codon 9-12 and DPA1*0201 associations. No significant associations between HLA-DR expression and DRB1 genotype or atopy were demonstrated, although a trend towards higher expression was seen in non-atopic individuals and individuals of DRB1*08 genotype.

  7. A flow-cytometric method to evaluate eosinophil-mediated uptake of probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Laura S; Brenner, Todd A; Krumholz, Julia O; Rosenberg, Helene F

    2017-06-01

    Eosinophils are resident leukocytes of gut mucosa. Here we present a combined flow cytometric-antibiotic protection assay to identify mouse eosinophils capable of bacterial uptake, specifically, Gram-positive Lactobacillus reuteri, in studies performed ex vivo. The assay may be adapted for use in vivo. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Eosinophil peroxidase in sputum represents a unique biomarker of airway eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Nair, P; Ochkur, S I; Protheroe, C; Radford, K; Efthimiadis, A; Lee, N A; Lee, J J

    2013-09-01

    Sputum eosinophilia has been shown to be a predictor of response to anti-eosinophil therapies in patients with airway diseases. However, quantitative cell counts and differentials of sputum are labor intensive. The objective of this study was to validate a novel ELISA-based assay of eosinophil peroxidase (EPX) in sputum as a rapid and reliable marker of airway eosinophils. The utility of EPX-based ELISA as an eosinophil-specific assay was achieved through comparisons with sputum eosinophil differential counts in freshly prepared and archived patient samples from a variety of clinical settings. EPX levels in sputum correlated with eosinophil percentage (r(s) = 0.84) in asthma patients with varying degrees of airway eosinophilia. Significantly, unlike assays of other eosinophil granule proteins (e.g., ECP and EDN), which often detect the presence of these proteins even in asthma patients with neutrophilic bronchitis, EPX-based ELISA levels are not increased in this subset of asthma patients or in COPD patients lacking evidence of an airway eosinophilia. Moreover, sputum EPX was a surrogate marker of airway eosinophilia in other patient studies (e.g., allergen inhalation and treatment trials the anti-(IL-5) therapeutic Mepolizumab™). Finally, EPX levels in cytocentrifuged prepared sputum supernatants correlated with those from rapidly prepared noncentrifuged filtrates of sputum (r(s) = 0.94). EPX-based ELISA is a valid, reliable, repeatable, and specific surrogate marker of eosinophils and/or eosinophil degranulation in the sputum of respiratory patients. The novel EPX assay is a valid and reproducible eosinophil-specific assay that can potentially be developed into a point-of-care assessment of eosinophil activity in airway secretions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. [The role of peripheral blood eosinophil percentage in classification of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-jie; Zhou, Bing; Li, Yun-chuan; Huang, Qian

    2013-08-01

    Trying to find a useful marker to subclassify chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), ratio of eosinophil in peripheral blood was investigated. Histologic characteristics of surgical samples were analyzed in 119 CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) patients, who were classified into eosinophil CRSwNP (ECRSwNP) group and non-ECRSwNP group. Peripheral blood eosinophil percentage, olfactory function, skin prick test, serum total IgE and sinus CT scan in two groups were all examined and analyzed. To evaluate the discriminatory power of eosinophil to diagnose ECRSwNP, the Receiver Operating Characteristic(ROC)curve was analysed. There were significant differences in Ratio of EOS, serum total IgE, and olfactory function scores, between ECRSwNP group and non-ECRSwNP group(mean value were 7.31%: 3.90%, 60.9 IU/L: 28.9 IU/L, 5.8: 0.4 respectively, U value were 620.01, 1020.53 and 1092.52, respectively, all P < 0.05). However, there was no difference in skin prick test between two groups. In CT scan exam, there were no differences in Lund-Mackay scores in frontal sinus, anterior ethmoid sinus, posterior ethmoid sinus, sphenoid sinus and ostiomeatal complex area, but maxillary sinus, between ECRSwNP group and non-ECRSwNP group (U value were 27.5, 23.5, 22.5, 31.5, 28.5, respectively, all P > 0.05, and U value of maxillary sinus was 12.01, P < 0.05 ). Peripheral blood eosinophil percentage and serum total IgE were related with pathology of nasal polyps (r value were 0.55, 0.24, and P value were 0.001, 0.01, respectively), especially blood eosinophilia can be a predictor of ECRSwNP. The area under curve was 0.818 and cutoff value was 5.65%. ECRSwNP is different from non-ECRSwNP in many clinical features. Peripheral blood eosinophil percentage is consistent with histologic features of ECRS, which is a useful marker as 5.65% in classification of CRS.

  10. Effect of season of birth on cord blood IgE and IgE at birth: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Susanto, Nugroho Harry; Vicendese, Don; Salim, Agus; Lowe, Adrian J; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Tham, Rachel; Lodge, Caroline; Garden, Frances; Allen, Katie; Svanes, Cecilie; Heinrich, Joachim; Abramson, Michael J; Erbas, Bircan

    2017-08-01

    Elevated cord blood IgE is important on the pathway to allergic disease. The association between season of birth and infant cord blood IgE is not well-established. Study findings differ on which birth season is associated with higher cord blood IgE risk and its magnitude. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies on season of birth and cord blood IgE. We searched Medline, Web of Science, Scopus and ProQuest Health databases, and reviewed reference lists of articles that met the inclusion criteria. All included studies measured IgE as a binary variable using various cut-off values. We performed multivariate-random-effects meta-analysis to handle an exposure with multiple categories of Season of Birth. Our search identified 275 records and 10 had sufficient data to be included in a meta-analysis. Relative to summer, winter birth had the greatest odds of high IgE (≥ 0.1IU/ml), meta-analysis OR = 1.24 (95%CI: 1.01-1.52). A similar OR, was found for IgE ≥ 0.5 IU/ml, OR = 1.30 (95%CI: 0.99-1.71). A winter season of birth was associated with statistically significant higher odds of elevated cord blood IgE at cut-off ≥ 0.1IU/ml but borderline at cut-off ≥ 0.5IU/ml. This winter effect is likely to be a marker for a range of other environmental exposures during specific stages of pregnancy, such as aeroallergen exposures, maternal infections and vitamin D levels. Further research is required to support our finding and to identify the exact mechanisms that lead to the winter season of birth effect on circulating IgE levels, as this may have implications for allergic disease prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Soluble CD23 Controls IgE Synthesis and Homeostasis in Human B Cellsi

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Alison M.; Hobson, Philip S.; Jutton, Mark R.; Kao, Michael W.; Drung, Binia; Schmidt, Boris; Fear, David J.; Beavil, Andrew J.; McDonnell, James M.; Sutton, Brian J.; Gould, Hannah J.

    2012-01-01

    CD23, the low affinity receptor for IgE, exists in membrane and soluble forms. Soluble CD23 fragments are released from membrane CD23 by the endogenous metalloprotease, ADAM10. When purified tonsil B cells are incubated with IL-4 and anti-CD40 to induce class switching to IgE in vitro, membrane CD23 is up-regulated and soluble CD23 accumulates in the medium prior to IgE synthesis. We have uncoupled the effects of membrane CD23 cleavage and accumulation of soluble CD23 on IgE synthesis in this system. We show that siRNA inhibition of CD23 synthesis or inhibition of membrane CD23 cleavage by an ADAM10 inhibitor, GI254023X, suppress IL-4 and anti-CD40-stimulated IgE synthesis. Addition of a recombinant trimeric soluble CD23, ‘triCD23’, enhances IgE synthesis in this system. This occurs even when endogenous membrane CD23 is protected from cleavage by GI254023X, indicating that IgE synthesis is positively controlled by soluble CD23. We show that triCD23 binds to cells co-expressing membrane IgE and membrane CD21 and caps these proteins on the B cell membrane. Up-regulation of IgE by soluble CD23 occurs after class switch recombination and its effects are isotype-specific. These results suggest that membrane IgE and membrane CD21 co-operate in the soluble CD23-mediated positive regulation of IgE synthesis on cells committed to IgE synthesis. Feedback regulation may occur when the concentration of secreted IgE becomes great enough to allow binding to membrane CD23, thus preventing further release of soluble CD23. We interpret these results with the aid of a model for the up-regulation of IgE by soluble CD23. PMID:22393152

  12. Eosinophilic cholecystitis caused by Ascaris lumbricoides

    PubMed Central

    Montiel-Jarquín, Alvaro

    2008-01-01

    Eosinophilic cholecystitis is caused by the accumulation of eosinophils in the gallbladder wall and diagnosis is usually made based on histopathologic studies. The purpose of this paper is to comment on a case report published in World J Gastroenterol 2007 July; 13 (27): 3760-3762, about eosinophilic cholecystitis along with pericarditis without histopathological studies, which are considered necessary for its diagnosis. PMID:18461667

  13. Clinical and inflammatory features of asthma with dissociation between fractional exhaled nitric oxide and eosinophils in induced sputum.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Astrid; Giner, Jordi; Torrejón, Montserrat; Belda, Alicia; Mateus, Eder; Granel, Carmen; Torrego, Alfons; Ramos-Barbón, David; Plaza, Vicente

    2016-06-01

    Measurement of the fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and eosinophils in induced sputum are noninvasive markers for assessing airway inflammation in asthma. The clinical usefulness of the correlation between raised FeNO and sputum eosinophilia is controversial. We aimed to examine dissociation between FeNO and sputum eosinophils in a clinical series of asthma patients and to determine whether dissociation between these noninvasive markers was associated with clinical and inflammatory differences in these patients. A total of 110 patients with asthma were included in a cross-sectional study. All of them were on maintenance treatment for asthma. All patients underwent the following on the same day: FeNO, induced sputum, spirometry, serum total IgE levels and skin prick test. The level of asthma control was determined by the Asthma control Test Questionnaire. In 46 (41.8%) patients, a discrepancy between FeNO and sputum eosinophil count was observed, of those, 34 (73.9%) had a FeNO <50 ppb and high eosinophil count, and were characterized by having a predominance of nonallergic asthma with bronchial eosinophilic inflammatory phenotype. Also, 12 (26.1%) patients had FeNO ≥50 ppb and sputum eosinophilia within the normal reference values, and were characterized by having a predominance of atopy with a paucigranulocytic inflammatory phenotype. A high percentage of patients with dissociation between results of FeNO and sputum eosinophils was observed. These patients showed differential clinical and inflammatory features.

  14. House dust mites as potential carriers for IgE sensitization to bacterial antigens.

    PubMed

    Dzoro, S; Mittermann, I; Resch-Marat, Y; Vrtala, S; Nehr, M; Hirschl, A M; Wikberg, G; Lundeberg, L; Johansson, C; Scheynius, A; Valenta, R

    2017-07-25

    IgE reactivity to antigens from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria is common in patients suffering from respiratory and skin manifestations of allergy, but the routes and mechanisms of sensitization are not fully understood. The analysis of the genome, transcriptome and microbiome of house dust mites (HDM) has shown that Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) species are abundant bacteria within the HDM microbiome. Therefore, our aim was to investigate whether HDM are carriers of bacterial antigens leading to IgE sensitization in patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Plasma samples from patients with AD (n = 179) were analysed for IgE reactivity to a comprehensive panel of microarrayed HDM allergen molecules and to S. aureus and E. coli by IgE immunoblotting. Antibodies specific for S. aureus and E. coli antigens were tested for reactivity to nitrocellulose-blotted extract from purified HDM bodies, and the IgE-reactive antigens were detected by IgE immunoblot inhibition experiments. IgE antibodies directed to bacterial antigens in HDM were quantified by IgE ImmunoCAP™ inhibition experiments. IgE reactivity to bacterial antigens was significantly more frequent in patients with AD sensitized to HDM than in AD patients without HDM sensitization. S. aureus and E. coli antigens were detected in immune-blotted HDM extract, and the presence of IgE-reactive antigens in HDM was demonstrated by qualitative and quantitative IgE inhibition experiments. House dust mites (HDM) may serve as carriers of bacteria responsible for the induction of IgE sensitization to microbial antigens. © 2017 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Eosinophilic esophagitis: A newly established cause of dysphagia

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Brian M; Shaffer, Eldon A

    2006-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis has rapidly become a recognized entity causing dysphagia in young adults. This review summarizes the current knowledge of eosinophilic esophagitis including the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic criteria, pathophysiology, treatment, and prognosis. An extensive search of PubMed/Medline (1966-December 2005) for available English literature in humans for eosinophilic esophagitis was completed. Appropriate articles listed in the bibliographies were also attained. The estimated incidence is 43/105 in children and 2.5/105 in adults. Clinically, patients have a long history of intermittent solid food dysphagia or food impaction. Some have a history of atopy. Subtle endoscopic features may be easily overlooked, including a “feline” or corrugated esophagus with fine rings, a diffusely narrowed esophagus that may have proximal strictures, the presence of linear furrows, adherent white plaques, or a friable (crepe paper) mucosa, prone to tearing with minimal contact. Although no pathologic consensus has been established, a histologic diagnosis is critical. The accep-ted criteria are a dense eosinophilic infiltrate (>20/high power field) within the superficial esophageal mucosa. In contrast, the esophagitis associated with acid reflux disease can also possess eosinophils but they are fewer in number. Once the diagnosis is established, treatment options may include specific food avoidance, topical corticosteroids, systemic corticosteroids, leukotriene inhibitors, or biologic treatment. The long-term prognosis of EE is uncertain; however available data suggests a benign, albeit inconvenient, course. With increasing recognition, this entity is taking its place as an established cause of solid food dysphagia. PMID:16688820

  16. Possible Noninvasive Biomarker of Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Clinical and Experimental Evidence.

    PubMed

    Venkateshaiah, Sathisha Upparahalli; Manohar, Murli; Verma, Alok K; Blecker, Uwe; Mishra, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) diagnosis and follow-up response to therapy is based on repeated endoscopies and histological examination for eosinophils/HPF. The procedure is invasive and risky in particular for the pediatric population. Presently, there is no highly sensitive and specific noninvasive blood test available to monitor the disease pathogenesis. Reports indicate the expression of PDL1 (CD274) on the eosinophils in allergic patients. Herein, we report that CD274-expressing and -nonexpressing eosinophils were detected in both examined pediatric and adult EoE patients. We show that CD274 expression on blood eosinophils and blood mRNA expression levels increase in the blood of EoE patients and decrease following treatment. These observations are consistent with the esophageal eosinophilia of before and after treatment in both examined patients. These two clinical and experimental analysis reports provide the possibility that the CD274 mRNA and CD274-expressing esinophil levels may be novel possible noninvasive biomarkers for EoE.

  17. Possible Noninvasive Biomarker of Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Clinical and Experimental Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Venkateshaiah, Sathisha Upparahalli; Manohar, Murli; Verma, Alok K.; Blecker, Uwe; Mishra, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) diagnosis and follow-up response to therapy is based on repeated endoscopies and histological examination for eosinophils/HPF. The procedure is invasive and risky in particular for the pediatric population. Presently, there is no highly sensitive and specific noninvasive blood test available to monitor the disease pathogenesis. Reports indicate the expression of PDL1 (CD274) on the eosinophils in allergic patients. Herein, we report that CD274-expressing and -nonexpressing eosinophils were detected in both examined pediatric and adult EoE patients. We show that CD274 expression on blood eosinophils and blood mRNA expression levels increase in the blood of EoE patients and decrease following treatment. These observations are consistent with the esophageal eosinophilia of before and after treatment in both examined patients. These two clinical and experimental analysis reports provide the possibility that the CD274 mRNA and CD274-expressing esinophil levels may be novel possible noninvasive biomarkers for EoE. PMID:27920662

  18. Eosinophilic esophagitis: a newly established cause of dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Yan, Brian-M; Shaffer, Eldon-A

    2006-04-21

    Eosinophilic esophagitis has rapidly become a recognized entity causing dysphagia in young adults. This review summarizes the current knowledge of eosinophilic esophagitis including the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic criteria, pathophysiology, treatment, and prognosis. An extensive search of PubMed/Medline (1966-December 2005) for available English literature in humans for eosinophilic esophagitis was completed. Appropriate articles listed in the bibliographies were also attained. The estimated incidence is 43/10(5) in children and 2.5/10(5) in adults. Clinically, patients have a long history of intermittent solid food dysphagia or food impaction. Some have a history of atopy. Subtle endoscopic features may be easily overlooked, including a "feline" or corrugated esophagus with fine rings, a diffusely narrowed esophagus that may have proximal strictures, the presence of linear furrows, adherent white plaques, or a friable (crepe paper) mucosa, prone to tearing with minimal contact. Although no pathologic consensus has been established, a histologic diagnosis is critical. The accepted criteria are a dense eosinophilic infiltrate (>20/high power field) within the superficial esophageal mucosa. In contrast, the esophagitis associated with acid reflux disease can also possess eosinophils but they are fewer in number. Once the diagnosis is established, treatment options may include specific food avoidance, topical corticosteroids, systemic corticosteroids, leukotriene inhibitors, or biologic treatment. The long-term prognosis of EE is uncertain; however available data suggests a benign, albeit inconvenient, course. With increasing recognition, this entity is taking its place as an established cause of solid food dysphagia.

  19. Activated mouse eosinophils protect against lethal respiratory virus infection.

    PubMed

    Percopo, Caroline M; Dyer, Kimberly D; Ochkur, Sergei I; Luo, Janice L; Fischer, Elizabeth R; Lee, James J; Lee, Nancy A; Domachowske, Joseph B; Rosenberg, Helene F

    2014-01-30

    Eosinophils are recruited to the airways as a prominent feature of the asthmatic inflammatory response where they are broadly perceived as promoting pathophysiology. Respiratory virus infections exacerbate established asthma; however, the role of eosinophils and the nature of their interactions with respiratory viruses remain uncertain. To explore these questions, we established acute infection with the rodent pneumovirus, pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), in 3 distinct mouse models of Th2 cytokine-driven asthmatic inflammation. We found that eosinophils recruited to the airways of otherwise naïve mice in response to Aspergillus fumigatus, but not ovalbumin sensitization and challenge, are activated by and degranulate specifically in response to PVM infection. Furthermore, we demonstrate that activated eosinophils from both Aspergillus antigen and cytokine-driven asthma models are profoundly antiviral and promote survival in response to an otherwise lethal PVM infection. Thus, although activated eosinophils within a Th2-polarized inflammatory response may have pathophysiologic features, they are also efficient and effective mediators of antiviral host defense.

  20. [The clinicopathologic observation of eosinophilic hyperplastic lymphogranuloma in the orbit].

    PubMed

    Lin, Jin-Yong; Zhao, Hong; Yang, Zhen-Hai

    2011-05-01

    To improve the knowledge of the clinicopathologic features of eosinophilic hyperplastic lymphogranuloma (Kimura disease) in the orbit. It was a retrospective case series study. The clinical and pathological characteristic of 9 cases of Kimura disease from the pathology department of Tianjin Eye Hospital were reviewed, immunohistochemical staining was performed, including for CD20, D79a, CD3, CD45Ro, CD34, Ki67 and IgE. In the 9 cases, 7 cases were male, 2 cases were female; the age of onset were from 13 to 62 years, medium age was 25 years; 7 cases were simple, 2 case were bilateral orbit. These lesions occurred in the superior or superotemporal quadrant of the orbit and the majority of cases extended into deep orbital tissues, 6 cases involved the lacrimal gland, 5 case involved the lateral rectus muscle. The clinical features mainly included lid swelling, eye redness, proptosis and palpable mass, and the disease course ranged from 6 months to 15 years. 3 lymph node enlargements in the submandibular regions and 1 subcutaneous nodule on the bilateral elbow were found in one case. The documentation of peripheral-blood eosinophilia (11% - 14%) was found in 3 cases. The pathological characteristics of Kimura disease were lymphoid tissue hyperplasia with prominent lymphoid follicles, conspicuous eosinophils infiltration and capillary proliferation. Immunohistochemical study in our cases revealed B cells in lymphoid follicles and mostly T cells in the interfollicular regions. Kimura disease of orbit is an uncommon lymphoid hyperplasia with prominent eosinophils infiltration and capillary vessels, which commonly occur superotemporal quadrant of the orbit, easy to involve lacrimal gland and lateral rectus muscle.

  1. Eosinophils in mucosal immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Travers, J; Rothenberg, M E

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils, multifunctional cells that contribute to both innate and adaptive immunity, are involved in the initiation, propagation and resolution of immune responses, including tissue repair. They achieve this multifunctionality by expression of a diverse set of activation receptors, including those that directly recognize pathogens and opsonized targets, and by their ability to store and release preformed cytotoxic mediators that participate in host defense, to produce a variety of de novo pleotropic mediators and cytokines and to interact directly and indirectly with diverse cell types, including adaptive and innate immunocytes and structural cells. Herein, we review the basic biology of eosinophils and then focus on new emerging concepts about their role in mucosal immune homeostasis, particularly maintenance of intestinal IgA. We review emerging data about their development and regulation and describe new concepts concerning mucosal eosinophilic diseases. We describe recently developed therapeutic strategies to modify eosinophil levels and function and provide collective insight about the beneficial and detrimental functions of these enigmatic cells. PMID:25807184

  2. Eosinophilic meningitis: what's the "diff"?

    PubMed

    Miller, Michael A; Menowsky, Michael; Leeson, Kimberly; Leeson, Ben

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a 22-year-old man who presented to the emergency department (ED) with altered mental status and was diagnosed with eosinophilic meningitis due to Angiostrongylus cantonensis (AC) acquired in the United States after exposure to snails.

  3. Human eosinophils express functional CCR7.

    PubMed

    Akuthota, Praveen; Ueki, Shigeharu; Estanislau, Jessica; Weller, Peter F

    2013-06-01

    Human eosinophils display directed chemotactic activity toward an array of soluble chemokines. Eosinophils have been observed to migrate to draining lymph nodes in experimental models of allergic inflammation, yet it is unknown whether eosinophils express CCR7, a key chemokine receptor in coordinating leukocyte trafficking to lymph nodes. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate expression of CCR7 by human eosinophils and functional responses to CCL19 and CCL21, the known ligands of CCR7. Human eosinophils were purified by negative selection from healthy donors. CCR7 expression of freshly purified, unstimulated eosinophils and of IL-5-primed eosinophils was determined by flow cytometry and Western blot. Chemotaxis to CCL19 and CCL21 was measured in transwell assays. Shape changes to CCL19 and CCL21 were analyzed by flow cytometry and microscopy. Calcium fluxes of fluo-4 AM-loaded eosinophils were recorded by flow cytometry after chemokine stimulation. ERK phosphorylation of CCL19- and CCL21-stimulated eosinophils was measured by Western blot and Luminex assay. Human eosinophils expressed CCR7 as demonstrated by flow cytometry and Western blots. Eosinophils exhibited detectable cell surface expression of CCR7. IL-5-primed eosinophils exhibited chemotaxis toward CCL19 and CCL21 in a dose-dependent fashion. Upon stimulation with CCL19 or CCL21, IL-5-primed eosinophils demonstrated dose-dependent shape changes with polarization of F-actin and exhibited calcium influxes. Finally, primed eosinophils stimulated with CCL19 or CCL21 exhibited increased phosphorylation of ERK in response to both CCR7 ligands. We demonstrate that human eosinophils express CCR7 and have multipotent responses to the known ligands of CCR7.

  4. Eosinophils induce airway smooth muscle cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Halwani, Rabih; Vazquez-Tello, Alejandro; Sumi, Yuki; Pureza, Mary Angeline; Bahammam, Ahmed; Al-Jahdali, Hamdan; Soussi-Gounni, Abdelillah; Mahboub, Bassam; Al-Muhsen, Saleh; Hamid, Qutayba

    2013-04-01

    Asthma is characterized by eosinophilic airway inflammation and remodeling of the airway wall. Features of airway remodeling include increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass. However, little is known about the interaction between inflammatory eosinophils and ASM cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of eosinophils on ASM cell proliferation. Eosinophils were isolated from peripheral blood of mild asthmatics and non-asthmatic subjects and co-cultured with human primary ASM cells. ASM proliferation was estimated using Ki-67 expression assay. The expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) mRNA in ASM cells was measured using quantitative real-time PCR. The role of eosinophil derived Cysteinyl Leukotrienes (CysLTs) in enhancing ASM proliferation was estimated by measuring the release of leukotrienes from eosinophils upon their direct contact with ASM cells using ELISA. This role was confirmed either by blocking eosinophil-ASM contact or co-culturing them in the presence of leukotrienes antagonist. ASM cells co-cultured with eosinophils, isolated from asthmatics, but not non-asthmatics, had a significantly higher rate of proliferation compared to controls. This increase in ASM proliferation was independent of their release of ECM proteins but dependent upon eosinophils release of CysLTs. Eosinophil-ASM cell to cell contact was required for CysLTs release. Preventing eosinophil contact with ASM cells using anti-adhesion molecules antibodies, or blocking the activity of eosinophil derived CysLTs using montelukast inhibited ASM proliferation. Our results indicated that eosinophils contribute to airway remodeling during asthma by enhancing ASM cell proliferation and hence increasing ASM mass. Direct contact of eosinophils with ASM cells triggers their release of CysLTs which enhance ASM proliferation. Eosinophils, and their binding to ASM cells, constitute a potential therapeutic target to interfere with the series of biological events leading to airway remodeling

  5. The use of albendazole and diammonium glycyrrhizinate in the treatment of eosinophilic meningitis in mice infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Tang, J-P; Chen, D-R; Fu, C-Y; Wang, P; Li, Z; Wei, W; Li, H; Dong, W-Q

    2013-03-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis (A. cantonensis) infection causes eosinophilic meningitis in humans. Eosinophilia and a Th2-type immune response are the crucial immune mechanisms for eosinophilic meningitis. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg) are involved in the pathogenesis of A. cantonensis. Diammonium glycyrrhizinate (DG) is a compound related to glycyrrhizin (GL), a triterpene glycoside extracted from liquorice root. We investigated the curative effects and probable mechanisms of therapy involving a combination of albendazole and DG in BALB/c mice infected with A. cantonensis, and compared these with therapy involving albendazole and dexamethasone. We analysed survival time, body weight, signs, eosinophil numbers, immunoglobulin E (IgE), interleukin-5 (IL-5), and eotaxin concentrations, numbers and Foxp3 expression of CD4+CD25+ Treg, worm recovery and histopathology. The present results demonstrated that the combination of albendazole and DG could increase survival time more efficiently and relieve neurological dysfunction; decrease weight loss, eosinophil numbers, concentrations of IgE, IL-5 and eotaxin, the number and expression of Foxp3 of CD4+CD25+ Treg; and improve worm recovery and histopathology changes in treated animals, compared with the combination of albendazole and dexamethasone. The observations presented here suggest that the albendazole and dexamethasone combination could be replaced by the combination of albendazole and DG.

  6. Hyper IgE in Childhood Eczema and Risk of Asthma in Chinese Children.

    PubMed

    Ng, Chantel; Hon, Kam Lun; Kung, Jeng Sum Charmaine; Pong, Nga Hin; Leung, Ting-Fan; Wong, Chun Kwok

    2016-06-10

    Atopic eczema is a common childhood disease associated with high IgE and eosinophilia. We characterized the clinical features associated with hyper-IgE (defined as IgE > 2000 IU/L) in eczema. Nottingham Eczema Severity Score (NESS), family and personal history of atopy, skin prick test (SPT) for common food and aeroallergens, highest serum IgE ever and eosinophil counts were evaluated in 330 children eczema patients. Childhood-NESS (NESS performed at <10 years of age) and adolescent-NESS (NESS performed at >10 years of age) were further analyzed. IgE correlated with NESS (spearman coefficient 0.35, p < 0.001) and eosinophil percentage (spearman coefficient 0.56, p = 0.001). Compared with IgE ≤ 2000IU/L (n = 167), patients with hyper-IgE (n = 163) were associated with male gender (p = 0.002); paternal atopy (p = 0.026); personal history of atopic rhinitis (p = 0.016); asthma (p < 0.001); dietary avoidance (p < 0.001); use of wet wrap (p < 0.001); traditional Chinese medicine use (TCM, p < 0.001); immunomodulant use (azathioprine or cyclosporine, p < 0.001); skin prick sensitization by dust mites (p < 0.001), cats (p = 0.012), dogs (p = 0.018), food (p = 0.002); eosinophilia (p < 0.001); more severe disease during childhood (p < 0.0001) and during adolescence (p < 0.0001), but not onset age of eczema or maternal atopy. Logistic regression showed that hyper-IgE was associated with personal history of asthma (exp(B) = 5.12, p = 0.002) and eczema severity during childhood and adolescence (p < 0.001). For patients <10 years of age, dust mite sensitization (p = 0.008) was associated with hyper-IgE. For patients >10years of age, food allergen sensitization was associated with hyper-IgE (p = 0.008). Hyper-IgE is independently associated with asthma, more severe atopy and more severe eczema during childhood and adolescence. IgE > 2000 IU/L may be a tool to aid prognostication of this chronic relapsing dermatologic disease and its progression to asthma.

  7. Equine IgE responses to non-viral vaccine components.

    PubMed

    Gershwin, Laurel J; Netherwood, Kristina A; Norris, Meredith Somerville; Behrens, Nicole E; Shao, Matt X

    2012-12-14

    Vaccination of horses is performed annually or semi-annually with multiple viral antigens, either in a combination vaccine or as separate injections. While this practice undoubtedly prevents infection from such diseases as rabies, equine influenza, West Nile virus, and equine herpes virus, the procedure is not without repercussions. Hypersensitivity reactions, including fatal anaphylactic shock, after vaccination, although uncommon, have increased in incidence in recent years. Studies reported herein document the development of IgE antibodies against non-target antigen components of equine viral vaccines. We hypothesize that viral vaccines can induce an IgE response to non-target antigens, which could elicit an adverse response after vaccination with another viral vaccine containing the same component. In one study IgE responses to components of West Nile virus vaccine were evaluated by ELISA before and after vaccination in 30 horses. In a second five-year study 77 horses were similarly tested for IgE antibodies against bovine serum albumin (BSA), a component of most viral vaccines. Mast cell sensitization was evaluated in horses with high, moderate, and negative serum BSA specific IgE using an intradermal skin test with BSA. Over the five-year period high IgE responder horses showed gradually increasing BSA specific serum IgE levels and positive skin test reactivity, yet none had an adverse event. Sera from horses that had developed adverse vaccine reactions were also tested for IgE antibodies. Several of these horses had extremely high levels of BSA-specific IgE. These data suggest that non-essential protein components of vaccines may sensitize horses for future adverse responses to vaccination.

  8. Modulation of human eosinophil polymorphonuclear leukocyte migration and function.